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Sample records for graphene composite material

  1. 2006 Nature Publishing Group Graphene-based composite materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for the preparation of graphene-polymer composites via complete exfoliation of graphite9 and molecular© 2006 Nature Publishing Group Graphene-based composite materials Sasha Stankovich1 *, Dmitriy A. Piner1 , SonBinh T. Nguyen2 & Rodney S. Ruoff1 Graphene sheets--one-atom-thick two-dimensional layers

  2. XG Sciences, ORNL partner on titanium-graphene composite materials...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    XG Sciences, ORNL partner on titaniumgraphene composite materials January 01, 2013 Titaniumgraphene composite specimens prepared for flash thermal diffusivity measurement....

  3. Thermal properties of the hybrid graphene-metal nano-micro-composites: Applications in thermal interface materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thermal properties of the hybrid graphene-metal nano-micro-composites: Applications in thermal) The authors report on synthesis and thermal properties of the electrically conductive thermal interface materials with the hybrid graphene-metal particle fillers. The thermal conductivity of resulting composites

  4. Thermal properties of graphene and multilayer graphene: Applications in thermal interface materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thermal properties of graphene and multilayer graphene: Applications in thermal interface materials 2012 Accepted by L. Bery Available online 25 April 2012 Keywords: A. Graphene A. Thermal interface materials C. Graphene composites D. Thermal properties a b s t r a c t We review the thermal properties

  5. Strong and Electrically Conductive Graphene Based Composite Fibers and Laminates

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Vlassiouk, Ivan V.; Polyzos, Georgios; Cooper, Ryan C.; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Keum, Jong Kahk; Paulauskas, Felix L.; Datskos, Panos G.; Smirnov, Sergei

    2015-04-28

    Graphene is an ideal candidate for lightweight, high-strength composite materials given its superior mechanical properties (specific strength of 130 GPa and stiffness of 1 TPa). To date, easily scalable graphene-like materials in a form of separated flakes (exfoliated graphene, graphene oxide, and reduced graphene oxide) have been investigated as candidates for large-scale applications such as material reinforcement. These graphene-like materials do not fully exhibit all the capabilities of graphene in composite materials. In this study, we show that macro (2 inch × 2 inch) graphene laminates and fibers can be produced using large continuous sheets of single-layer graphene grown bymore »chemical vapor deposition. The resulting composite structures have potential to outperform the current state-of-the-art composite materials in both mechanical properties and electrical conductivities (>8 S/cm with only 0.13% volumetric graphene loading and 5 × 103 S/cm for pure graphene fibers) with estimated graphene contributions of >10 GPa in strength and 1 TPa in stiffness.« less

  6. Fabrication of a graphene-cuprous oxide composite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu Chao [Key Laboratory for Soft Chemistry and Functional Materials of Ministry Education, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Wang Xin, E-mail: wxin@public1.ptt.js.c [Key Laboratory for Soft Chemistry and Functional Materials of Ministry Education, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Yang Lichun; Wu Yuping [Department of Chemistry and Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2009-09-15

    A composite of graphene-cuprous oxide (Cu{sub 2}O) was prepared using copper acetate-adsorbed graphene oxide (GO) sheets as precursors. In this composite, in-situ formed Cu{sub 2}O particles were derived from the adsorbed copper acetate which attached to graphene sheets and prevented the aggregation of the reduced graphene oxide sheets. The as-synthesized Cu{sub 2}O crystals were cube-like particles distributed randomly on the sheets due to the template effect of GO, consequently forming a graphene-Cu{sub 2}O cubes composite. A preliminary study on the electrochemical behavior of the graphene-Cu{sub 2}O composite used as anode material for lithium ion batteries was carried out. - Abstract: The graphene oxide sheets are reduced and almost exfoliated due to the in-situ formation of Cu{sub 2}O crystals deriving from the adsorbed copper acetate. Display Omitted

  7. Partially Crystalline Zn2GeO4 Nanorod/Graphene Composites as Anode Materials for High Performance Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Zhiqun

    Partially Crystalline Zn2GeO4 Nanorod/Graphene Composites as Anode Materials for High Performance-step hydrothermal processing. Crystalline and amorphous regions were found to coexist in a single Zn2GeO4 nanorod then utilized as anodes for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Intriguingly, partially crystalline ZGC containing 10

  8. Highly tunable quantum Hall far-infrared photodetector by use of GaAs/Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1?x}As-graphene composite material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Chiu-Chun [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Ling, D. C. [Department of Physics, Tamkang University, Tamsui Dist., New Taipei City 25137, Taiwan (China); Chi, C. C.; Chen, Jeng-Chung [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Frontier Research Center on Fundamental and Applied Sciences of Matters, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2014-11-03

    We have developed a highly tunable, narrow band far-infrared (FIR) photodetector which utilizes the characteristic merits of graphene and two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in GaAs/Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1?x}As heterostructure in the Quantum Hall states (QHS). The heterostructure surface is covered with chemical vapor-deposited graphene, which functions as a transparent top-gate to vary the electron density of the 2DEG. FIR response observed in the vicinity of integer QH regime can be effectively tuned in a wide range of 27–102?cm{sup ?1} with a bias voltage less than ?1?V. In addition, we have found that the presence of graphene can genuinely modulate the photoresponse. Our results demonstrate a promising direction for realizing a tunable long-wavelength FIR detector using QHS in GaAs 2DEG/ graphene composite material.

  9. Enhanced optical limiting effects of graphene materials in polyimide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gan, Yao; Feng, Miao; Zhan, Hongbing, E-mail: hbzhan@fzu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108 (China)

    2014-04-28

    Three different graphene nanostructure suspensions of graphene oxide nanosheets (GONSs), graphene oxide nanoribbons (GONRs), and graphene oxide quantum dots (GOQDs) are prepared and characterized. Using a typical two-step method, the GONSs, GONRs, and GOQDs are incorporated into a polyimide (PI) matrix to synthesize graphene/PI composite films, whose nonlinear optical (NLO) and optical limiting (OL) properties are investigated at 532?nm in the nanosecond regime. The GONR suspension exhibits superior NLO and OL effects compared with those of GONSs and GOQDs because of its stronger nonlinear scattering and excited-state absorption. The graphene/PI composite films exhibit NLO and OL performance superior to that of their corresponding suspensions, which is attributed primarily to a combination of nonlinear mechanisms, charge transfer between graphene materials and PI, and the matrix effect.

  10. Composite material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hutchens, Stacy A. (Knoxville, TN); Woodward, Jonathan (Solihull, GB); Evans, Barbara R. (Oak Ridge, TN); O'Neill, Hugh M. (Knoxville, TN)

    2012-02-07

    A composite biocompatible hydrogel material includes a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa. A calcium comprising salt is disposed in at least some of the pores. The porous polymer matrix can comprise cellulose, including bacterial cellulose. The composite can be used as a bone graft material. A method of tissue repair within the body of animals includes the steps of providing a composite biocompatible hydrogel material including a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa, and inserting the hydrogel material into cartilage or bone tissue of an animal, wherein the hydrogel material supports cell colonization in vitro for autologous cell seeding.

  11. Graphene-Au Nanoparticles Composite-Based Electrochemical Aptamer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Graphene-Au Nanoparticles Composite-Based Electrochemical Aptamer Biosensors Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Graphene-Au Nanoparticles Composite-Based Electrochemical...

  12. RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY OF GRAPHENE AND RELATED MATERIALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yong P.

    structure of graphene. (b) Graphene is a zero-gap semiconductor. Its 2-D nature leads to a linear dispersionChapter 19 RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY OF GRAPHENE AND RELATED MATERIALS Isaac Childres*a,b , Luis A This chapter is a review of the application of Raman spectroscopy in characterizing the properties of graphene

  13. Synthesis of reduced graphene oxide/ZnO nanorods composites on graphene coated PET flexible substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Lei, E-mail: leihuang@shnu.edu.cn; Guo, Guilue; Liu, Yang; Chang, Quanhong; Shi, Wangzhou

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • ZnO nanorods synthesized on CVD-graphene and rGO surfaces, respectively. • ZnO/CVD-graphene and ZnO/rGO form a distinctive porous 3D structure. • rGO/ZnO nanostructures possibility in energy storage devices. - Abstract: In this work, reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/ZnO nanorods composites were synthesized on graphene coated PET flexible substrates. Both chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) films were prepared following by hydrothermal growth of vertical aligned ZnO nanorods. Reduced graphene sheets were then spun coated on the ZnO materials to form a three dimensional (3D) porous nanostructure. The morphologies of the ZnO/CVD graphene and ZnO/rGO were investigated by SEM, which shows that the ZnO nanorods grown on rGO are larger in diameters and have lower density compared with those grown on CVD graphene substrate. As a result of fact, the rough surface of nano-scale ZnO on rGO film allows rGO droplets to seep into the large voids of ZnO nanorods, then to form the rGO/ZnO hierarchical structure. By comparison of the different results, we conclude that rGO/ZnO 3D nanostructure is more desirable for the application of energy storage devices.

  14. Nanocomposite of graphene and metal oxide materials | OSTI, US...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanocomposite of graphene and metal oxide materials Re-direct Destination: Nanocomposite materials comprising a metal oxide bonded to at least one graphene material. The...

  15. Nanocomposite of graphene and metal oxide materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Choi, Daiwon; Wang, Donghai; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-09-04

    Nanocomposite materials comprising a metal oxide bonded to at least one graphene material. The nanocomposite materials exhibit a specific capacity of at least twice that of the metal oxide material without the graphene at a charge/discharge rate greater than about 10C.

  16. Nanocomposite of graphene and metal oxide materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Choi, Daiwon; Wang, Donghai; Yang, Zhenguo

    2013-10-15

    Nanocomposite materials comprising a metal oxide bonded to at least one graphene material. The nanocomposite materials exhibit a specific capacity of at least twice that of the metal oxide material without the graphene at a charge/discharge rate greater than about 10 C.

  17. Graphene-based structure, method of suspending graphene membrane, and method of depositing material onto graphene membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zettl, Alexander K.; Meyer, Jannik Christian

    2013-04-02

    An embodiment of a method of suspending a graphene membrane across a gap in a support structure includes attaching graphene to a substrate. A pre-fabricated support structure having the gap is attached to the graphene. The graphene and the pre-fabricated support structure are then separated from the substrate which leaves the graphene membrane suspended across the gap in the pre-fabricated support structure. An embodiment of a method of depositing material includes placing a support structure having a graphene membrane suspended across a gap under vacuum. A precursor is adsorbed to a surface of the graphene membrane. A portion of the graphene membrane is exposed to a focused electron beam which deposits a material from the precursor onto the graphene membrane. An embodiment of a graphene-based structure includes a support structure having a gap, a graphene membrane suspended across the gap, and a material deposited in a pattern on the graphene membrane.

  18. Green synthesis of graphene nanosheets/ZnO composites and electrochemical properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Jun; Gao Zan; Li Zhanshuang; Wang Bin; Yan Yanxia; Liu Qi; Mann, Tom; Zhang Milin; Jiang Zhaohua

    2011-06-15

    A green and facile approach was demonstrated to prepare graphene nanosheets/ZnO (GNS/ZnO) composites for supercapacitor materials. Glucose, as a reducing agent, and exfoliated graphite oxide (GO), as precursor, were used to synthesize GNS, then ZnO directly grew onto conducting graphene nanosheets as electrode materials. The small ZnO particles successfully anchored onto graphene sheets as spacers to keep the neighboring sheets separate. The electrochemical performances of these electrodes were analyzed by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectrometry and chronopotentiometry. Results showed that the GNS/ZnO composites displayed superior capacitive performance with large capacitance (62.2 F/g), excellent cyclic performance, and maximum power density (8.1 kW/kg) as compared with pure graphene electrodes. Our investigation highlight the importance of anchoring of small ZnO particles on graphene sheets for maximum utilization of electrochemically active ZnO and graphene for energy storage application in supercapacitors. - Graphical abstract: Glucose was used to synthesize GNS, then ZnO directly grew onto conducting graphene nanosheets as electrode materials for supercapacitor. Results showed that the composites have superior capacitive performance. Highlights: > Graphene nanosheets were synthesized via using glucose as a reducing agent. > The reductant and the oxidized product are environmentally friendly. > ZnO grew onto conducting graphene sheets keeping neighboring sheets separate. > The structure improves the contact between the electrode and the electrolyte. > Results showed that these composites have good electrochemical property.

  19. High-throughput Synthesis and Metrology of Graphene Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghazinejad, Maziar Ghazinejad

    2012-01-01

    adjusted as an in-line graphene measurement technique.fabrication and metrology of graphene materials. Our mainof Large-Area Hybrid Graphene-CNT Architectures 2.1

  20. Composite of refractory material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, C.E.; Morrow, M.S.

    1994-07-19

    A composite refractory material composition comprises a boron carbide matrix and minor constituents of yttrium-boron-oxygen-carbon phases uniformly distributed throughout the boron carbide matrix.

  1. Composite of refractory material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, Cressie E. (Knoxville, TN); Morrow, Marvin S. (Kingston, TN)

    1994-01-01

    A composite refractory material composition comprises a boron carbide matrix and minor constituents of yttrium-boron-oxygen-carbon phases uniformly distributed throughout the boron carbide matrix.

  2. Graphene: from materials science to particle physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joaquín E. Drut; Timo A. Lähde; Eero Tölö

    2010-11-02

    Since its discovery in 2004, graphene, a two-dimensional hexagonal carbon allotrope, has generated great interest and spurred research activity from materials science to particle physics and vice versa. In particular, graphene has been found to exhibit outstanding electronic and mechanical properties, as well as an unusual low-energy spectrum of Dirac quasiparticles giving rise to a fractional quantum Hall effect when freely suspended and immersed in a magnetic field. One of the most intriguing puzzles of graphene involves the low-temperature conductivity at zero density, a central issue in the design of graphene-based nanoelectronic components. While suspended graphene experiments have shown a trend reminiscent of semiconductors, with rising resistivity at low temperatures, most theories predict a constant or even decreasing resistivity. However, lattice field theory calculations have revealed that suspended graphene is at or near the critical coupling for excitonic gap formation due to strong Coulomb interactions, which suggests a simple and straightforward explanation for the experimental data. In this contribution we review the current status of the field with emphasis on the issue of gap formation, and outline recent progress and future points of contact between condensed matter physics and Lattice QCD.

  3. Composite material dosimeters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Steven D. (Richland, WA)

    1996-01-01

    The present invention is a composite material containing a mix of dosimeter material powder and a polymer powder wherein the polymer is transparent to the photon emission of the dosimeter material powder. By mixing dosimeter material powder with polymer powder, less dosimeter material is needed compared to a monolithic dosimeter material chip. Interrogation is done with excitation by visible light.

  4. Nano-composite materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, J. Roland

    2010-05-25

    Nano-composite materials are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a nano-composite material may comprise co-sputtering a transition metal and a refractory metal in a reactive atmosphere. The method may also comprise co-depositing a transition metal and a refractory metal composite structure on a substrate. The method may further comprise thermally annealing the deposited transition metal and refractory metal composite structure in a reactive atmosphere.

  5. Graphene Modified LiFePO4 Cathode Materials for High Power Lithium ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, X.; Wang, F.; Zhu, Y.; Liu, Z.

    2011-01-24

    Graphene-modified LiFePO{sub 4} composite has been developed as a Li-ion battery cathode material with excellent high-rate capability and cycling stability. The composite was prepared with LiFePO{sub 4} nanoparticles and graphene oxide nanosheets by spray-drying and annealing processes. The LiFePO{sub 4} primary nanoparticles embedded in micro-sized spherical secondary particles were wrapped homogeneously and loosely with a graphene 3D network. Such a special nanostructure facilitated electron migration throughout the secondary particles, while the presence of abundant voids between the LiFePO{sub 4} nanoparticles and graphene sheets was beneficial for Li{sup +} diffusion. The composite cathode material could deliver a capacity of 70 mAh g{sup -1} at 60C discharge rate and showed a capacity decay rate of <15% when cycled under 10C charging and 20C discharging for 1000 times.

  6. New Composite Silicon-Defect Graphene Anode Architecture

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A New Composite Silicon-Defect Graphene Anode Architecture for High Capacity, High-Rate Li-ion Batteries Xin Zhao, Cary Hayner, Mayfair Kung, and Harold Kung, Northwestern...

  7. Electrically conductive composite material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clough, Roger L. (Albuquerque, NM); Sylwester, Alan P. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1989-01-01

    An electrically conductive composite material is disclosed which comprises a conductive open-celled, low density, microcellular carbon foam filled with a non-conductive polymer or resin. The composite material is prepared in a two-step process consisting of first preparing the microcellular carbon foam from a carbonizable polymer or copolymer using a phase separation process, then filling the carbon foam with the desired non-conductive polymer or resin. The electrically conductive composites of the present invention has a uniform and consistant pattern of filler distribution, and as a result is superior over prior art materials when used in battery components, electrodes, and the like.

  8. Electrically conductive composite material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clough, R.L.; Sylwester, A.P.

    1988-06-20

    An electrically conductive composite material is disclosed which comprises a conductive open-celled, low density, microcellular carbon foam filled with a non-conductive polymer or resin. The composite material is prepared in a two-step process consisting of first preparing the microcellular carbon foam from a carbonizable polymer or copolymer using a phase separation process, then filling the carbon foam with the desired non-conductive polymer or resin. The electrically conductive composites of the present invention has a uniform and consistent pattern of filler distribution, and as a result is superior over prior art materials when used in battery components, electrodes, and the like. 2 figs.

  9. Electrically conductive composite material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clough, R.L.; Sylwester, A.P.

    1989-05-23

    An electrically conductive composite material is disclosed which comprises a conductive open-celled, low density, microcellular carbon foam filled with a non-conductive polymer or resin. The composite material is prepared in a two-step process consisting of first preparing the microcellular carbon foam from a carbonizable polymer or copolymer using a phase separation process, then filling the carbon foam with the desired non-conductive polymer or resin. The electrically conductive composites of the present invention has a uniform and consistent pattern of filler distribution, and as a result is superior over prior art materials when used in battery components, electrodes, and the like. 2 figs.

  10. Graphene materials having randomly distributed two-dimensional structural defects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    2013-10-08

    Graphene-based storage materials for high-power battery applications are provided. The storage materials are composed of vertical stacks of graphene sheets and have reduced resistance for Li ion transport. This reduced resistance is achieved by incorporating a random distribution of structural defects into the stacked graphene sheets, whereby the structural defects facilitate the diffusion of Li ions into the interior of the storage materials.

  11. Synthesizing Smart Polymeric and Composite Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GONG, CHAOKUN

    2013-01-01

    P. T. Mather, "A Thermoplastic/Thermoset Blend ExhibitingEnhanced Graphene-Thermoplastic Polyurethane Composites,”a dispersed meltable thermoplastic phase and thermally

  12. Nanostructured composite reinforced material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seals, Roland D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Ripley, Edward B. (Knoxville, TN); Ludtka, Gerard M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2012-07-31

    A family of materials wherein nanostructures and/or nanotubes are incorporated into a multi-component material arrangement, such as a metallic or ceramic alloy or composite/aggregate, producing a new material or metallic/ceramic alloy. The new material has significantly increased strength, up to several thousands of times normal and perhaps substantially more, as well as significantly decreased weight. The new materials may be manufactured into a component where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the bulk and/or matrix material, or as a coating where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the coating or surface of a "normal" substrate material. The nanostructures are incorporated into the material structure either randomly or aligned, within grains, or along or across grain boundaries.

  13. Graphene-based Materials for Biosensing and Bioimaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, Dan; Yang, Yuqi; Lin, Yuehe

    2012-12-01

    Graphene, a free-standing two-dimensional crystal with one-atom thickness, exhibits distinct properties that are highly attractive for biosensing and bioimaging, such as a high electrical conductivity, a large planar area, and an excellent ability to quench fluorescence. This article selectively reviews recent advances in the field of graphene-based materials for biosensing and bioimaging. In particular, graphene-based enzyme biosensors, DNA biosensors, and immunosensors are summarized in detail. Graphene-based biotechnology for cell imaging is also described. Future perspectives and possible challenges in this rapidly developing area are also discussed.

  14. Theory of reflectivity properties of graphene-coated material plates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klimchitskaya, G L; Petrov, V M

    2015-01-01

    The theoretical description for the reflectivity properties of dielectric, metal and semiconductor plates coated with graphene is developed in the framework of the Dirac model. Graphene is described by the polarization tensor allowing the analytic continuation to the real frequency axis. The plate materials are described by the frequency-dependent dielectric permittivities. The general formulas for the reflection coefficients and reflectivities of the graphene-coated plates, as well as their asymptotic expressions at high and low frequencies, are derived. The developed theory is applied to the graphene-coated dielectric (fused silica), metal (Au and Ni), and semiconductor (Si with various charge carrier concentrations) plates. In all these cases the impact of graphene coating on the plate reflectivity properties is calculated over the wide frequency ranges. The obtained results can be used in many applications exploiting the graphene coatings, such as the optical detectors, transparent conductors, anti-reflec...

  15. Synthesis of MnO{sub 2}-graphene composites with enhanced supercapacitive performance via pulse electrodeposition under supergravity field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Tingting; Shao, Guangjie; Ji, Mingtong; Wang, Guiling

    2014-07-01

    A method of pulse electrodeposition under supergravity field was proposed to synthesize MnO{sub 2}-graphene composites. Supergravity is very efficient for promoting mass transfer and decreasing concentration polarization during the electrodeposition process. The synthesis was conducted on our homemade supergravity equipment. The strength of supergravity field depended on the rotating speed of the ring electrode. 3D flower like MnO{sub 2} spheres composed of nanoflakes were acquired when the rotating speed was 3000 rpm. Graphene nanosheets play as a role of conductive substrates for MnO{sub 2} growing. The composites are evaluated as electrode materials for supercapacitors. Electrochemical results show that the maximum specific capacitance of the MnO{sub 2}-graphene composite is 595.7 F g{sup ?1} at a current density of 0.5 A g{sup ?1}. In addition, the composite exhibits excellent cycle stability with no capacitance attenuation after 1000 cycles. The approach provides new ideas for developing supercapacitor electrode materials with high performance. - Graphical abstract: 3D flower like MnO{sub 2} spheres composed of nanoflakes were acquired at 3000 rpm. - Highlights: • MnO{sub 2}-graphene composites were prepared by pulse electrodeposition under supergravity. • 3D flower like MnO{sub 2} spheres are anchored on the graphene nanosheets. • The MnO{sub 2}-graphene electrode exhibits a specific capacitance of 595.7 F g{sup ?1}.

  16. Influence of Electrolyte Composition on Liquid-Gated Carbon Nanotube and Graphene Transistors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dekker, Cees

    Influence of Electrolyte Composition on Liquid-Gated Carbon Nanotube and Graphene Transistors Iddo-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and graphene can function as highly sensitive nanoscale (bio)sensors in solution. Here, we compare experimentally how SWNT and graphene transistors respond to changes in the composition

  17. Hydrogen Bond Networks in Graphene Oxide Composite Paper: Structure and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hydrogen Bond Networks in Graphene Oxide Composite Paper: Structure and Mechanical Properties of hydrogen bonds mediated by oxygen-containing functional groups and water molecules. A quantitative analysis of the formation of hydrogen bond networks further shows that they play a central role in *Address correspondence

  18. Graphene forms template for two-dimensional hybrid materials...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Graphene forms template for two-dimensional hybrid materials January 17, 2014 Researchers have developed a new technique for forming a two-dimensional, single-atom sheet of two...

  19. Macroscopic and direct light propulsion of bulk graphene material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Tengfei; Wu, Yingpeng; Xiao, Peishuang; Yi, Ningbo; Lu, Yanhong; Ma, Yanfeng; Huang, Yi; Zhao, Kai; Yan, Xiao-Qing; Liu, Zhi-Bo; Tian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Yongsheng

    2015-01-01

    It has been a great challenge to achieve the direct light manipulation of matter on a bulk scale. In this work, the direct light propulsion of matter was observed on a macroscopic scale for the first time using a bulk graphene based material. The unique structure and properties of graphene and the morphology of the bulk graphene material make it capable of not only absorbing light at various wavelengths but also emitting energetic electrons efficiently enough to drive the bulk material following Newtonian mechanics. Thus, the unique photonic and electronic properties of individual graphene sheets are manifested in the response of the bulk state. These results offer an exciting opportunity to bring about bulk scale light manipulation with the potential to realize long-sought proposals in areas such as the solar sail and space transportation driven directly by sunlight.

  20. Three-dimensional graphene/LiFePO{sub 4} nanostructures as cathode materials for flexible lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, Y.H., E-mail: yhding@xtu.edu.cn [College of Chemical Engineering, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Institute of Rheology Mechanics, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Ren, H.M. [Institute of Rheology Mechanics, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Huang, Y.Y. [BTR New Energy Materials Inc., Shenzhen 518000 (China); Chang, F.H.; Zhang, P. [Institute of Rheology Mechanics, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China)

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: Graphene/LiFePO{sub 4} composites as a high-performance cathode material for flexible lithium-ion batteries have been prepared by using a co-precipitation method to synthesize graphene/LiFePO4 powders as precursors and then followed by a solvent evaporation process. - Highlights: • Flexible LiFePO{sub 4}/graphene films were prepared first time by a solvent evaporation process. • The flexible electrode exhibited a high discharge capacity without conductive additives. • Graphene network offers the electrode adequate strength to withstand repeated flexing. - Abstract: Three-dimensional graphene/LiFePO{sub 4} nanostructures for flexible lithium-ion batteries were successfully prepared by solvent evaporation method. Structural characteristics of flexible electrodes were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Electrochemical performance of graphene/LiFePO{sub 4} was examined by a variety of electrochemical testing techniques. The graphene/LiFePO{sub 4} nanostructures showed high electrochemical properties and significant flexibility. The composites with low graphene content exhibited a high capacity of 163.7 mAh g{sup ?1} at 0.1 C and 114 mAh g{sup ?1} at 5 C without further incorporation of conductive agents.

  1. Graphene Nanobubble: A New Optical Nonlinear Material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bao, Qiaoliang; Xiang, Yuanjiang; Zhang, Kai; Li, Shaojuan; Jiang, Xiaofang; Xu, Qing-Hua; Loh, Kian Ping; Venkatesan, T

    2015-01-01

    Graphene is a rising star in nonlinear optics due to its saturable absorption and giant Kerr nonlinearity, these properties are useful in digital optics based on optical nonlinear devices. However, practical applications require large optical nonlinearities and these are inherently limited by the interaction length of atomically thin graphene. Here, we demonstrate optical bistability in a Fabry Perot cavity containing monolayer and bilayer graphene which have been restructured to form nanobubbles. We find that graphene nanobubble can act as a new type of optical nonlinear media due to its vertical side wall as well as added curvature, which enable strong non linear dispersive effects leading to a large optically induced phase change. Unlike thermally induced bistability, the all optical switching between two transmission states happens within a time scale of tens of nanoseconds. Nanobubble based optical devices with intrinsic optical nonlinearity help to overcome the optical path length limitation of atomical...

  2. Graphene oxide/hydroxyapatite composite coatings fabricated by electrophoretic nanotechnology for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Yufeng

    Graphene oxide/hydroxyapatite composite coatings fabricated by electrophoretic nanotechnology April 2013 Accepted 27 September 2013 Available online 8 October 2013 A B S T R A C T Graphene oxide (GO and uncoated Ti substrate. Ã? 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Graphene oxide (GO

  3. Synthesizing Smart Polymeric and Composite Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GONG, CHAOKUN

    2013-01-01

    Ebewele (eds), “Polymer science and technology”, CRC Press,polymer composite,” Composites Science and Technology, vol.polymer-composite materials: a review,” Composites Science and Technology,

  4. 2D Dirac Materials: From Graphene to Topological Insulators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teweldebrhan, Desalegne Bekuretsion

    2011-01-01

    x Graphene Preparation and2008). Chapter 3 Graphene Preparation and CharacterizationPreparation Methods of Atomically-Thin 2D Graphene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

  5. GrapheneGraphene MaterialsMaterials RodRod RuoffRuoff

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    strength; wind turbine blades; flywheel; aerospace; transportation; high power transmission lines; many composites; as paper-like materials but with unusual mechanical properties 11. Sensors: Chem- and bio-sensors; pressure sensors, strain gauge, others 12. Electric power generation: Fuel cells, possibly solar thermal

  6. On the material geometry of continuously defective corrugated graphene sheets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrzej Trzesowski

    2014-12-22

    Geometrical objects describing the material geometry of continuously defective graphene sheets are introduced and their compatibility conditions are formulated. Effective edge dislocations embedded in the Riemann-Cartan material space and defined by their scalar density and by local Burgers vectors, are considered. The case of secondary curvature-type defects created by this distribution of dislocations is analysed in terms of the material space. The variational geometry of the material space closely related with the existence of a characteristic length parameter is proposed. The formula which describes, in a reference temperature, the influence of dislocations on the material Riemannian metric, is given.

  7. Graphene sheets fabricated from disposable paper cups as a catalyst support material for fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    Graphene sheets fabricated from disposable paper cups as a catalyst support material for fuel cells Hong Zhao and T. S. Zhao* Disposable paper-cups are used for the formation of graphene sheets with Fe2+ as a catalyst. The proposed synthesis strategy not only enables graphene sheets to be produced in high yield

  8. Graphene, a material for high temperature devices intrinsic carrier density, carrier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Wei Hua

    Graphene, a material for high temperature devices ­ intrinsic carrier density, carrier drift 3.87 3 106 cm22 K22 ?T2 ), carrier drift velocity, and G mode phonon energy of graphene devices and their temperature dependencies up to 2400 K. Our results show intrinsic carrier density of graphene is an order

  9. Dense, finely, grained composite materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunmead, Stephen D. (Davis, CA); Holt, Joseph B. (San Jose, CA); Kingman, Donald D. (Danville, CA); Munir, Zuhair A. (Davis, CA)

    1990-01-01

    Dense, finely grained composite materials comprising one or more ceramic phase or phase and one or more metallic and/or intermetallic phase or phases are produced by combustion synthesis. Spherical ceramic grains are homogeneously dispersed within the matrix. Methods are provided, which include the step of applying mechanical pressure during or immediately after ignition, by which the microstructures in the resulting composites can be controllably selected.

  10. Lithium Intercalation in Graphene/MoS2 Composites: First-Principles Insights

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shao, Xiji; Pang, Rui; Shi, Xingqiang

    2015-01-01

    As a storage material for Li-ion batteries, graphene/molybdenum disulfide (Gr/MoS2) composites have been intensively studied in experiments. But the relevant theoretical works from first-principles are lacking. In the current work, van-der-Waals-corrected density functional theory calculations are performed to investigate the interaction of Li in Gr/MoS2 composites. Three interesting features are revealed for the intercalated Gr/Li(n)/MoS2 composites (n = 1 to 9). One is the reason for large Li storage capacity of Gr/MoS2: due to the binding energies per Li atom increase with the increasing number of intercalated Li atoms. Secondly, the band gap opening of Gr is found, and the band gap is enlarged with the increasing number of intercalated Li atoms, up to 160 meV with nine Li; hence these results suggest an efficient way to tune the band gap of graphene. Thirdly, the Dirac cone of Gr always preserve for different number of ionic bonded Li atoms.

  11. Synthesizing Smart Polymeric and Composite Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GONG, CHAOKUN

    2013-01-01

    Composites,” Annual Review of Materials Research, vol. 40,Promoted Self-Healing Epoxy Materials,” Macromolecules, vol.White, "Self-healing materials with microvascular networks,"

  12. Joining of polymer composite materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magness, F.H.

    1990-11-01

    Under ideal conditions load bearing structures would be designed without joints, thus eliminating a source of added weight, complexity and weakness. In reality the need for accessibility, repair, and inspectability, added to the size limitations imposed by the manufacturing process and transportation/assembly requirements mean that some minimum number of joints will be required in most structures. The designer generally has two methods for joining fiber composite materials, adhesive bonding and mechanical fastening. As the use of thermoplastic materials increases, a third joining technique -- welding -- will become more common. It is the purpose of this document to provide a review of the available sources pertinent to the design of joints in fiber composites. The primary emphasis is given to adhesive bonding and mechanical fastening with information coming from documentary sources as old as 1961 and as recent as 1989. A third, shorter section on composite welding is included in order to provide a relatively comprehensive treatment of the subject.

  13. Paper-based ultracapacitors with carbon nanotubes-graphene composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Jian E-mail: keidar@gwu.edu; Cheng, Xiaoqian; Brand, Cameron; Shashurin, Alexey; Keidar, Michael E-mail: keidar@gwu.edu; Sun, Jianwei; Reeves, Mark

    2014-04-28

    In this paper, a paper-based ultracapacitors were fabricated by the rod-rolling method with the ink of carbon nanomaterials, which were synthesized by arc discharge under various magnetic conditions. Composites of carbon nanostructures, including high-purity single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and graphene flakes were synthesized simultaneously in a magnetically enhanced arc. These two nanostructures have promising electrical properties and synergistic effects in the application of ultracapacitors. Scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, and Raman spectroscopy were employed to characterize the properties of carbon nanostructures and their thin films. The sheet resistance of the SWCNT and composite thin films was also evaluated by four-point probe from room temperature to the cryogenic temperature as low as 90?K. In addition, measurements of cyclic voltammetery and galvanostatic charging/discharging showed the ultracapacitor based on composites possessed a superior specific capacitance of up to 100?F/g, which is around three times higher than the ultracapacitor entirely fabricated with SWCNT.

  14. Synthesis and applications of materials and polymers containing graphenic and/or triptycene moities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sydlik, Stefanie A. (Stefanie Arlene)

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, molecular design is used to synthesize novel materials with specific properties. The materials presented herein are based on two motifs. In part I, new methods of functionalizing graphenic materials and the ...

  15. Tuning Interfacial Thermal Conductance of Graphene Embedded in Soft Materials by Vacancy Defects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Ying [Clemson University; Hu, Chongze [Clemson University; Huang, Jingsong [ORNL; Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Qiao, Rui [Engineering Science and Mechanics Department, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, USA

    2015-01-01

    Nanocomposites based on graphene dispersed in matrices of soft materials are promising thermal management materials. Their effective thermal conductivity depends on both the thermal conductivity of graphene and the conductance of the thermal transport across graphene-matrix interfaces. Here we report on molecular dynamics simulations of the thermal transport across the interfaces between defected graphene and soft materials in two different modes: in the across mode, heat enters graphene from one side of its basal plane and leaves through the other side; in the non-across mode, heat enters or leaves a graphene simultaneously from both sides of its basal plane. We show that, as the density of vacancy defects in graphene increases from 0 to 8%, the conductance of the interfacial thermal transport in the across mode increases from 160.4 16 to 207.8 11 MW/m2K, while that in the non-across mode increases from 7.2 0.1 to 17.8 0.6 MW/m2K. The molecular mechanisms for these variations of thermal conductance are clarified by using the phonon density of states and structural characteristics of defected graphenes. On the basis of these results and effective medium theory, we show that it is possible to enhance the effective thermal conductivity of thermal nanocomposites by tuning the density of vacancy defects in graphene despite the fact that graphene s thermal conductivity always decreases as vacancy defects are introduced.

  16. Graphene-enhanced hybrid phase change materials for thermal management of Li-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graphene-enhanced hybrid phase change materials for thermal management of Li-ion batteries to a transformative change in thermal management of Li-ion batteries. a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received September 2013 Keywords: Battery Thermal management Graphene Phase change material a b s t r a c t Li

  17. Self assembled multi-layer nanocomposite of graphene and metal oxide materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A; Choi, Daiwon; Kou, Rong; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Donghai; Yang, Zhenguo

    2013-10-22

    Nanocomposite materials having at least two layers, each layer consisting of one metal oxide bonded to at least one graphene layer were developed. The nanocomposite materials will typically have many alternating layers of metal oxides and graphene layers, bonded in a sandwich type construction and will be incorporated into an electrochemical or energy storage device.

  18. Self assembled multi-layer nanocomposite of graphene and metal oxide materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Jun; Choi, Daiwon; Kou, Rong; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Donghai; Yang, Zhenguo

    2014-09-16

    Nanocomposite materials having at least two layers, each layer consisting of one metal oxide bonded to at least one graphene layer were developed. The nanocomposite materials will typically have many alternating layers of metal oxides and graphene layers, bonded in a sandwich type construction and will be incorporated into an electrochemical or energy storage device.

  19. Compositions for saccharification of cellulosic material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBrayer, Brett; Shaghasi, Tarana; Vlasenko, Elena

    2013-11-12

    The present invention relates to enzyme compositions for high temperature saccharification of cellulosic material and to uses thereof.

  20. http://jtc.sagepub.com Composite Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    http://jtc.sagepub.com Composite Materials Journal of Thermoplastic DOI: 10.1177/0892705708089473 2008; 21; 209Journal of Thermoplastic Composite Materials Qinglin Wu Sun-Young Lee, In-Aeh Kang, Geum://www.sagepublications.com at: can be foundJournal of Thermoplastic Composite MaterialsAdditional services and information

  1. Silicon Nanoparticles-Graphene Paper Composites for Li Ion Battery Anodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Jeong K.; Smith, Kurt B.; Hayner, Cary M.; Kung, Harold H

    2010-01-01

    Composites of Si nanoparticles highly dispersed between graphene sheets, and supported by a 3-D network of graphite formed by reconstituting regions of graphene stacks exhibit high Li ion storage capacities and cycling stability. An electrode was prepared with a storage capacity >2200 mA h g{sup ?1} after 50 cycles and >1500 mA h g{sup ?1} after 200 cycles that decreased by <0.5% per cycle.

  2. Mn3O4-Graphene Hybrid as a High-Capacity Anode Material for Lithium Ion Hailiang Wang,,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    Mn3O4-Graphene Hybrid as a High-Capacity Anode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries Hailiang Wang hybrid materials of Mn3O4 nanoparticles on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets for lithium ion battery-cost, and environ- mentally friendly anode for lithium ion batteries. Our growth-on- graphene approach should offer

  3. Graphene Sheets Stabilized on Genetically Engineered M13 Viral Templates as Conducting Frameworks for Hybrid Energy-Storage Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oh, Dahyun

    Utilization of the material-specific peptide–substrate interactions of M13 virus broadens colloidal stability window of graphene. The homogeneous distribution of graphene is maintained in weak acids and increased ionic ...

  4. Supplemental Materials: Effective Cleaning of Hexagonal Boron Nitride for Graphene Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldhaber-Gordon, David

    Supplemental Materials: Effective Cleaning of Hexagonal Boron Nitride for Graphene Devices Andrei G-mail: ag254@stanford.edu; goldhaber-gordon@stanford.edu We discuss in greater detail the sample preparation procedure and transport measure- ments of our graphene/h-BN devices. Flakes of h-BN were produced

  5. Graphene-enhanced hybrid phase change materials for thermal management of Li-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graphene-enhanced hybrid phase change materials for thermal management of Li-ion batteries g h l i g h t s We demonstrated that thermal management of Li-ion batteries improves dramatically incorporation leads to significant decrease in the temperature rise in Li-ion batteries. Graphene leads

  6. Graphene Materials and Their Use in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Joseph D. Roy-Mayhew,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aksay, Ilhan A.

    Graphene Materials and Their Use in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Joseph D. Roy-Mayhew, and Ilhan A. Graphene Applications in Other Types of Solar Cells 6343 7. Conclusions and Outlook 6343 Author Information References 6345 1. INTRODUCTION Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have taken up broad interest

  7. Stone-Wales defects in graphene and other planar sp2 -bonded materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alavi, Ali

    that the canonical flat SW defect in graphene is in fact not a local minimum on the potential-energy surface PES have also been predicted to alter the electronic properties band structure and density of states in graphitic materials.12 However, in clean unmodified graphene it is customarily assumed that SW defects

  8. Doped Graphene as a Material for Oxygen Reduction Reaction in Hydrogen Fuel Cells: A Computational Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krasheninnikov, Arkady V.

    Doped Graphene as a Material for Oxygen Reduction Reaction in Hydrogen Fuel Cells: A Computational fuel cells for oxygen reduction at the cathode. In an attempt to find a cheap yet efficient catalyst in graphene are promising candidates for the use in fuel cell cathodes for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). We

  9. Polymer / Elastomer and Composite Material Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polymer / Elastomer and Composite Material Science KEVIN L. SIMMONS Pacific Northwest National in the hydrogen system Automotive vs infrastructure Hydrogen use conditions Polymer/elastomer and composites and piping Material issues Polymers/Elastomers Composites Questions 2 #12;Main Points to Remember 1

  10. Polyolefin composites containing a phase change material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

    1991-01-01

    A composite useful in thermal energy storage, said composite being formed of a polyolefin matrix having a phase change material such as a crystalline alkyl hydrocarbon incorporated therein, said polyolefin being thermally form stable; the composite is useful in forming pellets, sheets or fibers having thermal energy storage characteristics; methods for forming the composite are also disclosed.

  11. Thin film dielectric composite materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jia, Quanxi; Gibbons, Brady J.; Findikoglu, Alp T.; Park, Bae Ho

    2002-01-01

    A dielectric composite material comprising at least two crystal phases of different components with TiO.sub.2 as a first component and a material selected from the group consisting of Ba.sub.1-x Sr.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.3 to 0.7, Pb.sub.1-x Ca.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.4 to 0.7, Sr.sub.1-x Pb.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.2 to 0.4, Ba.sub.1-x Cd.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.02 to 0.1, BaTi.sub.1-x Zr.sub.x O.sub.3 where x is from 0.2 to 0.3, BaTi.sub.1-x Sn.sub.x O.sub.3 where x is from 0.15 to 0.3, BaTi.sub.1-x Hf.sub.x O.sub.3 where x is from 0.24 to 0.3, Pb.sub.1-1.3x La.sub.x TiO.sub.3+0.2x where x is from 0.23 to 0.3, (BaTiO.sub.3).sub.x (PbFeo.sub.0.5 Nb.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0.75 to 0.9, (PbTiO.sub.3).sub.- (PbCo.sub.0.5 W.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0.1 to 0.45, (PbTiO.sub.3).sub.x (PbMg.sub.0.5 W.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0.2 to 0.4, and (PbTiO.sub.3).sub.x (PbFe.sub.0.5 Ta.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0 to 0.2, as the second component is described. The dielectric composite material can be formed as a thin film upon suitable substrates.

  12. Process for producing dispersed particulate composite materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Henager, Jr., Charles H. (Richland, WA); Hirth, John P. (Viola, ID)

    1995-01-01

    This invention is directed to a process for forming noninterwoven dispersed particulate composite products. In one case a composite multi-layer film product comprises a substantially noninterwoven multi-layer film having a plurality of discrete layers. This noninterwoven film comprises at least one discrete layer of a first material and at least one discrete layer of a second material. In another case the first and second materials are blended together with each other. In either case, the first material comprises a metalloid and the second material a metal compound. At least one component of a first material in one discrete layer undergoes a solid state displacement reaction with at least one component of a second material thereby producing the requisite noninterwoven composite film product. Preferably, the first material comprises silicon, the second material comprises Mo.sub.2 C, the third material comprises SiC and the fourth material comprises MoSi.sub.2.

  13. Vibrational Damping of Composite Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biggerstaff, Janet M.

    2006-01-01

    Smart Structures and Materials, 3989:531- 538. Biggerstaff,2002. “Electroviscoelastic Materials As Active Dampers”,Smart Structures and Materials, 4695:345-350. Biggerstaff,

  14. High-throughput Synthesis and Metrology of Graphene Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghazinejad, Maziar Ghazinejad

    2012-01-01

    and large-area graphene plane as a floor. Preparation ofgraphene was dried and prepared for dye coating. Dye Preparation and

  15. High-throughput Synthesis and Metrology of Graphene Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghazinejad, Maziar Ghazinejad

    2012-01-01

    exfoliated graphene oxide layers along with CVD grown CNTsto create a barrier oxide layer on copper foil. Fe catalystcopper oxide foil, the oxide layer would be gradually flow,

  16. High-throughput Synthesis and Metrology of Graphene Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghazinejad, Maziar Ghazinejad

    2012-01-01

    graphene industrially, in areas such as energy, semiconductorgraphene to n- and p-type, which are required for complementary metal oxide semiconductor (

  17. Graphene and Black Holes: novel materials to reach the unreachable

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alfredo Iorio

    2014-12-15

    The case for a dedicated laboratory, to test hep-th models on analogue systems, is briefly made. The focus is on graphene.

  18. Patent: Electrode material comprising graphene-composite materials in a

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report:Speeding access toSmall Reactor for Deep SpaceConditioning biomass

  19. Composite materials and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simmons, Kevin L [Kennewick, WA; Wood, Geoffrey M [North Saanich, CA

    2011-05-17

    A method for forming improved composite materials using a thermosetting polyester urethane hybrid resin, a closed cavity mold having an internal heat transfer mechanism used in this method, and the composite materials formed by this method having a hybrid of a carbon fiber layer and a fiberglass layer.

  20. Vibrational Damping of Composite Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biggerstaff, Janet M.

    2006-01-01

    bonded, and cocured with polyimide film separating thebonded, and cocured with polyimide film separating thedamping) composite with polyimide lamimate barrier layer ?(

  1. Vibrational Damping of Composite Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biggerstaff, Janet M.

    2006-01-01

    embedded fibers EAR CN-06 Thermoplastic alloy Soundcoat Dyadto composites, such as thermoplastic powders and whiskersalloy particles 35 . The thermoplastic powders and whiskers

  2. Dielectric and microwave attenuation properties of graphene nanoplatelet–epoxy composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Zhou; Luo, Jia; Zhao, Guang–Lin, E-mail: guang-lin-zhao@subr.edu [Department of Physics, Southern University and A and M college, Baton Rouge, LA 70813 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Southern University and A and M college, Baton Rouge, LA 70813 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Graphene nanoplatelet (GNP)–epoxy composites were fabricated for the investigation of the dielectric permittivity and microwave absorption in a frequency range from 8 to 20 GHz. The intrinsically conductive GNP particles and polarized interfacial centers in the composites contribute to the microwave absorption. A minimum reflection loss of ?14.5 dB at 18.9 GHz is observed for the GNP–epoxy composites with 15 wt. % GNP loading, which is mainly attributed to electric conductivity and the charge multipoles at the polarized interfaces in the GNP–epoxy composites.

  3. Graphene-based Material Systems for Nanoelectronics and Energy Storage Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Shirui

    2012-01-01

    ultrasmooth graphene nanoribbon semiconductors" Scienceultrasmooth graphene nanoribbon semiconductors" ScienceIndividual Semiconductor Nanocrystals to Graphene" Acs Nano

  4. Combinatorial synthesis of inorganic or composite materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldwasser, Isy (Palo Alto, CA); Ross, Debra A. (Mountain Ranch, CA); Schultz, Peter G. (La Jolla, CA); Xiang, Xiao-Dong (Danville, CA); Briceno, Gabriel (Baldwin Park, CA); Sun, Xian-Dong (Fremont, CA); Wang, Kai-An (Cupertino, CA)

    2010-08-03

    Methods and apparatus for the preparation and use of a substrate having an array of diverse materials in predefined regions thereon. A substrate having an array of diverse materials thereon is generally prepared by delivering components of materials to predefined regions on a substrate, and simultaneously reacting the components to form at least two materials or, alternatively, allowing the components to interact to form at least two different materials. Materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, covalent network solids, ionic solids and molecular solids. More particularly, materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, inorganic materials, intermetallic materials, metal alloys, ceramic materials, organic materials, organometallic materials, nonbiological organic polymers, composite materials (e.g., inorganic composites, organic composites, or combinations thereof), etc. Once prepared, these materials can be screened for useful properties including, for example, electrical, thermal, mechanical, morphological, optical, magnetic, chemical, or other properties. Thus, the present invention provides methods for the parallel synthesis and analysis of novel materials having useful properties.

  5. 2D Dirac Materials: From Graphene to Topological Insulators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teweldebrhan, Desalegne Bekuretsion

    2011-01-01

    indicated semiconductor behavior in our pristine graphenegraphene and its bilayer have such simple electronic spectra, they are both zero-gap semiconductors.semiconductor (SiC [10], TiC [11]) can be also be used to synthesize graphene.

  6. Combustion joining of refractory materials: Carboncarbon composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukasyan, Alexander

    Combustion joining of refractory materials: Carbon­carbon composites Jeremiah D.E. White Department­carbon composite is achieved by employing self-sustained, oxygen-free, high-temperature combustion reactions to a used "core" to produce a brake that meets the performance specifications. The combustion-joining (CJ

  7. Method to fabricate layered material compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fleming, James G. (Albuquerque, NM); Lin, Shawn-Yu (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A new class of processes suited to the fabrication of layered material compositions is disclosed. Layered material compositions are typically three-dimensional structures which can be decomposed into a stack of structured layers. The best known examples are the photonic lattices. The present invention combines the characteristic features of photolithography and chemical-mechanical polishing to permit the direct and facile fabrication of, e.g., photonic lattices having photonic bandgaps in the 0.1-20.mu. spectral range.

  8. Method to fabricate layered material compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fleming, James G.; Lin, Shawn-Yu

    2004-11-02

    A new class of processes suited to the fabrication of layered material compositions is disclosed. Layered material compositions are typically three-dimensional structures which can be decomposed into a stack of structured layers. The best known examples are the photonic lattices. The present invention combines the characteristic features of photolithography and chemical-mechanical polishing to permit the direct and facile fabrication of, e.g., photonic lattices having photonic bandgaps in the 0.1-20.mu. spectral range.

  9. Method of making a composite refractory material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morrow, Marvin S. (Kingston, TN); Holcombe, Cressie E. (Knoxville, TN)

    1995-01-01

    A composite refractory material is prepared by combining boron carbide with furan resin to form a mixture containing about 8 wt. % furan resin. The mixture is formed into a pellet which is placed into a grit pack comprising an oxide of an element such as yttrium to form a sinterable body. The sinterable body is sintered under vacuum with microwave energy at a temperature no greater than 2000.degree. C. to form a composite refractory material.

  10. Composite materials with improved phyllosilicate dispersion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaiko, David J.

    2004-09-14

    The present invention provides phyllosilicates edge modified with anionic surfactants, composite materials made from the edge modified phyllosilicates, and methods for making the same. In various embodiments the phyllosilicates are also surface-modified with hydrophilic lipophilic balance (HLB) modifying agents, polymeric hydrotropes, and antioxidants. The invention also provides blends of edge modified phyllosilicates and semicrystalline waxes. The composite materials are made by dispersing the edge modified phyllosilicates with polymers, particularly polyolefins and elastomers.

  11. Method of making a composite refractory material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morrow, M.S.; Holcombe, C.E.

    1995-09-26

    A composite refractory material is prepared by combining boron carbide with furan resin to form a mixture containing about 8 wt. % furan resin. The mixture is formed into a pellet which is placed into a grit pack comprising an oxide of an element such as yttrium to form a sinterable body. The sinterable body is sintered under vacuum with microwave energy at a temperature no greater than 2000 C to form a composite refractory material.

  12. Graphene-Au Nanoparticles Composite-Based Electrochemical Aptamer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (Journalvivo Low-Dose Low LETUsefulJorgeAtlDayGraphene'sBiosensors

  13. Making better batteries with metal oxide & graphene composites

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2012-12-31

    Learn how PNNL and Princeton scientists create better materials for batteries, materials that assemble on their own into durable nanocomposites.

  14. Advanced Composite Materials for Cold and Cryogenic Hydrogen...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Composite Materials for Cold and Cryogenic Hydrogen Storage Applications in Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles Workshop Advanced Composite Materials for Cold and Cryogenic Hydrogen...

  15. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy currents on locally disordered graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsai, Shan-Wen; Peres, Nuno M. R.; Santos, J. E.; Ribeiro, R. M.

    2009-01-01

    Intrinsic ripples in graphene“, Nature Materials 6, 858 (Novoselov, ”Control of graphene’s properties by reversiblespectroscopy of monolayer graphene on SiO 2 ”, arXiv:

  16. Processes for fabricating composite reinforced material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seals, Roland D.; Ripley, Edward B.; Ludtka, Gerard M.

    2015-11-24

    A family of materials wherein nanostructures and/or nanotubes are incorporated into a multi-component material arrangement, such as a metallic or ceramic alloy or composite/aggregate, producing a new material or metallic/ceramic alloy. The new material has significantly increased strength, up to several thousands of times normal and perhaps substantially more, as well as significantly decreased weight. The new materials may be manufactured into a component where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the bulk and/or matrix material, or as a coating where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the coating or surface of a "normal" substrate material. The nanostructures are incorporated into the material structure either randomly or aligned, within grains, or along or across grain boundaries.

  17. Thermal treatment effects on charge storage performance of graphene-based materials for supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Hongxin; Bhat, Vinay V; Gallego, Nidia C; Contescu, Cristian I

    2012-01-01

    Graphene materials were synthesized by reduction of exfoliated graphene oxide sheets by hydrazine hydrate and then thermally treated in nitrogen to improve the surface area and their electrochemical performance as electrical double-layer capacitor electrodes. The structural and surface properties of the prepared reduced graphite oxide (RGO) were investigated using atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectra, X-ray diffraction, and nitrogen adsorption / desorption. RGO forms a continuous network of crumpled sheets, which consist of numerous few-layer and single-layer graphenes. Electrochemical studies were conducted by cyclic voltammetry, impedance spectroscopy, and galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements. The modified RGO materials showed enhanced electrochemical performance, with maximum specific capacitance of 96 F/g, energy density of 12.8 Wh/kg, and power density of 160 kW/kg. The results demonstrate that thermal treatment of RGO at selected conditions is a convenient and efficient method for improving specific capacitance, energy, and power density.

  18. Anomalous magnetic behavior in nanocomposite materials of reduced graphene oxide-Ni/NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kollu, Pratap E-mail: anirmalagrace@vit.ac.in; Prathapani, Sateesh; Varaprasadarao, Eswara K.; Mallick, Sudhanshu; Bahadur, D. E-mail: anirmalagrace@vit.ac.in; Santosh, Chella; Grace, Andrews Nirmala E-mail: anirmalagrace@vit.ac.in

    2014-08-04

    Magnetic Reduced Graphene Oxide-Nickel/NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (RGO-Ni/NF) nanocomposite has been synthesized by one pot solvothermal method. Respective phase formations and their purities in the composite are confirmed by High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope and X Ray Diffraction, respectively. For the RGO-Ni/NF composite material finite-size effects lead to the anomalous magnetic behavior, which is corroborated in temperature and field dependent magnetization curves. Here, we are reporting the behavior of higher magnetization values for Zero Field Cooled condition to that of Field Cooled for the RGO-Ni/NF nanocomposite. Also, the observed negative and positive moments in Hysteresis loops at relatively smaller applied fields (100?Oe and 200?Oe) are explained on the basis of surface spin disorder.

  19. Health monitoring method for composite materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Watkins, Jr., Kenneth S. (Dahlonega, GA); Morris, Shelby J. (Hampton, VA)

    2011-04-12

    An in-situ method for monitoring the health of a composite component utilizes a condition sensor made of electrically conductive particles dispersed in a polymeric matrix. The sensor is bonded or otherwise formed on the matrix surface of the composite material. Age-related shrinkage of the sensor matrix results in a decrease in the resistivity of the condition sensor. Correlation of measured sensor resistivity with data from aged specimens allows indirect determination of mechanical damage and remaining age of the composite component.

  20. Computational modeling of composite material fires.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Alexander L.; Erickson, Kenneth L.; Hubbard, Joshua Allen; Dodd, Amanda B.

    2010-10-01

    Composite materials behave differently from conventional fuel sources and have the potential to smolder and burn for extended time periods. As the amount of composite materials on modern aircraft continues to increase, understanding the response of composites in fire environments becomes increasingly important. An effort is ongoing to enhance the capability to simulate composite material response in fires including the decomposition of the composite and the interaction with a fire. To adequately model composite material in a fire, two physical model development tasks are necessary; first, the decomposition model for the composite material and second, the interaction with a fire. A porous media approach for the decomposition model including a time dependent formulation with the effects of heat, mass, species, and momentum transfer of the porous solid and gas phase is being implemented in an engineering code, ARIA. ARIA is a Sandia National Laboratories multiphysics code including a range of capabilities such as incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, energy transport equations, species transport equations, non-Newtonian fluid rheology, linear elastic solid mechanics, and electro-statics. To simulate the fire, FUEGO, also a Sandia National Laboratories code, is coupled to ARIA. FUEGO represents the turbulent, buoyantly driven incompressible flow, heat transfer, mass transfer, and combustion. FUEGO and ARIA are uniquely able to solve this problem because they were designed using a common architecture (SIERRA) that enhances multiphysics coupling and both codes are capable of massively parallel calculations, enhancing performance. The decomposition reaction model is developed from small scale experimental data including thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) in both nitrogen and air for a range of heating rates and from available data in the literature. The response of the composite material subject to a radiant heat flux boundary condition is examined to study the propagation of decomposition fronts of the epoxy and carbon fiber and their dependence on the ambient conditions such as oxygen concentration, surface flow velocity, and radiant heat flux. In addition to the computational effort, small scaled experimental efforts to attain adequate data used to validate model predictions is ongoing. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate the progress of the capability for a typical composite material and emphasize the path forward.

  1. Composite materials and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Uribe, Francisco A. (Los Alamos, NM); Wilson, Mahlon S. (Los Alamos, NM); Garzon, Fernando H. (Santa Fe, NM)

    2009-09-15

    A method of depositing noble metals on a metal hexaboride support. The hexaboride support is sufficiently electropositive to allow noble metals to deposit spontaneously from solutions containing ionic species of such metals onto the support. The method permits the deposition of metallic films of controlled thickness and particle size at room temperature without using separate reducing agents. Composite materials comprising noble metal films deposited on such metal hexaborides are also described. Such composite materials may be used as catalysts, thermionic emitters, electrical contacts, electrodes, adhesion layers, and optical coatings.

  2. Data-mined similarity function between material compositions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Lusann

    A new method for assessing the similarity of material compositions is described. A similarity measure is important for the classification and clustering of compositions. The similarity of the material compositions is ...

  3. Statistical Analysis of Particle Distributions in Composite Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wichert, Sofia

    Statistical Analysis of Particle Distributions in Composite Materials by Sofia Mucharreira de Distributions in Composite Materials Sofia Mucharreira de Azeredo Lopes Summary Particulate composite materials distributions is of prime importance for a better control of the production of particulate composite materials

  4. Testing of NCSX Composite Coil Material Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozub, Thomas; Jurczynski, Stephan; Chrzanowski, James [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (United States)

    2005-05-15

    The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) is now in design and requires 18 modular coils that are constructed to a highly complex geometry. The modular coil conductors are designed as a composite of a fine gauge stranded copper cable shaped to the required geometry and vacuum impregnated with a resin. These composite conductors exhibit unique material properties that must be determined and verified through testing. The conductor material properties are necessary for design modeling and performance validation. This paper will present the methods used to test and measure the coil conductor material properties, the unique challenges in measuring these complex materials at both room and liquid nitrogen temperatures and the results of those tests.

  5. Machine augmented composite materials for damping purposes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCutcheon, David Matthew

    2005-02-17

    modulus [2]. The magnitude of the complex stiffness is determined by computing the square root of the sum of the squares of the storage modulus and the loss modulus. 1.2. Objective The development MAC materials that exhibit good damping properties...-1 MACHINE AUGMENTED COMPOSITE MATERIALS FOR DAMPING PURPOSES A Thesis by DAVID MATTHEW MCCUTCHEON Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER...

  6. Method of making carbon nanotube composite materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Bryan, Gregory; Skinner, Jack L; Vance, Andrew; Yang, Elaine Lai; Zifer, Thomas

    2014-05-20

    The present invention is a method of making a composite polymeric material by dissolving a vinyl thermoplastic polymer, un-functionalized carbon nanotubes and hydroxylated carbon nanotubes and optionally additives in a solvent to make a solution and removing at least a portion of the solvent after casting onto a substrate to make thin films. The material has enhanced conductivity properties due to the blending of the un-functionalized and hydroxylated carbon nanotubes.

  7. Tunable architecture for flexible and highly conductive graphene-polymer Amlie Nol1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Tunable architecture for flexible and highly conductive graphene-polymer composites Amélie Noël1 a good candidate for conductive inks based on a graphene/polymer nanocomposite material that gathers conductive composite materials through physical blending with emulsifier-free latex. The nanocomposite

  8. Cyclododecane as support material for clean and facile transfer of large-area few-layer graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Capasso, A.; Leoni, E.; Dikonimos, T.; Buonocore, F.; Lisi, N. [ENEA, Materials Technology Unit, Surface Technology Laboratory, Casaccia Research Centre, Via Anguillarese 301, 00060 Rome (Italy); De Francesco, M. [ENEA, Technical Unit for Renewable Energies Sources, Casaccia Research Center, Via Anguillarese 301, 00060 Rome (Italy); Lancellotti, L.; Bobeico, E. [ENEA, Portici Research Centre, P.le E. Fermi 1, 80055 Portici (Italy); Sarto, M. S.; Tamburrano, A.; De Bellis, G. [Research Center on Nanotechnology Applied to Engineering of Sapienza (CNIS), SSNLab, Sapienza University of Rome, P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy)

    2014-09-15

    The transfer of chemical vapor deposited graphene is a crucial process, which can affect the quality of the transferred films and compromise their application in devices. Finding a robust and intrinsically clean material capable of easing the transfer of graphene without interfering with its properties remains a challenge. We here propose the use of an organic compound, cyclododecane, as a transfer material. This material can be easily spin coated on graphene and assist the transfer, leaving no residues and requiring no further removal processes. The effectiveness of this transfer method for few-layer graphene on a large area was evaluated and confirmed by microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, x-ray photoemission spectroscopy, and four-point probe measurements. Schottky-barrier solar cells with few-layer graphene were fabricated on silicon wafers by using the cyclododecane transfer method and outperformed reference cells made by standard methods.

  9. A Computational Study of Metal-Contacts to Beyond-Graphene 2D Semiconductor Materials Jiahao Kang+

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Computational Study of Metal-Contacts to Beyond-Graphene 2D Semiconductor Materials Jiahao Kang]-[5]. The mobility of carriers in TMD semiconductors is currently lower than in graphene although it can be boosted guidelines for novel 2D semiconductor device design and fabrication. I. Introduction As CMOS technology

  10. On the Verdet constant and Faraday rotation for graphene-like materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mikkel H. Brynildsen; Horia D. Cornean

    2013-02-21

    We present a rigorous and rather self-contained analysis of the Verdet constant in graphene- like materials. We apply the gauge-invariant magnetic perturbation theory to a nearest- neighbour tight-binding model and obtain a relatively simple and exactly computable formula for the Verdet constant, at all temperatures and all frequencies of sufficiently large absolute value. Moreover, for the standard nearest neighbour tight-binding model of graphene we show that the transverse component of the conductivity tensor has an asymptotic Taylor expansion in the external magnetic field where all the coefficients of even powers are zero.

  11. Defective graphene as promising anode material for Na-ion battery and Ca-ion battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Datta, Dibakar; Shenoy, Vivek B

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated adsorption of Na and Ca on graphene with divacancy (DV) and Stone-Wales (SW) defect. Our results show that adsorption is not possible on pristine graphene. However, their adsorption on defective sheet is energetically favorable. The enhanced adsorption can be attributed to the increased charge transfer between adatoms and underlying defective sheet. With the increase in defect density until certain possible limit, maximum percentage of adsorption also increases giving higher battery capacity. For maximum possible DV defect, we can achieve maximum capacity of 1459 mAh/g for Na-ion batteries (NIBs) and 2900 mAh/g for Ca-ion batteries (CIBs). For graphene full of SW defect, we find the maximum capacity of NIBs and CIBs is around 1071 mAh/g and 2142 mAh/g respectively. Our results will help create better anode materials with much higher capacity and better cycling performance for NIBs and CIBs.

  12. Metalized T graphene: A reversible hydrogen storage material at room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye, Xiao-Juan; Zhong, Wei, E-mail: csliu@njupt.edu.cn, E-mail: wzhong@nju.edu.cn; Du, You-Wei [Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Liu, Chun-Sheng, E-mail: csliu@njupt.edu.cn, E-mail: wzhong@nju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Radio Frequency and Micro-Nano Electronics of Jiangsu Province, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210023 (China); Zeng, Zhi [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2014-09-21

    Lithium (Li)-decorated graphene is a promising hydrogen storage medium due to its high capacity. However, homogeneous mono-layer coating graphene with lithium atoms is metastable and the lithium atoms would cluster on the surface, resulting in the poor reversibility. Using van der Waals-corrected density functional theory, we demonstrated that lithium atoms can be homogeneously dispersed on T graphene due to a nonuniform charge distribution in T graphene and strong hybridizations between the C-2p and Li-2p orbitals. Thus, Li atoms are not likely to form clusters, indicating a good reversible hydrogen storage. Both the polarization mechanism and the orbital hybridizations contribute to the adsorption of hydrogen molecules (storage capacity of 7.7 wt. %) with an optimal adsorption energy of 0.19 eV/H?. The adsorption/desorption of H? at ambient temperature and pressure is also discussed. Our results can serve as a guide in the design of new hydrogen storage materials based on non-hexagonal graphenes.

  13. Graphene-based Material Systems for Nanoelectronics and Energy Storage Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Shirui

    2012-01-01

    S. Ruoff,"Preparation and characterization of graphene oxideQian, M. Zhang, F. Wei,"Preparation of a graphene nanosheet/Experimental 4.1.2.1 Preparation of Graphene Oxide Graphene

  14. Accelerated Aging of Polymer Composite Bridge Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, Nancy Margaret; Blackwood, Larry Gene; Torres, Lucinda Laine; Rodriguez, Julio Gallardo; Yoder, Timothy Scott

    1999-03-01

    Accelerated aging research on samples of composite material and candidate ultraviolet (UV) protective coatings is determining the effects of six environmental factors on material durability. Candidate fastener materials are being evaluated to determine corrosion rates and crevice corrosion effects at load-bearing joints. This work supports field testing of a 30-ft long, 18-ft wide polymer matrix composite (PMC) bridge at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Durability results and sensor data from tests with live loads provide information required for determining the cost/benefit measures to use in life-cycle planning, determining a maintenance strategy, establishing applicable inspection techniques, and establishing guidelines, standards, and acceptance criteria for PMC bridges for use in the transportation infrastructure.

  15. Electrical and Thermoelectrical Transport Properties of Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Deqi

    2011-01-01

    IV Large Memory Effect in Graphene Based Devices IV-1Transport Properties of Graphene A Dissertation submitted into study the new material, graphene. By investigating the

  16. Graphene Growth on Low Carbon Solubility Metals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wofford, Joseph Monroe

    2012-01-01

    The electronic properties of graphene. Reviews of Modernand E.A. Sutter, Epitaxial graphene on ruthenium. Natureopening in epitaxial graphene. Nature Materials, 2007. 6(

  17. Ultrafast field control of symmetry, reciprocity, and reversibility in buckled graphene-like materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelardeh, Hamed Koochaki; Stockman, Mark I

    2015-01-01

    We theoretically show that buckled two-dimensional graphene-like materials (silicene and germanene) subjected to a femtosecond strong optical pulse can be controlled by the optical field component normal to their plane. In such strong fields, these materials are predicted to exhibit non-reciprocal reflection, optical rectification and generation of electric currents both parallel and normal to the in-plane field direction. Reversibility of the conduction band population is also field- and carrier-envelope phase controllable. There is a net charge transfer along the material plane that is also dependent on the normal field component. Thus a graphene-like buckled material behaves analogously to a field-effect transistor controlled and driven by the electric field of light with subcycle (femtosecond) speed.

  18. Solvothermal synthesis of graphene-Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} composite and the degradation activity under visible light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, Wenguang; Chang, Jiuli; Wu, Dapeng; Gao, Zhiyong; Duan, Xiaoli; Xu, Fang; Engineering Technology Research Center of Motive Power and Key Materials, Henan, 453007 ; Jiang, Kai; Engineering Technology Research Center of Motive Power and Key Materials, Henan, 453007

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? Graphene-Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} composites were synthesized through a facile solvothermal method. ? Hydroxyl radicals are the main species responsible for the photodegradation activity. ? Graphene-Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} demonstrated dramatically improved visible light degradation activity. -- Abstract: Novel graphene-Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} (G-Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}) composites were synthesized via a facile solvothermal method with graphene oxide (GO), SbCl{sub 3} and thiourea as the reactants. GO played an important role in controlling the size and the distribution of the formed Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanoparticles on the graphene sheets with different density. Due to the negative surface charge, smaller Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} particles size and efficient electrons transfer from Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} to graphene, the composites demonstrated improved photodegradation activity on rhodamine B (RhB). Among these composites, the product G-Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} 0.1, which was synthesized with the GO concentration of 0.1 mg/mL, exhibited the highest photodegradation activity owing to the considerable density of Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} nanoparticles onto graphene sheet free of aggregation. Hydroxyl radicals (·OH) derived from conduction band (CB) electrons of Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} is suggested to be responsible for the photodegradation of RhB. The high visible light degradation activity and the satisfactory cycling stability made the as-prepared G-Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} 0.1 an applicable photocatalyst.

  19. Conductor-polymer composite electrode materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginley, D.S.; Kurtz, S.R.; Smyrl, W.H.; Zeigler, J.M.

    1984-06-13

    A conductive composite material useful as an electrode, comprises a conductor and an organic polymer which is reversibly electrochemically dopable to change its electrical conductivity. Said polymer continuously surrounds the conductor in intimate electrical contact therewith and is prepared by electrochemical growth on said conductor or by reaction of its corresponding monomer(s) on said conductor which has been pre-impregnated or pre-coated with an activator for said polymerization. Amount of the conductor is sufficient to render the resultant composite electrically conductive even when the polymer is in an undoped insulating state.

  20. Advanced Materials and Processing of Composites for High Volume...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Processing of Composites for High Volume Applications FY 2009 Progress Report for Lightweighting Materials - 8. Polymer Composites Research and Development Carbon Fiber SMC...

  1. Polymer and Composite Materials Used in Hydrogen Service - Meeting...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Documents & Publications Composites Technology for Hydrogen Pipelines US DRIVE Hydrogen Codes and Standards Technical Team Roadmap PolymerElastomer and Composite Material Science...

  2. High yield production of inorganic graphene-like materials (MoS?, WS?, BN) through liquid exfoliation testing key parameters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pu, Fei, S.B. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01

    Inorganic graphene-like materials such as molybdenum disulfide (MoS?), tungsten sulfide (WS?), and boron nitride (BN) are known to have electronic properties. When exfoliated into layers and casted onto carbon nanofilms, ...

  3. ORNL demonstrates first large-scale graphene fabrication | ornl...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ORNL demonstrates first large-scale graphene composite fabrication ORNL's ultrastrong graphene features layers of graphene and polymers and is an effective conductor of...

  4. Graphene and its Hybrid Nanostructures for Nanoelectronics and Energy Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LIN, JIAN

    2011-01-01

    modification of graphene. Advanced Materials, 2008. 20 (16):S. Novoselov. The rise of graphene. Nature Materials, 2007.transport in suspended graphene. Nature Nanotechnology,

  5. SANDIA CONTRACTORS REPORT FATIGUE OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SANDIA CONTRACTORS REPORT FATIGUE OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS AND SUBSTRUCTURES FOR WIND TURBINE BLADES Abstract ThisreportpresentsthemajorfindingsoftheMontanaStateUniversityCompositeMaterialsFatigue Program Fatigue Database. Additions of greatest interest to the database in this time period include environmental

  6. Use of advanced composite materials for innovative building design solutions/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lau, Tak-bun, Denvid

    2009-01-01

    Advanced composite materials become popular in construction industry for the innovative building design solutions including strengthening and retrofitting of existing structures. The interface between different materials ...

  7. Composite materials for thermal energy storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Burrows, Richard W. (Conifer, CO); Shinton, Yvonne D. (Northglenn, CO)

    1986-01-01

    The present invention discloses composite material for thermal energy storage based upon polyhydric alcohols, such as pentaerythritol, trimethylol ethane (also known as pentaglycerine), neopentyl glycol and related compounds including trimethylol propane, monoaminopentaerythritol, diamino-pentaerythritol and tris(hydroxymethyl)acetic acid, separately or in combinations, which provide reversible heat storage through crystalline phase transformations. These phase change materials do not become liquid during use and are in contact with at least one material selected from the group consisting of metals, carbon siliceous, plastic, cellulosic, natural fiber, artificial fiber, concrete, gypsum, porous rock, and mixtures thereof. Particulate additions, such as aluminum or graphite powders, as well as metal and carbon fibers can also be incorporated therein. Particulate and/or fibrous additions can be introduced into molten phase change materials which can then be cast into various shapes. After the phase change materials have solidified, the additions will remain dispersed throughout the matrix of the cast solid. The polyol is in contact with at least one material selected from the group consisting of metals, carbon siliceous, plastic, cellulosic, natural fiber, artificial fiber, concrete, gypsum, and mixtures thereof.

  8. A reduced graphene oxide/Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} composite for supercapacitor electrode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiang, Chengcheng; Li, Ming; Zhi, Mingjia; Manivannan, Ayyakkannu; Wu, Nianqiang

    2013-03-15

    20 nm sized Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles are in-situ grown on the chemically reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets to form a rGO-Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} composite during hydrothermal processing. The rGO-Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} composite is employed as the pseudocapacitor electrode in the 2 M KOH aqueous electrolyte solution. The rGOCo{sub 3}O{sub 4} composite electrode exhibits a specific capacitance of 472 F/g at a scan rate of 2 mV/s in a two-electrode cell. 82.6% of capacitance is retained when the scan rate increases to 100 mV/s. The rGOCo{sub 3}O{sub 4} composite electrode shows high rate capability and excellent long-term stability. It also exhibits high energy density at relatively high power density. The energy density reaches 39.0 Wh/kg at a power density of 8.3 kW/kg. The super performance of the composite electrode is attributed to the synergistic effects of small size and good redox activity of the Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles combined with high electronic conductivity of the rGO sheets.

  9. Preparation and characterization of graphene oxide Dmitriy A. Dikin1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LETTERS Preparation and characterization of graphene oxide paper Dmitriy A. Dikin1 , Sasha for fuel cell and structural composite applications12­15 . Here we report the preparation and characterization of graphene oxide paper, a free-standing carbon- based membrane material made by flow

  10. Composite materials for thermal energy storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, D.K.; Burrows, R.W.; Shinton, Y.D.

    1985-01-04

    A composite material for thermal energy storage based upon polyhydric alcohols, such as pentaerythritol, trimethylol ethane (also known as pentaglycerine), neopentyl glycol and related compounds including trimethylol propane, monoaminopentaerythritol, diamino-pentaerythritol and tris(hydroxymethyl)acetic acid, separately or in combinations, which provide reversible heat storage through crystalline phase transformations. These PCM's do not become liquid during use and are in contact with at least one material selected from the group consisting of metals, carbon, siliceous, plastic, cellulosic, natural fiber, artificial fiber, concrete, gypsum, porous rock, and mixtures thereof. Particulate additions such as aluminum or graphite powders, as well as metal and carbon fibers can also be incorporated therein. Particulate and/or fibrous additions can be introduced into molten phase change materials which can then be cast into various shapes. After the phase change materials have solidified, the additions will remain dispersed throughout the matrix of the cast solid. The polyol is in contact with at least one material selected from the group consisting of metals, carbon, siliceous, plastic, cellulosic, natural fiber, artificial fiber, concrete, gypsum, and mixtures thereof.

  11. Graphene-based Material Systems for Nanoelectronics and Energy Storage Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Shirui

    2012-01-01

    of High-Quality and Uniform Graphene Films on Copper Foils"and grain boundaries in graphene grown by chemical vapourin patterned epitaxial graphene" Science 2006, 312, 1191. D.

  12. Method for preparing dielectric composite materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J.; Anderson, Kimberly K.; Montgomery, Frederick C.; Collins, Jack L.; Felten, John J.

    2004-11-23

    The invention allows the fabrication of small, dense beads of dielectric materials with selected compositions, which are incorporated into a polymeric matrix for use in capacitors, filters, and the like. A porous, generally spherical bead of hydrous metal oxide containing titanium or zirconium is made by a sol-gel process to form a substantially rigid bead having a generally fine crystallite size and correspondingly finely distributed internal porosity. The resulting gel bead may be washed and hydrothermally reacted with a soluble alkaline earth salt (typically Ba or Sr) at elevated temperature and pressure to convert the bead into a mixed hydrous titanium- or zirconium-alkaline earth oxide while retaining the generally spherical shape. Alternatively, the gel bead may be made by coprecipitation. This mixed oxide bead is then washed, dried and calcined to produce the desired (BaTiO.sub.3, PbTiO.sub.3, SrZrO.sub.3) structure. The sintered beads are incorporated into a selected polymer matrix. The resulting dielectric composite material may be electrically "poled" if desired.

  13. Dielectric composite materials and method for preparing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J.; Anderson, Kimberly K.; Montgomery, Frederick C.; Collins, Jack L.; Felten, John J.

    2003-07-29

    The invention allows the fabrication of small, dense beads of dielectric materials with selected compositions, which are incorporated into a polymeric matrix for use in capacitors, filters, and the like. A porous, generally spherical bead of hydrous metal oxide containing titanium or zirconium is made by a sol-gel process to form a substantially rigid bead having a generally fine crystallite size and correspondingly finely distributed internal porosity. The resulting gel bead may be washed and hydrothermally reacted with a soluble alkaline earth salt (typically Ba or Sr) at elevated temperature and pressure to convert the bead into a mixed hydrous titanium- or zirconium-alkaline earth oxide while retaining the generally spherical shape. Alternatively, the gel bead may be made by coprecipitation. This mixed oxide bead is then washed, dried and calcined to produce the desired (BaTiO.sub.3, PbTiO.sub.3, SrZrO.sub.3) structure. The sintered beads are incorporated into a selected polymer matrix. The resulting dielectric composite material may be electrically "poled" if desired.

  14. Hot electron dynamics in graphene Ling, Meng-Chieh 36 MATERIALS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    intrinsic graphene property that has not been investigated. Our motivation for studying clean graphene at low temperature is based on the following effect: for a fixed electric...

  15. Engineering, Modeling and Testing of Composite Absorbing Materials for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koledintseva, Marina Y.

    13 Engineering, Modeling and Testing of Composite Absorbing Materials for EMC Applications Marina al., 2008). Application of absorbing materials for the design of shielding enclosures, coatings to electronic products, the engineered absorbing materials would allow for compliance with requirements

  16. Viscoelastic behavior of fiber-reinforced composite materials undergoing cure 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Kai

    1999-01-01

    A viscoelastic material model has been proposed to characterize the curing and thermal effects on the viscoelastic material properties of both the matrix material and the composite lamina. Micromechanics simulations are used to generate...

  17. Polymer and Composite Materials Used in Hydrogen Service

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Polymer and Composite Materials Used in Hydrogen Service MEETING PROCEEDINGS Polymer This report1 describes the results from an information-sharing meeting on the use of polymer and composite knowledge gaps and data needs for using polymers and composite material systems in hydrogen service

  18. Tougher than Kevlar: Researchers create new high-performance fiber Posted In: Editors Picks | R&D Daily | Carbon Nanotubes & Graphene | Materials Science |

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Espinosa, Horacio D.

    Tougher than Kevlar: Researchers create new high-performance fiber Posted In: Editors Picks | R&D Daily | Carbon Nanotubes & Graphene | Materials Science | Nanotechnology | Engineering | Material Science | Nanotechnology | Northwestern University | Materials | University Monday, December 6, 2010

  19. Method for preparing polyolefin composites containing a phase change material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

    1990-01-01

    A composite useful in thermal energy storage, said composite being formed of a polyolefin matrix having a phase change material such as a crystalline alkyl hydrocarbon incorporated therein. The composite is useful in forming pellets, sheets or fibers having thermal energy storage characteristics; methods for forming the composite are also disclosed.

  20. Method of preparing corrosion resistant composite materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, Thomas D. (320 Willow St., New Lenox, IL 60451)

    1993-01-01

    Method of manufacture of ceramic materials which require stability in severely-corrosive environment having high alkali-metal activity, high sulfur/sulfide activity and/or molten halides at temperatures of 200.degree.-550.degree. C. or organic salt (including SO.sub.2 and SO.sub.2 Cl.sub.2) at temperatures of 25.degree.-200.degree. C. These surfide ceramics form stoichiometric (single-phase) compounds with sulfides of Ca, Li, Na, K, Al, Mg, Si, Y, La, Ce, Ga, Ba, Zr and Sr and show melting-points that are sufficiently low and have excellent wettability with many metals (Fe, Ni, Mo) to easily form metal/ceramic seals. Ceramic compositions are also formulated to adequately match thermal expansion coefficient of adjacent metal components.

  1. An Optimization Approach to the Computer Simulation of Composite Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    North Texas, University of

    An Optimization Approach to the Computer Simulation of Composite Materials JAIME HORTA-RANGEL,2 the first frequency within a specified range of values. KEY WORDS: composite material, optimal design, modal WITOLD BROSTOW,1,2 GONZALO MARTINEZ-BARRERA 3 AND VICTOR M. CASTAN~ O 4, * 1 Department of Materials

  2. Two-dimensional optimization of material composition of functionally graded materials using meshless analyses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vel, Senthil

    Two-dimensional optimization of material composition of functionally graded materials using-dimensional simulation and optimization of material distribution of functionally graded materials for thermomechanical to optimize the material composition for two model problems. In the first problem, we minimize the peak

  3. Controllable synthesis of graphene sheets with different numbers of layers and effect of the number of graphene layers on the specific capacity of anode material in lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tong, Xin [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry (Ministry of Education), College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi'an 710069 (China); Wang, Hui, E-mail: huiwang@nwu.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry (Ministry of Education), College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi'an 710069 (China); National Key Laboratory of Photoelectric Technology and Functional Materials (Culture Base), National Photoelectric Technology and Functional Materials and Application International Cooperation Base, Institute of Photonics and Photon-Technology, Northwest University, Xi'an 710069 (China); Wang, Gang [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry (Ministry of Education), College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi'an 710069 (China); Wan, Lijuan; Ren, Zhaoyu; Bai, Jintao [National Key Laboratory of Photoelectric Technology and Functional Materials (Culture Base), National Photoelectric Technology and Functional Materials and Application International Cooperation Base, Institute of Photonics and Photon-Technology, Northwest University, Xi'an 710069 (China); Bai, Jinbo [Lab. MSS/MAT, CNRS UMR 8579, Ecole Centrale Paris, 92295 Chatenay Malabry (France)

    2011-05-15

    High quality graphene sheets are synthesized through efficient oxidation process followed by rapid thermal expansion and reduction by H{sub 2}. The number of graphene layers is controlled by tuning the oxidation degree of GOs. The higher the oxidation degree of GOs is getting, the fewer the numbers of graphene layers can be obtained. The material is characterized by elemental analysis, thermo-gravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies. The obtained graphene sheets with single, triple and quintuplicate layers as anode materials exhibit a high reversible capacity of 1175, 1007, and 842 mA h g{sup -1}, respectively, which show that the graphene sheets with fewer layers have higher reversible capacity. -- Graphical abstract: The typical TEM images of the graphene sheets derived from GO3(a), GO2(b) and GO1(c). Display Omitted Highlights: {yields} With the oxidation degree of GO increasing, the numbers of graphene layers decreased. {yields} With the numbers of graphene layers decreasing, the reversible capacity improved. {yields} Graphene sheets with single-layer exhibit the best electrochemical performances.

  4. Experimental Studies of Oxide Magnetic Tunnel Junctions and Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Xinfei

    2012-01-01

    electron interaction in graphene. The central Nernst peak83, 6694 (1998). Chapter IV Introduction to Graphene IV-1Discovery of Graphene Carbon-based electronic materials have

  5. Mechanical and Electrical Properties of Modified Graphene Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ZHANG, HANG

    2012-01-01

    as a gapless semiconductor, graphene cannot be directlywith traditional semiconductor materials, graphene hassince graphene is a gapless semiconductor, it cannot be

  6. Spin Transport and Relaxation in Graphene and Germanium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Wei

    2011-01-01

    metals, semiconductors, organics to graphene . . . . . . . .from metals, semiconductors, organics to graphene Fig. 1-4,semiconductor, and carbon-based materials are reviewed. A brief introduction to graphene

  7. Advanced Materials and Processing of Composites for High Volume...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Applications (ACC932) Advanced Materials and Processing of Composites for High Volume Applications (ACC932) 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies...

  8. Cellulose, Chitosan, and Keratin Composite Materials. Controlled Drug Release

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reid, Scott A.

    Cellulose, Chitosan, and Keratin Composite Materials. Controlled Drug Release Chieu D. Tran 53201, United States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: A method was developed in which cellulose (CEL

  9. Fabrication and long-wavelength characterization of neat and chemically modified graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalugin, Nikolai G. [Departments of Materials Engineering and Chemistry, New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States)

    2014-03-31

    Graphene, a single- or several layer-thick carbon, attracts significant research activity because of its exceptional material properties. Graphene is a promising material for optoelectronic applications. Neat graphene demonstrates potential as a material for long wavelength photodetectors working at elevated temperatures. Chemical modification of graphene opens up many new applications of this material in electronics, in new composite materials, and in new catalysts for different chemical processes. Chemical vapor deposition-grown large-area graphene can be successfully modified with the creation of benzyne attachments. The investigation of microwave properties is an important part of graphene research. Two variants of near-field long wavelength microscopy were found efficient with graphene. Measurements with a probe formed by an electrically open end of a 4 GHz half-lambda parallel-strip transmission line resonator allow the implementation of an electrodynamic model of graphene microwave impedance. The results of near-field scanning superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) RF microscopy of graphite and graphene at 200 MHz shed light on mechanisms of AC graphene response: screening currents induced in graphene by an external RF magnetic field tend to localize near structural defects.

  10. Photoluminescence study in diaminobenzene functionalized graphene oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Abhisek, E-mail: guptaabhisek017@gmail.com, E-mail: cnssks@iacs.res.in; Saha, Shyamal K., E-mail: guptaabhisek017@gmail.com, E-mail: cnssks@iacs.res.in [Department of Materials Science, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India)

    2014-10-15

    Being an excellent electronic material graphene is a very poor candidate for optoelectronic applications. One of the major strategies to develop the optical property in GO is the functionalization of graphene oxide (GO). In the present work GO sheets are functionalized by o-phenylenediamine to achieve diaminobenzene functionalized GO composite (DAB-GO). Formation of DAB-GO composite is further characterized by FTIR, UV, Raman studies. Excellent photoluminescence is observed in DAB-GO composite via passivation of the surface reactive sites by ring-opening amination of epoxides of GO.

  11. Process for fabricating composite material having high thermal conductivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colella, Nicholas J. (Livermore, CA); Davidson, Howard L. (San Carlos, CA); Kerns, John A. (Livermore, CA); Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A process for fabricating a composite material such as that having high thermal conductivity and having specific application as a heat sink or heat spreader for high density integrated circuits. The composite material produced by this process has a thermal conductivity between that of diamond and copper, and basically consists of coated diamond particles dispersed in a high conductivity metal, such as copper. The composite material can be fabricated in small or relatively large sizes using inexpensive materials. The process basically consists, for example, of sputter coating diamond powder with several elements, including a carbide forming element and a brazeable material, compacting them into a porous body, and infiltrating the porous body with a suitable braze material, such as copper-silver alloy, thereby producing a dense diamond-copper composite material with a thermal conductivity comparable to synthetic diamond films at a fraction of the cost.

  12. Cured composite materials for reactive metal battery electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harrup, Mason K.; Stewart, Frederick F.; Peterson, Eric S.

    2006-03-07

    A solid molecular composite polymer-based electrolyte is made for batteries, wherein silicate compositing produces a electrolytic polymer with a semi-rigid silicate condensate framework, and then mechanical-stabilization by radiation of the outer surface of the composited material is done to form a durable and non-tacky texture on the electrolyte. The preferred ultraviolet radiation produces this desirable outer surface by creating a thin, shallow skin of crosslinked polymer on the composite material. Preferably, a short-duration of low-medium range ultraviolet radiation is used to crosslink the polymers only a short distance into the polymer, so that the properties of the bulk of the polymer and the bulk of the molecular composite material remain unchanged, but the tough and stable skin formed on the outer surface lends durability and processability to the entire composite material product.

  13. Structural Health Monitoring of Smart Composite Material by Acoustic Emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Structural Health Monitoring of Smart Composite Material by Acoustic Emission S. Masmoudia , A. El composite structures gives the opportunity to develop smart materials for health monitoring systems and structural health monitoring [1, 3]. Several studies [5, 6] were carried for the development of non

  14. http://jcm.sagepub.com/ Journal of Composite Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Soon Hyung

    metallurgy process,1-3 which consists of CNTs-mixed matrix(metal or ceramic) powders fol- lowed by sinteringhttp://jcm.sagepub.com/ Journal of Composite Materials http://jcm.sagepub.com/content/early/2011 2011Journal of Composite Materials B.K. Lim, J.W. Hwang, D.J. Lee, S.H. Suh and S.H. Hong Fabrication

  15. Raman Nanometrology of Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calizo, Irene Gonzales

    2009-01-01

    graphene is a promising material for the electronic applications beyond the conventional complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (graphene is considered for applications in the integrated circuits beyond the conventional silicon complementary metal- oxide semiconductor

  16. Corrosion inhibiting composition for treating asbestos containing materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hartman, Judithann Ruth (Columbia, MD)

    1998-04-21

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed, wherein the composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of an acid component, optionally a source of fluoride ions, and a corrosion inhibiting amount of thiourea, a lower alkylthiourea, a C.sub.8 -C.sub.15 alkylpyridinium halide or mixtures thereof. A method of transforming an asbestos-containing building material, while part of a building structure, into a non-asbestos material by using the present composition also is disclosed.

  17. Corrosion inhibiting composition for treating asbestos containing materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hartman, J.R.

    1998-04-21

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed. The composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of an acid component, optionally a source of fluoride ions, and a corrosion inhibiting amount of thiourea, a lower alkylthiourea, a C{sub 8}{single_bond}C{sub 15} alkylpyridinium halide or mixtures. A method of transforming an asbestos-containing building material, while part of a building structure, into a non-asbestos material by using the present composition also is disclosed.

  18. Flexible hydrogel-based functional composite materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    2013-10-08

    A composite having a flexible hydrogel polymer formed by mixing an organic phase with an inorganic composition, the organic phase selected from the group consisting of a hydrogel monomer, a crosslinker, a radical initiator, and/or a solvent. A polymerization mixture is formed and polymerized into a desired shape and size.

  19. Standard Guide for Testing Polymer Matrix Composite Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This guide summarizes the application of ASTM standard test methods (and other supporting standards) to continuous-fiber reinforced polymer matrix composite materials. The most commonly used or most applicable ASTM standards are included, emphasizing use of standards of Committee D30 on Composite Materials. 1.2 This guide does not cover all possible standards that could apply to polymer matrix composites and restricts discussion to the documented scope. Commonly used but non-standard industry extensions of test method scopes, such as application of static test methods to fatigue testing, are not discussed. A more complete summary of general composite testing standards, including non-ASTM test methods, is included in the Composite Materials Handbook (MIL-HDBK-17). Additional specific recommendations for testing textile (fabric, braided) composites are contained in Guide D6856. 1.3 This guide does not specify a system of measurement; the systems specified within each of the referenced standards shall appl...

  20. Electrochemistry A Mesoporous/Crystalline Composite Material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Byungwoo

    as the Anode in Lithium-Ion Batteries** Eunjin Kim, Dongyeon Son, Tae-Gon Kim, Jaephil Cho,* Byungwoo Park for graphite,[1] many studies on Sn-based materials for use as anode materials have been performed.[2

  1. Microthermodynamics analysis of the shape memory effect in composite materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyd, J.G.; Lagoudas, D.C. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The shape memory effect and pseudoelasticity due to phase transformation in shape memory alloy (SMA) composites is modeled using a two part procedure. First, phenomenological constitutive equations are proposed for the monolithic polycrystalline SMA material. The equations are of the generalized standard material type, in which the response is given by a convex free energy function and a dissipation potential. Second, a micromechanics analysis of a SMA composite material is performed to derive its free energy, transformation strain rate, and Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Specific results are given for a Nitinol SMA fiber/elastomer matrix composite.

  2. The chemistry of graphene oxide Daniel R. Dreyer,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    chemistry, structurally dynamic/self-healing materials, and novel electrolytes for graphene-based energy, such as polymer composites, energy-related materials, sensors, `paper'-like materials, field-effect transistors-sponsored REU. His current research interests include applications of ionic liquids in synthetic polymer

  3. Lithium diffusion at Si-C interfaces in silicon-graphene composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Odbadrakh, Khorgolkhuu [Joint Institute for Computational Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 (United States); McNutt, N. W. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); Nicholson, D. M. [Computational Science and Mathematics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 (United States); Department of Physics, University of North Carolina, Asheville, North Carolina 28804 (United States); Rios, O. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 (United States); Keffer, D. J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States)

    2014-08-04

    Models of intercalated Li and its diffusion in Si-Graphene interfaces are investigated using density functional theory. Results suggest that the presence of interfaces alters the energetics of Li binding and diffusion significantly compared to bare Si or Graphene surfaces. Our results show that cavities along reconstructed Si surface provide diffusion paths for Li. Diffusion barriers calculated along these cavities are significantly lower than penetration barriers to bulk Si. Interaction with Si surface results in graphene defects, creating Li diffusion paths that are confined along the cavities but have still lower barrier than in bulk Si.

  4. Thermal Characterization of Nanostructures and Advanced Engineered Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goyal, Vivek Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Layer Graphene and Graphene Devices,” Semiconductor ResearchMaterials: From Graphene to Diamond,” Semiconductor ResearchGraphene and Applications in Thermal Management,” Semiconductor

  5. New radiological material detection technologies for nuclear forensics: Remote optical imaging and graphene-based sensors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, Richard Karl; Martin, Jeffrey B.; Wiemann, Dora K.; Choi, Junoh; Howell, Stephen W.

    2015-09-01

    We developed new detector technologies to identify the presence of radioactive materials for nuclear forensics applications. First, we investigated an optical radiation detection technique based on imaging nitrogen fluorescence excited by ionizing radiation. We demonstrated optical detection in air under indoor and outdoor conditions for alpha particles and gamma radiation at distances up to 75 meters. We also contributed to the development of next generation systems and concepts that could enable remote detection at distances greater than 1 km, and originated a concept that could enable daytime operation of the technique. A second area of research was the development of room-temperature graphene-based sensors for radiation detection and measurement. In this project, we observed tunable optical and charged particle detection, and developed improved devices. With further development, the advancements described in this report could enable new capabilities for nuclear forensics applications.

  6. Epitaxial graphene on silicon carbide: Introduction to structured graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Epitaxial graphene on silicon carbide: Introduction to structured graphene Ming Ruan 1 , Yike Hu 1, France Abstract We present an introduction to the rapidly growing field of epitaxial graphene on silicon present, highly evolved state. The potential of epitaxial graphene as a new electronic material is now

  7. Synthesizing Smart Polymeric and Composite Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GONG, CHAOKUN

    2013-01-01

    and M. Veszelei, “Towards the smart window: progress inElectrochromic Dye System for Smart Window Applications,”roll actuators,” Smart Materials and Structures, vol. 13,

  8. Composite materials with integrated embedded sensing networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schaaf, Kristin Leigh

    2008-01-01

    Materials for Structural Health Monitoring. ProceedingsWorkshop on Structural Health Monitoring: Advancements andWorkshop on Structural Health Monitoring: Advancements and

  9. 28th Annual Conference on Composites, Materials, and Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    Laboratory (ORNL) managed by UT- Battelle, LLC, under Prime Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the DOE Composition ·Binder Development ·Green CNC Machining · Casting / Molding #12;28th CMC3 Cocoa Beach Material

  10. Controlling Performance of Laminated Composites Using Piezoelectric Materials 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasan, Zeaid

    2012-02-14

    Composite materials are increasingly used in aerospace, underwater, and automotive structures. Their use in structural applications is dictated by the outstanding strength and stiffness while being lightweight in addition to their flexibility...

  11. Author's personal copy Graphene and nanostructured MnO2 composite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qin, Lu-Chang

    , and electrical conductivity. In this paper, graphene is explored as a platform for energy storage devices energy saving devices. They can provide a huge amount of en- ergy in a short period of time, making themA with an energy density of 11.4 Wh/kg and 25.8 kW/kg of power density. This work suggests that our graphene

  12. Composite Materials for Hazard Mitigation of Reactive Metal Hydrides.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratt, Joseph William; Cordaro, Joseph Gabriel; Sartor, George B.; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Reeder, Craig L.

    2012-02-01

    In an attempt to mitigate the hazards associated with storing large quantities of reactive metal hydrides, polymer composite materials were synthesized and tested under simulated usage and accident conditions. The composites were made by polymerizing vinyl monomers using free-radical polymerization chemistry, in the presence of the metal hydride. Composites with vinyl-containing siloxane oligomers were also polymerized with and without added styrene and divinyl benzene. Hydrogen capacity measurements revealed that addition of the polymer to the metal hydride reduced the inherent hydrogen storage capacity of the material. The composites were found to be initially effective at reducing the amount of heat released during oxidation. However, upon cycling the composites, the mitigating behavior was lost. While the polymer composites we investigated have mitigating potential and are physically robust, they undergo a chemical change upon cycling that makes them subsequently ineffective at mitigating heat release upon oxidation of the metal hydride. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the following people who participated in this project: Ned Stetson (U.S. Department of Energy) for sponsorship and support of the project. Ken Stewart (Sandia) for building the flow-through calorimeter and cycling test stations. Isidro Ruvalcaba, Jr. (Sandia) for qualitative experiments on the interaction of sodium alanate with water. Terry Johnson (Sandia) for sharing his expertise and knowledge of metal hydrides, and sodium alanate in particular. Marcina Moreno (Sandia) for programmatic assistance. John Khalil (United Technologies Research Corp) for insight into the hazards of reactive metal hydrides and real-world accident scenario experiments. Summary In an attempt to mitigate and/or manage hazards associated with storing bulk quantities of reactive metal hydrides, polymer composite materials (a mixture of a mitigating polymer and a metal hydride) were synthesized and tested under simulated usage and accident conditions. Mitigating the hazards associated with reactive metal hydrides during an accident while finding a way to keep the original capability of the active material intact during normal use has been the focus of this work. These composites were made by polymerizing vinyl monomers using free-radical polymerization chemistry, in the presence of the metal hydride, in this case a prepared sodium alanate (chosen as a representative reactive metal hydride). It was found that the polymerization of styrene and divinyl benzene could be initiated using AIBN in toluene at 70 degC. The resulting composite materials can be either hard or brittle solids depending on the cross-linking density. Thermal decomposition of these styrene-based composite materials is lower than neat polystyrene indicating that the chemical nature of the polymer is affected by the formation of the composite. The char-forming nature of cross-linked polystyrene is low and therefore, not an ideal polymer for hazard mitigation. To obtain composite materials containing a polymer with higher char-forming potential, siloxane-based monomers were investigated. Four vinyl-containing siloxane oligomers were polymerized with and without added styrene and divinyl benzene. Like the styrene materials, these composite materials exhibited thermal decomposition behavior significantly different than the neat polymers. Specifically, the thermal decomposition temperature was shifted approximately 100 degC lower than the neat polymer signifying a major chemical change to the polymer network. Thermal analysis of the cycled samples was performed on the siloxane-based composite materials. It was found that after 30 cycles the siloxane-containing polymer composite material has similar TGA/DSC-MS traces as the virgin composite material indicating that the polymer is physically intact upon cycling. Hydrogen capacity measurements revealed that addition of the polymer to the metal hydride in the form of a composite material reduced the inherent hydrogen storage capacity of the material. This

  13. Composite metal foil and ceramic fabric materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Webb, B.J.; Antoniak, Z.I.; Prater, J.T.; DeSteese, J.G.

    1992-03-24

    The invention comprises new materials useful in a wide variety of terrestrial and space applications. In one aspect, the invention comprises a flexible cloth-like material comprising a layer of flexible woven ceramic fabric bonded with a layer of metallic foil. In another aspect, the invention includes a flexible fluid impermeable barrier comprising a flexible woven ceramic fabric layer having metal wire woven therein. A metallic foil layer is incontinuously welded to the woven metal wire. In yet another aspect, the invention includes a material comprising a layer of flexible woven ceramic fabric bonded with a layer of an organic polymer. In still another aspect, the invention includes a rigid fabric structure comprising a flexible woven ceramic fabric and a resinous support material which has been hardened as the direct result of exposure to ultraviolet light. Inventive methods for producing such material are also disclosed. 11 figs.

  14. A Roadmap for Engineering Piezoelectricity in Graphene

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Roadmap for Engineering Piezoelectricity in Graphene A Roadmap for Engineering Piezoelectricity in Graphene Doping this 'Miracle Material' May Lead to New Array of Nanoscale...

  15. Method of tissue repair using a composite material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hutchens, Stacy A; Woodward, Jonathan; Evans, Barbara R; O'Neill, Hugh M

    2014-03-18

    A composite biocompatible hydrogel material includes a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa. A calcium comprising salt is disposed in at least some of the pores. The porous polymer matrix can comprise cellulose, including bacterial cellulose. The composite can be used as a bone graft material. A method of tissue repair within the body of animals includes the steps of providing a composite biocompatible hydrogel material including a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa, and inserting the hydrogel material into cartilage or bone tissue of an animal, wherein the hydrogel material supports cell colonization in vitro for autologous cell seeding.

  16. The composite materials handbook (MIL handbook 17). Volume 2: Materials properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1999-01-01

    The Composite Materials Handbook (MIL Handbook 17) is THE source for data and usage guidelines for current and emerging polymer matrix composite materials. It provides you with the tools you will need to design and fabricate end items from polymer matrix composite materials and offers guidelines for how these data should be generated and used. The Handbook is a comprehensive guide of composites technology and engineering, an area that is advancing and changing rapidly. Data obtained and selected according to Volume 1 are published in Volume 2.

  17. Digital cellular solids : reconfigurable composite materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheung, Kenneth Chun-Wai

    2012-01-01

    Digital materials are comprised of a small number of types of discrete physical building blocks, which assemble to form constructions that meet the versatility and scalability of digital computation and communication ...

  18. Graphene-assisted near-field radiative heat transfer between corrugated polar materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, X. L.; Zhang, Z. M., E-mail: zhuomin.zhang@me.gatech.edu [G. W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)

    2014-06-23

    Graphene has attracted great attention in nanoelectronics, optics, and energy harvesting. Here, the near-field radiative heat transfer between graphene-covered corrugated silica is investigated based on the exact scattering theory. It is found that graphene can improve the radiative heat flux between silica gratings by more than one order of magnitude and alleviate the performance sensitivity to lateral shift. The underlying mechanism is mainly attributed to the improved photon tunneling of modes away from phonon resonances. Besides, coating with graphene leads to nonlocal radiative transfer that breaks Derjaguin's proximity approximation and enables corrugated silica to outperform bulk silica in near-field radiation.

  19. Composition/bandgap selective dry photochemical etching of semiconductor materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashby, Carol I. H. (Edgewood, NM); Dishman, James L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1987-01-01

    A method of selectively photochemically dry etching a first semiconductor material of a given composition and direct bandgap Eg.sub.1 in the presence of a second semiconductor material of a different composition and direct bandgap Eg.sub.2, wherein Eg.sub.2 >Eg.sub.1, said second semiconductor material substantially not being etched during said method, comprises subjecting both materials to the same photon flux and to the same gaseous etchant under conditions where said etchant would be ineffective for chemical etching of either material were the photons not present, said photons being of an energy greater than Eg.sub.1 but less than Eg.sub.2, whereby said first semiconductor material is photochemically etched and said second material is substantially not etched.

  20. Metal oxide composite dosimeter method and material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Steven D. (Richland, WA)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a method of measuring a radiation dose wherein a radiation responsive material consisting essentially of metal oxide is first exposed to ionizing radiation. The metal oxide is then stimulating with light thereby causing the radiation responsive material to photoluminesce. Photons emitted from the metal oxide as a result of photoluminescence may be counted to provide a measure of the ionizing radiation.

  1. Graphene based Ultra-Thin Flat Lenses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kong, Xiang-Tian; Khan, Ammar A.; Kidambi, Piran R.; Deng, Sunan; Yetisen, Ali K.; Dlubak, Bruno; Hiralal, Pritesh; Montelongo, Yunuen; Bowen, James; Xavier, Stéphane; Jiang, Kyle; Amaratunga, Gehan A. J.; Hofmann, Stephan; Wilkinson, Timothy D.; Dai, Qing; Butt, Haider

    2015-01-07

    on graphene, the world’s thinnest known material. Monolayers and low number multilayers of graphene were fabricated into Fresnel zones to produce Fresnel zone plates which utilize the reflection and transmission properties of graphene for their operation...

  2. Graphene Supercapacitors: Charging Up the Future

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    El-Kady, Maher

    2013-01-01

    8. M. Segal, Selling graphene by the ton. Nat. Nanotechnol.Y. Zhu, J. An, R. S. Ruoff, Graphene-based ultracapacitors.Supercapacitor devices based on graphene materials. J. Phys.

  3. Bijel - a novel composite material from colloids on liquid-liquid interfaces 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herzig, Eva M

    2008-01-01

    Composite materials generally consist of different components which individually exhibit an entirely different material behaviour than within the composite. Here, two immiscible liquids are stabilised with solid particles ...

  4. Moisture and temperature effects in composite materials 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang, Gwo-Ping

    1987-01-01

    ) Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. Y. Weitsman Th1s thesis concerns env1ronmental effects in graphite/epoxy composites, with emphas1s on environmentally induced damage. The thesis consists of two major parts. The first part presents an experimental 1... weight gain (in %) of a 12-ply unidirectional AS4/3502 graphite/epoxy laminate during exposure to 346'K, 95% R. H. environment. Data (i) and predictions of Flck's law (solid line) Moisture content (ln %) of a 12-ply unidirectional AS4/3502 graphite...

  5. Nanotube Composite Anode Materials | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shinesSolar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Find More LikeNanotube Composite Anode

  6. Polymeric compositions incorporating polyethylene glycol as a phase change material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH); Griffen, Charles W. (Mason, OH)

    1989-01-01

    A polymeric composition comprising a polymeric material and polyethylene glycol or end-capped polyethylene glycol as a phase change material, said polyethylene glycol and said end-capped polyethylene glycol having a molecular weight greater than about 400 and a heat of fusion greater than about 30 cal/g; the composition is useful in making molded and/or coated materials such as flooring, tiles, wall panels and the like; paints containing polyethylene glycols or end-capped polyethylene glycols are also disclosed.

  7. DOE Automotive Composite Materials Research: Present and Future Efforts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, C.D.

    1999-08-10

    One method of increasing automotive energy efficiency is through mass reduction of structural components by the incorporation of composite materials. Significant use of glass reinforced polymers as structural components could yield a 20--30% reduction in vehicle weight while the use of carbon fiber reinforced materials could yield a 40--60% reduction in mass. Specific areas of research for lightweighting automotive components are listed, along with research needs for each of these categories: (1) low mass metals; (2) polymer composites; and (3) ceramic materials.

  8. ADVANCED COMPOSITE MATERIALS FOR BRIDGES Sami RIZKALLA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is also discussed. The high strength and light weight of these materials and the fact that they are now to the increasing demand to use heavier truck loads. This paper reviews some ofthe Canadian projects which have been demand for heavier truck loads and to increase ductility of existing bridges for earthquake resistance

  9. Lightweight Composite Materials for Heavy Duty Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pruez, Jacky; Shoukry, Samir; Williams, Gergis; Shoukry, Mark

    2013-08-31

    The main objective of this project is to develop, analyze and validate data, methodologies and tools that support widespread applications of automotive lightweighting technologies. Two underlying principles are guiding the research efforts towards this objective: • Seamless integration between the lightweight materials selected for certain vehicle systems, cost-effective methods for their design and manufacturing, and practical means to enhance their durability while reducing their Life-Cycle-Costs (LCC). • Smooth migration of the experience and findings accumulated so far at WVU in the areas of designing with lightweight materials, innovative joining concepts and durability predictions, from applications to the area of weight savings for heavy vehicle systems and hydrogen storage tanks, to lightweighting applications of selected systems or assemblies in light–duty vehicles.

  10. Raman Nanometrology of Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calizo, Irene Gonzales

    2009-01-01

    2D) electron gas physics it reveals, graphene is a promising material for the electronic applications beyond the conventional complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (

  11. Grained composite materials prepared by combustion synthesis under mechanical pressure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunmead, Stephen D. (Davis, CA); Holt, Joseph B. (San Jose, CA); Kingman, Donald D. (Danville, CA); Munir, Zuhair A. (Davis, CA)

    1990-01-01

    Dense, finely grained composite materials comprising one or more ceramic phase or phase and one or more metallic and/or intermetallic phase or phases are produced by combustion synthesis. Spherical ceramic grains are homogeneously dispersed within the matrix. Methods are provided, which include the step of applying mechanical pressure during or immediately after ignition, by which the microstructures in the resulting composites can be controllably selected.

  12. Development of novel graphene and carbon nanotubes based multifunctional polymer matrix composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leung, S. N. Khan, M. O. Naguib, H. E.

    2014-05-15

    This paper investigates strategies to alter the nano-and-microstructures of carbon-based filler-reinforced polymer matrix composites (PMCs). The matrix materials being studied in this work include polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) and liquid crystal polymer (LCP). A set of experiments were performed to investigate various strategies (i) to fabricate a morphological structure within the polymer matrix; (ii) to develop a thermally and electrically conductive network of nano-scaled fillers; and (iii) to produce a thermally conductive but electrically insulative network of hybrid fillers of nano-and-micro scales. The PMCs' structure-to-property relationships, including electrical and thermal properties, were revealed. In particular, the composites' effective thermal conductivities could be increased by as much as 10-folded over the neat polymers. By structuring the embedded electrically conductive pathways in the PMCs, their electrical conductivities could be tailored to levels that ranged from those of electrical insulators to those of semi-conductors. These multifunctional carbon-based filler-reinforced PMCs are envisioned to be potential solutions of various engineering problems. For example, light-weight thermally conductive PMCs with tailored electrical conductivities can serve as a new family of materials for electronic packaging or heat management applications.

  13. Photon-induced tunneling in graphene-boron nitride-graphene heterostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nair, Nityan

    2013-01-01

    Graphene is a material that has generated much interest due to its many unique electronic and optical properties. In this work, we present optoelectronic measurements performed on ultrathin graphene-boron nitride-graphene ...

  14. GRAPHENE FLAGSHIP, 28 Jan 2013 Graphene appointed an EU Future Emerging Technology flagship

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GRAPHENE FLAGSHIP, 28 Jan 2013 Graphene appointed an EU Future Emerging Technology flagship The European Commission has chosen Graphene as one of Europe's first 10-year, 1,000 million euro FET flagships. The mission of Graphene is to take graphene and related layered materials from academic laboratories

  15. Materials design from non-equilibrium steady states: driven graphene as a tunable semiconductor with topological properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iadecola, Thomas; Chamon, Claudio; Hou, Chang-Yu; Jackiw, Roman; Pi, So-Young; Kusminskiy, Silvia Viola

    2013-01-01

    Controlling the properties of materials by driving them out of equilibrium is an exciting prospect that has only recently begun to be explored. In this paper we give a striking theoretical example of such materials design: a tunable gap in monolayer graphene is generated by exciting a particular optical phonon. We show that the system reaches a steady state whose transport properties are the same as if the system had a static electronic gap, controllable by the driving amplitude. Moreover, the steady state displays topological phenomena: there are chiral edge currents, which circulate a fractional charge e/2 per rotation cycle, with frequency set by the optical phonon frequency.

  16. Materials design from non-equilibrium steady states: driven graphene as a tunable semiconductor with topological properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Iadecola; David Campbell; Claudio Chamon; Chang-Yu Hou; Roman Jackiw; So-Young Pi; Silvia Viola Kusminskiy

    2013-04-26

    Controlling the properties of materials by driving them out of equilibrium is an exciting prospect that has only recently begun to be explored. In this paper we give a striking theoretical example of such materials design: a tunable gap in monolayer graphene is generated by exciting a particular optical phonon. We show that the system reaches a steady state whose transport properties are the same as if the system had a static electronic gap, controllable by the driving amplitude. Moreover, the steady state displays topological phenomena: there are chiral edge currents, which circulate a fractional charge e/2 per rotation cycle, with frequency set by the optical phonon frequency.

  17. Graphene-based Material Systems for Nanoelectronics and Energy Storage Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Shirui

    2012-01-01

    exfoliated graphene oxide layers along with CVD grown CNTsto create a barrier oxide layer on copper foil. Fe catalystcopper-copper oxide foil, the oxide layer would be gradually

  18. Characterization of a High Strain Composite Material I. Maqueda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pellegrino, Sergio

    . The behavior of this material is significantly different from standard composites and the paper presents estimates are quite accurate for the longitudinal moduli in tension and bending, but less accurate Sample diameter E Elastic modulus E1, E1f , Em Longitudinal modulus, fiber modulus, matrix modulus F1t

  19. Band gaps and structural properties of graphene halides and their derivates: A hybrid functional study with localized orbital basis sets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karlický, František; Otyepka, Michal; 10.1063/1.4736998

    2012-01-01

    DFT calculations of the electronic structure of graphane and stoichiometrically halogenated graphene derivatives (fluorographene and other analogous graphene halides) show (i) localized orbital basis sets can be successfully and effectively used for such 2D materials; (ii) several functionals predict that the band gap of graphane is greater than that of fluorographene, whereas HSE06 gives the opposite trend; (iii) HSE06 functional predicts quite good values of band gaps w.r.t benchmark theoretical and experimental data; (iv) the zero band gap of graphene is opened by hydrogenation and halogenation and strongly depends on the chemical composition of mixed graphene halides; (v) the stability of graphene halides decreases sharply with increasing size of the halogen atom - fluorographene is stable, whereas graphene iodide spontaneously decomposes. In terms of band gap and stability, the C2FBr, and C2HBr derivatives seem to be promising materials, e.g., for (opto)electronics applications, because their band gaps a...

  20. Micromechanical Damage Models for Continuous Fiber Reinforced Composite Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Yi

    2013-01-01

    of metal and ceramic-matrix composites, Acta Metallurgica etMMCs) and ceramic matrix composites (CMCs). In general, PMCsPolymer Matrix Composite Ceramic Matrix Composite Composite

  1. Twist Solves Bilayer Graphene Mystery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the highest room-temperature mobility of any material, making it a very attractive material for future semiconductor devices. A major drawback, however, is graphene's lack of a...

  2. Quasi 2D Materials: Raman Nanometrology and Thermal Management Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shahil, Khan Mohammad Farhan

    2012-01-01

    and methods of graphene preparation. Low TBR of graphenemethod [1-3] and graphene composite preparation techniques [The graphene-MLG concentrations utilized for preparation of

  3. ETH Zurich, Institute of Design, Materials and Fabrication Laboratory of Composite Materials and Adaptive Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daraio, Chiara

    Structures Motivation for lightweight structures Newton:F=ma saving energy mîî & aèè F îî (smaller forces of Design, Materials and Fabrication Laboratory of Composite Materials and Adaptive Structures renewable energy water, wind, sun, etc. sufficiency less mobility, less living- room, less etc. how to satisfy

  4. Ultrafast Probes for Dirac Materials Yarotski, Dmitry Anatolievitch...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Science(36) Material Science; topological insulators, ultrafast spectroscopy, graphene Material Science; topological insulators, ultrafast spectroscopy, graphene Abstract...

  5. Collapsed graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    0.1% strain Collapsed graphene Suspended graphene 1. First, 2 gold supports layer sandwiched in between. 2. Graphene is laid across the surface, collapsing and straining the graphene and compleHng the device. Approach I: Crea

  6. Polysaccharide Nanocomposites Reinforced with Graphene Oxide and Keratin-Grafted Graphene Oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polysaccharide Nanocomposites Reinforced with Graphene Oxide and Keratin-Grafted Graphene Oxide, chitosan-starch, and carboxymethyl cellulose-starch reinforced with graphene oxide and graphene grafted with keratin were developed. Composites films had been prepared for the casting/solvent evaporation method

  7. Structural Health Monitoring of Composite Materials Using the Two Dimensional Fast Fourier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nemat-Nasser, Sia

    Structural Health Monitoring of Composite Materials Using the Two Dimensional Fast Fourier. This work is part of an effort to develop smart composite materials that monitor their own health using the health of composite materials. Submitted to: Smart Materials and Structures #12;Structural Health

  8. Nanostructured Materials for Energy Generation and Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khan, Javed Miller

    2012-01-01

    xi Material CharacterizationThermoelectric Materials . . . . . . . . Graphene-Like5 Nanostructured Materials for Electrochemical Energy

  9. Composite slip table of dissimilar materials for damping longitudinal modes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregory, Danny L. (Albuquerque, NM); Priddy, Tommy G. (Albuquerque, NM); Smallwood, David O. (Albuquerque, NM); Woodall, Tommy D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1991-01-01

    A vibration slip table for use in a vibration testing apparatus. The table s comprised of at least three composite layers of material; a first metal layer, a second damping layer, and a third layer having a high acoustic velocity relative to the first layer. The different acoustic velocities between the first and third layers cause relative shear displacements between the layers with the second layer damping the displacements between the first and third layers to reduce the table longitudinal vibration modes.

  10. LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles anchored on graphene nanosheets as high-performance cathode material for lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Binghui; Yin, Qing; Hu, Hengrun; Lu, Fujia [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Xiaolingwei 200, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210094 (China); Xia, Hui, E-mail: xiahui@njust.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Xiaolingwei 200, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210094 (China); Herbert Gleiter Institute of Nanoscience, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China)

    2014-01-15

    Nanocrystalline LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}/graphene nanosheets nanocomposite has been successfully synthesized by a one-step hydrothermal method without post-heat treatment. In the nanocomposite, LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles of 10–30 nm in size are well crystallized and homogeneously anchored on the graphene nanosheets. The graphene nanosheets not only provide a highly conductive matrix for LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles but also effectively reduce the agglomeration of LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. The nanocrystalline LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}/graphene nanosheets nanocomposite exhibited greatly improved electrochemical performance in terms of specific capacity, cycle performance, and rate capability compared with the bare LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. The superior electrochemical performance of the nanocrystalline LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}/graphene nanosheets nanocomposite makes it promising as cathode material for high-performance lithium-ion batteries. - Graphical abstract: Nanocrystalline LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}/graphene nanosheets (GNS) nanocomposite exhibit superior cathode performance for lithium-ion batteries compared to the bare LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. Display Omitted - Highlights: • LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}/graphene nanocomposite is synthesized by a one-step hydrothermal method. • LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles are uniformly anchored on the graphene nanosheets. • The nanocomposite exhibits excellent cathode performance for lithium-ion batteries.

  11. Graphene Attached to Glassy Carbon Surfaces. From Simple Deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    )consider that GC was finally a composite material embedding graphite and fullerenes nano-particles that endow GC with its chemical reactivity. The intensive research on graphene recently reactivated interest for graphite [5] already developed in electrochemistry, not only for energy storage (lithium batteries) [6

  12. Compositions for enhancing hydroysis of cellulosic material by cellulolytic enzyme compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Quinlan, Jason; Xu, Feng; Sweeney, Matthew; Johansen, Katja Salomon

    2014-09-30

    The present invention relates to compositions comprising a GH61 polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and an organic compound comprising a carboxylic acid moiety, a lactone moiety, a phenolic moiety, a flavonoid moiety, or a combination thereof, wherein the combination of the GH61 polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and the organic compound enhances hydrolysis of a cellulosic material by a cellulolytic enzyme compared to the GH61 polypeptide alone or the organic compound alone. The present invention also relates to methods of using the compositions.

  13. Multiscale asymptotic homogenization analysis of thermo-diffusive composite materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Bacigalupo; L. Morini; A. Piccolroaz

    2015-03-31

    In this paper an asymptotic homogenization method for the analysis of composite materials with periodic microstructure in presence of thermodiffusion is described. Appropriate down-scaling relations correlating the microscopic fields to the macroscopic displacements, temperature and mass concentration are introduced. The effects of the material inhomogeneities are described by perturbation functions derived from the solution of recursive cell problems. Exact expressions for the overall elastic and thermodiffusive constants of the equivalent first order thermodiffusive continuum are derived. The proposed approach is applied to the case of a two-dimensional bi-phase orthotropic layered material, where the effective elastic and thermodiffusive properties can be determined analytically. Considering this illustrative example and assuming periodic body forces, heat and mass sources acting on the medium, the solution performed by the first order homogenization approach is compared with the numerical results obtained by the heterogeneous model.

  14. Functionalized Graphene Sheets as Molecular Templates for Controlled Nucleation and Self-Assembly of Metal Oxide-Graphene Nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Xiaolin; Qi, Wen N.; Mei, Donghai; Sushko, Maria L.; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Liu, Jun

    2012-09-25

    Graphene sheets have been extensively studied as a key functional component of graphene-based nanocomposites for electronics, energy, catalysis,and sensing applications. However, fundamental understanding of the interfacial binding and nucleation processes at graphene surfaces remains lacking, and the range of controlled structures that can be produced are limited. Here, by using a combination of theoretical and experimental approaches, we demonstrate that functionalized graphene sheets (FGS) can function as a new class of molecular templates to direct nucleation and self-assembly and produce novel, three-dimensional nanocomposite materials. Two key aspects are demonstrated: First, the functional groups on FGS surface determine the nucleation energy, and thus control the nucleation sites and nucleation density, as well as the preferred crystalline phases. Second, FGS can function as a template to direct the self-assembly of surfactant micelles and produce ordered, mesoporous arrays of crystalline metal oxides and composites.

  15. H-measures and bounds on the e ective properties of composite materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maillot, Hervé

    H-measures and bounds on the e#11;ective properties of composite materials Gr#19;egoire ALLAIRE- ory in the study of e#11;ective properties of two-phase composite materials. The notion of H of composite materials is to characterize the range of e#11;ective (or macroscopic) properties of such mixtures

  16. Composite slip table of dissimilar materials for damping longitudinal modes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregory, D.L.; Priddy, T.G.; Smallwood, D.O.; Woodall, T.D.

    1991-06-18

    A vibration slip table for use in a vibration testing apparatus is disclosed. The tables comprised of at least three composite layers of material; a first metal layer, a second damping layer, and a third layer having a high acoustic velocity relative to the first layer. The different acoustic velocities between the first and third layers cause relative shear displacements between the layers with the second layer damping the displacements between the first and third layers to reduce the table longitudinal vibration modes. 6 figures.

  17. Composite material including nanocrystals and methods of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bawendi, Moungi G.; Sundar, Vikram C.

    2010-04-06

    Temperature-sensing compositions can include an inorganic material, such as a semiconductor nanocrystal. The nanocrystal can be a dependable and accurate indicator of temperature. The intensity of emission of the nanocrystal varies with temperature and can be highly sensitive to surface temperature. The nanocrystals can be processed with a binder to form a matrix, which can be varied by altering the chemical nature of the surface of the nanocrystal. A nanocrystal with a compatibilizing outer layer can be incorporated into a coating formulation and retain its temperature sensitive emissive properties.

  18. Composite material including nanocrystals and methods of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bawendi, Moungi G. (Boston, MA); Sundar, Vikram C. (New York, NY)

    2008-02-05

    Temperature-sensing compositions can include an inorganic material, such as a semiconductor nanocrystal. The nanocrystal can be a dependable and accurate indicator of temperature. The intensity of emission of the nanocrystal varies with temperature and can be highly sensitive to surface temperature. The nanocrystals can be processed with a binder to form a matrix, which can be varied by altering the chemical nature of the surface of the nanocrystal. A nanocrystal with a compatibilizing outer layer can be incorporated into a coating formulation and retain its temperature sensitive emissive properties

  19. Manganese reduction/oxidation reaction on graphene composites as a reversible process for storing enormous energy at a fast rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yanyi; Shi, Shan; Li, Jia; Kang, Feiyu; Wei, Chunguang

    2014-01-01

    Oxygen reduction/evolution reaction (ORR/OER) is a basic process for fuel cells or metal air batteries. However, ORR/OER generally requires noble metal catalysts and suffers from low solubility (10-3 molar per liter) of O2, low kinetics rate (10-6 cm2/s) and low reversibility. We report a manganese reduction/oxidation reaction (MRR/MOR) on graphene/MnO2 composites, delivering a high capacity (4200 mAh/g), fast kinetics (0.0024 cm2/s, three orders higher than ORR/OER), high solubility (three orders than O2), and high reversibility (100%). We further use MRR/MOR to invent a rechargeable manganese ion battery (MIB), which delivers an energy density of 1200 Wh/Kg (several times of lithium ion battery), a fast charge ability (3 minutes), and a long cycle life (10,000 cycles). MRR/MOR renders a new class of energy conversion or storage systems with a very high energy density enabling electric vehicles run much more miles at one charge.

  20. Development and characterization of renewable resource- structural composite materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cutter, Andrea Gillian

    2008-01-01

    recycling of hemp and sisal fibre reinforced polypropylene composites." Polymerrecycling of hemp and sisal fibre reinforced polypropylene composites." Polymer

  1. Development and characterization of renewable resource- structural composite materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cutter, Andrea Gillian

    2008-01-01

    Science and technology." Natural Fibers, Plastics andreinforced plastics?" Composites Science and Technology, 63(reinforced plastics?" Composites Science and Technology, 63(

  2. Bilayer Graphene Gets a Bandgap

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    displacement field is applied to the two layers; the material then behaves like a semiconductor. A team of researchers from Berkeley has engineered a bandgap in bilayer graphene...

  3. New Composite Thermoelectric Materials for Macro-size Applications

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Dresselhaus, Mildred [MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States

    2010-01-08

    A review will be given of several important recent advances in both thermoelectrics research and industrial thermoelectric applications, which have attracted much attention, increasing incentives for developing advanced materials appropriate for large-scale applications of thermoelectric devices. One promising strategy is the development of materials with a dense packing of random nanostructures as a route for the sacle-up of thermoelectrics applications. The concepts involved in designing composite materials containing nanostructures for thermoelectric applications will be discussed in general terms. Specific application is made to the Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} nanocomposite system for use in power generation. Also emphasized are the scientific advantages of the nanocomposite approach for the simultaneous increase in the power factor and decrease of the thermal conductivity, along with the practical advantages of having bulk samples for property measurements and device applications. A straightforward path is identified for the scale-up of thermoelectric materials synthesis containing nanostructured constituents for use in thermoelectric applications. We end with some vision of where the field of thermoelectrics is now heading.

  4. Thermal Conduction in Graphene and Graphene Multilayers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghosh, Suchismita

    2009-01-01

    graphene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .graphene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .image of a typical single-layer graphene (SLG) on Si/SiO 2

  5. Chemically Bonded Phosphorus/Graphene Hybrid as a High Performance Anode for Sodium-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Jiangxuan; Yu, Zhaoxin; Gordin, Mikhail; Hu, Shilin; Yi, Ran; Tang, Duihai; Walter, Timothy; Regula, Michael; Choi, Daiwon; Li, Xiaolin; Manivannan, Ayyakkannu; Wang, Donghai

    2014-11-12

    Room temperature sodium-ion batteries are of great interest for high-energy-density energy storage systems because of low-cost, natural abundance of sodium. Here, we report a novel graphene nanosheets-wrapped phosphorus composite as an anode for high performance sodium-ion batteries though a facile ball-milling of red phosphorus and graphene nanosheets. Not only can the graphene nanosheets significantly improve the electrical conductivity, but they also serve as a buffer layer to accommodate the large volume change of phosphorus in the charge-discharge process. As a result, the graphene wrapped phosphorus composite anode delivers a high reversible capacity of 2077 mAh/g with excellent cycling stability (1700 mAh/g after 60 cycles) and high Coulombic efficiency (>98%). This simple synthesis approach and unique nanostructure can potentially extend to other electrode materials with unstable solid electrolyte interphases in sodium-ion batteries.

  6. Graphene's 3D Counterpart

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    08:59 ALS researchers have discovered a material that is essentially a 3D version of graphene-the 2D sheets of carbon through which electrons race at many times the speed at which...

  7. Multifunctionality and control of the crumpling and unfolding of large-area graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zang, Jianfeng

    Crumpled graphene films are widely used, for instance in electronics, energy storage, composites and biomedicine. Although it is known that the degree of crumpling affects graphene’s properties and the performance of ...

  8. Predicting crack growth in continuous-fiber composite materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cordes, J.A.; Yazici, R.

    1995-12-31

    Pre-notched composite lamina with unidirectional fibers were studied experimentally and using finite element analysis. Experiments were conducted on notched graphite/aluminum and glass/epoxy panels and the results were compared to a finite element method. Under remote tensile loading, cracks in the graphite/aluminum panels propagated perpendicular to the applied load without stable crack growth. In the glass/epoxy panels, crack propagation was initially stable and parallel to the fibers. A nonlinear damage zone method (DZM) was used to predict the crack growth directions, estimate damages, model stable and unstable crack growths, and predict the loads at failure. For both materials, the predicted loads at failure were within 20% of experimental loads.

  9. Development and characterization of renewable resource- structural composite materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cutter, Andrea Gillian

    2008-01-01

    E. (1997). "Agro-Fiber/Thermoplastic Composites." Paper andS. Godavarti. (2005). "Thermoplastic Wood Fiber Composites."processing technique for thermoplastic manufacturing of

  10. On the estimation of the electromagnetic, elastodynamic and piezoelectric properties of homogenized composite materials 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duncan, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    The work in this thesis concerns the estimation of the electromagnetic, elastodynamic and piezoelectric properties of homogenized composite materials (HCMs). A composite may be considered homogeneous if wavelengths are ...

  11. Vibration suppression of laminated composite plates using embedded smart material layers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krishnan, Sivasubramaniam

    2000-01-01

    In this study, a complete theoretical formulation of laminated composite plates with integrated smart material layers that serve as sensors and/or actuators is presented for the vibration suppression of laminated composite plates. The third...

  12. Ultrathin Planar Graphene Supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Jingsong; Meunier, Vincent; Sumpter, Bobby G; Ajayan, Pullikel M; Yoo, Jung Joon; Balakrishnan, Kaushik; Srivastava, Anchal; Conway, Michelle; Reddy, Arava Leela Mohan; Yu, Jin; Vajtai, Robert

    2011-01-01

    With the advent of atomically thin and flat layers of conducting materials such as graphene, new designs for thin film energy storage devices with good performance have become possible. Here, we report an in-plane fabrication approach for ultrathin supercapacitors based on electrodes comprised of pristine graphene and multi-layer reduced graphene oxide. The in-plane design is straightforward to implement and exploits efficiently the surface of each graphene layer for energy storage. The open architecture and the effect of graphene edges enable even the thinnest of devices, made from as grown 1-2 graphene layers, to reach specific capacities up to 80 Fcm-2. While, much higher (394 Fcm-2) specific capacities are observed in case of multi-layered graphene oxide electrodes, owing to the better utilization of the available electrochemical surface area. The performances of devices with pristine as well as thicker graphene based structures are examined using a combination of experiments and model calculations. The demonstrated all solid-state supercapacitors provide a prototype for a broad range of thin-film based energy storage devices.

  13. Preparation and Characterization of Graphene Oxide Paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dikin,D.; Stankovich, S.; Zimney, E.; Piner, R.; Dommett, G.; Evmenenko, G.; Nguyen, S.; Ruoff, R.

    2007-01-01

    Free-standing paper-like or foil-like materials are an integral part of our technological society. Their uses include protective layers, chemical filters, components of electrical batteries or supercapacitors, adhesive layers, electronic or optoelectronic components, and molecular storage. Inorganic 'paper-like' materials based on nanoscale components such as exfoliated vermiculite or mica platelets have been intensively studied and commercialized as protective coatings, high-temperature binders, dielectric barriers and gas-impermeable membranes. Carbon-based flexible graphite foils composed of stacked platelets of expanded graphite have long been used in packing and gasketing applications because of their chemical resistivity against most media, superior sealability over a wide temperature range, and impermeability to fluids. The discovery of carbon nanotubes brought about bucky paper, which displays excellent mechanical and electrical properties that make it potentially suitable for fuel cell and structural composite applications. Here we report the preparation and characterization of graphene oxide paper, a free-standing carbon-based membrane material made by flow-directed assembly of individual graphene oxide sheets. This new material outperforms many other paper-like materials in stiffness and strength. Its combination of macroscopic flexibility and stiffness is a result of a unique interlocking-tile arrangement of the nanoscale graphene oxide sheets.

  14. Lightweight Impact-Resistant Composite Materials: Lessons from Mantis Shrimp

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milliron, Garrett

    2012-01-01

    an optimization, all of the same material property. As materials have a prerequisite for optimization: time, andoptimizations that are required when selecting or engineering materials.

  15. Characterization of thermo-mechanical and long-term behaviors of multi-layered composite materials 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nair, Aravind R.

    2009-06-02

    -rheologically complex materials, in which both stress and temperature affect the time-dependent material response. The multi-layered composites consist of alternating layers of unidirectional fiber (roving) and randomly oriented continuous filament mat. Isothermal creep...

  16. Materials Design from Nonequilibrium Steady States: Driven Graphene as a Tunable Semiconductor with Topological Properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iadecola, Thomas

    Controlling the properties of materials by driving them out of equilibrium is an exciting prospect that has only recently begun to be explored. In this Letter we give a striking theoretical example of such materials design: ...

  17. Estimation of Distributed Parameters in Permittivity Models of Composite Dielectric Materials Using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    such as ceramic matrix composites (CMC's) are currently being studied for their use in a wide rangeEstimation of Distributed Parameters in Permittivity Models of Composite Dielectric Materials Using the feasibility of quantifying properties of a composite dielectric ma- terial through the reflectance, where

  18. Composite material having high thermal conductivity and process for fabricating same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colella, N.J.; Davidson, H.L.; Kerns, J.A.; Makowiecki, D.M.

    1998-07-21

    A process is disclosed for fabricating a composite material such as that having high thermal conductivity and having specific application as a heat sink or heat spreader for high density integrated circuits. The composite material produced by this process has a thermal conductivity between that of diamond and copper, and basically consists of coated diamond particles dispersed in a high conductivity metal, such as copper. The composite material can be fabricated in small or relatively large sizes using inexpensive materials. The process basically consists, for example, of sputter coating diamond powder with several elements, including a carbide forming element and a brazeable material, compacting them into a porous body, and infiltrating the porous body with a suitable braze material, such as copper-silver alloy, thereby producing a dense diamond-copper composite material with a thermal conductivity comparable to synthetic diamond films at a fraction of the cost. 7 figs.

  19. Composite material having high thermal conductivity and process for fabricating same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colella, Nicholas J. (Livermore, CA); Davidson, Howard L. (San Carlos, CA); Kerns, John A. (Livermore, CA); Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A process for fabricating a composite material such as that having high thermal conductivity and having specific application as a heat sink or heat spreader for high density integrated circuits. The composite material produced by this process has a thermal conductivity between that of diamond and copper, and basically consists of coated diamond particles dispersed in a high conductivity metal, such as copper. The composite material can be fabricated in small or relatively large sizes using inexpensive materials. The process basically consists, for example, of sputter coating diamond powder with several elements, including a carbide forming element and a brazeable material, compacting them into a porous body, and infiltrating the porous body with a suitable braze material, such as copper-silver alloy, thereby producing a dense diamond-copper composite material with a thermal conductivity comparable to synthetic diamond films at a fraction of the cost.

  20. GeOx/Reduced Graphene Oxide Composite as an Anode for Li-ion Batteries: Enhanced Capacity via Reversible Utilization of Li2O along with Improved Rate Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lv, Dongping; Gordin, Mikhail; Yi, Ran; Xu, Terrence (Tianren); Song, Jiangxuan; Jiang, Yingbing; Choi, Daiwon; Wang, Donghai

    2014-09-01

    A self-assembled GeOx/reduced graphene oxide (GeOx/RGO) composite, where GeOx nanoparticles were grown directly on reduced graphene oxide sheets, was synthesized via a facile one-step reduction approach and studied by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy elemental mapping, and other techniques. Electrochemical evaluation indicates that incorporation of reduced graphene oxide enhances both the rate capability and reversible capacity of GeOx, with the latter being due to the RGO enabling reversible utilization of Li2O. The composite delivers a high reversible capacity of 1600 mAhg-1 at a current density of 100 mAg-1, and still maintains a capacity of 410 mAhg-1 at a high current density of 20 Ag-1. Owing to the flexible reduced graphene oxide sheets enwrapping the GeOx particles, the cycling stability of the composite was also improved significantly. To further demonstrate its feasibility in practical applications, the synthesized GeOx/RGO composite anode was successfully paired with a high voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode to form a full cell, which showed good cycling and rate performance.

  1. Surface composites: A new class of engineered materials Rajiv Singh and James Fitz-Gerald

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhigilei, Leonid V.

    applications, are generally com- posed of ceramic, metal, or polymeric matrix with a dispersed second phaseSurface composites: A new class of engineered materials Rajiv Singh and James Fitz component, a new class of engineered materials termed "surface composites" has been developed

  2. Seminar -4. letnik Landau Levels in Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramsak, Anton

    Seminar - 4. letnik Landau Levels in Graphene Author: Zala Lenarcic Mentor: prof. Anton Ramsak Ljubljana, December 2010 Abstract In this seminar I present graphene, a new material with promising to graphene's unusual energy dispersion. I will derive Landau levels for standard electrons, for electrons

  3. Graphene-enabled Wireless Communication Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

    Graphene-enabled Wireless Communication Networks at the Nanoscale 1 Ignacio Llatser Nanonetworking;Graphene Honeycomb lattice of carbon atoms 2-dimensional material Discovered by A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov 9 Graphene G. Liu, W. Stillman, S. Rumyantsev, Q. Shao, M. Shur, A. A. Balandin, "Low

  4. Crumpled graphene: Conductive inks made by startup company Vorbeck

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aksay, Ilhan A.

    Crumpled graphene: Conductive inks made by startup company Vorbeck Materials contain crumpled graphene. This atomic-force microscope image is colorized to show the topography of a piece of graphene Technology Review in English | en Español | auf Deutsch | in Italiano | Bringing Graphene to Market

  5. UCSB Materials Colloquium 4/16/2010 Compositional tuning of functional inorganic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bigelow, Stephen

    ://www.mrl.ucsb.edu/~seshadri +++ seshadri@mrl.ucsb.edu #12;UCSB Materials Colloquium 4/16/2010 Overview: Strategies for new functional materials 1. Make a material (new structure, new composition...) that displays the function sought (eg. Hg Ouyang support: NSF-IGERT, Department of Energy #12;UCSB Materials Colloquium 4/16/2010 Research group

  6. The effects of fiber waviness on the compressive response of fiber reinforced composite materials 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, John Jerome

    1989-01-01

    mathematical models, based on Euler- Bernoulli beams supported by elastic matrix layers, are developed for predicting the compressive behavior of composites with some initial waviness. The models include several single fiber models and one series of fibers... stability for the long slender fibers. Considerable effort has been spent studying the compressive response of composite materials, and the research presented herein focuses on the behavior of composite materials under compressive loads. Fiber waviness...

  7. Production and characterization of a composite insulation material from waste polyethylene teraphtalates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtulmus, Erhan; Karaboyac?, Mustafa; Yigitarslan, Sibel

    2013-12-16

    The pollution of polyethylene teraphtalate (PET) is in huge amounts due to the most widely usage as a packaging material in several industries. Regional pumice has several desirable characteristics such as porous structure, low-cost and light-weight. Considering the requirements approved by the Ministry of Public Works on isolation, composite insulation material consisting of PET and pumice was studied. Sheets of composites differing both in particle size of pumice and composition of polymer were produced by hot-molding technique. Characterization of new composite material was achieved by measuring its weight, density, flammability, endurance against both to common acids and bases, and to a force applied, heat insulation and water adsorption capacity. The results of the study showed that produced composite material is an alternative building material due to its desirable characteristics; low weight, capability of low heat conduction.

  8. The Development of Low-Cost Integrated Composite Seal for SOFC: Materials and Design Methodologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xinyu Huang; Kristoffer Ridgeway; Srivatsan Narasimhan; Serg Timin; Wei Huang; Didem Ozevin; Ken Reifsnider

    2006-07-31

    This report summarizes the work conducted by UConn SOFC seal development team during the Phase I program and no cost extension. The work included composite seal sample fabrication, materials characterizations, leak testing, mechanical strength testing, chemical stability study and acoustic-based diagnostic methods. Materials characterization work revealed a set of attractive material properties including low bulk permeability, high electrical resistivity, good mechanical robustness. Composite seal samples made of a number of glasses and metallic fillers were tested for sealing performance under steady state and thermal cycling conditions. Mechanical testing included static strength (pull out) and interfacial fracture toughness measurements. Chemically stability study evaluated composite seal material stability after aging at 800 C for 168 hrs. Acoustic based diagnostic test was conducted to help detect and understand the micro-cracking processes during thermal cycling test. The composite seal concept was successfully demonstrated and a set of material (coating composition & fillers) were identified to have excellent thermal cycling performance.

  9. Durable polymer-aerogel based superhydrophobic coatings, a composite material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kissel, David J; Brinker, Charles Jeffrey

    2014-03-04

    Provided are polymer-aerogel composite coatings, devices and articles including polymer-aerogel composite coatings, and methods for preparing the polymer-aerogel composite. The exemplary article can include a surface, wherein the surface includes at least one region and a polymer-aerogel composite coating disposed over the at least one region, wherein the polymer-aerogel composite coating has a water contact angle of at least about 140.degree. and a contact angle hysteresis of less than about 1.degree.. The polymer-aerogel composite coating can include a polymer and an ultra high water content catalyzed polysilicate aerogel, the polysilicate aerogel including a three dimensional network of silica particles having surface functional groups derivatized with a silylating agent and a plurality of pores.

  10. Disorder-free sputtering method on graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qiu Xue Peng; Shin Young Jun; Niu Jing; Kulothungasagaran, Narayanapillai; Kalon, Gopinadhan; Yang, Hyunsoo; Qiu Caiyu; Yu Ting

    2012-09-15

    Deposition of various materials onto graphene without causing any disorder is highly desirable for graphene applications. Especially, sputtering is a versatile technique to deposit various metals and insulators for spintronics, and indium tin oxide to make transparent devices. However, the sputtering process causes damage to graphene because of high energy sputtered atoms. By flipping the substrate and using a high Ar pressure, we demonstrate that the level of damage to graphene can be reduced or eliminated in dc, rf, and reactive sputtering processes.

  11. Activated carbon fiber composite material and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burchell, Timothy D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Weaver, Charles E. (Knoxville, TN); Chilcoat, Bill R. (Knoxville, TN); Derbyshire, Frank (Lexington, KY); Jagtoyen, Marit (Lexington, KY)

    2001-01-01

    An activated carbon fiber composite for separation and purification, or catalytic processing of fluids is described. The activated composite comprises carbon fibers rigidly bonded to form an open, permeable, rigid monolith capable of being formed to near-net-shape. Separation and purification of gases are effected by means of a controlled pore structure that is developed in the carbon fibers contained in the composite. The open, permeable structure allows the free flow of gases through the monolith accompanied by high rates of adsorption. By modification of the pore structure and bulk density the composite can be rendered suitable for applications such as gas storage, catalysis, and liquid phase processing.

  12. Activated carbon fiber composite material and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burchell, Timothy D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Weaver, Charles E. (Knoxville, TN); Chilcoat, Bill R. (Knoxville, TN); Derbyshire, Frank (Lexington, KY); Jagtoyen, Marit (Lexington, KY)

    2000-01-01

    An activated carbon fiber composite for separation and purification, or catalytic processing of fluids is described. The activated composite comprises carbon fibers rigidly bonded to form an open, permeable, rigid monolith capable of being formed to near-net-shape. Separation and purification of gases are effected by means of a controlled pore structure that is developed in the carbon fibers contained in the composite. The open, permeable structure allows the free flow of gases through the monolith accompanied by high rates of adsorption. By modification of the pore structure and bulk density the composite can be rendered suitable for applications such as gas storage, catalysis, and liquid phase processing.

  13. Graphene-based Material Systems for Nanoelectronics and Energy Storage Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Shirui

    2012-01-01

    conductive paper for energy-storage devices" Proceedings ofChemical Capacitive Energy Storage" Advanced Materials 2011,conductive paper for energy-storage devices" Proceedings of

  14. Foam composition for treating asbestos-containing materials and method of using same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Block, J.; Krupkin, N.V.; Kuespert, D.R.; Nishioka, G.M.; Lau, J.W.K.; Palmer, N.I.

    1998-04-28

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed. The composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of an acid component, at least about 0.1% by weight of a source of fluoride ions, and a stable foam forming amount of a foaming agent system having both cationic and non-ionic functionality. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition in the form of a foam also disclosed.

  15. Nano-scaled graphene platelets with a high length-to-width aspect ratio

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhamu, Aruna (Centerville, OH); Guo, Jiusheng (Centerville, OH); Jang, Bor Z. (Centerville, OH)

    2010-09-07

    This invention provides a nano-scaled graphene platelet (NGP) having a thickness no greater than 100 nm and a length-to-width ratio no less than 3 (preferably greater than 10). The NGP with a high length-to-width ratio can be prepared by using a method comprising (a) intercalating a carbon fiber or graphite fiber with an intercalate to form an intercalated fiber; (b) exfoliating the intercalated fiber to obtain an exfoliated fiber comprising graphene sheets or flakes; and (c) separating the graphene sheets or flakes to obtain nano-scaled graphene platelets. The invention also provides a nanocomposite material comprising an NGP with a high length-to-width ratio. Such a nanocomposite can become electrically conductive with a small weight fraction of NGPs. Conductive composites are particularly useful for shielding of sensitive electronic equipment against electromagnetic interference (EMI) or radio frequency interference (RFI), and for electrostatic charge dissipation.

  16. Optimal Three-Material Wheel Assemblage of Conducting and Elastic Composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrej Cherkaev

    2011-05-22

    We describe a new type of three material microstructures which we call wheel assemblages, that correspond to extremal conductivity and extremal bulk modulus for a composite made of two materials and an ideal material. The exact lower bounds for effective conductivity and matching laminates was found in (Cherkaev, 2009) and for anisotropic composites, in (Cherkaev, Zhang, 2011). Here, we show different optimal structures that generalize the classical Hashin-Shtrikman coated spheres (circles). They consist of circular inclusions which contain a solid central circle (hub) and radial spikes in a surrounding annulus, and (for larger volume fractions of the best material) an annulus filled with it. The same wheel assemblages are optimal for the pair of dual problems of minimal conductivity (resistivity) of a composite made from two materials and an ideal conductor (insulator), in the problem of maximal effective bulk modulus of elastic composites made from two linear elastic material and void, and the dual minimum problem.

  17. Microstructural Characterization of Material Properties and Damage in Asphalt Composites 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohammad Khorasani, Sara

    2013-05-03

    Asphalt composites are used to construct 90% of roads in the United States. These composites consist of asphalt binder, which is a product of the refinery process of oil, aggregates, and air voids. Fatigue cracking is one of the most important...

  18. Composite materials comprising two jonal functions and methods for making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fareed, Ali Syed (Newark, DE); Garnier, John Edward (Newark, DE); Schiroky, Gerhard Hans (Newark, DE); Kennedy, Christopher Robin (Newark, DE); Sonuparlak, Birol (Longmont, CO)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention generally relates to mechanisms for preventing undesirable oxidation (i.e., oxidation protection mechanisms) in composite bodies. The oxidation protection mechanisms include getterer materials which are added to the composite body which gather or scavenge undesirable oxidants which may enter the composite body. The getterer materials may be placed into at least a portion of the composite body such that any undesirable oxidant approaching, for example, a fiber reinforcement, would be scavenged by (e.g., reacted with) the getterer. The getterer materials) may form at least one compound which acts as a passivation layer, and/or is able to move by bulk transport (e.g., by viscous flow as a glassy material) to a crack, and sealing the crack, thereby further enhancing the oxidation protection of the composite body. One or more ceramic filler materials which serve as reinforcements may have a plurality of super-imposed coatings thereon, at least one of which coatings may function as or contain an oxidation protection mechanism. Specifically, a coating comprising boron nitride which has been engineered or modified to contain some silicon exhibits improved corrosion resistance, specifically to oxygen and moisture. The coated materials may be useful as reinforcing materials in high performance composites to provide improved mechanical properties such as fracture toughness. The present invention also relates to improved composites which incorporate these materials, and to their methods of manufacture.

  19. Boron cage compound materials and composites for shielding and absorbing neutrons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bowen, III, Daniel E; Eastwood, Eric A

    2014-03-04

    Boron cage compound-containing materials for shielding and absorbing neutrons. The materials include BCC-containing composites and compounds. BCC-containing compounds comprise a host polymer and a BCC attached thereto. BCC-containing composites comprise a mixture of a polymer matrix and a BCC filler. The BCC-containing materials can be used to form numerous articles of manufacture for shielding and absorbing neutrons.

  20. Graphene oxide oxidizes stannous ions to synthesize tin sulfidegraphene nanocomposites with small crystal size for high performance lithium ion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    Graphene oxide oxidizes stannous ions to synthesize tin sulfide­graphene nanocomposites with small September 2012 DOI: 10.1039/c2jm34864k This study reports a novel strategy of preparing graphene composites by employing graphene oxide as precursor and oxidizer. It is demonstrated that graphene oxide can oxidize

  1. Graphene aerogels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pauzauskie, Peter J; Worsley, Marcus A; Baumann, Theodore F; Satcher, Jr., Joe H; Biener, Juergen

    2015-03-31

    Graphene aerogels with high conductivity and surface areas including a method for making a graphene aerogel, including the following steps: (1) preparing a reaction mixture comprising a graphene oxide suspension and at least one catalyst; (2) curing the reaction mixture to produce a wet gel; (3) drying the wet gel to produce a dry gel; and (4) pyrolyzing the dry gel to produce a graphene aerogel. Applications include electrical energy storage including batteries and supercapacitors.

  2. Advanced Fibers and Nanocomposites Georgia Tech has a rich tradition of excellence in composite materials and structures, and is an

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nair, Sankar

    nanomanufacturing, integrated computational composite materials engineering, and smart composites through integrated to bridge the gap from research to practical applications. Such technologies include fire & smoke retardant carbon nanotube buckypaper, smart composites with embedded, non-invasive strain gauges and temperature

  3. Cleaning graphene with a titanium sacrificial layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joiner, C. A., E-mail: cjoiner3@gatech.edu; Roy, T.; Hesabi, Z. R.; Vogel, E. M. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Chakrabarti, B. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)

    2014-06-02

    Graphene is a promising material for future electronic applications and chemical vapor deposition of graphene on copper is a promising method for synthesizing graphene on the wafer scale. The processing of such graphene films into electronic devices introduces a variety of contaminants which can be difficult to remove. An approach to cleaning residues from the graphene channel is presented in which a thin layer of titanium is deposited via thermal e-beam evaporation and immediately removed. This procedure does not damage the graphene as evidenced by Raman spectroscopy, greatly enhances the electrical performance of the fabricated graphene field effect transistors, and completely removes the chemical residues from the surface of the graphene channel as evidenced by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  4. Study of polypyrrole graphite composite as anode material for secondary lithium-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popov, Branko N.

    Study of polypyrrole graphite composite as anode material for secondary lithium-ion batteries; Irreversible capacity; Anode material; Lithium-ion batteries 1. Introduction To ensure long cycle life for the Li-ion battery. Of various carbon materials that have been tried, graphite is favored because it (i

  5. Nonlinear optical response of layered composite materials Russell J. Gehr,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyd, Robert W.

    is to search for materials, or to synthesize new materials, that pos- sess these desirable attributesNonlinear optical response of layered composite materials Russell J. Gehr,1 George L. Fischer,2 Robert W. Boyd,1 and J. E. Sipe3 1 Institute of Optics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York

  6. Washington: Graphene Nanostructures for Lithium Batteries Recieves...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Incorporating graphene, a team of scientists at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Vorbeck Materials Corporation, and Princeton University have developed a nanocomposite...

  7. Carbon sp2-on-sp3 Technology: Graphene-on-Diamond Devices and Interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Jie

    2012-01-01

    semiconductor materials and carbon materials.5 1.2 2D peak features for different layer of graphene..

  8. J. F. Mandell, D. D. Samborsky, and H. J. Sutherland, "Effects of Materials Parameters and Design Details on the Fatigue of Composite Materials for Wind Turbine Blades", 1999

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. F. Mandell, D. D. Samborsky, and H. J. Sutherland, "Effects of Materials Parameters and Design Details on the Fatigue of Composite Materials for Wind Turbine Blades", 1999 EWEC, Nice, France, March 1-5, 1999. Effects of Materials Parameters and Design Details on the Fatigue of Composite Materials for Wind

  9. Improved method and composition for immobilization of waste in cement-based material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tallent, O.K.; Dodson, K.E.; McDaniel, E.W.

    1987-10-01

    A composition and method for fixation or immobilization of aqueous hazardous waste material in cement-based materials (grout) is disclosed. The amount of drainable water in the cured grout is reduced by the addition of an ionic aluminum compound to either the waste material or the mixture of waste material and dry-solid cement- based material. This reduction in drainable water in the cured grout obviates the need for large, expensive amounts of gelling clays in grout materials and also results in improved consistency and properties of these cement-based waste disposal materials.

  10. ,"SNL/MSU/DOE COMPOSITE MATERIAL FATIGUE DATABASE"

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in terms of the sequence through the thickness of individual ply orientation. Many infusion " ,"fabrics contain parallel aligned strands on one face and backing material (mat or...

  11. Development and characterization of renewable resource- structural composite materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cutter, Andrea Gillian

    2008-01-01

    the automotive industry…………………………………………………. ………. ……..……..materials in the automotive industry. There are severalbiocomposite in the automotive industry [3,7,18,30,159]. In

  12. ARRA Material Handling Equipment Composite Data Products: Data Through Quarter 4 of 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, J.; Sprik, S.; Ainscough, C.; Saur, G.; Post, M.; Peters, M.; Ramsden, T.

    2013-05-01

    This presentation from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory includes American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) fuel cell material handling equipment composite data products for data through the fourth quarter of 2012.

  13. ARRA Material Handling Equipment Composite Data Products: Data through Quarter 2 of 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, J.; Sprik, S.; Ramsden, T.; Ainscough, C.; Saur, G.

    2012-10-01

    This presentation from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory includes American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) fuel cell material handling equipment composite data products for data through the second quarter of 2012.

  14. Manufacturing and fracture of hierarchical composite materials enhanced with aligned carbon nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wicks, Sunny S

    2014-01-01

    Hierarchical advanced composite structures comprised of both nano- and micro-scale fibers are currently being studied as next-generation materials for multifunctional aerospace applications. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are an ...

  15. ARRA Material Handling Equipment Composite Data Products: Data through Quarter 2 of 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, J.; Sprik, S.; Ainscough, C.; Saur, G.; Post, M.; Peters, M.

    2013-11-01

    This report includes 47 composite data products (CDPs) produced for American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) fuel cell material handling equipment, with data through the second quarter of 2013.

  16. Effective properties of three-phase electro-magneto-elastic multifunctional composite materials 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jae Sang

    2005-02-17

    -phase composite in which E and B are coupled by directly bonding two ceramic materials with no compliant matrix. A finite element analysis and homogenization of a representative volume element is performed to determine the effective electric, magnetic, mechanical...

  17. ARRA Material Handling Equipment Composite Data Products: Data Through Quarter 4 of 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, J.; Sprik, S.; Peters, M.

    2014-06-01

    This report includes 47 composite data products (CDPs) produced for American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) fuel cell material handling equipment, with data through the fourth quarter of 2013.

  18. Investigation of cork as filler for fiber-reinforced composite material in kayaks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeh, Chihjiun Connie

    2008-01-01

    This project is a continuation in the investigation of ways in which cork can be incorporated into composite material for boats and kayaks without significant performance losses. Fiberglass lay-ups (cloth, mat, and epoxy) ...

  19. The effect of inhibitors on material and mechanical properties of oxidized carbon-carbon composites 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elliott, Charles Howard

    1995-01-01

    approach examines the importance of fatigue crack formation due to expansion and contraction. Mass loss and material property degradation is assessed with subsequent exploratory nondestructive testing of rheometry and piezoelectric ultrasonic composite...

  20. Piezoelectric-based in-situ damage detection of composite materials for structural health monitoring systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kessler, Seth Stovack, 1977-

    2002-01-01

    Cost-effective and reliable damage detection is critical for the utilization of composite materials. This thesis presents the conclusions of an analytical and experimental survey of candidate methods for in-situ damage ...

  1. Nonlinear viscoelastic characterization of AS-3502 graphite/epoxy composite material 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kerstetter, Michael Scott

    1980-01-01

    NONLINEAR VISCOELASTIC CHARACTERIZATION OF AS-3502 GRAPHITE/EPOXY COMPOSITE MATERIAL A Thesis MICHAEL SCOTT KERSTETTER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1980 Major Subject: Aerospace Engineering NONLINEAR VISCOELASTIC CHARACTERIZATION OF AS-3502 GRAPHITE/EPOXY COMPOSITE MATERIAL A Thesis by MICHAEL SCOTT KERSTETTER Approved as to style and content by: Dr. Kenneth L...

  2. Tunable Electrochemical Properties of Fluorinated Graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meduri, Praveen; Chen, Honghao; Xiao, Jie; Martinez, Jayson J.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Zhang, Jiguang; Deng, Zhiqun

    2013-06-18

    The structural and electrochemical properties of fluorinated graphene have been investigated by using a series of graphene fluorides (CFx, x=0.47, 0.66, 0.89). Fluorinated graphene exhibited high capacity retentions of 75-81% of theoretical capacity at moderate rates as cathode materials for primary lithium batteries. Specifically, CF0.47 maintained a capacity of 356 mAhg-1 at a 5C rate, superior to that of traditional fluorinated graphite. The discharged graphene fluorides also provide an electrochemical tool to probe the chemical bonding on the parent graphene substrate.

  3. Surface functionalization of graphene devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Xu, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01

    Graphene, a zero-gap semiconductor with massless charge carriers, is emerging as an amazing material for future electronics, due to its outstanding electrical and mechanical performances. However, the lack of a bandgap ...

  4. Composite materials and bodies including silicon carbide and titanium diboride and methods of forming same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lillo, Thomas M.; Chu, Henry S.; Harrison, William M.; Bailey, Derek

    2013-01-22

    Methods of forming composite materials include coating particles of titanium dioxide with a substance including boron (e.g., boron carbide) and a substance including carbon, and reacting the titanium dioxide with the substance including boron and the substance including carbon to form titanium diboride. The methods may be used to form ceramic composite bodies and materials, such as, for example, a ceramic composite body or material including silicon carbide and titanium diboride. Such bodies and materials may be used as armor bodies and armor materials. Such methods may include forming a green body and sintering the green body to a desirable final density. Green bodies formed in accordance with such methods may include particles comprising titanium dioxide and a coating at least partially covering exterior surfaces thereof, the coating comprising a substance including boron (e.g., boron carbide) and a substance including carbon.

  5. List of Journal Publications (updated April 2014) R. Justin, B. Chen*: Strong and conductive polymer-reduced graphene oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ojovan, Michael

    -treated clay-elastomer composites with water-responsive mechanically dynamic properties. Journal of PolymerList of Journal Publications (updated April 2014) · R. Justin, B. Chen*: Strong and conductive polymer-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites for transdermal drug deliveyr. Journal of Materials

  6. Fluorescent single walled nanotube/silica composite materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dattelbaum, Andrew M.; Gupta, Gautam; Duque, Juan G.; Doorn, Stephen K.; Hamilton, Christopher E.; DeFriend Obrey, Kimberly A.

    2013-03-12

    Fluorescent composites of surfactant-wrapped single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were prepared by exposing suspensions of surfactant-wrapped carbon nanotubes to tetramethylorthosilicate (TMOS) vapor. Sodium deoxycholate (DOC) and sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS) were the surfactants. No loss in emission intensity was observed when the suspension of DOC-wrapped SWNTs were exposed to the TMOS vapors, but about a 50% decrease in the emission signal was observed from the SDS-wrapped SWNTs nanotubes. The decrease in emission was minimal by buffering the SDS/SWNT suspension prior to forming the composite. Fluorescent xerogels were prepared by adding glycerol to the SWNT suspensions prior to TMOS vapor exposure, followed by drying the gels. Fluorescent aerogels were prepared by replacing water in the gels with methanol and then exposing them to supercritical fluid drying conditions. The aerogels can be used for gas sensing.

  7. Aqueous processing of composite lithium ion electrode material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Jianlin; Armstrong, Beth L; Daniel, Claus; Wood, III, David L

    2015-02-17

    A method of making a battery electrode includes the steps of dispersing an active electrode material and a conductive additive in water with at least one dispersant to create a mixed dispersion; treating a surface of a current collector to raise the surface energy of the surface to at least the surface tension of the mixed dispersion; depositing the dispersed active electrode material and conductive additive on a current collector; and heating the coated surface to remove water from the coating.

  8. Synthesis and characterizations of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide nanosheets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkanna, M., E-mail: venkanna.pcu@gmail.com; Chakraborty, Amit K., E-mail: venkanna.pcu@gmail.com [Carbon Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Durgapur, M.G. Avenue, Durgapur - 713209 (India)

    2014-04-24

    Interest in graphene on its excellent mechanical, electrical, thermal and optical properties, it’s very high specific surface area, and our ability to influence these properties through chemical functionalization. Chemical reduction of graphene oxide is one of the main routes of preparation for large quantities of graphenes. Hydrazine hydrate used as reducing agent to prepare for the reduced graphene oxide (RGO). There are a number of methods for generating graphene and chemically modified graphene from natural graphite flakes, graphite derivative (such as graphite oxide) and graphite interaction compounds (i.e. expandable graphite). Here we review the use of colloidal suspensions of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) with large scalable, and is adaptable to a wide variety of applications. The graphene oxide (GO) and the reduced material (RGO) were characterized by XRD, UV-Vis spectroscopy, Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), Raman spectroscopy and Field emission Scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) etc.

  9. Titania-graphene anode electrode paper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Jun; Choi, Daiwon; Bennett, Wendy D.; Graff, Gordon L.; Shin, Yongsoon

    2015-05-26

    A method for forming a nanocomposite material, the nanocomposite material formed thereby, and a battery made using the nanocomposite material. Metal oxide and graphene are placed in a solvent to form a suspension. The suspension is then applied to a current collector. The solvent is then evaporated to form a nanocomposite material. The nanocomposite material is then electrochemically cycled to form a nanocomposite material of at least one metal oxide in electrical communication with at least one graphene layer.

  10. Titania-graphene anode electrode paper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Jun; Choi, Daiwon; Bennett, Wendy D; Graff, Gordon L; Shin, Yongsoon

    2013-10-15

    A method for forming a nanocomposite material, the nanocomposite material formed thereby, and a battery made using the nanocomposite material. Metal oxide and graphene are placed in a solvent to form a suspension. The suspension is then applied to a current collector. The solvent is then evaporated to form a nanocomposite material. The nanocomposite material is then electrochemically cycled to form a nanocomposite material of at least one metal oxide in electrical communication with at least one graphene layer.

  11. Multi-scale mechanics of monolayer graphene membranes : elasticity, fracture, and mechanochemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Sandeep, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2015-01-01

    Graphene, owing to its remarkable material properties, is considered as an ideal material for a broad range of nano-scale applications. The performance of any graphene-based device would depend upon the material's response ...

  12. Multi-objective Optimization of Geometric Dimensions and Material Composition of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vel, Senthil

    Multi-objective Optimization of Geometric Dimensions and Material Composition of Functionally optimization of a metal/metal functionally graded material active cooling component. The plane stress transient-objective genetic algorithm optimization procedure is used to determine the optimal volume fraction distribution

  13. Multi-objective optimization of composite materials with negative Poisson ratio along

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lisbon, University of

    Multi-objective optimization of composite materials with negative Poisson ratio along several://cmaf.ptmat.fc.ul.pt/preprints.html {amtan,barbaros}@ptmat.fc.ul.pt July 17, 2013 Abstract The goal of this paper is the optimization-called auxetic materials) using shape and/or topology variations in the model hole. In previous works of the same

  14. Nanotube composite anode materials improve lithium-ion battery performance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shinesSolar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Find More LikeNanotube Composite

  15. Shanghai Yuke Composite Material Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop Inc JumpHeter Battery Technology Co Ltd Jump to:TechnicalShennengYuke Composite

  16. Vertical graphene base transistor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    M. Baus, and H. Kurz, “A graphene ?eld-effect device,” IEEERooks, and P. Avouris, “Graphene nano- ribbon electronics,”High-frequency, scaled graphene transistors on diamond- like

  17. Noncommutative Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Bastos; O. Bertolami; N. Dias; J. Prata

    2012-07-24

    We consider a noncommutative description of graphene. This description consists of a Dirac equation for massless Dirac fermions plus noncommutative corrections, which are treated in the presence of an external magnetic field. We argue that, being a two-dimensional Dirac system, graphene is particularly interesting to test noncommutativity. We find that momentum noncommutativity affects the energy levels of graphene, but that it does not entail any kind of correction to the Hall conductivity.

  18. Active, polymer-based composite material implementing simple shear 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Sang Jin

    2009-05-15

    , Dr. Terry S. Creasy. vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This material is based upon work supported by DARPA and the U.S. Army Research, Development and Engineering Command under contract W911 W6-04-C... of Shear Actuator .................................................................46 3.3.1 Mold design and CNC machining.............................................47 3.3.2 Assembly...

  19. THERMAL PREDICTIONS OF NEW COMPOSITE MATERIAL DURING INPILE TESTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donna Post Guillen; W. David Swank; Heng Ban; Kurt Harris; Adam Zabriskie

    2011-09-01

    An inpile experiment is currently underway wherein specimens comprised of a newly developed material are being irradiated at Idaho National Laboratory's Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) in conjunction with Utah State University under the auspices of the ATR National Scientific User Facility. This paper provides the thermophysical properties of this new material measured prior to irradiation. After the irradiation campaign is complete, the thermophysical properties of the specimens will be measured and compared to the preirradiation values. A finite-element model was constructed to predict bounding specimen temperatures during irradiation. Results from the thermal hydraulic modeling, including the steady-state temperatures of the specimens within sealed capsules, are presented. After the irradiation campaign is completed, best-estimate thermal predictions will be performed for the individual specimens using the actual as-run irradiation power levels.

  20. Quantitative evaluation of material composition of composites using x-ray energy-dispersive NDE technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ting, J.

    1993-09-01

    This technique worked well for determining the thickness and densities for composite components having the higher linear attenuation coefficient; it accurately determined thickness of epoxy-resin and Al metal, and the denisty of bone, to {le} 4% in the graphite-epoxy, bone-plexiglas, and Al-Al corrosion composites. Accuracy is dictated by the magnitude and uncertainty of the linear attenuation coefficient. Use of Ge detector and multichannel analyzer are limited by inspection time (1 day for point measurement) and access limitation. Immediate development of a rapid in-service inspection tool is limited by the amplifier and MCA systems. The MCA should be replaced with a single-channel analyzer, and an electronic device should be built for monitoring the incoming signal for Pile-Up-Rejection.

  1. Nanoscale friction properties of graphene and graphene oxide...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale friction properties of graphene and graphene oxide Title Nanoscale friction properties of graphene and graphene oxide Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication...

  2. Blue fluorescent organic light emitting diodes with multilayered graphene anode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hwang, Joohyun [OLED Lighting Research Team, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of)] [OLED Lighting Research Team, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hong Kyw [Graphene Electronics Creative Research Section, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of)] [Graphene Electronics Creative Research Section, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Jaehyun; Shin, Jin-Wook; Joo, Chul Woong; Han, Jun-Han; Cho, Doo-Hee; Huh, Jin Woo [OLED Lighting Research Team, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of)] [OLED Lighting Research Team, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Sung-Yool [Graphene Electronics Creative Research Section, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of)] [Graphene Electronics Creative Research Section, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong-Ik, E-mail: jiklee@etri.re.kr [OLED Lighting Research Team, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of)] [OLED Lighting Research Team, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); Chu, Hye Yong [OLED Lighting Research Team, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of)] [OLED Lighting Research Team, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    As an innovative anode for organic light emitting devices (OLEDs), we have investigated graphene films. Graphene has importance due to its huge potential in flexible OLED applications. In this work, graphene films have been catalytically grown and transferred to the glass substrate for OLED fabrications. We have successfully fabricated 2 mm × 2 mm device area blue fluorescent OLEDs with graphene anodes which showed 2.1% of external quantum efficiency at 1000 cd/m{sup 2}. This is the highest value reported among fluorescent OLEDs using graphene anodes. Oxygen plasma treatment on graphene has been found to improve hole injections in low voltage regime, which has been interpreted as oxygen plasma induced work function modification. However, plasma treatment also increases the sheet resistance of graphene, limiting the maximum luminance. In summary, our works demonstrate the practical possibility of graphene as an anode material for OLEDs and suggest a processing route which can be applied to various graphene related devices.

  3. Bending response of 3-D woven and braided preform composite materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pochiraju, K.; Parvizi-Majidi, A.; Chou, T.W.; Shah, B.

    1994-12-31

    Three dimensional textile carbon-epoxy composites exhibit general anisotropy. Further, these materials may possess different modulus in uniaxial tension than that in compression. In an earlier material characterization effort, the tension, compression, and shear properties of these composites were determined. In this paper, theoretical modeling of flexure of the textile composites and experimental correlation are presented. Four point bending tests were conducted according to STM D709 standards to determine the load to mid-span deflection relationships for typical textile composites. The results of experimental analysis are compared with classical beam theory, theory of elasticity solutions considering material orthotropy and shear deflection, and finite element analysis considering material orthotropy and finite deformation/rotations. The derivation of a harmonic function, required for the theory of elasticity solution, is described in the paper. Homogeneous orthotropic elastic properties are assumed for the 3-D textile composites, which is a reasonable approximation for specimens considerably larger than the repeated geometric unit of the fiber preform. The so called ``flex modulus`` is determined from the experimental data.

  4. Raman Nanometrology of Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calizo, Irene Gonzales

    2009-01-01

    13 Optical image of the graphene layers. . . . . .Micro-Raman Spectroscopy of Grapheneand Graphene Multi-Layers . . . . Raman Spectroscopy

  5. Structural properties of laminated Douglas fir/epoxy composite material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spera, D.A. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, OH (USA). Lewis Research Center) [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, OH (USA). Lewis Research Center; Esgar, J.B. (Sverdrup Technology, Inc., Cleveland, OH (USA)) [Sverdrup Technology, Inc., Cleveland, OH (USA); Gougeon, M.; Zuteck, M.D. (Gougeon Bros., Bay City, MI (USA)) [Gougeon Bros., Bay City, MI (USA)

    1990-05-01

    This publication contains a compilation of static and fatigue and strength data for laminated-wood material made from Douglas fir and epoxy. Results of tests conducted by several organizations are correlated to provide insight into the effects of variables such as moisture, size, lamina-to-lamina joint design, wood veneer grade, and the ratio of cyclic stress to steady stress during fatigue testing. These test data were originally obtained during development of wood rotor blades for large-scale wind turbines of the horizontal-axis (propeller) configuration. Most of the strength property data in this compilation are not found in the published literature. Test sections ranged from round cylinders 2.25 in. in diameter to rectangular slabs 6 in. by 24 in. in cross section and approximately 30 ft long. All specimens were made from Douglas fir veneers 0.10 in. thick, bonded together with the WEST epoxy system developed for fabrication and repair of wood boats. Loading was usually parallel to the grain. Size effects (reduction in strength with increase in test volume) are observed in some of the test data, and a simple mathematical model is presented that includes the probability of failure. General characteristics of the wood/epoxy laminate are discussed, including features that make it useful for a wide variety of applications. 9 refs.

  6. Tuning near-gap electronic structure, interface charge transfer and visible light response of hybrid doped graphene and Ag3PO4 composite: Dopant effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Chao-Ni; Xu, Liang; Yang, Yin-Cai; Zhou, Bing-Xin; Huang, Gui-Fang; Peng, P; Liu, Wu-Ming

    2015-01-01

    The enhanced photocatalytic performance of doped graphene(GR)/semiconductor nanocomposites have recently been widely observed, but an understanding of the underlying mechanisms behind it is still out of reach. As a model system to study the effect of dopants, we investigate the electronic structures and optical properites of doped GR/Ag3PO4 nanocomposites using the first-principles calculations, demonstrating that the band gap, near-gap electronic structure and interface charge transfer of the doped GR/Ag3PO4(100) composite can be tuned by the dopants. Interestingly, the doping atom and C atoms bonded to dopant become active sites for photocatalysis because they are positively or negatively charged due to the charge redistribution caused by interaction. The dopants can enhance the visible light absorption and photoinduced electrons transfer. We propose that the N atom may be most appropriate doping for the GR/Ag3PO4 photocatalyst. This work can rationalize the available experimental results about N-doped GR-s...

  7. CVD-Enabled Graphene Manufacture and Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hofmann, Stephan; Braeuninger-Weimer, Philipp; Weatherup, Robert S.

    2015-06-26

    deposition (CVD) has emerged as the most versatile and promising technique to develop graphene and 2D material films into industrial device materials and this Perspective outlines recent progress, trends, and emerging CVD processing pathways. A key focus...

  8. Enhanced Half-Metallicity in Edge-Oxidized Zigzag Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hod, Oded

    Enhanced Half-Metallicity in Edge-Oxidized Zigzag Graphene Nanoribbons Oded Hod,* Vero´nica Barone theoretical study of the electronic properties and relative stabilities of edge-oxidized zigzag graphene with nanometer scale dimen- sions. Recently, a new type of graphene-based material was experimentally realized.12

  9. Schematic structure of nitrogen-doped graphene showing carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gong, Jian Ru

    method for graphene doping, and is compatible with current complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOSSchematic structure of nitrogen- doped graphene showing carbon (gray) and nitrogen (blue) NPG Asia Materials research highlight | doi:10.1038/asiamat.2010.204 Published online 13 December 2010 Graphene

  10. AN IMPROVED METHOD FOR TRANSFERRING GRAPHENE GROWN BY CHEMICAL VAPOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AN IMPROVED METHOD FOR TRANSFERRING GRAPHENE GROWN BY CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION YUJIE REN Key Laboratory of Semiconductor Materials and Applications Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, P. R In this paper, we report an improved transfer of graphene by directly picking up the graphene with target

  11. GRAPHENE RESONATORS FOR MECHANICAL SENSING , S. Najmaei2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mellor-Crummey, John

    GRAPHENE RESONATORS FOR MECHANICAL SENSING K. Lai1 , Z. Liu2 , S. Najmaei2 , L. Ma2 , J. Lou2 , P Department of Mechanical Engineering & Materials Science, Rice University Graphene's high conductivity, graphene resonators have been shown to have high quality (Q) factors, showing promise for use in force

  12. Dynamic Imaging of Au-nanoparticles via Scanning Electron Microscopy in a Graphene Wet Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wayne Yang; Yuning Zhang; Michael Hilke; Walter Reisner

    2015-06-10

    High resolution nanoscale imaging in liquid environments is crucial for studying molecular interactions in biological and chemical systems. In particular, electron microscopy is the gold-standard tool for nanoscale imaging, but its high-vacuum requirements make application to in-liquid samples extremely challenging. Here we present a new graphene based wet cell device where high resolution SEM (scanning electron microscope) and Energy Dispersive X-rays (EDX) analysis can be performed directly inside a liquid environment. Graphene is an ideal membrane material as its high transparancy, conductivity and mechanical strength can support the high vacuum and grounding requirements of a SEM while enabling maximal resolution and signal. In particular, we obtain high resolution (graphene wet cell and EDX analysis of nanoparticle composition in the liquid enviornment. Our obtained resolution surpasses current conventional silicon nitride devices imaged in both SEM and TEM under much higher electron doses.

  13. Graphene Oxide: Surface Activity and Two-Dimensional By Franklin Kim, Laura J. Cote, and Jiaxing Huang*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jiaxing

    ) is a promising precursor for preparing graphene-based composites and electronics applications. Like graphene, GO-dimensional assemblies over large areas is discussed. Figure 1. a) Typical preparation of graphene oxide (GO). PristineGraphene Oxide: Surface Activity and Two-Dimensional Assembly By Franklin Kim, Laura J. Cote

  14. Stochastic Simulation Model for the 3D Morphology of Composite Materials in Li-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Volker

    Stochastic Simulation Model for the 3D Morphology of Composite Materials in Li-Ion Batteries Ralf August 30, 2010 Abstract Battery technology plays an important role in energy storage. In particular, lithium­ ion (Li-ion) batteries are of great interest, because of their high capacity, long cycle life

  15. EFFECTS OF TOUGHENED MATRIX RESINS ON COMPOSITE MATERIALS FOR WIND TURBINE BLADES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EFFECTS OF TOUGHENED MATRIX RESINS ON COMPOSITE MATERIALS FOR WIND TURBINE BLADES by Ricardo Orozco. Finally, I would like to thank Sandia National Laboratories for supporting this research and the wind turbine energy project. #12;v TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES

  16. Testing and Analysis of Low Cost Composite Materials Under Spectrum Loading and High Cycle Fatigue Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    papers cited are available through the Sandia National Laboratories website: www.sandia.gov/Renewable_Energy/wind_energy-year experimental study of low- cost composite materials for wind turbine blades. Wind turbines are subjected to 109 in and potential interactions between failure modes. Wind turbine design codes typically assume a Miner's rule

  17. Damage mechanisms identification of polymer based composite materials: time-frequency investigation of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Damage mechanisms identification of polymer based composite materials: time-frequency investigation 2012, Nantes, France 2045 #12;Presented in this paper, a time-frequency damage characterization Emission (AE) signals by the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT). It is to be noted that the study of damage

  18. FINITE ELEMENT MODEL-BASED STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING (SHM) SYSTEMS FOR COMPOSITE MATERIAL UNDER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    FINITE ELEMENT MODEL-BASED STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING (SHM) SYSTEMS FOR COMPOSITE MATERIAL UNDER). To design a Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system, it is important to understand phenomenologically Workshop on Structural Health Monitoring July 8-11, 2014. La Cité, Nantes, France Copyright © Inria (2014

  19. Mechanics of Interfacial Composite Materials Anand Bala Subramaniam, Manouk Abkarian, L. Mahadevan, and Howard A. Stone*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahadevan, L.

    in this paper, these armored interfaces have the attributes of composite materials: the fluid/fluid interface on planar interfaces. Various studies have reported experiments and/or modeling of the Young's modulus,15,16 bending rigidity,17 and surface pressure18,19 of particulate monolayers. Here we provide an experimental

  20. November 1998 NREL/SR-500-24379 Fatigue of Composite Material Beam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    November 1998 · NREL/SR-500-24379 Fatigue of Composite Material Beam Elements Representative Blade Substructure NREL Technical Monitors: Richard Osgood and Walt Musial John F. Mandell, Daniel D University (MSU) under National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) sponsorship from August 1991 through

  1. Determination of Properties of Composite Materials from the Lamb Wave Propagation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    Paso, El Paso, TX 79968, USA contact email vladik@cs.utep.edu Abstract One of the most efficient non-destructive strength while the outside layer guarantees protection against the surrounding media. To apply non-destructive testing to materials, we must know their elastic characteristics. Since composite ma- terials are often

  2. Ceramic superconductor/metal composite materials employing the superconducting proximity effect

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcomb, Matthew J. (Manhattan Beach, CA)

    2002-01-01

    Superconducting composite materials having particles of superconducting material disposed in a metal matrix material with a high electron-boson coupling coefficient (.lambda.). The superconducting particles can comprise any type of superconductor including Laves phase materials, Chevrel phase materials, A15 compounds, and perovskite cuprate ceramics. The particles preferably have dimensions of about 10-500 nanometers. The particles preferably have dimensions larger than the superconducting coherence length of the superconducting material. The metal matrix material has a .lambda. greater than 0.2, preferably the .lambda. is much higher than 0.2. The metal matrix material is a good proximity superconductor due to its high .lambda.. When cooled, the superconductor particles cause the metal matrix material to become superconducting due to the proximity effect. In cases where the particles and the metal matrix material are chemically incompatible (i.e., reactive in a way that destroys superconductivity), the particles are provided with a thin protective metal coating. The coating is chemically compatible with the particles and metal matrix material. High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) cuprate ceramic particles are reactive and therefore require a coating of a noble metal resistant to oxidation (e.g., silver, gold). The proximity effect extends through the metal coating. With certain superconductors, non-noble metals can be used for the coating.

  3. Catalytic Templating Approaches for Three-Dimensional Hollow Carbon/Graphene Oxide Nano-Architectures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moon, Gun-Hee; Shin, Yongsoon; Choi, Daiwon; Arey, Bruce W.; Exarhos, Gregory J.; Wang, Chong M.; Choi, Wonyong; Liu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    We report a catalytic templating method to synthesize well-controlled, three-dimensional (3D) nano-architectures with graphene oxide sheets. The 3D composites are prepared via self-assembly of carbon, GO, and spherical alumina-coated silica (ACS) templates during a catalytic reaction porcess. By changing the GO content, we can systematically tune the architecture from layered composites to 3D hollow structures to microporous materials. The composites show a synergistic effect with significantly superior properties than either pure carbon or r-GO prepared with a significant enhancement to its capacitance at high current density.

  4. TE resonances in graphene-dielectric structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Werra, Julia F M; Busch, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    An investigation of the dispersion relations of TE resonances in different graphene-dielectric structures is presented. When a graphene layer is brought into contact with a dielectric material, a gap can appear in its electric band structure. This allows for the formation of TE-plasmons with unusual dispersion relations. In addition, if the dielectric has a finite thickness, graphene acts as a mode filter and strongly modifies the behavior of the waveguiding modes by introducing a frequency cutoff. This cutoff and the properties of TE-plasmons are closely related to the pair-creation threshold of graphene thus representing quantum mechanical effects that manifest themselves in the electromagnetic response. Our findings are of particular relevance to all forms of light-matter interaction in graphene-based systems, notably for the decay rates of emitters that are in close proximity to graphene.

  5. Silicene: Graphene's silicon cousin Xining Zang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Budker, Dmitry

    Germanene #12;Limit of Moore's Law in Bulk Material To break the limit Single layer 2D graphene Silicene Bandstructure calculated by ab initio #12;Summary · Silicene and germanene 2D semiconductor · HoneycombSilicene: Graphene's silicon cousin Xining Zang Graduate Student ME @Berkeley 05/02/2013 #12

  6. Hierarchical interconnections in the nano-composite material bone: Fibrillar cross-links resist fracture on several length scales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lipman, Everett A.

    to its biomedical significance, bone has been used as a model for many artificial bio-ceramic composites [10,11]. In many of these artificial composites, a combina- tion of a soft polymer matrix reinforcedHierarchical interconnections in the nano-composite material bone: Fibrillar cross-links resist

  7. On the thermal expansion of composite materials and cross-property connection between thermal expansion and thermal conductivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sevostianov, Igor

    On the thermal expansion of composite materials and cross-property connection between thermal expansion and thermal conductivity Igor Sevostianov Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, New: Composite material Thermal expansion Cross-property Microstructure Thermal conductivity a b s t r a c

  8. Characterization of few-layered graphene grown by carbon implantation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Kin Kiong; McCallum, Jeffrey C.; Jamieson, David N. [Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology, School of Physics, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia)

    2014-02-21

    Graphene is considered to be a very promising material for applications in nanotechnology. The properties of graphene are strongly dependent on defects that occur during growth and processing. These defects can be either detrimental or beneficial to device performance depending on defect type, location and device application. Here we present experimental results on formation of few-layered graphene by carbon ion implantation into nickel films and characteristics of graphene devices formed by graphene transfer and lithographic patterning. Micro-Raman spectroscopy was used to determine the number of graphene layers formed and identify defects arising from the device processing. The graphene films were cleaned by annealing in vacuum. Transport properties of cleaned graphene films were investigated by fabrication of back-gated field-effect transistors, which exhibited high hole and electron mobility of 1935 and 1905 cm2/Vs, respectively.

  9. Novel electronic structures of superlattice composed of graphene and silicene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, S.; Li, X.D. [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Wu, S.Q., E-mail: wsq@xmu.edu.cn [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Wen, Y.H. [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Zhou, S. [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Zhu, Z.Z., E-mail: zzhu@xmu.edu.cn [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2014-02-01

    Highlights: • Graphene/silicene superlattices exhibit metallic electronic properties. • Dirac point of graphene is folded to the ?-point in the superlattice system. • Significant changes in the transport properties of the graphene layers are expected. • Small amount of charge transfer from the graphene to the silicene layers is found. - Abstract: Superlattice is a major force in providing man-made materials with unique properties. Here we report a study of the structural and electronic properties of a superlattice made with alternate stacking of graphene and hexagonal silicene. Three possible stacking models, i.e., the top-, bridge- and hollow-stacking, are considered. The top-stacking is found to be the most stable pattern. Although both the free-standing graphene and silicene are semi-metals, our results suggest that the graphene and silicene layers in the superlattice both exhibit metallic electronic properties due to a small amount of charge transfer from the graphene to the silicene layers. More importantly, the Dirac point of graphene is folded to the ?-point of the superlattice, instead of the K-point in the isolated graphene. Such a change in the Dirac point of graphene could lead to significant change in the transportation property of the graphene layer. Moreover, the band structure and the charge transfer indicate that the interaction between the stacking sheets in the graphene/silicene superlattice is more than just the van der Waals interaction.

  10. Introduction Transport in disordered graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fominov, Yakov

    Introduction Transport in disordered graphene Summary Ballistic transport in disordered graphene P, Gornyi, Mirlin Ballistic transport in disordered graphene #12;Introduction Transport in disordered graphene Summary Outline 1 Introduction Model Experimental motivation Transport in clean graphene 2

  11. Electron Effective Mass in Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viktor Ariel; Amir Natan

    2012-08-12

    The particle effective mass in graphene is a challenging concept because the commonly used theoretical expression is mathematically divergent. In this paper, we use basic principles to present a simple theoretical expression for the effective mass that is suitable for both parabolic and non-parabolic isotropic materials. We demonstrate that this definition is consistent with the definition of the cyclotron effective mass, which is one of the common methods for effective mass measurement in solid state materials. We apply the proposed theoretical definition to graphene and demonstrate linear dependence of the effective mass on momentum, as confirmed by experimental cyclotron resonance measurements. Therefore, the proposed definition of the effective mass can be used for non-parabolic materials such as graphene.

  12. Exploring graphene field effect transistor devices to improve...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    radiation detectors Graphene, a planar, atomically thin form of carbon, has unique electrical and material properties that could enable new high performance semiconductor...

  13. Method and apparatus for the application of textile treatment compositions to textile materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Argyle, M.D.; Propp, W.A.

    1998-01-20

    A system is described for applying textile treatment compositions to textile materials. A conduit member is provided which includes a passageway having a first end, a second end, and a medial portion with a constricted (narrowed) region. The passageway may include at least one baffle having an opening there through. A yarn strand is then moved through the passageway. A textile treatment composition (a sizing agent or dye) dissolved in a carrier medium (a supercritical fluid or liquefied gas) is thereafter introduced into the constricted region, preferably at an acute angle relative to the passageway. The carrier medium expands inside the passageway which causes delivery of the treatment composition to the yarn. The treated yarn then passes through the baffle (if used) which facilitates drying of the yarn. During this process, a carrier gas can be introduced into the passageway to ensure the production of a smooth, dry product. 1 fig.

  14. Composition and methods of preparation of target material for producing radionuclides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seropeghin, Yurii D; Zhuikov, Boris L

    2013-05-28

    A composition suitable for use as a target containing antimony to be irradiated by accelerated charged particles (e.g., by protons to produce tin-117m) comprises an intermetallic compound of antimony and titanium which is synthesized at high-temperature, for example, in an arc furnace. The formed material is powdered and melted in an induction furnace, or heated at high gas pressure in gas static camera. The obtained product has a density, temperature stability, and heat conductivity sufficient to provide an appropriate target material.

  15. Practical Analysis of materials with depth varying compositions using FT-IR photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.F. McClelland; R.W. Jones; Siquan Luo

    2004-09-30

    FT-IR photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) is discussed as a nondestructive method to probe the molecular composition of materials versus depth on the basis of the analysis of layers of experimentally controllable thickness, which are measured from the sample surface to depths of some tens of micrometers, depending on optical and thermal properties. Computational methods are described to process photoacoustic amplitude and phase spectra for both semi-quantitative and quantitative depth analyses. These methods are demonstrated on layered and gradient samples.

  16. Clean Energy Manufacturing Innovation Institute for Composite Materials And Structures Webinar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Slides and transcript of the webinar held on March 6th, 2014 from 3:00pm to 4:30pm EST on DE-FOA-0000977. Through this Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) The Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) of EEREseeks to establish a Clean Energy Manufacturing Innovation Institute for Composites Materials and Structures that will support U.S. prosperity and security; and contribute to the creation of the pilot National Network for Manufacturing Innovation.

  17. A molecular dynamics study of polymer/graphene interfacial systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rissanou, Anastassia N.; Harmandaris, Vagelis

    2014-05-15

    Graphene based polymer nanocomposites are hybrid materials with a very broad range of technological applications. In this work, we study three hybrid polymer/graphene interfacial systems (polystyrene/graphene, poly(methyl methacrylate)/graphene and polyethylene/graphene) through detailed atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Density profiles, structural characteristics and mobility aspects are being examined at the molecular level for all model systems. In addition, we compare the properties of the hybrid systems to the properties of the corresponding bulk ones, as well as to theoretical predictions.

  18. Graphene Based Electrochemical Sensors and Biosensors: A Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao, Yuyan; Wang, Jun; Wu, Hong; Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Lin, Yuehe

    2010-05-01

    Graphene, emerging as a true 2-dimensional material, has received increasing attention due to its unique physicochemical properties (high surface area, excellent conductivity, high mechanical strength, and ease of functionalization and mass production). This article selectively reviews recent advances in graphene-based electrochemical sensors and biosensors. In particular, graphene for direct electrochemistry of enzyme, its electrocatalytic activity toward small biomolecules (hydrogen peroxide, NADH, dopamine, etc.), and graphene-based enzyme biosensors have been summarized in more detail; Graphene-based DNA sensing and environmental analysis have been discussed. Future perspectives in this rapidly developing field are also discussed.

  19. Advanced aerospace materials, including fiber reinforced polymer and ceramic matrix composites, are increasingly being used in critical and demanding applications, challenging the current damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Advanced aerospace materials, including fiber reinforced polymer and ceramic matrix composites of ceramic matrix composite processing, improve the understanding of the effects of architectural and geometric variability in polymer matrix composites, and provide an accurate and computational efficient

  20. Preparation of silver nanoparticles/graphene nanosheets as a catalyst for electrochemical oxidation of methanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Kun; Miao, Peng; Tang, Yuguo, E-mail: tangyg@sibet.ac.cn [Suzhou Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215163 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Tong, Hui; Zhu, Xiaoli [Laboratory of Biosensing Technology, School of Life Sciences, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Liu, Tao; Cheng, Wenbo [Suzhou Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215163 (China)

    2014-02-03

    In this report, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) decorated graphene nanosheets have been prepared based on the reduction of Ag ions by hydroquinone, and their catalytic performance towards the electrochemical oxidation of methanol is investigated. The synthesis of the nano-composite is confirmed by transmission electron microscope measurements and UV-vis absorption spectra. Excellent electrocatalytic performance of the material is demonstrated by cyclic voltammograms. This material also contributes to the low peak potential of methanol oxidation compared with most of the other materials.

  1. Detecting topological currents in graphene superlattices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gorbachev, R. V.

    Topological materials may exhibit Hall-like currents flowing transversely to the applied electric field even in the absence of a magnetic field. In graphene superlattices, which have broken inversion symmetry, topological ...

  2. NEW PROTON CONDUCTIVE COMPOSITE MATERIALS WITH INORGANIC AND STYRENE GRAFTED AND SULFONATED VDF/CTFE FLUOROPOLYMERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lvov, Serguei [ORNL; Payne, Terry L [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    Creation of new membrane materials for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) operating at elevated temperature and low relative humidity (RH) is one of the major challenges in the implementation of the fuel cell technology. New candidate membrane materials are required to efficiently conduct protons at 120oC and RH down to 15%. Based on these criteria, we are working on the development of new membrane materials, which are composites of inorganic proton conductors with a functionalized and cross-linkable Teflon-type polymer. The synthesis of crosslinkable P(VDF-CTFE) copolymer with controllable structure, molecular weight and terminal and side chain silane groups was described in [1]. The chemistry of the synthesis was centered on a specifically designed functional borane initiator containing silane groups. The major role of polymer matrix is to maintain the continuity of charge transfer and to ensure membrane integrity. The primary considerations include sufficient proton conductivity, thermal and chemical stability at elevated temperature, mechanical strength, compatibility with inorganic particulate phases, processibility to form uniform thin film, and cost effectiveness. Several classes of inorganic proton conductors with high water retention capability, including mesoporous materials (sulfated and/or sulfonated alumina, zirconia, titania) and zirconium phosphate of different structure have been chosen as candidate components for the new composite membranes for PEMFC operation at elevated temperatures and reduced RH. The primary requirement to the inorganic phases is the ability to provide high proton conductivity with the minimum amount of water (reduced humidity).

  3. Duality of the Interfacial Thermal Conductance in Graphene-based Nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Ying [Clemson University] [Clemson University; Huang, Jingsong [ORNL] [ORNL; Yang, Bao [University of Maryland] [University of Maryland; Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL] [ORNL; Qiao, Rui [Clemson University] [Clemson University

    2014-01-01

    The thermal conductance of graphene-matrix interfaces plays a key role in controlling the thermal transport properties of graphene-based nanocomposites. Using classical molecular dynamics simulations, we found that the interfacial thermal conductance depends strongly on the mode of heat transfer at the graphene-matrix interfaces: if heat enters graphene from one side of its basal plane and immediately leaves the graphene through the other side, the corresponding interfacial thermal conductance, G(across), is large; if heat enters graphene from both sides of its basal plane and leaves the graphene at a position far away on its basal plane, the corresponding interfacial thermal conductance, G(non-across), is small. For a single-layer graphene immersed in liquid octane, G(across) is ~150 MW/m2K while Gnon-across is ~5 MW/m2K. G(across) decreases with increasing multi-layer graphene thickness (i.e., number of layers in graphene) and approaches an asymptotic value of 100 MW/m2K for 7-layer graphenes. G(non-across) increases only marginally as the graphene sheet thickness increases. Such a duality of the interface thermal conductance for different probing methods and its dependence on graphene sheet thickness can be traced ultimately to the unique physical and chemical structure of graphene materials. The ramifications of these results in areas such as experimental measurement of thermal conductivity of graphene and the design of graphene-based thermal nanocomposites are discussed.

  4. Negative Differential Resistance of Electrons in Graphene Barrier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dragoman, D; Dragoman, Daniela; Dragoman, Mircea

    2007-01-01

    The graphene is a native two-dimensional crystal material consisting of a single sheet of carbon atoms. In this unique one-atom-thick material, the electron transport is ballistic and is described by a quantum relativistic-like Dirac equation rather than by the Schrodinger equation. As a result, a graphene barrier behaves very differently compared to a common semiconductor barrier. We show that a single graphene barrier acts as a switch with a very high on-off ratio and displays a significant differential negative resistance, which promotes graphene as a key material in nanoelectronics.

  5. Negative Differential Resistance of Electrons in Graphene Barrier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniela Dragoman; Mircea Dragoman

    2007-01-02

    The graphene is a native two-dimensional crystal material consisting of a single sheet of carbon atoms. In this unique one-atom-thick material, the electron transport is ballistic and is described by a quantum relativistic-like Dirac equation rather than by the Schrodinger equation. As a result, a graphene barrier behaves very differently compared to a common semiconductor barrier. We show that a single graphene barrier acts as a switch with a very high on-off ratio and displays a significant differential negative resistance, which promotes graphene as a key material in nanoelectronics.

  6. Graphene-based Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage: Fuel cells, Supercapacitors and Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hou, Junbo; Shao, Yuyan; Ellis, Michael A.; Moore, Robert; Yi, Baolian

    2011-09-14

    Graphene has attracted extensive research interest due to its strictly 2-dimensional (2D) structure, which results in its unique electronic, thermal, mechanical, and chemical properties and potential technical applications. These remarkable characteristics of graphene, along with the inherent benefits of a carbon material, make it a promising candidate for application in electrochemical energy devices. This article reviews the methods of graphene preparation, introduces the unique electrochemical behavior of graphene, and summarizes the recent research and development on graphene-based fuel cells, supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries. In addition, promising areas are identified for the future development of graphene-based materials in electrochemical energy conversion and storage systems.

  7. Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure Print Wednesday, 25 April 2007 00:00 Graphene, because of its unusual electron properties, reduced dimensionality, and scale, has...

  8. Simultaneous Sheet Cross-Linking and Deoxygenation in the Graphene Oxide Sol-Gel Transition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zettl, Alex

    , United States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: The precursor material to graphene aerogels flexibility and tunability in synthetic methods for graphene-like materials. INTRODUCTION Carbon aerogels sensing,5 and electrochemical devices.6 In general, graphene- based aerogels are three-dimensional porous

  9. Effects of PMMA-transfer residues on the growth of organic semiconductor molecules on CVD graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kratzer, Markus; Bayer, Bernhard C.; Kidambi, Piran R.; Matkovi?, Aleksandar; Gaji?, Radoš; Cabrero-Vilatela, Andrea; Weatherup, Robert S.; Hofmann, Stephan; Teichert, Christian

    2015-03-09

    Scalably grown and transferred graphene is a highly promising material for organic electronic applications, but controlled interfacing of graphene thereby remains a key challenge. Here, we study the growth characteristics of the important organic...

  10. Manufacturing process modeling for composite materials and structures, Sandia blade reliability collaborative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guest, Daniel A.; Cairns, Douglas S.

    2014-02-01

    The increased use and interest in wind energy over the last few years has necessitated an increase in the manufacturing of wind turbine blades. This increase in manufacturing has in many ways out stepped the current understanding of not only the materials used but also the manufacturing methods used to construct composite laminates. The goal of this study is to develop a list of process parameters which influence the quality of composite laminates manufactured using vacuum assisted resin transfer molding and to evaluate how they influence laminate quality. Known to be primary factors for the manufacturing process are resin flow rate and vacuum pressure. An incorrect balance of these parameters will often cause porosity or voids in laminates that ultimately degrade the strength of the composite. Fiber waviness has also been seen as a major contributor to failures in wind turbine blades and is often the effect of mishandling during the lay-up process. Based on laboratory tests conducted, a relationship between these parameters and laminate quality has been established which will be a valuable tool in developing best practices and standard procedures for the manufacture of wind turbine blade composites.

  11. Electrical Control of Plasmon Resonance with Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Jonghwan; Cho, David J; Geng, Baisong; Regan, Will; Shi, Sufei; Kim, Kwanpyo; Zettl, Alex; Shen, Yuen-Ron; Wang, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Surface plasmon, with its unique capability to concentrate light into sub-wavelength volume, has enabled great advances in photon science, ranging from nano-antenna and single-molecule Raman scattering to plasmonic waveguide and metamaterials. In many applications it is desirable to control the surface plasmon resonance in situ with electric field. Graphene, with its unique tunable optical properties, provides an ideal material to integrate with nanometallic structures for realizing such control. Here we demonstrate effective modulation of the plasmon resonance in a model system composed of hybrid graphene-gold nanorod structure. Upon electrical gating the strong optical transitions in graphene can be switched on and off, which leads to significant modulation of both the resonance frequency and quality factor of plasmon resonance in gold nanorods. Hybrid graphene-nanometallic structures, as exemplified by this combination of graphene and gold nanorod, provide a general and powerful way for electrical control ...

  12. ARRA Material Handling Equipment Composite Data Products: Data through Quarter 3 of 2014; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ainscough, Chris; Kurtz, Jennifer

    2015-05-01

    This document includes 23 composite data products (CDPs) produced for American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) fuel cell material handling equipment, with data through the third quarter of 2014.

  13. Oxidation resistant carbon-carbon composites: the effect of temperature dependent matrix material properties on laminate response 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romine, Paul Richard

    1994-01-01

    The structural analysis of carbon-carbon (C-C) composites is a research area of increasing importance. As the use of the materials expands towards more demanding aerospace applications, it is of critical importance to understand the laminate...

  14. The Mechanical Test Laboratory provides the highest standards in static and fatigue testing for composites and metals to generate material strength allowables and evaluate material properties.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Mechanical Test Laboratory provides the highest standards in static and fatigue testing for composites and metals to generate material strength allowables and evaluate material properties. MECHANICAL TEST LAB CAPABILITIES · Static and cyclic testing (ASTM and non-standard) · Impact drop testing · Slow

  15. Titania-graphene anode electrode paper | OSTI, US Dept of Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Titania-graphene anode electrode paper Re-direct Destination: A method for forming a nanocomposite material, the nanocomposite material formed thereby, and a battery made using the...

  16. Use Of Superacids To Digest Chrysotile And Amosite Asbestos In Simple Mixtures Or Matrices Found In Building Materials Compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi (Wading River, NY); Petrakis, Leon (Port Jefferson, NY); Webster, Ronald P. (Shoreham, NY)

    1999-12-21

    A composition for converting asbestos-containing material to environmentally benign components is provided. The composition comprises a flouro acid decomposing agent which can be applied to either amosite-containing thermal insulation or chrysotile-containing fire-proof material or to any asbestos-containing material which includes of chrysotile and amosite asbestos. The fluoro acid decomposing agent includes FP(O)(OH).sub.2, hexafluorophosphoric acid, a mixture of hydrofluoric and phosphoric acid and a mixture of hexafluorophosphoric acid and phosphoric acid. A method for converting asbestos-containing material to environmentally benign components is also provided

  17. Composit, Nanoparticle-Based Anode material for Li-ion Batteries Applied in Hybrid Electric (HEV's)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Malgorzata Gulbinska

    2009-08-24

    Lithium-ion batteries are promising energy storage devices in hybrid and electric vehicles with high specific energy values ({approx}150 Wh/kg), energy density ({approx}400 Wh/L), and long cycle life (>15 years). However, applications in hybrid and electric vehicles require increased energy density and improved low-temperature (<-10 C) performance. Silicon-based anodes are inexpensive, environmentally benign, and offer excellent theoretical capacity values ({approx}4000 mAh/g), leading to significantly less anode material and thus increasing the overall energy density value for the complete battery (>500 Wh/L). However, tremendous volume changes occur during cycling of pure silicon-based anodes. The expansion and contraction of these silicon particles causes them to fracture and lose electrical contact to the current collector ultimately severely limiting their cycle life. In Phase I of this project Yardney Technical Products, Inc. proposed development of a carbon/nano-silicon composite anode material with improved energy density and silicon's cycleability. In the carbon/nano-Si composite, silicon nanoparticles were embedded in a partially-graphitized carbonaceous matrix. The cycle life of anode material would be extended by decreasing the average particle size of active material (silicon) and by encapsulation of silicon nanoparticles in a ductile carbonaceous matrix. Decreasing the average particle size to a nano-region would also shorten Li-ion diffusion path and thus improve rate capability of the silicon-based anodes. Improved chemical inertness towards PC-based, low-temperature electrolytes was expected as an additional benefit of a thin, partially graphitized coating around the active electrode material.

  18. Effect of composition and heat treatment on MnBi magnetic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cui, Jun [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Choi, Jung-Pyung [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Polikarpov, Evgueni [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Bowden, Mark E [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Xie, Wei [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Li, Guosheng [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Nie, Zimin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Zarkevich, Nikolai [Ames Laboratory; Kramer, Matthew J [Ames Laboratory; Johnson, Duane [Ames Laboratory

    2014-10-01

    The metallic compound MnBi is a promising rare-earth-free permanent magnet material, unique among all candidates for its high intrinsic coercivity (Hci) and its large positive temperature coefficient. The Hci of MnBi in thin-film or powder form can exceed 12 and 26 kOe at 300 and 523 K, respectively. Such a steep rise in Hci with increasing temperature is unique to MnBi. Consequently, MnBi is a highly sought-after hard phase for exchange coupling nanocomposite magnets. However, the reaction between Mn and Bi is peritectic, and hence Mn tends to precipitate out of the MnBi liquid during the solidification process. As result, when the alloy is prepared using conventional induction or arc-melting casting methods, additional Mn is required to compensate the precipitation of Mn. In addition to composition, post-casting annealing plays an important role in obtaining a high content of MnBi low-temperature phase (LTP) because the annealing encourages the Mn precipitates and the unreacted Bi to react, forming the desired LTP phase. Here we report a systematic study of the effect of composition and heat treatments on the phase content and magnetic properties of Mn–Bi alloys. In this study, 14 compositions were prepared using conventional metallurgical methods, and the compositions, crystal structures, phase content and magnetic properties of the resulting alloys were analyzed. The results show that the composition with 55 at.% Mn exhibits both the highest LTP content (93 wt.%) and magnetization (74 emu g?1 with 9 T applied field at 300 K).

  19. Method and apparatus for analyzing the internal chemistry and compositional variations of materials and devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kazmerski, L.L.

    1985-04-30

    A method and apparatus is disclosed for obtaining and mapping chemical compositional data for solid devices. It includes a SIMS mass analyzer or similar system capable of being rastered over a surface of the solid to sample the material at a pattern of selected points, as the surface is being eroded away by sputtering or a similar process. The data for each point sampled in a volume of the solid is digitally processed and indexed by element or molecule type, exact spacial location within the volume, and the concentration levels of the detected element or molecule types. This data can then be recalled and displayed for any desired planar view in the volume.

  20. Method and apparatus for analyzing the internal chemistry and compositional variations of materials and devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kazmerski, Lawrence L. (Lakewood, CO)

    1989-01-01

    A method and apparatus is disclosed for obtaining and mapping chemical compositional data for solid devices. It includes a SIMS mass analyzer or similar system capable of being rastered over a surface of the solid to sample the material at a pattern of selected points, as the surface is being eroded away by sputtering or a similar process. The data for each point sampled in a volume of the solid is digitally processed and indexed by element or molecule type, exact spacial location within the volume, and the concentration levels of the detected element or molecule types. This data can then be recalled and displayed for any desired planar view in the volume.

  1. An experimental investigation of damage-dependent material damping of laminated composites 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Scott Andrew

    1988-01-01

    Composites. (May 1988) Scott Andrew Smith, B. S. , Texas A&M University Co-Chairs of Advisory Committee: Dr. Alton L. Highsmith Dr. Charles E. Harris An experimental program was developed in which the material damping of laminated graphite... for Undamaged and Damaged Graphite/Epoxy Laminates. . . . . . . . . LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1 Lamina Properties for AS4/3502 Graphite/Epoxy. . . . 13 2 AS4/3502 Laminate Types Testes. . . 13 3 Damping Results for [0]s and [90]s Laminates...

  2. Charging Graphene for Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jun

    2014-10-06

    Since 2004, graphene, including single atomic layer graphite sheet, and chemically derived graphene sheets, has captured the imagination of researchers for energy storage because of the extremely high surface area (2630 m2/g) compared to traditional activated carbon (typically below 1500 m2/g), excellent electrical conductivity, high mechanical strength, and potential for low cost manufacturing. These properties are very desirable for achieving high activity, high capacity and energy density, and fast charge and discharge. Chemically derived graphene sheets are prepared by oxidation and reduction of graphite1 and are more suitable for energy storage because they can be made in large quantities. They still contain multiply stacked graphene sheets, structural defects such as vacancies, and oxygen containing functional groups. In the literature they are also called reduced graphene oxide, or functionalized graphene sheets, but in this article they are all referred to as graphene for easy of discussion. Two important applications, batteries and electrochemical capacitors, have been widely investigated. In a battery material, the redox reaction occurs at a constant potential (voltage) and the energy is stored in the bulk. Therefore, the energy density is high (more than 100 Wh/kg), but it is difficult to rapidly charge or discharge (low power, less than 1 kW/kg)2. In an electrochemical capacitor (also called supercapacitors or ultracapacitor in the literature), the energy is stored as absorbed ionic species at the interface between the high surface area carbon and the electrolyte, and the potential is a continuous function of the state-of-charge. The charge and discharge can happen rapidly (high power, up to 10 kW/kg) but the energy density is low, less than 10 Wh/kg2. A device that can have both high energy and high power would be ideal.

  3. Comparison of gold- and graphene-based resonant nanostructures for terahertz metamaterials and an ultrathin graphene-based modulator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Nian-Hai [Ames Laboratory; Tassin, Philippe [Ames Laboratory; Koschny, Thomas [Ames Laboratory; Soukoulis, Costas M [Ames Laboratory

    2014-09-01

    Graphene exhibits unique material properties, and in electromagnetic wave technology it raises the prospect of devices miniaturized down to the atomic length scale. Here we study split-ring resonator metamaterials made from graphene and we compare them to gold-based metamaterials. We find that graphene's huge reactive response derived from its large kinetic inductance allows for deeply subwavelength resonances, although its resonance strength is reduced due to higher dissipative loss damping and smaller dipole coupling. Nevertheless, tightly stacked graphene rings may provide for negative permeability and the electric dipole resonance of graphene meta-atoms turns out to be surprisingly strong. Based on these findings, we present a terahertz modulator based on a metamaterial with a multilayer stack of alternating patterned graphene sheets separated by dielectric spacers. Neighboring graphene flakes are biased against each other, resulting in modulation depths of over 75% at a transmission level of around 90%.

  4. Amazing Materials and the Emerging Field of Spintronics | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    a 3D counterpart to one of the flattest materials of them all -- the amazing material graphene. Graphene is effectively a 2D material, consisting of single layers of carbon atoms...

  5. Graphene Coating Coupled Emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shyamasundar, R.K.

    Graphene Coating Coupled Emission A COMSET, A single sheet of sp2-hybridized carbon atoms, called of graphene and its unique properties, I will present amplification of surface graphene-Ag hybrid films which when graphene is used as the spacer layer in a conventional Ag- harnessed the nonlinear properties

  6. Determining graphene adhesion via substrate-regulated morphology of graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Teng

    Determining graphene adhesion via substrate-regulated morphology of graphene Zhao Zhang and Teng Li Institute of Physics. Related Articles Identification of graphene crystallographic orientation by atomic two-dimensional, epitaxially-grown, nanostructured graphene for study of single molecule

  7. Gelatin/graphene systems for low cost energy storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Landi, Giovanni [Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, FernUniversität Hagen, 58084 Hagen (Germany); Fedi, Filippo; Sorrentino, Andrea; Iannace, Salvatore [Institute for Composite and Biomedical Materials (IMCB-CNR), Piazzale Enrico Fermi 1, 80055 Portici (Italy); Neitzert, Heinz C. [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II 132, 84084 Fisciano (Italy)

    2014-05-15

    In this work, we introduce the possibility to use a low cost, biodegradable material for temporary energy storage devices. Here, we report the use of biologically derived organic electrodes composed of gelatin ad graphene. The graphene was obtained by mild sonication in a mixture of volatile solvents of natural graphite flakes and subsequent centrifugation. The presence of exfoliated graphene sheets was detected by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy. The homogeneous dispersion in gelatin demonstrates a good compatibility between the gelatin molecules and the graphene particles. The electrical characterization of the resulting nanocomposites suggests the possible applications as materials for transient, low cost energy storage device.

  8. Composite structures 4; Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference, Paisley College of Technology, Scotland, July 27-29, 1987. Volume 2 - Damage assessment and material evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marshall, I.H.

    1987-01-01

    The present collection of papers on damage assessment and material evaluation of composite structures discusses recent advancements in the dynamics of composite structures, the crush performance of composite structures, strengthening mechanisms in discontinuous SiC/Al composites, considerations for designing with metal matrix composite materials, a causal approach to the effective dynamic moduli of random composites, and failure modes for compression-loaded angle-ply plates with holes. Also discussed are the fabrication and mechanical properties of hybrid composites with braiding construction, the reprocessing of carbon fiber/PEEK laminates, rate effects on delamination fracture toughness of graphite/epoxy composites, the shear modulus testing of composites, composite materials for bone-fracture fixation, and the thermomechanical properties of three-dimensional fiber composites.

  9. Graphene nanopore field effect transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qiu, Wanzhi; Skafidas, Efstratios, E-mail: sskaf@unimelb.edu.au [Centre for Neural Engineering, The University of Melbourne, 203 Bouverie Street, Carlton, Victoria 3053 (Australia); Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia)

    2014-07-14

    Graphene holds great promise for replacing conventional Si material in field effect transistors (FETs) due to its high carrier mobility. Previously proposed graphene FETs either suffer from low ON-state current resulting from constrained channel width or require complex fabrication processes for edge-defecting or doping. Here, we propose an alternative graphene FET structure created on intrinsic metallic armchair-edged graphene nanoribbons with uniform width, where the channel region is made semiconducting by drilling a pore in the interior, and the two ends of the nanoribbon act naturally as connecting electrodes. The proposed GNP-FETs have high ON-state currents due to seamless atomic interface between the channel and electrodes and are able to be created with arbitrarily wide ribbons. In addition, the performance of GNP-FETs can be tuned by varying pore size and ribbon width. As a result, their performance and fabrication process are more predictable and controllable in comparison to schemes based on edge-defects and doping. Using first-principle transport calculations, we show that GNP-FETs can achieve competitive leakage current of ?70?pA, subthreshold swing of ?60?mV/decade, and significantly improved On/Off current ratios on the order of 10{sup 5} as compared with other forms of graphene FETs.

  10. Magnetization dynamics of cobalt grown on graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berger, A. J.; White, S. P.; Adur, R.; Pu, Y.; Hammel, P. C.; Amamou, W.; Kawakami, R. K.

    2014-05-07

    Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spin pumping is a rapidly growing field which has demonstrated promising results in a variety of material systems. This technique utilizes the resonant precession of magnetization in a ferromagnet to inject spin into an adjacent non-magnetic material. Spin pumping into graphene is attractive on account of its exceptional spin transport properties. This article reports on FMR characterization of cobalt grown on chemical vapor deposition graphene and examines the validity of linewidth broadening as an indicator of spin pumping. In comparison to cobalt samples without graphene, direct contact cobalt-on-graphene exhibits increased FMR linewidth—an often used signature of spin pumping. Similar results are obtained in Co/MgO/graphene structures, where a 1?nm MgO layer acts as a tunnel barrier. However, magnetometry, magnetic force microscopy, and Kerr microscopy measurements demonstrate increased magnetic disorder in cobalt grown on graphene, perhaps due to changes in the growth process and an increase in defects. This magnetic disorder may account for the observed linewidth enhancement due to effects such as two-magnon scattering or mosaicity. As such, it is not possible to conclude successful spin injection into graphene from FMR linewidth measurements alone.

  11. Method and apparatus for producing composites of materials exhibiting thermoplastic properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garvey, Raymond E. (Knoxville, TN); Grostick, Edmund T. (Faragut, TN)

    1992-01-01

    A mobile device for the complete consolidation of layers of material which exhibit thermoplastic properties for the formation of a composite of the layers upon a complex contoured substrate. The principal of the device is to provide heating into the molten temperature range of the thermoplastic material, applying sufficient pressure to the layers to cause flow of the plastic for a time sufficient to achieve full consolidation of the layers, and quickly cooling the structure to prevent delamination or other non-consolidation action. In the preferred form, there is an element to deposit a layer of the mateiral against another layer in close proximity. The two layers are pre-heated to near the melting temperature, and then further heated into the melting temperature range as they are brought into intimate contact with sufficient pressure to cause flow of the plastic for a time sufficient to achieve the full consolidation. The structure is then cooled. The mechanism for the application of pressure is selected such that the layers can be deformed to conform to a complex contour. In the preferred form, this pressurization is produced using a compliant hood that supplies both the pressure and at least a portion of the melting temperature, as well as the cooling. The apparatus, and method of operation, are described relative to the use of fiber-reinforced PEEK in the making of fully-consolidated composites. Other applications are discussed.

  12. Three dimensional, bulk nanostructured materials and composites have matured into a new class of materials that is being considered in a variety of engineering applications. The successful synthesis of large-scale nanostructured materials is of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Three dimensional, bulk nanostructured materials and composites have matured into a new class of materials that is being considered in a variety of engineering applications. The successful synthesis of large-scale nanostructured materials is of technological and scientific significance. From

  13. Direct growth of graphene on Si(111)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thanh Trung, Pham Joucken, Frédéric; Colomer, Jean-François; Robert, Sporken; Campos-Delgado, Jessica; Raskin, Jean-Pierre; Hackens, Benoît; Santos, Cristiane N.

    2014-06-14

    Due to the need of integrated circuit in the current silicon technology, the formation of graphene on Si wafer is highly desirable, but is still a challenge for the scientific community. In this context, we report the direct growth of graphene on Si(111) wafer under appropriate conditions using an electron beam evaporator. The structural quality of the material is investigated in detail by reflection high energy electron diffraction, Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, high resolution scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy. Our experimental results confirm that the quality of graphene is strongly dependent on the growth time during carbon atoms deposition.

  14. NEST Scientific Report 2007-2009 Graphene and artificial graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abbondandolo, Alberto

    NEST Scientific Report 2007-2009 Graphene 43 Graphene and artificial graphene T his area-layer graphene behave like massless fermions. Graphene is a first remarkable and clean example of the impact of a potential with honeycomb structure on the electronic states and dynamics. In graphene the crystalline

  15. International Conference on Advanced Composite Materials in Bridges and Structures Confrence Internationale sur les matriaux composites d'avant-garde pour ponts et charpentes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , precast prestressed concrete sandwich wall panels have been used as building envelopes for various6th International Conference on Advanced Composite Materials in Bridges and Structures 6ième is not a new challenge, but one that is decades old. Due to recent advances in the prestressed precast concrete

  16. Mechanical Modulation of Hybrid Graphene Microfiber Structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Fei; Lu, Yan-qing

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the strain engineering of two-dimensional materials such as graphene has attracted considerable attention for its great potential in functional nanodevices. Here, we theoretically and experimentally investigate the strain manipulation of a graphene-integrated microfiber system for the first time. We analyze the influential factors of strain tuning, i.e., the geometrical parameters of the microfiber, the strain magnitude, and the probe-light wavelength. Moreover, we experimentally achieve in-line modulation as high as 30% with a moderate strain of ~5%, which is two orders of magnitude larger than previous results. The dynamic vibration response is also researched. The broadband, polarization-independent, cost-effective, strain-based modulator may find applications in low-speed modulation and strain sensing. Further, we believe that our platform may allow for all-in fiber engineering of graphene-analogue materials and provide new ideas for graphene-integrated flexible device design.

  17. Phosphorescent compositions, methods of making the compositions, and methods of using the compositions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jia, Weiyi; Wang, Xiaojun; Jia, George D.; Lewis, Linda; Yen, Laurel C.

    2014-06-24

    Compositions, methods of making compositions, materials including compositions, crayons including compositions, paint including compositions, ink including compositions, waxes including compositions, polymers including compositions, vesicles including the compositions, methods of making each, and the like are disclosed.

  18. Phosphorescent compositions, methods of making the compositions, and methods of using the compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jia, Weiyi; Wang, Xiaojun; Yen, William; Yen, Laurel C.; Jia, George D.

    2012-12-04

    Compositions, methods of making compositions, materials including compositions, crayons including compositions, paint including compositions, ink including compositions, waxes including compositions, polymers including compositions, vesicles including the compositions, methods of making each, and the like are disclosed.

  19. Electronic and Spintronic Properties of Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pi, Keyu

    2010-01-01

    and Spintronic Properties of Graphene by Ke-yu Pi Doctor ofof transition metal doped graphene over the last six years.steps including our graphene exfoliation, graphene

  20. Self-assembly of photo-reduced graphene-titania films.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lambert, Timothy N.; Chavez, Carlos A.; Bell, Nelson Simmons; Washburn, Cody M.; Brumbach, Michael Todd; Wheeler, David Roger; McKenzie, Bonnie Beth

    2010-07-01

    In an aim to develop photo-responsive composites, the UV photo-reduction of aqueous titanium oxide nanoparticle-graphene oxide (TiO{sub 2}-GO) dispersions (Lambert et al. J Phys. Chem. 2010 113 (46), 19812-19823) was undertaken. Photo-reduction led to the formation of a black precipitate as well as a soluble portion, comprised of titanium oxide nanoparticle-reduced graphene oxide (TiO{sub 2}-RGO). When allowed to slowly evaporate, self assembled titanium oxide nanoparticle-graphene oxide (SA-TiO{sub 2}-RGO) films formed at the air-liquid interface of the solution. The thickness of SARGO-TiO{sub 2} films range from {approx}30-100 nm when deposited on substrates, and appear to be comprised of a mosaic assembly of graphene nanosheets and TiO{sub 2}, as observed by scanning electron microscopy. Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicate that the graphene oxide is only partially reduced in the SA-TiO{sub 2}-RGO material. These films were also deposited onto inter-digitated electrodes and their photo-responsive behavior was examined. UV-exposure lead to a {approx} 200 kOhm decrease in resistance across the device, resulting in a cathodically biased film. The cathodic bias of the films was utilized for the subsequent reduction of Ag(NO{sub 3}) into silver (Ag) nanoparticles, forming a ternary Ag-(SA-RGO-TiO{sub 2}) composite. Various aspects of the self assembled films, their photoconductive properties as well as potential applications will be presented.

  1. Colloidal graphite/graphene nanostructures using collagen showing enhanced thermal conductivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soumya Bhattacharya; Purbarun Dhar; Sarit K Das; Ranjan Ganguly; Thomas Webster; Suprabha Nayar

    2015-11-27

    Time kinetics of interaction of natural graphite (GR) to colloidal graphene (G) collagen (C) nanocomposites was studied at ambient conditions, and observed that just one day at ambient conditions is enough to form colloidal graphene directly from graphite using the protein collagen. Neither controlled temperature and pressure ambiance nor sonication was needed for the same; thereby rendering the process biomimetic. Detailed spectroscopy, X ray diffraction, electron microscopy as well as fluorescence and luminescence assisted characterization of the colloidal dispersions on day one and day seven reveals graphene and collagen interaction and subsequent rearrangement to form an open structure. Detailed confocal microscopy, in the liquid state, reveals the initial attack at the zigzag edges of GR, the enhancement of auto fluorescence and finally the opening up of graphitic stacks of GR to form near transparent G. Atomic Force Microscopy studies prove the existence of both collagen and graphene and the disruption of periodicity at the atomic level. Thermal conductivity of the colloid shows a 17% enhancement for a volume fraction of less than 0.00005 of G. Time variant increase in thermal conductivity provides qualitative evidence for the transient exfoliation of GR to G. The composite reveals interesting properties that could propel it as a future material for advanced bio applications including therapeutics.

  2. A Novel Graphene-Based Inkjet-Printed WISP-Enabled Wireless Gas Sensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tentzeris, Manos

    A Novel Graphene-Based Inkjet-Printed WISP- Enabled Wireless Gas Sensor Taoran Le, Vasileios thin films produced from environmentally friendly, water-based, inkjet printed graphene oxide (GO) ink is achieved using the graphene thin films, with over 30% of material recovery observed within 5 minutes

  3. Sonochemically grown ZnO nanowalls on Graphene layers as Photoanode in Dye sensitized Solar cells.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pala, Nezih

    Sonochemically grown ZnO nanowalls on Graphene layers as Photoanode in Dye sensitized Solar cells whole solar spectrum Graphene can be a very promising material in Dye Sensitized Solar cells (DSSC University of North Texas, Denton, Texas Graphene is a two dimensional nanostructure, composed of sp2

  4. Technical report on "BES Early Career. Control Graphene Electronic Structure for Energy Technology"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Feng

    2015-07-11

    Graphene, a one-atom thick sheet of carbon, exhibits incredible structural flexibility, electrical transport, and optical responses. And remarkably, the graphene electronic structure can be varied through interlayer coupling, nanoscale patterning, and electrical gating. In this project we made significant contribution to better understand and control physical properties of graphene and other novel two-dimensional layered materials.

  5. TWO SPINORIAL DRIFT-DIFFUSION MODELS FOR QUANTUM ELECTRON TRANSPORT IN GRAPHENE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jüngel, Ansgar

    . Introduction Graphene is a new semiconductor material, which is a subject of great interest for nanoscale [3]. Physically, graphene is a two-dimensional semiconductor with a zero-width band gap, consistingTWO SPINORIAL DRIFT-DIFFUSION MODELS FOR QUANTUM ELECTRON TRANSPORT IN GRAPHENE NICOLA ZAMPONI

  6. Polymeric semiconductor/graphene hybrid field-effect transistors Jia Huang a,b,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polymeric semiconductor/graphene hybrid field-effect transistors Jia Huang a,b, , Daniel R. Hines semiconductor Graphene Thin film transistor Hybrid material a b s t r a c t Solution processed organic field semiconductors and graphene. Compared against OFETs with only pure organic semiconductors, our hybrid FETs

  7. 4600204 IEEE JOURNAL OF SELECTED TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS, VOL. 20, NO. 1, JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2014 Graphene for Tunable Nanophotonic Resonators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Feng

    by the weak optical response of the gate-induced free carriers in a semiconductor. Graphene, a 2-D material/FEBRUARY 2014 Graphene for Tunable Nanophotonic Resonators Arka Majumdar, Member, IEEE, Jonghwan Kim, Jelena of the nanostructures by cou- pling them to graphene. The easy electrical control of graphene allows a large modulation

  8. Composite materials with metal oxide attached to lead chalcogenide nanocrystal quantum dots with linkers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fuke, Nobuhiro; Koposov, Alexey Y; Sykora, Milan; Hoch, Laura

    2014-12-16

    Composite materials useful for devices such as photoelectrochemical solar cells include a substrate, a metal oxide film on the substrate, nanocrystalline quantum dots (NQDs) of lead sulfide, lead selenide, and lead telluride, and linkers that attach the NQDs to the metal oxide film. Suitable linkers preserve the 1s absorption peak of the NQDs. A suitable linker has a general structure A-B-C where A is a chemical group adapted for binding to a MO.sub.x and C is a chemical group adapted for binding to a NQD and B is a divalent, rigid, or semi-rigid organic spacer moiety. Other linkers that preserve the 1s absorption peak may also be used.

  9. Synthetic aggregate compositions derived from spent bed materials from fluidized bed combustion and fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyle, Michael J. (Aston, PA)

    1994-01-01

    Cementitious compositions useful as lightweight aggregates are formed from a blend of spent bed material from fluidized bed combustion and fly ash. The proportions of the blend are chosen so that ensuing reactions eliminate undesirable constituents. The blend is then mixed with water and formed into a shaped article. The shaped article is preferably either a pellet or a "brick" shape that is later crushed. The shaped articles are cured at ambient temperature while saturated with water. It has been found that if used sufficiently, the resulting aggregate will exhibit minimal dimensional change over time. The aggregate can be certified by also forming standardized test shapes, e.g., cylinders while forming the shaped articles and measuring the properties of the test shapes using standardized techniques including X-ray diffraction.

  10. Fluid flow modeling of resin transfer molding for composite material wind turbine blade structures.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cairns, Douglas S. (Montana State University, Bozeman, MT); Rossel, Scott M. (Montana State University, Bozeman, MT)

    2004-06-01

    Resin transfer molding (RTM) is a closed mold process for making composite materials. It has the potential to produce parts more cost effectively than hand lay-up or other methods. However, fluid flow tends to be unpredictable and parts the size of a wind turbine blade are difficult to engineer without some predictive method for resin flow. There were five goals of this study. The first was to determine permeabilities for three fabrics commonly used for RTM over a useful range of fiber volume fractions. Next, relations to estimate permeabilities in mixed fabric lay-ups were evaluated. Flow in blade substructures was analyzed and compared to predictions. Flow in a full-scale blade was predicted and substructure results were used to validate the accuracy of a full-scale blade prediction.

  11. The Electronic Structure of Single-Layer Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegel, David Alan

    2012-01-01

    2.11 Graphene Characterization Withof Bilayer Graphene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .in Monolayer Graphene Matrix Element . . . . . . . . . . .

  12. Surface Modifications of Graphene-based Polymer Nanocomposites by Different Synthesis Techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yanikoglu, Berrin

    conductive composites than the other composites obtained by conventional methods. In this work, graphene as filler in conducting polypyrrole matrix in order to fabricate polymer-based nanocomposites. The effectSurface Modifications of Graphene-based Polymer Nanocomposites by Different Synthesis Techniques

  13. Experimental verification of electro-refractive phase modulation in graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohsin, Muhammad; Schall, Daniel; Otto, Martin; Matheisen, Christopher; Giesecke, Anna Lena; Sagade, Abhay A; Kurz, Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    Graphene has been considered as a promising material for opto-electronic devices, because of its tunable and wideband optical properties. In this work, we demonstrate electro-refractive phase modulation in graphene at wavelengths from 1530 to 1570 nm. By integrating a gated graphene layer in a silicon-waveguide based Mach-Zehnder interferometer, the key parameters of a phase modulator like change in effective refractive index, insertion loss and absorption change are extracted. These experimentally obtained values are well reproduced by simulations and design guidelines are provided to make graphene devices competitive to contemporary silicon based phase modulators for on-chip applications.

  14. USE OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS TO REPAIR STEEL STRUCTURES VULNERABLE TO FATIGUE DAMAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alemdar, Fatih

    2010-01-01

    .............................................................................................................. 87 vi LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 : Three point bending specimens: (a) Without CFRP retrofit (Vilhauer 2007); (b) With CFRP retrofit applied (Kaan 2008...) ................................................................................................. 9 Figure 2 : Elevation view showing maximum principal stress: (a) control specimen; (b) specimen with smooth-shaped composite overlay; (c) short rectilinear composite overlay; (d) rectilinear composite overlay; (e) long rectilinear composite...

  15. Electronic transport in atomically thin layered materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baugher, Britton William Herbert

    2014-01-01

    Electronic transport in atomically thin layered materials has been a burgeoning field of study since the discovery of isolated single layer graphene in 2004. Graphene, a semi-metal, has a unique gapless Dirac-like band ...

  16. Energy Transfer from Individual Semiconductor Nanocrystals to Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Zheyuan; Nuckolls, Colin; Heinz, Tony F; Brus, Louis E

    2010-01-01

    Energy transfer from photoexcited zero-dimensional systems to metallic systems plays a prominent role in modern day materials science. A situation of particular interest concerns the interaction between a photoexcited dipole and an atomically thin metal. The recent discovery of graphene layers permits investigation of this phenomenon. Here we report a study of fluorescence from individual CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals in contact with single- and few-layer graphene sheets. The rate of energy transfer is determined from the strong quenching of the nanocrystal fluorescence. For single-layer graphene, we find a rate of ~ 4ns-1, in agreement with a model based on the dipole approximation and a tight-binding description of graphene. This rate increases significantly with the number of graphene layers, before approaching the bulk limit. Our study quantifies energy transfer to and fluorescence quenching by graphene, critical properties for novel applications in photovoltaic devices and as a molecular ruler.

  17. Nitrogen-Doped Graphene and its Application in Electrochemical Biosensing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Ying; Shao, Yuyan; Matson, Dean W.; Li, Jinghong; Lin, Yuehe

    2010-05-05

    Chemical doping with foreign atoms is an effective method to intrinsically modify the properties of host materials. Among them, nitrogen (N) doping plays a critical role in regulating the electronic properties of carbon materials. Recently, graphene as a true 2-dimensional carbon material has shown fascinating applications in bioelectronics and biosensors. In this paper, we report a facile strategy to prepare N-doped graphene by using plasma treatment of pristine graphene synthesized via chemical method. Meanwhile, a possible schematic diagram has been proposed to detail the structure of N-doped graphene. By controlling the exposure time, N percentage in host grapheme can be regulated ranging from 0.11% to 1.35%. Moreover, the as prepared N-doped graphene has displayed high electrocatalytic activity to hydrogen peroxide and further been used for glucose biosensing with concentration as low as 0.01 mM in the presence of interferences.

  18. Gas Separation With Graphene Membranes By Will Soutter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bunch, Scott

    applications including fuel cells, batteries, gas sensors and gas purification. The materials of carbon atoms, covalently bonded in a regular hexagonal pattern. Graphite is made up of many stacked graphene sheets, and graphene was first isolated by removing a single sheet from a graphite crystal

  19. Graphene Frequency Multipliers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Han

    In this letter, the ambipolar transport properties of graphene flakes have been used to fabricate full-wave signal rectifiers and frequency-doubling devices. By correctly biasing an ambipolar graphene field-effect transistor ...

  20. Thermal Conduction in Graphene and Graphene Multilayers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghosh, Suchismita

    2009-01-01

    1 1.2 Thermal transport atxv Introduction xii 1.1 Thermal conductivity and65 4.13 Thermal conductivity of graphene as a function of

  1. Magnetic Graphene Nanohole Superlattices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Decai; Liu, Miao; Liu, Wei; Liu, Feng

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the magnetic properties of nano-holes (NHs) patterned in graphene using first principles calculations. We show that superlattices consisting of a periodic array of NHs form a new family of 2D crystalline "bulk" magnets whose collective magnetic behavior is governed by inter-NH spin-spin interaction. They exhibit long-range magnetic order well above room temperature. Furthermore, magnetic semiconductors can be made by doping magnetic NHs into semiconducting NH superlattices. Our findings offer a new material system for fundamental studies of spin-spin interaction and magnetic ordering in low dimensions, and open up the exciting opportunities of making engineered magnetic materials for storage media and spintronics applications.

  2. Electrical Transport in Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Gang

    2010-01-01

    Device Fabrication Graphene preparation is the same as theevaporation. After graphene preparation on the substrate, we

  3. GRAPHENE: ELECTRON PROPERTIES AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gabrieli, John

    GRAPHENE: ELECTRON PROPERTIES AND TRANSPORT PHENOMENA Leonid Levitov MIT Lecture notes and HW and magnetoresistance Quantum Hall effect reminder The half-integer QHE in graphene Energy gaps and splitting of Landau levels QHE in p-n and p-n-p junctions Spin transport at graphene edge Fine structure constant

  4. Energy Waves and Plasmons in Graphene | MIT-Harvard Center for...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Waves and Plasmons in Graphene November 14, 2013 at 3pm6-233 Leonid Levitov Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology levitovleonid Abstract: Materials in...

  5. Geek-Up[08.27.10] -- Geothermal Stores, Graphene Loops, Nozzle...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have discovered how loops develop in graphene - an electrically conductive high-strength low-weight material (think of it as an...

  6. Final Scientific Report, New Proton Conductive Composite Materials for PEM Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lvov, Serguei

    2010-11-08

    This project covered one of the main challenges in present-day PEM fuel cell technology: to design a membrane capable of maintaining high conductivity and mechanical integrity when temperature is elevated and water vapor pressure is severely reduced. The DOE conductivity milestone of 0.1 S cm-1 at 120 degrees C and 50 % relative humidity (RH) for designed membranes addressed the target for the project. Our approach presumed to develop a composite membrane with hydrophilic proton-conductive inorganic material and the proton conductive polymeric matrix that is able to “bridge” the conduction paths in the membrane. The unique aspect of our approach was the use of highly functionalized inorganic additives to benefit from their water retention properties and high conductivity as well. A promising result turns out that highly hydrophilic phosphorsilicate gels added in Nafion matrix improved PEM fuel cell performance by over 50% compared with bare Nafion membrane at 120 degrees C and 50 % RH. This achievement realizes that the fuel cell operating pressure can be kept low, which would make the PEM fuel cell much more cost efficient and adaptable to practical operating conditions and facilitate its faster commercialization particularly in automotive and stationary applications.

  7. Efficient Heat Storage Materials: Metallic Composites Phase-Change Materials for High-Temperature Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-11-21

    HEATS Project: MIT is developing efficient heat storage materials for use in solar and nuclear power plants. Heat storage materials are critical to the energy storage process. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials during the day and released at night—when the sun’s not out—to drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours. MIT is designing nanostructured heat storage materials that can store a large amount of heat per unit mass and volume. To do this, MIT is using phase change materials, which absorb a large amount of latent heat to melt from solid to liquid. MIT’s heat storage materials are designed to melt at high temperatures and conduct heat well—this makes them efficient at storing and releasing heat and enhances the overall efficiency of the thermal storage and energy-generation process. MIT’s low-cost heat storage materials also have a long life cycle, which further enhances their efficiency.

  8. Electrical Properties of Trilayer Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Yongjin

    2014-01-01

    Fabrication of graphene p-n-p junctions with contactless topFabrication of graphene p-n-p junctions with contactless topFabrication of graphene p-n-p junctions with contactless top

  9. Bilayer Graphene Gets a Bandgap

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bilayer Graphene Gets a Bandgap Bilayer Graphene Gets a Bandgap Print Wednesday, 26 August 2009 00:00 Graphene is the two-dimensional crystalline form of carbon whose extraordinary...

  10. Hot carrier diffusion in graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruzicka, Brian Andrew; Wang, Shuai; Werake, Lalani Kumari; Weintrub, Ben; Loh, Kian Ping; Zhao, Hui

    2010-11-01

    We report an optical study of charge transport in graphene. Diffusion of hot carriers in epitaxial graphene and reduced graphene oxide samples are studied using an ultrafast pump-probe technique with a high spatial resolution. Spatiotemporal...

  11. Research & Development of Materials/Processing Methods for Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites (CFCC) Phase 2 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szweda, A.

    2001-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites (CFCC) Initiative that begun in 1992 has led the way for Industry, Academia, and Government to carry out a 10 year R&D plan to develop CFCCs for these industrial applications. In Phase II of this program, Dow Corning has led a team of OEM's, composite fabricators, and Government Laboratories to develop polymer derived CFCC materials and processes for selected industrial applications. During this phase, Dow Corning carried extensive process development and representative component demonstration activities on gas turbine components, chemical pump components and heat treatment furnace components.

  12. An embryo of protocell membrane: The capsule of graphene oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhan Li; Chunmei Wang; Longlong Tian; Jing Bai; Yang Zhao; Xin Zhang; Shiwei Cao; Wei Qi; Hongdeng Qiu; Suomin Wang; Keliang Shi; Youwen Xu; Zhang Mingliang; Bo Liu; Huijun Yao; Jie Liu; Wangsuo Wu; Xiaoli Wang

    2014-11-12

    Many signs indicate that the graphene could widely occur on the early Earth. Here, we report a new theory that graphene might be an embryo of protocell membrane, and found several evidences. Firstly, the graphene oxide and phospholipid-graphene oxide composite would curl into capsules in strongly acidic saturated solution of Pb(NO3)2 at low temperature, providing a protective space for biochemical reactions. Secondly, L-animi acids exhibit higher reactivity than D-animi acids for graphene oxides in favor of the formation of left-handed proteins. Thirdly, monolayer graphene with nanopores prepared by unfocused 84Kr25+ has high selectivity for permeation of the monovalent metal ions (Rb+ > K+ > Cs+ > Na+ > Li+), but does not allow Cl- through, which could be attributed to the ion exchange of oxygen-containing groups on the rim of nanopores. It is similar to K+ channels, which would cause efflux of some ions from capsule of graphene oxides with the decrease of pH in the primitive ocean, creating a suitable inner condition for the origin of life. Consequently, the strongly acidic, high salinity and strong radiation as well as temperature changes in the early Earth, regarded as negative factors, would be indispensable for the origin of protocell. In short, graphene bred life, but digested gradually by the evolution.

  13. The Landau-Zener transition and the surface hopping method for the 2D Dirac equation for graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jin, Shi

    The Landau-Zener transition and the surface hopping method for the 2D Dirac equation for graphene dimensional massless Dirac equation for Graphene with an electrostatic potential, in the semiclassical regime in a single graphene layer. This material is a two-dimensional flat monolayer of carbon atoms which displays

  14. Polyethylene composites containing a phase change material having a C14 straight chain hydrocarbon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

    1987-01-01

    A composite useful in thermal energy storage, said composite being formed of a polyethylene matrix having a straight chain alkyl hydrocarbon incorporated therein, said polyethylene being crosslinked to such a degree that said polyethylene matrix is form stable and said polyethylene matrix is capable of absorbing at least 10% by weight of said straight chain alkyl hydrocarbon; the composite is useful in forming pellets or sheets having thermal energy storage characteristics.

  15. Computational Study of the Development of Graphene Based Devices 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bellido Sosa, Edson

    2012-02-14

    Graphene is a promising material for many technological applications. To realize these applications, new fabrication techniques that allow precise control of the physical properties, as well as large scale integration between single devices...

  16. Tearing graphene sheets from adhesive substrates produces tapered nanoribbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sen, Dipanjan

    Graphene is a truly two-dimensional atomic crystal with exceptional electronic and mechanical properties. Whereas conventional bulk and thin-film materials have been studied extensively, the key mechanical properties of ...

  17. Graphene as a manufactured product : a look forward

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frost, Stephen T

    2013-01-01

    Graphene's unique electrical and mechanical properties have brought it into the spotlight in recent years. With the number of patents increasing rapidly every year, production of the material is becoming more and more ...

  18. FY 2008 Progress Report for Lightweighting Materials- 8. Polymer Composites Research and Development

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Lightweighting Materials focuses on the development and validation of advanced materials and manufacturing technologies to reduce automobile weight without compromising other attributes.

  19. Twist Solves Bilayer Graphene Mystery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    spectroscopy (ARPES) to bilayer graphene. Through direct band-structure measurements and calculations, they discovered that in the stacking of graphene monolayers,...

  20. Search for: graphene | DOE PAGES

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    graphene Find + Advanced Search Advanced Search All Fields: graphene Title: Full Text: Bibliographic Data: Creator Author: Name Name ORCID Search Authors Type: All Accepted...

  1. SciTech Connect: graphene

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    graphene Find + Advanced Search Term Search Semantic Search Advanced Search All Fields: graphene Semantic Semantic Term Title: Full Text: Bibliographic Data: Creator Author:...

  2. Surprising Quasiparticle Interactions in Graphene

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Surprising Quasiparticle Interactions in Graphene Surprising Quasiparticle Interactions in Graphene Print Wednesday, 31 October 2007 00:00 Until now, the world's electronics have...

  3. Chemically anchored NiOxcarbon composite fibers for Li-ion batteries with long cycle-life and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    the research hot-pot of NiO based anodes for LIBs. Amorphous carbon, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and carbon enhanced properties.16,17 Carbon nanotubes were also used to prepare NiO­carbon composites via a surfaceO­gra- phene commonly began with nickel salts and graphene oxide, and the resultant NiO­graphene composites

  4. A model for prediction of the damage and effects of explosive projectiles on helicopter composite material rotor blades 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mikel, Tilden Newton

    1982-01-01

    Projectiles on Helicopter Composite Material Rotor Blades. (December 1982) Tilden Newton Nikel, B. S. , Texas AAM University; N . S . , Texas A&N University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. Clarence L. Hough Jr. A number of damage models have been.... The funding for the ballistic tests conducted during this research was provided 'by Bell Helicopter Textron, Inc. , Fort cnorth, Texs s, TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT. . . . . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ACKNOWLEDGMENT TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES. LIST...

  5. Wetting and energetics in nanoparticle etching of graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sujit S. Datta

    2010-08-12

    Molten metallic nanoparticles have recently been used to construct graphene nanostructures with crystallographic edges. The mechanism by which this happens, however, remains unclear. Here, we present a simple model that explains how a droplet can etch graphene. Two factors possibly contribute to this process: a difference between the equilibrium wettability of graphene and the substrate that supports it, or the large surface energy associated with the graphene edge. We calculate the etching velocities due to either of these factors and make testable predictions for evaluating the significance of each in graphene etching. This model is general and can be applied to other materials systems as well. As an example, we show how our model can be used to extend a current theory of droplet motion on binary semiconductor surfaces.

  6. Graphene - A rising star in view of scientometrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barth, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    We have carried out a scientometric analysis of the literature dealing with graphene, a material which has been identified as a new carbon allotrope. The investigation is based on the CAplus database of Chemical Abstracts Service, the INSPEC database of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and the Web of Science (WoS) of Thomson Reuters. The time evolution of the publications shows a dramatic increase since 2004 when graphene has been isolated for the first time. The graphene literature has been analyzed with respect to the most productive authors, research organizations, countries of authors, and the leading journals. Furthermore, the time evolution of the major graphene based research topics and the top 10 most productive research organizations with respect to their specific topics have been analyzed and are shown as heat maps. In addition, the graphene research landscape has been established using the analysis tool STN AnaVist. Finally, a brief citation analysis has been performed. The tim...

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF ADVANCED DRILL COMPONENTS FOR BHA USING MICROWAVE TECHNOLOGY INCORPORATING CARBIDE, DIAMOND COMPOSITES AND FUNCTIONALLY GRADED MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dinesh Agrawal; Rustum Roy

    2003-01-01

    The microwave processing of materials is a new emerging technology with many attractive advantages over the conventional methods. The advantages of microwave technology for various ceramic systems has already been demonstrated and proven. The recent developments at Penn State have succeeded in applying the microwave technology for the commercialization of WC/Co and diamond based cutting and drilling tools, effectively sintering of metallic materials, and fabrication of transparent ceramics for advanced applications. In recent years, the Microwave Processing and Engineering Center at Penn State University in collaboration with our industrial partner, Dennis Tool Co. has succeeded in commercializing the developed microwave technology partially funded by DOE for WC/Co and diamond based cutting and drilling tools for gas and oil exploration operations. In this program we have further developed this technology to make diamond-carbide composites and metal-carbide-diamond functionally graded materials. Several actual product of diamond-carbide composites have been processed in microwave with better performance than the conventional product. The functionally graded composites with diamond as one of the components has been for the first time successfully developed. These are the highlights of the project.

  8. Trifluoromethylation of graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Lin; Zhou, Lushan; Wang, Xi; Yu, Jingwen; Yang, Mingmei; Wang, Jianbo; Peng, Hailin, E-mail: zfliu@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: hlpeng@pku.edu.cn; Liu, Zhongfan, E-mail: zfliu@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: hlpeng@pku.edu.cn [Center for Nanochemistry, Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, State Key Laboratory for Structural Chemistry of Unstable and Stable Species, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-09-01

    We demonstrate trifluoromethylation of graphene by copper-catalyzed free radical reaction. The covalent addition of CF{sub 3} to graphene, which changes the carbon atom hybridization from sp{sup 2} to sp{sup 3}, and modifies graphene in a homogeneous and nondestructive manner, was verified with Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that CF{sub 3} groups are grafted to the basal plane of graphene, with about 4 at. % CF{sub 3} coverage. After trifluoromethylation, the average resistance increases by nearly one order of magnitude, and an energy gap of about 98 meV appears. The noninvasive and mild reaction to synthesize trifluoromethylated graphene paves the way for graphene's applications in electronics and biomedical areas.

  9. Surface-Induced Hybridization between Graphene and Titanium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, Allen L.; Koch, Roland J.; Ong, Mitchell T.; Fang, Wenjing; Hofmann, Mario; Kim, Ki Kang; Seyller, Thomas; Dresselhaus, Mildred S.; Reed, Evan J.; Kong, Jing; Palacios, Tomás

    2014-08-26

    Carbon-based materials such as graphene sheets and carbon nanotubes have inspired a broad range of applications ranging from high-speed flexible electronics all the way to ultrastrong membranes. However, many of these applications are limited by the complex interactions between carbon-based materials and metals. In this work, we experimentally investigate the structural interactions between graphene and transition metals such as palladium (Pd) and titanium (Ti), which have been confirmed by density functional simulations. We find that the adsorption of titanium on graphene is more energetically favorable than in the case of most metals, and density functional theory shows that a surface induced p-d hybridization occurs between atomic carbon and titanium orbitals. This strong affinity between the two materials results in a short-range ordered crystalline deposition on top of graphene as well as chemical modifications to graphene as seen by Raman and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). This induced hybridization is interface-specific and has major consequences for contacting graphene nanoelectronic devices as well as applications toward metal-induced chemical functionalization of graphene.

  10. Electronic and Spintronic Properties of Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pi, Keyu

    2010-01-01

    lifetime in graphene)……………47 4.3: Device preparation (ebeambetween TM and graphene. 3.2: Device preparation (ebeamspin relaxation in graphene? 4.3: Device preparation (ebeam

  11. Chemistry at the Dirac Point of Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarkar, Santanu

    2013-01-01

    used today for the preparation of graphene oxide, rGO andengineering in graphene and preparation of electrochemicallypreparation, isolation, and characterization of graphene.

  12. Carbon Nanotube and Graphene Nanoelectromechanical Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aleman, Benjamin Jose

    2011-01-01

    conventional serial preparation of graphene TEM grids orMembranes The preparation of suspended graphene structuresreports on graphene TEM grid preparation[84]. Electron di?

  13. Electronic Transport in Few-layer Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Zeng

    2013-01-01

    in Charge Neutral Bilayer Graphene Introduction In thisstudy on heterogeneous graphene devices in a differentto probe few layer graphene to determine their dependence on

  14. Electrical and Mechanical Properties of Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bao, Wenzhong

    2011-01-01

    Transport in a Suspended Graphene Sheet, Phys. Rev. Lett. ,Novoselov, The rise of graphene, Nat. Mater. , 6 (2007) [24]mobility in suspended graphene, Sol. State Commun. , 146 (

  15. Electrical Transport in Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Gang

    2010-01-01

    Introduction to Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene Single wallCarbon nanotubes and graphene are the most popular Carbonin the Normal Metal – Graphene – Superconductor Junctions

  16. Transport Properties of Bilayer Graphene Nanoribbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Minsheng

    2013-01-01

    operation in single-layer graphene ferroelectric memory”.Mobility in Suspended Graphene. Solid State Commun. 2008,Transport in Suspended Graphene. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2008,

  17. Local Density of States in Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Ling

    2011-01-01

    Continuum Hamiltonian for the graphene in the presence of afingerprints for adatoms in graphene: scanning tunnelingxi 4.10 Graphene LDOS at the adatom site (top carbon case)

  18. Symmetry Breaking in Few Layer Graphene Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    Biased bilayer graphene: semiconductor with a gap tunable bytemperature, graphene is a gapless semiconductor or a zero-semiconductor two dimensional electron gases), graphene ?lms

  19. Transport Properties of Bilayer Graphene Nanoribbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Minsheng

    2013-01-01

    Biased Bilayer Graphene: Semiconductor with a Gap Tunable byUltrasmooth Graphene Nanoribbon Semiconductors. Sciencedimensional semiconductors and single-layer graphene films (

  20. Graphene plasmonics for light trapping and absorption engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jianfa; Liu, Wei; Yuan, Xiaodong; Qin, Shiqiao

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonics can be used to improve absorption in optoelectronic devices and has been intensively studied for solar cells and photodetectors. Graphene has recently emerged as a powerful plasmonic material. It shows significantly less losses compared to traditional plasmonic materials such as gold and silver and its plasmons can be tuned by changing the Fermi energy with chemical or electrical doping. Here we propose the usage of graphene plasmonics for light trapping in optoelectronic devices and show that the excitation of localized plasmons in doped, nanostructured graphene can enhance optical absorption in its surrounding media including both bulky and two-dimensional materials by tens of times, which may lead to a new generation of highly efficient, spectrally selective photodetectors in mid-infrared and THz ranges. The proposed concept could even revolutionize the field of plasmonic solar cells if graphene plasmons in the visible and near-infrared are realized.

  1. Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    semiconductor devices at low temperatures and high magnetic fields). Among its novel properties, graphene's electrical charge carriers (electrons and holes) move through a solid...

  2. Controlling Graphene's Electronic Structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    was reopened by the excess of electron charge-carriers on the graphene's surface layer. Progressive potassium deposition further enhanced the n-type doping. These results...

  3. Tunable nonlinear graphene metasurfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smirnova, Daria A; Kivshar, Yuri S; Khanikaev, Alexander B

    2015-01-01

    We introduce the concept of nonlinear graphene metasurfaces employing the controllable interaction between a graphene layer and a planar metamaterial. Such hybrid metasurfaces support two types of subradiant resonant modes, asymmetric modes of structured metamaterial elements ("metamolecules") and graphene plasmons exhibiting strong mutual coupling and avoided dispersion crossing. High tunability of graphene plasmons facilitates strong interaction between the subradiant modes, modifying the spectral position and lifetime of the associated Fano resonances. We demonstrate that strong resonant interaction, combined with the subwavelength localization of plasmons, leads to the enhanced nonlinear response and high efficiency of the second-harmonic generation.

  4. Thermal Properties of Graphene-Copper-Graphene Heterogeneous Pradyumna Goli,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thermal Properties of Graphene-Copper-Graphene Heterogeneous Films Pradyumna Goli, Hao Ning that gra- phene-Cu-graphene heterogeneous films reveal strongly enhanced thermal conductivity as compared to the reference Cu and annealed Cu films. Chemical vapor deposition of a single atomic plane of graphene on both

  5. Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 15, 197215, 2009 MODELING OF SHIELDING COMPOSITE MATERIALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koledintseva, Marina Y.

    Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 15, 197­215, 2009 MODELING OF SHIELDING COMPOSITE inclusions are required in many engineering applications, especially, for the design of microwave shielding enclosures to ensure electromagnetic compatibility and electromagnetic immunity. Herein, multilayer shielding

  6. Graphene Monolayer Rotation on Ni(111) Facilities Bilayer Graphene Growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batzill M.; Sutter P.; Dahal, A.; Addou, R.

    2012-06-11

    Synthesis of bilayer graphene by chemical vapor deposition is of importance for graphene-based field effect devices. Here, we demonstrate that bilayer graphene preferentially grows by carbon-segregation under graphene sheets that are rotated relative to a Ni(111) substrate. Rotated graphene monolayer films can be synthesized at growth temperatures above 650 C on a Ni(111) thin-film. The segregated second graphene layer is in registry with the Ni(111) substrate and this suppresses further C-segregation, effectively self-limiting graphene formation to two layers.

  7. Unconventional Integer Quantum Hall effect in graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. P. Gusynin; S. G. Sharapov

    2005-08-16

    Monolayer graphite films, or graphene, have quasiparticle excitations that can be described by 2+1 dimensional Dirac theory. We demonstrate that this produces an unconventional form of the quantized Hall conductivity $\\sigma_{xy} = - (2 e^2/h)(2n+1)$ with $n=0,1,...$, that notably distinguishes graphene from other materials where the integer quantum Hall effect was observed. This unconventional quantization is caused by the quantum anomaly of the $n=0$ Landau level and was discovered in recent experiments on ultrathin graphite films.

  8. Microsoft PowerPoint - Dirac Materials QDM Mar 2015 short

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Dirac Materials? *Similarities and differences between d-wave superconductors, Graphene and Topological Insulators: All are Dirac materials with some common features...

  9. Resonant Visible Light Modulation with Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Renwen; de Abajo, F Javier Garcia

    2015-01-01

    Fast modulation and switching of light at visible and near-infrared (vis-NIR) frequencies is of utmost importance for optical signal processing and sensing technologies. No fundamental limit appears to prevent us from designing wavelength-sized devices capable of controlling the light phase and intensity at gigaherts (and even terahertz) speeds in those spectral ranges. However, this problem remains largely unsolved, despite recent advances in the use of quantum wells and phase-change materials for that purpose. Here, we explore an alternative solution based upon the remarkable electro-optical properties of graphene. In particular, we predict unity-order changes in the transmission and absorption of vis-NIR light produced upon electrical doping of graphene sheets coupled to realistically engineered optical cavities. The light intensity is enhanced at the graphene plane, and so is its absorption, which can be switched and modulated via Pauli blocking through varying the level of doping. Specifically, we explor...

  10. Role of material properties and mesostructure on dynamic deformation and shear instability in Al-W granular composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. L. Olney; P. H. Chiu; C. W. Lee; V. F. Nesterenko; D. J. Benson

    2011-05-24

    Dynamic experiments with Al-W granular/porous composites revealed qualitatively different behavior with respect to shear localization depending on bonding between Al particles. Two-dimensional numerical modeling was used to explore the mesomechanics of the large strain dynamic deformation in Al-W granular/porous composites and explain the experimentally observed differences in shear localization between composites with various mesostructures. Specifically, the bonding between the Al particles, the porosity, the roles of the relative particle sizes of Al and W, the arrangements of the W particles, and the material properties of Al were investigated using numerical calculations. It was demonstrated in simulations that the bonding between the "soft" Al particles facilitated shear localization as seen in the experiments. Numerical calculations and experiments revealed that the mechanism of the shear localization in granular composites is mainly due to the local high strain flow of "soft" Al around the "rigid" W particles causing localized damage accumulation and subsequent growth of the meso/macro shear bands/cracks. The "rigid" W particles were the major geometrical factor determining the initiation and propagation of "kinked" shear bands in the matrix of "soft" Al particles, leaving some areas free of extensive plastic deformation as observed in experiments and numerical calculations.

  11. Use of magnetic carbon composites from renewable resource materials for oil spill clean up and recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Viswanathan, Tito

    2015-10-27

    A method of separating a liquid hydrocarbon material from a body of water, includes: (a) mixing magnetic carbon-metal nanocomposites with a liquid hydrocarbon material dispersed in a body of water to allow the magnetic carbon-metal nanocomposites each to be adhered by the liquid hydrocarbon material to form a mixture; (b) applying a magnetic force to the mixture to attract the magnetic carbon-metal nanocomposites each adhered by the liquid hydrocarbon material; and (c) removing the body of water from the magnetic carbon-metal nanocomposites each adhered by the liquid hydrocarbon material while maintaining the applied magnetic force. The magnetic carbon-metal nanocomposites is formed by subjecting one or more metal lignosulfonates or metal salts to microwave radiation, in presence of lignin/derivatives either in presence of alkali or a microwave absorbing material, for a period of time effective to allow the carbon-metal nanocomposites to be formed.

  12. Stretchable Graphene Barriers for Organic Optoelectronic Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kong, Casey

    2015-01-01

    buckling of monolayer graphene on a stretchable substrate.B. & Peeters, F. M. Graphene: A perfect nanoballoon. Appl.Yoon, H. W. & Park, H. B. Graphene and graphene oxide and

  13. Method for rapid fabrication of fiber preforms and structural composite materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klett, James W. (Knoxville, TN); Burchell, Timothy D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bailey, Jeffrey L. (Clinton, TN)

    1998-01-01

    A densified carbon matrix carbon fiber composite preform is made by vacuum molding an aqueous slurry of carbon fibers and carbonizable organic powder to form a molded part. The molded part is dried in an oven at 50.degree. C. for 14 hours and hot pressed at 2000 psi at 400.degree. C. for 3 hours. The hot pressed part is carbonized at 650.degree. C. under nitrogen for 3 hours and graphitized at 2400.degree. C. to form a graphitic structure in the matrix of the densified carbon matrix carbon fiber composite preform. The densified preform has a density greater than 1.1 g/cc.

  14. Method for rapid fabrication of fiber preforms and structural composite materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klett, James W. (Knoxville, TN); Burchell, Timothy D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bailey, Jeffrey L. (Clinton, TN)

    1999-01-01

    A densified carbon matrix carbon fiber composite preform is made by vacuum molding an aqueous slurry of carbon fibers and carbonizable organic powder to form a molded part. The molded part is dried in an oven at 50.degree. C. for 14 hours and hot pressed at 2000 psi at 400.degree. C. for 3 hours. The hot pressed part is carbonized at 650.degree. C. under nitrogen for 3 hours and graphite at 2400.degree. C. to form a graphitic structure in the matrix of the densified carbon matrix carbon fiber composite preform. The densified preform has a density greater than 1.1 g/cc.

  15. Method for rapid fabrication of fiber preforms and structural composite materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klett, J.W.; Burchell, T.D.; Bailey, J.L.

    1999-02-16

    A densified carbon matrix carbon fiber composite preform is made by vacuum molding an aqueous slurry of carbon fibers and carbonizable organic powder to form a molded part. The molded part is dried in an oven at 50 C for 14 hours and hot pressed at 2000 psi at 400 C for 3 hours. The hot pressed part is carbonized at 650 C under nitrogen for 3 hours and graphitized at 2400 C to form a graphitic structure in the matrix of the densified carbon matrix carbon fiber composite preform. The densified preform has a density greater than 1.1 g/cc. 12 figs.

  16. Method for rapid fabrication of fiber preforms and structural composite materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klett, J.W.; Burchell, T.D.; Bailey, J.L.

    1998-04-28

    A densified carbon matrix carbon fiber composite preform is made by vacuum molding an aqueous slurry of carbon fibers and carbonizable organic powder to form a molded part. The molded part is dried in an oven at 50 C for 14 hours and hot pressed at 2,000 psi at 400 C for 3 hours. The hot pressed part is carbonized at 650 C under nitrogen for 3 hours and graphitized at 2,400 C to form a graphitic structure in the matrix of the densified carbon matrix carbon fiber composite preform. The densified preform has a density greater than 1.1 g/cc. 12 figs.

  17. Approach of the constitutive material behaviour of textile composites through simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Damien Durville

    2008-04-18

    A complete approach for the determination of the complex constitutive behaviour of textile composites through finite element simulation is presented in this paper. In this work, simulations of different loading cases are carried out on small samples of textile composites, taking into account all individual fibers of the fabric and interactions taking place between them. The most delicate issue is related to the modelling of contact-friction interactions between fibers,and the solution of the nonlinear problem that follows up by the means of robust algorithms. The efficiency of these algorithms, and the increase of capacities of high performance computing, allow to simulate samples made of several hundreds of interlocked fibers.

  18. Emergent gravity in graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. A. Zubkov; G. E. Volovik

    2013-08-09

    We reconsider monolayer graphene in the presence of elastic deformations. It is described by the tight - binding model with varying hopping parameters. We demonstrate, that the fermionic quasiparticles propagate in the emergent 2D Weitzenbock geometry and in the presence of the emergent U(1) gauge field. Both emergent geometry and the gauge field are defined by the elastic deformation of graphene.

  19. FY 2009 Progress Report for Lightweighting Materials- 8. Polymer Composites Research and Development

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The primary Lightweight Materials activity goal is to validate a cost-effective weight reduction in total vehicle weight while maintaining safety, performance, and reliability.

  20. Theory of the spontaneous buckling of doped graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doron Gazit

    2009-03-11

    Graphene is a realization of an esoteric class of materials -- electronic crystalline membranes. We study the interplay between the free electrons and the two-dimensional crystal, and find that it induces a substantial effect on the elastic structure of the membrane. For the hole-doped membrane, in particular, we predict a spontaneous buckling. In addition, attenuation of elastic waves is expected, due to the effect of corrugations on the bulk modulus. These discoveries have a considerable magnitude in graphene, affecting both its mesoscopic structure, and its electrical resistivity, which has an inherent asymmetry between hole- and electron-doped graphene.

  1. On the isothermal geometry of corrugated graphene sheets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrzej Trzesowski

    2014-12-22

    Variational geometries describing corrugated graphene sheets are proposed. The isothermal thermomechanical properties of these sheets are described by a 2-dimensional Weyl space. The equation that couples the Weyl geometry with isothermal distributions of the temperature of graphene sheets, is formulated. This material space is observed in a 3-dimensional orthogonal configurational point space as regular surfaces which are endowed with a thermal state vector field fulfilling the isothermal thermal state equation. It enables to introduce a non-topological dimensionless thermal shape parameter of non-developable graphene sheets. The properties of the congruence of lines generated by the thermal state vector field are discussed.

  2. Thermal Transport in Graphene Multilayers and Nanoribbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subrina, Samia

    2011-01-01

    in semiconductor device structures with graphene layersconventional semiconductor device structures with graphenemetal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. Graphene is an

  3. Forward model calculations for determining isotopic compositions of materials used in a radiological dispersal device 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burk, David Edward

    2005-08-29

    of the RDD debris. The objective of this research was to benchmark a forward model methodology for predicting isotopic composition of spent nuclear fuel used in an RDD while at the same time optimizing the fidelity of the model to reduce computational time...

  4. Impact of graphene coating on the atom-plate interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. L. Klimchitskaya; V. M. Mostepanenko

    2014-06-23

    Using the recently proposed quantum electrodynamical formalism, we calculate the Casimir-Polder free energies and forces between the ground state atoms of Rb, Na, Cs and He${}^{\\ast}$ and the plates made of Au, Si, sapphire and fused silica coated with a graphene sheet. It is shown that the graphene coating has no effect on the Casimir-Polder interaction for metallic plates, but influences significantly for plates made of dielectric materials. The influence of graphene coating increases with decreasing static dielectric permittivity of the plate material and the characteristic frequency of an atomic dynamic polarizability. Simple analytic expressions for the classical limit of the Casimir-Polder free energy and force between an atom and a graphene-coated plate are obtained. From the comparison with the results of numerical computations, the application region of these expressions is determined.

  5. Graphene composite for improvement in the conversion efficiency of flexible poly 3-hexyl-thiophene:[6,6]-phenyl C{sub 71} butyric acid methyl ester polymer solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chauhan, A. K., E-mail: akchau@barc.gov.in, E-mail: akc.barc@gmail.com; Gusain, Abhay; Jha, P.; Koiry, S. P.; Saxena, Vibha; Veerender, P.; Aswal, D. K.; Gupta, S. K. [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India)

    2014-03-31

    The solution of thin graphene-sheets obtained from a simple ultrasonic exfoliation process was found to chemically interact with [6,6]-phenyl C{sub 71} butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) molecules. The thinner graphene-sheets have significantly altered the positions of highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of PCBM, which is beneficial for the enhancement of the open circuit voltage of the solar cells. Flexible bulk heterojunction solar cells fabricated using poly 3-hexylthiophene (P3HT):PCBM-graphene exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 2.51%, which is a ?2-fold increase as compared to those fabricated using P3HT:PCBM. Inclusion of graphene-sheets not only improved the open-circuit voltage but also enhanced the short-circuit current density owing to an improved electron transport.

  6. Substrate-induced band gap opening in epitaxial graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    step to make graphene a semiconductor is to dope grapheneDirac points, graphene is a zero gap semiconductor, and howconventional semiconductors. In single layer graphene, the

  7. Electric field dependence of the effective dielectric constant in graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    field Eext as in: 1.00 V/Å 0.10 V/Å #12;Graphene h-BN What about other 2D-materials? -MoO3 2D: not a metal, not a semiconductor Also apply for multilayer graphene #12;Polarization charge is field dependent The non-linear screening effect is the main reason behind of the electric tuning Other 2D-crystals, e

  8. Large-scale fabrication of BN tunnel barriers for graphene spintronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu, Wangyang; Makk, Péter; Maurand, Romain; Bräuninger, Matthias; Schönenberger, Christian

    2014-08-21

    We have fabricated graphene spin-valve devices utilizing scalable materials made from chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Both the spin-transporting graphene and the tunnel barrier material are CVD-grown. The tunnel barrier is realized by Hexagonal boron nitride, used either as a monolayer or bilayer and placed over the graphene. Spin transport experiments were performed using ferromagnetic contacts deposited onto the barrier. We find that spin injection is still greatly suppressed in devices with a monolayer tunneling barrier due to resistance mismatch. This is, however, not the case for devices with bilayer barriers. For those devices, a spin relaxation time of ?260 ps intrinsic to the CVD graphene material is deduced. This time scale is comparable to those reported for exfoliated graphene, suggesting that this CVD approach is promising for spintronic applications which require scalable materials.

  9. Nanostructured thin film thermoelectric composite materials using conductive polymer PEDOT:PSS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuryak, Chris A. (Chris Adam)

    2013-01-01

    Thermoelectric materials have the ability to convert heat directly into electricity. This clean energy technology has advantages over other renewable technologies in that it requires no sunlight, has no moving parts, and ...

  10. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Validation of Material Models for Automotive Carbon Fiber Composite Structures

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by General Motors at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about validation of material models...

  11. What is measured is managed : statistical analysis of compositional data towards improved materials recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lienhard, Jasper Z. (Jasper Zebulon)

    2015-01-01

    As materials consumption increases globally, minimizing the end-of-life impact of solid waste has become a critical challenge. Cost-effective methods of quantifying and tracking municipal solid waste contents and disposal ...

  12. Performance Assessment and Composit Analysis Material Disposal Area G Revision 4

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) generates radioactive waste as a result of various activities. Most is low-level radioactive waste that is disposed of at Technical Area (TA) 54, Area G. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1 requires that DOE field sites prepare and maintain site-specific radiological performance assessments and composite analyses for lowlevel radioactive waste disposal facilities that accept waste after September 26, 1988. This report presents the radiological performance assessment and composite analysis for TA 54, Area G. The performance assessment and composite analysis model the long-term performance of the Area G disposal facility so that the risk posed by the disposed waste to human health and safety and the environment can be determined. Rates of radionuclide release from the waste and the transport of these releases to locations accessible to humans are evaluated and used to project radiation doses that may be received by exposed persons. The release rates of radon gas from the disposal facility are also estimated. The dose and radon flux projections are compared to the performance objectives provided in DOE M 435.1 to evaluate the ability of the disposal facility to safely isolate the waste.

  13. Compositions of doped, co-doped and tri-doped semiconductor materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lynn, Kelvin (Pullman, WA; , Jones, Kelly (Colfax, WA); Ciampi, Guido (Watertown, MA)

    2011-12-06

    Semiconductor materials suitable for being used in radiation detectors are disclosed. A particular example of the semiconductor materials includes tellurium, cadmium, and zinc. Tellurium is in molar excess of cadmium and zinc. The example also includes aluminum having a concentration of about 10 to about 20,000 atomic parts per billion and erbium having a concentration of at least 10,000 atomic parts per billion.

  14. Effect of external stress on moisture diffusion in an epoxy resin and its composite material 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henson, Michael Chamberlain

    1986-01-01

    ) Michael Chamberlain Henson, B. S. , Texas A&N University Chairman of Advisory Comnittee: Dr. Y. Weitsman The effects of stress on moisture diffusion in a graphite epoxy composrte material have been studied experimentally by examining the correspondrng... diffusion at all stress levels while the graphite epoxy generated results indicative of Non-Fickean, . concentration dependent diffusion at different levels of stress. The external stress affected both materials in a similar manner, causing...

  15. Use of magnetic carbon composites from renewable resource materials for oil spill clean up and recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Viswanathan, Tito

    2014-02-11

    A method for separating a liquid hydrocarbon material from a body of water. In one embodiment, the method includes the steps of mixing a plurality of magnetic carbon-metal nanocomposites with a liquid hydrocarbon material dispersed in a body of water to allow the plurality of magnetic carbon-metal nanocomposites each to be adhered by an amount of the liquid hydrocarbon material to form a mixture, applying a magnetic force to the mixture to attract the plurality of magnetic carbon-metal nanocomposites each adhered by an amount of the liquid hydrocarbon material, and removing said plurality of magnetic carbon-metal nanocomposites each adhered by an amount of the liquid hydrocarbon material from said body of water while maintaining the applied magnetic force, wherein the plurality of magnetic carbon-metal nanocomposites is formed by subjecting one or more metal lignosulfonates or metal salts to microwave radiation, in presence of lignin/derivatives either in presence of alkali or a microwave absorbing material.

  16. Conductance Quantization of Massless Dirac Fermions and the Synthesis, Characterization, and Manipulation of Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Girit, Caglar

    2010-01-01

    processes in graphene [38]. . . . . . . . . . . . . .Graphene exfoliation and transferiv Bibliography A Graphene Theory A.1 Band

  17. Multifunctional composites : healing, heating and electromagnetic integration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plaisted, Thomas Anthony John

    2007-01-01

    the Resitance Welding of Thermoplastic Composite Materials."Investigation." Journal of Thermoplastic Composite Materialsof Resistance Welded Thermoplastic Composites." Polymer

  18. Self-assembly of colloid-cholesteric composites provides a possible route to switchable optical materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Stratford; O. Henrich; J. S. Lintuvuori; M. E. Cates; D. Marenduzzo

    2015-04-19

    Colloidal particles dispersed in liquid crystals can form new materials with tunable elastic and electro-optic properties. In a periodic `blue phase' host, particles should template into colloidal crystals with potential uses in photonics, metamaterials, and transformational optics. Here we show by computer simulation that colloid/cholesteric mixtures can give rise to regular crystals, glasses, percolating gels, isolated clusters, twisted rings and undulating colloidal ropes. This structure can be tuned via particle concentration, and by varying the surface interactions of the cholesteric host with both the particles and confining walls. Many of these new materials are metastable: two or more structures can arise under identical thermodynamic conditions. The observed structure depends not only on the formulation protocol, but also on the history of an applied electric field. This new class of soft materials should thus be relevant to design of switchable, multistable devices for optical technologies such as smart glass and e-paper.

  19. Concrete compositions and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Irvin; Lee, Patricia Tung; Patterson, Joshua

    2015-06-23

    Provided herein are compositions, methods, and systems for cementitious compositions containing calcium carbonate compositions and aggregate. The compositions find use in a variety of applications, including use in a variety of building materials and building applications.

  20. Semiconductor quantum dots enhanced graphene/CdTe heterostructure solar cells by photo-induced doping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Xiaoqiang; Wang, Peng; Xu, Zhijuan; Zhong, Huikai; Wu, Zhiqian; Lin, Shisheng

    2015-01-01

    Photo-induced doping is employed into graphene based solar cell through designing of a novel type of solar cell based on graphene/CdTe Schottky heterostructure. By coating a layer of ultrathin CdSe quantum dots onto graphene/CdTe heterostructure, the performance of the graphene/CdTe solar cell is improved by about 50%. Photo-induced doping is mainly accounted for this enhancement, as evidenced by resistance, photoluminescence and quantum efficiency measurements. This work demonstrates a general and feasible way of designing novel type of solar cells based on two dimensional materials/semiconductor heterostructures.

  1. Optical and morphological properties of graphene sheets decorated with ZnO nanowires via polyol enhancement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, Vinay, E-mail: winn201@gmail.com; Rajaura, Rajveer Singh, E-mail: winn201@gmail.com [Centre for Converging Technologies, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur - 302004 (India); Sharma, Preetam K.; Srivastava, Subodh; Vijay, Y. K. [Department of Physics, Thin Film and Membrane Science Lab., University of Rajasthan, Jaipur - 302004 (India); Sharma, S. S. [Department of Physics, Govt. Women Engineering College, Ajmer- 305002 (India)

    2014-04-24

    Graphene-ZnO nanocomposites have proven to be very useful materials for photovoltaic and sensor applications. Here, we report a facile, one-step in situ polymerization method for synthesis of graphene sheets randomly decorated with zinc oxide nanowires using ethylene glycol as solvent. We have used hydrothermal treatment for growth of ZnO nanowires. UV-visible spectra peak shifting around 288nm and 307 nm shows the presence of ZnO on graphene structure. Photoluminiscence spectra (PL) in 400nm-500nm region exhibits the luminescence quenching effect. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image confirms the growth of ZnO nanowires on graphene sheets.

  2. ECCM15 -15TH EUROPEAN CONFERENCE ON COMPOSITE MATERIALS, Venice, Italy, 24-28 June 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and the various types of damage modes within the material, 3D X-ray tomography and laminography offers the ability-SCALE 3D IMAGING OF CARBON FIBRE LAMINATE IMPACT AND COMPRESSION AFTER IMPACT DAMAGE USING COMPUTED: impact damage, compression after impact, computed tomography, laminography Abstract 3D X-ray computed

  3. Single-Molecule Microscopy Studies of Electric-Field Poling in Chromophore-Polymer Composite Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reid, Philip J.

    Materials Paul M. Wallace, Daniel R. B. Sluss, Larry R. Dalton, Bruce H. Robinson, and Philip J. Reid-Williams-Watts law ranging from 0.7 to 1 with KWW ) 0.83. This observation is consistent with previous studies

  4. Lithium ion batteries with titania/graphene anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Jun; Choi, Daiwon; Yang, Zhenguo; Wang, Donghai; Graff, Gordon L; Nie, Zimin; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V; Zhang, Jason; Xu, Wu; Kim, Jin Yong

    2013-05-28

    Lithium ion batteries having an anode comprising at least one graphene layer in electrical communication with titania to form a nanocomposite material, a cathode comprising a lithium olivine structure, and an electrolyte. The graphene layer has a carbon to oxygen ratio of between 15 to 1 and 500 to 1 and a surface area of between 400 and 2630 m.sup.2/g. The nanocomposite material has a specific capacity at least twice that of a titania material without graphene material at a charge/discharge rate greater than about 10 C. The olivine structure of the cathode of the lithium ion battery of the present invention is LiMPO.sub.4 where M is selected from the group consisting of Fe, Mn, Co, Ni and combinations thereof.

  5. Uranium isotopic composition and uranium concentration in special reference material SRM A (uranium in KCl/LiCl salt matrix)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graczyk, D.G.; Essling, A.M.; Sabau, C.S.; Smith, F.P.; Bowers, D.L.; Ackerman, J.P.

    1997-07-01

    To help assure that analysis data of known quality will be produced in support of demonstration programs at the Fuel Conditioning Facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West (Idaho Falls, ID), a special reference material has been prepared and characterized. Designated SRM A, the material consists of individual units of LiCl/KCl eutectic salt containing a nominal concentration of 2.5 wt. % enriched uranium. Analyses were performed at Argonne National Laboratory-East (Argonne, IL) to determine the uniformity of the material and to establish reference values for the uranium concentration and uranium isotopic composition. Ten units from a batch of approximately 190 units were analyzed by the mass spectrometric isotope dilution technique to determine their uranium concentration. These measurements provided a mean value of 2.5058 {+-} 0.0052 wt. % U, where the uncertainty includes estimated limits to both random and systematic errors that might have affected the measurements. Evidence was found of a small, apparently random, non-uniformity in uranium content of the individual SRM A units, which exhibits a standard deviation of 0.078% of the mean uranium concentration. Isotopic analysis of the uranium from three units, by means of thermal ionization mass spectrometry with a special, internal-standard procedure, indicated that the uranium isotopy is uniform among the pellets with a composition corresponding to 0.1115 {+-} 0.0006 wt. % {sup 234}U, 19.8336 {+-} 0.0059 wt. % {sup 235}U, 0.1337 {+-} 0.0006 wt. % {sup 236}U, and 79.9171 {+-} 0.0057 wt. % {sup 238}U.

  6. Proximity-induced giant spin-orbit interaction in epitaxial graphene on topological insulator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jin, Kyung-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Heterostructures of Dirac materials such as graphene and topological insulators provide interesting platforms to explore exotic quantum states of electrons in solids. Here we study the electronic structure of graphene-Sb2Te3 heterostructure using density functional theory and tight-binding methods. We show that the epitaxial graphene on Sb2Te3 turns into quantum spin-Hall phase due to its proximity to the topological insulating Sb2Te3. It is found that the epitaxial graphene develops a giant spin-orbit gap of about ~20 meV, which is about three orders of magnitude larger than that of pristine graphene. We discuss the origin of such enhancement of the spin-orbit interaction and possible outcomes of the spin-Hall phase in graphene.

  7. The different adsorption mechanism of methane molecule onto a boron nitride and a graphene flakes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seyed-Talebi, Seyedeh Mozhgan; Neek-Amal, M.

    2014-10-21

    Graphene and single layer hexagonal boron-nitride are two newly discovered 2D materials with wonderful physical properties. Using density functional theory, we study the adsorption mechanism of a methane molecule over a hexagonal flake of single layer hexagonal boron-nitride (h-BN) and compare the results with those of graphene. We found that independent of the used functional in our ab-initio calculations, the adsorption energy in the h-BN flake is larger than that for graphene. Despite of the adsorption energy profile of methane over a graphene flake, we show that there is a long range behavior beyond minimum energy in the adsorption energy of methane over h-BN flake. This result reveals the higher sensitivity of h-BN sheet to the adsorption of a typical closed shell molecule with respect to graphene. The latter gives insight in the recent experiments of graphene over hexagonal boron nitride.

  8. Clean Energy Manufacturing Innovation Institute for Composites...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Clean Energy Manufacturing Innovation Institute for Composites Materials and Structures Clean Energy Manufacturing Innovation Institute for Composites Materials and Structures...

  9. Clean Energy Manufacturing Innovation Institute for Composite...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Clean Energy Manufacturing Innovation Institute for Composite Materials And Structures Webinar Clean Energy Manufacturing Innovation Institute for Composite Materials And...

  10. Electrochemical preparation of poly(methylene blue)/graphene nanocomposite thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erçar?kc?, Elif; Da?c?, Kader; Topçu, Ezgi; Alanyal?o?lu, Murat

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • Poly(MB)/graphene thin films are prepared by a simple electrochemical approach. • Graphene layers in the film show a broad band in visible region of absorbance spectra. • Morphology of composite films indicates both disordered and ordered regions. • XRD reveals that nanocomposite films include rGO layers after electropolymerization process. • Chemically prepared graphene is better than electrochemically prepared graphene for electrooxidation of nitrite. - Abstract: Poly(methylene blue)/graphene nanocomposite thin films were prepared by electropolymerization of methylene blue in the presence of graphene which have been synthesized by two different methods of a chemical oxidation process and an electrochemical approach. Synthesized nanocomposite thin films were characterized by using cyclic voltammetry, UV–vis. absorption spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, and scanning tunneling microscopy techniques. Electrocatalytical properties of prepared poly(methylene blue)/graphene nanocomposite films were compared toward electrochemical oxidation of nitrite. Under optimized conditions, electrocatalytical effect of nanocomposite films of chemically prepared graphene through electrochemical oxidation of nitrite was better than that of electrochemically prepared graphene.

  11. Methanol adsorption on graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schroder, Elsebeth

    2013-01-01

    The adsorption energies and orientation of methanol on graphene are determined from first-principles density functional calculations. We employ the well-tested vdW-DF method that seamlessly includes dispersion interactions with all of the more close-ranged interactions that result in bonds like the covalent and hydrogen bonds. The adsorption of a single methanol molecule and small methanol clusters on graphene are studied at various coverages. Adsorption in clusters or at high coverages (less than a monolayer) is found to be preferable, with the methanol C-O axis approximately parallel to the plane of graphene. The adsorption energies calculated with vdW-DF are compared with previous DFT-D and MP2-based calculations for single methanol adsorption on flakes of graphene (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons). For the high coverage adsorption energies we also find reasonably good agreement with previous desorption measurements.

  12. Uncertainties in Gapped Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eylee Jung; Kwang S. Kim; DaeKil Park

    2012-03-20

    Motivated by graphene-based quantum computer we examine the time-dependence of the position-momentum and position-velocity uncertainties in the monolayer gapped graphene. The effect of the energy gap to the uncertainties is shown to appear via the Compton-like wavelength $\\lambda_c$. The uncertainties in the graphene are mainly contributed by two phenomena, spreading and zitterbewegung. While the former determines the uncertainties in the long-range of time, the latter gives the highly oscillation to the uncertainties in the short-range of time. The uncertainties in the graphene are compared with the corresponding values for the usual free Hamiltonian $\\hat{H}_{free} = (p_1^2 + p_2^2) / 2 M$. It is shown that the uncertainties can be under control within the quantum mechanical law if one can choose the gap parameter $\\lambda_c$ freely.

  13. Levitated Spinning Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. E. Kane

    2010-06-18

    A method is described for levitating micron-sized few layer graphene flakes in a quadrupole ion trap. Starting from a liquid suspension containing graphene, charged flakes are injected into the trap using the electrospray ionization technique and are probed optically. At micro-torr pressures, torques from circularly polarized light cause the levitated particles to rotate at frequencies >1 MHz, which can be inferred from modulation of light scattering off the rotating flake when an electric field resonant with the rotation rate is applied. Possible applications of these techniques will be presented, both to fundamental measurements of the mechanical and electronic properties of graphene and to new approaches to graphene crystal growth, modification and manipulation.

  14. Magnetic Catalysis in Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christopher Winterowd; Carleton DeTar; Savvas Zafeiropoulos

    2015-09-22

    One of the most important developments in condensed matter physics in recent years has been the discovery and characterization of graphene. A two-dimensional layer of Carbon arranged in a hexagonal lattice, graphene exhibits many interesting electronic properties, most notably that the low energy excitations behave as massless Dirac fermions. These excitations interact strongly via the Coulomb interaction and thus non-perturbative methods are necessary. Using methods borrowed from lattice QCD, we study the graphene effective theory in the presence of an external magnetic field. Graphene, along with other $(2+1)$-dimensional field theories, has been predicted to undergo spontaneous breaking of flavor symmetry including the formation of a gap as a result of the external magnetic field. This phenomenon is known as magnetic catalysis. Our study investigates magnetic catalysis using a fully non-perturbative approach.

  15. Magnetic Catalysis in Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winterowd, Christopher; Zafeiropoulos, Savvas

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important developments in condensed matter physics in recent years has been the discovery and characterization of graphene. A two-dimensional layer of Carbon arranged in a hexagonal lattice, graphene exhibits many interesting electronic properties, most notably that the low energy excitations behave as massless Dirac fermions. These excitations interact strongly via the Coulomb interaction and thus non-perturbative methods are necessary. Using methods borrowed from lattice QCD, we study the graphene effective theory in the presence of an external magnetic field. Graphene, along with other $(2+1)$-dimensional field theories, has been predicted to undergo spontaneous breaking of flavor symmetry including the formation of a gap as a result of the external magnetic field. This phenomenon is known as magnetic catalysis. Our study investigates magnetic catalysis using a fully non-perturbative approach.

  16. Enhanced transmission modulation based on dielectric metasurfaces loaded with graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Argyropoulos, Christos

    2015-01-01

    We present a hybrid graphene dielectric metasurface design to achieve strong tunable and modulated transmission at near-infrared (near-IR) frequencies. The proposed device is constituted by periodic pairs of asymmetric silicon nanobars placed over a silica substrate. An one-atom-thick graphene sheet is positioned between the nanobars and the substrate. The in-plane electromagnetic fields are highly localized and enhanced with this all-dielectric metasurface due to its zero Ohmic losses at near-IR wavelengths. They strongly interact with graphene and couple to its properties. Sharp Fano transmission is obtained at the resonant frequency of this hybrid all-dielectric metasurface configuration due to the cancelation of the electric and magnetic dipole responses at this frequency point. The properties of the graphene monolayer flake can be adjusted by tuning its Fermi energy or chemical potential, leading to different doping levels and, equivalently, material parameters. As a result, the Q factor and the Fano res...

  17. Faraday rotation in graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. V. Fialkovsky; D. V. Vassilevich

    2012-11-29

    We study magneto--optical properties of monolayer graphene by means of quantum field theory methods in the framework of the Dirac model. We reveal a good agreement between the Dirac model and a recent experiment on giant Faraday rotation in cyclotron resonance. We also predict other regimes when the effects are well pronounced. The general dependence of the Faraday rotation and absorption on various parameters of samples is revealed both for suspended and epitaxial graphene.

  18. Simulation of the frequency dispersion of effective dielectric characteristics of composite materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yakovlev, V. B.; Bardushkin, V. V.; Lavrov, I. V. Yakovleva, E. N.

    2014-12-15

    The problems of calculating the effective dielectric characteristics of polycrystalline materials are considered taking into account the frequency dependence of the characteristics of individual components. The effective characteristics of ceramics such as lead zirconate-titanate with titanium and zirconium oxide, metal lead, and water inclusions are calculated in the Maxwell-Garnett and Bruggeman approximations. The dependences of the effective dielectric characteristics on the inclusion concentration and applied electromagnetic-field frequency are obtained.

  19. Supplementary Material Cover Sheet1 Temporal Variations of Organic Composition in the Tropical and Marine Atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    Supplementary Material Cover Sheet1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Temporal@nus.edu.sg Submitted to: Number of tables: 1 S1 #12;1. Background on forest and peat fires in Indonesia21 22 23 24 conditions of 1997-98 and 2006, thousands of fires raged in the peat swamps of Indonesia. Fires in peat

  20. Graphene folding on flat substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Xiaoming; Zhao, Yadong; Ke, Changhong, E-mail: cke@binghamton.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, State University of New York at Binghamton, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States); Zhang, Liuyang; Wang, Xianqiao [College of Engineering, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602 (United States)

    2014-10-28

    We present a combined experimental-theoretical study of graphene folding on flat substrates. The structure and deformation of the folded graphene sheet are experimentally characterized by atomic force microscopy. The local graphene folding behaviors are interpreted based on nonlinear continuum mechanics modeling and molecular dynamics simulations. Our study on self-folding of a trilayer graphene sheet reports a bending stiffness of about 6.57?eV, which is about four times the reported values for monolayer graphene. Our results reveal that an intriguing free sliding phenomenon occurs at the interlayer van der Waals interfaces during the graphene folding process. This work demonstrates that it is a plausible venue to quantify the bending stiffness of graphene based on its self-folding conformation on flat substrates. The findings reported in this work are useful to a better understanding of the mechanical properties of graphene and in the pursuit of its applications.