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1

Dust Grain-Size Distributions From MRN to MEM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Employing the Maximum Entropy Method algorithm, we fit interstellar extinction measurements which span the wavelength range 0.125-3 micron. We present a uniform set of MEM model fits, all using the same grain materials, optical constants and abundance constraints. In addition, we are taking advantage of improved UV and IR data and better estimates of the gas-to-dust ratio. The model fits cover the entire range of extinction properties that have been seen in the Galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds. The grain models employed for this presentation are the simplistic homogeneous spheres models (i.e., Mathis, Rumpl, & Nordsieck 1977) with two (graphite, silicate) or three (graphite, silicate, amorphous carbon) components. Though such usage is only a first step, the results do provide interesting insight into the use of grain size as a diagnostic of dust environment. We find that the SMC Bar extinction curve cannot be fit using carbon grains alone. This is a challenge to the recent observational result indicating little silicon depletion in the SMC.

Geoffrey C. Clayton; Michael J. Wolff; Ulysses J. Sofia; K. D. Gordon; K. A. Misselt

2003-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

2

The effect of grain size distribution on H$_2$ formation rate in the interstellar medium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The formation of molecular hydrogen in the interstellar medium takes place on the surfaces of dust grains. Hydrogen molecules play a role in gas-phase reactions that produce other molecules, some of which serve as coolants during gravitational collapse and star formation. Thus, the evaluation of the roduction rate of hydrogen molecules and its dependence on the physical conditions in the cloud are of great importance. Interstellar dust grains exhibit a broad size distribution in which the small grains capture most of the surface area. Recent studies have shown that the production efficiency strongly depends on the grain composition and temperature as well as on its size. In this paper we present a formula which provides the total production rate of H$_2$ per unit volume in the cloud, taking into account the grain composition and temperature as well as the grain size distribution. The formula agrees very well with the master equation results. It shows that for a physically relevant range of grain temperatures, the production rate of H$_2$ is significantly enhanced due to their broad size distribution.

Azi Lipshtat; Ofer Biham

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Crystallography of Interfaces and Grain Size Distributions in Sr-Doped LaMnO3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Crystallography of Interfaces and Grain Size Distributions in Sr-Doped LaMnO3 Qinyuan Liu,§ Sudip systems are similar. I. Introduction HIGH-TEMPERATURE solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) offer highly efficient, clean, direct conversion of chemical to electrical energy.1 SOFC performance is dictated

Rohrer, Gregory S.

4

27.03.20071 Grain size distributions of fault rocks: a comparison between experimentally and3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Exploration, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology11 3173-25 Showa-machi, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama; further displacement of fragments causes further comminution by wear and attrition.56 Cracked grains have

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

5

THE IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL MODELS FOR DERIVING DUST MASSES AND GRAIN SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS IN SUPERNOVA EJECTA. I. RADIATIVELY HEATED DUST IN THE CRAB NEBULA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent far-infrared (IR) observations of supernova remnants (SNRs) have revealed significantly large amounts of newly condensed dust in their ejecta, comparable to the total mass of available refractory elements. The dust masses derived from these observations assume that all the grains of a given species radiate at the same temperature, regardless of the dust heating mechanism or grain radius. In this paper, we derive the dust mass in the ejecta of the Crab Nebula, using a physical model for the heating and radiation from the dust. We adopt a power-law distribution of grain sizes and two different dust compositions (silicates and amorphous carbon), and calculate the heating rate of each dust grain by the radiation from the pulsar wind nebula. We find that the grains attain a continuous range of temperatures, depending on their size and composition. The total mass derived from the best-fit models to the observed IR spectrum is 0.019-0.13 M{sub Sun }, depending on the assumed grain composition. We find that the power-law size distribution of dust grains is characterized by a power-law index of 3.5-4.0 and a maximum grain size larger than 0.1 {mu}m. The grain sizes and composition are consistent with what is expected for dust grains formed in a Type IIP supernova (SN). Our derived dust mass is at least a factor of two less than the mass reported in previous studies of the Crab Nebula that assumed more simplified two-temperature models. These models also require a larger mass of refractory elements to be locked up in dust than was likely available in the ejecta. The results of this study show that a physical model resulting in a realistic distribution of dust temperatures can constrain the dust properties and affect the derived dust masses. Our study may also have important implications for deriving grain properties and mass estimates in other SNRs and for the ultimate question of whether SNe are major sources of dust in the Galactic interstellar medium and in external galaxies.

Temim, Tea; Dwek, Eli, E-mail: tea.temim@nasa.gov [Observational Cosmology Lab, Code 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Grain orientations and distribution of  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The local grain orientations and the distribution of Y2Ba4CuUOx (U-2411) phase are measured within melt-textured YBCO samples by means of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). In this work, several samples with varying addition (0.10.8wt%) of depleted uranium oxide (DU) were analysed by means of EBSD. The embedded U-2411 particles were found to have sizes around 200nm, some large particles being present in the samples with a high DU concentration. Combined EBSD and EDX analysis enabled the identification of the Kikuchi patterns of the U-2411 phase, so that a true three-phase EBSD scan (YBCO, Y2BaCuO5 and U-2411) becomes possible.

A Koblischka-Veneva; F Mcklich; M R Koblischka; N Hari Babu; D A Cardwell; M Murakami

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Quantitative grain size evaluation using ultrasonic backscattered echoes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Grain size characterization using ultrasonicbackscattered signals is an important problem in nondestructive testing of materials. In this paper a heuristic model which relates the statistical characteristics of the measured signal to the mean ultrasonicwavelet and attenuation coefficient in different regions of the sample is investigated. The losses in the backscattered signal are examined using temporal averaging correlation and probability distribution functions of the segmented data. Furthermore homomorphic processing is used in a novel application to estimate the mean ultrasonicwavelet (as it propagates through the sample) and the frequency?dependent attenuation. In the work presented heat?treated stainless steel samples with various grain sizes are examined. The processed experimental results support the feasibility of the grain size evaluation techniques presented here using the backscattered grain signal.

Jafar Saniie; Nihat M. Bilgutay

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Finite-Size Effects on the Structure of Grain Boundaries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present a combined experimental and theoretical analysis of the structure of finite-sized ?3 {112} grain boundaries in Au. High-resolution electron microscopy shows lattice translations at the grain boundary, with the magnitude of the translation varying along the finite-sized grain boundaries. The presence of this structural profile is explained using continuum elasticity theory and first-principles calculations as originating from a competition between elastic energy and the energy cost of forming continuous {111} planes across the boundary. This competition leads to a structural transition between offset-free and nontrivial grain boundary structures at a critical grain boundary size, in agreement with the experiments. We also provide a method to estimate the energy barrier of the ? surface.

E. A. Marquis; J. C. Hamilton; D. L. Medlin; F. Lonard

2004-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

9

Fatigue Threshold R-Curve Behavior of Grain Bridging Ceramics: Role of Grain Size and Grain-Boundary Adhesion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

unless they experience environmentally assisted subcritical growth during cyclic loading.7 Fatigue-crack (moist air and dry N2). The fine-grained micro- structure showed higher fatigue thresholds at short crack sizes, while the coarse-grained microstructure demonstrated higher fatigue thresholds at long crack

Kruzic, Jamie

10

ARM - Measurement - Hydrometeor Size Distribution  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Size Distribution Size Distribution ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Hydrometeor Size Distribution The number of hydrometeors observed in a given size range. Categories Cloud Properties, Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments LDIS : Laser Disdrometer Datastreams LDIS : Laser Disdrometer Datastreams PARS2 : OTT Parsivel2 Laser Disdrometer VDIS : Video Disdrometer Datastreams VDIS : Video Disdrometer Drop Size Distribution

11

ARM - Measurement - Particle size distribution  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

size distribution size distribution ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Particle size distribution The number of particles present in any given volume of air within a specified size range. Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments AOS : Aerosol Observing System CSPHOT : Cimel Sunphotometer TDMA : Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer UHSAS : Ultra-High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer Field Campaign Instruments

12

Is the silicate emission feature only influenced by grain size?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The flattening of the 10mu silicate emission feature observed in the spectra of T Tauri and Herbig Ae/Be stars is usually interpreted as an indicator of grain growth. We show in this paper that a similar behaviour of the feature shape occurs when the porosity of composite grains varies. The fluffy aggregates, having inclusions of different sizes, were modeled by multi-layered spheres consisting of amorphous carbon, amorphous silicate and vacuum. It is also found that the inclusion of crystalline silicates in composite porous particles can lead to a shift of the known resonances and production of new ones.

N. V. Voshchinnikov; Th. Henning

2008-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

13

8, 78477881, 2008 Size distributions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ACPD 8, 7847­7881, 2008 Size distributions and sources of WSOC in urban background area H. Timonen, sources and source areas of water-soluble organic carbon in urban background air H. Timonen 1 , S Chemistry Division National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80305-3000, USA

Boyer, Edmond

14

Grain-size distributions of tsunami sediments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Tsunami deposits indicate that suspended load transport is the main mechanism of movement throughout a tsunami event. Recent studies have touched on whether bed load transport is also occurring, but not seen in deposits due to the high energy nature...

Spencer, Sarah

2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

15

Distribution of Grain Boundary Planes and Misorientations in Magnesium Oxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Distribution of Grain Boundary Planes and Misorientations in Magnesium Oxide D.M. Saylor 1 , A distribution, magnesium oxide. Abstract. We have developed a technique that allows the geometry of polycrystalline magnesium oxide. Using these data, we have specified the distribution of grain boundaries within

Rohrer, Gregory S.

16

Core, Grain-Size, and Porosity Data from the Boise Hydrogeophysical Research Site  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.6. Grain-Size Analysis Data Sheets From Outcrops and Quarries........................66 7.7. Well Master

Barrash, Warren

17

Effect of Grain Size on Uranium(VI) Surface Complexation Kinetics...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the contribution of variable grain sizes to uranium adsorptiondesorption in a sediment collected from the US DOE Hanford site. The sediment was wet-sieved into four size...

18

EFFECT OF GRAIN SIZE ON THE ACOUSTIC EMISSION GENERATED DURING PLASTIC DEFORMATION OF ALUMINUM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PLASTIC DEFORMATION OF ALUMINUM LAWRENCE BERKELEY LABORATORYDURING PLASTIC DEFORMATION OF ALUMINUM J. Baram Materialsof polycrystalline aluminum, of different grain sizes and at

Baram, J.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Effect of Grain Size on Uranium(VI) Surface Complexation Kinetics and Adsorption Additivity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laboratory experiments were performed to investigate the contribution of variable grain sizes to uranium adsorption/desorption in a sediment collected from the US DOE Hanford site. The sediment was wet-sieved into four size fractions: coarse sand (1-2 mm), medium sand (0.2-1 mm), fine sand (0.05-0.2 mm), and clay/silt fraction (< 0.05mm). For each size fraction and their composite (sediment), batch experiments were performed to determine uranium adsorption isotherms, and stirred flow-cell experiments were conducted to derive kinetic data of uranium adsorption and subsequent desorption. The results showed that uranium adsorption isotherms and adsorption/desorption kinetics were size-specific, reflecting the effects of size-specific adsorption site concentration and kinetic rate constants. The larger-size fraction had a larger mass percentage in the sediment, but with a smaller adsorption site concentration and generally a slower uranium adsorption/desorption rate. The same equilibrium surface complexation reaction and reaction constant could describe uranium adsorption isotherms for all size fractions and the composite after accounting for the effect of adsorption site concentration. Mass-weighted, linear additivity was observed for both uranium adsorption isotherms and adsorption/desorption kinetics in the composite. Our analysis also showed that uranium adsorption site concentration estimated from the adsorption isotherms was 3 orders of magnitude less than a site concentration estimated from sediment surface area and generic site density. One important implication of this study is that grain size distribution may be used to estimate uranium adsorption site, and adsorption/desorption kinetic rates in heterogeneous sediments from a common location.

Shang, Jianying; Liu, Chongxuan; Wang, Zheming; Zachara, John M.

2011-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

20

Secondary recrystallization in non-sag W filament wires -- On the possible role of relative grain boundary character distribution  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Non-Sag tungsten (W) wire is indispensable for the lighting industry. For the necessary creep resistance, large elongated grains are considered as the desired microstructure. These large grains are obtained by primary and secondary recrystallization. In the present study an effort has been made to characterize and to understand the origin of such large elongated grains. In secondary recrystallization, often called abnormal grain growth, a few of the grains grow massive. The mechanisms of normal and abnormal grain growth are essentially the same, involving high angle boundary migration and driven by the reduction of surface energy. The abnormal grain growth can be visualized as a growth advantage for a few of the grains or growth disadvantage for the majority. Such an advantage/disadvantage may be caused by (1) differences in grain size and/or (2) differences in grain boundary character distribution (GBCD). In other words, a grain may grow massive if it has large size and/or possibilities of more favorable (i.e., of higher mobility) grain boundaries with the matrix grains.

Samajdar, I. [IIT Bombay (India). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science] [IIT Bombay (India). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science; Verlinden, B. [Katholieke Univ. Leuven, Heverlee (Belgium)] [Katholieke Univ. Leuven, Heverlee (Belgium); Watte, P. [Philips Lighting NV, Turnhout (Belgium)] [Philips Lighting NV, Turnhout (Belgium); Mertens, F. [Philips Lighting, Maarheeze (Netherlands)] [Philips Lighting, Maarheeze (Netherlands)

1999-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "grain size distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Quantifying the relative importance of flow regulation and grain size regulation of suspended sediment transport and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

sediment transport and tracking changes in grain size of bed sediment David M. Rubin U.S. Geological Survey changes in sediment transport, it is essential to know whether transport is regulated mainly by changes in flow or by changes in grain size of sediment on the bed. In flows where changes in suspended sediment

22

Grain size dependency in sandbank modeling for the case of uniform sediment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Grain size dependency in sandbank modeling for the case of uniform sediment D. Idier,1 H. H. van­dependent parameters on the simulated dynamics of the sandbanks for the case of uniform sediment. The model is applied is the dominant sediment transport mode, the model taking into account the grain size dependencies gives a better

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

23

ARM - Measurement - Aerosol particle size distribution  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

particle size distribution particle size distribution ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Aerosol particle size distribution The number of aerosol particles present in any given volume of air within a specificied size range Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments SMPS : Scanning mobility particle sizer TDMA : Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer UHSAS : Ultra-High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer Field Campaign Instruments

24

ARM - Measurement - Cloud particle size distribution  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

size distribution size distribution ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Cloud particle size distribution The number of cloud particles present in any given volume of air within a specified size range, including liquid and ice. Categories Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments WSACR : Scanning ARM Cloud Radar, tuned to W-Band (95GHz) Field Campaign Instruments CPI : Cloud Particle Imager CLDAEROSMICRO : Cloud and Aerosol Microphysical Properties

25

Influence of the grain size on deleterious phase precipitation in superduplex stainless steel UNS S32750  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the present work, the effect of grain size on deleterious phase precipitation in a superduplex stainless steel was investigated. The materials studied were heat treated isothermally at 800 deg. C, 850 deg. C and 900 deg. C for times up to 120 min. Hardness tests, light optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were carried out to detect sigma and other harmful precipitate phases. The ferritic and austenitic grain sizes in the solution treated condition of the two steels analyzed were measured by electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD). Cyclic polarization corrosion tests were performed to evaluate the effect of grain size on the corrosion resistance. The results presented show that the precipitation of deleterious phases such as {chi}, {sigma} and {gamma}{sub 2}, which can occur during welding and forming operations, is retarded by grain growth.

Pardal, J.M. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, Rua Passo da Patria, 156-CEP 24210-240, Niteroi/Brazil (Brazil); Tavares, S.S.M. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, Rua Passo da Patria, 156-CEP 24210-240, Niteroi/Brazil (Brazil)], E-mail: ssmtavares@terra.com.br; Fonseca, M. Cindra; Souza, J.A. de; Corte, R.R.A. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, Rua Passo da Patria, 156-CEP 24210-240, Niteroi/Brazil (Brazil); Abreu, H.F.G. de [Universidade Federal do Ceara, Departamento de Engenharia Metalugica e de Materiais, Campus do Pici Bl. 702, Fortaleza, CE, CEP 60.455-760 (Brazil)

2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

26

StochasticModeling of the Independent Roles of Particle Size and Grain Size in Transgranular Cleavage Fracture  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cleavage Fracture TSANN LIN, A. G. EVANS, and R. O. RITCHIE The independent roles of grain size. INTRODUCTION CLEAVAGE fracture in most metals occurs by the nu- cleation of a microcrack, assisted by the local, concentrated, tensile stress exceeds some critical fracture stress. In mild steels, such microcracks were

Ritchie, Robert

27

Size distribution functions for rock fragments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The capacity of 17 functions to represent the size distribution of fragmented rock is assessed on 1234 data sets of screened fragments from blasted and crushed rock of different origins, of sizes ranging from 0.002 to 2000mm. The functions evaluated are Weibull, Grady, log-normal, log-logistic and Gilvarry, in their plain, re-scaled and bi-component forms, and also the Swebrec distribution and its bi-component extension. In terms of determination coefficient, the Weibull is the best two-parameter function for describing rock fragments, with a median R2 of 0.9886. Among re-scaled, three-parameter distributions, Swebrec and Weibull lead with median R2 values of 0.9976 and 0.9975, respectively. Weibull and Swebrec distributions tie again as best bi-component, with median R2 of 0.9993. Re-scaling generally reduces the unexplained variance by a factor of about four with respect to the plain function; bi-components further reduce this unexplained variance by a factor of about two to three. Size-prediction errors are calculated in four zones: coarse, central, fines and very fines. Expected and maximum errors in the different ranges are discussed. The extended Swebrec is the best fitting function across the whole passing range for most types of data. Bimodal Weibull and Grady distributions follow, except for the coarse range, where re-scaled forms are preferable. Considering the extra difficulty in fitting a five-parameter function with respect to a three-parameter one, re-scaled functions are the best choice if data do not extend far below 20% passing. If the focus is on the fine range, some re-scaled distributions may still do (Weibull, Swebrec and Grady, with maximum errors of 1520% at 8% passing), but serious consideration should be given to bi-component distributions, especially extended Swebrec, bimodal Weibull and bimodal Grady.

Jos A. Sanchidrin; Finn Ouchterlony; Pablo Segarra; Peter Moser

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Bimodal Island Size Distribution in Heteroepitaxial Growth  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A bimodal size distribution of two-dimensional islands is inferred during interface formation in heteroepitaxial growth of bismuth ferrite on (001) oriented SrTiO3 by sputter deposition. Features observed by in situ x-ray scattering are explained by a model where coalescence of islands determines the growth kinetics with negligible surface diffusion on SrTiO3. Small clusters maintain a compact shape as they coalesce, while clusters beyond a critical size impinge to form large irregular connected islands and a population of smaller clusters forms in the spaces between the larger ones.

P.?V. Chinta and R.?L. Headrick

2014-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

29

Dust negative ion acoustic shock waves considering dust size distribution effect  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A multi-ion dusty plasma containing hot isothermal electrons, ions (light positive ions and heavy negative ions), and extremely and negatively charged dust grains is studied in the present paper. The dust negative ion acoustic shock waves have been investigated by employing the reductive perturbation method. How the dust size distribution affects the height and the thickness of the nonlinear shock wave is studied. It is noted that the different dust size distribution has different shock wave form and different moving speed.

Ma Yirong; Wang Canglong; Zhang Jianrong; Sun Jianan; Duan Wenshan [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering and Joint Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics of NWNU and IMP CAS, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070, China and Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Yang Lei [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering and Joint Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics of NWNU and IMP CAS, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China) and Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Department of Physics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

30

Remote Laser Diffraction Particle Size Distribution Analyzer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In support of a radioactive slurry sampling and physical characterization task, an off-the-shelf laser diffraction (classical light scattering) particle size analyzer was utilized for remote particle size distribution (PSD) analysis. Spent nuclear fuel was previously reprocessed at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTECformerly recognized as the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant) which is on DOEs INEEL site. The acidic, radioactive aqueous raffinate streams from these processes were transferred to 300,000 gallon stainless steel storage vessels located in the INTEC Tank Farm area. Due to the transfer piping configuration in these vessels, complete removal of the liquid can not be achieved. Consequently, a heel slurry remains at the bottom of an emptied vessel. Particle size distribution characterization of the settled solids in this remaining heel slurry, as well as suspended solids in the tank liquid, is the goal of this remote PSD analyzer task. A Horiba Instruments Inc. Model LA-300 PSD analyzer, which has a 0.1 to 600 micron measurement range, was modified for remote application in a hot cell (gamma radiation) environment. This technology provides rapid and simple PSD analysis, especially down in the fine and microscopic particle size regime. Particle size analysis of these radioactive slurries down in this smaller range was not previously achievablemaking this technology far superior than the traditional methods used. Successful acquisition of this data, in conjunction with other characterization analyses, provides important information that can be used in the myriad of potential radioactive waste management alternatives.

Batcheller, Thomas Aquinas; Huestis, Gary Michael; Bolton, Steven Michael

2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Estimating quality factor and mean grain size of sediments from high-resolution marine seismic data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

30 m of unconsolidated marine sediments. Our spectral-ratio technique does not require assumptions-resolution seismic-reflection data, and shows how such estimates can be related to mean grain sizes of unconsolidated for intrinsic atten- uation in saturated, unconsolidated marine sediments. Biot-Stoll Biot, 1956a, 1956b; Stoll

National Oceanography Centre Southampton

32

On Techniques to Characterize and Correlate Grain Size, Grain Boundary Orientation and the Strength of the SiC Layer of TRISO Coated Particles: A Preliminary Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The mechanical properties of the silicon carbide (SiC) layer of the TRi-ISOtropic (TRISO) coated particle (CP) for high temperature gas reactors (HTGR) are performance parameters that have not yet been standardized by the international HTR community. Presented in this paper are the results of characterizing coated particles to reveal the effect of annealing temperature (1000 to 2100C) on the strength and grain size of unirradiated coated particles. This work was further expanded to include possible relationships between the grain size and strength values. The comparative results of two strength measurement techniques and grain size measured by the Lineal intercept method are included. Preliminary grain boundary characterization results determined by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) are included. These results are also important for future fission product transport studies, as grain boundary diffusion is identified as a possible mechanism by which 110mAg, one of the fission activation products, might be released through intact SiC layers. Temperature is a parameter known to influence the grain size of SiC and therefore it is important to investigate the effect of high temperature annealing on the SiC grain size. Recommendations and future work will also be briefly discussed.

I.J.van Rooyen; J.L. Dunzik Gougar; T. Trowbridge; Philip M van Rooyen

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Effect of sediment pulse grain size on sediment transport rates and bed mobility in gravel bed rivers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effect of sediment pulse grain size on sediment transport rates and bed mobility in gravel bed] Sediment supply to gravel bed river channels often takes the form of episodic sediment pulses, and there is considerable interest in introducing sediment pulses in stream restorations to alter bed surface grain size

Venditti, Jeremy G.

34

Effect of microstructure, grain size, and rare earth doping on the electrorheological performance of nanosized particle materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and grain sizes were prepared by doping TiO2 or ZrO2 with rare earth (RE) elements, and by changingEffect of microstructure, grain size, and rare earth doping on the electrorheological performance-Hua Zhang,c Shu-Mei Chen,d Rui-Li Huange and Song Gaoa a State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Materials

Gao, Song

35

Pore size distribution and accessible pore size distribution in bituminous coals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The porosity and pore size distribution of coals determine many of their properties, from gas release to their behavior on carbonization, and yet most methods of determining pore size distribution can only examine a restricted size range. Even then, only accessible pores can be investigated with these methods. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and ultra small-angle neutron scattering (USANS) are increasingly used to characterize the size distribution of all of the pores non-destructively. Here we have used USANS/SANS to examine 24 well-characterized bituminous and subbituminous coals: three from the eastern US, two from Poland, one from New Zealand and the rest from the Sydney and Bowen Basins in Eastern Australia, and determined the relationships of the scattering intensity corresponding to different pore sizes with other coal properties. The range of pore radii examinable with these techniques is 2.5 nm to 7 {micro}m. We confirm that there is a wide range of pore sizes in coal. The pore size distribution was found to be strongly affected by both rank and type (expressed as either hydrogen or vitrinite content) in the size range 250 nm to 7 {micro}m and 5 to 10 nm, but weakly in intermediate regions. The results suggest that different mechanisms control coal porosity on different scales. Contrast-matching USANS and SANS were also used to determine the size distribution of the fraction of the pores in these coals that are inaccessible to deuterated methane, CD{sub 4}, at ambient temperature. In some coals most of the small ({approx} 10 nm) pores were found to be inaccessible to CD{sub 4} on the time scale of the measurement ({approx} 30 min - 16 h). This inaccessibility suggests that in these coals a considerable fraction of inherent methane may be trapped for extended periods of time, thus reducing the effectiveness of methane release from (or sorption by) these coals. Although the number of small pores was less in higher rank coals, the fraction of total pores that was inaccessible was not rank dependent. In the Australian coals, at the 10 nm to 50 nm size scales the pores in inertinites appeared to be completely accessible to CD{sub 4}, whereas the pores in the vitrinite were about 75% inaccessible. Unlike the results for total porosity that showed no regional effects on relationships between porosity and coal properties, clear regional differences in the relationships between fraction of closed porosity and coal properties were found. The 10 to 50 nm-sized pores of inertinites of the US and Polish coals examined appeared less accessible to methane than those of the inertinites of Australian coals. This difference in pore accessibility in inertinites may explain why empirical relationships between fluidity and coking properties developed using Carboniferous coals do not apply to Australian coals.

Sakurovs, Richard [ORNL; He, Lilin [ORNL; Melnichenko, Yuri B [ORNL; Radlinski, Andrzej Pawell [ORNL; Blach, Tomasz P [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Distribution, size, and bacterial colonization of pico-and nano ...  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Distribution, size, and bacterial colonization of pico- and nano-detrital organic particles (DOP) in two lakes of different trophic status. Carrias, Jean-Franois...

37

Dispersion of Cloud Droplet Size Distributions, Cloud Parameterization...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Dispersion of Cloud Droplet Size Distributions, Cloud Parameterizations, and Indirect Aerosol Effects P. H. Daum and Y. Liu Brookhaven National Laboratory Upton, New York...

38

The equilibrium crystal shape of strontium titanate and its relationship to the grain boundary plane distribution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 The equilibrium crystal shape of strontium titanate and its relationship to the grain crystal shape (ECS) of a model system, strontium titanate, is compared with the grain boundary plane distribution (GBPD) as a function of temperature. Strontium titanate has a pronounced surface energy anisotropy

Rohrer, Gregory S.

39

Particle Size Distribution of Gypseous Samples  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

particle size analyzer (LPSA) using This thesis follows the style of Soil Science Society of America Journal. 2 different solutions; and 3) determine if a functional relationship exists between PSD results from the pipette method and the results...

Arnett, Morgan P.

2010-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

40

Trace, isotopic analysis of micron-sized grains -- Mo, Zr analysis of stardust (SiC and graphite grains).  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Secondary Neutral Mass Spectrometry using resonant laser ionization can provide for both high useful yields and high discrimination while maintaining high lateral and depth resolutions. An example of the power of the method is measurement of the isotopic composition of Mo and Zr in 1-5 {micro}m presolar SiC and graphite grains isolated from the Murchison CM2 meteorite for the first time. These grains have survived the formation of the Solar System and isotopic analysis reveals a record of the stellar nucleosynthesis present during their formation. Mo and Zr, though present at less than 10 ppm in some grains, are particularly useful in that among their isotopes are members that can only be formed by distinct nucleosynthetic processes known as s-, p-, and r-process. Successful isotopic analysis of these elements requires both high selectivity (since these are trace elements) and high efficiency (since the total number of atoms available are limited). Resonant Ionization Spectroscopy is particularly useful and flexible in this application. While the sensitivity of this t.edmique has often been reported in the past, we focus hereon the very low noise properties of the technique. We further demonstrate the efficacy of noise removal by two complimentary methods. First we use the resonant nature of the signal to subtract background signal. Second we demonstrate that by choosing the appropriate resonance scheme background can often be dramatically reduced.

Pellin, M. J.; Nicolussi, G. K.

1998-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "grain size distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

The Measurement of Bubble-Size Distributions by Acoustical Backscatter  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A multifrequency acoustical-backscatter technique is described for determining the size distribution of bubbles with radii between 8 and 130 m. The method makes use of the resonance in the microbubbles and operates at six frequencies ranging ...

Svein Vagle; David M. Farmer

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Optimal Siting and Sizing of Distributed Energy Resources  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Optimal Siting and Sizing of Distributed Energy Resources Optimal Siting and Sizing of Distributed Energy Resources Speaker(s): Johan Driesen Date: February 15, 2007 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Chris Marnay Ongoing changes in the operation of distribution grids call for a new way to plan grid modifications. This presentation gives an overview of possible methods of long-term planning for the deployment of Distributed Energy Resources (distributed generation, storage and controllable loads) in a given grid. The placement and sizing of the units have to be considered, making this a complex optimization problem with discrete and continuous variables. In the optimization problem, multiple objectives are often conflicting, e.g. minimal grid losses, maximal use of the resources and voltage stability. An evolutionary algorithm (genetic algorithms) is used

43

Subcritical Creep Compaction of Quartz Sand at Diagenetic Conditions: Effects of Water and Grain Size  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Subcritical Creep Compaction of Quartz Sand at Diagenetic Conditions: Effects of Water and Grain growth. Creep rates are explained by subcritical crack growth, as governed by water-silicate reactions through subcritical cracking and grain rearrangement of medium- grained, porous, wet quartz sands can

Chester, Frederick M.

44

Methods to determine the size distribution of airborne rhinovirus  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Methods to determine the size distribution of airborne rhinovirus Methods to determine the size distribution of airborne rhinovirus Title Methods to determine the size distribution of airborne rhinovirus Publication Type Report Year of Publication 2004 Authors Russell, Marion L., Regine Goth-Goldstein, Michael G. Apte, and William J. Fisk Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Abstract About 50% of viral-induced respiratory illnesses are caused by the human rhinovirus (HRV). Prior research has demonstrated that rhinovirus infections can be transmitted via person-to-person contact and via inhalation of infectious aerosols. Measurements of the concentrations and sizes of bioaerosols are critical for research on building characteristics, aerosol transport, and mitigation measures. To detect airborne HRV, we developed a quantitative reverse transcription-coupled polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay and verified that this assay detects HRV in nasal lavage samples. A quantitation standard was used to determine the assay detection limit of 5 fg of HRV RNA with a linear range over 10,000-fold. This assay was used to quantify the size distribution of an artificially-produced HRV aerosol captured with an Andersen six-stage cascade impactor. In future studies, we hope to use the methods developed here to characterize the size distribution of naturally occurring viral-aerosols

45

Atomically flat La-silicate/Si interface using tungsten carbide gate electrode with nano-sized grain  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Interface properties of La-silicate gate dielectrics on Si substrates with W or nano-sized grain W{sub 2}C gate electrodes have been investigated. A low interface state density of 2.5??10{sup 11}?cm{sup ?2}/eV has been achieved with W{sub 2}C gate electrodes, which is one third of those with W gate electrode. An interface roughness of 0.33?nm with spatial frequency comparable to the grain size of W gate electrode has been observed. Besides, an atomically flat interface of 0.12?nm has been obtained with W{sub 2}C gate electrode. The origin of flat interface may be attributed to the elimination of inhomogeneous stress by grains in metal electrode.

Tuokedaerhan, K.; Natori, K.; Iwai, H. [Frontier Research Center, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Kakushima, K., E-mail: kakushima@ep.titech.ac.jp; Kataoka, Y.; Nishiyama, A.; Sugii, N.; Wakabayashi, H.; Tsutsui, K. [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan)

2014-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

46

Spatial and temporal variations in the grain-size characteristics of historical flood plain deposits, Blue River, Wisconsin, USA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Spatial and temporal variations in the grain-size characteristics of historical flood plain of accelerated flood plain sedimentation. More than 800 samples were collected from 53 cores along nine flood plain transects. Overbank deposits exhibit a coarsening-upward sequence attributed to historical changes

Lecce, Scott A.

47

The effect of a dust size distribution on electrostatic sheaths in unmagnetized dusty plasmas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, the structure of plasma sheaths in presence of dust particles with different sizes is investigated numerically in a multifluid framework, where the dust size distribution is modeled by Gauss' law. For this, we have established a 1D, stationary, unmagnetized, and weakly collisional electronegative dusty plasma sheath model. The electrons and negative ions are considered in a local thermodynamic equilibrium, therefore, described by a Boltzmann distribution. On the other hand, positive ions and dust grains are described by fluid equations. The charging process is described by the orbit motion limited model. It is shown that taking into account dust grains with different sizes reduces considerably the sheath thickness. The behavior of dust surface potential is not affected, but the dust charge number is reduced, as well as the electrostatic force. It results in a decrease of layered structure. The presence of negative ions makes the structure of the electrostatic potential more oscillatory. The other physical parameters are also analyzed and discussed.

Benlemdjaldi, D. [Quantum Electronics Laboratory, Faculty of Physics, U.S.T.H.B. BP 32 El-Alia Bab-Ezzouar, Algiers 16111 (Algeria); Departement de Physique, Ecole Normale Superieure BP 92 Vieux-Kouba, Algiers 16050 (Algeria); Tahraoui, A. [Quantum Electronics Laboratory, Faculty of Physics, U.S.T.H.B. BP 32 El-Alia Bab-Ezzouar, Algiers 16111 (Algeria); Hugon, R.; Bougdira, J. [Institut Jean Lamour, Departement CP2S UMR 7198 CNRS, Universite de Lorraine, BP 70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy cedex (France)

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

48

CHP and CHPsim: A Language and Simulator for Fine-Grain Distributed Computation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 CHP and CHPsim: A Language and Simulator for Fine-Grain Distributed Computation Alain J. Martin Abstract--This paper describes a complete and stable version of CHP and the simulator CHPsim. CHP partial versions of the language are already widely used, but CHP has never been presented as a complete

Martin, Alain

49

Lognormal Size Distribution Theory for Deposition of Polydisperse Aerosol Particles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The moments method of the lognormal size distribution theory was applied to the deposition equation of a radioactive aerosol within a liquid-metal fast breeder reactor for analysis of postulated accidents. The deposition coefficient of Crump and Seinfeld was utilized to represent the Brownian and turbulent diffusions and the gravitational sedimentation. The deposition equation was converted into a set of three ordinary differential equations. This approach takes the view point that the size distribution of an aerosol is represented by a time-dependent lognormal size distribution function during the deposition process. Numerical calculations have been performed, and the results were found to be in good agreement with the exact solution. The derived model for aerosol deposition is convenient to use in a numerical general dynamic equation solution routine based on the moments method, where nucleation, condensation, coagulation, and deposition need to be solved simultaneously.

Park, S.H.; Lee, K.W. [Kwangju Institute of Science and Technology (Korea, Republic of)

2000-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

50

Spatial grain size sorting in eolian ripples and estimation of wind conditions on planetary surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

measurements from White Sands National Monument, New Mexico, show that such coarse-grained ripples form by the different transport modes of coarse- and fine-grain fractions. On the basis of our field study, and simple) Thermal Emission Spectrom- eter (TES), which was interpreted to reflect iron precipita- tion in surficial

Grotzinger, John P.

51

Method for measuring the size distribution of airborne rhinovirus  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Method for measuring the size distribution of airborne rhinovirus Method for measuring the size distribution of airborne rhinovirus Title Method for measuring the size distribution of airborne rhinovirus Publication Type Conference Proceedings Year of Publication 2002 Authors Russell, Marion L., Regine Goth-Goldstein, Michael G. Apte, and William J. Fisk Conference Name Proceedings of the Indoor Air 2002 Conference, Monterey, CA Volume 1 Pagination 40-45 Publisher Indoor Air 2002, Santa Cruz, CA Abstract About 50% of viral-induced respiratory illnesses are caused by the human rhinovirus (HRV). Measurements of the concentrations and sizes of bioaerosols are critical for research on building characteristics, aerosol transport, and mitigation measures. We developed a quantitative reverse transcription-coupled polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for HRV and verified that this assay detects HRV in nasal lavage samples. A quantitation standard was used to determine a detection limit of 5 fg of HRV RNA with a linear range over 1000-fold. To measure the size distribution of HRV aerosols, volunteers with a head cold spent two hours in a ventilated research chamber. Airborne particles from the chamber were collected using an Andersen Six-Stage Cascade Impactor. Each stage of the impactor was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR for HRV. For the first two volunteers with confirmed HRV infection, but with mild symptoms, we were unable to detect HRV on any stage of the impactor

52

Effects of dust size distribution on dust negative ion acoustic solitary waves in a magnetized dusty plasma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Dust negative ion acoustic solitary waves in a magnetized multi-ion dusty plasma containing hot isothermal electron, ions (light positive ions and heavy negative ions) and extremely massive charge fluctuating dust grains are investigated by employing the reductive perturbation method. How the dust size distribution affect the height and the thickness of the nonlinear solitary wave are given. It is noted that the characteristic of the solitary waves are different with the different dust size distribution. The magnitude of the external magnetic field also affects the solitary wave form.

Ma, Yi-Rong; Qi, Xin; Sun, Jian-An; Duan, Wen-Shan [Joint Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics of NWNU and IMP CAS, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China and College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China)] [Joint Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics of NWNU and IMP CAS, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China and College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Yang, Lei [Joint Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics of NWNU and IMP CAS, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China and College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China) [Joint Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics of NWNU and IMP CAS, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China and College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Department of Physics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

53

The influence of fractal size distribution of covers on radon exhalation from uranium mill tailings  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Tailings produced during mining and milling of uranium ores represent potentially large volumes of low level radioactive materials. A typical environmental problem associated with mill tailings is radon emanation. Covering tailings is widely applied to reduce radon exhalation rate. In this paper, the fractal theories and field covering tests are used to study the fractal characters of size distribution of six types of covering materials, including waste rock, sand, laterite, kaolin, mixture of sand and laterite, and mixture of waste rock and laterite, and their influences on radon exhalation. The size distributions of uranium tailings and the six aforementioned covering materials all exhibit a good fractal structure. The contents of fine grain increase with the increasing value of fractal dimension. The results of field radon measurement show that the radon emanation rate of tailings without covers is 14.718.6Bq/m2s. Covering tests were carried out of the six abovementioned covering materials with thickness of 0.4m, 0.8m, 1.2m, 1.6m and 2.0m. The results indicate that the application of these materials for cover layers can decrease the radon exhalation rate markedly. The effectiveness of a cover layer in reducing radon exhalation is related to its fractal texture of size distribution. Under the same thickness conditions, the attenuation coefficient of radon exhalation rate increases with the increasing fractal dimension of size distribution of covers. The empirical expressions of the attenuation coefficients in relation to fractal dimension D of size distribution and thickness x of covers is obtained for evaluating the effectiveness of final covers for uranium tailings impoundments.

Kaixuan Tan; Zehua Liu; Liangshu Xia; Junwen Lv; Hanqiao Hu

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Distributive analysis of rural land size and price relationships  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

manuscript. :ABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter Page I. IN:RODUCTION The Problem Objectives of the Study 1 2 II. PREVIOUS RESEARCH U. S. Aggregate Studies Texas and Regional Studies 5 6 III. ECONOMIC THEORY AND LAND VALUES IV. HYPOTHESES AND METHODOLOGY... 12 Market Movements Frictional Adjustments Economies of Size 12 1". 13 Factors of Consideration Market Division Methodology Bases Percentages Blocks Groups Appreciation Market Distribution 15 17 18 19 20 20 23 24 The Models...

Rothe, Robert Joseph

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

55

Distribution Effectiveness and Impacts on Equipment Sizing for Residential Thermal Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 LBNL-43724 Distribution Effectiveness and Impacts on Equipment Sizing for Residential Thermal Distribution Systems Walker, I., Sherman, M., and Siegel, J. Environmental Energy Technologies Division Energy .................................................................................................................. 14 Figure 1. Simulations of Pulldowns from 3:00 p.m. on a Sacramento Design Day

56

Study on grain boundary character and strain distribution of intergranular cracking in the CGHAZ of T23 steel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Intergranular reheat cracking in the coarse-grained heat-affected zone of T23 steel was produced by strain to fracture tests on a Gleeble 3500 thermalmechanical simulator. Then the grain boundary character, as well as the strain distribution after reheat crack propagation, was studied by electron backscatter diffraction technique. The results showed that incoherent ?3 boundaries were seldom found on the prior austenite grain boundaries. Therefore, only the type of random high-angle boundaries played a crucial role in the intergranular cracking. Microstructurally cavities and small cracks were preferentially initiated from high-angle grain boundaries. Low-angle grain boundaries and high-angle ones with misorientation angles less than 15 were more resistant to the cracking. More importantly, the fraction of high-angle grain boundaries increased with the plastic strain induced by both temperature gradient and stress in the coarse-grained heat-affected zone, which contributed to the crack initiation and propagation. Furthermore, the strain distributions in the vicinity of cavities and cracks revealed the accommodation processes of plastic deformation during stress relaxation. It also reflected the strength differences between grain interior and grain boundary at different heat-treated temperatures, which had a large influence on the cracking mechanism. - Highlights: The coincidence site lattice boundaries play little role in the reheat cracking. Cavity and crack occur at high-angle grain boundaries rather than low-angle ones. The strain leads low-angle grain boundaries to transform to high-angle ones. Strain distribution differs for cavity and crack zones at different temperatures.

Jin, Y.J.; Lu, H., E-mail: shweld@sjtu.edu.cn; Yu, C.; Xu, J.J.

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

57

Sliding friction in electrodeposited nanocrystalline Ni Alloys : transitional behavior associated with grain size, sliding speed, and contact stress.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Metallic materials in sliding contact typically undergo dislocation-mediated plasticity, which results in stick-slip frictional behavior associated with high coefficients of friction ({mu} > 0.8). Our recent work on two electroplated nanocrystalline Ni alloys reveal that under combined conditions of low stress and low sliding velocity, these metals have very low friction ({mu} < 0.3). The observed frictional behavior is consistent with the transition from dislocation-mediated plasticity to an alternative mechanism such as grain boundary sliding. Focused ion beam cross-sections viewed in the TEM reveal the formation of a subsurface tribological bilayer at the contact surface, where the parent nanocrystalline material has evolved in structure to accommodate the frictional contact. Grain growth at a critical distance below the contact surface appears to promote a shear-accomodation layer. We will discuss these results in the context of a grain-size dependent transition from conventional microcrystalline wear behavior to this unusual wear behavior in nanocrystalline FCC metals.

Prasad, Somuri V.; Battaile, Corbett Chandler; Boyce, Brad Lee; Kotula, Paul Gabriel; Padilla, Henry A.

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

E-Print Network 3.0 - adsorbent grain size Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

error size is about 15-20% for lower ad- sorbed mass region, B10... orientations of trains versus loops and tails: the adsorbed ... Source: Granick, Steve - Departments of...

59

Effect of grain size and hydrogen passivation on the electrical properties of nanocrystalline silicon films  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The properties of mixed-phase (nanocrystalline/amorphous) silicon layers produced by reactive RF-sputtering are described. The chemical composition and nanostructure (i.e., Nanocrystal (NC) size and volume fraction) of the films were studied by Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS) and micro-Raman spectroscopy, respectively. Samples with different fractions of the nanocrystalline phase and NC mean size were produced by changing the deposition parameters, without post-growth annealing. The electrical conductivity of the films, measured as function of temperature, is discussed in relation to their nanostructure.

M.F. Cerqueira; T.V. Semikina; N.V. Baidus; E. Alves

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Mechanics of grain-size reduction in fault zones Charles G. Sammis1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

timescale significantly smaller particles at any strain rate. However, shock loading and subcritical crack growth can produce nanometer-scale fragments in compression. Under tensile loading the fragment size is determined by a competition between the nucleation of cracks and stress relaxation in their neighborhoods

Ben-Zion, Yehuda

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "grain size distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Slant visual range from drop-size distribution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. 1796 x 10 -5 6. 4781 x 10 -5 6. 8817 x 10 7. 4708 x 10 -5 6. 4Z3Z x 10 3. 4338 x 10 -5 l. 8538 x 10 9. 1Z32 x 10 5. 1436 x 10 3. 1019 x 10 3. 3120 x 10 -6 3. 6597 x 10 6. Z636 x 10 4. 2730 x 10 3. 8357 x 10 1 4. OZ10 x 10 1 4. Z715 x 10...'laj or Subject: Mete orol oqy SLANT VISUAL RANGE FROM DROP-SIZE DISTRIBUTION A Thesis by EDWIN STANLEY ARRANCE Approved as to style and content by: Dr. Vance E. Moyer; (Chairman of Committee) Dr. Geor L. Huebner, Jr. (Member) Dr. Glen N. Williams...

Arrance, Edwin Stanley

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

62

THE SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF PARTICLES IN THE OCEAN  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Norsk-Hvalfangst-Tid. 45 ( 9) : 469480. McLA~N,. I. A. 1965. Some relationships bc- tween temperature and egg size, body size, development rate and fecundity...

1999-12-25T23:59:59.000Z

63

Effect of oxidizer on grain size and low temperature DC electrical conductivity of tin oxide nanomaterial synthesized by gel combustion method  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nanocrystalline Tin oxide material with different grain size was synthesized using gel combustion method by varying the fuel (C{sub 6}H{sub 8}O{sub 7}) to oxidizer (HNO{sub 3}) molar ratio by keeping the amount of fuel as constant. The prepared samples were characterized by using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Analysis X-ray Spectroscopy (EDAX). The effect of fuel to oxidizer molar ratio in the gel combustion method was investigated by inspecting the grain size of nano SnO{sub 2} powder. The grain size was found to be reduced with the amount of oxidizer increases from 0 to 6 moles in the step of 2. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the calcined product showed the formation of high purity tetragonal tin (IV) oxide with the grain size in the range of 12 to 31 nm which was calculated by Scherer's formula. Molar ratio and temperature dependence of DC electrical conductivity of SnO{sub 2} nanomaterial was studied using Keithley source meter. DC electrical conductivity of SnO{sub 2} nanomaterial increases with the temperature from 80K to 300K. From the study it was observed that the DC electrical conductivity of SnO{sub 2} nanomaterial decreases with the grain size at constant temperature.

Rajeeva, M. P., E-mail: jayanna60@gmail.com; Jayanna, H. S., E-mail: jayanna60@gmail.com; Ashok, R. L.; Naveen, C. S. [Department of P.G. Studies and Research in Physics, Kuvempu University, Jnanasahyadri, Shankarghatta, Shimoga- 577451, Karnataka (India); Bothla, V. Prasad [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore-560012 (India)

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

64

The equilibrium crystal shape of strontium titanate and its relationship to the grain boundary plane distribution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The equilibrium crystal shape of strontium titanate and its relationship to the grain boundary system, strontium titanate, is compared with the grain boundary plane dis- tribution (GBPD) as a function of temperature. Strontium titanate has a pronounced surface energy anisotropy and a grain growth anomaly

Rohrer, Gregory S.

65

EVOLUTION OF SNOW LINE IN OPTICALLY THICK PROTOPLANETARY DISKS: EFFECTS OF WATER ICE OPACITY AND DUST GRAIN SIZE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Evolution of a snow line in an optically thick protoplanetary disk is investigated with numerical simulations. The ice-condensing region in the disk is obtained by calculating the temperature and the density with the 1+1D approach. The snow line migrates as the mass accretion rate ( M-dot ) in the disk decreases with time. Calculations are carried out from an early phase with high disk accretion rates ( M-dot {approx}10{sup -7} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}) to a later phase with low disk accretion rates ( M-dot {approx}10{sup -12} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}) using the same numerical method. It is found that the snow line moves inward for M-dot {approx}>10{sup -10} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}, while it gradually moves outward in the later evolution phase with M-dot {approx}<10{sup -10} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}. In addition to the silicate opacity, the ice opacity is taken into consideration. In the inward migration phase, the additional ice opacity increases the distance of the snow line from the central star by a factor of 1.3 for dust grains {approx}< 10 {mu}m in size and of 1.6 for {approx}> 100 {mu}m. It is inevitable that the snow line comes inside Earth's orbit in the course of the disk evolution if the viscosity parameter {alpha} is in the range 0.001-0.1, the dust-to-gas mass ratio is higher than a tenth of the solar abundance value, and the dust grains are smaller than 1 mm. The formation of water-devoid planetesimals in the terrestrial planet region seems to be difficult throughout the disk evolution, which imposes a new challenge to planet formation theory.

Oka, Akinori; Nakamoto, Taishi; Ida, Shigeru, E-mail: akinorioka1@gmail.com, E-mail: nakamoto@geo.titech.ac.jp [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

2011-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

66

Fidelity of Analytic Drop Size Distributions in Drizzling Stratiform Clouds Based on Large-Eddy Simulations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cloud microphysical parameterizations and retrievals rely heavily on knowledge of the shape of drop size distributions (DSDs). Many investigations assume that DSDs in the entire or partial drop size range may be approximated ...

Kogan, Yefim L.; Kogan, Zena N.; Mechem, David B.

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Dust size distribution and concentrations with cottonseed oil mills  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-VOLUME SAMPLES FOR P. S. D OF PARTICLES & 100 um DIAMETER (MMD) ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE ON HIGH-VOLUME SAMPLES FOR P. S. D. OF PARTICLES & 100 um DIAMETER (og) MULTIPLE RANGE TEST FOR MEAN VALUES OF MMD BY AREA MULTIPLE RANGE TEST OF MMD BY MILL PARTICLE SIZE... TEST OF AREA DUST CONCENTRATIONS = 15 Pm IN DIAMETER MULTIPLE RANGE TEST OF MILL DUST CONCENTRATIONS & 15 um IN DIAMETER ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE ON PARTICLE SIZING HEAD SAMPLES OF CONCENTRATIONS FOR PARTICLES & 100 IJBI DIAMETER . . . . 47 47 54...

Wiederhold, Lee Roy

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

68

Cell Size Distributions of Soil Bacterial and Archaeal Taxa  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Boulder, Colorado, USA b Cell size is...range of life history attributes, including...maintenance energy requirements...their nutrient and energy requirements...microbial life history strategies? There...ecology and life history strategies of...McDonald, D , MN Price, J Goodrich...

Maria C. Portillo; Jonathan W. Leff; Christian L. Lauber; Noah Fierer

2013-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

69

Determination of pore-size distribution in low-dielectric thin films D. W. Gidleya)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-size distribution on pore shape/dimensionality and sample temperature is predicted using a simple quantum mechanicalDetermination of pore-size distribution in low-dielectric thin films D. W. Gidleya) and W. E. Frieze Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 T. L. Dull, J. Sun, and A

Gidley, David

70

Density and Energy Distribution of Interface States in the Grain Boundaries of Polysilicon Nanowire  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Wafer-scale fabrication of semiconductor nanowire devices is readily facilitated by lithography-based top-down fabrication of polysilicon nanowire (P-SiNW) arrays. However, free carrier trapping at the grain boundaries of polycrystalline materials ...

Iddo Amit; Danny Englander; Dror Horvitz; Yaniv Sasson; Yossi Rosenwaks

2014-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

71

Size distributions of fly ash using Coulter Multisizer: Use of multiple orifices and fitting to truncated log-normal distributions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fly ash particles, which are predominantly spherical and glassy, are produced by melting of the mineral inclusions in the coal during combustion. Particle diameters can range from sub-micrometer (micron or {mu}m) to greater than 100 {mu}m. The size distribution of fly ash is needed to determine its role in the radiation transfer process in pulverized coal combustors. The Coulter Multisizer is an useful instrument for sizing powders with a broad size distribution. A single Multisizer orifice can size particles only within a specific size range limited at the lower end to a few percent of orifice diameter by sensitivity and at the upper end by increasing non-linearity of the signal-volume relation. A scheme for combining data obtained using orifices of different diameters is described. The manufacturers state that the smallest particle which can be sized accurately is nominally 2% of the diameter of the orifice. However, it was found that the data for particles less than 4% of the orifice diameter were not reliable. In order to use the smaller orifices, the larger particles have to be removed from the sample. A wet-sieving apparatus, designed for accurate separation of the particles by size, is described. A log-normal distribution function, truncated outside the measurement limits, fits the size distribution data well. Size parameters for fly ashes of six representative US coals are presented.

Ghosal, S.; Ebert, J.L.; Self, S.A.

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

UNIVERSITY OF ROCHESTER Distribution of Undergraduate Courses by Section Size  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

49 99 199 200+ Audio and Music Engineering 7 14 3 3 0 0 1 0 0 0 Biomedical Engineering 11 54 2 2 - 1 2013 School of Engineering and # Avg. 20- 30- 40- 50- 100- Applied Sciences Sect. Size 1-9 10-19 29 39 - 5 1 - Chemical Engineering 12 45 - 2 3 - 3 4 - - Computer Science 21 40 - 7 3 5 - 5 1 - Electrical

Portman, Douglas

73

Multipass comminution process to produce precision wood particles of uniform size and shape with disrupted grain structure from wood chips  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process of comminution of wood chips (C) having a grain direction to produce a mixture of wood particles (P), wherein the wood chips are characterized by an average length dimension (L.sub.C) as measured substantially parallel to the grain, an average width dimension (W.sub.C) as measured normal to L.sub.C and aligned cross grain, and an average height dimension (H.sub.C) as measured normal to W.sub.C and L.sub.C, and wherein the comminution process comprises the step of feeding the wood chips in a direction of travel substantially randomly to the grain direction one or more times through a counter rotating pair of intermeshing arrays of cutting discs (D) arrayed axially perpendicular to the direction of wood chip travel.

Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

74

Physicochemical Characterization of Capstone Depleted Uranium Aerosols II: Particle Size Distributions as a Function of Time  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Capstone Depleted Uranium (DU) Aerosol Study, which generated and characterized aerosols containing depleted uranium from perforation of armored vehicles with large-caliber DU penetrators, incorporated a sampling protocol to evaluated particle size distributions. Aerosol particle size distribution is an important parameter that influences aerosol transport and deposition processes as well as the dosimetry of the inhaled particles. These aerosols were collected on cascade impactor substrates using a pre-established time sequence following the firing event to analyze the uranium concentration and particle size of the aerosols as a function of time. The impactor substrates were analyzed using beta spectrometry, and the derived uranium content of each served as input to the evaluation of particle size distributions. Activity median aerodynamic diameters (AMADs) of the particle size distributions were evaluated using unimodal and bimodal models. The particle size data from the impactor measurements was quite variable. Most size distributions measured in the test based on activity had bimodal size distributions with a small particle size mode in the range of between 0.2 and 1.2 um and a large size mode between 2 and 15 um. In general, the evolution of particle size over time showed an overall decrease of average particle size from AMADs of 5 to 10 um shortly after perforation to around 1 um at the end of the 2-hr sampling period. The AMADs generally decreased over time because of settling. Additionally, the median diameter of the larger size mode decreased with time. These results were used to estimate the dosimetry of inhaled DU particles.

Cheng, Yung-Sung; Kenoyer, Judson L.; Guilmette, Raymond A.; Parkhurst, MaryAnn

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Siting and sizing of distributed generation units using GA and OPF  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper deals with the important task of finding the optimal siting and sizing of Distributed Generation (DG) units for a given distribution network so that the cost of active and reactive power generation can be minimized. The optimization technique ... Keywords: distributed generation, genetic alghorithm(GA), optimal power flow(OPF)

M. Hosseini Aliabadi; M. Mardaneh; B. Behbahan

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

THE SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF THE NEPTUNE TROJANS AND THE MISSING INTERMEDIATE-SIZED PLANETESIMALS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present an ultra-deep survey for Neptune Trojans using the Subaru 8.2 m and Magellan 6.5 m telescopes. The survey reached a 50% detection efficiency in the R band at m{sub R} = 25.7 mag and covered 49 deg{sup 2} of sky. m{sub R} = 25.7 mag corresponds to Neptune Trojans that are about 16 km in radius (assuming an albedo of 0.05). A paucity of smaller Neptune Trojans (radii < 45 km) compared with larger ones was found. The brightest Neptune Trojans appear to follow a steep power-law slope (q = 5 {+-} 1) similar to the brightest objects in the other known stable reservoirs such as the Kuiper Belt, Jupiter Trojans, and main belt asteroids. We find a roll-over for the Neptune Trojans that occurs around a radius of r = 45 {+-} 10 km (m{sub R} = 23.5 {+-} 0.3), which is also very similar to the other stable reservoirs. All the observed stable regions in the solar system show evidence for Missing Intermediate-Sized Planetesimals (MISPs). This indicates a primordial and not collisional origin, which suggests that planetesimal formation proceeded directly from small to large objects. The scarcity of intermediate- and smaller-sized Neptune Trojans may limit them as being a strong source for the short period comets.

Sheppard, Scott S. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 5241 Broad Branch Rd. NW, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Trujillo, Chadwick A., E-mail: sheppard@dtm.ciw.ed [Gemini Observatory, 670 North A'ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

2010-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

77

Comminution process to produce engineered wood particles of uniform size and shape with disrupted grain structure from veneer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Comminution process of wood veneer to produce wood particles, by feeding wood veneer in a direction of travel substantially normal to grain through a counter rotating pair of intermeshing arrays of cutting discs arrayed axially perpendicular to the direction of veneer travel, wherein the cutting discs have a uniform thickness (Td), to produce wood particles characterized by a length dimension (L) substantially equal to the Td and aligned substantially parallel to grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) substantially equal to the veneer thickness (Tv) and aligned normal to W and L, wherein the W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces with end checking between crosscut fibers.

Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

2013-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

78

Magnetic pattern at supergranulation scale: the Void Size Distribution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The large-scale magnetic pattern of the quiet sun is dominated by the magnetic network. This network, created by photospheric magnetic fields swept into convective downflows, delineates the boundaries of large scale cells of overturning plasma and exhibits voids in magnetic organization. Such voids include internetwork fields, a mixed-polarity sparse field that populate the inner part of network cells. To single out voids and to quantify their intrinsic pattern a fast circle packing based algorithm is applied to 511 SOHO/MDI high resolution magnetograms acquired during the outstanding solar activity minimum between 23 and 24 cycles. The computed Void Distribution Function shows a quasi-exponential decay behavior in the range 10-60 Mm. The lack of distinct flow scales in such a range corroborates the hypothesis of multi-scale motion flows at the solar surface. In addition to the quasi-exponential decay we have found that the voids reveal departure from a simple exponential decay around 35 Mm.

Berrilli, Francesco; Del Moro, Dario

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Drop-size distribution for crosscurrent breakup of a liquid jet in a convective airstream  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

an apparatus has been designed and constructed. A laser diffraction particle analyzer technique is used to spatially measure the spray Sauter-Mean Diameters. The Rosin-Rammler two parameter model is assumed for the droplet size distribution. Injection pressure...

Lyn, Gregory Michael

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

80

Comminution process to produce precision wood particles of uniform size and shape with disrupted grain structure from wood chips  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process of comminution of wood chips (C) having a grain direction to produce a mixture of wood particles (P), wherein the wood chips are characterized by an average length dimension (L.sub.C) as measured substantially parallel to the grain, an average width dimension (W.sub.C) as measured normal to L.sub.C and aligned cross grain, and an average height dimension (H.sub.C) as measured normal to W.sub.C and L.sub.C, and wherein the comminution process comprises the step of feeding the wood chips in a direction of travel substantially randomly to the grain direction through a counter rotating pair of intermeshing arrays of cutting discs (D) arrayed axially perpendicular to the direction of wood chip travel, wherein the cutting discs have a uniform thickness (T.sub.D), and wherein at least one of L.sub.C, W.sub.C, and H.sub.C is greater than T.sub.D.

Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

2013-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "grain size distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

A Novel Factor FLOURY ENDOSPERM2 Is Involved in Regulation of Rice Grain Size and Starch Quality  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...2B). Figure 2. Amylose Content and Amylopectin Composition of the...Wild-Type Grain. (A) Amylose content of the wild...amylopectins. Debranched amylopectin was compared with...and PGIb), and alpha-amylase (Amy3C, Amy3D...

Kao-Chih She; Hiroaki Kusano; Kazuyoshi Koizumi; Hiromoto Yamakawa; Makoto Hakata; Tomohiro Imamura; Masato Fukuda; Natsuka Naito; Yumi Tsurumaki; Mitsuhiro Yaeshima; Tomohiko Tsuge; Ken'ichiro Matsumoto; Mari Kudoh; Eiko Itoh; Shoshi Kikuchi; Naoki Kishimoto; Junshi Yazaki; Tsuyu Ando; Masahiro Yano; Takashi Aoyama; Tadamasa Sasaki; Hikaru Satoh; Hiroaki Shimada

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Assessing the distribution, habitat, and population size of the threatened Dupont's lark Chersophilus  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

North African range, as well as on its preferred habitat, population density and size. Fieldwork), with important populations believed to be present in the steppe-like habitat of North Africa (Cramp, 1988Assessing the distribution, habitat, and population size of the threatened Dupont's lark

Oñate, Juan J.

83

Occlusion Effects and the Distribution of Interstellar Cloud Sizes and Masses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The frequency distributions of sizes of ``clouds" and ``clumps" within clouds are significantly flatter for extinction surveys than for CO spectral line surveys, even for comparable size ranges. A possible explanation is the blocking of extinction clouds by larger foreground clouds (occlusion), which should not affect spectral line surveys much because clouds are resolved in velocity space along a given line of sight. We present a simple derivation of the relation between the true and occluded size distributions, assuming clouds are uniformly distributed in space or the distance to a cloud comples is much greater than the size of the complex. Because the occlusion is dominated by the largest clouds, we find that occlusion does not affect the measured size distribution except for sizes comparable to the largest size, implying that occlusion is not responsible for the discrepancy if the range in sizes of the samples is large. However, we find that the range in sizes for many of the published observed samples is actually quite small, which suggests that occlusion does affect the extinction sample and/or that the discrepancy could arise from the different operational definitions and selection effects involved in the two samples. Size and mass spectra from an IRAS survey (Wood \\etal\\ 1994) suggest that selection effects play a major role in all the surveys. We conclude that a reliable determination of the ``true" size and mass spectra of clouds will require spectral line surveys with very high signal-to-noise and sufficient resolution and sampling to cover a larger range of linear sizes, as well as careful attention to selection effects.

J. Scalo; A. Lazarian

1995-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

84

Effects of test environment and grain size on the tensile properties of L1 sub 2 -ordered (Co,Fe) sub 3 V alloys  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The influence of test environment, grain size, and heat treatment on the tensile properties and fracture behavior of L1{sub 2}-ordered (Co{sub 78}Fe{sub 22}){sub 3}V and (Co{sub 85}Fe{sub 15}){sub 3}V alloys was studied at room temperature. The tensile ductility depends strongly on test environments; the elongation decreases in the sequence of oxygen, vacuum, air, and distilled water. The loss in elongation is accompanied by a change in fracture mode from transgranular to intergranular. When tested in oxygen or vacuum, (Co{sub 78}Fe{sub 22}){sub 3}V specimens exhibited predominantly transgranular fracture, while (Co{sub 85}Fe{sub 15}){sub 3}V specimens exhibited essentially intergranular fracture. Grain refinement of (Co{sub 78}Fe{sub 22}){sub 3}V resulted in a ductility improvement in air, while such a beneficial effect of a grain refinement was not observed in (Co{sub 85}Fe{sub 15}){sub 3}V. These results suggest that: (1) (Co,Fe){sub 3}V alloys exhibit a moisture-induced hydrogen embrittlement and (2) grain boundaries are more intrinsically brittle in (Co{sub 85}Fe{sub 15}){sub 3}V than in (Co{sub 78}Fe{sub 22}){sub 3}V. The presence of a brittle hexagonal phase is suggested to be the reason for the observed grain-boundary brittleness in (Co{sub 85}Fe{sub 15}){sub 3}V. 29 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Nishimura, C.; Liu, C.T.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Observed oil and gas field size distributions: A consequence of the discovery process and prices of oil and gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

If observed oil and gas field size distributions are obtained ... should approximate that of the parent population of oil and gas fields. However, empirical evidence ... the observable size distributions change w...

Lawrence J. Drew; Emil D. Attanasi; John H. Schuenemeyer

1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Condensation on Surface Energy Gradient Shifts Drop Size Distribution toward Small Drops  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Condensation on Surface Energy Gradient Shifts Drop Size Distribution toward Small Drops Ashley M condensation from vapor onto a cooled surface, distributions of drops evolve by nucleation, growth is condensed onto a horizontally oriented surface that has been treated by silanization to deliver either

Daniel, Susan

87

Measurements of Aerosol Charge and Size Distribution for Graphite, Gold, Palladium, and Silver Nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The role of charge on aerosol evolution and hence the nuclear source term has been an issue of interest, and there is a need for both experimental techniques and modeling for quantifying this role. Our focus here is on further exploration of a tandem differential mobility analyzer (TDMA) technique to simultaneously measure both the size and charge (positive, negative and neutral) dependent aerosol distributions. We have generated graphite, gold, silver, and palladium nanoparticles (aerosol) using a spark generator. We measure the electrical mobility-size distributions for these aerosols using a TDMA, and from these data we deduce the full charge-size distributions. We observe asymmetry in the particle size distributions for negative and positive charges. This asymmetry could have a bearing on the dynamics of charged aerosols, indicating that the assumption of symmetry for size distributions of negatively and positively charged particles in source term simulations may not be always appropriate. Also, the experimental technique should find applications in measurements of aerosol rate processes that are affected by both particle charge and size (e.g. coagulation, deposition, resuspension), and hence in modeling and simulation of the nuclear source term.

Simones, Matthew P.; Gutti, Veera R.; Meyer, Ryan M.; Loyalka, Sudarshan K.

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Hammer mill operating and biomass physical conditions effects on particle size distribution of solid pulverized biofuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Milling is a required pre-treatment for the use of biomass as a pulverized solid biofuel in some thermochemical technologies such as combustion, gasification and bioethanol production, as well as in densification processes. The particle size plays a key role on these energy conversion technologies. Experimental tests for poplar and corn stover were performed to obtain pulverized material at different physical conditions of the biomass (input particle size and moisture content) and operational parameters (opening sizes of the screen and angular speed of hammers). Fourteen parameters related to size central trends, dispersion and shape of particle size distribution (PSD) were calculated and analyzed by a novel data post-processing methodology, combining Artificial Neural Networks and statistical analysis. Results show that the characteristic size of the product (geometric mean size) is mainly influenced by the classification of the screen with values from five to eight times lower than their openings size. The angular speed of the hammer governs the variability and dispersion of sizes. The higher the angular speed, the lower the dispersion on particle size. Physical conditions of the biomass present a negligible effect on PSD.

Miguel Gil; Inmaculada Arauzo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Thermally driven asymmetric responses of grains versus spin-glass related distributions of blocking temperature in exchange biased Co/IrMn bilayers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Controlling ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic blocking temperatures in exchange biased based devices appears crucial for applications. The blocking temperature is ascribed to the ability of both antiferromagnetic grains and interfacial spin-glass-like phases to withstand ferromagnetic magnetization reversal. To better understand the respective contributions of grains versus spin-glass, blocking temperature distributions were measured after various thermal treatments for cobalt/iridium-manganese bilayers. The high-temperature contribution linked to antiferromagnetic grains shifts towards lower temperatures above a threshold thermal annealing. In contrast, the occurrence and evolution of training effects for the low-temperature contribution only agree with its inferred interfacial spin-glass-like origin.

Baltz, V. [SPINTEC, UMR 8191 CNRS/INAC-CEA/UJF-Grenoble 1/Grenoble-INP, F-38054 Cedex (France)] [SPINTEC, UMR 8191 CNRS/INAC-CEA/UJF-Grenoble 1/Grenoble-INP, F-38054 Cedex (France)

2013-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

90

Self-consistent mean-field theory of size distribution narrowing during ramped temperature ion beam synthesis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A simple mathematical argument explains a recently identified route for the ion beam synthesis of nanoclusters with a narrowed size distribution. The key idea is that growth conditions for which the average nanocluster size is increasing rapidly can lead to narrowed size distributions. Modeling candidate processes using a self-consistent, mean-field theory shows that normalized nanocluster size distributions with full-width at half-maximum of 17% of the average can be attained.

Mastandrea, J. P.; Sherburne, M. P.; Boswell-Koller, C. N.; Sawyer, C. A.; Guzman, J.; Bustillo, K. C.; Haller, E. E.; Chrzan, D. C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Ager, J. W. [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2013-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

91

Finite Size Effects on the Real-Space Pair Distribution Function of Nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The pair distribution function (PDF) method is a powerful approach for the analysis of the structure of nanoparticles. An important approximation used in nanoparticle PDF simulations is the incorporation of a form factor describing nanoparticle size and shape. The precise effect of the form factor on the PDF is determined by both particle shape and structure if these characteristics are both anisotropic and correlated. The correct incorporation of finite size effects is important for distinguishing and quantifying the structural consequences of small particle size in nanomaterials.

Gilbert, Benjamin

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Crack-Size Effects on Cyclic and Monotonic Crack Growth in Polycrystalline Alumina: Quantification of the Role of Grain Bridging  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-prediction methodologies, it is necessary in many materials that the subcritical crack-growth and toughness propertiesCrack-Size Effects on Cyclic and Monotonic Crack Growth in Polycrystalline Alumina: Quantification propagation has been quantitatively examined in a 99.5% pure alumina. Fatigue-crack growth properties for both

Ritchie, Robert

93

Clustering in rapid granular flows of binary and continuous particle size distributions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The dynamic clustering phenomenon in two-dimensional simple shear flows has been investigated using molecular dynamic simulations of systems containing binary and continuous size distributions of equal-material-density particles. Particular attention has been paid to two questions: (1) Does the presence of size nonuniformities serve to enhance or attenuate the presence of clusters? (2) Do particles of a given size preferentially segregate within the clusters? With respect to the first question, the prominence of clustered regions increases with increasing deviation from the monodisperse limit in the case of both binary and continuous size distributions. With respect to the second question, the larger particles of both binary and continuous size distributions are consistently observed to segregate within the transient clustered regions. Further investigation of granular temperatures within the clustered and dilute regions reveals that this segregation is consistent with previously observed temperature-driven segregation in steady-state systems; large particles favor the lower-temperature (clustered) regions. Moreover, observation of clustering length scales suggests that large particles may favor the center of the clustered regions, where granular temperatures are expected to reach a minimum.

R. Brent Rice and Christine M. Hrenya

2010-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

94

SIZE DISTRIBUTION MEASUREMENTS OF WILDFIRE SMOKE-INFLUENCED AEROSOL AT YOSEMITE NATIONAL PARK  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THESIS SIZE DISTRIBUTION MEASUREMENTS OF WILDFIRE SMOKE-INFLUENCED AEROSOL AT YOSEMITE NATIONAL of the requirements For the Degree of Master of Science Colorado State University Fort Collins, Colorado June 2004 #12;ii COLORADO STATE UNIVERSITY July 26, 2004 WE HEREBY RECOMMEND THAT THE THESIS PREPARED UNDER OUR

Pierce, Jeffrey

95

Interfacial energy effects and the evolution of pore size distributions during quartz precipitation in sandstone  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Interfacial energy effects and the evolution of pore size distributions during quartz precipitation University, P.O. Box 208109, New Haven, CT 06520-8109 USA b Statoil ASA, N-4035 Stavanger, Norway Abstract-scale to nanometer-scale pores, interfacial energy (surface energy) effects can also become important. Interfacial

Simon, Emmanuel

96

Investigation of the relationship between chemical composition and size distribution of airborne particles by partial least  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

combustion sources, secondary aerosol, and coal-fired power plants. The size distribution, particle identified: secondary nitrate 1 and 2, remote traffic, secondary sulfate, lead, diesel traffic, coal-fired power plant, steel mill, nucleation, local traffic, and coke plant. Citation: Zhou, L., P. K. Hopke, C

Stanier, Charlie

97

The Dependence of Cirrus Cloud-Property Retrievals on Size-Distribution  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

The Dependence of Cirrus Cloud-Property Retrievals on Size-Distribution The Dependence of Cirrus Cloud-Property Retrievals on Size-Distribution Shape d'Entremont, Robert Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. Mitchell, David Desert Research Institute Category: Cloud Properties Our project has focused on using satellite- and ground-based passive thermal infrared radiance observations to retrieve cirrus cloud properties, most importantly ice water path (IWP), effective particle size (Deff), and visible extinction optical thickness (tau). During this past year we began comparing our cirrus retrieval results with aircraft observations at the ARM CART site, and we are participating in a summary intercomparison study with other retrieval algorithms as a member of the high-clouds working group. Our passive-infrared retrieval scheme, based on different wavelength

98

A Method to Increase Current Density in a Mono Element Internal Tin Processed Superconductor Utilizing Zr Oxide to Refine Grain Size  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of Oxygen on (Nb1Zr)3Sn multifilament conductors manufactured by the Mono Element Internal Tin (MEIT) process was explored to improve the current density by refining the grain size. This followed work first done by General Electric on the Nb3Sn tape process. Techniques to fabricate the more difficult Nb1Zr composites are described and allowed fabrication of long lengths of .254 mm diameter wire from an 88.9 mm diameter billet. Oxygen was incorporated through the use of SnO2 mixed with tin powder and incorporated into the core. These were compared to samples with Ti+Sn and Cu+Sn cores. Heat treatments covered the range of 700 C to 1000 C. Current density vs. H, grain size, and reaction percentages are provided for the materials tested. The Oxygen gave superior results in the temperature range of 815-1000 C. It also stabilized the filament geometry of the array in comparison to the other additions at the higher temperatures. At 815 C a peak in layer Jc yielded values of 2537 A/mm2 at 12 T and 1353 A/mm2 at 15T, 8-22% and 30-73% greater respectively than 700 C values. Results with Oxygen at high temperature show the possibility of high speed continuous reaction of the composite versus the current batch or react in place methods. In general the Ti additions gave superior results at the lower reaction temperature. Future work is suggested to determine if the 815 C reaction temperature can lead to higher current density in high tin (Nb1Zr+Ox)3Sn conductors. A second technique incorporated oxygen directly into the Nb1Zr rods through heat treatment with Nb2O5 at 1100 C for 100 hours in vacuum prior to extrusion. The majority of the filaments reduced properly in the composite but some local variations in hardness led to breakage at smaller diameters.

Bruce A. Zeitlin, Eric Gregory

2008-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

99

Scale-free Universal Spectrum for Atmospheric Aerosol Size Distribution for Davos, Mauna Loa and Izana  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atmospheric flows exhibit fractal fluctuations and inverse power law form for power spectra indicating an eddy continuum structure for the selfsimilar fluctuations. A general systems theory for fractal fluctuations developed by the author is based on the simple visualisation that large eddies form by space-time integration of enclosed turbulent eddies, a concept analogous to Kinetic Theory of Gases in Classical Statistical Physics. The ordered growth of atmospheric eddy continuum is in dynamical equilibrium and is associated with Maximum Entropy Production. The model predicts universal (scale-free) inverse power law form for fractal fluctuations expressed in terms of the golden mean. Atmospheric particulates are held in suspension in the fractal fluctuations of vertical wind velocity. The mass or radius (size) distribution for homogeneous suspended atmospheric particulates is expressed as a universal scale-independent function of the golden mean, the total number concentration and the mean volume radius. Model predicted spectrum is in agreement (within two standard deviations on either side of the mean) with total averaged radius size spectra for the AERONET (aerosol inversions) stations Davos and Mauna Loa for the year 2010 and Izana for the year 2009 daily averages. The general systems theory model for aerosol size distribution is scale free and is derived directly from atmospheric eddy dynamical concepts. At present empirical models such as the log normal distribution with arbitrary constants for the size distribution of atmospheric suspended particulates are used for quantitative estimation of earth-atmosphere radiation budget related to climate warming/cooling trends. The universal aerosol size spectrum will have applications in computations of radiation balance of earth-atmosphere system in climate models.

A. M. Selvam

2014-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

100

The characterization of ice hydrometeor gamma size distributions as volumes in N0-?? phase space: Implications for microphysical process modeling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Gamma distributions represent particle size distributions (SDs) in mesoscale and cloud resolving models that predict one, two or three moments of hydrometeor species. They are characterized by intercept (N0), slope (?) and shape (?) parameters ...

Greg M. McFarquhar; Tsung-Lin Hsieh; Matt Freer; Jeana Mascio; Brian F. Jewett

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "grain size distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Thermal effects in the equilibrium structure and size distribution of small Si clusters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present the first calculation of the free energy of semiconductor clusters at nonzero temperatures. Explicit determination of electronic, vibrational, and rotational contributions to the entropy allows us to investigate the effect of temperature on the equilibrium geometric structure and size distribution of these clusters. The formalism is applied to Si4, Si5, and Si6 clusters with symmetric geometries. We find that, in these clusters, entropy can modify relative stabilities, but does not change major trends at finite temperatures.

D. Tomnek; C. Sun; N. Sharma; L. Wang

1989-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

102

Particle size distributions from heavy-duty diesel engine operated on low-sulfur marine fuel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Particulate matter (PM) emission characteristics of a four-stroke diesel engine were investigated while operating on low-sulfur marine gas oil. PM size distributions appeared to be unimodal (accumulation mode) with fairly constant count median diameter (CMD) of 5565nm for all test modes at maximum engine speed. The slightly bigger CMD of around 76nm for unimodal particle size distributions at 1080rpm at medium- and high-load conditions was observed. The bimodal size distribution was registered only at very low load with nuclei CMD being below 15nm, accumulation CMD of around 82nm and percentage of nanoparticles of around 65%. The study of primary dilution air temperature (PDT) effect revealed a significant reduction in total particle number for all operating conditions when PDT was increased from 30C to 400C. This also had an effect on particle CMD values and is believed to be due to evaporation of sulfuric acid with bound water and certain organic fractions that were formed during dilution process (at PDT=30C). At very low load intermediate speed conditions, the heating of dilution air had a very little effect on the nucleation mode, which could suggest that it primarily consists of heavy hydrocarbons associated with lubrication oil.

Sergey Ushakov; Harald Valland; Jrgen B. Nielsen; Erik Hennie

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Size distribution of metals in particulate matter formed during combustion of residual fuel oil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Between July 1992 and January 1993 three full-scale test programs were performed by Carnot for the Electric Power Research Institute and the Fuel Oil Users` Support (FOUS) Group, as part of a program for development and testing of various stack emissions models. One of the components of the program was determination of the concentrations of individual elements as a function of the size of particles suspended in flue gas. The size distributions of species are important because several aspects of system performance depend upon particulate matter size and composition: (1) the rate of ash deposition in the convection section, and activity of deposits for high temperature corrosion and SO{sub 3} formation, (2) the efficiency of precipitators for collection of individual elements, and (3) scattering of visible light and contribution of particles to stack plume opacity. Size distributions of major ash constituents were measured at the entrance and exit of the dust collectors during each of the field tests. To the authors` knowledge, these are the first reports of such measurements in residual oil-fired utility boilers. The focus, in the present paper, is on the composition of the particles entering the dust collectors.

Walsh, P. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Rovesti, W.C. [Electric Power Research Institute, Washington, DC (United States); Freeman, R.F. [Niagara Mohawk Power Corp., Oswego, NY (United States); Olen, K.R.; Washington, K.T.; Patrick, S.T.; Campbell, G.L.; Harper, D.S. [Florida Power & Light Co., West Palm Beach, FL (United States); Teetz, R.D.; Bennett, T.E. [Long Island Lighting Co., Glenwood Landing, NY (United States)] [and others

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Crystallographic Characteristics of Grain Boundaries in Dense Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Grain-boundary plane, misorientation angle, grain size, and grain-boundary energy distributions were quantified using electron backscatter diffraction data for dense polycrystalline yttria-stabilized zirconia, to understand interfacial crystallography in solid oxide fuel cells. Tape-cast samples were sintered at 14501C for 4 h and annealed for at least 100 h between 8001C and 16501C. Distributions obtained from both three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions and stereological analyses of 2D sections demonstrated that the (100) boundary planes {(111)} have relative areas larger {smaller} than expected in a random distribution, and that the boundary plane distribution is inversely correlated to the boundary energy distribution.

Lam Helmick; Shen J. Dillon; Kirk Gerdes; Randall Gemmen; Gregory S. Rohrer; Sridhar Seetharaman; Paul A. Salvador

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Novel probe for the in situ measurement of particle size distributions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of a novel instrument for the in situ measurement of particle size distributions in the size range of 3-200 {mu}m is presented. The system uses high magnification optics, housed in a stainless steel probe, which can be inserted into a process stream or vessel, where images of the dispersed phase particles are recorded. A pulsed light source is used to freeze the motion of the particles in the field of view and present an image of the dispersion onto a charge-coupled device camera chip. The images are digitized and stored for later processing. Automated image analysis routines have been developed for extracting particle size information from the acquired images. An extensive validation of the instrument has been performed for spherical particles, which has produced several important findings. First, a size bias in the depth of field (DOF) exists which favors larger particles. An experiment procedure was developed for the direct measurement of DOF size biases. Additionally, the behavior of the instrument is dependent on the environmental conditions, such as dispersed phase concentration and the difference in index of refraction between continuous phase and dispersed phase.

Francis, Michael K.; Calabrese, Richard V.; Phongikaroon, Supathorn [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Pyroprocessing Technology Department, Idaho National Laboratory, Materials and Fuel Complex, MS 6180, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415 (United States)

2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

106

The effect of gravel size fraction on the distribution coefficients of selected radionuclides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This manuscript addresses the consequences of the common practice of assuming that the gravel fraction of sediments does not participate in sorption reactions and thus sorption quantified by the distribution coefficient (Kd) construct can be estimated from laboratory tests on sediments less than 2 mm size fraction. However, this common assumption can lead to inaccurate estimates of the mobility and sorption affinity of many radionuclides (e.g., Tc, U, and Np) on gravel dominated sediments at the Hanford Site and other locations. Laboratory batch sorption experiments showed that the distribution coefficients measured using only sediment less than 2 mm size fraction and correcting for inert gravel fraction were not in agreement with those obtained from the bulk sediments including gravel (larger than 2 mm size fraction), depending on the radionuclide. The least reactive radionuclide, Tc had Kd values for bulk sediment with negligible deviations from the inert gravel corrected Kd values measured on less than 2 mm size fraction. However, differences between measured Kd values using sediment less than 2 mm size fraction and the Kd values on the bulk sediment were significant for intermediately and strongly reactive radionuclides such as U and Np, especially on the sediment with gravel fractions that contained highly reactive sites. Highly reactive sites in the gravel fraction were attributed to the presence of Fe oxide coatings and/or reactive fracture faces on the gravel surfaces. Gravel correction factors that use the sum of the Kd,<2 mm and Kd,>2 mm values to estimate the Kd for the bulk sediment were found to best describe Kd values for radionuclides on the bulk sediment. Gravel correction factors should not be neglected to predict precisely the sorption capacity of the bulk sediments that contain more than 30% gravel. In addition, more detailed characterization of gravel surfaces should be conducted to identify whether higher reactive sorbents are present in the gravels.

Um, Wooyong; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Last, George V.; Clayton, Ray E.; Glossbrenner, Ellwood T.

2009-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

107

Grain Alignment by Radiation in Dark Clouds and Cores  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study alignment of grains by radiative torques. We found steep rise of radiative torque efficiency as grain size increases. This allows larger grains that are known to exist within molecular clouds to be aligned by the attenuated and reddened interstellar radiation field. In particular, we found that, even deep inside giant molecular clouds, e.g. at optical depths corresponding to less than Av of 10 large grains can still be aligned by radiative torque. This means that, contrary to earlier claims, far-infrared/submillimeter polarimetry provides a reliable tool to study magnetic fields of pre-stellar cores. Our results show that the grain size distribution is important for determining the relation between the degree of polarization and intensity.

J. Cho; A. Lazarian

2005-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

108

Optimization of Comminution Circuit Throughput and Product Size Distribution by Simulation and Control  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this project is to improve energy efficiency of industrial crushing and grinding operations (comminution). Mathematical models of the comminution process are being used to study methods for optimizing the product size distribution, so that the amount of excessively fine material produced can be minimized. The goal is to save energy by reducing the amount of material that is ground below the target size, while simultaneously reducing the quantity of materials wasted as ''slimes'' that are too fine to be useful. This is being accomplished by mathematical modeling of the grinding circuits to determine how to correct this problem. The approaches taken included (1) Modeling of the circuit to determine process bottlenecks that restrict flow rates in one area while forcing other parts of the circuit to overgrind the material; (2) Modeling of hydrocyclones to determine the mechanisms responsible for retaining fine, high-density particles in the circuit until they are overground, and improving existing models to accurately account for this behavior; and (3) Evaluation of advanced technologies to improve comminution efficiency and produce sharper product size distributions with less overgrinding.

S. K. Kawatra; T. C. Eisele; T. Weldum; D. Larsen; R. Mariani; J. Pletka

2005-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

109

OPTIMIZATION OF COMMINUTION CIRCUIT THROUGHPUT AND PRODUCT SIZE DISTRIBUTION BY SIMULATION AND CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this project is to improve energy efficiency of industrial crushing and grinding operations (comminution). Mathematical models of the comminution process are being used to study methods for optimizing the product size distribution, so that the amount of excessively fine material produced can be minimized. The goal is to save energy by reducing the amount of material that is ground below the target size, while simultaneously reducing the quantity of materials wasted as ''slimes'' that are too fine to be useful. This is being accomplished by mathematical modeling of the grinding circuits to determine how to correct this problem. The approaches taken included (1) Modeling of the circuit to determine process bottlenecks that restrict flowrates in one area while forcing other parts of the circuit to overgrind the material; (2) Modeling of hydrocyclones to determine the mechanisms responsible for retaining fine, high-density particles in the circuit until they are overground, and improving existing models to accurately account for this behavior; and (3) Evaluation of advanced technologies to improve comminution efficiency and produce sharper product size distributions with less overgrinding.

S.K. Kawatra; T.C. Eisele; T. Weldum; D. Larsen; R. Mariani; J. Pletka

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Comparisons of pore size distribution: A case from the Western Australian gas shale formations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Pore structure of shale samples from Triassic Kockatea and Permian Carynginia formations in the Northern Perth Basin, Western Australia is characterized. Transport properties of a porous media are regulated by the topology and geometry of inter-connected pore spaces. Comparisons of three laboratory experiments are conducted on the same source of samples to assess such micro-, meso- and macro-porosity: Mercury Injection Capillary Pressure (MICP), low field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and nitrogen adsorption (N2). High resolution FIB/SEM image analysis is used to further support the experimental pore structure interpretations at sub-micron scale. A dominating pore throat radius is found to be around 6 nm within a mesopore range based on MICP, with a common porosity around 3%. This relatively fast experiment offers the advantage to be reliable on well chips or cuttings up the pore throat sizes >2nm. However, nitrogen adsorption method is capable to record pore sizes below 2nm through the determination of the total pore volume from the quantity of vapour adsorbed at relative pressure. But the macro-porosity and part of the meso-porosity is damaged or even destroyed during the sample preparation. BET specific surface area results usually show a narrow range of values from 5 to 10m2/g. Inconsistency was found in the pore size classification between MICP and N2 measurements mostly due to their individual lower- and upper-end pore size resolution limits. The water filled pores disclosed from NMR T2 relaxation time were on average 30% larger than MICP tests. Evidence of artificial cracks generated from the water interactions with clays after re-saturation experiments could explain such porosity over-estimation. The computed pore body to pore throat ratio extracted from the TimurCoates NMR model, calibrated against gas permeability experiments, revealed that such pore geometry directly control the permeability while the porosity and pore size distribution remain similar between different shale gas formations and/or within the same formation. The combination of pore size distribution obtained from MICP, N2 and NMR seems appropriate to fully cover the range of pore size from shale gas and overcome the individual method limits.

Adnan Al Hinai; Reza Rezaee; Lionel Esteban; Mehdi Labani

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Size Distributions of Airborne Radionuclides from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident at Several Places in Europe  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Size Distributions of Airborne Radionuclides from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident at Several Places in Europe ... (8) After about 10 days following the beginning of the releases, contaminated air masses reached Europe and yielded to an unusual airborne concentration for 23 weeks,(8) even if this was of no concern for public health thanks to atmospheric dispersion and deposition along the route from Japan. ... (35) In our opinion this gas-to-particle conversion results mainly from the adsorption of gas on particles. ...

Olivier Masson; Wolfgang Ringer; Helena Mal; Petr Rulik; Magdalena Dlugosz-Lisiecka; Konstantinos Eleftheriadis; Olivier Meisenberg; Anne De Vismes-Ott; Franois Gensdarmes

2013-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

112

Size distributions of fly ash using Coulter Multisizer: Use of multiple orifices and fitting to truncated log-normal distributions. [Coulter Multisizer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fly ash particles, which are predominantly spherical and glassy, are produced by melting of the mineral inclusions in the coal during combustion. Particle diameters can range from sub-micrometer (micron or {mu}m) to greater than 100 {mu}m. The size distribution of fly ash is needed to determine its role in the radiation transfer process in pulverized coal combustors. The Coulter Multisizer is an useful instrument for sizing powders with a broad size distribution. A single Multisizer orifice can size particles only within a specific size range limited at the lower end to a few percent of orifice diameter by sensitivity and at the upper end by increasing non-linearity of the signal-volume relation. A scheme for combining data obtained using orifices of different diameters is described. The manufacturers state that the smallest particle which can be sized accurately is nominally 2% of the diameter of the orifice. However, it was found that the data for particles less than 4% of the orifice diameter were not reliable. In order to use the smaller orifices, the larger particles have to be removed from the sample. A wet-sieving apparatus, designed for accurate separation of the particles by size, is described. A log-normal distribution function, truncated outside the measurement limits, fits the size distribution data well. Size parameters for fly ashes of six representative US coals are presented.

Ghosal, S.; Ebert, J.L.; Self, S.A.

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Intramolecular long-range correlations in polymer melts: The segmental size distribution and its moments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present theoretical arguments and numerical results to demonstrate long-range intrachain correlations in concentrated solutions and melts of long flexible polymers, which cause a systematic swelling of short chain segments. They can be traced back to the incompressibility of the melt leading to an effective repulsion u(s)?s??R3(s)?ce?s when connecting two segments together where s denotes the curvilinear length of a segment, R(s) its typical size, ce?1??be3 the swelling coefficient, be the effective bond length, and ? the monomer density. The relative deviation of the segmental size distribution from the ideal Gaussian chain behavior is found to be proportional to u(s). The analysis of different moments of this distribution allows for a precise determination of the effective bond length be and the swelling coefficient ce of asymptotically long chains. At striking variance to the short-range decay suggested by Florys ideality hypothesis the bond-bond correlation function of two bonds separated by s monomers along the chain is found to decay algebraically as 1?s3?2. Effects of finite chain length are briefly considered.

J. P. Wittmer; P. Beckrich; H. Meyer; A. Cavallo; A. Johner; J. Baschnagel

2007-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

114

In situ diagnostic of the size distribution of nanoparticles generated by ultrashort pulsed laser ablation in vacuum  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We aim to characterize the size distribution of nanoparticles located in the ablation plume produced by femtosecond laser interaction. The proposed method relies on the use of white-light extinction spectroscopy setup assisted by ultrafast intensified temporal gating. This method allows measurement of optical absorbance of a nickel nanoparticles cloud. Simulation of the extinction section of nickel nanoparticles size distributions has been developed in order to compare the measured optical absorbance to the optical extinction by theoretical and experimental nanoparticles size distributions (measured by scanning electron microscopy). A good agreement has been found between the in situ measured optical absorbance and the optical extinction cross section calculated from ex situ nanoparticles size distribution measurements.

Bourquard, Florent; Loir, Anne-Sophie; Donnet, Christophe; Garrelie, Florence, E-mail: florence.garrelie@univ-st-etienne.fr [Universit de Lyon, CNRS UMR 5516, Laboratoire Hubert Curien, Universit Jean Monnet, Saint-tienne (France)] [Universit de Lyon, CNRS UMR 5516, Laboratoire Hubert Curien, Universit Jean Monnet, Saint-tienne (France)

2014-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

115

Size Distributions of PAHs in Ambient Air Particles of Two Areas of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The size distribution of 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in particulate aerosol in two different areas of the city of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria was investigated in May 2002. One of...-3) was r...

Jos A. Lpez Cancio; Antonio Vera Castellano

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Polarized light propagation in highly scattering turbid media with a distribution of the particle size: a Monte Carlo study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The light propagation in highly scattering turbid media composed of the particles with different size distribution is studied using a Monte Carlo simulation model implemented in Standard C. Monte Carlo method has been widely utilized to study...

Koh, Wonshill

2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

117

The influence of increasing population size and vegetation productivity on elephant distribution in the Kruger National Park  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-cell occupancy increased with population size, while grid-cell-specific density became less variable. In additionThe influence of increasing population size and vegetation productivity on elephant distribution Research Unit, Department of Zoology and Entomology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa

Pretoria, University of

118

Characteristics of the size distribution of recent and historical landslides in a populated hilly region  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Despite the availability of studies on the frequency density of landslide areas in mountainous regions, frequencyarea distributions of historical landslide inventories in populated hilly regions are absent. This study revealed that the frequencyarea distribution derived from a detailed landslide inventory of the Flemish Ardennes (Belgium) is significantly different from distributions usually obtained in mountainous areas where landslides are triggered by large-scale natural causal factors such as rainfall, earthquakes or rapid snowmelt. Instead, the landslide inventory consists of the superposition of two populations, i.e. (i) small (1210?2km2), deep-seated landslides that are older than 100yr. Both subpopulations are best represented by a negative powerlaw relation with exponents of ?0.58 and ?2.31 respectively. This study focused on the negative powerlaw relation obtained for recent, small landslides, and contributes to the understanding of frequency distributions of landslide areas by presenting a conceptual model explaining this negative powerlaw relation for small landslides in populated hilly regions. According to the model hilly regions can be relatively stable under the present-day environmental conditions, and landslides are mainly triggered by human activities that have only a local impact on slope stability. Therefore, landslides caused by anthropogenic triggers are limited in size, and the number of landslides decreases with landslide area. The frequency density of landslide areas for old landslides is similar to those obtained for historical inventories compiled in mountainous areas, as apart from the negative powerlaw relation with exponent ?2.31 for large landslides, a positive powerlaw relation followed by a rollover is observed for smaller landslides. However, when analysing the old landslides together with the more recent ones, the present-day higher temporal frequency of small landslides compared to large landslides, obscures the positive powerlaw relation and rollover.

M. Van Den Eeckhaut; J. Poesen; G. Govers; G. Verstraeten; A. Demoulin

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Energy conservation potential of Portland cement particle size distribution control, Phase 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The main objectives of Phase 2 are to determine the feasibility of using cements with controlled particle size distributions (CPSD cements) in practical concrete applications, and to refine our estimates of the potential energy savings that may ensue from such use. The work in Phase 2 is divided into two main tasks, some parts of which will be carried out simultaneously: Task 1 will continue cement paste studies to optimize cement performance similar to those of Phase 1, but with particular emphasis on gypsum requirements, blended cements, and water-reducing admixtures. This task will also include preparation of sufficient CPSD cements for use in all Phase 2 work. Task 2 will be a comprehensive examination of the properties of concretes made with CPSD cements. This will include optimization of concrete mix designs to obtain the best possible performance for practical applications of both portland and blended cements. The effects of chemical admixtures and curing temperature variations will also be determined.

Helmuth, R.A; Whiting, D.A.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

A database of frequency distributions of energy depositions in small-size targets by electrons and ions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......frequency distributions of energy depositions in small-size...77204 Texas, USA Linear energy transfer (LET) is an average...Hahn K. Considerations on a audit of the quality factor. Radiat...distributions for protons with energies between 50 and 200 MeV determined......

H. Nikjoo; S. Uehara; D. Emfietzoglou; L. Pinsky

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "grain size distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

The size distribution, scaling properties and spatial organization of urban clusters: a global and regional perspective  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Human development has far-reaching impacts on the surface of the globe. The transformation of natural land cover occurs in different forms and urban growth is one of the most eminent transformative processes. We analyze global land cover data and extract cities as defined by maximally connected urban clusters. The analysis of the city size distribution for all cities on the globe confirms Zipf's law. Moreover, by investigating the percolation properties of the clustering of urban areas we assess the closeness to criticality for various countries. At the critical thresholds, the urban land cover of the countries undergoes a transition from separated clusters to a gigantic component on the country scale. We study the Zipf-exponents as a function of the closeness to percolation and find a systematic decrease with increasing scale, which could be the reason for deviating exponents reported in literature. Moreover, we investigate the average size of the clusters as a function of the proximity to percolation and fi...

Fluschnik, Till; Ros, Anselmo Garca Cant; Zhou, Bin; Reusser, Dominik E; Kropp, Jrgen P; Rybski, Diego

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

OPTIMIZATION OF COMMINUTION CIRCUIT THROUGHPUT AND PRODUCT SIZE DISTRIBUTION BY SIMULATION AND CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this project is to improve the energy efficiency of industrial crushing and grinding operations (comminution). Mathematical models of the comminution process are being used to study methods for optimizing the product size distribution, so that the amount of excessively fine material produced can be minimized. This will save energy by reducing the amount of material that is ground to below the target size, and will also reduce the quantity of material wasted as slimes that are too fine to be useful. This will be accomplished by: (1) modeling alternative circuit arrangements to determine methods for minimizing overgrinding, and (2) determining whether new technologies, such as high-pressure roll crushing, can be used to alter particle breakage behavior to minimize fines production. In the first quarter of this project, work was completed on a basic comminution model that will be used to carry out the subsequent project tasks. This phase of the work was supported by the Electric Power Research Institute, as their cost-share contribution to the project. The model has been implemented as an Excel spreadsheet, which has the advantage of being a very portable format that can be made widely available to the industry once the project is completed.

S.K. Kawatra; T.C. Eisele; H.J. Walqui

2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

High-Resolution UV Relay Lens for Particle Size Distribution Measurements Using Holography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Shock waves passing through a metal sample can produce ejecta particulates at a metal-vacuum interface. Holography records particle size distributions by using a high-power, short-pulse laser to freeze particle motion. The sizes of the ejecta particles are recorded using an in-line Fraunhofer holography technique. Because the holographic plate would be destroyed in an energetic environment, a high-resolution lens has been designed to relay the interference fringes to a safe environment. Particle sizes within a 12-mm-diameter, 5-mm-thick volume are recorded onto holographic film. To achieve resolution down to 0.5 ?m, ultraviolet laser (UV) light is needed. The design and assembly of a nine-element lens that achieves >2000 lp/mm resolution and operates at f/0.89 will be described. To set up this lens system, a doublet lens is temporarily attached that enables operation with 532-nm laser light and 1100 lp/mm resolution. Thus, the setup and alignment are performed with green light, but the dynamic recording is done with UV light. During setup, the 532-nm beam provides enough focus shift to accommodate the placement of a resolution target outside the ejecta volume; this resolution target does not interfere with the calibrated wires and pegs surrounding the ejecta volume. A television microscope archives images of resolution patterns that prove that the calibration wires, interference filter, holographic plate, and relay lenses are in their correct positions. Part of this lens is under vacuum, at the point where the laser illumination passes through a focus. Alignment and tolerancing of this high-resolution lens will be presented, and resolution variation through the 5-mm depth of field will be discussed.

Malone, Robert M.; Capelle, Gene A.; Frogget, Brent C.; Grover, Mike; Kaufman, Morris I.; Pazuchanics, Peter; Sorenson, Danny S.; Stevens, Gerald D.; Tibbits, Aric; Turley, William D.

2008-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

124

This paper investigates hardware support for fine-grain distrib-uted shared memory (DSM) in networks of workstations. To  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abstract This paper investigates hardware support for fine-grain distrib- uted shared memory (DSM) in networks of workstations. To reduce design time and implementation cost relative to dedicated DSM systems, we decouple the functional hardware components of DSM support, allowing greater use of off

Wood, David A.

125

Science at the interface : grain boundaries in nanocrystalline metals.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Interfaces are a critical determinant of the full range of materials properties, especially at the nanoscale. Computational and experimental methods developed a comprehensive understanding of nanograin evolution based on a fundamental understanding of internal interfaces in nanocrystalline nickel. It has recently been shown that nanocrystals with a bi-modal grain-size distribution possess a unique combination of high-strength, ductility and wear-resistance. We performed a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of the structure and motion of internal interfaces in nanograined metal and the resulting grain evolution. The properties of grain boundaries are computed for an unprecedented range of boundaries. The presence of roughening transitions in grain boundaries is explored and related to dramatic changes in boundary mobility. Experimental observations show that abnormal grain growth in nanograined materials is unlike conventional scale material in both the level of defects and the formation of unfavored phases. Molecular dynamics simulations address the origins of some of these phenomena.

Rodriguez, Mark Andrew; Follstaedt, David Martin; Knapp, James Arthur; Brewer, Luke N.; Holm, Elizabeth Ann; Foiles, Stephen Martin; Hattar, Khalid M.; Clark, Blythe B.; Olmsted, David L.; Medlin, Douglas L.

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

E-Print Network 3.0 - animal group-size distributions Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 The group-size paradox: effects of learning and patch departure rules Summary: rule; optimal group size; simulation model; social foraging....

127

DECODING THE MESSAGE FROM METEORITIC STARDUST SILICON CARBIDE GRAINS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Micron-sized stardust grains that originated in ancient stars are recovered from meteorites and analyzed using high-resolution mass spectrometry. The most widely studied type of stardust is silicon carbide (SiC). Thousands of these grains have been analyzed with high precision for their Si isotopic composition. Here we show that the distribution of the Si isotopic composition of the vast majority of stardust SiC grains carries the imprints of a spread in the age-metallicity distribution of their parent stars and of a power-law increase of the relative formation efficiency of SiC dust with the metallicity. This result offers a solution for the long-standing problem of silicon in stardust SiC grains, confirms the necessity of coupling chemistry and dynamics in simulations of the chemical evolution of our Galaxy, and constrains the modeling of dust condensation in stellar winds as a function of the metallicity.

Lewis, Karen M.; Lugaro, Maria; Gibson, Brad K.; Pilkington, Kate, E-mail: maria.lugaro@monash.edu, E-mail: karen.michelle.lewis@gmail.com, E-mail: bkgibson@uclan.ac.uk, E-mail: kpilkington@uclan.ac.uk [Monash Centre for Astrophysics (MoCA), Monash University, Clayton VIC 3800 (Australia)

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Decoding the message from meteoritic stardust silicon carbide grains  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Micron-sized stardust grains that originated in ancient stars are recovered from meteorites and analysed using high-resolution mass spectrometry. The most widely studied type of stardust is silicon carbide (SiC). Thousands of these grains have been analysed with high precision for their Si isotopic composition. Here we show that the distribution of the Si isotopic composition of the vast majority of stardust SiC grains carry the imprints of a spread in the age-metallicity distribution of their parent stars and of a power-law increase of the relative formation efficiency of SiC dust with the metallicity. This result offers a solution for the long-standing problem of silicon in stardust SiC grains, confirms the necessity of coupling chemistry and dynamics in simulations of the chemical evolution of our Galaxy, and constrains the modelling of dust condensation in stellar winds as function of the metallicity.

Lewis, Karen M; Gibson, Brad K; Pilkington, Kate

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Characterization of Vertical Velocity and Drop Size Distribution Parameters in Widespread Precipitation at ARM Facilities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Extended, high-resolution measurements of vertical air motion and median volume drop diameter D0 in widespread precipitation from three diverse Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) locations [Lamont, Oklahoma, Southern Great Plains site (SGP); Niamey, Niger; and Black Forest, Germany] are presented. The analysis indicates a weak (0-10 cm{sup -1}) downward air motion beneath the melting layer for all three regions, a magnitude that is to within the typical uncertainty of the retrieval methods. On average, the hourly estimated standard deviation of the vertical air motion is 0.25 m s{sup -1} with no pronounced vertical structure. Profiles of D0 vary according to region and rainfall rate. The standard deviation of 1-min-averaged D0 profiles for isolated rainfall rate intervals is 0.3-0.4 mm. Additional insights into the form of the raindrop size distribution are provided using available dual-frequency Doppler velocity observations at SGP. The analysis suggests that gamma functions better explain paired velocity observations and radar retrievals for the Oklahoma dataset. This study will be useful in assessing uncertainties introduced in the measurement of precipitation parameters from ground-based and spaceborne remote sensors that are due to small-scale variability.

Giangrande S. E.; Luke, E. P.; Kollias, P.

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Evolution of soot size distribution in premixed ethylene/air and ethylene/benzene/air flames: Experimental and modeling study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of benzene concentration in the initial fuel on the evolution of soot size distribution in ethylene/air and ethylene/benzene/air flat flames was characterized by experimental measurements and model predictions of size and number concentration within the flames. Experimentally, a scanning mobility particle sizer was used to allow spatially resolved and online measurements of particle concentration and sizes in the nanometer-size range. The model couples a detailed kinetic scheme with a discrete-sectional approach to follow the transition from gas-phase to nascent particles and their coagulation to larger soot particles. The evolution of soot size distribution (experimental and modeled) in pure ethylene and ethylene flames doped with benzene showed a typical nucleation-sized (since particles do not actually nucleate in the classical sense particle inception is often used in place of nucleation) mode close to the burner surface, and a bimodal behavior at greater height above burner (HAB). However, major features were distinguished between the data sets. The growth of nucleation and agglomeration-sized particles was faster for ethylene/benzene/air flames, evidenced by the earlier presence of bimodality in these flames. The most significant changes in size distribution were attributed to an increase in benzene concentration in the initial fuel. However, these changes were more evident for high temperature flames. In agreement with the experimental data, the model also predicted the decrease of nucleation-sized particles in the postflame region for ethylene flames doped with benzene. This behavior was associated with the decrease of soot precursors after the main oxidation zone of the flames. (author)

Echavarria, Carlos A.; Sarofim, Adel F.; Lighty, JoAnn S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); D'Anna, Andrea [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Universita ''Federico II'' di Napoli, Naples (Italy)

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

131

Distribution of a Population of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii among Different Size Classes of Soil Aggregates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...from 5 to 77 times greater than the populations...corresponding aggregate size classes of the fallow and...to 2.0-mm size class of the legume treatment...contained a significantly greater density of AR18 than the size classes of 0.25, 0.25...

Ieda C. Mendes; Peter J. Bottomley

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Gap-Size Distribution Functions of a Random Sequential Adsorption Model of Segments on the Line  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We performed extensive simulations accompanied by a detailed study of a two-segment size random sequential model on the line. We followed the kinetics towards the jamming state, but we paid particular attention to the characterization of the jamming state structure. In particular, we studied the effect of the size ratio on the mean-gap size, the gap-size dispersion, gap-size skewness, and gap-size kurtosis at the jamming state. We also analyzed the above quantities for the four possible segment-to-segment gap types. We ranged the values of the size ratio from one to twenty. In the limit of a size ratio of one, one recovers the classical car-parking problem. We observed that at low size ratios the jamming state is constituted by short streaks of small and large segments, while at high values of the size ratio the jamming state structure is formed by long streaks of small segments separated by a single large segment. This view of the jamming state structure as a function of the size ratio is supported by the various measured quantities. The present work can help provide insight, for example, on how to minimize the interparticle distance or minimize fluctuations around the mean particle-to-particle distance.

N. A. M. Araujo; A. Cadilhe

2004-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

133

Effects of Sampling Conditions on the Size Distribution of Fine Particulate Matter Emitted from a Pilot-Scale  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effects of Sampling Conditions on the Size Distribution of Fine Particulate Matter Emitted from complex because the dilution ratio influences both the coagulation rate and gas-to- particle conversion because of their ability to scatter and absorb light and also because they act as cloud condensation

Stanier, Charlie

134

Joint Estimation of NDE Inspection Capability and Flaw-size Distribution for in-service Aircraft Inspections  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Joint Estimation of NDE Inspection Capability and Flaw- size Distribution for in-service Aircraft, Dayton, OH 45469 Abstract: Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) is widely used in the aerospace industry of unknown existing cracks is more difficult. If NDE signal strength is recorded at all inspections

135

Effect of particle size distribution on hydrodynamics and solids back-mixing in CFB risers using CPFD simulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Industrial CFB risers usually handle polydisperse mixtures with broad size distribution, which significantly influenced the performance of the reactors. However, traditional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models usually assumed that the particle followed the mono-disperse distribution. In the present work, the method of computational particle fluid dynamic (CPFD) was applied for simulating the complex hydrodynamics in the CFB riser with various particle size distributions (PSDs). Two kinds of PSDs, namely Gaussian and Lognormal distribution with various PSD widths, were implemented into the CPFD scheme. With the CPFD method, the present work extensively studied the effects of PSD on the hydrodynamics and on the solids back-mixing. The CPFD results showed that the PSD significantly affected particle's flow behaviors at the lower zone of the riser, while the PSD effects were negligible in the upper part of the riser. This is meaningful for the industrial riser reactors since most of the reaction and transport process occur in this lower zone of the riser. Besides, the simulation results showed that wider PSD dramatically weaken the particle's back-mixing behaviors in the riser. The significant effects of PSD predicted by the CPFD method imply that large errors will be introduced if the mono-disperse assumption is adopted to simulate the experimental CFB riser handling particles with broad size distribution.

Xiaogang Shi; Xingying Lan; Feng Liu; Yinghui Zhang; Jinsen Gao

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Design of a Particle Shadowgraph Velocimetry and Size (PSVS) System to Determine Particle Size and Density Distributions (PSDD) in Hanford Nuclear Tank Wastes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An accurate particle size and density distribution (PSDD) for nuclear tank wastes is an essential piece of information that helps determine the engineering requirements for a host of waste management unit operations including tank mixing, pipeline transport, and filtration. The existing approach has involved a laborious approach in which individual particles are identified using SEM/XRD methods and the density of these materials obtained from the technical literature. Further, some methods simply approximate individual particle densities by assuming chemical composition rather than actual measurements of particle density. A particle shadowgraph velocimetry and size (PSVS) system has been designed to obtain representative PSDDs for a broad range of Hanford tank waste materials existing as both individual particles and agglomerates. The PSVS utilizes optical hardware, a temperature controlled settling column, and particle introduction chamber to accurately and reproducibly obtain images of settling particles. Image analysis software then provides a highly accurate determination of both particle terminal velocity and equivalent spherical particle diameter. The particle/agglomerate density is then calculated from Newtons terminal settling theory. The PSVS was designed to accurately image particle/agglomerate sizes between 10-1000m and particle/agglomerate densities ranging from 1.4-11.5g/cm3 where the maximum terminal velocity does not exceed 20cm/s. Preliminary testing was completed and results were in good agreement with terminal settling theory. Recent results of this method development are presented, as well as experimental design, and future proposed work.

Fountain, Matthew S.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Erikson, Rebecca L.; Kurath, Dean E.; Howe, Daniel T.; Adkins, Harold E.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ

2012-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

137

Sieveless particle size distribution analysis of particulate materials through computer vision  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper explores the inconsistency of length-based separation by mechanical sieving of particulate materials with standard sieves, which is the standard method of particle size distribution (PSD) analysis. We observed inconsistencies of length-based separation of particles using standard sieves with manual measurements, which showed deviations of 17 22 times. In addition, we have demonstrated the falling through effect of particles cannot be avoided irrespective of the wall thickness of the sieve. We proposed and utilized a computer vision with image processing as an alternative approach; wherein a user-coded Java ImageJ plugin was developed to evaluate PSD based on length of particles. A regular flatbed scanner acquired digital images of particulate material. The plugin determines particles lengths from Feret's diameter and width from pixel-march method, or minor axis, or the minimum dimension of bounding rectangle utilizing the digital images after assessing the particles area and shape (convex or nonconvex). The plugin also included the determination of several significant dimensions and PSD parameters. Test samples utilized were ground biomass obtained from the first thinning and mature stand of southern pine forest residues, oak hard wood, switchgrass, elephant grass, giant miscanthus, wheat straw, as well as Basmati rice. A sieveless PSD analysis method utilized the true separation of all particles into groups based on their distinct length (419 639 particles based on samples studied), with each group truly represented by their exact length. This approach ensured length-based separation without the inconsistencies observed with mechanical sieving. Image based sieve simulation (developed separately) indicated a significant effect (P < 0.05) on number of sieves used in PSD analysis, especially with non-uniform material such as ground biomass, and more than 50 equally spaced sieves were required to match the sieveless all distinct particles PSD analysis. Results substantiate that mechanical sieving, owing to handling limitations and inconsistent length-based separation of particles, is inadequate in determining the PSD of non-uniform particulate samples. The developed computer vision sieveless PSD analysis approach has the potential to replace the standard mechanical sieving. The plugin can be readily extended to model (e.g., Rosin Rammler) the PSD of materials, and mass-based analysis, while providing several advantages such as accuracy, speed, low cost, automated analysis, and reproducible results.

Igathinathane, C. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Pordesimo, L. O. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Columbus, Eugene P [ORNL; Batchelor, William D [ORNL; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Raindrop axis ratios, fall velocities and size distribution over Sumatra from 2D-Video Disdrometer measurement  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Raindrop axis ratio, falling velocity and size distribution are important in broad list of applications. However, they are not frequently observed in the equatorial region. This paper elucidated the characteristics of raindrop axis ratio, falling velocity and size distribution based on 2D-Video Disdrometer (2DVD) data that have been collected in the equatorial Indonesia, particularly at Kototabang (hereafter called KT), west Sumatra, Indonesia (0.20S, 100.32E, 864m above sea level). A comprehensive follow-up of the previous study on the natural variability of raindrop size distributions (DSDs) is presented. Precipitation was classified through 1.3-GHz wind profiler observation. The dependence of raindrop falling velocity and axis ratio on rainfall type was not clearly observed. Overall, measured raindrop fall velocities were in good agreement with GunnKinzer's data. Raindrop axis ratio at KT was more spherical than that of artificial rain and equilibrium model, and close to the values reported in the turbulent high shear zone of surface layer which can be partially due to the effect of the instrument errors (e.g., location and container shape). Of some natural variations of DSD investigated, the dependence of DSD on rainfall rate and rainfall type as well as diurnal variation was clearly visible. A striking contrast between the stratiform and convective rains is that the size distributions from the stratiform (convective) rains tend to narrow (broaden) with increasing rainfall rates. For rainfall rate R<10mm/h, the size distribution of stratiform was broader than that of convective. On the other hand, at higher rainfall rate more large-sized drops were found in convective rain. During the convective rain, very large-sized drops were found mainly at the very start of rain event while for the stratiform they were found to be associated with a strong bright band. In diurnal basis, the \\{DSDs\\} in the morning hours were narrower than those in the evening which was indicated by smaller Dm values in the morning hours than their counterparts in the evening. Rainfall type dependence and diurnal variation of DSD lead to significant variation of ZR relations so that they must be considered to increase the accuracy of ZR conversion from weather radar in this region. Consistent with the previous study, lack of seasonal DSD variability was also found in this work that would be due to significant local convective and orographic effect at this region throughout the year. However, Dm values in our result were larger than the typical orographic DSD.

Marzuki; Walter L. Randeu; Toshiaki Kozu; Toyoshi Shimomai; Hiroyuki Hashiguchi; Michael Schnhuber

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Power Law Size-Distributed Heterogeneity Explains Colloid Retention on Soda Lime Glass in the Presence of Energy Barriers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Power Law Size-Distributed Heterogeneity Explains Colloid Retention on Soda Lime Glass in the Presence of Energy Barriers ... This is shown in Figure 1 under the condition of 80 nm heterodomains and 6 mM IS, where the ZOIs and the corresponding colloidcollector interaction force profiles as a function of minimum separation distance (H) are shown for the three colloid sizes examined in this study (blue = 0.25 ?m, green = 1.1 ?m, red = 1.95 ?m). ... Such work will determine whether representing retention via discrete heterogeneity yields a distinct but logical set of heterodomain representations among mineral surfaces predominant in groundwater aquifers. ...

Eddy Pazmino; Jacob Trauscht; Brittany Dame; William P. Johnson

2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

140

Spectral particulate attenuation and particle size distribution in the bottom boundary layer of a continental shelf  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are consistent with particle resuspension and settling in the BBL, two processes that are dependent on particle size and density. For particles of similar density, resuspension and settling would result

Boss, Emmanuel S.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "grain size distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

KNIFE MILL COMMINUTION ENERGY ANALYSIS OF SWITCHGRASS, WHEAT STRAW, AND CORN STOVER AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Biomass preprocessing and pretreatment technologies such as size reduction and chemical preconditioning are aimed at reducing the cost of ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. Size reduction is an energy-intensive biomass preprocessing unit operation. In this study, switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover were chopped in an instrumented knife mill to evaluate size reduction energy and corresponding particle size distribution as determined with a standard forage sieve analyzer. Direct mechanical power inputs were determined using a dedicated data acquisition system for knife mill screen openings from 12.7 to 50.8 mm, rotor speeds between 250 and 500 rpm, and mass feed rates from 1 to 11 kg/min. A speed of 250 rpm gave optimum performance of the mill. Optimum feed rates for 25.4 mm screen and 250 rpm were 7.6, 5.8, and 4.5 kg/min for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover, respectively. Total specific energy (MJ/Mg) was defined as the size reduction energy required to operate the knife mill plus that imparted to the biomass. Effective specific energy was defined as the energy imparted to the biomass. For these conditions, total specific energies were 27.3, 37.9, and 31.9 MJ/Mg and effective specific energies were 10.1, 15.5, and 3.2 MJ/Mg for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover, respectively. These results demonstrated that biomass selection affects the size reduction energy, even for biomass with similar features. Second-order polynomial equations for the total specific energy requirement fitted well (R2 > 0.95) as a function of knife mill screen size, mass feed rate, and speed for biomass materials tested. The Rosin-Rammler equation fitted the cumulative undersize mass of switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover chop passed through ASABE sieves with high R2 (>0.983). Knife mill chopping of switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover resulted in particle size distributions classified as 'well-graded strongly fine-skewed mesokurtic', 'well-graded fine-skewed mesokurtic', and 'well-graded fine-skewed mesokurtic', respectively, for small knife mill screen sizes (12.7 to 25.4 mm) and distributions classified as 'well-graded fine-skewed mesokurtic', 'well-graded strongly fine-skewed mesokurtic', and 'well-graded fine-skewed mesokurtic', respectively, for the large screen size (50.8 mm). Total and effective specific energy values per unit size reduction of wheat straw were greater compared to those for switchgrass. Corn stover resulted in reduced total and effective specific energy per unit size reduction compared to wheat straw for the same operating conditions, but higher total specific energy per unit size reduction and lesser effective specific energy per unit size reduction compared to switchgrass. Data on minimized total specific energy with corresponding particle spectra will be useful for preparing feed material with a knife mill for subsequent grinding with finer size reduction devices.

Bitra, V.S.P. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Womac, A.R. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Igathinathane, C. [North Dakota State University

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Analytical solutions for steady and unsteady state particle size distributions in FBC and CFBC boilers for non-breaking char particles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Continuous analytical solutions for the particle size distributions of char in steady and unsteady states in fluidized beds, when the inlet fuel feed is presented by monosize, lognormal, Rosin-Rammler or gamma distributions, are derived from a population balance model. The stationary size distribution is directly related to the rate of reduction of the particle size. Combustion and attrition reduce the particle size. Thus, it is possible to extract the dependence of the rate of reduction of radius (affected by a fuels reactivity and attrition) on radius from a measured steady-state particle size distribution. Unsteady particle size distributions are derived for impulse, step and square pulse changes in the fuel feed, when the oxygen level in the reactor is maintained constant.

J.J. Saastamoinen; A. Tourunen; J. Hmlinen; T. Hyppnen; M. Loschkin; A. Kettunen

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Quantitative Information on Pore Size Distribution from the Tangents of Comparison Plots  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This is the case for MCM-41 and Al-PILC samples. ... In Figure 7, the pore sizes of several MCM-41 samples and an alumina pillared clay (Al-PILC used in ref 32) are plotted against the corresponding peak positions on the tangent curves (the solid circles). ... Figure 7 The relation between the pore sizes of several MCM-41 samples and an alumina pillared clay (Al-PILC used in ref 32) and the peak positions on the tangent curves (the solid circles). ...

Huai Yong Zhu; Pegie Cool; Etienne F. Vansant; Bao Lian Su; Xueping Gao

2004-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

144

Sieving duration and sieve loading impacts on dry soil fragment size distributions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, University of Buenos Aires (1417) Av. San Marti´n 4457, Buenos Aires, Argentina b Nitragin Argentina S.A., Calle 10 y 11, Parque Industrial Pilar (1629), Pilar, Buenos Aires, Argentina c Department of Agronomy is inversely related to the amount of applied energy, and does not necessarily reflect the size of aggregates

Perfect, Ed

145

Measurement of number, mass and size distribution of particles in the atmosphere  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...size-fractionated manner using cascade impactors, which depend...mean free path of the gas molecules o er a signi...5, tra c-related gases, particle number and...and contracts with the Natural Environment Research Council...this period, exhaust gas emissions will be rich...

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Distributed detection and fusion in a large wireless sensor network of random size  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

For a wireless sensor network (WSN) with a random number of sensors, we propose a decision fusion rule that uses the total number of detections reported by local sensors as a statistic for hypothesis testing. We assume that the signal power attenuates ... Keywords: decision fusion, deflection coefficient, distributed detection, wireless sensor networks

Ruixin Niu; Pramod K. Varshney

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

An improved method for computing q-values when the distribution of effect sizes is asymmetric  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......observed in the empirical distribution of test statistics that results from the analysis...q-value method by taking the sign of the test statistics, in addition to the P-values...Performing tens of thousands of hypothesis tests for one experiment has become a commonplace......

Megan Orr; Peng Liu; Dan Nettleton

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

A predictive model for particle size distribution and yield for Bayer precipitation and classification  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of alumina hydrate particles demonstrated in Figure l. The calcination step depicted in the process illustration is needed as the final step to return the alumina hydrate to alumina. This may be done in kilns or flash calciners. In the Bayer process, a.... In the precipitators, the alumina hydrate is deposited on recycled seed. The slurry is separated by particle size in the classification section. Large particles Rom classification are filtered for use in calcination or products such as Alcoa's C30 Hydrate, while...

Kapraun, Christopher Michael

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

149

On the Size Distribution of Close-In Extrasolar Giant Planets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The precisions of extrasolar planet radius measurements are reaching the point at which meaningful and discriminatory comparisons with theoretical predictions are can be made. However, care must be taken to account for selection effects in the transit surveys that detect the transiting planets for which radius measurements are possible. Here I identify one such selection effect, such that the number of planets with radius R_p detected in a signal-to-noise ratio limited transit survey is proportional to R_p^alpha, with alpha~4-6. In the presence of a dispersion sigma in the intrinsic distribution of planet radii, this selection effect translates to bias b in the radii of observed planets. Detected planets are, on average, larger by a fractional amount b ~ alpha (sigma/)^2 relative to the mean radius of the underlying distribution. I argue that the intrinsic dispersion in planetary radii is likely to be in the range sigma = (0.05-0.13)R_J, where the lower bound is that expected theoretically solely from the variance in stellar insolation, and the upper bound is the 95% c.l. upper limit from the scatter in observed radii. Assuming an arbitrary but plausible value of sigma/~10%, and thus b~6%, I infer a mean intrinsic radius of close-in massive extrasolar planets of =(1.03+/-0.01)R_J. This value reinforces the case for HD209458b having an anomalously large radius, and may be inconsistent with coreless models of irradiated giant planets.

B. Scott Gaudi

2005-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

150

The effect of gravel size fraction on the distribution coefficients of selected radionuclides radionuclides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This manuscript addresses the consequences of the common practice of assuming that the gravel fraction of sediments does not participate in sorption reactions and thus sorption quantified by the distribution coefficient (Kd) construct can be estimated from laboratory tests on < 2mm fraction of sediments. As shown within the use of this common assumption can lead to inaccurate estimates of the mobility and sorption capacity of key radionuclides (Tc, U, and Np) at the Hanford Site where gravel dominates the lower Hanford formation and upper Ringold Formation. Batch sorption and column experiments showed that the distribution coefficient measured using only < 2mm fraction were not in agreement with those obtained from the bulk sediments depending on the radionuclide. The least reactive radionuclide, Tc showed the lowest effects from the presence of gravel. However, differences between measured Kds using < 2mm fractions of the sediment and the Kds measured on the bulk sediment were significant for strongly reactive radionuclides such as Np, especially on the sediment with gravel fractions that contained highly reactive sites. Highly reactive sites in the gravel fraction were attributed to the presence of Fe oxides coatings and/or reactive fracture faces on the gravel surfaces. Gravel correction factors that use the sum of the Kd,<2 mm and Kd,>2 mm values to estimate the Kd for the bulk sediment were found to best describe Kds for radionuclides on the bulk sediment. However, more detailed characterization of gravel surfaces should be also conducted to identify those gravels with higher reactive sorbents, if present. Gravel correction factors should be considered to predict precisely the sorption capacity of bulk sediments that contain more than 10% gravel and to estimate the mobility of contaminants in subsurface environments.

Um, Wooyong; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Last, George V.; Glossbrenner, Ellwood T.

2009-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

151

The Impact of Oil Consumption Mechanisms on Diesel Exhaust Particle Size Distributions and Detailed Exhaust Chemical Composition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Detailed exhaust emission data have been taken from a Cummins N-14 single cylinder research engine in which the oil consumption was varied by different engine modifications. Low sulfur fuel was used, and oil consumption was varied by modifying the intake valve stem seals, the exhaust valve stem seals, the oil control ring and combinations of these modifications. Detailed measurements of exhaust gas particle size distributions and chemical composition were made for the various oil consumption configurations for a range of engine loads and speeds. The particulate mass was measured with TEOM and traditional gravimetric filter methods. Filter data for EC/OC, sulfates and trace metals have been taken and analyzed. The trace metals in the particulate mass serve as the basis for assessing oil consumption at the different operating conditions. The data indicate that the oil consumption for the steady state testing done here was approximately an order of magnitude below oil consumption values cited in the literature. We did measure changes in the details of the chemical composition of the particulate for the different engine operating conditions, but it did not correlate with changes in the oil consumption. Furthermore, the data indicate that the particle size distribution is not strongly impacted by low level oil consumption variations observed in this work.

Stetter, J; Forster, N; Ghandhi, J; Foster, D

2003-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

152

Charging of Dust Grains in a Plasma  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Charging of micron-sized dust grains in a plasma has been investigated experimentally. Dust grains were dispersed into a fully ionized, steady-state, magnetized plasma column consisting of electrons and K+ ions, both at a temperature of ?0.2 eV. Langmuir probe measurements were used to determine how the negative charge in the plasma is divided between free electrons and dust grains. By varying the ratio d?D between the intergrain spacing and the plasma Debye length, the predicted reduction in the grain charge for the case of "closely packed" grains d?D<1 has been demonstrated experimentally.

A. Barkan; N. D'Angelo; R. L. Merlino

1994-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

153

Charging of dust grains in a nonequilibrium plasma of a stratified glow discharge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A theoretical model is presented that describes the charging of dust grains in the positive plasma column of a stratified glow dc discharge in argon. A one-dimensional self-consistent model is used to obtain axial profiles of the electric field, as well as the electron energy distribution function along the axis of the discharge tube. Radial profiles of the electric field are determined in the ambipolar diffusion approximation. It is assumed that, in the radial direction, the electron distribution function depends only on the total electron energy. Two-dimensional distributions of the discharge plasma parameters are calculated and used to determine the potential and charge of a test dust grain at a certain point within the discharge and the electrostatic forces acting on it. It is shown that the grain charge distribution depends strongly on the nonequilibrium electron distribution function and on the nonuniform distribution of the electric field in a stratified glow discharge. A discussion is presented on the suspension of dust grains, the separation of grains by size in the discharge striations, and a possible mechanism for the onset of vortex dust motion at the edge of a dust cloud.

Sukhinin, G. I.; Fedoseev, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

154

Characterization of secondary grain dust explosions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

dust less than 106 um . . . ~ . . ~ ~ ~ ~ 27 4 Coulter Counter particle size distribution for wheat dust less than 106 um . 28 5 Coulter Counter particle size distribution for rice dust less than 106 um ~ 29 6 Coulter Counter particle size... distribution f' or wheat/sorghum dust, less than 106 um . 7 Coulter Counter particle size distribution for soybean dust less than 106 um 31 8 Coulter Counter particle size distribution for corn dust between 106 and. 250 um 9 Coulter Counter particle size...

Schulman, Cheryl Wendler

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

155

JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C2, supplkment a u no 7, Tome 38, Juillet 1977, page C2-185 REMARKS ON THE SIZE DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION OF ULTRAFINE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. - The results of an detailed analysis of experimental size distributions of particle samples prepared by the gas tvaporation et condensation en gaz inerte (GET). En tenant compte des deux mbcanismes de croissance par distribution of ultrafine metal particles prepared by the gas evaporation technique (GET) can be ascribed

Boyer, Edmond

156

Leakage diagnostics, sealant longevity, sizing and technologytransfer in residential thermal distribution systems: Part II.Residential thermal Distribution Systesm, Phase VI FinalReport  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report builds on and extends our previous efforts as described in "Leakage Diagnostics, Sealant Longevity, Sizing and Technology Transfer in Residential Thermal Distribution Systems- CIEE Residential Thermal Distribution Systems Phase V Final Report, October 1997". New developments include defining combined duct and equipment efficiencies in a concept called "Tons At the Register" and on performance issues related to field use of the aerosol sealant technology. Some of the key results discussed in this report include: o Register, boot and air handler cabinet leakage can often represent a significant fraction of the total duct leakage in new construction. Because of the large range of pressures in duct systems an accurate characterization may require separating these components through improved leakage testing. o Conventional duct tape failed our accelerated longevity testing and is not, therefore, considered generally acceptable for use in sealing duct systems. Many other tapes and sealing approaches are available and practical and have passed our longevity tests. o Simulations of summer temperature pull-down time have shown that duct system improvements can be combined with equipment downsizing to save first cost, energy consumption, and peak power and still provide equivalent or superior comfort. o Air conditioner name plate capacity ratings alone are a poor indicator of how much cooling will actually be delivered to the conditioned space. Duct system efficiency can have as large an impact on performance as variations in SEER. o Mechanical duct cleaning techniques do not have an adverse impact on the ducts sealed with the Aerosol sealant. The material typically used in Aerosol sealing techniques does not appear to present a health or safety hazard. Results from this study were used by the California Energy Commission in the formation of the current Energy Efficiency Standards for Low-Rise Residential Buildings (CEC, (1998)), often referred to as Title 24. Current information on ducts and thermal distribution research can be found at http://ducts.lbl.gov

Buchanan, C.; Modera, M.; Sherman, M.; Siegel, J.; Walker, I.; Wang, D.

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Particle and Size Distribution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The long and short sides were called directional tangential cutting edge or random diameter. When the number of measured particles was large enough, results could reflect the average cross section of particle sam...

Zhonglin Xu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Two pairing parameters in superconducting grains  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Unlike bulk superconductivity, where one energy scale, the energy gap, characterizes pairing correlations, we show that in small superconducting grains there exist two different such quantities. The first characterizes collective properties of the grain, such as the condensation energy, and the second single-particle properties. To describe these two energy scales, we define two corresponding pairing parameters, and show that although both reduce to the bulk gap for large grains, this occurs at different size scales.

M. Schechter; J. von Delft; Y. Imry; Y. Levinson

2003-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

159

Simultaneous Retrieval of Effective Refractive Index and Density from Size Distribution and Light Scattering Data: Weakly-Absorbing Aerosol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We propose here a novel approach for retrieving in parallel the effective density and real refractive index of weakly absorbing aerosol from optical and size distribution measurements. Here we define weakly absorbing as aerosol single-scattering albedos that exceed 0.95 at 0.5 um.The required optical measurements are the scattering coefficient and the hemispheric backscatter fraction, obtained in this work from an integrating nephelometer. The required size spectra come from a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer and an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer. The performance of this approach is first evaluated using a sensitivity study with synthetically generated but measurement-related inputs. The sensitivity study reveals that the proposed approach is robust to random noise; additionally the uncertainties of the retrieval are almost linearly proportional to the measurement errors, and these uncertainties are smaller for the real refractive index than for the effective density. Next, actual measurements are used to evaluate our approach. These measurements include the optical, microphysical, and chemical properties of weakly absorbing aerosol which are representative of a variety of coastal summertime conditions observed during the Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP; http://campaign.arm.gov/tcap/). The evaluation includes calculating the root mean square error (RMSE) between the aerosol characteristics retrieved by our approach, and the same quantities calculated using the conventional volume mixing rule for chemical constituents. For dry conditions (defined in this work as relative humidity less than 55%) and sub-micron particles, a very good (RMSE~3%) and reasonable (RMSE~28%) agreement is obtained for the retrieved real refractive index (1.490.02) and effective density (1.680.21), respectively. Our approach permits discrimination between the retrieved aerosol characteristics of sub-micron and sub-10micron particles. The evaluation results also reveal that the retrieved density and refractive index tend to decrease with an increase of the relative humidity.

Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Berg, Larry K.; Shilling, John E.; Flynn, Connor J.; Mei, Fan; Jefferson, Anne

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Effects of oxygenated fuel blends on carbonaceous particulate composition and particle size distributions from a stationary diesel engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A systematic study was conducted to evaluate and compare the effects of blending five different oxygenated compounds, diglyme (DGM), palm oil methyl ester (PME), dimethyl carbonate (DMC), diethyl adipate (DEA) and butanol (Bu) with ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD), on engine performance, particulate mass concentrations, organic (OC) and elemental (EC) carbon fractions of the particles and particle size distributions from a single cylinder, direct injection stationary diesel engine with the engine working at a constant engine speed and at three engine loads. A small increase in the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and brake thermal efficiency (BTE) was observed with the use of oxygenates blended with ULSD. All five oxygenates were found to be effective at reducing particulate mass emissions at medium and high engine loads, with butanol being the most effective and DGM being the least effective. Analysis of the relative contribution of changes in the OC and EC emissions to the reduction of particulate matter indicated that under the same oxygen content, EC made a dominant contribution to the reduction of particulate mass. The results also indicated that reduction in both particle mass and number emissions was affected not only by the oxygen content, but also by the chemical structure and thermophysical properties of oxygenates as well as engine operating conditions.

Zhi-Hui Zhang; Rajasekhar Balasubramanian

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "grain size distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Coupling between grain growth and grain rotation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Grain boundary motion during grain growth or recrystallization is considered as a diffusion process of atomic movement across the boundary. It can be accompanied by subgrain rotation or nanograin rotation. However grain boundary migration can be achieved also by dislocation motion or creep. The evidence is the power law relationship between driving force and boundary velocity for large driving forces and an activation energy which approaches that of self-diffusion at low driving forces and decreases with increasing driving force. The creep mechanism may or may not involve grain rotation. Experimental evidences and dislocation models are discussed in reference to coupling between boundary migration and grain rotation.

Bhakta B. Rath; M. Winning; J. C. M. Li

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Deep Spitzer spectroscopy of the `Flying Saucer' edge-on disk: Large grains beyond 50 AU  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present deep Spitzer-IRS low-resolution (lambda/Delta lambda ~ 100) 5-35 micron spectroscopy of the edge-on disk ``the Flying Saucer'' (2MASS J16281370-2431391) in the Ophiuchus molecular cloud. The spectral energy distribution exhibits the characteristic two-peak shape predicted for a circumstellar disk viewed very close to edge-on. The short-wavelength peak is entirely due to photons scattered off the surface of the disk, while the long-wavelength peak is due to thermal emission from the disk itself. The Spitzer spectrum represents the first spectroscopic detection of scattered light out to 15 micron from a bona-fide, isolated edge-on disk around a T Tauri star. The depth and the wavelength of the mid-infrared "valley" of the SED give direct constraints on the size distribution of large grains in the disk. Using a 2D continuum radiative transfer model, we find that a significant amount of 5-10 micron-sized grains is required in the surface layers of the disk at radii of 50-300 AU. The detection of relatively large grains in the upper layers implies that vertical mixing is effective, since grain growth models predict the grains would otherwise settle deep in the disk on short time scales. Additionally, we tentatively detect the 9.66 micron S(3) line of H2 and the 11.2 micron emission feature due to PAHs.

Klaus M. Pontoppidan; Karl R. Stapelfeldt; Geoffrey A. Blake; Ewine F. van Dishoeck; Cornelis P. Dullemond

2007-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

163

EVOLUTION OF COATED GRAINS IN SPIRAL SHOCKS OF SELF-GRAVITATING PROTOPLANETARY DISKS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We investigate the evolution of grains composed of an ice shell surrounding an olivine core as they pass through a spiral shock in a protoplanetary disk. We use published three-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamics simulations of massive self-gravitating protoplanetary disks to extract the thermodynamics of spiral shocks in the region between 10 and 20 AU from the central star. As the density wave passes, it heats the grains, causing them to lose their ice shell and resulting in a lowering of the grain opacity. In addition, since grains of different sizes will have slightly different temperatures, there will be a migration of ice from hotter grains to cooler ones. The rate of migration depends on the temperature of the background gas, so a grain distribution that is effectively stable for low temperatures can undergo an irreversible change in opacity if the gas is temporarily heated to above {approx}150 K. We find that the opacity can drop more and at a significantly faster rate throughout the spiral shocks relative to the prediction of the standard dust grain model adopted in hydrodynamical calculations of protoplanetary disks. This would lead to faster gas cooling within spiral arms. We discuss the implications of our results on the susceptibility of disks to fragment into sub-stellar objects at distances of a few tens of astronomical units.

Podolak, M. [Department of Geophysics and Planetary Science, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Mayer, L. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Zurich, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Quinn, T. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

2011-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

164

Alpha spectrometric characterization of process-related particle size distributions from active particle sampling at the Los Alamos National Laboratory uranium foundry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Uranium particles within the respirable size range pose a significant hazard to the health and safety of workers. Significant differences in the deposition and incorporation patterns of aerosols within the respirable range can be identified and integrated into sophisticated health physics models. Data characterizing the uranium particle size distribution resulting from specific foundry-related processes are needed. Using personal air sampling cascade impactors, particles collected from several foundry processes were sorted by activity median aerodynamic diameter onto various Marple substrates. After an initial gravimetric assessment of each impactor stage, the substrates were analyzed by alpha spectrometry to determine the uranium content of each stage. Alpha spectrometry provides rapid nondestructive isotopic data that can distinguish process uranium from natural sources and the degree of uranium contribution to the total accumulated particle load. In addition, the particle size bins utilized by the impactors provide adequate resolution to determine if a process particle size distribution is: lognormal, bimodal, or trimodal. Data on process uranium particle size values and distributions facilitate the development of more sophisticated and accurate models for internal dosimetry, resulting in an improved understanding of foundry worker health and safety.

Plionis, Alexander A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Peterson, Dominic S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tandon, Lav [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lamont, Stephen P [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Modeling of grain growth behavior of S34MnV steel at elevated temperatures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

S34MnV steel is widely used as a fundamental material in manufacturing crankshaft in diesel engine. However due to amount of addition of Manganese element in the steel coarse grain and mixed grain are commonly observed after long time heating during the forging passes in industrial practice which may seriously reduce the impact toughness of the material. In current study based on the observed microstructure of S34MnV steel at different temperatures and heating times an empirical model has been established which reflects the relationship between the final grain size and the initial grain size as well as heating temperature and holding time. This model has been validated by a scaled sample and we further represented a successful industrial application of this model to simulate the grain size distribution and evolution during a large crankthrow heating and forging process which evidences its practical and promising perspective of our model with an aim of widely promoting the mechanical properties heavy marine components.

Yiyi Li

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Determination of nanoparticle structure type, size and strain distribution from X-ray data for monatomic f.c.c.-derived non-crystallographic nanoclusters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Whole-profile-fitting least-squares techniques are successfully applied to simulated and experimental diffraction patterns of monatomic f.c.c.-derived non-crystallographic nanoclusters, with the aim of extracting information about structure-type concentration, size and strain distribution.

Cervellino, A.

2003-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

167

Optimal sizing and location of SVC devices for improvement of voltage profile in distribution network with dispersed photovoltaic and wind power plants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Intermittent power generation of wind turbines and photovoltaic plants creates voltage disturbances in power distribution networks which may not be acceptable to the consumers. To control the deviations of the nodal voltages, it is necessary to use fast dynamic control of the reactive power in the distribution network. Implementation of the power electronic devices, such as Static Var Compensator (SVC), enables effective dynamic state as well as a static state of the nodal voltage control in the distribution network. This paper analyzed optimal sizing and location of SVC devices by using genetic algorithm, to improve nodal voltages profile in a distribution network with dispersed photovoltaic and wind power plants. Practical application of the developed methodology was tested on an example of a real distribution network.

Aleksandar Savi?; eljko ?urii?

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Final Report: Property Improvement in CZT via Modeling and Processing Innovations Te-particles in vertical gradient freeze CZT: Size and Spatial Distributions and Constitutional Supercooling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A section of a vertical gradient freeze CZT boule approximately 2100-mm3 with a planar area of 300-mm2 was prepared and examined using transmitted IR microscopy at various magnifications to determine the three-dimensional spatial and size distributions of Te-particles over large longitudinal and radial length scales. The boule section was approximately 50-mm wide by 60-mm in length by 7-mm thick and was doubly polished for TIR work. Te-particles were imaged through the thickness using extended focal imaging to locate the particles in thickness planes spaced 15-m apart and then in plane of the image using xy-coordinates of the particle center of mass so that a true three dimensional particle map was assembled for a 1-mm by 45-mm longitudinal strip and for a 1-mm by 50-mm radial strip. Te-particle density distributions were determined as a function of longitudinal and radial positions in these strips, and treating the particles as vertices of a network created a 3D image of the particle spatial distribution. Te-particles exhibited a multi-modal log-normal size density distribution that indicated a slight preference for increasing size with longitudinal growth time, while showing a pronounced cellular network structure throughout the boule that can be correlated to dislocation network sizes in CZT. Higher magnification images revealed a typical Rayleigh-instability pearl string morphology with large and small satellite droplets. This study includes solidification experiments in small crucibles of 30:70 mixtures of Cd:Te to reduce the melting point below 1273 K (1000?C). These solidification experiments were performed over a wide range of cooling rates and clearly demonstrated a growth instability with Te-particle capture that is suggested to be responsible for one of the peaks in the size distribution using size discrimination visualization. The results are discussed with regard to a manifold Te-particle genesis history as 1) Te-particle direct capture from melt-solid growth instabilities, 2) Te-particle formation from dislocation core diffusion and the formation and breakup of Te-tubes, and 3) Te-particle formation due to classical nucleation and growth as precipitates.

Henager, Charles H.; Alvine, Kyle J.; Bliss, Mary; Riley, Brian J.; Stave, Jean A.

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Experimental investigation of the effect of combined hydrogen and diesel combustion on the particulate size distribution from a high speed direct injection diesel engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effects of hydrogen addition and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) levels on the exhaust particulate matter size distribution in a diesel engine have been investigated. The experiments were performed on a 2.0 litre, 4-cylinder, direct injection engine equipped with a modern high-pressure common rail. A nano-Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (nano-MOUDI) was used in this work to study the particulate matter size distribution. All tests were conducted at the set operating point of 1,500 rpm. The experimental work showed that the particulate matter size distribution was not dramatically altered by the addition of EGR, but the main peak was shifted towards the nucleation mode with the addition of hydrogen. The addition of hydrogen increases the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), but reduces the emissions of unburnt hydrocarbons (THC). Conversely, the addition of EGR reduces NOx, but can increase THC. Hydrogen addition increases the peak cylinder pressure and the maximum rate of pressure rise.

L. McWilliam; A. Megaritis

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Investigating the bubble size distribution in dough using ultrasound Valentin Leroy (1), Yuanzhong Fan(1), A.L. Strybulevych(1), G.G. Bellido(2), J.H. Page(1),  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Investigating the bubble size distribution in dough using ultrasound Valentin Leroy (1), Yuanzhong of using ultrasound to investigate the bubble size distribution in dough is addressed. A model for the propagation of ultrasound in a bubbly viscoelastic medium is presented and its relevant parameters

Page, John

171

Helium ion distributions in a 4 kJ plasma focus device by 1 mm-thick large-size polycarbonate detectors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Helium ion beam profile, angular and iso-ion beam distributions in 4 kJ Amirkabir plasma focus (APF) device were effectively observed by the unaided eyes and studied in single 1 mm-thick large-diameter (20 cm) polycarbonate track detectors (PCTD). The \\{PCTDs\\} were processed by 50 HzHV electrochemical etching using a large-size ECE chamber. The results show that helium ions produced in the APF device have a ring-shaped angular distribution peaked at an angle of ? 60 with respect to the top of the anode. Some information on the helium ion energy and distributions is also provided. The method is highly effective for ion beam studies.

M. Sohrabi; M. Habibi; V. Ramezani

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Distribution of size-fractionated particulate trace metals collected by bottles and in-situ pumps in the Gulf of MaineScotian Shelf and Labrador Sea  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The distribution of size-fractionated particulate trace metals (Al, Fe, Mn, Pb, Cu, V, and Co) was investigated in the Gulf of MaineScotian Shelf and Labrador Sea by collection of particulate matter using water bottles (Go-flo) and large volume in-situ pumps (Challenger Oceanic Systems and Services). Trace metal procedural filter blanks for Poretics membrane filters (0.4- and 10 ?m pore size) and Nitex screens (53 ?m mesh size) were sufficiently low that metal concentrations could be measured reliably. These results validate the use of Challenger Oceanics Systems and Services in-situ pumps for collection of particulate trace metals (Al, Fe, Mn, Pb, Cu, V, and Co) in shelf, slope, and open ocean Atlantic waters. In the Gulf of MaineScotian Shelf and Labrador Sea, trace metal concentrations per volume filtered generally decrease with increasing particle size for all metals. In the upper 250 m of slope waters of the Gulf of MaineScotian Shelf and in the Labrador Sea, trace metal concentrations in all particle sizes are lower than in shelf waters. Higher particulate metal concentrations in shelf waters are consistent with an increase in the supply of these trace metals with proximity to continental sources. In addition, an increase in particulate trace metal concentrations in shelf waters with depth is attributed to an input from resuspended sediment.

Sarah E. Weinstein; S.Bradley Moran

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Grain Refinement of Permanent Mold Cast Copper Base Alloys  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Grain refinement is a well established process for many cast and wrought alloys. The mechanical properties of various alloys could be enhanced by reducing the grain size. Refinement is also known to improve casting characteristics such as fluidity and hot tearing. Grain refinement of copper-base alloys is not widely used, especially in sand casting process. However, in permanent mold casting of copper alloys it is now common to use grain refinement to counteract the problem of severe hot tearing which also improves the pressure tightness of plumbing components. The mechanism of grain refinement in copper-base alloys is not well understood. The issues to be studied include the effect of minor alloy additions on the microstructure, their interaction with the grain refiner, effect of cooling rate, and loss of grain refinement (fading). In this investigation, efforts were made to explore and understand grain refinement of copper alloys, especially in permanent mold casting conditions.

M.Sadayappan; J.P.Thomson; M.Elboujdaini; G.Ping Gu; M. Sahoo

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Mechanisms of liquid sheet breakup and the resulting drop size distributions; Part 2: strand breakup and experimental observations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports that both a wave mechanism and a perforation mechanism have been proposed as the first step in the breakup of fluid sheets. For black liquor sprays, the dominant mechanism is the formation and growth of perforations according to either mechanism, cylindrical strands develop and subsequently break up to form drops. By combining the results of analyzing the breakup of both the sheet and strands, only a discrete number of drop sizes can be predicted from the wave mechanism.

Spielbauer, T.M.; Aidum, C.K. (Institute of Paper Science and Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States))

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Finite-key-size security of the Phoenix-Barnett-Chefles 2000 quantum-key-distribution protocol  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The postselection technique was introduced by Christandl, Knig, and Renner [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 020504 (2009)] in order to simplify the security of quantum-key-distribution schemes. Here, we present how it can be applied to study the security of the Phoenix-Barnett-Chefles 2000 trine-state protocol, a symmetric version of the Bennett 1992 protocol.

Mhlambululi Mafu, Kevin Garapo, and Francesco Petruccione

2014-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

176

The relationship between grain weight and alpha-amylase in winter wheat: varietal comparison from UK field experiments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In recent years there has been considerable interest in grain size as an important yield component in cereals. In general, larger grain size is seen as a desirable trait, which potentially improves both yield ...

A. D. Farrell; P. S. Kettlewell

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Dynamic simulation of a circulating fluidized bed boiler of low circulating ratio with wide particle size distributions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A steady state model of a coal fired CFB boiler considering the hydrodynamics, heat transfer and combustion is presented. This model predicts the flue gas temperature, the chemical gas species (O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, CO, CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2}) and char concentration distributions in both the axial and radial location along the furnace including the bottom and upper portion. The model was validated against experimental data generated in a 35 t/h commercial CFB boiler with low circulating ratio.

Lu Huilin; Yang Lidan; Bie Rushan; Zhao Guangbo

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

High-strain-rate nanoindentation behavior of fine-grained magnesium alloys  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The effects of temperature and alloying elements on deformation in the high-strain-rate regime were investigated by testing fine-grained magnesium alloys with an average grain size of 2 ? 3 ?m by a nanoindentation technique. ...

Somekawa, Hidetoshi

179

The effect of turbulence on the stability of liquid jets and the resulting droplet size distributions. Third quarterly technical report, July 1, 1993--September 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laminar and turbulent columns of liquids issuing from capillary tubes were studied in order to determine the effects of turbulence on the stability of liquid jets and to establish the influence of liquid turbulence on droplet size distributions after breakup. Two capillary tubes were chosen with diameters D{sub 1}=3.0mm and D{sub 2}=1.2mm; jet Reynolds numbers were 1000--30000, and 400--7200. For water injection into stagnant air, stability curve is bounded by a laminar portion, where a jet radius and {delta}{sub o} initial disturbance amplitude, and a fully developed turbulent portion characterized by high initial disturbance amplitude (ln(a/{delta}{sub o,T}) {approximately} 4.85). In the transition region, ln(a/{delta}{sub o}) is not single valued; it decreases with increasing Reynolds number. In absence of aerodynamic effects, turbulent jets are as stable as laminar jets. For this breakup mode turbulence propagates initial disturbances with amplitudes orders of magnitude larger than laminar jets ({delta}{sub o,T}=28{times}10{sup 6} {delta}{sub o,L}). Growth rates of initial disturbances are same for both laminar and turbulent columns with theoretical Weber values. Droplet size distribution is bi-modal; the number ratio of large (> D/2), to small (< D/2) droplets is 3 and independent of Reynolds number. For laminar flow optimum wavelength ({lambda}{sub opt}) corresponding to fastest growing disturbance is equal to 4.45D, exactly the theoretical Weber value. For turbulent flow conditions, the turbulent column segments. Typically, segments with lengths of one to several wavelengths, detach from the liquid jet. The long ligaments contract under the action of surface tension, resulting in droplet sizes larger than predicted by Rayleigh and Weber. For turbulent flow conditions, {lambda}{sub opt} = 9.2D, about 2 times the optimum Weber wavelength.

Mansour, A.; Chigier, N.

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Influence of Aluminum Content on Grain Refinement and Strength of AZ31 Magnesium GTA Weld Metal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal is to characterize the effect of Al content on AZ31 weld metal, the grain size and strength, and examine role of Al on grain refinement. The approach is to systematically vary the aluminum content of AZ31 weld metal, Measure average grain size in weld metal, and Measure cross-weld tensile properties and hardness. Conclusions are that: (1) increased Al content in AZ31 weld metal results in grain refinement Reason: higher undercooling during solidification; (2) weld metal grain refinement resulted in increased strength & hardness Reason: grain boundary strengthening; and (3) weld metal strength can be raised to wrought base metal levels.

Babu, N. Kishore [Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology; Cross, Carl E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "grain size distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Long-term changes in the population size and geographical distribution of Pennella sp. (Copepoda) on the saury, Cololabis saira, in the western North Pacific Ocean and adjacent seas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Changes in the population size and geographical distribution of the mesoparasitic copepod Pennella sp. (Siphonostomatoida: Pennellidae) on the saury, Cololabis saira..., were studied for a period of six years (19...

Kazuya Nagasawa; Yoshihiro Imai; Kyoichi Ishida

1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Long-term changes in the population size and geographical distribution of Pennella sp. (Copepoda) on the saury, Cololabis saira, in the western North Pacific Ocean and adjacent seas*  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Changes in the population size and geographical distribution of the mesoparasitic copepod Pennella sp. (Siphonostomatoida: Pennellidae) on the saury. Cololabis saira..., were studied for a period of six years (19...

Kazuya Nagasawa; Yoshihiro Imai; Kyoichi Ishida

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

CURVED WALLS: GRAIN GROWTH, SETTLING, AND COMPOSITION PATTERNS IN T TAURI DISK DUST SUBLIMATION FRONTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The dust sublimation walls of disks around T Tauri stars represent a directly observable cross-section through the disk atmosphere and midplane. Their emission properties can probe the grain size distribution and composition of the innermost regions of the disk, where terrestrial planets form. Here we calculate the inner dust sublimation wall properties for four classical T Tauri stars with a narrow range of spectral types and inclination angles and a wide range of mass accretion rates to determine the extent to which the walls are radially curved. Best fits to the near- and mid-IR excesses are found for curved, two-layer walls in which the lower layer contains larger, hotter, amorphous pyroxene grains with Mg/(Mg+Fe) = 0.6 and the upper layer contains submicron, cooler, mixed amorphous olivine and forsterite grains. As the mass accretion rates decrease from 10{sup 8} to 10{sup 10} M{sub ?} yr{sup 1}, the maximum grain size in the lower layer decreases from ?3 to 0.5 ?m. We attribute this to a decrease in fragmentation and turbulent support for micron-sized grains with decreasing viscous heating. The atmosphere of these disks is depleted of dust with dust-gas mass ratios 1 10{sup 4} of the interstellar medium (ISM) value, while the midplane is enhanced to eight times the ISM value. For all accretion rates, the wall contributes at least half of the flux in the optically thin 10 ?m silicate feature. Finally, we find evidence for an iron gradient in the disk, suggestive of that found in our solar system.

McClure, M. K.; Calvet, N.; Hartmann, L.; Ingleby, L. [Department of Astronomy, The University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, 830 Dennison Building., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); D'Alessio, P. [Centro de Radioastronoma y Astrofsica, Universidad Nacional Autnoma de Mxico, 58089 Morelia, Michoacn (Mexico); Espaillat, C. [Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Sargent, B. [Center for Imaging Science and Laboratory for Multiwavelength Astrophysics, Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Watson, D. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Hernndez, J., E-mail: melisma@umich.edu, E-mail: ncalvet@umich.edu, E-mail: lhartm@umich.edu, E-mail: lingleby@umich.edu, E-mail: p.dalessio@astrosmo.unam.mx, E-mail: cespaillat@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: baspci@rit.edu, E-mail: dmw@pas.rochester.edu, E-mail: hernandj@cida.ve [Centro de Investigaciones de Astronoma (CIDA), Mrida 5101-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

FORMATION OF SiC GRAINS IN PULSATION-ENHANCED DUST-DRIVEN WIND AROUND CARBON-RICH ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH STARS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We investigate the formation of silicon carbide (SiC) grains in the framework of dust-driven wind around pulsating carbon-rich asymptotic giant branch (C-rich AGB) stars to reveal not only the amount but also the size distribution. Two cases are considered for the nucleation process: one is the local thermal equilibrium (LTE) case where the vibration temperature of SiC clusters T{sub v} is equal to the gas temperature as usual, and another is the non-LTE case in which T{sub v} is assumed to be the same as the temperature of small SiC grains. The results of the hydrodynamical calculations for a model with stellar parameters of mass M{sub *} = 1.0 M{sub Sun }, luminosity L{sub *} = 10{sup 4} L{sub Sun }, effective temperature T{sub eff} = 2600 K, C/O ratio = 1.4, and pulsation period P = 650 days show the following: in the LTE case, SiC grains condense in accelerated outflowing gas after the formation of carbon grains, and the resulting averaged mass ratio of SiC to carbon grains of {approx}10{sup -8} is too small to reproduce the value of 0.01-0.3, which is inferred from the radiative transfer models. On the other hand, in the non-LTE case, the formation region of the SiC grains is more internal and/or almost identical to that of the carbon grains due to the so-called inverse greenhouse effect. The mass ratio of SiC to carbon grains averaged at the outer boundary ranges from 0.098 to 0.23 for the sticking probability {alpha}{sub s} = 0.1-1.0. The size distributions with the peak at {approx}0.2-0.3 {mu}m in radius cover the range of size derived from the analysis of the presolar SiC grains. Thus, the difference between the temperatures of the small cluster and gas plays a crucial role in the formation process of SiC grains around C-rich AGB stars, and this aspect should be explored for the formation process of dust grains in astrophysical environments.

Yasuda, Yuki; Kozasa, Takashi, E-mail: yuki@antares-a.sci.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Natural History Sciences, Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan)

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Some rockmagnetic parameters for natural goethite, pyrrhotite and fine-grained hematite.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The increasing importance of sediments for paleomagnetic research prompted a study of rockmagnetic parameters of natural goethite, pyrrhotite and hematite. Grain-size dependent behaviour of such (more)

Dekkers, M.J.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Distribution:  

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JAN26 19% JAN26 19% Distribution: OR00 Attn: h.H.M.Roth DFMusser ITMM MMMann INS JCRyan FIw(2) Hsixele SRGustavson, Document rocm Formal file i+a@mmm bav@ ~@esiaw*cp Suppl. file 'Br & Div rf's s/health (lic.only) UNITED STATES ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION SPECIAL NUCLEAB MATERIAL LICENSE pursuant to the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 and Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Chapter 1, P&t 70, "Special Nuclear Material Reg)llatiqm," a license is hereby issued a$hortztng the licensee to rekeive and possess the special nuclear material designated below; to use such special nuclear mat&ial for the purpose(s) and at the place(s) designated below; and to transfer such material to per&s authorized to receive it in accordance with the regula,tions in said Part.

187

Estimating Corn Grain Yields  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Background Moisture stress caused by drought will reduce corn grain yields by dis- rupting kernel development, lowering grade, and impeding grain fill. Kernel development of the corn plant is most affected by drought during early vegeta- tive growth stages... stages of development (V8 and V9) also cause the corn plant to develop fewer kernels and to abort developing pollen tubes and kernels. The result is fewer filled rows and fewer developed kernels within each row of an ear, and an overall reduction...

Blumenthal, Jurg M.; Thompson, Wayne

2009-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

188

Understanding for Grain Marketing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Understanding for Grain Marketing Commodity Futures and Options CIS1089 The Authors: L.D. MakusContracts A futures contract is a standard- ized contract that is traded on a futures market exchange. The contract. This bulletin presents some marketing tools to help producers recognize the sources of price risk

O'Laughlin, Jay

189

Grains, Water Introduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Grains, Water & Wet Sand Onno Bokhove Introduction Dry Granular Chute Flows: Cantilever Water Waves: Bores Near the Shore Surf Induced Sand Dynamics Discussion Dry Granular Flows, Water Waves & Surf, Water & Wet Sand Onno Bokhove Introduction Dry Granular Chute Flows: Cantilever Water Waves: Bores Near

Wirosoetisno, Djoko

190

Influence of Alloy and Solidification Parameters on Grain Refinement in Aluminum Weld Metal due to Inoculation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goals are: (1) Establish how much Ti/B grain refiner is need to completely refine aluminum weld metal for different alloys and different welding conditions; (2) Characterize how alloy composition and solidification parameters affect weld metal grain refinement; and (3) Apply relevant theory to understand observed behavior. Conclusions are: (1) additions of Ti/B grain refiner to weld metal in Alloys 1050, 5083, and 6082 resulted in significant grain refinement; (2) grain refinement was more effective in GTAW than LBW, resulting in finer grains at lower Ti content - reason is limited time available for equiaxed grain growth in LBW (inability to occlude columnar grain growth); (3) welding travel speed did not markedly affect grain size within GTAW and LBW clusters; and (4) application of Hunt CET analysis showed experimental G to be on the order of the critical G{sub CET}; G{sub CET} was consistently higher for GTAW than for LBW.

Schempp, Philipp [BAM, Germany; Tang, Z. [BIAS, Germany; Cross, Carl E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Seefeld, T. [BIAS, Germany; Pittner, A. [BAM, Germany; Rethmeier, M. [BAM, Germany

2012-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

191

Considerations When Using Grain Contracts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Grain contracts can help farmers manage the increasing risks of production and the price volatility of the market. This publication explains grain contracts and how to use them wisely as a risk management tool....

Wisner, Robert; McCorkle, Dean

2000-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

192

Effect of Engine-Out NOx Control Strategies on PM Size Distribution in Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines Developed for 2010  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A distinct relationship was found between engine-out and SCR-out PM distributions for single-mode testing.

193

Deep Spitzer spectroscopy of the `Flying Saucer' edge-on disk: Large grains beyond 50 AU  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present deep Spitzer-IRS low-resolution (lambda/Delta lambda ~ 100) 5-35 micron spectroscopy of the edge-on disk ``the Flying Saucer'' (2MASS J16281370-2431391) in the Ophiuchus molecular cloud. The spectral energy distribution exhibits the characteristic two-peak shape predicted for a circumstellar disk viewed very close to edge-on. The short-wavelength peak is entirely due to photons scattered off the surface of the disk, while the long-wavelength peak is due to thermal emission from the disk itself. The Spitzer spectrum represents the first spectroscopic detection of scattered light out to 15 micron from a bona-fide, isolated edge-on disk around a T Tauri star. The depth and the wavelength of the mid-infrared "valley" of the SED give direct constraints on the size distribution of large grains in the disk. Using a 2D continuum radiative transfer model, we find that a significant amount of 5-10 micron-sized grains is required in the surface layers of the disk at radii of 50-300 AU. The detection of relati...

Pontoppidan, K M; Blake, G A; Van Dishoeck, E F; Dullemond, C P; Pontoppidan, Klaus M.; Stapelfeldt, Karl R.; Blake, Geoffrey A.; Dishoeck, Ewine F. van; Dullemond, Cornelis P.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

High spring temperatures decrease peach fruit size  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

useful in dif?cult fruit- and crop level interactions inin light of the increasing fruit size distribution and waterpressure for large-size fruits. CALIFORNIA AGRICULTURE

Lopez, Geraldo; Johnson, R. Scott; DeJong, Theodore M.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Granular Gases of Rod-Shaped Grains in Microgravity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Granular gases are convenient model systems to investigate the statistical physics of nonequilibrium systems. In the literature, one finds numerous theoretical predictions, but only few experiments. We study a weakly excited dilute gas of rods, confined in a cuboid container in microgravity during a suborbital rocket flight. With respect to a gas of spherical grains at comparable filling fraction, the mean free path is considerably reduced. This guarantees a dominance of grain-grain collisions over grain-wall collisions. No clustering was observed, unlike in similar experiments with spherical grains. Rod positions and orientations were determined and tracked. Translational and rotational velocity distributions are non-Gaussian. Equipartition of kinetic energy between translations and rotations is violated.

K. Harth; U. Kornek; T. Trittel; U. Strachauer; S. Hme; K. Will; R. Stannarius

2013-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

196

Grain Destruction in Interstellar Shocks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Interstellar shock waves can erode and destroy grains present in the shocked gas, primarily as the result of sputtering and grain-grain collisions. Uncertainties in current estimates of sputtering yields are reviewed. Results are presented for the simple case of sputtering of fast grains being stopped in cold gas. An upper limit is derived for sputtering of refractory grains in C-type MHD shocks: shock speeds $v_s \\gtrsim 50 \\kms$ are required for return of more than 30\\% of the silicate to the gas phase. Sputtering can also be important for removing molecular ice mantles from grains in two-fluid MHD shock waves in molecular gas. Recent estimates of refractory grain lifetimes against destruction in shock waves are summarized, and the implications of these short lifetimes are discussed.

B. T. Draine

1995-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

197

Technical Letter Report Development of Flaw Size Distribution Tables Including Effects of Flaw Depth Sizing Errors for Draft 10CFR 50.61a (Alternate PTS Rule) JCN-N6398, Task 4  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document describes a new method to determine whether the flaws in a particular reactor pressure vessel are consistent with the assumptions regarding the number and sizes of flaws used in the analyses that formed the technical justification basis for the new voluntary alternative Pressurized Thermal Shock (PTS) rule (Draft 10 CFR 50.61a). The new methodology addresses concerns regarding prior methodology because ASME Code Section XI examinations do not detect all fabrication flaws, they have higher detection performance for some flaw types, and there are flaw sizing errors always present (e.g., significant oversizing of small flaws and systematic under sizing of larger flaws). The new methodology allows direct comparison of ASME Code Section XI examination results with values in the PTS draft rule Tables 2 and 3 in order to determine if the number and sizes of flaws detected by an ASME Code Section XI examination are consistent with those assumed in the probabilistic fracture mechanics calculations performed in support of the development of 10 CFR 50.61a.

Simonen, Fredric A.; Gosselin, Stephen R.; Doctor, Steven R.

2013-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

198

Process for producing large grain cadmium telluride  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described for producing a cadmium telluride polycrystalline film having grain sizes greater than about 20 {micro}m. The process comprises providing a substrate upon which cadmium telluride can be deposited and placing that substrate within a vacuum chamber containing a cadmium telluride effusion cell. A polycrystalline film is then deposited on the substrate through the steps of evacuating the vacuum chamber to a pressure of at least 10{sup {minus}6} torr.; heating the effusion cell to a temperature whereat the cell releases stoichiometric amounts of cadmium telluride usable as a molecular beam source for growth of grains on the substrate; heating the substrate to a temperature whereat a stoichiometric film of cadmium telluride can be deposited; and releasing cadmium telluride from the effusion cell for deposition as a film on the substrate. The substrate then is placed in a furnace having an inert gas atmosphere and heated for a sufficient period of time at an annealing temperature whereat cadmium telluride grains on the substrate grow to sizes greater than about 20 {micro}m.

Hasoon, F.S.; Nelson, A.J.

1996-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

199

Large-grain polycrystalline silicon films with low intragranular defect density by low-temperature solid-phase crystallization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a grain size as large as 3.0 m deposited by disilane gas.3 TFTs made with channel lengths smaller than

Duffy, Thomas S.

200

Theory of Grain Boundary Diffusion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The previously proposed dependence of the structure of grain boundaries upon the angle of disorientation of the two grains is used as a basis of a quantitative consideration of diffusion along grain boundaries and in particular of the apparent activation energies. At small angles in the dislocation range the diffusion is controlled by volume diffusion mechanism. At high angles near 45 the model of a uniform grain boundary is applicable. In the intermediate range an array of rod-like areas of distorted lattice leads to low or even negative apparent activation energies. The theory is in good agreement with experiment.

R. Smoluchowski

1952-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "grain size distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Evaluation of the modified Anderson sampler for determining particle size distributions and respirable concentrations of particulate matter present in the working environment of cottonseed oil mills  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to fluctuate during the day within the same work areas. From the particle size data, it was evident that, to fully characterize the dust collected, addi- tional stages were required. At least two additional stages, one with a 40 um effective cutoff diameter..., would have provided a more complete dust characterization. Also, it was evident that a high percentage of the particulate matter was in the 7 to 100 um in diameter particle size range. Unusually high concentrations of dust in this range were found...

Matlock, Stanley Wayne

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

202

Controlling lipid accumulation in cereal grains  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Plant oils have so far been mostly directed toward food and feed production. Nowadays however, these oils are more and more used as competitive alternatives to mineral hydrocarbon-based products. This increasing demand for vegetable oils has led to a renewed interest in elucidating the metabolism of storage lipids and its regulation in various plant systems. Cereal grains store carbon in the form of starch in a large endosperm and as oil in an embryo of limited size. Complementary studies on kernel development and metabolism have paved the way for breeding or engineering new varieties with higher grain oil content. This could be achieved either by increasing the relative proportion of the oil-rich embryo within the grain, or by enhancing oil synthesis and accumulation in embryonic structures. For instance, diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) that catalyses the ultimate reaction in the biosynthesis of triacylglycerol appears to be a promising target for increasing oil content in maize embryos. Similarly, over-expression of the maize transcriptional regulators ZmLEAFY COTYLEDON1 and ZmWRINKLED1 efficiently stimulates oil accumulation in the kernels of transgenic lines. Redirecting carbon from starch to oil in the endosperm, though not yet realized, is discussed.

Guillaume Barthole; Loc Lepiniec; Peter M. Rogowsky; Sbastien Baud

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Net Metering Policy Development and Distributed Solar Generation in Minnesota: Overview of Trends in Nationwide Policy Development and Implications of Increasing the Eligible System Size Cap  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

0 0 December 2009 Net Metering Policy Development in Minnesota: Overview of Trends in Nationwide Policy Development and Implications of Increasing the Eligible System Size Cap Elizabeth Doris, Sarah Busche, and Stephen Hockett National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC Contract No. DE-AC36-08-GO28308 Technical Report NREL/TP-6A2-46670 December 2009 Net Metering Policy Development in Minnesota: Overview of Trends in Nationwide Policy Development and Implications of Increasing the Eligible System Size Cap

204

GRAIN REFINEMENT OF PERMANENT MOLD CAST COPPER BASE ALLOYS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Grain refinement behavior of copper alloys cast in permanent molds was investigated. This is one of the least studied subjects in copper alloy castings. Grain refinement is not widely practiced for leaded copper alloys cast in sand molds. Aluminum bronzes and high strength yellow brasses, cast in sand and permanent molds, were usually fine grained due to the presence of more than 2% iron. Grain refinement of the most common permanent mold casting alloys, leaded yellow brass and its lead-free replacement EnviroBrass III, is not universally accepted due to the perceived problem of hard spots in finished castings and for the same reason these alloys contain very low amounts of iron. The yellow brasses and Cu-Si alloys are gaining popularity in North America due to their low lead content and amenability for permanent mold casting. These alloys are prone to hot tearing in permanent mold casting. Grain refinement is one of the solutions for reducing this problem. However, to use this technique it is necessary to understand the mechanism of grain refinement and other issues involved in the process. The following issues were studied during this three year project funded by the US Department of Energy and the copper casting industry: (1) Effect of alloying additions on the grain size of Cu-Zn alloys and their interaction with grain refiners; (2) Effect of two grain refining elements, boron and zirconium, on the grain size of four copper alloys, yellow brass, EnviroBrass II, silicon brass and silicon bronze and the duration of their effect (fading); (3) Prediction of grain refinement using cooling curve analysis and use of this method as an on-line quality control tool; (4) Hard spot formation in yellow brass and EnviroBrass due to grain refinement; (5) Corrosion resistance of the grain refined alloys; (6) Transfer the technology to permanent mold casting foundries; It was found that alloying elements such as tin and zinc do not change the grain size of Cu-Zn alloys. Aluminum promoted b phase formation and modified the grain structure from dendritic to equiaxed. Lead or bismuth reduces the size of grains, but not change the morphology of the structure in Cu-Zn alloys. The grain size of the Cu-Zn-alloy can be reduced from 3000 mm to 300 mm after the addition of aluminum and lead. Similar effects were observed in EnviroBrass III after the addition of aluminum and bismuth. Boron refined the structure of yellow brasses in the presence of iron. At least 50 ppm of iron and 3 ppm of boron are necessary to cause grain refinement in these alloys. Precipitation of iron from the melt is identified as the cause of grain refinement. Boron initiates the precipitation of iron which could not be explained at this time. On the other hand zirconium causes some reduction in grain size in all four alloys investigated. The critical limit for the zirconium was found to be around 100 ppm below which not much refinement could be observed. The mechanism of grain refinement in the presence of zirconium could not be explained. Grain refinement by boron and iron can remain over a long period of time, at least for 72 hours of holding or after remelting few times. It is necessary to have the iron and boron contents above the critical limits mentioned earlier. On the other hand, refinement by zirconium is lost quite rapidly, some times within one hour of holding, mostly due to the loss of zirconium, most probably by oxidation, from the melt. In all the cases it is possible to revive the refinement by adding more of the appropriate refining element. Cooling curve analysis (thermal analysis) can be used successfully to predict the grain refinement in yellow brasses. The precipitation of iron in the liquid metal causes the metal to solidify without undercooling. Absence of this reaction, as indicated by the time-temperature (t-T) and its first derivative (dt/dT) curves, proved to be an indicator of refinement. The viability of the technique as an on-line quality control tool was proved in two foundries. The method can also correctly predict the onset of fading. Th

M. SADAYAPPAN, J.P. THOMSON, M.ELBOUJDAINI, G. PING GU, M. SAHOO

2004-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

205

Alfvnic waves and alignment of large grains  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The alignment of grains under the influence of the Alfvenic waves is discussed. It is shown that even small deviations from grain uniformity result in the alignment of large (l > 6?10?5 cm) grains. The latter res...

A. Lazarian

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Dense, finely, grained composite materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Dense, finely grained composite materials comprising one or more ceramic phase or phase and one or more metallic and/or intermetallic phase or phases are produced by combustion synthesis. Spherical ceramic grains are homogeneously dispersed within the matrix. Methods are provided, which include the step of applying mechanical pressure during or immediately after ignition, by which the microstructures in the resulting composites can be controllably selected.

Dunmead, Stephen D. (Davis, CA); Holt, Joseph B. (San Jose, CA); Kingman, Donald D. (Danville, CA); Munir, Zuhair A. (Davis, CA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Middle Path Coarse Grain Parallelization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Backend OpenMP Fortran OpenMP Backend MPI Fortran MPI Backend ½ ?? ? BPA RB SB Program Near fine grain layer 3rd layer Near fine grain parallelism in loop body BPA RB SB BPA RB SB BPA RB SB BPA RB SB BPA RB SB BPA RB SB ¾ ¾º½º½ ? ? Á ? ? ? ¾ Data Dependency Extended Contorol Dependency Conditional Branch

Kasahara, Hironori

208

Collisional effects on nonlinear ion drag force for small grains  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ion drag force arising from plasma flow past an embedded spherical grain is calculated self-consistently and non-linearly using particle in cell codes, accounting for ion-neutral collisions. Using ion velocity distribution appropriate for ion drift driven by a force field gives wake potential and force greatly different from a shifted Maxwellian distribution, regardless of collisionality. The low-collisionality forces are shown to be consistent with estimates based upon cross-sections for scattering in a Yukawa (shielded) grain field, but only if non-linear shielding length is used. Finite collisionality initially enhances the drag force, but only by up to a factor of 2. Larger collisionality eventually reduces the drag force. In the collisional regime, the drift distribution gives larger drag than the shift distribution even at velocities where their collisionless drags are equal. Comprehensive practical analytic formulas for force that fit the calculations are provided.

Hutchinson, I. H.; Haakonsen, C. B. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center and Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)] [Plasma Science and Fusion Center and Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

209

Investigation of thermochemical biorefinery sizing and environmental sustainability impacts for conventional supply system and distributed pre-processing supply system designs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 2011 US Billion-Ton Update estimates that by 2030 there will be enough agricultural and forest resources to sustainably provide at least one billion dry tons of biomass annually, enough to displace approximately 30% of the country's current petroleum consumption. A portion of these resources are inaccessible at current cost targets with conventional feedstock supply systems because of their remoteness or low yields. Reliable analyses and projections of US biofuels production depend on assumptions about the supply system and biorefinery capacity, which, in turn, depend upon economic value, feedstock logistics, and sustainability. A cross-functional team has examined combinations of advances in feedstock supply systems and biorefinery capacities with rigorous design information, improved crop yield and agronomic practices, and improved estimates of sustainable biomass availability. A previous report on biochemical refinery capacity noted that under advanced feedstock logistic supply systems that include depots and pre-processing operations there are cost advantages that support larger biorefineries up to 10 000 DMT/day facilities compared to the smaller 2000 DMT/day facilities. This report focuses on analyzing conventional versus advanced depot biomass supply systems for a thermochemical conversion and refinery sizing based on woody biomass. The results of this analysis demonstrate that the economies of scale enabled by advanced logistics offsets much of the added logistics costs from additional depot processing and transportation, resulting in a small overall increase to the minimum ethanol selling price compared to the conventional logistic supply system. While the overall costs do increase slightly for the advanced logistic supply systems, the ability to mitigate moisture and ash in the system will improve the storage and conversion processes. In addition, being able to draw on feedstocks from further distances will decrease the risk of biomass supply to the conversion facility.

David J. Muth, Jr.; Matthew H. Langholtz; Eric C. D. Tan; Jacob J. Jacobson; Amy Schwab; May M. Wu; Andrew Argo; Craig C. Brandt; Kara G. Cafferty; Yi-Wen Chiu; Abhijit Dutta; Laurence M. Eaton; Erin M. Searcy

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

The Mg isotope composition of presolar silicate grains from red giant stars  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract We report O and Mg isotope compositions of presolar silicate grains which likely formed around asymptotic giant branch stars. Our grains represent the most abundant Mg-rich presolar grain group and their Mg isotope composition provides thus far missing information about the contribution of isotopically anomalous presolar dust to the Mg isotope inventory of the early Solar System. Presolar silicate grains were identified in situ, using the NanoSIMS, in the matrix of the ungrouped carbonaceous chondrite Acfer 094. O isotope compositions suggest that the presolar grains of the present study formed in the stellar winds of low mass (M??2.2נMsolar) red giant or asymptotic giant branch stars of close-to-solar metallicity and thus belong to the most abundant presolar silicate grain group. In order to minimise matrix contributions during spatially poorly resolved Mg isotope analyses (spatial resolution comparable to average grain size), meteorite matrix in the presolar grains vicinity was removed using a focussed Ga ion beam. To monitor accuracy, we prepared and analysed O-isotopically regular (Solar System) matrix grains the same way as the presolar grains. The 25Mg/24Mg ratios of all seven successfully analysed presolar silicate grains are identical to that of the Solar System at the precision of our measurements. The 26Mg/24Mg ratios of five grains are also solar but two grains have significant positive anomalies in 26Mg/24Mg. On average, however, 25Mg/24Mg and 26Mg/24Mg ratios are higher than solar by a few %. All grain compositions are consistent with Galactic chemical evolution and, possibly, isotope fractionation caused by interstellar or Solar System processing (sputtering and/or recondensation). The grain with the strongest enrichment in 26Mg relative to 25Mg (?25Mg=3425, ?26Mg=12725; where ?xMg=1000נ[(xMg/24Mg)grain/(xMg/24Mg)meteorite matrix)?1] with x=25 or 26; the reported uncertainty corresponds to 1?), probably incorporated 26Al during grain condensation. Our and previously reported Mg isotope data on presolar oxide and silicate grains indicate that the isotopically anomalous O-rich dust component of the Solar Systems parent molecular cloud was heterogeneous with respect to Mg isotope compositions and probably had a higher 26Mg/24Mg ratio on average than that of the present-day Solar System.

Jnos Kodolnyi; Peter Hoppe; Elmar Grner; Christoph Pauly; Frank Mcklich

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

2012 Market Report on Wind Technologies in Distributed Applications  

Wind Powering America (EERE)

1 1 Wind Program 2012 Market Report on Wind Technologies in Distributed Applications Alice Orrell, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Heather Rhoads-Weaver, eFormative Options, LLC PNNL-SA-97689 2 What is "Distributed Wind"? Distributed wind is used on or near where it is generated and is... Not just small scale; could be any size turbine or array Employed by households, schools, farms, industrial facilities, municipalities Found in all 50 states and Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands A large portion of turbines installed in U.S. on a per unit basis And has been used for more than 2,000 years to pump water and grind grain Photo Credit: Tom Rivers/The (Batavia, N.Y.) Daily News Photo Credit: Gamesa 3 Benefits of Distributed Wind

212

Critical angle refractometry and sizing of bubble clouds  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The principle of the critical angle refractometry and sizing technique is extended to characterize the size distribution and the mean refractive index of clouds of bubbles. For a...

Onofri, Fabrice; Krysiek, Mariusz; Mroczka, Janusz

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Wave propagation, stress relaxation, and grain-to-grain shearing in saturated, unconsolidated marine sediments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wave propagation, stress relaxation, and grain-to-grain shearing in saturated, unconsolidated in saturated, unconsolidated granular materials, including marine sediments, is developed in this article

Buckingham, Michael

214

Optical method for the determination of grain orientation in films  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for the determination of grain orientation in a film sample is provided comprising the steps of measuring a first transient optical response of the film and determining the contribution to the transient optical response arising from a change in the energy distribution of the electrons in the sample, determining the contribution to the transient optical response arising from a propagating strain pulse within the sample, and determining the contribution to the transient optical response arising from a change in sample temperature of the sample. The grain orientation of the sample may be determined using the contributions to the transient optical response arising from the change in the energy distribution of the electrons, the propagating strain pulse, and the change in sample temperature. Additionally, a method for determination of the thickness of a film sample is provided. The grain orientation of the sample is first determined. The grain orientation, together with the velocity of sound and a propagation time of a strain pulse through the sample are then used to determine the thickness of the film sample.

Maris, Humphrey J. (Barrington, RI)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Microstructure and nanohardness distribution in a polycrystalline Zn deformed by high strain rate impact  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-Munitions, 7 route de Guerry, 18023 Bourges Cedex, France c Department of Materials Physics, Eötvös Loránd grain size of 20 m surrounded by a fine-grained rim with an average grain size of 6 m. Transmission in high purity polycrystal- line Zn. The evolution of the microstructure due to the impact loading

Gubicza, Jenõ

216

Golden Grain Energy LLC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

search Name: Golden Grain Energy LLC Place: Mason City, Iowa Zip: 50401 Product: Ethanol producer. References: Golden Grain Energy LLC1 This article is a stub. You can help...

217

Large grains in the disk of CQ Tau  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present 7mm observations of the dusty disk surrounding the 10 Myr old 1.5 Msun pre-main-sequence star CQ Tauri obtained at the Very Large Array with 0.8 arcsecond resolution and 0.1 mJy rms sensitivity. These observations resolve the 7mm emission in approximately the north-south direction, confirming previous results obtained with lower resolution. We use a two-layer flared disk model to interpret the observed fluxes from 7mm to 1.3mm together with the resolved 7mm structure. We find that the disk radius is constrained to the range 100 to 300 AU, depending on the steepness of the disk surface density distribution. The power law index of the dust opacity coefficient, beta, is constrained to be 0.5 to 0.7. Since the models indicate that the disk is optically thin at millimeter wavelengths for radii greater than 8 AU, the contribution of an optically thick region to the emission is less than 10%. This implies that high optical depth or complex disk geometry cannot be the cause of the observed shallow millimeter spectral index. Instead, the new analysis supports the earlier suggestion that dust particles in the disk have grown to sizes as large as a few centimeters. The dust in the CQ Tauri system appears to be evolved much like that in the TW Hydra system, a well-studied pre-main-sequence star of similar age and lower mass. The survival of gas-rich disks with incomplete grain evolution at such old ages deserves further investigations.

L. Testi; A. Natta; D. S. Shepherd; D. J. Wilner

2003-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

218

Grain and Grain-Boundary Critical Currents in Coated Conductors with Non-Correlating YBa2Cu3O7 and Substrate Grain-Boundary Networks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The superconducting grain-boundary (GB) network of coated conductors (CCs) is usually assumed to be a replica of the substrate network. In this letter, we analyze IBAD and RABITS CCs, where such replica either do or do not exist. We have analyzed the effect of GB overgrowth on the critical currents by quantifying the average superconducting grain size and determining the intragrain and grain-boundary critical current densities, J{sub c}{sup G} and J{sub c}{sup GB}. We have employed a recently developed inductive methodology enabling the simultaneous determination of these three parameters. We show that the percolative J{sub c}{sup GB} may be reduced by 50% if the GB networks do not correlate, while J{sub c}{sup G} and the grain pinning properties appear unaffected.

Palau, A. [ICMAB, Barcelona, Spain; Puig, T. [ICMAB, Barcelona, Spain; Obradors, X. [ICMAB, Barcelona, Spain; Feenstra, Roeland [ORNL; Gapud, Albert Agcaoili [ORNL; Specht, Eliot D [ORNL; Feldmann, D. M. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Holesinger, T. G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Grain boundary loops in graphene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Topological defects can affect the physical properties of graphene in unexpected ways. Harnessing their influence may lead to enhanced control of both material strength and electrical properties. Here we present a class of topological defects in graphene composed of a rotating sequence of dislocations that close on themselves, forming grain boundary loops that either conserve the number of atoms in the hexagonal lattice or accommodate vacancy or interstitial reconstruction, while leaving no unsatisfied bonds. One grain boundary loop is observed as a flower pattern in scanning tunneling microscopy studies of epitaxial graphene grown on SiC(0001). We show that the flower defect has the lowest energy per dislocation core of any known topological defect in graphene, providing a natural explanation for its growth via the coalescence of mobile dislocations.

Eric Cockayne; Gregory M. Rutter; Nathan P. Guisinger; Jason N. Crain; Phillip N. First; Joseph A. Stroscio

2011-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

220

Measurement of Size Distributions of Bacterial Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...The pulses persisted for 200 to 300,usec and were followed by a slight undershoot...were: first differentiators, 0.8 ,usec: integrator, 0.8 pusec; second differentiator...chi-square. Only one setting (0.8 ,usec) of the first dif- ferentiator gave adequate...

R. J. Harvey; Allen G. Marr

1966-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "grain size distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Original article Distribution and variation of size  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

florea worker bees were collected from nests found in Iranian provinces near the Persian Gulf, up to more. Since this species was detected as far north on the Iranian coast of the Persian Gulf and on the slopes nests were collected from provinces relatively close to the Persian Gulf (fig 1),aregion previously

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

222

Current transport along grain boundaries in d-wave superconductors.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of a classic phase retrieval algorithm has been previously used to determine the local critical current J{sub c}(x) along the length of grain boundary Josephson junctions that can be characterized using a standard s-wave model. The phase retrieval approach has been modified for use with d-wave dominated superconductors to allow for negative local currents along the boundary. In general solutions to the 1-D phase problem are not unique, however in the present work special constraints are employed experimentally to ensure uniqueness. The various current distribution solutions and their possible uniqueness are explored. The solutions are consistent with most existing d-wave Josephson junction boundary models and can be used to understand the basic current distribution along 45 degree YaBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} grain boundary junctions as well as providing a means for mapping the location of self-generated flux cores.

Carmody, M.; Marks, L. D.; Merkle, K. L.; Materials Science Division; Northwestern Univ.

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Effective porosity and pore-throat sizes of Conasauga Group mudrock: Application, test and evaluation of petrophysical techniques  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Effective porosity (specifically referring to the interconnected pore space) was recently recognized as being essential in determining the effectiveness and extent of matrix diffusion as a transport mechanism within fractured low-permeability rock formations. The research presented in this report was performed to test the applicability of several petrophysical techniques for the determination of effective porosity of fine-grained siliciclastic rocks. In addition, the aim was to gather quantitative data on the effective porosity of Conasauga Group mudrock from the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The quantitative data reported here include not only effective porosities based on diverse measurement techniques, but also data on the sizes of pore throats and their distribution, and specimen bulk and grain densities. The petrophysical techniques employed include the immersion-saturation method, mercury and helium porosimetry, and the radial diffusion-cell method.

Dorsch, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; Katsube, T.J. [Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Mineral Resources Div.; Sanford, W.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Dugan, B.E. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Civil and Mineral Engineering; Tourkow, L.M. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

In-service Inspection Ultrasonic Testing of Reactor Pressure Vessel Welds for Assessing Flaw Density and Size Distribution per 10 CFR 50.61a, Alternate Fracture Toughness Requirements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pressurized thermal shock (PTS) events are system transients in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) in which there is a rapid operating temperature cool-down that results in cold vessel temperatures with or without repressurization of the vessel. The rapid cooling of the inside surface of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) causes thermal stresses that can combine with stresses caused by high pressure. The aggregate effect of these stresses is an increase in the potential for fracture if a pre-existing flaw is present in a material susceptible to brittle failure. The ferritic, low alloy steel of the reactor vessel beltline adjacent to the core, where neutron radiation gradually embrittles the material over the lifetime of the plant, can be susceptible to brittle fracture. The PTS rule, described in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Section 50.61 (50.61), Fracture Toughness Requirements for Protection against Pressurized Thermal Shock Events, adopted on July 23, 1985, establishes screening criteria to ensure that the potential for a reactor vessel to fail due to a PTS event is deemed to be acceptably low. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) completed a research program that concluded that the risk of through-wall cracking due to a PTS event is much lower than previously estimated. The NRC subsequently developed a rule, 50.61a, published on January 4, 2010, entitled Alternate Fracture Toughness Requirements for Protection Against Pressurized Thermal Shock Events (75 FR 13). Use of the new rule by licensees is optional. The 50.61a rule differs from 50.61 in that it requires licensees who choose to follow this alternate method to analyze the results from periodic volumetric examinations required by the ASME Code, Section XI, Rules for Inservice Inspection (ISI) of Nuclear Power Plants. These analyses are intended to determine if the actual flaw density and size distribution in the licensees reactor vessel beltline welds are bounded by the flaw density and size distribution values used in the PTS technical basis. Under a contract with the NRC, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been working on a program to assess the ability of current inservice inspection (ISI)-ultrasonic testing (UT) techniques, as qualified through ASME Code, Appendix VIII, Supplements 4 and 6, to detect small fabrication or inservice-induced flaws located in RPV welds and adjacent base materials. As part of this effort, the investigators have pursued an evaluation, based on the available information, of the capability of UT to provide flaw density/distribution inputs for making RPV weld assessments in accordance with 50.61a. This paper presents the results of an evaluation of data from the 1993 Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant, Unit 3, Spirit of Appendix VIII reactor vessel examination, a comparison of the flaw density/distribution from this data with the distribution in 50.61a, possible reasons for differences, and plans and recommendations for further work in this area.

Sullivan, Edmund J.; Anderson, Michael T.; Norris, Wallace

2012-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

225

Effect of lift force on the aerodynamics of dust grains in the protoplanetary disk  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We newly introduce lift force into the aerodynamics of dust grains in the protoplanetary disk. Although many authors have so far investigated the effects of the drag force, gravitational force and electric force on the dust grains, the lift force has never been considered as a force exerted on the dust grains in the gas disk. If the grains are spinning and moving in the fluid, then the lift force is exerted on them. We show in this paper that the dust grains can be continuously spinning due to the frequent collisions so that the lift force continues to be exerted on them, which is valid in a certain parameter space where the grain size is larger than ~ 1 m and where the distance from the central star is larger than 1 AU for the minimum mass solar nebula. In addition, we estimate the effects of the force on the grain motion and obtain the result that the mean relative velocity between the grains due to the lift force is comparable to the gas velocity in the Kepler rotational frame when the Stokes number and li...

Yamaguchi, Masaki S

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

[Grain boundary and interface kinetics during ion irradiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Proposed here is renewed support of a research program focused on interface motion and phase transformation during ion irradiation, with emphasis on elemental semiconductors. Broadly speaking, the aims of this program are to explore defect kinetics in amorphous and crystalline semiconductors, and to relate defect dynamics to interface motion and phase transformations. Over the last three years, we initiated a program under DOE support to explore crystallization and amorphization of elemental semiconductors under irradiation. This research has enabled new insights about the nature of defects in amorphous semiconductors and about microstructural evolution in the early stages of crystallization. In addition, we have demonstrated almost arbitrary control over the relative rates of crystal nucleation and crystal growth in silicon. As a result, the impinged grain microstructure of thin (100 nm) polycrystalline films crystallized under irradiation can be controlled with grain sizes ranging from a few nanometers to several micrometers, which may have interesting technological implications.

Atwater, H.A.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

227

(Grain boundary and interface kinetics during ion irradiation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Proposed here is renewed support of a research program focused on interface motion and phase transformation during ion irradiation, with emphasis on elemental semiconductors. Broadly speaking, the aims of this program are to explore defect kinetics in amorphous and crystalline semiconductors, and to relate defect dynamics to interface motion and phase transformations. Over the last three years, we initiated a program under DOE support to explore crystallization and amorphization of elemental semiconductors under irradiation. This research has enabled new insights about the nature of defects in amorphous semiconductors and about microstructural evolution in the early stages of crystallization. In addition, we have demonstrated almost arbitrary control over the relative rates of crystal nucleation and crystal growth in silicon. As a result, the impinged grain microstructure of thin (100 nm) polycrystalline films crystallized under irradiation can be controlled with grain sizes ranging from a few nanometers to several micrometers, which may have interesting technological implications.

Atwater, H.A.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Characterisation of Hadley grains by confocal microscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This work forms part of an exploratory study to investigate the use of fluorescent laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) for imaging pores and voids in hardened mortar and concrete. The study has revealed the suitability of the technique for the characterisation of hollow shell (Hadley) hydration grains (these are grains that contain a void within the original boundary of the cement grain). It was found that Hadley grains could be imaged using fluorescent light techniques, subsequent to their impregnation by epoxy resin doped with a fluorescent dye. Prior to this work, it was not clear whether hollow grains were impregnated due to connections with capillary pores, or if they had been impregnated due to connections with damage caused during surface preparation (i.e. micro-cracks or deep surface scratches). However using the 3D LSCM imaging technique it was observed that connections between Hadley grains and hardened cement paste (HCP) capillary pores did exist, in different forms, at depths well below the surface providing conduits along which resin was able to flow and impregnate the hollow grains. Other aspects of imaging Hadley grains are also described, such as the sectioning of tips of larger grains often taken as separate smaller pores or grains in 2D images.

M.K. Head; H.S. Wong; N.R. Buenfeld

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Phytotoxicity and Distribution of Sorgoleone in Grain Sorghum Germplasm  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40546, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68583, and Department of Horticulture, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 ... The nutrient solution was aerated, and plants were maintained under fluorescent lighting for 10 days. ... After a steady rate of respiration was attained, sorgoleone was added under dim light and allowed to absorb for 3 min. ...

Chandrashekhar I. Nimbal; Jeffery F. Pedersen; Carla N. Yerkes; Leslie A. Weston; Stephen C. Weller

1996-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

230

Structural Dependence of Grain Boundary Resistivity in Copper Nanowires  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report the direct measurement of individual grain boundary (GB) resistances and the critical role of GB structure in the increased resistivity in copper nanowires. By measuring both intra- and inter-grain resistance with a four-probe scanning tunneling microscope, large resistance jumps are revealed owing to successive scattering across high-angle random GBs, while the resistance changes at twin and other coincidence boundaries are negligibly small. The impurity distributions in the nanowires are characterized in correlating to the microstructures. The resistance of high symmetry coincidence GBs and the impurity contributions are then calculated using a first-principle method which confirms that the coincidence GBs have orders of magnitude smaller resistance than the high-angle random GBs.

Evans III, Boyd Mccutchen [ORNL; Kenik, Edward A [ORNL; Kim, Tae Hwan [ORNL; Kulkarni, Nagraj S [ORNL; Li, An-Ping [ORNL; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL; Nicholson, Don M [ORNL; Radhakrishnan, Bala [ORNL; Zhang, Xiaoguang [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Quartz grain-size and grain-shape variation in the surface sediments of Galveston Island, Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

transect line. Location of additional beach and fore-island dune samples. Sampling procedures at these locations are thoroughly described in the text. The samples field identification numbers are included in Appendices A and B, The samples are listed... progressively from the low-tide limit of the forebeach through the most landward dune sample under the corresponding sample location number (1 through 13). 24 O O Transect 3 sample location. The top portion is an enlarge- ment of the boxed area labeled T3...

George, Lawrence Matthew

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

A new model of composite interstellar dust grains  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The approach to model composite interstellar dust grains, using the exact solution to the light scattering problem for multi-layered spheres as suggested by Voshchinnikov & Mathis (1999), is further developed. Heterogeneous scatteres are represented by particles with very large number of shells, each including a homogeneous layer per material considered (amorphous carbon, astronomical silicate and vacuum). The applicability of the effective medium theory (EMT) mostly utilized earlier to approximate inhomogeneous interstellar grains is examined on the basis of the new model. It is shown that the EMT rules generally have an accuracy of several percent in the whole range of particle sizes provided the porosity does not exceed about 50%. For larger porosity, the EMT rules give wrong results. Using the model, we reanalyze various basic features of cosmic dust -- interstellar extinction, scattered radiation, infrared radiation, radiation pressure, etc. As an example of the potential of the model, it is applied to reproduce the extinction curves in the directions to $\\zeta$ Oph and $\\sigma$ Sco using subsolar cosmic abundances. We also conclude that metallic iron even in negligible amount ($\\la 1$ % by the volume fraction) is unlikely to form a layer on or inside a grain because of peculiar absorption of radiation by such particles.

N. V. Voshchinnikov; V. B. Il'in; Th. Henning; D. N. Dubkova

2003-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

233

Linking Grain Boundary Structure and Composition to Intergranular Stress Corrosion Cracking of Austenitic Stainless Steels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Grain boundary structure and composition is assessed in austenitic stainless steels along with its influence on intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in high-temperature water. Brief examples are presented illustrating effects of grain boundary character and segregation on behavior in specific light-water-reactor environments. Although grain boundary engineering can produce an increased fraction of special boundaries in austenitic stainless alloys, practical benefits depend on the boundary orientation distribution. It is critical to recognize that only coherent sigma 3s appear to be resistant to SCC and the behavior of other low sigma boundaries is uncertain. Grain boundary composition can have a dominant effect on IGSCC under certain conditions, but altered interfacial chemistry is not required for cracking. In high-potential oxidizing environments, IGSCC susceptibility is a direct function of the boundary Cr concentration. Non-equilibrium thermal segregation of Cr and Mo is often present in millannealed stainless steels and may influence cracking susceptibility. This initial grain boundary composition alters subsequent radiation-induced segregation and delays irradiation-assisted SCC susceptibility to higher doses. Other alloying elements and impurities in 300-series stainless steels have been seen to enrich grain boundaries, but few have any significant impact on IGSCC susceptibility. One exception is Si that strongly segregates during irradiation. recent results suggest that Si may accelerate crack propagation in both low- and high-potential water environments. Critical research is still needed to isolate individual grain boundary characteristics and quantitatively link to IGSCC.

Bruemmer, Stephen M.

2004-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

234

1999 Commercial Buildings Characteristics--Building Size  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Size of Buildings Size of Buildings Size of Buildings The 1999 CBECS estimated that 2,348,000 commercial buildings, or just over half (50.4 percent) of total buildings, were found in the smallest building size category (1,001 to 5,000 square feet) (Figure 1). Only 7,000 buildings occupied the largest size category (over 500,000 square feet). Detailed tables Figure 1. Distribution of Buildings by Size of Building, 1999 Figure 1. Distribution of Buildings by Size of Building, 1999. If having trouble viewing this page, please contact the National Energy Information Center at (202) 586-8800. Energy Information Administration Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey The middle size categories (10,001 to 100,000 square feet) had relatively more floorspace per category than smaller or larger size categories (Figure 2). The greatest amount of floorspace, about 11,153,000 square feet (or 17 percent of total floorspace) was found in the 10,001 to 25,000 square feet category. Figure 2. Distribution of Floorspace by Size of Building, 1999

235

What determines cell size?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as: Marshall WF, et al. : What determines cell size? BMC7007/10/101 FORUM Open Access What determines cell size?biologists have been wondering what determines the size of

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Modelling the optical properties of composite and porous interstellar grains  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

There are indications that interstellar and interplanetary dust grains have an inhomogeneous and fluffy structure. We investigate different methods to describe light scattering by such composite particles. Both a model of layered particles and discrete dipole calculations for particles with Rayleigh and non-Rayleigh inclusions are used. The calculations demonstrate that porosity is a key parameter for determining light scattering. We find that the optical properties of the layered particles depend on the number and position of layers if the number of layers is small ($\\la 15$). For a larger number of layers the scattering characteristics become independent of the layer sequence. The optical properties of particles with inclusions depend on the size of inclusions provided the porosity is large. The scattering characteristics of very porous particles with inclusions of different sizes are found to be close to those of multi-layered spheres. We compare the results of these calculations with the predictions of the effective medium theories (EMT) which are often used in astronomy as a tool to calculate the optical properties of composite particles. The results of our analysis show that the internal structure of grains (layers versus inclusions) only slightly affects the optics of particles provided the porosity does not exceed 50%. It is also demonstrated that in this case the optical properties of composite grains calculated with EMT agree with the results of the exact method for layered particles. For larger porosity, the standard EMT rules (i.e., Garnett and Bruggeman rules) give reliable results for particles with Rayleigh inclusions only.

N. V. Voshchinnikov; V. B. Il'in; Th. Henning

2004-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

237

Ultra-fine grained bulk CP-Ti processed by multi-pass ECAP at warm deformation region  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In order to refine the grain size of commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti) to a submicrometer scale, equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) was attempted at a temperature range of 200300C. The experiments revealed that, 250C was the minimum temperature at which ten passes of ECAP could be performed in a 105 die without the cracking of billets. An ultrafine-grained (UFG) microstructure with a mean grain size of 183nm was achieved after 10 passes. The processed CP-Ti displayed high tensile strength of 892MPa and high elongation to failure of 20.5%. The enhancement in mechanical properties is explained in terms of grain refinement and dislocation density increasing. The high ductility of UFG pure Ti with the absence of strain hardening behavior is attributed to its enhanced strain rate sensitivity.

K. Hajizadeh; B. Eghbali; K. Topolski; K.J. Kurzydlowski

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Measurement of Engine Exhaust Particle Size  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Measurement of Engine Exhaust Particle Size David B. Kittelson Center for Diesel Research than 90% of particle number are formed during exhaust dilution ­ Particle dynamics during sampling deposition of particle with density of 1 g/um Typical Diesel Particle Size Distribution #12;Typical Diesel

Minnesota, University of

239

Systems simulation of oil additives to grain at terminal elevators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in Missouri and Texas. Several of these elevators are using oil additives on a regular basis. In addition to grain samples, operating data such as equipment capacities, operating hours and volume of grain handled were obtained. The grain samples were... in Missouri and Texas. Several of these elevators are using oil additives on a regular basis. In addition to grain samples, operating data such as equipment capacities, operating hours and volume of grain handled were obtained. The grain samples were...

Goforth, Kerry James

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

240

Characterization of ultra-fine grained aluminum produced by accumulative back extrusion (ABE)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the present work, the microstructural evolutions and microhardness of AA1050 subjected to one, two and three passes of accumulative back extrusion (ABE) were investigated. The microstructural evolutions were characterized using transmission electron microscopy. The results revealed that applying three passes of accumulative back extrusion led to significant grain refinement. The initial grain size of 47 {mu}m was refined to the grains of 500 nm after three passes of ABE. Increasing the number of passes resulted in more decrease in grain size, better microstructure homogeneity and increase in the microhardness. The cross-section of ABEed specimen consisted of two different zones: (i) shear deformation zone, and (ii) normal deformation zone. The microhardness measurements indicated that the hardness increased from the initial value of 31 Hv to 67 Hv, verifying the significant microstructural refinement via accumulative back extrusion. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A significant grain refinement can be achieved in AA1050, Al alloy by applying ABE. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microstructural homogeneity of ABEed samples increased by increasing the number of ABE cycles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A substantial increase in the hardness, from 31 Hv to 67 Hv, was recorded.

Alihosseini, H., E-mail: hamid.alihossieni@gmail.com [Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Materials Science and Engineering Department, Engineering School, Amirkabir University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faraji, G.; Dizaji, A.F. [Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dehghani, K. [Materials Science and Engineering Department, Engineering School, Amirkabir University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "grain size distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Heavy Element Abundances in Presolar Silicon Carbide Grains from Low-Metallicity AGB Stars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Primitive meteorites contain small amounts of presolar minerals that formed in the winds of evolved stars or in the ejecta of stellar explosions. Silicon carbide is the best studied presolar mineral. Based on its isotopic compositions it was divided into distinct populations that have different origins: Most abundant are the mainstream grains which are believed to come from 1.5-3 Msun AGB stars of roughly solar metallicitiy. The rare Y and Z grains are likely to come from 1.5-3 Msun AGB stars as well, but with subsolar metallicities (0.3-0.5x solar). Here we report on C and Si isotope and trace element (Zr, Ba) studies of individual, submicrometer-sized SiC grains. The most striking results are: (1) Zr and Ba concentrations are higher in Y and Z grains than in mainstream grains, with enrichments relative to Si and solar of up to 70x (Zr) and 170x (Ba), respectively. (2) For the Y and Z grains there is a positive correlation between Ba concentrations and amount of s-process Si. This correlation is well explain...

Hoppe, P; Vollmer, C; Groener, E; Heck, P R; Gallino, R; Amari, S; 10.1071/AS08033

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Advancing Biorefining of Distiller's Grain and Corn Stover Blends...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Advancing Biorefining of Distiller's Grain and Corn Stover Blends Advancing Biorefining of Distiller's Grain and Corn Stover Blends This fact sheet summarizes a U.S. Department of...

243

Band-Gap Engineering of Carbon Nanotubes with Grain Boundaries...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Band-Gap Engineering of Carbon Nanotubes with Grain Boundaries. Band-Gap Engineering of Carbon Nanotubes with Grain Boundaries. Abstract: Structure and electronic properties of...

244

Heartland Grain Fuels LP | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Grain Fuels LP Grain Fuels LP Jump to: navigation, search Name Heartland Grain Fuels LP Place Aberdeen, South Dakota Zip 57401 Sector Bioenergy Product Heartland Grain Fuels is a cooperatively-owned producer of corn-derived ethanol that was acquired by Advanced Bioenergy in November 2006. Coordinates 46.975867°, -123.81598° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":46.975867,"lon":-123.81598,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

245

Large Grain Superconducting RF Cavities at DESY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The DESY R and D program on cavities fabricated from large grain niobium explores the potential of this material for the production of approx. 1000 nine-cell cavities for the European XFEL. The program investigates basic material properties, comparing large grain material to standard sheet niobium, as well as fabrication and preparation aspects. Several single-cell cavities of TESLA shape have been fabricated from large grain niobium. A gradient up to 41 MV/m at Q0 = 1.4{center_dot}1010 (TB = 2K) was measured after electropolishing. The first three large grain nine-cell cavities worldwide have been produced under contract of DESY with ACCEL Instruments Co. The first tests have shown that all three cavities reach an accelerating gradient up to 30 MV/m after BCP (Buffered Chemical Polishing) treatment, what exceeds the XFEL requirements for RF test in the vertical cryostat.

Singer, W.; Brinkmann, A.; Ermakov, A.; Iversen, J.; Kreps, G.; Matheisen, A.; Proch, D.; Reschke, D.; Singer, X.; Spiwek, M.; Wen, H.; Brokmeier, H. G. [DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); GKSS, Max-Planck-Strasse, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany)

2007-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

246

Microstructure and mechanical behavior of neutron irradiated ultrafine grained ferritic steel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Neutron irradiation effects on ultra-fine grain (UFG) low carbon steel prepared by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) has been examined. Counterpart samples with conventional grain (CG) sizes have been irradiated alongside with the UFG ones for comparison. Samples were irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to 1.24 dpa. Atom probe tomography revealed manganese, silicon-enriched clusters in both ECAP and CG steel after neutron irradiation. X-ray quantitative analysis showed that dislocation density in CG increased after irradiation. However, no significant change was observed in UFG steel revealing better radiation tolerance.

Ahmad Alsabbagh; Apu Sarkar; Brandon Miller; Jatuporn Burns; Leah Squires; Douglas Porter; James I. Cole; K. L. Murty

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

The influence of size, shape, and surface coating on the stability of aqueous nanoparticle suspensions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

images of each of the nanoparticle starting materials. Scalehistograms that show nanoparticle size distributions can bePrecise control over the nanoparticle size, shape, and

Mulvihill, M.J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Metal precipitation at grain boundaries in silicon: Dependence on grain boundary character and dislocation decoration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are combined to determine the dependence of metal silicide precipitate formation on grain boundary character and microstructure in multicrystalline silicon mc-Si . Metal silicide precipitate decoration is observed to increase the local metal silicide precipitate concentrations at various types of grain boundaries, identifying clear

249

Internetwork chromospheric bright grains observed with IRIS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) reveals small-scale rapid brightenings in the form of bright grains all over coronal holes and the quiet sun. These bright grains are seen with the IRIS 1330 \\AA, 1400 \\AA\\ and 2796 \\AA\\ slit-jaw filters. We combine coordinated observations with IRIS and from the ground with the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope (SST) which allows us to have chromospheric (Ca II 8542 \\AA, Ca II H 3968 \\AA, H\\alpha, and Mg II k 2796 \\AA), and transition region (C II 1334 \\AA, Si IV 1402) spectral imaging, and single-wavelength Stokes maps in Fe I 6302 \\AA at high spatial (0.33"), temporal and spectral resolution. We conclude that the IRIS slit-jaw grains are the counterpart of so-called acoustic grains, i.e., resulting from chromospheric acoustic waves in a non-magnetic environment. We compare slit-jaw images with spectra from the IRIS spectrograph. We conclude that the grain intensity in the 2796 \\AA\\ slit-jaw filter comes from both the Mg II k core and wings. The signal in the C II ...

Martnez-Sykora, Juan; Carlsson, Mats; De Pontieu, Bart; Pereira, Tiago M D; Boerner, Paul; Hurlburt, Neal; Kleint, Lucia; Lemen, James; Tarbell, Ted D; Title, Alan; Wuelser, Jean-Pierre; Hansteen, Viggo H; Golub, Leon; McKillop, Sean; Reeves, Kathy K; Saar, Steven; Testa, Paola; Tian, Hui; Jaeggli, Sarah; Kankelborg, Charles

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

40Ar/39Ar dating of microgram feldspar grains from the paired feldspathic achondrites GRA 06128 and 06129  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract 40Ar/39Ar ages of single feldspar grains from the paired meteorites Graves Nunatak 06128 (GRA8; 8 grains) and 06129 (GRA9; 26 grains) are presented. Plateau ages (?70% of the 39Ar released) ranged from 4000 to 4600Ma with an average 1-? uncertainty of 90Ma. The most precise ages obtained were 426717Ma for a grain from GRA8 and 443719Ma and 432118Ma for two grains from GRA9. Isotope correlation diagrams yield less precise ages ranging from 3800 to 5200Ma with an average 1-? uncertainty of 250Ma; they indicate a negligible trapped component. Plateau ages, integrated total fusion ages, and isochron ages are internally concordant at the 95% confidence level. The distribution of the plateau ages for GRA9 is bimodal with peaks at 4400 and 4300Ma. In contrast, the plateau age distribution for GRA8 peaks at about 4260Ma with broad wings extending toward younger and older ages. To explain the distributions of grain ages we prefer a scenario that includes a major post-formation event about 4400Ma ago and a later melt intrusion event that heated GRA8 more than some parts of GRA9.

Fara N. Lindsay; Gregory F. Herzog; Jisun Park; Jeremy S. Delaney; Brent D. Turrin; Carl C. Swisher III

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Distributed Algorithms Distributed Transactions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Algorithms© Gero Mühl 8 Concurrency Control serial RC (ReCoverable) ACA (Avoiding Cascading Aborts) ST (StricDistributed Algorithms Distributed Transactions PD Dr.-Ing. Gero Mühl Kommunikations- und Betriebssysteme Fakultät für Elektrotechnik u. Informatik Technische Universität Berlin #12;Distributed Algorithms

Wichmann, Felix

252

Midwest Grain Processors MGP | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Midwest Grain Processors MGP Midwest Grain Processors MGP Jump to: navigation, search Name Midwest Grain Processors (MGP) Place Lakota, Iowa Zip 50451 Product Iowa-based bioethanol producer using corn as feedstock. Coordinates 48.042535°, -98.335979° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":48.042535,"lon":-98.335979,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

253

PROPERTIES OF NEWLY FORMED DUST GRAINS IN THE LUMINOUS TYPE IIn SUPERNOVA 2010jl  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Supernovae (SNe) have been proposed to be the main production sites of dust grains in the universe. However, our knowledge of their importance to dust production is limited by observationally poor constraints on the nature and amount of dust particles produced by individual SNe. In this paper, we present a spectrum covering optical through near-Infrared (NIR) light of the luminous Type IIn supernova 2010jl around one and a half years after the explosion. This unique data set reveals multiple signatures of newly formed dust particles. The NIR portion of the spectrum provides a rare example where thermal emission from newly formed hot dust grains is clearly detected. We determine the main population of the dust species to be carbon grains at a temperature of ?1350-1450 K at this epoch. The mass of the dust grains is derived to be ?(7.5-8.5) 10{sup 4} M{sub ?}. Hydrogen emission lines show wavelength-dependent absorption, which provides a good estimate of the typical size of the newly formed dust grains (?< 0.1 ?m, and most likely ?< 0.01 ?m). We believe the dust grains were formed in a dense cooling shell as a result of a strong SN-circumstellar media (CSM) interaction. The dust grains occupy ?10% of the emitting volume, suggesting an inhomogeneous, clumpy structure. The average CSM density must be ?> 3 10{sup 7} cm{sup 3}, corresponding to a mass loss rate of ?> 0.02 M{sub ?} yr{sup 1} (for a mass loss wind velocity of ?100 km s{sup 1}). This strongly supports a scenario in which SN 2010jl and probably other luminous SNe IIn are powered by strong interactions within very dense CSM, perhaps created by Luminous-Blue-Variable-like eruptions within the last century before the explosion.

Maeda, K.; Nozawa, T.; Folatelli, G.; Moriya, T. J.; Nomoto, K.; Bersten, M.; Quimby, R. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Sahu, D. K.; Anupama, G. C. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala, Bangalore 560 034 (India); Minowa, Y.; Pyo, T.-S. [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North A'ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Motohara, K.; Kitagawa, Y. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Ueno, I.; Kawabata, K. S.; Yamanaka, M. [Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Kozasa, T. [Department of Cosmosciences, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Iye, M., E-mail: keiichi.maeda@ipmu.jp [National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan)

2013-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

254

Ge surface-energy-driven secondary grain growth via two-step annealing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A two-step annealing method with a low thermal budget is proposed for advanced surface-energy-driven secondary grain growth of Ge films without any agglomeration. In the first-step annealing, the normal grain growth from as-deposited poly-crystalline Ge films was induced to make the grain size equivalent to the film thickness at 800C. After the subsequent second-step annealing at 900C, the much larger secondary grains were obtained than those by single-step annealing at 900C. The possible explanation regarding the final microstructure of the two-step annealed film is proposed. The two-step annealing was able to form the microstructure of Ge thin film with very large-grained matrix without any agglomeration, resulting in higher carrier mobility. Therefore, the proposed two-step annealing is believed to be a promising process applicable for channel formation processes in the next-generation Ge thin film transistors for 3D integrated circuits and vertical NAND flash memories.

Sangsoo Lee; Yong-Hoon Son; Yongjo Park; Kihyun Hwang; Yoo Gyun Shin; Euijoon Yoon

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Improving the prediction of differential item functioning: a comparison of the use of an effect size for logistic regression DIF and Mantel-Haenszel DIF methods  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and the possibility of the detection of DIF across varying ability distributions, population distributions, and sample size combinations. Varying ability distributions and sample size combinations affected the detection of DIF, while population distributions did...

Duncan, Susan Cromwell

2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

256

E-Print Network 3.0 - adjustable pore size Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

by the rigid material alone. The difference in pore size distribution before and after heat... are observed in the larger pore range of the pore size distribution while the...

257

Equal-channel angular pressing of commercial aluminum alloys: Grain refinement, thermal stability and tensile properties  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Using equal-channel angular (ECA) pressing at room temperature, the grain sizes of six different commercial aluminum-based alloys (1100, 2024, 3004, 5083, 6061, and 7075) were reduced to within the submicrometer range. These grains were reasonably stable up to annealing temperatures of {approximately} 200 C and the submicrometer grains were retained in the 2024 and 7075 alloys to annealing temperatures of 300 C. Tensile testing after ECA pressing through a single pass, equivalent to the introduction of a strain of {approximately}1, showed there is a significant increase in the values of the 0.2 pct proof stress and the ultimate tensile stress (UTS) for each alloy with a corresponding reduction in the elongations to failure. It is demonstrated that the magnitudes of these stresses scale with the square rot of the Mg content in each alloy. Similar values for the proof stresses and the UTS were attained at the same equivalent strains in samples subjected to cold rolling, but the elongations to failure were higher after ECA pressing to equivalent strains >1 because of the introduction of a very small grain size. Detailed results for the 1100 and 3004 alloys show good agreement with the standard Hall-Petch relationship.

Horita, Zenji; Fujinami, Takayoshi; Nemoto, Minoru; Langdon, T.G.

2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Strengthening of metallic alloys with nanometer-size oxide dispersions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Austenitic stainless steels and nickel-base alloys containing, by wt. %, 0.1 to 3.0% V, 0.01 to 0.08% C, 0.01 to 0.5% N, 0.05% max. each of Al and Ti, and 0.005 to 0.10% O, are strengthened and ductility retained by atomization of a metal melt under cover of an inert gas with added oxygen to form approximately 8 nanometer-size hollow oxides within the alloy grains and, when the alloy is aged, strengthened by precipitation of carbides and nitrides nucleated by the hollow oxides. Added strengthening is achieved by nitrogen solid solution strengthening and by the effect of solid oxides precipitated along and pinning grain boundaries to provide temperature-stabilization and refinement of the alloy grains.

Flinn, John E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kelly, Thomas F. (Madison, WI)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Strengthening of metallic alloys with nanometer-size oxide dispersions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Austenitic stainless steels and nickel-base alloys containing, by wt. %, 0.1 to 3.0% V, 0.01 to 0.08% C, 0.01 to 0.5% N, 0.05% max. each of Al and Ti, and 0.005 to 0.10% O, are strengthened and ductility retained by atomization of a metal melt under cover of an inert gas with added oxygen to form approximately 8 nanometer-size hollow oxides within the alloy grains and, when the alloy is aged, strengthened by precipitation of carbides and nitrides nucleated by the hollow oxides. Added strengthening is achieved by nitrogen solid solution strengthening and by the effect of solid oxides precipitated along and pinning grain boundaries to provide temperature-stabilization and refinement of the alloy grains. 20 figs.

Flinn, J.E.; Kelly, T.F.

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Growth of Smaller Grain Attached on Larger One: Algorithm to Overcome Unphysical Overlap between Grain  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

As a smaller grain, which is attached on larger one, is growing, it pushes also the larger one and other grains in its surrounding. In a simulation of similar system, repulsive force such as contact force based on linear spring-dashpot model can not accommodate this situation when cell growing rate is faster than simulation time step, since it produces sudden large overlap between grains that makes unphysical result. An algorithm that preserves system linear momentum by introducing additional velocity induced by cell growth is presented in this work. It should be performed in an implicit step. The algorithm has successfully eliminated unphysical overlap.

Acep Purqon; Sparisoma Viridi

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "grain size distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

The Grain Milling Oilseed Processing Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

& 10 Prepared by: Sondra Rademacher ­ Business Service Specialist, Mankato, Mn. Garey Ferguson ­ Business Service Specialist, Fairmont, Mn. Sue Wold ­ Business Services Specialist, Faribault, Mn. David-19 Diamond of Advantage for Grain and Oilseed Processing Industry Attachment A Minnesota's Food Manufacturing

Levinson, David M.

262

The Flow of Cohesionless Grains in Fluids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...magnitude of a certain 'bed load' of grains in transit...tangential stress. The bed load is independent both of...any additional suspended load and of the degree of dispersion...found with experimental data both for wind-blown...the square or the first power of the rate of shear...

1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Grain Growth Behavior, Tensile Impact Ductility, and Weldability of Cerium-Doped Iridium Alloys  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An iridium alloy doped with small amounts of cerium and thorium is being developed as a potential replacement for the iridium-based DOP-26 alloy (doped with thorium only) that is currently used by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for cladding and post-impact containment of the radioactive fuel in radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) heat sources which provide electric power for interplanetary spacecraft. This report summarizes results of studies conducted to date under the Iridium Alloy Characterization and Development subtask of the Radioisotope Power System Materials Production and Technology Program to characterize the properties of the iridium-based alloy (designated as DOP-40) containing both cerium and thorium. Included within this report are data on grain growth of sheet material in vacuum and low-pressure oxygen environments, grain growth in vacuum of the clad vent set cup material, weldability, and the effect of grain size and test temperature on tensile properties. Where applicable, data for the DOP-26 alloy are included for comparison. Both grain size and grain-boundary cohesion affect the ductility of iridium alloys. In this study it was found that cerium and thorium, when added together, refine grain size more effectively than when thorium is added by itself (especially at high temperatures). In addition, the effect of cerium additions on grain-boundary cohesion is similar to that of thorium. Mechanical testing at both low ({approx} 10{sup -3}s{sup -1}) and high ({approx} 10{sup -3}s{sup -1}) strain rates showed that the Ce/Th-doped alloys have tensile ductilities that are as good or better than the DOP-26 alloy. The general conclusion from these studies is that cerium can be used to replace some of the radioactive thorium currently used in DOP-26 while maintaining or improving its metallurgical properties. The current DOP-26 alloy meets all requirements for cladding the radioactive fuel in the RTG heat source, but the new DOP-40 alloy could serve as a back-up alloy to be used if the costs of refining, handling, and transporting DOP-26 become prohibitively high.

McKamey, C.G.

2002-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

264

Effect of Grain Size on Bacterial Penetration, Reproduction, and Metabolic Activity in Porous Glass Bead Chambers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...nearly equal porosities (38%) but...nearly equal porosities (38%) but...consolidated rock formations...very slow in sandstone cores with permeabilities less than 100...system. The porosities and pore volumes...

Pramod K. Sharma; Michael J. McInerney

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

EFFECT OF GRAIN SIZE ON THE ACOUSTIC EMISSION GENERATED DURING PLASTIC DEFORMATION OF COPPER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PLASTIC DEFORMATION OF COPPER J, Baram Materials Engineeringfrom plastically deformed copper specimens were analyzedrelated to the behavior of copper while undergoing plastic

Baram, J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Annual Logging Symposium, June 21-24, 2009 PORE-LEVEL STUDY OF GRAIN-SHAPE EFFECTS ON  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, elastic moduli, relaxation times, permeability, and heat capacitance. The relation between rock geometric, 2008). Archie's equation (Archie, 1942) relates electrical resistivity of reservoir rock to its from those due to other textural properties of clastic rocks, such as grain size, sorting, roundness

Torres-Verdín, Carlos

267

Increasing the Consumption of Whole Grain Foods in School Meals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

nutritious meals in their cafeterias, while maintaining customer acceptance of the foods. Whether or not students consume whole grains determines if these foods are served again. Input from participants determined which whole grain were foods tested...

Warren, Cynthia Ann

2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

268

Strategy Guideline: HVAC Equipment Sizing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system is arguably the most complex system installed in a house and is a substantial component of the total house energy use. A right-sized HVAC system will provide the desired occupant comfort and will run efficiently. This Strategy Guideline discusses the information needed to initially select the equipment for a properly designed HVAC system. Right-sizing of an HVAC system involves the selection of equipment and the design of the air distribution system to meet the accurate predicted heating and cooling loads of the house. Right-sizing the HVAC system begins with an accurate understanding of the heating and cooling loads on a space; however, a full HVAC design involves more than just the load estimate calculation - the load calculation is the first step of the iterative HVAC design procedure. This guide describes the equipment selection of a split system air conditioner and furnace for an example house in Chicago, IL as well as a heat pump system for an example house in Orlando, Florida. The required heating and cooling load information for the two example houses was developed in the Department of Energy Building America Strategy Guideline: Accurate Heating and Cooling Load Calculations.

Burdick, A.

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Suggestions for Controlling Insects in Farm-Stored Grain.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

storage structures, or too high temperatures and high grain moisture at binning. Importance of Keeping Insects Out of Stored Grains Grain prices are based on clean, dry, wholesome grain. Anythirig that lowers quality also lowers its price. Insect... tetrachloride odor Ethyhme Yes Poor None Sweet Depresses dibromide Ethylene Yes Poor High Ether Little dichloride odor Chloropicrin Yes Poor None Tear gas Depresses Sulfur dioxide Yes None Irritating Destroys Methyl Yes Excellent None None Depresses...

Hamman, Philip J.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Synthesis of fine-grained TATB  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for producing fine-grained triamino-trinitrobenzene (TATB) powders having improved detonation-spreading performance and hence increased shock sensitivity when compared with that for ultrafine TATB is described. A single-step, sonochemical amination of trichloro-trinitrobenzene using ammonium hydroxide solution in a sealed vessel yields TATB having approximately 6 .mu.m median particle diameter and increased shock sensitivity.

Lee, Kien-Yin (Santa Fe, NM); Kennedy, James E. (Santa Fe, NM)

2003-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

271

RFID BASED GRAIN AND OIL PRODUCTS TRACEABILITY1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RFID BASED GRAIN AND OIL PRODUCTS TRACEABILITY1 AND ITS COMPUTER IMPLEMENTATION Haiyan Hu ,*2 the study of the traceability of grain and oil products. Include the study contents, and a system we developed for traceability of grain and oil products, and the demonstration of the study. The system we

Boyer, Edmond

272

ANNIVERSARY REVIEW Grain boundary energy anisotropy: a review  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

grain boundary energy anisot- ropy. Experimental methods for measuring the grain boundary energy. The paper contains a brief survey of historical concepts and grain boundary energy measurements. Next an excess free energy per unit area. This is evident by the fact that during most thermal and chemical

Rohrer, Gregory S.

273

ARM - Measurement - Cloud size  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Cloud size Information about the physical dimensions of a cloud, including such measurements...

274

ARM - Measurement - Hydrometeor size  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

size size ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Hydrometeor size The size of a hydrometeor, measured directly or derived from other measurements . Categories Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments DISDROMETER : Impact Disdrometer LDIS : Laser Disdrometer External Instruments CPOL : C-Band Polarimetric Radar Field Campaign Instruments EC-CONVAIR580-BULK : Environment Canada Convair 580 Bulk Parameters

275

Improved gap size estimation for scaffolding algorithms  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......and 950 bp. The contigs were set to a fixed size of 3000 bp...three read libraries and four sets of contigs). The results of...parts of the distribution fail to cover the gap and only the longest...we simulated four different sets of contigs from the genome with......

Kristoffer Sahlin; Nathaniel Street; Joakim Lundeberg; Lars Arvestad

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Carbide/nitride grain refined rare earth-iron-boron permanent magnet and method of making  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of making a permanent magnet is disclosed wherein (1) a melt is formed having a base alloy composition comprising RE, Fe and/or Co, and B (where RE is one or more rare earth elements) and (2) TR (where TR is a transition metal selected from at least one of Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo, W, and Al) and at least one of C and N are provided in the base alloy composition melt in substantially stoichiometric amounts to form a thermodynamically stable compound (e.g. TR carbide, nitride or carbonitride). The melt is rapidly solidified in a manner to form particulates having a substantially amorphous (metallic glass) structure and a dispersion of primary TRC, TRN and/or TRC/N precipitates. The amorphous particulates are heated above the crystallization temperature of the base alloy composition to nucleate and grow a hard magnetic phase to an optimum grain size and to form secondary TRC, TRN and/or TRC/N precipitates dispersed at grain boundaries. The crystallized particulates are consolidated at an elevated temperature to form a shape. During elevated temperature consolidation, the primary and secondary precipitates act to pin the grain boundaries and minimize deleterious grain growth that is harmful to magnetic properties. 33 figs.

McCallum, R.W.; Branagan, D.J.

1996-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

277

Characterization of grain boundary conductivity of spin-sprayed ferrites using scanning microwave microscope  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Grain boundary electrical conductivity of ferrite materials has been characterized using scanning microwave microscope. Structural, electrical, and magnetic properties of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} spin-sprayed thin films onto glass substrates for different length of growth times were investigated using a scanning microwave microscope, an atomic force microscope, a four-point probe measurement, and a made in house transmission line based magnetic permeameter. The real part of the magnetic permeability shows almost constant between 10 and 300?MHz. As the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} film thickness increases, the grain size becomes larger, leading to a higher DC conductivity. However, the loss in the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} films at high frequency does not increase correspondingly. By measuring the reflection coefficient s{sub 11} from the scanning microwave microscope, it turns out that the grain boundaries of the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} films exhibit higher electric conductivity than the grains, which contributes loss at radio frequencies. This result will provide guidance for further improvement of low loss ferrite materials for high frequency applications.

Myers, J.; Nicodemus, T.; Zhuang, Y., E-mail: yan.zhuang@wright.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio 45435 (United States); Watanabe, T.; Matsushita, N. [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama (Japan); Yamaguchi, M. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

278

Indicators of Success When Incorporating Whole Grains into School Meals: HealthierUS School Challenge  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

blend whole grain products compared to those made from 100% whole wheat. Additionally, survey participants reported barriers to whole grain food incorporation which included: product acceptability, whole grain product identification, whole grain product...

Sceets, Christine Elizabeth

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

279

The effects of grain moisture content and grain temperature on the penetration of hydrogen cyanide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as the post fumigation time increased (fig. 12). The greatest rate of 24 Figure 7z Penetration of HCN in interstitial air at concentrations of 5G ppm as effected by moisture and temperature at 4 hours. 17 15 65o Rpo 95' 13 lyon j-57 Figure 8... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE (Mionth) 1262 (Year) Mayor Subject ghtdlggllQJLK THE EFFECTS OF GRAIN MOISTURE CONTENT JBD GRAIN TEMPERATURE ON THE PENETRATION OF HYDROGEN CYANIDE A Thesis SIDNEY EDNUND KUNZ Approved as to style...

Kunz, Sidney E

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

280

Coarse grained open system quantum dynamics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We show that the quantum dynamics of a system comprised of a subspace Q coupled to a larger subspace P can be recast as a reduced set of 'coarse grained' ordinary differential equations with constant coefficients. These equations can be solved by a single diagonalization of a general complex matrix. The method makes no assumptions about the strength of the couplings between the Q and the P subspaces, nor is there any limitation on the initial population in P. The utility of the method is demonstrated via computations in three following areas: molecular compounds, photonic materials, and condensed phases.

Thanopulos, Ioannis [Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver V6T 1Z3 (Canada); Brumer, Paul [Chemical Physics Theory Group, Department of Chemistry, and Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Control, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H6 (Canada); Shapiro, Moshe [Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver V6T 1Z3 (Canada); Department of Chemical Physics, Weizmann Institute, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)

2008-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "grain size distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

GRAIN BOUNDARY STRENGTHENING PROPERTIES OF TUNGSTEN ALLOYS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Density functional theory was employed to investigate grain boundary (GB) properties of W alloys. A range of substitutional solutes across the Periodic Table was investigated to understand the behavior of different electronic orbitals in changing the GB cleavage energy in the ?27a[110]{525} GB. A number of transition metals were predicted to enhance the GB cohesion. This includes Ru, Re, Os, Ir, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ti, Hf, Ta and Nb. While lanthanides, s and p elements were tended to cause GB embrittlement.

Setyawan, Wahyu; Kurtz, Richard J.

2012-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

282

Non-impactor-Based Methods for Sizing of Aerosols Emitted from Orally Inhaled and Nasal Drug Products (OINDPs)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The purpose of this article is to review non-impactor-based methods for measuring particle size distributions of orally inhaled and nasal pharmaceutical aerosols. The assessment of the size distributions of sp...

Jolyon Mitchell; Richard Bauer; Svetlana Lyapustina; Terrence Tougas

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Particle Size Characterization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NISTrecommended p r a c t i c e g u i d e Special Publication 960-1 #12;i Particle Size Characterization Ajit.S. Department of Commerce Donald L. Evans, Secretary Technology Administration Karen H. Brown, Acting Under Steve Freiman, Said Jahanmir, James Kelly, Patrick Pei and Dennis Minor and of the Ceramics Division

284

Grain boundary compositon in NiAl  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The high temperature strength and oxidation resistance of many transition metal aluminides makes these intermetallic materials attractive for high temperature applications. However, these aluminides are generally brittle at low temperatures and this restricts their technological applications. However, these aluminides are generally brittle at low temperatures and this restricts their technological applications. It has been demonstrated that the addition of more than 200 ppm of boron to the L1{sub 2}-ordered Ni{sub 3}Al changes the fracture behavior from intergranular to transgranular and increases the ductility. The B2-ordered NiAl nickel aluminide is particularly attractive because of its low density and high melting temperature. This aluminide also fractures intergranularly at room temperature. However, no improvement in ductility is observed with similar boron additions even though the intergranular fracture is suppressed and there is a significant increase in the yield strength. In this paper, the results of an atom probe field ion microscopy investigation of the compositions of the grain boundaries in undoped and boron-doped NiAl are presented. The suitability of the atom probe field ion microscopy technique for the characterization of boundaries has clearly been demonstrated in many previous investigations including the characterization of boron segregation to grain boundaries and other planar features in Ni{sub 3}Al.

Miller, M.K.; Jayaram, R.; Camus, P.P. (Metals and Ceramics Div., Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN (US))

1992-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

285

Structural Dependence of Grain Boundary Resistance in Copper Nanowires  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The current choice of the interconnect metal in integrated circuits is copper due to its higher electrical conductivity and improved electromigration reliability in comparison with aluminum. However, with reducing feature sizes, the resistance of copper interconnects (lines) increases dramatically. Greater resistance will result in higher energy use, more heat generation, more failure due to electromigration, and slower switching speeds. To keep pace with the projected planar transistor density, the first challenge is to identify the dominant factors that contribute to the high interconnect resistance. Here we directly measure individual grain boundary (GB) resistances in copper nanowires with a one-to-one correspondence to the GB structure. The specific resistivities of particular GBs are measured using four-probe scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) to establish a direct link between GB structure and the resistance. High-angle random GBs contribute to a specific resistivity of about 25 10-12 cm2 for each boundary, while coincidence boundaries are significantly less-resistive than random boundaries. Thus, replacing random boundaries with coincidence ones would be a route to suppress the GB impact to the resistivity of polycrystalline conductors. Acknowledgement: The research was supported by the Division of Scientific User Facilities, U. S. Department of Energy.

Kim, Tae Hwan [ORNL; Zhang, Xiaoguang [ORNL; Nicholson, Don M [ORNL; Radhakrishnan, Bala [ORNL; Radhakrishnan, Balasubramaniam [ORNL; Evans III, Boyd Mccutchen [ORNL; Kulkarni, Nagraj S [ORNL; Kenik, Edward A [ORNL; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL; Li, An-Ping [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Selected Operating Costs for Storage of Sorghum Grain.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Selected Operating Costs for Storage Of Sorghum Grain TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY This is the third of three bulletins reporting the results of a study of sorghum grain storage and handling practices in Texas. The first dealt with marketing and on...-farm storage; the second with com- mercial storage and handling practices. This bulletin reports the results of a study of the costs of com- mercial grain handling practices. Three areas representing a cross section of physical and economic conditions...

Bonnen, C. A. (Clarence Alfred); Cunningham, William C.

1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Down-sizing Forever  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Evidence for cosmic down-sizing has been growing over the last decade. It is now clear that the major star-forming epoch for the largest galaxies occurred earlier than for smaller galaxies. This not only runs counter to the popular hierarchical clustering picture, but points to an even more radical revision of our ideas of the evolution of cosmological structure. Galaxies do not form at all.

Douglas Scott; Ali Frolop

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

288

Display Size Wireless LAN  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.) - Security sofware ­ESET Smart Security. No Reuse PC with English OS for this time. PC PC Code Image Brand PC PC Code Image Brand Model F008 Panasonic CF-W2 Pentium733 M 1.10GHz 256MB 40GB 12.1 inch 1.0kg System Memory HDD Display Size Weight OS Accessory LAN Wireless LAN Remarks PC PC Code Image Brand

Katsumoto, Shingo

289

New Process for Grain Refinement of Aluminum. Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new method of grain refining aluminum involving in-situ formation of boride nuclei in molten aluminum just prior to casting has been developed in the subject DOE program over the last thirty months by a team consisting of JDC, Inc., Alcoa Technical Center, GRAS, Inc., Touchstone Labs, and GKS Engineering Services. The Manufacturing process to make boron trichloride for grain refining is much simpler than preparing conventional grain refiners, with attendant environmental, capital, and energy savings. The manufacture of boride grain refining nuclei using the fy-Gem process avoids clusters, salt and oxide inclusions that cause quality problems in aluminum today.

Dr. Joseph A. Megy

2000-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

290

General Schema for [001] Tilt Grain Boundaries in Dense Packing...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

as showing the frustration of symmetry caused by the incorporation of point defects (vacancies and impurities). This general model for grain boundary structures can, in principle,...

291

Electricity Distribution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High voltage (HV) distribution grids have nominal voltages of up ... the grid that connects distribution to the transmission substations and also supplies large industrial customers requiri...

Toms Gmez

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Why the Brazil nuts are on top: Size segregation of particulate matter by shaking  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

When a can containing one large ball and a number of smaller ones is shaken, the large ball rises to the top, even when the larger ball is more dense than the others. Similarly, a mixture of different sized particles will segregate by size when shaken. An adaptation of the Monte Carlo method is used to study this size segregation. The results show the local, geometric mechanism by which the segregation is produced. Segregation by size is to be distinguished from the more obvious sifting process which occurs when tiny grains filter down through the interstices between large particles.

Anthony Rosato; Katherine J. Strandburg; Friedrich Prinz; Robert H. Swendsen

1987-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

293

Magnetic agglomeration method for size control in the synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for controlling the size of chemically synthesized magnetic nanoparticles that employs magnetic interaction between particles to control particle size and does not rely on conventional kinetic control of the reaction to control particle size. The particles are caused to reversibly agglomerate and precipitate from solution; the size at which this occurs can be well controlled to provide a very narrow particle size distribution. The size of particles is controllable by the size of the surfactant employed in the process; controlling the size of the surfactant allows magnetic control of the agglomeration and precipitation processes. Agglomeration is used to effectively stop particle growth to provide a very narrow range of particle sizes.

Huber, Dale L. (Albuquerque, NM)

2011-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

294

Fishing destabilizes the biomass flow in the marine size spectrum  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...processes underlying the biomass size spectrum, the distribution of biomass across body size classes...species. When the energy transfer is governed...Dickie 2001 The biomass spectrum. A predator-prey...and T. Platt 1978 Energy flux in the pelagic...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Stochastic thermodynamics of fluctuating density fields: Non-equilibrium free energy differences under coarse-graining  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We discuss the stochastic thermodynamics of systems that are described by a time-dependent density field, for example, simple liquids and colloidal suspensions. For a time-dependent change of external parameters, we show that the Jarzynski relation connecting work with the change of free energy holds if the time evolution of the density follows the Kawasaki-Dean equation. Specifically, we study the work distributions for the compression and expansion of a two-dimensional colloidal model suspension implementing a practical coarse-graining scheme of the microscopic particle positions. We demonstrate that even if coarse-grained dynamics and density functional do not match, the fluctuation relations for the work still hold albeit for a different, apparent, change of free energy.

Leonard, T.; Lander, B.; Seifert, U. [II. Institut fr Theoretische Physik, Universitt Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 57, 70550 Stuttgart (Germany)] [II. Institut fr Theoretische Physik, Universitt Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 57, 70550 Stuttgart (Germany); Speck, T. [Institut fr Theoretische Physik II, Heinrich-Heine-Universitt Dsseldorf, Universittsstrae 1, 40225 Dsseldorf (Germany)] [Institut fr Theoretische Physik II, Heinrich-Heine-Universitt Dsseldorf, Universittsstrae 1, 40225 Dsseldorf (Germany)

2013-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

296

Coarse grained description of protein folding  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We consider two- and three-dimensional lattice models of proteins that were characterized previously. We coarse grain their folding dynamics by reducing it to transitions between effective states. We consider two methods of selection of the effective states. The first method is based on the steepest descent mapping of states to underlying local energy minima and the other involves an additional projection to maximally compact conformations. Both methods generate connectivity patterns that allow one to distinguish between the good and bad folders. Connectivity graphs corresponding to the folding funnel have few loops and are thus treelike. The Arrhenius law for the median folding time of a 16-monomer sequence is established and the corresponding barrier is related to easily identifiable kinetic trap states.

Marek Cieplak and Trinh Xuan Hoang

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Sample sizes for confidence limits for reliability.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We recently performed an evaluation of the implications of a reduced stockpile of nuclear weapons for surveillance to support estimates of reliability. We found that one technique developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) under-estimates the required sample size for systems-level testing. For a large population the discrepancy is not important, but for a small population it is important. We found that another technique used by SNL provides the correct required sample size. For systems-level testing of nuclear weapons, samples are selected without replacement, and the hypergeometric probability distribution applies. Both of the SNL techniques focus on samples without defects from sampling without replacement. We generalized the second SNL technique to cases with defects in the sample. We created a computer program in Mathematica to automate the calculation of confidence for reliability. We also evaluated sampling with replacement where the binomial probability distribution applies.

Darby, John L.

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

The global abundance and size distribution of lakes, ponds, and ...  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

United States Geological Survey, National Research Program, Box 25046 MS 413, Denver, Colorado 80025 ..... Western Lakes Survey (U.S.A.). 20.78. 0.01. 752.

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

299

Size Distribution of Fine Particles from Coal Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...produce steam at a high temperature and pressure. This steam...Cleaned flue gas (2500 t/h...the high flue gas temperatures...lig-nites to high-quality bituminous...25). Flue gas samples were...atmospheric pressure. The relation...

M. W. McElroy; R. C. Carr; D. S. Ensor; G. R. Markowski

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Certification of SRM 114q: Part II (Particle size distribution)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Physics · Optical Technology · Ionizing Radiation · Time and Frequency1 · Quantum Physics1 ManufacturingAccess · Convergent Information Systems · Information Services and Computing · Software Diagnostics and Conformance and engineering; and improve public health, safety, and the environment. One of the agency's basic functions

Bentz, Dale P.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "grain size distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Concentrations and Size Distributions of Particulate Matter Emissions...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Vehicles Home About Vehicle Technologies Office Plug-in Electric Vehicles & Batteries Fuel Efficiency & Emissions Alternative Fuels Modeling, Testing, Data & Results...

302

Concentrations and Size Distributions of Particulate Matter Emissions...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

& Organic Carbon - PAHs and n-PAHs - Elemental Compounds - Ionic Species - Carbonyls - Dioxins and Furans - Bioassays Sampling System Diluted Exhaust 1 0 11 6 7 8 a 8 b 3 4 BXDX...

303

The geographic distribution of mammal body size in Europe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

palaeo/ice_topo. 2 Heat conservation grid cell averages ofgrid cell from data available at: http:// www.ngdc.noaa.gov/seg/cdroms/ged_iia/datasets/a13/fnoc.htm. 3 Heat

Rodriguez, M A; Lopez-Sanudo, I L; Hawkins, Bradford A.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Preparation of Narrow Size Distribution Silica Particles Using Microemulsions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Departament de Tecnologia de Tensioactius, CID/CSIC, Jordi Girona, 18-26, 08034 Barcelona, Spain, and Zeneca Agrochemicals, Jealott's Hill Research Station, Bracknell, Berkshire, RG12 6EY, U.K. ... The most appropriate compositions for sols (when individual particles could be obtained), are those with a composition below 2.5 wt % of water or below 7 wt % of TEOS. ...

J. Esquena; Th. F. Tadros; K. Kostarelos; C. Solans

1997-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

305

Distribution Network Design: Selection and Sizing of Congested Connections  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, the production schedules for individual SKUs (Stock Keeping Units) in a shared facility can be characterized

Nagi, Rakesh

306

Raindrop size distributions and associated effective radar reflectivity comparisons /  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-0. 629869Z6 19. 38 - 8. 59 6. 40 5. o3 0. 0001 0. 0001 0. 0001 0. 0001 F VALUE 184. 66 PR& F 0. 0001 STD DEV 0. 58555116 R-SQUARE 0. 527609 C. V. 41. 2185 LI'ISUBI MEAN 1. 42060192 DF 1 1 1 TYPE IV SS F VALUE 25. 27055111 73... for the detection of severe weather phenomena such as tornadoes, hailstorms, and severe thunderstomns. In addition to storm applications, radar observations, concurrent with di sdrometer determi- nations of raindrop spectra, are important data for cloud physics...

Gosdin, Malcolm Elwood

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Estimating sandstone permeability using network models with pore size distributions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in appearance to empirical data. A network model is developed to simulate the pore geometry of a clean, well-sorted sandstone. Pores were modeled as straight capillaries connected in various lattice configurations. Complex lattice configurations produce more... properties and can be closely monitored, allowing for study of their effects on flow in the network lattice. Various parameter variation techniques are introduced in the literature. These techniques induce flow property changes in the model allowing rock...

Mathews, Alan Ronald

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Ultrasonic Phased Array Sound Field Mapping Through Large-Bore Coarse Grained Cast Austenitic Stainless Steel (CASS) Piping Materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A sound field beam mapping exercise was conducted to further understand the effects of coarse grained microstructures found in CASS materials on phased array ultrasonic wave propagation. Laboratory measurements were made on three CASS specimens with different microstructures; the specimens were polished and etched to reveal measurable grain sizes, shapes and orientations. Three longitudinal, phased array probes were fixed on a specimen's outside diameter with the sound field directed toward one end (face) of the pipe segment over a fixed range of angles. A point receiver was raster scanned over the surface of the specimen face generating a sound field image. A slice of CASS material was then removed from the specimen end and the beam mapping exercise repeated. The sound fields acquired were analyzed for spot size, coherency, and beam redirection. Analyses were conducted between the resulting sound fields and the microstructural characteristics of each specimen.

Cinson, Anthony D.; Crawford, Susan L.; Prowant, Matthew S.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Hathaway, John E.; Anderson, Michael T.

2012-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

309

Patch size effects on plant species decline in an experimentally fragmented landscape  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the relative contribution of fragment size vs. succession on species' declines by examining distributions of abundances for 18 plant species declining over time in an experimentally fragmented landscape in northeast Kansas, USA. If patch size effects dominate...

Collins, Cathy Diane; Holt, Robert D.; Foster, Brian L.

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Charge Transport Anisotropy Due to Grain Boundaries in Directionally  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Charge Transport Anisotropy Due to Grain Charge Transport Anisotropy Due to Grain Boundaries in Directionally Crystallized Thin Films of Regio-Regular Poly(3-hexylthiophene) Semicrystalline polymers, such as polythiophenes, hold much promise as active layers in printable electronic devices such as photovoltaic cells, sensors, and thin film transistors. As organic semiconductors approach commercialization, there is a need to better understand the relationship between charge transport and microstructure, in particular, to identify the inherent bottlenecks to charge transport. In semicrystalline and polycrystalline materials, charge transport is most likely dominated by grain-boundary effects, although the exact mechanism is not well understood. Unfortunately, grain boundaries in semicrystalline thin films are difficult to characterize: the grains are too small to allow for measurements across individual grain boundaries (as is often done for polycrystalline films of small molecules) and bulk measurements are complicated by the unknown orientation of polymer chains within the grain. To better understand the effect of chain orientation on grain boundaries, we use anisotropic thin films of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) - one of the most well-studied polymeric semiconductors, as a tool to study charge transport.

311

Thursday, March 16, 2006 POSTER SESSION II: PRESOLAR GRAINS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Boron isotope and elemental analyses have been acquired from pristine pre-solar silicon carbide grains chondrites. We determined presolar grain abundance in the ordinary chondrites and discussed alteration] Nanodiamonds are found in carbonaceous chondrites and contain different isotopically anormous noble gases

Rathbun, Julie A.

312

Ductless Hydronic Distribution  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

DUCTLESS HYDRONIC DUCTLESS HYDRONIC DISTRIBUTION Alliance for Residential Building Innovation David Springer, Davis Energy Group Context  Target: Builders of high performance new homes & deep retrofits  Why is this technology key to meeting performance goals of future homes?  Distribution Efficiency * Distribution efficiency for well insulated, tight ducts in attics ≈ 85% * Duct energy losses drives placement of ducts inside conditioned space, which adds cost and interferes with structure and architecture * Ductless hydronic systems can approach 100% distribution efficiency; piping needs little space  Delivery Energy * Fans: 0.58 W/cfm or 9 (heating) to 27 (cooling) W/kBtuh * Pumps: 8 W/gpm, or 0.8 W/kBtuh Context  Sizing * Conventional systems tend to be too large for low load homes

313

Taming Density Functional Theory by Coarse-Graining  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The standard (``fine-grained'') interpretation of quantum density functional theory, in which densities are specified with infinitely-fine spatial resolution, is mathematically unruly. Here, a coarse-grained version of DFT, featuring limited spatial resolution, and its relation to the fine-grained theory in the $L^1\\cap L^3$ formulation of Lieb, is studied, with the object of showing it to be not only mathematically well-behaved, but consonant with the spirit of DFT, practically (computationally) adequate and sufficiently close to the standard interpretation as to accurately reflect its non-pathological properties. The coarse-grained interpretation is shown to be a good model of formal DFT in the sense that: all densities are (ensemble)-V-representable; the intrinsic energy functional $F$ is a continuous function of the density and the representing external potential is the (directional) functional derivative of the intrinsic energy. Also, the representing potential $v[\\rho]$ is quasi-continuous, in that $v[\\rho]\\rho$ is continuous as a function of $\\rho$. The limit of coarse-graining scale going to zero is studied to see if convergence to the non-pathological aspects of the fine-grained theory is adequate to justify regarding coarse-graining as a good approximation. Suitable limiting behaviors or intrinsic energy, densities and representing potentials are found. Intrinsic energy converges monotonically, coarse-grained densities converge uniformly strongly to their low-intrinsic-energy fine-grainings, and $L^{3/2}+L^\\infty$ representability of a density is equivalent to the existence of a convergent sequence of coarse-grained potential/ground-state density pairs.

Paul E. Lammert

2010-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

314

Effects of the pulse duration in laser modification of nano-sized WTi film on Si  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A study of morphological and composition changes of the WTi/Si system induced by nanosecond and picosecond laser pulses is presented. A 190nm thick WTi film was deposited on a silicon substrate of n-type (100). The pulsed laser systems used were: nanosecond TEA CO2 laser (emission, 10.6m; pulse FWHM; pulse duration 120ns) and picosecond Nd:YAG laser (emission, 532nm; pulse FWHM; pulse duration 40ps). During experiments the used fluences (?) had similar values, ?1 = 20Jcm ? 2 in case of the TEA CO2 laser and ?2 = 16Jcm ? 2 for the Nd:YAG laser. The laser-induced morphological and composition modifications showed a dependence on pulse duration. Generally, the following morphological changes were observed: (i)ablation/exfoliation of the WTi thin film, (ii)appearance of hydrodynamic features such as resolidified material, and (iii)formation of nano-sized grains and globules. Overall morphological modifications were more pronounced after the picosecond laser action. The surface composition analysis showed a quite different distribution of sample components depending on the pulse duration. Formation of the silicon dioxide (SiO2) was recorded only in the case of irradiation of the WTi/Si system by picosecond laser pulses.

Suzana Petrovi?; D Peruko; D Milovanovi?; J Kova?; M ?ekada; P Panjan; B Gakovi?; M Trtica

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Methods of analysis modified size exchange chromatography method for analysis of heavy oil residues  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A modified size exchange chromatography method is used to obtain molecular weight distributions, average molecular weight, and other characteristics of heavy oil residues: coal asphalt, petroleum asphalt, vacu...

Changming Zhang; Adnan Alhajji

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

80From Dust Grains to Dust Balls A cosmic dust grain about 0.1mm across captured by a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-altitude aircraft. Probably debris from a passing comet Planets are built in several stages. The first Problem 2 ­Answer: The change in the mass, dM, occurs as a quantity of dust grains land on the surface in the interstellar gas, times the speed of the grains landing on the surface. This leads to m x N x V where m

317

Usage by Job Size  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Usage by Job Usage by Job Size Table Usage by Job Size Table page loading animation Usage Query Interface System All Hopper Edison Carver Planck Matgen Franklin Hopper 1 Magellan Dirac Bassi Jacquard Seaborg User Account (Repo) Execution Queue All Debug Interactive Premium Regular Short Regular Long Regular Small Regular Medium Regular Big Regular Extra Big Killable Low Transfer IO Task Special System Serial Big Memory Westmere === Inactive === Magellan Serial Magellan Short Magellan Small Magellan Medium Magellan Big Magellan Long Regular 1 Regular 1 Long Regular 16 Regular 32 Regular 48 Full Config Seaborg Serial Batch 16 Batch 32 Batch 64 Submit Queue all interactive debug premium regular low DOE Office all ASCR BER BES FES HEP NP Summary for jobs that completed after Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun July Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 @ 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 : 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59

318

Irradiation Assisted Grain Boundary Segregation in Steels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The understanding of radiation-induced grain boundary segregation (RIS) has considerably improved over the past decade. New models have been introduced and much effort has been devoted to obtaining comprehensive information on segregation from the literature. Analytical techniques have also improved so that chemical analysis of layers 1 nm thick is almost routine. This invited paper will review the major methods used currently for RIS prediction: namely, Rate Theory, Inverse Kirkendall, and Solute Drag approaches. A summary is made of the available data on phosphorus RIS in reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels. This will be discussed in the light of the predictions of the various models in an effort to show which models are the most reliable and easy to use for forecasting P segregation behaviour in steels. A consequence of RIS in RPV steels is a radiation induced shift in the ductile to brittle transition temperature (DBTT). It will be shown how it is possible to relate radiation-induced P segregation levels to DBTT shift. Examples of this exercise will be given for RPV steels and for ferritic steels being considered for first wall fusion applications. Cr RIS in high alloy stainless steels and associated irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) will be briefly discussed. (authors)

Lu, Zheng; Faulkner, Roy G. [IPTME, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leics (United Kingdom)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

An-1 Encodes a Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Protein That Regulates Awn Development, Grain Size, and Grain Number in Rice  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...This demonstrates that the evolution process of the An-1 locus during domestication...G.P. (2009). The domestication process and domestication rate in rice: Spikelet...Genetic analysis of adaptive syndromes interrelated with seed dormancy in weedy rice (Oryza...

Jianghong Luo; Hui Liu; Taoying Zhou; Benguo Gu; Xuehui Huang; Yingying Shangguan; Jingjie Zhu; Yan Li; Yan Zhao; Yongchun Wang; Qiang Zhao; Ahong Wang; Ziqun Wang; Tao Sang; Zixuan Wang; Bin Han

2013-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

320

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerosol number distributions Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

inorganic composition PILS-IC Summary: 3563 nephelometers Aerosol number concentration CNC (TSI 3010, 3025) Aerosol size distribution DMA... and APS Non-volatile aerosol size...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "grain size distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Manufacturing process to reduce large grain growth in zirconium alloys  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

It is an object of the present invention to provide a procedure for desensitizing zirconium-based alloys to large grain growth (LGG) during thermal treatment above the recrystallization temperature of the alloy. It is a further object of the present invention to provide a method for treating zirconium-based alloys which have been cold-worked in the range of 2 to 8% strain to reduce large grain growth. It is another object of the present invention to provide a method for fabricating a zirconium alloy clad nuclear fuel element wherein the zirconium clad is resistant to large grain growth.

Rosecrans, P.M.

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Kapitza Resistance of the Grain Boundaries in Ceria  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thermal conductivity is one of the key performance metrics of the nuclear fuels. In electrical insulators, such as most ubiquitous nuclear fuel UO2, thermal transport is due to phonons, or lattice waves. Their propagation is impeded by any lattice defect, such as impurities or vacancies, as well as larger microstructural features: grain boundaries, dislocations and pores/bubbles. Detailed description of the phonons interactions with these features is still lacking. In this work, we elucidate the dependence of the grain boundary thermal resistance, also known as a Kapitza resistance, on the type and misorientation angle of the grain boundary in model system of CeO2.

David Bai; Jian Gan; Aleksandr Chernatynskiy

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Competition among different height genotypes of grain sorghum hybrids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of differences from check for Temple (test 3), 45 Summary of differences from check for Temple (test 4). 46 vii LIST OF FIGURES Figures Page Deviations of treatments from the mean yield of grain in pounds per acre for the 3x3 hybrids over- all locations... Deviations of treatments from the mean yield of grain in pounds per acre for the 3x4 hybrids over- all locations 18 Deviations of treatments from the mean yield of grain in pounds per acre for the 4x4 hy'bride over- all locations Deviations of treatments...

Miller, Frederick Robert

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

324

Studies of physical characteristics and animal response to reconstituted sorghum grain  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

date of reconstitution 35 Endosperm cells containing starch granules from dry grain (840X). 51 Endosperm cells containing starch granules from reconstituted grain (840X) 51 Starch granules from reconstituted grain (840X) 52 10 Reconstituted grain... sorghums *re excellent feed for all classes of livestock. They are generally equal to or better than other cereal grains, including corn, in the production of gain. Grain sorghum can fit into feed rations for fatten- ing all classes of livestock, creep...

Florence, Harold Douglas

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

325

The Composition of Interstellar Grains Toward Zeta Ophiuchi: Constraining the Elemental Budget Near the Diffuse-Dense Cloud Transition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the composition of interstellar grains along the line of sight toward Zeta Ophiuchi, a well-studied environment near the diffuse-dense cloud transition. A spectral decomposition analysis of the solid-state absorbers is performed using archival spectroscopic observations from the Spitzer Space Telescope and Infrared Space Observatory. We find strong evidence for the presence of sub-micron-sized amorphous silicate grains, principally comprised of olivine-like composition, with no convincing evidence of H2O ice mantles. However, tentative evidence for thick H2O ice mantles on large (a ~ 2.8 microns) grains is presented. Solid-state abundances of elemental Mg, Si, Fe, and O are inferred from our analysis and compared to standard reference abundances. We find that nearly all of elemental Mg and Si along the line of sight are present in amorphous silicate grains, while a substantial fraction of elemental Fe resides in compounds other than silicates. Moreover, we find that the total abundance of eleme...

Poteet, Charles A; Draine, Bruce T

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Grain-Boundary Physics in Polycrystalline Photovoltaic Materials: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes a study of the atomic structure and electronic effects of grain boundaries in polycrystalline photovoltaic materials such as Si, CdTe, CuInSe2, and CuGaSe2.

Yan, Y.; Jiang, C. S.; Wu, X. Z.; Noufi, R.; Wei, S. H.; Al-Jassim, M. M.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Managing Insect and Mite Pests of Texas Small Grains  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Small grain crops are important for fall and winter livestock grazing. Pests such as small wireworms and cutworms cause significant damage to these crops. Complete information about sampling, economic thresholds, and control of these pests...

Patrick, Carl D.; Knutson, Allen E.

2006-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

328

Modelling the wetting and cooking of a single cereal grain  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......compared. Regions where the penetration rate is approximately linear are...compared. Regions where the penetration rate is approximately linear are...grains, compared with moisture penetration rates. 52 M. J. MCGVWNESS ETAL......

M. J. MCGUINNESS; C. P. PLEASE; N. FOWKES; P. MCGOWAN; L. RYDER; D. FORTE

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Grain characteristics and engineering properties of coal ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

?Ash produced by the coal fired thermal plants is often used as ... the grain characteristics and the engineering properties of coal ash. The results of x-ray diffraction, ... characteristic that may be used for ...

A. Trivedi; V. K. Sud

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

The Kings Grain and the Retreat from Liberalization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Whereas Laverdy used the kings grain to facilitate the transition from a police to a liberal regime, Terray used it to facilitate the transition from a liberal to a police regime. There are of course other im...

Steven L. Kaplan

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Effect of tensile strain on grain connectivity and flux pinning...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

tensile strain on grain connectivity and flux pinning in Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O x tapes D. C. van der Laan and J. W. Ekin National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder,...

332

Multiresolution methods for materials modeling via coarse-graining  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(cont.) time, while obtaining useful information about the thermodynamic behavior of the system. We show how statistical mechanics can be formulated using the wavelet transform as a coarse-graining technique. For small ...

Ismail, Ahmed E. (Ahmed Emad), 1977-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Grain misorientation in thixo-billets prepared by melt stirring  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For semi solid metal (SSM) slurries, in addition to the morphology, size, distribution and percentage of the solid phase particles, the microstructure of individual solid particles is another important parameter to be considered. This is particularly an issue when SSM billets are prepared by continuous stirring of the melt to temperatures below liquidus, as in the case of electromagnetic stirring of Al-Si alloys. Microstructural evolution of the electromagnetically stirred Al-Si alloy is investigated by means of optical and electron microscopy. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis of the stirred and unstirred cast billets has shown stirring to generate local misorientation within individual solid particles. This is an indication of growing dendrites undergoing plastic deformation during the course of SSM slurry preparation. The formation of dislocations and their subsequent rearrangement into subgrain boundaries has been shown by EBSD analysis and TEM studies of thin foil specimens respectively.

Nafisi, S., E-mail: Shahrooz.Nafisi@evrazincna.com [Facility for Electron Microscopy Research, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2B2 (Canada); Department of Metals and Materials Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2B2 (Canada); Szpunar, J. [Department of Metals and Materials Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2B2 (Canada); Vali, H. [Facility for Electron Microscopy Research, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2B2 (Canada); Ghomashchi, R. [Sunday Solar Technologies, 62 Jack Williams Drive Penrith, NSW 2750 (Australia)

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

334

Grained composite materials prepared by combustion synthesis under mechanical pressure  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Dense, finely grained composite materials comprising one or more ceramic phase or phase and one or more metallic and/or intermetallic phase or phases are produced by combustion synthesis. Spherical ceramic grains are homogeneously dispersed within the matrix. Methods are provided, which include the step of applying mechanical pressure during or immediately after ignition, by which the microstructures in the resulting composites can be controllably selected.

Dunmead, Stephen D. (Davis, CA); Holt, Joseph B. (San Jose, CA); Kingman, Donald D. (Danville, CA); Munir, Zuhair A. (Davis, CA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Thermal conductivity and specific heat of sorghum grain  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Formation of Test Canister Ice Jacket ~ Sealing Test Canister in Calorimeter. . 43 44 Testing of Samples. Initial Calorimeter Observations. 49 Insertion of Grain Samples into Calorimeter. . . . 50 Final Test Observations Processing of Data. 54... to Contain the Grain Sample 38 for the Determination of Specific Heat 39 12. Top View of Calorimeter. 40 13. Galvanized Iron Cylinder Used to Form the Ice Jacket Around the Test Canister 42 VIII Figures 14. Clamping Device Used to Hold Test Canister...

Miller, Clinton Frank

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

336

Distribution Workshop  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

On September 24-26, 2012, the GTT presented a workshop on grid integration on the distribution system at the Sheraton Crystal City near Washington, DC.

337

ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: Effects of Aerosol Size  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Effects of Aerosol Size Distribution and Vertical Profile on the Effects of Aerosol Size Distribution and Vertical Profile on the Polarization in the Oxygen A-Band Duan, Minzheng State University of New York at Albany Min, Qilong State University of New York at Albany A vector radiative transfer code with successive order of scattering method was used to simulate the high-resolution polarization spectra in the oxygen A-band. The effects of aerosol size distribution and vertical profile on the radiance and polarization at the top and bottom of the atmosphere were analyzed. The impacts of instrument specification on information content are also analyzed. Polarized radiances were dominated (>95%) by the first and second orders of scattering. The contributions of scattering from different levels to the TOA and surface observation are analyzed. The

338

The Effect of High Temperature Annealing on the Grain Characteristics of a Thin Chemical Vapor Deposition Silicon Carbide Layer.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The unique combination of thermo-mechanical and physiochemical properties of silicon carbide (SiC) provides interest and opportunity for its use in nuclear applications. One of the applications of SiC is as a very thin layer in the TRi-ISOtropic (TRISO) coated fuel particles for high temperature gas reactors (HTGRs). This SiC layer, produced by chemical vapor deposition (CVD), is designed to withstand the pressures of fission and transmutation product gases in a high temperature, radiation environment. Various researchers have demonstrated that macroscopic properties can be affected by changes in the distribution of grain boundary plane orientations and misorientations [1 - 3]. Additionally, various researchers have attributed the release behavior of Ag through the SiC layer as a grain boundary diffusion phenomenon [4 - 6]; further highlighting the importance of understanding the actual grain characteristics of the SiC layer. Both historic HTGR fission product release studies and recent experiments at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) [7] have shown that the release of Ag-110m is strongly temperature dependent. Although the maximum normal operating fuel temperature of a HTGR design is in the range of 1000-1250C, the temperature may reach 1600C under postulated accident conditions. The aim of this specific study is therefore to determine the magnitude of temperature dependence on SiC grain characteristics, expanding upon initial studies by Van Rooyen et al, [8; 9].

Isabella J van Rooyen; Philippus M van Rooyen; Mary Lou Dunzik-Gougar

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Size Reduction and Densification of Lignocellulosic Biomass Feedstock for Biopower, Bioproducts, and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Size Reduction and Densification of Lignocellulosic Biomass Feedstock for Biopower, Bioproducts reduction and densification of lignocellulosic biomass feedstock play a crucial role in the preprocessing and supply of biomass. Size reduction is an operation where the size distribution of biomass particles

340

Dust extinction and absorption: the challenge of porous grains  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In many models of dusty objects in space the grains are assumed to be composite or fluffy. However, the computation of the optical properties of such particles is still a very difficult problem. We analyze how the increase of grain porosity influences basic features of cosmic dust -- interstellar extinction, dust temperature, infrared bands and millimeter opacity. Porous grains can reproduce the flat extinction across the $3 - 8 \\mkm$ wavelength range measured for several lines of sight by {\\it ISO} and {\\it Spitzer}. Porous grains are generally cooler than compact grains. At the same time, the temperature of very porous grains becomes slightly larger in the case of the EMT-Mie calculations in comparison with the results found from the layered-sphere model. The layered-sphere model predicts a broadening of infrared bands and a shift of the peak position to larger wavelengths as porosity grows. In the case of the EMT-Mie model variations of the feature profile are less significant. It is also shown that the millimeter mass absorption coefficients grow as porosity increases with a faster growth occurring for particles with Rayleigh/non-Rayleigh inclusions. As a result, for very porous particles the coefficients given by two models can differ by a factor of about 3. It is found that an increase of porosity leads to an increase of extinction cross sections at some wavelengths and a decrease at others depending on the grain model. However, this behaviour is sufficient to reproduce the extinction curve in the direction of the star $\\sigma$ Sco using current solar abundances. In the case of the star $\\zeta$ Oph our model requires larger amounts of carbon and iron in the dust-phase than is available.

N. V. Voshchinnikov; V. B. Il'in; Th. Henning; D. N. Dubkova

2005-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "grain size distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Measuring the Influence of Grain-Boundary Misorientation on Thermal Groove Geometry in Ceramic Polycrystals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Measuring the Influence of Grain-Boundary Misorientation on Thermal Groove Geometry in Ceramic. The width and depth of the thermal grooves formed by these same grain bound- aries were also measured of the grain-boundary misorientation and thermal groove ge- ometry leads to the observation that grain

Rohrer, Gregory S.

342

THE RADIAL DISTRIBUTION OF WATER ICE AND CHROMOPHORES ACROSS SATURN'S SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Over the past eight years, the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) on board the Cassini orbiter has returned hyperspectral images in the 0.35-5.1 {mu}m range of the icy satellites and rings of Saturn. These very different objects show significant variations in surface composition, roughness, and regolith grain size as a result of their evolutionary histories, endogenic processes, and interactions with exogenic particles. The distributions of surface water ice and chromophores, i.e., organic and non-icy materials, across the Saturnian system, are traced using specific spectral indicators (spectral slopes and absorption band depths) obtained from rings mosaics and disk-integrated satellites observations by VIMS. Moving from the inner C ring to Iapetus, we found a marking uniformity in the distribution of abundance of water ice. On the other hand, the distribution of chromophores is much more concentrated in the rings particles and on the outermost satellites (Rhea, Hyperion, and Iapetus). A reduction of red material is observed on the satellites' surfaces orbiting within the E ring environment likely due to fine particles from Enceladus' plumes. Once the exogenous dark material covering the Iapetus' leading hemisphere is removed, the texture of the water ice-rich surfaces, inferred through the 2 {mu}m band depth, appears remarkably uniform across the entire system.

Filacchione, G.; Capaccioni, F.; Cerroni, P.; Tosi, F.; Ciarniello, M. [INAF-IAPS, Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, Area di Ricerca di Tor Vergata, via del Fosso del Cavaliere, 100, I-00133, Rome (Italy)] [INAF-IAPS, Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, Area di Ricerca di Tor Vergata, via del Fosso del Cavaliere, 100, I-00133, Rome (Italy); Clark, R. N. [Federal Center, US Geological Survey, Denver, CO 80228 (United States)] [Federal Center, US Geological Survey, Denver, CO 80228 (United States); Nicholson, P. D.; Lunine, J. I.; Hedman, M. M. [Astronomy Department, Cornell University, 418 Space Sciences Building, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)] [Astronomy Department, Cornell University, 418 Space Sciences Building, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Cruikshank, D. P.; Cuzzi, J. N. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035-1000 (United States)] [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035-1000 (United States); Brown, R. H. [Lunar Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Kuiper Space Sciences 431A, Tucson, AZ 85721-0092 (United States)] [Lunar Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Kuiper Space Sciences 431A, Tucson, AZ 85721-0092 (United States); Buratti, B. J. [NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)] [NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Flamini, E., E-mail: gianrico.filacchione@iaps.inaf.it [ASI, Italian Space Agency, viale Liegi 26, I-00198 Rome (Italy)

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Seed size strongly affects cascades on random networks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The average avalanche size in the Watts model of threshold dynamics on random networks of arbitrary degree distribution is determined analytically. Existence criteria for global cascades are shown to depend sensitively on the size of the initial seed disturbance. The dependence of cascade size upon the mean degree z of the network is known to exhibit several transitionsthese are typically continuous at low z and discontinuous at high z; here it is demonstrated that the low-z transition may in fact be discontinuous in certain parameter regimes. Connections between these results and the zero-temperature random-field Ising model on random graphs are discussed.

James P. Gleeson and Diarmuid J. Cahalane

2007-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

344

Wealth Distribution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Walter: What is a just wealth distribution? In my view, it is one that results from respect for proper initial homesteading, for resulting private property rights, and, finally, from any legitimate subsequent ...

Four Arrows; Walter Block

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Special Distribution  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Special Distribution Special Distribution Issued: December 1977 ',, Radiological Survey and Decontamination of the Former Main Technical Area (TA-1) at Los Alamos, New Mexico Compiled by A. John Ahlquist Alan K. Stoker Linda K. Trocki c laboratory of, the University of California LOS ALAMOS, NEW MEXICO 87545 An Alfirmdve Action/Equal Opportunity Employer ..-_- .-- .--.-. c T -,--... _ _._-r..l __,.. - .-,_.. ..- _._ -- .--. " . . _ . - . c- - . . . _ -. . _ . - . - . _ - - n - _ _~ ~_. __ _ ~~_ --..&e+ L.';; CONTENTS ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .._____ 1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .._... _._ 2 I. BACKGROUND .............................................. 15

346

Z(N) model of grain-boundary wetting  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Even though van der Waals forces should prevent the wetting of a grain boundary by a liquid at the melting temperature, experiment and simulations indicate an instability in grain-boundary structure in the vicinity of this temperature. We study the structure of analogous boundaries in a Z(N) model in which a region of solid with a given orientation is replaced by a spin in that orientation. Different interfacial behaviors are found for different regions of a model parameter which is related to N. For the value appropriate to grain boundaries, our model suggests that boundaries of a sufficiently large angle should be unstable, not to the intrusion of a layer of liquid, however, but to the intrusion of solid of intermediate orientation. Such an intrusion can occur below the melting temperature.

M. Schick and Wei-Heng Shih

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

1.8 - Early Solar Nebula Grains Interplanetary Dust Particles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This chapter examines the compositions, mineralogy, sources, and geochemical significance of interplanetary dust particles (IDPs). Despite their micrometer-scale dimensions and nanogram masses, it is now possible, primarily as a result of advances in small particle handling techniques and analytical instrumentation, to examine \\{IDPs\\} at close to atomic-scale resolution. The most widely used instruments for IDP studies are presently the analytical electron microscope, synchrotron facilities, and the ion microprobe. These laboratory analytical techniques are providing fundamental insights about IDP origins, mechanisms of formation, and grain processing phenomena that were important in the early solar system and presolar environments. At the same time, laboratory data from \\{IDPs\\} are being compared with astronomical data from dust in comets, circumstellar disks, and the interstellar medium. The direct comparison of grains in the laboratory with grains in astronomical environments is known as astromineralogy.

J.P. Bradley

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

PROTOPLANETARY DISK STRUCTURE WITH GRAIN EVOLUTION: THE ANDES MODEL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a self-consistent model of a protoplanetary disk: 'ANDES' ('AccretioN disk with Dust Evolution and Sedimentation'). ANDES is based on a flexible and extendable modular structure that includes (1) a 1+1D frequency-dependent continuum radiative transfer module, (2) a module to calculate the chemical evolution using an extended gas-grain network with UV/X-ray-driven processes and surface reactions, (3) a module to calculate the gas thermal energy balance, and (4) a 1+1D module that simulates dust grain evolution. For the first time, grain evolution and time-dependent molecular chemistry are included in a protoplanetary disk model. We find that grain growth and sedimentation of large grains onto the disk midplane lead to a dust-depleted atmosphere. Consequently, dust and gas temperatures become higher in the inner disk (R {approx}< 50 AU) and lower in the outer disk (R {approx}> 50 AU), in comparison with the disk model with pristine dust. The response of disk chemical structure to the dust growth and sedimentation is twofold. First, due to higher transparency a partly UV-shielded molecular layer is shifted closer to the dense midplane. Second, the presence of big grains in the disk midplane delays the freeze-out of volatile gas-phase species such as CO there, while in adjacent upper layers the depletion is still effective. Molecular concentrations and thus column densities of many species are enhanced in the disk model with dust evolution, e.g., CO{sub 2}, NH{sub 2}CN, HNO, H{sub 2}O, HCOOH, HCN, and CO. We also show that time-dependent chemistry is important for a proper description of gas thermal balance.

Akimkin, V.; Wiebe, D.; Pavlyuchenkov, Ya. [Institute of Astronomy of the RAS, Pyatnitskaya str. 48, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [Institute of Astronomy of the RAS, Pyatnitskaya str. 48, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zhukovska, S.; Semenov, D.; Henning, Th. [Max-Planck-Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)] [Max-Planck-Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Vasyunin, A. [Department of Chemistry, The University of Virginia, VA (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, The University of Virginia, VA (United States); Birnstiel, T., E-mail: akimkin@inasan.ru, E-mail: dwiebe@inasan.ru, E-mail: pavyar@inasan.ru, E-mail: zhukovska@mpia.de, E-mail: semenov@mpia.de, E-mail: henning@mpia.de, E-mail: anton.vasyunin@gmail.com, E-mail: tbirnstiel@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2013-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

349

Can Government Regulate Portion Sizes?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...it struck down the law on the basis of the separation-of-powers issue. According to the dissenting opinion, however, "the Rule easily passes this test." Neither lower court had found that regulating portion sizes of sugar-sweetened beverages was irrational (although both courts similarly struck down... A New York City Board of Health regulation limiting portion sizes of sugar-sweetened beverages was struck down this year, but the case may help address fundamental questions about whether restricting portion sizes is defensible on public health and legal grounds.

Pomeranz J.L.; Brownell K.D.

2014-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

350

Manufacture and properties of continuous grain flow crankshafts for locomotive and power generation diesel engines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The bulk of the large crankshaft production volume is associated with the medium speed diesel engine market. These engines have seen intense development to obtain higher power outputs without change in the physical size of the crankshaft and at the same time there has been continuing pressure to reduce costs. Fatigue and bearing normal wear are the major technical hurdles that threaten the crankshaft life, and measures for dealing with these issues are described. Continuous grain flow (CGF) crankshafts are responsible for the continued integrity of these enhanced power output engines and the production of these crankshafts is described. Comparisons are made with the older slab forging crankshaft production method. The demand for the medium speed diesel engine and its natural gas derivative is strong and supports an aggressive engine building industry serving locomotive, marine and power generation markets. This demand in turn relies on practical national standards that serve the needs of the engine builder, material supplier and the end user.

Antos, D.J.; Nisbett, E.G. [National Forge Co., Irvine, PA (United States)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

351

Cohesion enhancing effect of magnesium in aluminum grain boundary: A first-principles determination  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of magnesium on grain boundary cohesion in aluminum was investigated by means of first-principles calculations using the Rice-Wang model [Rice and Wang, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 107, 23 (1989)]. It is demonstrated that magnesium is a cohesion enhancer with a potency of -0.11 eV/atom. It is further determined through electronic structure and bonding character analysis that the cohesion enhancing property of magnesium is due to a charge transfer mechanism which is unusually strong and overcomes the negative result of the size effect mechanism. Consistent with experimental results, this work clarifies the controversy and establishes that Mg segregation does not contribute to stress corrosion cracking in Al alloys.

Zhang Shengjun; Freeman, Arthur J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Kontsevoi, Oleg Y. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Olson, Gregory B. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)

2012-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

352

Dry milling properties of selected sorghum grain varieties  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and methionine, were present in low concentrations in all the varieties tested by Virnpaksha and Sastry (7). There was considerable variation in the ratio of iso-lr ucine to leucine (7, S). The sorghum k. me 1 contains approximately 3. 4-3. 7% ether extract.... The present importance and bright future of grain sorghum. Cereal Sci. Today 4:23. (1959). 7. Virupaksha. T. K. and Sastry, L. V. S. Studies on ihe protein content and anrino acid composition of some varieties of grain sorghum. J. Agr. and Food Chem. 16...

Krishnaprasad, Mittur Nanjappa

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

353

Grain Sorghum By-Product Feeds for Farm Animals.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of feeding trials with farm animals from 1945 throug 1951 to determine the nutritional value and feed usage of the$ bv-products. These experiments were supported in part h grants-in-aid and gifts of by-product feeds from the Cor Products Refining Company... by grants-in-aid from the Corn Products Refining Company. GRAIN SORGHUM BY-PRODUCT FEEDS FOR FARM ANIMALS GRAIN SORGHUM 80.5 million bu. I\\ \\I 30.55% total \\ WHEAT 59.6 million bu. 27.16 % total CORN / 64.3 million bu. Figure 3. Ten-year average...

1951-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Research on Farm Drying and Storage of Sorghum Grain.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the 60-35-5 ratio; ethylene tlichloride, carbon tetrachloride, ethylene dibro- TABLE 1. COMPARISON OF ABOVE GRAIN AND BIN WALL TCMPCRATURES IN VARIOUS TYPES OF BINS AT DIFFER- ENT TIMES DURING THE DAY --- - A- heric temperature, Average temperature.... degrees F' 7 -- bin and time of day August September December Almosp type of 1 - At mosp heric temperature 8:00 a.m. 84 78 53 2:00 p.m. 97 9 1 65 18-foot diameter steel bin. painted aluminum Above grain 8:00 a.m. 85 80 51 2:00 p.m. 103 98 70...

Redlinger, L. M.; Davenport, M. G.; Sorenson Jr., J. W.; Kline, G. L.; Aldred, W. H.

1957-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

ARM - Measurement - Cloud droplet size  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

droplet size droplet size ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Cloud droplet size Linear size (e.g. radius or diameter) of a cloud particle Categories Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. Field Campaign Instruments CPI : Cloud Particle Imager CVI-AIR : Counterflow Virtual Impactor MIRAI : JAMSTEC Research Vessel Mirai PDI : Phase Doppler Interferometer UAV-PROTEUS-MICRO : Proteus Cloud Microphysics Instruments SPEC-CPI : Stratton Park Engineering Company - Cloud particle imager

356

ARM - Measurement - Aerosol particle size  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

particle size particle size ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Aerosol particle size Linear size (e.g. radius or diameter) of an aerosol particle. Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. Field Campaign Instruments AEROSMASSSPEC : Aerosol Mass Spectrometer CPI : Cloud Particle Imager DRI-GND : Desert Research Institute Ground-Based Aerosol Instruments DRUM-AEROSOL : Drum Aerosol Sampler AEROSOL-TOWER-EML : EML Tower based Aerosol Measurements

357

Hardware Sizing for Software Application  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, in real-life there is a need to predict the capacity when budgeting hardware, assessing technical risk, validating technical architecture, sizing packaged applications, predicting production system capacity requirements, and calculating the cost...

Swaminathan, Ganesh

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

358

The role of sediment grain-size, mineralogy, and beach morphology on plant communities of two Mediterranean coastal dune systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...surveys was to characterize the morphology of the sites. The data were then processed using the software AutoCAD (developed by Autodesk), which enabled the digital tracing of the topographic profiles. Values of altitude and distance from the coastline were...

Duccio Bertoni; Cristian Biagioni; Giovanni Sarti; Daniela Ciccarelli; Matteo Ruocco

359

Grain-size effects in nanoscaled electrolyte and cathode thin films for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC).  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Due to their high energy conversion efficiencies and low emissions, Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) show promise as a replacement for combustion-based electrical generators at (more)

Peters, Christoph

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Effect of WC/TiC grain size ratio on microstructure and mechanical properties of WCTiCCo cemented carbides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of TiC powder as 1 lm. The microstructures of sintered WC­TiC­10 wt%Co cemented carbides were than that expected by modified Hall­Petch type equation. Transverse rupture strength of WC­20TiC­10 wt for decades [1]. Generally, cemented carbides are based on the WC­Co and some cubic carbide such as TiC, Ta

Hong, Soon Hyung

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "grain size distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

The effect of WC grain size and cobalt content on properties and electrical discharge machining of WC-Co composites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The peculiar decrease in thermal and electrical conductivities wss due to porosity which was 1'ound to increase with cobalt content. A wire electrical discharge machine (EDM) with pulse type power supply was used and specimen surfaces were assessed... on Surf'ace Chars. cteristics Residual Stresses Diamond Saw Machining Hardness of EDM-ed Surface as Compared to Diamond Saw Debris Analysis 62 62 90 93 9 101 V CONCLUSIONS 114 VI RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORK 119 REFERENCES 120 VITA 123...

Tsai, Wei-Lung

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

362

Quasi-isentropic and shock compression of FCC and BCC metals : effects of grain size and stacking-fault energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Figure 1.2: (a) Schematic of the NIF facility at LLNL (courtesy of: www.llnl.gov/nif); (b) Schematic of thethat takes place within the target chamber (from LLNL NIF

Jarmakani, Hussam N.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

doi:10.1016/S0016-7037(03)00494-0 Chondrule textures and precursor grain size: an experimental study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

--Chondrule formation appears to have been a major event in the early solar system, but chondrule properties do was an important process in the early solar system. Whether this was an astro- physical or planetary process crystallization experiments were carried out in a DelTech DT-31-VT-OS muffle tube furnace, using Pt wire loops

364

Azeotropic Distillation as a Technique for Emulsion Size Reduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Prism/PCCM #12;Overview -Intro- What is Microfluidics? What is Heterogeneous Azeotropic Distillation to produce with a narrow size distribution by way of microfluidics. Want to make emulsions with droplets 30. Depiction of particles lodging in the lung capillary bed. #12;Background Microfluidic Droplet Generation

Petta, Jason

365

The evolutionary consequences of oxygenic photosynthesis: a body size perspective  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

at lower O2:CO2. Field studies of size distributions across extant higher taxa and individual species of Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA M. Kowalewski Department of Geosciences transport limits the thickness or volume-to-surface area ratio--rather than mass or volume

Lyons, S. Kathleen

366

METER-SIZED MOONLET POPULATION IN SATURN'S C RING AND CASSINI DIVISION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Stellar occultations observed by the Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph reveal the presence of transparent holes a few meters to a few tens of meters in radial extent in otherwise optically thick regions of the C ring and the Cassini Division. We attribute the holes to gravitational disturbances generated by a population of {approx}10 m boulders in the rings that is intermediate in size between the background ring particle size distribution and the previously observed {approx}100 m propeller moonlets in the A ring. The size distribution of these boulders is described by a shallower power-law than the one that describes the ring particle size distribution. The number and size distribution of these boulders could be explained by limited accretion processes deep within Saturn's Roche zone.

Baillie, Kevin; Colwell, Joshua E. [Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816-2385 (United States); Esposito, Larry W. [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado at Boulder, 392 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309-0392 (United States); Lewis, Mark C., E-mail: kevin.baillie@cea.fr [Department of Computer Science, Trinity University, One Trinity Place, San Antonio, TX 78212-7200 (United States)

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Field-size dependence of doses of therapeutic carbon beams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To estimate the physical dose at the center of spread-out Bragg peaks (SOBP) for various conditions of the irradiation system, a semiempirical approach was applied. The dose at the center of the SOBP depends on the field size because of large-angle scattering particles in the water phantom. For a small field of 5x5 cm{sup 2}, the dose was reduced to 99.2%, 97.5%, and 96.5% of the dose used for the open field in the case of 290, 350, and 400 MeV/n carbon beams, respectively. Based on the three-Gaussian form of the lateral dose distributions of the carbon pencil beam, which has previously been shown to be effective for describing scattered carbon beams, we reconstructed the dose distributions of the SOBP beam. The reconstructed lateral dose distribution reproduced the measured lateral dose distributions very well. The field-size dependencies calculated using the reconstructed lateral dose distribution of the therapeutic carbon beam agreed with the measured dose dependency very well. The reconstructed beam was also used for irregularly shaped fields. The resultant dose distribution agreed with the measured dose distribution. The reconstructed beams were found to be applicable to the treatment-planning system.

Kusano, Yohsuke; Kanai, Tatsuaki; Yonai, Shunsuke; Komori, Masataka; Ikeda, Noritoshi; Tachikawa, Yuji; Ito, Atsushi; Uchida, Hirohisa [Tokai University Unified Graduate School, Graduate School of Science and Technology, 1117 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1207, Japan and Accelerator Engineering Co., 2-13-1 Konakadai, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-0043 (Japan); Department of Accelerator Physics and Medical Physics, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Medical Physics Research Group, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Department of Accelerator Physics and Medical Physics, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Accelerator Engineering Co., 2-13-1 Konakadai, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-0043 (Japan); Department of Energy Science and Engineering, School of Engineering, Tokai University, 1117 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan)

2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

368

In-situ Phase transformation study in fine grained heat affected zone of Grade 91 steels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Creep strength-enhanced ferritic (CSEF) steels such as the 9 Cr steel [ASTM A387 Grade 91] are widely used as tubing and piping in the new generation of fossil fired power plants. Microstructures in the fine-grained heat affected zone (FGHAZ) may significantly reduce creep strength leading Type IV failures. Current research suggest that reducing pre-weld tempering temperature from 760 C (HTT) to 650 C (LTT) has the potential to double the creep life of these welds. To understand this improvement, time-resolved X-ray diffraction (TRXRD) measurement with synchrotron radiation was used to characterize the microstructure evolution during fine grained heat-affected zone (HAZ) thermal cycling of grade 91 steel. The measurements showed both M23C6 (M=Fe, Cr) and MX (M=Nb, V; X=C,N) are present in the sample after the HTT condition. Near equilibrium fraction of M23C6 was measured in high temperature tempering condition (HTT, 760 C). However, the amount of M23C6 in LTT condition was very low since the diffraction peaks are close to the background. During simulated FGHAZ thermal cycling, the M23C6 partially dissolved in HTT sample. Interestingly, MX did not dissolve in both LTT and HTT samples. Hypothesis for correlation of M23C6 carbide distribution and pre-mature creep failure in FGHAZ will be made.

Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh [Ohio State University; Yamamoto, Yukinori [ORNL; Santella, Michael L [ORNL; Yu, Xinghua [ORNL; Komizo, Prof. Y [Osaka University; Terasaki, Prof. H [Osaka University

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Influence of coal nature and structure on ash size formation characteristic and related pollutant emissions during CFB combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The size distribution of coal particles in a Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boiler plays a crucial role in the ... the variation of coal ash distributions and other CFB performance data due to the cyclone and...

Min Qian; Arnaud Boelle; Philippe Jaud; Yongjie Na

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

FEA Simulations of Magnets with Grain Oriented Steel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the potential successors of the Large Hadron Collider is a Muon Col- lider. Muons are short-lived particles, which therefore require fast acceleration. One potential avenue is a very fast cycling cyclotron, where the bending is sup- plied by a combination of fixed-field superconducting magnets and fast ramping normal conducting iron-cored coils. Due to the high ramping rate (around 1 kHz) eddy current and hysteresis losses are a concern. One way to overcome these is by using grain-oriented soft-iron, which promises superior magnetic properties in the direction of the grains. This note summarizes efforts to include the anisotropic material properties of grain-oriented steel in finite element analysis to predict the behaviour of the dipole magnets for this accelerator. It was found that including anisotropic material properties has a detrimental effect on model convergence. During this study it was not possible to include grain oriented steel with an accuracy necessary to study the field quality of a dipole magnet.

Witte H.

2012-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

371

Development of a portable grain mass flow sensor test rig  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A portable grain mass flow sensor test rig was built to measure the accuracy of a mass flow sensor with dual use in the field as well as in the lab. Concurrently, a synchronization method was developed that employs GPS timing data to synchronize the ... Keywords: Mass flow sensor, Test rig, Yield monitor accuracy, Yield monitor error

M. Loghavi; R. Ehsani; R. Reeder

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Thermodynamics of Protein Folding from Coarse-Grained Models' Perspectives  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

8 Thermodynamics of Protein Folding from Coarse-Grained Models' Perspectives Michael Bachmann applications. In this lecture, we focus on the anal- ysis of mesoscopic models for protein folding, aggregation for a more universal description of the notoriously difficult problem of protein fold- ing. In this approach

Janke, Wolfhard

373

On-Farm Storage and Disposal of Sorghum Grain.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

APRIL 1963 ON-FARM - STORAGE AND DISPOSAL OF SORGHUM GRAIN -- THE AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION R. E. PATTERSON. DIRECTOR. COLLEGE ST+TION, TEXAS IN COOPERATION WITH THE U. S. DEPARTMENT... OF AGRICULTURE summary The sorghum storage space. Utilization increases resulted from an increased awareness and acceptance by feeders and millers...

Brown, Charles W.; Moore, Clarence A.

1963-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

On the Absorption and Emission Properties of Interstellar Grains  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Our current understanding of the absorption and emission properties of interstellar grains are reviewed. The constraints placed by the Kramers-Kronig relation on the wavelength-dependence and the maximum allowable quantity of the dust absorption are discussed. Comparisons of the opacities (mass absorption coefficients) derived from interstellar dust models with those directly estimated from observations are presented.

Aigen Li

2005-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

375

Stable carbon fractionation in size-segregated aerosol particles produced by controlled biomass burning  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Six different biomass fuel types (wood pellets, sunflower stalk pellets, straw pellets, buckwheat shells, mixed biomass waste pellets, and grain screenings) and wastewater sludge pellets were burned under controlled conditions to determine the effect of the biomass type on the emitted particulate matter mass and stable carbon isotope composition of bulk and size-segregated particles. Aerosol particles were sampled using the total suspended particle (TSP) sampler and a micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI). The results demonstrated that particle emissions were dominated by the submicron particles (size <1m) in all biomass types. However, significant differences in emissions of submicron particles and their dominant sizes were found between different biomass fuels. The isotopic fractionation between aerosol particles and original biomass material varied from ?0.940.23 to 1.120.16. The largest negative fractionation ?0.940.23 was obtained for the wood pellet fuel type while the largest positive isotopic fractionation (1.120.16) was observed during the grain screenings combustion. The carbon isotope composition of MOUDI samples compared very well with the isotope composition of TSP samples indicating consistency of the results. The measurements of the stable carbon isotope ratio in size-segregated aerosol particles suggested that combustion processes could strongly affect isotopic fractionation in aerosol particles of different sizes thereby potentially affecting an interpretation of ambient atmospheric observations.

A. Garbaras; A. Masalaite; I. Garbariene; D. Ceburnis; E. Krugly; V. Remeikis; E. Puida; K. Kvietkus; D. Martuzevicius

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Ultrasonically enhanced size reduction of coal. Quarterly technical progress report No. 3, December 26, 1981-June 25, 1982  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental work during the past quarter involved use of the roller/curved plate coupler grinder, with the Upper Freeport and the Illinois coals as feed. In general, the results indicate that ultrasonic grinding leads to a narrow size distribution with minimal energy consumption. Furthermore, float-sink analyses of ultrasonically versus non-ultrasonically ground samples appear to indicate that selective fracturing is occurring during ultrasonic grinding. In order to further characterize the narrow size distribution achieved by ultrasonic grinding, an experiment was carried out in which a sample of Illinois No. 6 coal (9 mesh x 0) was ultrasonically ground; a comparison between the initial feed size distribution and the ground product size distribution was made. The median mass diameter was reduced from 500 microns to 250 microns while the amount of -200 mesh material remained essentially constant. Without classification, no other method will reduce particle size and give a narrower product size distribution simultaneously. 1 figure, 4 tables.

Tarpley, W.B. Jr.; Taylor, S.R.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Determining size-specific emission factors for environmental tobacco smoke  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Determining size-specific emission factors for environmental tobacco smoke Determining size-specific emission factors for environmental tobacco smoke particles Title Determining size-specific emission factors for environmental tobacco smoke particles Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2003 Authors Klepeis, Neil E., Michael G. Apte, Lara A. Gundel, Richard G. Sextro, and William W. Nazaroff Journal Aerosol Science & Technology Volume 37 Start Page Chapter Pagination 780-790 Date Published October 2003 Abstract Because size is a major controlling factor for indoor airborne particle behavior, human particle exposure assessments will benefit from improved knowledge of size-specific particle emissions. We report a method of inferring size-specific mass emission factors for indoor sources that makes use of an indoor aerosol dynamics model, measured particle concentration time series data, and an optimization routine. This approach provides -- in addition to estimates of the emissions size distribution and integrated emission factors -- estimates of deposition rate, an enhanced understanding of particle dynamics, and information about model performance. We applied the method to size-specific environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) particle concentrations measured every minute with an 8-channel optical particle counter (PMS-LASAIR; 0.1-2+ micrometer diameters) and every 10 or 30 min with a 34-channel differential mobility particle sizer (TSI-DMPS; 0.01-1+ micrometer diameters) after a single cigarette or cigar was machine-smoked inside a low air-exchange rate 20m^3 chamber. The aerosol dynamics model provided good fits to observed concentrations when using optimized values of mass emission rate and deposition rate for each particle size range as input. Small discrepancies observed in the first 1-2 hours after smoking are likely due to the effect of particle evaporation, a process neglected by the model. Size-specific ETS particle emission factors were fit with log-normal distributions, yielding an average mass median diameter of 0.2 micrometers and an average geometric standard deviation of 2.3 with no systematic differences between cigars and cigarettes. The equivalent total particle emission rate, obtained by integrating each size distribution, was 0.2-0.7 mg/min for cigars and 0.7-0.9 mg/min for cigarettes

378

Structure, chemistry, and stress corrosion cracking of grain boundaries in alloys 600 and 690  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The microstructure in six commercial batches of alloys 600 and 690 has been investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), analytical transmission electron microscopy (ATEM), atom probe field ion microscopy (APFIM), and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). The materials were also tested with respect to their resistance to intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in high-purity water at 365 C. Applied microanalytical techniques allowed direct measurement of carbon concentration in the matrix together with determination of grain boundary microstructure and microchemistry in all material conditions. The distribution of oxygen near a crack in material tested with respect to IGSCC was also investigated. The role of carbon and chromium and intergranular precipitates on IGSCC is discussed.

Stiller, K. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Physics; Nilsson, J.O. [AB Sandvik Steel, Sandviken (Sweden); Norring, K. [Studsvik Material AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Compare All CBECS Activities: Size  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

By Building Size By Building Size Compare Activities by ... Building Size Total Floorspace by Building Type There was approximately 67.3 billion square feet of commercial floorspace in the U.S. in 1999. Because there are many of them, office buildings comprised the largest amount of commercial floorspace. Figure showing total floorspace by building type. If you need assistance viewing this page, please call 202-586-8800. Square Feet per Building by Building Type Inpatient health buildings were by far the largest building type, on average, while food service and food sales buildings were the smallest. Figure showing square feet per building by building type. If you need assistance viewing this page, please call 202-586-8800. Establishments per Building by Building Type

380

DISTRIBUTION CATEGORY  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

DISTRIBUTION CATEGORY DISTRIBUTION CATEGORY uc-11 I A W E N C E LIVERMORE IABORATORY University of Cahfmia/Livermore, California/94550 UCRL-52658 CALCULATION OF CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM BETWEEN AQUEOUS SOLUTION AND MINERALS: THE EQ3/6 - - SOFTWARE PACKAGE T. J. Wolery MS. date: February 1, 1979 . . - . . - . Tho rcpon rn prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United Stater Government. Seither Lhc Urutcd Stater nor the Umted Stater Department of Energy, nor any of their employees. nor any of their E O ~ ~ ~ B C I O I S . rubcontracton. o r their employees. makes any warranr)., exprcs or !mplwd. or assumes any legal liability or respanability io: the ~ c c u o c y . complctencn or uvfulneu of any miormarlon. apparatcr. product or p r o m s dtwlorcd. or r c p r e v n u that its UP would not infringe privately owned r

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "grain size distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Roughening of the interface between grains and liquid matrix in sintered TaC-20Ni  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The grains in TaC-20 wt pct Ni alloy prepared by liquidphase sintering at 1480C have orthorhombic shapes with flat {100} faces and sharp edges. These grains show abnormal growth. When sintered at 2020C, the gra...

Young Kyu Cho; Duk Yong Yoon; Jung Hoon Choi

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Abundances of presolar silicon carbide grains in primitive meteorites determined by NanoSIMS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abundances of presolar silicon carbide grains in primitive meteorites determined by NanoSIMS Jemma carbide (SiC) grains estimated from their noble gas components show significant variations in even

Nittler, Larry R.

383

Modeling Elasto-Plastic Behavior of Polycrystalline Grain Structure of Steels at Mesoscopic Level  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Modeling Elasto-Plastic Behavior of Polycrystalline Grain Structure of Steels at Mesoscopic Level. The constitutive model of crystal grains utilizes anisotropic elasticity and crystal plasticity. Commercially be considered macroscopically homogeneous. Elastic and rate independent plastic deformation modes are considered

Cizelj, Leon

384

Stagewise Dilute-Acid Pretreatment and Enzyme Hydrolysis of Distillers Grains and Corn Fiber  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Distillers grains and corn fiber are the coproducts of the corn dry grind and wet milling industries, respectively. Availability of distillers grains and corn fiber at the ethanol plant and their ... three-stag...

Hossein Noureddini; Jongwon Byun; Ta-Jen Yu

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Low-Cycle Fatigue of Ultra-Fine-Grained Cryomilled 5083 Aluminum Alloy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of an Ultra-Fine Grained Aluminum Alloy, Poster Session,Grained Cryomilled 5083 Aluminum Alloy J.L. WALLEY, E.J.consistent with other MA aluminum alloys and is attributed

Walley, J. L.; Lavernia, E. J.; Gibeling, J. C.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Availability of selected amino acids in sorghum grain and corn determined in ileocecal cannulated finishing pigs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

trials to determine the availability of selected amino acids in corn and sorghum grain when measured at the distal ileum and in the feces. The cereal diets were based on grains representative of commercial production in Texas. Each pig received both... the corn and sorghum grain diets alternatively during two consecutive 18 day periods. A purified, non-protein diet was used to determine the endogenous amino acids in the ileal digests and feces. The apparent availability of amino acids from both grains...

Easter, Robert Arnold

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

387

Grain boundary microstructure, chemistry, and IGSCC in Alloy 600 and Alloy 690  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The resistance to intergranular stress corrosion cracking of six different Alloy 600 and Alloy 690 steam generator tubes has been investigated. The composition of the materials at grain boundaries has been investigated using analytical transmission electron microscopy and atom probe field ion microscopy techniques. The depletion of chromium at the grain boundaries has been related to the type of grain boundary precipitates. Segregation of carbon and boron to the grain boundaries has been observed and quantified.

Norring, K. [Studsvik AB, Nykoeping (Sweden); Stiller, K. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Nilsson, J.O. [AB Sandvik Steel, Sandviken (Sweden)

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

388

Prececal, postileal and total tract starch digestion in ponies fed corn, oats, barley or sorghum grain  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Barley Oats Corn Sorghum Sorghum Barley Oats Corn Whole grains were purchased from a local commercial supplier. All grains were elevator run. Prior to ration formulation grains were coarsely cracked in an automatic roller mill..., chromium and starch by the same procedures except 5 ml of wet sample was used for each analy- For determination of amylase content and viscosity, grains were pulverized in a laboratory Udy mill through a 1 mm screen. An alkaline hydroylsate was prepared...

Arnold, Fairfax Ferguson

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

389

Grain boundary characterization in an X750 alloy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Grain boundary chemistry in an X750 Ni alloy was analyzed by atom probe tomography in an effort to clarify the possible roles of elemental segregation and carbide presence on the stress corrosion cracking behavior of Ni alloys. Two types of cracks are observed: straight cracks along twin boundaries and wavy cracks at general boundaries. It was found that carbides (M23C6 and TiC) are present at both twin and general boundaries, with comparable B and P segregation for all types of grain boundaries. Twin boundaries intercept ? precipitates while the general boundaries wave around the ? and carbide precipitates. Near a crack tip, oxidation takes place on the periphery of carbide precipitate.

Kevin Fisher; Sebastien Teysseyre; Emmanuelle Marquis

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Kinetically determined shapes of grain boundaries in CVD graphene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Predicting the shape of grain boundaries is essential to control results of the growth of large graphene crystals. A global energy minimum search predicting the most stable final structure contradicts experimental observations. Here we present Monte Carlo simulation of kinetic formation of grain boundaries (GB) in graphene during collision of two growing graphene flakes. Analysis of the resulting GBs for the full range of misorientation angles $\\alpha$ allowed us to identify a hidden (from post facto analysis such as microscopy) degree of freedom - the edge misorientation angle $\\beta$. Edge misorientation characterizes initial structure rather than final structure and therefore provides more information about growth conditions. Use of $\\beta$ enabled us to explain disagreements between the experimental observations and theoretical work. Finally, we report an analysis of an interesting special case of zero-tilt GBs for which structure is determined by two variables describing the relative shift of initial isl...

Bets, Ksenia V; Yakobson, Boris I

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Performance of Large grain and Single Crystal Niobium Cavities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have fabricated and tested several single and one multi-cell cavity made from large grain niobium of four different ingots. Two cavities at a frequency of ~ 2.2 GHz were made from single crystal sheets. Large grain material was used for four single cell cavities of the HG and OC shapes, a 7-cell cavity of the HG shape all resonating at 1500 MHz and an ILC_LL single cell cavity at 1300 MHz. We began to explore also different chemical polishing baths such as a 1:1:1 and a 1:1:2 buffered solution and explored the change of cavity performance as a function of material removal. The results from these preliminary investigations are reported in this contribution.

Kneisel, Peter; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Sekutowicz, Jacek

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Intergranular degradation assessment via random grain boundary network analysis  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is disclosed for determining the resistance of polycrystalline materials to intergranular degradation or failure (IGDF), by analyzing the random grain boundary network connectivity (RGBNC) microstructure. Analysis of the disruption of the RGBNC microstructure may be assess the effectiveness of materials processing in increasing IGDF resistance. Comparison of the RGBNC microstructures of materials exposed to extreme operating conditions to unexposed materials may be used to diagnose and predict possible onset of material failure due to

Kumar, Mukul (San Ramon, CA); Schwartz, Adam J. (Pleasanton, CA); King, Wayne E. (San Ramon, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Ground Versus Unground Grain for Lactating Dairy Cows.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LIBRARY, A & hf COLLEGE, CAMPUS. TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. B. CONNER, DIFkECTOR COLLE~E STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS BULLETIN NO. 530 SEPTEMBER, 193 6 DIVISION OF DAIRY HUSBANDRY Ground Versus Unground Grain far Lactating... of the Agricultural and nlechanical College of Texas. 6 BULLETIN NO. 530, TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION was utilized." Cave and Fitch (2) found that as high as 90 per cent of the seeds in sargo silage passed through the cow unmasticated. The results...

Darnell, A. L. (Albert Laurie); Copeland, O. C. (Orlin Cephas)

1936-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Grain Sorghums Versus Corn for Fattening Lambs : Third Experiment.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

t J. BKAfCT, CAMPUS, TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS W. B. BIZZELL, President BULLETIN NO. 306 FEBRUARY, 1923 DIVISION OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY GRAIN SORGHUMS VERSUS CORN FOR FATTENING LAMBS...~ON Ezecutioe Assisfant CRARLES GOR~YCKI Technical Assistant M P. HOLLEMAN JL., Assistanf Chief Clerk R.'N. BURROWS, 'M. A.. Research Librarian VETERINARY SCIENCE *M FRANCIS D. V. M Chief H.. SCHMIDT,' D. V. ~.."~eterinarian V. J. BRAUNER, D. V. M...

Jones, J. M. (Joseph McKinley); Dickson, R. E.

1923-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Statistics of turbulence via polarimetry: alignment of grains and atoms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Most astrophysical fluids are turbulent and magnetized. Fluctuations of polarization provide a promising way to study astrophysical magnetic turbulence. We discuss polarization that arises from grains and atoms aligned in respect to magnetic field, describe the processes of alignment, explain when the alignment reflects the direction of magnetic field. We show that temporal fluctuations of interplanetary magnetic field can be studied using aligned sodium atoms.

A. Lazarian; Huirong Yan

2005-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

396

Energy and Greenhouse Gas Profiles of Polyhydroxybutyrates Derived from Corn Grain: A Life Cycle Perspective  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Energy and Greenhouse Gas Profiles of Polyhydroxybutyrates Derived from Corn Grain: A Life Cycle Perspective ... Polyhydroxybutyrates derived from corn grain could reduced nonrenewable energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions compared to petroleum-based polymer. ... Cradle-to-gate environmental performance of PHB derived from corn grain is evaluated through life cycle assessment (LCA), particularly nonrenewable energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. ...

Seungdo Kim; Bruce E. Dale

2008-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

397

The Use of Conditioned Air for Maintaining Quality of Stored Sorghum Grain.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.- ...... '. .................................... 21 .............................................. Design Method No: 3 21 Effects of Conditioned-air Storage on Grain Quality ........................................................... II! Insect Control...,~ of controlled storage environments for bulk yain are discussed. The initial vapor pressure of tile moisture in the grain and the partial pressure of !lie vapor in the conditioned air circulating through llle grain mass were found to be very important tl...

Person, Nat K. Jr.; Sorenson, J. W. Jr.; McCune, W. E.; Hobgood, Price

1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Grain refinement and texture development of cast bi90sb10 alloy via severe plastic deformation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

recrystallization and causes the development of a bimodal microstructure consisting of fine grains (5-30 micron) and coarse grains (50-300 micron). ECAE processing of homogenizied Bi-Sb alloy causes grain refinement and produces a more uniform microstructure...

Im, Jae-taek

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

399

Percent Distribution  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

. . Percent Distribution of Natural Gas Supply and Disposition by State, 1996 Table State Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) Marketed Production Total Consumption Alabama................................................................... 3.02 2.69 1.48 Alaska ...................................................................... 5.58 2.43 2.04 Arizona..................................................................... NA 0 0.55 Arkansas.................................................................. 0.88 1.12 1.23 California.................................................................. 1.25 1.45 8.23 Colorado .................................................................. 4.63 2.90 1.40 Connecticut.............................................................. 0 0 0.58 D.C...........................................................................

400

Distributed Generation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Untapped Value of Backup Generation Untapped Value of Backup Generation While new guidelines and regulations such as IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) 1547 have come a long way in addressing interconnection standards for distributed generation, utilities have largely overlooked the untapped potential of these resources. Under certain conditions, these units (primarily backup generators) represent a significant source of power that can deliver utility services at lower costs than traditional centralized solutions. These backup generators exist today in large numbers and provide utilities with another option to reduce peak load, relieve transmission congestion, and improve power reliability. Backup generation is widely deployed across the United States. Carnegie Mellon's Electricity

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "grain size distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Low Frequency-SAFT Inspection Methodology for Coarse-Grained Steel Rail Components (Manganese Steel Frogs)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the rail industry, sections of high strength Manganese steel are employed at critical locations in railroad networks. Ultrasonic inspections of Manganese steel microstructures are difficult to inspect with conventional means, as the propagation medium is highly attenuative, coarse-grained, anisotropic and nonhomogeneous in nature. Current in-service inspection methods are ineffective while pre-service X-ray methods (used for full-volumetric examinations of components prior to shipment) are time-consuming, costly, require special facilities and highly trained personnel for safe operations, and preclude manufacturers from inspecting statistically meaningful numbers of frogs for effective quality assurance. In-service examinations consist of visual inspections only and by the time a defect or flaw is visually detected, the structural integrity of the component may already be compromised, and immediate repair or replacement is required. A novel ultrasonic inspection technique utilizing low frequency ultrasound (100 to 500 kHz) combined with a synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT) for effective reduction of signal clutter and noise, and extraction of important features in the data, has proven to be effective for these coarse grained steel components. Results from proof-of-principal tests in the laboratory demonstrate an effective means to detect and localize reflectors introduced as a function of size and depth from the top of the frog rail. Using non-optimal, commercially available transducers coupled with the low-frequency/SAFT approach, preliminary evaluations were conducted to study the effects of the material microstructure on ultrasonic propagation, sensitivity and resolution in thick section frog components with machined side-drilled holes. Results from this study will be presented and discussed.

Diaz, Aaron A.; Andersen, Eric S.; Samuel, Todd J.

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Size of Cloud from Shadow  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Size of Cloud from Shadow Size of Cloud from Shadow Name: mike Status: other Grade: other Location: N/A Country: USA Date: Summer 2011 Question: I see a cloud and I see its shadow in a field - knowing high sun angles - is there a way of telling how far away the cloud is or how big? - I am thinking if the shadow is 30' wide and the sun is at 2:00 pm- ? Replies: Hi Mike, Try this, draw a small circle representing the Sun. Somewhere below this circle and maybe to the right, draw an oblong, make this oblong bigger than the circle. Now connect the leftmost edge of the circle with the leftmost edge of the oblong with a straight line. Do the same for the rightmost edges. The oblong now represent the shadow of a cloud on the ground, and the lines represent the rays of the sun passing along the edges of the cloud.

403

Percent Distribution  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

. . Percent Distribution of Natural Gas Delivered to Consumers by State, 1996 Table State Residential Commercial Industrial Vehicle Fuel Electric Utilities Alabama..................................... 1.08 0.92 2.27 0.08 0.23 Alaska ........................................ 0.31 0.87 0.85 - 1.16 Arizona....................................... 0.53 0.92 0.30 3.91 0.70 Arkansas.................................... 0.88 0.98 1.59 0.11 1.24 California.................................... 9.03 7.44 7.82 43.11 11.64 Colorado .................................... 2.12 2.18 0.94 0.58 0.20 Connecticut................................ 0.84 1.26 0.37 1.08 0.38 D.C............................................. 0.33 0.52 - 0.21 - Delaware.................................... 0.19 0.21 0.16 0.04 0.86 Florida........................................

404

Distribution Category:  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

- - Distribution Category: Remedial Action and Decommissioning Program (UC-70A) DOE/EV-0005/48 ANL-OHS/HP-84-104 ARGONNE NATIONAL LABORATORY 9700 South Cass Avenue Argonne, Illinois 60439 FORMERLY UTILIZED MXD/AEC SITES REMEDIAL ACTION PROGRAM RADIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE HARSHAW CHEMICAL COMPANY CLEVELAND. OHIO Prepared by R. A. Wynveen Associate Division Director, OHS W. H. Smith Senior Health Physicist C. M. Sholeen Health Physicist A. L. Justus Health Physicist K. F. Flynn Health Physicist Radiological Survey Group Health Physics Section Occupational Health and Safety Division April 1984 Work Performed under Budget Activity DOE KN-03-60-40 and ANL 73706 iii PREFACE AND EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This is one in a series of reports resulting from a program initiated

405

Inferring Pore Size and Network Structure from Sorption Hysteresis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sorption experiments are widely used to infer the pore size distribution of a mesoporous material. We present a simple model that explains the hysteresis observed on desorption in such experiments. The model is based on well-established relationships between the radius of a pore and the partial pressure at which it will fill, but additionally describes of the connectivity of the pore network. The model is able to explain both primary and scanning sorption isotherms for a range of materials with wide pore size distributions, such as cement paste and dental enamel. It allows quantification of the prevalence of macropores in the material, even though these pores are never filled during the sorption experiments. A distinct bump in the desorption isotherms is attributed to spinodal decomposition (or cavitation) at a partial pressure that depends on temperature, and experiments across a range of sorbents and sorbates are consistent with a universal scaling.

Matthew B. Pinson; Hamlin M. Jennings; Martin Z. Bazant

2014-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

406

Grain boundary structure and solute segregation in titanium-doped sapphire bicrystals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solute segregation to ceramic grain boundaries governs material processing and microstructure evolution, and can strongly influence material properties critical to engineering performance. Understanding the evolution and implications of grain boundary chemistry is a vital component in the greater effort to engineer ceramics with controlled microstructures. This study examines solute segregation to engineered grain boundaries in titanium-doped sapphire (Al2O3) bicrystals, and explores relationships between grain boundary structure and chemistry at the nanometer scale using spectroscopic and imaging techniques in the transmission electron microscope (TEM). Results demonstrate dramatic changes in solute segregation stemming from small fluctuations in grain boundary plane and structure. Titanium and silicon solute species exhibit strong tendencies to segregate to non-basal and basal grain boundary planes, respectively. Evidence suggests that grain boundary faceting occurs in low-angle twis t boundaries to accommodate nonequilibrium solute segregation related to slow specimen cooling rates, while faceting of tilt grain boundaries often occurs to expose special planes of the coincidence site lattice (CSL). Moreover, quantitative analysis of grain boundary chemistry indicates preferential segregation of charged defects to grain boundary dislocations. These results offer direct proof that static dislocations in ionic materials can assume a net charge, and emphasize the importance of interactions between charged point, line, and planar defects in ionic materials. Efforts to understand grain boundary chemistry in terms of space charge theory, elastic misfit and nonequilibrium segregation are discussed for the Al2O3 system.

Taylor, Seth T.

2002-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

407

Mid-Size Wind Turbines | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Page Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Mid-Size Wind Turbines Jump to: navigation, search A Vergnet GEV MP C 275-kW turbine at the Sandywoods Community, Rhode island. Photo from Stefan Dominioni/Vergnet S.A., NREL 26490. The U.S. Department of Energy defines mid-size wind turbines as 101 kilowatts to 1 megawatt.[1] Resources Kwartin, R.; Wolfrum, A.; Granfield, K.; Kagel, A.; Appleton, A. (2008). An Analysis of the Technical and Economic Potential for Mid-Scale Distributed Wind. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Accessed September 27, 2013. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Midsize Wind Turbine Research. Accessed September 27, 2013. This webpage discusses efforts to develop and commercialize mid-size wind turbines in the United States. References

408

Identification and sizing of particle defects in semiconductor-wafer processing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An experimental study of the sizing of submicron particles on semiconductor wafers is presented. The objective of the study was to determine the accuracy of a state-of-the-art optical wafer scanner by comparing its size response with that of two well established techniques namely differential mobility analysis (DMA) and secondary electronmicroscopy(SEM). Test particles used include polystyrenelatex spheres and SiO 2 Si 3 N 4 W and Cu particles of 64 107 and 202 nm nominal (DMA) sizes. The scanner-indicated sizes using the oblique and normal operational modes were compared to the DMA sizes and to average sizes determined from the SEM images. Results show that the scanner-indicated size is comparable to the SEM-indicated size. However both the scanner size and SEM size exhibit large distributions for a given nominal (DMA) size. The discrepancies are due to a combination of factors such as the effects of particle shape and material and the presence of larger doubly charged particles among those analyzed. A comparison of the normal and oblique scanner operational mode results for the scanner further show that the normal mode undersizes particles somewhat. These results collectively indicate that accurate sizing of complex and unknown submicron sized particles on semiconductor wafers is not an easy task. A thorough understanding of the scanner response to a variety of process particles is essential for the meaningful interpretation of scanning results.

Seong-Ho Yoo; James Weygand; Juergen Scherer; Lawrence Davis; Benjamin Liu; Kurt Christenson; Jeffery Butterbaugh; Natraj Narayanswami

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Abstract--This paper presents the impact of different types of load models in distribution network with distributed wind  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as a major enabler of the smart grid for the integration of small and medium sized renewable energy basedAbstract--This paper presents the impact of different types of load models in distribution network with distributed wind generation. The analysis is carried out for a test distribution system representative

Pota, Himanshu Roy

410

Zeolite pore size determination by methanol-to-gasoline conversion test  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The conversion of methanol over a shape selective zeolite to high octane gasoline is a well known process. In this work, a methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) conversion test is utilized for the pore size determination of zeolites with active sites. The dimension of a zeolite`s pores is revealed by the size distribution of its MTG hydrocarbon products. A simple fixed bed MTG test unit capable of on-line sampling for direct gas chromatographic analysis and the collection of liquid and gaseous products for GC-MS analysis is described. The size distributions of MTG hydrocarbon products are presented for several small, intermediate, and large pore zeolites.

Yuen, L.; Zones, S.I. [Chevron Research and Technology Co., Richmond, CA (United States)

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Low temperature production of large-grain polycrystalline semiconductors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An oxide or nitride layer is provided on an amorphous semiconductor layer prior to performing metal-induced crystallization of the semiconductor layer. The oxide or nitride layer facilitates conversion of the amorphous material into large grain polycrystalline material. Hence, a native silicon dioxide layer provided on hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H), followed by deposited Al permits induced crystallization at temperatures far below the solid phase crystallization temperature of a-Si. Solar cells and thin film transistors can be prepared using this method.

Naseem, Hameed A. (Fayetteville, AR); Albarghouti, Marwan (Loudonville, NY)

2007-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

412

Factors influencing carbohydrate utilization in steers fed processed sorghum grain  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1!rfluencing Carbohydrate Utilization in Steers Fed Processed Sor, hum Grain (January 1970) John [[syne McNeill, B, S, , Texas 7!yz[ University Directed by: Dr. G, D, Potter Rxperiments wer conducted to determine differences in the chemical a... . Thos&i &late po Lnt cu t 1 ncreasl cl rurainal digcstibilities of s Icmi -f la!ccd and -ecoi&s tii u ' ed grat rs aiid relatively more curb ohyclra Les eni cring th" 1 cw. r trac t 1 n s ' c ers receiving r'n y-ground anrl m ter oni sod rat b...

McNeill, John W

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

413

Atomistic processes of grain boundary motion and annihilation in graphene  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The motion and annihilation of a grain boundary (GB) in graphene are investigated by tight-binding molecular dynamics (TBMD) simulation and ab initio local density approximation total energy calculation. A meandering structure of the GB is found to be energetically more favorable than other structures, in good agreement with experiment. It is observed in the TBMD simulation that evaporation of carbon dimers and sequential Stone?Wales transformations of carbon bonds lead to rapid motion and annihilation of the GB. The dimer erection and evaporation are found to proceed by formation of an adatom due to bond breaking. These results shed interesting light on the fabrication of high-quality graphene.

Lee, Gun-Do; Yoon, Euijoon; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Ho, Kai-Ming

2013-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

414

Economic Considerations in Storing Grain Sorghum in Central Texas.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

month for sale from storage on the average) was slightly more than the cost of storage for the 7-month period on grain that did not require artificial drying for safe storage. When drying was necessary, the total cost slightly exceeded the average... price increase. However, the CCC locm-price support program tends to "iron-out" the seasonal increases in price on which returns to storage depend in a "free" market operation. With the present price support program, most producers are interested...

Moore, Clarence A.

1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Investigation of the Distribution of Fission Products Silver, Palladium and Cadmium in Neutron Irradiated SIC using a Cs Corrected HRTEM  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electron microscopy examinations of selected coated particles from the first advanced gas reactor experiment (AGR-1) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) provided important information on fission product distribution and chemical composition. Furthermore, recent research using STEM analysis led to the discovery of Ag at SiC grain boundaries and triple junctions. As these Ag precipitates were nano-sized, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) examination was used to provide more information at the atomic level. This paper describes some of the first HRTEM results obtained by examining a particle from Compact 4-1-1, which was irradiated to an average burnup of 19.26% fissions per initial metal atom (FIMA), a time average, volume-averaged temperature of 1072C; a time average, peak temperature of 1182C and an average fast fluence of 4.13 x 1021 n/cm2. Based on gamma analysis, it is estimated that this particle may have released as much as 10% of its available Ag-110m inventory during irradiation. The HRTEM investigation focused on Ag, Pd, Cd and U due to the interest in Ag transport mechanisms and possible correlation with Pd, Ag and U previously found. Additionally, Compact 4-1-1 contains fuel particles fabricated with a different fuel carrier gas composition and lower deposition temperatures for the SiC layer relative to the Baseline fabrication conditions, which are expected to reduce the concentration of SiC defects resulting from uranium dispersion. Pd, Ag, and Cd were found to co-exist in some of the SiC grain boundaries and triple junctions whilst U was found to be present in the micron-sized precipitates as well as separately in selected areas at grain boundaries. This study confirmed the presence of Pd both at inter- and intragranular positions; in the latter case specifically at stacking faults. Small Pd nodules were observed at a distance of about 6.5 micron from the inner PyC/SiC interface.

I. J. van Rooyen; E. Olivier; J. H Neethlin

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Top 9 Things You Didn't Know About Distributed Wind Power | Department...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Photo courtesy of Northern Power Systems. Mid-Sized Distributed Wind: Two mid-sized wind turbines in operation at Wayne Industrial Sustainability Park in Ontario, New York. | Photo...

417

Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) particles prepared by microfluidics and conventional methods. Modulated particle size and rheology  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

AbstractHypothesis Microfluidic techniques are expected to provide narrower particle size distribution than conventional methods for the preparation of poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles. Besides, it is hypothesized that the particle size distribution of poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) microparticles influences the settling behaviour and rheological properties of its aqueous dispersions. Experiments For the preparation of PLGA particles, two different methods, microfluidic and conventional oil-in-water emulsification methods were employed. The particle size and particle size distribution of PLGA particles prepared by microfluidics were studied as a function of the flow rate of the organic phase while particles prepared by conventional methods were studied as a function of stirring rate. In order to study the stability and structural organization of colloidal dispersions, settling experiments and oscillatory rheological measurements were carried out on aqueous dispersions of PLGA particles with different particle size distributions. Findings Microfluidics technique allowed the control of size and size distribution of the droplets formed in the process of emulsification. This resulted in a narrower particle size distribution for samples prepared by MF with respect to samples prepared by conventional methods. Polydisperse samples showed a larger tendency to aggregate, thus confirming the advantages of microfluidics over conventional methods, especially if biomedical applications are envisaged

Aurora Perez; Rebeca Hernandez; Diego Velasco; Dan Voicu; Carmen Mijangos

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Atomic Force Microscopy and Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy Evidence of Local Structural Inhomogeneity and Nonuniform Dopant Distribution in Conducting Polybithiophene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Atomic Force Microscopy and Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy Evidence of Local Structural Inhomogeneity and Nonuniform Dopant Distribution in Conducting Polybithiophene ... The fundamental difference between polymer grains and grain peripheral areas demonstrated by KFM was also supported by in situ contact-mode AFM data taken with the as-grown polymer film. ... (1)?Pekker, S.; Janossy, A. In Handbook of Conducting Polymers; Skotheim, T. A., Ed.; Marcel Dekker:? New York, 1986; Vol. ...

Oleg A. Semenikhin; Lei Jiang; Tomokazu Iyoda; Kazuhito Hashimoto; Akira Fujishima

1996-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

419

Control of Y2BaCuO5 particle formation in bulk, single grain YBaCuO  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The trapped field of undoped, bulk, single grain YBaCuO (YBCO) fabricated by top seeded melt growth (TSMG) has been measured to investigate the field generating potential of this material. Bulk samples were prepared from precursor powders that incorporated Y2O3 of particle size 2050nm, rather than Y2BaCuO5 (Y-211), which is used more commonly, in order to introduce nano-Y-211 inclusions in the superconducting YBa2Cu3Oy (Y-123) matrix. Relatively small bulk samples of diameter 20mm processed from this precursor are observed to trap a peak magnetic flux density of nearly 0.8T at 77K. This is the first time that such a trapped field of this magnitude has been observed in undoped YBCO (i.e.in the absence of chemical additions). The increase in trapped field is accompanied by an associated enhancement in Jc by up to a factor of five over the applied magnetic field up to 4T at 77K compared to standard single grain YBCO fabricated from precursor powders that contain the Y-211 phase.

W K Yeoh; S K Pathak; Y-H Shi; A R Dennis; D A Cardwell; N Hari Babu; K Iida; M Strasik

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

GASIFICATION FOR DISTRIBUTED GENERATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A recent emphasis in gasification technology development has been directed toward reduced-scale gasifier systems for distributed generation at remote sites. The domestic distributed power generation market over the next decade is expected to be 5-6 gigawatts per year. The global increase is expected at 20 gigawatts over the next decade. The economics of gasification for distributed power generation are significantly improved when fuel transport is minimized. Until recently, gasification technology has been synonymous with coal conversion. Presently, however, interest centers on providing clean-burning fuel to remote sites that are not necessarily near coal supplies but have sufficient alternative carbonaceous material to feed a small gasifier. Gasifiers up to 50 MW are of current interest, with emphasis on those of 5-MW generating capacity. Internal combustion engines offer a more robust system for utilizing the fuel gas, while fuel cells and microturbines offer higher electric conversion efficiencies. The initial focus of this multiyear effort was on internal combustion engines and microturbines as more realistic near-term options for distributed generation. In this project, we studied emerging gasification technologies that can provide gas from regionally available feedstock as fuel to power generators under 30 MW in a distributed generation setting. Larger-scale gasification, primarily coal-fed, has been used commercially for more than 50 years to produce clean synthesis gas for the refining, chemical, and power industries. Commercial-scale gasification activities are under way at 113 sites in 22 countries in North and South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australia, according to the Gasification Technologies Council. Gasification studies were carried out on alfalfa, black liquor (a high-sodium waste from the pulp industry), cow manure, and willow on the laboratory scale and on alfalfa, black liquor, and willow on the bench scale. Initial parametric tests evaluated through reactivity and product composition were carried out on thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) equipment. These tests were evaluated and then followed by bench-scale studies at 1123 K using an integrated bench-scale fluidized-bed gasifier (IBG) which can be operated in the semicontinuous batch mode. Products from tests were solid (ash), liquid (tar), and gas. Tar was separated on an open chromatographic column. Analysis of the gas product was carried out using on-line Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). For selected tests, gas was collected periodically and analyzed using a refinery gas analyzer GC (gas chromatograph). The solid product was not extensively analyzed. This report is a part of a search into emerging gasification technologies that can provide power under 30 MW in a distributed generation setting. Larger-scale gasification has been used commercially for more than 50 years to produce clean synthesis gas for the refining, chemical, and power industries, and it is probable that scaled-down applications for use in remote areas will become viable. The appendix to this report contains a list, description, and sources of currently available gasification technologies that could be or are being commercially applied for distributed generation. This list was gathered from current sources and provides information about the supplier, the relative size range, and the status of the technology.

Ronald C. Timpe; Michael D. Mann; Darren D. Schmidt

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "grain size distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Introduction The composition and size of atmospheric  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of nearly an order of magnitude in all size bins, with pronounced increases in larger size bins. · The Raman&M University Chart 1: The 0.3 m size bin exceeds 1x10 particles per 0.5000ft³ and particle count overlaps. Chart 2: The 0.3m bin count predominates and there are significant differences between size bin counts

422

In vitro activity of sorghum non-tannin polyphenols against grain molding and weathering fungi  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-maturity attack by fungi is termed grain molding. Post-matur1ty infestat1on 1s referred to as grain weather1ng. Weather- ing has a number of negat1ve consequences for the grain (Glueck et al 1978). Yield is diminished, handling and storage propert1es are al... storage can be a most serious problem. In parts of Texas, grain can be harvested in summer 1f 1t is planted 1n late February or early March. However, if the plant1ng is delayed or 1f there is a limited amount of soil moisture, maturity can be delayed...

Leungchaikul, Patcharin

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

423

Cooperator: Bryan Vail Tillage: No-till Soil type: Hollister silt loam Management: Grain only  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fungicide: 10.5 oz/ac Quilt Xcel + 1% v/v COC on 19 April 2013 Grain Yield Freeze inj. Test Weight Source

Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

424

Trains, Grains, and Grizzly Bears: Reducing Wildlife Mortality on Railway Tracks in Banff National Park  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

will need to be taken as defective cars are repaired and asbottom of grain cars that are defective, worn or not closed

Pissot, Jim

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Direct Free Energy Minimization Methods: Application to Grain Boundaries [and Discussion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

16 November 1992 research-article Direct Free Energy Minimization Methods: Application to Grain Boundaries [and Discussion] A. P. Sutton P. A. Mulheran A. M. Stoneham A critical...

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

SPOILAGE OF WET DISTILLERS GRAINS PLUS SOLUBLES WHEN STORED IN A BUNKER.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Five studies evaluated the impact of spoilage of wet distillers grains plus solubles (WDGS) on nutrient composition, nutrient losses, and cattle performance. Exp. 1 and (more)

Harding, Jana L

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Phase-retrieval X-ray microscopy by Wigner-distribution deconvolution  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

64x64 scan of a group of latex spheres with 45 nm step size, used for demonstrating Wigner-distribution deconvolution.

Chapman, Henry, N.

2014-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

428

Phase-retrieval X-ray microscopy by Wigner-distribution deconvolution  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

64x64 scan of a group of latex spheres with 45 nm step size, used for demonstrating Wigner-distribution deconvolution.

Chapman, Henry, N.

429

Three-dimensional dust-ion-acoustic rogue waves in a magnetized dusty pair-ion plasma with nonthermal nonextensive electrons and opposite polarity dust grains  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Dust-ion-acoustic (DIA) rogue waves are investigated in a three-dimensional magnetized plasma containing nonthermal electrons featuring Tsallis distribution, both positive and negative ions, and immobile dust grains having both positive and negative charges. Via the reductive perturbation method, a (3?+?1)-dimensional nonlinear Schrdinger (NLS) equation is derived to govern the dynamics of the DIA wave packets. The modulation instability of DIA waves described by the (3?+?1)-dimensional NLS equation is investigated. By means of the similarity transformation and symbolic computation, both the first- and second-order rogue wave solutions of the (3?+?1)-dimensional NLS equation are constructed in terms of rational functions. Moreover, the dynamics properties and the effects of plasma parameters on the nonlinear structures of rogue waves are discussed in detail. The results could be useful for understanding the physical mechanism of rogue waves in laboratory experiments where pair-ion plasmas with electrons and dust grains can be found.

Guo, Shimin, E-mail: gsm861@126.com; Mei, Liquan, E-mail: lqmei@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China)

2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

430

Band-Gap Engineering of Carbon Nanotubes with Grain Boundaries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Structure and electronic properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with grain boundaries (GBs) are investigated using density-functional calculations, where the GBs parallel and perpendicular to the tube axis are considered. Simulation results show that the GBs have a great effect on the electronic properties of the CNTs. For the GBs along the tube axis, the CNTs are narrow or zero band gap (<0.16 eV) materials, independent of the misorientation angle and diameter. For the GBs perpendicular to the tube axis, localized electronic states appear within the GBs regions, leading to a larger band gap of up to 0.6 eV. It is convenient to transport and localize the electrons and holes by engineering the GBs. These findings are of great significance for developing carbon-based nanomaterials and electronic devices.

Wang, Zhiguo; Zhou, Yungang; Zhang, Yanwen; Gao, Fei

2012-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

431

Band-Gap Engineering of Carbon Nanotubes with Grain Boundaries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Structure and electronic properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with grain boundaries (GBs) are investigated using density-functional calculations, where the GBs parallel and perpendicular to the tube axis are considered. Simulation results show that the GBs have a great effect on the electronic properties of the CNTs. For the GBs along the tube axis, the CNTs are narrow or zero band gap (<0.16 eV) materials, independent of the misoritentaion angle and diameter. For the GBs perpendicular to the tube axis, localized electronic states appear within the GBs regions, leading to a larger band gap of up to 0.6 eV. It is convenient to transport and localize the electrons and holes by engineering the GBs. These findings are of great significance for developing carbon-based nanomaterials and electronic devices.

Wang, Zhiguo [Department of Applied Physics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China; Zhou, Yungang [Department of Applied Physics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China; Zhang, Yanwen [ORNL; Gao, Fei [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

AB INITIO STUDY OF GRAIN BOUNDARY PROPERTIES OF TUNGSTEN ALLOYS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Density functional theory was employed to investigate the grain boundary (GB) property of W-TM alloys (TM: fifth and sixth row transition metals). GB strengthening was found for Hf, Ta, Nb, Ru, Re, Os and Ir for 27{l_brace}525{r_brace} and to a lesser degree for 11{l_brace}323{r_brace}. Lower valence solutes strengthen the GB at certain substitutional sites, while higher valence elements enforce it at other positions. For 3{l_brace}112{r_brace}, the alloys exhibit reduced cleavage energies. Hence, allowing with TMs increases the GB cohesion more effectively for large-angle GBs whose cleavage energy is, in general, inherently lower than the low-angle ones. Electron density analysis elucidates the mechanism of charge addition or depletion of the GB bonding region upon TM substitution at various positions leading to stronger or weaker intergranular cohesion, respectively.

Setyawan, Wahyu; Kurtz, Richard J.

2012-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

433

Coarse grained NN potential with Chiral Two Pion Exchange  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We determine the chiral constants of the Nucleon-Nucleon Two Pion Exchange potential deduced from Chiral Perturbation Theory. By using a coarse grained representation of the short distance interactions with 30 parameters, the Partial Wave Analysis fit gives chi^2/dof = 1.1 to a mutually consistent set of 6713 data previously built from all published proton-proton and neutron proton scattering data from 1950 till 2013 with LAB energy below 350 MeV. We obtain (c1, c3, c4)=(-0.41+- 1.08,-4.66+- 0.60, 4.31+- 0.17)/GeV with an almost 100% anti-correlation between c1 and c3. We also provide the errors in the short distance parameters and propagate them to the deuteron properties and low partial waves phase shifts.

R. Navarro Perez; J. E. Amaro; E. Ruiz Arriola

2014-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

434

The growth mechanism of grain boundary carbide in Alloy 690  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The growth mechanism of grain boundary M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides in nickel base Alloy 690 after aging at 715 C was investigated by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The grain boundary carbides have coherent orientation relationship with only one side of the matrix. The incoherent phase interface between M{sub 23}C{sub 6} and matrix was curved, and did not lie on any specific crystal plane. The M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbide transforms from the matrix phase directly at the incoherent interface. The flat coherent phase interface generally lies on low index crystal planes, such as (011) and (111) planes. The M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbide transforms from a transition phase found at curved coherent phase interface. The transition phase has a complex hexagonal crystal structure, and has coherent orientation relationship with matrix and M{sub 23}C{sub 6}: (111){sub matrix}//(0001){sub transition}//(111){sub carbide}, <112{sup }>{sub matrix}//<21{sup }10>{sub transition}//<112{sup }>{sub carbide}. The crystal lattice constants of transition phase are c{sub transition}=?(3)a{sub matrix} and a{sub transition}=?(6)/2a{sub matrix}. Based on the experimental results, the growth mechanism of M{sub 23}C{sub 6} and the formation mechanism of transition phase are discussed. - Highlights: A transition phase was observed at the coherent interfaces of M{sub 23}C{sub 6} and matrix. The transition phase has hexagonal structure, and is coherent with matrix and M{sub 23}C{sub 6}. The M{sub 23}C{sub 6} transforms from the matrix directly at the incoherent phase interface.

Li, Hui, E-mail: huili@shu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Microstructures, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Institute of Materials, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Xia, Shuang; Zhou, Bangxin [Institute of Materials, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Peng, Jianchao [Key Laboratory for Microstructures, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China)

2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

435

Derivation of coarse-grained potentials via multistate iterative Boltzmann inversion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this work, an extension to the standard iterative Boltzmann inversion (IBI) method to derive coarse-grained potentials is proposed. It is shown that the inclusion of target data from multiple states yields a less state-dependent potential, and is thus better suited to simulate systems over a range of thermodynamic states than the standard IBI method. The inclusion of target data from multiple states forces the algorithm to sample regions of potential phase space that match the radial distribution function at multiple state points, thus producing a derived potential that is more representative of the underlying potential interactions. It is shown that the algorithm is able to converge to the true potential for a system where the underlying potential is known. It is also shown that potentials derived via the proposed method better predict the behavior of n-alkane chains than those derived via the standard method. Additionally, through the examination of alkane monolayers, it is shown that the relative weight given to each state in the fitting procedure can impact bulk system properties, allowing the potentials to be further tuned in order to match the properties of reference atomistic and/or experimental systems.

Timothy C. Moore; Christopher R. Iacovella; Clare McCabe

2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

436

WHAT DETERMINES THE SIZES OF RED EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The sizes of galaxies are known to be closely related with their masses, luminosities, redshifts, and morphologies. However, when we fix these quantities and morphology, we still find large dispersions in the galaxy size distribution. We investigate the origin of these dispersions for red early-type galaxies using two SDSS-based catalogs. We find that the sizes of faint galaxies (log (M{sub dyn}/M{sub Sun }) {approx}< 10.3 or {sup 0.1} M{sub r} {approx}> -19.5, where {sup 0.1} M{sub r} is the r-band absolute magnitude, k-corrected to z = 0.1) are affected more significantly by luminosity, while the sizes of bright galaxies (log (M{sub dyn}/M{sub Sun }) {approx}> 11.4 or {sup 0.1} M{sub r} {approx}< -21.4) are by dynamical mass. At fixed mass and luminosity, the sizes of low-mass galaxies (log (M{sub dyn}/M{sub Sun }) {approx} 10.45 and {sup 0.1} M{sub r} {approx} -19.8) are relatively less sensitive to their colors, color gradients, and axis ratios. On the other hand, the sizes of intermediate-mass (log (M{sub dyn}/M{sub Sun }) {approx} 10.85 and {sup 0.1} M{sub r} {approx} -20.4) and high-mass (log (M{sub dyn}/M{sub Sun }) {approx} 11.25 and {sup 0.1} M{sub r} {approx} -21.0) galaxies significantly depend on those parameters, in the sense that larger red early-type galaxies have bluer colors, more negative color gradients (bluer outskirts), and smaller axis ratios. These results indicate that the sizes of intermediate- and high-mass red early-type galaxies are significantly affected by their recent minor mergers or rotations, whereas the sizes of low-mass red early-type galaxies are affected by some other mechanisms. Major dry mergers also seem to have influenced on the size growth of high-mass red early-type galaxies.

Lee, Joon Hyeop; Kim, Minjin; Ree, Chang Hee; Kim, Sang Chul; Lee, Jong Chul; Lee, Hye-Ran; Jeong, Hyunjin; Seon, Kwang-Il; Kyeong, Jaemann [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Kyuseok, E-mail: jhl@kasi.re.kr [Department of Astronomy, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Unifying distribution functions: some lesser known distributions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We show that there is a way to unify distribution functions that describe simultaneously a signal in space and (spatial) frequency. Probably the most known of them is the Wigner distribution function. Here we show how to unify functions of the Cohen class, Rihacek's complex energy function, Husimi and Glauber-Sudarshan distribution functions.

Moya-Cessa, J R; Berriel-Valdos, L R; Aguilar-Loreto, O; Barberis-Blostein, P

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Effect of grain shape and texture on equi-biaxial creep of stress relieved and recrystallized Zircaloy-4  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Zirconium alloys are extensively used in various types of fission reactors both light and heavy water types for different applications, examples being thin-walled tubing to clad radioactive fuel, grids, channels in boiling water reactors (BWRs) as well as pressure and calandria tubes in pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs). Biaxial creep behaviors of stress relieved and recrystallized thin-walled tubing of Zircaloy-4 are considered under equal hoop and axial stresses by internal pressurization superimposed with axial load. Both hoop and axial strains were monitored and the ratio of the strain rates along the hoop to axial directions is considered to represent the degree of anisotropy. The slightly stronger hoop direction of the recrystallized material became weaker compared to the axial direction following cold work and a stress-relief anneal. Crystallographic texture was considered in terms of x-ray pole figures from which the crystallite orientation distribution functions (CODF) were derived. A crystal plasticity model based on slip on representative systems was combined with the CODF to predict the creep anisotropy. It was found that the textural differences between the recrystallized and stress-relieved material is believed to invoke anisotropic grain boundary sliding leading to stress enhancement in the hoop direction. This stress enhancement is shown to account for the observed differences in creep behavior between the present equiaxed and columnar grain structures.

Murty, K.L.; Tanikella, B.V. (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)); Earthman, J.C. (Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States))

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

A simple way to measure particle size in fluegases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The size range of particles found in fluegases from stationary emission sources, such as combustion stacks, is an important process parameter. Particle-size range not only affects plume opacity and dispersion modeling, but it is a key factor in the selection and design of air-pollution-control equipment, such as cyclones, bag filters and electrostatic precipitators. The particle-size distribution of a fluegas stream is also a useful parameter for analyzing the performance efficiency of combustion equipment and particulate-removal systems. While several laboratories use costly, laser-beam techniques to carry out this task, no standard method to date has been developed to determine the size range of particles in stationary sources. This article discusses a method (described in US EPA Method 5) in which particles in gases circulating in a stack are collected isokinetically in a filter. Once collected, the particles are measured using an optical microscope. Despite some limitations, this relatively inexpensive method gives reproducible results in many applications. Several are described.

Gomes, J.F.P. [Inst. de Soldadura e Qualidade, Oerias (Portugal)

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

When Size Matters: Yttrium Oxide Breaking Down Under Pressure | Advanced  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Breakthrough in Nanocrystals' Growth Breakthrough in Nanocrystals' Growth Next Step to Drought-Resistant Plants? A Boring Material "Stretched" Could Lead to an Electronics Revolution At the Crossroads of Chromosomes Unveiling the Structure of Adenovirus Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed When Size Matters: Yttrium Oxide Breaking Down Under Pressure NOVEMBER 2, 2010 Bookmark and Share Top: Pair distribution function (PDF) of 16 nm-sized Y2O3 at high pressures. Bottom: Lin Wang (left) and Wenge Yang (right) of the Carnegie Institution of Washington shown with the diamond anvil cell and x-ray instrumentation used to probe the PDF of the sample at high applied

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "grain size distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

DNA fragment sizing and sorting by laser-induced fluorescence  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is provided for sizing DNA fragments using high speed detection systems, such as flow cytometry to determine unique characteristics of DNA pieces from a sample. In one characterization the DNA piece is fragmented at preselected sites to produce a plurality of DNA fragments. The DNA piece or the resulting DNA fragments are treated with a dye effective to stain stoichiometrically the DNA piece or the DNA fragments. The fluorescence from the dye in the stained fragments is then examined to generate an output functionally related to the number of nucleotides in each one of the DNA fragments. In one embodiment, the intensity of the fluorescence emissions from each fragment is linearly related to the fragment length. The distribution of DNA fragment sizes forms a characterization of the DNA piece for use in forensic and research applications.

Hammond, Mark L. (Angier, NC); Jett, James H. (Los Alamos, NM); Keller, Richard A. (Los Alamos, NM); Marrone, Babetta L. (Los Alamos, NM); Martin, John C. (Los Alamos, NM)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

An Analysis of Grain Production Decline During the Early Transition in Ukraine: Bayesian Inference  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An Analysis of Grain Production Decline During the Early Transition in Ukraine: Bayesian Inference in production. Identifying the reasons for the decline in agricultural output in countries like Ukraine of the decline in grain production in early transition Ukraine. Much of the literature devoted to the analyses

443

Magnetically affected texture and microstructure evolution during grain growth in Zirconium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Magnetically affected texture and microstructure evolution during grain growth in Zirconium Dmitri.bozzolo@mines-paristech.fr Keywords: Grain growth, Magnetic annealing, Zirconium, Magnetic anisotropy. Abstract. The effect of a magnetic field on texture and microstructure development in cold rolled (80%) commercially pure zirconium

Boyer, Edmond

444

Recombination Efficiency of Molecular Hydrogen on Interstellar Grains-II A Numerical Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A knowledge of the recombination time on the grain surfaces has been a major obstacle in deciding the production rate of molecular hydrogen and other molecules in the interstellar medium. We present a numerical study to compute this time for molecular hydrogen for various cloud and grain parameters. We also find the time dependence, particularly when a grain is freshly injected into the system. Apart from the fact that the recombination times seem to be functions of the grain parameters such as the activation barrier energy, temperature etc, our result also shows the dependence on the number of sites in the grain $S$ and the effective accretion rate per site $a_s$ of atomic hydrogen. Simply put, the average time that a pair of atomic hydrogens will take to produce one molecular hydrogen depends on how heavily the grain is already populated by atomic and molecular hydrogens and how fast the hopping and desorption times are. We show that if we write the average recombination time as $T_r \\sim S^\\alpha/A_H$, where, $A_H$ is the hopping rate, then $\\alpha$ could be much greater than 1 for all astrophysically relevant accretion rates. Thus the average formation rate of $H_2$ is also dependent on the grain parameters, temperature and the accretion rate. We believe that our result will affect the overall rate of the formation of complex molecules such as methanol which require successive hydrogenation on the grain surfaces in the interstellar medium.

Sandip Kumar Chakrabarti; Ankan Das; Kinsuk Acharyya; Sonali Chakrabarti

2008-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

445

Grain-boundary engineering markedly reduces susceptibility to intergranular hydrogen embrittlement in metallic materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Grain-boundary engineering markedly reduces susceptibility to intergranular hydrogen embrittlement to intergranular embrittlement in the presence of hydrogen is examined. Using thermomechanical processing-induced intergranular embrittlement to the higher fraction of special grain boundaries, where the degree of hydrogen

Ritchie, Robert

446

Modeling the interface area aspect ratio of carbide grains in WCCo composites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Modeling the interface area aspect ratio of carbide grains in WC­Co composites Xiaokun Yuan a Keywords: Cemented carbide Electron backscattered diffraction Interface area aspect ratio Five parameter analysis The average interface area aspect ratios of carbide grains in WC­Co composites are measured from

Rohrer, Gregory S.

447

SIGNATURES OF THE s-PROCESS IN PRESOLAR SILICON CARBIDE GRAINS: BARIUM THROUGH HAFNIUM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SIGNATURES OF THE s-PROCESS IN PRESOLAR SILICON CARBIDE GRAINS: BARIUM THROUGH HAFNIUM Qing-Zhu Yin have been determined in a silicon carbide­rich sample of the Murchison carbonaceous chondrite, using carbide, silicon nitride, and various refractory oxides (e.g., Zinner 1998). Grains of silicon carbide (Si

Lee, Cin-Ty Aeolus

448

Accepted Manuscript Abundances of presolar silicon carbide grains in primitive meteorites deter-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Accepted Manuscript Abundances of presolar silicon carbide grains in primitive meteorites deter.R., Alexander, C.M., Orthous-Daunay, o-R., Franchi, I.A., Hoppe, P., Abundances of presolar silicon carbide of presolar silicon carbide grains in primitive meteorites determined by NanoSIMS Jemma Davidsona,1,* , Henner

Nittler, Larry R.

449

Simulation of grain-boundary diffusion creep: analysis of some new numerical techniques  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...If two of the grain boundaries are parallel, the position midway between the two parallel bound- aries and lying on the third...grain boundaries (or, if they are par- allel, at the point midway between the points on each new boundary corresponding to the...

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Murchison presolar carbon grains of different density fractions: A Raman spectroscopic perspective  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for inorganic sp2 -bonded carbon. Based on their D/G intensity ratios, those grains were grouped.1), "glassy carbon" (D/G > 1.1), and "unusual sp2 -bonded graphitic car- bon" (with extremely intense 2ndMurchison presolar carbon grains of different density fractions: A Raman spectroscopic perspective

451

Result Demonstration Report Pigweed Control in Grain Sorghum Using Peak. 1996 to 1999  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

74 78 Peak + Methylated Oil 0.75 oz + 1 pt 78 88 93 1) WAT = Weeks after treatment application. #12Result Demonstration Report Pigweed Control in Grain Sorghum Using Peak. 1996 to 1999 Brent Bean Summary Studies were conducted from 1996 to 1999 to evaluate pigweed control in grain sorghum using Peak

Mukhtar, Saqib

452

Nanoparticle-induced twist-grain boundary phase Maja Trcek,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nanoparticle-induced twist-grain boundary phase Maja Trcek,1 George Cordoyiannis,1, 2, Vassilios optical microscopy it is demonstrated that surface- functionalized spherical CdSSe nanoparticles induce a twist-grain boundary phase when dispersed in a chiral liquid crystal. These nanoparticles can

453

Comparing calculated and measured grain boundary energies in nickel Gregory S. Rohrer a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Comparing calculated and measured grain boundary energies in nickel Gregory S. Rohrer a , Elizabeth measured and computed grain boundary energies. While the overall correlation between experimental Laboratories (SNL) [23] have utilized new, high-throughput methods to measure energy for large ensembles

Rohrer, Gregory S.

454

On the relationship between grain boundary sliding and intragranular slip during superplastic deformation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper examines grain boundary sliding under the conditions of plastic strain incompatibility that is the most frequent case in polycrystalline materials. Two components of grain boundary sliding: dependent and independent on intragranular slip are distinguished. Theoretical estimate of a ratio between slip induced sliding and intragranular slip is obtained. It is concluded that slip and sliding are rather independent than interrelated processes.

Sheikh-Ali, A.D.; Szpunar, J.A.; Garmestani, H.

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

2006. The number of grains will be limited (~100 interstellar and ~1000 cometary  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, those grains that are true interstellar dust grains among IDPs that may have been processed in the solar Darwin, the origin of species was "the mystery of mysteries" (1). If so, then the Neotropical (Central and South American) forests, which harbor more plant species than the tropics of Asia and Africa com- bined

Binford, Michael W.

456

Can selection on nest size from nest predation explain the latitudinal gradient in clutch size?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Can selection on nest size from nest predation explain the latitudinal gradient in clutch size. 2. The nest size hypothesis posits that higher nest predation in the tropics favours selection for smaller nests and thereby constrains clutch size by shrinking available space for eggs and/or nestlings

Martin, Thomas E.

457

Integrated Transmission and Distribution Control  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Distributed, generation, demand response, distributed storage, smart appliances, electric vehicles and renewable energy resources are expected to play a key part in the transformation of the American power system. Control, coordination and compensation of these smart grid assets are inherently interlinked. Advanced control strategies to warrant large-scale penetration of distributed smart grid assets do not currently exist. While many of the smart grid technologies proposed involve assets being deployed at the distribution level, most of the significant benefits accrue at the transmission level. The development of advanced smart grid simulation tools, such as GridLAB-D, has led to a dramatic improvement in the models of smart grid assets available for design and evaluation of smart grid technology. However, one of the main challenges to quantifying the benefits of smart grid assets at the transmission level is the lack of tools and framework for integrating transmission and distribution technologies into a single simulation environment. Furthermore, given the size and complexity of the distribution system, it is crucial to be able to represent the behavior of distributed smart grid assets using reduced-order controllable models and to analyze their impacts on the bulk power system in terms of stability and reliability. The objectives of the project were to: Develop a simulation environment for integrating transmission and distribution control, Construct reduced-order controllable models for smart grid assets at the distribution level, Design and validate closed-loop control strategies for distributed smart grid assets, and Demonstrate impact of integrating thousands of smart grid assets under closed-loop control demand response strategies on the transmission system. More specifically, GridLAB-D, a distribution system tool, and PowerWorld, a transmission planning tool, are integrated into a single simulation environment. The integrated environment allows the load flow interactions between the bulk power system and end-use loads to be explicitly modeled. Power system interactions are modeled down to time intervals as short as 1-second. Another practical issue is that the size and complexity of typical distribution systems makes direct integration with transmission models computationally intractable. Hence, the focus of the next main task is to develop reduced-order controllable models for some of the smart grid assets. In particular, HVAC units, which are a type of Thermostatically Controlled Loads (TCLs), are considered. The reduced-order modeling approach can be extended to other smart grid assets, like water heaters, PVs and PHEVs. Closed-loop control strategies are designed for a population of HVAC units under realistic conditions. The proposed load controller is fully responsive and achieves the control objective without sacrificing the end-use performance. Finally, using the T&D simulation platform, the benefits to the bulk power system are demonstrated by controlling smart grid assets under different demand response closed-loop control strategies.

Kalsi, Karanjit; Fuller, Jason C.; Tuffner, Francis K.; Lian, Jianming; Zhang, Wei; Marinovici, Laurentiu D.; Fisher, Andrew R.; Chassin, Forrest S.; Hauer, Matthew L.

2013-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

458

Method for synthesizing fine-grained phosphor powders of the type (RE.sub.1- Ln.sub.x)(P.sub.1-y V.sub.y)O.sub.4  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for generating well-crystallized photo- and cathodoluminescent oxide phosphor powders. The method of this invention uses hydrothermal synthesis and annealing to produce nearly monosized (RE.sub.1-x Ln.sub.x)(P.sub.1-y V.sub.y)O.sub.4 (Ln.dbd.Ce.fwdarw.Lu) phosphor grains with crystallite sizes from 0.04 to 5 .mu.m. Such phosphors find application in cathode-ray tube, flat-panel, and projection displays.

Phillips, Mark L. F. (83 Lagarto Rd., Tijeras, NM 87059)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Single particle size and fluorescence spectra from emissions of burning materials in a tube furnace to simulate burn pits  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A single-particle fluorescence spectrometer (SPFS) and an aerodynamic particle sizer were used to measure the fluorescence spectra and particle size distribution from the particulate emissions of 12 different burning

Yong-Le Pan; Joshua D. T. Houck; Pamela A. Clark; Ronald G. Pinnick

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Mapping solute excesses and curvature of grain boundaries | ornl.gov  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Materials Under Extreme Materials Under Extreme Mapping solute excesses and curvature of grain boundaries November 21, 2013 2-D Cr and W Gibbsian interfacial excess maps and variations of the curvature over the grain boundary. The TiO++ map indicates the positions of the nanoclusters which correspond to the black regions in the curvature map. A novel characterization method has been developed that enables complete characteriza-tions of grain boundaries by atom probe tomography (APT) in terms of the orientation relationship of the adjacent grains, local variations of the habit plane, surface curvature, and the solute excesses over the surface of a grain boundary. The achieved 1 nm x 1 nm spatial resolution leads to an understanding of the mechanisms that lend certain materials, such as nanostruc-tured

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "grain size distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

2D and 3D simulations of damage in 5-grain copper gas gun samples  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

2D and 3D Hydrocode simulations were done of a gas gun damage experiment involving a 5 grain sample with a polycrystalline flyer with a velocity of about 140 m/s. The simulations were done with the Flag hydrocode and involved explicit meshing of the 5 grains with a single crystal plasticity model and a pressure based damage model. The calculated fields were compared with two cross sections from the recovered sample. The sample exhibited grain boundary cracks at high angle and tilt grain boundaries in the sample but not at a sigma 3 twin boundary. However, the calculation showed large gradients in stress and strain at only the twin boundary, contrary to expectation. This indicates that the twin boundary is quite strong to resist the predicted high gradients and that the calculation needs the addition of a grain boundary fracture mode. The 2D and 3D simulations were compared.

Tonks, Davis L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cerreta, Ellen K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dennis - Koller, Darcie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Escobedo - Diaz, Juan P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Trujillo, Carl P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Luo, Shengian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bingert, John F [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

462

Annual Coal Distribution Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Distribution Report Release Date: December 19, 2013 | Next Release Date: December 12, 2014 | full report | RevisionCorrection Revision to the Annual Coal Distribution Report...

463

Distribution Grid Integration  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The DOE Systems Integration team funds distribution grid integration research and development (R&D) activities to address the technical issues that surround distribution grid planning,...

464

Size-Resolved Particle Number and Volume Emission Factors for On-Road  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Size-Resolved Particle Number and Volume Emission Factors for On-Road Size-Resolved Particle Number and Volume Emission Factors for On-Road Gasoline and Diesel Motor Vehicles Title Size-Resolved Particle Number and Volume Emission Factors for On-Road Gasoline and Diesel Motor Vehicles Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2009 Authors Ban-Weiss, George, Melissa M. Lunden, Thomas W. Kirchstetter, and Robert A. Harley Journal Journal of Aerosol Science Keywords emission, motor vehicle, particle number, size distribution, tunnel Abstract Average particle number concentrations and size distributions from ~61 000 light-duty (LD) vehicles and ~2500 medium-duty (MD) and heavy-duty (HD) trucks were measured during the summer of 2006 in a San Francisco Bay area traffic tunnel. One of the traffic bores contained only LD vehicles, and the other contained mixed traffic, allowing pollutants to be apportioned between LD vehicles and diesel trucks. Particle number emission factors (particle diameter Dp > 3 nm) were found to be (3.9 ± 1.4) x 1014 and (3.3 ± 1.3) x 1015 # kg-1 fuel burned for LD vehicles and diesel trucks, respectively. Size distribution measurements showed that diesel trucks emitted at least an order of magnitude more particles for all measured sizes (10 < Dp < 290 nm) per unit mass of fuel burned. The relative importance of LD vehicles as a source of particles increased as Dp decreased. Comparing the results from this study to previous measurements at the same site showed that particle number emission factors have decreased for both LD vehicles and diesel trucks since 1997. Integrating size distributions with a volume weighting

465

" Row: Employment Sizes within NAICS Codes...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

establishments using the North American" "Industry Classification System (NAICS). " " (b) Employment Size categories were supplied by the" "Bureau of the Census." " NFNo...

466

Bubble size effect on effervescent atomization.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This paper presents the results from a number of studies conducted in an effort to gain insight into how to control bubble size during gas (more)

Shepard, Thomas G.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Sizing sliding gate valves for steam service  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sliding gate valves have been used in thousands of applications during the past 40 yr. While steam control is a common application for these valves, thy are also used to control other gases and liquids. The sliding gate design provides straight-through flow, which minimizes turbulence, vibration, and noise. Seats are self-cleaning and self-lapping to provide a tight, long-lasting shutoff. A correctly sized valve is essential for accurate control. Valve size should be determined by service and system requirements, not by the size of the existing pipeline. Sizing a valve on the basis of pipeline size usually results in an oversized valve and poor control. Generally, regulator size is smaller than pipe size. Whenever complete information is known (inlet pressure, outlet pressure, or pressure drop, and required flow), determine the valve flow coefficient (C{sub v}) using the equations in ANSI/ISA S75.01 or a flow sizing chart. Tables of values for variou