National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for grade propylene polymer-grade

  1. Kicking the Oil Habit: Making Propylene Glycol from Plants

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Many everyday consumer products from liquid detergents to pharmaceuticals and plastics contain the additive known as propylene glycol.  The downside is that propylene glycol is typically made from...

  2. Conversion of 1,3-Propylene Glycol on Rutile TiO2(110) (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conversion of 1,3-Propylene Glycol on Rutile TiO2(110) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Conversion of 1,3-Propylene Glycol on Rutile TiO2(110) The adsorption of...

  3. Processes and systems for the production of propylene glycol from glycerol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frye, John G; Oberg, Aaron A; Zacher, Alan H

    2015-01-20

    Processes and systems for converting glycerol to propylene glycol are disclosed. The glycerol feed is diluted with propylene glycol as the primary solvent, rather than water which is typically used. The diluted glycerol feed is sent to a reactor where the glycerol is converted to propylene glycol (as well as other byproducts) in the presence of a catalyst. The propylene glycol-containing product from the reactor is recycled as a solvent for the glycerol feed.

  4. Structure of poly(styrene-b-ethylene-alt-propylene) diblock copolymer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Structure of poly(styrene-b-ethylene-alt-propylene) diblock copolymer micelles in binary solvent mixtures Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Structure of...

  5. Direct Epoxidation of Propylene over Stabilized Cu+ Surface Sites on Ti Modified Cu2O

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yang, X.; Kattel, S.; Xiong, K.; Mudiyanselage, K.; Rykov, S.; Senanayake, S. D.; Rodriguez, J. A.; Liu, P.; Stacchiola, D. J.; Chen, J. G.

    2015-07-17

    Direct propylene epoxidation by O2 is a challenging reaction because of the strong tendency for complete combustion. Results from the current study demonstrate the feasibility to tune the epoxidation selectivity by generating highly dispersed and stabilized Cu+ active sites in a TiCuOx mixed oxide. The TiCuOx surface anchors the key surface intermediate, oxametallacycle, leading to higher selectivity for epoxidation of propylene.

  6. BF3-promoted electrochemical properties of quinoxaline in propylene carbonate

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Carino, Emily V.; Diesendruck, Charles E.; Moore, Jeffrey S.; Curtiss, Larry A.; Assary, Rajeev S.; Brushett, Fikile R.

    2015-02-04

    Electrochemical and density functional studies demonstrate that coordination of electrolyte constituents to quinoxalines modulates their electrochemical properties. Quinoxalines are shown to be electrochemically inactive in most electrolytes in propylene carbonate, yet the predicted reduction potential is shown to match computational estimates in acetonitrile. We find that in the presence of LiBF4 and trace water, an adduct is formed between quinoxaline and the Lewis acid BF3, which then displays electrochemical activity at 1–1.5 V higher than prior observations of quinoxaline electrochemistry in non-aqueous media. Direct synthesis and testing of a bis-BF3 quinoxaline complex further validates the assignment of the electrochemically activemore » species, presenting up to a ~26-fold improvement in charging capacity, demonstrating the advantages of this adduct over unmodified quinoxaline in LiBF4-based electrolyte. The use of Lewis acids to effectively “turn on” the electrochemical activity of organic molecules may lead to the development of new active material classes for energy storage applications.« less

  7. Preparation of Propylene Glycol Fatty Acid Ester or Other Glycol, or Polyol

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fatty Acid Esters - Energy Innovation Portal Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Preparation of Propylene Glycol Fatty Acid Ester or Other Glycol, or Polyol Fatty Acid Esters Battelle Memorial Institute Contact BMI About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication View Patent (38 KB) Technology Marketing Summary This technology provides an alternate

  8. Hydrogenolysis of 5-carbon sugars, sugar alcohols, and methods of making propylene glycol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Werpy, Todd A [West Richland, WA; Zacher, Alan H [Kennewick, WA

    2006-05-02

    Methods and compositions for reactions of hydrogen over a Re-containing catalyst with compositions containing a 5-carbon sugar, sugar alcohol, or lactic acid are described. It has been surprisingly discovered that reaction with hydrogen over a Re-containing multimetallic catalyst resulted in superior conversion and selectivity to desired products such as propylene glycol. A process for the synthesis of PG from lactate or lactic acid is also described.

  9. Dielectric relaxation of ethylene carbonate and propylene carbonate from molecular dynamics simulations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chaudhari, Mangesh I.; You, Xinli; Pratt, Lawrence R.; Rempe, Susan B.

    2015-11-24

    Ethylene carbonate (EC) and propylene carbonate (PC) are widely used solvents in lithium (Li)-ion batteries and supercapacitors. Ion dissolution and diffusion in those media are correlated with solvent dielectric responses. Here, we use all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of the pure solvents to calculate dielectric constants and relaxation times, and molecular mobilities. The computed results are compared with limited available experiments to assist more exhaustive studies of these important characteristics. As a result, the observed agreement is encouraging and provides guidance for further validation of force-field simulation models for EC and PC solvents.

  10. Selective adsorption of ethylene over ethane and propylene over propane in

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the metal-organic frameworks M2(dobdc) (M = Mg, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn) | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome adsorption of ethylene over ethane and propylene over propane in the metal-organic frameworks M2(dobdc) (M = Mg, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn) Previous Next List Stephen J. Geier, Jarad A. Mason, Eric D. Bloch, Wendy L. Queen, Matthew R. Hudson, Craig M. Brown and Jeffrey R. Long, Chem. Sci., 4, 2054-2061 (2013) DOI: 10.1039/c3sc00032j Abstract: A

  11. A comparison of advanced distillation control techniques for a propylene/propane splitter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gokhale, V.; Hurowitz, S.; Riggs, J.B.

    1995-12-01

    A detailed dynamic simulator of a propylene/propane (C{sub 3}) splitter, which was bench-marked against industrial data, has been used to compare dual composition control performance for a diagonal PI controller and several advanced controllers. The advanced controllers considered are DMC, nonlinear process model based control, and artificial neural networks. Each controller was tuned based upon setpoint changes in the overhead production composition using 50% changes in the impurity levels. Overall, there was not a great deal of difference in controller performance based upon the setpoint and disturbance tests. Periodic step changes in feed composition were also used to compare controller performance. In this case, oscillatory variations of the product composition were observed and the variabilities of the DMC and nonlinear process model based controllers were substantially smaller than that of the PI controller. The sensitivity of each controller to the frequency of the periodic step changes in feed composition was also investigated.

  12. Superheated-steam test of ethylene propylene rubber cables using a simultaneous aging and accident environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, P.R.; St. Clair, S.D.; Gilmore, T.W.

    1986-06-01

    The superheated-steam test exposed different ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) cables and insulation specimens to simultaneous aging and a 21-day simultaneous accident environment. In addition, some insulation specimens were exposed to five different aging conditions prior to the 21-day simultaneous accident simulation. The purpose of this superheated-steam test (a follow-on to the saturated-steam tests (NUREG/CR-3538)) was to: (1) examine electrical degradation of different configurations of EPR cables; (2) investigate differences between using superheated-steam or saturated-steam at the start of an accident simulation; (3) determine whether the aging technique used in the saturated-steam test induced artificial degradation; and (4) identify the constituents in EPR that affect moisture absorption.

  13. Grades K-4

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Build a Tower Grades K-4 Learning objective: Students will develop teamwork skills as they work together to design and construct a tower, problem-solving along the way. These are...

  14. Direct Epoxidation of Propylene over Stabilized Cu+ Surface Sites on Ti Modified Cu2O

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, X.; Kattel, S.; Xiong, K.; Mudiyanselage, K.; Rykov, S.; Senanayake, S. D.; Rodriguez, J. A.; Liu, P.; Stacchiola, D. J.; Chen, J. G.

    2015-07-17

    Direct propylene epoxidation by O2 is a challenging reaction because of the strong tendency for complete combustion. Results from the current study demonstrate the feasibility to tune the epoxidation selectivity by generating highly dispersed and stabilized Cu+ active sites in a TiCuOx mixed oxide. The TiCuOx surface anchors the key surface intermediate, oxametallacycle, leading to higher selectivity for epoxidation of propylene.

  15. Nonlinear process model based control of a propylene sidestream draw column

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riggs, J.B. )

    1990-11-01

    While sidestream draw columns offer the incentives of reduced capital and operating expenses, they also pose more challenging control problems than ordinary distillation columns. This paper describes the application of nonlinear process model based control (PMBC) for composition control of all product streams for a simulation of a distillation column with a liquid sidestream draw. A tray-to-tray simulator of an industrial propylene/propane column that considers 5-min composition analyzer dead time was used to test the nonlinear PMBC controller for setpoint changes, a feed flow rate change, and feed composition changes. The nonlinear PMBC controller used an approximate model based upon the Smoker equation directly to make control decisions. The nonlinear PMBC controller exhibits excellent control performance for all test cases with a maximum relative deviation of the impurity from setpoint of about 10% for the two product streams. The nonlinear PMBC controller provides significantly improved control performance over a conventional single loop control scheme that is currently in industrial use.

  16. BF3-promoted electrochemical properties of quinoxaline in propylene carbonate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carino, Emily V.; Diesendruck, Charles E.; Moore, Jeffrey S.; Curtiss, Larry A.; Assary, Rajeev S.; Brushett, Fikile R.

    2015-02-04

    Electrochemical and density functional studies demonstrate that coordination of electrolyte constituents to quinoxalines modulates their electrochemical properties. Quinoxalines are shown to be electrochemically inactive in most electrolytes in propylene carbonate, yet the predicted reduction potential is shown to match computational estimates in acetonitrile. We find that in the presence of LiBF4 and trace water, an adduct is formed between quinoxaline and the Lewis acid BF3, which then displays electrochemical activity at 1–1.5 V higher than prior observations of quinoxaline electrochemistry in non-aqueous media. Direct synthesis and testing of a bis-BF3 quinoxaline complex further validates the assignment of the electrochemically active species, presenting up to a ~26-fold improvement in charging capacity, demonstrating the advantages of this adduct over unmodified quinoxaline in LiBF4-based electrolyte. The use of Lewis acids to effectively “turn on” the electrochemical activity of organic molecules may lead to the development of new active material classes for energy storage applications.

  17. Adsorption of carbonyl sulfide from liquid hydrocarbons with activated alumina and other adsorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, P.K.T. (Alcoa Separations Technology Div., Aluminum Co. of America, Warrendale, PA (US))

    1988-01-01

    Contamination of Liquid hydrocarbon streams with carbonyl sulfide (COS) is not desirable; particularly in propylene. COS may poison the down stream polymerization catalyst. Thus, it is usually required to reduce the COS concentration to an extremely low level, e.g. 1 ppm or less, for polymer grade propylene. Many technologies generally available for sulfur removal, such as scrubbing and distillation are not applicable to the removal of COS from propylene. The former is not suitable for a low level removal. With the boiling point of COS (-50{sup 0}C) very close to that of propylene (-48{sup 0}C) it is difficult to achieve a very efficient separation with distillation. Adsorption technology provides a very energy efficient process in addition to its ability of the low level removal. Adsorbents selected in this study include activated carbon, molecular sieves, zinc oxide and activated alumina. The results show that activated alumina is far superior in both adsorption capacity and rate. An adsorption mechanism with activated alumina is proposed. It is believed that adsorption of COS takes place simultaneously with the hydrolysis of COS on the alumina surface. Adsorption isotherms of COS up to 100 ppm and the effect of moisture content are also addressed in this study.

  18. Compressible Solution Properties of Amorphous Polystyrene-block-Polybutadiene, Crystalline Polystyrene-block-Poly(Hydrogenated Polybutadiene) and Their Corresponding Homopolymers: Fluid-Fluid, Fluid-Solid and Fluid-Micelle Phase Transitions in Propane and Propylene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, Kunlun; Mays, Jimmy; Winoto, Winoto; Radosz, Maciej

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Polystyrene, polybutadiene, hydrogenated polybutadiene, and styrene diblock copolymers of these homopolymers can form homogenous solutions in compressible solvents, such as propane and propylene, which separate into two bulk phases upon reducing pressure. The cloud and micellization pressures for homopolymer and diblock copolymers are generally found to be higher in propane than in propylene, except for hydrogenated polybutadiene and polystyrene-block-(hydrogenated polybutadiene). Hydrogenated polybutadiene homopolymers and copolymers exhibit relatively pressure-independent crystallization and melting observed in both propane and propylene solutions.

  19. Commercial Grade Dedication Resources | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Commercial Grade Dedication Resources Commercial Grade Dedication Resources Resource List Commercial Grade Dedication at NRC Commercial-Grade Dedication of Software, June 12, 2014 NRC Vendor Workshop Software Dedication Using the ASME NQA-1 Approach Plant Engineering: Guideline for the Acceptance of Commercial-Grade Design and Analysis Computer Programs Used in Nuclear Safety-Related Applications: EPRI report # 1025243 NQA-1 Commercial Grade Dedication Requirements Subpart 2.14, NQA-1a-2009, and

  20. EM Commerical Grade Dedication Class Slides

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Grade Dedication www.em.doe.gov safety performance cleanup closure E M Environmental Management 1 DOE TRAINING DOE TRAINING Commercial Grade Commercial Grade Dedication Dedication Training Training MODULE 1 Overview of CGD Process www.em.doe.gov safety performance cleanup closure E M Environmental Management 2 Course Objectives  Define the terms "commercial grade item" and "commercial grade services" g  Understand the process for commercial grade dedication (CGD) 

  1. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of LiBF 4 in propylene carbonate. A model lithium ion battery electrolyte

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Smith, Jacob W.; Lam, Royce K.; Sheardy, Alex T.; Shih, Orion; Rizzuto, Anthony M.; Borodin, Oleg; Harris, Stephen J.; Prendergast, David; Saykally, Richard J.

    2014-08-20

    Since their introduction into the commercial marketplace in 1991, lithium ion batteries have become increasingly ubiquitous in portable technology. Nevertheless, improvements to existing battery technology are necessary to expand their utility for larger-scale applications, such as electric vehicles. Advances may be realized from improvements to the liquid electrolyte; however, current understanding of the liquid structure and properties remains incomplete. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of solutions of LiBF4 in propylene carbonate (PC), interpreted using first-principles electronic structure calculations within the eXcited electron and Core Hole (XCH) approximation, yields new insight into the solvation structure of the Li+ ion in this model electrolyte.more » By generating linear combinations of the computed spectra of Li+-associating and free PC molecules and comparing to the experimental spectrum, we find a Li+–solvent interaction number of 4.5. This result suggests that computational models of lithium ion battery electrolytes should move beyond tetrahedral coordination structures.« less

  2. Anomalous dynamics of aqueous solutions of di-propylene glycol methylether confined in MCM-41 by quasielastic neutron scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swenson, Jan Elamin, Khalid; Chen, Guo; Lohstroh, Wiebke; Sakai, Victoria Garcia

    2014-12-07

    The molecular dynamics of solutions of di-propylene glycol methylether (2PGME) and H{sub 2}O (or D{sub 2}O) confined in 28 Å pores of MCM-41 have been studied by quasielastic neutron scattering and differential scanning calorimetry over the concentration range 0–90 wt.% water. This system is of particular interest due to its pronounced non-monotonic concentration dependent dynamics of 2PGME in the corresponding bulk system, showing the important role of hydrogen bonding for the dynamics. In this study we have elucidated how this non-monotonic concentration dependence is affected by the confined geometry. The results show that this behaviour is maintained in the confinement, but the slowest diffusive dynamics of 2PGME is now observed at a considerably higher water concentration; at 75 wt.% water in MCM-41 compared to 30 wt.% water in the corresponding bulk system. This difference can be explained by an improper mixing of the two confined liquids. The results suggest that water up to a concentration of about 20 wt.% is used to hydrate the hydrophilic hydroxyl surface groups of the silica pores, and that it is only at higher water contents the water becomes partly mixed with 2PGME. Hence, due to this partial micro-phase separation of the two liquids larger, and thereby slower relaxing, structural entities of hydrogen bonded water and 2PGME molecules can only be formed at higher water contents than in the bulk system. However, the Q-dependence is unchanged with confinement, showing that the nature of the molecular motions is preserved. Thus, there is no indication of localization of the dynamics at length scales of less than 20 Å. The dynamics of both water and 2PGME is strongly dominated by translational diffusion at a temperature of 280 K.

  3. Propane/Propylene Exports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    541 624 597 739 622 676 1973-2015 East Coast (PADD 1) 55 50 40 59 34 36 1981-2015 Midwest (PADD 2) 6 4 3 3 3 3 1981-2015 Gulf Coast (PADD 3) 459 546 531 661 552 609 1981-2015 Rocky...

  4. Dynamics of Propane in Silica Mesopores Formed upon PropyleneHydrogenation over Pt Nanoparticles by Time-Resolved FT-IRSpectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waslylenko, Walter; Frei, Heinz

    2007-01-31

    Propylene hydrogenation over Pt nanoparticles supported onmesoporous silica type SBA-15 was monitored by time-resolved FT-IRspectroscopy at 23 ms resolution using short propylene gas pulses thatjoined a continuous flow of hydrogen in N2 (1 atm total pressure).Experiments were conducted in the temperature range 323-413 K. Propanewas formed within 100 milliseconds or faster. The CH stretching regionrevealed distinct bands for propane molecules emerging inside thenanoscale channels of the silica support. Spectral analysis gave thedistribution of the propane product between support and surrounding gasphase as function of time. Kinetic analysis showed that the escape ofpropane molecules from the channels occurred within hundreds ofmilliseconds (3.1 + 0.4 s-1 at 383 K). A steady state distribution ofpropane between gas phase and mesoporous support is established as theproduct is swept from the catalyst zone by the continuous flow ofhydrogen co-reactant. This is the first direct spectroscopic observationof emerging products of heterogeneous catalysis on nanoporous supportsunder reaction conditions.

  5. Commercial Grade Dedication RM | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    RM Commercial Grade Dedication RM The objective of this Standard Review Plan (SRP) on Commercial Grade Dedication (CGD) is to provide guidance for a uniform review of the CGD activities for office of Environmental Management nuclear projects. It can be used for project reviews or verifying critical decision approval readiness. PDF icon Commercial Grade Dedication RM More Documents & Publications Software Dedication May 2012 EFCOG Las Vegas QA Corporate Board Meeting - July 2011

  6. Methods of electrophoretic deposition for functionally graded...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Methods of electrophoretic deposition for functionally graded porous nanostructures and systems thereof Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Methods of electrophoretic...

  7. EM Commerical Grade Dedication Class Slides

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    PowerPoint presentation used in the EM sponsored commercial grade dedication (CGD) class. This class is designed to provide an understanding of the process for CGD.

  8. Advanced Diagnostics and Life Estimation of Extruded Dielectric Cable: Nonproprietary Results Related to Cross-Linked Polyethylene and Ethylene Propylene Rubber Insulated Shielded Cables

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Toman

    2006-03-31

    This report describes research on accelerated aging and diagnostic testing of cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) insulation and an earlier test program on ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) cables. The XLPE research subjected cable specimens to accelerated cable life tests (ACLTs) and assessed the specimens with six nondestructive electrical tests and two destructive tests. The EPR program subjected EPR insulation to a similar accelerated aging protocol but focused on breakdown voltage to assess aging. Objectives ? To correlate advanced diagnostic test data with time-to-failure data as a means of determining the value of each diagnostic test for cable condition assessment and future life predictions (XLPE program) ? To perform accelerated aging tests of EPR insulated cables under various controlled conditions of temperature and voltage stress in a wet environment (EPR program) ? To ascertain the relative influence of temperature and voltage stress on aging (EPR program)

  9. Agenda: Investment-Grade Audit Review Workshop | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Agenda: Investment-Grade Audit Review Workshop Agenda: Investment-Grade Audit Review Workshop Document offers the standard agenda for the investment-grade audit review workshop. File ph3-04iga_workshop_agenda_21.docx More Documents & Publications Agenda: Investment-Grade Audit Midpoint Review Meeting FEMP ESPC Project Development Resource Guide Investment-Grade Audit Kickoff Meeting Sample Agenda

  10. Agenda: Investment-Grade Audit Midpoint Review Meeting | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Investment-Grade Audit Midpoint Review Meeting Agenda: Investment-Grade Audit Midpoint Review Meeting Standard agenda for investment-grade audit midpoint review meeting. File ph3iga_midpt_agenda_19.docx More Documents & Publications Agenda: Investment-Grade Audit Review Workshop FEMP ESPC Project Development Resource Guide Investment-Grade Audit Kickoff Meeting Sample

  11. Commercial Grade Dedication Record (ANL-746 Revised) | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Record (ANL-746 Revised) Commercial Grade Dedication Record (ANL-746 Revised) A sample of a process to recorddocument CGD activities. Forms are included. Commercial Grade...

  12. Model Investment Grade Audit and Project Proposal

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Information and documents for conducting an investment grade audit to evaluate potential measures and presenting a project proposal for a set of bundled measures that deliver savings to pay for the project over the finance term.

  13. Commercial Grade Dedication Guidance | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Guidance Commercial Grade Dedication Guidance This Guide provides an acceptable process (Commercial Grade Dedication [CGD]) for EM facilities and projects to dedicate an item or service that performs a nuclear safety function that was not manufactured, developed, or performed under a qualified American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) NQA-1 Quality Assurance program. This Guide also provides guidance for the development of the associated documentation supporting the dedication activity.

  14. Grades 5-12 | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Education » For Students & Educators » Grades 5-12 Grades 5-12 These resources are designed to help teachers introduce students to the new and exciting world of hydrogen and fuel cells. While these technologies are complex, the principles behind them can be understood by middle school and high school science students. In fact, hydrogen and fuel cell concepts can be used to complement science lessons already taught in the classroom. Classroom Materials - Lesson plans, laboratory

  15. American-Made SRF Cavity Makes the Grade | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    https:www.jlab.orgnewsreleasesamerican-made-srf-cavity-makes-grade Submitted: Thursday, September 17, 2009 - 12...

  16. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of LiBF 4 in propylene carbonate. A model lithium ion battery electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Jacob W.; Lam, Royce K.; Sheardy, Alex T.; Shih, Orion; Rizzuto, Anthony M.; Borodin, Oleg; Harris, Stephen J.; Prendergast, David; Saykally, Richard J.

    2014-08-20

    Since their introduction into the commercial marketplace in 1991, lithium ion batteries have become increasingly ubiquitous in portable technology. Nevertheless, improvements to existing battery technology are necessary to expand their utility for larger-scale applications, such as electric vehicles. Advances may be realized from improvements to the liquid electrolyte; however, current understanding of the liquid structure and properties remains incomplete. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of solutions of LiBF4 in propylene carbonate (PC), interpreted using first-principles electronic structure calculations within the eXcited electron and Core Hole (XCH) approximation, yields new insight into the solvation structure of the Li+ ion in this model electrolyte. By generating linear combinations of the computed spectra of Li+-associating and free PC molecules and comparing to the experimental spectrum, we find a Li+solvent interaction number of 4.5. This result suggests that computational models of lithium ion battery electrolytes should move beyond tetrahedral coordination structures.

  17. Commercial Grade Dedication Survey and Training | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Survey and Training Commercial Grade Dedication Survey and Training The following is a sample plan to perform a CGD survey. The checklist items are included. In addition to, Training provided by the DOE on Commercial Grade Dedication is included. PDF icon Commercial Grade Dedication Survey and Training More Documents & Publications Commercial Grade Dedication Survey and Training EM Commerical Grade Dedication Class Slides QA Corporate Board Meeting - July 2011 (Teleconference)

  18. Commercial Grade Dedication Survey and Training | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Survey and Training Commercial Grade Dedication Survey and Training This survey was conducted to obtain input from EM contractors on processes used to perform Commercial Grade Item (CGI) dedication. The intended use of this information is to form the basis for providing a recommendation to EM for a standard process for CGI dedication. PDF icon Commercial Grade Dedication Survey and Training More Documents & Publications Commercial Grade Dedication Survey and Training EM Commerical Grade

  19. Investment-Grade Audit: Review Checklist | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Audit: Review Checklist Investment-Grade Audit: Review Checklist Document serves as a checklist to use when reviewing an investment-grade audit. File p3-03igareviewchecklist6.do...

  20. EA-1962: Analysis for Below Grade Suspect Transuranic (TRU) Waste...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    62: Analysis for Below Grade Suspect Transuranic (TRU) Waste at Technical Area (TA)-54 EA-1962: Analysis for Below Grade Suspect Transuranic (TRU) Waste at Technical Area (TA)-54...

  1. 2015 Market Research Report on Global Medical Grade Dioctyl Industry...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    2015 Market Research Report on Global Medical Grade Dioctyl Industry Home There are currently no posts in this category. Syndicate...

  2. NQA-1 Commercial Grade Dedication Critical Characteristics | Department

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    of Energy NQA-1 Commercial Grade Dedication Critical Characteristics NQA-1 Commercial Grade Dedication Critical Characteristics May 5, 2015 Presenter: Randy P. Lanham, PE, CSP, Fire Protection Chief Engineer Consolidated Nuclear Solutions - Pantex, LLC Topics Covered: CGD Definition Safety Function / DSA Requirements Example of CGD for items Example form Questions Commercial-Grade Dedication (CGD) for acceptance of commercial grade items procured under an ASME NQA-1 Quality Program. PDF icon

  3. Requirements Flowdown and Graded Approach to QA | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Requirements Flowdown and Graded Approach to QA Requirements Flowdown and Graded Approach to QA This document provides the method for applying a graded approach to procurement activities across Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM). The document is to be used by EM Headquarters (HQ), EM Field/Project Offices, and EM Contractors to implement procurement processes associated with all work performed for the EM Program. PDF icon Requirements Flowdown and Graded Approach to QA More

  4. DOE's Bioenergy Technologies Office Supports Military-Grade Biofuels |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy DOE's Bioenergy Technologies Office Supports Military-Grade Biofuels DOE's Bioenergy Technologies Office Supports Military-Grade Biofuels November 10, 2014 - 2:50pm Addthis DOE's Bioenergy Technologies Office is developing military-grade biofuels DOE's Bioenergy Technologies Office is developing military-grade biofuels Happy Veteran's Day from EERE! Our Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) is helping the U.S. military increase the nation's #energy security, reduce

  5. Stocks of Propane/Propylene

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    74,798 70,458 66,740 63,065 62,320 62,500 1993-2016 PADD 1 4,725 4,301 3,710 3,275 2,994 2,882 1993-2016 New England 343 555 510 457 416 389 1993-2016 Central Atlantic 3,254 2,773 2,351 2,010 1,744 1,635 1993-2016 Lower Atlantic 1,128 973 849 808 834 858 1993-2016 PADD 2 18,388 17,884 16,880 16,321 15,154 14,892 1993-2016 PADD 3 49,629 46,231 44,051 41,781 42,350 42,815 1993-2016 PADD's 4 & 5 2,057 2,041 2,098 1,688 1,822 1,910 2004

  6. Imports of Propane/Propylene

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    29 178 153 142 130 113 2004-2016 East Coast (PADD 1) 61 58 59 64 66 55 1993-2016 Midwest (PADD 2) 42 99 67 62 48 44 1993-2016 Gulf Coast (PADD 3) 0 0 0 0 0 0 1993

  7. Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and nanorod barcodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Scher, Erik C.; Manna, Liberato

    2009-05-19

    Disclosed herein is a graded core/shell semiconductor nanorod having at least a first segment of a core of a Group II-VI, Group III-V or a Group IV semiconductor, a graded shell overlying the core, wherein the graded shell comprises at least two monolayers, wherein the at least two monolayers each independently comprise a Group II-VI, Group III-V or a Group IV semiconductor.

  8. Federal Energy Managment Program Investment Grade Audit Tool | Department

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    of Energy Managment Program Investment Grade Audit Tool Federal Energy Managment Program Investment Grade Audit Tool Zip file contains the Federal Energy Management Program's Investment Grade Audit (IGA) Tool that is used by energy service companies during the ESPC ENABLE process. Package icon enable_igatool.zip More Documents & Publications Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) ENABLE Program ESPC ENABLE NOTICE OF INTENT TO AWARD GUIDE AND TEMPLATE Energy Savings Performance

  9. Petroleum Products Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Annual 1995 Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) - Continued Geographic Area Month Premium All...

  10. Petroleum Products Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Annual 2000 Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) - Continued Geographic Area Month Premium All...

  11. Petroleum Products Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    at end of table. 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 56 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1996 Table 31. Motor...

  12. Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and Selected States (Cents per...

  13. Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  14. Table 32. Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 32. Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  15. Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    134 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  16. Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    134 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  17. Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    220 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per...

  18. Table 33. Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    - - - - - - - - - - - - See footnotes at end of table. 33. Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 116 Energy Information...

  19. Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and Selected States (Cents per...

  20. Table 32. Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    - - - - W W - - - - - - See footnotes at end of table. 32. Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 86 Energy Information...

  1. Table 32. Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    - - - - 64.7 64.7 - - - - - - See footnotes at end of table. 32. Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 86 Energy Information...

  2. Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    220 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per...

  3. Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  4. Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per...

  5. Table 32. Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 32. Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  6. Table 33. Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 33. Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  7. Method of making a functionally graded material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Menchhofer, Paul A. (Clinton, TN); Walls, Claudia A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Moorhead, Arthur J. (Knoxville, TN)

    2002-01-01

    A gelcasting method of making an internally graded article alternatively includes the steps of: preparing a slurry including a least two different phases suspended in a gelcasting solution, the phases characterized by having different settling characteristics; casting the slurry into a mold having a selected shape; allowing the slurry to stand for a sufficient period of time to permit desired gravitational fractionation in order to achieve a vertical compositional gradient in the molded slurry; gelling the slurry to form a solid gel while preserving the vertical compositional gradient in the molded slurry; drying the gel to form a dried green body; and sintering the dry green body to form a solid object, at least one property thereof varying along the vertical direction because of the compositional gradient in the molded slurry.

  8. Method of making a functionally graded material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Menchhofer, Paul A. (Clinton, TN); Walls, Claudia A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2001-01-01

    A gelcasting method of making an internally graded article includes the steps of: preparing at least two slurries, each of the slurries including a different gelcastable powder suspended in a gelcasting solution, the slurries characterized by having comparable shrinkage upon drying and sintering thereof; casting the slurries into a mold having a selected shape, wherein relative proportions of the slurries is varied in at least one direction within the selected shape; gelling the slurries to form a solid gel while preserving the variation in relative proportions of the slurries; drying the gel to form a dried green body; and sintering the dry green body to form a solid object, at least one property thereof varying because of the variation in relative proportions of the starting slurries. A gelcasting method of making an internally graded article alternatively includes the steps of: preparing a slurry including a least two different phases suspended in a gelcasting solution, the phases characterized by having different settling characteristics; casting the slurry into a mold having a selected shape; allowing the slurry to stand for a sufficient period of time to permit desired gravitational fractionation in order to achieve a vertical compositional gradient in the molded slurry; gelling the slurry to form a solid gel while preserving the vertical compositional gradient in the molded slurry; drying the gel to form a dried green body; and sintering the dry green body to form a solid object, at least one property thereof varying along the vertical direction because of the compositional gradient in the molded slurry.

  9. Graded Security Protection (GSP) Policy - DOE Directives, Delegations...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CURRENT DOE O 470.3B, Graded Security Protection (GSP) Policy by Gary White Functional areas: Security This Order is classified as (Secret RD NOFORN) and will not be...

  10. High-Performance Slab-on-Grade Foundation Insulation Retrofits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldberg, Louise F.; Mosiman, Garrett E.

    2015-09-01

    ?A more accurate assessment of slab-on-grade foundation insulation energy savings than traditionally possible is now feasible. This has been enabled by advances in whole building energy simulation with 3-dimensional foundation modelling integration at each time step together with an experimental measurement of the site energy savings of SOG foundation insulation. Ten SOG insulation strategies were evaluated on a test building to identify an optimum retrofit insulation strategy in a zone 6 climate (Minneapolis, MN). The optimum insulation strategy in terms of energy savings and cost effectiveness consisted of two components: (a) R-20 XPS insulation above grade, and, (b) R-20 insulation at grade (comprising an outer layer of R-10 insulation and an interior layer of R-12 poured polyurethane insulation) tapering to R-10 XPS insulation at half the below-grade wall height (the lower half of the stem wall was uninsulated).

  11. Analysis Reveals Impact of Road Grade on Vehicle Energy Use ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    with and without road grade for five vehicle models-con- ventional, hybrid, and all-electric midsized cars and conventional and hybrid SUVs. Aggregate results of the study...

  12. Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    253.2 2,222.4 W W 206.4 134.3 - 340.7 See footnotes at end of table. 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 262 Energy Information...

  13. Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    150.0 2,026.7 W W 234.5 161.7 - 396.3 See footnotes at end of table. 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 262 Energy Information...

  14. Predicting and Utilizing the Vehicle's Past and Futuer Road Grade

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Predicted road grade may be used to estimate the power required to propel the vehicle through the upcoming terrain so that the engine controller can deliver the necessary power.

  15. Commercial-Grade, Scalable Support and Training Services Platform |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Commercial-Grade, Scalable Support and Training Services Platform Commercial-Grade, Scalable Support and Training Services Platform Lead Performer: Big Ladder Software - Denver, CO DOE Funding: $149,554 Cost Share: N/A Project Term: June 2014 - March 2015 Funding Opportunity: Small Business Innovation Research FY 2014 Phase 1 Release 2 Awards Project Objective The Department of Energy has funded the development of two industry-leading simulation engines, EnergyPlus and

  16. Graded-Refractive-Index Glass-based Antireflective Coatings:

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Broadband/Omnidirectional Light Harvesting and Self-Cleaning Characteristics (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Graded-Refractive-Index Glass-based Antireflective Coatings: Broadband/Omnidirectional Light Harvesting and Self-Cleaning Characteristics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Graded-Refractive-Index Glass-based Antireflective Coatings: Broadband/Omnidirectional Light Harvesting and Self-Cleaning Characteristics Authors: Aytug, Tolga [1] ; Lupini, Andrew R [1] ; Jellison Jr,

  17. Methods of electrophoretic deposition for functionally graded porous

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    nanostructures and systems thereof (Patent) | SciTech Connect Methods of electrophoretic deposition for functionally graded porous nanostructures and systems thereof Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Methods of electrophoretic deposition for functionally graded porous nanostructures and systems thereof In one embodiment, an aerogel includes a layer of shaped particles having a particle packing density gradient in a thickness direction of the layer, wherein the shaped particles are

  18. Making the Grade: Washington School District Invest in Energy Efficiency |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy the Grade: Washington School District Invest in Energy Efficiency Making the Grade: Washington School District Invest in Energy Efficiency September 10, 2015 - 11:55am Addthis As part of the Better Buildings Challenge, Camas School District in Washington not only surpassed its energy efficiency goals, but did so five years early. | Photo courtesy of Camas School District. As part of the Better Buildings Challenge, Camas School District in Washington not only surpassed

  19. Washington School District Makes the Grade in Energy Efficiency |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Washington School District Makes the Grade in Energy Efficiency Washington School District Makes the Grade in Energy Efficiency September 2, 2015 - 10:01am Addthis As part of the Better Buildings Challenge, Camas School District in Washington not only surpassed its energy efficiency goals, but did so five years early. | Photo courtesy of Camas School District. As part of the Better Buildings Challenge, Camas School District in Washington not only surpassed its energy

  20. Composites of Upgraded Metallurgical Grade (UMG) Si with Photovoltaic (PV) Grade Si

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hovel, Harold; Prettyman, Kevin; Krause, Rainer; Dipankar, Roy

    2015-03-27

    At the beginning of this project 125 wafers of UMG material blended with non-UMG were obtained in the various blends; 50/50,70/30,80/20. 90/10 and 100% UMG. Solar grade , non-UMG material was used for comparison. Many techniques for starting substrate evaluation were used including lifetime, resitivity, SEM, IPCMS. Some degree of gettering was implemented by lengthening the time of phosphorous diffusion. The UMG/solar blends resulted in 14.5% -15% efficiencies, and even 100% UMG showed 14.5% values, not less than standard cells manufactured at the time and an encouraging result for the prospects of using UMG material due to the lower $/watt. A later decline in the cost of Si and an emphasis on reaching higher efficiencies in general led to a vanishing interest in the use of UMG.

  1. U.S. Dept of Energy’s EECBG-SEP Technical Assistance Program Webcast ESPC Investment Grade Audit

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Learn what the investment grade audit is, what to expect from an investment grade audit, how to ensure IGA success.

  2. Fun with the Sun - Teacher's Activity Guide for Elementary Grades K-2 |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy with the Sun - Teacher's Activity Guide for Elementary Grades K-2 Fun with the Sun - Teacher's Activity Guide for Elementary Grades K-2 Fun with the Sun - Teacher's Activity Guide for Elementary Grades K-2 Grades: K-4 Subject: Energy Basics , Wind Energy , Energy Efficiency and Conservation Summary: Check out these energy activities for grades K-2. Curriculum: Environmental Science, General Science Plan Time: Varies by activity Standards: Complete list of all standards

  3. Commercial Grade Dedication Procedure (LMS-PROC-116 Rev 3) | Department of

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Energy Procedure (LMS-PROC-116 Rev 3) Commercial Grade Dedication Procedure (LMS-PROC-116 Rev 3) Enclosed is an example of a CGD procedure developed by Argonne National Labs. The procedure is in accordance to NQA-1 2008. The current version is a draft copy. PDF icon Commercial Grade Dedication Procedure (LMS-PROC-116 Rev 3) More Documents & Publications Commercial Grade Dedication Record (ANL-746 Revised) Commercial Grade Dedication Guidance Commercial Grade Dedication of Software,

  4. 2013 strategic petroleum reserve big hill well integrity grading report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lord, David L.; Roberts, Barry L.; Lord, Anna C. Snider; Bettin, Giorgia; Sobolik, Steven Ronald; Park, Byoung Yoon; Rudeen, David Keith; Eldredge, Lisa; Wynn, Karen; Checkai, Dean; Perry, James Thomas

    2014-02-01

    This report summarizes the work performed in developing a framework for the prioritization of cavern access wells for remediation and monitoring at the Big Hill Strategic Petroleum Reserve site. This framework was then applied to all 28 wells at the Big Hill site with each well receiving a grade for remediation and monitoring. Numerous factors affecting well integrity were incorporated into the grading framework including casing survey results, cavern pressure history, results from geomechanical simulations, and site geologic factors. The framework was developed in a way as to be applicable to all four of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites.

  5. Energy Audit Lesson Plan 8th grade.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Teacher(s): Chittenden Unit Title: Energy Subject: general science Lesson Title: Energy Audit Grade Level(s): 8 th grade Lesson Length: 3-5 days Date(s): * Learning Goal(s) [What should students know, understand, or be able to do as a result of this lab or activity.] o Students can compare current and potential energy consumption through data collection and analysis. o Students can recommend levels of energy saving actions to staff members. * Energy Connection [How is this lesson connected to

  6. Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    71.8 W 70.5 78.9 W 76.0 83.6 W 69.2 75.2 See footnotes at end of table. 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District and State 176 Energy Information...

  7. Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    W 68.4 70.8 W W 78.6 W 85.7 81.8 W 69.3 73.8 See footnotes at end of table. 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District and State 176 Energy Information...

  8. Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    61.5 70.8 92.7 90.7 81.5 72.8 - 78.0 See footnotes at end of table. 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 146 Energy Information...

  9. Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    62.6 71.7 92.3 89.9 82.6 72.7 - 78.2 See footnotes at end of table. 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 146 Energy Information...

  10. Analysis of Surplus Weapons-Grade Plutonium Disposition Options | National

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Nuclear Security Administration Analysis of Surplus Weapons-Grade Plutonium Disposition Options | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Library Bios Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets

  11. Domain evolution and polarization of continuously graded ferroelectric films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roytburd, A.; Roytburd, V.

    2008-01-01

    A thermodynamic analysis of graded ferroelectric films demonstrates that in the equilibrium state the films are subdivided into a single-domain band and a polydomain band which consists of wedge-shape domains. Polarization under an external electrostatic field proceeds through an inter-band boundary movement due to growth or shrinkage of the wedge domains. It is shown how the domain structure and evolution are determined by the principal characteristics of the film: the distribution of the spontaneous polarization and dielectric constant. Graded films exhibit a sharp increase of polarization with the field for weak fields, with a drop of the dielectric constant when the field is increasing. A general approach to finding the dependence of the displacement and the wedge-domain shape on the field as well as analytical solutions for the p{sup 4} Landau-Devonshire and parabolic potentials are presented.

  12. December 12, 2013 Webinar - The Use of Graded Approach in Hanford Vadose

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Zone Modeling | Department of Energy 2, 2013 Webinar - The Use of Graded Approach in Hanford Vadose Zone Modeling December 12, 2013 Webinar - The Use of Graded Approach in Hanford Vadose Zone Modeling December 12, 2013 Webinar - The Use of Graded Approach in Hanford Vadose Zone Modeling Alaa H. Aly (CHPRC/INTERA) & Dibakar Goswami ( Washington State Department of Ecology) Regulatory Basis and Implementation of a Graded Approach to Evaluation of Groundwater Protection Application of Model

  13. Fun with the Sun - Teacher's Activity Guide for Elementary Grades K-2 |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy Fun with the Sun - Teacher's Activity Guide for Elementary Grades K-2 Fun with the Sun - Teacher's Activity Guide for Elementary Grades K-2 Below is information about the student activity/lesson plan from your search. Grades K-4 Subject Energy Basics, Wind Energy, Energy Efficiency and Conservation Summary Check out these energy activities for grades K-2. Curriculum Environmental Science, General Science Plan Time Varies by activity Materials Materials vary by activity.

  14. Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and nanorod barcodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Scher, Erik C.; Manna, Liberato

    2013-03-26

    Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and shapped nanorods are disclosed comprising Group II-VI, Group III-V and Group IV semiconductors and methods of making the same. Also disclosed are nanorod barcodes using core/shell nanorods where the core is a semiconductor or metal material, and with or without a shell. Methods of labeling analytes using the nanorod barcodes are also disclosed.

  15. Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and nanorod barcodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alivisatos, A. Paul (Oakland, CA); Scher, Erik C. (San Francisco, CA); Manna, Liberato (Lecce, IT)

    2010-12-14

    Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and shaped nanorods are disclosed comprising Group II-VI, Group III-V and Group IV semiconductors and methods of making the same. Also disclosed are nanorod barcodes using core/shell nanorods where the core is a semiconductor or metal material, and with or without a shell. Methods of labeling analytes using the nanorod barcodes are also disclosed.

  16. American-Made SRF Cavity Makes the Grade | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    American-Made SRF Cavity Makes the Grade NEWPORT NEWS, Va., Sept. 17, 2009 - The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility marked a step forward in the field of advanced particle accelerator technology with the successful test of the first U.S.-built superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) niobium cavity to meet the exacting specifications of the proposed International Linear Collider (ILC). The cavity was developed as part of a DOE-funded R&D effort

  17. Deposition of Graded Thermal Barrier Coatings for Gas Turbine Blades -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Wind Energy Wind Energy Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Deposition of Graded Thermal Barrier Coatings for Gas Turbine Blades Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Market Sheet (825 KB) Technology Marketing SummarySandia has developed a method and apparatus for depositing thermal barrier coatings on gas turbine

  18. Role of Nuclear Grade Graphite in Oxidation in Modular HTGRs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willaim Windes; G. Strydom; J. Kane; R. Smith

    2014-11-01

    The passively safe High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) design is one of the primary concepts considered for Generation IV and Small Modular Reactor (SMR) programs. The helium cooled, nuclear grade graphite moderated core achieves extremely high operating temperatures allowing either industrial process heat or electricity generation at high efficiencies. In addition to their neutron moderating properties, nuclear grade graphite core components provide excellent high temperature stability, thermal conductivity, and chemical compatibility with the high temperature nuclear fuel form. Graphite has been continuously used in nuclear reactors since the 1940’s and has performed remarkably well over a wide range of core environments and operating conditions. Graphite moderated, gas-cooled reactor designs have been safely used for research and power production purposes in multiple countries since the inception of nuclear energy development. However, graphite is a carbonaceous material, and this has generated a persistent concern that the graphite components could actually burn during either normal or accident conditions [ , ]. The common assumption is that graphite, since it is ostensibly similar to charcoal and coal, will burn in a similar manner. While charcoal and coal may have the appearance of graphite, the internal microstructure and impurities within these carbonaceous materials are very different. Volatile species and trapped moisture provide a source of oxygen within coal and charcoal allowing them to burn. The fabrication process used to produce nuclear grade graphite eliminates these oxidation enhancing impurities, creating a dense, highly ordered form of carbon possessing high thermal diffusivity and strongly (covalently) bonded atoms.

  19. High Performance Slab-on-Grade Foundation Insulation Retrofits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldberg, Louise F.; Mosiman, Garrett E.

    2015-09-01

    ?A more accurate assessment of SOG foundation insulation energy savings than traditionally possible is now feasible. This has been enabled by advances in whole building energy simulation with 3-dimensional foundation modelling integration at each time step together with an experimental measurement of the site energy savings of SOG foundation insulation. Ten SOG insulation strategies were evaluated on a test building to identify an optimum retrofit insulation strategy in a zone 6 climate (Minneapolis, MN). The optimum insulation strategy in terms of energy savings and cost effectiveness consisted of two components: (a) R-20 XPS insulation above grade, and, (b) R-20 insulation at grade (comprising an outer layer of R-10 insulation and an interior layer of R-12 poured polyurethane insulation) tapering to R-10 XPS insulation at half the below-grade wall height (the lower half of the stem wall was uninsulated). The optimum insulation strategy was applied to single and multi-family residential buildings in climate zone 4 - 7. The highest site energy savings of 5% was realized for a single family home in Duluth, MN, and the lowest savings of 1.4 % for a 4-unit townhouse in Richmond, VA. SOG foundation insulation retrofit simple paybacks ranged from 18 to 47 years. There are other benefits of SOG foundation insulation resulting from the increase in the slab surface temperatures. These include increased occupant thermal comfort, and a decrease in slab surface condensation particularly around the slab perimeter.

  20. Antireflective graded index silica coating, method for making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yoldas, Bulent E. (Churchill, PA); Partlow, Deborah P. (Wilkinsburg, PA)

    1985-01-01

    Antireflective silica coating for vitreous material is substantially non-reflecting over a wide band of radiations. This is achieved by providing the coating with a graded degree of porosity which grades the index of refraction between that of air and the vitreous material of the substrate. To prepare the coating, there is first prepared a silicon-alkoxide-based coating solution of particular polymer structure produced by a controlled proportion of water to alkoxide and a controlled concentration of alkoxide to solution, along with a small amount of catalyst. The primary solvent is alcohol and the solution is polymerized and hydrolized under controlled conditions prior to use. The prepared solution is applied as a film to the vitreous substrate and rapidly dried. It is thereafter heated under controlled conditions to volatilize the hydroxyl radicals and organics therefrom and then to produce a suitable pore morphology in the residual porous silica layer. The silica layer is then etched in order to enlarge the pores in a graded fashion, with the largest of the pores remaining being sufficiently small that radiations to be passed through the substrate are not significantly scattered. For use with quartz substrates, extremely durable coatings which display only 0.1% reflectivity have been prepared.

  1. Tensiometer and method of determining soil moisture potential in below-grade earthen soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hubbell, Joel M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Mattson, Earl D. (Albuquerque, NM); Sisson, James B. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1998-01-01

    A tensiometer to in situ determine below-grade soil moisture, potential of earthen soil includes, a) an apparatus adapted for insertion into earthen soil below grade, the apparatus having a below-grade portion, and, comprising; b) a porous material provided in the below-grade portion, the porous material at least in part defining a below-grade first fluid chamber; c) a first fluid conduit extending outwardly of the first fluid chamber; d) a first controllable isolation valve provided within the first fluid conduit, the first controllable isolation valve defining a second fluid chamber in fluid communication with the first fluid chamber through the first fluid conduit and the isolation valve, the first controllable isolation valve being received within the below-grade portion; and e) a pressure transducer in fluid communication with the first fluid chamber, the pressure transducer being received within the below-grade portion. An alternate embodiment includes an apparatus adapted for insertion into earthen soil below grade, the apparatus having a below-grade portion, and including: i) a porous material provided in the below-grade portion, the porous material at least in part defining a below-grade first fluid chamber; and ii) a pressure sensing apparatus in fluid communication with the first fluid chamber, the pressure sensing apparatus being entirely received within the below-grade portion. A method is also disclosed using the above and other apparatus.

  2. Tensiometer and method of determining soil moisture potential in below-grade earthen soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hubbell, J.M.; Mattson, E.D.; Sisson, J.B.

    1998-06-02

    A tensiometer to in-situ determine below-grade soil moisture, potential of earthen soil includes, (a) an apparatus adapted for insertion into earthen soil below grade, the apparatus having a below-grade portion, and, comprising; (b) a porous material provided in the below-grade portion, the porous material at least in part defining a below-grade first fluid chamber; (c) a first fluid conduit extending outwardly of the first fluid chamber; (d) a first controllable isolation valve provided within the first fluid conduit, the first controllable isolation valve defining a second fluid chamber in fluid communication with the first fluid chamber through the first fluid conduit and the isolation valve, the first controllable isolation valve being received within the below-grade portion; and (e) a pressure transducer in fluid communication with the first fluid chamber, the pressure transducer being received within the below-grade portion. An alternate embodiment includes an apparatus adapted for insertion into earthen soil below grade, the apparatus having a below-grade portion, and including: (1) a porous material provided in the below-grade portion, the porous material at least in part defining a below-grade first fluid chamber; and (2) a pressure sensing apparatus in fluid communication with the first fluid chamber, the pressure sensing apparatus being entirely received within the below-grade portion. A method is also disclosed using the above and other apparatus. 6 figs.

  3. Product Supplied for Propane/Propylene

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    556 1,681 1,546 1,613 1,241 1,155

  4. Propane/Propylene Days of Supply

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Weekly Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area 02/05/16 02/12/16 02/19/16 02/26/16 03/04/16 03/11/16 View History U.S. 44.3 40.0 40.1 39.4 41 45.0

  5. Irradiation and Bevacizumab in High-Grade Glioma Retreatment Settings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niyazi, Maximilian; Ganswindt, Ute; Schwarz, Silke Birgit [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Munich (Germany); Kreth, Friedrich-Wilhelm; Tonn, Joerg-Christian [Department of Neurosurgery, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Munich (Germany); Geisler, Julia; Fougere, Christian la [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Munich (Germany); Ertl, Lorenz; Linn, Jennifer [Department of Neuroradiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Munich (Germany); Siefert, Axel [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Munich (Germany); Belka, Claus, E-mail: claus.belka@med.uni-muenchen.de [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Munich (Germany)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Reirradiation is a treatment option for recurrent high-grade glioma with proven but limited effectiveness. Therapies directed against vascular endothelial growth factor have been shown to exert certain efficacy in combination with chemotherapy and have been safely tested in combination with radiotherapy in a small cohort of patients. To study the feasibility of reirradiation combined with bevacizumab treatment, the toxicity and treatment outcomes of this approach were analyzed retrospectively. Patients and Methods: After previous treatment with standard radiotherapy (with or without temozolomide) patients with recurrent malignant glioma received bevacizumab (10 mg/kg intravenous) on Day 1 and Day 15 during radiotherapy. Maintenance therapy was selected based on individual considerations, and mainly bevacizumab-containing regimens were chosen. Patients received 36 Gy in 18 fractions. Results: The data of the medical charts of the 30 patients were analyzed retrospectively. All were irradiated in a single institution and received either bevacizumab (n = 20), no additional substance (n = 7), or temozolomide (n = 3). Reirradiation was tolerated well, regardless of the added drug. In 1 patient treated with bevacizumab, a wound dehiscence occurred. Overall survival was significantly better in patients receiving bevacizumab (p = 0.03, log-rank test). In a multivariate proportional hazards Cox model, bevacizumab, Karnovsky performance status, and World Health Organization grade at relapse turned out to be the most important predictors for overall survival. Conclusion: Reirradiation with bevacizumab is a feasible and effective treatment for patients with recurrent high-grade gliomas. A randomized trial is warranted to finally answer the question whether bevacizumab adds substantial benefit to a radiotherapeutic retreatment setting.

  6. Energy education resources: Kindergarten through 12th grade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-09-01

    Energy Education Resources: Kindergarten Through 12th Grade is published by the National Energy Information Center (NEIC) a service of the Energy Information Administration (EIA), to provide students, educators, and other information users, a list of generally available free or low-cost energy-related educational materials. Each entry includes the address, telephone number, and description of the organization and the energy-related materials available. Most of the entries also include Internet (Web) and electronic mail (E-Mail) addresses. Each entry is followed by a number, which is referenced in the subject index in the back of this book.

  7. Graded pitch electromagnetic pump for thin strip metal casting systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuznetsov, S.B.

    1986-04-01

    A metal strip casing system is provided with an electromagnetic pump which includes a pair of primary blocks having a graded pole pitch, polyphase ac winding and being arranged on opposite sides of a movable heat sink. A nozzle is provided for depositing liquid metal on the heat sink such that the resulting metal strip and heat sink combination is subjected to a longitudinal electromagnetic field which increases in wavelength in the direction of travel of the heat sink, thereby subjecting the metal and heat sink to a longitudinal force having a magnitude which increases in the direction of travel. 4 figs.

  8. Graded pitch electromagnetic pump for thin strip metal casting systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuznetsov, Stephen B. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1986-01-01

    A metal strip casing system is provided with an electromagnetic pump which includes a pair of primary blocks having a graded pole pitch, polyphase ac winding and being arranged on opposite sides of a movable heat sink. A nozzle is provided for depositing liquid metal on the heat sink such that the resulting metal strip and heat sink combination is subjected to a longitudinal electromagnetic field which increases in wavelength in the direction of travel of the heat sink, thereby subjecting the metal and heat sink to a longitudinal force having a magnitude which increases in the direction of travel.

  9. Functionally graded alumina-based thin film systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, John J.; Zhong, Dalong

    2006-08-29

    The present invention provides coating systems that minimize thermal and residual stresses to create a fatigue- and soldering-resistant coating for aluminum die casting dies. The coating systems include at least three layers. The outer layer is an alumina- or boro-carbide-based outer layer that has superior non-wettability characteristics with molten aluminum coupled with oxidation and wear resistance. A functionally-graded intermediate layer or "interlayer" enhances the erosive wear, toughness, and corrosion resistance of the die. A thin adhesion layer of reactive metal is used between the die substrate and the interlayer to increase adhesion of the coating system to the die surface.

  10. Photovoltaic device comprising compositionally graded intrinsic photoactive layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoffbauer, Mark A; Williamson, Todd L

    2013-04-30

    Photovoltaic devices and methods of making photovoltaic devices comprising at least one compositionally graded photoactive layer, said method comprising providing a substrate; growing onto the substrate a uniform intrinsic photoactive layer having one surface disposed upon the substrate and an opposing second surface, said intrinsic photoactive layer consisting essentially of In.sub.1-xA.sub.xN,; wherein: i. 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1; ii. A is gallium, aluminum, or combinations thereof; and iii. x is at least 0 on one surface of the intrinsic photoactive layer and is compositionally graded throughout the layer to reach a value of 1 or less on the opposing second surface of the layer; wherein said intrinsic photoactive layer is isothermally grown by means of energetic neutral atom beam lithography and epitaxy at a temperature of 600.degree. C. or less using neutral nitrogen atoms having a kinetic energy of from about 1.0 eV to about 5.0 eV, and wherein the intrinsic photoactive layer is grown at a rate of from about 5 nm/min to about 100 nm/min.

  11. Dedication file preparation for commercial-grade electric components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendricks, J.R.; Farwell, C.R. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Dedication is the process of making a commercial-grade item into a basic component that can be installed in safety systems. This process ensures that the commercially manufactured items are of the same or equivalent form, fit, function, and materials as the originally provided safety item. This process must ensure that the original utility's equipment qualification program is maintained per licensing commitments to 10CFR50.49 and general design criterion No. 4. Today, utilities recognize the need for establishing a dedication program to provide the flexibility in obtaining replacement items directly from the original manufacturers. This need has arisen because (a) most system houses, large manufacturers, and component manufacturers will sell their products only through distributors as straight commercial-grade items or only service former clients, and (b) lack of competition for specific safety-related items has resulted in excessive hardware cost and very long delivery schedules, which could affect plant availability. The vehicle for utilities to obtain safety-related items is to establish and manage a comprehensive dedication program for their own use or provide the direction for a nuclear supplier to follow. This paper provides both utilities and nuclear suppliers insight into the complexities of a dedication program. This insight is provided from our experience as a utilities agent and as a third-party nuclear supplier.

  12. Plasma-enhanced gasification of low-grade coals for compact power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uhm, Han S. [Department of Electrophysics, Kwangwoon University, 447-1 Wolgye-Dong, Nowon-Gu, Seoul 139-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Yong C.; Shin, Dong H.; Lee, Bong J. [Convergence Plasma Research Center, National Fusion Research Institute, 113 Gwahangno, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    A high temperature of a steam torch ensures an efficient gasification of low-grade coals, which is comparable to that of high-grade coals. Therefore, the coal gasification system energized by microwaves can serve as a moderately sized power plant due to its compact and lightweight design. This plasma power plant of low-grade coals would be useful in rural or sparsely populated areas without access to a national power grid.

  13. Fun With The Sun - Teacher's Activity Guide for Elementary Grades K-2

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fun with the Sun -- Teacher's Activity Guide for Elementary Grades K-2 Grades: K-4 Topics: Energy Basics, Wind Energy, Energy Efficiency and Conservation Owner: National Renewable Energy Laboratory This educational material is brought to you by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. FUN WITH THE SUN TEACHER'S ACTIVITY GUIDE for ELEMENTARY GRADES K-2 National Renewable Energy Laboratory Education Programs 1617 Cole Blvd. Golden, Colorado 80401 Tel: (303)

  14. Fun With The Sun - Teacher's Activity Guide for Elementary Grades K-2 |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy With The Sun - Teacher's Activity Guide for Elementary Grades K-2 Fun With The Sun - Teacher's Activity Guide for Elementary Grades K-2 Teacher's guide to help elementary students goain confidence and understanding of renewable and non-renewable energy resources by investigating, questioning, and experimenting with scientific ideas. PDF icon lesson299.pdf More Documents & Publications Fun with the Sun - Teacher's Activity Guide for Elementary Grades K-2 Fun With The

  15. Geothermal Energy: A Geothermal Teacher Guide for Grades 9-12 | Department

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    of Energy Energy: A Geothermal Teacher Guide for Grades 9-12 Geothermal Energy: A Geothermal Teacher Guide for Grades 9-12 Below is information about the student activity/lesson plan from your search. Grades 9-12 Subject Geothermal Summary This three-part guide encourages a multidisciplinary approach to many issues and topics related to geothermal power development, including the scientific fundamentals as well as the social, economic, environmental and political aspects. Unit 1 -- Ancient

  16. Investment-Grade Audit Kickoff Meeting Sample Agenda | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Investment-Grade Audit Kickoff Meeting Sample Agenda Investment-Grade Audit Kickoff Meeting Sample Agenda Document provides a sample agenda and instructions a federal agency should use for a kickoff meeting with an energy services company about an energy savings performance contract project. File p3-01iga_kickoff_agenda_5.docx More Documents & Publications Agenda: Preliminary Assessment Kickoff Meeting FEMP ESPC Project Development Resource Guide Agenda: Investment-Grade Audit Midpoint

  17. Commercial Grade Dedication of Software, TFC-ENG-DESIGN-C-65 | Department

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    of Energy of Software, TFC-ENG-DESIGN-C-65 Commercial Grade Dedication of Software, TFC-ENG-DESIGN-C-65 This procedure establishes the process, methods and instruction for dedication of commercial grade computer programs (software) that affect performance of a Structure System and Component (SSC) safety function or provide controls necessary for adequate protection from nuclear facility or radiological hazards. Dedication of commercial grade computer programs for use in safety applications

  18. December 12, 2013 Webinar - The Use of Graded Approach in Hanford...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Modeling Alaa H. Aly (CHPRCINTERA) & Dibakar Goswami ( Washington State Department of Ecology) Regulatory Basis and Implementation of a Graded Approach to Evaluation of...

  19. Table 14. U.S. Propane (Consumer Grade) Prices by Sales Type

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and EIA-782B, "Resellers'Retailers' Monthly Petroleum Product Sales Report." 14. U.S. Propane (Consumer Grade) Prices by Sales Type 28 Energy Information Administration ...

  20. Table A1. Refiner/Reseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table A1. RefinerReseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD District and State, 1984-Present (Cents per Gallon...

  1. Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    table. 56 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  2. Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    table. 56 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  3. Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) - Continued...

  4. Table A1. Refiner/Reseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 401 Table A1. RefinerReseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD District and State, 1984-Present (Cents per Gallon...

  5. Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type (Million Gallons per Day) - Continued Year...

  6. Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    table. 56 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  7. Grade Assignments for Models Used for Calibration of Gross-Count Gamma-Ray

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Logging Systems (December 1983) | Department of Energy Grade Assignments for Models Used for Calibration of Gross-Count Gamma-Ray Logging Systems (December 1983) Grade Assignments for Models Used for Calibration of Gross-Count Gamma-Ray Logging Systems (December 1983) Grade Assignments for Models Used for Calibration of Gross-Count Gamma-Ray Logging Systems (December 1983) PDF icon Grade Assignments for Models Used for Calibration of Gross-Count Gamma-Ray Logging Systems (December 1983) More

  8. NQA-1 Requirements for Commercial Grade Item Acceptance: ICONE20-54738

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Valkenburg, Taunia S.; Holmes, Richard A.; Tepley, Daniel J.; Sandquist, Gary

    2012-07-19

    Objectives are: (1) Present the DOE Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Replacement (CMRR) Project Commercial Grade Item (CGI) Dedication Process; and (2) Present CMRR Project CGI Lessons-Learned.

  9. FRACTIONATION OF LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS FOR FUEL-GRADE ETHANOL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    F.D. Guffey; R.C. Wingerson

    2002-10-01

    PureVision Technology, Inc. (PureVision) of Fort Lupton, Colorado is developing a process for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into fuel-grade ethanol and specialty chemicals in order to enhance national energy security, rural economies, and environmental quality. Lignocellulosic-containing plants are those types of biomass that include wood, agricultural residues, and paper wastes. Lignocellulose is composed of the biopolymers cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Cellulose, a polymer of glucose, is the component in lignocellulose that has potential for the production of fuel-grade ethanol by direct fermentation of the glucose. However, enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose and raw cellulose into glucose is hindered by the presence of lignin. The cellulase enzyme, which hydrolyzes cellulose to glucose, becomes irreversibly bound to lignin. This requires using the enzyme in reagent quantities rather than in catalytic concentration. The extensive use of this enzyme is expensive and adversely affects the economics of ethanol production. PureVision has approached this problem by developing a biomass fractionator to pretreat the lignocellulose to yield a highly pure cellulose fraction. The biomass fractionator is based on sequentially treating the biomass with hot water, hot alkaline solutions, and polishing the cellulose fraction with a wet alkaline oxidation step. In September 2001 PureVision and Western Research Institute (WRI) initiated a jointly sponsored research project with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate their pretreatment technology, develop an understanding of the chemistry, and provide the data required to design and fabricate a one- to two-ton/day pilot-scale unit. The efforts during the first year of this program completed the design, fabrication, and shakedown of a bench-scale reactor system and evaluated the fractionation of corn stover. The results from the evaluation of corn stover have shown that water hydrolysis prior to alkaline hydrolysis may be beneficial in removing hemicellulose and lignin from the feedstock. In addition, alkaline hydrolysis has been shown to remove a significant portion of the hemicellulose and lignin. The resulting cellulose can be exposed to a finishing step with wet alkaline oxidation to remove the remaining lignin. The final product is a highly pure cellulose fraction containing less than 1% of the native lignin with an overall yield in excess of 85% of the native cellulose. This report summarizes the results from the first year's effort to move the technology to commercialization.

  10. Precipitation in 18 wt% Ni maraging steel of grade 350

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, R.; Mazumder, S.; Batra, I.S.; Dey, G.K.; Banerjee, S.

    2000-03-14

    The evolution of precipitates in maraging steel of grade 350 was studied using the complementary techniques of small angle X-ray scattering (SACS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). These investigations revealed that ageing the steel at 703 K involved a rhombohedral distortion of the supersaturated b.c.c. martensite accompanied by the appearance of diffuse {omega}-like structures. This was followed by the appearance of well-defined {omega} particles containing chemical order. At the ageing temperature of 783 K, Ni{sub 3}(Ti,Mo) precipitates were the first to appear with a growth exponent of 1/3. The values of the Pored exponent obtained from the SAXS profiles indicated that the {omega} particles, formed below 723 K, had diffuse interfaces up to an ageing time of 48 h. On the other hand, Ni{sub 3}(Ti,Mo) precipitates, formed above 723 K, developed sharp interfaces in just about an hour. Also, the steel exhibited scaling in phase separation both at 703 and 783 K, but only during the early stages. Through this study it was established that at temperatures of ageing less than 723 K, evolution of {omega} particles takes place through the collapse of the unstable b.c.c. lattice and, at temperatures above 723 K, precipitation of A{sub 3}B type of phases through the mechanism of clustering and ordering of atomic species. Sharp interfaces develop rather quickly when the mechanism of precipitation involves development and amplification of a concentration wave along as in the nucleation of Ni{sub 3}(Ti,Mo) at 783 K than when an interplay of both the displacement and concentration waves is required as in the evolution of {omega} at 703 K. These results indicate towards the possibility of existence of two separate time-temperature-transformation (TTT) curves, one for the evolution of {omega}-phase and another for nucleation and growth of Ni{sub 3}(Ti,Mo).

  11. Use Low-Grade Waste Steam to Power Absorption Chillers | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Low-Grade Waste Steam to Power Absorption Chillers Use Low-Grade Waste Steam to Power Absorption Chillers This tip sheet on waste steam to power absorption chillers provides how-to advice for improving steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies. STEAM TIP SHEET #14 PDF icon Use Low-Grade Waste Steam to Power Absorption Chillers (January 2012) More Documents & Publications Guide to Developing Air-Cooled Lithium Bromide (LiBr) Absorption for CHP Applications,

  12. Geothermal Energy: A Geothermal Teacher Guide for Grades 9-12

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Grades: 9-12 Topic: Geothermal Energy Owner: Geothermal Education Office, Tiburon, California Geothermal Energy: A Geothermal Teacher Guide for Grades 9-12 ENERGY EDUCATION AND WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT This educational material is brought to you by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. Geothermal Energy Glossary 1 Geothermal enerGy a Geothermal teaCher GUIDe For GraDeS 9 - 12 For teachers of Ancient and Western Civilization, World and U.S. History, U.S.

  13. Use Low-Grade Waste Steam to Power Absorption Chillers | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Use Low-Grade Waste Steam to Power Absorption Chillers Use Low-Grade Waste Steam to Power Absorption Chillers This tip sheet on waste steam to power absorption chillers provides how-to advice for improving steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies. STEAM TIP SHEET #14 PDF icon Use Low-Grade Waste Steam to Power Absorption Chillers (January 2012) More Documents & Publications Guide to Developing Air-Cooled Lithium Bromide (LiBr) Absorption for CHP

  14. Analysis Reveals Impact of Road Grade on Vehicle Energy Use (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-04-01

    Findings of study indicate that, on average, road grade could be responsible for 1%-3% of fuel use in light-duty automobiles, with many individual trips impacted by as much as 40%.

  15. Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    NA 26.6 See footnotes at end of table. 14 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type...

  16. Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    NA 27.4 See footnotes at end of table. 14 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type...

  17. Notice of Intent to Revise DOE Order 470.3B, Graded Security...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    adversary numbers and capabilities to reflect the intent of the policy and the inherent risk management considerations. 15 NOV 23 - DOE O 470.3B Graded Security Protection (GSP)...

  18. Grades 9-12: Join the BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge!

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) is hosting the BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge to engage 9th–12th grade students in learning about bioenergy and educating their peers. In this...

  19. INITIAL COMPARISON OF BASELINE PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES FOR THE VHTR CANDIDATE GRAPHITE GRADES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carroll, Mark C

    2014-09-01

    High-purity graphite is the core structural material of choice in the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design, a graphite-moderated, helium-cooled configuration that is capable of producing thermal energy for power generation as well as process heat for industrial applications that require temperatures higher than the outlet temperatures of present nuclear reactors. The Baseline Graphite Characterization Program is endeavoring to minimize the conservative estimates of as-manufactured mechanical and physical properties in nuclear-grade graphites by providing comprehensive data that captures the level of variation in measured values. In addition to providing a thorough comparison between these values in different graphite grades, the program is also carefully tracking individual specimen source, position, and orientation information in order to provide comparisons both in specific properties and in the associated variability between different lots, different billets, and different positions from within a single billet. This report is a preliminary comparison between each of the grades of graphite that are considered candidate grades from four major international graphite producers. These particular grades (NBG-18, NBG-17, PCEA, IG-110, and 2114) are the major focus of the evaluations presently underway on irradiated graphite properties through the series of Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) experiments. NBG-18, a medium-grain pitch coke graphite from SGL from which billets are formed via vibration molding, was the favored structural material in the pebble-bed configuration. NBG-17 graphite from SGL is essentially NBG-18 with the grain size reduced by a factor of two. PCEA, petroleum coke graphite from GrafTech with a similar grain size to NBG-17, is formed via an extrusion process and was initially considered the favored grade for the prismatic layout. IG-110 and 2114, from Toyo Tanso and Mersen (formerly Carbone Lorraine), respectively, are fine-grain grades produced via an isomolding process. An analysis of the comparison between each of these grades will include not only the differences in fundamental and statistically-significant individual strength levels, but also the differences in variability in properties within each of the grades that will ultimately provide the basis for the prediction of in-service performance. The comparative performance of the different types of nuclear-grade graphites will continue to evolve as thousands more specimens are fully characterized from the numerous grades of graphite being evaluated.

  20. Thermoelectric energy converter for generation of electricity from low-grade heat

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jayadev, T.S.; Benson, D.K.

    1980-05-27

    A thermoelectric energy conversion device which includes a plurality of thermoelectric elements is described. A hot liquid is supplied to one side of each element and a cold liquid is supplied to the other side of each element. The thermoelectric generator may be utilized to produce power from low-grade heat sources such as ocean thermal gradients, solar ponds, and low-grade geothermal resources. (WHK)

  1. Competing for a grade and our nuclear security | Y-12 National Security

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Complex Competing for a grade and ... Competing for a grade and our nuclear security Posted: February 25, 2016 - 2:05pm UT students and Y-12 nuclear security subject matter experts conduct a battle board challenge in Oak Ridge. It's like a semester-long chess game with the final moves played live at Y-12 National Security Complex. Consolidated Nuclear Security, LLC nuclear security training experts and University of Tennessee graduate students strategize over a 3-dimensional battle board

  2. Make the Grade -- and Save -- with ENERGY STAR® | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Make the Grade -- and Save -- with ENERGY STAR® Make the Grade -- and Save -- with ENERGY STAR® September 27, 2012 - 1:58pm Addthis If you need to replace your electronics, consider getting an ENERGY STAR product for dramatic energy savings -- as much as 90 percent savings for some products. If you need to replace your electronics, consider getting an ENERGY STAR product for dramatic energy savings -- as much as 90 percent savings for some products. Lynn Meyer Presidential Management Fellow,

  3. Solar Grade Silicon from Agricultural By-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard M. Laine

    2012-08-20

    In this project, Mayaterials developed a low cost, low energy and low temperature method of purifying rice hull ash to high purity (5-6Ns) and converting it by carbothermal reduction to solar grade quality silicon (Sipv) using a self-designed and built electric arc furnace (EAF). Outside evaluation of our process by an independent engineering firm confirms that our technology greatly lowers estimated operating expenses (OPEX) to $5/kg and capital expenses (CAPEX) to $24/kg for Sipv production, which is well below best-in-class plants using a Siemens process approach (OPEX of 14/kg and CAPEX of $87/kg, respectively). The primary limiting factor in the widespread use of photovoltaic (PV) cells is the high cost of manufacturing, compared to more traditional sources to reach 6 g Sipv/watt (with averages closer to 8+g/watt). In 2008, the spot price of Sipv rose to $450/kg. While prices have since dropped to a more reasonable $25/kg; this low price level is not sustainable, meaning the longer-term price will likely return to $35/kg. The 6-8 g Si/watt implies that the Sipv used in a module will cost $0.21-0.28/watt for the best producers (45% of the cost of a traditional solar panel), a major improvement from the cost/wafer driven by the $50/kg Si costs of early 2011, but still a major hindrance in fulfilling DOE goal of lowering the cost of solar energy below $1/watt. The solar cell industry has grown by 40% yearly for the past eight years, increasing the demand for Sipv. As such, future solar silicon price spikes are expected in the next few years. Although industry has invested billions of dollars to meet this ever-increasing demand, the technology to produce Sipv remains largely unchanged requiring the energy intensive, and chlorine dependent Siemens process or variations thereof. While huge improvements have been made, current state-of-the-art industrial plant still use 65 kWh/kg of silicon purified. Our technology offers a key distinction to other technologies as it starts one step upstream from all other Sipv production efforts. Our process starts by producing high purity SiO2/C feedstocks from which Sipv can be produced in a single, chlorine free, final EAF step. Specifically, our unique technology, and the resultant SiO2/C product can serve as high purity feedstocks to existing metallurgical silicon (Simet) producers, allowing them to generate Sipv with existing US manufacturing infrastructure, reducing the overall capital and commissioning schedule. Our low energy, low CAPEX and OPEX process purifies the silica and carbon present in rice hull ash (RHA) at low temperatures (< 200C) to produce high purity (5-6 Ns) feedstock for production of Sipv using furnaces similar to those used to produce Simet. During the course of this project we partnered with Wadham Energy LP (Wadham), who burns 220k ton of rice hulls (RH)/yr generating 200 GWh of electricity/yr and >30k ton/yr RHA. The power generation step produces much more energy (42 kWh/kg of final silicon produced) than required to purify the RHA (5 kWh/kg of Sipv, compared to 65 kWh/kg noted above. Biogenic silica offers three very important foundations for producing high purity silicon. First, wastes from silica accumulating plants, such as rice, corn, many grasses, algae and grains, contain very reactive, amorphous silica from which impurities are easily removed. Second, plants take up only a limited set of, and minimal quantities of the heavy metals present in nature, meaning fewer minerals must be removed. Third, biomass combustion generates a product with intrinsic residual carbon, mixed at nanometer length scales with the SiO2. RHA is 80-90 wt% high surface area (20 m2/g), amorphous SiO2 with some simple mineral content mixed intimately with 5-15 wt% carbon. The mineral content is easily removed by low cost, acid washes using Mayaterials IP, leading to purified rice hull ash (RHAclean) at up to 6N purity. This highly reactive silica is partially extracted from RHAclean at 200 C in an environmentally benign process to adjust SiO2:C ratios to those needed in EA

  4. Cohesive Modeling of Dynamic Crack Growth in Homogeneous and Functionally Graded Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Zhengyu; Paulino, Glaucio H.; Celes, Waldemar

    2008-02-15

    This paper presents a Cohesive Zone Model (CZM) approach for investigating dynamic crack propagation in homogeneous and Functionally Graded Materials (FGMs). The failure criterion is incorporated in the CZM using both a finite cohesive strength and work to fracture in the material description. A novel CZM for FGMs is explored and incorporated into a finite element framework. The material gradation is approximated at the element level using a graded element formulation. A numerical example is provided to demonstrate the efficacy of the CZM approach, in which the influence of the material gradation on the crack growth pattern is studied.

  5. Just in Time Webinars: Session 1 – Managing Your Investment-Grade Audit

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This webinar discusses how to manage an investment-grade audit (IGA) by establishing roles and responsibilities of interdependent team members to achieve a high quality IGA, and using the synergy of contracting and technical team interaction to scope your project requirements and guide proposal development.

  6. Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    82.4 77.1 68.9 62.6 71.6 92.3 89.9 82.6 72.7 - 78.2 See footnotes at end of table. 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 56 Energy Information...

  7. Table A1. Refiner/Reseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    71.6 92.3 78.2 101.8 83.6 87.5 74.7 See footnotes at end of table. A1. RefinerReseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD District, and State, 1984-Present 452 Energy Information...

  8. Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    61.5 67.3 89.8 89.5 82.2 69.4 71.1 74.9 See footnotes at end of table. 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 12 Energy Information Administration ...

  9. Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    82.5 75.1 68.6 62.0 70.7 92.7 90.7 81.5 72.8 - 78.0 See footnotes at end of table. 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 56 Energy Information...

  10. Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    35.2 213.6 9.5 9.8 12.9 16.6 NA 29.5 See footnotes at end of table. 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type 14 Energy Information Administration ...

  11. Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    62.2 68.5 90.1 89.6 82.4 70.9 NA 75.9 See footnotes at end of table. 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type 12 Energy Information Administration ...

  12. Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    33.9 215.8 9.7 10.0 12.1 16.3 0.0 28.4 See footnotes at end of table. 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type 14 Energy Information Administration ...

  13. Ductile fracture toughness of modified A 302 Grade B Plate materials, data analysis. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCabe, D.E.; Manneschmidt, E.T.; Swain, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of this work was to develop ductile fracture toughness data in the form of J-R curves for modified A302 grade B plate materials typical of those used in reactor pressure vessels. A previous experimental study on one heat of A302 grade B plate showed decreasing J-R curves with increased specimen thickness. This characteristic has not been observed in tests made on recent production materials of A533 grade B and A508 class 2 pressure vessel steels. It was unknown if the departure from norm for the material was a generic characteristic for all heats of A302 grade B steels or unique to that particular plate. Seven heats of modified A302 grade B steel and one heat of vintage A533 grade B steel were tested for chemical content, tensile properties, Charpy transition temperature curves, drop-weight nil-ductility transition (NDT) temperature, and J-R curves. Tensile tests were made in the three principal orientations and at four temperatures, ranging from room temperature to 550F. Charpy V-notch transition temperature curves were obtained in longitudinal, transverse, and short transverse orientations. J-R curves were made using four specimen sizes (1/2T, 1T, 2T, and 4T). The fracture mechanics-based evaluation method covered three test orientations and three test temperatures (80, 400, and 550F). However, the coverage of these variables was contingent upon the amount of material provided. Drop-weight NDT temperature was determined for the T-L orientation only. None of the heats of modified A302 grade B showed size effects of any consequence on the J-R curve behavior. Crack orientation effects were present, but none were severe enough to be reported as atypical. A test temperature increase from 180 to 550F produced the usual loss in J-R curve fracture toughness. Generic J-R curves and curve fits were generated to represent each heat of material. This volume deals with the evaluation of data and the discussion of technical findings. 8 refs., 18 figs., 8 tabs.

  14. Evaluating the Impact of Road Grade on Simulated Commercial Vehicle Fuel Economy Using Real-World Drive Cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopp, Sean; Wood, Eric; Duran, Adam

    2015-10-13

    Commercial vehicle fuel economy is known to vary significantly with both positive and negative road grade. Medium- and heavy-duty vehicles operating at highway speeds require incrementally larger amounts of energy to pull heavy payloads up inclines as road grade increases. Non-hybrid vehicles are then unable to recapture energy on descent and lose energy through friction braking. While the on-road effects of road grade are well understood, the majority of standard commercial vehicle drive cycles feature no climb or descent requirements. Additionally, existing literature offers a limited number of sources that attempt to estimate the on-road energy implications of road grade in the medium- and heavy-duty space. This study uses real-world commercial vehicle drive cycles from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Fleet DNA database to simulate the effects of road grade on fuel economy across a range of vocations, operating conditions, and locations. Drive-cycles are matched with vocation-specific vehicle models and simulated with and without grade. Fuel use due to grade is presented, and variation in fuel consumption due to drive cycle and vehicle characteristics is explored through graphical and statistical comparison. The results of this study suggest that road grade accounts for 1%-9% of fuel use in commercial vehicles on average and up to 40% on select routes.

  15. Status of Initial Assessment of Physical and Mechanical Properties of Graphite Grades for NGNP Appkications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strizak, Joe P; Burchell, Timothy D; Windes, Will

    2011-12-01

    Current candidate graphite grades for the core structures of NGNP include grades NBG-17, NBG-18, PCEA and IG-430. Both NBG-17 and NBG-18 are manufactured using pitch coke, and are vibrationally molded. These medium grain products are produced by SGL Carbon SAS (France). Tayo Tanso (Japan) produces IG-430 which is a petroleum coke, isostatically molded, nuclear grade graphite. And PCEA is a medium grain, extruded graphite produced by UCAR Carbon Co. (USA) from petroleum coke. An experimental program has been initiated to develop physical and mechanical properties data for these current candidate graphites. The results will be judged against the requirements for nuclear grade graphites set forth in ASTM standard D 7219-05 "Standard Specification for Isotropic and Near-isotropic Nuclear Graphites". Physical properties data including thermal conductivity and coefficient of thermal expansion, and mechanical properties data including tensile, compressive and flexural strengths will be obtained using the established test methods covered in D-7219 and ASTM C 781-02 "Standard Practice for Testing Graphite and Boronated Graphite Components for High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Nuclear Reactors". Various factors known to effect the properties of graphites will be investigated. These include specimen size, spatial location within a graphite billet, specimen orientation (ag and wg) within a billet, and billet-to-billet variations. The current status of the materials characterization program is reported herein. To date billets of the four graphite grades have been procured, and detailed cut up plans for obtaining the various specimens have been prepared. Particular attention has been given to the traceability of each specimen to its spatial location and orientation within a billet.

  16. Influence of frequency, grade, moisture and temperature on Green River oil shale dielectric properties and electromagnetic heating processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hakala, J. Alexandra [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Stanchina, William [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Soong, Yee [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Hedges, Sheila [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Development of in situ electromagnetic (EM) retorting technologies and design of specific EM well logging tools requires an understanding of various process parameters (applied frequency, mineral phases present, water content, organic content and temperature) on oil shale dielectric properties. In this literature review on oil shale dielectric properties, we found that at low temperatures (<200 C) and constant oil shale grade, both the relative dielectric constant (?') and imaginary permittivity (?'') decrease with increased frequency and remain constant at higher frequencies. At low temperature and constant frequency, ?' decreases or remains constant with oil shale grade, while ?'' increases or shows no trend with oil shale grade. At higher temperatures (>200 C) and constant frequency, epsilon' generally increases with temperature regardless of grade while ?'' fluctuates. At these temperatures, maximum values for both ?' and ?'' differ based upon oil shale grade. Formation fluids, mineral-bound water, and oil shale varve geometry also affect measured dielectric properties. This review presents and synthesizes prior work on the influence of applied frequency, oil shale grade, water, and temperature on the dielectric properties of oil shales that can aid in the future development of frequency- and temperature-specific in situ retorting technologies and oil shale grade assay tools.

  17. Sidewall tensiometer and method of determining soil moisture potential in below-grade earthen soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hubbell, Joel M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Sisson, James B. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2001-01-01

    A sidewall tensiometer to in situ determine below-grade soil moisture potential of earthen soil includes, a) a body adapted for insertion into an opening in earthen soil below grade, the body having lateral sidewalls; b) a laterally oriented porous material provided relative to the body lateral sidewalls, the laterally oriented porous material at least in part defining a fluid chamber within the body; c) a pressure a sensor in fluid communication with the fluid chamber; and d) sidewall engaging means for engaging a portion of a sidewall of an earth opening to laterally urge the porous material into hydraulic communication with earthen soil of another portion of the opening sidewall. Methods of taking tensiometric measurements are also disclosed.

  18. Forming high-efficiency silicon solar cells using density-graded anti-reflection surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yuan, Hao-Chih; Branz, Howard M.; Page, Matthew R.

    2015-07-07

    A method (50) is provided for processing a graded-density AR silicon surface (14) to provide effective surface passivation. The method (50) includes positioning a substrate or wafer (12) with a silicon surface (14) in a reaction or processing chamber (42). The silicon surface (14) has been processed (52) to be an AR surface with a density gradient or region of black silicon. The method (50) continues with heating (54) the chamber (42) to a high temperature for both doping and surface passivation. The method (50) includes forming (58), with a dopant-containing precursor in contact with the silicon surface (14) of the substrate (12), an emitter junction (16) proximate to the silicon surface (14) by doping the substrate (12). The method (50) further includes, while the chamber is maintained at the high or raised temperature, forming (62) a passivation layer (19) on the graded-density silicon anti-reflection surface (14).

  19. Methods of electrophoretic deposition for functionally graded porous nanostructures and systems thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Worsley, Marcus A; Baumann, Theodore F; Satcher, Joe H; Olson, Tammy Y; Kuntz, Joshua D; Rose, Klint A

    2015-03-03

    In one embodiment, an aerogel includes a layer of shaped particles having a particle packing density gradient in a thickness direction of the layer, wherein the shaped particles are characterized by being formed in an electrophoretic deposition (EPD) process using an impurity. In another embodiment, a method for forming a functionally graded porous nanostructure includes adding particles of an impurity and a solution to an EPD chamber, applying a voltage difference across the two electrodes of the EPD chamber to create an electric field in the EPD chamber, and depositing the material onto surfaces of the particles of the impurity to form shaped particles of the material. Other functionally graded materials and methods are described according to more embodiments.

  20. Preliminary study on weapon grade uranium utilization in molten salt reactor miniFUJI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aji, Indarta Kuncoro; Waris, A.

    2014-09-30

    Preliminary study on weapon grade uranium utilization in 25MWth and 50MWth of miniFUJI MSR (molten salt reactor) has been carried out. In this study, a very high enriched uranium that we called weapon grade uranium has been employed in UF{sub 4} composition. The {sup 235}U enrichment is 90 - 95 %. The results show that the 25MWth miniFUJI MSR can get its criticality condition for 1.56 %, 1.76%, and 1.96% of UF{sub 4} with {sup 235}U enrichment of at least 93%, 90%, and 90%, respectively. In contrast, the 50 MWth miniFUJI reactor can be critical for 1.96% of UF{sub 4} with {sup 235}U enrichment of at smallest amount 95%. The neutron spectra are almost similar for each power output.

  1. PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP) SUB-GRADE EE/CA EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVES A NEW MODEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HOPKINS, A.M.

    2007-06-08

    An engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) was performed at the Hanford Site's Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The purpose of the EVCA was to identify the sub-grade items to be evaluated; determine the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) hazardous substances through process history and available data; evaluate these hazards; and as necessary, identify the available alternatives to reduce the risk associated with the contaminants. The sub-grade EWCA considered four alternatives for an interim removal action: (1) No Action; (2) Surveillance and Maintenance (S&M); (3) Stabilize and Leave in Place (Stabilization); and (4) Remove, Treat and Dispose (RTD). Each alternative was evaluated against the CERCLA criteria for effectiveness, implementability, and cost.

  2. A Review Corrosion of TI Grade 7 and Other TI Alloys in Nuclear Waste Repository Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    F. Hua; K. Mon; P. Pasupathi; G. Gordon

    2004-05-11

    Titanium alloy degradation modes are reviewed in relation to their performance in repository environments. General corrosion, localized corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, hydrogen induced cracking, microbially influenced corrosion, and radiation-assisted corrosion of Ti alloys are considered. With respect to the Ti Grade 7 drip shields selected for emplacement in the repository at Yucca Mountain, general corrosion, hydrogen induced cracking, and radiation-assisted corrosion will not lead to failure within the 10,000 year regulatory period; stress corrosion cracking (in the absence of disruptive events) is of no consequence to barrier performance; and localized corrosion and microbially influenced corrosion are not expected to occur. To facilitate the discussion, Ti Grades 2, 5, 7, 9, 11, 12, 16, 17, 18, and 24 are included in this review.

  3. Mechanical Properties of a Graded Alumina-Zirconia Composite Prepared by Centrifugal Slip Casting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hara, Yasuyuki; Onda, Tetsuhiko; Hayakawa, Motozo

    2008-02-15

    Compositionally graded composite of alumina-20 vol%zirconia was fabricated by using centrifugal casting incorporated with relatively thin slip. An EPMA analysis exhibited a nearly linear variation of the alumina/zirconia ratio along the centrifugal direction; zirconia tended to accumulate in the bottom section, while alumina in the top section. Such a graded structure exhibited a considerably higher flexural strength when the alumina rich surface was subjected to a tensile stress than compositionally uniform composite of the same average composition. Fracture toughness measurement across the specimen thickness by indentation method revealed that the crack lengths along the vertical and horizontal directions were different. The anisotropy of the fracture toughness was accounted for by the variation of the residual stress across the specimen thicknesss.

  4. Forming high efficiency silicon solar cells using density-graded anti-reflection surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yuan, Hao-Chih; Branz, Howard M.; Page, Matthew R.

    2014-09-09

    A method (50) is provided for processing a graded-density AR silicon surface (14) to provide effective surface passivation. The method (50) includes positioning a substrate or wafer (12) with a silicon surface (14) in a reaction or processing chamber (42). The silicon surface (14) has been processed (52) to be an AR surface with a density gradient or region of black silicon. The method (50) continues with heating (54) the chamber (42) to a high temperature for both doping and surface passivation. The method (50) includes forming (58), with a dopant-containing precursor in contact with the silicon surface (14) of the substrate (12), an emitter junction (16) proximate to the silicon surface (14) by doping the substrate (12). The method (50) further includes, while the chamber is maintained at the high or raised temperature, forming (62) a passivation layer (19) on the graded-density silicon anti-reflection surface (14).

  5. EPA GHG Certification of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles: Development of Road Grade Profiles Representative of US Controlled Access Highways

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, Eric; Duran, Adam; Burton, Evan; Gonder, Jeffrey; Kelly, Kenneth

    2015-05-12

    This report includes a detailed comparison of the TomTom national road grade database relative to a local road grade dataset generated by Southwest Research Institute and a national elevation dataset publically available from the U.S. Geological Survey. This analysis concluded that the TomTom national road grade database was a suitable source of road grade data for purposes of this study.

  6. BioenergizeME Office Hours Webinar: Integrating Bioenergy into the 9th-12th Grade Classroom

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    December 10, 2015 BioenergizeME Office Hours Integrating Bioenergy into the 9 th__ 12 th Grade Classroom Alexis Martin Knauss Fellow Bioenergy Technologies Office U.S. Department of Energy Shannon Zaret Contractor, The Hannon Group Bioenergy Technologies Office U.S. Department of Energy 2 | Bioenergy Technologies Office Agenda 1. Overview Of Energy Literacy 2. Overview of Next Generation Science Standards 3. Bioenergy Basics 5. Incorporation of Bioenergy into the Classroom 4. 2016 BioenergizeME

  7. Method and apparatus for determination of mechanical properties of functionally-graded materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Giannakopoulos, Antonios E. (Somerville, MA); Suresh, Subra (Wellesley, MA)

    1999-01-01

    Techniques for the determination of mechanical properties of homogenous or functionally-graded materials from indentation testing are presented. The technique is applicable to indentation on the nano-scale through the macro-scale including the geological scale. The technique involves creating a predictive load/depth relationship for a sample, providing an experimental load/depth relationship, comparing the experimental data to the predictive data, and determining a physical characteristic from the comparison.

  8. Jefferson Lab Offers Science Enrichment Program for 5th, 6th & 8th Grade

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Teachers; Registration Deadline is Sept. 13 | Jefferson Lab 3 NEWPORT NEWS, Va., Aug. 28, 2013 -- The U.S. Department of Energy's Jefferson Lab is currently accepting applications for its science enrichment program for fifth-, sixth- and eighth-grade teachers of science. The after-school program is designed to increase teachers' knowledge of the physical sciences and to strengthen their teaching skills. It will run from September 2013 through May 2014 and is called the Jefferson Lab Science

  9. Method for making graded I-III-VI.sub.2 semiconductors and solar cell obtained thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Devaney, Walter E. (Seattle, WA)

    1987-08-04

    Improved cell photovoltaic conversion efficiencies are obtained by the simultaneous elemental reactive evaporation process of Mickelsen and Chen for making semiconductors by closer control of the evaporation rates and substrate temperature during formation of the near contact, bulk, and near junction regions of a graded I-III-VI.sub.2, thin film, semiconductor, such as CuInSe.sub.2 /(Zn,Cd)S or another I-III-VI.sub.2 /II-VI heterojunction.

  10. Graded zooming

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coffland, Douglas R. (Livermore, CA)

    2006-04-25

    A system for increasing the resolution in the far field resolution of video or still frame images, while maintaining full coverage in the near field. The system includes a camera connected to a computer. The computer applies a specific zooming scale factor to each of line of pixels and continuously increases the scale factor of the line of pixels from the bottom to the top to capture the scene in the near field, yet maintain resolution in the scene in the far field.

  11. Simulation of NOx emission in circulating fluidized beds burning low-grade fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Afsin Gungor

    2009-05-15

    Nitrogen oxides are a major environmental pollutant resulting from combustion. This paper presents a modeling study of pollutant NOx emission resulting from low-grade fuel combustion in a circulating fluidized bed. The simulation model accounts for the axial and radial distribution of NOx emission in a circulating fluidized bed (CFB). The model results are compared with and validated against experimental data both for small-size and industrial-size CFBs that use different types of low-grade fuels given in the literature. The present study proves that CFB combustion demonstrated by both experimental data and model predictions produces low and acceptable levels of NOx emissions resulting from the combustion of low-grade fuels. Developed model can also investigate the effects of different operational parameters on overall NOx emission. As a result of this investigation, both experimental data and model predictions show that NOx emission increases with the bed temperature but decreases with excess air if other parameters are kept unchanged. 37 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Tensiometer and method of determining soil moisture potential in below-grade earthen soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hubbell, Joel M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Sisson, James B. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1997-01-01

    A portable tensiometer to in situ determine below-grade soil moisture potential of earthen soil includes, a) a body having opposing first and second ends and being adapted for complete insertion into earthen soil below grade; b) a porous material provided at the first body end, the porous material at least in part defining a fluid chamber within the body at the first body end, the fluid chamber being fluidically sealed within the body but for the porous material; c) a degassed liquid received within the fluid chamber; d) a pressure transducer mounted in fluid communication with the fluid chamber; e) the body, pressure transducer and degassed liquid having a combined mass; f) a flexible suspension line connected to the body adjacent the second body end, the flexible line being of sufficient strength to gravitationally freely self suspend the combined mass; and c) the combined mass being sufficient to effectively impart hydraulic communication between below-grade earthen soil contacted by the porous material under the weight of the combined mass. Tensiometers configured to engage the sidewalls of an earthen opening are also disclosed. Methods of taking tensiometric measurements are also disclosed.

  13. Tensiometer and method of determining soil moisture potential in below-grade earthen soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hubbell, J.M.; Sisson, J.B.

    1997-07-08

    A portable tensiometer to in-situ determine below-grade soil moisture potential of earthen soil includes, (a) a body having opposing first and second ends and being adapted for complete insertion into earthen soil below grade; (b) a porous material provided at the first body end, the porous material at least in part defining a fluid chamber within the body at the first body end, the fluid chamber being fluidically sealed within the body but for the porous material; (c) a degassed liquid received within the fluid chamber; (d) a pressure transducer mounted in fluid communication with the fluid chamber; (e) the body, pressure transducer and degassed liquid having a combined mass; (f) a flexible suspension line connected to the body adjacent the second body end, the flexible line being of sufficient strength to gravitationally freely self suspend the combined mass; and (g) the combined mass being sufficient to effectively impart hydraulic communication between below-grade earthen soil contacted by the porous material under the weight of the combined mass. Tensiometers configured to engage the sidewalls of an earthen opening are also disclosed. Methods of taking tensiometric measurements are also disclosed. 12 figs.

  14. Compositionally graded relaxed AlGaN buffers on semipolar GaN for mid-ultraviolet emission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, Erin C.; Wu Feng; Haeger, Daniel A.; Nakamura, Shuji; Denbaars, Steven P.; Cohen, Daniel A.; Speck, James S.; Romanov, Alexey E.

    2012-10-01

    In this Letter, we report on the growth and properties of relaxed, compositionally graded Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N buffer layers on freestanding semipolar (2021) GaN substrates. Continuous and step compositional grades with Al concentrations up to x = 0.61 have been achieved, with emission wavelengths in the mid-ultraviolet region as low as 265 nm. Coherency stresses were relaxed progressively throughout the grades by misfit dislocation generation via primary (basal) slip and secondary (non-basal) slip systems. Threading dislocation densities in the final layers of the grades were less than 10{sup 6}/cm{sup 2} as confirmed by plan-view transmission electron microscopy and cathodoluminescence studies.

  15. Refiner and Blender Net Production of Propane/Propylene

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    641 1,674 1,701 1,697 1,641 1,680 2004-2016 PADD 1 159 164 155 158 158 152 1993-2016 New England 1993-2004 Central Atlantic 1993-2004 Lower Atlantic 1993-2004 PADD 2 364 360 387...

  16. Determining importance and grading of items and activities for the Yucca Mountain Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeKlever, R.; Verna, B.

    1993-12-31

    Raytheon Services Nevada (RSN), in support of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Yucca Mountain Project, has been responsible for the Title 2 designs of the initial structures, systems, and components for the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), and the creation of the design output documents for the Surface-Based Testing (SBT) programs. The ESF and SBT programs are major scientific contributors to the overall site characterization program which will determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain to contain a proposed High Level Nuclear Waste (HLNW) repository. Accurate, traceable and objective characterization and testing documentation that is germane to the protection of public health and safety, and the environment, and that satisfies all the requirements of 10 CFR Part 60(1), must be established, evaluated and accepted. To assure that these requirements are satisfied, specific design functions and products, including items and activities depicted within respective design output documents, are subjected to the requirements of an NRC and DOE-approved Quality Assurance (QA) program. An evaluation (classification) is applied to these items and activities to determine their importance to radiological safety (ITS) and waste isolation (ITWI). Subsequently, QA program controls are selected (grading) for the items and activities. RSN has developed a DOE-approved classification process that is based on probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) techniques and that uses accident/impact scenarios. Results from respective performance assessment and test interference evaluations are also integrated into the classification analyses for various items. The methodology and results of the RSN classification and grading processes, presented herein, relative to ESF and SBT design products, demonstrates a solid, defensible methodological basis for classification and grading.

  17. Fracture modes in tubular LSFCO ceramic membranes under graded reducing conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagendra, N.; Biswas, S.; Nithyanantham, T.; Bandopadhyay, S.

    2013-06-01

    Highlights: ? Microstructural evolution in LSFCO membranes under graded environment is reported. ? The role of chemically induced stresses and oxygen deficiency is evaluated. ? The stress distribution is modeled by a point defect model. - Abstract: Chromium (III) oxide (Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3})-doped LaSrFeO{sub 3} perovskite, La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.8}Cr{sub 0.2}O{sub 3??} (LSFCO), is being considered as a potential material for applications in solid oxide fuel cells, gas separation membranes, and electrochemical reactors because of its high electro-catalytic activity. Similar to other perovskites, the performance and mechanical strength of LSFCO materials are significantly affected by environment and temperature. Here, we report a fracture gradient phenomenon in tubular C-ring-shaped LSFCO ceramic membranes under graded reducing conditions. The graded reducing condition was produced by flushing N{sub 2} on the outer side of the C-ring membranes at 1000 C while keeping the inner side untreated. The rings were then diametrically compressed to fracture, and the resultant fracture morphology was analyzed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). A fracture gradient with three distinct regions across the thickness of the membranes was identified on the split surfaces. In the outer region of the C-ring specimen exposed to N{sub 2}, a mixed inter/transgranular fracture with a predominant intergranular pattern was observed. In the middle section of the fracture surface, a characteristic transgranular fracture of the perovskite grains was found. At the inner region of the ring, a mixed inter/transgranular fracture with a predominant transgranular pattern occurred. The mechanism of gradient fractures was attributed both to chemically induced stresses caused by oxygen diffusion and to the formation of a separate phase of oxygen-deficient perovskite in the parent perovskite. The stresses generated were modeled by a point defect model. This work provides significant information on microstructure evolutions of tubular LSFCO membranes under graded reducing atmospheres.

  18. Jefferson Lab Offers Science Enrichment Program for 5th, 6th & 8th Grade

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Teachers; Registration Deadline is Sept. 12 | Jefferson Lab Lab Offers Science Enrichment Program for 5th, 6th & 8th Grade Teachers; Registration Deadline is Sept. 12 Jefferson Lab Open House For many teachers who enroll in Jefferson Lab Science Activities for Teachers, or JSAT, a highlight of the year is participating in Teacher Night. The event gives the teachers an opportunity to share some of the skills, knowledge and tools that they've acquired through the program. Jefferson Lab's

  19. Replaces DOE F 3530.1 5. HOW LONG IN PRESENT POSITION GRADE

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    50.2 (07-95) Replaces DOE F 3530.1 5. HOW LONG IN PRESENT POSITION GRADE 6. DATE NEXT REGULAR STEP INCREASE IS DUE: 7. LIST ANY AWARDS OR QUALITY INCREASES RECEIVED IN LAST 5 YEARS (Date and kind of award) ATTACH A COMPLETED SF-52, "REQUEST FOR PERSONNEL ACTION," AND A COPY OF THE EMPLOYEE'S CURRENT RATING OF RECORD AS DOCUMENTATION THAT PERFORMANCE HAS MET ALL THE REQUIREMENTS FOR AN OUTSTANDING RATING. NAME AND TITLE OF NOMINATING OFFICIAL (Employee's immediate supervisor) 1. NAME OF

  20. Engineering report on drilling in the Sand Wash Basin intermediate grade project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-09-01

    The Sand Wash Basin Intermediate Grade Drilling Project was conducted by Bendix Field Engineering Corporation in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program. This project consisted of 19 drill holes ranging in depth from 275 to 1220 feet (83.9 to 372.1 m). A total of 11,569 feet (3528.5 m) was rotary drilled and 130 feet (39.7 m) were cored for a total of 11,699 feet (3568.2 m) for the project. The project objective was to provide comprehensive subsurface geologic data relevant to Intermediate Grade uranium mineralization of the Browns Park Formation in the Sugar Loaf Peak Site A, and the Little Juniper Mountain Site B areas. All boreholes are located on the USGS Juniper Hot Springs and the Lay 7.5-Minute Series (Topographic) Quadrangles. The project began May 2, 1980; drilling was completed June 3, 1980. Site restoration and clean up was initiated immediately upon the completion of the last borehole and was completed June 8, 1980.

  1. The Application of materials attractiveness in a graded approach to nuclear materials security

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ebbinghaus, B.; Bathke, C.; Dalton, D.; Murphy, J.

    2013-07-01

    The threat from terrorist groups has recently received greater attention. In this paper, material quantity and material attractiveness are addressed through the lens of a minimum security strategy needed to prevent the construction of a nuclear explosive device (NED) by an adversary. Nuclear materials are placed into specific security categories (3 or 4 categories) , which define a number of security requirements to protect the material. Materials attractiveness can be divided into four attractiveness levels, High, Medium, Low, and Very Low that correspond to the utility of the material to the adversary and to a minimum security strategy that is necessary to adequately protect the nuclear material. We propose a graded approach to materials attractiveness that recognizes for instance substantial differences in attractiveness between pure reactor-grade Pu oxide (High attractiveness) and fresh MOX fuel (Low attractiveness). In either case, an adversary's acquisition of a Category I quantity of plutonium would be a major incident, but the acquisition of Pu oxide by the adversary would be substantially worse than the acquisition of fresh MOX fuel because of the substantial differences in the time and complexity required of the adversary to process the material and fashion it into a NED.

  2. Formation of graded vanadium oxide (VO compound) under strong gravitational field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khandaker, Jahirul Islam; Tokuda, Makoto; Ogata, Yudai; Januszko, Kamila; Mashimo, Tsutomu; Nishiyama, Tadao; Yoshiasa, Akira

    2015-05-14

    Sedimentation of atoms induced under strong gravitational field gives a tool for controlling elemental compositions in condensed matter. We performed a strong-gravity experiment (0.397??10{sup 6?}G at 400?C for 24 h) on a V{sub 2}O{sub 5} polycrystal using the high-temperature ultracentrifuge to examine the composition change and further the structure change. The graded composition structure of V and O was formed along gravity direction, where V increases and O decreases with gravity. It was found by the x-ray diffraction and Raman scattering method that VO{sub 2} and V{sub 2}O{sub 3} phases appeared and the amounts increased, while one of the V{sub 2}O{sub 5} phase decreased gradually along gravity direction. The X-ray absorption near edge structure spectra analysis identified the chemical valency decrease (+5 to +3). The UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy addressed the shifting in center of major absorption peak to longer wavelength (red shift) with the increase in gravitational field. The tail absorption peak (band gap 2.09?eV) at strong gravity region in the graded structure showed transparent conductive oxide.

  3. Numerical Simulation of the Performance Characteristics, Instability, and Effects of Band Gap Grading in Cadmium Telluride Based Photovoltaic Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael David Petersen

    2001-05-01

    Using computer simulations, the performance of several CdTe based photovoltaic structures has been studied. The advantages and disadvantages of band gap grading, through the use of (Zn,Cd)Te, have also been investigated in these structures. Grading at the front interface between a CdS window layer and a CdTe absorber layer, can arise due to interdiffusion between the materials during growth or due to the intentional variation of the material composition. This grading has been shown to improve certain performance metrics, such as the open-circuit voltage, while degrading others, such as the fill factor, depending on the amount and distance of the grading. The presence of a Schottky barrier as the back contact has also been shown to degrade the photovoltaic performance of the device, resulting in a characteristic IV curve. However, with the appropriate band gap grading at the back interface, it has been shown that the performance can be enhanced through more efficient carrier collection. These results were then correlated with experimental observations of the performance degradation in devices subjected to light and heat stress.

  4. Numerical Simulation of the Performance Characteristics, Instability, and Effects of Band Gap Grading in Cadmium Telluride Based Photovoltaic Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael David Petersen

    2001-06-27

    Using computer simulations, the performance of several CdTe based photovoltaic structures has been studied. The advantages and disadvantages of band gap grading, through the use of (Zn, Cd)Te, have also been investigated in these structures. Grading at the front interface between a CdS window layer and a CdTe absorber layer, can arise due to interdiffusion between the materials during growth or due to the intentional variation of the material composition. This grading has been shown to improve certain performance metrics, such as the open-circuit voltage, while degrading others, such as the fill factor, depending on the amount and distance of the grading. The presence of a Schottky barrier as the back contact has also been shown to degrade the photovoltaic performance of the device, resulting in a characteristic IV curve. However, with the appropriate band gap grading at the back interface, it has been shown that the performance can be enhanced through more efficient carrier collection. These results were then correlated with experimental observations of the performance degradation in devices subjected to light and heat stress.

  5. Structural and Morphological Difference Between Ti/TiN/TiCN Coatings Grown in Multilayer and Graded Form

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Restrepo, E.; Baena, A.; Agudelo, C.; Castillo, H.; Devia, A.; Marino, A.

    2006-12-04

    Thin films can be grown in super-lattice, multilayers and graded form, having each one advantages and disadvantages. The difference between multilayer and graded coatings is the interface. In multilayers the interface is abrupt and in graded coatings it is diffuse. The interface influences many chemical and physical properties of the materials, and its choice depends on the application. Graded coatings have the advantage of having gradual properties such as thermal expansion coefficient and lattice parameter, avoiding adherence problems due to good match between their component materials. In this work the comparison between some properties of coatings grown as multilayer and graded is performed. The materials are produced using the sputtering DC technique because of its facility to control the deposition parameters and generate a slow growth. The target is a disc of titanium and the samples are made of stainless steel 304. The working gases are argon, nitrogen and methane, which are mixed according to the material to be produced, i.e. Ti layer is grown with argon, the TiN film is produced with a mixture of argon and nitrogen, and the TiCN material is obtained mixing argon, nitrogen and methane. These materials are characterized with AFM in order to determine grain size and with XPS studying the chemical composition and performing depth profiles.

  6. DOE-STD-1153-2002; A Graded Approach for Evaluating Radiation Doses to Aquatic and Terrestrial Biota

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    2 DETAILED GUIDANCE MODULE 2: DETAILED GUIDANCE DOE-STD-1153-2002 INTENTIONALLY BLANK DOE-STD-1153-2002 M2-1 1 The Graded Approach, Ecological Risk Assessment, and Guidance on Their Implementation in Evaluating Radiation Doses to Biota The graded approach was made available to DOE field and program elements and to external users for a trial use period beginning in July 2000 as an interim version of this technical standard. The purpose of the trial period was to give users an opportunity to

  7. Mechanical Characteristics of Submerged Arc Weldment in API Gas Pipeline Steel of Grade X65

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hashemi, S. H.; Mohammadyani, D.

    2011-01-17

    The mechanical properties of submerged arc weldment (SAW) in gas transportation pipeline steel of grade API X65 (65 ksi yield strength) were investigated. This steel is produced by thermo mechanical control rolled (TMC), and is largely used in Iran gas piping systems and networks. The results from laboratory study on three different regions; i.e. base metal (BM), fusion zone (FZ) and heat affected zone (HAZ) were used to compare weldment mechanical characteristics with those specified by API 5L (revision 2004) standard code. Different laboratory experiments were conducted on test specimens taken from 48 inch outside diameter and 14.3 mm wall thickness gas pipeline. The test results showed a gradient of microstructure and Vickers hardness data from the centerline of FZ towards the unaffected MB. Similarly, lower Charpy absorbed energy (compared to BM) was observed in the FZ impact specimens. Despite this, the API specifications were fulfilled in three tested zones, ensuring pipeline structural integrity under working conditions.

  8. Behavior of trace and companion elements of ULC-IF steel grades during RH-treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jungreithmeier, A.; Viertauer, A.; Presslinger, H.

    1996-12-31

    A large number of metallurgical reactions are caused by lowering the partial pressure during vacuum treatment. One of these reactions is the volatilization of elements with high vapor pressure. The concentration of trace and companion elements during RH-treatment mostly changes because of cooling scrap, deoxidation agents and ferro-alloy additions, slag/metal reactions, vaporization and also because of reactions with the RH-vessel lining. These changes in the concentration of trace and companion elements during RH-treatment are exemplified for ULC-IF (ultra low carbon--interstitial free) steel grades. The elements which are considered are chromium, nickel, molybdenum, copper, vanadium, tin, zinc, lead, phosphorus, sulfur and nitrogen. Calculations of the theoretical equilibrium solubility using thermodynamic data--in dependence of pressure and temperature--correspond well with the values obtained during steel production operations. 67 refs.

  9. Cooperative Studies in the Utilization and Storage of Excess Weapons-Grade Plutonium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolyatko, V. V.

    1998-01-29

    This technical report is a tangible and verifiable deliverable associated with the Nuclear Group subproject Cooperative Studies in the Utilization and Storage of Excess Weapons-grade Plutonium. This report is an assessment ofthe work performed by the Russian party from 1 October 1995 through 30 September 1996 regarding milestones defined in the contract between the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (MEPhI) and the Texas Engineering Experiment Station (TEES). In these interactions, TEES serves as agent of the Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium (ANRCP) in the capacity oflead institution for the Nuclear Group of the ANRCP. The official Statement ofWork dated 8 April 1996 enumerates specific milestones and deliverables. In its present form, this report is an edited version ofthe translation submitted to TEES by MEPhI on 7 October 1996. The principal investigators for this subproject are Dr. Paul Nelson of TEES and Dr. Victor Bolyatko of the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute.

  10. Si/SiGe electron resonant tunneling diodes with graded spacer wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul, D. J.; See, P.; Bates, R.; Griffin, N.; Coonan, B. P.; Redmond, G.; Crean, G. M.; Zozoulenko, I. V.; Berggren, K.-F.; Hollander, B.

    2001-06-25

    Resonant tunneling diodes have been fabricated using graded Si{sub 1{minus}x}Ge{sub x} (x=0.3{r_arrow}0.0) spacer wells and strained Si{sub 0.4}Ge{sub 0.6} barriers on a relaxed Si{sub 0.7}Ge{sub 0.3} n-type substrate which demonstrates negative differential resistance at up to 100 K. This design is aimed at reducing the voltage at which the peak current density is achieved. Peak current densities of 0.08A/cm{sup 2} with peak-to-valley current ratios of 1.67 have been achieved for a low peak voltage of 40 mV at 77 K. This represents an improvement of over an order of magnitude compared to previous work. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  11. Carrier multiplication detected through transient photocurrent in device-grade films of lead selenide quantum dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Jianbo; Fidler, Andrew F.; Klimov, Victor I.

    2015-09-08

    In carrier multiplication, the absorption of a single photon results in two or more electronhole pairs. Quantum dots are promising materials for implementing carrier multiplication principles in real-life technologies. So far, however, most of research in this area has focused on optical studies of solution samples with yet to be proven relevance to practical devices. We report ultra-fast electro-optical studies of device-grade films of electronically coupled quantum dots that allow us to observe multiplication directly in the photocurrent. Our studies help rationalize previous results from both optical spectroscopy and steady-state photocurrent measurements and also provide new insights into effects of electric field and ligand treatments on multiexciton yields. Importantly, we demonstrate that using appropriate chemical treatments of the films, extra charges produced by carrier multiplication can be extracted from the quantum dots before they are lost to Auger recombination and hence can contribute to photocurrent of practical devices.

  12. Diagnostics and required R and D for control of DEMO grade plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Hyeon K.

    2014-08-21

    Even if the diagnostics of ITER performs as expected, installation and operation of the diagnostic systems in Demo device will be much harsher than those of the present ITER device. In order to operate the Demo grade plasmas, which may have a higher beta limit, safely with very limited number of simple diagnostic system, it requires a well defined predictable plasma modelling in conjunction with the reliable control system for burn control and potential harmful instabilities. Development of such modelling in ITER is too risky and the logical choice would be utilization of the present day steady state capable devices such as KSTAR and EAST. In order to fulfill this mission, sophisticated diagnostic systems such as 2D/3D imaging systems can validate the physics in the theoretical modeling and challenge the predictable capability.

  13. Why is weapons grade plutonium more hazardous to work with than highly enriched uranium?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cournoyer, Michael E.; Costigan, Stephen A.; Schake, Bradley S.

    2015-08-01

    Highly Enriched Uranium and Weapons grade plutonium have assumed positions of dominant importance among the actinide elements because of their successful uses as explosive ingredients in nuclear weapons and the place they hold as key materials in the development of industrial use of nuclear power. While most chemists are familiar with the practical interest concerning HEU and WG Pu, fewer know the subtleties among their hazards. In this study, a primer is provided regarding the hazards associated with working with HEU and WG Pu metals and oxides. The care that must be taken to safely handle these materials is emphasizedmore » and the extent of the hazards is described. The controls needed to work with HEU and WG Pu metals and oxides are differentiated. Given the choice, one would rather work with HEU metal and oxides than WG Pu metal and oxides.« less

  14. Why is weapons grade plutonium more hazardous to work with than highly enriched uranium?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cournoyer, Michael E.; Costigan, Stephen A.; Schake, Bradley S.

    2015-08-01

    Highly Enriched Uranium and Weapons grade plutonium have assumed positions of dominant importance among the actinide elements because of their successful uses as explosive ingredients in nuclear weapons and the place they hold as key materials in the development of industrial use of nuclear power. While most chemists are familiar with the practical interest concerning HEU and WG Pu, fewer know the subtleties among their hazards. In this study, a primer is provided regarding the hazards associated with working with HEU and WG Pu metals and oxides. The care that must be taken to safely handle these materials is emphasized and the extent of the hazards is described. The controls needed to work with HEU and WG Pu metals and oxides are differentiated. Given the choice, one would rather work with HEU metal and oxides than WG Pu metal and oxides.

  15. Effect of Weight and Roadway Grade on the Fuel Economy of Class-8 Frieght Trucks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franzese, Oscar; Davidson, Diane

    2011-11-01

    In 2006-08, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, in collaboration with several industry partners, collected real-world performance and situational data for long-haul operations of Class-8 trucks from a fleet engaged in normal freight operations. Such data and information are useful to support Class-8 modeling of combination truck performance, technology evaluation efforts for energy efficiency, and to provide a means of accounting for real-world driving performance within combination truck research and analyses. The present study used the real-world information collected in that project to analyze the effects that vehicle speed and vehicle weight have on the fuel efficiency of Class-8 trucks. The analysis focused on two type of terrains, flat (roadway grades ranging from -1% to 1%) and mild uphill terrains (roadway grades ranging from 1% to 3%), which together covered more than 70% of the miles logged in the 2006-08 project (note: almost 2/3 of the distance traveled on mild uphill terrains was on terrains with 1% to 2% grades). In the flat-terrain case, the results of the study showed that for light and medium loads, fuel efficiency decreases considerably as speed increases. For medium-heavy and heavy loads (total vehicle weight larger than 65,000 lb), fuel efficiency tends to increase as the vehicle speed increases from 55 mph up to about 58-60 mph. For speeds higher than 60 mph, fuel efficiency decreases at an almost constant rate with increasing speed. At any given speed, fuel efficiency decreases and vehicle weight increases, although the relationship between fuel efficiency and vehicle weight is not linear, especially for vehicle weights above 65,000 lb. The analysis of the information collected while the vehicles were traveling on mild upslope terrains showed that the fuel efficiency of Class-8 trucks decreases abruptly with vehicle weight ranging from light loads up to medium-heavy loads. After that, increases in the vehicle weight only decrease fuel efficiency slightly. Fuel efficiency also decreases significantly with speed, but only for light and medium loads. For medium-heavy and heavy, FE is almost constant for speeds ranging from 57 to about 66 mph. For speeds higher than 66 mph, the FE decreases with speed, but at a lower rate than for light and medium loads. Statistical analyses that compared the fuel efficiencies obtained when the vehicles were traveling at 59 mph vs. those achieved when they were traveling at 65 mph or 70 mph indicated that the former were, on average, higher than the latter. This result was statistically significant at the 99.9% confidence level (note: the Type II error i.e., the probability of failing to reject the null hypothesis when the alternative hypothesis is true was 18% and 6%, respectively).

  16. A dynamic model for the optimization of oscillatory low grade heat engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markides, Christos N.; Smith, Thomas C. B.

    2015-01-22

    The efficiency of a thermodynamic system is a key quantity on which its usefulness and wider application relies. This is especially true for a device that operates with marginal energy sources and close to ambient temperatures. Various definitions of efficiency are available, each of which reveals a certain performance characteristic of a device. Of these, some consider only the thermodynamic cycle undergone by the working fluid, whereas others contain additional information, including relevant internal components of the device that are not part of the thermodynamic cycle. Yet others attempt to factor out the conditions of the surroundings with which the device is interfacing thermally during operation. In this paper we present a simple approach for the modeling of complex oscillatory thermal-fluid systems capable of converting low grade heat into useful work. We apply the approach to the NIFTE, a novel low temperature difference heat utilization technology currently under development. We use the results from the model to calculate various efficiencies and comment on the usefulness of the different definitions in revealing performance characteristics. We show that the approach can be applied to make design optimization decisions, and suggest features for optimal efficiency of the NIFTE.

  17. Effect of heat treatment on microstructure and hardness of Grade 91 steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shrestha, Triratna; Alsagabi, Sultan; Charit, Indrajit; Potirniche, Gabriel; Glazoff, Michael

    2015-01-21

    The modified 9Cr-1Mo steel (Grade 91) is a material of choice in fossil-fuel-fired power plants with increased efficiency, service life, and reduction in emission of greenhouse gases. It is also considered a prospective material for the Next Generation Nuclear Power Plant for application in reactor pressure vessels at temperatures up to 650C. In this paper, heat treatment of the modified 9Cr-1Mo steel was studied by normalizing and tempering the steel at various temperatures and times, with the ultimate goal of improving its creep resistance and optimizing material hardness. The microstructural evolution of the heat treated steels was correlated with the differential scanning calorimetric results. Optical microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy in conjunction with microhardness profiles and calorimetric plots were used to understand the evolution of microstructure including precipitate structures in modified 9Cr-1Mo steel and relate it to the mechanical behavior of the steel. Thermo-CalcTM calculations were used to support experimental work and provide guidance in terms of the precipitate stability and microstructural evolution. Furthermore, the carbon isopleth and temperature dependencies of the volume fraction of different precipitates were constructed. The predicted and experimentally observed results were found to be in good agreement.

  18. Theoretical and experimental investigations of asymmetric light transport in graded index photonic crystal waveguides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giden, I. H. Yilmaz, D.; Turduev, M.; Kurt, H.; olak, E.; Ozbay, E.

    2014-01-20

    To provide asymmetric propagation of light, we propose a graded index photonic crystal (GRIN PC) based waveguide configuration that is formed by introducing line and point defects as well as intentional perturbations inside the structure. The designed system utilizes isotropic materials and is purely reciprocal, linear, and time-independent, since neither magneto-optical materials are used nor time-reversal symmetry is broken. The numerical results show that the proposed scheme based on the spatial-inversion symmetry breaking has different forward (with a peak value of 49.8%) and backward transmissions (4.11% at most) as well as relatively small round-trip transmission (at most 7.11%) in a large operational bandwidth of 52.6?nm. The signal contrast ratio of the designed configuration is above 0.80 in the telecom wavelengths of 1523.51576.1?nm. An experimental measurement is also conducted in the microwave regime: A strong asymmetric propagation characteristic is observed within the frequency interval of 12.8 GHz13.3?GHz. The numerical and experimental results confirm the asymmetric transmission behavior of the proposed GRIN PC waveguide.

  19. U.S. Refiner Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 View History Gasoline, All Grades Sales to End Users (Average) 1.888 2.301 3.050 3.154 3.049 2.855 1978-2014 Through Retail Outlets 1.892 2.306 3.058 3.168 3.068 2.876 1978-2014 Other End Users 1.779 2.174 2.858 2.916 2.800 2.610 1978-2014 Sales for Resale (Average) 1.767 2.165 2.867 2.929 2.812 2.618 1978-2014 DTW 1.899 2.293 2.990 3.117 2.942 2.800 1994-2014 Rack 1.761 2.162 2.864 2.916 2.801 2.606 1994-2014 Bulk 1.675 2.078 2.769 2.861 2.774 2.548 1994-2014

  20. Effect of heat treatment on microstructure and hardness of Grade 91 steel

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shrestha, Triratna; Alsagabi, Sultan; Charit, Indrajit; Potirniche, Gabriel; Glazoff, Michael

    2015-01-21

    The modified 9Cr-1Mo steel (Grade 91) is a material of choice in fossil-fuel-fired power plants with increased efficiency, service life, and reduction in emission of greenhouse gases. It is also considered a prospective material for the Next Generation Nuclear Power Plant for application in reactor pressure vessels at temperatures up to 650°C. In this paper, heat treatment of the modified 9Cr-1Mo steel was studied by normalizing and tempering the steel at various temperatures and times, with the ultimate goal of improving its creep resistance and optimizing material hardness. The microstructural evolution of the heat treated steels was correlated with themore » differential scanning calorimetric results. Optical microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy in conjunction with microhardness profiles and calorimetric plots were used to understand the evolution of microstructure including precipitate structures in modified 9Cr-1Mo steel and relate it to the mechanical behavior of the steel. Thermo-CalcTM calculations were used to support experimental work and provide guidance in terms of the precipitate stability and microstructural evolution. Furthermore, the carbon isopleth and temperature dependencies of the volume fraction of different precipitates were constructed. The predicted and experimentally observed results were found to be in good agreement.« less

  1. Carrier multiplication detected through transient photocurrent in device-grade films of lead selenide quantum dots

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gao, Jianbo; Fidler, Andrew F.; Klimov, Victor I.

    2015-09-08

    In carrier multiplication, the absorption of a single photon results in two or more electron–hole pairs. Quantum dots are promising materials for implementing carrier multiplication principles in real-life technologies. So far, however, most of research in this area has focused on optical studies of solution samples with yet to be proven relevance to practical devices. We report ultra-fast electro-optical studies of device-grade films of electronically coupled quantum dots that allow us to observe multiplication directly in the photocurrent. Our studies help rationalize previous results from both optical spectroscopy and steady-state photocurrent measurements and also provide new insights into effects ofmore » electric field and ligand treatments on multiexciton yields. Importantly, we demonstrate that using appropriate chemical treatments of the films, extra charges produced by carrier multiplication can be extracted from the quantum dots before they are lost to Auger recombination and hence can contribute to photocurrent of practical devices.« less

  2. Optimization of Micro Metal Injection Molding By Using Grey Relational Grade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ibrahim, M. H. I. [Dept. Of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM), 86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor (Malaysia); Precision Process Research Group, Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Muhamad, N.; Sulong, A. B.; Nor, N. H. M.; Harun, M. R.; Murtadhahadi [Precision Process Research Group, Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Jamaludin, K. R. [UTM Razak School of Engineering and Advanced Technology, UTM International Campus, 54100 Jalan Semarak, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2011-01-17

    Micro metal injection molding ({mu}MIM) which is a variant of MIM process is a promising method towards near net-shape of metallic micro components of complex geometry. In this paper, {mu}MIM is applied to produce 316L stainless steel micro components. Due to highly stringent characteristic of {mu}MIM properties, the study has been emphasized on optimization of process parameter where Taguchi method associated with Grey Relational Analysis (GRA) will be implemented as it represents novel approach towards investigation of multiple performance characteristics. Basic idea of GRA is to find a grey relational grade (GRG) which can be used for the optimization conversion from multi objectives case which are density and strength to a single objective case. After considering the form 'the larger the better', results show that the injection time(D) is the most significant followed by injection pressure(A), holding time(E), mold temperature(C) and injection temperature(B). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is also employed to strengthen the significant of each parameter involved in this study.

  3. U.S. Refiner Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Jul-15 Aug-15 Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 View History Gasoline, All Grades Sales to End Users (Average) 2.338 2.218 1.920 1.849 1.711 1.603 1983-2015 Through Retail Outlets 2.340 2.221 1.922 1.851 1.713 1.604 1983-2015 Other End Users 2.207 1.992 1.737 1.662 1.577 1.520 1983-2015 Sales for Resale (Average) 2.072 1.838 1.609 1.558 1.426 1.356 1983-2015 DTW 2.691 2.400 2.063 1.907 1.805 1.784 1994-2015 Rack 2.023 1.796 1.581 1.536 1.398 1.325 1994-2015 Bulk 2.025 1.731 1.475 1.437 1.359 1.281

  4. Impact of Primary Gleason Grade on Risk Stratification for Gleason Score 7 Prostate Cancers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koontz, Bridget F.; Tsivian, Matvey; Mouraviev, Vladimir; Sun, Leon; Vujaskovic, Zeljko; Moul, Judd; Lee, W. Robert

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the primary Gleason grade (GG) in Gleason score (GS) 7 prostate cancers for risk of non-organ-confined disease with the goal of optimizing radiotherapy treatment option counseling. Methods: One thousand three hundred thirty-three patients with pathologic GS7 were identified in the Duke Prostate Center research database. Clinical factors including age, race, clinical stage, prostate-specific antigen at diagnosis, and pathologic stage were obtained. Data were stratified by prostate-specific antigen and clinical stage at diagnosis into adapted D'Amico risk groups. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed evaluating for association of primary GG with pathologic outcome. Results: Nine hundred seventy-nine patients had primary GG3 and 354 had GG4. On univariate analyses, GG4 was associated with an increased risk of non-organ-confined disease. On multivariate analysis, GG4 was independently associated with seminal vesicle invasion (SVI) but not extracapsular extension. Patients with otherwise low-risk disease and primary GG3 had a very low risk of SVI (4%). Conclusions: Primary GG4 in GS7 cancers is associated with increased risk of SVI compared with primary GG3. Otherwise low-risk patients with GS 3+4 have a very low risk of SVI and may be candidates for prostate-only radiotherapy modalities.

  5. Development of Functionally Graded Materials for Manufacturing Tools and Dies and Industrial Processing Equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lherbier, Louis, W.; Novotnak, David, J.; Herling, Darrell, R.; Sears, James, W.

    2009-03-23

    Hot forming processes such as forging, die casting and glass forming require tooling that is subjected to high temperatures during the manufacturing of components. Current tooling is adversely affected by prolonged exposure at high temperatures. Initial studies were conducted to determine the root cause of tool failures in a number of applications. Results show that tool failures vary and depend on the operating environment under which they are used. Major root cause failures include (1) thermal softening, (2) fatigue and (3) tool erosion, all of which are affected by process boundary conditions such as lubrication, cooling, process speed, etc. While thermal management is a key to addressing tooling failures, it was clear that new tooling materials with superior high temperature strength could provide improved manufacturing efficiencies. These efficiencies are based on the use of functionally graded materials (FGM), a new subset of hybrid tools with customizable properties that can be fabricated using advanced powder metallurgy manufacturing technologies. Modeling studies of the various hot forming processes helped identify the effect of key variables such as stress, temperature and cooling rate and aid in the selection of tooling materials for specific applications. To address the problem of high temperature strength, several advanced powder metallurgy nickel and cobalt based alloys were selected for evaluation. These materials were manufactured into tooling using two relatively new consolidation processes. One process involved laser powder deposition (LPD) and the second involved a solid state dynamic powder consolidation (SSDPC) process. These processes made possible functionally graded materials (FGM) that resulted in shaped tooling that was monolithic, bi-metallic or substrate coated. Manufacturing of tooling with these processes was determined to be robust and consistent for a variety of materials. Prototype and production testing of FGM tooling showed the benefits of the nickel and cobalt based powder metallurgy alloys in a number of applications evaluated. Improvements in tool life ranged from three (3) to twenty (20) or more times than currently used tooling. Improvements were most dramatic where tool softening and deformation were the major cause of tool failures in hot/warm forging applications. Significant improvement was also noted in erosion of aluminum die casting tooling. Cost and energy savings can be realized as a result of increased tooling life, increased productivity and a reduction in scrap because of improved dimensional controls. Although LPD and SSDPC tooling usually have higher acquisition costs, net tooling costs per component produced drops dramatically with superior tool performance. Less energy is used to manufacture the tooling because fewer tools are required and less recycling of used tools are needed for the hot forming process. Energy is saved during the component manufacturing cycle because more parts can be produced in shorter periods of time. Energy is also saved by minimizing heating furnace idling time because of less downtime for tooling changes.

  6. Compression of picosecond pulses from a solid-state laser using self-phase modulation in graded-index fibers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Damm, T.; Kaschke, M.; Noack, F.; Wilhelmi, B.

    1985-04-01

    We report the compression by a factor of 7 of 2-..mu..J pulses of 5-psec duration from a mode-locked Nd:phosphate glass laser. The pulses were chirped and their spectrum broadened while traveling through a graded-index core fiber. After amplification to 500 ..mu..J, they were finally compressed by traveling through a dispersive delay line, and 0.7-psec pulse widths were achieved.

  7. Microsoft PowerPoint - GradedApproach_P&RA_CoP_December2013 (Reformatted 2014-03-24)

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Site Graded Approach to Vadose Zone Approach to Vadose Zone Modeling: Current Status and Future Applications pp Presented to: PA Community of Practice 12 December 2013 12 December 2013 Presented by: Presented by: Alaa H. Aly - CHPRC/INTERA Dibakar Goswami - Washington State Dept of Ecology Presentation Outline * Current Applications: - 2011-50 document - Application to the River Corridor decision documents - Scoping of Performance Assessments Scoping of Performance Assessments 2 Presentation

  8. Studies on the production of ultra-clean coal by alkali-acid leaching of low-grade coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nabeel, A.; Khan, T.A.; Sharma, D.K.

    2009-07-01

    The use of low-grade coal in thermal power stations is leading to environmental pollution due to the generation of large amounts of fly ash, bottom ash, and CO{sub 2} besides other pollutants. It is therefore important to clean the coal before using it in thermal power stations, steel plants, or cement industries etc. Physical beneficiation of coal results in only limited cleaning of coal. The increasing environmental pollution problems from the use of coal have led to the development of clean coal technologies. In fact, the clean use of coal requires the cleaning of coal to ultra low ash contents, keeping environmental norms and problems in view and the ever-growing need to increase the efficiency of coal-based power generation. Therefore this requires the adaptation of chemical cleaning techniques for cleaning the coal to obtain ultra clean coal having ultra low ash contents. Presently the reaction conditions for chemical demineralization of low-grade coal using 20% aq NaOH treatment followed by 10% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} leaching under reflux conditions have been optimized. In order to reduce the concentration of alkali and acid used in this process of chemical demineralization of low-grade coals, stepwise, i.e., three step process of chemical demineralization of coal using 1% or 5% aq NaOH treatment followed by 1% or 5% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} leaching has been developed, which has shown good results in demineralization of low-grade coals. In order to conserve energy, the alkali-acid leaching of coal was also carried out at room temperature, which gave good results.

  9. DOE-STD-1153-2002; A Graded Approach for Evaluating Radiation Doses to Aquatic and Terrestrial Biota

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    STD-1153-2002 A Graded Approach for Evaluating Radiation Doses to Aquatic and Terrestrial Biota MODULE 1 PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATION MODULE 1: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATION DOE-STD-1153-2002 INTENTIONALLY BLANK DOE-STD-1153-2002 M1-1 1 Introduction The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is accountable to Congress and the public for the safe conduct of its activities, including facility operation, waste management and disposal activities, and remediation of environmental contamination. These routine

  10. Strain-Based Design Methodology of Large Diameter Grade X80 Linepipe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lower, Mark D.

    2014-04-01

    Continuous growth in energy demand is driving oil and natural gas production to areas that are often located far from major markets where the terrain is prone to earthquakes, landslides, and other types of ground motion. Transmission pipelines that cross this type of terrain can experience large longitudinal strains and plastic circumferential elongation as the pipeline experiences alignment changes resulting from differential ground movement. Such displacements can potentially impact pipeline safety by adversely affecting structural capacity and leak tight integrity of the linepipe steel. Planning for new long-distance transmission pipelines usually involves consideration of higher strength linepipe steels because their use allows pipeline operators to reduce the overall cost of pipeline construction and increase pipeline throughput by increasing the operating pressure. The design trend for new pipelines in areas prone to ground movement has evolved over the last 10 years from a stress-based design approach to a strain-based design (SBD) approach to further realize the cost benefits from using higher strength linepipe steels. This report presents an overview of SBD for pipelines subjected to large longitudinal strain and high internal pressure with emphasis on the tensile strain capacity of high-strength microalloyed linepipe steel. The technical basis for this report involved engineering analysis and examination of the mechanical behavior of Grade X80 linepipe steel in both the longitudinal and circumferential directions. Testing was conducted to assess effects on material processing including as-rolled, expanded, and heat treatment processing intended to simulate coating application. Elastic-plastic and low-cycle fatigue analyses were also performed with varying internal pressures. Proposed SBD models discussed in this report are based on classical plasticity theory and account for material anisotropy, triaxial strain, and microstructural damage effects developed from test data. The results are intended to enhance SBD and analysis methods for producing safe and cost effective pipelines capable of accommodating large plastic strains in seismically active arctic areas.

  11. Feasibility study of fuel grade ethanol plant for Alcohol Fuels of Mississippi, Inc. , Vicksburg, Mississippi

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1981-01-01

    The results are presented of a feasibility study performed to determine the technical and economic viability of constructing an alcohol plant utilizing the N.Y.U. continuous acid hydrolysis process to convert wood wastes to fuel grade alcohol. The following is a summary of the results: (1) The proposed site in the Vicksburg Industrial Foundation Corporation Industrial Park is adequate from all standpoints, for all plant capacities envisioned. (2) Local hardwood sawmills can provide adequate feedstock for the facility. The price per dry ton varies between $5 and $15. (3) Sale of fuel ethanol would be made primarily through local distributors and an adequate market exists for the plant output. (4) With minor modifications to the preparation facilities, other waste cellulose materials can also be utilized. (5) There are no anticipated major environmental, health, safety or socioeconomic risks related to the construction and operation of the proposed facility. (6) The discounted cash flow and rate of return analysis indicated that the smallest capacity unit which should be built is the 16 million gallon per year plant, utilizing cogeneration. This facility has a 3.24 year payback. (7) The 25 million gallon per year plant utilizing cogeneration is an extremely attractive venture, with a zero interest break-even point of 1.87 years, and with a discounted rate of return of 73.6%. (8) While the smaller plant capacities are unattractive from a budgetary viewpoint, a prudent policy would dictate that a one million gallon per year plant be built first, as a demonstration facility. This volume contains process flowsheets and maps of the proposed site.

  12. Method for forming an in-situ oil shale retort in differing grades of oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ricketts, T.E.

    1984-04-24

    An in-situ oil shale retort is formed in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. The formation comprises at least one region of relatively richer oil shale and another region of relatively leaner oil shale. According to one embodiment, formation is excavated from within a retort site for forming at least one void extending horizontally across the retort site, leaving a portion of unfragmented formation including the regions of richer and leaner oil shale adjacent such a void space. A first array of vertical blast holes are drilled in the regions of richer and leaner oil shale, and a second array of blast holes are drilled at least in the region of richer oil shale. Explosive charges are placed in portions of the blast holes in the first and second arrays which extend into the richer oil shale, and separate explosive charges are placed in portions of the blast holes in the first array which extend into the leaner oil shale. This provides an array with a smaller scaled depth of burial (sdob) and closer spacing distance between explosive charges in the richer oil shale than the sdob and spacing distance of the array of explosive charges in the leaner oil shale. The explosive charges are detonated for explosively expanding the regions of richer and leaner oil shale toward the horizontal void for forming a fragmented mass of particles. Upon detonation of the explosive, greater explosive energy is provided collectively by the explosive charges in the richer oil shale, compared with the explosive energy produced by the explosive charges in the leaner oil shale, resulting in comparable fragmentation in both grades of oil shale.

  13. Weapons-Grade MOX Fuel Burnup Characteristics in Advanced Test Reactor Irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. S. Chang

    2006-07-01

    Mixed oxide (MOX) test capsules prepared with weapons-derived plutonium have been irradiated to a burnup of 50 GWd/t. The MOX fuel was fabricated at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) by a master-mix process and has been irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Previous withdrawals of the same fuel have occurred at 9, 21, 30, 40, and 50 GWd/t. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) manages this test series for the Department of Energys Fissile Materials Disposition Program (FMDP). A UNIX BASH (Bourne Again SHell) script CMO has been written and validated at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to couple the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP with the depletion and buildup code ORIGEN-2 (CMO). The new Monte Carlo burnup analysis methodology in this paper consists of MCNP coupling through CMO with ORIGEN-2(MCWO). MCWO is a fully automated tool that links the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP with the radioactive decay and burnup code ORIGEN-2. The fuel burnup analyses presented in this study were performed using MCWO. MCWO analysis yields time-dependent and neutron-spectrum-dependent minor actinide and Pu concentrations for the ATR small I-irradiation test position. The purpose of this report is to validate both the Weapons-Grade Mixed Oxide (WG-MOX) test assembly model and the new fuel burnup analysis methodology by comparing the computed results against the neutron monitor measurements and the irradiated WG-MOX post irradiation examination (PIE) data.

  14. Exploring pulse shaping for Z using graded-density impactors on gas guns (final report for LDRD project 79879).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furnish, Michael David; Reinhart, William Dodd; Anderson, William W. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Vogler, Tracy John; Hixson, Rob (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Kipp, Marlin E.

    2005-10-01

    While isentropic compression experiment (ICE) techniques have proved useful in deducing the high-pressure compressibility of a wide range of materials, they have encountered difficulties where large-volume phase transitions exist. The present study sought to apply graded-density impactor methods for producing isentropic loading to planar impact experiments to selected such problems. Cerium was chosen due to its 20% compression between 0.7 and 1.0 GPa. A model was constructed based on limited earlier dynamic data, and applied to the design of a suite of experiments. A capability for handling this material was installed. Two experiments were executed using shock/reload techniques with available samples, loading initially to near the gamma-alpha transition, then reloading. As well, two graded-density impactor experiments were conducted with alumina. A method for interpreting ICE data was developed and validated; this uses a wavelet construction for the ramp wave and includes corrections for the ''diffraction'' of wavelets by releases or reloads reflected from the sample/window interface. Alternate methods for constructing graded-density impactors are discussed.

  15. U.S. Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Stocks by Type

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Product: Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil All Oils (Excluding Crude Oil) Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Ethylene Propane/Propylene Propylene (Nonfuel Use) Normal Butane/Butylene Refinery Grade Butane Isobutane/Butylene Other Hydrocarbons Oxygenates (excluding Fuel Ethanol) MTBE Other Oxygenates Renewables (including Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Unfinished Oils Unfinished Oils, Naphthas & Lighter Unfinished Oils,

  16. The Development and Production of a Functionally Graded Composite for Pb-Bi Service

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ballinger, Ronald G

    2011-08-01

    A material that resists lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) attack and retains its strength at 700?C would be an enabling technology for LBE-cooled reactors. No single alloy currently exists that can economically meet the required performance criteria of high strength and corrosion resistance. A Functionally Graded Composite (FGC) was developed with layers engineered to perform these functions. F91 was chosen as the structural layer of the composite for its strength and radiation resistance. Fe-12Cr-2Si, an alloy developed from previous work in the Fe-Cr-Si system, was chosen as the corrosion-resistant cladding layer because of its chemical similarity to F91 and its superior corrosion resistance in both oxidizing and reducing environments. Fe-12Cr-2Si experienced minimal corrosion due to its self-passivation in oxidizing and reducing environments. Extrapolated corrosion rates are below one micron per year at 700?C. Corrosion of F91 was faster, but predictable and manageable. Diffusion studies showed that 17 microns of the cladding layer will be diffusionally diluted during the three year life of fuel cladding. 33 microns must be accounted for during the sixty year life of coolant piping. 5 cm coolant piping and 6.35 mm fuel cladding preforms were produced on a commercial scale by weld-overlaying Fe-12Cr-2Si onto F91 billets and co-extruding them. An ASME certified weld was performed followed by the prescribed quench-and-tempering heat treatment for F91. A minimal heat affected zone was observed, demonstrating field weldability. Finally, corrosion tests were performed on the fabricated FGC at 700?C after completely breaching the cladding in a small area to induce galvanic corrosion at the interface. None was observed. This FGC has significant impacts on LBE reactor design. The increases in outlet temperature and coolant velocity allow a large increase in power density, leading to either a smaller core for the same power rating or more power output for the same size core. This FGC represents an enabling technology for LBE cooled fast reactors.

  17. DOE-STD-1153-2002; A Graded Approach for Evaluating Radiation Doses to Aquatic and Terrestrial Biota

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    1153-2002 July 2002 DOE STANDARD A GRADED APPROACH FOR EVALUATING RADIATION DOSES TO AQUATIC AND TERRESTRIAL BIOTA U.S. Department of Energy AREA ENVR Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This document has been reproduced from the best available copy. Available to DOE and DOE contractors from ES&H Technical Information Services, U.S. Department of Energy, (800) 473-4375, fax: (301) 903-9823. Available to the public from the

  18. Advanced Energy and Water Recovery Technology from Low Grade Waste Heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dexin Wang

    2011-12-19

    The project has developed a nanoporous membrane based water vapor separation technology that can be used for recovering energy and water from low-temperature industrial waste gas streams with high moisture contents. This kind of exhaust stream is widely present in many industrial processes including the forest products and paper industry, food industry, chemical industry, cement industry, metal industry, and petroleum industry. The technology can recover not only the sensible heat but also high-purity water along with its considerable latent heat. Waste heats from such streams are considered very difficult to recover by conventional technology because of poor heat transfer performance of heat-exchanger type equipment at low temperature and moisture-related corrosion issues. During the one-year Concept Definition stage of the project, the goal was to prove the concept and technology in the laboratory and identify any issues that need to be addressed in future development of this technology. In this project, computational modeling and simulation have been conducted to investigate the performance of a nanoporous material based technology, transport membrane condenser (TMC), for waste heat and water recovery from low grade industrial flue gases. A series of theoretical and computational analyses have provided insight and support in advanced TMC design and experiments. Experimental study revealed condensation and convection through the porous membrane bundle was greatly improved over an impermeable tube bundle, because of the membrane capillary condensation mechanism and the continuous evacuation of the condensate film or droplets through the membrane pores. Convection Nusselt number in flue gas side for the porous membrane tube bundle is 50% to 80% higher than those for the impermeable stainless steel tube bundle. The condensation rates for the porous membrane tube bundle also increase 60% to 80%. Parametric study for the porous membrane tube bundle heat transfer performance was also done, which shows this heat transfer enhancement approach works well in a wide parameters range for typical flue gas conditions. Better understanding of condensing heat transfer mechanism for porous membrane heat transfer surfaces, shows higher condensation and heat transfer rates than non-permeable tubes, due to existence of the porous membrane walls. Laboratory testing has documented increased TMC performance with increased exhaust gas moisture content levels, which has exponentially increased potential markets for the product. The TMC technology can uniquely enhance waste heat recovery in tandem with water vapor recovery for many other industrial processes such as drying, wet and dry scrubber exhaust gases, dewatering, and water chilling. A new metallic substrate membrane tube development and molded TMC part fabrication method, provides an economical way to expand this technology for scaled up applications with less than 3 year payback expectation. A detailed market study shows a broad application area for this advanced waste heat and water recovery technology. A commercialization partner has been lined up to expand this technology to this big market. This research work led to new findings on the TMC working mechanism to improve its performance, better scale up design approaches, and economical part fabrication methods. Field evaluation work needs to be done to verify the TMC real world performance, and get acceptance from the industry, and pave the way for our commercial partner to put it into a much larger waste heat and waste water recovery market. This project is addressing the priority areas specified for DOE Industrial Technologies Program's (ITP's): Energy Intensive Processes (EIP) Portfolio - Waste Heat Minimization and Recovery platform.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF ADVANCED DRILL COMPONENTS FOR BHA USING MICROWAVE TECHNOLOGY INCORPORATING CARBIDE, DIAMOND COMPOSITES AND FUNCTIONALLY GRADED MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dinesh Agrawal; Rustum Roy

    2003-01-01

    The microwave processing of materials is a new emerging technology with many attractive advantages over the conventional methods. The advantages of microwave technology for various ceramic systems has already been demonstrated and proven. The recent developments at Penn State have succeeded in applying the microwave technology for the commercialization of WC/Co and diamond based cutting and drilling tools, effectively sintering of metallic materials, and fabrication of transparent ceramics for advanced applications. In recent years, the Microwave Processing and Engineering Center at Penn State University in collaboration with our industrial partner, Dennis Tool Co. has succeeded in commercializing the developed microwave technology partially funded by DOE for WC/Co and diamond based cutting and drilling tools for gas and oil exploration operations. In this program we have further developed this technology to make diamond-carbide composites and metal-carbide-diamond functionally graded materials. Several actual product of diamond-carbide composites have been processed in microwave with better performance than the conventional product. The functionally graded composites with diamond as one of the components has been for the first time successfully developed. These are the highlights of the project.

  20. Uranium-233 purification and conversion to stabilized ceramic grade urania for LWBR fuel fabrication (LWBR Development Program)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lloyd, R.

    1980-10-01

    High purity ceramic grade urania (/sup 233/UO/sub 2/) used in manufacturing the fuel for the Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) core was made from uranium-233 that was obtained by irradiating thoria under special conditions to result in not more than 10 ppM of uranium-232 in the recovered uranium-233 product. A developmental study established the operating parameters of the conversion process for transforming the uranium-233 into urania powder with the appropriate chemical and physical attributes for use in fabricating the LWBR core fuel. This developmental study included the following: (a) design of an ion exchange purification process for removing the gamma-emitting alpha-decay daughters of uranium-232, to reduce the gamma-radiation field of the uranium-233 during LWBR fuel manufacture; (b) definition of the parameters for precipitating the uranium-233 as ammonium uranate (ADU) and for reducing the ADU with hydrogen to yield a urania conversion product of the proper particle size, surface area and sinterability for use in manufacturing the LWBR fuel; (c) establishment of parameters and design of equipment for stabilizing the urania conversion product to prevent it from undergoing excessive oxidation on exposure to the air during LWBR fuel manufacturing operations; and (d) development of a procedure and a facility to reprocess the unirradiated thoria-urania fuel scrap from the LWBR core manufacturing operations to recover the uranium-233 and convert it into high purity ceramic grade urania for LWBR core fabrication.

  1. ALL GRADE 5 AND GRADE 8 FASTENERS ...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    WITH THE FOLLOWING HEADMARKS: MARK A325 KS A325 KS A325 KS A325 KS KEY: CA-Canada, JP-Japan, TW-Taiwan, YU-Yugoslavia Type 1 Type 2 Type 3 Headmarkings are usually raised -...

  2. Simultaneous impact of neutron irradiation and sputtering on the surface structure of selfdamaged ITERgrade tungsten

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belyaeva, A. I. Savchenko, A. A.; Galuza, A. A.; Kolenov, I. V.

    2014-07-15

    Simultaneous effects of neutron irradiation and longterm sputtering on the surface relief of ITERgrade tungsten were studied. The effects of neutroninduced displacement damage have been simulated by irradiation of tungsten target with W{sup 6+} ions of 20?MeV energy. Ar{sup +} ions with energy 600?eV were used as imitation of charge exchange atoms in ITER. The surface relief was studied after each sputtering act. The singularity in the WJIG surface relief was ascertained experimentally at the first time, which determines the law of roughness extension under sputtering. As follows from the experimental data, the neutron irradiation has not to make a decisive additional contribution in the processes developing under impact of charge exchange atoms only.

  3. Collect Available Creep-Fatigue Data and Study Existing Creep-Fatigue Evaluation Procedures for Grade 91 and Hastelloy XR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tai Asayama; Yukio Tachibana

    2007-09-30

    This report describes the results of investigation on Task 5 of DOE/ASME Materials Project based on a contract between ASME Standards Technology, LLC (ASME ST-LLC) and Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). Task 5 is to collect available creep-fatigue data and study existing creep-fatigue evaluation procedures for Grade 91 steel and Hastelloy XR. Part I of this report is devoted to Grade 91 steel. Existing creep-fatigue data were collected (Appendix A) and analyzed from the viewpoints of establishing a creep-fatigue procedure for VHTR design. A fair amount of creep-fatigue data has been obtained and creep-fatigue phenomena have been clarified to develop design standards mainly for fast breeder reactors. Following this, existing creep-fatigue procedures were studied and it was clarified that the creep-fatigue evaluation procedure of the ASME-NH has a lot of conservatisms and they were analyzed in detail from the viewpoints of the evaluation of creep damage of material. Based on the above studies, suggestions to improve the ASME-NH procedure along with necessary research and development items were presented. Part II of this report is devoted to Hastelloy XR. Existing creep-fatigue data used for development of the high temperature structural design guideline for High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) were collected. Creep-fatigue evaluation procedure in the design guideline and its application to design of the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) for High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) was described. Finally, some necessary research and development items in relation to creep-fatigue evaluation for Gen IV and VHTR reactors were presented.

  4. Membrane-Based Osmotic Heat Engine with Organic Solvent for Enhanced Power Generation from Low-Grade Heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaulsky, E; Boo, C; Lin, SH; Elimelech, M

    2015-05-05

    We present a hybrid osmotic heat engine (OHE) system that uses draw solutions with an organic solvent for enhanced thermal separation efficiency. The hybrid OHE system produces sustainable energy by combining pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO) as a power generation stage and membrane distillation (MD) utilizing low-grade heat as a separation stage. While previous OHE systems employed aqueous electrolyte draw solutions, using methanol as a solvent is advantageous because methanol is highly volatile and has a lower heat capacity and enthalpy of vaporization than water. Hence, the thermal separation efficiency of a draw solution with methanol would be higher than that of an aqueous draw solution. In this study, we evaluated the performance of LiCl-methanol as a potential draw solution for a PRO-MD hybrid OHE system. The membrane transport properties as well as performance with LiCl methanol draw solution were evaluated using thin-film composite (TFC) PRO membranes and compared to the results obtained with a LiCl water draw solution. Experimental PRO methanol flux and maximum projected power density of 47.1 L m(-2) h(-1) and 72.1 W m(-2), respectively, were achieved with a 3 M LiCl-methanol draw solution. The overall efficiency of the hybrid OHE system was modeled by coupling the mass and energy flows between the thermal separation (MD) and power generation (PRO) stages under conditions with and without heat recovery. The modeling results demonstrate higher ORE energy efficiency with the LiCl methanol draw solution compared to that with the LiCl water draw solution under practical operating conditions (i.e., heat recovery <90%). We discuss the implications of the results for converting low-grade heat to power.

  5. Long-Term Results of Brachytherapy With Temporary Iodine-125 Seeds in Children With Low-Grade Gliomas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korinthenberg, Rudolf, E-mail: rudolf.korinthenberg@uniklinik-freiburg.d [Division of Neuropaediatrics and Muscular Disorders, Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, University Hospital, Albert-Ludwigs University, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Neuburger, Daniela [Division of Neuropaediatrics and Muscular Disorders, Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, University Hospital, Albert-Ludwigs University, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Trippel, Michael; Ostertag, Christoph; Nikkhah, Guido [Department of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, Neurocentre, University Hospital, Albert-Ludwigs University, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: To retrospectively review the results of temporary I-125 brachytherapy in 94 children and adolescents with low-grade glioma. Methods and Materials: Treatment was performed in progressive tumors roughly spherical in shape with a diameter of up to 5 cm, including 79 astrocytomas, 5 oligodendrogliomas, 4 oligoastrocytomas, 1 ependymoma, and 5 other tumors. Location was suprasellar/chiasmal in 44, thalamic/basal ganglia in 18, hemispheric in 15, midbrain/pineal region in 13, and lower brainstem in 3. Initially, 8% of patients were free of symptoms, 47% were symptomatic but not disabled, and 30% were slightly, 6% moderately, and 3% severely disabled. Results: 5- and 10-year survival was 97% and 92%. The response to I-125 brachytherapy over the long term was estimated after a median observation period of 38.4 (range, 6.4-171.0) months. At that time, 4 patients were in complete, 27 in partial, and 18 in objective remission; 15 showed stable and 30 progressive tumors. Treatment results did not correlate with age, sex, histology, tumor size, location, or demarcation of the tumor. Secondary treatment became necessary in 36 patients, including 19 who underwent repeated I-125 brachytherapy. At final follow-up, the number of symptom-free patients had risen to 21%. Thirty-eight percent showed symptoms without functional impairment, 19% were slightly and 11% moderately disabled, and only 4% were severely disabled. Conclusions: Response rates similar to those of conventional radiotherapy or chemotherapy can be anticipated with I-125 brachytherapy in tumors of the appropriate size and shape. We believe it to be a useful contribution to the treatment of low-grade gliomas in children.

  6. Patterns of Failure After Concurrent Bevacizumab and Hypofractionated Stereotactic Radiation Therapy for Recurrent High-Grade Glioma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shapiro, Lauren Q.; Beal, Kathryn; Goenka, Anuj; Karimi, Sasan; Iwamoto, Fabio M.; Yamada, Yoshiya; Zhang, Zhigang; Lassman, Andrew B.; Abrey, Lauren E.; Gutin, Philip H.

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: Concurrent bevacizumab with hypofractionated stereotactic radiation therapy (HSRT) is safe and effective for the treatment of recurrent high-grade gliomas (HGG). The objective of this study was to characterize the patterns of failure after this treatment regimen. Methods and Materials: Twenty-four patients with recurrent enhancing HGG were previously treated on an institutional review board-approved protocol of concurrent bevacizumab and reirradiation. Patients received 30 Gy in 5 fractions to the recurrent tumor with HSRT. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed every 2 cycles, and bevacizumab was continued until clinical or radiographic tumor progression according to the criteria of Macdonald et al. MRI at the time of progression was fused to the HSRT treatment plan, and the location of recurrence was classified on the basis of volume within the 95% isodose line. Outcomes based on patient characteristics, tumor grade, recurrence pattern, and best response to treatment were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Twenty-two patients experienced either clinical or radiographic progression. Recurrent tumor was enhancing in 15 (71.4%) and nonenhancing in 6 (28.6%) patients. Eleven patients (52.4%) had recurrence within the radiation field, 5 patients (23.8%) had marginal recurrence, and 5 patients had recurrence outside the radiation field. Pattern of enhancement and location of failure did not correlate with overall survival or progression-free survival. Radiographic response was the only variable to significantly correlate with progression-free survival. Conclusions: Despite the promising initial response seen with the addition of HSRT to bevacizumab as salvage treatment for recurrent HGG, approximately half of patients ultimately still experience failure within the radiation field. The rate of local failure with the addition of HSRT seems to be lower than that seen with bevacizumab alone in the salvage setting. Our data underscore the radioresistance of HGG and the need for better salvage treatments.

  7. Contribution of Road Grade to the Energy Use of Modern Automobiles Across Large Datasets of Real-World Drive Cycles: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, E.; Burton, E.; Duran, A.; Gonder, J.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the real-world power demand of modern automobiles is of critical importance to engineers using modeling and simulation to inform the intelligent design of increasingly efficient powertrains. Increased use of global positioning system (GPS) devices has made large scale data collection of vehicle speed (and associated power demand) a reality. While the availability of real-world GPS data has improved the industry's understanding of in-use vehicle power demand, relatively little attention has been paid to the incremental power requirements imposed by road grade. This analysis quantifies the incremental efficiency impacts of real-world road grade by appending high fidelity elevation profiles to GPS speed traces and performing a large simulation study. Employing a large real-world dataset from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Transportation Secure Data Center, vehicle powertrain simulations are performed with and without road grade under five vehicle models. Aggregate results of this study suggest that road grade could be responsible for 1% to 3% of fuel use in light-duty automobiles.

  8. The Impact of Hypofractionated Whole Breast Radiotherapy on Local Relapse in Patients With Grade 3 Early Breast Cancer: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herbert, Christopher; Nichol, Alan; Olivotto, Ivo; Weir, Lorna; Woods, Ryan; Speers, Caroline; Truong, Pauline; Tyldesley, Scott

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To determine whether patients with Grade 3 early breast cancer have an inferior rate of local disease control at 10 years with hypofractionated radiotherapy compared with more conventionally fractionated schedules. Methods and Materials: Local relapse rates were compared between patients receiving hypofractionated radiotherapy or conventionally fractionated radiotherapy to the whole breast in a population-based cohort of women with early-stage (T1-T2, N0, M0) Grade 3 breast cancers diagnosed between 1990 and 2000 and referred to the British Columbia Cancer Agency. Cumulative rates of local relapse were estimated using a competing risk method, and factors significant on univariate analysis were included with fractionation group in a multivariate model. The primary end point was local control at 10 years. Results: A total of 1,335 patients with Grade 3 tumors were treated with adjuvant radiotherapy, 252 with conventional fractionation, and 1,083 with a hypofractionated schedule. The 10-year cumulative incidence of local relapse was 6.9% in the hypofractionated group and 6.2% in the conventionally fractionated group (p = 0.99). Conclusions: There is no evidence that hypofractionation is inferior to conventional fractionation for breast conserving therapy in patients with Grade 3 breast cancer in this large population-based series after 10 years of follow-up.

  9. Evaluation Of The Integrated Solubility Model, A Graded Approach For Predicting Phase Distribution In Hanford Tank Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierson, Kayla L.; Belsher, Jeremy D.; Seniow, Kendra R.

    2012-10-19

    The mission of the DOE River Protection Project (RPP) is to store, retrieve, treat and dispose of Hanford's tank waste. Waste is retrieved from the underground tanks and delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Waste is processed through a pretreatment facility where it is separated into low activity waste (LAW), which is primarily liquid, and high level waste (HLW), which is primarily solid. The LAW and HLW are sent to two different vitrification facilities and glass canisters are then disposed of onsite (for LAW) or shipped off-site (for HLW). The RPP mission is modeled by the Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS), a dynamic flowsheet simulator and mass balance model that is used for mission analysis and strategic planning. The integrated solubility model (ISM) was developed to improve the chemistry basis in HTWOS and better predict the outcome of the RPP mission. The ISM uses a graded approach to focus on the components that have the greatest impact to the mission while building the infrastructure for continued future improvement and expansion. Components in the ISM are grouped depending upon their relative solubility and impact to the RPP mission. The solubility of each group of components is characterized by sub-models of varying levels of complexity, ranging from simplified correlations to a set of Pitzer equations used for the minimization of Gibbs Energy.

  10. Nature of red luminescence band in research-grade ZnO single crystals: A self-activated configurational transition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Y. N.; Xu, S. J. Zheng, C. C.; Ning, J. Q.; Ling, F. C. C.; Anwand, W.; Brauer, G.; Skorupa, W.

    2014-07-28

    By implanting Zn{sup +} ions into research-grade intentionally undoped ZnO single crystal for facilitating Zn interstitials (Zn{sub i}) and O vacancies (V{sub O}) which is revealed by precise X-Ray diffraction rocking curves, we observe an apparent broad red luminescence band with a nearly perfect Gaussian lineshape. This red luminescence band has the zero phonon line at ?2.4 eV and shows distinctive lattice temperature dependence which is well interpreted with the configurational coordinate model. It also shows a low kick out thermal energy and small thermal quenching energy. A self-activated optical transition between a shallow donor and the defect center of Zn{sub i}-V{sub O} complex or V{sub Zn}V{sub O} di-vacancies is proposed to be responsible for the red luminescence band. Accompanied with the optical transition, large lattice relaxation simultaneously occurs around the center, as indicated by the generation of multiphonons.

  11. PHASE ANALYSES OF URANIUM-BEARING MINERALS FROM THE HIGH GRADE ORE, NOPAL I, PENA BLANCA, MEXICO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Ren; P. Goodell; A. Kelts; E.Y. Anthony; M. Fayek; C. Fan; C. Beshears

    2005-07-11

    The Nopal I uranium deposit is located in the Pena Blanca district, approximately 40 miles north of Chihuahua City, Mexico. The deposit was formed by hydrothermal processes within the fracture zone of welded silicic volcanic tuff. The ages of volcanic formations are between 35 to 44 m.y. and there was secondary silicification of most of the formations. After the formation of at least part of the uranium deposit, the ore body was uplifted above the water table and is presently exposed at the surface. Detailed petrographic characterization, electron microprobe backscatter electron (BSE) imagery, and selected x-ray maps for the samples from Nopal I high-grade ore document different uranium phases in the ore. There are at least two stages of uranium precipitation. A small amount of uraninite is encapsulated in silica. Hexavalent uranium may also have been a primary precipitant. The uranium phases were precipitated along cleavages of feldspars, and along fractures in the tuff. Energy dispersive spectrometer data and x-ray maps suggest that the major uranium phases are uranophane and weeksite. Substitutions of Ca and K occur in both phases, implying that conditions were variable during the mineralization/alteration process, and that compositions of the original minerals have a major influence on later stage alteration. Continued study is needed to fully characterize uranium behavior in these semi-arid to arid conditions.

  12. Predictors of Grade 3 or Higher Late Bowel Toxicity in Patients Undergoing Pelvic Radiation for Cervical Cancer: Results From a Prospective Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chopra, Supriya; Dora, Tapas; Chinnachamy, Anand N.; Thomas, Biji; Kannan, Sadhna; Engineer, Reena; Mahantshetty, Umesh; Phurailatpam, Reena; Paul, Siji N.; Shrivastava, Shyam Kishore

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: The present study investigates relationship between dosevolume parameters and severe bowel toxicity after postoperative radiation treatment (PORT) for cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: From June 2010 to December 2012, a total of 71 patients undergoing PORT were included. Small bowel (SB) and large bowel (LB) loops were contoured 2cm above the target volume. The volume of SB and LB that received 15Gy, 30Gy, and 40Gy was calculated (V15 SB, V15 LB, V30 SB, V30 LB, V40 SB, V 40 LB). On follow-up, bowel toxicity was scored using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE), version 3.0. A reciever operating characteristic (ROC) curve identified volume thresholds that predicted for grade 3 or higher toxicity with highest specificity. All data was dichotomized across these identified cut-off values. Univariate and multivariate analysis was performed using SPSS, version15. Results: The median patient age was 47years (range, 35-65years). Of the 71 patients, 46 received image-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy, and 25 received conformal radiation (50Gy in 25 fractions for 5weeks). Overall, 63 of 71 patients received concurrent chemotherapy. On a median follow-up of 18months (range, 8-29months), grade 2 or higher bowel toxicity was seen in 22 of 71 patients (30.9%) and grade 3 or higher bowel toxicity was seen in 9 patients (12.6%). On univariate analysis, V15 SB <275 cc (P=.01), V30 SB <190 cc (P=.02), V40 SB <150 cc (P=.01), and V15 LB <250 cc (P=.03), and V40 LB <90 cc (P=.04) predicted for absence of grade 3 or higher toxicity. No other patient- or treatment-related factors were statistically significant. On multivariate analysis, only V15 SB (P=.002) and V15 LB (P=.03) were statistically significant. Conclusions: V 15Gy SB and LB are independent predictors of late grade 3 or higher toxicity. Restricting V15 SB and V15 LB to <275 cc and <250 cc can reduce grade 3 or higher toxicity to less than 5%.

  13. Method and system using power modulation for maskless vapor deposition of spatially graded thin film and multilayer coatings with atomic-level precision and accuracy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Montcalm, Claude (Livermore, CA); Folta, James Allen (Livermore, CA); Tan, Swie-In (San Jose, CA); Reiss, Ira (New City, NY)

    2002-07-30

    A method and system for producing a film (preferably a thin film with highly uniform or highly accurate custom graded thickness) on a flat or graded substrate (such as concave or convex optics), by sweeping the substrate across a vapor deposition source operated with time-varying flux distribution. In preferred embodiments, the source is operated with time-varying power applied thereto during each sweep of the substrate to achieve the time-varying flux distribution as a function of time. A user selects a source flux modulation recipe for achieving a predetermined desired thickness profile of the deposited film. The method relies on precise modulation of the deposition flux to which a substrate is exposed to provide a desired coating thickness distribution.

  14. Measuring the depth profiles of strain/composition in AlGaN-graded layer by high-resolution x-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuchuk, A. V.; Stanchu, H. V.; Kladko, V. P.; Belyaev, A. E.; Li, Chen; Ware, M. E.; Mazur, Yu. I.; Salamo, G. J.

    2014-12-14

    Here, we demonstrate X-ray fitting through kinematical simulations of the intensity profiles of symmetric reflections for epitaxial compositionally graded layers of AlGaN grown by molecular beam epitaxy pseudomorphically on [0001]-oriented GaN substrates. These detailed simulations depict obvious differences between changes in thickness, maximum concentration, and concentration profile of the graded layers. Through comparison of these simulations with as-grown samples, we can reliably determine these parameters, most important of which are the profiles of the concentration and strain which determine much of the electrical properties of the film. In addition to learning about these parameters for the characterization of thin film properties, these fitting techniques create opportunities to calibrate growth rates and control composition profiles of AlGaN layers with a single growth rather than multiple growths as has been done traditionally.

  15. A Phase I Study of the Combination of Sorafenib With Temozolomide and Radiation Therapy for the Treatment of Primary and Recurrent High-Grade Gliomas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Den, Robert B.; Kamrava, Mitchell; Sheng, Zhi; Werner-Wasik, Maria; Dougherty, Erin; Marinucchi, Michelle; Lawrence, Yaacov R.; Center for Translational Research in Radiation Oncology, Sheba Medical Center ; Hegarty, Sarah; Hyslop, Terry; Andrews, David W.; Glass, Jon; Friedman, David P.; Green, Michael R.; Camphausen, Kevin; Dicker, Adam P.

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: Despite recent advances in the management of high-grade and recurrent gliomas, survival remains poor. Antiangiogenic therapy has been shown to be efficacious in the treatment of high-grade gliomas both in preclinical models and in clinical trials. We sought to determine the safety and maximum tolerated dose of sorafenib when combined with both radiation and temozolomide in the primary setting or radiation alone in the recurrent setting. Methods and Materials: This was a preclinical study and an open-label phase I dose escalation trial. Multiple glioma cell lines were analyzed for viability after treatment with radiation, temozolomide, or sorafenib or combinations of them. For patients with primary disease, sorafenib was given concurrently with temozolomide (75 mg/m{sup 2}) and 60 Gy radiation, for 30 days after completion of radiation. For patients with recurrent disease, sorafenib was combined with a hypofractionated course of radiation (35 Gy in 10 fractions). Results: Cell viability was significantly reduced with the combination of radiation, temozolomide, and sorafenib or radiation and sorafenib. Eighteen patients (11 in the primary cohort, 7 in the recurrent cohort) were enrolled onto this trial approved by the institutional review board. All patients completed the planned course of radiation therapy. The most common toxicities were hematologic, fatigue, and rash. There were 18 grade 3 or higher toxicities. The median overall survival was 18 months for the entire population. Conclusions: Sorafenib can be safely combined with radiation and temozolomide in patients with high-grade glioma and with radiation alone in patients with recurrent glioma. The recommended phase II dose of sorafenib is 200 mg twice daily when combined with temozolomide and radiation and 400 mg with radiation alone. To our knowledge, this is the first publication of concurrent sorafenib with radiation monotherapy or combined with radiation and temozolomide.

  16. R.E.A.C.T. - Renewable Energy Activities - Choices for Tomorrow - Teacher's Activity Guide for Middle Level Grades 6-8

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    E.A.C.T. Renewable Energy Activities - Choices for Tomorrow Teacher's Activity Guide for Middle Level Grades 6-8 National Renewable Energy Laboratory Education Programs 1617 Cole Blvd. Golden, Colorado 80401 Tel: (303) 275-3044 Home page: http://www.nrel.gov ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The Education Office at NREL would like to thank Dr. James Schreck, Professor of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Northern Colorado, for his commitment and hard work in the development of this activity booklet. His

  17. Verification of Allowable Stresses In ASME Section III Subsection NH For Grade 91 Steel & Alloy 800H

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. W. Swindeman; M. J. Swindeman; B. W. Roberts; B. E. Thurgood; D. L. Marriott

    2007-11-30

    The database for the creep-rupture of 9Cr-1Mo-V (Grade 91) steel was collected and reviewed to determine if it met the needs for recommending time-dependent strength values, S{sub t}, for coverage in ASME Section III Subsection NH (ASME III-NH) to 650 C (1200 F) and 600,000 hours. The accumulated database included over 300 tests for 1% total strain, nearly 400 tests for tertiary creep, and nearly 1700 tests to rupture. Procedures for analyzing creep and rupture data for ASME III-NH were reviewed and compared to the procedures used to develop the current allowable stress values for Gr 91 for ASME II-D. The criteria in ASME III-NH for estimating S{sub t} included the average strength for 1% total strain for times to 600,000 hours, 80% of the minimum strength for tertiary creep for times to 600,000 hours, and 67% of the minimum rupture strength values for times to 600,000 hours. Time-temperature-stress parametric formulations were selected to correlate the data and make predictions of the long-time strength. It was found that the stress corresponding to 1% total strain and the initiation of tertiary creep were not the controlling criteria over the temperature-time range of concern. It was found that small adjustments to the current values in III-NH could be introduced but that the existing values were conservative and could be retained. The existing database was found to be adequate to extend the coverage to 600,000 hours for temperatures below 650 C (1200 F).

  18. Characterization and response of newly developed high-grade glioma cultures to the tyrosine kinase inhibitors, erlotinib, gefitinib and imatinib

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinsella, Paula; Howley, Rachel; Doolan, Padraig; Clarke, Colin; Madden, Stephen F.; Clynes, Martin; Farrell, Michael; Amberger-Murphy, Verena; All Ireland Co-operative, Oncology Research Group, 60 Fitzwilliam Square, Dublin 2

    2012-03-10

    High-grade gliomas (HGG), are the most common aggressive brain tumours in adults. Inhibitors targeting growth factor signalling pathways in glioma have shown a low clinical response rate. To accurately evaluate response to targeted therapies further in vitro studies are necessary. Growth factor pathway expression using epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), mutant EGFR (EGFRvIII), platelet derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), C-Kit and C-Abl together with phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) expression and downstream activation of AKT and phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 (P70S6K) was analysed in 26 primary glioma cultures treated with the tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) erlotinib, gefitinib and imatinib. Response to TKIs was assessed using 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC{sub 50}). Response for each culture was compared with the EGFR/PDGFR immunocytochemical pathway profile using hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA). Erlotinib response was not strongly associated with high expression of the growth factor pathway components. PTEN expression did not correlate with response to any of the three TKIs. Increased EGFR expression was associated with gefitinib response; increased PDGFR-{alpha} expression was associated with imatinib response. The results of this in vitro study suggest gefitinib and imatinib may have therapeutic potential in HGG tumours with a corresponding growth factor receptor expression profile. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Non-responders had low EGFR expression, high PDGFR-{beta}, and a low proliferation rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PTEN is not indicative of response to a TKI. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Erlotinib response was not associated with expression of the proteins examined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Imatinib-response correlated with expression of PDGFR-{alpha}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gefitinib response correlated with increased expression of EGFR.

  19. Semiautomatic segmentation and follow-up of multicomponent low-grade tumors in longitudinal brain MRI studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weizman, Lior; Sira, Liat Ben; Joskowicz, Leo; Rubin, Daniel L.; Yeom, Kristen W.; Constantini, Shlomi; Shofty, Ben; Bashat, Dafna Ben

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Tracking the progression of low grade tumors (LGTs) is a challenging task, due to their slow growth rate and associated complex internal tumor components, such as heterogeneous enhancement, hemorrhage, and cysts. In this paper, the authors show a semiautomatic method to reliably track the volume of LGTs and the evolution of their internal components in longitudinal MRI scans. Methods: The authors' method utilizes a spatiotemporal evolution modeling of the tumor and its internal components. Tumor components gray level parameters are estimated from the follow-up scan itself, obviating temporal normalization of gray levels. The tumor delineation procedure effectively incorporates internal classification of the baseline scan in the time-series as prior data to segment and classify a series of follow-up scans. The authors applied their method to 40 MRI scans of ten patients, acquired at two different institutions. Two types of LGTs were included: Optic pathway gliomas and thalamic astrocytomas. For each scan, a “gold standard” was obtained manually by experienced radiologists. The method is evaluated versus the gold standard with three measures: gross total volume error, total surface distance, and reliability of tracking tumor components evolution. Results: Compared to the gold standard the authors' method exhibits a mean Dice similarity volumetric measure of 86.58% and a mean surface distance error of 0.25 mm. In terms of its reliability in tracking the evolution of the internal components, the method exhibits strong positive correlation with the gold standard. Conclusions: The authors' method provides accurate and repeatable delineation of the tumor and its internal components, which is essential for therapy assessment of LGTs. Reliable tracking of internal tumor components over time is novel and potentially will be useful to streamline and improve follow-up of brain tumors, with indolent growth and behavior.

  20. DATE SUBMITTED: GRADE LEVEL:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    two total hours per visit. For more students than that, please plan a visit on another date. To make a request, please complete the form below and submit it to...

  1. Preserving Nuclear Grade Knowledge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lange, Bob

    2008-02-05

    When people think of the government they think of the President, or Congress, or the Internal Revenue Service (IRS), but there are thousands of people in government-related jobs doing things most dont really notice everyday. You can find them everywhere, from the space science folks at NASA, to the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI) watching out for the bad guys. There are Rangers, and Social Workers, Nurses and Agricultural Managers. They are people working to keep the many facets of the USA rolling. One very diverse bunch is The Department of Energy (DOE) , a group who is expanding the ways we make and save energy to power our cars, homes, and businesses. Tucked away under the DOE is the National Nuclear Security Administration, the NNSA is an agency that maintains the safety, security, and reliability of the U.S. nuclear weapons stockpile. It works to reduce global danger from weapons of mass destruction. It provides the U.S. Navy with safe nuclear propulsion, and it responds to nuclear and radiological emergencies in the United States and abroad, and it supports efforts in science and technology*. (* DOE/NNSA/KCP website info)

  2. Commercial Grade Dedication Guidance

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    voltage rating, response time, accuracy, nameplate data, temperature range, wire rating, enclosure type dielectric strength (insulation), dead band width Terminal Block...

  3. A modified inflammatory bowel disease questionnaire and the Vaizey Incontinence questionnaire are more sensitive measures of acute gastrointestinal toxicity during pelvic radiotherapy than RTOG grading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khalid, Usman; McGough, Camilla; Hackett, Claire; Blake, Peter; Harrington, Kevin J.; Khoo, Vincent S.; Tait, Diana; Norman, Andrew R.; Andreyev, H. Jervoise N. . E-mail: j@andreyev.demon.co.uk

    2006-04-01

    Purpose: Simple scales with greater sensitivity than Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) grading to detect acute gastrointestinal toxicity during pelvic radiotherapy, could be clinically useful. Methods and Materials: Do questionnaires used in benign gastrointestinal diseases detect toxicity in patients undergoing radiotherapy? The patient-completed Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBDQ) and Vaizey Incontinence questionnaires were compared prospectively at baseline and at Week 5 to physician-completed RTOG grading. Results: A total of 107 patients, median age 63 years, were recruited. After 5 weeks of treatment, patients with gynecologic and gastrointestinal cancer were more symptomatic than urologic patients (p 0.012; p = 0.014). Overall, 94% had altered bowel habits, 80% loose stool, 74% frequency, 65% difficult gas, 60% pain, >48% distress, 44% tenesmus, >40% restrictions in daily activity, 39% urgency, 37% fecal incontinence, and 40% required antidiarrheal medication. The median RTOG score was 1 (range, 0-2), median IBDQ score 204.5 (range, 74-224), and median Vaizey score 5 (range, 0-20). Chemotherapy preceding radiotherapy increased fecal incontinence (p 0.002). RTOG scores stabilized after 3 weeks, IBDQ scores peaked at Week 4, and Vaizey scores worsened throughout treatment. IBDQ and Vaizey scores distinguished between groups with different RTOG scores. Conclusion: The IBDQ and Vaizey questionnaires are reliable and sensitive, offering greater insight into the severity and range of symptoms compared with RTOG grading.

  4. Conversion of 1,2-Propylene Glycol on Rutile TiO2(110) (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    observed product at the expense of D2O formation. Authors: Chen, Long ; Li, Zhenjun ; Smith, R. Scott ; Kay, Bruce D. ; Dohnalek, Zdenek Publication Date: 2014-07-17 OSTI...

  5. Microwave Enhanced Direct Cracking of Hydrocarbon Feedstock for Energy Efficient Production of Ethylene and Propylene.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shulman, Holly; Fall, Morgana; Wagner, Eric; Bowlin, Ricardo

    2012-02-13

    This project demonstrated microwave cracking of ethane with good product conversion and ethylene selectivity, with a short residence time ({approx}0.001 sec). The laboratory scale equipment was designed and built, along with concept designs for larger scale implementation. The system was operated below atmospheric pressures, in the range of 15-55 torr, with argon as a carrier gas. The measured products included hydrogen, methane, acetylene, and ethylene. The results followed similar trends to those predicted by the modeling software SPYRO{reg_sign}, with the exception that the microwave appeared to produce slightly lower amounts of ethylene and methane, although enhanced analytical analysis should reduce the difference. Continued testing will be required to verify these results and quantify the energy consumption of microwave vs. conventional. The microwave cracking process is an attractive option due to the possibility of selectively heating the reaction volume rather than the reactor walls, which may allow novel reactor designs that result in more efficient production of ethylene. Supplemental studies are needed to continue the laboratory testing and refine processing parameters.

  6. Validation of EORTC Prognostic Factors for Adults With Low-Grade Glioma: A Report Using Intergroup 86-72-51

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniels, Thomas B.; Brown, Paul D.; Felten, Sara J.; Wu, Wenting; Buckner, Jan C.; Arusell, Robert M.; Curran, Walter J.; Abrams, Ross A.; Schiff, David; Shaw, Edward G.

    2011-09-01

    Purpose: A prognostic index for survival was constructed and validated from patient data from two European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) radiation trials for low-grade glioma (LGG). We sought to independently validate this prognostic index with a separate prospectively collected data set (Intergroup 86-72-51). Methods and Materials: Two hundred three patients were treated in a North Central Cancer Treatment Group-led trial that randomized patients with supratentorial LGG to 50.4 or 64.8 Gy. Risk factors from the EORTC prognostic index were analyzed for prognostic value: histology, tumor size, neurologic deficit, age, and tumor crossing the midline. The high-risk group was defined as patients with more than two risk factors. In addition, the Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE) score, extent of surgical resection, and 1p19q status were also analyzed for prognostic value. Results: On univariate analysis, the following were statistically significant (p < 0.05) detrimental factors for both progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS): astrocytoma histology, tumor size, and less than total resection. A Mini Mental Status Examination score of more than 26 was a favorable prognostic factor. Multivariate analysis showed that tumor size and MMSE score were significant predictors of OS whereas tumor size, astrocytoma histology, and MMSE score were significant predictors of PFS. Analyzing by the EORTC risk groups, we found that the low-risk group had significantly better median OS (10.8 years vs. 3.9 years, p < 0.0001) and PFS (6.2 years vs. 1.9 years, p < 0.0001) than the high-risk group. The 1p19q status was available in 66 patients. Co-deletion of 1p19q was a favorable prognostic factor for OS vs. one or no deletion (median OS, 12.6 years vs. 7.2 years; p = 0.03). Conclusions: Although the low-risk group as defined by EORTC criteria had a superior PFS and OS to the high-risk group, this is primarily because of the influence of histology and tumor size. Co-deletion of 1p19q is a prognostic factor. Future studies are needed to develop a more refined prognostic system that combines clinical prognostic features with more robust molecular and genetic data.

  7. Attracting students and professionals into math, science, and technology education at the elementary and middle grades: Final report, September 1, 1992--February 28, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flick, L.B.

    1995-12-31

    This report describes the progress of a project to encourage students and professionals to participate in math, science, and technology education at the elementary and middle grades. The topics of the report include documenting activities and procedures for the purposes of evaluation and dissemination of descriptive information, generating case studies of the students going through this program to provide research and evaluation data on the process of attracting technically qualified people into elementary and middle school teaching, establishing a program of mentoring between scientists, engineers, and mathematicians and prospective teachers in the program, and establishing a program of mentoring between master teachers in area schools and prospective teachers.

  8. Evaluation of Solar Grade Silicon Produced by the Institute of Physics and Technology: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-07-211

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Page, M.

    2013-02-01

    NREL and Solar Power Industries will cooperate to evaluate technology for producing solar grade silicon from industrial waste of the phosphorus industry, as developed by the Institute of Physics and Technology (IPT), Kazakhstan. Evaluation will have a technical component to assess the material quality and a business component to assess the economics of the IPT process. The total amount of silicon produced by IPT is expected to be quite limited (50 kg), so evaluations will need to be done on relatively small quantities (? 5 kg/sample).

  9. Contribution of Road Grade to the Energy Use of Modern Automobiles Across Large Datasets of Real-World Drive Cycles: Preprint

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Contribution of Road Grade to the Energy Use of Modern Automobiles Across Large Datasets of Real-World Drive Cycles Preprint Eric Wood, Evan Burton, Adam Duran, and Jeff Gonder To be presented at the SAE World Congress 2014 Detroit, Michigan April 8-10, 2014 Conference Paper NREL/CP-5400-61108 January 2014 NOTICE The submitted manuscript has been offered by an employee of the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC (Alliance), a contractor of the US Government under Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308.

  10. Lattice constant grading in the Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y As.sub.1-x Sb.sub.x alloy system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moon, Ronald L. (Palo Alto, CA)

    1980-01-01

    Liquid phase epitaxy is employed to grow a lattice matched layer of GaAsSb on GaAs substrates through the compositional intermediary of the III-V alloy system AlGaAsSb which acts as a grading layer. The Al constituent reaches a peak atomic concentration of about 6% within the first 2.5 .mu.m of the transition layer, then decreases smoothly to about 1% to obtain a lattice constant of 5.74 A. In the same interval the equilibrium concentration of Sb smoothly increases from 0 to about 9 atomic percent to form a surface on which a GaAsSb layer having the desired energy bandgap of 1.1 ev for one junction of an optimized dual junction photolvoltaic device. The liquid phase epitaxy is accomplished with a step cooling procedure whereby dislocation defects are more uniformly distributed over the surface of growing layer.

  11. Lattice constant grading in the Al.sub.y Ca.sub.1-y As.sub.1-x Sb.sub.x alloy system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moon, Ronald L. (Palo Alto, CA)

    1981-01-01

    Liquid phase epitaxy is employed to grow a lattice matched layer of GaAsSb on GaAs substrates through the compositional intermediary of the III-V alloy system AlGaAsSb which acts as a grading layer. The Al constituent reaches a peak atomic concentration of about 6% within the first 2.5.mu.m of the transition layer, then decreases smoothly to about 1% to obtain a lattice constant of 5.74 A. In the same interval the equilibrium concentration of Sb smoothly increases from 0 to about 9 atomic percent to form a surface on which a GaAsSb layer having the desired energy bandgap of 1.1 ev for one junction of an optimized dual junction photovoltaic device. The liquid phase epitaxy is accomplished with a step cooling procedure whereby dislocation defects are more uniformly distributed over the surface of the growing layer.

  12. Cavity-Enhanced Gas Analyzer for Process Control

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Ethylene is the largest volume, largest revenue-generating organic chemical produced. Ethylene finds widespread use, serving as the building block for 50% of all organic chemicals and polymers. However, manufacturers who produce polymer-grade ethylene must constantly monitor, and if necessary, hydrogenate any acetylene that may be present in ethylene flows. Such measures are imperative because too high an increase in acetylene concentration has the potential to contaminate both the catalytic bed and the stored finished product, and if left unchecked, acetylene contamination can cost a chemical manufacturer more than $200,000 in losses per event. As a result, the ability to quickly and accurately monitor trace levels of acetylene is a critical need for ethylene manufacturers.

  13. Use Low-Grade Waste Steam to Power Absorption Chillers, Energy Tips: STEAM, Steam Tip Sheet #14 (Fact Sheet), Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4 Use Low-Grade Waste Steam to Power Absorption Chillers Absorption chillers use heat, instead of mechanical energy, to provide cooling. The mechanical vapor compressor is replaced by a thermal compressor (see fgure) that consists of an absorber, a generator, a pump, and a throttling device. The refrigerant vapor from the evaporator is absorbed by a solution mixture in the absorber. This solution is then pumped to the generator where the refrigerant is revaporized using a waste steam heat

  14. Neutronic evaluation of a non-fertile fuel for the disposition of weapons-grade plutonium in a boiling water reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sterbentz, J.W.

    1994-10-01

    A new non-fertile, weapons-grade plutonium oxide fuel concept is developed and evaluated for deep burn applications in a boiling water reactor environment using the General Electric 8x8 Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) fuel assembly dimensions and pitch. Detailed infinite lattice fuel burnup results and neutronic performance characteristics are given and although preliminary in nature, clearly demonstrate the fuel`s potential as an effective means to expedite the disposition of plutonium in existing light water reactors. The new non-fertile fuel concept is an all oxide composition containing plutonia, zirconia, calcia, and erbia having the following design weight percentages: 8.3; 80.4; 9.7; and 1.6. This fuel composition in an infinite fuel lattice operating at linear heat generation rates of 6.0 or 12.0 kW/ft per rod can remain critical for up to 1,200 and 600 Effective Full Power Days (EFPD), respectively, and achieve a burnup of 7.45 {times} 10{sup 20} f/cc. These burnups correspond to a 71--73% total plutonium isotope destruction and a 91--94% destruction of the {sup 239}Pu isotope for the 0--40% moderator steam void condition. Total plutonium destruction greater than 73% is possible with a fuel management scheme that allows subcritical fuel assemblies to be driven by adjacent high reactivity assemblies. The fuel exhibits very favorable neutron characteristics from beginning-of-life (BOL) to end-of-life (EOL). Prompt fuel Doppler coefficient of reactivity are negative, with values ranging between {minus}0.4 to {minus}2.0 pcm/K over the temperature range of 900 to 2,200 K. The ABWR fuel lattice remains in an undermoderated condition for both hot operational and cold startup conditions over the entire fuel burnup lifetime.

  15. Hybrid Pressure Retarded Osmosis-Membrane Distillation System for Power Generation from Low-Grade Heat: Thermodynamic Analysis and Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, SH; Yip, NY; Cath, TY; Osuji, CO; Elimelech, M

    2014-05-06

    We present a novel hybrid membrane system that operates as a heat engine capable of utilizing low-grade thermal energy, which is not readily recoverable with existing technologies. The closed-loop system combines membrane distillation (MD), which generates concentrated and pure water streams by thermal separation, and pressure retarded osmosis (PRO), which converts the energy of mixing to electricity by a hydro-turbine. The PRO-MD system was modeled by coupling the mass and energy flows between the thermal separation (MD) and power generation (PRO) stages for heat source temperatures ranging from 40 to 80 degrees C and working concentrations of 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mol/kg NaCl. The factors controlling the energy efficiency of the heat engine were evaluated for both limited and unlimited mass and heat transfer kinetics in the thermal separation stage. In both cases, the relative flow rate between the MD permeate (distillate) and feed streams is identified as an important operation parameter. There is an optimal relative flow rate that maximizes the overall energy efficiency of the PRO-MD system for given working temperatures and concentration. In the case of unlimited mass and heat transfer kinetics, the energy efficiency of the system can be analytically determined based on thermodynamics. Our assessment indicates that the hybrid PRO-MD system can theoretically achieve an energy efficiency of 9.8% (81.6% of the Carnot efficiency) with hot and cold working temperatures of 60 and 20 degrees C, respectively, and a working solution of 1.0 M NaCl. When mass and heat transfer kinetics are limited, conditions that more closely represent actual operations, the practical energy efficiency will be lower than the theoretically achievable efficiency. In such practical operations, utilizing a higher working concentration will yield greater energy efficiency. Overall, our study demonstrates the theoretical viability of the PRO-MD system and identifies the key factors for performance optimization.

  16. Graded quality assurance in procurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan, D.C.

    1995-12-31

    The Code of Federal Regulations, Part 50, Appendix B, requires every applicant for an operating license to include in its final safety analysis report information pertaining to the managerial and administrative controls to be used to ensure safe operation. This appendix establishes quality assurance requirements for the design, construction, and operation of those structures, systems, and components (SSC) that perform safety-related functions. The activities affecting safety-related SSC functions include designing, purchasing, fabricating, and so forth, Title 10 CFR 50.65 established requirements to ensure that the maintenance activities conducted by licensees are effective. This is also known as the maintenance rule.

  17. Graded Security Protection (GSP) Policy

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2008-08-12

    This Order is classified as (Secret // RD // NOFORN) and will not be available on the Directives portal. For distribution, contact Gary White, 301-903-6874, email: gary.whitejr@hq.doe.gov. Supersedes DOE O 470.3A. Certified 5-10-11.

  18. Propane (Consumer Grade) Prices - Industrial

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    06 1.880 - - - - 1994-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 1.686 1.945 - - - - 1994-2014 New England (PADD 1A) 1.765 1.954 - - - - 1994-2014 Central Atlantic (PADD 1B) 1.760 2.021 - - - - 1994-2014 Lower Atlantic (PADD 1C) 1.640 1.917 - - - - 1994-2014 Midwest (PADD 2) 1.698 1.822 - - - - 1994-2014 Gulf Coast (PADD 3) 1.785 1.842 - - - - 1994-2014 Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) 1.745 1.918 - - - - 1994-2014 West Coast (PADD 5) 1.701 1.927

  19. Weekly Petroleum Status Report

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2 Figure 6. Stocks of Propane/Propylene

  20. Synthesis of Pt?Pd Core?Shell Nanostructures by Atomic Layer Deposition: Application in Propane Oxidative Dehydrogenation to Propylene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lei, Y.; Liu, Bin; Lu, Junling; Lobo-Lapidus, Rodrigo J.; Wu, Tianpin; Feng, Hao; Xia, Xiaoxing; Mane, Anil U.; Libera, Joseph A.; Greeley, Jeffrey P.; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Elam, J. W.

    2012-08-20

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) was employed to synthesize supported Pt?Pd bimetallic particles in the 1 to 2 nm range. The metal loading and composition of the supported Pt?Pd nanoparticles were controlled by varying the deposition temperature and by applying ALD metal oxide coatings to modify the support surface chemistry. Highresolution scanning transmission electron microscopy images showed monodispersed Pt?Pd nanoparticles on ALD Al2O3 - and TiO2 -modi?ed SiO2 gel. X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed that the bimetallic nanoparticles have a stable Pt-core, Pd-shell nanostructure. Density functional theory calculations revealed that the most stable surface con?guration for the Pt? Pd alloys in an H2 environment has a Pt-core, Pd-shell nanostructure. In comparison to their monometallic counterparts, the small Pt?Pd bimetallic core?shell nanoparticles exhibited higher activity in propane oxidative dehydrogenation as compared to their physical mixture.

  1. Cost-Effective Cable Insulation: Nanoclay Reinforced Ethylene-Propylene-Rubber for Low-Cost HVDC Cabling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-02-24

    GENI Project: GE is developing new, low-cost insulation for high-voltage direct current (HVDC) electricity transmission cables. The current material used to insulate HVDC transmission cables is very expensive and can account for as much as 1/3 of the total cost of a high-voltage transmission system. GE is embedding nanomaterials into specialty rubber to create its insulation. Not only are these materials less expensive than those used in conventional HVDC insulation, but also they will help suppress excess charge accumulation. The excess charge left behind on a cable poses a major challenge for high-voltage insulationif its not kept to a low level, it could ultimately lead the insulation to fail. GEs low-cost insulation is compatible with existing U.S. cable manufacturing processes, further enhancing its cost effectiveness.

  2. Frequency conversion in compositionally graded PPLN crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galutskiy, V V; Stroganova, E V; Shmargilov, S A; Yakovenko, N A

    2014-01-31

    This paper considers the effect of the longitudinal lithium concentration distribution in PPLN converters on their efficiency in high-power cw laser second harmonic generation. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  3. Track 2 Commercial Grade Dedication of Software.

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of other types of software - Instrumentation & control software - Software development Design and Analysis Software * Finite element analysis * Piping analysis * Seismic...

  4. Propane (Consumer Grade) Prices - Commercial/Institutional

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    698 1.873 - - - - 1994-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 1.731 2.006 - - - - 1994-2014 New England (PADD 1A) 1.689 1.952 - - - - 1994-2014 Central Atlantic (PADD 1B) 1.811 2.075 - - - - 1994-2014 Lower Atlantic (PADD 1C) 1.690 1.984 - - - - 1994-2014 Midwest (PADD 2) 1.608 1.689 - - - - 1994-2014 Gulf Coast (PADD 3) 1.740 1.853 - - - - 1994-2014 Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) 1.742 1.760 - - - - 1994-2014 West Coast (PADD 5) 1.692 1.824

  5. Retail Prices for Gasoline, All Grades

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 View History U.S. 2.835 3.576 3.680 3.575 3.437 2.520 1993-2015 East Coast (PADD1) 2.824 3.587 3.695 3.599 3.470 2.483 1993-2015 New England (PADD 1A) 2.864 3.666 3.785 3.692 3.547 2.507 1993-2015 Central Atlantic (PADD 1B) 2.859 3.629 3.763 3.654 3.533 2.559 1993-2015 Lower Atlantic (PADD 1C) 2.787 3.535 3.618 3.532 3.401 2.420 1993-2015 Midwest (PADD 2) 2.779 3.532 3.605 3.515 3.360 2.411 1993-2015 Gulf Coast (PADD 3) 2.702 3.423 3.479 3.374 3.216 2.256 1993-2015

  6. Commercial Grade Dedication Survey and Training

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Elongation Reduction of Area Hardness 7-4 Example: FASTENERS (cont) Acceptance Methods: Dimensional testing in accordance with ASME B18.18.2M is performed Chemical analysis and...

  7. Retail Prices for Gasoline, All Grades

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    834 1.837 1.887 1.943 2.062 2.109 1993-2016 East Coast (PADD1) 1.898 1.876 1.880 1.918 2.020 2.075 1993-2016 New England (PADD 1A) 1.927 1.906 1.899 1.903 1.999 2.034 1993-2016 ...

  8. Commercial Grade Dedication Survey and Training

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Office of Environmental Management And Energy Facility Contractors Group Quality Assurance Improvement Project Plan Project Focus Area Task and Description Deliverable Project...

  9. Methods of electrophoretic deposition for functionally graded...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    includes adding particles of an impurity and a solution to an EPD chamber, applying a voltage difference across the two electrodes of the EPD chamber to create an electric field...

  10. Requirements Flowdown and Graded Approach to QA

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    various consensus standards promulgated by the American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM) and in engineering specifications developed in accordance with design approaches...

  11. Refinery & Blender Net Production of Total Finished Petroleum...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    & Blender Net Production Product: Total Finished Petroleum Products Liquefied Refinery Gases EthaneEthylene Ethane Ethylene PropanePropylene Propane Propylene Normal Butane...

  12. Secondary Analysis of RTOG 9508, a Phase 3 Randomized Trial of Whole-Brain Radiation Therapy Versus WBRT Plus Stereotactic Radiosurgery in Patients With 1-3 Brain Metastases; Poststratified by the Graded Prognostic Assessment (GPA)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sperduto, Paul W.; Shanley, Ryan; Luo, Xianghua; Andrews, David; Werner-Wasik, Maria; Valicenti, Richard; Bahary, Jean-Paul; Souhami, Luis; Won, Minhee; Mehta, Minesh

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 9508 showed a survival advantage for patients with 1 but not 2 or 3 brain metastasis (BM) treated with whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) versus WBRT alone. An improved prognostic index, the graded prognostic assessment (GPA) has been developed. Our hypothesis was that if the data from RTOG 9508 were poststratified by the GPA, the conclusions may vary. Methods and Materials: In this analysis, 252 of the 331 patients were evaluable by GPA. Of those, 211 had lung cancer. Breast cancer patients were excluded because the components of the breast GPA are not in the RTOG database. Multiple Cox regression was used to compare survival between treatment groups, adjusting for GPA. Treatment comparisons within subgroups were performed with the log-rank test. A free online tool ( (brainmetgpa.com)) simplified GPA use. Results: The fundamental conclusions of the primary analysis were confirmed in that there was no survival benefit overall for patients with 1 to 3 metastases; however, there was a benefit for the subset of patients with GPA 3.5 to 4.0 (median survival time [MST] for WBRT + SRS vs WBRT alone was 21.0 versus 10.3 months, P=.05) regardless of the number of metastases. Among patients with GPA 3.5 to 4.0 treated with WBRT and SRS, the MST for patients with 1 versus 2 to 3 metastases was 21 and 14.1 months, respectively. Conclusions: This secondary analysis of predominantly lung cancer patients, consistent with the original analysis, shows no survival advantage for the group overall when treated with WBRT and SRS; however, in patients with high GPA (3.5-4), there is a survival advantage regardless of whether they have 1, 2, or 3 BM. This benefit did not extend to patients with lower GPA. Prospective validation of this survival benefit for patients with multiple BM and high GPA when treated with WBRT and SRS is warranted.

  13. Advanced Nanostructured Molecular Sieves for Energy Efficient Industrial Separations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kunhao Li, Michael Beaver

    2012-01-18

    Due to the very small relative volatility difference between propane and propylene, current propane/propylene separation by distillation requires very tall distillation towers (150-250 theoretical plates) and large reflux ratios (up to 15), which is considered to be the most energy consuming large-scale separation process. Adsorptive separation processes are widely considered to be more energy-efficient alternatives to distillation. However, slow diffusion kinetics/mass transport rate through the adsorbent bed often limits the performance of such processes, so further improvements are possible if intra-particle mass transfer rates can be improved. Rive Technology, Inc. is developing and commercializing its proprietary mesoporous zeolite technology for catalysis and separation. With well-controlled intracrystalline mesoporosity, diffusion kinetics through such mesoporous zeolite based catalysts is much improved relative to conventional zeolites, leading to significantly better product selectivity. This 'proof-of-principle' project (DE-EE0003470) is intended to demonstrate that Rive mesoporous zeolite technology can be extended and applied in adsorptive propane/propylene separation and lead to significant energy saving compared to the current distillation process. In this project, the mesoporous zeolite Y synthesis technology was successfully extended to X and A zeolites that are more relevant to adsorbent applications. Mesoporosity was introduced to zeolite X and A for the first time while maintaining adequate adsorption capacity. Zeolite adsorbents were tested for liquid phase separation performance using a pulse flow test unit and the test results show that the separation selectivity of the mesoporous zeolite adsorbent is much closer to optimal for a Simulated Moving Bed (SMB) separation process and the enhanced mesoporosity lead to >100% increase of overall mass transport rate for propane and propylene. These improvements will significantly improve the performance of an adsorptive separation unit for propane/propylene separation compared with traditional zeolite adsorbents. The enhanced transport will allow for more efficient utilization of a given adsorbent inventory by reducing process cycle time, allowing a faster production rate with a fixed amount of adsorbent or smaller adsorbent inventory at a fixed production rate. Smaller adsorbent inventory would also lead to significant savings in the capital cost due to smaller footprint of the equipment. Energy consumption calculation, based on the pulse test results for rived NaX zeolite adsorbent, of a hypothetical moderate-scale SMB propane/propylene separation plant that processes 6000 BPSD refinery grade propylene (70% propylene) will consume about 60-80% less energy (both re-boiler and condenser duties) compared to a C3 splitter that process the same amount of feed. This energy saving also translates to a reduction of 30,000-35,000 tons of CO2 emission per year at this moderate processing rate. The enhancement of mass transport achievable by introduction of controlled mesoporosity to the zeolite also opens the door for the technology to be applied to several other adsorption separation processes such as the separation of xylene isomers by SMB, small- and large scale production of O2/N2 from air by pressure swing adsorption, the separation of CO2 from natural gas at natural gas wellheads, and the purification of ultra-high purity H2 from the off gas produced by steam-methane-reforming.

  14. Size and weight graded multi-ply laminar electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Chia-Tsun (Monroeville, PA); Demczyk, Brian G. (Rostrover Township, Westmoreland County, PA); Rittko, Irvin R. (Murrysville Borough, PA)

    1984-01-01

    An electrode is made comprising a porous backing sheet, and attached thereto a catalytically active layer having an electrolyte permeable side and a backing layer contacting side, where the active layer comprises a homogeneous mixture of active hydrophobic and hydrophilic agglomerates with catalyst disposed equally throughout the active layer, and where the agglomerate size increases from the electrolyte permeable side to the backing sheet contacting side.

  15. Functionally Graded Cathodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lei Yang; Ze Liu; Shizhone Wang; Jaewung Lee; Meilin Liu

    2008-04-30

    The main objective of this DOE project is to demonstrate that the performance and long-term stability of the state-of-the-art LSCF cathode can be enhanced by a catalytically active coating (e.g., LSM or SSC). We have successfully developed a methodology for reliably evaluating the intrinsic surface catalytic properties of cathode materials. One of the key components of the test cell is a dense LSCF film, which will function as the current collector for the electrode material under evaluation to eliminate the effect of ionic and electronic transport. Since it is dense, the effect of geometry would be eliminated as well. From the dependence of the electrode polarization resistance on the thickness of a dense LSCF electrode and on partial pressure of oxygen, we have confirmed that the surface catalytic activity of LSCF limits the performances of LSCF-based cathodes. Further, we have demonstrated, using test cells of different configurations, that the performance of LSCF-based electrodes can be significantly enhanced by infiltration of a thin film of LSM or SSC. In addition, the stability of LSCF-based cathodes was also improved by infiltration of LSM or SSC. While the concept feasibility of the electrode architecture is demonstrated, many details are yet to be determined. For example, it is not clear how the surface morphology, composition, and thickness of the coatings change under operating conditions over time, how these changes influence the electrochemical behavior of the cathodes, and how to control the microscopic details of the coatings in order to optimize the performance. The selection of the catalytic materials as well as the detailed microstructures of the porous LSCF and the catalyst layer may critically impact the performance of the proposed cathodes. Further, other fundamental questions still remain; it is not clear why the degradation rates of LSCF cathodes are relatively high, why a LSM coating improves the stability of LSCF cathodes, which catalysts would be most effective for LSCF, and how to achieve further enhancement of the performance and stability of SOFC cathodes.

  16. BEST: Bilingual environmental science training: Grades 5--6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-03-01

    This booklet is one of a series of bilingual guides to environmental-science learning activities for students to do at home. Lesson objectives, materials required, procedure, vocabulary, and subjects integrated into the lesson are described in English. A bilingual glossary, alphabetized by English entries, with Spanish equivalents and definitions in both English and Spanish, follows the lesson descriptions, and is itself followed by a bibliography of English-language references. This booklet includes descriptions of ten lessons that cover the following topics: safe and unsafe conditions for chemical combinations; growth rates and environmental needs of plants; photosynthesis and effects of ozone-layer depletion; the circulatory system, the importance of exercise to the heart, and selected circulatory diseases; the nervous system; specific nutritional values of the different food groups; significance of including, reducing, or eliminating certain foods for a healthy diet; effects of some common chemicals on plant growth and animal life; plants` and animals` natural habitats; and dangers of non-biodegradable garbage.

  17. Making the Grade: Washington School District Invest in Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    saved put the district's schools in the top 25% most energy efficient facilities in the nation, earning them EPA's ENERGY STAR certification, Better Buildings is an initiative...

  18. Energy education resources - kindergarten through 12th grade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-03-01

    This resource was published to provide students, educators, and other information users, a list of generally available free or low-cost energy related educational materials.

  19. Effects of graded distribution of scattering centers on ballistic transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitran, T. L.; Nemnes, G. A.; Ion, L.; Dragoman, Daniela

    2014-09-28

    The transmission coefficient of a two dimensional scattering region connected to ideal leads was calculated for the case of electrons interacting with an inhomogeneous distribution of repulsive or attractive scattering centers. The scattering centers with Gaussian profiles were positioned at regular intervals perpendicular to the transport direction, but were spaced according to a power law along this direction. The transmission function was obtained using a scattering formalism based on the R-matrix method. The simulations revealed that although, overall, the transmission coefficient decreases and becomes almost monotonously dependent on energy as the inhomogeneity of both attractive and repulsive scattering centers increases, the redistribution of transmission between open channels depends on the type of scattering centers.

  20. Refiner Prices of Gasoline, All Grades - Through Retail Outlets

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 View History U.S. 1.892 2.306 3.058 3.168 3.068 2.876 1978-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 1.871 2.291 3.054 3.172 3.058 2.716 1983-2014 New England (PADD...

  1. C-Graded vertex algebras and conformal flow (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    vertex algebras have a "good" representation theory in the sense that there is a Zhu algebra A(V) and a bijection between simple admissible V-modules and simple A(V)-modules. We...

  2. Production of battery grade materials via an oxalate method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Belharouak, Ilias; Amine, Khalil

    2014-04-29

    An active electrode material for electrochemical devices such as lithium ion batteries includes a lithium transition metal oxide which is free of sodium and sulfur contaminants. The lithium transition metal oxide is prepared by calcining a mixture of a lithium precursor and a transition metal oxalate. Electrochemical devices use such active electrodes.

  3. Graded-Refractive-Index Glass-based Antireflective Coatings:...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ilia N 1 ; Liu, Tao 1 ; Wang, Peng 2 ; Menon, Rajesh 1 ; Trejo, Rosa M 1 ; Lara-Curzio, Edgar 1 ; Hunter, Scott Robert 1 ; Simpson, John T 1 ; Paranthaman, ...

  4. Method for producing functionally graded nanocrystalline layer on metal surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ajayi, Oyelayo O. (Oswego, IL); Hershberger, Jeffrey G. (Berwyn, IL)

    2010-03-23

    An improved process for the creation or formation of nanocrystalline layers on substrates' surfaces is provided. The process involves "prescuffing" the surface of a substrate such as a metal by allowing friction to occur on the surface by a load-bearing entity making rubbing contact and moving along and on the substrate's surface. The "prescuffing" action is terminated when the coefficient of friction between the surface and the noise is rising significantly. Often, the significant rise in the coefficient of friction is signaled by a change in pitch of the scuffing action sound emanating from the buffeted surface. The "prescuffing" gives rise to a harder and smoother surface which withstands better any inadequate lubrication that may take place when the "prescuffed" surface is contacted by other surfaces.

  5. Table 32. Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    65.7 65.5 58.6 50.5 - 53.7 April ... 68.1 68.0 64.2 56.7 47.2 56.2 76.5 76.2 69.8 60.5 - 63.9 May ... 68.9...

  6. Searching For An Electrical-Grade Geothermal Resource In Northern...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    is near Sunset Crater, a basaltic volcano less than 1,000 years old several several kilometers northeast of Flagstaff. Several silicic volcanoes nearby are young enough to have...

  7. Table 33. Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    - - - - - - - 1997 Average ... - - - - - - - - - - - - Subdistrict IA January ... - - - - - - - - - - - - February...

  8. Propane (Consumer Grade) Prices - Sales to End Users

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    77 1.976 - - - - 1994-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 2.133 2.374 - - - - 1994-2014 New England (PADD 1A) 2.241 2.442 - - - - 1994-2014 Central Atlantic (PADD 1B) 2.263 2.480 - - - -...

  9. U.S. Propane (Consumer Grade) Prices by Sales Type

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 View History Sales to End Users, Average 1.777 1.976 - - - - 1994-2014 Residential 2.025 2.224 - - - - 1994-2014 CommercialInstitutional 1.698 1.873...

  10. Propane (Consumer Grade) Prices - Sales to End Users

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Jul-15 Aug-15 Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 View History U.S. - - - - - - 1993-2015 East Coast (PADD 1) - - - - - - 1993-2015 New England (PADD 1A) - - - - - - 1993-2015 Central Atlantic (PADD 1B) - - - - - - 1993-2015 Lower Atlantic (PADD 1C) - - - - - - 1993-2015 Midwest (PADD 2) - - - - - - 1993-2015 Gulf Coast (PADD 3) - - - - - - 1993-2015 Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) - - - - - - 1993-2015 West Coast (PADD 5) - - - - - - 1993-2015

  11. Electrically tunable graded index planar lens based on graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nasari, H. Abrishamian, M. S.

    2014-08-28

    The realization of electrically tunable beam focusing using a properly designed conductivity pattern along a strip on a background single graphene flake with operation in the terahertz regime is proposed and numerically investigated. The strip is illuminated with a guided surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) plane wave and the physical origin of the design procedure is evaluated from the phase of effective mode index of propagating SPP wave on graphene. Upon tuning a gate voltage between the graphene sheet and the substrate, the focus tuning is achieved. Finite- difference time-domain numerical technique is employed to explore the propagation characteristic of SPP wave and the performance parameters of the lens include the focal length, full-width half-maximum, and focusing efficiency. Such a one atom thick planar lens with the capability of electrical focus tuning besides the compatibility with current planar optoelectronic systems can find valuable potential applications in the field of transformational plasmon optics.

  12. Graded Interface Models for more accurate Determination of van...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    length scale property variations. Authors: van Benthem, Klaus 1 ; Tan, Guolong 2 ; French, Roger H 3 ; DeNoyer, Linda K 4 ; Podgornik, Rudolf 5 ; Parsegian, V Adrian 5...

  13. Vortex stabilized electron beam compressed fusion grade plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hershcovitch, Ady

    2014-03-19

    Most inertial confinement fusion schemes are comprised of highly compressed dense plasmas. Those schemes involve short, extremely high power, short pulses of beams (lasers, particles) applied to lower density plasmas or solid pellets. An alternative approach could be to shoot an intense electron beam through very dense, atmospheric pressure, vortex stabilized plasma.

  14. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Propane (Consumer Grade)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    28,546.5 30,625.4 36,654.7 49,014.8 1983-2016 East Coast (PADD 1) 4,342.7 5,706.3 6,490.8 6,681.4 8,062.3 11,247.2 1983-2016 New England (PADD 1A) 640.7 901.2 1,199.2 ...

  15. Use Low-Grade Waste Steam to Power Absorption Chillers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01

    This revised ITP tip sheet on waste steam to power absorption chillers provides how-to advice for improving the system using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  16. Predicting and Utilizing the Vehicle's Past and Futuer Road Grade...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Advanced Powertrain Systems Impact of Vehicle Efficiency Improvements on Powertrain Design The Impact of Using Derived Fuel Consumption Maps to Predict Fuel Consumption...

  17. Early Damage Mechanisms in Nuclear Grade Graphite under Irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eapen, Dr. Jacob [North Carolina State University] [North Carolina State University; Krishna, Dr Ram [North Carolina State University] [North Carolina State University; Burchell, Timothy D [ORNL] [ORNL; Murty, Prof K.L. [North Carolina State University] [North Carolina State University

    2014-01-01

    Using Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,we delineate the bond and defect structures in nuclear block graphite (NBG-18) under neutron and ion irradiation. The strengthening of the defect (D) peak in the Raman spectra under irradiation is attributed to an increase in the topological, sp2-hybridized defects. Using transmission electron microscopy, we provide evidence for prismatic dislocations as well as a number of basal dislocations dissociating into Shockley partials. The non-vanishing D peak in the Raman spectra, together with a generous number of dislocations, even at low irradiation doses, indicates a dislocation-mediated amorphization process in graphite.

  18. Classroom Materials for Grades 5-12 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Teacher helping student in the classroom. Below are resources to help teachers introduce ... Development (NEED) Project's Teacher Advisory Board for the DOE Hydrogen Program. ...

  19. BEST: Bilingual environmental science training, Grades 3--4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-03-01

    This booklet is one of a series of bilingual guides to environmental-science learning activities for students to do at home. Lesson objectives, materials required, procedure, vocabulary, and subjects integrated into the lesson are described in English for each lesson. A bilingual glossary, alphabetized by English entries, with Spanish equivalents and definitions in both English and Spanish, follows the lesson descriptions, and is itself followed by a bibliography of English-language references with annotations in English. This booklet includes descriptions of ten lessons that cover the following topics: the identification of primary and secondary colors in the environment; recognizing the basic food tastes; the variety of colors that can be made by crushing plant parts; the variety of animal life present in common soil; animal tracks; evidence of plant and animal life in the local environment; recycling, reducing, and composting as alternative means of garbage disposal; waste associated with packaging; paper- recycling principles; and how organic waste can be composted into usable soil. 2 figs.

  20. Functionally Graded Materials for Manufacturing Tools and Dies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    New Material Processes Improve the Performance and Lifetime of Tools and Dies Tools, dies, and process equipment currently used in the metal casting, forging, and glass ...

  1. Commercial-Grade, Scalable Support and Training Services Platform...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    The building has an advanced ventilated double facade and uses low-energy underfloor air distribution and is designed to achieve energy savings of 30% below code.
    Image ...

  2. EERE Success Story-Making the Grade: Washington School District...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solutions to increase energy efficiencies were identified from a brand new conservation management program which enlisted students and school personnel to take active roles to ...

  3. Plastic Laminate Pulsed Power Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ALEXANDER,JEFF A.; SHOPE,STEVEN L.; PATE,RONALD C.; RINEHART,LARRY F.; JOJOLA,JOHN M.; RUEBUSH,MITCHELL H.; CROWE,WAYNE; LUNDSTROM,J.; SMITH,T.; ZAGAR,D.; PRESTWICH,K.

    2000-09-01

    The desire to move high-energy Pulsed Power systems from the laboratory to practical field systems requires the development of compact lightweight drivers. This paper concerns an effort to develop such a system based on a plastic laminate strip Blumlein as the final pulseshaping stage for a 600 kV, 50ns, 5-ohm driver. A lifetime and breakdown study conducted with small-area samples identified Kapton sheet impregnated with Propylene Carbonate as the best material combination of those evaluated. The program has successfully demonstrated techniques for folding large area systems into compact geometry's and vacuum impregnating the laminate in the folded systems. The major operational challenges encountered revolve around edge grading and low inductance, low impedance switching. The design iterations and lessons learned are discussed. A multistage prototype testing program has demonstrated 600kV operation on a short 6ns line. Full-scale prototypes are currently undergoing development and testing.

  4. FIG13&14.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3. PropanePropylene Supply and Disposition, Figure S14. PropanePropylene Ending Stocks, Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul 2003 2004 Months 0 25 50 75 100 0...

  5. Combined Quantum Chemical/Raman Spectroscopic Analyses of Li+ Cation

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Solvation: Cyclic Carbonate Solvents - Ethylene Carbonate and Propylene Earbonate (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Combined Quantum Chemical/Raman Spectroscopic Analyses of Li+ Cation Solvation: Cyclic Carbonate Solvents - Ethylene Carbonate and Propylene Earbonate Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Combined Quantum Chemical/Raman Spectroscopic Analyses of Li+ Cation Solvation: Cyclic Carbonate Solvents - Ethylene Carbonate and Propylene Earbonate Combined computational/Raman

  6. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    The principal constituents are methane, ethane, ethylene, normal butane, butylene, propane, propylene, etc. Still gas is used as a refinery fuel and a petrochemical...

  7. ITP Chemicals: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Chemical Industry, May 2000

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Profiles about the ethylene chain, propylene chain, benzene-toulene-xylene chain, agricultural chemicals chain, chlor-alkali industry, and supporting processes

  8. ORGANIC SPECIES IN GEOTHERMAL WATERS IN LIGHT OF FLUID INCLUSION...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    that indicate H2 concentrations > 0.001 mol % typically have ethane > ethylene, propane > propylene, and butane > butylene. There are three end member fluid compositions:...

  9. Fluid Inclusion Analysis At Coso Geothermal Area (2003) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    that indicate H2 concentrations > 0.001 mol % typically have ethane > ethylene, propane > propylene, and butane > butylene. There are three end member fluid compositions...

  10. Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Movements by Tanker and Barge...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Tanker and Barge between PAD Districts Product: Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Petroleum Products Liquefied Petroleum Gases PropanePropylene Unfinished Oils Motor ...

  11. Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Total Stocks Stocks by Type

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Stocks by Type Product: Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil All Oils (Excluding Crude Oil) Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases EthaneEthylene PropanePropylene Normal ...

  12. Separation of Olefin/Paraffin Mixtures With Carrier-Facilitated Transport Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-07-01

    Use of Membranes Could Significantly Reduce Energy Costs. Olefins, a group of petrochemicals that includes ethylene and propylene, are the primary building blocks for the petrochemical industry.

  13. Microsoft PowerPoint - GradedApproach_P&RA_CoP_December2013 ...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Geologic Setting g g * Example of a representative hydrostratigraphic profiles f hi "A" for geographic area "A" Depth (ft) Elevation (ft) Geologic Unit Description...

  14. MICROSTRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTY PERFORMANCE OF COMMERCIAL GRADE API PIPELINE STEELS IN HIGH PRESSURE GASEOUS HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stalheim, Mr. Douglas; Boggess, Todd; San Marchi, Chris; Jansto, Steven; Somerday, Dr. B; Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Sofronis, Prof. Petros

    2010-01-01

    The continued growth of the world s developing countries has placed an ever increasing demand on traditional fossil fuel energy sources. This development has lead to increasing research and development of alternative energy sources. Hydrogen gas is one of the potential alternative energy sources under development. Currently the most economical method of transporting large quantities of hydrogen gas is through steel pipelines. It is well known that hydrogen embrittlement has the potential to degrade steel s mechanical properties when hydrogen migrates into the steel matrix. Consequently, the current pipeline infrastructure used in hydrogen transport is typically operated in a conservative fashion. This operational practice is not conducive to economical movement of significant volumes of hydrogen gas as an alternative to fossil fuels. The degradation of the mechanical properties of steels in hydrogen service is known to depend on the microstructure of the steel. Understanding the levels of mechanical property degradation of a given microstructure when exposed to hydrogen gas under pressure can be used to evaluate the suitability of the existing pipeline infrastructure for hydrogen service and guide alloy and microstructure design for new hydrogen pipeline infrastructure. To this end, the 2 Copyright 2010 by ASME microstructures of relevant steels and their mechanical properties in relevant gaseous hydrogen environments must be fully characterized to establish suitability for transporting hydrogen. A project to evaluate four commercially available pipeline steels alloy/microstructure performance in the presences of gaseous hydrogen has been funded by the US Department of Energy along with the private sector. The microstructures of four pipeline steels were characterized and then tensile testing was conducted in gaseous hydrogen and helium at pressures of 800, 1600 and 3000 psi. Based on measurements of reduction of area, two of the four steels that performed the best across the pressure range were selected for evaluation of fracture and fatigue performance in gaseous hydrogen at 800 and 3000 psi. This paper will describe the work performed on four commercially available pipeline steels in the presence of gaseous hydrogen at pressures relevant for transport in pipelines. Microstructures and mechanical property performances will be compared. In addition, recommendations for future work related to gaining a better understanding of steel pipeline performance in hydrogen service will be discussed.

  15. PFP Commercial Grade Food Pack Cans for Plutonium Handling and Storage Critical Characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BONADIE, E.P.

    2000-10-26

    This document specifies the critical characteristics for containers procured for Plutonium Finishing Plant's (PFP's) Vault Operations system as required by HNF-PRO-268 and HNF-PRO-1819. These are the minimum specifications that the equipment must meet in order to perform its safety function.

  16. PFP Commercial Grade Food Pack Cans for Plutonium Handling and Storage Critical Characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BONADIE, E.P.

    2000-08-22

    This screening addresses the critical characteristics for food industry type cans and containers used for handling and storage of special nuclear materials at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). HNF-5460, Revision 0 specified a minimum tin plate of 0.50 Ib./base box. Since the food pack cans currently used and that have been tested have a listed tin plate of 0.20 lbs. per base box, Revision 1 reduced the tin plate to {ge} 0.20 Ib./base box (i.e., No. 20 tinned commercial steel or heavier). This revision lists Critical Characteristics for two (2) large filtered containers, and associated shielding over-packs. These new containers are called ''Nuclear Material Containers'' (NMCs). They are supplied in various sizes, which can be nested, one inside another. The PFP will use NMCs with volumes up to 8-quarts as needed to over-pack largely bulged containers.

  17. Diesel engine experiments with oxygen enrichment, water addition and lower-grade fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sekar, R.R.; Marr, W.W.; Cole, R.L.; Marciniak, T.J. ); Schaus, J.E. )

    1990-01-01

    The concept of oxygen enriched air applied to reciprocating engines is getting renewed attention in the context of the progress made in the enrichment methods and the tougher emissions regulations imposed on diesel and gasoline engines. An experimental project was completed in which a direct injection diesel engine was tested with intake oxygen levels of 21% -- 35%. Since an earlier study indicated that it is necessary to use a cheaper fuel to make the concept economically attractive, a less refined fuel was included in the test series. Since a major objection to the use of oxygen enriched combustion air had been the increase in NO{sub x} emissions, a method must be found to reduce NO{sub x}. Introduction of water into the engine combustion process was included in the tests for this purpose. Fuel emulsification with water was the means used here even though other methods could also be used. The teat data indicated a large increase in engine power density, slight improvement in thermal efficiency, significant reductions in smoke and particulate emissions and NO{sub x} emissions controllable with the addition of water. 15 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Scrap recycling and production of high quality steel grades in Europe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marique, C.

    1996-12-31

    The possible deleterious effects of higher contents in tramp elements on steel properties must be well defined in order to keep them within acceptable limits. No industrial technique is presently available to remove tramp elements from steel melts. Only a strict control on the metallic input and on the scrap composition is feasible. In this matter, scrap preparation which aims at a better separation between iron and other nonferrous components, is getting more attention. A large multinational project has been initiated in Europe under the sponsorship of ECSC and of the Steel Industry to better identify the effects of residuals on steel properties and to examine potential techniques able to control tramp elements during steelmaking operations. The project has been supported and orientated by a preliminary study, reviewing the relevant published data on the tramp element influence for long and flat products. The present report is devoted to overview available information on the effects of tramp elements and to describe the targets and the content of the European megaproject on scrap recycling.

  19. Weapons-grade plutonium dispositioning. Volume 4. Plutonium dispositioning in light water reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sterbentz, J.W.; Olsen, C.S.; Sinha, U.P.

    1993-06-01

    This study is in response to a request by the Reactor Panel Subcommittee of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Committee on International Security and Arms Control (CISAC) to evaluate the feasibility of using plutonium fuels (without uranium) for disposal in existing conventional or advanced light water reactor (LWR) designs and in low temperature/pressure LWR designs that might be developed for plutonium disposal. Three plutonium-based fuel forms (oxides, aluminum metallics, and carbides) are evaluated for neutronic performance, fabrication technology, and material and compatibility issues. For the carbides, only the fabrication technologies are addressed. Viable plutonium oxide fuels for conventional or advanced LWRs include plutonium-zirconium-calcium oxide (PuO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2}-CaO) with the addition of thorium oxide (ThO{sub 2}) or a burnable poison such as erbium oxide (Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}) or europium oxide (Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3}) to achieve acceptable neutronic performance. Thorium will breed fissile uranium that may be unacceptable from a proliferation standpoint. Fabrication of uranium and mixed uranium-plutonium oxide fuels is well established; however, fabrication of plutonium-based oxide fuels will require further development. Viable aluminum-plutonium metallic fuels for a low temperature/pressure LWR include plutonium aluminide in an aluminum matrix (PuAl{sub 4}-Al) with the addition of a burnable poison such as erbium (Er) or europium (Eu). Fabrication of low-enriched plutonium in aluminum-plutonium metallic fuel rods was initially established 30 years ago and will require development to recapture and adapt the technology to meet current environmental and safety regulations. Fabrication of high-enriched uranium plate fuel by the picture-frame process is a well established process, but the use of plutonium would require the process to be upgraded in the United States to conform with current regulations and minimize the waste streams.

  20. Functionally grading the shape memory response in NiTi films: Laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birnbaum, A. J.; Satoh, G.; Yao, Y. L.

    2009-08-15

    A new process and mechanism are presented for controlling the shape memory response spatially within monolithic NiTi thin film structures. This technique is shown to effectively control the martensitic phase transformation temperature and exhibits control over aspects of the mechanical and shape memory responses as well. Specifically, the martensitic phase transformation temperature decreases with incident laser energy density. Concomitant modifications are observed in both the mechanical and shape memory responses in laser processed films. Analysis and characterization are performed via temperature controlled optical microscopy, x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and nanoindentation.

  1. Environmental control technology for mining and milling low-grade uranium resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weakley, S.A.; Blahnik, D.E.; Long, L.W.; Bloomster, C.H.

    1981-04-01

    This study examined the type and level of wastes that would be generated in the mining and milling of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ from four potential domestic sources of uranium. The estimated costs of the technology to control these wastes to different degrees of stringency are presented.

  2. Increased cost-effectiveness of low-grade fossil fuels using ammonia FGD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellison, W.

    1998-07-01

    Current worldwide advancements in site-specific application and commercial operation of ammonia-base flue gas desulfurization (FGD), in high-capacity, high-sulfur, electric utility service, economically justified by significant revenues from ammonium sulfate generation and worldwide sale, are detailed. This major new direction in cost-effectiveness in FGD selection/application and in the process design of such flue gas cleaning systems overcomes the problem of FGD waste/byproduct management/utilization and encompasses numerous major performance advancements reviewed herein: (1) Conversion of anions of all captured acid-gas, i.e., SO{sub 2}, HCI, etc., and of all collected residual particulate matter into agriculturally-usable ammonium compounds combined in the single byproduct yield; (2) No discard or long-term, outdoor storage of sulfurous waste byproducts; and (3) No liquid effluent. In the face of a capital-cost penalty in any application of ammonia FGD, an attractive cost effectiveness is nonetheless realized. This favorable process economics, superior to all other available alternatives in high-capacity, high-sulfur electric utility service, is made possible through substantial value added in conversion of ammonia reagent supply to agglomerated sulfur blending stock, i.e., comprised principally of ammonium sulfate, much in demand for increased use in worldwide, large-scale agriculture. The growing, potentially vast size of the international market for ammonium sulfate is quantified herein.

  3. Increased cost-effectiveness of low-grade fossil fuels using ammonia FGD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellison, W.

    1998-04-01

    Current worldwide advancements in site-specific application and commercial operation of ammonia-base flue gas desulfurization, (FGD), in high-capacity, high-sulfur, electric utility service, economically justified by significant revenues from ammonium sulfate generation and worldwide sale, are detailed. This major new direction in cost-effectiveness in FGD selection/application and in the process design of such flue gas cleaning systems overcomes the problem of FGD waste/byproduct management/utilization and encompasses numerous major performance advancements reviewed herein: (1) Conversion of anions of all captured acid-gas, i.e. SO2, HCl, etc., and of all collected residual particulate matter into agriculturally-usable ammonium compounds combined in the single byproduct yield, (2) no discard or long-term, outdoor storage of sulfurous waste byproducts, and (3) no liquid effluent. In the face of a capital-cost penalty in any application of ammonia FGD, an attractive cost effectiveness is nonetheless realized.

  4. Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    91.9 91.5 82.8 73.2 W 77.5 March ... 80.4 79.9 76.6 66.9 64.9 68.7 90.1 89.7 82.3 71.0 74.8 76.0 April ... 80.3 79.7 77.7 65.5...

  5. Table 14. U.S. Propane (Consumer Grade) Prices by Sales Type

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    January ... 88.4 75.9 64.4 71.4 27.3 65.1 80.9 33.2 February ... 89.8 77.0 67.5 72.7 29.4 68.1 82.1 35.3 March ......

  6. Table 14. U.S. Propane (Consumer Grade) Prices by Sales Type

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    82.5 68.1 NA 34.5 71.8 86.3 42.3 February ... 96.1 84.9 70.3 81.9 38.3 75.2 88.5 45.1 March ... 96.3 86.1 70.1 68.7 36.5 75.5 87.7 42.3...

  7. Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    70.0 66.4 57.0 53.0 58.4 79.8 79.3 72.2 61.1 - 66.1 March ... 75.8 75.3 70.9 64.0 59.3 64.9 84.7 84.3 77.0 67.9 W 72.0 April ......

  8. Table 14. U.S. Propane (Consumer Grade) Prices by Sales Type

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    1996 ... 99.1 88.4 73.3 75.7 41.3 76.4 88.6 47.1 1997 January ... 117.8 105.9 91.0 88.6 54.0 93.7 110.0 61.2 February...

  9. Viscosity Determination of Molten Ash from Low-Grade US Coals

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhu, Jingxi; Nakano, Jinichiro; Kaneko, Tetsuya Kenneth; Mu, Haoyuan; Bennett, James P.; Kwong, Kyei-Sing; Rozelle, Peter; Sridhar, Seetharaman

    2012-10-01

    In entrained slagging gasifiers, the fluidity of the molten ash is a critical factor for process control since it affects slag formation, the capture of inorganic constituents, refractory wear, and slag drainage along the gasification chamber walls. The use of western coal, or mixtures of eastern and western coals as gasifier feedstock, is likely to occur as western coals become available and technological issues that hinder their use are being resolved. In the present work, the viscosity of synthetic slags with ash chemistries simulating the western U.S. coals, was experimentally measured at a Po2 = 10- 8 atm in themore » temperature range of 1773–1573 K (1500–1300 °C) using a rotating-bob viscometer. Alumina spindles and containment crucibles of both alumina and zirconia were used. Crystallization studies of this slag using a confocal scanning laser microscope found that a (Mg,Fe)Al2O4-based spinel precipitated at temperatures below 1723 K (1450 °C), and this agreed with FactSage equilibrium phase prediction. The same spinels were observed in the post-viscometry experiment slags when ZrO2 crucibles were used and assumed to be in equilibrium with the slag at the higher temperatures. Zirconia dissolution resulted in a slight increase in the solid fraction present in slags at lower temperatures, compared to spinel fraction. Crystal precipitation changed the apparent activation energy and required a longer stabilization times for viscosity measurements. The viscosity results were used in predictive equations based on Veytsman and Einstein's models, with critical nucleation temperatures and the solid fraction calculated with FactSage. In the simulated eastern/western coal feedstock blends based on ash compositions, the fractions of the solid precipitates were also calculated using the thermodynamic program FactSage for each blend composition, and the plastic viscosity of each eastern/western coal slag blend was predicted using Veytsman's model and compared to available experimental data.« less

  10. Integrated porous-silicon light-emitting diodes: A fabrication process using graded doping profiles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barillaro, G.; Diligenti, A.; Pieri, F.; Fuso, F.; Allegrini, M.

    2001-06-25

    A fabrication process, compatible with an industrial bipolar+complementary metal{endash}oxide{endash}semiconductor (MOS)+diffusion MOS technology, has been developed for the fabrication of efficient porous-silicon-based light-emitting diodes. The electrical contact is fabricated with a double n{sup +}/p doping, achieving a high current injection efficiency and thus lower biasing voltages. The anodization is performed as the last step of the process, thus reducing potential incompatibilities with industrial processes. The fabricated devices show yellow-orange electroluminescence, visible with the naked eye in room lighting. A spectral characterization of light emission is presented and briefly discussed. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  11. Viscosity Determination of Molten Ash from Low-Grade US Coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Jingxi; Nakano, Jinichiro; Kaneko, Tetsuya Kenneth; Mu, Haoyuan; Bennett, James P.; Kwong, Kyei-Sing; Rozelle, Peter; Sridhar, Seetharaman

    2012-10-01

    In entrained slagging gasifiers, the fluidity of the molten ash is a critical factor for process control since it affects slag formation, the capture of inorganic constituents, refractory wear, and slag drainage along the gasification chamber walls. The use of western coal, or mixtures of eastern and western coals as gasifier feedstock, is likely to occur as western coals become available and technological issues that hinder their use are being resolved. In the present work, the viscosity of synthetic slags with ash chemistries simulating the western U.S. coals, was experimentally measured at a Po2 = 10- 8 atm in the temperature range of 1773–1573 K (1500–1300 °C) using a rotating-bob viscometer. Alumina spindles and containment crucibles of both alumina and zirconia were used. Crystallization studies of this slag using a confocal scanning laser microscope found that a (Mg,Fe)Al2O4-based spinel precipitated at temperatures below 1723 K (1450 °C), and this agreed with FactSage equilibrium phase prediction. The same spinels were observed in the post-viscometry experiment slags when ZrO2 crucibles were used and assumed to be in equilibrium with the slag at the higher temperatures. Zirconia dissolution resulted in a slight increase in the solid fraction present in slags at lower temperatures, compared to spinel fraction. Crystal precipitation changed the apparent activation energy and required a longer stabilization times for viscosity measurements. The viscosity results were used in predictive equations based on Veytsman and Einstein's models, with critical nucleation temperatures and the solid fraction calculated with FactSage. In the simulated eastern/western coal feedstock blends based on ash compositions, the fractions of the solid precipitates were also calculated using the thermodynamic program FactSage for each blend composition, and the plastic viscosity of each eastern/western coal slag blend was predicted using Veytsman's model and compared to available experimental data.

  12. Up-grade of process control system, U.S. Steel Fairfield No. 8 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Camlic, R.L. [U.S. Steel, Fairfield, AL (United States). Fairfield Works; Goodman, N.J. [Kvaerner Davy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The No. 8 blast furnace at US Steel`s Fairfield, AL facility is the only blast furnace remaining in operating at the plant. The blast furnace has a production capacity of 5,500 tons per day of hot metal and provides 100% of the iron requirements for the steel plant that has an annual production capacity of 2,200,000 tons of steel. Therefore, any outage on No. 8 blast furnace has a major impact on the operation of the total Fairfield facility. During the planning stages of the latest reline outage of No. 8 blast furnace, significant measures were taken to insure that maximum production of iron was maintained before and immediately after the outage. A significant portion of the reline activity was centered on the total replacement of the existing process control system. The scope of replacement was so extensive that it was determined that if all areas of the process control system were replaced during the reline outage, then the installation and commissioning of the new system would have been the critical path on the project. In addition, the requirements for training and start-up of the new process control system would have imposed risks to obtaining maximum production after the reline outage, as operators experienced the learning curve of the new system. It was therefore decided that the critical areas of the new process control system would be installed before the reline outage. In addition, all training and start-up activities would take place on the new working system while it was operating in a `shadow` mode in parallel with the existing system. This would provide a proven process control system for blast furnace operations before the reline outage, and eliminate the learning curve after the outage. The reline outage is described.

  13. Effect of minor chemistry elements on GTA weld fusion zone characteristics of a commercial grade titanium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marya, S.K.

    1996-06-01

    Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) is the most common technique employed in the fabrication of rolled thin tubes. One of the major manufacturing problems concerns the stability of weld fusion zone on materials from different casts, notwithstanding stringent monitoring of the process parameters -- current, voltage and travel speed. These parameters determine the theoretical weld heat and are expected to control the instantaneous mass of melt. According to the data compiled by Sahoo et al., oxygen is known to reduce the surface tension of most of the metals. However, investigations on the role of minor changes in concentrations of elements like sulphur, oxygen, selenium, bismuth, aluminium, and titanium in steels have very often attributed the cast to cast variations to different temperature gradients of surface tension over the weldpool. To the author`s knowledge, no reported work so far has revealed changing weld profiles in autogeneous mechanized GTA welds on titanium due to minor composition changes.

  14. EA-1962: Analysis for Below Grade Suspect Transuranic (TRU) Waste at Technical Area (TA)-54

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE is preparing an EA to evaluate the legacy suspect transuranic (TRU) waste at Area G for the purposes of reclassification of waste type and determination of a final disposal path. Per DOE Order 435.1, Change 1, Radioactive Waste Management, and its associated guide, legacy waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory that contained TRU waste was stored and managed as TRU waste. The waste was given an interim classification for the purposes of applying the most restrictive standard until the waste could be adequately characterized and a final determination on the disposition classification was made.

  15. Process for producing fuel grade ethanol by continuous fermentation, solvent extraction and alcohol separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tedder, Daniel W. (Marietta, GA)

    1985-05-14

    Alcohol substantially free of water is prepared by continuously fermenting a fermentable biomass feedstock in a fermentation unit, thereby forming an aqueous fermentation liquor containing alcohol and microorganisms. Continuously extracting a portion of alcohol from said fermentation liquor with an organic solvent system containing an extractant for said alcohol, thereby forming an alcohol-organic solvent extract phase and an aqueous raffinate. Said alcohol is separated from said alcohol-organic solvent phase. A raffinate comprising microorganisms and unextracted alcohol is returned to the fermentation unit.

  16. Analysis of the Production Cost for Various Grades of Biomass Thermal Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert S Cherry; Rick A. Wood; Tyler L Westover

    2013-12-01

    Process flow sheets were developed for the thermal treatment of southern pine wood chips at four temperatures (150, 180, 230, and 270 degrees C) and two different scales (20 and 100 ton/hour). The larger capacity processes had as their primary heat source hot gas assumed to be available in quantity from an adjacent biorefinery. Mass and energy balances for these flow sheets were developed using Aspen Plus process simulation software. The hot gas demands in the larger processes, up to 1.9 million lb/hour, were of questionable feasibility because of the volume to be moved. This heat was of low utility because the torrefaction process, especially at higher temperatures, is a net heat producer if the organic byproduct gases are burned. A thermal treatment flow sheet using wood chips dried in the biorefinery to 10% moisture content (rather than 30% for green chips) with transfer of high temperature steam from the thermal treatment depot to the biorefinery was also examined. The equipment size information from all of these cases was used in several different equipment cost estimating methods to estimate the major equipment costs for each process. From these, factored estimates of other plant costs were determined, leading to estimates (+ / - 30% accuracy) of total plant capital cost. The 20 ton/hour processes were close to 25 million dollars except for the 230 degrees C case using dried wood chips which was only 15 million dollars because of its small furnace. The larger processes ranged from 64-120 million dollars. From these capital costs and projections of several categories of operating costs, the processing cost of thermally treated pine chips was found to be $28-33 per ton depending on the degree of treatment and without any credits for steam generation. If the excess energy output of the two 20 ton/hr depot cases at 270 degrees C can be sold for $10 per million BTU, the net processing cost dropped to $13/ton product starting with green wood chips or only $3 per ton if using dried chips from the biorefinery. Including a 12% return on invested capital raised all of the operating cost results by about $20/ton.

  17. Dynamic mask for producing uniform or graded-thickness thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Folta, James A. (Livermore, CA)

    2006-06-13

    A method for producing single layer or multilayer films with high thickness uniformity or thickness gradients. The method utilizes a moving mask which blocks some of the flux from a sputter target or evaporation source before it deposits on a substrate. The velocity and position of the mask is computer controlled to precisely tailor the film thickness distribution. The method is applicable to any type of vapor deposition system, but is particularly useful for ion beam sputter deposition and evaporation deposition; and enables a high degree of uniformity for ion beam deposition, even for near-normal incidence of deposition species, which may be critical for producing low-defect multilayer coatings, such as required for masks for extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL). The mask can have a variety of shapes, from a simple solid paddle shape to a larger mask with a shaped hole through which the flux passes. The motion of the mask can be linear or rotational, and the mask can be moved to make single or multiple passes in front of the substrate per layer, and can pass completely or partially across the substrate.

  18. U.S. and Russia Reaffirm Commitment to Disposing of Weapon-Grade Plutonium

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    WASHINGTON, DC - U.S. Energy Secretary Samuel W. Bodman and Sergey Kiriyenko, the director of Russia's Federal Atomic Energy Agency, have signed a joint statement reaffirming their commitment to...

  19. U.S. Total Propane (Consumer Grade) Prices by Sales Type

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Jul-15 Aug-15 Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 View History Sales to End Users, Average - - - - - - 1993-2015 Residential - - - - - - 1993-2015 Commercial/Institutional - - - - - - 1993-2015 Industrial - - - - - - 1993-2015 Through Retail Outlets - - - - - - 1993-2015 Petro-Chemical - - - - - - 1994-2015 Other End Users - - - - - - 1993-2015 Sales for Resale - - - - - - 1993-2015

  20. Jefferson Lab Offers Science Enrichment Program for 5th, 6th & 8th Grade

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Teachers | Jefferson Lab Night To Improve Science Education - A highlight of the JSAT program is the annual Teacher Night, when current and former JSAT participants share with other teachers, some of the new techniques and activities they've learned or developed to enhance science education for their students. The 2013 Teacher Night will be held on April 17. NEWPORT NEWS, Va., July 9, 2012 - The U.S. Department of Energy's Jefferson Lab is currently accepting applications for its science

  1. Jefferson Lab Offers Science Enrichment Program for 5th, 6th & 8th Grade

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Teachers | Jefferson Lab Get Their Science On - One hundred sixty-two elementary and middle-school teachers interested in learning new and innovative methods for teaching the physical sciences attended the Annual Region II Teacher Night held April 20 at Jefferson Lab. Fifty-four teachers who participated in enrichment programs at JLab for teachers of science presented the activities and demonstrations. NEWPORT NEWS, Va., Aug. 8, 2011 - The U.S. Department of Energy's Jefferson Lab is

  2. Jefferson Lab Offers Science Enrichment Program for 5th, 6th & 8th Grade

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Teachers; Registration Deadline is Sept. 11 | Jefferson Lab 1 Hall B A highlight of the Jefferson Lab Science Activities for Teachers program is Teacher Night - held at the end of the program. During the event, JSAT participants share with hundreds of teachers, from across the area, their favorite and most effective classroom science activities. These are photos from the Teacher Night held on April 1, 2015; next year's event will be April 13, 2016. NEWPORT NEWS, Va., Aug. 12, 2015 -- The

  3. Efficient One-Step Electrolytic Recycling of Low-Grade and Post-Consumer Magnesium Scrap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adam C. Powell, IV

    2012-07-19

    Metal Oxygen Separation Technologies, Inc. (abbreviated MOxST, pronounced most) and Boston University (BU) have developed a new low-cost process for recycling post-consumer co-mingled and heavily-oxidized magnesium scrap, and discovered a new chemical mechanism for magnesium separations in the process. The new process, designated MagReGenTM, is very effective in laboratory experiments, and on scale-up promises to be the lowest-cost lowest-energy lowest-impact method for separating magnesium metal from aluminum while recovering oxidized magnesium. MagReGenTM uses as little as one-eighth as much energy as today's methods for recycling magnesium metal from comingled scrap. As such, this technology could play a vital role in recycling automotive non-ferrous metals, particularly as motor vehicle magnesium/aluminum ratios increase in order to reduce vehicle weight and increase efficiency.

  4. Use Low-Grade Waste Steam to Power Absorption Chillers - Steam Tip Sheet #14

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-31

    This revised AMO tip sheet on waste steam to power absorption chillers provides how-to advice for improving the system using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  5. Developing a quality plan within an R&D organization using a graded approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Younger, A.F.; Ellis, E.W.

    1994-04-01

    Rocky Flats is a Department of Energy facility that is managed by EG&G, Inc. The facility, located in Golden, Colorado, employs approximately 7,500 employees. Rocky Flats began operation in 1953 producing components for nuclear weapons, but in 1992, due to changing world conditions, the facility`s mission was changed. The new mission is to decontaminate and decommission the plant and make it ready for economic development for possible new business opportunities. The facility`s mission today is geared toward environmental cleanup from the wastes that were generated during the past 40 years. With these changes came a change in management philosophy that has encouraged more open communications, employee involvement, additional training for employees, and an emphasis on providing quality products and services applying Total Quality Management principles. The changing mission of the plant along with the change in management philosophy required a great deal of adjustment by employees. During this time, the Department of Energy and EG&G management was striving to incorporate these changes as quickly as possible. As part of this change, the Department of Energy required a quality program be implemented in Technology Development, which is the organization responsible for researching and developing new technologies for the environmental cleanup of the plant.

  6. Method for ultrafast optical deflection enabling optical recording via serrated or graded light illumination

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heebner, John E. (Livermore, CA)

    2009-09-08

    In one general embodiment, a method for deflecting an optical signal input into a waveguide is provided. In operation, an optical input signal is propagated through a waveguide. Additionally, an optical control signal is applied to a mask positioned relative to the waveguide such that the application of the optical control signal to the mask is used to influence the optical input signal propagating in the waveguide. Furthermore, the deflected optical input signal output from the waveguide is detected in parallel on an array of detectors. In another general embodiment, a beam deflecting structure is provided for deflecting an optical signal input into a waveguide, the structure comprising at least one wave guiding layer for guiding an optical input signal and at least one masking layer including a pattern configured to influence characteristics of a material of the guiding layer when an optical control signal is passed through the masking layer in a direction of the guiding layer. In another general embodiment, a system is provided including a waveguide, an attenuating mask positioned on the waveguide, and an optical control source positioned to propagate pulsed laser light towards the attenuating mask and the waveguide such that a pattern of the attenuating mask is applied to the waveguide and material properties of at least a portion of the waveguide are influenced.

  7. Notice of Intent to Revise DOE Order 470.3B, Graded Security Protection (GSP) Policy

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    Request approval to revise the subject Order to make significant changes which are required for the Order to be consistent with threat information received from the intelligence community. Information provided by the joint DOE/IN and Defense Intelligence Agency, Nuclear Security Threat Capabilities Assessment, revealed the need to adjust adversary numbers and capabilities to reflect the intent of the policy and the inherent risk management considerations.

  8. A REAL TIME COAL CONTENT ORE GRADE (C2OG) SENSOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rand Swanson

    2004-10-22

    This thirteenth quarterly technical report describes data collection at the Stillwater Mine and an additional improvement to the lighting system. The data collection system was returned to the Stillwater Mine during this reporting period and a large amount of data was collected. The data will be analyzed and correlated with fire assays in the next reporting period. The majority of work done this quarter has been devoted to collecting data from cores scanned in the Stillwater Mining Company core room. This work is somewhat tedious and tiresome, but essential to: (1) obtain enough data to reliably determine the correlation between assay results and spectral imaging results; (2) find bugs and glitches in the system that arise only periodically or after long periods of use; and (3) obtain data on the natural (and man-made) variations in the Stillwater ore that may confuse the machine vision algorithms.

  9. EERE Success Story—Making the Grade: Washington School District Invest in Energy Efficiency

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A Washington State school district achieved 28% savings on its energy bills as part of its commitment to the Energy Department’s Better Buildings Challenge. Camas School District committed one...

  10. Notice of Intent to Revise DOE Order 470.3B, Graded Security Protection (GSP) Policy

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2015-11-23

    Request approval to revise the subject Order to make significant changes which are required for the Order to be consistent with threat information received from the intelligence community. Information provided by the joint DOE/IN and Defense Intelligence Agency, Nuclear Security Threat Capabilities Assessment, revealed the need to adjust adversary numbers and capabilities to reflect the intent of the policy and the inherent risk management considerations.

  11. Measure Guideline. Air Sealing Mechanical Closets in Slab-on-Grade Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dickson, Bruce

    2012-02-01

    This measure guideline describes two fundamental retrofit strategies for air sealing around air handling systems that are located within the living space in an enclosed closet: one in which all of the equipment is removed and being replaced, and a closet where the equipment is to remain and existing conditions are sealed. It includes the design and installation details necessary to effectively seal the air handler closet and central return system to maximize the efficiency and safety of the space conditioning system.

  12. Measure Guideline: Air Sealing Mechanical Closets in Slab-On-Grade Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dickson, B.

    2012-02-01

    This measure guideline describes covers two fundamental retrofit strategies for air sealing around air handling systems that are located within the living space in an enclosed closet: one in which all of the equipment is removed and being replaced, and a closet where the equipment is to remain and existing conditions are sealed. It includes the design and installation details necessary to effectively seal the air handler closet and central return system to maximize the efficiency and safety of the space conditioning system.

  13. Fractional distillation of C/sub 2//C/sub 3/ hydrocarbons at optimum pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tedder, D.W.

    1984-08-07

    A method of recovering by distillation the separate components of a hydrocarbon gas mixture comprising ethylene, ethane, propylene and propane which comprises separating the ethylene and ethane as an overhead from a propylene and propane bottom in a first distillation tower at from about 400 to about 600 psia, separating ethylene and ethane as an ethylene overhead and an ethane bottom in a second distillation tower at from about 600 to about 700 psia, and separating propylene as an overhead from a propane bottom in a third distillation tower at from about 280 to about 300 psia is disclosed.

  14. IEA BESTEST In-Depth Diagnostic Cases for Ground Coupled Heat Transfer Related to Slab-on-Grade Construction: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neymark, J.; Judkoff, R.; Beausoleil-Morrison, I.; Ben-Nakhi, A.; Crowley, M.; Deru, M.; Henninger, R.; Ribberink, H.; Thornton, J.; Wijsman, A.; Witte, M.

    2009-06-01

    A set of validation test cases is presented to compare the results of midlevel detailed ground-coupled heat transfer models typically used with whole-building energy simulation software.

  15. Effect of Post-Weld Heat Treatment on Creep Rupture Properties of Grade 91 Steel Heavy Section Welds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Leijun

    2012-11-02

    This project will conduct a systematic metallurgical study on the effect of post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) on the creep rupture properties of P91 heavy section welds. The objective is to develop a technical guide for selecting PWHT parameters, and to predict expected creep-rupture life based on the selection of heat treatment parameters. The project consists of four interdependent tasks: Experimentally and numerically characterize the temperature fields of typical post-weld heat treatment procedures for various weld and joint configurations to be used in Gen IV systems. Characterize the microstructure of various regions, including the weld fusion zone, coarse-grain heat-affected zone, and fine-grain heat affected zone, in the welds that underwent the various welding and PWHT thermal histories. Conduct creep and creep-rupture testing of coupons extracted from actual and physically simulated welds. Establish the relationship among PWHT parameters, thermal histories, microstructure, creep, and creep-rupture properties.

  16. The Complete Burning of Weapons Grade Plutonium and Highly Enriched Uranium with (Laser Inertial Fusion-Fission Energy) LIFE Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, J C; Diaz de la Rubia, T; Moses, E

    2008-12-23

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) project, a laser-based Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiment designed to achieve thermonuclear fusion ignition and burn in the laboratory, is under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and will be completed in April of 2009. Experiments designed to accomplish the NIF's goal will commence in late FY2010 utilizing laser energies of 1 to 1.3 MJ. Fusion yields of the order of 10 to 20 MJ are expected soon thereafter. Laser initiated fusion-fission (LIFE) engines have now been designed to produce nuclear power from natural or depleted uranium without isotopic enrichment, and from spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors without chemical separation into weapons-attractive actinide streams. A point-source of high-energy neutrons produced by laser-generated, thermonuclear fusion within a target is used to achieve ultra-deep burn-up of the fertile or fissile fuel in a sub-critical fission blanket. Fertile fuels including depleted uranium (DU), natural uranium (NatU), spent nuclear fuel (SNF), and thorium (Th) can be used. Fissile fuels such as low-enrichment uranium (LEU), excess weapons plutonium (WG-Pu), and excess highly-enriched uranium (HEU) may be used as well. Based upon preliminary analyses, it is believed that LIFE could help meet worldwide electricity needs in a safe and sustainable manner, while drastically shrinking the nation's and world's stockpile of spent nuclear fuel and excess weapons materials. LIFE takes advantage of the significant advances in laser-based inertial confinement fusion that are taking place at the NIF at LLNL where it is expected that thermonuclear ignition will be achieved in the 2010-2011 timeframe. Starting from as little as 300 to 500 MW of fusion power, a single LIFE engine will be able to generate 2000 to 3000 MWt in steady state for periods of years to decades, depending on the nuclear fuel and engine configuration. Because the fission blanket in a fusion-fission hybrid system is subcritical, a LIFE engine can burn any fertile or fissile nuclear material, including unenriched natural or depleted U and SNF, and can extract a very high percentage of the energy content of its fuel resulting in greatly enhanced energy generation per metric ton of nuclear fuel, as well as nuclear waste forms with vastly reduced concentrations of long-lived actinides. LIFE engines could thus provide the ability to generate vast amounts of electricity while greatly reducing the actinide content of any existing or future nuclear waste and extending the availability of low cost nuclear fuels for several thousand years. LIFE also provides an attractive pathway for burning excess weapons Pu to over 99% FIMA (fission of initial metal atoms) without the need for fabricating or reprocessing mixed oxide fuels (MOX). Because of all of these advantages, LIFE engines offer a pathway toward sustainable and safe nuclear power that significantly mitigates nuclear proliferation concerns and minimizes nuclear waste. An important aspect of a LIFE engine is the fact that there is no need to extract the fission fuel from the fission blanket before it is burned to the desired final level. Except for fuel inspection and maintenance process times, the nuclear fuel is always within the core of the reactor and no weapons-attractive materials are available outside at any point in time. However, an important consideration when discussing proliferation concerns associated with any nuclear fuel cycle is the ease with which reactor fuel can be converted to weapons usable materials, not just when it is extracted as waste, but at any point in the fuel cycle. Although the nuclear fuel remains in the core of the engine until ultra deep actinide burn up is achieved, soon after start up of the engine, once the system breeds up to full power, several tons of fissile material is present in the fission blanket. However, this fissile material is widely dispersed in millions of fuel pebbles, which can be tagged as individual accountable items, and thus made difficult to divert in large quantities. This report discusses the application of the LIFE concept to nonproliferation issues, initially looking at the LIFE (Laser Inertial Fusion-Fission Energy) engine as a means of completely burning WG Pu and HEU. By combining a neutron-rich inertial fusion point source with energy-rich fission, the once-through closed fuel-cycle LIFE concept has the following characteristics: it is capable of efficiently burning excess weapons or separated civilian plutonium and highly enriched uranium; the fission blanket is sub-critical at all times (keff < 0.95); because LIFE can operate well beyond the point at which light water reactors (LWRs) need to be refueled due to burn-up of fissile material and the resulting drop in system reactivity, fuel burn-up of 99% or more appears feasible. The objective of this work is to develop LIFE technology for burning of WG-Pu and HEU.

  17. Development of Solar Grade Silicon (SoG-Si) Feedstock by Recycling SoG-Si Wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lifeng Zhang; Anping Dong; Lucas Nana Wiredu Damoah

    2013-01-24

    Experiment results of EM separation show that the non-metallic inclusions were successfully pushed to the boundary layer of the crucible under EM force. Larger frequency and smaller current generate smaller thickness of accumulated inclusions. More detailed EM separation experiments are undergoing to investigate the factors that affect the removal efficient of inclusions from SoG-Si

  18. Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel Design with Two-Dimensional Grading for the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ilas, Germina [ORNL; Primm, Trent [ORNL

    2011-05-01

    An engineering design study of the conversion of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel is ongoing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The computational models developed during fiscal year 2010 to search for an LEU fuel design that would meet the requirements for the conversion and the results obtained with these models are documented and discussed in this report. Estimates of relevant reactor performance parameters for the LEU fuel core are presented and compared with the corresponding data for the currently operating HEU fuel core. The results obtained indicate that the LEU fuel design would maintain the current performance of the HFIR with respect to the neutron flux to the central target region, reflector, and beam tube locations under the assumption that the operating power for the reactor fueled with LEU can be increased from the current value of 85 MW to 100 MW.

  19. Testing of nuclear grade lubricants and their effects on A540 B24 and A193 B7 bolting materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Czajkowski, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    An investigation was performed on eleven commonly used lubricants by the nuclear power industry. The investigation included EDS analysis of the lubricants, notched-tensile constant extension rate testing of bolting materials with the lubricants, frictional testing of the lubricants and weight loss testing of a bonded solid film lubricant. The report generally concludes that there is a significant amount of variance in the mechanical properties of common bolting materials; that MoS/sub 2/ can hydrolyze to form H/sub 2/S at 100/sup 0/C and cause stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of bolting materials, and that the use of copper-containing lubricants can be potentially detrimental to high strength steels in an aqueous environment. Additionally, the testing of various lubricants disclosed that some lubricants contain potentially detrimental elements (e.g. S, Sb) which can promote SCC of the common bolting materials. One of the most significant findings of this report is the observation that both A193 B7 and A540 B24 bolting materials are susceptible to transgranular stress corrosion cracking in demineralized H/sub 2/O at 280/sup 0/C in notched tensile tests.

  20. Growth of multi-component alloy films with controlled graded chemical composition on sub-nanometer scale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bajt, Sasa; Vernon, Stephen P.

    2005-03-15

    The chemical composition of thin films is modulated during their growth. A computer code has been developed to design specific processes for producing a desired chemical composition for various deposition geometries. Good agreement between theoretical and experimental results was achieved.

  1. Fuel Grading Study on a Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel Design for the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ilas, Germina; Primm, Trent

    2009-11-01

    An engineering design study that would enable the conversion of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from high-enriched uranium to low-enriched uranium fuel is ongoing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The computational models used to search for a low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel design that would meet the requirements for the conversion study, and the recent results obtained with these models during FY 2009, are documented and discussed in this report. Estimates of relevant reactor performance parameters for the LEU fuel core are presented and compared with the corresponding data for the currently operating high-enriched uranium fuel core. These studies indicate that the LEU fuel design would maintain the current performance of the HFIR with respect to the neutron flux to the central target region, reflector, and beam tube locations.

  2. Define and Quantify the Physics of Air Flow, Pressure Drop and Aerosol Collection in Nuclear Grade HEPA Filters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, Murray E.

    2015-02-23

    Objective: Develop a set of peer-review and verified analytical methods to adjust HEPA filter performance to different flow rates, temperatures and altitudes. Experimental testing will measure HEPA filter flow rate, pressure drop and efficiency to verify the analytical approach. Nuclear facilities utilize HEPA (High Efficiency Particulate Air) filters to purify air flow for workspace ventilation. However, the ASME AG-1 technical standard (Code on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment) does not adequately describe air flow measurement units for HEPA filter systems. Specifically, the AG-1 standard does not differentiate between volumetric air flow in ACFM (actual cubic feet per minute)compared to mass flow measured in SCFM (standard cubic feet per minute). More importantly, the AG-1 standard has an overall deficiency for using HEPA filter devices at different air flow rates, temperatures, and altitudes. Technical Approach: The collection efficiency and pressure drops of 18 different HEPA filters will be measured over a range of flow rates, temperatures and altitudes. The experimental results will be compared to analytical scoping calculations. Three manufacturers have allocated six HEPA filters each for this effort. The 18 filters will be tested at two different flow rates, two different temperatures and two different altitudes. The 36 total tests will be conducted at two different facilities: the ATI Test facilities (Baltimore MD) and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos NM). The Radiation Protection RP-SVS group at Los Alamos has an aerosol wind tunnel that was originally designed to evaluate small air samplers. In 2010, modifications were started to convert the wind tunnel for HEPA filter testing. (Extensive changes were necessary for the required aerosol generators, HEPA test fixtures, temperature control devices and measurement capabilities.) To this date, none of these modification activities have been funded through a specific DOE or NNSA program. This is expected to require six months of time, after receipt of funding. Benefits: US DOE facilities that use HEPA filters will benefit from access to the new operational measurement methods. Uncertainty and guesswork will be removed from HEPA filter operations.

  3. DOE-STD-1153-2002; A Graded Approach for Evaluating Radiation Doses to Aquatic and Terrestrial Biota

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    1 PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATION MODULE 1: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATION DOE-STD-1153-2002 INTENTIONALLY BLANK DOE-STD-1153-2002 M1-1 1 Introduction The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is accountable to Congress and the public for the safe conduct of its activities, including facility operation, waste management and disposal activities, and remediation of environmental contamination. These routine activities may result in releases of radionuclides to the air and water, accumulation of radionuclides in

  4. DOE-STD-1153-2002; A Graded Approach for Evaluating Radiation Doses to Aquatic and Terrestrial Biota

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    3 METHODS DERIVATION MODULE 3: METHODS DERIVATION DOE-STD-1153-2002 INTENTIONALLY BLANK DOE-STD-1153-2002 M3-1 1 Introduction and Basis for the Approach The Department of Energy (DOE) currently has in place a radiation dose limit of 1 rad/d (10 mGy/d) for the protection of aquatic organisms (DOE Order 5400.5), and has proposed dose limits for both aquatic and terrestrial organisms. These limits are: 1 rad/d (10 mGy/d) for aquatic animals; 1 rad/d (10 mGy/d) for terrestrial plants; and 0.1 rad/d

  5. DOE-STD-1153-2002; A Graded Approach for Evaluating Radiation Doses to Aquatic and Terrestrial Biota

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    M3-19 3 Equations and Models for Calculating Dose to Biota and Deriving BCGs Based on the potential pathways of exposure, BCGs were derived for surface water, sediment, and soil. Calculated using conservative assumptions, the BCGs are intended to preclude the relevant biota from being exposed to radiation levels in excess of established or recommended biota dose limits. Determination of compliance with the dose limits requires that all organism- relevant environmental media be evaluated at the

  6. Millisecond Oxidation of Alkanes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-09-01

    This factsheet describes a project whose goal is to commercialize a production process for propylene and acrylic acid from propane using a catalytic auto-thermal oxydehydrogenation process operating at short contact times.

  7. Recovery and purification of ethylene

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reyneke, Rian (Katy, TX); Foral, Michael J. (Aurora, IL); Lee, Guang-Chung (Houston, TX); Eng, Wayne W. Y. (League City, TX); Sinclair, Iain (Warrington, GB); Lodgson, Jeffery S. (Naperville, IL)

    2008-10-21

    A process for the recovery and purification of ethylene and optionally propylene from a stream containing lighter and heavier components that employs an ethylene distributor column and a partially thermally coupled distributed distillation system.

  8. TABLES8.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    S8. PropanePropylene Supply and Disposition, 1988 - Present (Thousand Barrels per Day, Except Where Noted) a A negative number indicates a decrease in stocks and a positive number...

  9. TABLE04.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    1 111 Liquefied Petroleum Gases ... 1,522 833 304 - 515 - 179 48 1,916 EthaneEthylene ... 676 19 (s) - 58 - 0 0 637 PropanePropylene...

  10. TABLE16.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    0 87 Liquefied Petroleum Gases ... 1,024 520 188 - 118 326 - 103 13 1,408 EthaneEthylene ... 470 19 0 - 149 41 - 0 0 597 PropanePropylene...

  11. TABLE12.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    19 8 - 41 1 3 Liquefied Petroleum Gases ... 267 144 81 - -26 141 - 32 9 284 EthaneEthylene ... 119 0 (s) - -63 17 - 0 0 39 PropanePropylene...

  12. TABLE05.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    177 2 134 Liquefied Petroleum Gases ... 1,519 711 246 - 78 - 216 46 2,137 EthaneEthylene ... 672 22 (s) - 6 - 0 0 688 PropanePropylene...

  13. TABLE13.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    17 2 - 43 1 4 Liquefied Petroleum Gases ... 269 112 94 - (s) 14 - 43 6 412 EthaneEthylene ... 117 0 (s) - -51 -1 - 0 0 68 PropanePropylene...

  14. TABLE08.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    - 0 (s) - 0 (s) 2 Liquefied Petroleum Gases ... 15 69 31 - 69 37 - 5 3 140 EthaneEthylene ... 1 (s) 0 - 0 0 - 0 0 1 PropanePropylene...

  15. TABLE09.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    - 0 - 0 (s) - 0 2 1 Liquefied Petroleum Gases ... 15 56 45 - 98 5 - 4 3 201 EthaneEthylene ... 1 (s) 0 - 0 0 - 0 0 1 PropanePropylene...

  16. TABLE17.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    99 0 110 Liquefied Petroleum Gases ... 1,015 462 99 - 52 61 - 120 21 1,426 EthaneEthylene ... 471 22 (s) - 129 8 - 0 0 614 PropanePropylene...

  17. TABLE06.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Petroleum Gases ... 467 2,152 958 - 2,153 1,136 - 162 97 4,335 7,396 EthaneEthylene ... 17 11 0 - 0 0 - 0 0 28 0 PropanePropylene...

  18. TABLE07.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Gases ... 3,152 11,938 9,601 - 20,805 1,160 - 858 563 42,915 7,396 EthaneEthylene ... 161 52 0 - 0 0 - 0 0 213 0 PropanePropylene...

  19. Millisecond Oxidation of Alkanes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This factsheet describes a project whose goal is to commercialize a production process for propylene and acrylic acid from propane using a catalytic auto-thermal oxydehydrogenation process operating at short contact times. Auto-thermal oxidation for conversion of propane to propylene and acrylic acid promises energy savings of 20 trillion Btu per year by 2020. In addition to reducing energy consumption, this technology can reduce manufacturing costs by up to 25 percent, and reduce a variety of greenhouse gas emissions.

  20. Refinery Net Production of Total Finished Petroleum Products

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Product: Total Finished Petroleum Products Liquefied Refinery Gases Ethane/Ethylene Ethane Ethylene Propane/Propylene Propane Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Normal Butane Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Isobutane Isobutylene Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Reformulated Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Reformulated Other Conventional Gasoline Conventional Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol Conventional Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol, Ed55 and Lower Conventional Blended w/ Fuel Ethanol, Greater than Ed55

  1. http://www.ornl.gov/Procurement.PDF

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    893 1. All Grade 5 and Grade 8 fasteners of foreign origin which do not bear any manufacturer's headmarks: Grade 5 Grade 8 2. Grade 5 fasteners with the following manufacturers'...

  2. Dehydrogenation links LPG to more octanes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gussow, S.; Spence, D.C.; White, E.A.

    1980-01-01

    Air Products and Chemicals Inc.'s Houdry Catofin process, a new application of well-known Houdry catalytic dehydrogenation technology, is an adiabatic, fixed-bed, multireactor catalytic process which produces propylene, isobutylene, and mixed n-butylenes by dehydrogenation of the corresponding saturates. The process is very flexible in that propylene, isobutylene, and mixed n-butylenes can be produced either separately or simultaneously from the corresponding saturates. The process will be used to prepare purity propylene at a Morelos, Mex., plant, which is now in the engineering stage. Five variations of the procedure for producing propylene; methyl tert.-butyl ether; propylene and alkylate; methyl tert.-butyl ether and alkylate; and methyl tert.-butyl ether, alkylate, and 1-butylene are compared with respect to typical product yields, costs and values for process economics, the dehydrogenation route to the three products, manufacturing costs, the sensitivity of return on investment to feedstock costs, and the return on investment, which varies from a low of 11.5% for the third case to a high of 14.4% for the fourth case. The Catofin process is discussed.

  3. Integrated process and dual-function catalyst for olefin epoxidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhou, Bing (Cranbury, NJ); Rueter, Michael (Plymouth Meeting, PA)

    2003-01-01

    The invention discloses a dual-functional catalyst composition and an integrated process for production of olefin epoxides including propylene oxide by catalytic reaction of hydrogen peroxide from hydrogen and oxygen with olefin feeds such as propylene. The epoxides and hydrogen peroxide are preferably produced simultaneously in situ. The dual-functional catalyst comprises noble metal crystallites with dimensions on the nanometer scale (on the order of <1 nm to 10 nm), specially dispersed on titanium silicalite substrate particles. The dual functional catalyst catalyzes both the direct reaction of hydrogen and oxygen to generate hydrogen peroxide intermediate on the noble metal catalyst surface and the reaction of the hydrogen peroxide intermediate with the propylene feed to generate propylene oxide product. Combining both these functions in a single catalyst provides a very efficient integrated process operable below the flammability limits of hydrogen and highly selective for the production of hydrogen peroxide to produce olefin oxides such as propylene oxide without formation of undesired co-products.

  4. Process for the preparation of cumene

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

    1991-10-08

    Cumene is produced in a catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 50 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a molecular sieve characterized as acidic by feeding propylene to the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux to result in a molar excess present in the reactor to that required to react with propylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the propylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and cumene and diisopropyl benzene in the bottoms. The bottoms are fractionated, the cumene recovered and the bottoms are contacted with benzene in the liquid phase in a fixed bed straight pass reactor under conditions to transalkylate the benzene thereby converting most of the diisopropyl benzene to cumene which is again separated and recovered. 2 figures.

  5. Process for the preparation of cumene

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.; Arganbright, Robert P.; Hearn, Dennis

    1991-01-01

    Cumene is produced in a catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 50.degree. C. to 500.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic by feeding propylene to the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux to result in a molar excess present in the reactor to that required to react with propylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the propylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and cumene and diisopropyl benzene in the bottoms. The bottoms are fractionated, the cumene recovered and the bottoms are contacted with benzene in the liquid phase in a fixed bed straight pass reactor under conditions to transalkylate the benzene thereby converting most of the diisopropyl benzene to cumene which is again separated and recovered.

  6. Methods of producing compounds from plant material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Werpy, Todd A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Frye, Jr., John G.; Zacher, Alan H.; Franz, James A.; Alnajjar, Mikhail S.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Alderson, Eric V.; Orth, Rick J.; Abbas, Charles A.; Beery, Kyle E.; Rammelsberg, Anne M.; Kim, Catherine J.

    2006-01-03

    The invention includes methods of processing plant material by adding water to form a mixture, heating the mixture, and separating a liquid component from a solid-comprising component. At least one of the liquid component and the solid-comprising component undergoes additional processing. Processing of the solid-comprising component produces oils, and processing of the liquid component produces one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention includes a process of forming glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol from plant matter by adding water, heating and filtering the plant matter. The filtrate containing starch, starch fragments, hemicellulose and fragments of hemicellulose is treated to form linear poly-alcohols which are then cleaved to produce one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention also includes a method of producing free and/or complexed sterols and stanols from plant material.

  7. Methods of producing compounds from plant materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Werpy, Todd A. (West Richland, WA); Schmidt, Andrew J. (Richland, WA); Frye, Jr., John G. (Richland, WA); Zacher, Alan H. (Kennewick, WA), Franz; James A. (Kennewick, WA), Alnajjar; Mikhail S. (Richland, WA), Neuenschwander; Gary G. (Burbank, WA), Alderson; Eric V. (Kennewick, WA), Orth; Rick J. (Kennewick, WA), Abbas; Charles A. (Champaign, IL), Beery; Kyle E. (Decatur, IL), Rammelsberg; Anne M. (Decatur, IL), Kim; Catherine J. (Decatur, IL)

    2010-01-26

    The invention includes methods of processing plant material by adding water to form a mixture, heating the mixture, and separating a liquid component from a solid-comprising component. At least one of the liquid component and the solid-comprising component undergoes additional processing. Processing of the solid-comprising component produces oils, and processing of the liquid component produces one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention includes a process of forming glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol from plant matter by adding water, heating and filtering the plant matter. The filtrate containing starch, starch fragments, hemicellulose and fragments of hemicellulose is treated to form linear poly-alcohols which are then cleaved to produce one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention also includes a method of producing free and/or complexed sterols and stanols from plant material.

  8. Method and apparatus for the evaluation of a depth profile of thermo-mechanical properties of layered and graded materials and coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Finot, M.; Kesler, O.; Suresh, S.

    1998-12-08

    A technique for determining properties such as Young`s modulus, coefficient of thermal expansion, and residual stress of individual layers within a multi-layered sample is presented. The technique involves preparation of a series of samples, each including one additional layer relative to the preceding sample. By comparison of each sample to a preceding sample, properties of the topmost layer can be determined, and residual stress at any depth in each sample, resulting from deposition of the top layer, can be determined. 11 figs.

  9. Issues in the use of Weapons-Grade MOX Fuel in VVER-1000 Nuclear Reactors: Comparison of UO2 and MOX Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carbajo, J.J.

    2005-05-27

    The purpose of this report is to quantify the differences between mixed oxide (MOX) and low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuels and to assess in reasonable detail the potential impacts of MOX fuel use in VVER-1000 nuclear power plants in Russia. This report is a generic tool to assist in the identification of plant modifications that may be required to accommodate receiving, storing, handling, irradiating, and disposing of MOX fuel in VVER-1000 reactors. The report is based on information from work performed by Russian and U.S. institutions. The report quantifies each issue, and the differences between LEU and MOX fuels are described as accurately as possible, given the current sources of data.

  10. Separating semiconductor devices from substrate by etching graded composition release layer disposed between semiconductor devices and substrate including forming protuberances that reduce stiction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tauke-Pedretti, Anna; Nielson, Gregory N; Cederberg, Jeffrey G; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis

    2015-05-12

    A method includes etching a release layer that is coupled between a plurality of semiconductor devices and a substrate with an etch. The etching includes etching the release layer between the semiconductor devices and the substrate until the semiconductor devices are at least substantially released from the substrate. The etching also includes etching a protuberance in the release layer between each of the semiconductor devices and the substrate. The etch is stopped while the protuberances remain between each of the semiconductor devices and the substrate. The method also includes separating the semiconductor devices from the substrate. Other methods and apparatus are also disclosed.

  11. Method and apparatus for the evaluation of a depth profile of thermo-mechanical properties of layered and graded materials and coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Finot, Marc (Somerville, MA); Kesler, Olivera (Cambridge, MA); Suresh, Subra (Wellesley, MA)

    1998-01-01

    A technique for determining properties such as Young's modulus, coefficient of thermal expansion, and residual stress of individual layers within a multi-layered sample is presented. The technique involves preparation of a series of samples, each including one additional layer relative to the preceding sample. By comparison of each sample to a preceding sample, properties of the topmost layer can be determined, and residual stress at any depth in each sample, resulting from deposition of the top layer, can be determined.

  12. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Grades K-2 Check out these energy activities for grades K-2. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadsfun-sun-teachers-activity-guide-elementary-grades-k-2-1 Download Renewable...

  13. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Grades K-2 Check out these energy activities for grades K-2. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadsfun-sun-teachers-activity-guide-elementary-grades-k-2-1 Download...

  14. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Grades K-2 Check out these energy activities for grades K-2. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadsfun-sun-teachers-activity-guide-elementary-grades-k-2-1 Download What...

  15. LPG--a direct source of C/sub 3/-C/sub 4/ olefins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pujado, P.R.; Berg, R.C.; Vora, B.V.

    1983-03-28

    This article describes the selective production of olefins by the catalytic dehydrogenation of the corresponding paraffins by means of UOP's Oleflex process. In this process, propylene can be obtained at about 85 mol % selectivity by the catalytic dehydrogenation of propane. Isobutylene can be obtained at selectivities in excess of 90 mol % from isobutane, and n-butenes (1-butene plus 2-butene) at about 80 mol % from n-butane. The availability of this technology, coupled with an abundant supply of LPG (C/sub 3/ and C/sub 4/ paraffins), opens new avenues for the selective production of propylene and butylenes.

  16. FCC LPG olefinicity and branching enhanced by octane catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keyworth, D.A.; Reid, T.A.; Kreider, K.R.; Yatsu, C.A.

    1989-05-29

    Refiners are increasingly recognizing the downstream opportunities for fluid catalytic cracking LPG olefins for the production of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE, if the ethanol subsidy is extended to the production of ETBE), and as petrochemical feedstocks. Some of new gasoline FCC octane-enhancing catalysts can support those opportunities because their low non-framework alumina (low NFA) preserve both LPG olefinicity and promote branching of the LPG streams from the FCCU. The combined effect results in more isobutane for alkylate feed, more propylene in the propane/propylene stream, and more isobutene - which makes the addition of an MTBE unit very enticing.

  17. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Propane/Propylene " ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Stocks of Propane/Propylene ",8,"Weekly","3/11/2016","3/5/1993" ,"Release Date:","3/16/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","3/23/2016" ,"Excel File

  18. Jefferson Lab Offers Science Enrichment Program for 5th, 6th &amp; 8th

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Grade Teachers | Jefferson Lab Wednesday, August 4

  19. Jefferson Lab Offers Science Enrichment Program for 5th, 6th &amp; 8th

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Grade Teachers | Jefferson Lab Monday, July 26

  20. Thermomechanical response of a semicrystalline polymer in the vicinity of the melting by using microcantilever technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soccio, M.; Rueda, D. R.; Garca-Gutirrez, M. C.; Ezquerra, T. A.; Luongo, G.; Esteves, C.; Salvador-Matar, A.; Ahumada, O.; Lotti, N.; Munari, A.

    2014-06-23

    The melting transition of a model semicrystalline polymer has been detected by the microcantilever deflection as a function of temperature. Deflection measurements were done on arrays of 8-cantilevers spin coated with the semicrystalline polymer: poly (propylene azelate). The melting of the polymer has been corroborated by grazing incidence wide angle x-ray scattering experiments performed with synchrotron radiation over a single cantilever.

  1. TABLE17.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    7. Refinery Net Production of Finished Petroleum Products by PAD and Refining Districts, January 1998 Liquefied Refinery Gases ........................................... 576 -7 569 2,415 -51 392 2,756 Ethane/Ethylene ..................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Ethane ............................................................... W W W W W W W Ethylene ............................................................ W W W W W W W Propane/Propylene

  2. ERRATA SHEET FOR WPSR WEEK ENDING 6/7/2013

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    6713 733 830 97 9 Other Oils Product Supplied U.S. WWOUPNUS2 6713 3,038 2,941 -97 A1 PropanePropylene Monthly from Weekly Stocks U.S. NA May 2013 47.5 47.4 -0.1 A1 Other...

  3. Continuous wasteless ecologically safe technology of propylenecarbonate production in presence of phthalocyanine catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Afanasiev, Vladimir Vasilievich (Moscow, RU); Zefirov, Nikolai Serafimovich (Moscow, RU); Zalepugin, Dmitry Yurievich (Moscow, RU); Polyakov, Victor Stanislavovich (Moscow, RU); Tilkunova,Nataliya Alexandrovna (Moscow, RU); Tomilova, Larisa Godvigovna (Moscow, RU)

    2009-09-08

    A continuous method of producing propylenecarbonate includes carboxylation of propylene oxide with carbon dioxide in presence of phthalocyanine catalyst on an inert carrier, using as the phthalocyanine catalyst at least one catalyst selected from the group consisting of not-substituted, methyl, ethyl, butyl, and tret butyl-substituted phthalocyanines of metals, including those containing counterions, and using as the carrier a hydrophobic carrier.

  4. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Liquefied Petroleum Gases 3,797 14,651 14,958 24,531 - 87 1,187 899 55,764 6,788 EthaneEthylene 101 73 0 0 - 0 0 0 174 0 PropanePropylene 2,462 13,334 13,224 24,164 - -1,369 0...

  5. PSA Vol 1 Tables Revised Ver 2 Print.xls

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    95 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 14,528 24,908 905 0 - -17 14,218 6,684 19,456 3,094 EthaneEthylene 44 0 0 0 - -1 0 0 45 0 PropanePropylene 4,842 20,540 672 0 - 130 0 5,589 20,335...

  6. PSA Vol 1 Tables Revised Ver 2 Print.xls

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Petroleum Gases 96,786 38,214 39,774 8,116 - -1,564 25,650 3,426 155,378 28,105 EthaneEthylene 42,381 0 215 -20,104 - -929 0 0 23,421 2,622 PropanePropylene 36,474 39,477...

  7. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Liquefied Petroleum Gases 7,801 2,345 2,659 608 - -1,415 2,208 292 12,328 39,735 EthaneEthylene 3,343 0 11 -1,329 - -285 0 0 2,310 2,564 PropanePropylene 3,057 3,173 2,300...

  8. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Petroleum Gases 5,178 15,123 22,036 36,994 - -1,344 1,656 1,039 77,980 5,357 EthaneEthylene 148 107 0 0 - 0 0 0 255 0 PropanePropylene 3,345 17,172 19,114 36,150 - -1,318 0...

  9. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    258 171 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 3,934 -136 508 -2,842 - -136 269 0 1,331 1,382 EthaneEthylene 1,429 0 0 -1,576 - -5 0 0 -142 323 PropanePropylene 1,519 232 420 -635 - -203 0...

  10. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    95 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 14,530 25,070 857 0 - -13 13,691 6,684 20,095 3,094 EthaneEthylene 43 0 0 0 - -1 0 0 44 0 PropanePropylene 4,845 20,606 627 0 - 134 0 5,589 20,355...

  11. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Liquefied Petroleum Gases 6,559 2,031 4,512 3,583 - -9,046 3,705 97 21,929 28,248 EthaneEthylene 2,484 0 9 -500 - -249 0 0 2,242 2,622 PropanePropylene 2,717 3,506 3,958 3,271 -...

  12. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Liquefied Petroleum Gases 48,006 1,688 1,875 -40,115 - 125 2,495 172 8,662 1,510 EthaneEthylene 23,291 0 0 -21,961 - -7 0 0 1,337 322 PropanePropylene 15,540 2,285 1,537...

  13. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Liquefied Petroleum Gases 62,586 1,434 3,056 -51,188 - -3 3,410 185 12,296 1,382 EthaneEthylene 29,842 0 0 -28,059 - -6 0 0 1,789 323 PropanePropylene 20,545 2,970 2,464...

  14. PSA Vol 1 Tables Revised Ver 2 Print.xls

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Petroleum Gases 5,202 15,123 23,191 36,994 - -1,344 1,693 1,039 79,122 5,357 EthaneEthylene 148 107 0 0 - 0 0 0 255 0 PropanePropylene 3,359 17,172 20,262 36,150 - -1,318 0...

  15. PSA Vol 1 Tables Revised Ver 2 Print.xls

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Liquefied Petroleum Gases 62,852 1,440 3,251 -51,618 - -58 3,410 185 12,388 1,382 EthaneEthylene 29,950 0 0 -27,892 - -9 0 0 2,067 323 PropanePropylene 20,635 2,967 2,659...

  16. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    242 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 10,892 20,928 694 0 - 2,397 9,225 5,184 15,708 5,504 EthaneEthylene 32 0 0 0 - -1 0 0 33 0 PropanePropylene 3,600 15,411 482 0 - 916 0 4,094 14,483...

  17. Gel bead composition for metal adsorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Woodward, Charlene A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Byers, Charles H. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1991-01-01

    The invention is a gel bead comprising propylene glycol alginate and bone gelatin and is capable of removing metals such as Sr and Cs from solution without adding other adsorbents. The invention could have application to the nuclear industry's waste removal activities.

  18. Gel bead composition for metal adsorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Woodward, Charlene A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Byers, Charles H. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1990-01-01

    The invention is a gel bead comprising propylene glycol alginate and bone gelatin and is capable of removing metals such as Sr and Cs from solution without adding other adsorbents. The invention could have application to the nuclear industry's waste removal activities.

  19. CX-007693: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    GE Global Research - Nanoclay-reinforced Ethylene-Propylene-Rubber for Low Cost HVDC Cabling CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6 Date: 11/15/2011 Location(s): New York Offices(s): Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy

  20. PSA Vol 1 Tables Revised Ver 2 Print.xls

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Liquefied Petroleum Gases 37,139 145 36,994 72,800 64,684 8,116 96,744 90,236 6,508 EthaneEthylene 0 0 0 13,894 33,998 -20,104 59,102 11,106 47,996 PropanePropylene 36,220 70...

  1. PSA Vol 1 Tables Revised Ver 2 Print.xls

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    1 423 424 2,395 7 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 1,039 3,426 8,005 185 6,684 19,338 53 EthaneEthylene 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 PropanePropylene 206 544 7,332 12 5,589 13,683 37 Normal...

  2. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    -660 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 4,949 0 4,949 8,145 4,562 3,583 5,504 11,194 -5,690 EthaneEthylene 0 0 0 1,084 1,584 -500 2,956 880 2,076 PropanePropylene 4,739 0 4,739 5,400...

  3. PSA Vol 1 Tables Revised Ver 2 Print.xls

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Pentanes Plus 30 - 1 -17 - 0 6 1 6 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 172 4 9 -141 - 0 9 1 34 EthaneEthylene 82 0 0 -76 - 0 0 0 6 PropanePropylene 57 8 7 -39 - 0 0 0 33 Normal Butane...

  4. untitled

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    507 778 -271 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 2,645 0 2,645 4,543 3,935 608 6,974 5,995 979 EthaneEthylene 0 0 0 962 2,291 -1,329 4,412 751 3,661 PropanePropylene 2,638 0 2,638 2,474...

  5. Producing Beneficial Materials from Biomass and Biodiesel Byproducts

    Energy Innovation Portal (Marketing Summaries) [EERE]

    2010-02-02

    Researchers at Berkeley Lab have created a process to produce olefins from polyols that may be biomass derived. The team is also the first to introduce a method of producing high purity allyl alcohol at a large scale by using glycerol as the starting material instead propylene, a petroleum feedstock....

  6. Millisecond Oxidation of Alkanes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Han

    2011-09-30

    This project was undertaken in response to the Department of Energy's call to research and develop technologies 'that will reduce energy consumption, enhance economic competitiveness, and reduce environmental impacts of the domestic chemical industry.' The current technology at the time for producing 140 billion pounds per year of propylene from naphtha and Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG) relied on energy- and capital-intensive steam crackers and Fluidized Catalytic Cracking (FCC) units. The propylene is isolated from the product stream in a costly separation step and subsequently converted to acrylic acid and other derivatives in separate production facilities. This project proposed a Short Contact Time Reactor (SCTR)-based catalytic oxydehydrogenation process that could convert propane to propylene and acrylic acid in a cost-effective and energy-efficient fashion. Full implementation of this technology could lead to sizeable energy, economic and environmental benefits for the U. S. chemical industry by providing up to 45 trillion BTUs/year, cost savings of $1.8 billion/year and a combined 35 million pounds/year reduction in environmental pollutants such as COx, NOx, and SOx. Midway through the project term, the program directive changed, which approval from the DOE and its review panel, from direct propane oxidation to acrylic acid at millisecond contact times to a two-step process for making acrylic acid from propane. The first step was the primary focus, namely the conversion of propane to propylene in high yields assisted by the presence of CO2. The product stream from step one was then to be fed directly into a commercially practiced propylene-to-acrylic acid tandem reactor system.

  7. Prices of Refiner Motor Gasoline Sales to End Users

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Product/ Sales Type: Gasoline, All Grades - Sales to End Users (U.S. only) Gasoline, All Grades - Through Retail Outlets Gasoline, All Grades - Other End Users Gasoline, All Grades - Sales for Resale Gasoline, All Grades - DTW (U.S. only) Gasoline, All Grades - Rack (U.S. only) Gasoline, All Grades - Bulk (U.S. only) Regular Gasoline - Sales to End Users (U.S. only) Regular Gasoline - Through Retail Outlets Regular Gasoline - Other End Users Regular Gasoline - Sales for Resale Regular Gasoline -

  8. International Energy Agency Building Energy Simulation Test and Diagnostic Method (IEA BESTEST): In-Depth Diagnostic Cases for Ground Coupled Heat Transfer Related to Slab-on-Grade Construction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neymark, J.; Judkoff, R.; Beausoleil-Morrison, I.; Ben-Nakhi, A.; Crowley, M.; Deru, M.; Henninger, R.; Ribberink, H.; Thornton, J.; Wijsman, A.; Witte, M.

    2008-09-01

    This report documents a set of idealized in-depth diagnostic test cases for use in validating ground-coupled floor slab heat transfer models. These test cases represent an extension to IEA BESTEST.

  9. Radionuclide inventories : ORIGEN2.2 isotopic depletion calculation for high burnup low-enriched uranium and weapons-grade mixed-oxide pressurized-water reactor fuel assemblies.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gauntt, Randall O.; Ross, Kyle W.; Smith, James Dean; Longmire, Pamela

    2010-04-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory computer code, ORIGEN2.2 (CCC-371, 2002), was used to obtain the elemental composition of irradiated low-enriched uranium (LEU)/mixed-oxide (MOX) pressurized-water reactor fuel assemblies. Described in this report are the input parameters for the ORIGEN2.2 calculations. The rationale for performing the ORIGEN2.2 calculation was to generate inventories to be used to populate MELCOR radionuclide classes. Therefore the ORIGEN2.2 output was subsequently manipulated. The procedures performed in this data reduction process are also described herein. A listing of the ORIGEN2.2 input deck for two-cycle MOX is provided in the appendix. The final output from this data reduction process was three tables containing the radionuclide inventories for LEU/MOX in elemental form. Masses, thermal powers, and activities were reported for each category.

  10. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Grades K-2 Check out these energy activities for grades K-2. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadsfun-sun-teachers-activity-guide-elementary-grades-k-2-1 previous 1 2 next...

  11. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wind (2) Filter by Grade Level: K-8 Grade Teachers Remove K-8 Grade Teachers filter PressMedia Remove PressMedia filter Educators (2) Apply Educators filter Elementary (K-5)...

  12. Catalytic reactive separation system for energy-efficient production of cumene

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buelna, Genoveva; Nenoff, Tina M.

    2009-07-28

    The present invention relates to an atmospheric pressure, reactive separation column packed with a solid acid zeolite catalyst for producing cumene from the reaction of benzene with propylene. Use of this un-pressurized column, where simultaneous reaction and partial separation occur during cumene production, allow separation of un-reacted, excess benzene from other products as they form. This high-yielding, energy-efficient system allows for one-step processing of cumene, with reduced need for product purification. Reacting propylene and benzene in the presence of beta zeolite catalysts generated a selectivity greater than 85% for catalytic separation reactions at a reaction temperature of 115 degrees C and at ambient pressure. Simultaneously, up to 76% of un-reacted benzene was separated from the product; which could be recycled back to the reactor for re-use.

  13. Photoresponsive Release from Azobenzene-Modified Single Cubic Crystal NaCl/Silica Particles

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jiang, Xingmao; Liu, Nanguo; Assink, Roger A.; Jiang, Yingbing; Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Azobenzene ligands were uniformly anchored to the pore surfaces of nanoporous silica particles with single crystal NaCl using 4-(3-triethoxysilylpropylureido)azobenzene (TSUA). The functionalization delayed the release of NaCl significantly. The modified particles demonstrated a photocontrolled release by trans/cis isomerization of azobenzene moieties. The addition of amphiphilic solvents, propylene glycol (PG), propylene glycol propyl ether (PGPE), and dipropylene glycol propyl ether (DPGPE) delayed the release in water, although the wetting behavior was improved and the delay is the most for the block molecules with the longest carbon chain. The speedup by UV irradiation suggests a strong dependence of diffusion on the switchablemore » pore size. TGA, XRD, FTIR, and NMR techniques were used to characterize the structures.« less

  14. Properties of ethylene carbonate and its use in electrochemical applications: a literature review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, P.H.

    1985-06-01

    Ethylene carbonate (C/sub 3/H/sub 4/O/sub 3/) is an important industrial solvent and used extensively in the textile and cosmetic industry. Ethylene carbonate (EC) and propylene carbonate (PC) were tested for use as solvents for electrochemical applications. High chemical and electrochemical stability, low toxicity, good ionizing and solvating ability and low volatility make both EC and PC suitable solvents for electrochemical applications. Propylene carbonate has been used extensively in lithium batteries and nonaqueous electrochemical studies. The intent of this review is to stimulate the use of ethylene carbonate in nonaqueous electrochemistry. This review covers the literature up to January 1, 1985. 147 refs., 14 figs., 51 tabs.

  15. Enrichment of light hydrocarbon mixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang; Dali (Los Alamos, NM); Devlin, David (Santa Fe, NM); Barbero, Robert S. (Santa Cruz, NM); Carrera, Martin E. (Naperville, IL); Colling, Craig W. (Warrenville, IL)

    2010-08-10

    Light hydrocarbon enrichment is accomplished using a vertically oriented distillation column having a plurality of vertically oriented, nonselective micro/mesoporous hollow fibers. Vapor having, for example, both propylene and propane is sent upward through the distillation column in between the hollow fibers. Vapor exits neat the top of the column and is condensed to form a liquid phase that is directed back downward through the lumen of the hollow fibers. As vapor continues to ascend and liquid continues to countercurrently descend, the liquid at the bottom of the column becomes enriched in a higher boiling point, light hydrocarbon (propane, for example) and the vapor at the top becomes enriched in a lower boiling point light hydrocarbon (propylene, for example). The hollow fiber becomes wetted with liquid during the process.

  16. Enrichment of light hydrocarbon mixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Dali (Los Alamos, NM); Devlin, David (Santa Fe, NM); Barbero, Robert S. (Santa Cruz, NM); Carrera, Martin E. (Naperville, IL); Colling, Craig W. (Warrenville, IL)

    2011-11-29

    Light hydrocarbon enrichment is accomplished using a vertically oriented distillation column having a plurality of vertically oriented, nonselective micro/mesoporous hollow fibers. Vapor having, for example, both propylene and propane is sent upward through the distillation column in between the hollow fibers. Vapor exits neat the top of the column and is condensed to form a liquid phase that is directed back downward through the lumen of the hollow fibers. As vapor continues to ascend and liquid continues to countercurrently descend, the liquid at the bottom of the column becomes enriched in a higher boiling point, light hydrocarbon (propane, for example) and the vapor at the top becomes enriched in a lower boiling point light hydrocarbon (propylene, for example). The hollow fiber becomes wetted with liquid during the process.

  17. Ethylene plant commissioned at Corpus Christi

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Ethylene Plant Commissioned at Corpus Christi. Corpus Christi Petrochemical Co. has commissioned its $600 million ethylene plant at Corpus Christi, Tex. Plant capacities include 1.2 billion lb/yr of ethylene, 560 million lb/yr of propylene, 400 million lb/yr of crude butadiene mixture, 60 million gal of benzene, 45 million gal of gasoline blending components, and 50 million gal of fuel oils. The ethylene and propylene will be transported by pipeline to Houston for further processing. At the Corpus Christi facilities, process pressures range from full vacuum to 1800 psig, and process temperatures range from -260/sup 0/ to +1600/sup 0/F. The plant uses gas oil and naphtha as feedstock, but also has some flexibility to use ethane or LPG as feedstock. Stone and Webster Engineering Corp. engineered and Brown and Root Inc. built the plant.

  18. Selective dehydrogenation of propane over novel catalytic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sault, A.G.; Boespflug, E.P.; Martino, A.; Kawola, J.S.

    1998-02-01

    The conversion of small alkanes into alkenes represents an important chemical processing area; ethylene and propylene are the two most important organic chemicals manufactured in the U.S. These chemicals are currently manufactured by steam cracking of ethane and propane, an extremely energy intensive, nonselective process. The development of catalytic technologies (e.g., selective dehydrogenation) that can be used to produce ethylene and propylene from ethane and propane with greater selectivity and lower energy consumption than steam cracking will have a major impact on the chemical processing industry. This report details a study of two novel catalytic materials for the selective dehydrogenation of propane: Cr supported on hydrous titanium oxide ion-exchangers, and Pt nanoparticles encapsulated in silica and alumina aerogel and xerogel matrices.

  19. Lithium ion battery with improved safety

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Chun-hua; Hyung, Yoo Eup; Vissers, Donald R.; Amine, Khalil

    2006-04-11

    A lithium battery with improved safety that utilizes one or more additives in the battery electrolyte solution wherein a lithium salt is dissolved in an organic solvent, which may contain propylene, carbonate. For example, a blend of 2 wt % triphenyl phosphate (TPP), 1 wt % diphenyl monobutyl phosphate (DMP) and 2 wt % vinyl ethylene carbonate additives has been found to significantly enhance the safety and performance of Li-ion batteries using a LiPF6 salt in EC/DEC electrolyte solvent. The invention relates to both the use of individual additives and to blends of additives such as that shown in the above example at concentrations of 1 to 4-wt % in the lithium battery electrolyte. This invention relates to additives that suppress gas evolution in the cell, passivate graphite electrode and protect it from exfoliating in the presence of propylene carbonate solvents in the electrolyte, and retard flames in the lithium batteries.

  20. U.S. Refinery Net Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Jul-15 Aug-15 Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 View History Total 379,398 376,546 352,148 350,299 353,077 362,368 2005-2015 Liquefied Refinery Gases 26,335 25,920 17,388 13,536 9,912 10,243 2005-2015 Ethane/Ethylene 188 127 158 202 196 226 2005-2015 Ethane 163 110 133 173 165 194 2005-2015 Ethylene 25 17 25 29 31 32 2005-2015 Propane/Propylene 18,010 17,811 15,869 16,121 16,574 17,905 2005-2015 Propane 8,767 8,530 7,955 7,965 8,303 8,831 2005-2015 Propylene 9,243 9,281 7,914 8,156 8,271 9,074

  1. Rapid processing of carbon-carbon composites by forced flow-thermal gradient chemical vapor infiltration (FCVI)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vaidyaraman, S.; Lackey, W.J.; Agrawal, P.K.; Freeman, G.B.; Langman, M.D.

    1995-10-01

    Carbon fiber-carbon matrix composites were fabricated using the forced flow-thermal gradient chemical vapor infiltration (FCVI) process. Preforms were prepared by stacking 40 layers of plain weave carbon cloth in a graphite holder. The preforms were infiltrated using propylene, propane, and methane. The present work showed that the FCVI process is well suited for fabricating carbon-carbon composites; without optimization of the process, the authors have achieved uniform and thorough densification. Composites with porosities as low as 7% were fabricated in 8--12 h. The highest deposition rate obtained in the present study was {approximately}3 {micro}m/h which is more than an order of magnitude faster than the typical value of 0.1--0.25 {micro}m/h for the isothermal process. It was also found that the use of propylene and propane as reagents resulted in faster infiltration compared to methane.

  2. Lesson Plan: Home Energy Investigation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Investigation Author: Alexis Durow Grade LevelSubject 9 th 10 th Grade Environmental Science Relevant curriculum standards: CONTENT STANDARD D: As a result of their...

  3. NREL: Workforce Development and Education Programs - Educational...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Grades 9-12 Solar Energy Science Projects: Grades 9-12 Transportation NESEA Cars ... Conducting a School Energy Audit presentation Exploration of Electrical Use in the ...

  4. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    activities for grades K-2. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadsfun-sun-teachers-activity-guide-elementary-grades-k-2-1 Download Energy for Keeps: Electricity and...

  5. X:\\Data_Publication\\Pma\\current\\ventura\\pma00.vp

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 13. U.S. Refiner Reformulated Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type . . . . . . ....

  6. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    energy activities for grades K-2. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadsfun-sun-teachers-activity-guide-elementary-grades-k-2-1 Download Summer Camp 2050 Students will work...

  7. Search results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    energy activities for grades K-2. http:energy.goveereeducationdownloadsfun-sun-teachers-activity-guide-elementary-grades-k-2-1 Download Life With Energy Students will...

  8. Biomass: Potato Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    POTATO POWER Curriculum: Biomass Power (organic chemistry, chemicalcarbon cycles, plants, energy resourcestransformations) Grade Level: Grades 2 to 3 Small groups (3 to 4) Time:...

  9. Petroleum Products Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1995 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued Geographic Area Month Premium All Grades Sales...

  10. Petroleum Products Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2000 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued Geographic Area Month Premium All Grades Sales...

  11. Power Monitoring for Connected Lighting Systems

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    * Provides more granular data * Dependent on connectivity * Moving to utility-grade or revenue- grade accuracy Power-Monitoring Implementations 5 A centralized power-monitoring...

  12. QA Summit Presentations

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    NQA-1 SuppliersVendors; * Commercial Grade Dedication (CGD) Implementation; * Graded Approach to Quality - Implementation; * Federal Understanding of Quality Assurance (QA) and...

  13. Microsoft Word - o232 2 CLEAN for page change 3-11-14

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    required to improve systems and processes and prevent future accidents. b. Graded Approach. Occurrences must be investigated and analyzed using a graded approach in...

  14. The original of this document contains information which is subject...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Id. at 84-85. The individual recalls discussions about her having "low-grade depression," ... discussing issues of "low grade depression," but not diagnoses of Dysrhythmia or ...

  15. table07.chp:Corel VENTURA

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    558 - 893 -73 1,935 -111 0 3,387 38 0 Natural Gas Liquids and LRGs ....... 283 89 116 - 9 -210 - 123 24 558 Pentanes Plus .................................. 37 - 1 - 17 7 - 25 15 9 Liquefied Petroleum Gases .............. 246 89 115 - -8 -217 - 98 10 550 Ethane/Ethylene ........................... 94 0 (s) - -71 -4 - 0 0 26 Propane/Propylene ....................... 100 116 86 - 31 -155 - 0 3 485 Normal Butane/Butylene .............. 37 -27 16 - 18 -48 - 74 6 12 Isobutane/Isobutylene

  16. Study of diffusion of indocyanine green as a photodynamic dye into skin using backscattering spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Genina, E A; Bashkatov, A N; Tuchin, V V

    2014-07-31

    One of the lines of development of modern medicine is theranostics consisting in simultaneous diagnosis and laser treatment with the use of multifunctional agents such as fluorescent indocyanine green that has photodynamic and photothermal properties. Diffusion of indocyanine green dissolved in water and aqueous solutions of alcohols (glycerol, propylene glycol and ethanol) into the dermis is studied by using backscattering spectroscopy. The coefficients of the dye diffusion into the dermis are obtained for the first time by using these solvents. (laser biophotonics)

  17. Microsoft Word - DOE-ID-14-049 Iowa State University EC B3-6.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    49 SECTION A. Project Title: Advanced Models for Nondestructive Evaluation of Aging Nuclear Power Plant Cables - Iowa State University SECTION B. Project Description Iowa State University will perform R&D related to modeling the aging of two major NPP cable polymers - ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) and cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE). The cable polymers will be aged under various conditions e.g. elevated temperature, neutron/gamma irradiation, and water immersion. The testing using

  18. Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Exports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Exports Product: Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Other Liquids Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Biomass-Based Diesel Unfinished Oils Naphthas and Lighter

  19. Hydrogenolysis Of 5-Carbon Sugars, Sugar Alcohols And Compositions For Reactions Involving Hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Werpy, Todd A. (West Richland, WA); Frye, Jr., John G. (Richland, WA); Zacher, Alan H. (Kennewick, WA); Miller, Dennis J. (Okemos, MI)

    2004-01-13

    Methods and compositions for reactions of hydrogen over a Re-containing catalyst with compositions containing a 5-carbon sugar, sugar alcohol, or lactic acid are described. It has been surprisingly discovered that reaction with hydrogen over a Re-containing multimetallic catalyst resulted in superior conversion and selectivity to desired products such as propylene glycol. A process for the synthesis of PG from lactate or lactic acid is also described.

  20. Hydrogenolysis of 6-carbon sugars and other organic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Werpy, Todd A.; Frye, Jr., John G.; Zacher, Alan H.; Miller, Dennis J.

    2005-01-11

    Methods for hydrogenolysis are described which use a Re-containing multimetallic catalyst for hydrogenolysis of both C--O and C--C bonds. Methods and compositions for reactions of hydrogen over a Re-containing catalyst with compositions containing a 6-carbon sugar, sugar alcohol, or glycerol are described. It has been surprisingly discovered that reaction with hydrogen over a Re-containing multimetallic catalyst resulted in superior conversion and selectivity to desired products such as propylene glycol.

  1. Hydrogenolysis of 5-carbon sugars, sugar alcohols, and other methods and compositions for reactions involving hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Werpy, Todd A [West Richland, WA; Zacher, Alan H [Kennewick, WA

    2002-11-12

    Methods and compositions for reactions of hydrogen over a Re-containing catalyst with compositions containing a 5-carbon sugar, sugar alcohol, or lactic acid are described. It has been surprisingly discovered that reaction with hydrogen over a Re-containing multimetallic catalyst resulted in superior conversion and selectivity to desired products such as propylene glycol. A process for the synthesis of PG from lactate or lactic acid is also described.

  2. Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Movements by Pipeline between PAD

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Districts Pipeline between PAD Districts Product: Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Petroleum Products Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Normal Butane/Butylene Motor Gasoline Blend. Comp. (MGBC) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated RBOB MGBC - RBOB for Blending w/ Alcohol* MGBC - Conventional MGBC - CBOB MGBC - Conventional GTAB MGBC - Conventional Other Renewable Fuels Renewable Diesel Fuel Finished Motor Gasoline

  3. East Coast (PADD 1) Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Net Receipts by

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Pipeline, Tanker, Barge and Rail Product: Total Crude Oil and Products Crude Oil Petroleum Products Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Unfinished Oils Motor Gasoline Blend. Comp. (MGBC) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated RBOB MGBC - RBOB for Blending w/ Alcohol* MGBC - RBOB for Blending w/ Ether* MGBC - Reformulated GTAB* MGBC - Conventional MGBC - CBOB MGBC - Conventional GTAB MGBC - Conventional Other

  4. Nanofluids and a method of making nanofluids for ground source heat pumps and other applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, John Melvin

    2013-11-12

    This invention covers nanofluids. Nanofluids are a combination of particles between 1 and 100 nanometers, a surfactant and the base fluid. The nanoparticles for this invention are either pyrogenic nanoparticles or carbon nanotubes. These nanofluids improve the heat transfer of the base fluids. The base fluid can be ethylene glycol, or propylene glycol, or an aliphatic-hydrocarbon based heat transfer fluid. This invention also includes a method of making nanofluids. No surfactant is used to suspend the pyrogenic nanoparticles in glycols.

  5. Hydrolysis of carbonyl sulfide over alumina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polleck, R. E.; Ledley, R. E.; Scott, K. A.

    1985-01-01

    The reaction rate for the hydrolysis of carbonyl sulfide in liquid petroleum hydrocarbons over alumina, such as propylene, is greatly increased by maintaining water in the hydrocarbons in an amount of one mole of water per mole of carbonyl sulfide to an upper limit of about ten moles of water per mole of carbonyl sulfide or about 30% of saturation of the hydrocarbons, whichever upper limit provides the lesser amount of water.

  6. Fabrication methods for low impedance lithium polymer electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chern, Terry Song-Hsing; MacFadden, Kenneth Orville; Johnson, Steven Lloyd

    1997-01-01

    A process for fabricating an electrolyte-electrode composite suitable for high energy alkali metal battery that includes mixing composite electrode materials with excess liquid, such as ethylene carbonate or propylene carbonate, to produce an initial formulation, and forming a shaped electrode therefrom. The excess liquid is then removed from the electrode to compact the electrode composite which can be further compacted by compression. The resulting electrode exhibits at least a 75% lower resistance.

  7. Fabrication methods for low impedance lithium polymer electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chern, T.S.; MacFadden, K.O.; Johnson, S.L.

    1997-12-16

    A process is described for fabricating an electrolyte-electrode composite suitable for high energy alkali metal battery that includes mixing composite electrode materials with excess liquid, such as ethylene carbonate or propylene carbonate, to produce an initial formulation, and forming a shaped electrode therefrom. The excess liquid is then removed from the electrode to compact the electrode composite which can be further compacted by compression. The resulting electrode exhibits at least a 75% lower resistance.

  8. Kent_AIMD

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Partial radial-distribution of Li- ion with the carbonyl oxygen of ethylene carbonate (EC) and propylene carbonate (PC) from AIMD simulations. In both cases the first solvation shell of the Li-ion has 4 EC or PC molecules, consistent with experiment. Figure from Ref. 1. FIRST Center Research Perspective: AIMD Simulations of Li-ion Battery Electrolytes and Incipient SEI formation Paul R. C. Kent, P. Ganesh, D. Jiang Oak Ridge National Laboratory Research Summary: Using ab initio molecular

  9. Crude Oil Movements by Tanker, Pipeline, Barge and Rail between PAD

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Districts Product: Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Petroleum Products Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Unfinished Oils Motor Gasoline Blend. Components (MGBC) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated RBOB MGBC - RBOB for Blending w/ Alcohol* MGBC - RBOB for Blending w/ Ether* MGBC - Reformulated GTAB* MGBC - Conventional MGBC - CBOB MGBC - Conventional GTAB MGBC - Conventional Other Renewable

  10. Crude Oil Net Receipts by Pipeline, Tanker, Barge and Rail between PAD

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Districts Product: Total Crude Oil and Products Crude Oil Petroleum Products Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Unfinished Oils Motor Gasoline Blend. Comp. (MGBC) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated RBOB MGBC - RBOB for Blending w/ Alcohol* MGBC - RBOB for Blending w/ Ether* MGBC - Reformulated GTAB* MGBC - Conventional MGBC - CBOB MGBC - Conventional GTAB MGBC - Conventional Other Renewable Fuels Fuel

  11. Product Supplied for Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Product: Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Natural Gas Liquids and LRGs Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Other Liquids Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Unfinished Oils Motor Gasoline Blend. Comp. (MGBC) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Conventional Aviation Gasoline Blend. Comp. Finished Petroleum Products Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Finished

  12. Refinery Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Product: Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Petroleum Products Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) All Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Other Hydrocarbons Unfinished Oils Naphthas and Lighter Kerosene and Light Gas Oils

  13. New construction era reflected in East Texas LPG pipeline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mittler, T.J. )

    1990-04-02

    Installation of 240 miles of 6, 10, and 12-in. LPG pipelines from Mont Belvieu to Tyler, Tex., has provided greater feedstock-supply flexibility to a petrochemical plant in Longview, Tex. The project, which took place over 18 months, included tie-ins with metering at four Mont Belvieu suppliers. The new 10 and 12-in. pipelines now transport propane while the new and existing parts of a 6-in. pipeline transport propylene.

  14. Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Product: Total Crude Oil Liquefied Petroleum Gases Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Other Liquids Oxygenates Fuel Ethanol MTBE Other Oxygenates Biomass-based Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Gasoline Blending Components Petroleum Products Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate Fuel Oil, 15 ppm Sulfur and Under Distillate Fuel Oil, Greater than 15 ppm to 500 ppm Sulfur

  15. Total

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Product: Total Crude Oil Liquefied Petroleum Gases Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Other Liquids Oxygenates Fuel Ethanol MTBE Other Oxygenates Biomass-based Diesel Other Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Gasoline Blending Components Petroleum Products Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate Fuel Oil, 15 ppm Sulfur and Under Distillate Fuel Oil, Greater than 15 ppm to 500 ppm Sulfur

  16. Matthew T. Kapelewski | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technologies | Blandine Jerome T. Kapelewski Previous Next List PhD Student Department of Chemistry University of California, Berkeley Email: matt.kapelewski [at] berkeley.edu Phone: 510-643-3832 BS in Chemistry, Penn State University EFRC research: My research pertains to the separation of hydrocarbons in metal-organic frameworks. Many hydrocarbon mixtures have compounds that are difficult to separate, such as mixtures of ethane/ethylene, propane/propylene, and xylene isomers. By taking

  17. Lab Breakthrough: ADM Leads to Petroleum-Free Glycol Production Facility |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Department of Energy ADM Leads to Petroleum-Free Glycol Production Facility Lab Breakthrough: ADM Leads to Petroleum-Free Glycol Production Facility May 22, 2012 - 9:38am Addthis Pacific Northwest National Laboratory discovered a viable way to deliver propylene glycol from feedstock, including glycerin byproducts. ADM licensed that technology and in 2010 completed construction and commissioning of its full-scale production facility for the sole purpose of commercializing the PGRS process.

  18. Bioproduct Life Cycle Analysis with the GREETTM Model

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bioproduct Life Cycle Analysis with the GREET TM Model Jennifer B. Dunn Biofuel Life Cycle Analysis Team Lead Systems Assessment Group Argonne National Laboratory Biomass 2014 July 29 and 30, 2014 Selection of bioproducts based on a high-level market analysis 2 Algae Glycerol 1,3-Propanediol Propylene glycol Lipid extraction and hydrogenation Catalytic hydrogenolysis Fermentation Acrylic acid 1,4-Butanediol Clean sugars Isobutanol Polyethylene 3-Hydroxypropionic acid Succinic acid Sugars Corn

  19. PNNL Breakthrough Leads to Less Foreign Oil, More American Jobs |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy PNNL Breakthrough Leads to Less Foreign Oil, More American Jobs PNNL Breakthrough Leads to Less Foreign Oil, More American Jobs October 17, 2011 - 2:50pm Addthis A highly efficient catalyst to convert renewable crops into the product propylene glycol was discovered by scientists at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and commercialized by the Archer Daniels Midland Company. | Image courtesy of PNNL. A highly efficient catalyst to convert renewable crops into

  20. Conversion of Waste CO2 and Shale Gas to High Value Chemicals

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Scott Allen, Novomer U.S. DOE Advanced Manufacturing Office Peer Review Meeting Washington, D.C. May 6-7, 2014 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information. Project Objective  Novomer is developing a new route to Acrylic Acid and Acrylates using proprietary catalysts and processing  The Novomer route will use ethylene as the feedstock instead of propylene and will use Praxair's CO2 to CO technology  Using Ethylene and CO as

  1. Metal catalyzed synthesis of hyperbranched ethylene and/or .alpha.-olefin polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sen, Ayusman (State College, PA); Kim, Jang Sub (State College, PA); Pawlow, James H. (Gainesville, FL); Murtuza, Shahid (State College, PA); Kacker, Smita (Annandale, NJ); Wojcinski, III, Louis M. (State College, PA)

    2001-01-01

    Oily hyperbranched polymers derived from ethylene, propylene, butene and/or a C.sub.5 -C.sub.24 .alpha.-olefin, and a method for their synthesis, are disclosed. The polymers have non-regular microstructures and are characterized by a ratio ({character pullout})of methyl hydrogens centered around 0.85 ppm on the 1H-NMR spectra of the polymers relative to total aliphatic hydrogens of from about 0.40 to about 0.65 for polymers derived from ethylene or butene, and a ratio ({character pullout})of from greater than 0.50 to about 0.65 for polymers derived from propylene. A method for grafting hyperbranched polymers derived from ethylene, propylene, butene and/or a C.sub.5 -C.sub.24 .alpha.-olefin onto aromatic rings in organic molecules and polymers, and the resulting grafted materials, are also disclosed. The hyperbranched polymers and grafted materials are useful, for example, as lubricants and lubricant additives.

  2. Morphological studies on block copolymer modified PA 6 blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poindl, M., E-mail: marcus.poindl@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de, E-mail: christian.bonten@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de; Bonten, C., E-mail: marcus.poindl@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de, E-mail: christian.bonten@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de [Institut fr Kunststofftechnik, University of Stuttgart (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    Recent studies show that compounding polyamide 6 (PA 6) with a PA 6 polyether block copolymers made by reaction injection molding (RIM) or continuous anionic polymerization in a reactive extrusion process (REX) result in blends with high impact strength and high stiffness compared to conventional rubber blends. In this paper, different high impact PA 6 blends were prepared using a twin screw extruder. The different impact modifiers were an ethylene propylene copolymer, a PA PA 6 polyether block copolymer made by reaction injection molding and one made by reactive extrusion. To ensure good particle matrix bonding, the ethylene propylene copolymer was grafted with maleic anhydride (EPR-g-MA). Due to the molecular structure of the two block copolymers, a coupling agent was not necessary. The block copolymers are semi-crystalline and partially cross-linked in contrast to commonly used amorphous rubbers which are usually uncured. The combination of different analysis methods like atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) gave a detailed view in the structure of the blends. Due to the partial cross-linking, the particles of the block copolymers in the blends are not spherical like the ones of ethylene propylene copolymer. The differences in molecular structure, miscibility and grafting of the impact modifiers result in different mechanical properties and different blend morphologies.

  3. Energy minimization of separation processes using conventional/membrane hybrid systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gottschlich, D.E.; Roberts, D.L. )

    1990-09-28

    The purpose of this study was to identify the general principles governing the choice of hybrid separation systems over straight membrane or straight nonmembrane systems and to do so by examining practical applications (process design and economics). Our focus was to examine the energy consumption characteristics and overall cost factors of the membrane and nonmembrane technologies that cause hybrid systems to be preferred over nonhybrid systems. We evaluated four cases studies, chosen on the basis of likelihood of commercial viability of a hybrid system and magnitude of energy savings: (1) propane/propylene separation; (2) removal of nitrogen from natural gas; (3) concentration of Kraft black liquor; and (4)solvent deasphalting. For propane/propylene splitting, the membrane proved to be superior to distillation in both thermodynamic efficiency and processing cost (PC) when the product was 95% pure propylene. However, to produce higher purity products, the membrane alone could not perform the separation, and a membrane/distillation hybrid was required. In these cases, there is an optimum amount of separation to be accomplished by the membrane (expressed as the fraction of the total availability change of the membrane/distillation hybrid that takes place in the membrane and defined as {phi}{sub m}, the thermodynamic extent of separation). Qualitative and quantitative guidelines are discussed with regard to choosing a hybrid system. 54 refs., 66 figs., 36 tabs.

  4. The importance of FCC catalyst selection on LPG profitability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keyworth, D.A.; Gilman, R.; Pearce, J.R. )

    1989-01-01

    Recently the value of LPG in chemical operations downstream of the FCC unit has increased. Such downstream operations utilize propylene not only in alkylate, but also in rapid growth petrochemical applications such as for a raw material in the manufacture of polypropylene and propylene oxide. Isobutane and the butenes (particularly butene-2 in sulfuric acid catalyzed alkylation units) are prized for alkylate feed. The profit potential and incentives to use other LPG components such as isobutene to make MTBE is now increased because of legislative actions and increased octane performance demand; and because of the greater isobutene content in the LPG from the new FCC octane catalysts. A low non-framework alumina (NFA) zeolite studied made a more olefinic LPG with higher iso-to normal C4 ratio than the other zeolites. Pilot plant data has also shown the new low NFA zeolite gave not only outstanding motor octane (MON) performance, but produced an LPG with better propylene to propane ratio, more isobutene, more n-butenes and more C4 branching than other RE promoted zeolite catalysts. Commercial results have verified the improved performance and profitability for the new low-NFA type zeolite catalysts. Three commercial examples are described.

  5. Surface damage behavior during scratch deformation of mineral reinforced polymer composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Misra, R.D.K.; Hadal, R.; Duncan, S.J

    2004-08-16

    The surface damage behavior during scratch deformation of neat and wollastonite reinforced ethylene-propylene and polypropylene polymeric materials with significant differences in ductility was studied using electron microscopy in association with scratch deformation parameters and local crystallinity characteristics obtained from atomic force microscopy. Under identical conditions of scratch tests, the decrease in resistance to scratch damage and stress whitening of polymeric materials followed the sequence: wollastonite-reinforced polypropylene (PP-W) congruent with wollastonite-reinforced ethylene-propylene (EP-W) > neat polypropylene (PP) > neat ethylene-propylene copolymer (EP). The improved resistance to scratch damage of mineral reinforced polymeric materials is attributed to the effective reinforcement by micrometer-sized wollastonite particles that increase the tensile modulus of the polymeric materials and restrict plastic deformation of the polymer matrix. Scratching of neat and wollastonite-containing EP copolymers involved periodic parabolic scratch tracks containing voids, which transformed to distinct zig-zag scratch tracks on reinforcement with micrometric wollastonite particles. The enhanced plastic flow in neat EP is facilitated by high ductility of the material and ability to nucleate voids, while in EP-W the plastic flow is suppressed because of reinforcement effect of wollastonite. On the other hand, zig-zag periodic scratch tracks were observed in both neat PP and PP-W, but the scratch tracks were not clearly discernible on reinforcement of PP with wollastonite. The resistance to scratch deformation is discussed in terms of tensile modulus, elastic recovery, scratch hardness, and reinforcement-matrix interaction.

  6. Intermediate Energy Infobook Activities (29 Activities)

    K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

    Information about Intermediate Energy Infobook, 29 student activities on energy basics for grades 5-8.

  7. --No Title--

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) - Continued ...

  8. --No Title--

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    | | | | | | | | | Geographic Area | Aviation | Kerosene- | Propane Month | Gasoline | Type | (Consumer | | Jet Fuel | Grade) |...

  9. Solar Energy Science Projects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science Projects Curriculum: Solar Power -(thermodynamics, lightelectromagnetic, radiation, energy transformation, conductionconvection, seasons, trigonometry) Grade Level: ...

  10. table05.chp:Corel VENTURA

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    27 - 1,721 -65 -3 170 0 1,511 0 0 Natural Gas Liquids and LRGs ....... 27 18 40 - 153 -28 - 8 1 257 Pentanes Plus .................................. 3 - 0 - 0 (s) - 0 (s) 2 Liquefied Petroleum Gases .............. 24 18 40 - 153 -28 - 8 1 254 Ethane/Ethylene ............................ 8 0 0 - 0 0 - 0 0 8 Propane/Propylene ........................ 11 54 39 - 149 -8 - 0 1 261 Normal Butane/Butylene ............... 4 -27 1 - 3 -18 - 5 (s) -7 Isobutane/Isobutylene ................... 1 -9 0 - 0 -2

  11. table09.chp:Corel VENTURA

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    3,434 - 5,080 -9 -1,729 230 0 6,546 0 0 Natural Gas Liquids and LRGs ....... 1,272 347 65 - -68 -208 - 229 29 1,566 Pentanes Plus .................................. 188 - 33 - -5 30 - 66 0 119 Liquefied Petroleum Gases .............. 1,084 347 31 - -63 -238 - 163 29 1,446 Ethane/Ethylene ........................... 503 24 18 - 112 -52 - 0 0 709 Propane/Propylene ....................... 363 301 4 - -158 -120 - 0 21 610 Normal Butane/Butylene .............. 76 3 6 - -11 -89 - 100 8 54

  12. table10.chp:Corel VENTURA

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    1,049 - 6,332 1,608 -4,050 -23 0 14,962 0 0 12,816 Natural Gas Liquids and LRGs ......... 4,049 -11 536 - -2,893 -15 - 595 6 1,095 1,354 Pentanes Plus ................................... 771 - 112 - -352 -8 - 163 5 371 219 Liquefied Petroleum Gases ............... 3,278 -11 424 - -2,541 -7 - 432 (s) 725 1,135 Ethane/Ethylene ............................ 950 0 0 - -1,270 0 - 0 0 -320 213 Propane/Propylene ....................... 1,473 284 233 - -705 -50 - 0 (s) 1,335 439 Normal Butane/Butylene

  13. Aging Study Of EPDM O-Ring Material For The H1616 Shipping Package - Three Year Status

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stefek, T.; Daugherty, W.; Skidmore, E.

    2015-11-05

    This is a 3-year status report for tasks carried out per Task Technical Plan SRNL-STI-2011-00506. A series of tasks/experiments were performed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to monitor the aging performance of ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) O-rings used in the H1616 shipping package. The test data provide a technical basis to extend the annual maintenance of the H1616 shipping package to three years and to predict the life of the EPDM O-rings at the bounding service conditions.

  14. Longer life for glyco-based stationary engine coolants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hohlfeld, R.

    1996-07-01

    Large, stationary diesel engines used to compress natural gas that is to be transported down pipelines generate a great deal of heat. Unless this heat is dissipated efficiently, it will eventually cause an expensive breakdown. Whether the coolant uses ethylene glycol or propylene glycol, the two major causes of glycol degradation are heat and oxidation. The paper discusses inhibitors that enhance coolant service life and presents a comprehensive list of do`s and don`ts for users to gain a 20-year coolant life.

  15. New Technologies for Repairing Aging Cables in Nuclear Power Plants: M3LW-14OR0404015 Cable Rejuvenation Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, Kevin L.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Westman, Matthew P.; Roberts, John A.

    2014-09-08

    The goal of this project is to conceptually demonstrate techniques to repair cables that have degraded through subjection to long-term thermal and radiation exposure in nuclear power plants. In fiscal year 2014 (FY14) we focused on commercially available ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR) as the relevant test material, isolated a high surface area form of the EPR material to facilitate chemical treatment screening and charaterization, and measured chemical changes in the material due to aging and treatment using Fourier Transfrom Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy.

  16. Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    350 27 3,748 1,617 3,858 102 154 3,693 239 5,616 Crude Oil 48 - - - - 702 387 102 37 1,145 56 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 302 0 14 59 -21 - - -21 48 49 277 Pentanes Plus 35 0 - - - 0 - - 1 3 1 29 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 267 - - 14 59 -20 - - -22 45 48 248 Ethane/Ethylene 102 - - 1 - -104 - - 1 - - -2 Propane/Propylene 112 - - 39 51 84 - - -12 - 39 259 Normal Butane/Butylene 38 - - -26 3 0 - - -12 32 9 -15 Isobutane/Isobutylene 15 - - 0 5 0 - - 0 13 0 6 Other

  17. Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2,576 962 4,466 2,693 -646 -330 113 4,240 396 4,972 Crude Oil 1,802 - - - - 2,581 -260 -368 63 3,661 29 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 775 -20 24 76 -69 - - -181 122 238 607 Pentanes Plus 90 -20 - - 0 175 - - 41 11 163 30 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 684 - - 24 76 -244 - - -222 111 75 577 Ethane/Ethylene 239 - - - - -56 - - 7 - 64 112 Propane/Propylene 292 - - 117 61 -188 - - -122 - 2 402 Normal Butane/Butylene 98 - - -88 6 -5 - - -106 63 9 45 Isobutane/Isobutylene 55 - -

  18. Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1,035 14 648 320 -731 57 36 615 23 669 Crude Oil 715 - - - - 296 -423 50 21 600 16 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 320 0 5 22 -293 - - -19 27 6 39 Pentanes Plus 56 0 - - - -44 - - -1 5 5 2 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 264 - - 5 22 -249 - - -18 22 2 37 Ethane/Ethylene 70 - - - - -74 - - 0 - - -4 Propane/Propylene 124 - - 9 21 -110 - - -6 - 0 50 Normal Butane/Butylene 51 - - -5 0 -40 - - -13 13 1 5 Isobutane/Isobutylene 20 - - 1 1 -25 - - 1 9 - -13 Other Liquids - - 14 - - 1

  19. Supply and Disposition of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1,158 20 2,921 1,258 550 42 -236 2,766 460 2,958 Crude Oil 1,092 - - - - 1,042 166 3 -59 2,362 0 0 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 67 0 -4 11 0 - - -60 82 36 16 Pentanes Plus 31 0 - - - - - - 0 26 0 4 Liquefied Petroleum Gases 36 - - -4 11 0 - - -60 56 35 13 Ethane/Ethylene 0 - - - - - - - - - - 0 Propane/Propylene 12 - - 29 11 - - - -28 - 31 49 Normal Butane/Butylene 14 - - -33 0 - - - -31 39 4 -31 Isobutane/Isobutylene 10 - - 1 0 0 - - -1 17 0 -5 Other Liquids - - 21 - -

  20. War against water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fitz-Hugh, S.

    1982-01-01

    It is stressed that waterproofing should be the most important concern in an earth-sheltered home, starting with the design and continuing throughout the construction. Damage which may be caused by water leakage is discussed. Proper site selection is most important and the need for outside professionals and consultants is emphasized. The ideal waterproofing system is discussed and illustrated. Waterproofing agents are discussed in detail. They are: (1) sodium bentonite; (2) elastomers, such as isobutylene isoprene (butyl rubber), EPDM (ethylene propylene diene monomer), and liquid elastomers (polyurethanes); and (3) rubberized asphalt. Availability, sheet sizes and application of these waterproofing agents are discussed. (MJJ)