National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for gram kilogram metric

  1. Metrics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Metrics Metrics Los Alamos expands its innovation network by engaging in sponsored research and licensing across technical disciplines. These agreements are the basis of a working relationship with industry and other research institutions and highlight the diversity of our collaborations. Los Alamos has a remarkable 70-year legacy of creating entirely new technologies that have revolutionized the country's understanding of science and engineering. Collaborations Data from Fiscal Year 2014. FY14

  2. STAR METRICS

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy continues to define Phase II of the STAR METRICS program, a collaborative initiative to track Research and Development expenditures and their outcomes. Visit the STAR METRICS website for...

  3. ARM - Instrument - grams

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govInstrumentsgrams Documentation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Instrument : Ground Radiometer Autonomous Measurement System (GRAMS) Note: grams is currently inactive and/or retired. Active Dates 1997.10.15 - 2000.08.25 Instrument Categories Radiometric Picture of the Ground-based Radiometer Autonomous Measurement System (GRAMS) Output Datastreams gramscalftsbbr : GRAMS: calibration information for

  4. Resilience Metrics

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Quadrennial Energy Review Technical Workshop on Resilience Metrics for Energy Transmission and Distribution Infrastructure April 28, 2014 Infrastructure Assurance Center ...

  5. Metric Presentation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... MODERN GRID S T R A T E G Y 14 14 Value Metrics - Work to date Reliability Outage duration and frequency Momentary outages Power Quality measures Security Ratio of distributed ...

  6. performance metrics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    performance metrics - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear

  7. Metric Presentation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MODERN GRID S T R A T E G Y Smart Grid Metrics Monitoring our Progress Smart Grid Implementation Workshop Joe Miller - Modern Grid Team June 19, 2008 1 Conducted by the National Energy Technology Laboratory Funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability 2 Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability MODERN GRID S T R A T E G Y Many are working on the Smart Grid FERC DOE-OE Grid 2030 GridWise Alliance EEI NERC (FM) DOE/NETL Modern Grid

  8. ARM - 2008 Performance Metrics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmospheric System Research (ASR) Earth System Modeling Regional & Global Climate Modeling Terrestrial Ecosystem Science Performance Metrics User Meetings Past ARM Science Team ...

  9. ARM - 2006 Performance Metrics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmospheric System Research (ASR) Earth System Modeling Regional & Global Climate Modeling Terrestrial Ecosystem Science Performance Metrics User Meetings Past ARM Science Team ...

  10. ARM - 2007 Performance Metrics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmospheric System Research (ASR) Earth System Modeling Regional & Global Climate Modeling Terrestrial Ecosystem Science Performance Metrics User Meetings Past ARM Science Team ...

  11. NIF Target Shot Metrics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    target shot metrics NIF Target Shot Metrics Exp Cap - Experimental Capability Natl Sec Appl - National Security Applications DS - Discovery Science ICF - Inertial Confinement Fusion HED - High Energy Density For internal LLNL firewall viewing - if the page is blank, please open www.google.com to flush out BCB

  12. Surveillance metrics sensitivity study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamada, Michael S.; Bierbaum, Rene Lynn; Robertson, Alix A.

    2011-09-01

    In September of 2009, a Tri-Lab team was formed to develop a set of metrics relating to the NNSA nuclear weapon surveillance program. The purpose of the metrics was to develop a more quantitative and/or qualitative metric(s) describing the results of realized or non-realized surveillance activities on our confidence in reporting reliability and assessing the stockpile. As a part of this effort, a statistical sub-team investigated various techniques and developed a complementary set of statistical metrics that could serve as a foundation for characterizing aspects of meeting the surveillance program objectives. The metrics are a combination of tolerance limit calculations and power calculations, intending to answer level-of-confidence type questions with respect to the ability to detect certain undesirable behaviors (catastrophic defects, margin insufficiency defects, and deviations from a model). Note that the metrics are not intended to gauge product performance but instead the adequacy of surveillance. This report gives a short description of four metrics types that were explored and the results of a sensitivity study conducted to investigate their behavior for various inputs. The results of the sensitivity study can be used to set the risk parameters that specify the level of stockpile problem that the surveillance program should be addressing.

  13. Metric Construction | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Metric Construction Jump to: navigation, search Name: Metric Construction Place: Boston, MA Information About Partnership with NREL Partnership with NREL Yes Partnership Type Test...

  14. Cyber threat metrics.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frye, Jason Neal; Veitch, Cynthia K.; Mateski, Mark Elliot; Michalski, John T.; Harris, James Mark; Trevino, Cassandra M.; Maruoka, Scott

    2012-03-01

    Threats are generally much easier to list than to describe, and much easier to describe than to measure. As a result, many organizations list threats. Fewer describe them in useful terms, and still fewer measure them in meaningful ways. This is particularly true in the dynamic and nebulous domain of cyber threats - a domain that tends to resist easy measurement and, in some cases, appears to defy any measurement. We believe the problem is tractable. In this report we describe threat metrics and models for characterizing threats consistently and unambiguously. The purpose of this report is to support the Operational Threat Assessment (OTA) phase of risk and vulnerability assessment. To this end, we focus on the task of characterizing cyber threats using consistent threat metrics and models. In particular, we address threat metrics and models for describing malicious cyber threats to US FCEB agencies and systems.

  15. Preliminary Results of Voloxidation Processing of Kilogram Quantities of Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer, Barry B; DelCul, Guillermo D; Jubin, Robert Thomas; Owens, R Steven; Ramey, Dan W; Collins, Emory D

    2009-01-01

    Advanced nuclear fuel processing methodologies are being studied as part of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) program at ORNL. To support this initiative, processes and equipment were deployed at ORNL to perform all steps in the recycle process on actual used nuclear fuels, ranging from used fuel receipt to production of products and waste forms at the kilogram-scale (with capacity to process 20 kg of used fuel per year in up to four campaigns). In the first campaign, approximately 4 kg of used fuel was processed. As previously reported, the head-end processing was completed using saw-segmented Dresden fuel in lab-scale equipment in multiple batches. The second processing campaign used a new single pin shear and a new bench-scale voloxidizer to perform the dry head-end treatment prior to fuel dissolution. Approximately ~5 kg of used fuel (heavy metal basis) was processed in the second campaign. Two different fuels were oxidized in three separate batches to provide a range of processing conditions. The material used for each batch and general processing conditions are summarized in Table 1. Progress of the oxidation reaction was monitored continuously by two primary measurements; the concentration of oxygen in the effluent stream which was depressed as the oxygen was consumed, and the concentration of krypton-85 in the effluent stream as measured by a gamma counter on the off-gas pipeline. Table 1. Voloxidation test conditions for second campaign. Batch Fuel Source Burnup (GWd/MT)Batch size (kg*)/(kg**)Segment Length (in) Oxidation GasOperation Temperature ( C) 1Surry-2361.223/1.7041.0Air500 2North Anna63 702.071/2.8850.88Air600 3North Anna63 702.012/2.8030.88Oxygen600 * Heavy metal basis. ** Total fuel (oxide + cladding) basis. Fission product gases evolved from the fuel during the oxidation process were trapped for subsequent chemical and radiochemical analysis. The series of traps included a bed of molecular sieves to recover tritium (as HTO), silver

  16. Transformation of gram positive bacteria by sonoporation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Yunfeng; Li, Yongchao

    2014-03-11

    The present invention provides a sonoporation-based method that can be universally applied for delivery of compounds into Gram positive bacteria. Gram positive bacteria which can be transformed by sonoporation include, for example, Bacillus, Streptococcus, Acetobacterium, and Clostridium. Compounds which can be delivered into Gram positive bacteria via sonoporation include nucleic acids (DNA or RNA), proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, viruses, small organic and inorganic molecules, and nano-particles.

  17. Metrics for Energy Resilience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul E. Roege; Zachary A. Collier; James Mancillas; John A. McDonagh; Igor Linkov

    2014-09-01

    Energy lies at the backbone of any advanced society and constitutes an essential prerequisite for economic growth, social order and national defense. However there is an Achilles heel to today?s energy and technology relationship; namely a precarious intimacy between energy and the fiscal, social, and technical systems it supports. Recently, widespread and persistent disruptions in energy systems have highlighted the extent of this dependence and the vulnerability of increasingly optimized systems to changing conditions. Resilience is an emerging concept that offers to reconcile considerations of performance under dynamic environments and across multiple time frames by supplementing traditionally static system performance measures to consider behaviors under changing conditions and complex interactions among physical, information and human domains. This paper identifies metrics useful to implement guidance for energy-related planning, design, investment, and operation. Recommendations are presented using a matrix format to provide a structured and comprehensive framework of metrics relevant to a system?s energy resilience. The study synthesizes previously proposed metrics and emergent resilience literature to provide a multi-dimensional model intended for use by leaders and practitioners as they transform our energy posture from one of stasis and reaction to one that is proactive and which fosters sustainable growth.

  18. Retaining large and adjustable elastic strains of kilogram-scale Nb nanowires [Better Superconductor by Elastic Strain Engineering: Kilogram-scale Free-Standing Niobium Metal Composite with Large Retained Elastic Strains

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hao, Shijie; Cui, Lishan; Wang, Hua; Jiang, Daqiang; Liu, Yinong; Yan, Jiaqiang; Ren, Yang; Han, Xiaodong; Brown, Dennis E.; Li, Ju

    2016-02-10

    Crystals held at ultrahigh elastic strains and stresses may exhibit exceptional physical and chemical properties. Individual metallic nanowires can sustain ultra-large elastic strains of 4-7%. However, retaining elastic strains of such magnitude in kilogram-scale nanowires is challenging. Here, we find that under active load, ~5.6% elastic strain can be achieved in Nb nanowires in a composite material. Moreover, large tensile (2.8%) and compressive (-2.4%) elastic strains can be retained in kilogram-scale Nb nanowires when the composite is unloaded to a free-standing condition. It is then demonstrated that the retained tensile elastic strains of Nb nanowires significantly increase their superconducting transitionmore » temperature and critical magnetic fields, corroborating ab initio calculations based on BCS theory. This free-standing nanocomposite design paradigm opens new avenues for retaining ultra-large elastic strains in great quantities of nanowires and elastic-strain-engineering at industrial scale.« less

  19. Ames Laboratory Metrics | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Metrics Document Number: NA Effective Date: 01/2016 File (public): PDF icon ameslab_metrics_01-14-16

  20. ARM: GRAMS: data from the total solar broadband radiometer (TBBR...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    solar broadband radiometer (TBBR) Title: ARM: GRAMS: data from the total solar broadband radiometer (TBBR) GRAMS: data from the total solar broadband radiometer (TBBR) Authors: ...

  1. ARM: GRAMS: calibration information for the total solar broadband...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    solar broadband radiometer (TBBR) Title: ARM: GRAMS: calibration information for the total solar broadband radiometer (TBBR) GRAMS: calibration information for the total solar ...

  2. ARM: GRAMS: data from the total direct diffuse radiometer (TDDR...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    direct diffuse radiometer (TDDR) Title: ARM: GRAMS: data from the total direct diffuse radiometer (TDDR) GRAMS: data from the total direct diffuse radiometer (TDDR) Authors: ...

  3. Variable metric conjugate gradient methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barth, T.; Manteuffel, T.

    1994-07-01

    1.1 Motivation. In this paper we present a framework that includes many well known iterative methods for the solution of nonsymmetric linear systems of equations, Ax = b. Section 2 begins with a brief review of the conjugate gradient method. Next, we describe a broader class of methods, known as projection methods, to which the conjugate gradient (CG) method and most conjugate gradient-like methods belong. The concept of a method having either a fixed or a variable metric is introduced. Methods that have a metric are referred to as either fixed or variable metric methods. Some relationships between projection methods and fixed (variable) metric methods are discussed. The main emphasis of the remainder of this paper is on variable metric methods. In Section 3 we show how the biconjugate gradient (BCG), and the quasi-minimal residual (QMR) methods fit into this framework as variable metric methods. By modifying the underlying Lanczos biorthogonalization process used in the implementation of BCG and QMR, we obtain other variable metric methods. These, we refer to as generalizations of BCG and QMR.

  4. Daylight metrics and energy savings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mardaljevic, John; Heschong, Lisa; Lee, Eleanor

    2009-12-31

    The drive towards sustainable, low-energy buildings has increased the need for simple, yet accurate methods to evaluate whether a daylit building meets minimum standards for energy and human comfort performance. Current metrics do not account for the temporal and spatial aspects of daylight, nor of occupants comfort or interventions. This paper reviews the historical basis of current compliance methods for achieving daylit buildings, proposes a technical basis for development of better metrics, and provides two case study examples to stimulate dialogue on how metrics can be applied in a practical, real-world context.

  5. Ethanol production in Gram-positive microbes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ingram, L.O.; Barbosa-Alleyne, M.D.F.

    1996-01-09

    The subject invention concerns the transformation of Gram-positive bacteria with heterologous genes which confer upon these microbes the ability to produce ethanol as a fermentation product. Specifically exemplified is the transformation of bacteria with genes, obtainable from Zymomonas mobilis, which encode pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase. 2 figs.

  6. Ethanol production in Gram-positive microbes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ingram, L.O.; Barbosa-Alleyne, M.D.F.

    1999-06-29

    The subject invention concerns the transformation of Gram-positive bacteria with heterologous genes which confer upon these microbes the ability to produce ethanol as a fermentation product. Specifically exemplified is the transformation of bacteria with genes, obtainable from Zymomonas mobilis, which encode pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase. 2 figs.

  7. Ethanol production in gram-positive microbes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ingram, Lonnie O'Neal; Barbosa-Alleyne, Maria D. F.

    1999-01-01

    The subject invention concerns the transformation of Gram-positive bacteria with heterologous genes which confer upon these microbes the ability to produce ethanol as a fermentation product. Specifically exemplified is the transformation of bacteria with genes, obtainable from Zymomonas mobilis, which encode pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase.

  8. Ethanol production in Gram-positive microbes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ingram, Lonnie O'Neal; Barbosa-Alleyne, Maria D. F.

    1996-01-01

    The subject invention concerns the transformation of Gram-positive bacteria with heterologous genes which confer upon these microbes the ability to produce ethanol as a fermentation product. Specifically exemplified is the transformation of bacteria with genes, obtainable from Zymomonas mobilis, which encode pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase.

  9. List of SEP Reporting Metrics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE State Energy Program List of Reporting Metrics, which was produced by the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program for SEP and the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grants (EECBG) programs.

  10. Common Carbon Metric | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Common Carbon Metric Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Common Carbon Metric AgencyCompany Organization: United Nations Environment Programme, World...

  11. Performance Metrics Tiers | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Performance Metrics Tiers Performance Metrics Tiers The performance metrics defined by the Commercial Buildings Integration Program offer different tiers of information to address the needs of various users. On this page you will find information about the various goals users are trying to achieve by using performance metrics and the tiers of metrics. Goals in Measuring Performance Many individuals and groups are involved with a building over its lifetime, and all have different interests in and

  12. Thermodynamic Metrics and Optimal Paths

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sivak, David; Crooks, Gavin

    2012-05-08

    A fundamental problem in modern thermodynamics is how a molecular-scale machine performs useful work, while operating away from thermal equilibrium without excessive dissipation. To this end, we derive a friction tensor that induces a Riemannian manifold on the space of thermodynamic states. Within the linear-response regime, this metric structure controls the dissipation of finite-time transformations, and bestows optimal protocols with many useful properties. We discuss the connection to the existing thermodynamic length formalism, and demonstrate the utility of this metric by solving for optimal control parameter protocols in a simple nonequilibrium model.

  13. Multi-Metric Sustainability Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cowlin, S.; Heimiller, D.; Macknick, J.; Mann, M.; Pless, J.; Munoz, D.

    2014-12-01

    A readily accessible framework that allows for evaluating impacts and comparing tradeoffs among factors in energy policy, expansion planning, and investment decision making is lacking. Recognizing this, the Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis (JISEA) funded an exploration of multi-metric sustainability analysis (MMSA) to provide energy decision makers with a means to make more comprehensive comparisons of energy technologies. The resulting MMSA tool lets decision makers simultaneously compare technologies and potential deployment locations.

  14. Comparing Resource Adequacy Metrics: Preprint

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Comparing Resource Adequacy Metrics Preprint E. Ibanez and M. Milligan National Renewable Energy Laboratory To be presented at the 13th International Workshop on Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power into Power Systems as Well as on Transmission Networks for Offshore Wind Power Plants Berlin, Germany November 11-13, 2014 Conference Paper NREL/CP-5D00-62847 September 2014 NOTICE The submitted manuscript has been offered by an employee of the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC (Alliance), a

  15. EECBG SEP Attachment 1 - Process metric list

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    10-07B/SEP 10-006A Attachment 1: Process Metrics List Metric Area Metric Primary or Optional Metric Item(s) to Report On 1. Building Retrofits 1a. Buildings retrofitted, by sector Number of buildings retrofitted Square footage of buildings retrofitted 1b. Energy management systems installed, by sector Number of energy management systems installed Square footage of buildings under management 1c. Building roofs retrofitted, by sector Number of building roofs retrofitted Square footage of building

  16. Module 6- Metrics, Performance Measurements and Forecasting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This module reviews metrics such as cost and schedule variance along with cost and schedule performance indices.

  17. Definition of GPRA08 benefits metrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    Background information for the FY 2007 GPRA methodology review on the definitions of GPRA08 benefits metrics.

  18. Buildings Performance Metrics Terminology | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Performance Metrics Terminology Buildings Performance Metrics Terminology This document provides the terms and definitions used in the Department of Energys Performance Metrics Research Project. metrics_terminology_20090203.pdf (152.35 KB) More Documents & Publications Procuring Architectural and Engineering Services for Energy Efficiency and Sustainability Transmittal Letter for the Statewide Benchmarking Process Evaluation Guide for Benchmarking Residential Energy Efficiency Program

  19. Comparing Resource Adequacy Metrics: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ibanez, E.; Milligan, M.

    2014-09-01

    As the penetration of variable generation (wind and solar) increases around the world, there is an accompanying growing interest and importance in accurately assessing the contribution that these resources can make toward planning reserve. This contribution, also known as the capacity credit or capacity value of the resource, is best quantified by using a probabilistic measure of overall resource adequacy. In recognizing the variable nature of these renewable resources, there has been interest in exploring the use of reliability metrics other than loss of load expectation. In this paper, we undertake some comparisons using data from the Western Electricity Coordinating Council in the western United States.

  20. Methods for targetted mutagenesis in gram-positive bacteria

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Yunfeng

    2014-05-27

    The present invention provides a method of targeted mutagenesis in Gram-positive bacteria. In particular, the present invention provides a method that effectively integrates a suicide integrative vector into a target gene in the chromosome of a Gram-positive bacterium, resulting in inactivation of the target gene.

  1. Western Resource Adequacy: Challenges - Approaches - Metrics...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study (EWITS) (Revised) Conceptual Framework for Developing Resilience Metrics for the Electricity, Oil, and Gas Sectors in the United ...

  2. Microsoft Word - QER Resilience Metrics - Technical Workshp ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Workshop Resilience Metrics for Energy Transmission and Distribution Infrastructure Offices of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE) and Energy Policy and Systems ...

  3. Microsoft Word - QER Resilience Metrics - Technical Workshp ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Quadrennial Energy Review Technical Workshop on Resilience Metrics for Energy Transmission and Distribution Infrastructure April, 29th, 2014 777 North Capitol St NE Ste 300, ...

  4. Module 6 - Metrics, Performance Measurements and Forecasting...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    This module reviews metrics such as cost and schedule variance along with cost and schedule performance indices. In addition, this module will outline forecasting tools such as ...

  5. Efficient Synchronization Stability Metrics for Fault Clearing...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Efficient Synchronization Stability Metrics for Fault Clearing Authors: Backhaus, Scott N. 1 ; Chertkov, Michael 1 ; Bent, Russell Whitford 1 ; Bienstock, Daniel 2...

  6. Sheet1 Water Availability Metric (Acre-Feet/Yr) Water Cost Metric...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sheet1 Water Availability Metric (Acre-FeetYr) Water Cost Metric (Acre-Foot) Current Water Use (Acre-FeetYr) Projected Use in 2030 (Acre-FeetYr) HUC8 STATE BASIN SUBBASIN ...

  7. Smart Grid Status and Metrics Report Appendices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balducci, Patrick J.; Antonopoulos, Chrissi A.; Clements, Samuel L.; Gorrissen, Willy J.; Kirkham, Harold; Ruiz, Kathleen A.; Smith, David L.; Weimar, Mark R.; Gardner, Chris; Varney, Jeff

    2014-07-01

    A smart grid uses digital power control and communication technology to improve the reliability, security, flexibility, and efficiency of the electric system, from large generation through the delivery systems to electricity consumers and a growing number of distributed generation and storage resources. To convey progress made in achieving the vision of a smart grid, this report uses a set of six characteristics derived from the National Energy Technology Laboratory Modern Grid Strategy. The Smart Grid Status and Metrics Report defines and examines 21 metrics that collectively provide insight into the grid’s capacity to embody these characteristics. This appendix presents papers covering each of the 21 metrics identified in Section 2.1 of the Smart Grid Status and Metrics Report. These metric papers were prepared in advance of the main body of the report and collectively form its informational backbone.

  8. Metrics for border management systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duggan, Ruth Ann

    2009-07-01

    There are as many unique and disparate manifestations of border systems as there are borders to protect. Border Security is a highly complex system analysis problem with global, regional, national, sector, and border element dimensions for land, water, and air domains. The complexity increases with the multiple, and sometimes conflicting, missions for regulating the flow of people and goods across borders, while securing them for national security. These systems include frontier border surveillance, immigration management and customs functions that must operate in a variety of weather, terrain, operational conditions, cultural constraints, and geopolitical contexts. As part of a Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project 08-684 (Year 1), the team developed a reference framework to decompose this complex system into international/regional, national, and border elements levels covering customs, immigration, and border policing functions. This generalized architecture is relevant to both domestic and international borders. As part of year two of this project (09-1204), the team determined relevant relative measures to better understand border management performance. This paper describes those relative metrics and how they can be used to improve border management systems.

  9. Metrics for comparison of crystallographic maps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urzhumtsev, Alexandre; Afonine, Pavel V.; Lunin, Vladimir Y.; Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Adams, Paul D.

    2014-10-01

    Numerical comparison of crystallographic contour maps is used extensively in structure solution and model refinement, analysis and validation. However, traditional metrics such as the map correlation coefficient (map CC, real-space CC or RSCC) sometimes contradict the results of visual assessment of the corresponding maps. This article explains such apparent contradictions and suggests new metrics and tools to compare crystallographic contour maps. The key to the new methods is rank scaling of the Fourier syntheses. The new metrics are complementary to the usual map CC and can be more helpful in map comparison, in particular when only some of their aspects, such as regions of high density, are of interest.

  10. Technical Workshop: Resilience Metrics for Energy Transmission...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    List (55.27 KB) Sandia Report: Conceptual Framework for Developing Resilience Metrics for the Electricity, Oil, and Gas Sectors in the United States (14.49 MB) Sandia ...

  11. Clean Cities Annual Metrics Report 2009 (Revised)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, C.

    2011-08-01

    Document provides Clean Cities coalition metrics about the use of alternative fuels; the deployment of alternative fuel vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and idle reduction initiatives; fuel economy activities; and programs to reduce vehicle miles driven.

  12. FY 2014 Q3 Metric Summary | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    FY 2014 Overall Contract and Project Management Improvement Performance Metrics and Targets FY 2015 Overall Contract and Project Management Improvement Performance Metrics and ...

  13. Business Metrics for High-Performance Homes: A Colorado Springs...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Business Metrics for High-Performance Homes: A Colorado Springs Case Study Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Business Metrics for High-Performance Homes: ...

  14. Texas CO2 Capture Demonstration Project Hits Three Million Metric...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Texas CO2 Capture Demonstration Project Hits Three Million Metric Ton Milestone Texas CO2 Capture Demonstration Project Hits Three Million Metric Ton Milestone June 30, 2016 - ...

  15. Label-invariant Mesh Quality Metrics. (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Label-invariant Mesh Quality Metrics. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Label-invariant Mesh Quality Metrics. Abstract not provided. Authors: Knupp, Patrick Publication ...

  16. Implementing the Data Center Energy Productivity Metric

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sego, Landon H.; Marquez, Andres; Rawson, Andrew; Cader, Tahir; Fox, Kevin M.; Gustafson, William I.; Mundy, Christopher J.

    2012-10-01

    As data centers proliferate in both size and number, their energy efficiency is becoming increasingly important. We discuss the properties of a number of the proposed metrics of energy efficiency and productivity. In particular, we focus on the Data Center Energy Productivity (DCeP) metric, which is the ratio of useful work produced by the data center to the energy consumed performing that work. We describe our approach for using DCeP as the principal outcome of a designed experiment using a highly instrumented, high performance computing data center. We found that DCeP was successful in clearly distinguishing between different operational states in the data center, thereby validating its utility as a metric for identifying configurations of hardware and software that would improve (or even maximize) energy productivity. We also discuss some of the challenges and benefits associated with implementing the DCeP metric, and we examine the efficacy of the metric in making comparisons within a data center and among data centers.

  17. Instructions for EM Corporate Performance Metrics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Instructions for EM Corporate Performance Metrics Instructions for EM Corporate Performance Metrics Quality Program Criteria Instructions for EM Corporate Performance Metrics (128.47 KB) More Documents & Publications EM Corporate QA Performance Metrics CPMS Tables QA Corporate Board Meeting - July 2008

  18. Metrics for Evaluating the Accuracy of Solar Power Forecasting (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, J.; Hodge, B.; Florita, A.; Lu, S.; Hamann, H.; Banunarayanan, V.

    2013-10-01

    This presentation proposes a suite of metrics for evaluating the performance of solar power forecasting.

  19. Metrics for comparison of crystallographic maps

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Urzhumtsev, Alexandre; Afonine, Pavel V.; Lunin, Vladimir Y.; Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Adams, Paul D.

    2014-10-01

    Numerical comparison of crystallographic contour maps is used extensively in structure solution and model refinement, analysis and validation. However, traditional metrics such as the map correlation coefficient (map CC, real-space CC or RSCC) sometimes contradict the results of visual assessment of the corresponding maps. This article explains such apparent contradictions and suggests new metrics and tools to compare crystallographic contour maps. The key to the new methods is rank scaling of the Fourier syntheses. The new metrics are complementary to the usual map CC and can be more helpful in map comparison, in particular when only some of their aspects,more » such as regions of high density, are of interest.« less

  20. Enhanced Accident Tolerant LWR Fuels: Metrics Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shannon Bragg-Sitton; Lori Braase; Rose Montgomery; Chris Stanek; Robert Montgomery; Lance Snead; Larry Ott; Mike Billone

    2013-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) is conducting research and development on enhanced Accident Tolerant Fuels (ATF) for light water reactors (LWRs). This mission emphasizes the development of novel fuel and cladding concepts to replace the current zirconium alloy-uranium dioxide (UO2) fuel system. The overall mission of the ATF research is to develop advanced fuels/cladding with improved performance, reliability and safety characteristics during normal operations and accident conditions, while minimizing waste generation. The initial effort will focus on implementation in operating reactors or reactors with design certifications. To initiate the development of quantitative metrics for ATR, a LWR Enhanced Accident Tolerant Fuels Metrics Development Workshop was held in October 2012 in Germantown, MD. This paper summarizes the outcome of that workshop and the current status of metrics development for LWR ATF.

  1. EECBG SEP Attachment 1 - Process metric list | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SEP Attachment 1 - Process metric list EECBG SEP Attachment 1 - Process metric list Reporting Guidance Process Metric List eecbg_10_07b_sep__10_006a_attachment1_process_metric_list.pdf (93.56 KB) More Documents & Publications EECBG 10-07C/SEP 10-006B Attachment 1: Process Metrics List EECBG Program Notice 10-07A DOE Recovery Act Reporting Requirements for the State Energy Program

  2. Performance Metrics Research Project - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deru, M.; Torcellini, P.

    2005-10-01

    NREL began work for DOE on this project to standardize the measurement and characterization of building energy performance. NREL's primary research objectives were to determine which performance metrics have greatest value for determining energy performance and to develop standard definitions and methods of measuring and reporting that performance.

  3. Clean Cities 2011 Annual Metrics Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, C.

    2012-12-01

    This report details the petroleum savings and vehicle emissions reductions achieved by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program in 2011. The report also details other performance metrics, including the number of stakeholders in Clean Cities coalitions, outreach activities by coalitions and national laboratories, and alternative fuel vehicles deployed.

  4. Clean Cities 2010 Annual Metrics Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, C.

    2012-10-01

    This report details the petroleum savings and vehicle emissions reductions achieved by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program in 2010. The report also details other performance metrics, including the number of stakeholders in Clean Cities coalitions, outreach activities by coalitions and national laboratories, and alternative fuel vehicles deployed.

  5. Universal Gene Transfer Technology for Gram Positive Bacteria - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Universal Gene Transfer Technology for Gram Positive Bacteria Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication 11-G00255_ID2139_rev.pdf (493 KB) Technology Marketing SummaryA genetic engineering technology invented at ORNL facilitates DNA delivery to a cell by using ultrasound to permeate the cell's

  6. Energy Department Project Captures and Stores One Million Metric...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    One Million Metric Tons of Carbon Energy Department Project Captures and Stores One Million Metric Tons of Carbon January 8, 2015 - 11:18am Addthis News Media Contact 202-586-4940 ...

  7. Widget:CrazyEggMetrics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    CrazyEggMetrics Jump to: navigation, search This widget runs javascript code for the Crazy Egg user experience metrics. This should not be on all pages, but on select pages...

  8. Smart Grid Status and Metrics Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balducci, Patrick J.; Weimar, Mark R.; Kirkham, Harold

    2014-07-01

    To convey progress made in achieving the vision of a smart grid, this report uses a set of six characteristics derived from the National Energy Technology Laboratory Modern Grid Strategy. It measures 21 metrics to provide insight into the grid’s capacity to embody these characteristics. This report looks across a spectrum of smart grid concerns to measure the status of smart grid deployment and impacts.

  9. Financial Metrics Data Collection Protocol, Version 1.0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fowler, Kimberly M.; Gorrissen, Willy J.; Wang, Na

    2010-04-30

    Brief description of data collection process and plan that will be used to collect financial metrics associated with sustainable design.

  10. Nonmaximality of known extremal metrics on torus and Klein bottle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karpukhin, M A

    2013-12-31

    The El Soufi-Ilias theorem establishes a connection between minimal submanifolds of spheres and extremal metrics for eigenvalues of the Laplace-Beltrami operator. Recently, this connection was used to provide several explicit examples of extremal metrics. We investigate the properties of these metrics and prove that none of them is maximal. Bibliography: 24 titles.

  11. Annex A Metrics for the Smart Grid System Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Annex A Metrics for the Smart Grid System Report A.iii Table of Contents Introduction ........................................................................................................................................... A.1 Metric #1: The Fraction of Customers and Total Load Served by Real-Time Pricing, Critical Peak Pricing, and Time-of-Use Pricing ........................................................................................ A.2 Metric #2: Real-Time System Operations Data

  12. Metrics For Comparing Plasma Mass Filters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abraham J. Fetterman and Nathaniel J. Fisch

    2012-08-15

    High-throughput mass separation of nuclear waste may be useful for optimal storage, disposal, or environmental remediation. The most dangerous part of nuclear waste is the fission product, which produces most of the heat and medium-term radiation. Plasmas are well-suited to separating nuclear waste because they can separate many different species in a single step. A number of plasma devices have been designed for such mass separation, but there has been no standardized comparison between these devices. We define a standard metric, the separative power per unit volume, and derive it for three different plasma mass filters: the plasma centrifuge, Ohkawa filter, and the magnetic centrifugal mass filter. __________________________________________________

  13. Metrics for comparing plasma mass filters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2011-10-15

    High-throughput mass separation of nuclear waste may be useful for optimal storage, disposal, or environmental remediation. The most dangerous part of nuclear waste is the fission product, which produces most of the heat and medium-term radiation. Plasmas are well-suited to separating nuclear waste because they can separate many different species in a single step. A number of plasma devices have been designed for such mass separation, but there has been no standardized comparison between these devices. We define a standard metric, the separative power per unit volume, and derive it for three different plasma mass filters: the plasma centrifuge, Ohkawa filter, and the magnetic centrifugal mass filter.

  14. Clean Cities 2013 Annual Metrics Report

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    3 Annual Metrics Report Caley Johnson and Mark Singer National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technical Report NREL/TP-5400-62838 October 2014 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at www.nrel.gov/publications. Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 National Renewable Energy Laboratory 15013

  15. Clean Cities 2014 Annual Metrics Report

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    4 Annual Metrics Report Caley Johnson and Mark Singer National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technical Report NREL/TP-5400-65265 December 2015 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at www.nrel.gov/publications. Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 National Renewable Energy Laboratory 15013

  16. Metric redefinitions in Einstein-Aether theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foster, Brendan Z.

    2005-08-15

    'Einstein-Aether' theory, in which gravity couples to a dynamical, timelike, unit-norm vector field, provides a means for studying Lorentz violation in a generally covariant setting. Demonstrated here is the effect of a redefinition of the metric and 'aether' fields in terms of the original fields and two free parameters. The net effect is a change of the coupling constants appearing in the action. Using such a redefinition, one of the coupling constants can be set to zero, simplifying studies of solutions of the theory.

  17. Defining a Standard Metric for Electricity Savings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Marilyn; Akbari, Hashem; Blumstein, Carl; Koomey, Jonathan; Brown, Richard; Calwell, Chris; Carter, Sheryl; Cavanagh, Ralph; Chang, Audrey; Claridge, David; Craig, Paul; Diamond, Rick; Eto, Joseph H.; Fulkerson, William; Gadgil, Ashok; Geller, Howard; Goldemberg, Jose; Goldman, Chuck; Goldstein, David B.; Greenberg, Steve; Hafemeister, David; Harris, Jeff; Harvey, Hal; Heitz, Eric; Hirst, Eric; Hummel, Holmes; Kammen, Dan; Kelly, Henry; Laitner, Skip; Levine, Mark; Lovins, Amory; Masters, Gil; McMahon, James E.; Meier, Alan; Messenger, Michael; Millhone, John; Mills, Evan; Nadel, Steve; Nordman, Bruce; Price, Lynn; Romm, Joe; Ross, Marc; Rufo, Michael; Sathaye, Jayant; Schipper, Lee; Schneider, Stephen H; Sweeney, James L; Verdict, Malcolm; Vorsatz, Diana; Wang, Devra; Weinberg, Carl; Wilk, Richard; Wilson, John; Worrell, Ernst

    2009-03-01

    The growing investment by governments and electric utilities in energy efficiency programs highlights the need for simple tools to help assess and explain the size of the potential resource. One technique that is commonly used in this effort is to characterize electricity savings in terms of avoided power plants, because it is easier for people to visualize a power plant than it is to understand an abstraction such as billions of kilowatt-hours. Unfortunately, there is no standardization around the characteristics of such power plants. In this letter we define parameters for a standard avoided power plant that have physical meaning and intuitive plausibility, for use in back-of-the-envelope calculations. For the prototypical plant this article settles on a 500 MW existing coal plant operating at a 70percent capacity factor with 7percent T&D losses. Displacing such a plant for one year would save 3 billion kW h per year at the meter and reduce emissions by 3 million metric tons of CO2 per year. The proposed name for this metric is the Rosenfeld, in keeping with the tradition among scientists of naming units in honor of the person most responsible for the discovery and widespread adoption of the underlying scientific principle in question--Dr. Arthur H. Rosenfeld.

  18. Metrics for Measuring Progress Toward Implementation of the Smart Grid

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (June 2008) | Department of Energy Metrics for Measuring Progress Toward Implementation of the Smart Grid (June 2008) Metrics for Measuring Progress Toward Implementation of the Smart Grid (June 2008) Results of the breakout session discussions at the Smart Grid Implementation Workshop, June 19-20, 2008 Metrics for Measuring Progress Toward Implementation of the Smart Grid (308.23 KB) More Documents & Publications 5th Annual CHP Roadmap Workshop Breakout Group Results, September 2004

  19. Technical Workshop: Resilience Metrics for Energy Transmission and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Distribution Infrastructure | Department of Energy Resilience Metrics for Energy Transmission and Distribution Infrastructure Technical Workshop: Resilience Metrics for Energy Transmission and Distribution Infrastructure During this workshop, EPSA invited technical experts from industry, national laboratories, academia, and NGOs to discuss the state of play of and need for resilience metrics and how they vary by natural gas, liquid fuels and electric grid infrastructures. Issues important to

  20. Measuring energy efficiency: Opportunities from standardization and common metrics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Measuring energy efficiency: Opportunities from standardization and common metrics For 2016 EIA Energy Conference July 11, 2016 | Washington, D.C. By Stacy Angel, Energy Information Portfolio Analyst Carol White, Senior Energy Efficiency Analyst How is the importance of measuring energy efficiency changing? * The number of energy efficiency policies and programs is growing. * Common metrics help measure progress towards multiple objectives. * Clear metrics help consumers make informed energy

  1. Integration of the EM Corporate QA Performance Metrics With Performance

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Analysis Process | Department of Energy the EM Corporate QA Performance Metrics With Performance Analysis Process Integration of the EM Corporate QA Performance Metrics With Performance Analysis Process August 2009 Presenter: Robert Hinds, Savannah River Remediation, LLC Track 9-12 Topics Covered: Implementing CPMS for QA Corporate QA Performance Metrics Contractor Performance Analysis Contractor Assessment Programs Assessment Program Structure CPMS Integration with P/A Process Validating

  2. Clean Cities 2013 Annual Metrics Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, C.; Singer, M.

    2014-10-01

    Each year, the U.S. Department of Energy asks its Clean Cities program coordinators to submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Data and information are submitted via an online database that is maintained as part of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators submit a range of data that characterize the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also submit data about sales of alternative fuels, deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), idle-reduction (IR) initiatives, fuel economy activities, and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into petroleum-use reduction impacts, which are summarized in this 2013 Annual Metrics Report.

  3. Metrics correlation and analysis service (MCAS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baranovski, Andrew; Dykstra, Dave; Garzoglio, Gabriele; Hesselroth, Ted; Mhashilkar, Parag; Levshina, Tanya; /Fermilab

    2009-05-01

    The complexity of Grid workflow activities and their associated software stacks inevitably involves multiple organizations, ownership, and deployment domains. In this setting, important and common tasks such as the correlation and display of metrics and debugging information (fundamental ingredients of troubleshooting) are challenged by the informational entropy inherent to independently maintained and operated software components. Because such an information 'pond' is disorganized, it a difficult environment for business intelligence analysis i.e. troubleshooting, incident investigation and trend spotting. The mission of the MCAS project is to deliver a software solution to help with adaptation, retrieval, correlation, and display of workflow-driven data and of type-agnostic events, generated by disjoint middleware.

  4. Clean Cities 2014 Annual Metrics Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Caley; Singer, Mark

    2015-12-22

    Each year, the U.S. Department of Energy asks its Clean Cities program coordinators to submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Data and information are submitted via an online database that is maintained as part of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators submit a range of data that characterize the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also submit data about sales of alternative fuels, deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), idle-reduction (IR) initiatives, fuel economy activities, and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into petroleum-use reduction impacts, which are summarized in this 2014 Annual Metrics Report.

  5. Conceptual Framework for Developing Resilience Metrics for the...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    for the Electricity, Oil, and Gas Sectors in the United States (September 2015) Conceptual Framework for Developing Resilience Metrics for the Electricity, Oil, and Gas Sectors in ...

  6. Office of HC Strategy Budget and Performance Metrics (HC-50)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Office of Human Capital Strategy, Budget, and Performance Metrics provides strategic direction and advice to its stakeholders through the integration of budget analysis, workforce projections,...

  7. EM Corporate QA Performance Metrics | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    QA Corporate Board Meeting - November 2008 Instructions for EM Corporate Performance Metrics FY 2015 SENIOR EXECUTIVE SERVICE (SES) AND SENIOR PROFESSIONAL (SP) PERFORMANCE ...

  8. DOE Announces Webinars on Solar Forecasting Metrics, the DOE...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOE Announces Webinars on Solar Forecasting Metrics, the DOE ... from adopting the latest energy efficiency and renewable ... to liquids technology, advantages of using natural gas, ...

  9. Integration of the EM Corporate QA Performance Metrics With Performanc...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Integration of the EM Corporate QA Performance Metrics With Performance Analysis Process ... Assessment Program Structure CPMS Integration with PA Process Validating The Process ...

  10. Exploration Cost and Time Metric | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    lt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":"" Hide Map Language: English Exploration Cost and Time Metric Screenshot References: Conference Paper1...

  11. Wave Energy Converter System Requirements and Performance Metrics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department and Wave Energy Scotland are holding a joint workshop on wave energy converter (WEC) system requirements and performance metrics on Friday, February 26.

  12. Performance Metrics and Budget Division (HC-51) | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of the Department of Energy's human capital initiatives and functions through the strategic integration of corporate human capital performance metrics and the budget ...

  13. Energy Department Sponsored Project Captures One Millionth Metric...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... | Photo courtesy of Air Products and Chemicals Inc. Energy Department Project Captures and Stores more than One Million Metric Tons of CO2 Carbon Pollution Being Captured, ...

  14. Practical Diagnostics for Evaluating Residential Commissioning Metrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wray, Craig; Walker, Iain; Siegel, Jeff; Sherman, Max

    2002-06-11

    In this report, we identify and describe 24 practical diagnostics that are ready now to evaluate residential commissioning metrics, and that we expect to include in the commissioning guide. Our discussion in the main body of this report is limited to existing diagnostics in areas of particular concern with significant interactions: envelope and HVAC systems. These areas include insulation quality, windows, airtightness, envelope moisture, fan and duct system airflows, duct leakage, cooling equipment charge, and combustion appliance backdrafting with spillage. Appendix C describes the 83 other diagnostics that we have examined in the course of this project, but that are not ready or are inappropriate for residential commissioning. Combined with Appendix B, Table 1 in the main body of the report summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of all 107 diagnostics. We first describe what residential commissioning is, its characteristic elements, and how one might structure its process. Our intent in this discussion is to formulate and clarify these issues, but is largely preliminary because such a practice does not yet exist. Subsequent sections of the report describe metrics one can use in residential commissioning, along with the consolidated set of 24 practical diagnostics that the building industry can use now to evaluate them. Where possible, we also discuss the accuracy and usability of diagnostics, based on recent laboratory work and field studies by LBNL staff and others in more than 100 houses. These studies concentrate on evaluating diagnostics in the following four areas: the DeltaQ duct leakage test, air-handler airflow tests, supply and return grille airflow tests, and refrigerant charge tests. Appendix A describes those efforts in detail. In addition, where possible, we identify the costs to purchase diagnostic equipment and the amount of time required to conduct the diagnostics. Table 1 summarizes these data. Individual equipment costs for the 24

  15. Metrics for Evaluating Conventional and Renewable Energy Technologies (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mann, M. K.

    2013-01-01

    With numerous options for the future of natural gas, how do we know we're going down the right path? How do we designate a metric to measure and demonstrate change and progress, and how does that metric incorporate all stakeholders and scenarios?

  16. Self-benchmarking Guide for Cleanrooms: Metrics, Benchmarks, Actions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathew, Paul; Sartor, Dale; Tschudi, William

    2009-07-13

    This guide describes energy efficiency metrics and benchmarks that can be used to track the performance of and identify potential opportunities to reduce energy use in laboratory buildings. This guide is primarily intended for personnel who have responsibility for managing energy use in existing laboratory facilities - including facilities managers, energy managers, and their engineering consultants. Additionally, laboratory planners and designers may also use the metrics and benchmarks described in this guide for goal-setting in new construction or major renovation. This guide provides the following information: (1) A step-by-step outline of the benchmarking process. (2) A set of performance metrics for the whole building as well as individual systems. For each metric, the guide provides a definition, performance benchmarks, and potential actions that can be inferred from evaluating this metric. (3) A list and descriptions of the data required for computing the metrics. This guide is complemented by spreadsheet templates for data collection and for computing the benchmarking metrics. This guide builds on prior research supported by the national Laboratories for the 21st Century (Labs21) program, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Much of the benchmarking data are drawn from the Labs21 benchmarking database and technical guides. Additional benchmark data were obtained from engineering experts including laboratory designers and energy managers.

  17. Self-benchmarking Guide for Laboratory Buildings: Metrics, Benchmarks, Actions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathew, Paul; Greenberg, Steve; Sartor, Dale

    2009-07-13

    This guide describes energy efficiency metrics and benchmarks that can be used to track the performance of and identify potential opportunities to reduce energy use in laboratory buildings. This guide is primarily intended for personnel who have responsibility for managing energy use in existing laboratory facilities - including facilities managers, energy managers, and their engineering consultants. Additionally, laboratory planners and designers may also use the metrics and benchmarks described in this guide for goal-setting in new construction or major renovation. This guide provides the following information: (1) A step-by-step outline of the benchmarking process. (2) A set of performance metrics for the whole building as well as individual systems. For each metric, the guide provides a definition, performance benchmarks, and potential actions that can be inferred from evaluating this metric. (3) A list and descriptions of the data required for computing the metrics. This guide is complemented by spreadsheet templates for data collection and for computing the benchmarking metrics. This guide builds on prior research supported by the national Laboratories for the 21st Century (Labs21) program, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Much of the benchmarking data are drawn from the Labs21 benchmarking database and technical guides. Additional benchmark data were obtained from engineering experts including laboratory designers and energy managers.

  18. Self-benchmarking Guide for Data Centers: Metrics, Benchmarks, Actions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathew, Paul; Ganguly, Srirupa; Greenberg, Steve; Sartor, Dale

    2009-07-13

    This guide describes energy efficiency metrics and benchmarks that can be used to track the performance of and identify potential opportunities to reduce energy use in data centers. This guide is primarily intended for personnel who have responsibility for managing energy use in existing data centers - including facilities managers, energy managers, and their engineering consultants. Additionally, data center designers may also use the metrics and benchmarks described in this guide for goal-setting in new construction or major renovation. This guide provides the following information: (1) A step-by-step outline of the benchmarking process. (2) A set of performance metrics for the whole building as well as individual systems. For each metric, the guide provides a definition, performance benchmarks, and potential actions that can be inferred from evaluating this metric. (3) A list and descriptions of the data required for computing the metrics. This guide is complemented by spreadsheet templates for data collection and for computing the benchmarking metrics. This guide builds on prior data center benchmarking studies supported by the California Energy Commission. Much of the benchmarking data are drawn from the LBNL data center benchmarking database that was developed from these studies. Additional benchmark data were obtained from engineering experts including facility designers and energy managers. This guide also builds on recent research supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's Save Energy Now program.

  19. Measuring solar reflectance Part I: Defining a metric that accurately...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A widely used solar reflectance metric based on the ASTM Standard E891 beam-normal solar spectral irradiance underestimates the solar heat gain of a spectrally selective 'cool ...

  20. Microsoft Word - followup to Fin Risk Metrics workshop.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    March 21, 2008 PurposeSubject: Follow-up to Financial Risk Metrics Workshop Page 1 of 1 Differences in Cash Flow between Net Billing and Direct Pay for Energy Northwest Attached...

  1. Analysis of Solar Cell Quality Using Voltage Metrics: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toberer, E. S.; Tamboli, A. C.; Steiner, M.; Kurtz, S.

    2012-06-01

    The highest efficiency solar cells provide both excellent voltage and current. Of these, the open-circuit voltage (Voc) is more frequently viewed as an indicator of the material quality. However, since the Voc also depends on the band gap of the material, the difference between the band gap and the Voc is a better metric for comparing material quality of unlike materials. To take this one step further, since Voc also depends on the shape of the absorption edge, we propose to use the ultimate metric: the difference between the measured Voc and the Voc calculated from the external quantum efficiency using a detailed balance approach. This metric is less sensitive to changes in cell design and definition of band gap. The paper defines how to implement this metric and demonstrates how it can be useful in tracking improvements in Voc, especially as Voc approaches its theoretical maximum.

  2. Towards Efficient Supercomputing: Searching for the Right Efficiency Metric

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, Chung-Hsing; Kuehn, Jeffery A; Poole, Stephen W

    2012-01-01

    The efficiency of supercomputing has traditionally been in the execution time. In early 2000 s, the concept of total cost of ownership was re-introduced, with the introduction of efficiency measure to include aspects such as energy and space. Yet the supercomputing community has never agreed upon a metric that can cover these aspects altogether and also provide a fair basis for comparison. This paper exam- ines the metrics that have been proposed in the past decade, and proposes a vector-valued metric for efficient supercom- puting. Using this metric, the paper presents a study of where the supercomputing industry has been and how it stands today with respect to efficient supercomputing.

  3. Resilient Control Systems Practical Metrics Basis for Defining Mission Impact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craig G. Rieger

    2014-08-01

    "Resilience” describes how systems operate at an acceptable level of normalcy despite disturbances or threats. In this paper we first consider the cognitive, cyber-physical interdependencies inherent in critical infrastructure systems and how resilience differs from reliability to mitigate these risks. Terminology and metrics basis are provided to integrate the cognitive, cyber-physical aspects that should be considered when defining solutions for resilience. A practical approach is taken to roll this metrics basis up to system integrity and business case metrics that establish “proper operation” and “impact.” A notional chemical processing plant is the use case for demonstrating how the system integrity metrics can be applied to establish performance, and

  4. A Graph Analytic Metric for Mitigating Advanced Persistent Threat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, John R.; Hogan, Emilie A.

    2013-06-04

    This paper introduces a novel graph analytic metric that can be used to measure the potential vulnerability of a cyber network to specific types of attacks that use lateral movement and privilege escalation such as the well known Pass The Hash, (PTH). The metric is computed from an oriented subgraph of the underlying cyber network induced by selecting only those edges for which a given property holds between the two vertices of the edge. The metric with respect to a select node on the subgraph is defined as the likelihood that the select node is reachable from another arbitrary node in the graph. This metric can be calculated dynamically from the authorization and auditing layers during the network security authorization phase and will potentially enable predictive deterrence against attacks such as PTH.

  5. Permeability barrier of Gram-negative cell envelopes and approaches to bypass it

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zgurskaya, Helen I.; López, Cesar A.; Gnanakaran, Sandrasegaram

    2015-09-18

    Gram-negative bacteria are intrinsically resistant to many antibiotics. Species that have acquired multidrug resistance and cause infections that are effectively untreatable present a serious threat to public health. The problem is broadly recognized and tackled at both the fundamental and applied levels. This article summarizes current advances in understanding the molecular bases of the low permeability barrier of Gram-negative pathogens, which is the major obstacle in discovery and development of antibiotics effective against such pathogens. Gaps in knowledge and specific strategies to break this barrier and to achieve potent activities against difficult Gram-negative bacteria are also discussed.

  6. ARM - Evaluation Product - Barrow Radiation Data (2009 metric)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ProductsBarrow Radiation Data (2009 metric) ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Documentation Use the Data File Inventory tool to view data availability at the file level. Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Evaluation Product : Barrow Radiation Data (2009 metric) Observations from a suite of radiometers including Precision Spectral Pyranometers (PSPs), Precision Infrared Radiometers (PIRs), and a Normal Incident Pyrheliometer (NIP) are

  7. New IEC Specifications Help Define Wind Plant Performance Reporting Metrics

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy IEC Specifications Help Define Wind Plant Performance Reporting Metrics New IEC Specifications Help Define Wind Plant Performance Reporting Metrics January 6, 2014 - 10:00am Addthis This is an excerpt from the Fourth Quarter 2013 edition of the Wind Program R&D Newsletter. The U.S. Department of Energy Wind Program and Sandia National Laboratories have been working with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Committee on wind turbine availability to

  8. Weatherization Assistance Program Goals and Metrics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Goals and Metrics Weatherization Assistance Program Goals and Metrics UT - Bettelle - Oak Ridge National Laboratory Logo The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) regularly reviews the work of states and grant recipients for effectiveness and for meeting program goals. DOE's Oak Ridge National Laboratory provides technical support to the program and conducts the evaluations. Goals The overall goal of WAP is to reduce the burden of energy prices on the

  9. Conceptual Framework for Developing Resilience Metrics for the Electricity,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oil, and Gas Sectors in the United States (September 2015) | Department of Energy Conceptual Framework for Developing Resilience Metrics for the Electricity, Oil, and Gas Sectors in the United States (September 2015) Conceptual Framework for Developing Resilience Metrics for the Electricity, Oil, and Gas Sectors in the United States (September 2015) This report has been written for the Department of Energy's Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability to support the Office of

  10. Enclosure - FY 2015 Q4 Metrics Report 2015-11-02.xlsx

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fourth Quarter Overall Root Cause Analysis (RCA)Corrective Action Plan (CAP) Performance Metrics No. ContractProject Management Performance Metrics FY 2015 Target Comment No. 2 3 ...

  11. Microsoft Word - 2014-5-27 RCA Qtr 2 Metrics Attachment_R1

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Second Quarter Overall Root Cause Analysis (RCA)Corrective Action Plan (CAP) Performance Metrics 1 ContractProject Management Performance Metric FY 2014 Target FY 2014 Projected ...

  12. Comparison of killing of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria by pure singlet oxygen. [Salmonella typhimurium; Escherichia coli; Sarcina lutea; Staphylococcus aureus; Streptococcus lactis; Streptococcus faecalis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dahl, T.A.; Midden, W.R. ); Hartman, P.E. )

    1989-04-01

    Gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria were found to display different sensitivities to pure singlet oxygen generated outside of cells. Killing curves for Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli strains were indicative of multihit killing, whereas curves for Sarcina lutea, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus lactis, and Streptococcus faecalis exhibited single-hit kinetics. The S. typhimurium deep rough strain TA1975, which lacks nearly all of the cell wall lipopolysaccharide coat and manifests concomitant enhancement of penetration by some exogenous substances, responded to singlet oxygen with initially faster inactivation than did the S. typhimurium wild-type strain, although the maximum rates of killing appeared to be quite similar. The structure of the cell wall thus plays an important role in susceptibility to singlet oxygen. The outer membrane-lipopolysaccharide portion of the gram-negative cell wall initially protects the bacteria from extracellular singlet oxygen, although it may also serve as a source for secondary reaction products which accentuate the rates of cell killing. S. typhimurium and E. coli strains lacking the cellular antioxidant, glutathione, showed no difference from strains containing glutathione in response to the toxic effects of singlet oxygen. Strains of Sarcina lutea and Staphylococcus aureus that contained carotenoids, however, were far more resistant to singlet oxygen lethality than were both carotenoidless mutants of the same species and other gram-positive species lacking high levels of protective carotenoids.

  13. Metrics Evolution in an Energy Research & Development Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brent Dixon

    2011-08-01

    All technology programs progress through three phases: Discovery, Definition, and Deployment. The form and application of program metrics needs to evolve with each phase. During the discovery phase, the program determines what is achievable. A set of tools is needed to define program goals, to analyze credible technical options, and to ensure that the options are compatible and meet the program objectives. A metrics system that scores the potential performance of technical options is part of this system of tools, supporting screening of concepts and aiding in the overall definition of objectives. During the definition phase, the program defines what specifically is wanted. What is achievable is translated into specific systems and specific technical options are selected and optimized. A metrics system can help with the identification of options for optimization and the selection of the option for deployment. During the deployment phase, the program shows that the selected system works. Demonstration projects are established and classical systems engineering is employed. During this phase, the metrics communicate system performance. This paper discusses an approach to metrics evolution within the Department of Energy's Nuclear Fuel Cycle R&D Program, which is working to improve the sustainability of nuclear energy.

  14. Metrics for Evaluating the Accuracy of Solar Power Forecasting: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, J.; Hodge, B. M.; Florita, A.; Lu, S.; Hamann, H. F.; Banunarayanan, V.

    2013-10-01

    Forecasting solar energy generation is a challenging task due to the variety of solar power systems and weather regimes encountered. Forecast inaccuracies can result in substantial economic losses and power system reliability issues. This paper presents a suite of generally applicable and value-based metrics for solar forecasting for a comprehensive set of scenarios (i.e., different time horizons, geographic locations, applications, etc.). In addition, a comprehensive framework is developed to analyze the sensitivity of the proposed metrics to three types of solar forecasting improvements using a design of experiments methodology, in conjunction with response surface and sensitivity analysis methods. The results show that the developed metrics can efficiently evaluate the quality of solar forecasts, and assess the economic and reliability impact of improved solar forecasting.

  15. Non-minimal derivative couplings of the composite metric

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heisenberg, Lavinia

    2015-11-04

    In the context of massive gravity, bi-gravity and multi-gravity non-minimal matter couplings via a specific composite effective metric were investigated recently. Even if these couplings generically reintroduce the Boulware-Deser ghost, this composite metric is unique in the sense that the ghost reemerges only beyond the decoupling limit and the matter quantum loop corrections do not detune the potential interactions. We consider non-minimal derivative couplings of the composite metric to matter fields for a specific subclass of Horndeski scalar-tensor interactions. We first explore these couplings in the mini-superspace and investigate in which scenario the ghost remains absent. We further study these non-minimal derivative couplings in the decoupling-limit of the theory and show that the equation of motion for the helicity-0 mode remains second order in derivatives. Finally, we discuss preliminary implications for cosmology.

  16. ARM - Evaluation Product - AERI Data Quality Metric (AERI-QC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ProductsAERI Data Quality Metric (AERI-QC) ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Documentation Use the Data File Inventory tool to view data availability at the file level. Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Evaluation Product : AERI Data Quality Metric (AERI-QC) Ancillary NetCDF file to be used with the regular AERI data files to document times when the data may not be correct. Data Details Contact David Turner National Oceanic and

  17. Calabi-Yau metrics for quotients and complete intersections

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Braun, Volker; Brelidze, Tamaz; Douglas, Michael R.; Ovrut, Burt A.

    2008-05-22

    We extend previous computations of Calabi-Yau metrics on projective hypersurfaces to free quotients, complete intersections, and free quotients of complete intersections. In particular, we construct these metrics on generic quintics, four-generation quotients of the quintic, Schoen Calabi-Yau complete intersections and the quotient of a Schoen manifold with Z₃ x Z₃ fundamental group that was previously used to construct a heterotic standard model. Various numerical investigations into the dependence of Donaldson's algorithm on the integration scheme, as well as on the Kähler and complex structure moduli, are also performed.

  18. Primer Control System Cyber Security Framework and Technical Metrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wayne F. Boyer; Miles A. McQueen

    2008-05-01

    The Department of Homeland Security National Cyber Security Division supported development of a control system cyber security framework and a set of technical metrics to aid owner-operators in tracking control systems security. The framework defines seven relevant cyber security dimensions and provides the foundation for thinking about control system security. Based on the developed security framework, a set of ten technical metrics are recommended that allow control systems owner-operators to track improvements or degradations in their individual control systems security posture.

  19. Culture, and a Metrics Methodology for Biological Countermeasure Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, Mary J.

    2007-03-15

    Outcome Metrics Methodology defines a way to evaluate outcome metrics associated with scenario analyses related to biological countermeasures. Previous work developed a schema to allow evaluation of common elements of impacts across a wide range of potential threats and scenarios. Classes of metrics were identified that could be used by decision makers to differentiate the common bases among disparate scenarios. Typical impact metrics used in risk calculations include the anticipated number of deaths, casualties, and the direct economic costs should a given event occur. There are less obvious metrics that are often as important and require more intensive initial work to be incorporated. This study defines a methodology for quantifying, evaluating, and ranking metrics other than direct health and economic impacts. As has been observed with the consequences of Hurricane Katrina, impacts to the culture of specific sectors of society are less obvious on an immediate basis but equally important over the ensuing and long term. Culture is used as the example class of metrics within which • requirements for a methodology are explored • likely methodologies are examined • underlying assumptions for the respective methodologies are discussed • the basis for recommending a specific methodology is demonstrated. Culture, as a class of metrics, is shown to consist of political, sociological, and psychological elements that are highly valued by decision makers. In addition, cultural practices, dimensions, and kinds of knowledge offer complementary sets of information that contribute to the context within which experts can provide input. The quantification and evaluation of sociopolitical, socio-economic, and sociotechnical impacts depend predominantly on subjective, expert judgment. Epidemiological data is limited, resulting in samples with statistical limits. Dose response assessments and curves depend on the quality of data and its relevance to human modes of exposure

  20. Deep Energy Retrofit Performance Metric Comparison: Eight California Case Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Iain; Fisher, Jeremy; Less, Brennan

    2014-06-01

    In this paper we will present the results of monitored annual energy use data from eight residential Deep Energy Retrofit (DER) case studies using a variety of performance metrics. For each home, the details of the retrofits were analyzed, diagnostic tests to characterize the home were performed and the homes were monitored for total and individual end-use energy consumption for approximately one year. Annual performance in site and source energy, as well as carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) emissions were determined on a per house, per person and per square foot basis to examine the sensitivity to these different metrics. All eight DERs showed consistent success in achieving substantial site energy and CO2e reductions, but some projects achieved very little, if any source energy reduction. This problem emerged in those homes that switched from natural gas to electricity for heating and hot water, resulting in energy consumption dominated by electricity use. This demonstrates the crucial importance of selecting an appropriate metric to be used in guiding retrofit decisions. Also, due to the dynamic nature of DERs, with changes in occupancy, size, layout, and comfort, several performance metrics might be necessary to understand a project’s success.

  1. Metrics and Benchmarks for Energy Efficiency in Laboratories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathew, Paul

    2007-10-26

    A wide spectrum of laboratory owners, ranging from universities to federal agencies, have explicit goals for energy efficiency in their facilities. For example, the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPACT 2005) requires all new federal buildings to exceed ASHRAE 90.1-2004 1 by at least 30 percent. The University of California Regents Policy requires all new construction to exceed California Title 24 2 by at least 20 percent. A new laboratory is much more likely to meet energy efficiency goals if quantitative metrics and targets are explicitly specified in programming documents and tracked during the course of the delivery process. If efficiency targets are not explicitly and properly defined, any additional capital costs or design time associated with attaining higher efficiencies can be difficult to justify. The purpose of this guide is to provide guidance on how to specify and compute energy efficiency metrics and benchmarks for laboratories, at the whole building as well as the system level. The information in this guide can be used to incorporate quantitative metrics and targets into the programming of new laboratory facilities. Many of these metrics can also be applied to evaluate existing facilities. For information on strategies and technologies to achieve energy efficiency, the reader is referred to Labs21 resources, including technology best practice guides, case studies, and the design guide (available at www.labs21century.gov/toolkit).

  2. EERE Portfolio. Primary Benefits Metrics for FY09

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2011-11-01

    This collection of data tables shows the benefits metrics related to energy security, environmental impacts, and economic impacts for both the entire EERE portfolio of renewable energy technologies as well as the individual technologies. Data are presented for the years 2015, 2020, 2030, and 2050, for both the NEMS and MARKAL models.

  3. On the existence of certain axisymmetric interior metrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Angulo Santacruz, C.; Batic, D.; Nowakowski, M.

    2010-08-15

    One of the effects of noncommutative coordinate operators is that the delta function connected to the quantum mechanical amplitude between states sharp to the position operator gets smeared by a Gaussian distribution. Although this is not the full account of the effects of noncommutativity, this effect is, in particular, important as it removes the point singularities of Schwarzschild and Reissner-Nordstroem solutions. In this context, it seems to be of some importance to probe also into ringlike singularities which appear in the Kerr case. In particular, starting with an anisotropic energy-momentum tensor and a general axisymmetric ansatz of the metric together with an arbitrary mass distribution (e.g., Gaussian), we derive the full set of Einstein equations that the noncommutative geometry inspired Kerr solution should satisfy. Using these equations we prove two theorems regarding the existence of certain Kerr metrics inspired by noncommutative geometry.

  4. Microsoft Word - 2014-1-1 RCA Qtr 1 Metrics Attachment_R1

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ContractProject Management Performance Metric FY 2014 Target FY 2014 Projected FY 2014 ... ContractProject Management Performance Metrics FY 2014 Target FY 2014 1 th Qtr Actual ...

  5. Modified Anti-de-Sitter Metric, Light-Front Quantized QCD, and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Modified Anti-de-Sitter Metric, Light-Front Quantized QCD, and Conformal Quantum Mechanics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Modified Anti-de-Sitter Metric, Light-Front...

  6. DOE to Remove 200 Metric Tons of Highly Enriched Uranium from...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    200 Metric Tons of Highly Enriched Uranium from U.S. Nuclear Weapons Stockpile DOE to Remove 200 Metric Tons of Highly Enriched Uranium from U.S. Nuclear Weapons Stockpile ...

  7. Optimal recovery of linear operators in non-Euclidean metrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osipenko, K Yu

    2014-10-31

    The paper looks at problems concerning the recovery of operators from noisy information in non-Euclidean metrics. Anumber of general theorems are proved and applied to recovery problems for functions and their derivatives from the noisy Fourier transform. In some cases, afamily of optimal methods is found, from which the methods requiring the least amount of original information are singled out. Bibliography: 25 titles.

  8. Development of Technology Readiness Level (TRL) Metrics and Risk Measures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engel, David W.; Dalton, Angela C.; Anderson, K. K.; Sivaramakrishnan, Chandrika; Lansing, Carina

    2012-10-01

    This is an internal project milestone report to document the CCSI Element 7 team's progress on developing Technology Readiness Level (TRL) metrics and risk measures. In this report, we provide a brief overview of the current technology readiness assessment research, document the development of technology readiness levels (TRLs) specific to carbon capture technologies, describe the risk measures and uncertainty quantification approaches used in our research, and conclude by discussing the next steps that the CCSI Task 7 team aims to accomplish.

  9. Microsoft Word - DOE_ANNUAL_METRICS_2009Q3.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    14404 Third Quarter 2009 Modeling Program Metric: Coupled model comparison with observations using improved dynamics at coarse resolution Quantifying the impact of a finite volume dynamical core in CCSM3 on simulated precipitation over major catchment areas July 2009 Peter J. Gleckler and Karl E. Taylor Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Livermore, CA Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research 
 2
 Disclaimer This

  10. Guidebook for ARRA Smart Grid Program Metrics and Benefits | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Guidebook for ARRA Smart Grid Program Metrics and Benefits Guidebook for ARRA Smart Grid Program Metrics and Benefits The Guidebook for American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) Smart Grid Program Metrics and Benefits describes the type of information to be collected from each of the Project Teams and how it will be used by the Department of Energy to communicate overall conclusions to the public. Guidebook for ARRA Smart Grid Program Metrics and Benefits (975.03 KB) More

  11. Language Classification using N-grams Accelerated by FPGA-based Bloom Filters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacob, A; Gokhale, M

    2007-09-13

    N-Gram (n-character sequences in text documents) counting is a well-established technique used in classifying the language of text in a document. In this paper, n-gram processing is accelerated through the use of reconfigurable hardware on the XtremeData XD1000 system. Our design employs parallelism at multiple levels, with parallel Bloom Filters accessing on-chip RAM, parallel language classifiers, and parallel document processing. In contrast to another hardware implementation (HAIL algorithm) that uses off-chip SRAM for lookup, our highly scalable implementation uses only on-chip memory blocks. Our implementation of end-to-end language classification runs at 85x comparable software and 1.45x the competing hardware design.

  12. Extending the length and time scales of GramSchmidt Lyapunov vector computations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Costa, Anthony B.; Green, Jason R.

    2013-08-01

    Lyapunov vectors have found growing interest recently due to their ability to characterize systems out of thermodynamic equilibrium. The computation of orthogonal GramSchmidt vectors requires multiplication and QR decomposition of large matrices, which grow as N{sup 2} (with the particle count). This expense has limited such calculations to relatively small systems and short time scales. Here, we detail two implementations of an algorithm for computing GramSchmidt vectors. The first is a distributed-memory message-passing method using Scalapack. The second uses the newly-released MAGMA library for GPUs. We compare the performance of both codes for LennardJones fluids from N=100 to 1300 between Intel Nahalem/Infiniband DDR and NVIDIA C2050 architectures. To our best knowledge, these are the largest systems for which the GramSchmidt Lyapunov vectors have been computed, and the first time their calculation has been GPU-accelerated. We conclude that Lyapunov vector calculations can be significantly extended in length and time by leveraging the power of GPU-accelerated linear algebra.

  13. Metrics for the National SCADA Test Bed Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craig, Philip A.; Mortensen, J.; Dagle, Jeffery E.

    2008-12-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (DOE-OE) National SCADA Test Bed (NSTB) Program is providing valuable inputs into the electric industry by performing topical research and development (R&D) to secure next generation and legacy control systems. In addition, the program conducts vulnerability and risk analysis, develops tools, and performs industry liaison, outreach and awareness activities. These activities will enhance the secure and reliable delivery of energy for the United States. This report will describe metrics that could be utilized to provide feedback to help enhance the effectiveness of the NSTB Program.

  14. User's Guide to the Energy Charting and Metrics Tool (ECAM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taasevigen, Danny J.; Koran, William

    2012-02-28

    The intent of this user guide is to provide a brief description of the functionality of the Energy Charting and Metrics (ECAM) tool, including the expanded building re-tuning functionality developed for Pacific Northwest National laboratory (PNNL). This document describes the tool's general functions and features, and offers detailed instructions for PNNL building re-tuning charts, a feature in ECAM intended to help building owners and operators look at trend data (recommended 15-minute time intervals) in a series of charts (both time series and scatter) to analyze air-handler, zone, and central plant information gathered from a building automation system (BAS).

  15. Conceptual Soundness, Metric Development, Benchmarking, and Targeting for PATH Subprogram Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mosey. G.; Doris, E.; Coggeshall, C.; Antes, M.; Ruch, J.; Mortensen, J.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the conceptual soundness of the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) Partnership for Advancing Technology in Housing (PATH) program's revised goals and establish and apply a framework to identify and recommend metrics that are the most useful for measuring PATH's progress. This report provides an evaluative review of PATH's revised goals, outlines a structured method for identifying and selecting metrics, proposes metrics and benchmarks for a sampling of individual PATH programs, and discusses other metrics that potentially could be developed that may add value to the evaluation process. The framework and individual program metrics can be used for ongoing management improvement efforts and to inform broader program-level metrics for government reporting requirements.

  16. DOE Will Dispose of 34 Metric Tons of Plutonium by Turning it into Fuel for

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Civilian Reactors | National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) Will Dispose of 34 Metric Tons of Plutonium by Turning it into Fuel for Civilian Reactors DOE Will Dispose of 34 Metric Tons of Plutonium by Turning it into Fuel for Civi Washington, DC Secretary Abraham announced that DOE will dispose of 34 metric tons of surplus weapons grade plutonium by turning the material into mixed oxide fuel (MOX) for use in nuclear reactors. The decision follows an exhaustive Administration review

  17. EECBG 10-07C/SEP 10-006B Attachment 1: Process Metrics List |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 10-07C/SEP 10-006B Attachment 1: Process Metrics List EECBG 10-07C/SEP 10-006B Attachment 1: Process Metrics List eecbg_sep_reporting_guidance_attachment_06242011.pdf (56.65 KB) More Documents & Publications EECBG SEP Attachment 1 - Process metric list EECBG Program Notice 10-07A DOE Recovery Act Reporting Requirements for the State Energy Program

  18. CEM_Metrics_and_Technical_Note_7_14_10.pdf | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CEM_Metrics_and_Technical_Note_7_14_10.pdf CEM_Metrics_and_Technical_Note_7_14_10.pdf (129.47 KB) More Documents & Publications SEAD-Fact-Sheet.pdf Schematics of a heat pump clothes dryer<br /> Credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Heat Pump Clothes Dryer CEM_Metrics_and_Technical_Note_7_14_10.pdf Wind Vision: A New Era for Wind Power in the United States

  19. Variable-metric diffraction crystals for x-ray optics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smither, R.K.; Fernandez, P.B. )

    1992-02-01

    A variable-metric (VM) crystal is one in which the spacing between the crystalline planes changes with position in the crystal. This variation can be either parallel to the crystalline planes or perpendicular to the crystalline planes of interest and can be produced by either introducing a thermal gradient in the crystal or by growing a crystal made of two or more elements and changing the relative percentages of the two elements as the crystal is grown. A series of experiments were performed in the laboratory to demonstrate the principle of the variable-metric crystal and its potential use in synchrotron beam lines. One of the most useful applications of the VM crystal is to increase the number of photons per unit bandwidth in a diffracted beam without losing any of the overall intensity. In a normal synchrotron beam line that uses a two-crystal monochromator, the bandwidth of the diffracted photon beam is determined by the vertical opening angle of the beam which is typically 0.10--0.30 mrad or 20--60 arcsec. When the VM crystal approach is applied, the bandwidth of the beam can be made as narrow as the rocking curve of the diffracting crystal, which is typically 0.005--0.050 mrad or 1--10 arcsec. Thus a very large increase of photons per unit bandwidth (or per unit energy) can be achieved through the use of VM crystals. When the VM principle is used with bent crystals, new kinds of x-ray optical elements can be generated that can focus and defocus x-ray beams much like simple lenses where the focal length of the lens can be changed to match its application. Thus both large magnifications and large demagnifications can be achieved as well as parallel beams with narrow bandwidths.

  20. Metrics for Assessment of Smart Grid Data Integrity Attacks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Annarita Giani; Miles McQueen; Russell Bent; Kameshwar Poolla; Mark Hinrichs

    2012-07-01

    There is an emerging consensus that the nation’s electricity grid is vulnerable to cyber attacks. This vulnerability arises from the increasing reliance on using remote measurements, transmitting them over legacy data networks to system operators who make critical decisions based on available data. Data integrity attacks are a class of cyber attacks that involve a compromise of information that is processed by the grid operator. This information can include meter readings of injected power at remote generators, power flows on transmission lines, and relay states. These data integrity attacks have consequences only when the system operator responds to compromised data by redispatching generation under normal or contingency protocols. These consequences include (a) financial losses from sub-optimal economic dispatch to service loads, (b) robustness/resiliency losses from placing the grid at operating points that are at greater risk from contingencies, and (c) systemic losses resulting from cascading failures induced by poor operational choices. This paper is focused on understanding the connections between grid operational procedures and cyber attacks. We first offer two examples to illustrate how data integrity attacks can cause economic and physical damage by misleading operators into taking inappropriate decisions. We then focus on unobservable data integrity attacks involving power meter data. These are coordinated attacks where the compromised data are consistent with the physics of power flow, and are therefore passed by any bad data detection algorithm. We develop metrics to assess the economic impact of these attacks under re-dispatch decisions using optimal power flow methods. These metrics can be use to prioritize the adoption of appropriate countermeasures including PMU placement, encryption, hardware upgrades, and advance attack detection algorithms.

  1. GPRA 2003 quality metrics methodology and results: Office of Industrial Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2002-04-19

    This report describes the results, calculations, and assumptions underlying the GPRA 2003 Quality Metrics results for all Planning Units withing the Office of Industrial Technologies.

  2. Building Cost and Performance Metrics: Data Collection Protocol, Revision 1.0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fowler, Kimberly M.; Solana, Amy E.; Spees, Kathleen L.

    2005-09-29

    This technical report describes the process for selecting and applying the building cost and performance metrics for measuring sustainably designed buildings in comparison to traditionally designed buildings.

  3. EVMS Training Snippet: 3.2 Schedule Health Metrics | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    2 Schedule Health Metrics EVMS Training Snippet: 3.2 Schedule Health Metrics This EVMS Training Snippet sponsored by the Office of Project Management (PM) focuses on 'what' the metrics are, 'why' they are important, and what they tell us about the schedule health. This Snippet does not focus on the 'how' the metrics are calculated, other than to provide a basic understanding of what is being calculated. Link to Video Presentation (21:52) | Prior Snippet (3.1B) | Next Snippet (3.3) | Return to

  4. New Selection Metric for Design of Thin-Film Solar Cell Absorber...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Maximum Efficiency (SLME) is a new and calculable selection metric to identify new andor improved photovoltaic (PV) absorber candidate materials for thin- film solar cells. ...

  5. Microsoft PowerPoint - Snippet 3.2 Schedule Health Metrics 20140713...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... available software. These metrics can be quickly reviewed each month to identify any schedule health risks on your project, whether you are the contractor or the customer. ...

  6. FY 2015 Q1 Metrics Supporting Documentation 2015-02-09.xls

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ContractProject Management Performance Metrics FY 2015 Target FY 2015 Pre- & Post- CAP* Forecast Comment 1 Capital Asset Project Success: Complete 90% of capital asset projects at ...

  7. Enclosure - FY 2015 Q3 Metrics Report 2015-08-12.xlsx

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ContractProject Management Performance Metrics FY 2015 Target FY 2015 Pre- & Post- CAP* Forecast Comment 1 Capital Asset Project Management Success: Complete 90% of capital asset ...

  8. (SSS)GAO Metrics - Project Success 2015-04-29 1100.xls

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ContractProject Management Performance Metrics FY 2015 Target FY 2015 Pre- & Post- CAP* Forecast Comment 1 Capital Asset Project Success: Complete 90% of capital asset projects at ...

  9. Cuprous Oxide Scale up: Gram Production via Bulk Synthesis using Classic Solvents at Low Temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, A.; Han, T. Y.

    2015-05-07

    Cuprous oxide is a p-type semiconducting material that has been highly researched for its interesting properties. Many small-scale syntheses have exhibited excellent control over size and morphology. As the demand for cuprous oxide grows, the synthesis method need to evolve to facilitate large-scale production. This paper supplies a facile bulk synthesis method for Cu₂O on average, 1-liter reaction volume can produce 1 gram of particles. In order to study the shape and size control mechanisms on such a scale, the reaction volume was diminished to 250 mL producing on average 0.3 grams of nanoparticles per batch. Well-shaped nanoparticles have been synthesized using an aqueous solution of CuCl₂, NaOH, SDS surfactant, and NH₂OH-HCl at mild temperatures. The time allotted between the addition of NaOH and NH₂OH-HCl was determined to be critical for Cu(OH)2 production, an important precursor to the final produce The effects of stirring rates on a large scale was also analyzed during reagent addition and post reagent addition. A morphological change from rhombic dodecahedra to spheres occurred as the stirring speed was increased. The effects of NH₂OH-HCl concentration were also studied to control the etching effects of the final product.

  10. Enhanced Accident Tolerant LWR Fuels National Metrics Workshop Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lori Braase

    2013-01-01

    Commercialization. The activities performed during the feasibility assessment phase include laboratory scale experiments; fuel performance code updates; and analytical assessment of economic, operational, safety, fuel cycle, and environmental impacts of the new concepts. The development and qualification stage will consist of fuel fabrication and large scale irradiation and safety basis testing, leading to qualification and ultimate NRC licensing of the new fuel. The commercialization phase initiates technology transfer to industry for implementation. Attributes for fuels with enhanced accident tolerance include improved reaction kinetics with steam and slower hydrogen generation rate, while maintaining acceptable cladding thermo-mechanical properties; fuel thermo-mechanical properties; fuel-clad interactions; and fission-product behavior. These attributes provide a qualitative guidance for parameters that must be considered in the development of fuels and cladding with enhanced accident tolerance. However, quantitative metrics must be developed for these attributes. To initiate the quantitative metrics development, a Light Water Reactor Enhanced Accident Tolerant Fuels Metrics Development Workshop was held October 10-11, 2012, in Germantown, Maryland. This document summarizes the structure and outcome of the two-day workshop. Questions regarding the content can be directed to Lori Braase, 208-526-7763, lori.braase@inl.gov.

  11. Description of the Sandia National Laboratories science, technology & engineering metrics process.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, Gretchen B.; Watkins, Randall D.; Trucano, Timothy Guy; Burns, Alan Richard; Oelschlaeger, Peter

    2010-04-01

    There has been a concerted effort since 2007 to establish a dashboard of metrics for the Science, Technology, and Engineering (ST&E) work at Sandia National Laboratories. These metrics are to provide a self assessment mechanism for the ST&E Strategic Management Unit (SMU) to complement external expert review and advice and various internal self assessment processes. The data and analysis will help ST&E Managers plan, implement, and track strategies and work in order to support the critical success factors of nurturing core science and enabling laboratory missions. The purpose of this SAND report is to provide a guide for those who want to understand the ST&E SMU metrics process. This report provides an overview of why the ST&E SMU wants a dashboard of metrics, some background on metrics for ST&E programs from existing literature and past Sandia metrics efforts, a summary of work completed to date, specifics on the portfolio of metrics that have been chosen and the implementation process that has been followed, and plans for the coming year to improve the ST&E SMU metrics process.

  12. SAFETY ANALYSIS REPORT FOR PACKAGING, MODEL 9977, ADDENDUM 3, JUSTIFICATION FOR SMALL GRAM QUANTITY CONTENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abramczyk, G.

    2011-10-31

    This Addendum establishes a new family of content envelopes consisting of small quantities of radioactive materials. These content envelopes and specific packing configurations are shown to be subcritical. However, the dose rates of some payloads must be measured and shown to comply with applicable radiation limits. Authorization for shipment of the content envelop requires acceptance of this Addendum by the DOE-HQ certifying official as a supplement to the 9977 SARP Revision 2 and DOE-HQ's subsequent revision of the CoC Revision 10 (which is based on SARP Addendum 2 and SARP Addendum 4) to authorize the additional content envelope. The Small Gram Quantity Content Envelopes and packing configurations will be incorporated in the next revision of the 9977 SARP.

  13. Latent morpho-semantic analysis : multilingual information retrieval with character n-grams and mutual information.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bader, Brett William; Chew, Peter A.; Abdelali, Ahmed

    2008-08-01

    We describe an entirely statistics-based, unsupervised, and language-independent approach to multilingual information retrieval, which we call Latent Morpho-Semantic Analysis (LMSA). LMSA overcomes some of the shortcomings of related previous approaches such as Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA). LMSA has an important theoretical advantage over LSA: it combines well-known techniques in a novel way to break the terms of LSA down into units which correspond more closely to morphemes. Thus, it has a particular appeal for use with morphologically complex languages such as Arabic. We show through empirical results that the theoretical advantages of LMSA can translate into significant gains in precision in multilingual information retrieval tests. These gains are not matched either when a standard stemmer is used with LSA, or when terms are indiscriminately broken down into n-grams.

  14. Impact of Different Economic Performance Metrics on the Perceived Value of Solar Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drury, E.; Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.

    2011-10-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) systems are installed by several types of market participants, ranging from residential customers to large-scale project developers and utilities. Each type of market participant frequently uses a different economic performance metric to characterize PV value because they are looking for different types of returns from a PV investment. This report finds that different economic performance metrics frequently show different price thresholds for when a PV investment becomes profitable or attractive. Several project parameters, such as financing terms, can have a significant impact on some metrics [e.g., internal rate of return (IRR), net present value (NPV), and benefit-to-cost (B/C) ratio] while having a minimal impact on other metrics (e.g., simple payback time). As such, the choice of economic performance metric by different customer types can significantly shape each customer's perception of PV investment value and ultimately their adoption decision.

  15. Effect of Divalent Cation Removal on the Structure of Gram-Negative Bacterial Outer Membrane Models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Clifton, Luke A.; Skoda, Maximilian W. A.; Le Brun, Anton P.; Ciesielski, Filip; Kuzmenko, Ivan; Holt, Stephen A.; Lakey, Jeremy H.

    2014-12-09

    The Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane (GNB-OM) is asymmetric in its lipid composition with a phospholipid-rich inner leaflet and an outer leaflet predominantly composed of lipopolysaccharides (LPS). LPS are polyanionic molecules, with numerous phosphate groups present in the lipid A and core oligosaccharide regions. The repulsive forces due to accumulation of the negative charges are screened and bridged by the divalent cations (Mg2+ and Ca2+) that are known to be crucial for the integrity of the bacterial OM. Indeed, chelation of divalent cations is a well-established method to permeabilize Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli. Here, we use X-ray and neutronmore » reflectivity (XRR and NR, respectively) techniques to examine the role of calcium ions in the stability of a model GNB-OM. Using XRR we show that Ca2+ binds to the core region of the rough mutant LPS (RaLPS) films, producing more ordered structures in comparison to divalent cation free monolayers. Using recently developed solid-supported models of the GNB-OM, we study the effect of calcium removal on the asymmetry of DPPC:RaLPS bilayers. We show that without the charge screening effect of divalent cations, the LPS is forced to overcome the thermodynamically unfavorable energy barrier and flip across the hydrophobic bilayer to minimize the repulsive electrostatic forces, resulting in about 20% mixing of LPS and DPPC between the inner and outer bilayer leaflets. These results reveal for the first time the molecular details behind the well-known mechanism of outer membrane stabilization by divalent cations. This confirms the relevance of the asymmetric models for future studies of outer membrane stability and antibiotic penetration.« less

  16. Effect of Divalent Cation Removal on the Structure of Gram-Negative Bacterial Outer Membrane Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clifton, Luke A.; Skoda, Maximilian W. A.; Le Brun, Anton P.; Ciesielski, Filip; Kuzmenko, Ivan; Holt, Stephen A.; Lakey, Jeremy H.

    2014-12-09

    The Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane (GNB-OM) is asymmetric in its lipid composition with a phospholipid-rich inner leaflet and an outer leaflet predominantly composed of lipopolysaccharides (LPS). LPS are polyanionic molecules, with numerous phosphate groups present in the lipid A and core oligosaccharide regions. The repulsive forces due to accumulation of the negative charges are screened and bridged by the divalent cations (Mg2+ and Ca2+) that are known to be crucial for the integrity of the bacterial OM. Indeed, chelation of divalent cations is a well-established method to permeabilize Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli. Here, we use X-ray and neutron reflectivity (XRR and NR, respectively) techniques to examine the role of calcium ions in the stability of a model GNB-OM. Using XRR we show that Ca2+ binds to the core region of the rough mutant LPS (RaLPS) films, producing more ordered structures in comparison to divalent cation free monolayers. Using recently developed solid-supported models of the GNB-OM, we study the effect of calcium removal on the asymmetry of DPPC:RaLPS bilayers. We show that without the charge screening effect of divalent cations, the LPS is forced to overcome the thermodynamically unfavorable energy barrier and flip across the hydrophobic bilayer to minimize the repulsive electrostatic forces, resulting in about 20% mixing of LPS and DPPC between the inner and outer bilayer leaflets. These results reveal for the first time the molecular details behind the well-known mechanism of outer membrane stabilization by divalent cations. This confirms the relevance of the asymmetric models for future studies of outer membrane stability and antibiotic penetration.

  17. Proceedings of the 2009 Performance Metrics for Intelligent Systems Workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madhavan, Raj; Messina, Elena

    2009-09-01

    The Performance Metrics for Intelligent Systems (PerMIS) workshop is dedicated to defining measures and methodologies of evaluating performance of intelligent systems. As the only workshop of its kind, PerMIS has proved to be an excellent forum for sharing lessons learned and discussions as well as fostering collaborations between researchers and practitioners from industry, academia and government agencies. The main theme of the ninth iteration of the workshop, PerMIS'09, seeks to address the question: 'Does performance measurement accelerate the pace of advancement for intelligent systems?' In addition to the main theme, as in previous years, the workshop will focus on applications of performance measures to practical problems in commercial, industrial, homeland security, and military applications. The PerMIS'09 program consists of six plenary addresses and six general and special sessions. The topics that are to be discussed by the speakers cover a wide array of themes centered on many intricate facets of intelligent system research. The presentations will emphasize and showcase the interdisciplinary nature of intelligent systems research and why it is not straightforward to evaluate such interconnected system of systems. The three days of twelve sessions will span themes from manufacturing, mobile robotics, human-system interaction, theory of mind, testing and evaluation of unmanned systems, to name a few.

  18. Sensitivity of Multi-gas Climate Policy to Emission Metrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Steven J.; Karas, Joseph F.; Edmonds, James A.; Eom, Jiyong; Mizrahi, Andrew H.

    2013-04-01

    Multi-gas greenhouse emission targets require that different emissions be combined into an aggregate total. The Global Warming Potential (GWP) index is currently used for this purpose, despite various criticisms of the underlying concept. It is not possible to uniquely define a single metric that perfectly captures the different impacts of emissions of substances with widely disparate atmospheric lifetimes, which leads to a wide range of possible index values. We examine the sensitivity of emissions and climate outcomes to the value of the index used to aggregate methane emissions using a technologically detailed integrated assessment model. We find that the sensitivity to index value is of order 4-14% in terms of methane emissions and 2% in terms of total radiative forcing, using index values between 4 and 70 for methane, with larger regional differences in some cases. The sensitivity to index value is much higher in economic terms, with total 2-gas mitigation cost decreasing 4-5% for a lower index and increasing 10-13% for a larger index, with even larger changes if the emissions reduction targets are small. The sensitivity to index value also depends on the assumed maximum amount of mitigation available in each sector. Evaluation of the maximum mitigation potential for major sources of non-CO2 greenhouse gases would greatly aid analysis

  19. PCP METHODOLOGY FOR DETERMINING DOSE RATES FOR SMALL GRAM QUANTITIES IN SHIPPING PACKAGINGS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nathan, S.

    2011-08-23

    The Small Gram Quantity (SGQ) concept is based on the understanding that small amounts of hazardous materials, in this case radioactive materials, are significantly less hazardous than large amounts of the same materials. This study describes a methodology designed to estimate an SGQ for several neutron and gamma emitting isotopes that can be shipped in a package compliant with 10 CFR Part 71 external radiation level limits regulations. These regulations require packaging for the shipment of radioactive materials perform, under both normal and accident conditions, the essential functions of material containment, subcriticality, and maintain external radiation levels within regulatory limits. 10 CFR 71.33(b)(1)(2)&(3) state radioactive and fissile materials must be identified and their maximum quantity, chemical and physical forms be included in an application. Furthermore, the U.S. Federal Regulations require application contain an evaluation demonstrating the package (i.e., the packaging and its contents) satisfies the external radiation standards for all packages (10 CFR 71.31(2), 71.35(a), & 71.47). By placing the contents in a He leak-tight containment vessel, and limiting the mass to ensure subcriticality, the first two essential functions are readily met. Some isotopes emit sufficiently strong photon radiation that small amounts of material can yield a large external dose rate. Quantifying of the dose rate for a proposed content is a challenging issue for the SGQ approach. It is essential to quantify external radiation levels from several common gamma and neutron sources that can be safely placed in a specific packaging, to ensure compliance with federal regulations. The Packaging Certification Program (PCP) Methodology for Determining Dose Rate for Small Gram Quantities in Shipping Packagings described in this report provides bounding mass limits for a set of proposed SGQ isotopes. Methodology calculations were performed to estimate external radiation levels

  20. A GREEN'S FUNCTION APPROACH FOR DETERMINING DOSE RATES FOR SMALL GRAM QUANTITIES IN SHIPPING PACKAGINGS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nathan, S.

    2012-06-14

    The Small Gram Quantity (SGQ) concept is based on the understanding that small amounts of hazardous materials, in this case radioactive materials (RAM), are significantly less hazardous than large amounts of the same materials. This paper describes a methodology designed to estimate an SGQ for several neutron and gamma emitting isotopes that can be shipped in a package in compliance with 10 CFR Part 71 external radiation level limits regulations. The neutron and photon sources were calculated using both ORIGEN-S and RASTA. The response from a unit source in each neutron and photon group was calculated using MCNP5 with each unshielded and shielded container configuration. Effects of self-shielding on both neutron and photon response were evaluated by including either plutonium oxide or iron in the source region for the case with no shielded container. For the cases of actinides mixed with light elements, beryllium is the bounding light element. The added beryllium (10 to 90 percent of the actinide mass) in the cases studied represents between 9 and 47 percent concentration of the total mixture mass. For beryllium concentrations larger than 50 percent, the increase in the neutron source term and dose rate tend to increase at a much lower rate than at concentrations lower than 50%. The intimately mixed actinide-beryllium form used in these models is very conservative and thus the limits presented in this report are practical bounds on the mass that can be safely shipped. The calculated dose rate from one gram of each isotope was then used to determin the maximum amount of a single isotope that could be shipped in the Model 9977 Package (or packagings having the same or larger external dimensions as well as similar structural materials) and have the external radiation level within the regulatory dose limits at the surface of the package. The estimates of the mass limits presented would also serve as conservative limits for both the Models 9975 and 9978 packages. If a

  1. PACKAGING CERTIFICATION PROGRAM METHODOLOGY FOR DETERMINING DOSE RATES FOR SMALL GRAM QUANTITIES IN SHIPPING PACKAGINGS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nathan, S.; Loftin, B.; Abramczyk, G.; Bellamy, S.

    2012-05-09

    The Small Gram Quantity (SGQ) concept is based on the understanding that small amounts of hazardous materials, in this case radioactive materials (RAM), are significantly less hazardous than large amounts of the same materials. This paper describes a methodology designed to estimate an SGQ for several neutron and gamma emitting isotopes that can be shipped in a package compliant with 10 CFR Part 71 external radiation level limits regulations. These regulations require packaging for the shipment of radioactive materials, under both normal and accident conditions, to perform the essential functions of material containment, subcriticality, and maintain external radiation levels within the specified limits. By placing the contents in a helium leak-tight containment vessel, and limiting the mass to ensure subcriticality, the first two essential functions are readily met. Some isotopes emit sufficiently strong photon radiation that small amounts of material can yield a large dose rate outside the package. Quantifying the dose rate for a proposed content is a challenging issue for the SGQ approach. It is essential to quantify external radiation levels from several common gamma and neutron sources that can be safely placed in a specific packaging, to ensure compliance with federal regulations. The Packaging Certification Program (PCP) Methodology for Determining Dose Rate for Small Gram Quantities in Shipping Packagings provides bounding shielding calculations that define mass limits compliant with 10 CFR 71.47 for a set of proposed SGQ isotopes. The approach is based on energy superposition with dose response calculated for a set of spectral groups for a baseline physical packaging configuration. The methodology includes using the MCNP radiation transport code to evaluate a family of neutron and photon spectral groups using the 9977 shipping package and its associated shielded containers as the base case. This results in a set of multipliers for 'dose per particle' for

  2. Large-scale seismic waveform quality metric calculation using Hadoop

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Magana-Zook, Steven; Gaylord, Jessie M.; Knapp, Douglas R.; Dodge, Douglas A.; Ruppert, Stanley D.

    2016-05-27

    Here in this work we investigated the suitability of Hadoop MapReduce and Apache Spark for large-scale computation of seismic waveform quality metrics by comparing their performance with that of a traditional distributed implementation. The Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) Data Management Center (DMC) provided 43 terabytes of broadband waveform data of which 5.1 TB of data were processed with the traditional architecture, and the full 43 TB were processed using MapReduce and Spark. Maximum performance of ~0.56 terabytes per hour was achieved using all 5 nodes of the traditional implementation. We noted that I/O dominated processing, and that I/Omore » performance was deteriorating with the addition of the 5th node. Data collected from this experiment provided the baseline against which the Hadoop results were compared. Next, we processed the full 43 TB dataset using both MapReduce and Apache Spark on our 18-node Hadoop cluster. We conducted these experiments multiple times with various subsets of the data so that we could build models to predict performance as a function of dataset size. We found that both MapReduce and Spark significantly outperformed the traditional reference implementation. At a dataset size of 5.1 terabytes, both Spark and MapReduce were about 15 times faster than the reference implementation. Furthermore, our performance models predict that for a dataset of 350 terabytes, Spark running on a 100-node cluster would be about 265 times faster than the reference implementation. We do not expect that the reference implementation deployed on a 100-node cluster would perform significantly better than on the 5-node cluster because the I/O performance cannot be made to scale. Finally, we note that although Big Data technologies clearly provide a way to process seismic waveform datasets in a high-performance and scalable manner, the technology is still rapidly changing, requires a high degree of investment in personnel, and will

  3. FY 2014 Q3 RCA CAP Performance Metrics Report 2014-09-05.xlsx

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ContractProject Management Performance Metrics FY 2014 Target FY 2014 Pre- & Post- CAP* ... TPC is Total Project Cost. No. FY 2014 Target FY 2014 3rd Qtr Actual 2 95% 92% 3 95% ...

  4. FY 2014 Q4 Metrics Report 2014-11-06.xlsx

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ContractProject Management Performance Metrics FY 2014 Target FY 2014 Pre- & Post- CAP* ... TPC is Total Project Cost. No. FY 2014 Target FY 2014 4th Qtr Actual 2 95% 89% 3 95% ...

  5. EAC Presentation: Metrics and Benefits Analysis for the ARRA Smart Grid Programs- March 10, 2011

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    PowerPoint presentation by Joe Paladino from the Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability before the Electricity Advisory Committee (EAC) on metrics and benefits analysis for the...

  6. 11,202,720 Metric Tons of CO2 Injected as of October 14, 2015...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This carbon dioxide (CO2) has been injected in the United States as part of DOE's Clean Coal Research, Development, and Demonstration Programs. One million metric tons of CO2 is ...

  7. 11,202,720 Metric Tons of CO2 Injected as of October 14, 2015

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This carbon dioxide (CO2) has been injected in the United States as part of DOEs Clean Coal Research, Development, and Demonstration Programs. One million metric tons of CO2 is equivalent to the...

  8. Enclosure - FY 2016 Q1 Metrics Report 2016-02-11.xlsx

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    No. ContractProject Management Performance Metrics FY 2016 Target No. 2 3 4 5 6 7 Comment FY 2016 Forecast Certified Contracting Staff: By the end of FY 2011, 85% of the 1102 ...

  9. Modified Anti-de-Sitter Metric, Light-Front Quantized QCD, and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Modified Anti-de-Sitter Metric, Light-Front Quantized QCD, and Conformal Quantum Mechanics Dosch, Hans Gunter; U. Heidelberg, ITP; Brodsky, Stanley J.; SLAC; de Teramond, Guy F.;...

  10. 12,877,644 Metric Tons of CO2 Injected as of July 1, 2016

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This carbon dioxide (CO2) has been injected in the United States as part of DOE’s Clean Coal Research, Development, and Demonstration Programs. One million metric tons of CO2 is equivalent to the...

  11. Metrics for Developing an Endorsed Set of Radiographic Threat Surrogates for JINII/CAARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wurtz, R; Walston, S; Dietrich, D; Martz, H

    2009-02-11

    CAARS (Cargo Advanced Automated Radiography System) is developing x-ray dual energy and x-ray backscatter methods to automatically detect materials that are greater than Z=72 (hafnium). This works well for simple geometry materials, where most of the radiographic path is through one material. However, this is usually not the case. Instead, the radiographic path includes many materials of different lengths. Single energy can be used to compute {mu}y{sub l} which is related to areal density (mass per unit area) while dual energy yields more information. This report describes a set of metrics suitable and sufficient for characterizing the appearance of assemblies as detected by x-ray radiographic imaging systems, such as those being tested by Joint Integrated Non-Intrusive Inspection (JINII) or developed under CAARS. These metrics will be simulated both for threat assemblies and surrogate threat assemblies (such as are found in Roney et al. 2007) using geometrical and compositional information of the assemblies. The imaging systems are intended to distinguish assemblies containing high-Z material from those containing low-Z material, regardless of thickness, density, or compounds and mixtures. The systems in question operate on the principle of comparing images obtained by using two different x-ray end-point energies--so-called 'dual energy' imaging systems. At the direction of the DHS JINII sponsor, this report does not cover metrics that implement scattering, in the form of either forward-scattered radiation or high-Z detection systems operating on the principle of backscatter detection. Such methods and effects will be covered in a later report. The metrics described here are to be used to compare assemblies and not x-ray radiography systems. We intend to use these metrics to determine whether two assemblies do or do not look the same. We are tasked to develop a set of assemblies whose appearance using this class of detection systems is indistinguishable from the

  12. NNSA Eliminates 100 Metric Tons Of Weapons-Grade Nuclear Material |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) Eliminates 100 Metric Tons Of Weapons-Grade Nuclear Material August 25, 2008 WASHINGTON, D.C. -Today the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) announced that it successfully eliminated 100 metric tons of U.S. highly enriched uranium (HEU), enough for thousands of nuclear weapons. For the last decade, the U.S. HEU disposition program has eliminated surplus HEU from the nuclear weapons program by downblending

  13. Implementing the Data Center Energy Productivity Metric in a High Performance Computing Data Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sego, Landon H.; Marquez, Andres; Rawson, Andrew; Cader, Tahir; Fox, Kevin M.; Gustafson, William I.; Mundy, Christopher J.

    2013-06-30

    As data centers proliferate in size and number, the improvement of their energy efficiency and productivity has become an economic and environmental imperative. Making these improvements requires metrics that are robust, interpretable, and practical. We discuss the properties of a number of the proposed metrics of energy efficiency and productivity. In particular, we focus on the Data Center Energy Productivity (DCeP) metric, which is the ratio of useful work produced by the data center to the energy consumed performing that work. We describe our approach for using DCeP as the principal outcome of a designed experiment using a highly instrumented, high-performance computing data center. We found that DCeP was successful in clearly distinguishing different operational states in the data center, thereby validating its utility as a metric for identifying configurations of hardware and software that would improve energy productivity. We also discuss some of the challenges and benefits associated with implementing the DCeP metric, and we examine the efficacy of the metric in making comparisons within a data center and between data centers.

  14. Predicted Radiation Output from Several Kilograms of Plutonium...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    1 ; Solomon, Clell Jeffrey Jr. 1 ; Myers, Steven Charles 1 ; Temple, Brian Allen 1 ; Felsher, Paul D. 1 + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory...

  15. Predicted Radiation Output from Several Kilograms of Plutonium...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Clell Jeffrey Jr. 1 ; Myers, Steven Charles 1 ; Temple, Brian Allen 1 ; Felsher, Paul D. 1 + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory Publication Date:...

  16. Energy Department Project Captures and Stores more than One Million Metric

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tons of CO2 | Department of Energy Project Captures and Stores more than One Million Metric Tons of CO2 Energy Department Project Captures and Stores more than One Million Metric Tons of CO2 June 26, 2014 - 11:30am Addthis Aerial view of Air Products’ existing steam methane reforming facility at Port Arthur, Texas, with new carbon-capture units and central co-gen and CO2 product compressor. | Photo courtesy of Air Products and Chemicals Inc. Aerial view of Air Products' existing steam

  17. DOE to Remove 200 Metric Tons of Highly Enriched Uranium from U.S. Nuclear

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Weapons Stockpile | Department of Energy to Remove 200 Metric Tons of Highly Enriched Uranium from U.S. Nuclear Weapons Stockpile DOE to Remove 200 Metric Tons of Highly Enriched Uranium from U.S. Nuclear Weapons Stockpile November 7, 2005 - 12:38pm Addthis Will Be Redirected to Naval Reactors, Down-blended or Used for Space Programs WASHINGTON, DC - Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman today announced that the Department of Energy's (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) will

  18. Metrics of closed world of Friedmann, agitated by electric charge (towards a theory electromagnetic Friedmanns)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markov, M.A.; Frolov, V.P.

    1986-06-10

    The generalization is considered of the well-known Tolman problem to the case of electrically charged dust-like matter of the central symmetrical system. The first integrals of the correspondent system of the Einstein-Maxwell equations are found. The problem is specificated in such a way that with the full charge of the system going to zero, the metrics of the closed Friedman world arises. Such a system is considered at the initial moment, that of maximal enlargement. With any nonvanishing but no-matter-how-small value of the electric charge, the metrics is unclosed. The metrics of the almost-Friedmanian part of the world allows the continuation through the narrow manhole (at the small charge) as the Nordstroem Reissner metrics with the parameters m/sub O/ sq rt (chi) = e/sub o/. The expression for the electric potential in the manhole phi/sub h/ = c-squared/sq rt chi does not depend upon the value of the electric charge. The radius of the manhole r/sub h/ = e/sub O/ sq. rt (chi)/ c-squared increases with the increase of the charge. The state of the manhole as given by the classical description appears as essentially unstable from the quantum-physics viewpoint. The production of various pairs in the enormous electric fields of the manhole gives rise to the polarisation of the latter up to effective charge Z < 137e irrespective of the initial (no matter how great) charge of the system.

  19. Energy Department Project Captures and Stores One Million Metric Tons of Carbon

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As part of President Obama’s all-of-the-above energy strategy, the Department of Energy announced today that its Illinois Basin-Decatur Project successfully captured and stored one million metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) and injected it into a deep saline formation.

  20. Multidimensional metrics for estimating phage abundance, distribution, gene density, and sequence coverage in metagenomes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aziz, Ramy K.; Dwivedi, Bhakti; Akhter, Sajia; Breitbart, Mya; Edwards, Robert A.

    2015-05-08

    Phages are the most abundant biological entities on Earth and play major ecological roles, yet the current sequenced phage genomes do not adequately represent their diversity, and little is known about the abundance and distribution of these sequenced genomes in nature. Although the study of phage ecology has benefited tremendously from the emergence of metagenomic sequencing, a systematic survey of phage genes and genomes in various ecosystems is still lacking, and fundamental questions about phage biology, lifestyle, and ecology remain unanswered. To address these questions and improve comparative analysis of phages in different metagenomes, we screened a core set of publicly available metagenomic samples for sequences related to completely sequenced phages using the web tool, Phage Eco-Locator. We then adopted and deployed an array of mathematical and statistical metrics for a multidimensional estimation of the abundance and distribution of phage genes and genomes in various ecosystems. Experiments using those metrics individually showed their usefulness in emphasizing the pervasive, yet uneven, distribution of known phage sequences in environmental metagenomes. Using these metrics in combination allowed us to resolve phage genomes into clusters that correlated with their genotypes and taxonomic classes as well as their ecological properties. By adding this set of metrics to current metaviromic analysis pipelines, where they can provide insight regarding phage mosaicism, habitat specificity, and evolution.

  1. Multidimensional metrics for estimating phage abundance, distribution, gene density, and sequence coverage in metagenomes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aziz, Ramy K.; Dwivedi, Bhakti; Akhter, Sajia; Breitbart, Mya; Edwards, Robert A.

    2015-05-08

    Phages are the most abundant biological entities on Earth and play major ecological roles, yet the current sequenced phage genomes do not adequately represent their diversity, and little is known about the abundance and distribution of these sequenced genomes in nature. Although the study of phage ecology has benefited tremendously from the emergence of metagenomic sequencing, a systematic survey of phage genes and genomes in various ecosystems is still lacking, and fundamental questions about phage biology, lifestyle, and ecology remain unanswered. To address these questions and improve comparative analysis of phages in different metagenomes, we screened a core set ofmore » publicly available metagenomic samples for sequences related to completely sequenced phages using the web tool, Phage Eco-Locator. We then adopted and deployed an array of mathematical and statistical metrics for a multidimensional estimation of the abundance and distribution of phage genes and genomes in various ecosystems. Experiments using those metrics individually showed their usefulness in emphasizing the pervasive, yet uneven, distribution of known phage sequences in environmental metagenomes. Using these metrics in combination allowed us to resolve phage genomes into clusters that correlated with their genotypes and taxonomic classes as well as their ecological properties. By adding this set of metrics to current metaviromic analysis pipelines, where they can provide insight regarding phage mosaicism, habitat specificity, and evolution.« less

  2. Development of new VOC exposure metrics and their relationship to ''Sick Building Syndrome'' symptoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ten Brinke, JoAnn

    1995-08-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are suspected to contribute significantly to ''Sick Building Syndrome'' (SBS), a complex of subchronic symptoms that occurs during and in general decreases away from occupancy of the building in question. A new approach takes into account individual VOC potencies, as well as the highly correlated nature of the complex VOC mixtures found indoors. The new VOC metrics are statistically significant predictors of symptom outcomes from the California Healthy Buildings Study data. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to test the hypothesis that a summary measure of the VOC mixture, other risk factors, and covariates for each worker will lead to better prediction of symptom outcome. VOC metrics based on animal irritancy measures and principal component analysis had the most influence in the prediction of eye, dermal, and nasal symptoms. After adjustment, a water-based paints and solvents source was found to be associated with dermal and eye irritation. The more typical VOC exposure metrics used in prior analyses were not useful in symptom prediction in the adjusted model (total VOC (TVOC), or sum of individually identified VOCs ({Sigma}VOC{sub i})). Also not useful were three other VOC metrics that took into account potency, but did not adjust for the highly correlated nature of the data set, or the presence of VOCs that were not measured. High TVOC values (2--7 mg m{sup {minus}3}) due to the presence of liquid-process photocopiers observed in several study spaces significantly influenced symptoms. Analyses without the high TVOC values reduced, but did not eliminate the ability of the VOC exposure metric based on irritancy and principal component analysis to explain symptom outcome.

  3. Quantitative metrics for assessment of chemical image quality and spatial resolution

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Cahill, John F.; Van Berkel, Gary J.

    2016-02-28

    Rationale: Currently objective/quantitative descriptions of the quality and spatial resolution of mass spectrometry derived chemical images are not standardized. Development of these standardized metrics is required to objectively describe chemical imaging capabilities of existing and/or new mass spectrometry imaging technologies. Such metrics would allow unbiased judgment of intra-laboratory advancement and/or inter-laboratory comparison for these technologies if used together with standardized surfaces. Methods: We developed two image metrics, viz., chemical image contrast (ChemIC) based on signal-to-noise related statistical measures on chemical image pixels and corrected resolving power factor (cRPF) constructed from statistical analysis of mass-to-charge chronograms across features of interest inmore » an image. These metrics, quantifying chemical image quality and spatial resolution, respectively, were used to evaluate chemical images of a model photoresist patterned surface collected using a laser ablation/liquid vortex capture mass spectrometry imaging system under different instrument operational parameters. Results: The calculated ChemIC and cRPF metrics determined in an unbiased fashion the relative ranking of chemical image quality obtained with the laser ablation/liquid vortex capture mass spectrometry imaging system. These rankings were used to show that both chemical image contrast and spatial resolution deteriorated with increasing surface scan speed, increased lane spacing and decreasing size of surface features. Conclusions: ChemIC and cRPF, respectively, were developed and successfully applied for the objective description of chemical image quality and spatial resolution of chemical images collected from model surfaces using a laser ablation/liquid vortex capture mass spectrometry imaging system.« less

  4. Gram-Scale Synthesized Pd2Co-Supported PtMonolayers Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, W.P.; Sasaki, K.; Su, D.; Zhu, Y.; Wang, J.X.; Adzic, R.R.

    2010-04-21

    Gram-scale synthesis of Pt{sub ML} electrocatalysts with a well-defined core-shell structure has been carried out using method involving galvanic displacement of an underpotential deposition Cu layer. The Pt shell thickness can be controlled by stepwise deposition. The Pt{at}Pd{sub 2}Co/C nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution energy-loss spectrometry, and in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy. A complete Pt shell of 0.6 nm on a Pd{sub 2}Co core has been confirmed. The Pt{at}Pd{sub 2}Co/C core-shell electrocatalysts showed a very high activity for the oxygen reduction reaction; the Pt mass and specific activity were 0.72 A mg{sup -1}{sub Pt} and 0.5 mA cm{sup -2}, respectively (3.5 and 2.5 times higher than the corresponding values for commercial Pt catalysts), at 0.9 V in 0.1 M HClO{sub 4} at room temperature. In an accelerated potential cycling test, a loss in active surface area and a decrease in catalytic activity for gram-scale-synthesized Pt{sub ML} catalysts were also determined.

  5. Performance Metrics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    RCA/CAP Closure Report 2011 - This RCA/CAP Closure Report presents a status of the Department’s initiatives to address the most significant issues and their corresponding root causes and officially...

  6. The International Safeguards Technology Base: How is the Patient Doing? An Exploration of Effective Metrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schanfein, Mark J; Gouveia, Fernando S

    2010-07-01

    The term “Technology Base” is commonly used but what does it mean? Is there a common understanding of the components that comprise a technology base? Does a formal process exist to assess the health of a given technology base? These are important questions the relevance of which is even more pressing given the USDOE/NNSA initiatives to strengthen the safeguards technology base through investments in research & development and human capital development. Accordingly, the authors will establish a high-level framework to define and understand what comprises a technology base. Potential goal-driven metrics to assess the health of a technology base will also be explored, such as linear demographics and resource availability, in the hope that they can be used to better understand and improve the health of the U.S. safeguards technology base. Finally, through the identification of such metrics, the authors will offer suggestions and highlight choices for addressing potential shortfalls.

  7. Dynamical Systems in the Variational Formulation of the Fokker-Planck Equation by the Wasserstein Metric

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mikami, T.

    2000-07-01

    R. Jordan, D. Kinderlehrer, and F. Otto proposed the discrete-time approximation of the Fokker-Planck equation by the variational formulation. It is determined by the Wasserstein metric, an energy functional, and the Gibbs-Boltzmann entropy functional. In this paper we study the asymptotic behavior of the dynamical systems which describe their approximation of the Fokker-Planck equation and characterize the limit as a solution to a class of variational problems.

  8. Time delay of light signals in an energy-dependent spacetime metric

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grillo, A. F.; Luzio, E.; Mendez, F.

    2008-05-15

    In this paper we review the problem of time delay of photons propagating in a spacetime with a metric that explicitly depends on the energy of the particles (gravity-rainbow approach). We show that corrections due to this approach--which is closely related to the double special relativity proposal--produce for small redshifts (z<<1) smaller time delays than in the generic Lorentz invariance violating case.

  9. Microsoft Word - McIntyre-Metrics Report SAND draft9-14.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2070P Unlimited Release September 2007 Security Metrics for Process Control Systems Annie McIntyre, Blair Becker, Ron Halbgewachs Prepared by Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 and Livermore, California 94550 Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. Approved for public release; further dissemination

  10. Texas CO2 Capture Demonstration Project Hits Three Million Metric Ton Milestone

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On June 30, Allentown, PA-based Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. successfully captured and transported, via pipeline, its 3 millionth metric ton of carbon dioxide (CO2) to be used for enhanced oil recovery. This achievement highlights the ongoing success of a carbon capture and storage (CCS) project sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL).

  11. Performance metrics and life-cycle information management for building performance assurance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hitchcock, R.J.; Piette, M.A.; Selkowitz, S.E.

    1998-06-01

    Commercial buildings account for over $85 billion per year in energy costs, which is far more energy than technically necessary. One of the primary reasons buildings do not perform as well as intended is that critical information is lost, through ineffective documentation and communication, leading to building systems that are often improperly installed and operated. A life-cycle perspective on the management of building information provides a framework for improving commercial building energy performance. This paper describes a project to develop strategies and techniques to provide decision-makers with information needed to assure the desired building performance across the complete life cycle of a building project. A key element in this effort is the development of explicit performance metrics that quantitatively represent performance objectives of interest to various building stakeholders. The paper begins with a discussion of key problems identified in current building industry practice, and ongoing work to address these problems. The paper then focuses on the concept of performance metrics and their use in improving building performance during design, commissioning, and on-going operations. The design of a Building Life-cycle Information System (BLISS) is presented. BLISS is intended to provide an information infrastructure capable of integrating a variety of building information technologies that support performance assurance. The use of performance metrics in case study building projects is explored to illustrate current best practice. The application of integrated information technology for improving current practice is discussed.

  12. Specification and implementation of IFC based performance metrics to support building life cycle assessment of hybrid energy systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrissey, Elmer; O'Donnell, James; Keane, Marcus; Bazjanac, Vladimir

    2004-03-29

    Minimizing building life cycle energy consumption is becoming of paramount importance. Performance metrics tracking offers a clear and concise manner of relating design intent in a quantitative form. A methodology is discussed for storage and utilization of these performance metrics through an Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) instantiated Building Information Model (BIM). The paper focuses on storage of three sets of performance data from three distinct sources. An example of a performance metrics programming hierarchy is displayed for a heat pump and a solar array. Utilizing the sets of performance data, two discrete performance effectiveness ratios may be computed, thus offering an accurate method of quantitatively assessing building performance.

  13. 12,893,780 Metric Tons of CO2 Injected as of July 19, 2016 | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 12,893,780 Metric Tons of CO2 Injected as of July 19, 2016 12,893,780 Metric Tons of CO2 Injected as of July 19, 2016 This carbon dioxide (CO2) has been injected in the United States as part of DOE's Clean Coal Research, Development, and Demonstration Programs. One million metric tons of CO2 is equivalent to the annual greenhouse gas emissions from 210,526 passenger vehicles. The projects currently injecting CO2 within DOE's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership Program and the

  14. Development and evaluation of aperture-based complexity metrics using film and EPID measurements of static MLC openings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Götstedt, Julia; Karlsson Hauer, Anna; Bäck, Anna

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Complexity metrics have been suggested as a complement to measurement-based quality assurance for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). However, these metrics have not yet been sufficiently validated. This study develops and evaluates new aperture-based complexity metrics in the context of static multileaf collimator (MLC) openings and compares them to previously published metrics. Methods: This study develops the converted aperture metric and the edge area metric. The converted aperture metric is based on small and irregular parts within the MLC opening that are quantified as measured distances between MLC leaves. The edge area metric is based on the relative size of the region around the edges defined by the MLC. Another metric suggested in this study is the circumference/area ratio. Earlier defined aperture-based complexity metrics—the modulation complexity score, the edge metric, the ratio monitor units (MU)/Gy, the aperture area, and the aperture irregularity—are compared to the newly proposed metrics. A set of small and irregular static MLC openings are created which simulate individual IMRT/VMAT control points of various complexities. These are measured with both an amorphous silicon electronic portal imaging device and EBT3 film. The differences between calculated and measured dose distributions are evaluated using a pixel-by-pixel comparison with two global dose difference criteria of 3% and 5%. The extent of the dose differences, expressed in terms of pass rate, is used as a measure of the complexity of the MLC openings and used for the evaluation of the metrics compared in this study. The different complexity scores are calculated for each created static MLC opening. The correlation between the calculated complexity scores and the extent of the dose differences (pass rate) are analyzed in scatter plots and using Pearson’s r-values. Results: The complexity scores calculated by the edge

  15. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Operator Performance Metrics for Control Room Modernization: A Practical Guide for Early Design Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald Boring; Roger Lew; Thomas Ulrich; Jeffrey Joe

    2014-03-01

    As control rooms are modernized with new digital systems at nuclear power plants, it is necessary to evaluate the operator performance using these systems as part of a verification and validation process. There are no standard, predefined metrics available for assessing what is satisfactory operator interaction with new systems, especially during the early design stages of a new system. This report identifies the process and metrics for evaluating human system interfaces as part of control room modernization. The report includes background information on design and evaluation, a thorough discussion of human performance measures, and a practical example of how the process and metrics have been used as part of a turbine control system upgrade during the formative stages of design. The process and metrics are geared toward generalizability to other applications and serve as a template for utilities undertaking their own control room modernization activities.

  16. Genome Assembly Forensics: Metrics for Assessing Assembly Correctness (Metagenomics Informatics Challenges Workshop: 10K Genomes at a Time)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Pop, Mihai [University of Maryland

    2013-01-22

    University of Maryland's Mihai Pop on "Genome Assembly Forensics: Metrics for Assessing Assembly Correctness" at the Metagenomics Informatics Challenges Workshop held at the DOE JGI on October 12-13, 2011.

  17. Table 11.4 Nitrous Oxide Emissions, 1980-2009 (Thousand Metric Tons of Nitrous Oxide)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Nitrous Oxide Emissions, 1980-2009 (Thousand Metric Tons of Nitrous Oxide) Year Energy Sources Waste Management Agricultural Sources Industrial Processes 3 Total Mobile Combustion 1 Stationary Combustion 2 Total Waste Combustion Human Sewage in Wastewater Total Nitrogen Fertilization of Soils Crop Residue Burning Solid Waste of Domesticated Animals Total 1980 60 44 104 1 10 11 364 1 75 440 88 642 1981 63 44 106 1 10 11 364 2 74 440 84 641 1982 67 42 108 1 10 11 339 2 74 414 80 614 1983 71 43 114

  18. Einstein-aether theory, violation of Lorentz invariance, and metric-affine gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heinicke, Christian; Baekler, Peter; Hehl, Friedrich W.

    2005-07-15

    We show that the Einstein-aether theory of Jacobson and Mattingly (J and M) can be understood in the framework of the metric-affine (gauge theory of) gravity (MAG). We achieve this by relating the aether vector field of J and M to certain post-Riemannian nonmetricity pieces contained in an independent linear connection of spacetime. Then, for the aether, a corresponding geometrical curvature-square Lagrangian with a massive piece can be formulated straightforwardly. We find an exact spherically symmetric solution of our model.

  19. Perfect fluid and scalar field in the Reissner-Nordstroem metric

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babichev, E. O.; Dokuchaev, V. I. Eroshenko, Yu. N.

    2011-05-15

    We describe the spherically symmetric steady-state accretion of perfect fluid in the Reissner-Nordstroem metric. We present analytic solutions for accretion of a fluid with linear equations of state and of the Chaplygin gas. We also show that under reasonable physical conditions, there is no steady-state accretion of a perfect fluid onto a Reissner-Nordstroem naked singularity. Instead, a static atmosphere of fluid is formed. We discuss a possibility of violation of the third law of black hole thermodynamics for a phantom fluid accretion.

  20. Ultrahard fluid and scalar field in the Kerr-Newman metric

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babichev, E.; Chernov, S.; Dokuchaev, V.; Eroshenko, Yu.

    2008-11-15

    An analytic solution for the accretion of ultrahard perfect fluid onto a moving Kerr-Newman black hole is found. This solution is a generalization of the previously known solution by Petrich, Shapiro, and Teukolsky for a Kerr black hole. We show that the found solution is applicable for the case of a nonextreme black hole, however it cannot describe the accretion onto an extreme black hole due to violation of the test fluid approximation. We also present a stationary solution for a massless scalar field in the metric of a Kerr-Newman naked singularity.

  1. Comparing Resource Adequacy Metrics and Their Influence on Capacity Value: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ibanez, E.; Milligan, M.

    2014-04-01

    Traditional probabilistic methods have been used to evaluate resource adequacy. The increasing presence of variable renewable generation in power systems presents a challenge to these methods because, unlike thermal units, variable renewable generation levels change over time because they are driven by meteorological events. Thus, capacity value calculations for these resources are often performed to simple rules of thumb. This paper follows the recommendations of the North American Electric Reliability Corporation?s Integration of Variable Generation Task Force to include variable generation in the calculation of resource adequacy and compares different reliability metrics. Examples are provided using the Western Interconnection footprint under different variable generation penetrations.

  2. OSTIblog Articles in the metrics Topic | OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Scientific and Technical Information metrics Topic OSTI's Committee of Visitors, An Update by Dr. Jeffrey Salmon 23 May, 2011 in Science Communications 4333 COV%202009%20Group.jpg OSTI's Committee of Visitors, An Update Read more about 4333 "The unexamined life is not worth living." So says Plato's Socrates in the Apology. His self-examination led to extreme humility (or to an extreme irony) when Socrates confessed to his accusers that the only knowledge he had was knowledge of his

  3. Integration of Sustainability Metrics into Design Cases and State of Technology Assessments

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) 2015 Project Peer Review Integration of Sustainability Metrics into Design Cases and State of Technology Assessments 2.1.0.100/2.1.0.302 NREL 2.1.0.301 PNNL Mary Biddy On behalf Eric Tan, Abhijit Dutta, Ryan Davis, Mike Talmadge NREL Lesley Snowden-Swan On behalf of Sue Jones, Aye Meyer, Ken Rappe, Kurt Spies PNNL Goal Statement 2 Support the development

  4. Gram-scale, high-yield synthesis of a robust metal-organic framework for storing methane and other gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilmer, CE; Farha, OK; Yildirim, T; Eryazici, I; Krungleviciute, V; Sarjeant, AA; Snurr, RQ; Hupp, JT

    2013-04-01

    We have synthesized and characterized a new metal-organic framework (MOF) material, NU-125, that, in the single-crystal limit, achieves a methane storage density at 58 bar (840 psi) and 298 K corresponding to 86% of that obtained with compressed natural gas tanks (CNG) used in vehicles today, when the latter are pressurized to 248 bar (3600 psi). More importantly, the deliverable capacity (58 bar to 5.8 bar) for NU-125 is 67% of the deliverable capacity of a CNG tank that starts at 248 bar. (For crystalline granules or powders, particle packing inefficiencies will yield densities and deliverable capacities lower than 86% and 67% of high-pressure CNG.) This material was synthesized in high yield on a gram-scale in a single-batch synthesis. Methane adsorption isotherms were measured over a wide pressure range (0.1-58 bar) and repeated over twelve cycles on the same sample, which showed no detectable degradation. Adsorption of CO2 and H-2 over a broad range of pressures and temperatures are also reported and agree with our computational findings.

  5. Fuel cell performance of palladium-platinum core-shell electrocatalysts synthesized in gram-scale batches

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Khateeb, Siddique; Su, Dong; Guerreo, Sandra; Darling, Robert M.; Protsailo, Lesia V.; Shao, Minhua

    2016-05-03

    This article presents the performance of palladium-platinum core-shell catalysts (Pt/Pd/C) for oxygen reduction synthesized in gram-scale batches in both liquid cells and polymer-electrolyte membrane fuel cells. Core-shell catalyst synthesis and characterization, ink fabrication, and cell assembly details are discussed. The Pt mass activity of the Pt/Pd core-shell catalyst was 0.95 A mg–1 at 0.9 V measured in liquid cells (0.1 M HClO4), which was 4.8 times higher than a commercial Pt/C catalyst. The performances of Pt/Pd/C and Pt/C in large single cells (315 cm2) were assessed under various operating conditions. The core-shell catalyst showed consistently higher performance than commercial Pt/Cmore » in fuel cell testing. A 20–60 mV improvement across the whole current density range was observed on air. Sensitivities to temperature, humidity, and gas composition were also investigated and the core-shell catalyst showed a consistent benefit over Pt under all conditions. However, the 4.8 times activity enhancement predicated by liquid cell measurements was not fully realized in fuel cells.« less

  6. Derivation of a Levelized Cost of Coating (LCOC) metric for evaluation of solar selective absorber materials

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ho, C. K.; Pacheco, J. E.

    2015-06-05

    A new metric, the Levelized Cost of Coating (LCOC), is derived in this paper to evaluate and compare alternative solar selective absorber coatings against a baseline coating (Pyromark 2500). In contrast to previous metrics that focused only on the optical performance of the coating, the LCOC includes costs, durability, and optical performance for more comprehensive comparisons among candidate materials. The LCOC is defined as the annualized marginal cost of the coating to produce a baseline annual thermal energy production. Costs include the cost of materials and labor for initial application and reapplication of the coating, as well as the costmore » of additional or fewer heliostats to yield the same annual thermal energy production as the baseline coating. Results show that important factors impacting the LCOC include the initial solar absorptance, thermal emittance, reapplication interval, degradation rate, reapplication cost, and downtime during reapplication. The LCOC can also be used to determine the optimal reapplication interval to minimize the levelized cost of energy production. As a result, similar methods can be applied more generally to determine the levelized cost of component for other applications and systems.« less

  7. Derivation of a Levelized Cost of Coating (LCOC) metric for evaluation of solar selective absorber materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ho, C. K.; Pacheco, J. E.

    2015-06-05

    A new metric, the Levelized Cost of Coating (LCOC), is derived in this paper to evaluate and compare alternative solar selective absorber coatings against a baseline coating (Pyromark 2500). In contrast to previous metrics that focused only on the optical performance of the coating, the LCOC includes costs, durability, and optical performance for more comprehensive comparisons among candidate materials. The LCOC is defined as the annualized marginal cost of the coating to produce a baseline annual thermal energy production. Costs include the cost of materials and labor for initial application and reapplication of the coating, as well as the cost of additional or fewer heliostats to yield the same annual thermal energy production as the baseline coating. Results show that important factors impacting the LCOC include the initial solar absorptance, thermal emittance, reapplication interval, degradation rate, reapplication cost, and downtime during reapplication. The LCOC can also be used to determine the optimal reapplication interval to minimize the levelized cost of energy production. As a result, similar methods can be applied more generally to determine the levelized cost of component for other applications and systems.

  8. Methodology, Methods, and Metrics for Testing and Evaluating Augmented Cognition Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greitzer, Frank L.

    2008-09-15

    The augmented cognition research community seeks cognitive neuroscience-based solutions to improve warfighter performance by applying and managing mitigation strategies to reduce workload and improve the throughput and quality of decisions. The focus of augmented cognition mitigation research is to define, demonstrate, and exploit neuroscience and behavioral measures that support inferences about the warfighters cognitive state that prescribe the nature and timing of mitigation. A research challenge is to develop valid evaluation methodologies, metrics and measures to assess the impact of augmented cognition mitigations. Two considerations are external validity, which is the extent to which the results apply to operational contexts; and internal validity, which reflects the reliability of performance measures and the conclusions based on analysis of results. The scientific rigor of the research methodology employed in conducting empirical investigations largely affects the validity of the findings. External validity requirements also compel us to demonstrate operational significance of mitigations. Thus it is important to demonstrate effectiveness of mitigations under specific conditions. This chapter reviews some cognitive science and methodological considerations in designing augmented cognition research studies and associated human performance metrics and analysis methods to assess the impact of augmented cognition mitigations.

  9. An Aquatic Acoustic Metrics Interface Utility for Underwater Sound Monitoring and Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ren, Huiying; Halvorsen, Michele B.; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2012-05-31

    Fishes and other marine mammals suffer a range of potential effects from intense sound sources generated by anthropogenic underwater processes such as pile driving, shipping, sonars, and underwater blasting. Several underwater sound recording devices (USR) were built to monitor the acoustic sound pressure waves generated by those anthropogenic underwater activities, so the relevant processing software becomes indispensable for analyzing the audio files recorded by these USRs. However, existing software packages did not meet performance and flexibility requirements. In this paper, we provide a detailed description of a new software package, named Aquatic Acoustic Metrics Interface (AAMI), which is a Graphical User Interface (GUI) designed for underwater sound monitoring and analysis. In addition to the general functions, such as loading and editing audio files recorded by USRs, the software can compute a series of acoustic metrics in physical units, monitor the sound's influence on fish hearing according to audiograms from different species of fishes and marine mammals, and batch process the sound files. The detailed applications of the software AAMI will be discussed along with several test case scenarios to illustrate its functionality.

  10. Assessing the Effects of Data Compression in Simulations Using Physically Motivated Metrics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Laney, Daniel; Langer, Steven; Weber, Christopher; Lindstrom, Peter; Wegener, Al

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines whether lossy compression can be used effectively in physics simulations as a possible strategy to combat the expected data-movement bottleneck in future high performance computing architectures. We show that, for the codes and simulations we tested, compression levels of 3–5X can be applied without causing significant changes to important physical quantities. Rather than applying signal processing error metrics, we utilize physics-based metrics appropriate for each code to assess the impact of compression. We evaluate three different simulation codes: a Lagrangian shock-hydrodynamics code, an Eulerian higher-order hydrodynamics turbulence modeling code, and an Eulerian coupled laser-plasma interaction code. Wemore » compress relevant quantities after each time-step to approximate the effects of tightly coupled compression and study the compression rates to estimate memory and disk-bandwidth reduction. We find that the error characteristics of compression algorithms must be carefully considered in the context of the underlying physics being modeled.« less

  11. Definition of Small Gram Quantity Contents for Type B Radioactive Material Transportation Packages: Activity-Based Content Limitations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sitaraman, S; Kim, S; Biswas, D; Hafner, R; Anderson, B

    2010-10-27

    Since the 1960's, the Department of Transportation Specification (DOT Spec) 6M packages have been used extensively for transportation of Type B quantities of radioactive materials between Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, laboratories, and productions sites. However, due to the advancement of packaging technology, the aging of the 6M packages, and variability in the quality of the packages, the DOT implemented a phased elimination of the 6M specification packages (and other DOT Spec packages) in favor of packages certified to meet federal performance requirements. DOT issued the final rule in the Federal Register on October 1, 2004 requiring that use of the DOT Specification 6M be discontinued as of October 1, 2008. A main driver for the change was the fact that the 6M specification packagings were not supported by a Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) that was compliant with Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations part 71 (10 CFR 71). Therefore, materials that would have historically been shipped in 6M packages are being identified as contents in Type B (and sometimes Type A fissile) package applications and addenda that are to be certified under the requirements of 10 CFR 71. The requirements in 10 CFR 71 include that the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) must identify the maximum radioactivity of radioactive constituents and maximum quantities of fissile constituents (10 CFR 71.33(b)(1) and 10 CFR 71.33(b)(2)), and that the application (i.e., SARP submittal or SARP addendum) demonstrates that the external dose rate (due to the maximum radioactivity of radioactive constituents and maximum quantities of fissile constituents) on the surface of the packaging (i.e., package and contents) not exceed 200 mrem/hr (10 CFR 71.35(a), 10 CFR 71.47(a)). It has been proposed that a 'Small Gram Quantity' of radioactive material be defined, such that, when loaded in a transportation package, the dose rates at external points of an unshielded packaging

  12. Using research metrics to evaluate the International Atomic Energy Agency guidelines on quality assurance for R&D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bodnarczuk, M.

    1994-06-01

    The objective of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Guidelines on Quality Assurance for R&D is to provide guidance for developing quality assurance (QA) programs for R&D work on items, services, and processes important to safety, and to support the siting, design, construction, commissioning, operation, and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The standard approach to writing papers describing new quality guidelines documents is to present a descriptive overview of the contents of the document. I will depart from this approach. Instead, I will first discuss a conceptual framework of metrics for evaluating and improving basic and applied experimental science as well as the associated role that quality management should play in understanding and implementing these metrics. I will conclude by evaluating how well the IAEA document addresses the metrics from this conceptual framework and the broader principles of quality management.

  13. SU-E-T-359: Measurement of Various Metrics to Determine Changes in Megavoltage Photon Beam Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, S; Balter, P; Rose, M; Simon, W

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To examine the relationship between photon beam energy and various metrics for energy on the flattened and flattening filter free (FFF) beams generated by the Varian TrueBeam. Methods: Energy changes were accomplished by adjusting the bending magnet current 10% from the nominal value for the 4, 6, 8, and 10 MV flattened and 6 and 10 MV FFF beams. Profiles were measured for a 3030 cm{sup 2} field using a 2D ionization chamber array and a 3D water Scanner which was also used to measure PDDs. For flattened beams we compared several energy metrics; PDD at 10 cm depth in water (PDD(10)); the variation over the central 80% of the field (Flat); and the average of the highest reading along each diagonal divided by the CAX value, diagonal normalized flatness (FDN). For FFF beams we examined PDD(10), FDN, and the width of a chosen isodose level in a 3030 cm{sup 2} field (W(d%)). Results: Changes in PDD(10) were nearly linear with changes in energy for both flattened and FFF beams as were changes in FDN. Changes in W(d%) were also nearly linear with energy for the FFF beams. PDD(10) was not as sensitive to changes in energy compared to the other metrics for either flattened or FFF beams. Flat was not as sensitive to changes in energy compared to FDN for flattened beams and its behavior depends on depth. FDN was the metric that had the highest sensitivity to the changes in energy for flattened beams while W(d%) was the metric that had highest sensitivity to the changes in energy for FFF beams. Conclusions: The metric FDN was found to be most sensitive to energy changes for flattened beams, while the W(d%) was most sensitive to energy changes for FFF beams.

  14. Table 11.3 Methane Emissions, 1980-2009 (Million Metric Tons of Methane)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Methane Emissions, 1980-2009 (Million Metric Tons of Methane) Year Energy Sources Waste Management Agricultural Sources Industrial Processes 9 Total 5 Coal Mining Natural Gas Systems 1 Petroleum Systems 2 Mobile Com- bustion 3 Stationary Com- bustion 4 Total 5 Landfills Waste- water Treatment 6 Total 5 Enteric Fermen- tation 7 Animal Waste 8 Rice Cultivation Crop Residue Burning Total 5 1980 3.06 4.42 NA 0.28 0.45 8.20 10.52 0.52 11.04 5.47 2.87 0.48 0.04 8.86 0.17 28.27 1981 2.81 5.02 NA .27

  15. MULTI-SCALE MORPHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF SDSS DR5 SURVEY USING THE METRIC SPACE TECHNIQUE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu Yongfeng; Batuski, David J.; Khalil, Andre

    2009-12-20

    Following the novel development and adaptation of the Metric Space Technique (MST), a multi-scale morphological analysis of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 5 (DR5) was performed. The technique was adapted to perform a space-scale morphological analysis by filtering the galaxy point distributions with a smoothing Gaussian function, thus giving quantitative structural information on all size scales between 5 and 250 Mpc. The analysis was performed on a dozen slices of a volume of space containing many newly measured galaxies from the SDSS DR5 survey. Using the MST, observational data were compared to galaxy samples taken from N-body simulations with current best estimates of cosmological parameters and from random catalogs. By using the maximal ranking method among MST output functions, we also develop a way to quantify the overall similarity of the observed samples with the simulated samples.

  16. Quantifying Availability in SCADA Environments Using the Cyber Security Metric MFC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aissa, Anis Ben; Rabai, Latifa Ben Arfa; Abercrombie, Robert K; Sheldon, Frederick T; Mili, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems are distributed networks dispersed over large geographic areas that aim to monitor and control industrial processes from remote areas and/or a centralized location. They are used in the management of critical infrastructures such as electric power generation, transmission and distribution, water and sewage, manufacturing/industrial manufacturing as well as oil and gas production. The availability of SCADA systems is tantamount to assuring safety, security and profitability. SCADA systems are the backbone of the national cyber-physical critical infrastructure. Herein, we explore the definition and quantification of an econometric measure of availability, as it applies to SCADA systems; our metric is a specialization of the generic measure of mean failure cost.

  17. Anomaly metrics to differentiate threat sources from benign sources in primary vehicle screening.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, Israel Dov; Mengesha, Wondwosen

    2011-09-01

    Discrimination of benign sources from threat sources at Port of Entries (POE) is of a great importance in efficient screening of cargo and vehicles using Radiation Portal Monitors (RPM). Currently RPM's ability to distinguish these radiological sources is seriously hampered by the energy resolution of the deployed RPMs. As naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) are ubiquitous in commerce, false alarms are problematic as they require additional resources in secondary inspection in addition to impacts on commerce. To increase the sensitivity of such detection systems without increasing false alarm rates, alarm metrics need to incorporate the ability to distinguish benign and threat sources. Principal component analysis (PCA) and clustering technique were implemented in the present study. Such techniques were investigated for their potential to lower false alarm rates and/or increase sensitivity to weaker threat sources without loss of specificity. Results of the investigation demonstrated improved sensitivity and specificity in discriminating benign sources from threat sources.

  18. Method and system for assigning a confidence metric for automated determination of optic disc location

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karnowski, Thomas P.; Tobin, Jr., Kenneth W.; Muthusamy Govindasamy, Vijaya Priya; Chaum, Edward

    2012-07-10

    A method for assigning a confidence metric for automated determination of optic disc location that includes analyzing a retinal image and determining at least two sets of coordinates locating an optic disc in the retinal image. The sets of coordinates can be determined using first and second image analysis techniques that are different from one another. An accuracy parameter can be calculated and compared to a primary risk cut-off value. A high confidence level can be assigned to the retinal image if the accuracy parameter is less than the primary risk cut-off value and a low confidence level can be assigned to the retinal image if the accuracy parameter is greater than the primary risk cut-off value. The primary risk cut-off value being selected to represent an acceptable risk of misdiagnosis of a disease having retinal manifestations by the automated technique.

  19. Interval Data Analysis with the Energy Charting and Metrics Tool (ECAM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taasevigen, Danny J.; Katipamula, Srinivas; Koran, William

    2011-07-07

    Analyzing whole building interval data is an inexpensive but effective way to identify and improve building operations, and ultimately save money. Utilizing the Energy Charting and Metrics Tool (ECAM) add-in for Microsoft Excel, building operators and managers can begin implementing changes to their Building Automation System (BAS) after trending the interval data. The two data components needed for full analyses are whole building electricity consumption (kW or kWh) and outdoor air temperature (OAT). Using these two pieces of information, a series of plots and charts and be created in ECAM to monitor the buildings performance over time, gain knowledge of how the building is operating, and make adjustments to the BAS to improve efficiency and start saving money.

  20. Marker-free registration of forest terrestrial laser scanner data pairs with embedded confidence metrics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Van Aardt, Jan; Romanczyk, Paul; van Leeuwen, Martin; Kelbe, David; Cawse-Nicholson, Kerry

    2016-04-04

    Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) has emerged as an effective tool for rapid comprehensive measurement of object structure. Registration of TLS data is an important prerequisite to overcome the limitations of occlusion. However, due to the high dissimilarity of point cloud data collected from disparate viewpoints in the forest environment, adequate marker-free registration approaches have not been developed. The majority of studies instead rely on the utilization of artificial tie points (e.g., reflective tooling balls) placed within a scene to aid in coordinate transformation. We present a technique for generating view-invariant feature descriptors that are intrinsic to the point cloud datamore » and, thus, enable blind marker-free registration in forest environments. To overcome the limitation of initial pose estimation, we employ a voting method to blindly determine the optimal pairwise transformation parameters, without an a priori estimate of the initial sensor pose. To provide embedded error metrics, we developed a set theory framework in which a circular transformation is traversed between disjoint tie point subsets. This provides an upper estimate of the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) confidence associated with each pairwise transformation. Output RMSE errors are commensurate with the RMSE of input tie points locations. Thus, while the mean output RMSE=16.3cm, improved results could be achieved with a more precise laser scanning system. This study 1) quantifies the RMSE of the proposed marker-free registration approach, 2) assesses the validity of embedded confidence metrics using receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves, and 3) informs optimal sample spacing considerations for TLS data collection in New England forests. Furthermore, while the implications for rapid, accurate, and precise forest inventory are obvious, the conceptual framework outlined here could potentially be extended to built environments.« less

  1. Measuring solar reflectance Part I: Defining a metric that accurately predicts solar heat gain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levinson, Ronnen; Akbari, Hashem; Berdahl, Paul

    2010-05-14

    Solar reflectance can vary with the spectral and angular distributions of incident sunlight, which in turn depend on surface orientation, solar position and atmospheric conditions. A widely used solar reflectance metric based on the ASTM Standard E891 beam-normal solar spectral irradiance underestimates the solar heat gain of a spectrally selective 'cool colored' surface because this irradiance contains a greater fraction of near-infrared light than typically found in ordinary (unconcentrated) global sunlight. At mainland U.S. latitudes, this metric RE891BN can underestimate the annual peak solar heat gain of a typical roof or pavement (slope {le} 5:12 [23{sup o}]) by as much as 89 W m{sup -2}, and underestimate its peak surface temperature by up to 5 K. Using R{sub E891BN} to characterize roofs in a building energy simulation can exaggerate the economic value N of annual cool-roof net energy savings by as much as 23%. We define clear-sky air mass one global horizontal ('AM1GH') solar reflectance R{sub g,0}, a simple and easily measured property that more accurately predicts solar heat gain. R{sub g,0} predicts the annual peak solar heat gain of a roof or pavement to within 2 W m{sup -2}, and overestimates N by no more than 3%. R{sub g,0} is well suited to rating the solar reflectances of roofs, pavements and walls. We show in Part II that R{sub g,0} can be easily and accurately measured with a pyranometer, a solar spectrophotometer or version 6 of the Solar Spectrum Reflectometer.

  2. Conceptual Framework for Developing Resilience Metrics for the Electricity, Oil, and Gas Sectors in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watson, Jean-Paul; Guttromson, Ross; Silva-Monroy, Cesar; Jeffers, Robert; Jones, Katherine; Ellison, James; Rath, Charles; Gearhart, Jared; Jones, Dean; Corbet, Tom; Hanley, Charles; Walker, La Tonya

    2014-09-01

    This report has been written for the Department of Energy’s Energy Policy and Systems Analysis Office to inform their writing of the Quadrennial Energy Review in the area of energy resilience. The topics of measuring and increasing energy resilience are addressed, including definitions, means of measuring, and analytic methodologies that can be used to make decisions for policy, infrastructure planning, and operations. A risk-based framework is presented which provides a standard definition of a resilience metric. Additionally, a process is identified which explains how the metrics can be applied. Research and development is articulated that will further accelerate the resilience of energy infrastructures.

  3. A Year of Radiation Measurements at the North Slope of Alaska Second Quarter 2009 ARM and Climate Change Prediction Program Metric Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S.A. McFarlane, Y. Shi, C.N. Long

    2009-04-15

    In 2009, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and the Climate Change Prediction Program (CCPP) have been asked to produce joint science metrics. For CCPP, the second quarter metrics are reported in Evaluation of Simulated Precipitation in CCSM3: Annual Cycle Performance Metrics at Watershed Scales. For ARM, the metrics will produce and make available new continuous time series of radiative fluxes based on one year of observations from Barrow, Alaska, during the International Polar Year and report on comparisons of observations with baseline simulations of the Community Climate System Model (CCSM).

  4. Identification of proteins capable of metal reduction from the proteome of the Gram-positive bacterium Desulfotomaculum reducens MI-1 using an NADH-based activity assay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Otwell, Annie E.; Sherwood, Roberts; Zhang, Sheng; Nelson, Ornella D.; Li, Zhi; Lin, Hening; Callister, Stephen J.; Richardson, Ruth E.

    2015-01-01

    Metal reduction capability has been found in numerous species of environmentally abundant Gram-positive bacteria. However, understanding of microbial metal reduction is based almost solely on studies of Gram-negative organisms. In this study, we focus on Desulfotomaculum reducens MI-1, a Gram-positive metal reducer whose genome lacks genes with similarity to any characterized metal reductase. D. reducens has been shown to reduce not only Fe(III), but also the environmentally important contaminants U(VI) and Cr(VI). By extracting, separating, and analyzing the functional proteome of D. reducens, using a ferrozine-based assay in order to screen for chelated Fe(III)-NTA reduction with NADH as electron donor, we have identified proteins not previously characterized as iron reductases. Their function was confirmed by heterologous expression in E. coli. These are the protein NADH:flavin oxidoreductase (Dred_2421) and a protein complex composed of oxidoreductase FAD/NAD(P)-binding subunit (Dred_1685) and dihydroorotate dehydrogenase 1B (Dred_1686). Dred_2421 was identified in the soluble proteome and is predicted to be a cytoplasmic protein. Dred_1685 and Dred_1686 were identified in both the soluble as well as the insoluble (presumably membrane) protein fraction, suggesting a type of membrane-association, although PSORTb predicts both proteins are cytoplasmic. Furthermore, we show that these proteins have the capability to reduce soluble Cr(VI) and U(VI) with NADH as electron donor. This study is the first functional proteomic analysis of D. reducens, and one of the first analyses of metal and radionuclide reduction in an environmentally relevant Gram-positive bacterium.

  5. Recommendations for mass spectrometry data quality metrics for open access data(corollary to the Amsterdam principles)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kingsinger, Christopher R.; Apffel, James; Baker, Mark S.; Bian, Xiaopeng; Borchers, Christoph H.; Bradshaw, Ralph A.; Brusniak, Mi-Youn; Chan, Daniel W.; Deutsch, Eric W.; Domon, Bruno; Gorman, Jeff; Grimm, Rudolf; Hancock, William S.; Hermjakob, Henning; Horn, David; Hunter, Christie; Kolar, Patrik; Kraus, Hans-Joachim; Langen, Hanno; Linding, Rune; Moritz, Robert L.; Omenn, Gilbert S.; Orlando, Ron; Pandey, Akhilesh; Ping, Peipei; Rahbar, Amir; Rivers, Robert; Seymour, Sean L.; Simpson, Richard J.; Slotta, Douglas; Smith, Richard D.; Stein, Stephen E.; Tabb, David L.; Tagle, Danilo; Yates, John R.; Rodriguez, Henry

    2011-12-01

    Policies supporting the rapid and open sharing of proteomic data are being implemented by the leading journals in the field. The proteomics community is taking steps to ensure that data are made publicly accessible and are of high quality, a challenging task that requires the development and deployment of methods for measuring and documenting data quality metrics. On September 18, 2010, the U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI) convened the 'International Workshop on Proteomic Data Quality Metrics' in Sydney, Australia, to identify and address issues facing the development and use of such methods for open access proteomics data. The stakeholders at the workshop enumerated the key principles underlying a framework for data quality assessment in mass spectrometry data that will meet the needs of the search community, journals, funding agencies, and data repositories. Attendees discussed and agreed upon two primary needs for the wide use of quality metrics: (i)an evolving list of comprehensive quality metrics and (ii)standards accompanied by software analytics. Attendees stressed the importance of increased education and training programs to promote reliable protocols in proteomics. This workshop report explores the historic precedents, key discussions, and necessary next steps to enhance the quality of open access data. By agreement, this article is published simultaneously in Proteomics, Proteomics Clinical Applications, Journal of Proteome Research, and Molecular and Cellular Proteomics, as a public service to the research community.The peer review process was a coordinated effort conducted by a panel of referees selected by the journals.

  6. Implementation Guide - Performance Indicators (Metrics ) for Use with DOE O 440.2B, Aviation Management and Safety

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2005-09-19

    The Guide provides information regarding specific provisions of DOE O 440.2B and is intended to be useful in understanding and implementing performance indicators (metrics) required by the Order. Cancels DOE G 440.2B-1. Canceled by DOE N 251.98.

  7. Implementation Guide - Aviation Program Performance Indicators (Metrics) for use with DOE O 440.2B, Aviation Management And Safety

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2002-12-10

    The Guide provides information regarding Departmental expectations on provisions of DOE 440.2B, identifies acceptable methods of implementing Aviation Program Performance Indicators (Metrics) requirements in the Order, and identifies relevant principles and practices by referencing Government and non-Government standards. Canceled by DOE G 440.2B-1A.

  8. Use of Frequency Response Metrics to Assess the Planning and Operating Requirements for Reliable Integration of Variable Renewable Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eto, Joseph H.; Undrill, John; Mackin, Peter; Daschmans, Ron; Williams, Ben; Haney, Brian; Hunt, Randall; Ellis, Jeff; Illian, Howard; Martinez, Carlos; O'Malley, Mark; Coughlin, Katie; LaCommare, Kristina Hamachi

    2010-12-20

    An interconnected electric power system is a complex system that must be operated within a safe frequency range in order to reliably maintain the instantaneous balance between generation and load. This is accomplished by ensuring that adequate resources are available to respond to expected and unexpected imbalances and restoring frequency to its scheduled value in order to ensure uninterrupted electric service to customers. Electrical systems must be flexible enough to reliably operate under a variety of"change" scenarios. System planners and operators must understand how other parts of the system change in response to the initial change, and need tools to manage such changes to ensure reliable operation within the scheduled frequency range. This report presents a systematic approach to identifying metrics that are useful for operating and planning a reliable system with increased amounts of variable renewable generation which builds on existing industry practices for frequency control after unexpected loss of a large amount of generation. The report introduces a set of metrics or tools for measuring the adequacy of frequency response within an interconnection. Based on the concept of the frequency nadir, these metrics take advantage of new information gathering and processing capabilities that system operators are developing for wide-area situational awareness. Primary frequency response is the leading metric that will be used by this report to assess the adequacy of primary frequency control reserves necessary to ensure reliable operation. It measures what is needed to arrest frequency decline (i.e., to establish frequency nadir) at a frequency higher than the highest set point for under-frequency load shedding within an interconnection. These metrics can be used to guide the reliable operation of an interconnection under changing circumstances.

  9. Methodological Framework for Analysis of Buildings-Related Programs: The GPRA Metrics Effort

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas B.; Anderson, Dave M.; Belzer, David B.; Cort, Katherine A.; Dirks, James A.; Hostick, Donna J.

    2004-06-18

    The requirements of the Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA) of 1993 mandate the reporting of outcomes expected to result from programs of the Federal government. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) develops official metrics for its 11 major programs using its Office of Planning, Budget Formulation, and Analysis (OPBFA). OPBFA conducts an annual integrated modeling analysis to produce estimates of the energy, environmental, and financial benefits expected from EERE’s budget request. Two of EERE’s major programs include the Building Technologies Program (BT) and Office of Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program (WIP). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) supports the OPBFA effort by developing the program characterizations and other market information affecting these programs that is necessary to provide input to the EERE integrated modeling analysis. Throughout the report we refer to these programs as “buildings-related” programs, because the approach is not limited in application to BT or WIP. To adequately support OPBFA in the development of official GPRA metrics, PNNL communicates with the various activities and projects in BT and WIP to determine how best to characterize their activities planned for the upcoming budget request. PNNL then analyzes these projects to determine what the results of the characterizations would imply for energy markets, technology markets, and consumer behavior. This is accomplished by developing nonintegrated estimates of energy, environmental, and financial benefits (i.e., outcomes) of the technologies and practices expected to result from the budget request. These characterizations and nonintegrated modeling results are provided to OPBFA as inputs to the official benefits estimates developed for the Federal Budget. This report documents the approach and methodology used to estimate future energy, environmental, and financial benefits

  10. New risk metrics and mathematical tools for risk analysis: Current and future challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skandamis, Panagiotis N. Andritsos, Nikolaos Psomas, Antonios Paramythiotis, Spyridon

    2015-01-22

    The current status of the food safety supply world wide, has led Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and World Health Organization (WHO) to establishing Risk Analysis as the single framework for building food safety control programs. A series of guidelines and reports that detail out the various steps in Risk Analysis, namely Risk Management, Risk Assessment and Risk Communication is available. The Risk Analysis approach enables integration between operational food management systems, such as Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points, public health and governmental decisions. To do that, a series of new Risk Metrics has been established as follows: i) the Appropriate Level of Protection (ALOP), which indicates the maximum numbers of illnesses in a population per annum, defined by quantitative risk assessments, and used to establish; ii) Food Safety Objective (FSO), which sets the maximum frequency and/or concentration of a hazard in a food at the time of consumption that provides or contributes to the ALOP. Given that ALOP is rather a metric of the public health tolerable burden (it addresses the total ‘failure’ that may be handled at a national level), it is difficult to be interpreted into control measures applied at the manufacturing level. Thus, a series of specific objectives and criteria for performance of individual processes and products have been established, all of them assisting in the achievement of FSO and hence, ALOP. In order to achieve FSO, tools quantifying the effect of processes and intrinsic properties of foods on survival and growth of pathogens are essential. In this context, predictive microbiology and risk assessment have offered an important assistance to Food Safety Management. Predictive modelling is the basis of exposure assessment and the development of stochastic and kinetic models, which are also available in the form of Web-based applications, e.g., COMBASE and Microbial Responses Viewer), or introduced into user

  11. The International Safeguards Technology Base: How is the Patient Doing? An Exploration of Effective Metrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schanfein, Mark; Gouveia, Fernando; Crawford, Cary E.; Pickett, Chris J.; Jay, Jeffrey

    2010-07-15

    The term “Technology Base” is commonly used but what does it mean? Is there a common understanding of the components that comprise a technology base? Does a formal process exist to assess the health of a given technology base? These are important questions the relevance of which is even more pressing given the USDOE/NNSA initiatives to strengthen the safeguards technology base through investments in research & development and human capital development. Accordingly, the authors will establish a high-level framework to define and understand what comprises a technology base. Potential goal-driven metrics to assess the health of a technology base will also be explored, such as linear demographics and resource availability, in the hope that they can be used to better understand and improve the health of the U.S. safeguards technology base. Finally, through the identification of such metrics, the authors will offer suggestions and highlight choices for addressing potential shortfalls. Introduction The U.S. safeguards technology base got its start almost half a century ago in the nuclear weapons program of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) and their predecessors: AEC & ERDA. Due to nuclear materials’ strategic importance and value, and the risk associated with the public’s and worker’s health and the potential for theft, significant investments were made to develop techniques to measure nuclear materials using both destructive assay (DA) and non-destructive assay (NDA). Major investment within the U.S. DOE Domestic Safeguards Program continued over the next three decades, resulting in continuous improvements in the state-of-the-art of these techniques. This was particularly true in the area of NDA with its ability to use gamma rays, neutrons, and heat to identify and quantify nuclear materials without the need to take direct samples of the material. Most of these techniques were commercialized and transferred to

  12. Evaluation of metrics and baselines for tracking greenhouse gas emissions trends: Recommendations for the California climate action registry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Lynn; Murtishaw, Scott; Worrell, Ernst

    2003-06-01

    Executive Summary: The California Climate Action Registry, which was initially established in 2000 and began operation in Fall 2002, is a voluntary registry for recording annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The purpose of the Registry is to assist California businesses and organizations in their efforts to inventory and document emissions in order to establish a baseline and to document early actions to increase energy efficiency and decrease GHG emissions. The State of California has committed to use its ''best efforts'' to ensure that entities that establish GHG emissions baselines and register their emissions will receive ''appropriate consideration under any future international, federal, or state regulatory scheme relating to greenhouse gas emissions.'' Reporting of GHG emissions involves documentation of both ''direct'' emissions from sources that are under the entity's control and indirect emissions controlled by others. Electricity generated by an off-site power source is consider ed to be an indirect GHG emission and is required to be included in the entity's report. Registry participants include businesses, non-profit organizations, municipalities, state agencies, and other entities. Participants are required to register the GHG emissions of all operations in California, and are encouraged to report nationwide. For the first three years of participation, the Registry only requires the reporting of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, although participants are encouraged to report the remaining five Kyoto Protocol GHGs (CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs, and SF6). After three years, reporting of all six Kyoto GHG emissions is required. The enabling legislation for the Registry (SB 527) requires total GHG emissions to be registered and requires reporting of ''industry-specific metrics'' once such metrics have been adopted by the Registry. The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) was asked to provide technical assistance to the California

  13. ZFS on RBODs - Leveraging RAID Controllers for Metrics and Enclosure Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stearman, D. M.

    2015-03-30

    Traditionally, the Lustre file system has relied on the ldiskfs file system with reliable RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) storage underneath. As of Lustre 2.4, ZFS was added as a backend file system, with built-in software RAID, thereby removing the need of expensive RAID controllers. ZFS was designed to work with JBOD (Just a Bunch Of Disks) storage enclosures under the Solaris Operating System, which provided a rich device management system. Long time users of the Lustre file system have relied on the RAID controllers to provide metrics and enclosure monitoring and management services, with rich APIs and command line interfaces. This paper will study a hybrid approach using an advanced full featured RAID enclosure which is presented to the host as a JBOD, This RBOD (RAIDed Bunch Of Disks) allows ZFS to do the RAID protection and error correction, while the RAID controller handles management of the disks and monitors the enclosure. It was hoped that the value of the RAID controller features would offset the additional cost, and that performance would not suffer in this mode. The test results revealed that the hybrid RBOD approach did suffer reduced performance.

  14. Advanced Fuels Campaign Light Water Reactor Accident Tolerant Fuel Performance Metrics Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shannon Bragg-Sitton

    2014-02-01

    Research and development (R&D) activities on advanced, higher performance Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuels have been ongoing for the last few years. Following the unfortunate March 2011 events at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant in Japan, the R&D shifted toward enhancing the accident tolerance of LWRs. Qualitative attributes for fuels with enhanced accident tolerance, such as improved reaction kinetics with steam resulting in slower hydrogen generation rate, provide guidance for the design and development of fuels and cladding with enhanced accident tolerance. A common set of technical metrics should be established to aid in the optimization and down selection of candidate designs on a more quantitative basis. “Metrics” describe a set of technical bases by which multiple concepts can be fairly evaluated against a common baseline and against one another. This report describes a proposed technical evaluation methodology that can be applied to evaluate the ability of each concept to meet performance and safety goals relative to the current UO2 – zirconium alloy system and relative to one another. The resultant ranked evaluation can then inform concept down-selection, such that the most promising accident tolerant fuel design option(s) can continue to be developed toward qualification.

  15. En route to Background Independence: Broken split-symmetry, and how to restore it with bi-metric average actions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becker, D. Reuter, M.

    2014-11-15

    The most momentous requirement a quantum theory of gravity must satisfy is Background Independence, necessitating in particular an ab initio derivation of the arena all non-gravitational physics takes place in, namely spacetime. Using the background field technique, this requirement translates into the condition of an unbroken split-symmetry connecting the (quantized) metric fluctuations to the (classical) background metric. If the regularization scheme used violates split-symmetry during the quantization process it is mandatory to restore it in the end at the level of observable physics. In this paper we present a detailed investigation of split-symmetry breaking and restoration within the Effective Average Action (EAA) approach to Quantum Einstein Gravity (QEG) with a special emphasis on the Asymptotic Safety conjecture. In particular we demonstrate for the first time in a non-trivial setting that the two key requirements of Background Independence and Asymptotic Safety can be satisfied simultaneously. Carefully disentangling fluctuation and background fields, we employ a ‘bi-metric’ ansatz for the EAA and project the flow generated by its functional renormalization group equation on a truncated theory space spanned by two separate Einstein–Hilbert actions for the dynamical and the background metric, respectively. A new powerful method is used to derive the corresponding renormalization group (RG) equations for the Newton- and cosmological constant, both in the dynamical and the background sector. We classify and analyze their solutions in detail, determine their fixed point structure, and identify an attractor mechanism which turns out instrumental in the split-symmetry restoration. We show that there exists a subset of RG trajectories which are both asymptotically safe and split-symmetry restoring: In the ultraviolet they emanate from a non-Gaussian fixed point, and in the infrared they loose all symmetry violating contributions inflicted on them by the

  16. SU-E-I-71: Quality Assessment of Surrogate Metrics in Multi-Atlas-Based Image Segmentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, T; Ruan, D

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: With the ever-growing data of heterogeneous quality, relevance assessment of atlases becomes increasingly critical for multi-atlas-based image segmentation. However, there is no universally recognized best relevance metric and even a standard to compare amongst candidates remains elusive. This study, for the first time, designs a quantification to assess relevance metrics’ quality, based on a novel perspective of the metric as surrogate for inferring the inaccessible oracle geometric agreement. Methods: We first develop an inference model to relate surrogate metrics in image space to the underlying oracle relevance metric in segmentation label space, with a monotonically non-decreasing function subject to random perturbations. Subsequently, we investigate model parameters to reveal key contributing factors to surrogates’ ability in prognosticating the oracle relevance value, for the specific task of atlas selection. Finally, we design an effective contract-to-noise ratio (eCNR) to quantify surrogates’ quality based on insights from these analyses and empirical observations. Results: The inference model was specialized to a linear function with normally distributed perturbations, with surrogate metric exemplified by several widely-used image similarity metrics, i.e., MSD/NCC/(N)MI. Surrogates’ behaviors in selecting the most relevant atlases were assessed under varying eCNR, showing that surrogates with high eCNR dominated those with low eCNR in retaining the most relevant atlases. In an end-to-end validation, NCC/(N)MI with eCNR of 0.12 compared to MSD with eCNR of 0.10 resulted in statistically better segmentation with mean DSC of about 0.85 and the first and third quartiles of (0.83, 0.89), compared to MSD with mean DSC of 0.84 and the first and third quartiles of (0.81, 0.89). Conclusion: The designed eCNR is capable of characterizing surrogate metrics’ quality in prognosticating the oracle relevance value. It has been demonstrated to be

  17. Effective detective quantum efficiency for two mammography systems: Measurement and comparison against established metrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salvagnini, Elena; Bosmans, Hilde; Marshall, Nicholas W.; Struelens, Lara

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: The aim of this paper was to illustrate the value of the new metric effective detective quantum efficiency (eDQE) in relation to more established measures in the optimization process of two digital mammography systems. The following metrics were included for comparison against eDQE: detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of the detector, signal difference to noise ratio (SdNR), and detectability index (d′) calculated using a standard nonprewhitened observer with eye filter.Methods: The two systems investigated were the Siemens MAMMOMAT Inspiration and the Hologic Selenia Dimensions. The presampling modulation transfer function (MTF) required for the eDQE was measured using two geometries: a geometry containing scattered radiation and a low scatter geometry. The eDQE, SdNR, and d′ were measured for poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) thicknesses of 20, 40, 60, and 70 mm, with and without the antiscatter grid and for a selection of clinically relevant target/filter (T/F) combinations. Figures of merit (FOMs) were then formed from SdNR and d′ using the mean glandular dose as the factor to express detriment. Detector DQE was measured at energies covering the range of typical clinically used spectra.Results: The MTF measured in the presence of scattered radiation showed a large drop at low spatial frequency compared to the low scatter method and led to a corresponding reduction in eDQE. The eDQE for the Siemens system at 1 mm{sup −1} ranged between 0.15 and 0.27, depending on T/F and grid setting. For the Hologic system, eDQE at 1 mm{sup −1} varied from 0.15 to 0.32, again depending on T/F and grid setting. The eDQE results for both systems showed that the grid increased the system efficiency for PMMA thicknesses of 40 mm and above but showed only small sensitivity to T/F setting. While results of the SdNR and d′ based FOMs confirmed the eDQE grid position results, they were also more specific in terms of T/F selection. For the Siemens system at 20 mm PMMA

  18. Simulation information regarding Sandia National Laboratories%3CU%2B2019%3E trinity capability improvement metric.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agelastos, Anthony Michael; Lin, Paul T.

    2013-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory each selected a representative simulation code to be used as a performance benchmark for the Trinity Capability Improvement Metric. Sandia selected SIERRA Low Mach Module: Nalu, which is a uid dynamics code that solves many variable-density, acoustically incompressible problems of interest spanning from laminar to turbulent ow regimes, since it is fairly representative of implicit codes that have been developed under ASC. The simulations for this metric were performed on the Cielo Cray XE6 platform during dedicated application time and the chosen case utilized 131,072 Cielo cores to perform a canonical turbulent open jet simulation within an approximately 9-billion-elementunstructured- hexahedral computational mesh. This report will document some of the results from these simulations as well as provide instructions to perform these simulations for comparison.

  19. Advanced Fuels Campaign Light Water Reactor Accident Tolerant Fuel Performance Metrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brad Merrill; Melissa Teague; Robert Youngblood; Larry Ott; Kevin Robb; Michael Todosow; Chris Stanek; Mitchell Farmer; Michael Billone; Robert Montgomery; Nicholas Brown; Shannon Bragg-Sitton

    2014-02-01

    The safe, reliable and economic operation of the nation’s nuclear power reactor fleet has always been a top priority for the United States’ nuclear industry. As a result, continual improvement of technology, including advanced materials and nuclear fuels, remains central to industry’s success. Decades of research combined with continual operation have produced steady advancements in technology and yielded an extensive base of data, experience, and knowledge on light water reactor (LWR) fuel performance under both normal and accident conditions. In 2011, following the Great East Japan Earthquake, resulting tsunami, and subsequent damage to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant complex, enhancing the accident tolerance of LWRs became a topic of serious discussion. As a result of direction from the U.S. Congress, the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) initiated an Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) Development program. The complex multiphysics behavior of LWR nuclear fuel makes defining specific material or design improvements difficult; as such, establishing qualitative attributes is critical to guide the design and development of fuels and cladding with enhanced accident tolerance. This report summarizes a common set of technical evaluation metrics to aid in the optimization and down selection of candidate designs. As used herein, “metrics” describe a set of technical bases by which multiple concepts can be fairly evaluated against a common baseline and against one another. Furthermore, this report describes a proposed technical evaluation methodology that can be applied to assess the ability of each concept to meet performance and safety goals relative to the current UO2 – zirconium alloy system and relative to one another. The resultant ranked evaluation can then inform concept down-selection, such that the most promising accident tolerant fuel design option(s) can continue to be developed for lead test rod or lead test assembly

  20. Comparative proteomic analysis of Desulfotomaculum reducens MI-1: Insights into the metabolic versatility of a gram-positive sulfate- and metal-reducing bacterium

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Otwell, Anne E.; Callister, Stephen J.; Zink, Erika M.; Smith, Richard D.; Richardson, Ruth E.

    2016-02-19

    In this study, the proteomes of the metabolically versatile and poorly characterized Gram-positive bacterium Desulfotomaculum reducens MI-1 were compared across four cultivation conditions including sulfate reduction, soluble Fe(III) reduction, insoluble Fe(III) reduction, and pyruvate fermentation. Collectively across conditions, we observed at high confidence ~38% of genome-encoded proteins. Here, we focus on proteins that display significant differential abundance on conditions tested. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first full-proteome study focused on a Gram-positive organism cultivated either on sulfate or metal-reducing conditions. Several proteins with uncharacterized function encoded within heterodisulfide reductase (hdr)-containing loci were upregulated on either sulfatemore » (Dred_0633-4, Dred_0689-90, and Dred_1325-30) or Fe(III)-citrate-reducing conditions (Dred_0432-3 and Dred_1778-84). Two of these hdr-containing loci display homology to recently described flavin-based electron bifurcation (FBEB) pathways (Dred_1325-30 and Dred_1778-84). Additionally, we propose that a cluster of proteins, which is homologous to a described FBEB lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) complex, is performing lactate oxidation in D. reducens (Dred_0367-9). Analysis of the putative sulfate reduction machinery in D. reducens revealed that most of these proteins are constitutively expressed across cultivation conditions tested. In addition, peptides from the single multiheme c-type cytochrome (MHC) in the genome were exclusively observed on the insoluble Fe(III) condition, suggesting that this MHC may play a role in reduction of insoluble metals.« less

  1. New Pathways and Metrics for Enhanced, Reversible Hydrogen Storage in Boron-Doped Carbon Nanospaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pfeifer, Peter; Wexler, Carlos; Hawthorne, M. Frederick; Lee, Mark W.; Jalistegi, Satish S.

    2014-08-14

    This project, since its start in 2007—entitled “Networks of boron-doped carbon nanopores for low-pressure reversible hydrogen storage” (2007-10) and “New pathways and metrics for enhanced, reversible hydrogen storage in boron-doped carbon nanospaces” (2010-13)—is in support of the DOE's National Hydrogen Storage Project, as part of the DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program’s comprehensive efforts to enable the widespread commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in diverse sectors of the economy. Hydrogen storage is widely recognized as a critical enabling technology for the successful commercialization and market acceptance of hydrogen powered vehicles. Storing sufficient hydrogen on board a wide range of vehicle platforms, at energy densities comparable to gasoline, without compromising passenger or cargo space, remains an outstanding technical challenge. Of the main three thrust areas in 2007—metal hydrides, chemical hydrogen storage, and sorption-based hydrogen storage—sorption-based storage, i.e., storage of molecular hydrogen by adsorption on high-surface-area materials (carbons, metal-organic frameworks, and other porous organic networks), has emerged as the most promising path toward achieving the 2017 DOE storage targets of 0.055 kg H2/kg system (“5.5 wt%”) and 0.040 kg H2/liter system. The objective of the project is to develop high-surface-area carbon materials that are boron-doped by incorporation of boron into the carbon lattice at the outset, i.e., during the synthesis of the material. The rationale for boron-doping is the prediction that boron atoms in carbon will raise the binding energy of hydro- gen from 4-5 kJ/mol on the undoped surface to 10-14 kJ/mol on a doped surface, and accordingly the hydro- gen storage capacity of the material. The mechanism for the increase in binding energy is electron donation from H2 to electron-deficient B atoms, in the form of sp2 boron-carbon bonds. Our team is proud to have

  2. User's Guide to Pre-Processing Data in Universal Translator 2 for the Energy Charting and Metrics Tool (ECAM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taasevigen, Danny J.

    2011-11-30

    This document is a user's guide for the Energy Charting and Metrics Tool to facilitate the examination of energy information from buildings, reducing the time spent analyzing trend and utility meter data. This user guide was generated to help pre-process data with the intention of utilizing the Energy Charting and Metrics (ECAM) tool to improve building operational efficiency. There are numerous occasions when the metered data that is received from the building automation system (BAS) isn't in the right format acceptable for ECAM. This includes, but isn't limited to, cases such as inconsistent time-stamps for the trends (e.g., each trend has its own time-stamp), data with holes (e.g., some time-stamps have data and others are missing data), each point in the BAS is trended and exported into an individual .csv or .txt file, the time-stamp is unrecognizable by ECAM, etc. After reading through this user guide, the user should be able to pre-process all data files and be ready to use this data in ECAM to improve their building operational efficiency.

  3. Development of Metric for Measuring the Impact of RD&D Funding on GTO's Geothermal Exploration Goals (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenne, S.; Young, K. R.; Thorsteinsson, H.

    2013-04-01

    The Department of Energy's Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO) provides RD&D funding for geothermal exploration technologies with the goal of lowering the risks and costs of geothermal development and exploration. In 2012, NREL was tasked with developing a metric to measure the impacts of this RD&D funding on the cost and time required for exploration activities. The development of this metric included collecting cost and time data for exploration techniques, creating a baseline suite of exploration techniques to which future exploration and cost and time improvements could be compared, and developing an online tool for graphically showing potential project impacts (all available at http://en.openei.org/wiki/Gateway:Geothermal). The conference paper describes the methodology used to define the baseline exploration suite of techniques (baseline), as well as the approach that was used to create the cost and time data set that populates the baseline. The resulting product, an online tool for measuring impact, and the aggregated cost and time data are available on the Open EI website for public access (http://en.openei.org).

  4. Knowledge-based prediction of plan quality metrics in intracranial stereotactic radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiraishi, Satomi; Moore, Kevin L.; Tan, Jun; Olsen, Lindsey A.

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: The objective of this work was to develop a comprehensive knowledge-based methodology for predicting achievable dose–volume histograms (DVHs) and highly precise DVH-based quality metrics (QMs) in stereotactic radiosurgery/radiotherapy (SRS/SRT) plans. Accurate QM estimation can identify suboptimal treatment plans and provide target optimization objectives to standardize and improve treatment planning. Methods: Correlating observed dose as it relates to the geometric relationship of organs-at-risk (OARs) to planning target volumes (PTVs) yields mathematical models to predict achievable DVHs. In SRS, DVH-based QMs such as brain V{sub 10Gy} (volume receiving 10 Gy or more), gradient measure (GM), and conformity index (CI) are used to evaluate plan quality. This study encompasses 223 linear accelerator-based SRS/SRT treatment plans (SRS plans) using volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT), representing 95% of the institution’s VMAT radiosurgery load from the past four and a half years. Unfiltered models that use all available plans for the model training were built for each category with a stratification scheme based on target and OAR characteristics determined emergently through initial modeling process. Model predictive accuracy is measured by the mean and standard deviation of the difference between clinical and predicted QMs, δQM = QM{sub clin} − QM{sub pred}, and a coefficient of determination, R{sup 2}. For categories with a large number of plans, refined models are constructed by automatic elimination of suspected suboptimal plans from the training set. Using the refined model as a presumed achievable standard, potentially suboptimal plans are identified. Predictions of QM improvement are validated via standardized replanning of 20 suspected suboptimal plans based on dosimetric predictions. The significance of the QM improvement is evaluated using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results: The most accurate predictions are obtained when plans are

  5. DOE Safety Metrics Indicator Program (SMIP) Fiscal Year 2000 Annual Report of Packaging- and Transportation-related Occurrences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dickerson, L.S.

    2001-07-26

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been charged by the DOE National Transportation Program (NTP) with the responsibility of retrieving reports and information pertaining to packaging and transportation (P&T) incidents from the centralized Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS) database. These selected reports have been analyzed for trends, impact on P&T operations and safety concerns, and lessons learned (LL) in P&T operations. This task is designed not only to keep the NTP aware of what is occurring at DOE sites on a periodic basis, but also to highlight potential P&T problems that may need management attention and allow dissemination of LL to DOE Operations Offices, with the subsequent flow of information to contractors. The Safety Metrics Indicator Program (SMIP) was established by the NTP in fiscal year (FY) 1998 as an initiative to develop a methodology for reporting occurrences with the appropriate metrics to show rates and trends. One of its chief goals has been to augment historical reporting of occurrence-based information and present more meaningful statistics for comparison of occurrences. To this end, the SMIP established a severity weighting system for the classification of the occurrences, which would allow normalization of the data and provide a basis for trending analyses. The process for application of this methodology is documented in the September 1999 report DOE Packaging and Transportation Measurement Methodology for the Safety Metrics Indicator Program (SMIP). This annual report contains information on those P&T-related occurrences reported to the ORPS during the period from October 1, 1999, through September 30, 2000. Only those incidents that occur in preparation for transport, during transport, and during unloading of hazardous material are considered as packaging- or transportation-related occurrences. Other incidents with P&T significance, but not involving hazardous material (such as vehicle accidents or empty

  6. Table B1. Summary statistics for natural gas in the United States, metric equivalents, 2010-2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Table B1. Summary statistics for natural gas in the United States, metric equivalents, 2010-2014 See footnotes at end of table. Number of Wells Producing at End of Year 487,627 514,637 482,822 R 484,994 514,786 Production (million cubic meters) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells 375,127 348,044 354,080 R 304,676 294,045 From Oil Wells 165,220 167,294 140,617 R 153,044 167,695 From Coalbed Wells 54,277 50,377 43,591 R 40,374 36,392 From Shale Gas Wells 164,723 240,721 298,257 R 337,891 389,474

  7. A Comparison of Model Short-Range Forecasts and the ARM Microbase Data Fourth Quarter ARM Science Metric

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hnilo, J.

    2006-09-19

    For the fourth quarter ARM metric we will make use of new liquid water data that has become available, and called the “Microbase” value added product (referred to as OBS, within the text) at three sites: the North Slope of Alaska (NSA), Tropical West Pacific (TWP) and the Southern Great Plains (SGP) and compare these observations to model forecast data. Two time periods will be analyzed March 2000 for the SGP and October 2004 for both TWP and NSA. The Microbase data have been averaged to 35 pressure levels (e.g., from 1000hPa to 100hPa at 25hPa increments) and time averaged to 3hourly data for direct comparison to our model output.

  8. On use of CO{sub 2} chemiluminescence for combustion metrics in natural gas fired reciprocating engines.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, S. B.; Bihari, B.; Biruduganti, M.; Sekar, R.; Zigan, J.

    2011-01-01

    Flame chemiluminescence is widely acknowledged to be an indicator of heat release rate in premixed turbulent flames that are representative of gas turbine combustion. Though heat release rate is an important metric for evaluating combustion strategies in reciprocating engine systems, its correlation with flame chemiluminescence is not well studied. To address this gap an experimental study was carried out in a single-cylinder natural gas fired reciprocating engine that could simulate turbocharged conditions with exhaust gas recirculation. Crank angle resolved spectra (266-795 nm) of flame luminosity were measured for various operational conditions by varying the ignition timing for MBT conditions and by holding the speed at 1800 rpm and Brake Mean effective Pressure (BMEP) at 12 bar. The effect of dilution on CO*{sub 2}chemiluminescence intensities was studied, by varying the global equivalence ratio (0.6-1.0) and by varying the exhaust gas recirculation rate. It was attempted to relate the measured chemiluminescence intensities to thermodynamic metrics of importance to engine research -- in-cylinder bulk gas temperature and heat release rate (HRR) calculated from measured cylinder pressure signals. The peak of the measured CO*{sub 2} chemiluminescence intensities coincided with peak pressures within {+-}2 CAD for all test conditions. For each combustion cycle, the peaks of heat release rate, spectral intensity and temperature occurred in that sequence, well separated temporally. The peak heat release rates preceded the peak chemiluminescent emissions by 3.8-9.5 CAD, whereas the peak temperatures trailed by 5.8-15.6 CAD. Such a temporal separation precludes correlations on a crank-angle resolved basis. However, the peak cycle heat release rates and to a lesser extent the peak cycle temperatures correlated well with the chemiluminescent emission from CO*{sub 2}. Such observations point towards the potential use of flame chemiluminescence to monitor peak bulk gas

  9. Relating fish health and reproductive metrics to contaminant bioaccumulation at the Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston coal ash spill site

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pracheil, Brenda M.; Marshall Adams, S.; Bevelhimer, Mark S.; Fortner, Allison M.; Greeley, Mark S.; Murphy, Cheryl A.; Mathews, Teresa J.; Peterson, Mark J.

    2016-05-06

    A 4.1 million m3 release of coal ash into the Emory and Clinch rivers in December 2008 at Tennessee Valley Authority s Kingston Fossil Plant has prompted a long-term, large-scale biological monitoring effort to determine if there are chronic effects of this spill on biota. Of concern in this spill were arsenic (As) and selenium (Se), heavy metal constituents of coal ash that can be toxic to fish and wildlife and also mercury (Hg): a legacy contaminant that can interact with Se in organisms. We used fish filet bioaccumulation data from Bluegill Lepomis macrochirus, Redear Lepomis microlophus, Largemouth Bass Micropterusmore » salmoides and Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus and metrics of fish health including fish condition indices, blood chemistry parameters and liver histopathology data collected from 2009-2013 to determine whether tissue heavy metal burdens relate 1) to each other 2) to metrics of fish health (e.g., blood chemistry characteristics and liver histopathology) and condition, and 3) whether relationships between fish health characteristics and heavy metals are related to site and ash-exposure. We found that burdens of Se and As are generally related to each other between tissues, but burdens of Hg between tissues are not generally positively associated. Taking analyses together, there appears to be reductions in growth and sublethal liver and kidney dysfunction in Bluegill and Largemouth Bass as indicated by blood chemistry parameters (elevated blood protein, glucose, phosphorous, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine in ash-affected sites) and related to concentrations of As and Se. Seeing sub-lethal effects in these species of fish is interesting because Redear had the highest filet burdens of Se, but did not have biomarkers indicating disease or dysfunction. We conclude our study by highlighting the complexities inherent in multimetric fish health data and the need for continued monitoring to further untangle contaminant and fish health

  10. DOE JGI Quality Metrics; Approaches to Scaling and Improving Metagenome Assembly (Metagenomics Informatics Challenges Workshop: 10K Genomes at a Time)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Copeland, Alex [DOE JGI]; Brown, C Titus [Michigan State University

    2013-01-22

    DOE JGI's Alex Copeland on "DOE JGI Quality Metrics" and Michigan State University's C. Titus Brown on "Approaches to Scaling and Improving Metagenome Assembly" at the Metagenomics Informatics Challenges Workshop held at the DOE JGI on October 12-13, 2011.

  11. SU-E-T-379: Concave Approximations of Target Volume Dose Metrics for Intensity- Modulated Radiotherapy Treatment Planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, Y; Chen, Y; Wickerhauser, M; Deasy, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The widely used treatment plan metric Dx (mimimum dose to the hottest x% by volume of the target volume) is simple to interpret and use, but is computationally poorly behaved (non-convex), this impedes its use in computationally efficient intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatment planning algorithms. We therefore searched for surrogate metrics that are concave, computationally efficient, and accurately correlated to Dx values in IMRT treatment plans. Methods: To find concave surrogates of D95and more generally, Dx values with variable x valueswe tested equations containing one or two generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) functions. Fits were obtained by varying gEUD a parameter values, as well as the linear equation coefficients. Fitting was performed using a dataset of dose-volume histograms from 498 de-identified head and neck IMRT treatment plans. Fit characteristics were tested using a crossvalidation process. Reported root-mean-square error values were averaged over the cross-validation shuffles. Results: As expected, the two-gEUD formula provided a superior fit, compared to the single-gEUD formula. The best approximation uses two gEUD terms: 16.25 x gEUD[a=0.45] 15.30 x gEUD[a=1.75] 0.69. The average root-mean-square error on repeated (70/30) cross validation was 0.94 Gy. In addition, a formula was found that reasonably approximates Dx for x between 80% and 96%. Conclusion: A simple concave function using two gEUD terms was found that correlates well with PTV D95s for these head and neck treatment plans. More generally, a formula was found that represents well the Dx for x values from 80% to 96%, thus providing a computationally efficient formula for use in treatment planning optimization. The formula may need to be adjusted for other institutions with different treatment planning protocols. We conclude that the strategy of replacing Dx values with gEUD-based formulas is promising.

  12. Geothermal Resource Reporting Metric (GRRM) Developed for the U.S. Department of Energy's Geothermal Technologies Office

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, Katherine R.; Wall, Anna M.; Dobson, Patrick F.

    2015-09-02

    This paper reviews a methodology being developed for reporting geothermal resources and project progress. The goal is to provide the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO) with a consistent and comprehensible means of evaluating the impacts of its funding programs. This framework will allow the GTO to assess the effectiveness of research, development, and deployment (RD&D) funding, prioritize funding requests, and demonstrate the value of RD&D programs to the U.S. Congress and the public. Standards and reporting codes used in other countries and energy sectors provide guidance to develop the relevant geothermal methodology, but industry feedback and our analysis suggest that the existing models have drawbacks that should be addressed. In order to formulate a comprehensive metric for use by the GTO, we analyzed existing resource assessments and reporting methodologies for the geothermal, mining, and oil and gas industries, and sought input from industry, investors, academia, national labs, and other government agencies. Using this background research as a guide, we describe a methodology for evaluating and reporting on GTO funding according to resource grade (geological, technical and socio-economic) and project progress. This methodology would allow GTO to target funding, measure impact by monitoring the progression of projects, or assess geological potential of targeted areas for development.

  13. Comparative hazard analysis and toxicological modeling of diverse nanomaterials using the embryonic zebrafish (EZ) metric of toxicity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harper, Bryan; Thomas, Dennis G.; Chikkagoudar, Satish; Baker, Nathan A.; Tang, Kaizhi; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Lins, Roberto D.; Harper, Stacey

    2015-06-04

    The integration of rapid assays, large data sets, informatics and modeling can overcome current barriers in understanding nanomaterial structure-toxicity relationships by providing a weight-of-the-evidence mechanism to generate hazard rankings for nanomaterials. Here we present the use of a rapid, low-cost assay to perform screening-level toxicity evaluations of nanomaterials in vivo. Calculated EZ Metric scores, a combined measure of morbidity and mortality, were established at realistic exposure levels and used to develop a predictive model of nanomaterial toxicity. Hazard ranking and clustering analysis of 68 diverse nanomaterials revealed distinct patterns of toxicity related to both core composition and outermost surface chemistry of nanomaterials. The resulting clusters guided the development of a predictive model of gold nanoparticle toxicity to embryonic zebrafish. In addition, our findings suggest that risk assessments based on the size and core composition of nanomaterials alone may be wholly inappropriate, especially when considering complex engineered nanomaterials. These findings reveal the need to expeditiously increase the availability of quantitative measures of nanomaterial hazard and broaden the sharing of that data and knowledge to support predictive modeling. In addition, research should continue to focus on methodologies for developing predictive models of nanomaterial hazard based on sub-lethal responses to low dose exposures.

  14. How Does Your Data Center Measure Up? Energy Efficiency Metrics and Benchmarks for Data Center Infrastructure Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathew, Paul; Greenberg, Steve; Ganguly, Srirupa; Sartor, Dale; Tschudi, William

    2009-04-01

    Data centers are among the most energy intensive types of facilities, and they are growing dramatically in terms of size and intensity [EPA 2007]. As a result, in the last few years there has been increasing interest from stakeholders - ranging from data center managers to policy makers - to improve the energy efficiency of data centers, and there are several industry and government organizations that have developed tools, guidelines, and training programs. There are many opportunities to reduce energy use in data centers and benchmarking studies reveal a wide range of efficiency practices. Data center operators may not be aware of how efficient their facility may be relative to their peers, even for the same levels of service. Benchmarking is an effective way to compare one facility to another, and also to track the performance of a given facility over time. Toward that end, this article presents the key metrics that facility managers can use to assess, track, and manage the efficiency of the infrastructure systems in data centers, and thereby identify potential efficiency actions. Most of the benchmarking data presented in this article are drawn from the data center benchmarking database at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The database was developed from studies commissioned by the California Energy Commission, Pacific Gas and Electric Co., the U.S. Department of Energy and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority.

  15. Comparative hazard analysis and toxicological modeling of diverse nanomaterials using the embryonic zebrafish (EZ) metric of toxicity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Harper, Bryan; Thomas, Dennis G.; Chikkagoudar, Satish; Baker, Nathan A.; Tang, Kaizhi; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Lins, Roberto D.; Harper, Stacey

    2015-06-04

    The integration of rapid assays, large data sets, informatics and modeling can overcome current barriers in understanding nanomaterial structure-toxicity relationships by providing a weight-of-the-evidence mechanism to generate hazard rankings for nanomaterials. Here we present the use of a rapid, low-cost assay to perform screening-level toxicity evaluations of nanomaterials in vivo. Calculated EZ Metric scores, a combined measure of morbidity and mortality, were established at realistic exposure levels and used to develop a predictive model of nanomaterial toxicity. Hazard ranking and clustering analysis of 68 diverse nanomaterials revealed distinct patterns of toxicity related to both core composition and outermost surface chemistrymore » of nanomaterials. The resulting clusters guided the development of a predictive model of gold nanoparticle toxicity to embryonic zebrafish. In addition, our findings suggest that risk assessments based on the size and core composition of nanomaterials alone may be wholly inappropriate, especially when considering complex engineered nanomaterials. These findings reveal the need to expeditiously increase the availability of quantitative measures of nanomaterial hazard and broaden the sharing of that data and knowledge to support predictive modeling. In addition, research should continue to focus on methodologies for developing predictive models of nanomaterial hazard based on sub-lethal responses to low dose exposures.« less

  16. ASR - 2011 Performance Metrics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    climate modeling within BER CESD. The goal of the climate modeling program is the development of climate models that include natural and human systems, which will project...

  17. ARM - 2009 Performance Metrics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for climate data products and report the Barrow radiation times series data set. ... (PDF). The Barrow radiation time series data set was developed and is available at the ...

  18. Fire Protection Program Metrics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presenter: Perry E. D ’Antonio, P.E., Acting Sr. Manager, Fire Protection - Sandia National Laboratories

  19. Oil Security Metrics Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, David L.; Leiby, Paul N.

    2005-03-06

    A presentation to the IWG GPRA USDOE, March 6, 2005, Washington, DC. OSMM estimates oil security benefits of changes in the U.S. oil market.

  20. FY 2015 METRIC SUMMARY

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Root Cause Analysis report identifies the key elements necessary to make the meaningful changes required to consistently deliver projects within cost and schedule performance parameters.

  1. Science as Knowledge, Practice, and Map Making: The Challenge of Defining Metrics for Evaluating and Improving DOE-Funded Basic Experimental Science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bodnarczuk, M.

    1993-03-01

    Industrial R&D laboratories have been surprisingly successful in developing performance objectives and metrics that convincingly show that planning, management, and improvement techniques can be value-added to the actual output of R&D organizations. In this paper, I will discuss the more difficult case of developing analogous constructs for DOE-funded non-nuclear, non-weapons basic research, or as I will refer to it - basic experimental science. Unlike most industrial R&D or the bulk of applied science performed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the purpose of basic experimental science is producing new knowledge (usually published in professional journals) that has no immediate application to the first link (the R) of a planned R&D chain. Consequently, performance objectives and metrics are far more difficult to define. My claim is that if one can successfully define metrics for evaluating and improving DOE-funded basic experimental science (which is the most difficult case), then defining such constructs for DOE-funded applied science should be much less problematic. With the publication of the DOE Standard - Implementation Guide for Quality Assurance Programs for Basic and Applied Research (DOE-ER-STD-6001-92) and the development of a conceptual framework for integrating all the DOE orders, we need to move aggressively toward the threefold next phase: (1) focusing the management elements found in DOE-ER-STD-6001-92 on the main output of national laboratories - the experimental science itself; (2) developing clearer definitions of basic experimental science as practice not just knowledge; and (3) understanding the relationship between the metrics that scientists use for evaluating the performance of DOE-funded basic experimental science, the management elements of DOE-ER-STD-6001-92, and the notion of continuous improvement.

  2. Evaluating IMRT and VMAT dose accuracy: Practical examples of failure to detect systematic errors when applying a commonly used metric and action levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelms, Benjamin E.; Chan, Maria F.; Jarry, Genevive; Lemire, Matthieu; Lowden, John; Hampton, Carnell

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: This study (1) examines a variety of real-world cases where systematic errors were not detected by widely accepted methods for IMRT/VMAT dosimetric accuracy evaluation, and (2) drills-down to identify failure modes and their corresponding means for detection, diagnosis, and mitigation. The primary goal of detailing these case studies is to explore different, more sensitive methods and metrics that could be used more effectively for evaluating accuracy of dose algorithms, delivery systems, and QA devices.Methods: The authors present seven real-world case studies representing a variety of combinations of the treatment planning system (TPS), linac, delivery modality, and systematic error type. These case studies are typical to what might be used as part of an IMRT or VMAT commissioning test suite, varying in complexity. Each case study is analyzed according to TG-119 instructions for gamma passing rates and action levels for per-beam and/or composite plan dosimetric QA. Then, each case study is analyzed in-depth with advanced diagnostic methods (dose profile examination, EPID-based measurements, dose difference pattern analysis, 3D measurement-guided dose reconstruction, and dose grid inspection) and more sensitive metrics (2% local normalization/2 mm DTA and estimated DVH comparisons).Results: For these case studies, the conventional 3%/3 mm gamma passing rates exceeded 99% for IMRT per-beam analyses and ranged from 93.9% to 100% for composite plan dose analysis, well above the TG-119 action levels of 90% and 88%, respectively. However, all cases had systematic errors that were detected only by using advanced diagnostic techniques and more sensitive metrics. The systematic errors caused variable but noteworthy impact, including estimated target dose coverage loss of up to 5.5% and local dose deviations up to 31.5%. Types of errors included TPS model settings, algorithm limitations, and modeling and alignment of QA phantoms in the TPS. Most of the errors were

  3. FY 2009 Annual Report of Joule Software Metric SC GG 3.1/2.5.2, Improve Computational Science Capabilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kothe, Douglas B; Roche, Kenneth J; Kendall, Ricky A

    2010-01-01

    The Joule Software Metric for Computational Effectiveness is established by Public Authorizations PL 95-91, Department of Energy Organization Act, and PL 103-62, Government Performance and Results Act. The U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) oversees the preparation and administration of the President s budget; evaluates the effectiveness of agency programs, policies, and procedures; assesses competing funding demands across agencies; and sets the funding priorities for the federal government. The OMB has the power of audit and exercises this right annually for each federal agency. According to the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993 (GPRA), federal agencies are required to develop three planning and performance documents: 1.Strategic Plan: a broad, 3 year outlook; 2.Annual Performance Plan: a focused, 1 year outlook of annual goals and objectives that is reflected in the annual budget request (What results can the agency deliver as part of its public funding?); and 3.Performance and Accountability Report: an annual report that details the previous fiscal year performance (What results did the agency produce in return for its public funding?). OMB uses its Performance Assessment Rating Tool (PART) to perform evaluations. PART has seven worksheets for seven types of agency functions. The function of Research and Development (R&D) programs is included. R&D programs are assessed on the following criteria: Does the R&D program perform a clear role? Has the program set valid long term and annual goals? Is the program well managed? Is the program achieving the results set forth in its GPRA documents? In Fiscal Year (FY) 2003, the Department of Energy Office of Science (DOE SC-1) worked directly with OMB to come to a consensus on an appropriate set of performance measures consistent with PART requirements. The scientific performance expectations of these requirements reach the scope of work conducted at the DOE national laboratories. The Joule system

  4. THE POSSIBLE ROLE OF CORONAL STREAMERS AS MAGNETICALLY CLOSED STRUCTURES IN SHOCK-INDUCED ENERGETIC ELECTRONS AND METRIC TYPE II RADIO BURSTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kong, Xiangliang; Chen, Yao; Feng, Shiwei; Wang, Bing; Du, Guohui; Guo, Fan; Li, Gang

    2015-01-10

    Two solar typeII radio bursts, separated by ?24 hr in time, are examined together. Both events are associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs) erupting from the same active region (NOAA 11176) beneath a well-observed helmet streamer. We find that the typeII emissions in both events ended once the CME/shock fronts passed the white-light streamer tip, which is presumably the magnetic cusp of the streamer. This leads us to conjecture that the closed magnetic arcades of the streamer may play a role in electron acceleration and typeII excitation at coronal shocks. To examine such a conjecture, we conduct a test-particle simulation for electron dynamics within a large-scale partially closed streamer magnetic configuration swept by a coronal shock. We find that the closed field lines play the role of an electron trap via which the electrons are sent back to the shock front multiple times and therefore accelerated to high energies by the shock. Electrons with an initial energy of 300 eV can be accelerated to tens of keV concentrating at the loop apex close to the shock front with a counter-streaming distribution at most locations. These electrons are energetic enough to excite Langmuir waves and radio bursts. Considering the fact that most solar eruptions originate from closed field regions, we suggest that the scenario may be important for the generation of more metric typeIIs. This study also provides an explanation of the general ending frequencies of metric typeIIs at or above 20-30 MHz and the disconnection issue between metric and interplanetary typeIIs.

  5. Table 11.1 Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption by Source, 1949-2011 (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide )

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption by Source, 1949-2011 (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide 1) Year Coal 3 Natural Gas 4 Petroleum Total 2,9 Biomass 2 Aviation Gasoline Distillate Fuel Oil 5 Jet Fuel Kero- sene LPG 6 Lubri- cants Motor Gasoline 7 Petroleum Coke Residual Fuel Oil Other 8 Total Wood 10 Waste 11 Fuel Ethanol 12 Bio- diesel Total 1949 1,118 270 12 140 NA 42 13 7 329 8 244 25 820 2,207 145 NA NA NA 145 1950 1,152 313 14 168 NA 48 16 9 357 8 273 26 918 2,382 147 NA NA

  6. Table 11.2c Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Industrial Sector, 1949-2011 (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide )

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    c Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Industrial Sector, 1949-2011 (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide 1) Year Coal Coal Coke Net Imports Natural Gas 3 Petroleum Retail Elec- tricity 8 Total 2 Biomass 2 Distillate Fuel Oil 4 Kero- sene LPG 5 Lubri- cants Motor Gasoline 6 Petroleum Coke Residual Fuel Oil Other 7 Total Wood 9 Waste 10 Fuel Ethanol 11 Total 1949 500 -1 166 41 18 3 3 16 8 95 25 209 120 995 44 NA NA 44 1950 531 (s) 184 51 20 4 3 18 8 110 26 239 140 1,095 50 NA NA 50

  7. Table 11.2d Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Transportation Sector, 1949-2011 (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide )

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    d Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Transportation Sector, 1949-2011 (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide 1) Year Coal Natural Gas 3 Petroleum Retail Elec- tricity 7 Total 2 Biomass 2 Aviation Gasoline Distillate Fuel Oil 4 Jet Fuel LPG 5 Lubricants Motor Gasoline 6 Residual Fuel Oil Total Fuel Ethanol 8 Biodiesel Total 1949 161 NA 12 30 NA (s) 4 306 91 443 6 611 NA NA NA 1950 146 7 14 35 NA (s) 5 332 95 481 6 640 NA NA NA 1951 129 11 18 42 NA (s) 6 360 102 529 7 675 NA NA NA

  8. Dilaton field minimally coupled to 2+1 gravity; uniqueness of the static Chan-Mann black hole and new dilaton stationary metrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    García-Diaz, Alberto A.

    2014-01-14

    Using the Schwarzschild coordinate frame for a static cyclic symmetric metric in 2+1 gravity coupled minimally to a dilaton logarithmically depending on the radial coordinate in the presence of an exponential potential, by solving first order linear Einstein equations, the general solution is derived and it is identified with the Chan–Mann dilaton solution. In these coordinates, a new stationary dilaton solution is obtained; it does not allow for a de Sitter–Anti-de Sitter limit at spatial infinity, where its structural functions increase indefinitely. On the other hand, it is horizonless and allows for a naked singularity at the origin of coordinates; moreover, one can identify at a large radial coordinate a (quasi-local) mass parameter and in the whole space a constant angular momentum. Via a general SL(2,R)–transformation, applied on the static cyclic symmetric metric, a family of stationary dilaton solutions has been generated. A particular SL(2,R)–transformation is identified, which gives rise to the rotating Chan–Mann dilaton solution. All the exhibited solutions have been characterized by their quasi-local energy, mass, and momentum through their series expansions at spatial infinity. The algebraic structure of the Ricci–energy-momentum, and Cotton tensors is given explicitly.

  9. CT head-scan dosimetry in an anthropomorphic phantom and associated measurement of ACR accreditation-phantom imaging metrics under clinically representative scan conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brunner, Claudia C.; Stern, Stanley H.; Chakrabarti, Kish; Minniti, Ronaldo; Parry, Marie I.; Skopec, Marlene

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: To measure radiation absorbed dose and its distribution in an anthropomorphic head phantom under clinically representative scan conditions in three widely used computed tomography (CT) scanners, and to relate those dose values to metrics such as high-contrast resolution, noise, and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in the American College of Radiology CT accreditation phantom.Methods: By inserting optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLDs) in the head of an anthropomorphic phantom specially developed for CT dosimetry (University of Florida, Gainesville), we measured dose with three commonly used scanners (GE Discovery CT750 HD, Siemens Definition, Philips Brilliance 64) at two different clinical sites (Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, National Institutes of Health). The scanners were set to operate with the same data-acquisition and image-reconstruction protocols as used clinically for typical head scans, respective of the practices of each facility for each scanner. We also analyzed images of the ACR CT accreditation phantom with the corresponding protocols. While the Siemens Definition and the Philips Brilliance protocols utilized only conventional, filtered back-projection (FBP) image-reconstruction methods, the GE Discovery also employed its particular version of an adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) algorithm that can be blended in desired proportions with the FBP algorithm. We did an objective image-metrics analysis evaluating the modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectrum (NPS), and CNR for images reconstructed with FBP. For images reconstructed with ASIR, we only analyzed the CNR, since MTF and NPS results are expected to depend on the object for iterative reconstruction algorithms.Results: The OSLD measurements showed that the Siemens Definition and the Philips Brilliance scanners (located at two different clinical facilities) yield average absorbed doses in tissue of 42.6 and 43.1 m

  10. Table 11.2b Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Commercial Sector, 1949-2011 (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide )

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Commercial Sector, 1949-2011 (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide 1) Year Coal Natural Gas 3 Petroleum Retail Electricity 7 Total 2 Biomass 2 Distillate Fuel Oil 4 Kerosene LPG 5 Motor Gasoline 6 Petroleum Coke Residual Fuel Oil Total Wood 8 Waste 9 Fuel Ethanol 10 Total 1949 148 19 16 3 2 7 NA 28 55 58 280 2 NA NA 2 1950 147 21 19 3 2 7 NA 33 66 63 297 2 NA NA 2 1951 125 25 21 4 3 8 NA 34 70 69 289 2 NA NA 2 1952 112 28 22 4 3 8 NA 35 71 73

  11. Table 11.2e Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Electric Power Sector, 1949-2011 (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide )

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    e Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Electric Power Sector, 1949-2011 (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide 1) Year Coal Natural Gas 3 Petroleum Geo- thermal Non- Biomass Waste 5 Total 2 Biomass 2 Distillate Fuel Oil 4 Petroleum Coke Residual Fuel Oil Total Wood 6 Waste 7 Total 1949 187 30 2 NA 30 33 NA NA 250 1 NA 1 1950 206 35 2 NA 35 37 NA NA 278 1 NA 1 1951 235 42 2 NA 29 31 NA NA 308 1 NA 1 1952 240 50 2 NA 31 33 NA NA 323 1 NA 1 1953 260 57 3 NA 38 40 NA NA 358 (s) NA (s)

  12. Commercial Building Energy Baseline Modeling Software: Performance Metrics and Method Testing with Open Source Models and Implications for Proprietary Software Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Phillip N.; Granderson, Jessica; Sohn, Michael; Addy, Nathan; Jump, David

    2013-09-01

    whose savings can be calculated with least error? 4. What is the state of public domain models, that is, how well do they perform, and what are the associated implications for whole-building measurement and verification (M&V)? Additional project objectives that were addressed as part of this study include: (1) clarification of the use cases and conditions for baseline modeling performance metrics, benchmarks and evaluation criteria, (2) providing guidance for determining customer suitability for baseline modeling, (3) describing the portfolio level effects of baseline model estimation errors, (4) informing PG&E’s development of EMIS technology product specifications, and (5) providing the analytical foundation for future studies about baseline modeling and saving effects of EMIS technologies. A final objective of this project was to demonstrate the application of the methodology, performance metrics, and test protocols with participating EMIS product vendors.

  13. The Oil Security Metrics Model: A Tool for Evaluating the Prospective Oil Security Benefits of DOE's Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy R&D Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, David L; Leiby, Paul Newsome

    2006-05-01

    Energy technology R&D is a cornerstone of U.S. energy policy. Understanding the potential for energy technology R&D to solve the nation's energy problems is critical to formulating a successful R&D program. In light of this, the U.S. Congress requested the National Research Council (NRC) to undertake both retrospective and prospective assessments of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Energy Efficiency and Fossil Energy Research programs (NRC, 2001; NRC, 2005). ("The Congress continued to express its interest in R&D benefits assessment by providing funds for the NRC to build on the retrospective methodology to develop a methodology for assessing prospective benefits." NRC, 2005, p. ES-2) In 2004, the NRC Committee on Prospective Benefits of DOE's Energy Efficiency and Fossil Energy R&D Programs published a report recommending a new framework and principles for prospective benefits assessment. The Committee explicitly deferred the issue of estimating security benefits to future work. Recognizing the need for a rigorous framework for assessing the energy security benefits of its R&D programs, the DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) developed a framework and approach for defining energy security metrics for R&D programs to use in gauging the energy security benefits of their programs (Lee, 2005). This report describes methods for estimating the prospective oil security benefits of EERE's R&D programs that are consistent with the methodologies of the NRC (2005) Committee and that build on Lee's (2005) framework. Its objective is to define and implement a method that makes use of the NRC's typology of prospective benefits and methodological framework, satisfies the NRC's criteria for prospective benefits evaluation, and permits measurement of that portion of the prospective energy security benefits of EERE's R&D portfolio related to oil. While the Oil Security Metrics (OSM) methodology described in this report has been specifically developed to

  14. DOE Project Management Update (Metrics)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Michael Peek, Deputy Director, Office of Project Management Oversight and Assessments March 22, 2016

  15. "(Million Metric Tons Carbon Dioxide)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ....0280756469,0.02562455361,0.02345646124 " China",2293,5558,5862,6284,7716,9057,10514,11945...,0.4312535075,0.4478837352,0.7550810962 " China",0.1064692737,0.1961919973,0.2032923089,0....

  16. A File System Utilization Metric

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Abstract A high performance computing (HPC) platform today typically contains ... the remaining 1M B - 4kB already inmemory when later 4kB requests for that data arrive. ...

  17. Validation of mathematical models for the prediction of organs-at-risk dosimetric metrics in high-dose-rate gynecologic interstitial brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Damato, Antonio L.; Viswanathan, Akila N.; Cormack, Robert A.

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: Given the complicated nature of an interstitial gynecologic brachytherapy treatment plan, the use of a quantitative tool to evaluate the quality of the achieved metrics compared to clinical practice would be advantageous. For this purpose, predictive mathematical models to predict the D{sub 2cc} of rectum and bladder in interstitial gynecologic brachytherapy are discussed and validated.Methods: Previous plans were used to establish the relationship between D2cc and the overlapping volume of the organ at risk with the targeted area (C0) or a 1-cm expansion of the target area (C1). Three mathematical models were evaluated: D{sub 2cc}=α*C{sub 1}+β (LIN); D{sub 2cc}=α– exp(–β*C{sub 0}) (EXP); and a mixed approach (MIX), where both C{sub 0} and C{sub 1} were inputs of the model. The parameters of the models were optimized on a training set of patient data, and the predictive error of each model (predicted D{sub 2cc}− real D{sub 2cc}) was calculated on a validation set of patient data. The data of 20 patients were used to perform a K-fold cross validation analysis, with K = 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 20.Results: MIX was associated with the smallest mean prediction error <6.4% for an 18-patient training set; LIN had an error <8.5%; EXP had an error <8.3%. Best case scenario analysis shows that an error ≤5% can be achieved for a ten-patient training set with MIX, an error ≤7.4% for LIN, and an error ≤6.9% for EXP. The error decreases with the increase in training set size, with the most marked decrease observed for MIX.Conclusions: The MIX model can predict the D{sub 2cc} of the organs at risk with an error lower than 5% with a training set of ten patients or greater. The model can be used in the development of quality assurance tools to identify treatment plans with suboptimal sparing of the organs at risk. It can also be used to improve preplanning and in the development of real-time intraoperative planning tools.

  18. PROGRESS TOWARDS NEXT GENERATION, WAVEFORM BASED THREE-DIMENSIONAL MODELS AND METRICS TO IMPROVE NUCLEAR EXPLOSION MONITORING IN THE MIDDLE EAST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Savage, B; Peter, D; Covellone, B; Rodgers, A; Tromp, J

    2009-07-02

    Efforts to update current wave speed models of the Middle East require a thoroughly tested database of sources and recordings. Recordings of seismic waves traversing the region from Tibet to the Red Sea will be the principal metric in guiding improvements to the current wave speed model. Precise characterizations of the earthquakes, specifically depths and faulting mechanisms, are essential to avoid mapping source errors into the refined wave speed model. Errors associated with the source are manifested in amplitude and phase changes. Source depths and paths near nodal planes are particularly error prone as small changes may severely affect the resulting wavefield. Once sources are quantified, regions requiring refinement will be highlighted using adjoint tomography methods based on spectral element simulations [Komatitsch and Tromp (1999)]. An initial database of 250 regional Middle Eastern events from 1990-2007, was inverted for depth and focal mechanism using teleseismic arrivals [Kikuchi and Kanamori (1982)] and regional surface and body waves [Zhao and Helmberger (1994)]. From this initial database, we reinterpreted a large, well recorded subset of 201 events through a direct comparison between data and synthetics based upon a centroid moment tensor inversion [Liu et al. (2004)]. Evaluation was done using both a 1D reference model [Dziewonski and Anderson (1981)] at periods greater than 80 seconds and a 3D model [Kustowski et al. (2008)] at periods of 25 seconds and longer. The final source reinterpretations will be within the 3D model, as this is the initial starting point for the adjoint tomography. Transitioning from a 1D to 3D wave speed model shows dramatic improvements when comparisons are done at shorter periods, (25 s). Synthetics from the 1D model were created through mode summations while those from the 3D simulations were created using the spectral element method. To further assess errors in source depth and focal mechanism, comparisons between the

  19. Feasibility Study of Hydrogen Production from Existing Nuclear Power Plants Using Alkaline Electrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dana R. Swalla

    2008-12-31

    The mid-range industrial market currently consumes 4.2 million metric tons of hydrogen per year and has an annual growth rate of 15% industries in this range require between 100 and 1000 kilograms of hydrogen per day and comprise a wide range of operations such as food hydrogenation, electronic chip fabrication, metals processing and nuclear reactor chemistry modulation.

  20. Assessing the credibility of the calorific value of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Churney, K.L.; Domalski, E.S.; Ledford, A.E.; Colbert, J.C.; Bruce, S.S.; Buckley, T.J.; Paule, R.C.; Reilly, M.L.

    1984-02-01

    A study has been made at the National Bureau of Standards to establish the limits of reliability of the calorific value of municipal solid waste (MSW) determined by the bomb calorimetric procedure currently used in commercial test laboratories. This procedure involves using gram-size samples derived from MSW that has been processed down to a particle size of 2 mm or less. Critics of the procedure argue that gram-size samples are too small to be representative of such a large quantity of so heterogeneous a material, and that processing MSW may also alter its composition. To test the bomb calorimetric procedure, a 2.5 kg capacity combustion flow calorimeter was designed and constructed for the determination of the enthalpies of combustion of kilogram-size samples of MSW in flowing oxygen near atmospheric pressure. Calorimetric data on processed MSW were obtained using both the kilogram-size flow and a gram-size bomb calorimeter. Intercomparison of results shows that the calorific value (on a dry basis) of gram-size test samples agrees, within the uncertainty of our experiments, with the corresponding values for their kilogram-size parent samples provided that the sample division technique used to obtain the gram-size samples is that described in this work. The average difference of the parent minus gram-size sample values (on a dry basis) is -0.1% with an imprecision (95% confidence interval) of +-1.1% of the mean calorific value. The effects of processing on sample composition were determined by intercomparison of flow calorimetric results on kilogram-size samples of processed and minimally processed MSW (150 mm or less particle size) that are nominally identical. The average difference of the unprocessed minus processed values (on a dry basis) is -0.5% with an imprecision (95% confidence interval) of +-2.9% of the mean calorific value. 7 references, 4 figures, 10 tables.

  1. SU-D-204-05: Quantitative Comparison of a High Resolution Micro-Angiographic Fluoroscopic (MAF) Detector with a Standard Flat Panel Detector (FPD) Using the New Metric of Generalized Measured Relative Object Detectability (GM-ROD)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russ, M; Ionita, C; Bednarek, D; Rudin, S

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: In endovascular image-guided neuro-interventions, visualization of fine detail is paramount. For example, the ability of the interventionist to visualize the stent struts depends heavily on the x-ray imaging detector performance. Methods: A study to examine the relative performance of the high resolution MAF-CMOS (pixel size 75µm, Nyquist frequency 6.6 cycles/mm) and a standard Flat Panel Detector (pixel size 194µm, Nyquist frequency 2.5 cycles/mm) detectors in imaging a neuro stent was done using the Generalized Measured Relative Object Detectability (GM-ROD) metric. Low quantum noise images of a deployed stent were obtained by averaging 95 frames obtained by both detectors without changing other exposure or geometric parameters. The square of the Fourier transform of each image is taken and divided by the generalized normalized noise power spectrum to give an effective measured task-specific signal-to-noise ratio. This expression is then integrated from 0 to each of the detector’s Nyquist frequencies, and the GM-ROD value is determined by taking a ratio of the integrals for the MAF-CMOS to that of the FPD. The lower bound of integration can be varied to emphasize high frequencies in the detector comparisons. Results: The MAF-CMOS detector exhibits vastly superior performance over the FPD when integrating over all frequencies, yielding a GM-ROD value of 63.1. The lower bound of integration was stepped up in increments of 0.5 cycles/mm for higher frequency comparisons. As the lower bound increased, the GM-ROD value was augmented, reflecting the superior performance of the MAF-CMOS in the high frequency regime. Conclusion: GM-ROD is a versatile metric that can provide quantitative detector and task dependent comparisons that can be used as a basis for detector selection. Supported by NIH Grant: 2R01EB002873 and an equipment grant from Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation.

  2. ARM: GRAMS: calibration information for the total direct diffuse...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    OSTI Identifier: 1025194 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC05-00OR22725 Resource Type: Dataset Data Type: Numeric Data Research Org: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Archive, Oak ...

  3. EM Corporate Performance Metrics, Complex Level

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    98,053 106,526 LLLLMW disposed Legacy (Stored) and NGW Cubic Meters 1,558,048 1,209,709 1,237,779 1,265,849 MAAs eliminated Number of Material Access Areas 35 30 30 30 Nuclear...

  4. Documentation for FY2003 GPRA metrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2002-02-01

    This report is broken into two sections: a summary section providing an overview of the benefits analysis of OPT technology R&D programs, and a detailed section providing specific information about the entire GPRA benefits process and each of the OPT programs.

  5. Comparison summary (key metrics and multiples)

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    variable lift, timing and duration to enable high efficiency engine combustion control | Department of Energy Discusses development of advanced variable valve actuation system to enable high efficiency combustion highlighting advances to improving system packaging while reducing cost deer12_mccarthy.pdf (1.78 MB) More Documents & Publications Step change in Fuel Efficiency:Eaton's perspective Development of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion Engines Designs for SI and CI Engines High

  6. Stochastic inverse problems: Models and metrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabbagh, Elias H.; Sabbagh, Harold A.; Murphy, R. Kim; Aldrin, John C.; Annis, Charles; Knopp, Jeremy S.

    2015-03-31

    In past work, we introduced model-based inverse methods, and applied them to problems in which the anomaly could be reasonably modeled by simple canonical shapes, such as rectangular solids. In these cases the parameters to be inverted would be length, width and height, as well as the occasional probe lift-off or rotation. We are now developing a formulation that allows more flexibility in modeling complex flaws. The idea consists of expanding the flaw in a sequence of basis functions, and then solving for the expansion coefficients of this sequence, which are modeled as independent random variables, uniformly distributed over their range of values. There are a number of applications of such modeling: 1. Connected cracks and multiple half-moons, which we have noted in a POD set. Ideally we would like to distinguish connected cracks from one long shallow crack. 2. Cracks of irregular profile and shape which have appeared in cold work holes during bolt-hole eddy-current inspection. One side of such cracks is much deeper than other. 3. L or C shaped crack profiles at the surface, examples of which have been seen in bolt-hole cracks. By formulating problems in a stochastic sense, we are able to leverage the stochastic global optimization algorithms in NLSE, which is resident in VIC-3D®, to answer questions of global minimization and to compute confidence bounds using the sensitivity coefficient that we get from NLSE. We will also address the issue of surrogate functions which are used during the inversion process, and how they contribute to the quality of the estimation of the bounds.

  7. Clean Cities Annual Metrics Report 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, C.; Bergeron, P.

    2009-09-01

    This report summarizes the Department of Energy's Clean Cities coalition accomplishments in 2008, including petroleum displacement data, membership, funding, sales of alternative fuel blends, deployment of AFVs and HEVs, idle reduction initiatives, and fuel economy activities.

  8. EM Corporate Performance Metrics, Site Level

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    completed 1 1 1 1 Grand Junction Geographic Sites Eliminated Number completed 3 2 2 2 Inhalation Toxicology Laboratory LLLLMW disposed Legacy (Stored) and NGW Cubic Meters 359...

  9. Uranium Leasing Program: Lease Tract Metrics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Atomic Energy Act and other legislative actions authorized the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), predecessor agency to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), to withdraw lands from the public...

  10. Comparison summary (key metrics and multiples)

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... Early Concern Over Slope Instability 10 (from McIver,1982) Cause Turbidity Currents Act as ... Documented Gas Release from the Seafloor 38 Sea surface Seafloor 100m ocean shear? 800m ...

  11. Clean Cities 2012 Annual Metrics Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, C.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Clean Cities program advances the nation's economic, environmental, and energy security by supporting local actions to cut petroleum use in transportation. A national network of nearly 100 Clean Cities coalitions brings together stakeholders in the public and private sectors to deploy alternative and renewable fuels, idle-reduction measures, fuel economy improvements, and new transportation technologies, as they emerge. Each year DOE asks Clean Cities coordinators to submit annual reports of their activities and accomplishments for the previous calendar year. Data and information are submitted via an online database that is maintained as part of the Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Coordinators submit a range of data that characterizes the membership, funding, projects, and activities of their coalitions. They also submit data about sales of alternative fuels, deployment of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), idle-reduction initiatives, fuel economy activities, and programs to reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT). NREL analyzes the data and translates them into petroleum-use reduction impacts, which are summarized in this report.

  12. Evaluation Metrics Applied to Accident Tolerant Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shannon M. Bragg-Sitton; Jon Carmack; Frank Goldner

    2014-10-01

    The safe, reliable, and economic operation of the nation’s nuclear power reactor fleet has always been a top priority for the United States’ nuclear industry. Continual improvement of technology, including advanced materials and nuclear fuels, remains central to the industry’s success. Decades of research combined with continual operation have produced steady advancements in technology and have yielded an extensive base of data, experience, and knowledge on light water reactor (LWR) fuel performance under both normal and accident conditions. One of the current missions of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) is to develop nuclear fuels and claddings with enhanced accident tolerance for use in the current fleet of commercial LWRs or in reactor concepts with design certifications (GEN-III+). Accident tolerance became a focus within advanced LWR research upon direction from Congress following the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, resulting tsunami, and subsequent damage to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant complex. The overall goal of ATF development is to identify alternative fuel system technologies to further enhance the safety, competitiveness and economics of commercial nuclear power. Enhanced accident tolerant fuels would endure loss of active cooling in the reactor core for a considerably longer period of time than the current fuel system while maintaining or improving performance during normal operations. The U.S. DOE is supporting multiple teams to investigate a number of technologies that may improve fuel system response and behavior in accident conditions, with team leadership provided by DOE national laboratories, universities, and the nuclear industry. Concepts under consideration offer both evolutionary and revolutionary changes to the current nuclear fuel system. Mature concepts will be tested in the Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory beginning in Summer 2014 with additional concepts being readied for insertion in fiscal year 2015. This paper provides a brief summary of the proposed evaluation process that would be used to evaluate and prioritize the candidate accident tolerant fuel concepts currently under development.

  13. Clean Cities 2012 Annual Metrics Report

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable...

  14. Efficient Synchronization Stability Metrics for Fault Clearing...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA at www.ntis.gov. Authors: Backhaus, Scott N. 1 ; Chertkov, Michael 1 ; Bent, Russell Whitford 1 ; Bienstock, Daniel 2...

  15. EECBG SEP Attachment 1 - Process metric list

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    systems installed (tons) 3e. Biomass (non-transport) system installed Number of biomass ... Bike lanes installed Length of bike lanes installed (linear feet) 12k. Vehicle ...

  16. Microsoft Word - KCP Final EA Draft 042913 CLEAN for Concurrence-R2.docx

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE TRANSFER OF THE KANSAS CITY PLANT, KANSAS CITY, MISSOURI U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration May 2013 DOE/EA-1947 CONVERSION FACTORS Metric to English English to Metric Multiply by To get Multiply by To get Area Square kilometers 247.1 Acres Square kilometers 0.3861 Square miles Square meters 10.764 Square feet Concentration Kilograms/sq. meter 0.16667 Tons/acre Milligrams/liter 1 a Parts/million Micrograms/liter 1 a

  17. Property:ExplorationCostPerMetric | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Paleomagnetic Measurements Passive Seismic Techniques Passive Sensors Portable X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) Portfolio Risk Modeling Production Wells R Radar Remote Sensing Techniques...

  18. Analysis of key safety metrics of thorium utilization in LWRs...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    high-temperature gas-cooled, fast spectrum sodium, and molten salt reactors), along with use in advanced accelerator-driven systems and even in fission-fusion hybrid systems. ...

  19. Phase estimation with nonunitary interferometers: Information as a metric

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bahder, Thomas B.

    2011-05-15

    Determining the phase in one arm of a quantum interferometer is discussed taking into account the three nonideal aspects in real experiments: nondeterministic state preparation, nonunitary state evolution due to losses during state propagation, and imperfect state detection. A general expression is written for the probability of a measurement outcome taking into account these three nonideal aspects. As an example of applying the formalism, the classical Fisher information and fidelity (Shannon mutual information between phase and measurements) are computed for few-photon Fock and N00N states input into a lossy Mach-Zehnder interferometer. These three nonideal aspects lead to qualitative differences in phase estimation, such as a decrease in fidelity and Fisher information that depends on the true value of the phase.

  20. Analysis of key safety metrics of thorium utilization in LWRs

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ade, Brian J.; Bowman, Stephen M.; Worrall, Andrew; Powers, Jeffrey

    2016-04-08

    Here, thorium has great potential to stretch nuclear fuel reserves because of its natural abundance and because it is possible to breed the 232Th isotope into a fissile fuel (233U). Various scenarios exist for utilization of thorium in the nuclear fuel cycle, including use in different nuclear reactor types (e.g., light water, high-temperature gas-cooled, fast spectrum sodium, and molten salt reactors), along with use in advanced accelerator-driven systems and even in fission-fusion hybrid systems. The most likely near-term application of thorium in the United States is in currently operating light water reactors (LWRs). This use is primarily based on conceptsmore » that mix thorium with uranium (UO2 + ThO2) or that add fertile thorium (ThO2) fuel pins to typical LWR fuel assemblies. Utilization of mixed fuel assemblies (PuO2 + ThO2) is also possible. The addition of thorium to currently operating LWRs would result in a number of different phenomenological impacts to the nuclear fuel. Thorium and its irradiation products have different nuclear characteristics from those of uranium and its irradiation products. ThO2, alone or mixed with UO2 fuel, leads to different chemical and physical properties of the fuel. These key reactor safety–related issues have been studied at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and documented in “Safety and Regulatory Issues of the Thorium Fuel Cycle” (NUREG/CR-7176, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 2014). Various reactor analyses were performed using the SCALE code system for comparison of key performance parameters of both ThO2 + UO2 and ThO2 + PuO2 against those of UO2 and typical UO2 + PuO2 mixed oxide fuels, including reactivity coefficients and power sharing between surrounding UO2 assemblies and the assembly of interest. The decay heat and radiological source terms for spent fuel after its discharge from the reactor are also presented. Based on this evaluation, potential impacts on safety requirements and identification of knowledge gaps that require additional analysis or research to develop a technical basis for the licensing of thorium fuel are identified.« less

  1. Hierarchical clustering using correlation metric and spatial continuity constraint

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stork, Christopher L.; Brewer, Luke N.

    2012-10-02

    Large data sets are analyzed by hierarchical clustering using correlation as a similarity measure. This provides results that are superior to those obtained using a Euclidean distance similarity measure. A spatial continuity constraint may be applied in hierarchical clustering analysis of images.

  2. Final documentation report for FY2004 GPRA metrics: Subtask 5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2003-02-01

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energys (EERE) Renewable and Distributed Energy R&D programs manage research in two broad areas: 1) Energy Supply Technologies; and 2) Electricity Delivery. Several different approaches are required to estimate the benefits of this wide array of programs. The analytical approaches used for FY 2004 are documented in this report, as are the results of these analyses. This chapter provides a broad overview of the approaches taken for each of the two EERE research areas. Greater detail for each EERE Renewable and Distributed Energy program is provided later in this report in program-specific discussions.

  3. Annex A Metrics for the Smart Grid System Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... D.C. A.49 M.8.3.0 Deployment Trends and Projections Table M.8.1 presents ... These scenarios assume that the PHEV will ultimately become the dominant alternative fuel vehicle...

  4. Deep Energy Retrofit Performance Metric Comparison: Eight California...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    For each home, the details of the retrofits were analyzed, diagnostic tests to characterize the home were performed and the homes were monitored for total and individual end-use ...

  5. Summary of Proposed Metrics - QER Technical Workshop on Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Infrastructure Assurance Center presentation o DEFINITION - Resilience, in the context of critical infrastructure, is defined as the ability of a facility or asset to ...

  6. Toward a new metric for ranking high performance computing systems...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    as a true measure of system performance for a growing collection of important science and engineering applications. In this paper we describe a new high performance conjugate...

  7. Analysis of key safety metrics of thorium utilization in LWRs...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    nuclear reactor types (e.g., light water, high-temperature gas-cooled, fast ... of thorium in the United States is in currently operating light water reactors (LWRs). ...

  8. Toward a new metric for ranking high performance computing systems...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Close Cite: Bibtex Format Close 0 pages in this document matching the terms "" Search For Terms: Enter terms in the toolbar above to search the full text of this document for ...

  9. FY 2016 Q3 Metrics Summary.xlsx

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    FY 2016 Target 95% 95% 90% 85% 90% 90% FY 2016 3rd Qtr Actual Comment FY 2016 Forecast ... Schedule Compliance, Projects Less Than 5 Years Duration: Projects will meet the project ...

  10. Property:ExplorationTimePerMetric | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Techniques Geothermal Literature Review Geothermometry Gravity Methods Gravity Techniques Ground Electromagnetic Techniques Groundwater Sampling H Hand-held X-Ray Fluorescence...

  11. Non-minimal derivative couplings of the composite metric (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    In the context of massive gravity, bi-gravity and multi-gravity non-minimal matter ... limit and the matter quantum loop corrections do not detune the potential interactions. ...

  12. EAC Presentation: Metrics and Benefits Analysis for the ARRA...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and benefits analysis for the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act smart grid programs including the Smart Grid Investment Grants and the Smart Grid Demonstration Program. ...

  13. Integration of Sustainability Metrics into Design Cases and State...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) 2015 Project Peer Review Integration ...

  14. Method for Confidence Metric in Optic Disk Location in Retinal...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Images Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary To improve accuracy in diagnosis of retinal disease, ORNL researchers...

  15. On The conformal metric structure of geometrothermodynamics: Generalizations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azreg-Anou, Mustapha

    2014-03-15

    We show that the range of applicability of the change of representation formula derived by Bravetti et al. [J. Math. Phys. 54, 033513 (2013)] is very narrow and extend it to include all physical applications, particularly, applications to black hole thermodynamics, cosmology, and fluid thermodynamics.

  16. Toward a new metric for ranking high performance computing systems...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    performance for a growing collection of important science and engineering applications. ... performance and expect to drive computer system design and implementation in ...

  17. Office of HC Strategy Budget and Performance Metrics (HC-50)...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Statement and Function Statement The Office of Human Capital Strategy, Budget, and ... Provides analytical support and consultative advice to the Chief Human Capital Officer, ...

  18. Overview of advanced technologies for stabilization of {sup 238}Pu-contaminated waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsey, K.B.; Foltyn, E.M.; Heslop, J.M.

    1998-02-01

    This paper presents an overview of potential technologies for stabilization of {sup 238}Pu-contaminated waste. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has processed {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel into heat sources for space and terrestrial uses for the past several decades. The 88-year half-life of {sup 238}Pu and thermal power of approximately 0.6 watts/gram make this isotope ideal for missions requiring many years of dependable service in inaccessible locations. However, the same characteristic which makes {sup 238}Pu attractive for heat source applications, the high Curie content (17 Ci/gram versus 0.06 Ci/gram for 239{sup Pu}), makes disposal of {sup 238}Pu-contaminated waste difficult. Specifically, the thermal load limit on drums destined for transport to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), 0.23 gram per drum for combustible waste, is impossible to meet for nearly all {sup 238}Pu-contaminated glovebox waste. Use of advanced waste treatment technologies including Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) and aqueous chemical separation will eliminate the combustible matrix from {sup 238}Pu-contaminated waste and recover kilogram quantities of {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} from the waste stream. A conceptual design of these advanced waste treatment technologies will be presented.

  19. A new tribological test for candidate brush seal materials evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fellenstein, J.A.; DellaCorte, C.

    1994-10-01

    A new tribological test for candidate brush seal materials evaluation has been developed. The sliding contact between the brush seal wires and their mating counterface journal is simulated by testing a small tuft of wire against the outside diameter of a high speed rotating shaft. The test configuration is similar to a standard block on ring geometry. The new tester provides the capability to measure both the friction and wear of candidate wire and counterface materials under controlled loading conditions in the gram to kilogram range. A wide test condition latitude of speeds (1 to 27 m/s), temperatures (25 to 700C), and loads (0.5 to 10 N) enables the simulation of many of the important tribological parameters found in turbine engine brush seals. This paper describes the new test rig and specimen configuration and presents initial data for candidate seal materials comparing tuft test results and wear surface morphology to field tested seal components.

  20. The Effect of Bicarbonate on the Microbial Dissolution of Autunite Mineral in the Presence of Gram-Positive Bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sepulveda-Medina, Paola; Katsenovich, Yelena; Wellman, Dawn M.; Lagos, Leonel

    2015-06-01

    Bacteria are key players in the processes that govern fate and transport of contaminants. The uranium release from Na and Ca-autunite by Arthrobacter oxydans strain G968 was evaluated in the presence of bicarbonate ions. This bacterium was previously isolated from Hanford Site soil and in earlier prescreening tests demonstrated low tolerance to U(VI) toxicity compared to other A.oxydans isolates. Experiments were conducted using glass serum bottles as mixed bioreactors and sterile 6-well cell culture plates with inserts separating bacteria cells from mineral solids. Reactors containing phosphorus-limiting media were amended with bicarbonate ranging between 0-10 mM and metaautunite solids to provide a U(VI) concentration of 4.4 mmol/L. Results showed that in the presence of bicarbonate, A.oxydans G968 was able to enhance the release of U(VI) from Na and Ca autunite at the same capacity as other A.oxydans isolates with relatively high tolerance to U(VI). The effect of bacterial strains on autunite dissolution decreases as the concentration of bicarbonate increases. The results illustrate that direct interaction between the bacteria and the mineral is not necessary to result in U (VI) biorelease from autunite. The formation of secondary calcium-phosphate mineral phases on the surface of the mineral during the dissolution can ultimately reduce the natural autunite mineral contact area, which bacterial cells can access. This thereby reduces the concentration of uranium released into the solution. This study provides a better understanding of the interactions between meta-autunite and microbes in conditions mimicking arid and semiarid subsurface environments of western U.S.

  1. PDRD (SR13046) TRITIUM PRODUCTION FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, P.; Sheetz, S.

    2013-09-30

    Utilizing the results of Texas A&M University (TAMU) senior design projects on tritium production in four different small modular reactors (SMR), the Savannah River National Laboratory’s (SRNL) developed an optimization model evaluating tritium production versus uranium utilization under a FY2013 plant directed research development (PDRD) project. The model is a tool that can evaluate varying scenarios and various reactor designs to maximize the production of tritium per unit of unobligated United States (US) origin uranium that is in limited supply. The primary module in the model compares the consumption of uranium for various production reactors against the base case of Watts Bar I running a nominal load of 1,696 tritium producing burnable absorber rods (TPBARs) with an average refueling of 41,000 kg low enriched uranium (LEU) on an 18 month cycle. After inputting an initial year, starting inventory of unobligated uranium and tritium production forecast, the model will compare and contrast the depletion rate of the LEU between the entered alternatives. This is an annual tritium production rate of approximately 0.059 grams of tritium per kilogram of LEU (g-T/kg-LEU). To date, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) license has not been amended to accept a full load of TPBARs so the nominal tritium production has not yet been achieved. The alternatives currently loaded into the model include the three light water SMRs evaluated in TAMU senior projects including, mPower, Holtec and NuScale designs. Initial evaluations of tritium production in light water reactor (LWR) based SMRs using optimized loads TPBARs is on the order 0.02-0.06 grams of tritium per kilogram of LEU used. The TAMU students also chose to model tritium production in the GE-Hitachi SPRISM, a pooltype sodium fast reactor (SFR) utilizing a modified TPBAR type target. The team was unable to complete their project so no data is available. In order to include results from a fast reactor, the SRNL

  2. Levelized cost of energy (LCOE) metric to characterize solar absorber coatings for the CSP industry

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Boubault, Antoine; Ho, Clifford K.; Hall, Aaron; Lambert, Timothy N.; Ambrosini, Andrea

    2015-07-08

    The contribution of each component of a power generation plant to the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) can be estimated and used to increase the power output while reducing system operation and maintenance costs. The LCOE is used in order to quantify solar receiver coating influence on the LCOE of solar power towers. Two new parameters are introduced: the absolute levelized cost of coating (LCOC) and the LCOC efficiency. Depending on the material properties, aging, costs, and temperature, the absolute LCOC enables quantifying the cost-effectiveness of absorber coatings, as well as finding optimal operating conditions. The absolute LCOC is investigatedmore » for different hypothetic coatings and is demonstrated on Pyromark 2500 paint. Results show that absorber coatings yield lower LCOE values in most cases, even at significant costs. Optimal reapplication intervals range from one to five years. At receiver temperatures greater than 700 °C, non-selective coatings are not always worthwhile while durable selective coatings consistently reduce the LCOE—up to 12% of the value obtained for an uncoated receiver. Moreover the absolute LCOC is a powerful tool to characterize and compare different coatings, not only considering their initial efficiencies but also including their durability.« less

  3. NNSA Announces Contract to Downblend 12 Metric Tons of Surplus Highly

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Critical Assembly at Savannah River Site and Y-12 National Security Complex | National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) Arrival of Plutonium and Uranium from Japan's Fast Critical Assembly at Savannah River Site and Y-12 National Security Complex June 06, 2016 WASHINGTON (June 6, 2016) - A shipment of plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU) from Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA)'s Fast Critical Assembly (FCA) reactor arrived safely at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah

  4. Parameter Analysis of the VPIN (Volume synchronized Probability of Informed Trading) Metric

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Jung Heon; Wu, Kesheng; Simon, Horst D.

    2014-03-01

    VPIN (Volume synchronized Probability of Informed trading) is a leading indicator of liquidity-induced volatility. It is best known for having produced a signal more than hours before the Flash Crash of 2010. On that day, the market saw the biggest one-day point decline in the Dow Jones Industrial Average, which culminated to the market value of $1 trillion disappearing, but only to recover those losses twenty minutes later (Lauricella 2010). The computation of VPIN requires the user to set up a handful of free parameters. The values of these parameters significantly affect the effectiveness of VPIN as measured by the false positive rate (FPR). An earlier publication reported that a brute-force search of simple parameter combinations yielded a number of parameter combinations with FPR of 7%. This work is a systematic attempt to find an optimal parameter set using an optimization package, NOMAD (Nonlinear Optimization by Mesh Adaptive Direct Search) by Audet, le digabel, and tribes (2009) and le digabel (2011). We have implemented a number of techniques to reduce the computation time with NOMAD. Tests show that we can reduce the FPR to only 2%. To better understand the parameter choices, we have conducted a series of sensitivity analysis via uncertainty quantification on the parameter spaces using UQTK (Uncertainty Quantification Toolkit). Results have shown dominance of 2 parameters in the computation of FPR. Using the outputs from NOMAD optimization and sensitivity analysis, We recommend A range of values for each of the free parameters that perform well on a large set of futures trading records.

  5. EECBG 10-07C/SEP 10-006B Attachment 1: Process Metrics List

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Building Code Adoption Name of new code adopted Name of old code replaced Number of new and existing buildings covered by new code 2. Building Energy Audits 2a. Building energy ...

  6. Carbon oxidation state as a metric for describing the chemistry of atmospheric organic aerosol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Kroll, Jesse H.; Donahue, Neil M.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Kessler, Sean H.; Canagaratna, Manjula R.; Wilson, Kevin R.; Altieri, Katye E.; Mazzoleni, Lynn R.; Wozniak, Andrew S.; Bluhm, Hendrik; Mysak, Erin R.; Smith, Jared D.; Kolb, Charles E.; Worsnop, Douglas R.

    2010-11-05

    A detailed understanding of the sources, transformations, and fates of organic species in the environment is crucial because of the central roles that organics play in human health, biogeochemical cycles, and Earth's climate. However, such an understanding is hindered by the immense chemical complexity of environmental mixtures of organics; for example, atmospheric organic aerosol consists of at least thousands of individual compounds, all of which likely evolve chemically over their atmospheric lifetimes. Here we demonstrate the utility of describing organic aerosol (and other complex organic mixtures) in terms of average carbon oxidation state (OSC), a quantity that always increases with oxidation, and is readily measured using state-of-the-art analytical techniques. Field and laboratory measurements of OSC , using several such techniques, constrain the chemical properties of the organics and demonstrate that the formation and evolution of organic aerosol involves simultaneous changes to both carbon oxidation state and carbon number (nC).

  7. Taking the One-Metric-Ton Challenge | Y-12 National Security...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    has undertaken an extensive dedicated maintenance effort to improve metal production ... Production, Program Management and Maintenance - proposed that their response to the ...

  8. 11,970,363 Metric Tons of CO2 Injected as of February 23, 2016...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The site is managed by MRCSP's partner, Core Energy, and is in the vicinity of natural gas processing plants that provide CO2 for the enhanced oil recovery operations. Southeast ...

  9. Cosmological bounces in spatially flat FRW spacetimes in metric f(R) gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul, Niladri; Chakrabarty, Saikat Nil; Bhattacharya, Kaushik E-mail: snilch@iitk.ac.in

    2014-10-01

    The present work analyzes the various conditions in which there can be a bouncing universe solution in f(R) gravity. In the article an interesting method, to analyze the bouncing FRW solutions in a spatially flat universe using f(R) gravity models using an effective Einstein frame description of the process, is presented. The analysis shows that a cosmological bounce in the f(R) theory need not be described by an equivalent bounce in the Einstein frame description of the process where actually there may be no bounce at all. Nevertheless the Einstein frame description of the bouncing phenomena turns out to be immensely important as the dynamics of the bounce becomes amenable to logic based on general relativistic intuition. The theory of scalar cosmological perturbations in the bouncing universe models in f(R) theories has also been worked out in the Einstein frame.

  10. Determine metrics and set targets for soil quality on agriculture residue and energy crop pathways

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ian Bonner; David Muth

    2013-09-01

    There are three objectives for this project: 1) support OBP in meeting MYPP stated performance goals for the Sustainability Platform, 2) develop integrated feedstock production system designs that increase total productivity of the land, decrease delivered feedstock cost to the conversion facilities, and increase environmental performance of the production system, and 3) deliver to the bioenergy community robust datasets and flexible analysis tools for establishing sustainable and viable use of agricultural residues and dedicated energy crops. The key project outcome to date has been the development and deployment of a sustainable agricultural residue removal decision support framework. The modeling framework has been used to produce a revised national assessment of sustainable residue removal potential. The national assessment datasets are being used to update national resource assessment supply curves using POLYSIS. The residue removal modeling framework has also been enhanced to support high fidelity sub-field scale sustainable removal analyses. The framework has been deployed through a web application and a mobile application. The mobile application is being used extensively in the field with industry, research, and USDA NRCS partners to support and validate sustainable residue removal decisions. The results detailed in this report have set targets for increasing soil sustainability by focusing on primary soil quality indicators (total organic carbon and erosion) in two agricultural residue management pathways and a dedicated energy crop pathway. The two residue pathway targets were set to, 1) increase residue removal by 50% while maintaining soil quality, and 2) increase soil quality by 5% as measured by Soil Management Assessment Framework indicators. The energy crop pathway was set to increase soil quality by 10% using these same indicators. To demonstrate the feasibility and impact of each of these targets, seven case studies spanning the US are presented. The analysis has shown that the feedstock production systems are capable of simultaneously increasing productivity and soil sustainability.

  11. Levelized cost of energy (LCOE) metric to characterize solar absorber coatings for the CSP industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boubault, Antoine; Ho, Clifford K.; Hall, Aaron; Lambert, Timothy N.; Ambrosini, Andrea

    2015-07-08

    The contribution of each component of a power generation plant to the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) can be estimated and used to increase the power output while reducing system operation and maintenance costs. The LCOE is used in order to quantify solar receiver coating influence on the LCOE of solar power towers. Two new parameters are introduced: the absolute levelized cost of coating (LCOC) and the LCOC efficiency. Depending on the material properties, aging, costs, and temperature, the absolute LCOC enables quantifying the cost-effectiveness of absorber coatings, as well as finding optimal operating conditions. The absolute LCOC is investigated for different hypothetic coatings and is demonstrated on Pyromark 2500 paint. Results show that absorber coatings yield lower LCOE values in most cases, even at significant costs. Optimal reapplication intervals range from one to five years. At receiver temperatures greater than 700 C, non-selective coatings are not always worthwhile while durable selective coatings consistently reduce the LCOEup to 12% of the value obtained for an uncoated receiver. Moreover the absolute LCOC is a powerful tool to characterize and compare different coatings, not only considering their initial efficiencies but also including their durability.

  12. 11,970,363 Metric Tons of CO2 Injected as of February 23, 2016...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Air Products has successfully retrofitted its two Port Arthur SMRs with a vacuum swing adsorption system to separate the CO2 from the process gas stream, followed by compression ...

  13. Planar ultrananocrystalline diamond field emitter in accelerator radio frequency electron injector: Performance metrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baryshev, Sergey V. Antipov, Sergey; Jing, Chunguang; Qiu, Jiaqi; Shao, Jiahang; Liu, Wanming; Gai, Wei; Pérez Quintero, Kenneth J.; Sumant, Anirudha V.; Kanareykin, Alexei D.

    2014-11-17

    A case performance study of a planar field emission cathode (FEC) based on nitrogen-incorporated ultrananocrystalline diamond, (N)UNCD, was carried out in an RF 1.3 GHz electron gun. The FEC was a 100 nm (N)UNCD film grown on a 20 mm diameter stainless steel disk with a Mo buffer layer. At surface gradients 45–65 MV/m, peak currents of 1–80 mA (equivalent to 0.3–25 mA/cm{sup 2}) were achieved. Imaging with two YAG screens confirmed emission from the (N)UNCD surface with (1) the beam emittance of 1.5 mm × mrad/mm-rms and (2) longitudinal FWHM and rms widths of non-Gaussian energy spread of 0.7% and 11% at an electron energy of 2 MeV. Current stability was tested over the course of 36 × 10{sup 3} RF pulses (equivalent to 288 × 10{sup 6 }GHz oscillations)

  14. Using NDA Techniques to Improve Safeguards Metrics on Burnup Quantification and Plutonium Content in LWR SNF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saavedra, Steven F; Charlton, William S; Solodov, Alexander A; Ehinger, Michael H

    2010-01-01

    Globally, there exists a long history in reprocessing in evaluation of the shipper/receiver difference (SRD) on spent nuclear fuel (SNF) received and processed. Typically, the declared shipper s values for uranium and plutonium in SNF (based on calculations involving the initial manufacturer s data and reactor operating history) are used as the input quantities to the head-end process of the facility. Problems have been encountered when comparing these values with measured results of the input accountability tank contents. A typical comparison yields a systematic bias indicated as a loss of 5 7 percent of the plutonium (Pu) and approximately 1 percent for the uranium (U). Studies suggest that such deviation can be attributed to the non-linear nature of the axial burnup values of the SNF. Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Texas A&M University are co-investigating the development of a new method, via Nondestructive Assay (NDA) techniques, to improve the accuracy in burnup and Pu content quantification. Two major components have been identified to achieve this objective. The first component calculates a measurement-based burnup profile along the axis of a fuel rod. Gamma-ray data is collected at numerous locations along the axis of the fuel rod using a High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector designed for a wide range of gamma-ray energies. Using two fission products, 137Cs and 134Cs, the burnup is calculated at each measurement location and a profile created along the axis of the rod based on the individual measurement locations. The second component measures the U/Pu ratio using an HPGe detector configured for relatively low-energy gamma-rays including x-rays. Fluorescence x-rays from U and Pu are measured and compared to the U/Pu ratio determined from a destructive analysis of the sample. This will be used to establish a relationship between the measured and actual values. This relationship will be combined with the burnup analysis results to establish a relationship between fission product activity and Pu content. It is anticipated that this new method will allow receiving facilities to make a limited number of NDA, gamma-ray, measurements to confirm the shipper declared values for burnup and Pu content thereby improving the SRD.

  15. In Milestone, Energy Department Projects Safely and Permanently Store 10 Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Carbon Capture and Storage projects supported by the Department reached a milestone of 10 million tons of carbon dioxide.

  16. Levelized cost of energy (LCOE) metric to characterize solar absorber coatings for the CSP industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boubault, Antoine; Ho, Clifford K.; Hall, Aaron; Lambert, Timothy N.; Ambrosini, Andrea

    2015-07-08

    The contribution of each component of a power generation plant to the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) can be estimated and used to increase the power output while reducing system operation and maintenance costs. The LCOE is used in order to quantify solar receiver coating influence on the LCOE of solar power towers. Two new parameters are introduced: the absolute levelized cost of coating (LCOC) and the LCOC efficiency. Depending on the material properties, aging, costs, and temperature, the absolute LCOC enables quantifying the cost-effectiveness of absorber coatings, as well as finding optimal operating conditions. The absolute LCOC is investigated for different hypothetic coatings and is demonstrated on Pyromark 2500 paint. Results show that absorber coatings yield lower LCOE values in most cases, even at significant costs. Optimal reapplication intervals range from one to five years. At receiver temperatures greater than 700 °C, non-selective coatings are not always worthwhile while durable selective coatings consistently reduce the LCOE—up to 12% of the value obtained for an uncoated receiver. Moreover the absolute LCOC is a powerful tool to characterize and compare different coatings, not only considering their initial efficiencies but also including their durability.

  17. 10,422,136 Metric Tons of CO2 Injected as of August 21, 2015...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The projects currently injecting CO2 within DOE's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership Program and the Major Demonstration Program are detailed below. Regional Carbon...

  18. OSTIblog Articles in the metrics Topic | OSTI, US Dept of Energy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    You can then announce to the world that you are a smashing success. The other way is to gather serious, knowledgeable, and thoughtful people and let them ask hard questions; ask ...

  19. NNSA Eliminates 100 Metric Tons Of Weapons-Grade Nuclear Material...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    secure and less expensive nuclear weapons complex. ... sale of LEU for safe use in power and research reactors around the world. ... NNSA maintains and enhances the safety, security, ...

  20. 10,651,176 Metric Tons of CO2 Injected as of September 16, 2015...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Products has successfully retrofitted its two Port Arthur SMRs with a vacuum swing adsorption system to separate the CO2 from the process gas stream, followed by compression and...

  1. Metrics for the Evaluation of Light Water Reactor Accident Tolerant Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shannon M. Bragg-Sitton

    2001-09-01

    The safe, reliable and economic operation of the nation’s nuclear power reactor fleet has always been a top priority for the nuclear industry. Continual improvement of technology, including advanced materials and nuclear fuels, remains central to the industry’s success. Enhancing the accident tolerance of LWRs became a topic of serious discussion following the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, resulting tsunami, and subsequent damage to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant complex. The overall goal of accident tolerant fuel (ATF) development is to identify alternative fuel system technologies to further enhance the safety, competitiveness, and economics of commercial nuclear power. The complex multiphysics behavior of LWR nuclear fuel in the integrated reactor system makes defining specific material or design improvements difficult; as such, establishing desirable performance attributes is critical in guiding the design and development of fuels and cladding with enhanced accident tolerance. The U.S. Department of Energy is sponsoring multiple teams to develop ATF concepts within multiple national laboratories, universities, and the nuclear industry. Concepts under investigation offer both evolutionary and revolutionary changes to the current nuclear fuel system. This paper summarizes technical evaluation methodology proposed in the U.S. to aid in the optimization and down-selection of candidate ATF designs. This methodology will continue to be refined via input from the research community and industry, such that it is available to support the planned down-selection of ATF concepts in 2016.

  2. Microsoft Word - McIntyre-Metrics Report SAND draft9-14.doc

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... To ensure this process is achieved, several security controls are in place. Two such controls are mandated password expiration and minimum password length. This is one simple ...

  3. FY 2011 4th Quarter Metric: Estimate of Future Aerosol Direct and Indirect Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koch, D

    2011-09-21

    The global and annual mean aerosol direct and indirect effects, relative to 1850 conditions, estimated from CESM simulations are 0.02 W m-2 and -0.39 W m-2, respectively, for emissions in year 2100 under the IPCC RCP8.5 scenario. The indirect effect is much smaller than that for 2000 emissions because of much smaller SO2 emissions in 2100; the direct effects are small due to compensation between warming by black carbon and cooling by sulfate.

  4. Examining Information Entropy Approaches as Wind Power Forecasting Performance Metrics: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodge, B. M.; Orwig, K.; Milligan, M.

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we examine the parameters associated with the calculation of the Renyi entropy in order to further the understanding of its application to assessing wind power forecasting errors.

  5. DOE Announces Webinars on Real Time Energy Management, Solar Forecasting Metrics, and More

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    EERE offers webinars to the public on a range of subjects, from adopting the latest energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies to training for the clean energy workforce. Webinars are free; however, advanced registration is typically required. You can also watch archived webinars and browse previously aired videos, slides, and transcripts.

  6. Enclosure - FY 2016 Q2 Metrics Report 2016-05-03.xlsx

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    FY 2016 Target 95% 95% 90% 85% 90% 90% FY 2016 2nd Qtr Actual Comment FY 2016 Forecast ... Schedule Compliance, Projects Less Than 5 Years Duration: Projects will meet the project ...

  7. DOE Announces Webinars on Solar Forecasting Metrics, the DOE Wind Vision, and More

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    EERE offers webinars to the public on a range of subjects, from adopting the latest energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies to training for the clean energy workforce. Webinars are free; however, advanced registration is typically required. You can also watch archived webinars and browse previously aired videos, slides, and transcripts.

  8. DOE Will Dispose of 34 Metric Tons of Plutonium by Turning it...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Administration review of non-proliferation programs, including alternative technologies to dispose of surplus plutonium to meet the non-proliferation goals agreed to by the United ...

  9. EPA ENERGY STAR Webinar: Portfolio Manager Office Hours, Focus Topic: Understanding Energy Metrics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Portfolio Manager "Office Hours" is a live webinar that gives all users an opportunity to ask their questions directly to EPA in an open forum. We will plan to spend the first 20-30 minutes of each...

  10. EPA ENERGY STAR Webcast- Portfolio Manager Office Hours, Focus Topic: Weather Data and Metrics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Portfolio Manager "Office Hours" is a live webinar that gives all users an opportunity to ask their questions directly to EPA in an open forum. In 2014, Office Hours will be held once a month. We...

  11. Beyond Human Capital Development: Balanced Safeguards Workforce Metrics and the Next Generation Safeguards Workforce

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burbank, Roberta L.; Frazar, Sarah L.; Gitau, Ernest TN; Shergur, Jason M.; Scholz, Melissa A.; Undem, Halvor A.

    2014-03-28

    Since its establishment in 2008, the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) has achieved a number of objectives under its five pillars: concepts and approaches, policy development and outreach, international nuclear safeguards engagement, technology development, and human capital development (HCD). As a result of these efforts, safeguards has become much more visible as a critical U.S. national security interest across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex. However, limited budgets have since created challenges in a number of areas. Arguably, one of the more serious challenges involves NGSI’s ability to integrate entry-level staff into safeguards projects. Laissez fair management of this issue across the complex can lead to wasteful project implementation and endanger NGSI’s long-term sustainability. The authors provide a quantitative analysis of this problem, focusing on the demographics of the current safeguards workforce and compounding pressures to operate cost-effectively, transfer knowledge to the next generation of safeguards professionals, and sustain NGSI safeguards investments.

  12. Impact of ASTM Standard E722 update on radiation damage metrics.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DePriest, Kendall Russell

    2014-06-01

    The impact of recent changes to the ASTM Standard E722 is investigated. The methodological changes in the production of the displacement kerma factors for silicon has significant impact for some energy regions of the 1-MeV(Si) equivalent fluence response function. When evaluating the integral over all neutrons energies in various spectra important to the SNL electronics testing community, the change in the response results in an increase in the total 1-MeV(Si) equivalent fluence of 2 7%. Response functions have been produced and are available for users of both the NuGET and MCNP codes.

  13. U.S. Removes Nine Metric Tons of Plutonium From Nuclear Weapons...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... Read more information about the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). Media contact(s): Megan Barnett, (202) 586-4940 Julianne Smith, (202) 586-7371 Addthis Related ...

  14. DETECTION OF SEMIMAJOR AXIS DRIFTS IN 54 NEAR-EARTH ASTEROIDS: NEW MEASUREMENTS OF THE YARKOVSKY EFFECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nugent, C. R.; Margot, J. L.; Chesley, S. R.; Vokrouhlicky, D.

    2012-08-15

    We have identified and quantified semimajor axis drifts in near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) by performing orbital fits to optical and radar astrometry of all numbered NEAs. We focus on a subset of 54 NEAs that exhibit some of the most reliable and strongest drift rates. Our selection criteria include a Yarkovsky sensitivity metric that quantifies the detectability of semimajor axis drift in any given data set, a signal-to-noise metric, and orbital coverage requirements. In 42 cases, the observed drifts ({approx}10{sup -3} AU Myr{sup -1}) agree well with numerical estimates of Yarkovsky drifts. This agreement suggests that the Yarkovsky effect is the dominant non-gravitational process affecting these orbits, and allows us to derive constraints on asteroid physical properties. In 12 cases, the drifts exceed nominal Yarkovsky predictions, which could be due to inaccuracies in our knowledge of physical properties, faulty astrometry, or modeling errors. If these high rates cannot be ruled out by further observations or improvements in modeling, they would be indicative of the presence of an additional non-gravitational force, such as that resulting from a loss of mass of order a kilogram per second. We define the Yarkovsky efficiency f{sub Y} as the ratio of the change in orbital energy to incident solar radiation energy, and we find that typical Yarkovsky efficiencies are {approx}10{sup -5}.

  15. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Reassessing the Outlook of US Oil Dependence Using Oil Security Metrics Model (OSMM)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about reassessing ...

  16. Conceptual Framework for Developing Resilience Metrics for the Electricity, Oil, and Gas Sectors in the United States

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This study assessed five potential methane reduction scenarios from natural gas transmission, storage, and distribution (TS&D) infrastructure using published literature on the costs and the estimated quantity of methane reduced. The results show that implementation of these five measures could support approximately 85,000 jobs annually from 2015 to 2019 and reduce CH4 emissions from natural gas TS&D by over 40%. Based on standard input/output analysis methodology, measures are estimated to support over $8 billion in GDP annually over the same time period and allow producers to recover approximately $912 million annually in captured gas. Mitigation of methane emission reductions through repair, replacement and new technologies are found to support economic development and jobs. The study also found that a portfolio approach to infrastructure modernization may be appropriate to meaningfully improve safety, maintain or create high levels of employment, and significant losses of methane from across TS&D segments of natural gas systems.

  17. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Assessing the Outlook of US Oil Dependence Using Oil Security Metrics Model (OSMM)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about assessing the...

  18. 12,893,780 Metric Tons of CO2 Injected as of July 19, 2016 | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The following is a list of the oversight results by the Office of Inspector General regarding The Department's programs, grants, and projects funded under the Recovery Act. June 17, 2014 Audit Report: OAS-RA-14-04 Selected Activities of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's Advanced Manufacturing Office April 14, 2014 Special Report: OAS-RA-L-14-01 Allegations Regarding the Department of Energy's State Energy Program Funding to South Dakota February 19, 2014 Special Report:

  19. Assessment of the Impact of Stochastic Day-Ahead SCUC on Economic and Reliability Metrics at Multiple Timescales: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, H.; Ela, E.; Krad, I.; Florita, A.; Zhang, J.; Hodge, B. M.; Ibanez, E.; Gao, W.

    2015-03-01

    This paper incorporates the stochastic day-ahead security-constrained unit commitment (DASCUC) within a multi-timescale, multi-scheduling application with commitment, dispatch, and automatic generation control. The stochastic DASCUC is solved using a progressive hedging algorithm with constrained ordinal optimization to accelerate the individual scenario solution. Sensitivity studies are performed in the RTS-96 system, and the results show how this new scheduling application would impact costs and reliability with a closer representation of timescales of system operations in practice.

  20. PROJECT PROFILE: Improving PV performance Estimates in the System Advisor Model with Component and System Reliability Metrics

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This project will improve the forecasting of lifetime PV system performance as well as operations and maintenance costs by incorporating the Photovoltaic Reliability and Performance Model (PV-RPM) developed by Sandia into the widely-used Solar Advisor Model (SAM) software platform.

  1. The plasma centrifuge: A compact, low cost, stable isotope separator. Phase 2 final technical report, September 15, 1991--September 14, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guss, W.

    1996-09-05

    Enriched stable isotopes are required for production of radionuclides as well as for research and diagnostic uses. Science Research Laboratory (SRL) has developed a plasma centrifuge for moderate throughput of enriched stable isotopes, such as {sup 13}C, {sup 17}O, {sup 18}O, and {sup 203}Tl, for medical as well as other applications. Dwindling isotope stocks have restricted the use of enriched isotopes and their associated labeled organic molecules in medical imaging to very few research facilities because of high costs of isotope separation. With the introduction of the plasma centrifuge separator, the cost per separated gram of even rarely occurring isotopes ({le} 1% natural abundance) is potentially many times lower than with other separation technologies (cryogenic distillation and calutrons). The centrifuge is a simple, robust, pulsed electrical discharge device that has successfully demonstrated isotope separation of small (mg) quantities of {sup 26}Mg. Based on the results of the Phase 2 program, modest enhancements to the power supplies and cooling systems, a centrifuge separator will have high repetition rate (60 pps) and high duty cycle (60%) to produce in one month kilogram quantities of highly enriched stable isotopes. The centrifuge may be used in stand-alone operation or could be used as a high-throughput pre-separation stage with calutrons providing the final separation.

  2. Evaluation of ultra-low background materials for uranium and thorium using ICP-MS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoppe, E. W.; Overman, N. R.; LaFerriere, B. D.

    2013-08-08

    An increasing number of physics experiments require low background materials for their construction. The presence of Uranium and Thorium and their progeny in these materials present a variety of unwanted background sources for these experiments. The sensitivity of the experiments continues to drive the necessary levels of detection ever lower as well. This requirement for greater sensitivity has rendered direct radioassay impractical in many cases requiring large quantities of material, frequently many kilograms, and prolonged counting times, often months. Other assay techniques have been employed such as Neutron Activation Analysis but this requires access to expensive facilities and instrumentation and can be further complicated and delayed by the formation of unwanted radionuclides. Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) is a useful tool and recent advancements have increased the sensitivity particularly in the elemental high mass range of U and Th. Unlike direct radioassay, ICP-MS is a destructive technique since it requires the sample to be in liquid form which is aspirated into a high temperature plasma. But it benefits in that it usually requires a very small sample, typically about a gram. This paper discusses how a variety of low background materials such as copper, polymers, and fused silica are made amenable to ICP-MS assay and how the arduous task of maintaining low backgrounds of U and Th is achieved.

  3. Evaluation of Ultra-Low Background Materials for Uranium and Thorium Using ICP-MS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoppe, Eric W.; Overman, Nicole R.; LaFerriere, Brian D.

    2013-08-08

    An increasing number of physics experiments require low background materials for their construction. The presence of Uranium and Thorium and their progeny in these materials present a variety of unwanted background sources for these experiments. The sensitivity of the experiments continues to drive the necessary levels of detection ever lower as well. This requirement for greater sensitivity has rendered direct radioassay impractical in many cases requiring large quantities of material, frequently many kilograms, and prolonged counting times, often months. Other assay techniques have been employed such as Neutron Activation Analysis but this requires access to expensive facilities and instrumentation and can be further complicated and delayed by the formation of unwanted radionuclides. Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) is a useful tool and recent advancements have increased the sensitivity particularly in the elemental high mass range of U and Th. Unlike direct radioassay, ICP-MS is a destructive technique since it requires the sample to be in liquid form which is aspirated into a high temperature plasma. But it benefits in that it usually requires a very small sample, typically about a gram. Here we will discuss how a variety of low background materials such as copper, polymers, and fused silica are made amenable to ICP-MS assay and how the arduous task of maintaining low backgrounds of U and Th is achieved.

  4. DOUBLE TRACKS Test Site interim corrective action plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-06-01

    The DOUBLE TRACKS site is located on Range 71 north of the Nellis Air Force Range, northwest of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). DOUBLE TRACKS was the first of four experiments that constituted Operation ROLLER COASTER. On May 15, 1963, weapons-grade plutonium and depleted uranium were dispersed using 54 kilograms of trinitrotoluene (TNT) explosive. The explosion occurred in the open, 0.3 m above the steel plate. No fission yield was detected from the test, and the total amount of plutonium deposited on the ground surface was estimated to be between 980 and 1,600 grams. The test device was composed primarily of uranium-238 and plutonium-239. The mass ratio of uranium to plutonium was 4.35. The objective of the corrective action is to reduce the potential risk to human health and the environment and to demonstrate technically viable and cost-effective excavation, transportation, and disposal. To achieve these objectives, Bechtel Nevada (BN) will remove soil with a total transuranic activity greater then 200 pCI/g, containerize the soil in ``supersacks,`` transport the filled ``supersacks`` to the NTS, and dispose of them in the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site. During this interim corrective action, BN will also conduct a limited demonstration of an alternative method for excavation of radioactive near-surface soil contamination.

  5. Metal Hydrides for High-Temperature Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronnebro, Ewa; Whyatt, Greg A.; Powell, Michael R.; Westman, Matthew P.; Zheng, Feng; Fang, Zhigang Zak

    2015-08-10

    Metal hydrides can be utilized for hydrogen storage and for thermal energy storage (TES) applications. By using TES with solar technologies, heat can be stored from sun energy to be used later which enables continuous power generation. We are developing a TES technology based on a dual-bed metal hydride system, which has a high-temperature (HT) metal hydride operating reversibly at 600-800°C to generate heat as well as a low-temperature (LT) hydride near room temperature that is used for hydrogen storage during sun hours until there is a need to produce electricity, such as during night time, a cloudy day, or during peak hours. We proceeded from selecting a high-energy density, low-cost HT-hydride based on performance characterization on gram size samples, to scale-up to kilogram quantities and design, fabrication and testing of a 1.5kWh, 200kWh/m3 bench-scale TES prototype based on a HT-bed of titanium hydride and a hydrogen gas storage instead of a LT-hydride. COMSOL Multiphysics was used to make performance predictions for cylindrical hydride beds with varying diameters and thermal conductivities. Based on experimental and modeling results, a bench-scale prototype was designed and fabricated and we successfully showed feasibility to meet or exceed all performance targets.

  6. Geochemical simulation of dissolution of West Valley and DWPF [Defense Waste Product Facility] glasses in J-13 water at 90{sup 0}C.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruton, C.J.

    1987-11-01

    Dissolution of West Valley and Defense Waste Product Facility (DWPF) glasses in J-13 water at 90{sup 0}C at the candidate Yucca Mountain, Nevada repository was simulated using the EQ3/6 computer code package. The objectives of the study were to attempt to predict the concentrations of radionuclides and other glass components in solution resulting from glass dissolution, and to identify potential precipitates that sequester glass components. Modified projected inventories of 10,000 year-old West Valley and DWPF SRL-165 frit glasses were used as starting glass compositions. J-13 water was considered to be representative of groundwater at Yucca Mountain. A total of 10 grams of each glass was assumed to dissolve congruently into a kilogram of J-13 water in a closed system. No inhibitions to precipitation, except for crystalline SiO{sub 2} polymorphs, were assumed to exist. Radiolysis and materials interactions were not considered. Simulation results predict that radionuclides and other glass components precipitate predominantly in the form of oxides and hydroxides, together with carbonates, silicates and phosphates. Precipitates appear to be effective in limiting the concentrations of radionuclides and other elements in solution. The general compositional trends in precipitates and solution chemistry are the same in the West Valley and DWPF simulations, except for variations arising from differences in glass chemistry. 20 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Metal Hydrides for High-Temperature Power Generation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ronnebro, Ewa; Whyatt, Greg A.; Powell, Michael R.; Westman, Matthew P.; Zheng, Feng; Fang, Zhigang Zak

    2015-08-10

    Metal hydrides can be utilized for hydrogen storage and for thermal energy storage (TES) applications. By using TES with solar technologies, heat can be stored from sun energy to be used later which enables continuous power generation. We are developing a TES technology based on a dual-bed metal hydride system, which has a high-temperature (HT) metal hydride operating reversibly at 600-800°C to generate heat as well as a low-temperature (LT) hydride near room temperature that is used for hydrogen storage during sun hours until there is a need to produce electricity, such as during night time, a cloudy day, ormore » during peak hours. We proceeded from selecting a high-energy density, low-cost HT-hydride based on performance characterization on gram size samples, to scale-up to kilogram quantities and design, fabrication and testing of a 1.5kWh, 200kWh/m3 bench-scale TES prototype based on a HT-bed of titanium hydride and a hydrogen gas storage instead of a LT-hydride. COMSOL Multiphysics was used to make performance predictions for cylindrical hydride beds with varying diameters and thermal conductivities. Based on experimental and modeling results, a bench-scale prototype was designed and fabricated and we successfully showed feasibility to meet or exceed all performance targets.« less

  8. Table 7. Carbon intensity of the energy supply by State (2000...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Carbon intensity of the energy supply by State (2000-2011)" "kilograms of energy-related carbon dioxide per million Btu" ,,,"Change" ,,,"2000 to 2011"...

  9. history

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    several contributions over SRS's history, including large-scale production of aluminum-lithium alloys; production of kilogram quantities of radioactive waste glass; materials...

  10. Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    span>

    WASHINGTON D.C - The Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (DOENNSA) announced today the removal of 36 kilograms...

  11. Cryotank for storage of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    vehicle drove 650 miles on one liquid 10 kilogram H 2 fill 8 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Automobiles - BMW will incorporate cryotank into their fuel cell test ...

  12. Microsoft Word - Potential Offsite Dose from Divine Strake Rev0...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Administration Nevada Site Office Under Contract No. ... Agency fps feet per second ft feet kg kilogram km ... Height (m): 0.01 Area (sq m): 292000 Plume Rise ...

  13. Yiii%sz Rockwell

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    these activities we were known as the Atomics International Divi- sion of North American Aviation, Inc. In September 1962 we shipped 409 kilograms of uranium enriched to...

  14. Cloud Occurrence Frequency at the Barrow, Alaska, ARM Climate Research Facility for 2008 Third Quarter 2009 ARM and Climate Change Prediction Program Metric Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M Jensen; K Johnson; JH Mather

    2009-07-14

    Clouds represent a critical component of the Earth’s atmospheric energy balance as a result of their interactions with solar and terrestrial radiation and a redistribution of heat through convective processes and latent heating. Despite their importance, clouds and the processes that control their development, evolution and lifecycle remain poorly understood. Consequently, the simulation of clouds and their associated feedbacks is a primary source of inter-model differences in equilibrium climate sensitivity. An important step in improving the representation of cloud process simulations is an improved high-resolution observational data set of the cloud systems including their time evolution. The first order quantity needed to understand the important role of clouds is the height of cloud occurrence and how it changes as a function of time. To this end, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facilities (ACRF) suite of instrumentation has been developed to make the observations required to improve the representation of cloud systems in atmospheric models.

  15. An MHD heat source based on intermetallic reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sadjian, H.; Zavitsanos, P. ); Marston, C.H. )

    1991-05-06

    The main objective of this program was the development of an MHD heat source of potential use in Space - Based Multi Megawatt, MHD Power Systems. The approach is based on extension of high temperature chemical/ion release technology developed by the General Sciences, Incorporated (GSI) team and successfully applied in other Space Applications. Solid state reactions have been identified which can deliver energy densities and electrons in excess of those from high energy explosives as well as other conventional fuels. The use of intermetallic reactions can be used to generate hot hydrogen plasma from the reaction, to create a high level of seedant ionization, can be packaged as a cartridge type fuels for discrete pulses. The estimated weight for energizing a (100 MW - 1000 sec) Pulsed MHD Power System can range from 12 to 25 {times} 10{sup 3} kg depending on reaction system and strength of the magnetic field. The program consisted of two major tasks with eight subtasks designed to systematically evaluate these concepts in order to reduce fuel weight requirements. Laboratory measurements on energy release, reaction product identification and levels of ionization were conducted in the first task to screen candidate fuels. The second task addressed the development of a reaction chamber in which conductivity, temperature and pressure were measured. Instrumentation was developed to measure these parameters under high temperature pulsed conditions in addition to computer programs to reduce the raw data. Measurements were conducted at GSI laboratories for fuel weights of up to 120 grams and at the Franklin Research Center* for fuel weights up to 1 kilogram. The results indicate that fuel weight can be scaled using modular packaging. Estimates are presented for fuel weight requirements. 15 refs.

  16. Application of molten salt oxidation for the minimization and recovery of plutonium-238 contaminated wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wishau, R.

    1998-05-01

    Molten salt oxidation (MSO) is proposed as a {sup 238}Pu waste treatment technology that should be developed for volume reduction and recovery of {sup 238}Pu and as an alternative to the transport and permanent disposal of {sup 238}Pu waste to the WIPP repository. In MSO technology, molten sodium carbonate salt at 800--900 C in a reaction vessel acts as a reaction media for wastes. The waste material is destroyed when injected into the molten salt, creating harmless carbon dioxide and steam and a small amount of ash in the spent salt. The spent salt can be treated using aqueous separation methods to reuse the salt and to recover 99.9% of the precious {sup 238}Pu that was in the waste. Tests of MSO technology have shown that the volume of combustible TRU waste can be reduced by a factor of at least twenty. Using this factor the present inventory of 574 TRU drums of {sup 238}Pu contaminated wastes is reduced to 30 drums. Further {sup 238}Pu waste costs of $22 million are avoided from not having to repackage 312 of the 574 drums to a drum total of more than 4,600 drums. MSO combined with aqueous processing of salts will recover approximately 1.7 kilograms of precious {sup 238}Pu valued at 4 million dollars (at $2,500/gram). Thus, installation and use of MSO technology at LANL will result in significant cost savings compared to present plans to transport and dispose {sup 238}Pu TRU waste to the WIPP site. Using a total net present value cost for the MSO project as $4.09 million over a five-year lifetime, the project can pay for itself after either recovery of 1.6 kg of Pu or through volume reduction of 818 drums or a combination of the two. These savings show a positive return on investment.

  17. Mutant alcohol dehydrogenase leads to improved ethanol tolerance in Clostridium thermocellum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Steven D; Guss, Adam M; Karpinets, Tatiana V; Parks, Jerry M; Smolin, Nikolai; Yang, Shihui; Land, Miriam L; Klingeman, Dawn Marie; Bhandiwad, Ashwini; Rodriguez, Jr., Miguel; Raman, Babu; Shao, Xiongjun; Mielenz, Jonathan R; Smith, Jeremy C; Keller, Martin; Lynd, Lee R

    2011-01-01

    Clostridium thermocellum is a thermophilic, obligately anaerobic, Gram-positive bacterium that is a candidate microorganism for converting cellulosic biomass into ethanol through consolidated bioprocessing. Ethanol intolerance is an important metric in terms of process economics, and tolerance has often been described as a complex and likely multigenic trait for which complex gene interactions come into play. Here, we resequence the genome of an ethanol-tolerant mutant, show that the tolerant phenotype is primarily due to a mutated bifunctional acetaldehyde-CoA/alcohol dehydrogenase gene (adhE), hypothesize based on structural analysis that cofactor specificity may be affected, and confirm this hypothesis using enzyme assays. Biochemical assays confirm a complete loss of NADH-dependent activity with concomitant acquisition of NADPH-dependent activity, which likely affects electron flow in the mutant. The simplicity of the genetic basis for the ethanol-tolerant phenotype observed here informs rational engineering of mutant microbial strains for cellulosic ethanol production.

  18. Contract/Project Management

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    8 4 th Quarter Metrics Final Overall Contract and Project Management Performance Metrics and Targets ContractProject Management Performance Metrics FY 2008 Target FY 2008 Actual ...

  19. Continuous Process for Low-Cost, High-Quality YSZ Powder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott L. Swartz; Michael Beachy; Matthew M. Seabaugh

    2006-03-31

    This report describes results obtained by NexTech Materials, Ltd. in a project funded by DOE under the auspices of the Solid-State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA). The project focused on development of YSZ electrolyte powder synthesis technology that could be ''tailored'' to the process-specific needs of different solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) designs being developed by SECA's industry teams. The work in the project involved bench-scale processing work aimed at establishing a homogeneous precipitation process for producing YSZ electrolyte powder, scaleup of the process to 20-kilogram batch sizes, and evaluation of the YSZ powder products produced by the process. The developed process involved the steps of: (a) preparation of an aqueous hydrous oxide slurry via coprecipitation; (b) washing of residual salts from the precipitated hydroxide slurry followed by drying; (c) calcination of the dried powder to crystallize the YSZ powder and achieve desired surface area; and (d) milling of the calcined powder to targeted particle size. YSZ powders thus prepared were subjected to a comprehensive set of characterization and performance tests, including particle size distribution and surface area analyses, sintering performance studies, and ionic conductivity measurements. A number of different YSZ powder formulations were established, all of which had desirable performance attributes relative to commercially available YSZ powders. Powder characterization and performance metrics that were established at the onset of the project were met or exceeded. A manufacturing cost analysis was performed, and a manufactured cost of $27/kg was estimated based on this analysis. The analysis also allowed an identification of process refinements that would lead to even lower cost.

  20. Effects of Aging on PuO2?xH2O Particle Size in Alkaline Solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delegard, Calvin H.

    2013-05-01

    Between 1944 and 1989, 54.5 metric tons of the United States weapons-grade plutonium and an additional 12.9 metric tons of fuel-grade plutonium were produced and separated from irradiated fuel at the Hanford Site. Acidic high-activity wastes containing around 600 kg of plutonium were made alkaline and discharged to underground storage tanks from separations, isolation, and recycle processes to yield average plutonium concentration of about 0.003 grams per liter (or ~0.0002 wt%) in the ~200 million liter tank waste volume. The plutonium is largely associated with low-solubility metal hydroxide/oxide sludges where its low concentration and intimate mixture with neutron-absorbing elements (e.g., iron) are credited in nuclear criticality safety. However, concerns have been expressed that plutonium, in the form of plutonium hydrous oxide, PuO2?xH2O, could undergo sufficient crystal growth through dissolution and reprecipitation in the alkaline tank waste to potentially become separable from neutron absorbing constituents by settling or sedimentation. Thermodynamic considerations and laboratory studies of systems chemically analogous to tank waste show that the plutonium formed in the alkaline tank waste by precipitation through neutralization from acid solution probably entered as 24-nm PuO2?xH2O crystallite particles that, because of their low solubility and opposition from radiolytic processes, grow from that point at exceedingly slow rates, thus posing no risk of physical segregation.

  1. Sustainable Manufacturing via Multi-Scale Physics-Based Process...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... of technology into commercially available software and services Automotive TWS Customers Power Systems Impact and Metrics Metrics: Correlation (error %) with ...

  2. Property:PotentialBiopowerSolidMass | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    for a place. Use this type to express a quantity of magnitude, or an object's resistance to acceleration. The default unit is the kilogram (kg). http:en.wikipedia.org...

  3. Property:PotentialBiopowerGaseousMass | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    for a place. Use this type to express a quantity of magnitude, or an object's resistance to acceleration. The default unit is the kilogram (kg). http:en.wikipedia.org...

  4. EA-1255: Project Partnership Transportation of Foreign-Owned Enriched Uranium from the Republic of Georgia

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts for the proposal to transport 5.26 kilograms of enriched uranium-23 5 in the form of nuclear fuel, from the Republic of Georgia to the United Kingdom.

  5. EA-1123: Transfer of Normal and Low-Enriched Uranium Billets to the United Kingdom, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of the proposal to transfer approximately 710,000 kilograms (1,562,000 pounds) of unneeded normal and low-enriched uranium to the United Kingdom; thus,...

  6. Biological denitrification of high concentration nitrate waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Francis, Chester W.; Brinkley, Frank S.

    1977-01-01

    Biological denitrification of nitrate solutions at concentrations of greater than one kilogram nitrate per cubic meter is accomplished anaerobically in an upflow column having as a packing material a support for denitrifying bacteria.

  7. The NPL moving-coil watt balance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, I.A.; Kibble, B.P.; Belliss, J.H.

    1994-12-31

    We describe Progress since the 1992 CPEM towards linking the electrical to the mechanical watt with less than 1 in 10{sup 8} uncertainty to measure Planck`s constant and monitor the stability of the kilogram.

  8. Uzbekistan | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    successful return of the final 5 kilograms (approximately 11 pounds) of highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent fuel from the IIN-3M "Foton" research reactor in Tashkent, Uzbekistan to

  9. Microsoft Word - S07409_2010_SER

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    v Measurement Abbreviations cm centimeter ft feet gpm gallons per minute kg kilogram km kilometer lb pound Lpm liters per minute m meter M gal million gallons M liters million liters mg/kg milligrams per kilogram mg/L milligrams per liter mGy/day milligray per day mrem/yr millirem per year mSv/yr millisievert per year pCi/L picocuries per liter rem roentgen equivalent man µg/L micrograms per liter

  10. Environment, Health, and Safety - Construction Subcontractors Documents |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Information Administration (EIA) Environment Glossary › FAQS › Overview Data Summary Electric Power Plant Environmental International Emissions All Environment Data Reports Analysis & Projections All Reports ‹ environment Carbon Dioxide Emissions Coefficients Release Date: February 2, 2016 | Also available in spreadsheet Carbon Dioxide Emissions Coefficients by Fuel Pounds CO2 Kilograms CO2 Pounds CO2 Kilograms CO2 Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Factors: Per Unit of Volume or Mass Volume or

  11. Bioenergy Technologies Office R&D Pathways: Algal Lipid Upgrading

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    settling, 60 grams per liter (6%) after DAF using an organic polymer focculant (chitosan), and 200 grams per liter (20%) after centrifugation. * The algal material is next ...

  12. Search for: All records | Data Explorer

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ARM: GRAMS: calibration information for the total solar broadband radiometer (TBBR) Tooman, Tim GRAMS: calibration information for the total solar broadband radiometer (TBBR) View ...

  13. Ostwald Ripening and Its Effect on PuO2 Particle Size in Hanford Tank Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delegard, Calvin H.

    2011-09-29

    Between 1944 and 1989, the Hanford Site produced 60 percent (54.5 metric tons) of the United States weapons plutonium and produced an additional 12.9 metric tons of fuels-grade plutonium. High activity wastes, including plutonium lost from the separations processes used to isolate the plutonium, were discharged to underground storage tanks during these operations. Plutonium in the Hanford tank farms is estimated to be {approx}700 kg but may be up to {approx}1000 kg. Despite these apparent large quantities, the average plutonium concentration in the {approx}200 million liter tank waste volume is only about 0.003 grams per liter ({approx}0.0002 wt%). The plutonium is largely associated with low solubility metal hydroxide/oxide sludges where its low concentration and intimate mixture with neutron-absorbing elements (e.g., iron) are credited in nuclear criticality safety. However, concerns have been expressed that plutonium, in the form of plutonium hydrous oxide, PuO{sub 2} {center_dot} xH{sub 2}O, could undergo sufficient crystal growth through Ostwald ripening in the alkaline tank waste to potentially be separable from neutron absorbing constituents by settling or sedimentation. It was found that plutonium that entered the alkaline tank waste by precipitation through neutralization from acid solution is initially present as 2- to 3-nm (0.002- to 0.003-{mu}m) scale PuO{sub 2} {center_dot} xH{sub 2}O crystallite particles and grows from that point at exceedingly slow rates, posing no risk to physical segregation. These conclusions are reached by both general considerations of Ostwald ripening and specific observations of the behaviors of PuO{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2} {center_dot} xH{sub 2}O upon aging in alkaline solution.

  14. Executive Order 12898, Federal Actions to Address Environmental...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... goals and metrics and annually measures its progress in achieving those goals and metrics. ... Office of Environmental Protection, Sustainability Support & Corporate Safety Analysis ...

  15. PowerPoint Presentation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Risk Assessment for Storm Hardening DOE Technical Workshop on Resilience Metrics April 29 ... Hardening DOE Technical Workshop on Resilience Metrics April 29 th , 2014 J. Mark ...

  16. FY-2014 EM-EFCOG QA Project Plan_Final.pdf

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Metrics and Targets | Department of Energy 3 Overall Contract and Project Management Improvement Performance Metrics and Targets FY 2013 Overall Contract and Project Management Improvement Performance Metrics and Targets Overall Contract and Project Management Performance Metrics and Targets for FY 2013, first quarter through fourth quarter. FY 2013 1st Quarter Metrics (36.93 KB) FY 2013 2nd Quarter Metrics (36.62 KB) FY 2013 3rd Quarter Metrics (37.04 KB) FY 2013 4th Quarter Metrics (37.15

  17. Microsoft PowerPoint - SNLResilienceApril29 [Read-Only

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    metrics for Oil, Gas, and Electricity Review plausible use-cases for electricity resilience metrics Collaboratively outline next steps 4 Takeaway Points - R&D is needed to ...

  18. Slide 1

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    metrics provide quantitative basis for trading off between different operational modes ... metrics provide quantitative basis for trading off between different operational modes ...

  19. Contract/Project Management

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Third Quarter Overall Contract and Project Management Performance Metrics and Targets 1 ContractProject Management Primary Performance Metrics FY 2010 Target FY 2010 Forecast FY ...

  20. Contract/Project Management

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Contract and Project Management Performance Metrics and Targets 1 ContractProject Management Primary Performance Metrics FY 2011 Target FY 2011 Actual & Forecast FY 2011 Pre- & ...

  1. Contract/Project Management

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and Project Management Improvement Performance Metrics and Targets 1 ContractProject Management Primary Performance Metrics FY 2011 Target FY 2011 Forecast FY 2011 Pre- & ...

  2. Microsoft PowerPoint - Financial Plan Risk Mitigation Master...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    within acceptable bounds BPA Financial Plan Workshop 5 Financial Plan Risk Metrics Agenda Origin of the Risk Metrics Issue History of risk mitigation measures and origin of...

  3. Contract/Project Management

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Second Quarter Overall Contract and Project Management Improvement Performance Metrics and Targets 1 ContractProject Management Performance Metric FY 2012 Target FY 2012 Forecast ...

  4. Contract/Project Management

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fourth Quarter Overall Contract and Project Management Improvement Performance Metrics and Targets 1 ContractProject Management Primary Performance Metrics FY 2011 Target FY 2011 ...

  5. Contract/Project Management

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 nd Quarter Overall Contract and Project Management Performance Metrics and Targets ContractProject Management Performance Metrics FY 2009 Target FY 2009 Actual Comment 1. ...

  6. FY 2016 Overall Contract and Project Management Improvement Performanc...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    6 Overall Contract and Project Management Improvement Performance Metrics and Targets FY 2016 Overall Contract and Project Management Improvement Performance Metrics and Targets ...

  7. FY 2013 Overall Contract and Project Management Improvement Performanc...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3 Overall Contract and Project Management Improvement Performance Metrics and Targets FY 2013 Overall Contract and Project Management Improvement Performance Metrics and Targets ...

  8. FY 2010 Overall Contract and Project Management Improvement Performanc...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    0 Overall Contract and Project Management Improvement Performance Metrics and Targets FY 2010 Overall Contract and Project Management Improvement Performance Metrics and Targets ...

  9. Contract/Project Management

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    3 rd Quarter Overall Contract and Project Management Performance Metrics and Targets ContractProject Management Performance Metrics FY 2009 Target FY 2009 Actual Comment 1. ...

  10. Contract/Project Management

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fourth Quarter Overall Contract and Project Management Performance Metrics and Targets 1 ContractProject Management Primary Performance Metrics FY 2010 Target FY 2010 Actual FY ...

  11. Contract/Project Management

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Third Quarter Overall Contract and Project Management Improvement Performance Metrics and Targets 1 ContractProject Management Performance Metric FY 2012 Target FY 2012 Forecast ...

  12. FY 2009 Overall Contract and Project Management Improvement Performanc...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    9 Overall Contract and Project Management Improvement Performance Metrics and Targets FY 2009 Overall Contract and Project Management Improvement Performance Metrics and Targets ...

  13. Contract/Project Management

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fourth Quarter Overall Contract and Project Management Improvement Performance Metrics and Targets 1 ContractProject Management Performance Metric FY 2012 Target FY 2012 Final FY ...

  14. Contract/Project Management

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Third Quarter Overall Contract and Project Management Improvement Performance Metrics and Targets 1 ContractProject Management Primary Performance Metrics FY 2011 Target FY 2011 ...

  15. FY 2015 Overall Contract and Project Management Improvement Performanc...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    5 Overall Contract and Project Management Improvement Performance Metrics and Targets FY 2015 Overall Contract and Project Management Improvement Performance Metrics and Targets ...

  16. FY 2008 Overall Contract and Project Management Improvement Performanc...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    8 Overall Contract and Project Management Improvement Performance Metrics and Targets FY 2008 Overall Contract and Project Management Improvement Performance Metrics and Targets FY ...

  17. Contract/Project Management

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Second Quarter Overall Contract and Project Management Performance Metrics and Targets 1 ContractProject Management Primary Performance Metrics FY 2010 Target FY 2010 Actual FY ...

  18. Contract/Project Management

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 st Quarter Overall Contract and Project Management Performance Metrics and Targets ContractProject Management Performance Metrics FY 2009 Target FY 2009 Actual Comment 1. ...

  19. FY 2014 Overall Contract and Project Management Improvement Performanc...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    4 Overall Contract and Project Management Improvement Performance Metrics and Targets FY 2014 Overall Contract and Project Management Improvement Performance Metrics and Targets ...

  20. FY 2012 Overall Contract and Project Management Improvement Performanc...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    2 Overall Contract and Project Management Improvement Performance Metrics and Targets FY 2012 Overall Contract and Project Management Improvement Performance Metrics and Targets ...

  1. CIO Blog Archive | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    May 4, 2011 STAR METRICS Energy continues to define Phase II of the STAR METRICS program, a collaborative initiative to track Research and Development expenditures and their...

  2. Prototype Weigh-In-Motion Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abercrombie, Robert K; Beshears, David L; Hively, Lee M; Scudiere, Matthew B; Sheldon, Frederick T

    2006-10-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed and patented methods to weigh slowly moving vehicles. We have used this technology to produce a portable weigh-in-motion system that is robust and accurate. This report documents the performance of the second-generation portable weigh-in-motion prototype (WIM Gen II). The results of three modes of weight determination are compared in this report: WIM Gen II dynamic mode, WIM Gen II stop-and-go mode, and static (parked) mode on in-ground, static scales. The WIM dynamic mode measures axle weights as the vehicle passes over the system at speeds of 3 to 7 miles per hour (1.3 to 3.1 meters/second). The WIM stop-and-go mode measures the weight of each axle of the vehicle as the axles are successively positioned on a side-by-side pair of WIM measurement pads. In both measurement modes the center of balance (CB) and the total weight are obtained by a straight-forward calculation from axle weights and axle spacings. The performance metric is measurement error (in percent), which is defined as 100 x (sample standard deviation)/(average); see Appendix A for details. We have insufficient data to show that this metric is predictive. This report details the results of weight measurements performed in May 2005 at two sites using different types of vehicles at each site. In addition to the weight measurements, the testing enabled refinements to the test methodology and facilitated an assessment of the influence of vehicle speed on the dynamic-mode measurements. The initial test at the National Transportation Research Center in Knoxville, TN, involved measurements of passenger and light-duty commercial vehicles. A subsequent test at the Arrival/Departure Airfield Control Group (A/DACG) facility in Ft. Bragg, NC, involved military vehicles with gross weights between 3,000 and 75,000 pounds (1,356 to 33,900 kilograms) with a 20,000-pound (9,040 kilograms) limit per axle. For each vehicle, four or more separate measurements were done

  3. Security Metricsfor Process Control Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Metricsfor Process Control Systems Security Metricsfor Process Control Systems This document describes the foundations of metrics, discusses application of these metrics to control system environments, introduces a metrics taxonomy, and suggests usage of metrics to achieve operational excellence. Security Metrics for Process Control Systems (1.9 MB) More Documents & Publications Report of the Cyber Security Research Needs for Open Science Workshop Visualization & Controls Program Peer

  4. Applications for Coal and Natural Gas Power Plants in a Smart Grid Future

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Metrics and Benefits Analysis for Smart Grid Field Projects Steve Bossart Energy Tech 2011 Cleveland, Ohio 2 Smart Grid Metrics & Benefits Topics * Value proposition * Field projects * Functions & applications * Metrics * Benefits * Metrics and benefits methodology * Non-metric results * Challenges 3 Value Proposition Cost to Modernize * $338-$476B over 20 years - $ 82-90 B for transmission - $232-$339 B for distribution - $24-46 B for consumer * $17-24 B per year Benefit of

  5. removal | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    removal US, Kazakhstan Cooperate to Eliminate Highly Enriched Uranium WASHINGTON D.C - The Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) announced today the removal of 36 kilograms (approximately 80 pounds) of highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent fuel from the Institute of Nuclear Physics (INP) in Almaty, Kazakhstan. The HEU was

  6. LLNL Site plan for a MOX fuel lead assembly mission in support of surplus plutonium disposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bronson, M.C.

    1997-10-01

    The principal facilities that LLNL would use to support a MOX Fuel Lead Assembly Mission are Building 332 and Building 334. Both of these buildings are within the security boundary known as the LLNL Superblock. Building 332 is the LLNL Plutonium Facility. As an operational plutonium facility, it has all the infrastructure and support services required for plutonium operations. The LLNL Plutonium Facility routinely handles kilogram quantities of plutonium and uranium. Currently, the building is limited to a plutonium inventory of 700 kilograms and a uranium inventory of 300 kilograms. Process rooms (excluding the vaults) are limited to an inventory of 20 kilograms per room. Ongoing operations include: receiving SSTS, material receipt, storage, metal machining and casting, welding, metal-to-oxide conversion, purification, molten salt operations, chlorination, oxide calcination, cold pressing and sintering, vitrification, encapsulation, chemical analysis, metallography and microprobe analysis, waste material processing, material accountability measurements, packaging, and material shipping. Building 334 is the Hardened Engineering Test Building. This building supports environmental and radiation measurements on encapsulated plutonium and uranium components. Other existing facilities that would be used to support a MOX Fuel Lead Assembly Mission include Building 335 for hardware receiving and storage and TRU and LLW waste storage and shipping facilities, and Building 331 or Building 241 for storage of depleted uranium.

  7. Performance oriented packaging testing of nine Mk 3 Mod 0 signal containers in PPP-B-621 wood box for packing group II solid hazardous materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Libbert, K.J.

    1992-10-01

    A PPP-B-621 wood box containing nine Mk 3 Mod 0 Signal containers was tested for conformance to Performance Oriented Packaging criteria established by Code of Federal Regulations Title 49 CFR. The container was tested with a gross weight of 123.3 pounds (56 kilograms) and met all requirements.

  8. Performance oriented packaging testing of the six-foot flexible linear shaped charge box for packing group II hazardous materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Libbert, K.J.

    1992-10-01

    The wood box (Drawing 53711-6665109) for six-foot flexible linear shaped charges was tested for conformance to Performance Oriented Packaging standards specified by the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 49 CFR, Parts 107 through 178, dated 31 December 1991. The box was tested with a gross weight of 14 kilograms and met all the requirements.

  9. Magnesium oxide inserts for the LECO Carbon Analyzer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bagaasen, L.M.; Jensen, C.M.

    1991-01-16

    LECO carbon analysis of plutonium metal and plutonium oxide at the Rocky Flats Plant generates several hundred kilograms of high silica residues each year. The plutonium in these residues is difficult and expensive to recover using production dissolution processes. A magnesium oxide (MgO) insert has been developed that significantly lowers the plutonium recovery costs without adversely affecting accuracy of the carbon analysis.

  10. Energy Department Completes Salt Coolant Material Transfer to Czech Republic for Advanced Reactor Research

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy recently joined with the U.S. Embassy in Prague and the Czech Republic’s Ministry of Industry and Trade to complete the transfer of 75 kilograms of fluoride salt from the Department’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory to the Czech Nuclear Research Institute Řež.

  11. Process steam production from cotton gin trash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LePori, W.A.; Carney, D.B.; Lalk, T.R.; Anthony, R.G.

    1981-01-01

    A steam producing system based on fluidized-bed gasification of biomass materials is discussed. Limited experimental results are discussed and show that steam has been produced at rates of 334.3 kg/hr. (737 lbs/hr.) with 2.8 kg of stream produced for each kilogram of cotton gin trash (2.8 lb/lb.). ref.

  12. Thermoelectric Power Plant Water Needs and Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... 1 (Shallow) Site, San Juan Power Plant 1 ... Water Treatment, and Electricity Cost Scenarios 1 ... (e.g., 10,000 grams of salt per 1,000,000 grams of ...

  13. DOE/SC-ARM/TR-139

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ARSCL Active Remote Sensing of Clouds DOD Data Object Design g gram(s) GHz gigahertz ...ARMbits.html. 5. Changes to the DOD. Numerous small changes were made to the ...

  14. Efficient electrochemical CO2 conversion powered by renewable energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kauffman, Douglas R.; Thakkar, Jay; Siva, Rajan; Matranga, Christopher; Ohodnicki, Paul R.; Zeng, Chenjie; Jin, Rongchao

    2015-06-29

    The catalytic conversion of CO2 into industrially relevant chemicals is one strategy for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. Along these lines, electrochemical CO2 conversion technologies are attractive because they can operate with high reaction rates at ambient conditions. However, electrochemical systems require electricity, and CO2 conversion processes must integrate with carbon-free, renewable-energy sources to be viable on larger scales. We utilize Au25 nanoclusters as renewably powered CO2 conversion electrocatalysts with CO2 → CO reaction rates between 400 and 800 L of CO2 per gram of catalytic metal per hour and product selectivities between 80 and 95%. These performance metrics correspond to conversion rates approaching 0.8–1.6 kg of CO2 per gram of catalytic metal per hour. We also present data showing CO2 conversion rates and product selectivity strongly depend on catalyst loading. Optimized systems demonstrate stable operation and reaction turnover numbers (TONs) approaching 6 × 106 mol CO2 molcatalyst–1 during a multiday (36 hours total hours) CO2electrolysis experiment containing multiple start/stop cycles. TONs between 1 × 106 and 4 × 106 molCO2 molcatalyst–1 were obtained when our system was powered by consumer-grade renewable-energy sources. Daytime photovoltaic-powered CO2 conversion was demonstrated for 12 h and we mimicked low-light or nighttime operation for 24 h with a solar-rechargeable battery. This proof-of-principle study provides some of the initial performance data necessary for assessing the scalability and technical viability of electrochemical CO2 conversion technologies. Specifically, we show the following: (1) all electrochemical CO2 conversion systems will produce a net increase in CO2 emissions if they do not

  15. Efficient electrochemical CO2 conversion powered by renewable energy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kauffman, Douglas R.; Thakkar, Jay; Siva, Rajan; Matranga, Christopher; Ohodnicki, Paul R.; Zeng, Chenjie; Jin, Rongchao

    2015-06-29

    Here, the catalytic conversion of CO2 into industrially relevant chemicals is one strategy for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. Along these lines, electrochemical CO2 conversion technologies are attractive because they can operate with high reaction rates at ambient conditions. However, electrochemical systems require electricity, and CO2 conversion processes must integrate with carbon-free, renewable-energy sources to be viable on larger scales. We utilize Au25 nanoclusters as renewably powered CO2 conversion electrocatalysts with CO2 → CO reaction rates between 400 and 800 L of CO2 per gram of catalytic metal per hour and product selectivities between 80 and 95%. These performance metrics correspondmore » to conversion rates approaching 0.8–1.6 kg of CO2 per gram of catalytic metal per hour. We also present data showing CO2 conversion rates and product selectivity strongly depend on catalyst loading. Optimized systems demonstrate stable operation and reaction turnover numbers (TONs) approaching 6 × 106 mol CO2 molcatalyst–1 during a multiday (36 hours total hours) CO2electrolysis experiment containing multiple start/stop cycles. TONs between 1 × 106 and 4 × 106 molCO2 molcatalyst–1 were obtained when our system was powered by consumer-grade renewable-energy sources. Daytime photovoltaic-powered CO2 conversion was demonstrated for 12 h and we mimicked low-light or nighttime operation for 24 h with a solar-rechargeable battery. This proof-of-principle study provides some of the initial performance data necessary for assessing the scalability and technical viability of electrochemical CO2 conversion technologies. Specifically, we show the following: (1) all electrochemical CO2 conversion systems will produce a net increase in CO2 emissions if they do not integrate with renewable-energy sources, (2) catalyst loading vs activity trends can be used to tune process rates and product distributions, and (3) state-of-the-art renewable-energy technologies

  16. Efficient electrochemical CO2 conversion powered by renewable energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kauffman, Douglas R.; Thakkar, Jay; Siva, Rajan; Matranga, Christopher; Ohodnicki, Paul R.; Zeng, Chenjie; Jin, Rongchao

    2015-06-29

    Here, the catalytic conversion of CO2 into industrially relevant chemicals is one strategy for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. Along these lines, electrochemical CO2 conversion technologies are attractive because they can operate with high reaction rates at ambient conditions. However, electrochemical systems require electricity, and CO2 conversion processes must integrate with carbon-free, renewable-energy sources to be viable on larger scales. We utilize Au25 nanoclusters as renewably powered CO2 conversion electrocatalysts with CO2 → CO reaction rates between 400 and 800 L of CO2 per gram of catalytic metal per hour and product selectivities between 80 and 95%. These performance metrics correspond to conversion rates approaching 0.8–1.6 kg of CO2 per gram of catalytic metal per hour. We also present data showing CO2 conversion rates and product selectivity strongly depend on catalyst loading. Optimized systems demonstrate stable operation and reaction turnover numbers (TONs) approaching 6 × 106 mol CO2 molcatalyst–1 during a multiday (36 hours total hours) CO2electrolysis experiment containing multiple start/stop cycles. TONs between 1 × 106 and 4 × 106 molCO2 molcatalyst–1 were obtained when our system was powered by consumer-grade renewable-energy sources. Daytime photovoltaic-powered CO2 conversion was demonstrated for 12 h and we mimicked low-light or nighttime operation for 24 h with a solar-rechargeable battery. This proof-of-principle study provides some of the initial performance data necessary for assessing the scalability and technical viability of electrochemical CO2 conversion technologies. Specifically, we show the following: (1) all electrochemical CO2 conversion systems will produce a net increase in CO2 emissions if they do

  17. Occurrence of Metastudtite (Uranium Peroxide Dihydrate) at a FUSRAP Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, C.M.; Nelson, K.A.; Stevens, G.T.; Grassi, V.J.

    2006-07-01

    correspond to the footprints of the former production buildings. U{sub nat} concentrations in soil exceed the investigative screening value, 518 Becquerels per kilogram (Bq/kg) [14 pico-curies per gram (pCi/g)], to an approximate depth of 2.5 m. This depth corresponds to the depth of buried demolition debris from the uranium processing site. Aqueous-phase uranium has also been confirmed at the site and appears to coincide with uranium-impacted soils. Soil textures in the impacted area consist mainly of fine-grained silty sand and rubble. The hydraulic conductivities range from 5 E-6 to 1 E-5 m/s. Groundwater seepage velocity ranges from 0.003 m/day to 0.7 m/day in the impacted area. Groundwater investigations conducted throughout the FUSRAP site indicate that redox conditions in the shallow groundwater are reducing, with low dissolved oxygen concentrations, as would be expected underlying a petrochemical facility. In contrast, groundwater in the uranium source area is an oxidizing microenvironment, with elevated pH conditions, despite the presence of free-phase liquid hydrocarbons in close proximity. Dissolved oxygen is elevated in the uranium source area, which may be due to the presence of metastudtite. Metastudtite has been shown to produce hydrogen peroxide through the process of alpha irradiation of water molecules. Uranium peroxide dihydrate is more soluble in water than other hexavalent mineral forms. The literature suggests that in the absence of hydrogen peroxide, metastudtite is unstable in groundwater. Although the presence of metastudtite in the source area may have caused locally high levels of aqueous-phase uranium to form, the uranium ions may not be mobile outside of this small area because of significant abrupt changes in geochemical conditions. The ongoing groundwater investigation includes tasks to confirm the presence of metastudtite and hydrogen peroxide, and monitor for seasonal geochemical or hydrogeologic changes. (authors)

  18. LINGUISTIC ANALYSIS OF THE NUCLEOPROTEIN GENE OF INFLUENZA A VIRUS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. SKOURIKHINE; T. BURR

    2000-05-01

    We applied linguistic analysis approach, specifically N-grams, to classify nucleotide and amino acids sequences of nucleoprotein (NP) gene of the Influenza A virus isolated from a range of hosts and geographic regions. We considered letter frequency (1-grams), letter pairs frequency (2-grams) and triplets' frequency (3-grams). Classification trees based on 1,2,3-grams variables were constructed for the same NP nucleotide and amino acids strains and their classification efficiency were compared with the clustering obtained using phylogenetic analysis. The results have shown that disregarding positional information for a NP gene can provide the same level of recognition accuracy like alternative more complex classification techniques.

  19. Apparatus and method for determining microscale interactions based on compressive sensors such as crystal structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McAdams, Harley; AlQuraishi, Mohammed

    2015-04-21

    Techniques for determining values for a metric of microscale interactions include determining a mesoscale metric for a plurality of mesoscale interaction types, wherein a value of the mesoscale metric for each mesoscale interaction type is based on a corresponding function of values of the microscale metric for the plurality of the microscale interaction types. A plurality of observations that indicate the values of the mesoscale metric are determined for the plurality of mesoscale interaction types. Values of the microscale metric are determined for the plurality of microscale interaction types based on the plurality of observations and the corresponding functions and compressed sensing.

  20. Characterization of Suspect Fuel Rod Pieces from the 105 K West Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Pool, Karl N.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2006-07-25

    This report provides physical and radiochemical characterization results from examinations and laboratory analyses performed on {approx}0.55-inch diameter rod pieces found in the 105 K West (KW) Basin that were suspected to be from nuclear reactor fuel. The characterization results will be used to establish the technical basis for adding this material to the contents of one of the final Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) that will be loaded out of the KW Basin in late FY2006 or at a later time depending on project priorities. Fifteen fuel rod pieces were found during the clean out of the KW Basin. Based on lack of specific credentials, documentation, or obvious serial numbers, none of the items could be positively identified nor could their sources or compositions be described. Item weights and dimensions measured in the KW Basin indicated densities consistent with the suspect fuel rods containing uranium dioxide (UO2), uranium metal, or being empty. Extensive review of the Hanford Site technical literature led to the postulation that these pieces likely were irradiated test fuel prepared to support of the development of the Hanford ''New Production Reactor'', later called N Reactor. To obtain definitive data on the composition of the suspect fuel, 4 representative fuel rod pieces, with densities corresponding to oxide fuel were selected from the 15 items, and shipped from the KW Basin to the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL) Radiological Processing Laboratory (RPL; also known at the 325 Building) for examinations and characterization. The three fuel rod that were characterized appear to contain slightly irradiated UO2 fuel, originally of natural enrichment, with zirconium cladding. The uranium-235 isotopic concentrations decreased by the irradiation and become slightly lower than the natural enrichment of 0.72% to range from 0.67 to 0.71 atom%. The plutonium concentrations, ranged from about 200 to 470 grams per metric ton of uranium and ranged in

  1. Biogenic sulfur emissions in the SURE region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, D.F.; Farwell, S.O.; Robinson, E.; Pack, M.R.

    1980-09-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the magnitude of biogenic sulfur emissions from the northeastern United States - defined as the EPRI Sulfate Regional Experiment (SURE) study area. Initial laboratory efforts developed and validated a portable sulfur sampling system and a sensitive, gas chromatographic analytical detection system. Twenty-one separate sites were visited in 1977 to obtain a representative sulfur emission sampling of soil orders, suborders, and wetlands. The procedure determined the quantity of sulfur added to sulfur-free sweep air by the soil flux as the clean air was blown through the dynamic enclosure set over the selected sampling area. This study represents the first systematic sampling for biogenic sulfur over such a wide range of soils and such a large land area. The major impacts upon the measured sulfur flux were found to include soil orders, temperature, sunlight intensity, tidal effects along coastal areas. A mathematical model was developed for biogenic sulfur emissions which related these field variables to the mean seasonal and annual ambient temperatures regimes for each SURE grid and the percentage of each soil order within each grid. This model showed that at least 53,500 metric tons (MT) of biogenic sulfur are emitted from the SURE land surfaces and approximately 10,000 MT are emitted from the oceanic fraction of the SURE grids. This equates to a land sulfur flux of nearly 0.02 gram of sulfur per square meter per yr, or about 0.6% of the reported anthropogenic emissions withn the SURE study area. Based upon these data and the summertime Bermuda high clockwise circulation of maritime air across Florida and the Gulf Coast states northward through the SURE area, the total land biogenic sulfur emission contribution to the SURE area atmospheric sulfur burden might approach 1 to 2.5% of the anthropogenic.

  2. Secretarial Determination Pursuant to USEC Privatization Act for the Sale or Transfer of Low-Enriched Uranium

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Secretarial determination regarding the potential impacts of the transfer by DOE of up to 48 metric tons of low-enriched uranium to USEC Inc. in exchange for DOE receiving approximately 409 metric...

  3. Wide-area, real-time monitoring and visualization system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Budhraja, Vikram S.; Dyer, James D.; Martinez Morales, Carlos A.

    2011-11-15

    A real-time performance monitoring system for monitoring an electric power grid. The electric power grid has a plurality of grid portions, each grid portion corresponding to one of a plurality of control areas. The real-time performance monitoring system includes a monitor computer for monitoring at least one of reliability metrics, generation metrics, transmission metrics, suppliers metrics, grid infrastructure security metrics, and markets metrics for the electric power grid. The data for metrics being monitored by the monitor computer are stored in a data base, and a visualization of the metrics is displayed on at least one display computer having a monitor. The at least one display computer in one said control area enables an operator to monitor the grid portion corresponding to a different said control area.

  4. A Comparison of Model Short-Range Forecasts and the ARM Microbase...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ARM Science Metric For the fourth quarter ARM metric we will make use of new liquid water data that has become available, and called the "Microbase" value added product ...

  5. SECTION C

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... tons (2,100 metric tons) of spent nuclear fuel, 11.5 tons (10.5 metric tons) of ... and treat Hanford's tank waste and close the Tank Farms to protect the Columbia River. ...

  6. Fermilab Today

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    shows the volume taken up by one metric ton of carbon dioxide. In 2013, the United States emitted the equivalent of 6.7 billion metric tons. By tracking how much greenhouse...

  7. OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Informatio...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Web Metrics - Persistent Cookies and the Functionality They Enable by Mark Martin on Tue, Nov 30, 2010 Last year I introduced OSTI's Web Metrics and how they help our organization ...

  8. OSTIblog Articles in the cookies Topic | OSTI, US Dept of Energy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    cookies Topic OSTI's Web Metrics - Persistent Cookies and the Functionality They Enable by Mark Martin 30 Nov, 2010 in Technology Last year I introduced OSTI's Web Metrics and how ...

  9. OSTIblog Articles in the OMB Topic | OSTI, US Dept of Energy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    OMB Topic OSTI's Web Metrics - Persistent Cookies and the Functionality They Enable by Mark Martin 30 Nov, 2010 in Technology Last year I introduced OSTI's Web Metrics and how they ...

  10. Word Pro - Untitled1

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Carbon Dioxide 1 Sulfur Dioxide Nitrogen Oxides Coal 2 Natural Gas 3 Petroleum 4 Geo- ... 1,843 349 63 236 2,491 1 Metric tons of carbon dioxide can be converted to metric tons ...

  11. Real-time performance monitoring and management system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Budhraja, Vikram S.; Dyer, James D.; Martinez Morales, Carlos A.

    2007-06-19

    A real-time performance monitoring system for monitoring an electric power grid. The electric power grid has a plurality of grid portions, each grid portion corresponding to one of a plurality of control areas. The real-time performance monitoring system includes a monitor computer for monitoring at least one of reliability metrics, generation metrics, transmission metrics, suppliers metrics, grid infrastructure security metrics, and markets metrics for the electric power grid. The data for metrics being monitored by the monitor computer are stored in a data base, and a visualization of the metrics is displayed on at least one display computer having a monitor. The at least one display computer in one said control area enables an operator to monitor the grid portion corresponding to a different said control area.

  12. Wide-area, real-time monitoring and visualization system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Budhraja, Vikram S.; Dyer, James D.; Martinez Morales, Carlos A.

    2013-03-19

    A real-time performance monitoring system for monitoring an electric power grid. The electric power grid has a plurality of grid portions, each grid portion corresponding to one of a plurality of control areas. The real-time performance monitoring system includes a monitor computer for monitoring at least one of reliability metrics, generation metrics, transmission metrics, suppliers metrics, grid infrastructure security metrics, and markets metrics for the electric power grid. The data for metrics being monitored by the monitor computer are stored in a data base, and a visualization of the metrics is displayed on at least one display computer having a monitor. The at least one display computer in one said control area enables an operator to monitor the grid portion corresponding to a different said control area.

  13. Small- To Medium-Scale Federal Renewable Energy Projects

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Operations and maintenance (O&M) measurement tends to focus on reliability as the sole metric. Every Federal agency wants a reliable facility, but this metric alone is not enough to build a successful O&M program.

  14. Smart Grid System Report (July 2009)- Annex

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This annex presents papers covering each of the 20 metrics identified in Section 2.1 of the 2009 Smart Grid System Report. These metric papers were prepared in advance of the main body of the...

  15. OSTIblog Articles in the OMB Topic | OSTI, US Dept of Energy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    OSTI's Web Metrics - Persistent Cookies and the Functionality They Enable by Mark Martin 30 Nov, 2010 in Technology Last year I introduced OSTI's Web Metrics and how they help our ...

  16. OSTIblog Articles in the cookies Topic | OSTI, US Dept of Energy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    OSTI's Web Metrics - Persistent Cookies and the Functionality They Enable by Mark Martin 30 Nov, 2010 in Technology Last year I introduced OSTI's Web Metrics and how they help our ...

  17. OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    OSTI's Web Metrics - Persistent Cookies and the Functionality They Enable by Mark Martin on Tue, November 30, 2010 Last year I introduced OSTI's Web Metrics and how they help our ...

  18. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Hydroprocessing and Product Separation ... 44 3.12 Sustainability Metrics ......The analysis does not take into account any policy ...

  19. Microsoft Word - EIR SOP Clean Copy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... quality assurance, sustainability, and environmental, ... incentives aligned with project team success metrics? ... and project management policy, guidance, and standards ...

  20. The SunShot Swerve

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Metrics for Solar Today Technical Feasibility - High penetration grid impacts Cost and Financial Feasibility - Efficiency and materials utilization - Manufacturing...

  1. Energy Department Finalizes $1.2 Billion Loan Guarantee to Support California Solar Generation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project funds more than 350 jobs and avoids more than 425,000 metric tons of carbon dioxide annually

  2. Cosmological solution moduli of bigravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yılmaz, Nejat Tevfik

    2015-09-29

    We construct the complete set of metric-configuration solutions of the ghost-free massive bigravity for the scenario in which the g−metric is the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) one, and the interaction Lagrangian between the two metrics contributes an effective ideal fluid energy-momentum tensor to the g-metric equations. This set corresponds to the exact background cosmological solution space of the theory.

  3. Standard Definitions of Building Geometry for Energy Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deru, M.; Torcellini, P.

    2005-10-01

    This document provides definitions and metrics of building geometry for use in building energy evaluation. Building geometry is an important input in the analysis process, yet there are no agreed-upon standard definitions of these terms for use in energy analysis. The metrics can be used for characterizing building geometry, for calculating energy performance metrics, and for conducting energy simulations.

  4. Table 11.5a Emissions From Energy Consumption for Electricity...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    11.5b and 11.5c; Metric Tons of Gas) Year Carbon Dioxide 1 Sulfur Dioxide Nitrogen Oxides ... 63,170 236,324 2,491,024 1Metric tons of carbon dioxide can be converted to metric tons ...

  5. Effective matter cosmologies of massive gravity I: non-physical fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Y?lmaz, Nejat Tevfik

    2014-08-01

    For the massive gravity, after decoupling from the metric equation we find a broad class of solutions of the Stckelberg sector by solving the background metric in the presence of a diagonal physical metric. We then construct the dynamics of the corresponding FLRW cosmologies which inherit effective matter contribution through the decoupling solution mechanism of the scalar sector.

  6. Commercial Building Performance Monitoring and Evaluation | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Building Performance Monitoring and Evaluation Commercial Building Performance Monitoring and Evaluation The Building Technologies Office (BTO) uses performance metrics to standardize the measurement and characterization of energy performance in commercial buildings. These metrics help inform the effectiveness of energy efficiency measures in existing buildings and highlight opportunities to improve performance. Various tiers of metrics are available for different users. Performance

  7. Space debris removal using a high-power ground-based laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monroe, D.K.

    1993-08-01

    The feasibility of utilizing a ground-based laser without an orbital mirror for space debris removal is examined. Technical issues include atmospheric transmission losses, adaptive-optics corrections of wavefront distortions, laser field of view limitations, and laser-induced impulse generation. The physical constraints require a laser with megawatt output, long run-time capability, and wavelength with good atmospheric transmission characteristics. It is found that a 5-MW reactor-pumped laser can deorbit debris having masses of the order of one kilogram from orbital altitudes to be used by Space Station Freedom. Debris under one kilogram can be deorbited after one pass over the laser site, while larger debris can be deorbited or transferred to alternate orbits after multiple passes over the site.

  8. Secret Mission to Remove Highly Enriched Uranium Spent Nuclear Fuel from

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Uzbekistan Successfully Completed | National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) Secret Mission to Remove Highly Enriched Uranium Spent Nuclear Fuel from Uzbekistan Successfully Completed April 20, 2006 Four Shipments Have Been Sent to a Secure Facility in Russia WASHINGTON, D.C. -- The Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) announced today that 63 kilograms (139 pounds) of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in spent nuclear fuel were safely and securely

  9. US, Kazakhstan Cooperate to Eliminate Highly Enriched Uranium | National

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) US, Kazakhstan Cooperate to Eliminate Highly Enriched Uranium January 07, 2015 WASHINGTON D.C - The Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) announced today the removal of 36 kilograms (approximately 80 pounds) of highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent fuel from the Institute of Nuclear Physics (INP) in Almaty, Kazakhstan. The HEU was transported via two air shipments to a secure facility in Russia for permanent

  10. United States Collaborates with Switzerland to Remove Last Remaining

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Separated Plutonium | National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) United States Collaborates with Switzerland to Remove Last Remaining Separated Plutonium March 03, 2016 (WASHINGTON, D.C.) - The Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), working in collaboration with the Government of Switzerland, announced that approximately 20 kilograms of separated plutonium have been transported from Switzerland to the United States. The successful transport of this

  11. Joint Statement by the United States and Italy on the 2014 Nuclear Security

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Summit | National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) Joint Statement by the United States and Italy on the 2014 Nuclear Security Summit March 24, 2014 See a fact sheet here. The White House Office of the Press Secretary Italy and the United States of America are pleased to announce that they have jointly completed the removal of approximately 20 kilograms of excess highly enriched uranium (HEU) and separated plutonium from Italy. At the 2012 Nuclear Security Summit, Italy and the

  12. Switzerland | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Switzerland United States Collaborates with Switzerland to Remove Last Remaining Separated Plutonium (WASHINGTON, D.C.) - The Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), working in collaboration with the Government of Switzerland, announced that approximately 20 kilograms of separated plutonium have been transported from Switzerland to the United States. The... Last HEU Removed from Switzerland under NNSA Collaboration WASHINGTON, D.C. - The Department of Energy's

  13. russia | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    russia NNSA Partnership Successfully Removes All Remaining HEU from Uzbekistan WASHINGTON, DC - Today, the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) announced the successful return of the final 5 kilograms (approximately 11 pounds) of highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent fuel from the IIN-3M "Foton" research reactor in Tashkent, Uzbekistan to... US, Kazakhstan Cooperate to Eliminate Highly Enriched Uranium WASHINGTON D.C - The Department of Energy's

  14. Fabrication of ThO/sub 2/ and ThO/sub 2/-UO/sub 2/ fuel pellets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, N.C.; Matthews, R.B.; White, G.D.; Hart, P.E.

    1980-06-01

    In this presentation, ThO/sub 2/ and ThO/sub 2/-UO/sub 2/ pellet fuel development activities leading to the production of kilogram quantities of fuel are described. Conventional dry ball milling was used to produce ThO/sub 2/ and ThO/sub 2/-UO/sub 2/ mixtures that were pressed and sintered to 95% TD with a homogeneous distribution of the components.

  15. EA-2024: Final Environmental Assessment | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Final Environmental Assessment EA-2024: Final Environmental Assessment Gap Material Plutonium - Transport, Receipt, and Processing The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, has prepared this environmental assessment to evaluate the potential environmental impacts associated with transporting up to 900 kilograms of plutonium from foreign nations to the United States, storing the plutonium at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina, and processing it for

  16. Fabrication of thorium bearing carbide fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gutierrez, R.L.; Herbst, R.J.; Johnson, K.W.R.

    Thorium-uranium carbide and thorium-plutonium carbide fuel pellets have been fabricated by the carbothermic reduction process. Temperatures of 1750/sup 0/C and 2000/sup 0/C were used during the reduction cycle. Sintering temperatures of 1800/sup 0/C and 2000/sup 0/C were used to prepare fuel pellet densities of 87% and > 94% of theoretical, respectively. The process allows the fabrication of kilogram quantities of fuel with good reproductibility of chemical and phase composition.

  17. ARM - Oceanic Properties

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oceanic Properties Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Oceanic Properties There are some other aspects that need to be examined regarding the imbalances in the current carbon cycle. First let's look at the effects of the ocean gaining 2 gigatonnes (1 gigatonne = 1x1012 kilograms)

  18. 2D Monolayers Could Yield Thinnest Solar Cells Ever

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thinnest solar cells ever 2D Monolayers Could Yield Thinnest Solar Cells Ever October 21, 2013 Contact: Kathy Kincade, +1 510 495 2124, kkincade@lbl.gov Efforts to improve solar cells have historically focused on improving energy conversion efficiencies and lowering manufacturing costs. But new computer simulations have shown how using a different type of material could yield thinner, more lightweight solar panels that provide power densities - watts per kilogram of material - orders of

  19. Italy Highly Enriched Uranium and Plutonium Removals | National Nuclear

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Security Administration | (NNSA) Highly Enriched Uranium and Plutonium Removals March 24, 2014 Italy has been a global leader in nuclear nonproliferation, working with the United States since 1997 to eliminate more than 100 kilograms of highly enriched uranium (HEU) and separated plutonium. At the 2014 Nuclear Security Summit, the United States and Italy announced the successful removal of all eligible fresh HEU and plutonium from Italy. These shipments were completed via a joint effort

  20. NNSA Partnership Successfully Removes All Remaining HEU from Uzbekistan |

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) Partnership Successfully Removes All Remaining HEU from Uzbekistan September 29, 2015 WASHINGTON, DC - Today, the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) announced the successful return of the final 5 kilograms (approximately 11 pounds) of highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent fuel from the IIN-3M "Foton" research reactor in Tashkent, Uzbekistan to Russia. This is the eighth shipment of HEU from

  1. USDA_Forest_Service_Employment_and_Income_Verification_Process.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) US, Kazakhstan Cooperate to Eliminate Highly Enriched Uranium January 07, 2015 WASHINGTON D.C - The Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) announced today the removal of 36 kilograms (approximately 80 pounds) of highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent fuel from the Institute of Nuclear Physics (INP) in Almaty, Kazakhstan. The HEU was transported via two air shipments to a secure facility in Russia for permanent

  2. Light-water reactors: preliminary safety and environmental information document. Volume I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Information is presented concerning the reference PWR reactor system; once-through, low-enrichment uranium-235 fuel, 30 MWD per kilogram (PWR LEU(5)-OT); once-through, low-enrichment, high-burnup uranium fuel (PWR LEU(5)-Mod OT); self-generated plutonium spiked recycle (PWR LEU(5)-Pu-Spiked Recycle); denatured uranium-233/thorium cycle (PWR DU(3)-Th Recycle DU(3)); and plutonium/thorium cycle (Pu/ThO/sub 2/ Burner).

  3. Electrolyte Materials Available for Sampling | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Contact Greg Krumdick (630) 252-3952 Electrolyte Materials Available for Sampling Argonne's Materials Synthesis and Manufacturing Research and Development Program provides advanced electrolyte and cathode materials to interested parties for evaluation and further research. Scaling to kilogram or larger scale can require substantial process modifications, and until that step is developed, economics, product consistency and quality are uncertain. The following Certificates of Analysis provide

  4. Ivar Giaever, Tunneling, and Superconductors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Security Administration | (NNSA) Highly Enriched Uranium and Plutonium Removals March 24, 2014 Italy has been a global leader in nuclear nonproliferation, working with the United States since 1997 to eliminate more than 100 kilograms of highly enriched uranium (HEU) and separated plutonium. At the 2014 Nuclear Security Summit, the United States and Italy announced the successful removal of all eligible fresh HEU and plutonium from Italy. These shipments were completed via a joint effort

  5. Latest News Releases | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) Last HEU Removed from Switzerland under NNSA Collaboration September 16, 2015 The Swiss HEU starts continues on its way to Savannah River. WASHINGTON, D.C. - The Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA), working in collaboration with the Government of Switzerland, announced today that approximately 2.2 kilogram of U.S.-origin highly enriched uranium (HEU) has been returned from the University of Basel in Switzerland

  6. request.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    removal US, Kazakhstan Cooperate to Eliminate Highly Enriched Uranium WASHINGTON D.C - The Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) announced today the removal of 36 kilograms (approximately 80 pounds) of highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent fuel from the Institute of Nuclear Physics (INP) in Almaty, Kazakhstan. The HEU was

    render safe Nuclear Forensics The National Technical Nuclear Forensics (NTNF) program is a Homeland Security Council and National Security

  7. rwj10d4.tmp

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    russia NNSA Partnership Successfully Removes All Remaining HEU from Uzbekistan WASHINGTON, DC - Today, the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) announced the successful return of the final 5 kilograms (approximately 11 pounds) of highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent fuel from the IIN-3M "Foton" research reactor in Tashkent, Uzbekistan to... US, Kazakhstan Cooperate to Eliminate Highly Enriched Uranium WASHINGTON D.C - The Department of Energy's

  8. Joint Statement from Los Alamos Director Michael Anastasio, Lawrence Livermore Director George

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summit | National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) Joint Statement by the United States and Italy on the 2014 Nuclear Security Summit March 24, 2014 See a fact sheet here. The White House Office of the Press Secretary Italy and the United States of America are pleased to announce that they have jointly completed the removal of approximately 20 kilograms of excess highly enriched uranium (HEU) and separated plutonium from Italy. At the 2012 Nuclear Security Summit, Italy and the

  9. LANL disassembles "pits," makes mixed-oxide fuel

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    disassembles "pits" LANL disassembles "pits," makes mixed-oxide fuel LANL has successfully disassembled nuclear weapons "pits" and converted them into more than 240 kilograms of plutonium oxide. October 7, 2011 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma physics and new

  10. EA-2024: Gap Material Plutonium- Transport, Receipt, and Processing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This environmental assessment evaluates the potential environmental impacts associated with transporting up to 900 kilograms of plutonium from foreign nations to the United States, storing the plutonium at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina, and processing it for disposition. This action would be pursued only if it is determined that there is no other reasonable pathway to assure security of this plutonium from theft or diversion.

  11. Process for the synthesis of aliphatic alcohol-containing mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greene, M.I.; Gelbein, A.P.

    1984-10-16

    A process for the synthesis of mixtures which include saturated aliphatic alcohols is disclosed. In the first step of the process, the first catalyst activation stage, a catalyst, which comprises the oxides of copper, zinc, aluminum, potassium and one or two additional metals selected from the group consisting of chromium, magnesium, cerium, cobalt, thorium and lanthanum, is partially activated. In this step, a reducing gas stream, which includes hydrogen and at least one inert gas, flows past the catalyst at a space velocity of up to 5,000 liters (STP) per hour, per kilogram of catalyst. The partially activated catalyst is then subjected to the second step of the process, second-stage catalyst activation. In this step, the catalyst is contacted by an activation gas stream comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide present in a volume ratio of 0.5:1 and 4:1, respectively, at a temperature of 200 to 450 C and a pressure of between 35 and 200 atmospheres. The activation gas flows at a space velocity of from 1,000 to 20,000 liters (STP) per hour, per kilogram of catalyst. Second-stage activation continues until the catalyst is contacted with at least 500,000 liters (STP) of activation gas per kilogram of catalyst. The fully activated catalyst, in the third step of the process, contacts a synthesis gas stream comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

  12. Process for the synthesis of aliphatic alcohol-containing mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greene, Marvin I.; Gelbein, Abraham P.

    1984-01-01

    A process for the synthesis of mixtures which include saturated aliphatic alcohols is disclosed. In the first step of the process, the first catalyst activation stage, a catalyst, which comprises the oxides of copper, zinc, aluminum, potassium and one or two additional metals selected from the group consisting of chromium, magnesium, cerium, cobalt, thorium and lanthanum, is partially activated. In this step, a reducing gas stream, which includes hydrogen and at least one inert gas, flows past the catalyst at a space velocity of up to 5,000 liters (STP) per hour, per kilogram of catalyst. The partially activated catalyst is then subjected to the second step of the process, second-stage catalyst activation. In this step, the catalyst is contacted by an activation gas stream comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide present in a volume ratio of 0.5:1 and 4:1, respectively, at a temperature of 200.degree. to 450.degree. C. and a pressure of between 35 and 200 atmospheres. The activation gas flows at a space velocity of from 1,000 to 20,000 liters (STP) per hour, per kilogram of catalyst. Second-stage activation continues until the catalyst is contacted with at least 500,000 liters (STP) of activation gas per kilogram of catalyst. The fully activated catalyst, in the third step of the process, contacts a synthesis gas stream comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

  13. Hospital Energy Benchmarking Guidance - Version 1.0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singer, Brett C.

    2009-09-08

    This document describes an energy benchmarking framework for hospitals. The document is organized as follows. The introduction provides a brief primer on benchmarking and its application to hospitals. The next two sections discuss special considerations including the identification of normalizing factors. The presentation of metrics is preceded by a description of the overall framework and the rationale for the grouping of metrics. Following the presentation of metrics, a high-level protocol is provided. The next section presents draft benchmarks for some metrics; benchmarks are not available for many metrics owing to a lack of data. This document ends with a list of research needs for further development.

  14. U.S. Energy Information Administration | State Energy Data 2014: Consumption

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    9 Data presented in the State Energy Data System (SEDS) are expressed predominately in units that historically have been used in the United States, such as British thermal units, barrels, cubic feet, and short tons. The metric conversion factors presented in Table E1 can be used to calculate the metric-unit equivalents of values expressed in U.S. customary units. For example, 500 short tons are the equivalent of 453.6 metric tons (500 short tons x 0.9071847 metric tons/short ton = 453.6 metric

  15. Security camera resolution measurements: Horizontal TV lines versus modulation transfer function measurements.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birch, Gabriel Carisle; Griffin, John Clark

    2015-01-01

    The horizontal television lines (HTVL) metric has been the primary quantity used by division 6000 related to camera resolution for high consequence security systems. This document shows HTVL measurements are fundamen- tally insufficient as a metric to determine camera resolution, and propose a quantitative, standards based methodology by measuring the camera system modulation transfer function (MTF), the most common and accepted metric of res- olution in the optical science community. Because HTVL calculations are easily misinterpreted or poorly defined, we present several scenarios in which HTVL is frequently reported, and discuss their problems. The MTF metric is discussed, and scenarios are presented with calculations showing the application of such a metric.

  16. Evaluation Project 4492

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Vegetation sampling includes collection of approximately 500 grams of vegetation (typically perennial grasses but sometimes samples from small leafy plants). Sandia Site Office ...

  17. PowerPoint Presentation

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... Configuration Stainless Steel Frit * Approximately 6 grams total * 10 Pellets - Right cylinder pellets - 6 mm diameter x 4 mm tall * Stacked configuration Effect of H 2 ...

  18. Department

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    . , Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 FEB 102014 Dear Colleague: We would like to invite you to participate in a Pro'gram Requirements Review entitled "Large Scale...

  19. Sambar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ingredients (this section does not need to be done here) Ingredient Alternative Bengal Gram water sambar Powder Turmeric Powder Any Dal alternative Instructions Boil Bengal...

  20. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Algorithms for GRAMS Fisk, M., Moore, S., Sowle, D., and Terry, D., Mission Research Corporation Ninth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting Automated data...