National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for grade mineralized material

  1. Production of battery grade materials via an oxalate method ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Production of battery grade materials via an oxalate method Title: Production of battery grade materials via an oxalate method An active electrode material for electrochemical ...

  2. Classroom Materials for Grades 5-12 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Grades 5-12 » Classroom Materials for Grades 5-12 Classroom Materials for Grades 5-12 Teacher helping student in the classroom. Below are resources to help teachers introduce students to the new and exciting world of hydrogen and fuel cells. While these technologies are complex, the principles behind them can be understood by middle school and high school science students. In fact, hydrogen and fuel cell concepts can be used to complement science lessons already taught in the classroom. Lesson

  3. Method of making a functionally graded material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J.; Menchhofer, Paul A.; Walls, Claudia A.; Moorhead, Arthur J.

    2002-01-01

    A gelcasting method of making an internally graded article alternatively includes the steps of: preparing a slurry including a least two different phases suspended in a gelcasting solution, the phases characterized by having different settling characteristics; casting the slurry into a mold having a selected shape; allowing the slurry to stand for a sufficient period of time to permit desired gravitational fractionation in order to achieve a vertical compositional gradient in the molded slurry; gelling the slurry to form a solid gel while preserving the vertical compositional gradient in the molded slurry; drying the gel to form a dried green body; and sintering the dry green body to form a solid object, at least one property thereof varying along the vertical direction because of the compositional gradient in the molded slurry.

  4. Method of making a functionally graded material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Menchhofer, Paul A. (Clinton, TN); Walls, Claudia A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2001-01-01

    A gelcasting method of making an internally graded article includes the steps of: preparing at least two slurries, each of the slurries including a different gelcastable powder suspended in a gelcasting solution, the slurries characterized by having comparable shrinkage upon drying and sintering thereof; casting the slurries into a mold having a selected shape, wherein relative proportions of the slurries is varied in at least one direction within the selected shape; gelling the slurries to form a solid gel while preserving the variation in relative proportions of the slurries; drying the gel to form a dried green body; and sintering the dry green body to form a solid object, at least one property thereof varying because of the variation in relative proportions of the starting slurries. A gelcasting method of making an internally graded article alternatively includes the steps of: preparing a slurry including a least two different phases suspended in a gelcasting solution, the phases characterized by having different settling characteristics; casting the slurry into a mold having a selected shape; allowing the slurry to stand for a sufficient period of time to permit desired gravitational fractionation in order to achieve a vertical compositional gradient in the molded slurry; gelling the slurry to form a solid gel while preserving the vertical compositional gradient in the molded slurry; drying the gel to form a dried green body; and sintering the dry green body to form a solid object, at least one property thereof varying along the vertical direction because of the compositional gradient in the molded slurry.

  5. The Application of materials attractiveness in a graded approach to nuclear materials security

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ebbinghaus, B.; Bathke, C.; Dalton, D.; Murphy, J.

    2013-07-01

    The threat from terrorist groups has recently received greater attention. In this paper, material quantity and material attractiveness are addressed through the lens of a minimum security strategy needed to prevent the construction of a nuclear explosive device (NED) by an adversary. Nuclear materials are placed into specific security categories (3 or 4 categories) , which define a number of security requirements to protect the material. Materials attractiveness can be divided into four attractiveness levels, High, Medium, Low, and Very Low that correspond to the utility of the material to the adversary and to a minimum security strategy that is necessary to adequately protect the nuclear material. We propose a graded approach to materials attractiveness that recognizes for instance substantial differences in attractiveness between pure reactor-grade Pu oxide (High attractiveness) and fresh MOX fuel (Low attractiveness). In either case, an adversary's acquisition of a Category I quantity of plutonium would be a major incident, but the acquisition of Pu oxide by the adversary would be substantially worse than the acquisition of fresh MOX fuel because of the substantial differences in the time and complexity required of the adversary to process the material and fashion it into a NED.

  6. Spherican Indentation of Compositionally Graded Materials: Theory and Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suresh, S.; Giannakopoulos, A.E.; Alcala, J.

    1997-01-01

    Computational and experimental results on the evolution of stresses and deformation fields due to indentation from a rigid spherical indenter on a graded substrate are presented.

  7. Diffraction Studies from Minerals to Organics - Lessons Learned from Materials Analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitfield, Pamela S

    2014-01-01

    In many regards the study of materials and minerals by powder diffraction techniques are complimentary, with techniques honed in one field equally applicable to the other. As a long-time materials researcher many of the examples are of techniques developed for materials analysis applied to minerals. However in a couple of cases the study of new minerals was the initiation into techniques later used in materials-based studies. Hopefully they will show that the study of new minerals structures can provide opportunities to add new methodologies and approaches to future problems. In keeping with the AXAA many of the examples have an Australian connection, the materials ranging from organics to battery materials.

  8. Functionally Graded Materials for Manufacturing Tools and Dies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    New Material Processes Improve the Performance and Lifetime of Tools and Dies Tools, dies, and process equipment currently used in the metal casting, forging, and glass ...

  9. Cohesive Modeling of Dynamic Crack Growth in Homogeneous and Functionally Graded Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Zhengyu; Paulino, Glaucio H.; Celes, Waldemar

    2008-02-15

    This paper presents a Cohesive Zone Model (CZM) approach for investigating dynamic crack propagation in homogeneous and Functionally Graded Materials (FGMs). The failure criterion is incorporated in the CZM using both a finite cohesive strength and work to fracture in the material description. A novel CZM for FGMs is explored and incorporated into a finite element framework. The material gradation is approximated at the element level using a graded element formulation. A numerical example is provided to demonstrate the efficacy of the CZM approach, in which the influence of the material gradation on the crack growth pattern is studied.

  10. PHASE ANALYSES OF URANIUM-BEARING MINERALS FROM THE HIGH GRADE ORE, NOPAL I, PENA BLANCA, MEXICO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Ren; P. Goodell; A. Kelts; E.Y. Anthony; M. Fayek; C. Fan; C. Beshears

    2005-07-11

    The Nopal I uranium deposit is located in the Pena Blanca district, approximately 40 miles north of Chihuahua City, Mexico. The deposit was formed by hydrothermal processes within the fracture zone of welded silicic volcanic tuff. The ages of volcanic formations are between 35 to 44 m.y. and there was secondary silicification of most of the formations. After the formation of at least part of the uranium deposit, the ore body was uplifted above the water table and is presently exposed at the surface. Detailed petrographic characterization, electron microprobe backscatter electron (BSE) imagery, and selected x-ray maps for the samples from Nopal I high-grade ore document different uranium phases in the ore. There are at least two stages of uranium precipitation. A small amount of uraninite is encapsulated in silica. Hexavalent uranium may also have been a primary precipitant. The uranium phases were precipitated along cleavages of feldspars, and along fractures in the tuff. Energy dispersive spectrometer data and x-ray maps suggest that the major uranium phases are uranophane and weeksite. Substitutions of Ca and K occur in both phases, implying that conditions were variable during the mineralization/alteration process, and that compositions of the original minerals have a major influence on later stage alteration. Continued study is needed to fully characterize uranium behavior in these semi-arid to arid conditions.

  11. Production of battery grade materials via an oxalate method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Belharouak, Ilias; Amine, Khalil

    2014-04-29

    An active electrode material for electrochemical devices such as lithium ion batteries includes a lithium transition metal oxide which is free of sodium and sulfur contaminants. The lithium transition metal oxide is prepared by calcining a mixture of a lithium precursor and a transition metal oxalate. Electrochemical devices use such active electrodes.

  12. Production of battery grade materials via an oxalate method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Belharouak, Ilias; Amine, Khalil

    2016-05-17

    An active electrode material for electrochemical devices such as lithium ion batteries includes a lithium transition metal oxide which is free of sodium and sulfur contaminants. The lithium transition metal oxide is prepared by calcining a mixture of a lithium precursor and a transition metal oxalate. Electrochemical devices use such active electrodes.

  13. Immobilization of actinides in stable mineral type and ceramic materials (high temperature synthesis)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starkov, O.; Konovalov, E.

    1996-05-01

    Alternative vitrification technologies are being developed in the world for the immobilization of high radioactive waste in materials with improved thermodynamic stability, as well as improved chemical and thermal stability and stability to radiation. Oxides, synthesized in the form of analogs to rock-forming minerals and ceramics, are among those materials that have highly stable properties and are compatible with the environment. In choosing the appropriate material, we need to be guided by its geometric stability, the minimal number of cations in the structure of the material and the presence of structural elements in the mineral that are isomorphs of uranium and thorium, actinoids found in nature. Rare earth elements, yttrium, zirconium and calcium are therefore suitable. The minerals listed in the table (with the exception of the zircon) are pegatites by origin, i.e. they are formed towards the end of the magma crystallization of silicates form the residual melt, enriched with Ta, Nb, Ti, Zr, Ce, Y, U and Th. Uranium and thorium in the form of isomorphic admixtures form part of the lattice of the mineral. These minerals, which are rather simple in composition and structure and are formed under high temperatures, may be viewed as natural physio-chemical systems that are stable and long-lived in natural environments. The similarity of the properties of actinoids and lanthanoids plays an important role in the geochemistry of uranium and thorium; however, uranium (IV) is closer to the {open_quotes}heavy{close_quotes} group of lanthanoids (the yttrium group) while thorium (IV) is closer to the {open_quotes}light{close_quotes} group (the cerium group). That is why rare earth minerals contain uranium and thorium in the form of isomorphic admixtures.

  14. Ductile fracture toughness of modified A 302 Grade B Plate materials, data analysis. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCabe, D.E.; Manneschmidt, E.T.; Swain, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of this work was to develop ductile fracture toughness data in the form of J-R curves for modified A302 grade B plate materials typical of those used in reactor pressure vessels. A previous experimental study on one heat of A302 grade B plate showed decreasing J-R curves with increased specimen thickness. This characteristic has not been observed in tests made on recent production materials of A533 grade B and A508 class 2 pressure vessel steels. It was unknown if the departure from norm for the material was a generic characteristic for all heats of A302 grade B steels or unique to that particular plate. Seven heats of modified A302 grade B steel and one heat of vintage A533 grade B steel were tested for chemical content, tensile properties, Charpy transition temperature curves, drop-weight nil-ductility transition (NDT) temperature, and J-R curves. Tensile tests were made in the three principal orientations and at four temperatures, ranging from room temperature to 550F. Charpy V-notch transition temperature curves were obtained in longitudinal, transverse, and short transverse orientations. J-R curves were made using four specimen sizes (1/2T, 1T, 2T, and 4T). The fracture mechanics-based evaluation method covered three test orientations and three test temperatures (80, 400, and 550F). However, the coverage of these variables was contingent upon the amount of material provided. Drop-weight NDT temperature was determined for the T-L orientation only. None of the heats of modified A302 grade B showed size effects of any consequence on the J-R curve behavior. Crack orientation effects were present, but none were severe enough to be reported as atypical. A test temperature increase from 180 to 550F produced the usual loss in J-R curve fracture toughness. Generic J-R curves and curve fits were generated to represent each heat of material. This volume deals with the evaluation of data and the discussion of technical findings. 8 refs., 18 figs., 8 tabs.

  15. NNSA Eliminates 100 Metric Tons Of Weapons-Grade Nuclear Material |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) Eliminates 100 Metric Tons Of Weapons-Grade Nuclear Material August 25, 2008 WASHINGTON, D.C. -Today the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) announced that it successfully eliminated 100 metric tons of U.S. highly enriched uranium (HEU), enough for thousands of nuclear weapons. For the last decade, the U.S. HEU disposition program has eliminated surplus HEU from the nuclear weapons program by downblending

  16. Method and apparatus for determination of mechanical properties of functionally-graded materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Giannakopoulos, Antonios E.; Suresh, Subra

    1999-01-01

    Techniques for the determination of mechanical properties of homogenous or functionally-graded materials from indentation testing are presented. The technique is applicable to indentation on the nano-scale through the macro-scale including the geological scale. The technique involves creating a predictive load/depth relationship for a sample, providing an experimental load/depth relationship, comparing the experimental data to the predictive data, and determining a physical characteristic from the comparison.

  17. Five minutes past midnight: The clear and present danger of nuclear weapons grade fissile materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, G.B.

    1996-02-01

    Growing stockpiles of nuclear weapons grade fissile materials (plutonium and highly enriched uranium) are a `clear and present danger` to international security. Much of this material is uncontrolled and unsecured in the former Soviet Union (FSU). Access to these materials is the primary technical barrier to a nuclear weapons capability since the technology know-how for a bomb making is available in the world scientific community. Strategies to convince proliferators to give up their nuclear ambitions are problematic since those ambitions are a party of largest regional security. There is no national material control and accounting in Russia. No one knows exactly how much fissile materials they have, and if any is missing. A bankrupt atomic energy industry, unpaid employees and little or no security has created a climate in which more and more fissile materials will likely be sold in black markets or diverted to clandestine nuclear weapons programs or transnational terrorist groups. Control over these materials will ultimately rely on the continuous and simultaneous exercise of several measures. While there is little one can do now to stop a determined proliferator, over time international consensus and a strengthened non-proliferation regime will convince proliferators that the costs outweigh the gains.

  18. Development of Functionally Graded Materials for Manufacturing Tools and Dies and Industrial Processing Equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lherbier, Louis, W.; Novotnak, David, J.; Herling, Darrell, R.; Sears, James, W.

    2009-03-23

    Hot forming processes such as forging, die casting and glass forming require tooling that is subjected to high temperatures during the manufacturing of components. Current tooling is adversely affected by prolonged exposure at high temperatures. Initial studies were conducted to determine the root cause of tool failures in a number of applications. Results show that tool failures vary and depend on the operating environment under which they are used. Major root cause failures include (1) thermal softening, (2) fatigue and (3) tool erosion, all of which are affected by process boundary conditions such as lubrication, cooling, process speed, etc. While thermal management is a key to addressing tooling failures, it was clear that new tooling materials with superior high temperature strength could provide improved manufacturing efficiencies. These efficiencies are based on the use of functionally graded materials (FGM), a new subset of hybrid tools with customizable properties that can be fabricated using advanced powder metallurgy manufacturing technologies. Modeling studies of the various hot forming processes helped identify the effect of key variables such as stress, temperature and cooling rate and aid in the selection of tooling materials for specific applications. To address the problem of high temperature strength, several advanced powder metallurgy nickel and cobalt based alloys were selected for evaluation. These materials were manufactured into tooling using two relatively new consolidation processes. One process involved laser powder deposition (LPD) and the second involved a solid state dynamic powder consolidation (SSDPC) process. These processes made possible functionally graded materials (FGM) that resulted in shaped tooling that was monolithic, bi-metallic or substrate coated. Manufacturing of tooling with these processes was determined to be robust and consistent for a variety of materials. Prototype and production testing of FGM tooling showed the

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF ADVANCED DRILL COMPONENTS FOR BHA USING MICROWAVE TECHNOLOGY INCORPORATING CARBIDE, DIAMOND COMPOSITES AND FUNCTIONALLY GRADED MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dinesh Agrawal; Rustum Roy

    2003-01-01

    The microwave processing of materials is a new emerging technology with many attractive advantages over the conventional methods. The advantages of microwave technology for various ceramic systems has already been demonstrated and proven. The recent developments at Penn State have succeeded in applying the microwave technology for the commercialization of WC/Co and diamond based cutting and drilling tools, effectively sintering of metallic materials, and fabrication of transparent ceramics for advanced applications. In recent years, the Microwave Processing and Engineering Center at Penn State University in collaboration with our industrial partner, Dennis Tool Co. has succeeded in commercializing the developed microwave technology partially funded by DOE for WC/Co and diamond based cutting and drilling tools for gas and oil exploration operations. In this program we have further developed this technology to make diamond-carbide composites and metal-carbide-diamond functionally graded materials. Several actual product of diamond-carbide composites have been processed in microwave with better performance than the conventional product. The functionally graded composites with diamond as one of the components has been for the first time successfully developed. These are the highlights of the project.

  20. China Gengsheng Minerals Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Gengsheng Minerals Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: China Gengsheng Minerals Inc Place: Henan Province, China Product: China-based material technology company. References:...

  1. Testing of nuclear grade lubricants and their effects on A540 B24 and A193 B7 bolting materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Czajkowski, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    An investigation was performed on eleven commonly used lubricants by the nuclear power industry. The investigation included EDS analysis of the lubricants, notched-tensile constant extension rate testing of bolting materials with the lubricants, frictional testing of the lubricants and weight loss testing of a bonded solid film lubricant. The report generally concludes that there is a significant amount of variance in the mechanical properties of common bolting materials; that MoS/sub 2/ can hydrolyze to form H/sub 2/S at 100/sup 0/C and cause stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of bolting materials, and that the use of copper-containing lubricants can be potentially detrimental to high strength steels in an aqueous environment. Additionally, the testing of various lubricants disclosed that some lubricants contain potentially detrimental elements (e.g. S, Sb) which can promote SCC of the common bolting materials. One of the most significant findings of this report is the observation that both A193 B7 and A540 B24 bolting materials are susceptible to transgranular stress corrosion cracking in demineralized H/sub 2/O at 280/sup 0/C in notched tensile tests.

  2. Clay Minerals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, Karl T.; Sanders, Rebecca L.; Washton, Nancy M.

    2014-03-14

    Clay minerals are important components of the environment and are involved or implicated in processes such as the uptake of pollutants and the release of nutrients and as potential platforms for a number of chemical reactions. Owing to their small particle sizes (typically, on the order of microns or smaller) and mixing with a variety of other minerals and soil components, advanced characterization methods are needed to study their structures, dynamics, and reactivities. In this article, we describe the use of solid-state NMR methods to characterize the structures and chemistries of clay minerals. Early one-pulse magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR studies of 27Al and 29Si have now been enhanced and extended with new studies utilizing advanced methodologies (such as Multiple Quantum MAS) as well as studies of less-sensitive nuclei. In additional work, the issue of reactivity of clay minerals has been addressed, including studies of reactive surface area in the environment. Utilizations of NMR-sensitive nuclides within the clay minerals themselves, and in molecules that react with speci?c sites on the clay mineral surfaces, have aided in understanding the reactivity of these complex aluminosilicate systems.

  3. Minerals Yearbook: Minerals in the world economy. 1988 International review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimbell, C.L.; Zajac, W.L.

    1988-01-01

    In overview, 1988 appeared to be the best year for the world's mineral industry since 1980, although the all-important petroleum component suffered severely from low prices. With this notable exception, the traditional statistical measures of mineral industry performance, namely production, trade, and consumption, reflected growth in most elements of the world mineral industry from crude material extraction through the gamut of downstream processing. Moreover, the growth was reasonably well distributed geographically, with many countries sharing in the substantial upturn in activity. The report discusses production, trade, consumption, investment, transportation, prices, and statistical summary of world production and trade of major mineral commodities.

  4. Methods of electrophoretic deposition for functionally graded...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Methods of electrophoretic deposition for functionally graded porous nanostructures and ... and depositing the material onto surfaces of the particles of the impurity to form ...

  5. Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials Materials Access to Hopper Phase II (Cray XE6) If you are a current NERSC user, you are enabled to use Hopper Phase II. Use your SSH client to connect to Hopper II:...

  6. Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials Materials Understanding and manipulating the most fundamental properties of materials can lead to major breakthroughs in solar power, reactor fuels, optical computing, telecommunications. News Releases Science Briefs Photos Picture of the Week Publications Social Media Videos Fact Sheets Yu Seung Kim (left) and Kwan-Soo Lee (right) New class of fuel cells offer increased flexibility, lower cost A new class of fuel cells based on a newly discovered polymer-based material could bridge

  7. Mineral Association Changes the Secondary Structure and Dynamics...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    materials.1 The structure of these proteins is often implicated in the control of the mineral properties, however very little structural data is available for the bulk of ...

  8. ALL GRADE 5 AND GRADE 8 FASTENERS ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    GRADE 8 FASTENERS WITH THE FOLLOWING MANUFACTURERS' HEADMARKS: MARK KS MARK J (CA TW JP YU... KS KEY: CA-Canada, JP-Japan, TW-Taiwan, YU-Yugoslavia Type 1 Type 2 Type 3 ...

  9. Universal ripper miner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morrell, Roger J.; Larson, David A.

    1991-01-01

    A universal ripper miner used to cut, collect and transfer material from an underground mine working face includes a cutter head that is vertically movable in an arcuate cutting cycle by means of drive members, such as hydraulically actuated pistons. The cutter head may support a circular cutter bit having a circular cutting edge that may be indexed to incrementally expose a fresh cutting edge. An automatic indexing system is disclosed wherein indexing occurs by means of a worm gear and indexing lever mechanism. The invention also contemplates a bi-directional bit holder enabling cutting to occur in both the upstroke and the downstroke cutting cycle. Another feature of the invention discloses multiple bits arranged in an in-line, radially staggered pattern, or a side-by-side pattern to increase the mining capacity in each cutting cycle. An on-board resharpening system is also disclosed for resharpening the cutting edge at the end of cutting stroke position. The aforementioned improvement features may be used either singly, or in any proposed combination with each other.

  10. Commercial Grade Dedication RM

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The objective of this Standard Review Plan (SRP) on Commercial Grade Dedication (CGD) is to provide guidance for a uniform review of the CGD activities for office of Environmental Management...

  11. Grades K-4

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Build a Tower Grades K-4 Learning objective: Students will develop teamwork skills as they work together to design and construct a tower, problem-solving along the way. These are...

  12. Minerals Technologies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Technologies Jump to: navigation, search Name: Minerals Technologies Place: Bethlehem, PA Website: www.mineralstechnologies.com References: Minerals Technologies1 Information...

  13. Bioleaching of Minerals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    F. Roberto

    2002-02-01

    Bioleaching is the term used to describe the microbial dissolution of metals from minerals. The commercial bioleaching of metals, particularly those hosted in sulfide minerals, is supported by the technical disciplines of biohydrometallurgy, hydrometallurgy, pyrometallurgy, chemistry, electrochemistry, and chemical engineering. The study of the natural weathering of these same minerals, above and below ground, is also linked to the fields of geomicrobiology and biogeochemistry. Studies of abandoned and disused mines indicate that the alterations of the natural environment due to man's activities leave as remnants microbiological activity that continues the biologically mediated release of metals from the host rock (acid rock drainage; ARD). A significant fraction of the world's copper, gold and uranium is now recovered by exploiting native or introduced microbial communities. While some members of these unique communities have been extensively studied for the past 50 years, our knowledge of the composition of these communities, and the function of the individual species present remains relatively limited. Nevertheless, bioleaching represents a major strategy in mineral resource recovery whose importance will increase as ore reserves decline in quality, become more difficult to process (due to increased depth, increased need for comminution, for example), and as environmental considerations eliminate traditional physical processes such as smelting, which have served the mining industry for hundreds of years.

  14. Mineral Recovery Creates Revenue Stream for Geothermal Energy...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Mineral Recovery Creates Revenue Stream for Geothermal Energy Development December 1, 2015 - 8:00am Addthis Critical materials like rare-earth elements and lithium play a vital ...

  15. Tribology of earthmoving, mining, and minerals processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hawk, Jeffrey A.; Wilson, Rick D.

    2001-01-01

    Earthmoving, mining, and minerals processing each involve frequent, and often severe, mechanical interactions between metals, and between metals and abrasive nonmetallic and metallic materials (i.e., mineral bearing ores). The abrasive nature of ores causes significant wear to extracting, handling, and processing equipment. Consequently, wear in earthmoving, mining, and minerals processing operations results in the removal of large amounts of material from the wear surfaces of scraping, digging, and ore processing equipment. From an energy point of view, material wear of this nature is classified as an indirect tribological loss (Imhoff et al., 1985). Additionally, a significant amount of energy is expended to overcome frictional forces in the operation of all earthmoving, mining, and minerals processing machinery (i.e., a direct tribological loss). However, in these particular processes, wear losses are more than five times those of frictional losses. In general, the amount of material lost from a particular component in these operations, before it becomes unserviceable, is far greater than that which can be tolerated in typical metal-to-metal wear situations (e.g., lubricated bearing-shaft wear couples in machinery). Consequently, much of the equipment used in earthmoving, mining, and ore processing makes use of easily replaceable or repairable, and preferably low-cost, wear components. The mechanisms by which metal-to-metal and abrasive wear occurs, and the relationships between material properties and wear behavior, are reasonably well-understood in general terms. However, the specific wear mechanisms/wear material interactions that occur during earthmoving, digging, and the processing of ore are more complex, and depend on the wear material, and on the nature of abrasive, the type of loading, and the environment. As a result of this general knowledge, reliable predictions can be made regarding the performance of particular materials under a range of in

  16. Tensiometer and method of determining soil moisture potential in below-grade earthen soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hubbell, J.M.; Mattson, E.D.; Sisson, J.B.

    1998-06-02

    A tensiometer to in-situ determine below-grade soil moisture, potential of earthen soil includes, (a) an apparatus adapted for insertion into earthen soil below grade, the apparatus having a below-grade portion, and, comprising; (b) a porous material provided in the below-grade portion, the porous material at least in part defining a below-grade first fluid chamber; (c) a first fluid conduit extending outwardly of the first fluid chamber; (d) a first controllable isolation valve provided within the first fluid conduit, the first controllable isolation valve defining a second fluid chamber in fluid communication with the first fluid chamber through the first fluid conduit and the isolation valve, the first controllable isolation valve being received within the below-grade portion; and (e) a pressure transducer in fluid communication with the first fluid chamber, the pressure transducer being received within the below-grade portion. An alternate embodiment includes an apparatus adapted for insertion into earthen soil below grade, the apparatus having a below-grade portion, and including: (1) a porous material provided in the below-grade portion, the porous material at least in part defining a below-grade first fluid chamber; and (2) a pressure sensing apparatus in fluid communication with the first fluid chamber, the pressure sensing apparatus being entirely received within the below-grade portion. A method is also disclosed using the above and other apparatus. 6 figs.

  17. Tensiometer and method of determining soil moisture potential in below-grade earthen soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hubbell, Joel M.; Mattson, Earl D.; Sisson, James B.

    1998-01-01

    A tensiometer to in situ determine below-grade soil moisture, potential of earthen soil includes, a) an apparatus adapted for insertion into earthen soil below grade, the apparatus having a below-grade portion, and, comprising; b) a porous material provided in the below-grade portion, the porous material at least in part defining a below-grade first fluid chamber; c) a first fluid conduit extending outwardly of the first fluid chamber; d) a first controllable isolation valve provided within the first fluid conduit, the first controllable isolation valve defining a second fluid chamber in fluid communication with the first fluid chamber through the first fluid conduit and the isolation valve, the first controllable isolation valve being received within the below-grade portion; and e) a pressure transducer in fluid communication with the first fluid chamber, the pressure transducer being received within the below-grade portion. An alternate embodiment includes an apparatus adapted for insertion into earthen soil below grade, the apparatus having a below-grade portion, and including: i) a porous material provided in the below-grade portion, the porous material at least in part defining a below-grade first fluid chamber; and ii) a pressure sensing apparatus in fluid communication with the first fluid chamber, the pressure sensing apparatus being entirely received within the below-grade portion. A method is also disclosed using the above and other apparatus.

  18. Nevada Division of Minerals | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Logo: Nevada Division of Minerals Name: Nevada Division of Minerals Address: 400 W. King St. 106 Place: Carson City, Nevada Zip: 89703 Website: minerals.state.nv.us...

  19. Materials Videos

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials Videos Materials

  20. Hearing protection for miners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schulz, T.

    2008-10-15

    A NIOSH analysis showed that at age 50 approximately 90% of coal miners have a hearing impairment, yet noise included hearing loss is 100% preventable. The article discusses requirements of the MSHA regulations, 30 CFR Part 62 - occupational noise exposure (2000) and a 2008-MSHA document describing technologically achievable and promising controls for several types of mining machinery. Hearing protection is still required for exposure to greater than 90 dBA. These are now commercially available ways to determine how much attenuation an individual gets from a given hearing protector, known as 'fit testing'. 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab., 1 photo.

  1. Mineral industries of Australia, Canada, and Oceania (including a discussion of Antarctica's mineral resources). Mineral perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimbell, C.L.; Lyday, T.Q.; Newman, H.H.

    1985-12-01

    The Bureau of Mines report gives the mineral industry highlights of two of the world's major mineral producing countries, Australia and Canada, and seven Pacific island nations or territories--Fiji, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Republic of Nauru, Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu. The mineral resources of Antarctica are also discussed. Because of the size of the Australian and Canadian mineral industries, summary reviews are presented for each of the States, Provinces, or Territories. The most current information available from all nations is given on major minerals or mineral-commodity production, share of world production, and reserves. Reported also are significant mining companies, locations and capacities of their main facilities, and their share of domestic production. Other information is provided on mineral-related trade with the United States, government mineral policy, energy production-consumption and trade, the mining industry labor force, and prospects for the mineral industry. Maps show the locations of selected mineral deposits, oilfields and gasfields, mines, and processing facilities including iron and steel plants, nonferrous smelters and refineries, and cement plants, as well as infrastructure pertinent to the mineral industry.

  2. A REAL-TIME COAL CONTENT/ORE GRADE (C2OC) SENSOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rand Swanson

    2005-04-01

    This is the final report of a three year DOE funded project titled ''A real-time coal content/ore grade (C{sub 2}OG) sensor''. The sensor, which is based on hyperspectral imaging technology, was designed to give a machine vision assay of ore or coal. Sensors were designed and built at Resonon, Inc., and then deployed at the Stillwater Mining Company core room in southcentral Montana for analyzing platinum/palladium ore and at the Montana Tech Spectroscopy Lab for analyzing coal and other materials. The Stillwater sensor imaged 91' of core and analyzed this data for surface sulfides which are considered to be pathfinder minerals for platinum/palladium at this mine. Our results indicate that the sensor could deliver a relative ore grade provided tool markings and iron oxidation were kept to a minimum. Coal, talc, and titanium sponge samples were also imaged and analyzed for content and grade with promising results. This research has led directly to a DOE SBIR Phase II award for Resonon to develop a down-hole imaging spectrometer based on the same imaging technology used in the Stillwater core room C{sub 2}OG sensor. The Stillwater Mining Company has estimated that this type of imaging system could lead to a 10% reduction in waste rock from their mine and provide a $650,000 benefit per year. The proposed system may also lead to an additional 10% of ore tonnage, which would provide a total economic benefit of more than $3.1 million per year. If this benefit could be realized on other metal ores for which the proposed technology is suitable, the possible economic benefits to U.S. mines is over $70 million per year. In addition to these currently lost economic benefits, there are also major energy losses from mining waste rock and environmental impacts from mining, processing, and disposing of waste rock.

  3. Iron oxyhydroxide mineralization on microbial extracellular polysaccharides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chan, Clara S.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Edwards, David C.; Emerson, David; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2010-06-22

    Iron biominerals can form in neutral pH microaerophilic environments where microbes both catalyze iron oxidation and create polymers that localize mineral precipitation. In order to classify the microbial polymers that influence FeOOH mineralogy, we studied the organic and mineral components of biominerals using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), micro X-ray fluorescence ({mu}XRF) microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). We focused on iron microbial mat samples from a creek and abandoned mine; these samples are dominated by iron oxyhydroxide-coated structures with sheath, stalk, and filament morphologies. In addition, we characterized the mineralized products of an iron-oxidizing, stalk-forming bacterial culture isolated from the mine. In both natural and cultured samples, microbial polymers were found to be acidic polysaccharides with carboxyl functional groups, strongly spatially correlated with iron oxyhydroxide distribution patterns. Organic fibrils collect FeOOH and control its recrystallization, in some cases resulting in oriented crystals with high aspect ratios. The impact of polymers is particularly pronounced as the materials age. Synthesis experiments designed to mimic the biomineralization processes show that the polysaccharide carboxyl groups bind dissolved iron strongly but release it as mineralization proceeds. Our results suggest that carboxyl groups of acidic polysaccharides are produced by different microorganisms to create a wide range of iron oxyhydroxide biomineral structures. The intimate and potentially long-term association controls the crystal growth, phase, and reactivity of iron oxyhydroxide nanoparticles in natural systems.

  4. Chemically Accelerated Carbon Mineralization: Chemical and Biological Catalytic Enhancement of Weathering of Silicate Minerals as Novel Carbon Capture and Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-01

    IMPACCT Project: Columbia University is developing a process to pull CO2 out of the exhaust gas of coal-fired power plants and turn it into a solid that can be easily and safely transported, stored above ground, or integrated into value-added products (e.g. paper filler, plastic filler, construction materials, etc.). In nature, the reaction of CO2 with various minerals over long periods of time will yield a solid carbonate—this process is known as carbon mineralization. The use of carbon mineralization as a CO2 capture and storage method is limited by the speeds at which these minerals can be dissolved and CO2 can be hydrated. To facilitate this, Columbia University is using a unique process and a combination of chemical catalysts which increase the mineral dissolution rate, and the enzymatic catalyst carbonic anhydrase which speeds up the hydration of CO2.

  5. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Foote Mineral Co - PA 27

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Foote Mineral Co - PA 27 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Foote Mineral Co. (PA.27 ) Eliminated from further consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: None Location: Exton , Pennsylvania PA.27-1 Evaluation Year: 1987 PA.27-1 Site Operations: Processed rare earth, principally zirconium and monazite sand was processed on a pilot-plant scale. PA.27-2 Site Disposition: Eliminated - Limited quantity of material handled - Potential for contamination considered remote

  6. Geophysical technique for mineral exploration and discrimination based on electromagnetic methods and associated systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhdanov; Michael S.

    2008-01-29

    Mineral exploration needs a reliable method to distinguish between uneconomic mineral deposits and economic mineralization. A method and system includes a geophysical technique for subsurface material characterization, mineral exploration and mineral discrimination. The technique introduced in this invention detects induced polarization effects in electromagnetic data and uses remote geophysical observations to determine the parameters of an effective conductivity relaxation model using a composite analytical multi-phase model of the rock formations. The conductivity relaxation model and analytical model can be used to determine parameters related by analytical expressions to the physical characteristics of the microstructure of the rocks and minerals. These parameters are ultimately used for the discrimination of different components in underground formations, and in this way provide an ability to distinguish between uneconomic mineral deposits and zones of economic mineralization using geophysical remote sensing technology.

  7. Assessment of industrial minerals and rocks in the controlled area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castor, S.B.; Lock, D.E.

    1996-08-01

    Yucca Mountain in Nye County, Nevada, is a potential site for a permanent repository for high-level nuclear waste in Miocene ash flow tuff. The Yucca Mountain controlled area occupies approximately 98 km{sup 2} that includes the potential repository site. The Yucca Mountain controlled area is located within the southwestern Nevada volcanic field, a large area of Miocene volcanism that includes at least four major calderas or cauldrons. It is sited on a remnant of a Neogene volcanic plateau that was centered around the Timber Mountain caldera complex. The Yucca Mountain region contains many occurrences of valuable or potentially valuable industrial minerals, including deposits with past or current production of construction aggregate, borate minerals, clay, building stone, fluorspar, silicate, and zeolites. The existence of these deposits in the region and the occurrence of certain mineral materials at Yucca Mountain, indicate that the controlled area may have potential for industrial mineral and rock deposits. Consideration of the industrial mineral potential within the Yucca Mountain controlled area is mainly based on petrographic and lithologic studies of samples from drill holes in Yucca Mountain. Clay minerals, zeolites, fluorite, and barite, as minerals that are produced economically in Nevada, have been identified in samples from drill holes in Yucca Mountain.

  8. Commercial Grade Dedication Resources | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Commercial Grade Dedication Resources Commercial Grade Dedication Resources Resource List Commercial Grade Dedication at NRC Commercial-Grade Dedication of Software, June 12, 2014 NRC Vendor Workshop Software Dedication Using the ASME NQA-1 Approach Plant Engineering: Guideline for the Acceptance of Commercial-Grade Design and Analysis Computer Programs Used in Nuclear Safety-Related Applications: EPRI report # 1025243 NQA-1 Commercial Grade Dedication Requirements Subpart 2.14, NQA-1a-2009, and

  9. Property:MineralManager | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    MineralManager Jump to: navigation, search Property Name MineralManager Property Type Page Pages using the property "MineralManager" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous...

  10. EM Commerical Grade Dedication Class Slides

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... This decision is based on engineering judgment. It is ... Items intended for use in nuclear safety applications should ... Grade Procurement Fundamentals Commercial Grade Item...

  11. Commercial Grade Dedication Survey and Training

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Implementation and Nuclear Services Task 3.1: ... Five of 7 responders cite Engineering as the principal ... Grade Procurement Fundamentals Commercial Grade Item...

  12. A highly conspicuous mineralized composite photonic architecture...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A highly conspicuous mineralized composite photonic architecture in the translucent shell of the blue-rayed limpet Title: A highly conspicuous mineralized composite photonic ...

  13. Fun With The Sun - Teacher's Activity Guide for Elementary Grades K-2

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fun with the Sun -- Teacher's Activity Guide for Elementary Grades K-2 Grades: K-4 Topics: Energy Basics, Wind Energy, Energy Efficiency and Conservation Owner: National Renewable Energy Laboratory This educational material is brought to you by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. FUN WITH THE SUN TEACHER'S ACTIVITY GUIDE for ELEMENTARY GRADES K-2 National Renewable Energy Laboratory Education Programs 1617 Cole Blvd. Golden, Colorado 80401 Tel: (303)

  14. Minerals in the world economy. Minerals yearbook Volume 3. 1991 international review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimbell, C.L.

    1991-12-31

    This edition of the Minerals Yearbook - International Review records the performance of the worldwide minerals industry during 1991 and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Volume III, International Review, contains the latest available mineral data on more than 150 foreign countries and discusses the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations. The 1991 review is presented as five area reports and one world overview: Mineral Industries of Africa, Mineral Industries of Asia and the Pacific, Mineral Industries of Latin America and Canada, Mineral Industries of Europe and the U.S.S.R., Mineral Industries of the Middle East, and Minerals in the World Economy.

  15. Deposition of Graded Thermal Barrier Coatings for Gas Turbine Blades -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Wind Energy Wind Energy Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Deposition of Graded Thermal Barrier Coatings for Gas Turbine Blades Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Market Sheet (825 KB) Technology Marketing SummarySandia has developed a method and apparatus for depositing thermal barrier coatings on gas turbine

  16. Utilization of coal associated minerals. Quarterly report No. 11, April 1-June 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slonaker, J. F.; Akers, D. J.; Alderman, J. K.

    1980-08-29

    The purpose of this research program is to examine the effects of coal mineral materials on coal waste by-product utilization and to investigate new and improved methods for the utilization of waste by-products from cleaning, combustion and conversion processing of coal. The intermediate objectives include: (1) the examination of the effects of cleaning, gasification and combustion on coal mineral materials; and (2) the changes which occur in the coal wastes as a result of both form and distribution of mineral materials in feed coals in conjunction with the coal treatment effects resulting from coal cleaning or either gasification or combustion.

  17. CRYSTAL CHEMISTRY OF HYDROUS MINERALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Y. ZHAO; ET AL

    2001-02-01

    Hydrogen has long been appreciated for its role in geological processes of the Earth's crust. However, its role in Earth's deep interior has been neglected in most geophysical thinking. Yet it is now believed that most of our planet's hydrogen may be locked up in high pressure phases of hydrous silicate minerals within the Earth's mantle. This rocky interior (approximately 7/8 of Earth's volume) is conjectured to contain 1-2 orders of magnitude more water than the more obvious oceans (the ''hydrosphere'') and atmosphere. This project is aimed at using the capability of neutron scattering from hydrogen to study the crystal chemistry and stability of hydrogen-bearing minerals at high pressures and temperatures. At the most basic level this is a study of the atomic position and hydrogen bond itself. We have conducted experimental runs on hydrous minerals under high pressure and high temperature conditions. The crystallographic structure of hydrous minerals at extreme conditions and its structural stability, and hydrogen bond at high P-T conditions are the fundamental questions to be addressed. The behavior of the hydrous minerals in the deep interior of the Earth has been discussed.

  18. Composites of Upgraded Metallurgical Grade (UMG) Si with Photovoltaic (PV) Grade Si

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hovel, Harold; Prettyman, Kevin; Krause, Rainer; Dipankar, Roy

    2015-03-27

    At the beginning of this project 125 wafers of UMG material blended with non-UMG were obtained in the various blends; 50/50,70/30,80/20. 90/10 and 100% UMG. Solar grade , non-UMG material was used for comparison. Many techniques for starting substrate evaluation were used including lifetime, resitivity, SEM, IPCMS. Some degree of gettering was implemented by lengthening the time of phosphorous diffusion. The UMG/solar blends resulted in 14.5% -15% efficiencies, and even 100% UMG showed 14.5% values, not less than standard cells manufactured at the time and an encouraging result for the prospects of using UMG material due to the lower $/watt. A later decline in the cost of Si and an emphasis on reaching higher efficiencies in general led to a vanishing interest in the use of UMG.

  19. Influence of frequency, grade, moisture and temperature on Green River oil shale dielectric properties and electromagnetic heating processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hakala, J. Alexandra [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Stanchina, William [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Soong, Yee [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Hedges, Sheila [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Development of in situ electromagnetic (EM) retorting technologies and design of specific EM well logging tools requires an understanding of various process parameters (applied frequency, mineral phases present, water content, organic content and temperature) on oil shale dielectric properties. In this literature review on oil shale dielectric properties, we found that at low temperatures (<200 C) and constant oil shale grade, both the relative dielectric constant (?') and imaginary permittivity (?'') decrease with increased frequency and remain constant at higher frequencies. At low temperature and constant frequency, ?' decreases or remains constant with oil shale grade, while ?'' increases or shows no trend with oil shale grade. At higher temperatures (>200 C) and constant frequency, epsilon' generally increases with temperature regardless of grade while ?'' fluctuates. At these temperatures, maximum values for both ?' and ?'' differ based upon oil shale grade. Formation fluids, mineral-bound water, and oil shale varve geometry also affect measured dielectric properties. This review presents and synthesizes prior work on the influence of applied frequency, oil shale grade, water, and temperature on the dielectric properties of oil shales that can aid in the future development of frequency- and temperature-specific in situ retorting technologies and oil shale grade assay tools.

  20. Diagenesis and clay mineral formation at Gale Crater, Mars

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bridges, J. C.; Schwenzer, S. P.; Leveille, R.; Westall, F.; Wiens, R. C.; Mangold, N.; Bristow, T.; Edwards, P.; Berger, G.

    2015-01-18

    The Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity found host rocks of basaltic composition and alteration assemblages containing clay minerals at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater. On the basis of the observed host rock and alteration minerals, we present results of equilibrium thermochemical modeling of the Sheepbed mudstones of Yellowknife Bay in order to constrain the formation conditions of its secondary mineral assemblage. Building on conclusions from sedimentary observations by the Mars Science Laboratory team, we assume diagenetic, in situ alteration. The modeling shows that the mineral assemblage formed by the reaction of a CO₂-poor and oxidizing, dilute aqueous solution (Gale Portage Water)more » in an open system with the Fe-rich basaltic-composition sedimentary rocks at 10–50°C and water/rock ratio (mass of rock reacted with the starting fluid) of 100–1000, pH of ~7.5–12. Model alteration assemblages predominantly contain phyllosilicates (Fe-smectite, chlorite), the bulk composition of a mixture of which is close to that of saponite inferred from Chemistry and Mineralogy data and to that of saponite observed in the nakhlite Martian meteorites and terrestrial analogues. To match the observed clay mineral chemistry, inhomogeneous dissolution dominated by the amorphous phase and olivine is required. We therefore deduce a dissolving composition of approximately 70% amorphous material, with 20% olivine, and 10% whole rock component.« less

  1. Airflow Resistance of Loose-Fill Mineral Fiber Insulations in Retrofit Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schumacher, C. J.; Fox, M. J.; Lstiburek, J.

    2015-02-01

    This report expands on Building America Report 1109 by applying the experimental apparatus and test method to dense-pack retrofit applications using mineral fiber insulation materials. Three fiber glass insulation materials and one stone wool insulation material were tested, and the results compared to the cellulose results from the previous study.

  2. Airflow Resistance of Loose-Fill Mineral Fiber Insulations in Retrofit Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schumacher, C. J.; Fox, M. J.; Lstiburek, J.

    2015-02-01

    This report expands on Building America Report 1109 by applying the experimental apparatus and test method to dense-pack retrofit applications using mineral fiber insulation materials. Three (3) fiber glass insulation materials and one (1) stone wool insulation material were tested, and the results compared to the cellulose results from the previous study.

  3. Agenda: Investment-Grade Audit Review Workshop | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Agenda: Investment-Grade Audit Review Workshop Agenda: Investment-Grade Audit Review Workshop Document offers the standard agenda for the investment-grade audit review workshop. ...

  4. Ukrainian mineral wax from brown coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shabad, T.

    1986-07-01

    An unusual mineral enterprise is the mineral wax plant of Semenovskoye in the Aleksandriya brown coal basin of the Ukraine. The only plant of its kind in the Soviet Union, it has been in operation since 1959, extracting mineral wax from the local bitumen-rich brown coal. The plant yields about 7.5 tons of mineral wax a day (about 2700 tons a year), for use in a variety of applications.

  5. CMI Course Inventory: Metallurgical Engineering/Materials Science...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to rare earths and critical materials. Other courses are available in these areas: Geology EngineeringGeochemistry Mining Engineering Chemistry Engineering Mineral...

  6. Review of 1989 international mineral industry activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimbell, C.L. (US Bureau of Mines, Washington, DC (US))

    1990-07-01

    This article reviews global mineral industry activities for 1989. Production of coal, natural gas, and petroleum, as well as non-fuel minerals, is detailed regionally and for individual countries. The problems of changes in technology, economic and political systems are discussed where they have affected mineral production.

  7. LOW TEMPERATURE GEOTHERMAL MINERAL RECOVERY PROGRAM 02/11/2014...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    LOW TEMPERATURE GEOTHERMAL MINERAL RECOVERY PROGRAM 02112014 LOW TEMPERATURE GEOTHERMAL MINERAL RECOVERY PROGRAM 02112014 mineral-webinar.pdf (3.45 MB) More Documents & ...

  8. Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geology and Mineral Industries Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries Name: Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries...

  9. New Mexico Energy, Minerals and Natural Resources Department...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Minerals and Natural Resources Department Jump to: navigation, search Logo: New Mexico Energy, Minerals and Natural Resources Department Name: New Mexico Energy, Minerals...

  10. CMI Course Inventory: Mineral Economics and Business | Critical...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mineral Economics and Business Mineral Economics and Business Of the six CMI Team members that are educational institutions, two offer courses in Mineral Economics and Business. ...

  11. Composition and method for self-assembly and mineralization of peptide-amphiphiles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stupp, Samuel I.; Beniash, Elia; Hartgerink, Jeffrey D.

    2012-02-28

    The present invention is directed to a composition useful for making homogeneously mineralized self assembled peptide-amphiphile nanofibers and nanofiber gels. The composition is generally a solution comprised of a positively or negatively charged peptide-amphiphile and a like signed ion from the mineral. Mixing this solution with a second solution containing a dissolved counter-ion of the mineral and/or a second oppositely charged peptide amphiphile, results in the rapid self assembly of the peptide-amphiphiles into a nanofiber gel and templated mineralization of the ions. Templated mineralization of the initially dissolved mineral cations and anions in the mixture occurs with preferential orientation of the mineral crystals along the fiber surfaces within the nanofiber gel. One advantage of the present invention is that it results in homogenous growth of the mineral throughout the nanofiber gel. Another advantage of the present invention is that the nanofiber gel formation and mineralization reactions occur in a single mixing step and under substantially neutral or physiological pH conditions. These homogeneous nanostructured composite materials are useful for medical applications especially the regeneration of damaged bone in mammals. This invention is directed to the synthesis of peptide-amphiphiles with more than one amphiphilic moment and to supramolecular compositions comprised of such multi-dimensional peptide-amphiphiles. Supramolecular compositions can be formed by self assembly of multi-dimensional peptide-amphiphiles by mixing them with a solution comprising a monovalent cation.

  12. Composition and method for self-assembly and mineralization of peptide amphiphiles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stupp, Samuel I.; Beniash, Elia; Hartgerink, Jeffrey D.

    2009-06-30

    The present invention is directed to a composition useful for making homogeneously mineralized self assembled peptide-amphiphile nanofibers and nanofiber gels. The composition is generally a solution comprised of a positively or negatively charged peptide-amphiphile and a like signed ion from the mineral. Mixing this solution with a second solution containing a dissolved counter-ion of the mineral and/or a second oppositely charged peptide amphiphile, results in the rapid self assembly of the peptide-amphiphiles into a nanofiber gel and templated mineralization of the ions. Templated mineralization of the initially dissolved mineral cations and anions in the mixture occurs with preferential orientation of the mineral crystals along the fiber surfaces within the nanofiber gel. One advantage of the present invention is that it results in homogenous growth of the mineral throughout the nanofiber gel. Another advantage of the present invention is that the nanofiber gel formation and mineralization reactions occur in a single mixing step and under substantially neutral or physiological pH conditions. These homogeneous nanostructured composite materials are useful for medical applications especially the regeneration of damaged bone in mammals. This invention is directed to the synthesis of peptide-amphiphiles with more than one amphiphilic moment and to supramolecular compositions comprised of such multi-dimensional peptide-amphiphiles. Supramolecular compositions can be formed by self assembly of multi-dimensional peptide-amphiphiles by mixing them with a solution comprising a monovalent cation.

  13. Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and nanorod barcodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Scher, Erik C.; Manna, Liberato

    2013-03-26

    Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and shapped nanorods are disclosed comprising Group II-VI, Group III-V and Group IV semiconductors and methods of making the same. Also disclosed are nanorod barcodes using core/shell nanorods where the core is a semiconductor or metal material, and with or without a shell. Methods of labeling analytes using the nanorod barcodes are also disclosed.

  14. Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and nanorod barcodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Scher, Erik C.; Manna, Liberato

    2010-12-14

    Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and shaped nanorods are disclosed comprising Group II-VI, Group III-V and Group IV semiconductors and methods of making the same. Also disclosed are nanorod barcodes using core/shell nanorods where the core is a semiconductor or metal material, and with or without a shell. Methods of labeling analytes using the nanorod barcodes are also disclosed.

  15. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- International Minerals and Chemical

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Corp - Pilot Plant - FL 02 and Chemical Corp - Pilot Plant - FL 02 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: International Minerals and Chemical Corp - Pilot Plant (FL.02) Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: None Location: Mulberry , Florida FL.02-1 Evaluation Year: 1985 FL.02-2 Site Operations: Erected and operated a pilot plant to process material from the leached zone of the Florida pebble phosphate field for the recovery of uranium and other saleable products and also conducted

  16. Mineralization of Carbon Dioxide: Literature Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romanov, V; Soong, Y; Carney, C; Rush, G; Nielsen, B; O'Connor, W

    2015-01-01

    CCS research has been focused on CO2 storage in geologic formations, with many potential risks. An alternative to conventional geologic storage is carbon mineralization, where CO2 is reacted with metal cations to form carbonate minerals. Mineralization methods can be broadly divided into two categories: in situ and ex situ. In situ mineralization, or mineral trapping, is a component of underground geologic sequestration, in which a portion of the injected CO2 reacts with alkaline rock present in the target formation to form solid carbonate species. In ex situ mineralization, the carbonation reaction occurs above ground, within a separate reactor or industrial process. This literature review is meant to provide an update on the current status of research on CO2 mineralization. 2

  17. Strata control in mineral engineering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bieniawski, Z.T.

    1986-01-01

    This book covers the state-of-the-art of strata control practice both in the United States and abroad with respect to strata reinforcement by rock bolting, long wall mining technology and innovations in energy development, such as mining for oil and tunneling for storage of high-level nuclear waste in deep underground repositories. It features coverage of design concepts in rock engineering and rockbolt systems, stability of rock pillars, rockbursts, shaft design and construction and a detailed consideration of mineral and energy needs in the United States.

  18. EC Transmission Line Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bigelow, Tim S

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this document is to identify materials acceptable for use in the US ITER Project Office (USIPO)-supplied components for the ITER Electron cyclotron Heating and Current Drive (ECH&CD) transmission lines (TL), PBS-52. The source of material property information for design analysis shall be either the applicable structural code or the ITER Material Properties Handbook. In the case of conflict, the ITER Material Properties Handbook shall take precedence. Materials selection, and use, shall follow the guidelines established in the Materials Assessment Report (MAR). Materials exposed to vacuum shall conform to the ITER Vacuum Handbook. [Ref. 2] Commercial materials shall conform to the applicable standard (e.g., ASTM, JIS, DIN) for the definition of their grade, physical, chemical and electrical properties and related testing. All materials for which a suitable certification from the supplier is not available shall be tested to determine the relevant properties, as part of the procurement. A complete traceability of all the materials including welding materials shall be provided. Halogenated materials (example: insulating materials) shall be forbidden in areas served by the detritiation systems. Exceptions must be approved by the Tritium System and Safety Section Responsible Officers.

  19. Energy education resources: Kindergarten through 12th grade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-09-01

    Energy Education Resources: Kindergarten Through 12th Grade is published by the National Energy Information Center (NEIC) a service of the Energy Information Administration (EIA), to provide students, educators, and other information users, a list of generally available free or low-cost energy-related educational materials. Each entry includes the address, telephone number, and description of the organization and the energy-related materials available. Most of the entries also include Internet (Web) and electronic mail (E-Mail) addresses. Each entry is followed by a number, which is referenced in the subject index in the back of this book.

  20. Mineral Resource Information System for Field Lab in the Osage Mineral Reservation Estate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carroll, H.B.; Johnson, William I.

    1999-04-27

    The Osage Mineral Reservation Estate is located in Osage County, Oklahoma. Minerals on the Estate are owned by members of the Osage Tribe who are shareholders in the Estate. The Estate is administered by the Osage Agency, Branch of Minerals, operated by the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). Oil, natural gas, casinghead gas, and other minerals (sand, gravel, limestone, and dolomite) are exploited by lessors. Operators may obtain from the Branch of Minerals and the Osage Mineral Estate Tribal Council leases to explore and exploit oil, gas, oil and gas, and other minerals on the Estate. Operators pay a royalty on all minerals exploited and sold from the Estate. A mineral Resource Information system was developed for this project to evaluate the remaining hydrocarbon resources located on the Estate. Databases on Microsoft Excel spreadsheets of operators, leases, and production were designed for use in conjunction with an evaluation spreadsheet for estimating the remaining hydrocarbons on the Estate.

  1. Commercial Grade Dedication Survey and Training | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Survey and Training Commercial Grade Dedication Survey and Training The following is a sample plan to perform a CGD survey. The checklist items are included. In addition to,...

  2. Antireflective graded index silica coating, method for making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yoldas, Bulent E.; Partlow, Deborah P.

    1985-01-01

    Antireflective silica coating for vitreous material is substantially non-reflecting over a wide band of radiations. This is achieved by providing the coating with a graded degree of porosity which grades the index of refraction between that of air and the vitreous material of the substrate. To prepare the coating, there is first prepared a silicon-alkoxide-based coating solution of particular polymer structure produced by a controlled proportion of water to alkoxide and a controlled concentration of alkoxide to solution, along with a small amount of catalyst. The primary solvent is alcohol and the solution is polymerized and hydrolized under controlled conditions prior to use. The prepared solution is applied as a film to the vitreous substrate and rapidly dried. It is thereafter heated under controlled conditions to volatilize the hydroxyl radicals and organics therefrom and then to produce a suitable pore morphology in the residual porous silica layer. The silica layer is then etched in order to enlarge the pores in a graded fashion, with the largest of the pores remaining being sufficiently small that radiations to be passed through the substrate are not significantly scattered. For use with quartz substrates, extremely durable coatings which display only 0.1% reflectivity have been prepared.

  3. Role of Nuclear Grade Graphite in Oxidation in Modular HTGRs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willaim Windes; G. Strydom; J. Kane; R. Smith

    2014-11-01

    The passively safe High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) design is one of the primary concepts considered for Generation IV and Small Modular Reactor (SMR) programs. The helium cooled, nuclear grade graphite moderated core achieves extremely high operating temperatures allowing either industrial process heat or electricity generation at high efficiencies. In addition to their neutron moderating properties, nuclear grade graphite core components provide excellent high temperature stability, thermal conductivity, and chemical compatibility with the high temperature nuclear fuel form. Graphite has been continuously used in nuclear reactors since the 1940’s and has performed remarkably well over a wide range of core environments and operating conditions. Graphite moderated, gas-cooled reactor designs have been safely used for research and power production purposes in multiple countries since the inception of nuclear energy development. However, graphite is a carbonaceous material, and this has generated a persistent concern that the graphite components could actually burn during either normal or accident conditions [ , ]. The common assumption is that graphite, since it is ostensibly similar to charcoal and coal, will burn in a similar manner. While charcoal and coal may have the appearance of graphite, the internal microstructure and impurities within these carbonaceous materials are very different. Volatile species and trapped moisture provide a source of oxygen within coal and charcoal allowing them to burn. The fabrication process used to produce nuclear grade graphite eliminates these oxidation enhancing impurities, creating a dense, highly ordered form of carbon possessing high thermal diffusivity and strongly (covalently) bonded atoms.

  4. weapons material | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    material

  5. Interface Induced Carbonate Mineralization: A Fundamental Geochemical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Interface Induced Carbonate Mineralization: A Fundamental Geochemical Process Relevant to Carbon Sequestration Teng, H. Henry PI, The George Washington University PI, The George...

  6. Geology and Minerals | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleGeologyandMinerals&oldid612244" Feedback Contact needs updating Image needs updating...

  7. CRC handbook of laser science and technology. Volume 5. Optical materials. Part 3. Applications, coatings, and fabrication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    This book describes the uses, coatings, and fabrication of laser materials. Topics considered include: optical waveguide materials; optical storage materials; holographic recording materials; phase conjunction materials; holographic recording materials; phase conjunction materials; laser crystals; laser glasses; quantum counter materials; thin films and coatings; multilayer dielectric coatings; graded-index surfaces and films; optical materials fabrication; fabrication techniques; fabrication procedures for specific materials.

  8. Investigating Radiation Shielding Properties of Different Mineral Origin Heavyweight Concretes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basyigit, Celalettin; Uysal, Volkan; Kilincarslan, Semsettin; Akkas, Ayse; Mavi, Betuel; Guenoglu, Kadir; Akkurt, Iskender

    2011-12-26

    The radiation although has hazardous effects for human health, developing technologies bring lots of usage fields to radiation like in medicine and nuclear power station buildings. In this case protecting from undesirable radiation is a necessity for human health. Heavyweight concrete is one of the most important materials used in where radiation should be shielded, like those areas. In this study, used heavyweight aggregates of different mineral origin (Limonite, Siderite), in order to prepare different series in concrete mixtures and investigated radiation shielding properties. The experimental results on measuring the radiation shielding, the heavyweight concrete prepared with heavyweight aggregates of different mineral origin show that, are useful radiation absorbents when they used in concrete mixtures.

  9. Adsorption of polyacrylamides on mineral surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lecourtier, J.; Lee, L.T.; Chauveteau, G.

    1987-01-01

    The adsorption of neutral and hydrolyzed polyacrylamides, which are currently used in enhanced oil recovery, on minerals the surfaces of which carry silanol and aluminol groups such as siliceous minerals and akolinite is studied. All experiments are conducted in batch on powdered minerals. The conditions for the elimination of detrimental effects of both mechanical degradation of polymers and flocculation of mineral particles during the batch experiments have been determined, leading to a reliable methodology for the adsorption measurements. The surface sites responsible for adsorption are identified, and a change in surface charge by thermal pretreatment of minerals is found to alter the polymer adsorption accordingly. The two main results thus derived from this study are: a methodology providing reliable and reproducible data, and, the identification of the mechanisms of polymer adsorption and the major parameters governing the process.

  10. Materials Frontiers to Empower Quantum Computing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, Antoinette Jane; Sarrao, John Louis; Richardson, Christopher

    2015-06-11

    This is an exciting time at the nexus of quantum computing and materials research. The materials frontiers described in this report represent a significant advance in electronic materials and our understanding of the interactions between the local material and a manufactured quantum state. Simultaneously, directed efforts to solve materials issues related to quantum computing provide an opportunity to control and probe the fundamental arrangement of matter that will impact all electronic materials. An opportunity exists to extend our understanding of materials functionality from electronic-grade to quantum-grade by achieving a predictive understanding of noise and decoherence in qubits and their origins in materials defects and environmental coupling. Realizing this vision systematically and predictively will be transformative for quantum computing and will represent a qualitative step forward in materials prediction and control.

  11. Minerals Yearbook, 1988 international review. The mineral industries of Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torres, I.E.; Gurmendi, A.C.; Velasco, P.

    1988-01-01

    All three countries in this Andean group have diversified mineral industries that play an important role in their respective domestic economies. Peru, as the largest country with a population of over 21 million, is the most diversified mineral producer with the highest value of total output. The values added by the mineral industries in 1988 were $2.78 billion for Peru, $1.98 billion for Ecuador, and $0.64 billion for Bolivia. Each value encompasses production of petroleum, natural gas, metals, and industrial minerals. During the period 1980-88, Ecuador's mineral output in terms of value expanded while that of Bolivia and Peru contracted.

  12. Minerals yearbook: Mineral industries of Europe and central Eurasia. Volume 3. 1992 international review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Volume III, Minerals Yearbook -- International Review contains the latest available mineral data on more than 175 foreign countries and discusses the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations. Since the 1989 International Review, the volume has been presented as six reports. The report presents the Mineral Industries of Europe and Central Eurasia. The report incorporates location maps, industry structure tables, and an outlook section previously incorporated in the authors' Minerals Perspectives Series quinquennial regional books, which are being discontinued. This section of the Minerals Yearbook reviews the minerals industries of 45 countries: the 12 nations of the European Community (EC); 6 of the 7 nations of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA); Malta; the 11 Eastern European economies in transition (Albania, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Serbia and Montenegro, and Slovenia); and the countries of Central Eurasia (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgystan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan).

  13. REPORT FOR COMMERCIAL GRADE NICKEL CHARACTERIZATION AND BENCHMARKING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-12-20

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, has completed the collection, sample analysis, and review of analytical results to benchmark the concentrations of gross alpha-emitting radionuclides, gross beta-emitting radionuclides, and technetium-99 in commercial grade nickel. This report presents methods, change management, observations, and statistical analysis of materials procured from sellers representing nine countries on four continents. The data suggest there is a low probability of detecting alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides in commercial nickel. Technetium-99 was not detected in any samples, thus suggesting it is not present in commercial nickel.

  14. Predicting and Utilizing the Vehicle's Past and Futuer Road Grade...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Utilizing the Vehicle's Past and Futuer Road Grade Predicting and Utilizing the Vehicle's Past and Futuer Road Grade Predicted road grade may be used to estimate the power ...

  15. Mineral Selection for Multicomponent Equilibrium Geothermometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plamer, C. D.; Ohly, S. R.; Smith, R. W.; Neupane, G.; McLing, T.; Mattson, E.

    2015-04-01

    Multicomponent geothermometry requires knowledge of the mineral phases in the reservoir with which the geothermal fluids may be equilibrated. These minerals phases are most often alteration products rather than primary minerals. We have reviewed the literature on geothermal systems representing most major geologic environments typically associated with geothermal activity and identified potential alteration products in various environments. We have included this information in RTEst, a code we have developed to estimate reservoir conditions (temperature, CO2 fugacity) from the geochemistry of near-surface geothermal waters. The information has been included in RTEst through the addition of filters that decrease the potential number of minerals from all possibilities based on the basis species to those that are more relevant to the particular conditions in which the user is interested. The three groups of filters include host rock type (tholeiitic, calc-alkaline, silicic, siliciclastic, carbonate), water type (acidic, neutral), and the temperature range over which the alteration minerals were formed (low, medium, high). The user-chosen mineral assemblage is checked to make sure that it does not violate the Gibbs phase rule. The user can select one of three mineral saturation weighting schemes that decrease the chance the optimization from being skewed by reaction stoichiometry or analytical uncertainty.

  16. Mineral Selection for Multicomponent Equilibrium Geothermometry

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Plamer, C. D.; Ohly, S. R.; Smith, R. W.; Neupane, G.; McLing, T.; Mattson, E.

    2015-04-01

    Multicomponent geothermometry requires knowledge of the mineral phases in the reservoir with which the geothermal fluids may be equilibrated. These minerals phases are most often alteration products rather than primary minerals. We have reviewed the literature on geothermal systems representing most major geologic environments typically associated with geothermal activity and identified potential alteration products in various environments. We have included this information in RTEst, a code we have developed to estimate reservoir conditions (temperature, CO2 fugacity) from the geochemistry of near-surface geothermal waters. The information has been included in RTEst through the addition of filters that decrease the potential numbermore » of minerals from all possibilities based on the basis species to those that are more relevant to the particular conditions in which the user is interested. The three groups of filters include host rock type (tholeiitic, calc-alkaline, silicic, siliciclastic, carbonate), water type (acidic, neutral), and the temperature range over which the alteration minerals were formed (low, medium, high). The user-chosen mineral assemblage is checked to make sure that it does not violate the Gibbs phase rule. The user can select one of three mineral saturation weighting schemes that decrease the chance the optimization from being skewed by reaction stoichiometry or analytical uncertainty.« less

  17. EM Commercial Grade Dedication Class Slides | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Services » Program Management » Quality Assurance » EM Commercial Grade Dedication Class Slides EM Commercial Grade Dedication Class Slides PowerPoint presentation used in the EM sponsored commercial grade dedication (CGD) class. This class is designed to provide an understanding of the process for CGD. EM Commercial Grade Dedication Class Slides (1.45 MB) More Documents & Publications NQA-1 Commercial Grade Dedication Critical Characteristics Commercial Grade Dedication Survey and

  18. World mineral exploration trends and economic issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tilton, J.E.; Eggert, R.G. . Dept. of Mineral Economics); Landsberg, H.H. )

    1988-01-01

    The subjects and methodologies presented in this book vary from the presentation of a heretofore unavailable collection of data on worldwide mineral exploration to case studies of mineral exploration in the developing countries of Botswana and Papua New Guinea to a study of the economic productivity of base metal exploration in Australia and Canada. Some authors concentrate on particular actors or participants in the exploration process, such as major mining companies, while other focus on a particular country such as the Soviet Union, France, or South Africa. Most chapters deal with exploration for nonfuel minerals, and particularly metals, although some take in uranium and coal exploration; oil and gas exploration is specifically excluded.

  19. Process for the physical segregation of minerals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yingling, Jon C.; Ganguli, Rajive

    2004-01-06

    With highly heterogeneous groups or streams of minerals, physical segregation using online quality measurements is an economically important first stage of the mineral beneficiation process. Segregation enables high quality fractions of the stream to bypass processing, such as cleaning operations, thereby reducing the associated costs and avoiding the yield losses inherent in any downstream separation process. The present invention includes various methods for reliably segregating a mineral stream into at least one fraction meeting desired quality specifications while at the same time maximizing yield of that fraction.

  20. Fun with the Sun - Teacher's Activity Guide for Elementary Grades...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fun with the Sun - Teacher's Activity Guide for Elementary Grades K-2 Below is information about the student activitylesson plan from your search. Grades K-4 Subject Energy ...

  1. Commercial Grade Dedication Record (ANL-746 Revised) | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Record (ANL-746 Revised) Commercial Grade Dedication Record (ANL-746 Revised) A sample of a process to recorddocument CGD activities. Forms are included. Commercial Grade...

  2. Model Investment Grade Audit and Project Proposal

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Information and documents for conducting an investment grade audit to evaluate potential measures and presenting a project proposal for a set of bundled measures that deliver savings to pay for the project over the finance term.

  3. Commercial Grade Dedication Guidance | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Guidance Commercial Grade Dedication Guidance This Guide provides an acceptable process (Commercial Grade Dedication [CGD]) for EM facilities and projects to dedicate an item or service that performs a nuclear safety function that was not manufactured, developed, or performed under a qualified American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) NQA-1 Quality Assurance program. This Guide also provides guidance for the development of the associated documentation supporting the dedication activity.

  4. The use of the scanning electron microscope in the determination of the mineral composition of Ballachulish slate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walsh, Joan A.

    2007-11-15

    Slate is a fine-grained, low-grade metamorphic rock derived from argillaceous sediments or occasionally volcanic ash. Although most slates contain mainly quartz, chlorite and white mica, they vary considerably in their durability, some lasting centuries while others fail after a few years of service. A detailed characterisation of their mineralogy is required for the assessment of performance, and to establish the provenance of a used slate. A combination of methods was used to examine Ballachulish slates; XRD analysis to determine the principal minerals present, XRF analysis to determine the total chemical composition, and scanning electron microscopy to determine the chemical composition of individual minerals. It was found that the white mica in Ballachulish slate is phengite and the chlorite is ripidolite. Feldspar is present as albite and carbonate as ferroan dolomite. Several accessory minerals were also identified, including chloritoid, monzonite and zircon. There was considerable variation in the ratio of the principal minerals, making it impossible to identify used slates by this criterion. Instead, chemical composition of the individual minerals, and possibly key accessory minerals, should be used to determine the provenance of slates.

  5. Fundamental Thermodynamics of Actinide-Bearing Mineral Waste Forms - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williamson, Mark A.; Ebbinghaus, Bartley B.; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2001-03-01

    The end of the Cold War raised the need for the technical community to be concerned with the disposition of excess nuclear weapon material. The plutonium will either be converted into mixed-oxide fuel for use in nuclear reactors or immobilized in glass or ceramic waste forms and placed in a repository. The stability and behavior of plutonium in the ceramic materials as well as the phase behavior and stability of the ceramic material in the environment is not well established. In order to provide technically sound solutions to these issues, thermodynamic data are essential in developing an understanding of the chemistry and phase equilibria of the actinide-bearing mineral waste form materials proposed as immobilization matrices. Mineral materials of interest include zircon, zirconolite, and pyrochlore. High temperature solution calorimetry is one of the most powerful techniques, sometimes the only technique, for providing the fundamental thermodynamic data needed to establish optimum material fabrication parameters, and more importantly understand and predict the behavior of the mineral materials in the environment. The purpose of this project is to experimentally determine the enthalpy of formation of actinide orthosilicates, the enthalpies of formation of actinide substituted zirconolite and pyrochlore, and develop an understanding of the bonding characteristics and stabilities of these materials.

  6. INITIAL COMPARISON OF BASELINE PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES FOR THE VHTR CANDIDATE GRAPHITE GRADES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carroll, Mark C

    2014-09-01

    High-purity graphite is the core structural material of choice in the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design, a graphite-moderated, helium-cooled configuration that is capable of producing thermal energy for power generation as well as process heat for industrial applications that require temperatures higher than the outlet temperatures of present nuclear reactors. The Baseline Graphite Characterization Program is endeavoring to minimize the conservative estimates of as-manufactured mechanical and physical properties in nuclear-grade graphites by providing comprehensive data that captures the level of variation in measured values. In addition to providing a thorough comparison between these values in different graphite grades, the program is also carefully tracking individual specimen source, position, and orientation information in order to provide comparisons both in specific properties and in the associated variability between different lots, different billets, and different positions from within a single billet. This report is a preliminary comparison between each of the grades of graphite that are considered candidate grades from four major international graphite producers. These particular grades (NBG-18, NBG-17, PCEA, IG-110, and 2114) are the major focus of the evaluations presently underway on irradiated graphite properties through the series of Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) experiments. NBG-18, a medium-grain pitch coke graphite from SGL from which billets are formed via vibration molding, was the favored structural material in the pebble-bed configuration. NBG-17 graphite from SGL is essentially NBG-18 with the grain size reduced by a factor of two. PCEA, petroleum coke graphite from GrafTech with a similar grain size to NBG-17, is formed via an extrusion process and was initially considered the favored grade for the prismatic layout. IG-110 and 2114, from Toyo Tanso and Mersen (formerly Carbone Lorraine), respectively, are fine-grain grades

  7. Building America Case Study:Cladding Attachment Over Mineral...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cladding Attachment Over Mineral Fiber Insulation Board Ontario, Canada PROJECT INFORMATION Project Name: Climate-Exposed Long- Term Testing of Mineral Fiber Insulation Board Under ...

  8. Buckhorn Mineral Wells Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Buckhorn Mineral Wells Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Buckhorn Mineral Wells Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  9. Indian Mineral Leasing Act of 1938 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Provides for leasing of minerals on tribal lands References IMLA1 United States v. Navajo Nation2 The Indian Mineral Leasing Act of 1938 (IMLA) provides that "unallotted...

  10. Vietnam National Coal Mineral Industries Group Vinacomin | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    National Coal Mineral Industries Group Vinacomin Jump to: navigation, search Name: Vietnam National Coal-Mineral Industries Group (Vinacomin) Place: Vietnam Product: Vietnam-based...

  11. Bashfords Hot Mineral Spa Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Bashfords Hot Mineral Spa Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Bashfords Hot Mineral Spa Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  12. Relations Of Ammonium Minerals At Several Hydrothermal Systems...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to mineralization. Submicroscopic analysis of ammonium minerals from two mercury- and gold-bearing hot-springs deposits at Ivanhoe, Nevada and McLaughlin, California shows that...

  13. Uranium-Bearing Evaporite Mineralization Influencing Plume Persistence...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Uranium-Bearing Evaporite Mineralization Influencing Plume Persistence: Literature Review and DOE-LM Site Surveys Uranium-Bearing Evaporite Mineralization Influencing Plume ...

  14. Mineral Leasing Act for Acquired Lands of 1947 | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of the Mineral Leasing Act and the authority of the Secretary of the Interior over oil and gas operations to federal "acquired lands." References Mineral Leasing Act for...

  15. Geology and Mineral Deposits of Churchill County, Nevada | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mineral Deposits of Churchill County, Nevada Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Geology and Mineral Deposits of Churchill County, Nevada...

  16. ITP Mining: Mining Industry of the Future Mineral Processing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of the Future Mineral Processing Technology Roadmap ITP Mining: Mining Industry of the Future Mineral Processing Technology Roadmap mptroadmap.pdf (293.48 KB) More Documents & ...

  17. H. R. S. 182 - Reservation and Disposition of Government Mineral...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mineral Rights (2012). Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleH.R.S.182-ReservationandDispositionofGovernmentMineralRights&oldid801574" ...

  18. Recovery of minerals from US coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vanderborgh, N.E.

    1982-01-01

    Projections show that domestic coal will serve for the majority of energy supplies during the next decades. Thorough chemical cleaning of this coal can be accomplished in long residence time, slurry transport systems to produce high-quality fuel product. Concurrently, mineral recovery from coals will supplement existing ores. This paper describes this concept and given preliminary engineering considerations for mineral recovery during transport operations.

  19. Dissolving the mineral calcite | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    calcite Share Topic Programs Chemical sciences & engineering Synchrotron radiation X-ray imaging & holography Argonne's X-ray Reflection Interfacial Microscope allows researchers to observe mineral surfaces. Powered by the Advanced Photon Source, the microscope allows researchers to "see" the surface structure in real time as "etch pits," or surface holes, developed on the mineral calcite

  20. Material Misfits

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Issues submit Material Misfits How well nanocomposite materials align at their interfaces determines what properties they have, opening broad new avenues of materials-science...

  1. Structural and Morphological Difference Between Ti/TiN/TiCN Coatings Grown in Multilayer and Graded Form

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Restrepo, E.; Baena, A.; Agudelo, C.; Castillo, H.; Devia, A.; Marino, A.

    2006-12-04

    Thin films can be grown in super-lattice, multilayers and graded form, having each one advantages and disadvantages. The difference between multilayer and graded coatings is the interface. In multilayers the interface is abrupt and in graded coatings it is diffuse. The interface influences many chemical and physical properties of the materials, and its choice depends on the application. Graded coatings have the advantage of having gradual properties such as thermal expansion coefficient and lattice parameter, avoiding adherence problems due to good match between their component materials. In this work the comparison between some properties of coatings grown as multilayer and graded is performed. The materials are produced using the sputtering DC technique because of its facility to control the deposition parameters and generate a slow growth. The target is a disc of titanium and the samples are made of stainless steel 304. The working gases are argon, nitrogen and methane, which are mixed according to the material to be produced, i.e. Ti layer is grown with argon, the TiN film is produced with a mixture of argon and nitrogen, and the TiCN material is obtained mixing argon, nitrogen and methane. These materials are characterized with AFM in order to determine grain size and with XPS studying the chemical composition and performing depth profiles.

  2. Utilization of coal-associated minerals. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slonaker, J. F.; Akers, D. J.; Alderman, J. K.

    1980-01-01

    Under contract number DE-AS21-77ET10533 with the US-DOE several methods of utilizing coal associated by-products were examined for potential commercial use. Such use could transform a costly waste disposal situation into new materials for further use and could provide incentive for the adoption of new coal utilization processes. Several utilization processes appear to have merit and are recommended for further study. Each process is discussed separately in the text of this report. Common coal cleaning processes were also examined to determine the effect of such processes on the composition of by-products. Data obtained in this portion of the research effort are reported in the Appendix. Information of this type is required before utilization processes can be considered. A knowledge of the mineral composition of these materials is also required before even simple disposal methods can be considered.

  3. American-Made SRF Cavity Makes the Grade | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    https:www.jlab.orgnewsreleasesamerican-made-srf-cavity-makes-grade Submitted: Thursday, September 17, 2009 - 12...

  4. Investment-Grade Audit: Review Checklist | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Audit: Review Checklist Investment-Grade Audit: Review Checklist Document serves as a checklist to use when reviewing an investment-grade audit. Download the checklist. (70.6 KB) More Documents & Publications Investment-Grade Audit Kickoff Meeting Sample Agenda Agenda: Investment-Grade Audit Review Workshop FEMP Comprehensive ESPC Workshop Presentations

  5. Eight new couriers make the grade, join NNSA's Office of Secure

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Transportation | National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) Eight new couriers make the grade, join NNSA's Office of Secure Transportation Friday, June 24, 2016 - 8:46am OST's eight new Agent Candidate Training Graduates take the oath of office and are sworn in as Nuclear Materials Courier Federal Agents. Earlier this month, the Office of Secure Transportation (OST) welcomed eight new Nuclear Material Courier Federal Agents into the fold during a graduation ceremony at Kirtland Air

  6. Functional Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Functional Materials Researchers in NETL's Functional Materials Development competency work to discover and develop advanced functional materials and component processing technologies to meet technology performance requirements and enable scale-up for proof-of-concept studies. Research includes separations materials and electrochemical and magnetic materials, specifically: Separations Materials Synthesis, purification, and basic characterization of organic substances, including polymers and

  7. LOW TEMPERATURE GEOTHERMAL MINERAL RECOVERY PROGRAM | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    LOW TEMPERATURE GEOTHERMAL MINERAL RECOVERY PROGRAM LOW TEMPERATURE GEOTHERMAL MINERAL RECOVERY PROGRAM mineral-webinar.pdf (3.45 MB) More Documents & Publications LOW TEMPERATURE GEOTHERMAL MINERAL RECOVERY PROGRAM 02/11/2014 Geothermal Play Fairway Analysis Geothermal Play Fairway Analysis

  8. Low-Temperature Mineral Recovery Program FOA Selections

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Department's geothermal technologies office awarded nine projects in low-temperature and mineral recovery.

  9. Process for removal of mineral particulates from coal-derived liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDowell, William J.

    1980-01-01

    Suspended mineral solids are separated from a coal-derived liquid containing the solids by a process comprising the steps of: (a) contacting said coal-derived liquid containing solids with a molten additive having a melting point of 100.degree.-500.degree. C. in an amount of up to 50 wt. % with respect to said coal-derived liquid containing solids, said solids present in an amount effective to increase the particle size of said mineral solids and comprising material or mixtures of material selected from the group of alkali metal hydroxides and inorganic salts having antimony, tin, lithium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, beryllium, aluminum, zinc, molybdenum, cobalt, nickel, ruthenium, rhodium or iron cations and chloride, iodide, bromide, sulfate, phosphate, borate, carbonate, sulfite, or silicate anions; and (b) maintaining said coal-derived liquid in contact with said molten additive for sufficient time to permit said mineral matter to agglomerate, thereby increasing the mean particle size of said mineral solids; and (c) recovering a coal-derived liquid product having reduced mineral solids content. The process can be carried out with less than 5 wt. % additive and in the absence of hydrogen pressure.

  10. Commercial Grade Dedication Survey and Training | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Survey and Training Commercial Grade Dedication Survey and Training This survey was conducted to obtain input from EM contractors on processes used to perform Commercial Grade Item (CGI) dedication. The intended use of this information is to form the basis for providing a recommendation to EM for a standard process for CGI dedication. Commercial Grade Dedication Survey and Training (1.17 MB) More Documents & Publications Commercial Grade Dedication Survey and Training EM Commercial Grade

  11. Agenda: Investment-Grade Audit Midpoint Review Meeting | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Investment-Grade Audit Midpoint Review Meeting Agenda: Investment-Grade Audit Midpoint Review Meeting Standard agenda for investment-grade audit midpoint review meeting. Download the Investment-Grade Audit Midpoint Review Meeting Agenda. (58.88 KB) More Documents & Publications Agenda: Preliminary Assessment Kickoff Meeting Investment-Grade Audit Kickoff Meeting Sample Agenda FEMP ESPC Project Development Resource Guide

  12. Evaluation of Mineral Deposits Along the Little Wind River, Riverton, WY, Processing Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, Sam; Dam, Wiliam

    2014-12-01

    In 2012, the U.S.Department of Energy (DOE) began reassessing the former Riverton, Wyoming, Processing Site area for potential contaminant sources impacting groundwater. A flood in 2010 along the Little Wind River resulted in increases in groundwater contamination (DOE 2013).This investigation is a small part of continued efforts by DOE and other stakeholders to update human health and ecological risk assessments, to make a comprehensive examination of all exposure pathways to ensure that the site remains protective through established institutional controls. During field inspections at the Riverton Site in 2013, a white evaporitic mineral deposit was identified along the bank of the Little Wind River within the discharge zone of the groundwater contamination plume. In December 2013, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel collected a sample for analysis by X-ray fluorescence (Figure 1 shows the type of material sampled). The sample had a uranium concentration of approximately 64 to 73 parts per million. Although the uranium in this mineral deposit is within the expected range for evaporatic minerals in the western United States (SRNL 2014), DOE determined that additional assessment of the mineral deposit was warranted. In response to the initial collection and analysis of a sample of the mineral deposit, DOE developed a work plan (Work Plan to Sample Mineral Deposits Along the Little Wind River, Riverton, Wyoming, Processing Site [DOE 2014]) to further define the extent of these mineral deposits and the concentration of the associated contaminants (Appendix A). The work plan addressed field reconnaissance, mapping, sampling, and the assessment of risk associated with the mineral deposits adjacent to the Little Wind River.

  13. MINER{nu}A Test Beam Commissioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Higuera, A.; Castorena, J.; Urrutia, Z.; Felix, J.; Zavala, G.

    2009-12-17

    MINER{nu}A Main INjector ExpeRiment {nu}-A is a high-statistic neutrino scattering experiment that will ran in the NuMI Beam Hall at Fermilab. To calibrate the energy response of the MINER{nu}A detector, a beamline is being designed for the MINER{nu}A Test Beam Detector (TBD). The TBD is a replica of the full MINER{nu}A detector at small scale for calibration studies of the main detector. The beamline design consists of the following parts: a copper target, used to generate tertiaries from an incoming secondary beam; a steel collimator for tertiaries, which also serves as a dump for the incoming beam; a time of fight system (scintillator planes); four wire chambers, for angle measurements and tracking; and two dipole magnets, used as an spectrometer. During last October, the first commissioning run of the MINER{nu}A Test Beam took place in the Meson Test Beam Facility at Fermilab. We commissioned the target and collimator of the new tertiary beamline.

  14. Structural Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structural Materials Structural Materials Development enables advanced technologies through the discovery, development, and demonstration of cost-effective advanced structural materials for use in extreme environments (high-temperature, high-stress, erosive, and corrosive environments, including the performance of materials in contact with molten slags and salts). Research includes materials design and discovery, materials processing and manufacturing, and service-life prediction of materials

  15. Injury experience in metallic mineral mining, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of metallic mineral mining in the United States for 1992. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  16. Injury experience in metallic mineral mining, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of metallic mineral mining in the United States for 1991. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  17. Injury experience in metallic mineral mining, 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of metallic mineral mining in the United States for 1987. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report. 3 figs., 44 tabs.

  18. Injury experience in metallic mineral mining, 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of metallic mineral mining in the United States for 1990. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  19. Injury experience in metallic mineral mining, 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of metallic mineral mining in the United States of 1988. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report. 3 figs., 46 refs.

  20. Injury experience in metallic mineral mining, 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of metallic mineral mining in the United States for 1990. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  1. Injury experience in metallic mineral mining, 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of metallic mineral mining in the United States for 1986. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, natured of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report. 3 figs., 46 tabs.

  2. Injury experience in metallic mineral mining, 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of metallic mineral mining in the the United States for 1989. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report. 3 figs., 46 tabs.

  3. 100th anniversary special paper: Sedimentary mineral deposits and the evolution of earth's near-surface environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holland, H.D. [Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Earth & Planetary Science

    2005-12-15

    The nature of sedimentary mineral deposits has evolved during Earth's history in concert with changes in the oxidation (redo) state of the ocean-atmosphere system, biological evolution, and the growing importance of geologically young accumulations of ore-grade material. There is now strong evidence that the atmosphere and the oceans were anoxic, or essentially anoxic, before 2.4 Ga. Banded iron formations (BIF) and the detrital uranium ores formed prior to 2.4 Ga are consistent with such a state. The period between 2.4 and 2.0 Ga is called the Great Oxidation Event by some. Its ores bear unmistakable marks of the presence of atmospheric O{sub 2}. Between 1.8 and 0.8 Ga the Earth system seems to have been remarkably stable. Sedimentary ore deposits of this period were influenced by the presence of O{sub 2}. BIF, sedimentary manganese, and phosphorites disappeared ca. 1.8 Ga, but sedimentary exhalative (SEDEX) deposits and unconformity-type uranium deposits flourished, and nonsulfide zinc deposits put in an appearance. The period between 0.8 Ga and the end of the Proterozoic at 0.54 Ga was as turbulent or more so than the Paleoproterozoic. BIF returned, as did sedimentary manganese deposits and phosphorites. A further rise in the O{sub 2} content of the atmosphere and an increase in the sulfate concentration of seawater during this period brought the composition of the atmosphere and of seawater close to their present redox state. The last 540 m.y. of Earth's history have seen the system pass through two supercycles of roughly equal length. Climate, the redox stratification of the oceans ocean mixing, and the nature of sedimentary ores were influenced by tectonically and volcanically driven changes during these supercycles. The evolution of the higher land plants gave rise to coal deposits and sandstone-type uranium ores and was important for the formation of bauxites.

  4. Methods of electrophoretic deposition for functionally graded porous nanostructures and systems thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Worsley, Marcus A; Baumann, Theodore F; Satcher, Joe H; Olson, Tammy Y; Kuntz, Joshua D; Rose, Klint A

    2015-03-03

    In one embodiment, an aerogel includes a layer of shaped particles having a particle packing density gradient in a thickness direction of the layer, wherein the shaped particles are characterized by being formed in an electrophoretic deposition (EPD) process using an impurity. In another embodiment, a method for forming a functionally graded porous nanostructure includes adding particles of an impurity and a solution to an EPD chamber, applying a voltage difference across the two electrodes of the EPD chamber to create an electric field in the EPD chamber, and depositing the material onto surfaces of the particles of the impurity to form shaped particles of the material. Other functionally graded materials and methods are described according to more embodiments.

  5. Sidewall tensiometer and method of determining soil moisture potential in below-grade earthen soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hubbell, Joel M.; Sisson, James B.

    2001-01-01

    A sidewall tensiometer to in situ determine below-grade soil moisture potential of earthen soil includes, a) a body adapted for insertion into an opening in earthen soil below grade, the body having lateral sidewalls; b) a laterally oriented porous material provided relative to the body lateral sidewalls, the laterally oriented porous material at least in part defining a fluid chamber within the body; c) a pressure a sensor in fluid communication with the fluid chamber; and d) sidewall engaging means for engaging a portion of a sidewall of an earth opening to laterally urge the porous material into hydraulic communication with earthen soil of another portion of the opening sidewall. Methods of taking tensiometric measurements are also disclosed.

  6. Dedication file preparation for commercial-grade electric components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendricks, J.R.; Farwell, C.R. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Dedication is the process of making a commercial-grade item into a basic component that can be installed in safety systems. This process ensures that the commercially manufactured items are of the same or equivalent form, fit, function, and materials as the originally provided safety item. This process must ensure that the original utility's equipment qualification program is maintained per licensing commitments to 10CFR50.49 and general design criterion No. 4. Today, utilities recognize the need for establishing a dedication program to provide the flexibility in obtaining replacement items directly from the original manufacturers. This need has arisen because (a) most system houses, large manufacturers, and component manufacturers will sell their products only through distributors as straight commercial-grade items or only service former clients, and (b) lack of competition for specific safety-related items has resulted in excessive hardware cost and very long delivery schedules, which could affect plant availability. The vehicle for utilities to obtain safety-related items is to establish and manage a comprehensive dedication program for their own use or provide the direction for a nuclear supplier to follow. This paper provides both utilities and nuclear suppliers insight into the complexities of a dedication program. This insight is provided from our experience as a utilities agent and as a third-party nuclear supplier.

  7. Propulsion Materials

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Propulsion Materials FY 2013 Progress Report ii CONTENTS INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................................... 1 Project 18516 - Materials for H1ybrid and Electric Drive Systems ...................................................... 4 Agreement 19201 - Non-Rare Earth Magnetic Materials ............................................................................ 4 Agreement 23278 - Low-Cost

  8. Materials Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials Science Materials Science National security depends on science and technology. The United States relies on Los Alamos National Laboratory for the best of both. No place on Earth pursues a broader array of world-class scientific endeavors. Materials Physics and Applications» Materials Science and Technology» Institute for Materials Science» Materials Science Rob Dickerson uses a state-of-the-art transmission electron microscope at the Electron Microscopy Laboratory managed by Los

  9. Injury experience in metallic mineral mining, 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of metallic mineral mining in the United States for 1985. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report. Data used in compiling this report were reported by operators of metallic mineral mines and preparation plants on a mandatory basis as required under the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977, Public Law 91-173 as amended by Law 95-164. Since January 1, 1978, operators of mines or preparation plants or both which are subject to the Act have been required under 30 CFR, Part 50, to submit reports of injuries, occupational illnesses, and related data. 3 figs., 46 tabs.

  10. Structural Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structural Materials Development enables advanced technologies through the discovery, development, and demonstration of cost-effective advanced structural materials for use in ...

  11. Reference Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reference Materials Reference Materials Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Biological and Environmental Research May 7-8, 2009 Invitation Workshop Invitation Letter...

  12. Reference Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reference Materials Reference Materials Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Basic Energy Sciences February 9-10, 2010 Official DOE Invitation Workshop Invitation...

  13. Fly ash and coal mineral matter surface transformations during heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baer, D R; Smith, R D

    1982-05-01

    A study is reported of surface segregation phenomena for fly ash and aluminosilicates representative of coal mineral matter during heating. The materials studied included a 20-..mu..m average diameter fly ash powder, a glass prepared from the fly ash, and Ca- and K-rich aluminosilicate minerals. The samples were heated both in air and under vacuum for extended periods at temperatures up to 1100/sup 0/C. XPS, Auger and SIMS methods were used to obtain relative surface elemental concentrations for major and minor components and depth profiles for some of the samples. Major differences were noted between samples heated in air (oxidizing) and those heated in vacuum (reducing) environments. For the fly ash glass heated in air Fe, Ti and Mg become enriched on the surfaces while heating in vacuum leads to Si surface segregation. Different trends upon heating were also observed for the Ca- and K-rich aluminosilicates. The results indicate two levels of surface enrichment upon the fly ash glass; a thin (< 500 A) layer and a thicker (1- to 2-..mu..m) layer most evident for heating in air where an Fe-rich layer is formed. The present results indicate that the rates of surface segregation may not be sufficiently fast on the time scale of fly ash formation to result in equilibrium surface segregation. It is concluded that condensation processes during fly ash formation probably play a major role in the observed fly ash surface enrichments.

  14. MINERALIZATION OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES BY FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING (FBSR): COMPARISONS TO VITREOUS WASTE FORMS, AND PERTINENT DURABILITY TESTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C

    2008-12-26

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to generate a document for the Washington State Department of Ecology and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency that would cover the following topics: (1) A description of the mineral structures produced by Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) of Hanford type Low Activity Waste (LAW including LAWR which is LAW melter recycle waste) waste, especially the cage structured minerals and how they are formed. (2) How the cage structured minerals contain some contaminants, while others become part of the mineral structure (Note that all contaminants become part of the mineral structure and this will be described in the subsequent sections of this report). (3) Possible contaminant release mechanisms from the mineral structures. (4) Appropriate analyses to evaluate these release mechanisms. (5) Why the appropriate analyses are comparable to the existing Hanford glass dataset. In order to discuss the mineral structures and how they bond contaminants a brief description of the structures of both mineral (ceramic) and vitreous waste forms will be given to show their similarities. By demonstrating the similarities of mineral and vitreous waste forms on atomic level, the contaminant release mechanisms of the crystalline (mineral) and amorphous (glass) waste forms can be compared. This will then logically lead to the discussion of why many of the analyses used to evaluate vitreous waste forms and glass-ceramics (also known as glass composite materials) are appropriate for determining the release mechanisms of LAW/LAWR mineral waste forms and how the durability data on LAW/LAWR mineral waste forms relate to the durability data for LAW/LAWR glasses. The text will discuss the LAW mineral waste form made by FBSR. The nanoscale mechanism by which the minerals form will be also be described in the text. The appropriate analyses to evaluate contaminant release mechanisms will be discussed, as will the FBSR test results to

  15. Materials Scientist

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Alternate Title(s):Materials Research Engineer; Metallurgical/Chemical Engineer; Product Development Manager;

  16. material protection

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    %2A en Office of Weapons Material Protection http:nnsa.energy.govaboutusourprogramsnonproliferationprogramofficesinternationalmaterialprotectionandcooperation-1

  17. material protection

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    %2A en Office of Weapons Material Protection http:www.nnsa.energy.govaboutusourprogramsnonproliferationprogramofficesinternationalmaterialprotectionandcooperation-1

  18. Molecular Characterization of Bacterial Respiration on Minerals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blake, Robert C.

    2013-04-26

    The overall aim of this project was to contribute to our fundamental understanding of proteins and biological processes under extreme environmental conditions. We sought to define the biochemical and physiological mechanisms that underlie biodegradative and other cellular processes in normal, extreme, and engineered environments. Toward that end, we sought to understand the substrate oxidation pathways, the electron transport mechanisms, and the modes of energy conservation employed during respiration by bacteria on soluble iron and insoluble sulfide minerals. In accordance with these general aims, the specific aims were two-fold: To identify, separate, and characterize the extracellular biomolecules necessary for aerobic respiration on iron under strongly acidic conditions; and to elucidate the molecular principles whereby these bacteria recognize and adhere to their insoluble mineral substrates under harsh environmental conditions. The results of these studies were described in a total of nineteen manuscripts. Highlights include the following: 1. The complete genome of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 23270 (type strain) was sequenced in collaboration with the DOE Joint Genome Institute; 2. Genomic and mass spectrometry-based proteomic methods were used to evaluate gene expression and in situ microbial activity in a low-complexity natural acid mine drainage microbial biofilm community. This was the first effort to successfully analyze a natural community using these techniques; 3. Detailed functional and structural studies were conducted on rusticyanin, an acid-stable electron transfer protein purified from cell-free extracts of At. ferrooxidans. The three-dimensional structure of reduced rusticyanin was determined from a combination of homonuclear proton and heteronuclear 15N- and 13C-edited NMR spectra. Concomitantly, the three-dimensional structure of oxidized rusticyanin was determined by X-ray crystallography to a resolution of 1.9 A by multiwavelength

  19. EA-1962: Analysis for Below Grade Suspect Transuranic (TRU) Waste...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    62: Analysis for Below Grade Suspect Transuranic (TRU) Waste at Technical Area (TA)-54 EA-1962: Analysis for Below Grade Suspect Transuranic (TRU) Waste at Technical Area (TA)-54...

  20. Tensiometer and method of determining soil moisture potential in below-grade earthen soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hubbell, Joel M.; Sisson, James B.

    1997-01-01

    A portable tensiometer to in situ determine below-grade soil moisture potential of earthen soil includes, a) a body having opposing first and second ends and being adapted for complete insertion into earthen soil below grade; b) a porous material provided at the first body end, the porous material at least in part defining a fluid chamber within the body at the first body end, the fluid chamber being fluidically sealed within the body but for the porous material; c) a degassed liquid received within the fluid chamber; d) a pressure transducer mounted in fluid communication with the fluid chamber; e) the body, pressure transducer and degassed liquid having a combined mass; f) a flexible suspension line connected to the body adjacent the second body end, the flexible line being of sufficient strength to gravitationally freely self suspend the combined mass; and c) the combined mass being sufficient to effectively impart hydraulic communication between below-grade earthen soil contacted by the porous material under the weight of the combined mass. Tensiometers configured to engage the sidewalls of an earthen opening are also disclosed. Methods of taking tensiometric measurements are also disclosed.

  1. Tensiometer and method of determining soil moisture potential in below-grade earthen soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hubbell, J.M.; Sisson, J.B.

    1997-07-08

    A portable tensiometer to in-situ determine below-grade soil moisture potential of earthen soil includes, (a) a body having opposing first and second ends and being adapted for complete insertion into earthen soil below grade; (b) a porous material provided at the first body end, the porous material at least in part defining a fluid chamber within the body at the first body end, the fluid chamber being fluidically sealed within the body but for the porous material; (c) a degassed liquid received within the fluid chamber; (d) a pressure transducer mounted in fluid communication with the fluid chamber; (e) the body, pressure transducer and degassed liquid having a combined mass; (f) a flexible suspension line connected to the body adjacent the second body end, the flexible line being of sufficient strength to gravitationally freely self suspend the combined mass; and (g) the combined mass being sufficient to effectively impart hydraulic communication between below-grade earthen soil contacted by the porous material under the weight of the combined mass. Tensiometers configured to engage the sidewalls of an earthen opening are also disclosed. Methods of taking tensiometric measurements are also disclosed. 12 figs.

  2. Requirements Flowdown and Graded Approach to QA | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Requirements Flowdown and Graded Approach to QA Requirements Flowdown and Graded Approach to QA This document provides the method for applying a graded approach to procurement activities across Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM). The document is to be used by EM Headquarters (HQ), EM Field/Project Offices, and EM Contractors to implement procurement processes associated with all work performed for the EM Program. Requirements Flowdown and Graded Approach to QA (529.01 KB)

  3. NQA-1 Commercial Grade Dedication Critical Characteristics | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy NQA-1 Commercial Grade Dedication Critical Characteristics NQA-1 Commercial Grade Dedication Critical Characteristics May 5, 2015 Presenter: Randy P. Lanham, PE, CSP, Fire Protection Chief Engineer Consolidated Nuclear Solutions - Pantex, LLC Topics Covered: CGD Definition Safety Function / DSA Requirements Example of CGD for items Example form Questions Commercial-Grade Dedication (CGD) for acceptance of commercial grade items procured under an ASME NQA-1 Quality Program. NQA-1

  4. Federal Energy Managment Program Investment Grade Audit Tool | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Managment Program Investment Grade Audit Tool Federal Energy Managment Program Investment Grade Audit Tool Zip file contains the Federal Energy Management Program's Investment Grade Audit (IGA) Tool that is used by energy service companies during the ESPC ENABLE process. Download the investment grade audit tool. (43.68 MB) More Documents & Publications ESPC ENABLE Notice of Intent to Award Guide and Template Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) ENABLE Program Energy

  5. DOE's Bioenergy Technologies Office Supports Military-Grade Biofuels |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy DOE's Bioenergy Technologies Office Supports Military-Grade Biofuels DOE's Bioenergy Technologies Office Supports Military-Grade Biofuels November 10, 2014 - 2:50pm Addthis DOE's Bioenergy Technologies Office is developing military-grade biofuels DOE's Bioenergy Technologies Office is developing military-grade biofuels Happy Veteran's Day from EERE! Our Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) is helping the U.S. military increase the nation's #energy security, reduce

  6. 2015 Market Research Report on Global Medical Grade Dioctyl Industry...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    2015 Market Research Report on Global Medical Grade Dioctyl Industry Home There are currently no posts in this category. Syndicate...

  7. Mineral Recovery Creates Revenue Stream for Geothermal Energy Development

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Find out more about Notice to Issue Financial Opportunity Announcement on "Low-Temperature Mineral Recovery Program," a targeted GTO initiative focused on strategic mineral extraction as a path to optimize the value stream of low-to-moderate-tempe

  8. Title 36 CFR 228 Minerals | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Regulation: Title 36 CFR 228 MineralsLegal Abstract Part 228 Minerals under Title 36: Parks, Forests, and Public Property of the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, current as of...

  9. Title 11 Alaska Administrative Code 82 Mineral Leasing Procedures...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    2 Mineral Leasing Procedures Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: Title 11 Alaska Administrative Code 82 Mineral...

  10. File:03AKDStateNoncompetitiveMineralLeasingProcess.pdf | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    3AKDStateNoncompetitiveMineralLeasingProcess.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage Metadata File:03AKDStateNoncompetitiveMineralLeasingProcess.pdf Size of...

  11. Indian Mineral Development Act of 1982 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    agreements with DOI approval References Indian Mineral Development Act of 19821 Bureau of Indian Affairs2 The Indian Mineral Development Act of 1982 (IMDA) 25 U.S.C. Secs....

  12. H. R. S. 182 - Reservation and Disposition of Government Mineral...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (Redirected from Hawaii Revised Statute 182-1, Definitions for Reservation and Disposition of Government Mineral Rights)...

  13. Uranium-Bearing Evaporite Mineralization Influencing Plume Persistence:

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Literature Review and DOE-LM Site Surveys | Department of Energy Uranium-Bearing Evaporite Mineralization Influencing Plume Persistence: Literature Review and DOE-LM Site Surveys Uranium-Bearing Evaporite Mineralization Influencing Plume Persistence: Literature Review and DOE-LM Site Surveys Uranium-Bearing Evaporite Mineralization Influencing Plume Persistence: Literature Review and DOE-LM Site Surveys Uranium-Bearing Evaporite Mineralization Influencing Plume Persistence: Literature Review

  14. IEED Energy and Mineral Development Grants

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Secretary of the Interior, through the Office of lndian Energy and Economic Development (IEED), is soliciting grant proposals from federally recognized Indian tribes and tribal energy resource development organizations for projects that assess, evaluate, or otherwise promote the processing, use, or development of energy and mineral resources on Indian lands. Grant awards are subject to the availability of funds as appropriated by Congress and allotted to IEED.

  15. Reference Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reference Materials Reference Materials Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Basic Energy Sciences February 9-10, 2010 Official DOE Invitation Workshop Invitation Letter from DOE Associate Directors Last edited: 2016-04-29 11:35:05

  16. MATERIAL CONTROL ACCOUNTING INMM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hasty, T.

    2009-06-14

    Since 1996, the Mining and Chemical Combine (MCC - formerly known as K-26), and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) have been cooperating under the cooperative Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Program between the Russian Federation and the U.S. Governments. Since MCC continues to operate a reactor for steam and electricity production for the site and city of Zheleznogorsk which results in production of the weapons grade plutonium, one of the goals of the MPC&A program is to support implementation of an expanded comprehensive nuclear material control and accounting (MC&A) program. To date MCC has completed upgrades identified in the initial gap analysis and documented in the site MC&A Plan and is implementing additional upgrades identified during an update to the gap analysis. The scope of these upgrades includes implementation of MCC organization structure relating to MC&A, establishing material balance area structure for special nuclear materials (SNM) storage and bulk processing areas, and material control functions including SNM portal monitors at target locations. Material accounting function upgrades include enhancements in the conduct of physical inventories, limit of error inventory difference procedure enhancements, implementation of basic computerized accounting system for four SNM storage areas, implementation of measurement equipment for improved accountability reporting, and both new and revised site-level MC&A procedures. This paper will discuss the implementation of MC&A upgrades at MCC based on the requirements established in the comprehensive MC&A plan developed by the Mining and Chemical Combine as part of the MPC&A Program.

  17. Materials Characterization

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials Characterization Researchers in the Materials Characterization Research competency conduct studies of both natural and engineered materials from the micropore (nanometers) to macropore (meters) scale. Research includes, but is not limited to, thermal, chemical, mechanical, and structural (nano to macro) interactions and processes with regard to natural and engineered materials. The primary research investigation tools include SEM, XRD, micro XRD, core logging, medical CT, industrial

  18. I HEAVY MINERALS CO. 836 South Michigan Avenue Chic&o-5, Illinois

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    .,., f.IE.' ,4-L ,.4 ., " - * _ .c - ,: ~, , .' " I HEAVY MINERALS CO. / 836 South Michigan Avenue Chic&o-5, Illinois December 1, 1954 , etomic Energy Commiesion Raw Materials Division Washington, D. C. - - Attention: Mr. Radford Faulkner Gentlemen: CRUDE THORIUM HYDROXIDE We propose to sell crude thorium hydroxide to the Atomic Energy Commission over a four year period, starting during the fourth quarter of 1955. The crude thorium hydroxide we propose to supply will be produced by

  19. Natural materials for carbon capture.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myshakin, Evgeniy M.; Romanov, Vyacheslav N.; Cygan, Randall Timothy

    2010-11-01

    Naturally occurring clay minerals provide a distinctive material for carbon capture and carbon dioxide sequestration. Swelling clay minerals, such as the smectite variety, possess an aluminosilicate structure that is controlled by low-charge layers that readily expand to accommodate water molecules and, potentially, carbon dioxide. Recent experimental studies have demonstrated the efficacy of intercalating carbon dioxide in the interlayer of layered clays but little is known about the molecular mechanisms of the process and the extent of carbon capture as a function of clay charge and structure. A series of molecular dynamics simulations and vibrational analyses have been completed to assess the molecular interactions associated with incorporation of CO2 in the interlayer of montmorillonite clay and to help validate the models with experimental observation.

  20. Materials Physics | Materials Science | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Physics A photo of laser light rays going in various directions atop a corrugated metal substrate In materials physics, NREL focuses on realizing materials that transcend the present constraints of photovoltaic (PV) and solid-state lighting technologies. Through materials growth and characterization, coupled with theoretical modeling, we seek to understand and control fundamental electronic and optical processes in semiconductors. Capabilities Optimizing New Materials An illustration showing

  1. High liquid yield process for retorting various organic materials including oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coburn, Thomas T.

    1990-01-01

    This invention is a continuous retorting process for various high molecular weight organic materials, including oil shale, that yields an enhanced output of liquid product. The organic material, mineral matter, and an acidic catalyst, that appreciably adsorbs alkenes on surface sites at prescribed temperatures, are mixed and introduced into a pyrolyzer. A circulating stream of olefin enriched pyrolysis gas is continuously swept through the organic material and catalyst, whereupon, as the result of pyrolysis, the enhanced liquid product output is provided. Mixed spent organic material, mineral matter, and cool catalyst are continuously withdrawn from the pyrolyzer. Combustion of the spent organic material and mineral matter serves to reheat the catalyst. Olefin depleted pyrolysis gas, from the pyrolyzer, is enriched in olefins and recycled into the pyrolyzer. The reheated acidic catalyst is separated from the mineral matter and again mixed with fresh organic material, to maintain the continuously cyclic process.

  2. A high liquid yield process for retorting various organic materials including oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coburn, T.T.

    1988-07-26

    This invention is a continuous retorting process for various high molecular weight organic materials, including oil shale, that yields an enhanced output of liquid product. The organic material, mineral matter, and an acidic catalyst, that appreciably adsorbs alkenes on surface sites at prescribed temperatures, are mixed and introduced into a pyrolyzer. A circulating stream of olefin enriched pyrolysis gas is continuously swept through the organic material and catalyst, whereupon, as the result of pyrolysis, the enhanced liquid product output is provided. Mixed spent organic material, mineral matter, and cool catalyst are continuously withdrawn from the pyrolyzer. Combustion of the spent organic material and mineral matter serves to reheat the catalyst. Olefin depleted pyrolysis gas, from the pyrolyzer, is enriched in olefins and recycled into the pyrolyzer. The reheated acidic catalyst is separated from the mineral matter and again mixed with fresh organic material, to maintain the continuously cyclic process. 2 figs.

  3. Scintillator material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, D.F.; Kross, B.J.

    1992-07-28

    An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography. 4 figs.

  4. Scintillator material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, D.F.; Kross, B.J.

    1994-06-07

    An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography. 4 figs.

  5. Scintillator material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, David F.; Kross, Brian J.

    1992-01-01

    An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography.

  6. Scintillator material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, David F.; Kross, Brian J.

    1994-01-01

    An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography.

  7. Sulfur removal and comminution of carbonaceous material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Narain, Nand K.; Ruether, John A.; Smith, Dennis N.

    1988-01-01

    Finely divided, clean coal or other carbonaceous material is provided by forming a slurry of coarse coal in aqueous alkali solution and heating the slurry under pressure to above the critical conditions of steam. The supercritical fluid penetrates and is trapped in the porosity of the coal as it swells in a thermoplastic condition at elevated temperature. By a sudden, explosive release of pressure the coal is fractured into finely divided particles with release of sulfur-containing gases and minerals. The finely divided coal is recovered from the minerals for use as a clean coal product.

  8. Sulfur removal and comminution of carbonaceous material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Narain, N.K.; Ruether, J.A.; Smith, D.N.

    1987-10-07

    Finely divided, clean coal or other carbonaceous material is provided by forming a slurry of coarse coal in aqueous alkali solution and heating the slurry under pressure to above the critical conditions of steam. The supercritical fluid penetrates and is trapped in the porosity of the coal as it swells in a thermoplastic condition at elevated temperature. By a sudden, explosive release of pressure the coal is fractured into finely divided particles with release of sulfur-containing gases and minerals. The finely divided coal is recovered from the minerals for use as a clean coal product. 2 figs.

  9. Numerical Simulation of the Performance Characteristics, Instability, and Effects of Band Gap Grading in Cadmium Telluride Based Photovoltaic Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael David Petersen

    2001-05-01

    Using computer simulations, the performance of several CdTe based photovoltaic structures has been studied. The advantages and disadvantages of band gap grading, through the use of (Zn,Cd)Te, have also been investigated in these structures. Grading at the front interface between a CdS window layer and a CdTe absorber layer, can arise due to interdiffusion between the materials during growth or due to the intentional variation of the material composition. This grading has been shown to improve certain performance metrics, such as the open-circuit voltage, while degrading others, such as the fill factor, depending on the amount and distance of the grading. The presence of a Schottky barrier as the back contact has also been shown to degrade the photovoltaic performance of the device, resulting in a characteristic IV curve. However, with the appropriate band gap grading at the back interface, it has been shown that the performance can be enhanced through more efficient carrier collection. These results were then correlated with experimental observations of the performance degradation in devices subjected to light and heat stress.

  10. Numerical Simulation of the Performance Characteristics, Instability, and Effects of Band Gap Grading in Cadmium Telluride Based Photovoltaic Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael David Petersen

    2001-06-27

    Using computer simulations, the performance of several CdTe based photovoltaic structures has been studied. The advantages and disadvantages of band gap grading, through the use of (Zn, Cd)Te, have also been investigated in these structures. Grading at the front interface between a CdS window layer and a CdTe absorber layer, can arise due to interdiffusion between the materials during growth or due to the intentional variation of the material composition. This grading has been shown to improve certain performance metrics, such as the open-circuit voltage, while degrading others, such as the fill factor, depending on the amount and distance of the grading. The presence of a Schottky barrier as the back contact has also been shown to degrade the photovoltaic performance of the device, resulting in a characteristic IV curve. However, with the appropriate band gap grading at the back interface, it has been shown that the performance can be enhanced through more efficient carrier collection. These results were then correlated with experimental observations of the performance degradation in devices subjected to light and heat stress.

  11. material recovery

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    dispose of dangerous nuclear and radiological material, and detect and control the proliferation of related WMD technology and expertise.

  12. Functional Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Testing of materials under ideal and realistic process conditions such as those found in coal-fired power plant and integrated gasification combined cycle fuel gas. Performance ...

  13. Nondestructive evaluation of nuclear-grade graphite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kunerth, D. C.; McJunkin, T. R.

    2012-05-17

    The material of choice for the core of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactors being developed by the U.S. Department of Energy's Next Generation Nuclear Plant Program is graphite. Graphite is a composite material whose properties are highly dependent on the base material and manufacturing methods. In addition to the material variations intrinsic to the manufacturing process, graphite will also undergo changes in material properties resulting from radiation damage and possible oxidation within the reactor. Idaho National Laboratory is presently evaluating the viability of conventional nondestructive evaluation techniques to characterize the material variations inherent to manufacturing and in-service degradation. Approaches of interest include x-ray radiography, eddy currents, and ultrasonics.

  14. SkyMine Carbon Mineralization Pilot Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christenson, Norm; Walters, Jerel

    2014-12-31

    This Topical Report addresses accomplishments achieved during Phase 2b of the SkyMine® Carbon Mineralization Pilot Project. The primary objectives of this project are to design, construct, and operate a system to capture CO2 from a slipstream of flue gas from a commercial coal-fired cement kiln, convert that CO2 to products having commercial value (i.e., beneficial use), show the economic viability of the CO2 capture and conversion process, and thereby advance the technology to the point of readiness for commercial scale demonstration and deployment. The overall process is carbon negative, resulting in mineralization of CO2 that would otherwise be released into the atmosphere. The project will also substantiate market opportunities for the technology by sales of chemicals into existing markets, and identify opportunities to improve technology performance and reduce costs at the commercial scale. The project is being conducted in two phases. The primary objectives of Phase 1 were to evaluate proven SkyMine® process chemistry for commercial pilot-scale operation and complete the preliminary design for the pilot plant to be built and operated in Phase 2, complete a NEPA evaluation, and develop a comprehensive carbon life cycle analysis. The objective of Phase 2b was to build the pilot plant to be operated and tested in Phase 2c.

  15. Calibrating the ChemCam LIBS for carbonate minerals on Mars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiens, Roger C; Clegg, Samuel M; Ollila, Ann M; Barefield, James E; Lanza, Nina; Newsom, Horton E

    2009-01-01

    The ChemCam instrument suite on board the NASA Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover includes the first LIBS instrument for extraterrestrial applications. Here we examine carbonate minerals in a simulated martian environment using the LIDS technique in order to better understand the in situ signature of these materials on Mars. Both chemical composition and rock type are determined using multivariate analysis (MVA) techniques. Composition is confirmed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. Our initial results suggest that ChemCam can recognize and differentiate between carbonate materials on Mars.

  16. New mineral occurrences and mineralization processes: Wuda coal-fire gas vents of Inner Mongolia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stracher, G.B.; Prakash, A.; Schroeder, P.; McCormack, J.; Zhang, X.M.; Van Dijk, P.; Blake, D.

    2005-12-01

    Five unique mineral assemblages that include the sulfates millosevichite, alunogen, anhydrite, tschermigite, coquimbite, voltaite, and godovikovite, as well as the halide salammoniac and an unidentified phase, according to X-ray diffraction and EDS data, were found as encrustations on quartzofeldspathic sand and sandstone adjacent to coal-fire gas vents associated with underground coal fires in the Wuda coalfield of Inner Mongolia. The mineral assemblage of alunogen, coquimbite, voltaite, and the unidentified phase collected front the same gas vent, is documented for the first time. Observations suggest that the sulfates millosevichite, alunogen, coquimbite, voltaite, godovikovite, and the unidentified phase, crystallized in response to a complex sequence of processes that include condensation, hydrothermal alteration, crystallization from solution, fluctuating vent temperatures, boiling, and dehydration reactions, whereas the halide salammoniac crystallized during the sublimation of coal-fire gas. Tschermigite and anhydrite formed by the reaction of coal-fire gas with quartzofelds pathic rock or by hydrothermal alteration of this rock and crystallization from an acid-rich aqueous solution. These minerals have potentially important environmental significance and may be vectors for the transmission of toxins. Coal fires also provide insight for the recognition in the geologic record of preserved mineral assemblages that are diagnostic of ancient fires.

  17. Mineral formation and redox-sensitive trace elements in a near-surface hydrothermal alteration system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gehring, A.U.; Schosseler, P.M.; Weidler, P.G.

    1999-07-01

    A recent hydrothermal mudpool at the southwestern slope of the Rincon de la Vieja volcano in Northwest Costa Rica exhibits an argillic alteration system formed by intense interaction of sulfuric acidic fluids with wall rock materials. Detailed mineralogical analysis revealed an assemblage with kaolinite, alunite, and opal-C as the major mineral phases. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) showed 3 different redox-sensitive cations associated with the mineral phases, Cu{sup +} is structure-bound in opal-C, whereas VO{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} are located in the kaolinite structure. The location of the redox-sensitive cations in different minerals of the assemblage is indicative of different chemical conditions. The formation of the alteration products can be described schematically as a 2-step process. In a first step alunite and opal-C were precipitated in a fluid with slightly reducing conditions and a low chloride availability. The second step is characterized by a decrease in K{sup +} activity and subsequent formation of kaolinite under weakly oxidizing to oxidizing redox conditions as indicated by structure-bound VO{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}. The detection of paramagnetic trace elements structure-bound in mineral phases by EPR provide direct information about the prevailing redox conditions during alteration and can, therefore, be used as additional insight into the genesis of the hydrothermal, near-surface system.

  18. Engineering report on drilling in the Sand Wash Basin intermediate grade project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-09-01

    The Sand Wash Basin Intermediate Grade Drilling Project was conducted by Bendix Field Engineering Corporation in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program. This project consisted of 19 drill holes ranging in depth from 275 to 1220 feet (83.9 to 372.1 m). A total of 11,569 feet (3528.5 m) was rotary drilled and 130 feet (39.7 m) were cored for a total of 11,699 feet (3568.2 m) for the project. The project objective was to provide comprehensive subsurface geologic data relevant to Intermediate Grade uranium mineralization of the Browns Park Formation in the Sugar Loaf Peak Site A, and the Little Juniper Mountain Site B areas. All boreholes are located on the USGS Juniper Hot Springs and the Lay 7.5-Minute Series (Topographic) Quadrangles. The project began May 2, 1980; drilling was completed June 3, 1980. Site restoration and clean up was initiated immediately upon the completion of the last borehole and was completed June 8, 1980.

  19. Reference Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reference Materials Reference Materials Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Advanced Scientific Computing Research January 5-6, 2011 Official DOE Invitation Workshop Invitation Letter from DOE Associate Directors NERSC Documents NERSC science requirements home page NERSC science requirements workshop page NERSC science requirements case study FAQ Previous NERSC Requirements Workshops Biological and Environmental Research (BER) Basic Energy Sciences (BES) Fusion Energy Sciences

  20. Reference Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reference Materials Reference Materials Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Biological and Environmental Research May 7-8, 2009 Invitation Workshop Invitation Letter from DOE Associate Directors Workshop Invitation Letter from DOE ASCR Program Manager Yukiko Sekine Last edited: 2016-04-29 11:34:54

  1. Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and nanorod barcodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Scher, Erik C.; Manna, Liberato

    2009-05-19

    Disclosed herein is a graded core/shell semiconductor nanorod having at least a first segment of a core of a Group II-VI, Group III-V or a Group IV semiconductor, a graded shell overlying the core, wherein the graded shell comprises at least two monolayers, wherein the at least two monolayers each independently comprise a Group II-VI, Group III-V or a Group IV semiconductor.

  2. Predicting and Utilizing the Vehicle's Past and Futuer Road Grade |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy and Utilizing the Vehicle's Past and Futuer Road Grade Predicting and Utilizing the Vehicle's Past and Futuer Road Grade Predicted road grade may be used to estimate the power required to propel the vehicle through the upcoming terrain so that the engine controller can deliver the necessary power. p-09_nuszkowski.pdf (208.31 KB) More Documents & Publications Thermal Simulation of Advanced Powertrain Systems Impact of Vehicle Efficiency Improvements on Powertrain

  3. Cermet materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C.

    2008-12-23

    A self-cleaning porous cermet material, filter and system utilizing the same may be used in filtering particulate and gaseous pollutants from internal combustion engines having intermetallic and ceramic phases. The porous cermet filter may be made from a transition metal aluminide phase and an alumina phase. Filler materials may be added to increase the porosity or tailor the catalytic properties of the cermet material. Additionally, the cermet material may be reinforced with fibers or screens. The porous filter may also be electrically conductive so that a current may be passed therethrough to heat the filter during use. Further, a heating element may be incorporated into the porous cermet filter during manufacture. This heating element can be coated with a ceramic material to electrically insulate the heating element. An external heating element may also be provided to heat the cermet filter during use.

  4. Composite material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hutchens, Stacy A.; Woodward, Jonathan; Evans, Barbara R.; O'Neill, Hugh M.

    2012-02-07

    A composite biocompatible hydrogel material includes a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa. A calcium comprising salt is disposed in at least some of the pores. The porous polymer matrix can comprise cellulose, including bacterial cellulose. The composite can be used as a bone graft material. A method of tissue repair within the body of animals includes the steps of providing a composite biocompatible hydrogel material including a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa, and inserting the hydrogel material into cartilage or bone tissue of an animal, wherein the hydrogel material supports cell colonization in vitro for autologous cell seeding.

  5. Materials Discovery | Materials Science | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Discovery Images of red and yellow particles NREL's research in materials discovery serves as a foundation for technological progress in renewable energies. Our experimental activities in inorganic solid-state materials innovation span a broad range of technological readiness levels-from basic science through applied research to device development-relying on a high-throughput combinatorial materials science approach, followed by traditional targeted experiments. In addition, our researchers work

  6. Nonlinear dynamics and instability of aqueous dissolution of silicate glasses and minerals

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Yifeng; Jove-Colon, Carlos F.; Kuhlman, Kristopher L.

    2016-07-22

    Aqueous dissolution of silicate glasses and minerals plays a critical role in global biogeochemical cycles and climate evolution. The reactivity of these materials is also important to numerous engineering applications including nuclear waste disposal. The dissolution process has long been considered to be controlled by a leached surface layer in which cations in the silicate framework are gradually leached out and replaced by protons from the solution. This view has recently been challenged by observations of extremely sharp corrosion fronts and oscillatory zonings in altered rims of the materials, suggesting that corrosion of these materials may proceed directly through congruentmore » dissolution followed by secondary mineral precipitation. Here we show that complex silicate material dissolution behaviors can emerge from a simple positive feedback between dissolution-induced cation release and cation-enhanced dissolution kinetics. This self-accelerating mechanism enables a systematic prediction of the occurrence of sharp dissolution fronts (vs. leached surface layers), oscillatory dissolution behaviors and multiple stages of glass dissolution (in particular the alteration resumption at a late stage of a corrosion process). In conclusion, our work provides a new perspective for predicting long-term silicate weathering rates in actual geochemical systems and developing durable silicate materials for various engineering applications.« less

  7. Petroleum Products Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Annual 1995 Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) - Continued Geographic Area Month Premium All...

  8. Petroleum Products Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Annual 2000 Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) - Continued Geographic Area Month Premium All...

  9. Petroleum Products Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    at end of table. 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 56 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1996 Table 31. Motor...

  10. EERE Success Story-Making the Grade: Washington School District...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Washington School District Makes the Grade in Energy Efficiency EERE Success Story-Making Wave Power Efficient and Affordable EERE Success Story-Better Buildings Challenge: Looking ...

  11. Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and Selected States (Cents per...

  12. Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  13. Table 32. Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 32. Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  14. Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    134 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  15. Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    134 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  16. Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    220 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per...

  17. Table 33. Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    - - - - - - - - - - - - See footnotes at end of table. 33. Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 116 Energy Information...

  18. Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and Selected States (Cents per...

  19. Table 32. Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    - - - - W W - - - - - - See footnotes at end of table. 32. Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 86 Energy Information...

  20. Table 32. Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    - - - - 64.7 64.7 - - - - - - See footnotes at end of table. 32. Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 86 Energy Information...

  1. Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    220 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per...

  2. Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  3. Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per...

  4. Table 32. Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 32. Conventional Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  5. Table 33. Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 33. Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  6. Selective flotation of phosphate minerals with hydroxamate collectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Jan D.; Wang, Xuming; Li, Minhua

    2002-01-01

    A method is disclosed for separating phosphate minerals from a mineral mixture, particularly from high-dolomite containing phosphate ores. The method involves conditioning the mineral mixture by contacting in an aqueous in environment with a collector in an amount sufficient for promoting flotation of phosphate minerals. The collector is a hydroxamate compound of the formula; ##STR1## wherein R is generally hydrophobic and chosen such that the collector has solubility or dispersion properties it can be distributed in the mineral mixture, typically an alkyl, aryl, or alkylaryl group having 6 to 18 carbon atoms. M is a cation, typically hydrogen, an alkali metal or an alkaline earth metal. Preferably, the collector also comprises an alcohol of the formula, R'--OH wherein R' is generally hydrophobic and chosen such that the collector has solubility or dispersion properties so that it can be distributed in the mineral mixture, typically an alkyl, aryl, or alkylaryl group having 6 to 18 carbon atoms.

  7. Uranium-Bearing Evaporite Mineralization Influencing Plume Persistence.

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Literature Review and DOE-LM Site Surveys (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Uranium-Bearing Evaporite Mineralization Influencing Plume Persistence. Literature Review and DOE-LM Site Surveys Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Uranium-Bearing Evaporite Mineralization Influencing Plume Persistence. Literature Review and DOE-LM Site Surveys This report on evaporite mineralization was completed as an Ancillary Work Plan for the Applied Studies and Technology program

  8. Compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with motor materials under retrofit conditions. Final report, Volume IV - pictures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doerr, R.G.; Waite, T.D.

    1996-10-01

    Compatibility tests were conducted on motor materials to determine if exposure to the original refrigerant/mineral oil would affect compatibility of the motor materials after retrofit to the alternative refrigerant/lubricant. The motor materials were exposed at elevated temperature to the original refrigerant and mineral oil for 500 hours, followed by exposure to the alternative refrigerant and lubricant for 500 hours. Measurements were also taken after 168 and 336 hours. As a control, some samples were exposed to the original refrigerant/mineral oil for a total of 1000 hours.

  9. Status of Initial Assessment of Physical and Mechanical Properties of Graphite Grades for NGNP Appkications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strizak, Joe P; Burchell, Timothy D; Windes, Will

    2011-12-01

    Current candidate graphite grades for the core structures of NGNP include grades NBG-17, NBG-18, PCEA and IG-430. Both NBG-17 and NBG-18 are manufactured using pitch coke, and are vibrationally molded. These medium grain products are produced by SGL Carbon SAS (France). Tayo Tanso (Japan) produces IG-430 which is a petroleum coke, isostatically molded, nuclear grade graphite. And PCEA is a medium grain, extruded graphite produced by UCAR Carbon Co. (USA) from petroleum coke. An experimental program has been initiated to develop physical and mechanical properties data for these current candidate graphites. The results will be judged against the requirements for nuclear grade graphites set forth in ASTM standard D 7219-05 "Standard Specification for Isotropic and Near-isotropic Nuclear Graphites". Physical properties data including thermal conductivity and coefficient of thermal expansion, and mechanical properties data including tensile, compressive and flexural strengths will be obtained using the established test methods covered in D-7219 and ASTM C 781-02 "Standard Practice for Testing Graphite and Boronated Graphite Components for High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Nuclear Reactors". Various factors known to effect the properties of graphites will be investigated. These include specimen size, spatial location within a graphite billet, specimen orientation (ag and wg) within a billet, and billet-to-billet variations. The current status of the materials characterization program is reported herein. To date billets of the four graphite grades have been procured, and detailed cut up plans for obtaining the various specimens have been prepared. Particular attention has been given to the traceability of each specimen to its spatial location and orientation within a billet.

  10. National Mineral Development Corporation Ltd NMDC | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Corporation Ltd NMDC Jump to: navigation, search Name: National Mineral Development Corporation Ltd. (NMDC) Place: Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India Zip: 500028 Sector: Solar, Wind...

  11. Mineral County, West Virginia: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    West Virginia Keyser, West Virginia Piedmont, West Virginia Ridgeley, West Virginia Wiley Ford, West Virginia Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleMineralCou...

  12. Mining and Minerals Policy Act of 1970 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Act, this statute encompasses both hard rock mining and oil and gas and established modern federal policy regarding mineral resources in the United States. The Act articulates a...

  13. Oxygen And Carbon Isotope Ratios Of Hydrothermal Minerals From...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Oxygen And Carbon Isotope Ratios Of Hydrothermal Minerals From Yellowstone Drill Cores Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Oxygen...

  14. Astoria Mineral Hot Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Astoria Mineral Hot Springs Sector Geothermal energy Type Pool and Spa Location Jackson, Wyoming Coordinates 43.4799291, -110.7624282 Show Map Loading map......

  15. Division of Energy and Mineral Development | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    in Lakewood, Colorado. The Division assists Tribes with the exploration, development and management of their energy and mineral resources to create sustainable economies for...

  16. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- International Minerals and...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    (The Former International Minerals and Chemical Corporation) Bartow, Florida; November 26, 1985 FL.03-4 - Memorandum; McKereghan to Campbell; ERDA (AEC) Inspection; April 11, 1977

  17. Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide, Brine, and Clay Mineral...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide, Brine, and Clay Mineral Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide, Brine, and Clay ...

  18. Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide Brine and Clay Mineral...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Carbon Dioxide Brine and Clay Mineral Interactions and Determination of Contact Angles. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide ...

  19. Buckhorn Mineral Wells Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Buckhorn Mineral Wells Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Buckhorn...

  20. Stewart Mineral Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Stewart Mineral Springs Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Stewart...

  1. Hyperspectral Mineral Mapping In Support Of Geothermal Exploration...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    CA and Dixie Valley, NV, USA Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Hyperspectral Mineral Mapping In Support Of Geothermal...

  2. Hawaii Revised Statute 523A-2, Definition of Mineral Resources...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Not provided DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http:crossref.org Online Internet link for Hawaii Revised Statute 523A-2, Definition of Mineral Resources Citation...

  3. Thermally Speciated Mercury in Mineral Exploration | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Speciated Mercury in Mineral Exploration Abstract Abstract unavailable. Author S.C. Smith Conference IGES; Dublin, CA; 20030901 Published IGES, 2003 DOI Not Provided Check...

  4. An active atmospheric methane sink in high Arctic mineral cryosols...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    conditions coupled with -omics analysis indicate (1) mineral cryosols in the Canadian high Arctic contain atmospheric CH-oxidizing bacteria; (2) the atmospheric CH uptake ...

  5. Uranium-Bearing Evaporite Mineralization Influencing Plume Persistence...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... 2015 Close-up View of Seep 0248 During Water Sampling Event......mineral precipitate that occurs due to a loss of water through evaporative processes. ...

  6. Uranium-Bearing Evaporite Mineralization Influencing Plume Persistence...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    In this study, "evaporite" refers to any secondary mineral precipitate that occurs due to a loss of water through evaporative processes. This includes efflorescent salt crusts, ...

  7. Discovery of bridgmanite, the most abundant mineral in Earth...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Discovery of bridgmanite, the most abundant mineral in Earth, in a shocked meteorite Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ...

  8. Are mineral investments by energy companies on the ebb

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prast, W.G.

    1984-01-01

    Despite differences between the most recent round of acquisitions and previous minerals investments by the petroleum industry, the current trend of takeovers builds upon the history of oil's involvement in mining. In particular, takeovers continue to concentrate on uranium, coal, and copper. A number of petroleum firms also have obtained gold, silver, molybdenum, nickel, and other minerals assets. There is no discernible pattern to oil industry ownership of these incidental holdings, the markets for which are not much affected by the activities of petroleum companies. The vast bulk of the minerals investments of oil producers are in the mineral fuels and copper. 5 tables.

  9. Radioactive Mineral Occurences in Nevada | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Radioactive Mineral Occurences in Nevada Abstract Abstract unavailable. Author Larry J. Garside Organization Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology Published Nevada Bureau of...

  10. Cooperative Reorganization of Mineral and Template during Directed...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    prepared from organic thiol molecules on metal substrates are known to exert substantial influence over mineralization and, as such, provide model systems for investigating the...

  11. Clay Minerals Related To The Hydrothermal Activity Of The Bouillante...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Minerals Related To The Hydrothermal Activity Of The Bouillante Geothermal Field (Guadeloupe) Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article:...

  12. Mineral Leasing Act of 1920 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Leasing Act established the authority of the Secretary of the Interior to oversee oil and gas operations on federal land. References Federal Oil and Gas Statutes1 Mineral...

  13. Diagenesis and clay mineral formation at Gale Crater, Mars (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    On the basis of the observed host rock and alteration minerals, we present results of equilibrium thermochemical modeling of the Sheepbed mudstones of Yellowknife Bay in order to ...

  14. Australasian Code for Reporting of Exploration Results, Mineral...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (JORC) Published The Joint Ore Reserves Committee of The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Australian Institute of Geoscientists, and Minerals Council of...

  15. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- International Minerals and...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    and Chemical Corp - Pilot Plant - FL 02 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: International Minerals and Chemical Corp - Pilot Plant (FL.02) Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: ...

  16. Respiratory disease in Utah coal miners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rom, W.N.; Kanner, R.E.; Renzetti, A.D. Jr.; Shigeoka, J.W.; Barkman, H.W.; Nichols, M.; Turner, W.A.; Coleman, M.; Wright, W.E.

    1981-04-01

    Two hundred forty-two Utah underground coal miners volunteered to participate in a respiratory disease study. They were an older group (mean, 56 years of age) and had spent a mean of 29 years in the coal-mining industry. The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was 57%, and that of coal worker's pneumoconiosis, 25%; only one worker had progressive massive fibrosis. Significant impairment of pulmonary function was found among those with a history of cigarette smoking. Chronic bronchitis or coal worker's penumoconiosis among nonsmokers did not impair pulmonary function. There was a significant association among the nonsmokers between increasing exposure to coal dust and coal worker's pneumoconiosis, but not for changes in pulmonary function. Coal mine dust had a significant influence in causing the symptom complex of chronic cough and sputum production, and coal worker's pneumoconiosis.

  17. Respiratory disease in Utah coal miners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rom, W.N.; Kanner, R.E.; Renzetti, A.D. Jr.; Shigeoka, J.W.; Barkman, H.W.; Nichols, M.; Turner, W.A.; Coleman, M.; Wright, W.E.

    1981-04-01

    Two hundred forty-two Utah underground coal miners volunteered to participate in a respiratory disease study. They were an older group (mean, 56 years of age) and had spent a mean of 29 years in the coal-mining industry. The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was 57%, and that of coal worker's pneumoconiosis, 25%; only one worker had progressive massive fibrosis. Significant impairment of pulmonary function was found among those with a history of cigarette smoking. Chronic bronchitis or coal worker's pneumoconiosis among nonsmokers did not impair pulmonary function. There was a significant association among the nonsmokers between increasing exposure to coal dust and coal worker's pneumoconiosis, but not for changes in pulmonary function. Coal mine dust had a significant influence in causing the symptom complex of chronic cough and sputum production, and coal worker's pneumoconiosis.

  18. Oxidative Mineralization and Characterization of Polyvinyl Alcohol Solutions for Wastewater Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oji, L.N.

    2003-08-07

    Photochemical and ultrasonic treatment of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), derived from PVA fabric material, with hydrogen peroxide was evaluated as a primary method for PVA mineralization into simpler organic molecules. PVA-based waste streams have been found to be compatible with nuclear process wastewater treatment facilities only when solubilized PVA is more than 90 percent mineralized with hydrogen peroxide. No undesirable solid particles are formed with other nuclear process liquid waste when they are mixed, pH adjusted, evaporated and blended with this type of oxidized PVA waste streams. The presence of oxidized PVA in a typical nuclear process wastewater has been found to have no detrimental effect on the efficiency of ion exchange resins, inorganic, and precipitation agents used for the removal of radionuclides from nuclear waste streams. The disappearance of PVA solution in hydrogen peroxide with ultrasonic/ ultraviolet irradiation treatment was characterized by pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics. Radioactive waste contaminated PVA fabric can be solubilized and mineralized to produce processible liquid waste, hence, no bulky solid waste disposal cost can be incurred and the radionuclides can be effectively recovered. Therefore, PVA fabric materials can be considered as an effective substitute for cellulose fabrics that are currently used in radioactive waste decontamination processes.

  19. Complex Materials

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Cooper, Valentino

    2014-05-23

    Valentino Cooper uses some of the world's most powerful computing to understand how materials work at subatomic levels, studying breakthroughs such as piezoelectrics, which convert mechanical stress to electrical energy.

  20. material removal

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    %2A en Nuclear Material Removal http:nnsa.energy.govaboutusourprogramsdnnm3remove

    Page...

  1. material removal

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    %2A en Nuclear Material Removal http:www.nnsa.energy.govaboutusourprogramsdnnm3remove

    Pag...

  2. Propulsion materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wall, Edward J.; Sullivan, Rogelio A.; Gibbs, Jerry L.

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Office of Vehicle Technologies (OVT) is pleased to introduce the FY 2007 Annual Progress Report for the Propulsion Materials Research and Development Program. Together with DOE national laboratories and in partnership with private industry and universities across the United States, the program continues to engage in research and development (R&D) that provides enabling materials technology for fuel-efficient and environmentally friendly commercial and passenger vehicles.

  3. Reference Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reference Materials Reference Materials Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Fusion Energy Sciences August 3-4, 2010 Official DOE Invitation Workshop Invitation Letter from DOE Associate Directors [not available] NERSC Documents NERSC science requirements home page NERSC science requirements workshop page NERSC science requirements case study FAQ Workshop Agenda Previous NERSC Requirements Workshops Biological and Environmental Research (BER) Basic Energy Sciences (BES) Fusion

  4. Reference Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reference Materials Reference Materials Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for High Energy Physics November 12-13, 2009 Official DOE Invitation Workshop Invitation Letter from DOE Associate Directors NERSC Documents NERSC science requirements home page NERSC science requirements workshop page NERSC science requirements case study FAQ Workshop Agenda Previous NERSC Requirements Workshops Biological and Environmental Research (BER) Basic Energy Sciences (BES) Fusion Energy Sciences

  5. Engineered Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7 Engineered Materials Materials design, fabrication, assembly, and characterization for national security needs. Contact Us Group Leader (Acting) Kimberly Obrey Email Deputy Group Leader Dominic Peterson Email Group Office (505)-667-6887 We perform polymer science and engineering, including ultra-precision target design, fabrication, assembly, characterization, and field support. We perform polymer science and engineering, including ultra-precision target design, fabrication, assembly,

  6. Meeting Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    HEP Meeting Materials Meeting Materials Here you will find various items to be used before and during the requirements review. The following documents are included: Case study worksheet to be filled in by meeting participants Sample of a completed case study from a Nuclear Physics requirements workshop held in 2011 A graph of NERSC and HEP usage as a function of time A powerpoint template you can use at the requirements review Downloads CaseStudyTemplate.docx | unknown Case Study Worksheet -

  7. Mineral resources of the Cross Mountain Wilderness Study Area, Moffat County, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, K.V.; Frisken, J.G.; Kulik, D.M.; Thompson, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    The Cross Mountain Wilderness Study Area, in northwestern Colorado, contains high-purity limestone suitable for industrial and agricultural use; dolomitic limestone suitable for agricultural use; and limestone, dolomite, sandstone, and sand and gravel suitable for use as construction materials. There has been no mining within this study area. This entire study area has a low mineral resource potential for sediment-hosted copper in the Uinta Mountain Group, and parts of this study area have a low resource potential for sandstone-type uranium-vanadium in sedimentary rocks. The entire study area has a low resource potential for all other metals and geothermal resources. It has a high energy resource potential for oil and gas in the eastern part of the area and moderate potential elsewhere. This study area has no mineral resource potential for coal.

  8. course inventory | Critical Materials Institute

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Read more about CMI Education Partner: Colorado School of Mines CMI Course Inventory: Mineral Economics and Business Mineral Economics and Business Of the six CMI Team members that ...

  9. Mineral resources and mineral resource potential of the Panamint Dunes Wilderness Study Area, Inyo County, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennedy, G.L.; Kilburn, J.E.; Conrad, J.E.; Leszcykowski, A.M.

    1984-01-01

    This report presents the results of a mineral survey of the Panamint Dunes Wilderness Study Area (CDCA-127), California Desert Conservation Area, Inyo County, California. The Panamint Dunes Wilderness Study Area has an identified volcanic cinder resource and few areas with mineral resource potential. Hydrothermal deposits of lead-zinc-silver occur in veins and small replacement bodies along and near the Lemoigne thrust fault on the eastern side of the wilderness study area. Two workings, the Big Four mine with 35,000 tons of inferred subeconomic lead-zinc-silver resources and a moderate potential for additional resources, and the Apple 1 claim with low potential for lead-zinc-silver resources, are surrounded by the study area but are specifically excluded from it. A low resource potential for lead-zinc-silver is assigned to other exposures along the Lemoigne thrust, although metallic minerals were not detected at these places. The Green Quartz prospect, located near the northern tip of the study area, has low resource potential for copper in quartz pegmatities in quartz monzonite of the Hunter Mountain batholith. Nonmetallic mineral resources consist of volcanic cinders and quartz sand. An estimated 900,000 tons of inferred cinder reserves are present at Cal Trans borrow pit MS 242, on the southern margin of the study area. The Panamint Valley dune field, encompassing 480 acres in the north-central part of the study area, has only low resource potential for silica because of impurities. Other sources of silica and outside the study area are of both higher purity and closer to possible markets. 19 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Low-Cost Illumination-Grade LEDs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Epler, John

    2013-08-31

    Solid State Lighting is a cost-effective, energy-conserving technology serving a rapidly expand- ing multi-billion dollar market. This program was designed to accelerate this lighting revolution by reducing the manufacturing cost of Illumination-Grade LEDs. The technical strategy was to investigate growth substrate alternatives to standard planar sapphire, select the most effective and compatible option, and demonstrate a significant increase in Lumen/$ with a marketable LED. The most obvious alternate substrate, silicon, was extensively studied in the first two years of the program. The superior thermal and mechanical properties of Si were expected to improve wavelength uniformity and hence color yield in the manufacture of high-power illumination- grade LEDs. However, improvements in efficiency and epitaxy uniformity on standard c-plane sapphire diminished the advantages of switching to Si. Furthermore, the cost of sapphire decreased significantly and the cost of processing Si devices using our thin film process was higher than expected. We concluded that GaN on Si was a viable technology but not a practical option for Philips Lumileds. Therefore in 2012 and 2013, we sought and received amendments which broadened the scope to include other substrates and extended the time of execution. Proprietary engineered substrates, off-axis (non-c-plane) sapphire, and c-plane patterned sapphire substrates (PSS) were all investigated in the final 18 months of this program. Excellent epitaxy quality was achieved on all three candidates; however we eliminated engineered substrates and non-c-plane sapphire because of their higher combined cost of substrate, device fabrication and packaging. Ultimately, by fabricating a flip-chip (FC) LED based upon c-plane PSS we attained a 42% reduction in LED manufacturing cost relative to our LUXEON Rebel product (Q1-2012). Combined with a flux gain from 85 to 102 Lm, the LUXEON Q delivered a 210% increase in Lm/$ over this time period. The

  11. Metal-sulfide mineral ores, Fenton chemistry and disease. Particle induced inflammatory stress response in lung cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Harrington, Andrea D.; Smirnov, Alexander; Tsirka, Stella E.; Schoonen, Martin A. A.

    2014-07-10

    The inhalation of mineral particulates and other earth materials, such as coal, can initiate or enhance disease in humans. Workers in occupations with high particulate exposure, such as mining, are particularly at risk. The ability of a material to generate an inflammatory stress response (ISR), a measure of particle toxicity, is a useful tool in evaluating said exposure risk. ISR is defined as the upregulation of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) normalized to cell viability. This study compares the ISR of A549 human lung epithelial cells after exposure to well-characterized common metal-sulfide ore mineral separates. The evaluation of the deleteriousmore » nature of ore minerals is based on a range of particle loadings (serial dilutions of 0.002 m2/mL stock) and exposure periods (beginning at 30 min and measured systematically for up to 24 h). There is a wide range in ISR values generated by the ore minerals. The ISR values produced by the sphalerite samples are within the range of inert materials. Arsenopyrite generated a small ISR that was largely driven by cell death. Galena showed a similar, but more pronounced response. Copper-bearing ore minerals generated the greatest ISR, both by upregulating cellular ROS and generating substantial and sustained cell death. Chalcopyrite and bornite, both containing ferrous iron, generated the greatest ISR overall. Particles containing Fenton metals as major constituents produce the highest ISR, while other heavy metals mainly generate cell death. Furthermore, this study highlights the importance of evaluating the chemistry, oxidation states and structure of a material when assessing risk management.« less

  12. Metal-sulfide mineral ores, Fenton chemistry and disease. Particle induced inflammatory stress response in lung cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrington, Andrea D.; Smirnov, Alexander; Tsirka, Stella E.; Schoonen, Martin A. A.

    2014-07-10

    The inhalation of mineral particulates and other earth materials, such as coal, can initiate or enhance disease in humans. Workers in occupations with high particulate exposure, such as mining, are particularly at risk. The ability of a material to generate an inflammatory stress response (ISR), a measure of particle toxicity, is a useful tool in evaluating said exposure risk. ISR is defined as the upregulation of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) normalized to cell viability. This study compares the ISR of A549 human lung epithelial cells after exposure to well-characterized common metal-sulfide ore mineral separates. The evaluation of the deleterious nature of ore minerals is based on a range of particle loadings (serial dilutions of 0.002 m2/mL stock) and exposure periods (beginning at 30 min and measured systematically for up to 24 h). There is a wide range in ISR values generated by the ore minerals. The ISR values produced by the sphalerite samples are within the range of inert materials. Arsenopyrite generated a small ISR that was largely driven by cell death. Galena showed a similar, but more pronounced response. Copper-bearing ore minerals generated the greatest ISR, both by upregulating cellular ROS and generating substantial and sustained cell death. Chalcopyrite and bornite, both containing ferrous iron, generated the greatest ISR overall. Particles containing Fenton metals as major constituents produce the highest ISR, while other heavy metals mainly generate cell death. Furthermore, this study highlights the importance of evaluating the chemistry, oxidation states and structure of a material when assessing risk management.

  13. High-grade paper recycling: A program management perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, R.L.

    1999-03-01

    Recycling of high-grade paper is one method of reducing the use of natural resources and the amount of waste being emitted into the environment, both in the process of manufacturing and in the disposal of unneeded documents. The Air Force Materiel Command (AFMC) is a significant user of high-grade paper, thus recycling represents a potential saving to society in the form of lessened negative impact on the environment as the result of AFMC operations. The possibility also exists for AFMC to reduce operating costs. The purpose of this study is to explore means of reducing high-grade paper disposal by AFMC, examine program management of high-grade paper recycling by AFMC, and apply effective program management processes to the AFMC high-grade paper recycling program.

  14. Hardfacing material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Branagan, Daniel J.

    2012-01-17

    A method of producing a hard metallic material by forming a mixture containing at least 55% iron and at least one of boron, carbon, silicon and phosphorus. The mixture is formed into an alloy and cooled to form a metallic material having a hardness of greater than about 9.2 GPa. The invention includes a method of forming a wire by combining a metal strip and a powder. The metal strip and the powder are rolled to form a wire containing at least 55% iron and from two to seven additional elements including at least one of C, Si and B. The invention also includes a method of forming a hardened surface on a substrate by processing a solid mass to form a powder, applying the powder to a surface to form a layer containing metallic glass, and converting the glass to a crystalline material having a nanocrystalline grain size.

  15. Degradation of dome cutting minerals in Hanford waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, Jacob G.; Huber, Heinz J.; Cooke, Gary A.

    2013-01-11

    At the Hanford Tank Farms, recent changes in retrieval technology require cutting new risers in several single-shell tanks. The Hanford Tank Farm Operator is using water jet technology with abrasive silicate minerals such as garnet or olivine to cut through the concrete and rebar dome. The abrasiveness of these minerals, which become part of the high-level waste stream, may enhance the erosion of waste processing equipment. However, garnet and olivine are not thermodynamically stable in Hanford waste, slowly degrading over time. How likely these materials are to dissolve completely in the waste before the waste is processed in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant can be evaluated using theoretical analysis for olivine and collected direct experimental evidence for garnet. Based on an extensive literature study, a large number of primary silicates decompose into sodalite and cancrinite when exposed to Hanford waste. Given sufficient time, the sodalite also degrades into cancrinite. Even though cancrinite has not been directly added to any Hanford tanks during process times, it is the most common silicate observed in current Hanford waste. By analogy, olivine and garnet are expected to ultimately also decompose into cancrinite. Garnet used in a concrete cutting demonstration was immersed in a simulated supernate representing the estimated composition of the liquid retrieving waste from Hanford tank 241-C-107 at both ambient and elevated temperatures. This simulant was amended with extra NaOH to determine if adding caustic would help enhance the degradation rate of garnet. The results showed that the garnet degradation rate was highest at the highest NaOH concentration and temperature. At the end of 12 weeks, however, the garnet grains were mostly intact, even when immersed in 2 molar NaOH at 80 deg C. Cancrinite was identified as the degradation product on the surface of the garnet grains. In the case of olivine, the rate of degradation in the high-pH regimes

  16. Training Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Training Materials Training Materials The following tutorials are produced by NERSC staff and are intended to provide basic instruction on NERSC systems. Sort by: Default | Name | Date (low-high) | Date (high-low) | Source | Category Introduction to Hybrid OpenMP/MPI Programming June 24, 2004 | Author(s): Helen He | Download File: hybridTalk.pdf | pdf | 1005 KB sample managed list Using OpenMP October 20, 2010 | Author(s): Helen He | Introduction to MPI January 11, 2010 | Author(s): Richard

  17. Reference Material

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reference Materials There are a variety of reference materials the NSSAB utilizes and have been made available on its website. Documents Fact Sheets - links to Department of Energy Nevada Field Office webpage Public Reading Room NTA Public Reading Facility Open Monday through Friday, 7:30 am to 4:30 pm (except holidays) 755C East Flamingo Road Las Vegas, Nevada 89119 Phone (702) 794-5106 http://www.nv.doe.gov/library/testingarchive.aspx DOE Electronic Database Also available to the public is an

  18. Solar Grade Silicon from Agricultural By-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard M. Laine

    2012-08-20

    In this project, Mayaterials developed a low cost, low energy and low temperature method of purifying rice hull ash to high purity (5-6Ns) and converting it by carbothermal reduction to solar grade quality silicon (Sipv) using a self-designed and built electric arc furnace (EAF). Outside evaluation of our process by an independent engineering firm confirms that our technology greatly lowers estimated operating expenses (OPEX) to $5/kg and capital expenses (CAPEX) to $24/kg for Sipv production, which is well below best-in-class plants using a Siemens process approach (OPEX of 14/kg and CAPEX of $87/kg, respectively). The primary limiting factor in the widespread use of photovoltaic (PV) cells is the high cost of manufacturing, compared to more traditional sources to reach 6 g Sipv/watt (with averages closer to 8+g/watt). In 2008, the spot price of Sipv rose to $450/kg. While prices have since dropped to a more reasonable $25/kg; this low price level is not sustainable, meaning the longer-term price will likely return to $35/kg. The 6-8 g Si/watt implies that the Sipv used in a module will cost $0.21-0.28/watt for the best producers (45% of the cost of a traditional solar panel), a major improvement from the cost/wafer driven by the $50/kg Si costs of early 2011, but still a major hindrance in fulfilling DOE goal of lowering the cost of solar energy below $1/watt. The solar cell industry has grown by 40% yearly for the past eight years, increasing the demand for Sipv. As such, future solar silicon price spikes are expected in the next few years. Although industry has invested billions of dollars to meet this ever-increasing demand, the technology to produce Sipv remains largely unchanged requiring the energy intensive, and chlorine dependent Siemens process or variations thereof. While huge improvements have been made, current state-of-the-art industrial plant still use 65 kWh/kg of silicon purified. Our technology offers a key distinction to other technologies as it

  19. Comparative impact analysis of laser radiation on steel grades 1045 and 5140

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lobankova, Olga V. E-mail: zilyu@yandex.ru; Zykov, Ilya Y. E-mail: zilyu@yandex.ru; Melnikov, Alexander G.

    2014-11-14

    There are results of experiments with deep engraving steel grades 1045 and 5140. The deep engraving was made by laser system equipped with a pulsed ytterbium fiber laser. The objectives of the work is to evaluate the change in the structure and properties of the material in the laser exposure area. Microsections of materials have been investigated and microhardness was measured for this purpose. The optimal parameters of laser material removal were considered. It is shown that various changes occur in the metal structure, which depends on the composition of the steel. In particular, when processing with identical laser parameters, tempered steel 1045 remelts and its hardness changes, while steel 5140 does not change its structure.

  20. Integrating Steel Production with Mineral Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klaus Lackner; Paul Doby; Tuncel Yegulalp; Samuel Krevor; Christopher Graves

    2008-05-01

    The objectives of the project were (i) to develop a combination iron oxide production and carbon sequestration plant that will use serpentine ores as the source of iron and the extraction tailings as the storage element for CO2 disposal, (ii) the identification of locations within the US where this process may be implemented and (iii) to create a standardized process to characterize the serpentine deposits in terms of carbon disposal capacity and iron and steel production capacity. The first objective was not accomplished. The research failed to identify a technique to accelerate direct aqueous mineral carbonation, the limiting step in the integration of steel production and carbon sequestration. Objective (ii) was accomplished. It was found that the sequestration potential of the ultramafic resource surfaces in the US and Puerto Rico is approximately 4,647 Gt of CO2 or over 500 years of current US production of CO2. Lastly, a computer model was developed to investigate the impact of various system parameters (recoveries and efficiencies and capacities of different system components) and serpentinite quality as well as incorporation of CO2 from sources outside the steel industry.

  1. SkyMine Carbon Mineralization Pilot Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joe Jones; Clive Barton; Mark Clayton; Al Yablonsky; David Legere

    2010-09-30

    This Topical Report addresses accomplishments achieved during Phase 1 of the SkyMine{reg_sign} Carbon Mineralization Pilot Project. The primary objectives of this project are to design, construct, and operate a system to capture CO{sub 2} from a slipstream of flue gas from a commercial coal-fired cement kiln, convert that CO{sub 2} to products having commercial value (i.e., beneficial use), show the economic viability of the CO{sub 2} capture and conversion process, and thereby advance the technology to a point of readiness for commercial scale demonstration and proliferation. The project will also substantiate market opportunities for the technology by sales of chemicals into existing markets, and identify opportunities to improve technology performance and reduce costs at commercial scale. The primary objectives of Phase 1 of the project were to elaborate proven SkyMine{reg_sign} process chemistry to commercial pilot-scale operation and complete the preliminary design ('Reference Plant Design') for the pilot plant to be built and operated in Phase 2. Additionally, during Phase 1, information necessary to inform a DOE determination regarding NEPA requirements for the project was developed, and a comprehensive carbon lifecycle analysis was completed. These items were included in the formal application for funding under Phase 2. All Phase 1 objectives were successfully met on schedule and within budget.

  2. Critical Materials:

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Critical Materials: 1 Technology Assessment 2 Contents 3 1. Introduction to the Technology/System ............................................................................................... 2 4 2. Technology Assessment and Potential ................................................................................................. 5 5 2.1 Major Trends in Selected Clean Energy Application Areas ........................................................... 5 6 2.1.1 Permanent Magnets for Wind

  3. The estimation of the number of underground coal miners and the annual dose to coal miners in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, F.D.; Pan, Z.Q.; Liu, S.L.; Chen, L.; Ma, J.Z.; Yang, M.L.; Wang, N.P.

    2007-08-15

    This paper introduces an estimation method for the number of underground coal miners and the annual dose to coal miners in China. It shows that there are about 6 million underground miners at present and the proportion is about 1, 1 and 4 million for national key coal mines, state-owned local coal mines, and township and private-ownership coal mines, respectively. The collective dose is about 1.65 X 10{sup 4} person-Sv y{sup -1}, of which township and private-ownership coal mines contribute about 91%. This paper also points out that the 2000 UNSCEAR report gives the number of miners of coal production and their collective dose, which are underestimated greatly because the report only includes the number of underground miners in national key coal mines, which only accounts for 1/6 of the workers all working under the best ventilation conditions in China.

  4. Reference Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ID 412- 11/16/2012 - Page 1 Log No 2012-263 Reference Materials * Transporting Radioactive Waste to the Nevada National Security Site fact sheet (ww.nv.energy.gov/library/factsheets/DOENV_990.pdf) - Generators contract with commercial carriers - U.S. Department of Transportation regulations require carriers to select routes which minimize radiological risk * Drivers Route and Shipment Information Questionnaire completed by drivers to document routes taken to the NNSS upon entry into Nevada -

  5. Fullerene materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malhotra, R.; Ruoff, R.S.; Lorents, D.C.

    1995-04-01

    Fullerenes are all-carbon cage molecules. The most celebrated fullerene is the soccer-ball shaped C{sub 60}, which is composed of twenty hexagons and twelve pentagons. Because its structure is reminiscent of the geodesic domes of architect R. Buckminster Fuller, C{sub 60} is called buckminsterfullerene, and all the materials in the family are designated fullerenes. Huffman and Kraetschmer`s discovery unleashed activity around the world as scientists explored production methods, properties, and potential uses of fullerenes. Within a short period, methods for their production in electric arcs, plasmas, and flames were discovered, and several companies began selling fullerenes to the research market. What is remarkable is that in all these methods, carbon atoms assemble themselves into cage structures. The capability for self-assembly points to some inherent stability of these structures that allows their formation. The unusual structure naturally leads to unusual properties. Among them are ready solubility in solvents and a relatively high vapor pressure for a pure carbon material. The young fullerene field has already produced a surprising array of structures for the development of carbon-base materials having completely new and different properties from any that were previously possible.

  6. Carbon Mineralization by Aqueous Precipitation for Beneficial Use of CO2 from Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devenney, Martin; Gilliam, Ryan; Seeker, Randy

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate an innovative process to mineralize CO2 from flue gas directly to reactive carbonates and maximize the value and versatility of its beneficial use products. The program scope includes the design, construction, and testing of a CO2 Conversion to Material Products (CCMP) Pilot Demonstration Plant utilizing CO2 from the flue gas of a power production facility in Moss Landing, CA as well as flue gas from coal combustion. This topical report covers Phase 2b, which is the construction phase of pilot demonstration subsystems that make up the integrated plant. The subsystems included are the mineralization subsystem, the Alkalinity Based on Low Energy (ABLE) subsystem, the waste calcium oxide processing subsystem, and the fiber cement board production subsystem. The fully integrated plant is now capable of capturing CO2 from various sources (gas and coal) and mineralizing into a reactive calcium carbonate binder and subsequently producing commercial size (4ftx8ft) fiber cement boards. The topical report provides a description of the “as built” design of these subsystems and the results of the commissioning activities that have taken place to confirm operability. At the end of Phase 2b, the CCMP pilot demonstration is fully ready for testing.

  7. Massive sulfide deposits and hydrothermal solutions: incremental reaction modeling of mineral precipitation and sulfur isotopic evolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janecky, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    Incremental reaction path modeling of chemical and sulfur isotopic reactions occurring in active hydrothermal vents on the seafloor, in combination with chemical and petrographic data from sulfide samples from the seafloor and massive sulfide ore deposits, allows a detailed examination of the processes involved. This paper presents theoretical models of reactions of two types: (1) adiabatic mixing between hydrothermal solution and seawater, and (2) reaction of hydrothermal solution with sulfide deposit materials. In addition, reaction of hydrothermal solution with sulfide deposit minerals and basalt in feeder zones is discussed.

  8. Investigation of Mineral Transformations in Wet Supercritical CO2 by Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arey, Bruce W.; Kovarik, Libor; Wang, Zheming; Felmy, Andrew R.

    2011-10-10

    The capture and storage of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in deep geologic formations represents one of the most promising options for mitigating the impacts of greenhouse gases on global warming. In this regard, mineral-fluid interactions are of prime importance since such reactions can result in the long term sequestration of CO2 by trapping in mineral phases. Recently it has been recognized that interactions with neat to water-saturated non-aqueous fluids are of prime importance in understanding mineralization reactions since the introduced CO2 is likely to contain water initially or soon after injection and the supercritical CO2 (scCO2) is less dense than the aqueous phase which can result in a buoyant scCO2 plume contacting the isolating caprock. As a result, unraveling the molecular/microscopic mechanisms of mineral transformation in neat to water saturated scCO2 has taken on an added important. In this study, we are examining the interfacial reactions of the olivine mineral forsterite (Mg2SiO4) over a range of water contents up to and including complete water saturation in scCO2. The surface precipitates that form on the reacted forsterite grains are extremely fragile and difficult to experimentally characterize. In order to address this issue we have developed experimental protocols for preparing and imaging electron-transparent samples from fragile structures. These electron-transparent samples are then examined using a combination of STEM/EDX, FIB-TEM, and helium ion microscope (HIM) imaging (Figures 1-3). This combination of capabilities has provided unique insight into the geochemical processes that occur on scCO2 reacted mineral surfaces. The experimental procedures and protocols that have been developed also have useful applications for examining fragile structures on a wide variety of materials. This research was performed using EMSL, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and

  9. Impact of antitrust enforcement on the Country's minerals posture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-10-07

    This review found that there have not been a significant number of nonfuel-minerals-industry-related antitrust cases litigated at FTC or Justice over the last several years. In addition, officials interviewed in the nonfuel minerals industries generally do not view antitrust enforcement as a serious obstacle to their activities. The Department of Justice and FTC's Bureau of Competition comments on this report are included in enclosure II. Enclosure I presents a background discussion on antitrust enforcement, followed by detailed findings and conclusions. Enclosure III summarizes several antitrust investigations and cases cited by minerals industry spokesmen as examples of antitrust problems. (PSB)

  10. Analysis Reveals Impact of Road Grade on Vehicle Energy Use ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    with and without road grade for five vehicle models-con- ventional, hybrid, and all-electric midsized cars and conventional and hybrid SUVs. Aggregate results of the study...

  11. Graded Security Protection (GSP) Policy - DOE Directives, Delegations...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CURRENT DOE O 470.3B, Graded Security Protection (GSP) Policy by Gary White Functional areas: Security This Order is classified as (Secret RD NOFORN) and will not be...

  12. Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    253.2 2,222.4 W W 206.4 134.3 - 340.7 See footnotes at end of table. 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 262 Energy Information...

  13. Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    150.0 2,026.7 W W 234.5 161.7 - 396.3 See footnotes at end of table. 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 262 Energy Information...

  14. High-Performance Slab-on-Grade Foundation Insulation Retrofits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldberg, Louise F.; Mosiman, Garrett E.

    2015-09-01

    A more accurate assessment of slab-on-grade foundation insulation energy savings than traditionally possible is now feasible. This has been enabled by advances in whole building energy simulation with 3-dimensional foundation modelling integration at each time step together with an experimental measurement of the site energy savings of SOG foundation insulation. Ten SOG insulation strategies were evaluated on a test building to identify an optimum retrofit insulation strategy in a zone 6 climate (Minneapolis, MN). The optimum insulation strategy in terms of energy savings and cost effectiveness consisted of two components: (a) R-20 XPS insulation above grade, and, (b) R-20 insulation at grade (comprising an outer layer of R-10 insulation and an interior layer of R-12 poured polyurethane insulation) tapering to R-10 XPS insulation at half the below-grade wall height (the lower half of the stem wall was uninsulated).

  15. A NOVEL APPROACH TO MINERAL CARBONATION: ENHANCING CARBONATION WHILE AVOIDING MINERAL PRETREATMENT PROCESS COST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael J. McKelvy; Andrew V.G. Chizmeshya; Kyle Squires; Ray W. Carpenter; Hamadallah Bearat

    2005-10-01

    Known fossil fuel reserves, especially coal, can support global energy demands for centuries to come, if the environmental problems associated with CO{sub 2} emissions can be overcome. Unlike other CO{sub 2} sequestration candidate technologies that propose long-term storage, mineral sequestration provides permanent disposal by forming geologically stable mineral carbonates. Carbonation of the widely occurring mineral olivine (e.g., forsterite, Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}) is a large-scale sequestration process candidate for regional implementation, which converts CO{sub 2} into the environmentally benign mineral magnesite (MgCO{sub 3}). The primary goal is cost-competitive process development. As the process is exothermic, it inherently offers low-cost potential. Enhancing carbonation reactivity is key to economic viability. Recent studies at the U.S. DOE Albany Research Center have established that aqueous-solution carbonation using supercritical CO{sub 2} is a promising process; even without olivine activation, 30-50% carbonation has been achieved in an hour. Mechanical activation (e.g., attrition) has accelerated the carbonation process to an industrial timescale (i.e., near completion in less than an hour), at reduced pressure and temperature. However, the activation cost is too high to be economical and lower cost pretreatment options are needed. Herein, we report our first year progress in exploring a novel approach that offers the potential to substantially enhance carbonation reactivity while bypassing pretreatment activation. We have discovered that robust silica-rich passivating layers form on the olivine surface during carbonation. As carbonation proceeds, these passivating layers thicken, fracture and eventually exfoliate, exposing fresh olivine surfaces during rapidly-stirred/circulating carbonation. We are exploring the mechanisms that govern carbonation reactivity and the impact that (1) modeling/controlling the slurry fluid-flow conditions, (2) varying the

  16. Minerals yearbook, 1992: Vanadium. Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hilliard, H.E.

    1993-09-01

    In 1992, steelmaking continued to account for more than 80% of domestic vanadium demand. Consumption showed a modest increase, from 3,300 tons in 1991 to 4,032 tons in 1992. Although overall imports of vanadium raw materials decreased when compared with 1991, imports of ash, residues, and spent catalysts increased. Total U.S. exports of vanadium materials increased from 1,560 tons in 1991 to about 1,700 tons in 1992. The oversupply of vanadium that began in late 1989 persisted throughout 1992 despite reduced production by the world's largest producer, Highveld Steel Vanadium Corp. of the Republic of South Africa. A result of the oversupply was continuously lower prices in 1992.

  17. A Graded Approach for Evaluating Radiation Doses to Acquatic and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Terrestrial Biota - DOE Directives, Delegations, and Requirements CURRENT DOE-STD-1153-2002, A Graded Approach for Evaluating Radiation Doses to Acquatic and Terrestrial Biota by Diane Johnson This technical standard provides methods, models, and guidance within a graded approach that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors may use to evaluate doses of ionizing radiation to populations of aquatic animals, terrestrial plants, and terrestrial animals from DOE activities for the

  18. American-Made SRF Cavity Makes the Grade | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    American-Made SRF Cavity Makes the Grade American-Made SRF Cavity Makes the Grade NEWPORT NEWS, Va., Sept. 17, 2009 - The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility marked a step forward in the field of advanced particle accelerator technology with the successful test of the first U.S.-built superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) niobium cavity to meet the exacting specifications of the proposed International Linear Collider (ILC). The cavity was developed

  19. Commercial-Grade, Scalable Support and Training Services Platform |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Commercial-Grade, Scalable Support and Training Services Platform Commercial-Grade, Scalable Support and Training Services Platform Lead Performer: Big Ladder Software - Denver, CO DOE Funding: $149,554 Cost Share: N/A Project Term: June 2014 - March 2015 Funding Opportunity: Small Business Innovation Research FY 2014 Phase 1 Release 2 Awards Project Objective The Department of Energy has funded the development of two industry-leading simulation engines, EnergyPlus and

  20. NNSA Eliminates 100 Metric Tons Of Weapons-Grade Nuclear Material...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    secure and less expensive nuclear weapons complex. ... sale of LEU for safe use in power and research reactors around the world. ... NNSA maintains and enhances the safety, security, ...

  1. Construction material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagh, Arun S.; Antink, Allison L.

    2008-07-22

    A structural material of a polystyrene base and the reaction product of the polystyrene base and a solid phosphate ceramic is applied as a slurry which includes one or more of a metal oxide or a metal hydroxide with a source of phosphate to produce a phosphate ceramic and a poly (acrylic acid or acrylate) or combinations or salts thereof and polystyrene or MgO applied to the polystyrene base and allowed to cure so that the dried aqueous slurry chemically bonds to the polystyrene base. A method is also disclosed of applying the slurry to the polystyrene base.

  2. Alloy materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hans Thieme, Cornelis Leo; Thompson, Elliott D.; Fritzemeier, Leslie G.; Cameron, Robert D.; Siegal, Edward J.

    2002-01-01

    An alloy that contains at least two metals and can be used as a substrate for a superconductor is disclosed. The alloy can contain an oxide former. The alloy can have a biaxial or cube texture. The substrate can be used in a multilayer superconductor, which can further include one or more buffer layers disposed between the substrate and the superconductor material. The alloys can be made a by process that involves first rolling the alloy then annealing the alloy. A relatively large volume percentage of the alloy can be formed of grains having a biaxial or cube texture.

  3. Casting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaudhry, Anil R.; Dzugan, Robert; Harrington, Richard M.; Neece, Faurice D.; Singh, Nipendra P.

    2011-06-14

    A foam material comprises a liquid polymer and a liquid isocyanate which is mixed to make a solution that is poured, injected or otherwise deposited into a corresponding mold. A reaction from the mixture of the liquid polymer and liquid isocyanate inside the mold forms a thermally collapsible foam structure having a shape that corresponds to the inside surface configuration of the mold and a skin that is continuous and unbroken. Once the reaction is complete, the foam pattern is removed from the mold and may be used as a pattern in any number of conventional casting processes.

  4. Removal of mineral matter including pyrite from coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reggel, Leslie; Raymond, Raphael; Blaustein, Bernard D.

    1976-11-23

    Mineral matter, including pyrite, is removed from coal by treatment of the coal with aqueous alkali at a temperature of about 175.degree. to 350.degree. C, followed by acidification with strong acid.

  5. Evolution of a Mineralized Geothermal System, Valles Caldera...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Journal Article: Evolution of a Mineralized Geothermal System, Valles Caldera, New Mexico Abstract The 20-km-diam Valles caldera formed at 1.13 Ma and had continuous...

  6. Mercury Contents of Natural Thermal and Mineral Fluids, In- U...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Paper 713 Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Book Section: Mercury Contents of Natural Thermal and Mineral Fluids, In- U.S. Geological...

  7. Hyperspectral Mineral Mapping In Support Of Geothermal Exploration...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ca And Dixie Valley, Nv, Usa Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Book: Hyperspectral Mineral Mapping In Support Of Geothermal Exploration- Examples...

  8. A Review Of Water Contents Of Nominally Anhydrous Natural Minerals...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Of Water Contents Of Nominally Anhydrous Natural Minerals In The Mantles Of Earth, Mars And The Moon Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal...

  9. ORS 516 - Department of Geology and Mineral Industries | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    6 - Department of Geology and Mineral Industries Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: ORS 516 - Department of Geology...

  10. Iron speciation in minerals and glasses probed by M [subscript...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Iron speciation in minerals and glasses probed by M subscript 23 -edge X-ray Raman scattering spectroscopy Authors: Nyrow, A. ; Sternemann, C. ; Wilke, M. ; Gordon, R. A. ...

  11. H.R.S. 182-1 - Reservation and Disposition of Government Mineral...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Government Mineral Rights, DefinitionsLegal Abstract Hawaii statute governing the administration of government mineral rights, including rights for geothermal resources. Published...

  12. Fundamental study of CO2-H2O-mineral interactions for carbon...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    In the supercritical CO2-water-mineral systems relevant to subsurface CO2 sequestration, ... Experimental and theoretical studies have shown that water films will form on mineral ...

  13. Fundamental study of CO2-H2O-mineral interactions for carbon...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    sequestration, with emphasis on the nature of the supercritical fluid-mineral interface. ... sequestration, with emphasis on the nature of the supercritical fluid-mineral interface. ...

  14. Effectiveness of mineral soil to adsorb the natural occurring radioactive material (norm), uranium and thorium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amir, Muhammad Nur Iman; Ismail, Nurul Izzatiafifi; Wood, Ab. Khalik Saat, Ahmad; Hamzah, Zaini

    2015-04-29

    A study has been performed on U-soil and Th-soil adsorption of three types of soil collected from Selangor State of Malaysia which are Saujana Putra, Bukit Changgang and Jenderam Hilir. In this study, natural radionuclide (U and Th) soil adsorption based on batch experiments with various initial concentrations of the radionuclide elements were carried out. Parameters that were set constant include pH at 5;amount of soil used was 5 g each, contact time was 24 hour and different initial concentration for each solution of U and Th which is 5 mg/L, 10 mg/L, 15 mg/L, 20 mg/L, 25 mg/L and 40 mg/L were used. The K{sub d} values for each type of soil were determined in this batch experiments which was based on US-EPA method, in order to estimate adsorption capacity of the soil.The K{sub d} values of Th found higher than Kd values of U for all of the soil samples, and the highest was found on the soil collected from Bukit Changgang. The soil clay content was one of factors to influence the adsorption of both U and Th from dilute initial solution. The U-soil and Th-soil adsorption process for all the soil samples studied are generally obeying unimolecular layer Langmuir isotherm model. From Langmuir isotherm, the maximum adsorption capacity for U was 0.393mg/g and for Th was 1.53 mg/g for the soil that was taken from Bukit Changgang. From the study, it suggested that the soil from Bukit Changgang applicable as potential enhanced barrier for site disposing waste containing U and Th.

  15. Mineral Deformation at Earth's Core-Mantle Boundary

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mineral Deformation at Earth's Core-Mantle Boundary Mineral Deformation at Earth's Core-Mantle Boundary Print Wednesday, 31 August 2011 00:00 Earth is a dynamic planet in which convection takes place on the scale of thousands of kilometers. Because Earth is mostly solid (except for its liquid-iron outer core), this convection causes deformation of solid rocks by plastic flow. At the core-mantle boundary (CMB), 2900 km deep, seismologists have discovered that seismic waves travel faster in

  16. Inducing Mineral Precipitation in Groundwater by Addition of Phosphate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karen E. Wright; Yoshiko Fujita; Thomas Hartmann; Mark Conrad

    2011-10-01

    Induced precipitation of phosphate minerals to scavenge trace metals and radionuclides from groundwater is a potential remediation approach for contaminated aquifers. Phosphate minerals can sequester trace elements by primary mineral formation, solid solution formation and/or adsorption, and they are poorly soluble under many environmental conditions, making them attractive for long-term sustainable remediation. The success of such engineered schemes will depend on the particular mineral phases generated, their rates of formation, and their long term stability. The purpose of this study was to examine the precipitation of calcium phosphate minerals under conditions representative of a natural groundwater. Because microorganisms are present in groundwater, and because some proposed schemes for induced phosphate mineral precipitation rely on the stimulation of native groundwater populations, we also tested the effect of bacterial cells (initial densities of 105 and 107 ml-1) within the precipitation medium. We also tested the effect of a trace mixture of propionic, isovaleric, formic and butyric acids (total concentration 0.035 mM). The experiments showed that the general progression of mineral precipitation was similar under all of the conditions, with initial formation of amorphous calcium carbonate, and transformation to poorly crystalline hydroxyapatite (HAP) by the end of the week-long experiments. The presence of the bacterial cells appeared to delay precipitation, although by the end of 7 days the overall extent of precipitation was similar for all of the treatments. The stoichiometry of the final precipitates as well as results of Rietveld refinement of x-ray diffraction data indicated that the treatments including organic acids and bacterial cells resulted in increased distortion of the HAP crystal lattice, with the higher concentration of cells resulting in the greatest distortion. Uptake of Sr into the phosphate minerals was decreased in the treatments

  17. Structure, chemistry, and properties of mineral nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waychunas, G.A.; Zhang, H.; Gilbert, B.

    2008-12-02

    Nanoparticle properties can depart markedly from their bulk analog materials, including large differences in chemical reactivity, molecular and electronic structure, and mechanical behavior. The greatest changes are expected at the smallest sizes, e.g. 10 nm and below, where surface effects are expected to dominate bonding, shape and energy considerations. The precise chemistry at nanoparticle interfaces can have a profound effect on structure, phase transformations, strain, and reactivity. Certain phases may exist only as nanoparticles, requiring transformations in chemistry, stoichiometry and structure with evolution to larger sizes. In general, mineralogical nanoparticles have been little studied.

  18. (Fracture mechanics of inhomogeneous materials)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bass, B.R.

    1990-10-01

    Discussions were held with Japanese researchers concerning (1) the Elastic-Plastic Fracture Mechanics in Inhomogeneous Materials and Structures (EPI) Program, and (2) ongoing large-scale pressurized- thermal-shock (PTS) experiments in Japan. In the EPI Program, major activities in the current fiscal year include round-robin analyses of measured data from inhomogeneous base metal/weld metal compact- tension (CT) specimens fabricated from welded plates of A533 grade B class 1 steel. The round-robin task involves participants from nine research organizations in Japan and is scheduled for completion by the end of 1990. Additional experiments will be performed on crack growth in inhomogeneous CT specimens and three-point bend (3PB) specimens 10 mm thick. The data will be compared with that generated previously from 19-mm-thick-specimens. A new type of inhomogeneous surface-cracked specimen will be tested this year, with ratio of crack depth to surface length (a/c) satisfying 0.2 {le} (a/c) {le} 0. 8 and using a 3PB type of applied load. Plans are under way to fabricate a new welded plate of A533 grade B class 1 steel (from a different heat than that currently being tested) in order to provide an expanded fracture-toughness data base. Other topics concerning fracture-prevention issues in reactor pressure vessels were discussed with each of the host organizations, including an overview of ongoing work in the Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program.

  19. A Novel Approach To Mineral Carbonation: Enhancing Carbonation While Avoiding Mineral Pretreatment Process Cost

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael J. McKelvy; Andrew V. G. Chizmeshya; Kyle Squires; Ray W. Carpenter; Hamdallah Bearat

    2006-06-21

    Known fossil fuel reserves, especially coal, can support global energy demands for centuries to come, if the environmental problems associated with CO{sub 2} emissions can be overcome. Unlike other CO{sub 2} sequestration candidate technologies that propose long-term storage, mineral sequestration provides permanent disposal by forming geologically stable mineral carbonates. Carbonation of the widely occurring mineral olivine (e.g., forsterite, Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}) is a large-scale sequestration process candidate for regional implementation, which converts CO{sub 2} into the environmentally benign mineral magnesite (MgCO{sub 3}). The primary goal is cost-competitive process development. As the process is exothermic, it inherently offers low-cost potential. Enhancing carbonation reactivity is key to economic viability. Recent studies at the U.S. DOE Albany Research Center have established that aqueous-solution carbonation using supercritical CO{sub 2} is a promising process; even without olivine activation, 30-50% carbonation has been achieved in an hour. Mechanical activation (e.g., attrition) has accelerated the carbonation process to an industrial timescale (i.e., near completion in less than an hour), at reduced pressure and temperature. However, the activation cost is too high to be economical and lower cost pretreatment options are needed. Herein, we report our second year progress in exploring a novel approach that offers the potential to substantially enhance carbonation reactivity while bypassing pretreatment activation. As our second year progress is intimately related to our earlier work, the report is presented in that context to provide better overall understanding of the progress made. We have discovered that robust silica-rich passivating layers form on the olivine surface during carbonation. As carbonation proceeds, these passivating layers thicken, fracture and eventually exfoliate, exposing fresh olivine surfaces during rapidly

  20. U.S. Dept of Energy’s EECBG-SEP Technical Assistance Program Webcast ESPC Investment Grade Audit

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Learn what the investment grade audit is, what to expect from an investment grade audit, how to ensure IGA success.

  1. Why is weapons grade plutonium more hazardous to work with than highly enriched uranium?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cournoyer, Michael E.; Costigan, Stephen A.; Schake, Bradley S.

    2015-07-01

    Highly Enriched Uranium and Weapons grade plutonium have assumed positions of dominant importance among the actinide elements because of their successful uses as explosive ingredients in nuclear weapons and the place they hold as key materials in the development of industrial use of nuclear power. While most chemists are familiar with the practical interest concerning HEU and WG Pu, fewer know the subtleties among their hazards. In this study, a primer is provided regarding the hazards associated with working with HEU and WG Pu metals and oxides. The care that must be taken to safely handle these materials is emphasizedmore » and the extent of the hazards is described. The controls needed to work with HEU and WG Pu metals and oxides are differentiated. Given the choice, one would rather work with HEU metal and oxides than WG Pu metal and oxides.« less

  2. Why is weapons grade plutonium more hazardous to work with than highly enriched uranium?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cournoyer, Michael E.; Costigan, Stephen A.; Schake, Bradley S.

    2015-08-01

    Highly Enriched Uranium and Weapons grade plutonium have assumed positions of dominant importance among the actinide elements because of their successful uses as explosive ingredients in nuclear weapons and the place they hold as key materials in the development of industrial use of nuclear power. While most chemists are familiar with the practical interest concerning HEU and WG Pu, fewer know the subtleties among their hazards. In this study, a primer is provided regarding the hazards associated with working with HEU and WG Pu metals and oxides. The care that must be taken to safely handle these materials is emphasized and the extent of the hazards is described. The controls needed to work with HEU and WG Pu metals and oxides are differentiated. Given the choice, one would rather work with HEU metal and oxides than WG Pu metal and oxides.

  3. Photovoltaic Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duty, C.; Angelini, J.; Armstrong, B.; Bennett, C.; Evans, B.; Jellison, G. E.; Joshi, P.; List, F.; Paranthaman, P.; Parish, C.; Wereszczak, A.

    2012-10-15

    The goal of the current project was to help make the US solar industry a world leader in the manufacture of thin film photovoltaics. The overall approach was to leverage ORNL’s unique characterization and processing technologies to gain a better understanding of the fundamental challenges for solar cell processing and apply that knowledge to targeted projects with industry members. ORNL has the capabilities in place and the expertise required to understand how basic material properties including defects, impurities, and grain boundaries affect the solar cell performance. ORNL also has unique processing capabilities to optimize the manufacturing process for fabrication of high efficiency and low cost solar cells. ORNL recently established the Center for Advanced Thin-film Systems (CATS), which contains a suite of optical and electrical characterization equipment specifically focused on solar cell research. Under this project, ORNL made these facilities available to industrial partners who were interested in pursuing collaborative research toward the improvement of their product or manufacturing process. Four specific projects were pursued with industrial partners: Global Solar Energy is a solar industry leader in full scale production manufacturing highly-efficient Copper Indium Gallium diSelenide (CIGS) thin film solar material, cells and products. ORNL worked with GSE to develop a scalable, non-vacuum, solution technique to deposit amorphous or nanocrystalline conducting barrier layers on untextured stainless steel substrates for fabricating high efficiency flexible CIGS PV. Ferro Corporation’s Electronic, Color and Glass Materials (“ECGM”) business unit is currently the world’s largest supplier of metallic contact materials in the crystalline solar cell marketplace. Ferro’s ECGM business unit has been the world's leading supplier of thick film metal pastes to the crystalline silicon PV industry for more than 30 years, and has had operational cells and

  4. CIGS Material and Device Stability: A Processing Perspective (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramanathan, K.

    2012-03-01

    This is a general overview of CIGS material and device fundamentals. In the first part, the basic features of high efficiency CIGS absorbers and devices are described. In the second part, some examples of previous collaboration with Shell Solar CIGSS graded absorbers and devices are shown to illustrate how process information was used to correct deviations and improve the performance and stability.

  5. Carbon Mineralization by Aqueous Precipitation for Beneficial Use of CO2 from Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brent Constantz; Randy Seeker; Martin Devenney

    2010-06-30

    Calera's innovative Mineralization via Aqueous Precipitation (MAP) technology for the capture and conversion of CO{sub 2} to useful materials for use in the built environment was further developed and proven in the Phase 1 Department of Energy Grant. The process was scaled to 300 gallon batch reactors and subsequently to Pilot Plant scale for the continuous production of product with the production of reactive calcium carbonate material that was evaluated as a supplementary cementitious material (SCM). The Calera SCM{trademark} was evaluated as a 20% replacement for ordinary portland cement and demonstrated to meet the industry specification ASTM 1157 which is a standard performance specification for hydraulic cement. The performance of the 20% replacement material was comparable to the 100% ordinary portland cement control in terms of compressive strength and workability as measured by a variety of ASTM standard tests. In addition to the performance metrics, detailed characterization of the Calera SCM was performed using advanced analytical techniques to better understand the material interaction with the phases of ordinary portland cement. X-ray synchrotron diffraction studies at the Advanced Photon Source in Argonne National Lab confirmed the presence of an amorphous phase(s) in addition to the crystalline calcium carbonate phases in the reactive carbonate material. The presence of carboaluminate phases as a result of the interaction of the reactive carbonate materials with ordinary portland cement was also confirmed. A Life Cycle Assessment was completed for several cases based on different Calera process configurations and compared against the life cycle of ordinary portland cement. In addition to the materials development efforts, the Calera technology for the production of product using an innovative building materials demonstration plant was developed beyond conceptual engineering to a detailed design with a construction schedule and cost estimate.

  6. Evaluation of replacement thread lubricants for red lead and graphite in mineral oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jungling, T.L.; Rauth, D.R.; Goldberg, D.

    1998-04-30

    Eight commercially available thread lubricants were evaluated to determine the best replacement for Red Lead and Graphite in Mineral Oil (RLGMO). The evaluation included coefficient of friction testing, high temperature anti-seizing testing, room temperature anti-galling testing, chemical analysis for detrimental impurities, corrosion testing, off-gas testing, and a review of health and environmental factors. The coefficient of friction testing covered a wide variety of factors including stud, nut, and washer materials, sizes, manufacturing methods, surface coatings, surface finishes, applied loads, run-in cycles, and relubrication. Only one lubricant, Dow Corning Molykote P37, met all the criteria established for a replacement lubricant. It has a coefficient of friction range similar to RLGMO. Therefore, it can be substituted directly for RLGMO without changing the currently specified fastener torque values for the sizes, materials and conditions evaluated. Other lubricants did not perform as well as Molykote P37 in one or more test or evaluation categories.

  7. Piezoelectricity above the Curie temperature? Combining flexoelectricity and functional grading to enable high-temperature electromechanical coupling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mbarki, R.; Baccam, N.; Dayal, Kaushik; Sharma, P.

    2014-03-24

    Most technologically relevant ferroelectrics typically lose piezoelectricity above the Curie temperature. This limits their use to relatively low temperatures. In this Letter, exploiting a combination of flexoelectricity and simple functional grading, we propose a strategy for high-temperature electromechanical coupling in a standard thin film configuration. We use continuum modeling to quantitatively demonstrate the possibility of achieving apparent piezoelectric materials with large and temperature-stable electromechanical coupling across a wide temperature range that extends significantly above the Curie temperature. With Barium and Strontium Titanate, as example materials, a significant electromechanical coupling that is potentially temperature-stable up to 900 °C is possible.

  8. Fun with the Sun- Teacher's Activity Guide for Elementary Grades K-2

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Outdoor solar activities. Grades: K-4 Subject: Energy Basics, Wind Energy, Energy Efficiency and Conservation

  9. Microbial mineral colonization across a subsurface redox transition zone

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Converse, Brandon J.; McKinley, James P.; Resch, Charles T.; Roden, Eric E.

    2015-08-28

    Here our study employed 16S rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing to examine the hypothesis that chemolithotrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) would preferentially colonize the Fe(II)-bearing mineral biotite compared to quartz sand when the minerals were incubated in situ within a subsurface redox transition zone (RTZ) at the Hanford 300 Area site in Richland, WA, USA. The work was motivated by the recently documented presence of neutral-pH chemolithotrophic FeOB capable of oxidizing structural Fe(II) in primary silicate and secondary phyllosilicate minerals in 300 Area sediments and groundwater (Benzine et al., 2013). Sterilized portions of sand+biotite or sand alone were incubated in situ formore » 5 months within a multilevel sampling (MLS) apparatus that spanned a ca. 2-m interval across the RTZ in two separate groundwater wells. Parallel MLS measurements of aqueous geochemical species were performed prior to deployment of the minerals. Contrary to expectations, the 16S rRNA gene libraries showed no significant difference in microbial communities that colonized the sand+biotite vs. sand-only deployments. Both mineral-associated and groundwater communities were dominated by heterotrophic taxa, with organisms from the Pseudomonadaceae accounting for up to 70% of all reads from the colonized minerals. These results are consistent with previous results indicating the capacity for heterotrophic metabolism (including anaerobic metabolism below the RTZ) as well as the predominance of heterotrophic taxa within 300 Area sediments and groundwater. Although heterotrophic organisms clearly dominated the colonized minerals, several putative lithotrophic (NH4+, H2, Fe(II), and HS- oxidizing) taxa were detected in significant abundance above and within the RTZ. Such organisms may play a role in the coupling of anaerobic microbial metabolism to oxidative pathways with attendant impacts on elemental cycling and redox-sensitive contaminant behavior in the vicinity of the RTZ.« less

  10. CMI Education Partners Offer Courses | Critical Materials Institute

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Partners Offer Courses The CMI Team includes six education members. The CMI Education and Outreach staff reviewed the courses these colleges and universities offer, and created an inventory of those related to critical materials and rare earth elements. The list of courses taught by CMI Team members is available by university and grouped by topic: Geology Engineering/ Geochemistry Mining Engineering Metallurgical Engineering/ Material Science Chemistry Engineering Mineral Economics and Business

  11. CMI Unique Facility: Filtration Test Facility | Critical Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Institute Filtration Test Facility filtration set up for CMI unique facility at Idaho National Laboratory The Filtration Test Facility is one of more than a dozen unique facilities developed by the Critical Materials Institute, an Energy Innovation Hub of the U.S. Department of Energy. The chemical separation of materials is often water-intensive. It is important to establish filtration methods that are both efficient and environmentally sound. Mineral processing streams are particularly

  12. Fracture modes in tubular LSFCO ceramic membranes under graded reducing conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagendra, N.; Biswas, S.; Nithyanantham, T.; Bandopadhyay, S.

    2013-06-01

    Highlights: ? Microstructural evolution in LSFCO membranes under graded environment is reported. ? The role of chemically induced stresses and oxygen deficiency is evaluated. ? The stress distribution is modeled by a point defect model. - Abstract: Chromium (III) oxide (Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3})-doped LaSrFeO{sub 3} perovskite, La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.8}Cr{sub 0.2}O{sub 3??} (LSFCO), is being considered as a potential material for applications in solid oxide fuel cells, gas separation membranes, and electrochemical reactors because of its high electro-catalytic activity. Similar to other perovskites, the performance and mechanical strength of LSFCO materials are significantly affected by environment and temperature. Here, we report a fracture gradient phenomenon in tubular C-ring-shaped LSFCO ceramic membranes under graded reducing conditions. The graded reducing condition was produced by flushing N{sub 2} on the outer side of the C-ring membranes at 1000 C while keeping the inner side untreated. The rings were then diametrically compressed to fracture, and the resultant fracture morphology was analyzed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). A fracture gradient with three distinct regions across the thickness of the membranes was identified on the split surfaces. In the outer region of the C-ring specimen exposed to N{sub 2}, a mixed inter/transgranular fracture with a predominant intergranular pattern was observed. In the middle section of the fracture surface, a characteristic transgranular fracture of the perovskite grains was found. At the inner region of the ring, a mixed inter/transgranular fracture with a predominant transgranular pattern occurred. The mechanism of gradient fractures was attributed both to chemically induced stresses caused by oxygen diffusion and to the formation of a separate phase of oxygen-deficient perovskite in the parent perovskite. The stresses generated were modeled by a point defect model. This work provides significant

  13. Critical Materials Workshop

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentations during the Critical Materials Workshop held on April 3, 2012 overviewing critical materials strategies

  14. Surface damage behavior during scratch deformation of mineral reinforced polymer composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Misra, R.D.K.; Hadal, R.; Duncan, S.J

    2004-08-16

    The surface damage behavior during scratch deformation of neat and wollastonite reinforced ethylene-propylene and polypropylene polymeric materials with significant differences in ductility was studied using electron microscopy in association with scratch deformation parameters and local crystallinity characteristics obtained from atomic force microscopy. Under identical conditions of scratch tests, the decrease in resistance to scratch damage and stress whitening of polymeric materials followed the sequence: wollastonite-reinforced polypropylene (PP-W) congruent with wollastonite-reinforced ethylene-propylene (EP-W) > neat polypropylene (PP) > neat ethylene-propylene copolymer (EP). The improved resistance to scratch damage of mineral reinforced polymeric materials is attributed to the effective reinforcement by micrometer-sized wollastonite particles that increase the tensile modulus of the polymeric materials and restrict plastic deformation of the polymer matrix. Scratching of neat and wollastonite-containing EP copolymers involved periodic parabolic scratch tracks containing voids, which transformed to distinct zig-zag scratch tracks on reinforcement with micrometric wollastonite particles. The enhanced plastic flow in neat EP is facilitated by high ductility of the material and ability to nucleate voids, while in EP-W the plastic flow is suppressed because of reinforcement effect of wollastonite. On the other hand, zig-zag periodic scratch tracks were observed in both neat PP and PP-W, but the scratch tracks were not clearly discernible on reinforcement of PP with wollastonite. The resistance to scratch deformation is discussed in terms of tensile modulus, elastic recovery, scratch hardness, and reinforcement-matrix interaction.

  15. Hydrothermal Phase Relations Among Uranyl Minerals at the Nopal I Analog Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, William M.

    2007-07-01

    Uranyl mineral paragenesis at Nopal I is an analog of spent fuel alteration at Yucca Mountain. Petrographic studies suggest a variety of possible hydrothermal conditions for uranium mineralization at Nopal I. Calculated equilibrium phase relations among uranyl minerals show uranophane stability over a broad range of realistic conditions and indicate that uranyl mineral variety reflects persistent chemical potential heterogeneity. (author)

  16. LOW TEMPERATURE GEOTHERMAL MINERAL RECOVERY PROGRAM 02/11/2014 | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy LOW TEMPERATURE GEOTHERMAL MINERAL RECOVERY PROGRAM 02/11/2014 LOW TEMPERATURE GEOTHERMAL MINERAL RECOVERY PROGRAM 02/11/2014 mineral-webinar.pdf (3.45 MB) More Documents & Publications LOW TEMPERATURE GEOTHERMAL MINERAL RECOVERY PROGRAM Geothermal Play Fairway Analysis Geothermal Play Fairway Analysis

  17. Critical Materials Institute

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Alex King

    2013-06-05

    Ames Laboratory Director Alex King talks about the goals of the Critical Materials Institute in diversifying the supply of critical materials, developing substitute materials, developing tools and techniques for recycling critical materials, and forecasting materials needs to avoid future shortages.

  18. Commercial Grade Dedication Procedure (LMS-PROC-116 Rev 3) | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Procedure (LMS-PROC-116 Rev 3) Commercial Grade Dedication Procedure (LMS-PROC-116 Rev 3) Enclosed is an example of a CGD procedure developed by Argonne National Labs. The procedure is in accordance to NQA-1 2008. The current version is a draft copy. Commercial Grade Dedication Procedure (LMS-PROC-116 Rev 3) (560.87 KB) More Documents & Publications Commercial Grade Dedication Record (ANL-746 Revised) Commercial Grade Dedication Guidance Commercial Grade Dedication of Software,

  19. Energy Audit Lesson Plan 8th grade.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Teacher(s): Chittenden Unit Title: Energy Subject: general science Lesson Title: Energy Audit Grade Level(s): 8 th grade Lesson Length: 3-5 days Date(s): * Learning Goal(s) [What should students know, understand, or be able to do as a result of this lab or activity.] o Students can compare current and potential energy consumption through data collection and analysis. o Students can recommend levels of energy saving actions to staff members. * Energy Connection [How is this lesson connected to

  20. Green's function evaluation for three-dimensional exponentially graded elasticity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Criado Portero, Rafael M; Gray, Leonard J; Mantic, Vladislav; Paris, Federico

    2008-01-01

    The numerical implementation of the Green's function for an isotropic exponentially graded three dimensional elastic solid is reported. The formulas for the nonsingular {\\lq}grading term{\\rq} in this Green's function, originally deduced by Martin et al., \\emph{Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A, 458, 1931-1947, 2000}, are quite complicated, and a small error in one of the formulas is corrected. The evaluation of the fundamental solution is tested by employing indirect boundary integral formulation using a Galerkin approximation to solve several problems having analytic solutions. The numerical results indicate that the Green's function formulas, and their evaluation, are correct.

  1. 2013 strategic petroleum reserve big hill well integrity grading report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lord, David L.; Roberts, Barry L.; Lord, Anna C. Snider; Bettin, Giorgia; Sobolik, Steven Ronald; Park, Byoung Yoon; Rudeen, David Keith; Eldredge, Lisa; Wynn, Karen; Checkai, Dean; Perry, James Thomas

    2014-02-01

    This report summarizes the work performed in developing a framework for the prioritization of cavern access wells for remediation and monitoring at the Big Hill Strategic Petroleum Reserve site. This framework was then applied to all 28 wells at the Big Hill site with each well receiving a grade for remediation and monitoring. Numerous factors affecting well integrity were incorporated into the grading framework including casing survey results, cavern pressure history, results from geomechanical simulations, and site geologic factors. The framework was developed in a way as to be applicable to all four of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites.

  2. Nuclear reactor containment structure with continuous ring tunnel at grade

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seidensticker, Ralph W.; Knawa, Robert L.; Cerutti, Bernard C.; Snyder, Charles R.; Husen, William C.; Coyer, Robert G.

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear reactor containment structure which includes a reinforced concrete shell, a hemispherical top dome, a steel liner, and a reinforced-concrete base slab supporting the concrete shell is constructed with a substantial proportion thereof below grade in an excavation made in solid rock with the concrete poured in contact with the rock and also includes a continuous, hollow, reinforced-concrete ring tunnel surrounding the concrete shell with its top at grade level, with one wall integral with the reinforced concrete shell, and with at least the base of the ring tunnel poured in contact with the rock.

  3. Comparison between the Strength Levels of Baseline Nuclear-Grade Graphite and Graphite Irradiated in AGC-2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carroll, Mark Christopher

    2015-07-01

    This report details the initial comparison of mechanical strength properties between the cylindrical nuclear-grade graphite specimens irradiated in the second Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC-2) experiment with the established baseline, or unirradiated, mechanical properties compiled in the Baseline Graphite Characterization program. The overall comparative analysis will describe the development of an appropriate test protocol for irradiated specimens, the execution of the mechanical tests on the AGC-2 sample population, and will further discuss the data in terms of developing an accurate irradiated property distribution in the limited amount of irradiated data by leveraging the considerably larger property datasets being captured in the Baseline Graphite Characterization program. Integrating information on the inherent variability in nuclear-grade graphite with more complete datasets is one of the goals of the VHTR Graphite Materials program. Between “sister” specimens, or specimens with the same geometry machined from the same sub-block of graphite from which the irradiated AGC specimens were extracted, and the Baseline datasets, a comprehensive body of data will exist that can provide both a direct and indirect indication of the full irradiated property distributions that can be expected of irradiated nuclear-grade graphite while in service in a VHTR system. While the most critical data will remain the actual irradiated property measurements, expansion of this data into accurate distributions based on the inherent variability in graphite properties will be a crucial step in qualifying graphite for nuclear use as a structural material in a VHTR environment.

  4. Exploring pulse shaping for Z using graded-density impactors on gas guns (final report for LDRD project 79879).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furnish, Michael David; Reinhart, William Dodd; Anderson, William W. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Vogler, Tracy John; Hixson, Rob (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Kipp, Marlin E.

    2005-10-01

    While isentropic compression experiment (ICE) techniques have proved useful in deducing the high-pressure compressibility of a wide range of materials, they have encountered difficulties where large-volume phase transitions exist. The present study sought to apply graded-density impactor methods for producing isentropic loading to planar impact experiments to selected such problems. Cerium was chosen due to its 20% compression between 0.7 and 1.0 GPa. A model was constructed based on limited earlier dynamic data, and applied to the design of a suite of experiments. A capability for handling this material was installed. Two experiments were executed using shock/reload techniques with available samples, loading initially to near the gamma-alpha transition, then reloading. As well, two graded-density impactor experiments were conducted with alumina. A method for interpreting ICE data was developed and validated; this uses a wavelet construction for the ramp wave and includes corrections for the ''diffraction'' of wavelets by releases or reloads reflected from the sample/window interface. Alternate methods for constructing graded-density impactors are discussed.

  5. An active atmospheric methane sink in high Arctic mineral cryosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lau, Maggie C.Y.; Stackhouse, B.; Layton, Alice C.; Chauhan, Archana; Vishnivetskaya, T. A.; Chourey, Karuna; Mykytczuk, N. C.S.; Bennett, Phil C.; Lamarche-Gagnon, G.; Burton, N.; Renholm, J.; Hettich, R. L.; Pollard, W. H.; Omelon, C. R.; Medvigy, David M.; Pffifner, Susan M.; Whyte, L. G.; Onstott, T. C.

    2015-01-01

    The transition of Arctic carbon-rich cryosols into methane (CH₄)-emitting wetlands due to global warming is a rising concern. However, the spatially predominant mineral cryosols and their CH₄ emission potential are poorly understood. Fluxes measured in situ and estimated under laboratory conditions coupled with -omics analysis indicate (1) mineral cryosols in the Canadian high Arctic contain atmospheric CH₄-oxidizing bacteria; (2) the atmospheric CH⁺ uptake flux increases with ground temperature; and, as a result, (3) the atmospheric CH₄ sink strength will increase by a factor of 5-30 as the Arctic warms by 5-15 °C over a century. We demonstrated that acidic mineral cryosols have previously unrecognized potential of negative CH₄ feedback.

  6. An active atmospheric methane sink in high Arctic mineral cryosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lau, Maggie C.Y.; Stackhouse, B.; Layton, Alice C.; Chauhan, Archana; Vishnivetskaya, T. A.; Chourey, Karuna; Mykytczuk, N. C.S.; Bennett, Phil C.; Lamarche-Gagnon, G.; Burton, N.; Renholm, J.; Hettich, R. L.; Pollard, W. H.; Omelon, C. R.; Medvigy, David M.; Pffifner, Susan M.; Whyte, L. G.; Onstott, T. C.

    2015-04-14

    The transition of Arctic carbon-rich cryosols into methane (CH₄)-emitting wetlands due to global warming is a rising concern. However, the spatially predominant mineral cryosols and their CH₄ emission potential are poorly understood. Fluxes measured in situ and estimated under laboratory conditions coupled with -omics analysis indicate (1) mineral cryosols in the Canadian high Arctic contain atmospheric CH₄-oxidizing bacteria; (2) the atmospheric CH⁺ uptake flux increases with ground temperature; and, as a result, (3) the atmospheric CH₄ sink strength will increase by a factor of 5-30 as the Arctic warms by 5-15 °C over a century. We demonstrated that acidic mineral cryosols have previously unrecognized potential of negative CH₄ feedback.

  7. "Terrywallaceite" now in official roster of known minerals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    » June » "Terrywallaceite" Now In Official Roster Of Known Minerals "Terrywallaceite" now in official roster of known minerals The slender, needle-like metallic-black crystals of Terrywallaceite were found in the Julcani Mining District of Peru. June 8, 2011 The mineral "Terrywallaceite" The mineral "Terrywallaceite" I am honored and humbled that a group of geoscientists and peers would suggest naming a mineral after me and that the international

  8. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2013-02-19

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  9. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2014-11-25

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material, such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  10. A Novel Approach to Mineral Carbonation: Enhancing Carbonation While Avoiding Mineral Pretreatment Process Cost

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew V. G. Chizmeshya; Michael J. McKelvy; Kyle Squires; Ray W. Carpenter; Hamdallah Bearat

    2007-06-21

    Known fossil fuel reserves, especially coal, can support global energy demands for centuries to come, if the environmental problems associated with CO{sub 2} emissions can be overcome. Unlike other CO{sub 2} sequestration candidate technologies that propose long-term storage, mineral sequestration provides permanent disposal by forming geologically stable mineral carbonates. Carbonation of the widely occurring mineral olivine (e.g., forsterite, Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}) is a large-scale sequestration process candidate for regional implementation, which converts CO{sub 2} into the environmentally benign mineral magnesite (MgCO{sub 3}). The primary goal is cost-competitive process development. As the process is exothermic, it inherently offers low-cost potential. Enhancing carbonation reactivity is key to economic viability. Recent studies at the U.S. DOE Albany Research Center have established that aqueous-solution carbonation using supercritical CO{sub 2} is a promising process; even without olivine activation, 30-50% carbonation has been achieved in an hour. Mechanical activation (e.g., attrition) has accelerated the carbonation process to an industrial timescale (i.e., near completion in less than an hour), at reduced pressure and temperature. However, the activation cost is too high to be economical and lower cost pretreatment options are needed. We have discovered that robust silica-rich passivating layers form on the olivine surface during carbonation. As carbonation proceeds, these passivating layers thicken, fracture and eventually exfoliate, exposing fresh olivine surfaces during rapidly-stirred/circulating carbonation. We are exploring the mechanisms that govern carbonation reactivity and the impact that (1) modeling/controlling the slurry fluid-flow conditions, (2) varying the aqueous ion species/size and concentration (e.g., Li+, Na+, K+, Rb+, Cl-, HCO{sub 3}{sup -}), and (3) incorporating select sonication offer to enhance exfoliation and carbonation. Thus

  11. Iowa State Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    This final report describes the activities of the Iowa State Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute (ISMMRRI) at Iowa State University for the period July 1, 1989, to June 30, 1990. Activities include research in mining- and mineral-related areas, education and training of scientists and engineers in these fields, administration of the Institute, and cooperative interactions with industry, government agencies, and other research centers. During this period, ISMMRRI has supported research efforts to: (1) Investigate methods of leaching zinc from sphalerite-containing ores. (2) Study the geochemistry and geology of an Archean gold deposit and of a gold-telluride deposit. (3) Enchance how-quality aggregates for use in construction. (4) Pre-clean coal by triboelectric charging in a fluidized-bed. (5) Characterize the crystal/grain alignment during processing of yttrium-barium-copper-perovskite (1-2-3) superconductors. (5) Study the fluid inclusion properties of a fluorite district. (6) Study the impacts of surface mining on community planning. (7) Assess the hydrophobicity of coal and pyrite for beneficiation. (8) Investigate the use of photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy for monitoring unburnt carbon in the exhaust gas from coal-fired boilers. The education and training program continued within the interdepartmental graduate minor in mineral resources includes courses in such areas as mining methods, mineral processing, industrial minerals, extractive metallurgy, coal science and technology, and reclamation of mined land. In addition, ISMMRRI hosted the 3rd International Conference on Processing and Utilization of High-Sulfur Coals in Ames, Iowa. The Institute continues to interact with industry in order to foster increased cooperation between academia and the mining and mineral community.

  12. Low Temperature Geothermal Mineral Recovery Program | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Temperature Geothermal Mineral Recovery Program Low Temperature Geothermal Mineral Recovery Program February 4, 2014 - 2:59pm Addthis Funding: Total Amount to be Awarded $3,000,000, EERE anticipates making awards that range from $200,000 to $500,000. Open Date: 02/04/2014 Close Date: 05/02/2014 Funding Organization: Department of Energy Geothermal Technologies Office Funding Number: DE-FOA-0001016 Summary: The intention of this FOA is to have awardees examine the feasibility of extracting

  13. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Heavy Minerals Inc - IL 14

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Heavy Minerals Inc - IL 14 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Heavy Minerals, Inc. ( IL.14 ) Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: W.R. Grace Company IL.14-1 Location: 836 South Michigan Avenue , Chicago , Illinois IL.14-2 Evaluation Year: 1990 IL.14-1 Site Operations: Submitted a proposal to supply thorium hydroxide to the AEC; no indication that the bid was accepted. IL.14-2 Site Disposition: Eliminated - No indication of work done with

  14. Geopolymer resin materials, geopolymer materials, and materials produced thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seo, Dong-Kyun; Medpelli, Dinesh; Ladd, Danielle; Mesgar, Milad

    2016-03-29

    A product formed from a first material including a geopolymer resin material, a geopolymer resin, or a combination thereof by contacting the first material with a fluid and removing at least some of the fluid to yield a product. The first material may be formed by heating and/or aging an initial geopolymer resin material to yield the first material before contacting the first material with the fluid. In some cases, contacting the first material with the fluid breaks up or disintegrates the first material (e.g., in response to contact with the fluid and in the absence of external mechanical stress), thereby forming particles having an external dimension in a range between 1 nm and 2 cm.

  15. weapons material protection | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    material protection

  16. Materials Project: A Materials Genome Approach

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Ceder, Gerbrand [MIT; Persson, Kristin [LBNL

    Technological innovation - faster computers, more efficient solar cells, more compact energy storage - is often enabled by materials advances. Yet, it takes an average of 18 years to move new materials discoveries from lab to market. This is largely because materials designers operate with very little information and must painstakingly tweak new materials in the lab. Computational materials science is now powerful enough that it can predict many properties of materials before those materials are ever synthesized in the lab. By scaling materials computations over supercomputing clusters, this project has computed some properties of over 80,000 materials and screened 25,000 of these for Li-ion batteries. The computations predicted several new battery materials which were made and tested in the lab and are now being patented. By computing properties of all known materials, the Materials Project aims to remove guesswork from materials design in a variety of applications. Experimental research can be targeted to the most promising compounds from computational data sets. Researchers will be able to data-mine scientific trends in materials properties. By providing materials researchers with the information they need to design better, the Materials Project aims to accelerate innovation in materials research.[copied from http://materialsproject.org/about] You will be asked to register to be granted free, full access.

  17. Report for Treating Hanford LAW and WTP SW Simulants: Pilot Plant Mineralizing Flowsheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arlin Olson

    2012-02-28

    The US Department of Energy is responsible for managing the disposal of radioactive liquid waste in underground storage tanks at the Hanford site in Washington State. The Hanford waste treatment and immobilization plant (WPT) will separate the waste into a small volume of high level waste (HLW), containing most of the radioactive constituents, and a larger volume of low activity waste (LAW), containing most of the non-radioactive chemical and hazardous constituents. The HLW and LAW will be converted into immobilized waste forms for disposal. Currently there is inadequate LAW vitrification capacity planned at the WTP to complete the mission within the required timeframe. Therefore additional LAW capacity is required. One candidate supplemental treatment technology is the fluidized bed steam reformer process (FBSR). This report describes the demonstration testing of the FBSR process using a mineralizing flowsheet for treating simulated Hanford LAW and secondary waste from the WTP (WTP SW). The FBSR testing project produced leach-resistant solid products and environmentally compliant gaseous effluents. The solid products incorporated normally soluble ions into an alkali alumino-silicate (NaS) mineral matrix. Gaseous emissions were found to be within regulatory limits. Cesium and rhenium were captured in the mineralized products with system removal efficiencies of 99.999% and 99.998 respectively. The durability and leach performance of the FBSR granular solid were superior to the low activity reference material (LMR) glass standards. Normalized product consistency test (PCT) release rates for constituents of concern were approximately 2 orders of magnitude less than that of sodium in the Hanford glass [standard].

  18. Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    71.8 W 70.5 78.9 W 76.0 83.6 W 69.2 75.2 See footnotes at end of table. 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District and State 176 Energy Information...

  19. Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    W 68.4 70.8 W W 78.6 W 85.7 81.8 W 69.3 73.8 See footnotes at end of table. 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District and State 176 Energy Information...

  20. Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    61.5 70.8 92.7 90.7 81.5 72.8 - 78.0 See footnotes at end of table. 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 146 Energy Information...

  1. Table 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    62.6 71.7 92.3 89.9 82.6 72.7 - 78.2 See footnotes at end of table. 34. Reformulated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 146 Energy Information...

  2. PLASMA SPRAYED FUNCTIONALLY GRADED AND LAYERED MoSi2-A1203 COMPOSITES FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE SENSOR SHEATH APPLICATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. VAIDYA; ET AL

    2001-01-01

    Protective sensor sheaths are required in the glass industry for sensors that are used to measure various properties of the melt. Molten glass presents an extremely corrosive elevated temperature environment, in which only a few types of materials can survive. Molybdenum disilicide (MoSi{sub 2}) has been shown to possess excellent corrosion resistance in molten glass, and is thus a candidate material for advanced sensor sheath applications. Plasma spray-forming techniques were developed to fabricate molybdenum dilicide-alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) laminate and functionally graded composite tubes with mechanical properties suitable for sensor sheath applications. These functionally graded materials (FGMs) were achieved by manipulating the powder hoppers and plasma torch translation via in-house created computer software. Molybdenum disilicide and alumina are thermodynamically stable elevated temperature materials with closely matching thermal expansion coefficients. Proper tailoring of the microstructure of these MoSi{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites can result in improved strength, toughness, and thermal shock resistance. This study focuses on the mechanical performance of these composite microstructures.

  3. A Google for Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Kristin Persson A Google for Materials February 4, 2014 Kirstin Persson, Berkeley Lab Downloads Persson-Materials-NUG2014.pdf | Adobe Acrobat PDF file A Google For Materials? -...

  4. LANSCE | Materials Test Station

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Training Office Contact Administrative nav background Materials Test Station dotline ... Materials Test Station: the Preferred Alternative When completed, the Materials Test ...

  5. Bed material agglomeration during fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, R.C.; Dawson, M.R.; Noble, S.

    1993-02-01

    The purpose of this project is to determine the physical and chemical reactions which led to the undesired agglomeration of bed material during fluidized bed combustion and to relate these reactions to specific causes. Survey of industrial-scale fluidized bed combustors is being conducted to determine the occurrence of bed agglomeration and the circumstances under which agglomeration took place. This task should be finished by the end of February. Samples of bed material, agglomerate material, and boiler deposits are being requested from boiler operators as part of the survey. Once received, these sample will be analyzed to determine chemical and mineralogic composition. The bulk chemical determination will be performed using x-ray fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission (ICP). Mineralogy will be detected by x-ray diffraction (XRD). Chemical and mineral reactions will be determined by scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, and electron microprobe.

  6. Identification of concrete deteriorating minerals by polarizing and scanning electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregerova, Miroslava; Vsiansky, Dalibor

    2009-07-15

    The deterioration of concrete represents one of the most serious problems of civil engineering worldwide. Besides other processes, deterioration of concrete consists of sulfate attack and carbonation. Sulfate attack results in the formation of gypsum, ettringite and thaumasite in hardened concrete. Products of sulfate attack may cause a loss of material strength and a risk of collapse of the concrete constructions. The authors focused especially on the microscopical research of sulfate attack. Concrete samples were taken from the Charles Bridge in Prague, Czech Republic. A succession of degrading mineral formation was suggested. Microscope methods represent a new approach to solving the deterioration problems. They enable evaluation of the state of concrete constructions and in cooperation with hydro-geochemistry, mathematics and statistics permit prediction of the durability of a structure. Considering the number of concrete constructions and their age, research of concrete deterioration has an increasing importance. The results obtained can also be useful for future construction, because they identify the risk factors associated with formation of minerals known to degrade structures.

  7. Compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with motor materials under retrofit conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doerr, R.; Waite, T.

    1995-01-12

    Motor materials were exposed to original refrigerants R-11, R-12, R-22 and R-502 in the presence of mineral oil for 500 hours. These same materials were then exposed to alternative refrigerants R-123, R-134a, R-407C (R-32/R-125/R-134a) and R-404A (R-125/R-143a/R-134a), respectively, in the presence of the appropriate lubricant for 500 hours. As a control, some samples were exposed to the original refrigerant/mineral oil for a total of 1,000 hours. These tests were conducted to determine whether exposure to the original refrigerant/mineral oil would affect compatibility of the motor materials with the alternative refrigerant/lubricant after retrofit. Motor materials exposed to the alternative refrigerant and lubricant (after an initial exposure to the original refrigerant and mineral oil) appeared to be compatible with the alternative refrigerant and lubricant. The only concerns were embrittlement of the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) sheet and sleeving insulations, and delamination and blistering of the Nomex sheet insulation in the R-22, R-502, and R-12. Embrittlement of the PET materials was attributed to moisture present during the exposure. Separation of the 475 varnish from metal surfaces in the R-123 was also a concern. The sheet and sleeving insulations were affected by the original refrigerant/mineral oil to a greater extent than by the alternative refrigerant and lubricant.

  8. Mineral density volume gradients in normal and diseased human tissues

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Djomehri, Sabra I.; Candell, Susan; Case, Thomas; Browning, Alyssa; Marshall, Grayson W.; Yun, Wenbing; Lau, S. H.; Webb, Samuel; Ho, Sunita P.; Aikawa, Elena

    2015-04-09

    Clinical computed tomography provides a single mineral density (MD) value for heterogeneous calcified tissues containing early and late stage pathologic formations. The novel aspect of this study is that, it extends current quantitative methods of mapping mineral density gradients to three dimensions, discretizes early and late mineralized stages, identifies elemental distribution in discretized volumes, and correlates measured MD with respective calcium (Ca) to phosphorus (P) and Ca to zinc (Zn) elemental ratios. To accomplish this, MD variations identified using polychromatic radiation from a high resolution micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) benchtop unit were correlated with elemental mapping obtained from a microprobe X-raymore » fluorescence (XRF) using synchrotron monochromatic radiation. Digital segmentation of tomograms from normal and diseased tissues (N=5 per group; 40-60 year old males) contained significant mineral density variations (enamel: 2820-3095mg/cc, bone: 570-1415mg/cc, cementum: 1240-1340mg/cc, dentin: 1480-1590mg/cc, cementum affected by periodontitis: 1100-1220mg/cc, hypomineralized carious dentin: 345-1450mg/cc, hypermineralized carious dentin: 1815-2740mg/cc, and dental calculus: 1290-1770mg/cc). A plausible linear correlation between segmented MD volumes and elemental ratios within these volumes was established, and Ca/P ratios for dentin (1.49), hypomineralized dentin (0.32-0.46), cementum (1.51), and bone (1.68) were observed. Furthermore, varying Ca/Zn ratios were distinguished in adapted compared to normal tissues, such as in bone (855-2765) and in cementum (595-990), highlighting Zn as an influential element in prompting observed adaptive properties. Hence, results provide insights on mineral density gradients with elemental concentrations and elemental footprints that in turn could aid in elucidating mechanistic processes for pathologic formations.« less

  9. Mineral density volume gradients in normal and diseased human tissues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Djomehri, Sabra I.; Candell, Susan; Case, Thomas; Browning, Alyssa; Marshall, Grayson W.; Yun, Wenbing; Lau, S. H.; Webb, Samuel; Ho, Sunita P.; Aikawa, Elena

    2015-04-09

    Clinical computed tomography provides a single mineral density (MD) value for heterogeneous calcified tissues containing early and late stage pathologic formations. The novel aspect of this study is that, it extends current quantitative methods of mapping mineral density gradients to three dimensions, discretizes early and late mineralized stages, identifies elemental distribution in discretized volumes, and correlates measured MD with respective calcium (Ca) to phosphorus (P) and Ca to zinc (Zn) elemental ratios. To accomplish this, MD variations identified using polychromatic radiation from a high resolution micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) benchtop unit were correlated with elemental mapping obtained from a microprobe X-ray fluorescence (XRF) using synchrotron monochromatic radiation. Digital segmentation of tomograms from normal and diseased tissues (N=5 per group; 40-60 year old males) contained significant mineral density variations (enamel: 2820-3095mg/cc, bone: 570-1415mg/cc, cementum: 1240-1340mg/cc, dentin: 1480-1590mg/cc, cementum affected by periodontitis: 1100-1220mg/cc, hypomineralized carious dentin: 345-1450mg/cc, hypermineralized carious dentin: 1815-2740mg/cc, and dental calculus: 1290-1770mg/cc). A plausible linear correlation between segmented MD volumes and elemental ratios within these volumes was established, and Ca/P ratios for dentin (1.49), hypomineralized dentin (0.32-0.46), cementum (1.51), and bone (1.68) were observed. Furthermore, varying Ca/Zn ratios were distinguished in adapted compared to normal tissues, such as in bone (855-2765) and in cementum (595-990), highlighting Zn as an influential element in prompting observed adaptive properties. Hence, results provide insights on mineral density gradients with elemental concentrations and elemental footprints that in turn could aid in elucidating mechanistic processes for pathologic formations.

  10. REACT: Alternatives to Critical Materials in Magnets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    REACT Project: The 14 projects that comprise ARPA-E’s REACT Project, short for “Rare Earth Alternatives in Critical Technologies”, are developing cost-effective alternatives to rare earths, the naturally occurring minerals with unique magnetic properties that are used in electric vehicle (EV) motors and wind generators. The REACT projects will identify low-cost and abundant replacement materials for rare earths while encouraging existing technologies to use them more efficiently. These alternatives would facilitate the widespread use of EVs and wind power, drastically reducing the amount of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere.

  11. Dynamic Fracture Initiation Toughness of ASTM A533, Grade B Steel Plate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graham, S.M.; Link, R.E.

    1999-05-01

    The dynamic fracture toughness of an ASTM A533, Grade B steel plate was determined at several temperatures in the ductile-brittle transition region. Crack-tip loading rates ranged from approximately 10(sup3) to 10(sup5) MPa m/s. The fracture toughness was shown to decrease with increased loading rate. The dynamic fracture toughness was compared with results from previous investigations, and it was shown that the decrease in toughness due to increased loading rate at the highest test temperature was not as severe as reported in previous investigations. It was also shown that the reference temperature. T(sub0) was better index of the fracture toughness vs. temperature relationship than the nil-ductility temperature, RT(subNDT), for this material.

  12. Carrier multiplication detected through transient photocurrent in device-grade films of lead selenide quantum dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Jianbo; Fidler, Andrew F.; Klimov, Victor I.

    2015-09-08

    In carrier multiplication, the absorption of a single photon results in two or more electron–hole pairs. Quantum dots are promising materials for implementing carrier multiplication principles in real-life technologies. So far, however, most of research in this area has focused on optical studies of solution samples with yet to be proven relevance to practical devices. We report ultra-fast electro-optical studies of device-grade films of electronically coupled quantum dots that allow us to observe multiplication directly in the photocurrent. Our studies help rationalize previous results from both optical spectroscopy and steady-state photocurrent measurements and also provide new insights into effects of electric field and ligand treatments on multiexciton yields. Importantly, we demonstrate that using appropriate chemical treatments of the films, extra charges produced by carrier multiplication can be extracted from the quantum dots before they are lost to Auger recombination and hence can contribute to photocurrent of practical devices.

  13. Composite material dosimeters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Steven D.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention is a composite material containing a mix of dosimeter material powder and a polymer powder wherein the polymer is transparent to the photon emission of the dosimeter material powder. By mixing dosimeter material powder with polymer powder, less dosimeter material is needed compared to a monolithic dosimeter material chip. Interrogation is done with excitation by visible light.

  14. Photoconversion of organic materials into single-cell protein

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weaver, Paul F.

    2001-01-01

    A process is described for converting organic materials (such as biomass wastes) into sterile, high-grade bacterial protein suitable for use an animal feed or human food supplements. In a preferred embodiment the process involves thermally gasifying the organic material into primarily carbon monoxide, hydrogen and nitrogen products, followed by photosynthetic bacterial assimilation of the gases into cell material, which can be as high as 65% protein. The process is ideally suited for waste recycling and for food production under zero-gravity or extra-terrestrial conditions.

  15. Method for forming materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tolle, Charles R.; Clark, Denis E.; Smartt, Herschel B.; Miller, Karen S.

    2009-10-06

    A material-forming tool and a method for forming a material are described including a shank portion; a shoulder portion that releasably engages the shank portion; a pin that releasably engages the shoulder portion, wherein the pin defines a passageway; and a source of a material coupled in material flowing relation relative to the pin and wherein the material-forming tool is utilized in methodology that includes providing a first material; providing a second material, and placing the second material into contact with the first material; and locally plastically deforming the first material with the material-forming tool so as mix the first material and second material together to form a resulting material having characteristics different from the respective first and second materials.

  16. Experimental study of the Self-Advancing Miner for coal (SAM). Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas, S.B.

    1981-08-01

    The design, fabrication, and field testing of the Rapidex Self-Advancing Miner (SAM) are discussed in detail. The SAM concept utilizes a unique conical screw geometry to excavate coal by first slotting the face and then breaking free the weakened material between slots. Field tests proved that the technique works well in coal and that the SAM does self advance along the face. Using the experimental data obtained, full scale estimates are made for four mining applications. Longwall mining with SAM cutterheads appears the most feasible and offers many operational advantages, including improved dust control. Other key SAM features are increased cutting efficiency, improved face control to minimize slabbing, and low methane emission and risk of face ignitions.

  17. Effect of heat treatment on microstructure and hardness of Grade 91 steel

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shrestha, Triratna; Alsagabi, Sultan; Charit, Indrajit; Potirniche, Gabriel; Glazoff, Michael

    2015-01-21

    The modified 9Cr-1Mo steel (Grade 91) is a material of choice in fossil-fuel-fired power plants with increased efficiency, service life, and reduction in emission of greenhouse gases. It is also considered a prospective material for the Next Generation Nuclear Power Plant for application in reactor pressure vessels at temperatures up to 650°C. In this paper, heat treatment of the modified 9Cr-1Mo steel was studied by normalizing and tempering the steel at various temperatures and times, with the ultimate goal of improving its creep resistance and optimizing material hardness. The microstructural evolution of the heat treated steels was correlated with themore » differential scanning calorimetric results. Optical microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy in conjunction with microhardness profiles and calorimetric plots were used to understand the evolution of microstructure including precipitate structures in modified 9Cr-1Mo steel and relate it to the mechanical behavior of the steel. Thermo-CalcTM calculations were used to support experimental work and provide guidance in terms of the precipitate stability and microstructural evolution. Furthermore, the carbon isopleth and temperature dependencies of the volume fraction of different precipitates were constructed. The predicted and experimentally observed results were found to be in good agreement.« less

  18. Effect of heat treatment on microstructure and hardness of Grade 91 steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shrestha, Triratna; Alsagabi, Sultan; Charit, Indrajit; Potirniche, Gabriel; Glazoff, Michael

    2015-01-21

    The modified 9Cr-1Mo steel (Grade 91) is a material of choice in fossil-fuel-fired power plants with increased efficiency, service life, and reduction in emission of greenhouse gases. It is also considered a prospective material for the Next Generation Nuclear Power Plant for application in reactor pressure vessels at temperatures up to 650°C. In this paper, heat treatment of the modified 9Cr-1Mo steel was studied by normalizing and tempering the steel at various temperatures and times, with the ultimate goal of improving its creep resistance and optimizing material hardness. The microstructural evolution of the heat treated steels was correlated with the differential scanning calorimetric results. Optical microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy in conjunction with microhardness profiles and calorimetric plots were used to understand the evolution of microstructure including precipitate structures in modified 9Cr-1Mo steel and relate it to the mechanical behavior of the steel. Thermo-CalcTM calculations were used to support experimental work and provide guidance in terms of the precipitate stability and microstructural evolution. Furthermore, the carbon isopleth and temperature dependencies of the volume fraction of different precipitates were constructed. The predicted and experimentally observed results were found to be in good agreement.

  19. On the grade consistent theories of micromorphic elastic solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iesan, D.

    2011-02-10

    For the investigation of specific nonlocal phenomena the second-order displacement gradient has been added to the independent constitutive variables used in the classical theories of elastic solids. In this paper we outline the hystorical development of the subject and present a nonlinear grade consistent theory of micromorphic elastic solids in which the independent constitutive variables are the deformation gradient, the second-order displacement gradient, microdeformation tensor, and microdeformation gradient. Then, we present the linearized theory and establish a uniqueness result with no definiteness assumption on the elastic coefficients. The theory is used to obtain the basic eqations of a grade consistent theory of microstretch elastic bodies. The field equations for an isotropic and homogeneous elastic body are presented. A counterpart of the Cauchy-Kowalevski-Somigliana solution of the classical elastodynamics is established.

  20. Domain evolution and polarization of continuously graded ferroelectric films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roytburd, A.; Roytburd, V.

    2008-01-01

    A thermodynamic analysis of graded ferroelectric films demonstrates that in the equilibrium state the films are subdivided into a single-domain band and a polydomain band which consists of wedge-shape domains. Polarization under an external electrostatic field proceeds through an inter-band boundary movement due to growth or shrinkage of the wedge domains. It is shown how the domain structure and evolution are determined by the principal characteristics of the film: the distribution of the spontaneous polarization and dielectric constant. Graded films exhibit a sharp increase of polarization with the field for weak fields, with a drop of the dielectric constant when the field is increasing. A general approach to finding the dependence of the displacement and the wedge-domain shape on the field as well as analytical solutions for the p{sup 4} Landau-Devonshire and parabolic potentials are presented.

  1. Carbon Mineralization by Aqueous Precipitation for Beneficial Use of CO2 from Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devenney, Martin; Gilliam, Ryan; Seeker, Randy

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate an innovative process to mineralize CO2 from flue gas directly to reactive carbonates and maximize the value and versatility of its beneficial use products. The program scope includes the design, construction, and testing of a CO2 Conversion to Material Products (CCMP) Pilot Demonstration Plant utilizing CO2 from the flue gas of a power production facility in Moss Landing, CA. This topical report covers Subphase 2a which is the design phase of pilot demonstration subsystems. Materials of construction have been selected and proven in both lab scale and prototype testing to be acceptable for the reagent conditions of interest. The target application for the reactive carbonate material has been selected based upon small-scale feasibility studies and the design of a continuous fiber board production line has been completed. The electrochemical cell architecture and components have been selected based upon both lab scale and prototype testing. The appropriate quality control and diagnostic techniques have been developed and tested along with the required instrumentation and controls. Finally the demonstrate site infrastructure, NEPA categorical exclusion, and permitting is all ready for the construction and installation of the new units and upgrades.

  2. Computational Materials Science | Materials Science | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Computational Materials Science An image of interconnecting, sphere- and square-shaped particles that appears to be floating in space NREL's computational materials science capabilities span many research fields and interests. Electronic, Optical, and Transport Properties of Photovoltaic Materials Material properties and defect physics of Si, CdTe, III-V, CIGS, CZTS, and hybrid perovskite compounds Reconstruction of, and defect formation on, semiconductor surfaces Electronic and transport

  3. Materials Science and Technology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MST Materials Science and Technology Providing world-leading, innovative, and agile materials science and technology solutions for national security missions. MST is metallurgy. The Materials Science and Technology Division provides scientific and technical leadership in materials science and technology for Los Alamos National Laboratory. READ MORE MST is engineered materials. The Materials Science and Technology Division provides scientific and technical leadership in materials science and

  4. High Performance Slab-on-Grade Foundation Insulation Retrofits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldberg, Louise F.; Mosiman, Garrett E.

    2015-09-01

    ?A more accurate assessment of SOG foundation insulation energy savings than traditionally possible is now feasible. This has been enabled by advances in whole building energy simulation with 3-dimensional foundation modelling integration at each time step together with an experimental measurement of the site energy savings of SOG foundation insulation. Ten SOG insulation strategies were evaluated on a test building to identify an optimum retrofit insulation strategy in a zone 6 climate (Minneapolis, MN). The optimum insulation strategy in terms of energy savings and cost effectiveness consisted of two components: (a) R-20 XPS insulation above grade, and, (b) R-20 insulation at grade (comprising an outer layer of R-10 insulation and an interior layer of R-12 poured polyurethane insulation) tapering to R-10 XPS insulation at half the below-grade wall height (the lower half of the stem wall was uninsulated). The optimum insulation strategy was applied to single and multi-family residential buildings in climate zone 4 - 7. The highest site energy savings of 5% was realized for a single family home in Duluth, MN, and the lowest savings of 1.4 % for a 4-unit townhouse in Richmond, VA. SOG foundation insulation retrofit simple paybacks ranged from 18 to 47 years. There are other benefits of SOG foundation insulation resulting from the increase in the slab surface temperatures. These include increased occupant thermal comfort, and a decrease in slab surface condensation particularly around the slab perimeter.

  5. Rend Lake College celebrates the opening of a new coal miner training facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2009-09-15

    The Coal Miner Training Center at Rend Lake College recently hosted the Illinois Mining Institute's annual conference and a regional mine rescue competition. The article gives an outline of the coal miner training and refresher course offered. 3 photos.

  6. Abiotic/Biotic Degradation and Mineralization of N-Nitrosodimethylamine in Aquifer Sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szecsody, James E.; McKinley, James P.; Breshears, Andrew T.; Crocker, Fiona H.

    2008-10-14

    The N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) degradation rate and mineralization rate were measured in two aquifer sediments that received treatments to create oxic, reducing, and sequential reducing/oxic environments. Chemically reduced sediments rapidly abiotically degraded NDMA to nontoxic dimethylamine (DMA) to parts per trillion levels, then degraded to further products. NDMA was partially mineralized in reduced sediments (6 to 28 percent) at a slow rate (half-life 3,460 h) by an unknown abiotic/biotic pathway. In contrast, NDMA was mineralized more rapidly (half-life 342 h) and to a greater extent (30 to 81 percent) in oxic sediments with propane addition, likely by a propane monooxygenase pathway. NDMA mineralization in sequential reduced sediment followed by oxic sediment treatment did result in slightly more rapid mineralization and a greater mineralization extent relative to reduced systems. These increases were minor, so aerobic NDMA mineralization with oxygen and propane addition was the most viable in situ NDMA mineralization strategy.

  7. File:03HIAReservedLandMineralLeasingProcess.pdf | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    HIAReservedLandMineralLeasingProcess.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage Metadata File:03HIAReservedLandMineralLeasingProcess.pdf Size of this preview: 463...

  8. File:03HIBStateMineralLeasingProcess.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    3HIBStateMineralLeasingProcess.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage Metadata File:03HIBStateMineralLeasingProcess.pdf Size of this preview: 463 599...

  9. File:03AKAStateCompetitiveMineralLeasingProcess.pdf | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    3AKAStateCompetitiveMineralLeasingProcess.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage Metadata File:03AKAStateCompetitiveMineralLeasingProcess.pdf Size of this...

  10. RCW 79.14 Mineral, Coal, Oil and Gas Leases | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    79.14 Mineral, Coal, Oil and Gas Leases Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- StatuteStatute: RCW 79.14 Mineral, Coal, Oil and Gas...

  11. File:Land sale mineral release complete.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Land sale mineral release complete.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage File:Land sale mineral release complete.pdf Size of this preview: 463 599 pixels....

  12. High-Grade Acute Organ Toxicity as a Positive Prognostic Factor in Primary Radiochemotherapy for Anal Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolff, Hendrik Andreas; Raus, Ismene; Jung, Klaus; Schueler, Phillip; Herrmann, Markus Karl; Hennies, Steffen; Vorwerk, Hilke; Hille, Andrea; Hess, Clemens Friedrich; Christiansen, Hans

    2011-04-01

    Purpose: To test for a possible correlation between high-grade acute organ toxicity during primary radiochemotherapy and treatment outcome for patients with anal carcinoma. Methods and Materials: From 1991 to 2009, 72 patients with anal carcinoma were treated at our department (10 patients had stage I, 28 patients had stage II, 11 patients had stage IIIA, and 13 patients had stage IIIB cancer [Union Internationale Contre le Cancer criteria]). All patients received normofractionated (1.8 Gy/day, five times/week) whole-pelvis irradiation including iliac and inguinal lymph nodes with a cumulative dose of 50.4 Gy. Concomitant chemotherapy regimen consisted of two cycles of 5-fluorouracil (1,000 mg/m{sup 2}total body surface area (TBSA)/day as continuous intravenous infusion on days 1-4 and 29-32) and mitomycin C (10 mg/m{sup 2}/TBSA, intravenously on days 1 and 29). Toxicity during treatment was monitored weekly, and any incidence of Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) grade of {>=}3 for skin reaction, cystitis, proctitis, or enteritis was assessed as high-grade acute organ toxicity for later analysis. Results: We found significant correlation between high-grade acute organ toxicity and overall survival, locoregional control, and stoma-free survival, which was independent in multivariate analysis from other possible prognostic factors: patients with a CTC acute organ toxicity grade of {>=}3 had a 5-year overall survival rate of 97% compared to 30% in patients without (p < 0.01, multivariate analysis; 97% vs. 48%, p = 0.03 for locoregional control, and 95% vs. 59%, p = 0.05 for stoma-free survival). Conclusions: Our data indicate that normal tissue and tumor tissue may behave similarly with respect to treatment response, since high-grade acute organ toxicity during radiochemotherapy showed itself to be an independent prognostic marker in our patient population. This hypothesis should be further analyzed by using biomolecular and clinical levels in future clinical trials.

  13. Radiolysis of alanine adsorbed in a clay mineral

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aguilar-Ovando, Ellen Y.; Negron-Mendoza, Alicia

    2013-07-03

    Optical activity in molecules is a chemical characteristic of living beings. In this work, we examine the hypothesis of the influence of different mineral surfaces on the development of a specific chirality in organic molecules when subjected to conditions simulating the primitive Earth during the period of chemical evolution. By using X-ray diffraction techniques and HPLC/ELSD to analyze aqueous suspensions of amino acids adsorbed on minerals irradiated in different doses with a cobalt-60 gamma source, the experiments attempt to prove the hypothesis that some solid surfaces (like clays and meteorite rocks) may have a concentration capacity and protective role against external sources of ionizing radiation (specifically {gamma}-ray) for some organic compounds (like some amino acids) adsorbed on them. Preliminary results show a slight difference in the adsorption and radiolysis of the D-and L-alanine.

  14. An active atmospheric methane sink in high Arctic mineral cryosols

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lau, Maggie C.Y.; Stackhouse, B.; Layton, Alice C.; Chauhan, Archana; Vishnivetskaya, T. A.; Chourey, Karuna; Mykytczuk, N. C.S.; Bennett, Phil C.; Lamarche-Gagnon, G.; Burton, N.; et al

    2015-01-01

    The transition of Arctic carbon-rich cryosols into methane (CH₄)-emitting wetlands due to global warming is a rising concern. However, the spatially predominant mineral cryosols and their CH₄ emission potential are poorly understood. Fluxes measured in situ and estimated under laboratory conditions coupled with -omics analysis indicate (1) mineral cryosols in the Canadian high Arctic contain atmospheric CH₄-oxidizing bacteria; (2) the atmospheric CH⁺ uptake flux increases with ground temperature; and, as a result, (3) the atmospheric CH₄ sink strength will increase by a factor of 5-30 as the Arctic warms by 5-15 °C over a century. We demonstrated that acidic mineralmore » cryosols have previously unrecognized potential of negative CH₄ feedback.« less

  15. Calc-silicate mineralization in active geothermal systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bird, D.K.; Schiffman, P.; Elders, W.A.; Williams, A.E.; McDowell, S.D.

    1983-01-01

    The detailed study of calc-silicate mineral zones and coexisting phase relations in the Cerro Prieto geothermal system were used as examples for thermodynamic evaluation of phase relations among minerals of variable composition and to calculate the chemical characteristics of hydrothermal solutions compatible with the observed calc-silicate assemblages. In general there is a close correlation between calculated and observed fluid compositions. Calculated fugacities of O{sub 2} at about 320{degrees}C in the Cerro Prieto geothermal system are about five orders of magnitude less than that at the nearby Salton Sea geothermal system. This observation is consistent with the occurrence of Fe{sup 3+} rich epidotes in the latter system and the presence of prehnite at Cerro Prieto.

  16. Method of analysis of asbestiform minerals by thermoluminescence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fisher, Gerald L.; Bradley, Edward W.

    1980-01-01

    A method for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of asbestiform minerals, including the steps of subjecting a sample to be analyzed to the thermoluminescent analysis, annealing the sample, subjecting the sample to ionizing radiation, and subjecting the sample to a second thermoluminescent analysis. Glow curves are derived from the two thermoluminescent analyses and their shapes then compared to established glow curves of known asbestiform minerals to identify the type of asbestiform in the sample. Also, during at least one of the analyses, the thermoluminescent response for each sample is integrated during a linear heating period of the analysis in order to derive the total thermoluminescence per milligram of sample. This total is a measure of the quantity of asbestiform in the sample and may also be used to identify the source of the sample.

  17. Dissolving the mineral calcite: Reaction front instability | Argonne

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Laboratory calcite: Reaction front instability Share Topic Programs Chemical sciences & engineering Synchrotron radiation X-ray imaging & holography Using the X-ray Reflection Interfacial Microscope powered by the Advanced Photon Source, researchers can both watch and drive the nanoscale changes of the surface of a calcite mineral as it dissolves in real-time. In this image, researchers observe distortions in the reaction front (the boundary between the blue and red regions)

  18. Mineral Deformation at Earth's Core-Mantle Boundary

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mineral Deformation at Earth's Core-Mantle Boundary Print Earth is a dynamic planet in which convection takes place on the scale of thousands of kilometers. Because Earth is mostly solid (except for its liquid-iron outer core), this convection causes deformation of solid rocks by plastic flow. At the core-mantle boundary (CMB), 2900 km deep, seismologists have discovered that seismic waves travel faster in certain directions. This seismic anisotropy appears to be related to the deformation of

  19. Mineral Deformation at Earth's Core-Mantle Boundary

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mineral Deformation at Earth's Core-Mantle Boundary Print Earth is a dynamic planet in which convection takes place on the scale of thousands of kilometers. Because Earth is mostly solid (except for its liquid-iron outer core), this convection causes deformation of solid rocks by plastic flow. At the core-mantle boundary (CMB), 2900 km deep, seismologists have discovered that seismic waves travel faster in certain directions. This seismic anisotropy appears to be related to the deformation of

  20. Mineral Deformation at Earth's Core-Mantle Boundary

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mineral Deformation at Earth's Core-Mantle Boundary Print Earth is a dynamic planet in which convection takes place on the scale of thousands of kilometers. Because Earth is mostly solid (except for its liquid-iron outer core), this convection causes deformation of solid rocks by plastic flow. At the core-mantle boundary (CMB), 2900 km deep, seismologists have discovered that seismic waves travel faster in certain directions. This seismic anisotropy appears to be related to the deformation of

  1. Mineral Deformation at Earth's Core-Mantle Boundary

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mineral Deformation at Earth's Core-Mantle Boundary Print Earth is a dynamic planet in which convection takes place on the scale of thousands of kilometers. Because Earth is mostly solid (except for its liquid-iron outer core), this convection causes deformation of solid rocks by plastic flow. At the core-mantle boundary (CMB), 2900 km deep, seismologists have discovered that seismic waves travel faster in certain directions. This seismic anisotropy appears to be related to the deformation of

  2. Mineral Deformation at Earth's Core-Mantle Boundary

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mineral Deformation at Earth's Core-Mantle Boundary Print Earth is a dynamic planet in which convection takes place on the scale of thousands of kilometers. Because Earth is mostly solid (except for its liquid-iron outer core), this convection causes deformation of solid rocks by plastic flow. At the core-mantle boundary (CMB), 2900 km deep, seismologists have discovered that seismic waves travel faster in certain directions. This seismic anisotropy appears to be related to the deformation of

  3. Hydrodesulfurization and hydrodenitrogenation catalysts obtained from coal mineral matter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Kindtoken H. D.; Hamrin, Jr., Charles E.

    1982-01-01

    A hydrotreating catalyst is prepared from coal mineral matter obtained by low temperature ashing coals of relatively low bassanite content by the steps of: (a) depositing on the low temperature ash 0.25-3 grams of an iron or nickel salt in water per gram of ash and drying a resulting slurry; (b) crushing and sizing a resulting solid; and (c) heating the thus-sized solid powder in hydrogen.

  4. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- International Minerals and Chemicals

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Corp - Bonnie Mill Plant - FL 03 and Chemicals Corp - Bonnie Mill Plant - FL 03 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: International Minerals and Chemicals Corp., Bonnie Mill Plant (FL.03) Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: CF Industries Bonnie Uranium Plant FL.03-2 Location: Approximately 2 miles south of Highway 60 between Mulberry and Bartow , Bartow , Florida FL.03-2 Evaluation Year: 1985 FL.03-2 Site Operations: Recovered uranium

  5. Mineral Deformation at Earth's Core-Mantle Boundary

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mineral Deformation at Earth's Core-Mantle Boundary Print Earth is a dynamic planet in which convection takes place on the scale of thousands of kilometers. Because Earth is mostly solid (except for its liquid-iron outer core), this convection causes deformation of solid rocks by plastic flow. At the core-mantle boundary (CMB), 2900 km deep, seismologists have discovered that seismic waves travel faster in certain directions. This seismic anisotropy appears to be related to the deformation of

  6. Mineral Deformation at Earth's Core-Mantle Boundary

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mineral Deformation at Earth's Core-Mantle Boundary Print Earth is a dynamic planet in which convection takes place on the scale of thousands of kilometers. Because Earth is mostly solid (except for its liquid-iron outer core), this convection causes deformation of solid rocks by plastic flow. At the core-mantle boundary (CMB), 2900 km deep, seismologists have discovered that seismic waves travel faster in certain directions. This seismic anisotropy appears to be related to the deformation of

  7. Mineral Deformation at Earth's Core-Mantle Boundary

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mineral Deformation at Earth's Core-Mantle Boundary Print Earth is a dynamic planet in which convection takes place on the scale of thousands of kilometers. Because Earth is mostly solid (except for its liquid-iron outer core), this convection causes deformation of solid rocks by plastic flow. At the core-mantle boundary (CMB), 2900 km deep, seismologists have discovered that seismic waves travel faster in certain directions. This seismic anisotropy appears to be related to the deformation of

  8. Transporting particulate material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aldred, Derek Leslie; Rader, Jeffrey A.; Saunders, Timothy W.

    2011-08-30

    A material transporting system comprises a material transporting apparatus (100) including a material transporting apparatus hopper structure (200, 202), which comprises at least one rotary transporting apparatus; a stationary hub structure (900) constraining and assisting the at least one rotary transporting apparatus; an outlet duct configuration (700) configured to permit material to exit therefrom and comprising at least one diverging portion (702, 702'); an outlet abutment configuration (800) configured to direct material to the outlet duct configuration; an outlet valve assembly from the material transporting system venting the material transporting system; and a moving wall configuration in the material transporting apparatus capable of assisting the material transporting apparatus in transporting material in the material transporting system. Material can be moved from the material transporting apparatus hopper structure to the outlet duct configuration through the at least one rotary transporting apparatus, the outlet abutment configuration, and the outlet valve assembly.

  9. 20th Hazmat Challenge tests skills of hazardous materials response teams

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hazmat Challenge tests skills of hazardous materials response teams 20th Hazmat Challenge tests skills of hazardous materials response teams Ten hazardous materials response teams from New Mexico, Missouri, Oklahoma and Nebraska test their skills in a series of graded, timed exercises. July 21, 2016 The Laboratory began the Hazmat Challenge in 1996 to hone the skills of its own hazmat team members. The Laboratory began the Hazmat Challenge in 1996 to hone the skills of its own hazmat team

  10. Engine performance comparison associated with carburetor icing during aviation grade fuel and automotive grade fuel operation. Final report Jan-Jul 82

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cavage, W.; Newcomb, J.; Biehl, K.

    1983-05-01

    A comprehensive sea-level-static test cell data collection and evaluation effort to review operational characteristics of 'off-the-shelf' carburetor ice detection/warning devices for general aviation piston engine aircraft during operation on aviation grade fuel and automotive grade fuel. Presented herein are results, observations and conclusions drawn from over 250 hours of test cell engine operation on 100LL aviation grade fuel, unleaded premium and unleaded regular grade automotive fuel. Sea-level-static test cell engine operations were conducted utilizing a Teledyne Continental Motors 0-200A engine and a Cessna 150 fuel system to review engine operational characteristics of 100LL aviation grade fuel and various blends of automotive grade fuel as well as carburetor ice detectors/warning devices sensitivity/effectiveness during actual carburetor icing. The primary purpose of test cell engine operation was to observe real-time carburetor icing characteristics associated with possible automotive grade fuel utilization by piston-powered light general aviation aircraft. In fulfillment of this task, baseline engine operations were established with 100LL aviation grade fuel followed by various blend of automotive grade fuel prior to imposing carburetor icing conditions and assessing operational characteristics.

  11. Nanocrystalline ceramic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siegel, Richard W.; Nieman, G. William; Weertman, Julia R.

    1994-01-01

    A method for preparing a treated nanocrystalline metallic material. The method of preparation includes providing a starting nanocrystalline metallic material with a grain size less than about 35 nm, compacting the starting nanocrystalline metallic material in an inert atmosphere and annealing the compacted metallic material at a temperature less than about one-half the melting point of the metallic material.

  12. SULPHUR DIOXIDE LEACHING OF URANIUM CONTAINING MATERIAL

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thunaes, A.; Rabbits, F.T.; Hester, K.D.; Smith, H.W.

    1958-12-01

    A process is described for extracting uranlum from uranium containing material, such as a low grade pitchblende ore, or mill taillngs, where at least part of the uraniunn is in the +4 oxidation state. After comminuting and magnetically removing any entrained lron particles the general material is made up as an aqueous slurry containing added ferric and manganese salts and treated with sulfur dioxide and aeration to an extent sufficient to form a proportion of oxysulfur acids to give a pH of about 1 to 2 but insufficient to cause excessive removal of the sulfur dioxide gas. After separating from the solids, the leach solution is adjusted to a pH of about 1.25, then treated with metallic iron in the presence of a precipitant such as a soluble phosphate, arsonate, or fluoride.

  13. Bioinspired Materials | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of magnetic nanocrystals serve as inspiration and sources of mineralization proteins. ... of nanostructures such as complex magnetic nanocrystals with potential energy relevance. ...

  14. Materials | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials Innovating tomorrow's materials today New high-tech materials are the key to breakthroughs in biology, the environment, nuclear energy, transportation and national security. Argonne continues to make revolutionary advances in the science of materials discovery and synthesis, and is designing new materials with advantageous properties - one atom at a time. Examples of these include Argonne's patented technologies for nanoparticle applications, heat transfer and materials for advanced

  15. Nuclear Materials Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nuclear Materials Science Our multidisciplinary expertise comprises the core actinide materials science and metallurgical capability within the nuclear weapons production and ...

  16. Timelines | Critical Materials Institute

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A listing of timelines about various materials of interest to rare earths and critical materials, organized by those specific to rare earth elements, general chemistry and uses. ...

  17. Materials | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Materials Materials 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Vehicle Technologies Plenary PDF icon ...

  18. CMI Education Partner: Colorado School of Mines | Critical Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Institute Education Partner: Colorado School of Mines Colorado School of Mines offers courses in several areas: Geology Engineering/Geochemistry Mining Engineering Metallurgical Engineering/Materials Science Chemistry Engineering Mineral Economics and Business Geology Engineering/Geochemistry GEGN101. EARTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS. 4.0 Hours. (I, II, S) Fundamental concepts concerning the nature, composition and evolution of the lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere of the

  19. EM Commerical Grade Dedication Class Slides | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Waste Management Nuclear Materials & Waste Tank Waste and Waste Processing Waste Disposition Packaging and Transportation Site & Facility Restoration Deactivation & Decommissioning ...

  20. Materials Discovery across Technological Readiness Levels | Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science | NREL Materials Discovery across Technological Readiness Levels Materials discovery is important across technology readiness levels: basic science, applied research, and device development. Over the past several years, NREL has worked at each of these levels, demonstrating our competence in a broad range of materials discovery problems. Basic Science An image of a triangular diagram with tantalum-cobalt-tin at the top vertex, tantalum at the lower left vertex, and cobalt at the

  1. Materials Science Research | Materials Science | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science Research For photovoltaics and other energy applications, NREL's primary research in materials science includes the following core competencies. A photo of laser light rays going in various directions atop a corrugated metal substrate Materials Physics Through materials growth and characterization, we seek to understand and control fundamental electronic and optical processes in semiconductors. An image of multiple, interconnecting red and blue particles Electronic Structure Theory We

  2. About Critical Materials | Critical Materials Institute

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Ames Laboratory channel on YouTube Timelines related to rare earth elements and materials Other sources of information about rare earths: GE: Understanding rare earth metals, ...

  3. Lignin Based Carbon Materials for Energy Storage Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chatterjee, Sabornie; Saito, Tomonori; Rios, Orlando; Johs, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of Li-ion battery technology into electric and hybrid electric vehicles and portable electronic devices such as smart phones, laptops and tablets, creates a demand for efficient, economic and sustainable materials for energy storage. However, the high cost and long processing time associated with manufacturing battery-grade anode and cathode materials are two big constraints for lowering the total cost of batteries and environmentally friendly electric vehicles. Lignin, a byproduct of the pulp and paper industry and biorefinery, is one of the most abundant and inexpensive natural biopolymers. It can be efficiently converted to low cost carbon fibers with optimal properties for use as anode materials. Recent developments in the preparation of lignin precursors and conversion to carbon fiber-based anode materials have created a new class of anode materials with excellent electrochemical characteristics suitable for immediate use in existing Li- or Na-ion battery technologies.

  4. Spare-parts replacement and the commercial grade issues at Connecticut Yankee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nichols, E.M.; Scott, D.J.; Maret, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    Connecticut Yankee was designed and built according to code B31.1 of the American National Standards Institute for pressure piping and began commercial operations in 1968, 2 yr prior to 10CFR50 Appendix B of the Code of Federal Regulations. Therefore, at the time of commercial operation, the entire plant, except for several major primary plant components, met the current criteria for commercial grade items (CGIs). When spare parts were needed, 10CFR50 Appendix B and 10CFR21 requirements had to be backfitted onto suppliers who had not agreed to these requirements when supplying the original equipment. The problem of identifying original equipment manufacturers that would or would not accept these additional requirements was compounded at Connecticut Yankee by three related problems that also became apparent at approximately the same time: (1) The accuracy of the material, equipment, parts list (Q-list) was being questioned. (2) The use of existing spare parts bought without additional current quality assurance requirements and the adequacy of the existing inventory to support plant operations were being questioned. (3) The general industry concerns over use of GCIs in safety-related applications needed to be resolved. Connecticut Yankee management recognized the need to address each of these problems. Three specific actions were taken: (1) A Q-list upgrade program was funded. (2) A spare parts bill of materials (BOM) project was funded. (3) Connecticut Yankee's engineering department dedicated several engineers to address procurement issues and specifically to develop a CGI program.

  5. Theoretical and experimental investigations of asymmetric light transport in graded index photonic crystal waveguides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giden, I. H. Yilmaz, D.; Turduev, M.; Kurt, H.; olak, E.; Ozbay, E.

    2014-01-20

    To provide asymmetric propagation of light, we propose a graded index photonic crystal (GRIN PC) based waveguide configuration that is formed by introducing line and point defects as well as intentional perturbations inside the structure. The designed system utilizes isotropic materials and is purely reciprocal, linear, and time-independent, since neither magneto-optical materials are used nor time-reversal symmetry is broken. The numerical results show that the proposed scheme based on the spatial-inversion symmetry breaking has different forward (with a peak value of 49.8%) and backward transmissions (4.11% at most) as well as relatively small round-trip transmission (at most 7.11%) in a large operational bandwidth of 52.6?nm. The signal contrast ratio of the designed configuration is above 0.80 in the telecom wavelengths of 1523.51576.1?nm. An experimental measurement is also conducted in the microwave regime: A strong asymmetric propagation characteristic is observed within the frequency interval of 12.8 GHz13.3?GHz. The numerical and experimental results confirm the asymmetric transmission behavior of the proposed GRIN PC waveguide.

  6. Irradiation and Bevacizumab in High-Grade Glioma Retreatment Settings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niyazi, Maximilian; Ganswindt, Ute; Schwarz, Silke Birgit [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Munich (Germany); Kreth, Friedrich-Wilhelm; Tonn, Joerg-Christian [Department of Neurosurgery, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Munich (Germany); Geisler, Julia; Fougere, Christian la [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Munich (Germany); Ertl, Lorenz; Linn, Jennifer [Department of Neuroradiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Munich (Germany); Siefert, Axel [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Munich (Germany); Belka, Claus, E-mail: claus.belka@med.uni-muenchen.de [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Munich (Germany)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Reirradiation is a treatment option for recurrent high-grade glioma with proven but limited effectiveness. Therapies directed against vascular endothelial growth factor have been shown to exert certain efficacy in combination with chemotherapy and have been safely tested in combination with radiotherapy in a small cohort of patients. To study the feasibility of reirradiation combined with bevacizumab treatment, the toxicity and treatment outcomes of this approach were analyzed retrospectively. Patients and Methods: After previous treatment with standard radiotherapy (with or without temozolomide) patients with recurrent malignant glioma received bevacizumab (10 mg/kg intravenous) on Day 1 and Day 15 during radiotherapy. Maintenance therapy was selected based on individual considerations, and mainly bevacizumab-containing regimens were chosen. Patients received 36 Gy in 18 fractions. Results: The data of the medical charts of the 30 patients were analyzed retrospectively. All were irradiated in a single institution and received either bevacizumab (n = 20), no additional substance (n = 7), or temozolomide (n = 3). Reirradiation was tolerated well, regardless of the added drug. In 1 patient treated with bevacizumab, a wound dehiscence occurred. Overall survival was significantly better in patients receiving bevacizumab (p = 0.03, log-rank test). In a multivariate proportional hazards Cox model, bevacizumab, Karnovsky performance status, and World Health Organization grade at relapse turned out to be the most important predictors for overall survival. Conclusion: Reirradiation with bevacizumab is a feasible and effective treatment for patients with recurrent high-grade gliomas. A randomized trial is warranted to finally answer the question whether bevacizumab adds substantial benefit to a radiotherapeutic retreatment setting.

  7. Graded pitch electromagnetic pump for thin strip metal casting systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuznetsov, Stephen B.

    1986-01-01

    A metal strip casing system is provided with an electromagnetic pump which includes a pair of primary blocks having a graded pole pitch, polyphase ac winding and being arranged on opposite sides of a movable heat sink. A nozzle is provided for depositing liquid metal on the heat sink such that the resulting metal strip and heat sink combination is subjected to a longitudinal electromagnetic field which increases in wavelength in the direction of travel of the heat sink, thereby subjecting the metal and heat sink to a longitudinal force having a magnitude which increases in the direction of travel.

  8. Graded pitch electromagnetic pump for thin strip metal casting systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuznetsov, S.B.

    1986-04-01

    A metal strip casing system is provided with an electromagnetic pump which includes a pair of primary blocks having a graded pole pitch, polyphase ac winding and being arranged on opposite sides of a movable heat sink. A nozzle is provided for depositing liquid metal on the heat sink such that the resulting metal strip and heat sink combination is subjected to a longitudinal electromagnetic field which increases in wavelength in the direction of travel of the heat sink, thereby subjecting the metal and heat sink to a longitudinal force having a magnitude which increases in the direction of travel. 4 figs.

  9. Functionally graded alumina-based thin film systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, John J.; Zhong, Dalong

    2006-08-29

    The present invention provides coating systems that minimize thermal and residual stresses to create a fatigue- and soldering-resistant coating for aluminum die casting dies. The coating systems include at least three layers. The outer layer is an alumina- or boro-carbide-based outer layer that has superior non-wettability characteristics with molten aluminum coupled with oxidation and wear resistance. A functionally-graded intermediate layer or "interlayer" enhances the erosive wear, toughness, and corrosion resistance of the die. A thin adhesion layer of reactive metal is used between the die substrate and the interlayer to increase adhesion of the coating system to the die surface.

  10. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming of INEEL SBW Using THORsm Mineralizing Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arlin L. Olson; Nicholas R. Soelberg; Douglas W. Marshall; Gary L. Anderson

    2004-12-01

    process achieved about a 90% turnover of the starting bed. Samples of mineralized solid product materials were analyzed for chemical/physical properties. Results of product performance testing conducted by SRNL will be reported separately by SRNL.

  11. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming of Hanford LAW Using THORsm Mineralizing Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, Arlin L.; Nicholas R Soelberg; Douglas W. Marshall; Gary L. Anderson

    2004-11-01

    achieved essentially complete bed turnover within approximately 40 hours. Samples of mineralized solid product materials were analyzed for chemical/physical properties. SRNL will report separately the results of product performance testing that were accomplished.

  12. Coated ceramic breeder materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tam, Shiu-Wing; Johnson, Carl E.

    1987-01-01

    A breeder material for use in a breeder blanket of a nuclear reactor is disclosed. The breeder material comprises a core material of lithium containing ceramic particles which has been coated with a neutron multiplier such as Be or BeO, which coating has a higher thermal conductivity than the core material.

  13. Coated ceramic breeder materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tam, Shiu-Wing; Johnson, Carl E.

    1987-04-07

    A breeder material for use in a breeder blanket of a nuclear reactor is disclosed. The breeder material comprises a core material of lithium containing ceramic particles which has been coated with a neutron multiplier such as Be or BeO, which coating has a higher thermal conductivity than the core material.

  14. Energy Materials Network Workshop

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Energy Materials Network (EMN) is a national lab-led initiative that aims to dramatically decrease the time-to-market for advanced materials innovations critical to many clean energy technologies. Through targeted consortia offering accessible suites of advanced research and development capabilities, EMN is accelerating materials development to address U.S. manufacturers' most pressing materials challenges.

  15. Tritium breeding materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hollenberg, G.W.; Johnson, C.E.; Abdou, M.

    1984-03-01

    Tritium breeding materials are essential to the operation of D-T fusion facilities. Both of the present options - solid ceramic breeding materials and liquid metal materials are reviewed with emphasis not only on their attractive features but also on critical materials issues which must be resolved.

  16. Hydrogen Compatibility of Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation slides from the Energy Department webinar, Hydrogen Compatibility of Materials, held August 13, 2013.

  17. Zirconium-modified materials for selective adsorption and removal of aqueous arsenic

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhao, Hongting; Moore, Robert C.

    2004-11-30

    A method, composition, and apparatus for removing contaminant species from an aqueous medium comprising: providing a material to which zirconium has been added, the material selected from one or more of zeolites, cation-exchangeable clay minerals, fly ash, mesostructured materials, activated carbons, cellulose acetate, and like porous and/or fibrous materials; and contacting the aqueous medium with the material to which zirconium has been added. The invention operates on all arsenic species in the form of arsenate, arsenite and organometallic arsenic, with no pretreatment necessary (e.g., oxidative conversion of arsenite to arsenate).

  18. NOVEL IN-SITU METAL AND MINERAL EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glenn O'Gorman; Hans von Michaelis; Gregory J. Olson

    2004-09-22

    This white paper summarizes the state of art of in-situ leaching of metals and minerals, and describes a new technology concept employing improved fragmentation of ores underground in order to prepare the ore for more efficient in-situ leaching, combined with technology to continuously improve solution flow patterns through the ore during the leaching process. The process parameters and economic benefits of combining the new concept with chemical and biological leaching are described. A summary is provided of the next steps required to demonstrate the technology with the goal of enabling more widespread use of in-situ leaching.

  19. Rare earth element patterns in biotite, muscovite and tourmaline minerals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laul, J.C.; Lepel, E.A.

    1986-04-21

    Rare earth element concentrations in the minerals biotite and muscovite from the mica schist country rocks of the Etta pegmatite and tourmalines from the Bob Ingersoll pegmatite have been measured by INAA and CNAA. The concentrations range from 10/sup -4/ g/g to 10/sup -10g//sub g/. The REE patterns of biotite, muscovite and tourmaline reported herein are highly fractionated from light to heavy REE. The REE concentrations in biotite and muscovite are high and indigenous. The pegmatite tourmalines contain low concentrations of REE. Variations in tourmaline REE patterns reflect the geochemical evolution of pegmatite melt/fluid system during crystallization.

  20. Bennett, J. 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 99 GENERAL AND MISCELLANEOUS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    METHOD; MATHEMATICAL MODELS; CARBON; COMPUTER CODES; ELEMENTAL MINERALS; ELEMENTS; MECHANICAL PROPERTIES; MINERALS; NONMETALS; NUMERICAL SOLUTION 360203* -- Ceramics, Cermets, &...

  1. Materials Analysis and Modeling of Underfill Materials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wyatt, Nicholas B; Chambers, Robert S.

    2015-08-01

    The thermal-mechanical properties of three potential underfill candidate materials for PBGA applications are characterized and reported. Two of the materials are a formulations developed at Sandia for underfill applications while the third is a commercial product that utilizes a snap-cure chemistry to drastically reduce cure time. Viscoelastic models were calibrated and fit using the property data collected for one of the Sandia formulated materials. Along with the thermal-mechanical analyses performed, a series of simple bi-material strip tests were conducted to comparatively analyze the relative effects of cure and thermal shrinkage amongst the materials under consideration. Finally, current knowledge gaps as well as questions arising from the present study are identified and a path forward presented.

  2. Puncture detecting barrier materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hermes, Robert E.; Ramsey, David R.; Stampfer, Joseph F.; Macdonald, John M.

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for continuous real-time monitoring of the integrity of protective barrier materials, particularly protective barriers against toxic, radioactive and biologically hazardous materials has been developed. Conductivity, resistivity or capacitance between conductive layers in the multilayer protective materials is measured by using leads connected to electrically conductive layers in the protective barrier material. The measured conductivity, resistivity or capacitance significantly changes upon a physical breach of the protective barrier material.

  3. Nanocrystalline ceramic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siegel, R.W.; Nieman, G.W.; Weertman, J.R.

    1994-06-14

    A method is disclosed for preparing a treated nanocrystalline metallic material. The method of preparation includes providing a starting nanocrystalline metallic material with a grain size less than about 35 nm, compacting the starting nanocrystalline metallic material in an inert atmosphere and annealing the compacted metallic material at a temperature less than about one-half the melting point of the metallic material. 19 figs.

  4. Material Transfer Agreements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Material Transfer Agreements Material Transfer Agreements Enables the transfer of tangible consumable research materials between two organizations, when the recipient intends to use the material for research purposes Contact thumbnail of Marcus Lucero Head of Licensing Marcus Lucero Richard P. Feynman Center for Innovation (505) 665-6569 Email Overview The ability to exchange materials freely and without delay is an important part of a healthy scientific laboratory. Los Alamos National

  5. Materials Physics and Applications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MPA Materials Physics and Applications We develop new technologies that solve pressing national energy and security challenges by exploring and exploiting materials and their properties; developing practical applications of materials, and providing world-class user facilities. Contact Us Division Leader Tanja Pietrass Email Deputy Division Leader Rick Martineau Email Chief of Staff Jeff Willis Email Division Office (505) 665-1131 Materials Physics Applications Division Materials Physics and

  6. Materials for the Future

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials for the Future Materials for the Future The Lab's four Science Pillars harness our scientific capabilities for national security solutions. Contacts Pillar Champion Mary Hockaday Email Pillar Contact Toni Taylor Email Pillar Contact David Teter Email Materials for the Future Science Overview At Los Alamos National Laboratory, we anticipate the advent of a new era in materials science, when we will transition from observing and exploiting the properties of materials to a science-based

  7. Puncture detecting barrier materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hermes, R.E.; Ramsey, D.R.; Stampfer, J.F.; Macdonald, J.M.

    1998-03-31

    A method and apparatus for continuous real-time monitoring of the integrity of protective barrier materials, particularly protective barriers against toxic, radioactive and biologically hazardous materials has been developed. Conductivity, resistivity or capacitance between conductive layers in the multilayer protective materials is measured by using leads connected to electrically conductive layers in the protective barrier material. The measured conductivity, resistivity or capacitance significantly changes upon a physical breach of the protective barrier material. 4 figs.

  8. Chemical Hydrogen Storage Materials

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Troy A. Semelsberger Los Alamos National Laboratory Hydrogen Storage Summit Jan 27-29, 2015 Denver, CO Chemical Hydrogen Storage Materials 2 Objectives 1. Assess chemical hydrogen storage materials that can exceed 700 bar compressed hydrogen tanks 2. Status (state-of-the-art) of chemical hydrogen storage materials 3. Identify key material characteristics 4. Identify obstacles, challenges and risks for the successful deployment of chemical hydrogen materials in a practical on-board hydrogen

  9. Solar cell structure incorporating a novel single crystal silicon material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pankove, Jacques I.; Wu, Chung P.

    1983-01-01

    A novel hydrogen rich single crystal silicon material having a band gap energy greater than 1.1 eV can be fabricated by forming an amorphous region of graded crystallinity in a body of single crystalline silicon and thereafter contacting the region with atomic hydrogen followed by pulsed laser annealing at a sufficient power and for a sufficient duration to recrystallize the region into single crystal silicon without out-gassing the hydrogen. The new material can be used to fabricate semiconductor devices such as single crystal silicon solar cells with surface window regions having a greater band gap energy than that of single crystal silicon without hydrogen.

  10. Photovoltaic device comprising compositionally graded intrinsic photoactive layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoffbauer, Mark A; Williamson, Todd L

    2013-04-30

    Photovoltaic devices and methods of making photovoltaic devices comprising at least one compositionally graded photoactive layer, said method comprising providing a substrate; growing onto the substrate a uniform intrinsic photoactive layer having one surface disposed upon the substrate and an opposing second surface, said intrinsic photoactive layer consisting essentially of In.sub.1-xA.sub.xN,; wherein: i. 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1; ii. A is gallium, aluminum, or combinations thereof; and iii. x is at least 0 on one surface of the intrinsic photoactive layer and is compositionally graded throughout the layer to reach a value of 1 or less on the opposing second surface of the layer; wherein said intrinsic photoactive layer is isothermally grown by means of energetic neutral atom beam lithography and epitaxy at a temperature of 600.degree. C. or less using neutral nitrogen atoms having a kinetic energy of from about 1.0 eV to about 5.0 eV, and wherein the intrinsic photoactive layer is grown at a rate of from about 5 nm/min to about 100 nm/min.

  11. Development of value-added products from alumina industry mineral wastes using low-temperature-setting phosphate ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagh, A.S.; Jeong, Seung-Young; Singh, D.

    1996-01-01

    A room-temperature process for stabilizing mineral waste streams has been developed, based on acid-base reaction between MgO and H3PO4 or acid phosphate solution. The resulting waste form sets into a hard ceramic in a few hours. In this way, various alumina industry wastes, such as red mud and treated potliner waste, can be solidified into ceramics which can be used as structural materials in waste management and construction industry. Red mud ceramics made by this process were low-porosity materials ({approx}2 vol%) with a compression strength equal to portland cement concrete (4944 psi). Bonding mechanism appears to be result of reactions of boehmite, goethite, and bayerite with the acid solution, and also encapsulation of red mud particles in Mg phosphate matrix. Possible applications include liners for ponds and thickned tailings disposal, dikes for waste ponds, and grouts. Compatability problems arising at the interface of the liner and the waste are avoided.

  12. The Impact of Hypofractionated Whole Breast Radiotherapy on Local Relapse in Patients With Grade 3 Early Breast Cancer: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herbert, Christopher; Nichol, Alan; Olivotto, Ivo; Weir, Lorna; Woods, Ryan; Speers, Caroline; Truong, Pauline; Tyldesley, Scott

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To determine whether patients with Grade 3 early breast cancer have an inferior rate of local disease control at 10 years with hypofractionated radiotherapy compared with more conventionally fractionated schedules. Methods and Materials: Local relapse rates were compared between patients receiving hypofractionated radiotherapy or conventionally fractionated radiotherapy to the whole breast in a population-based cohort of women with early-stage (T1-T2, N0, M0) Grade 3 breast cancers diagnosed between 1990 and 2000 and referred to the British Columbia Cancer Agency. Cumulative rates of local relapse were estimated using a competing risk method, and factors significant on univariate analysis were included with fractionation group in a multivariate model. The primary end point was local control at 10 years. Results: A total of 1,335 patients with Grade 3 tumors were treated with adjuvant radiotherapy, 252 with conventional fractionation, and 1,083 with a hypofractionated schedule. The 10-year cumulative incidence of local relapse was 6.9% in the hypofractionated group and 6.2% in the conventionally fractionated group (p = 0.99). Conclusions: There is no evidence that hypofractionation is inferior to conventional fractionation for breast conserving therapy in patients with Grade 3 breast cancer in this large population-based series after 10 years of follow-up.

  13. Aqueous Corrosion Rates for Waste Package Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Arthur

    2004-10-08

    The purpose of this analysis, as directed by ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]), is to compile applicable corrosion data from the literature (journal articles, engineering documents, materials handbooks, or standards, and national laboratory reports), evaluate the quality of these data, and use these to perform statistical analyses and distributions for aqueous corrosion rates of waste package materials. The purpose of this report is not to describe the performance of engineered barriers for the TSPA-LA. Instead, the analysis provides simple statistics on aqueous corrosion rates of steels and alloys. These rates are limited by various aqueous parameters such as temperature (up to 100 C), water type (i.e., fresh versus saline), and pH. Corrosion data of materials at pH extremes (below 4 and above 9) are not included in this analysis, as materials commonly display different corrosion behaviors under these conditions. The exception is highly corrosion-resistant materials (Inconel Alloys) for which rate data from corrosion tests at a pH of approximately 3 were included. The waste package materials investigated are those from the long and short 5-DHLW waste packages, 2-MCO/2-DHLW waste package, and the 21-PWR commercial waste package. This analysis also contains rate data for some of the materials present inside the fuel canisters for the following fuel types: U-Mo (Fermi U-10%Mo), MOX (FFTF), Thorium Carbide and Th/U Carbide (Fort Saint Vrain [FSVR]), Th/U Oxide (Shippingport LWBR), U-metal (N Reactor), Intact U-Oxide (Shippingport PWR, Commercial), aluminum-based, and U-Zr-H (TRIGA). Analysis of corrosion rates for Alloy 22, spent nuclear fuel, defense high level waste (DHLW) glass, and Titanium Grade 7 can be found in other analysis or model reports.

  14. Electrode material comprising graphene-composite materials in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Electrode material comprising graphene-composite materials in a graphite network A durable electrode material suitable for use in Li ion batteries is provided. The material ...

  15. CRAD, Packaging and Transfer of Hazardous Materials and Materials...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Packaging and Transfer of Hazardous Materials and Materials of National Security Interest Assessment Plan CRAD, Packaging and Transfer of Hazardous Materials and Materials of...

  16. Active Layer Soil Carbon and Nutrient Mineralization, Barrow, Alaska, 2012

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Stan D. Wullschleger; Holly M. Vander Stel; Colleen Iversen; Victoria L. Sloan; Richard J. Norby; Mallory P. Ladd; Jason K. Keller; Ariane Jong; Joanne Childs; Deanne J. Brice

    2015-10-29

    This data set consists of bulk soil characteristics as well as carbon and nutrient mineralization rates of active layer soils manually collected from the field in August, 2012, frozen, and then thawed and incubated across a range of temperatures in the laboratory for 28 day periods in 2013-2015. The soils were collected from four replicate polygons in each of the four Areas (A, B, C, and D) of Intensive Site 1 at the Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE) Arctic site near Barrow, Alaska. Soil samples were coincident with the established Vegetation Plots that are located in center, edge, and trough microtopography in each polygon. Data included are 1) bulk soil characteristics including carbon, nitrogen, gravimetric water content, bulk density, and pH in 5-cm depth increments and also by soil horizon, 2) carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus mineralization rates for soil horizons incubated aerobically (and in one case both aerobically and anaerobically) for 28 days at temperatures that included 2, 4, 8, and 12 degrees C. Additional soil and incubation data are forthcoming. They will be available when published as part of another paper that includes additional replicate analyses.

  17. Amyloid-like ribbons of amelogenins in enamel mineralization

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Carneiro, Karina M. M.; Zhai, Halei; Zhu, Li; Horst, Jeremy A.; Sitlin, Melody; Nguyen, Mychi; Wagner, Martin; Simpliciano, Cheryl; Milder, Melissa; Chen, Chun-Long; et al

    2016-03-24

    We report that enamel, the outermost layer of teeth, is an acellular mineralized tissue that cannot regenerate; the mature tissue is composed of high aspect ratio apatite nanocrystals organized into rods and inter-rod regions. Amelogenin constitutes 90% of the protein matrix in developing enamel and plays a central role in guiding the hierarchical organization of apatite crystals observed in mature enamel. To date, a convincing link between amelogenin supramolecular structures and mature enamel has yet to be described, in part because the protein matrix is degraded during tissue maturation. Here we show compelling evidence that amelogenin self-assembles into an amyloid-likemore » structure in vitro and in vivo. We show that enamel matrices stain positive for amyloids and we identify a specific region within amelogenin that self-assembles into β-sheets. Lastly, we propose that amelogenin nanoribbons template the growth of apatite mineral in human enamel. This is a paradigm shift from the current model of enamel development.« less

  18. Enhanced magnetocaloric effect material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, Laura J. H.

    2006-07-18

    A magnetocaloric effect heterostructure having a core layer of a magnetostructural material with a giant magnetocaloric effect having a magnetic transition temperature equal to or greater than 150 K, and a constricting material layer coated on at least one surface of the magnetocaloric material core layer. The constricting material layer may enhance the magnetocaloric effect by restriction of volume changes of the core layer during application of a magnetic field to the heterostructure. A magnetocaloric effect heterostructure powder comprising a plurality of core particles of a magnetostructural material with a giant magnetocaloric effect having a magnetic transition temperature equal to or greater than 150 K, wherein each of the core particles is encapsulated within a coating of a constricting material is also disclosed. A method for enhancing the magnetocaloric effect within a giant magnetocaloric material including the step of coating a surface of the magnetocaloric material with a constricting material is disclosed.

  19. Joining of dissimilar materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tucker, Michael C; Lau, Grace Y; Jacobson, Craig P

    2012-10-16

    A method of joining dissimilar materials having different ductility, involves two principal steps: Decoration of the more ductile material's surface with particles of a less ductile material to produce a composite; and, sinter-bonding the composite produced to a joining member of a less ductile material. The joining method is suitable for joining dissimilar materials that are chemically inert towards each other (e.g., metal and ceramic), while resulting in a strong bond with a sharp interface between the two materials. The joining materials may differ greatly in form or particle size. The method is applicable to various types of materials including ceramic, metal, glass, glass-ceramic, polymer, cermet, semiconductor, etc., and the materials can be in various geometrical forms, such as powders, fibers, or bulk bodies (foil, wire, plate, etc.). Composites and devices with a decorated/sintered interface are also provided.

  20. Np and Pu Sorption to Manganese Oxide Minerals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, P; Johnson, M R; Roberts, S K; Zavarin, M

    2005-08-30

    Manganese oxide minerals are a significant component of the fracture lining mineralogy at Yucca Mountain (Carlos et al., 1993) and within the tuff-confining unit at Yucca Flat (Prothro, 1998), Pahute Mesa (Drellack et al., 1997), and other locations at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Radionuclide sorption to manganese oxide minerals was not included in recent Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) hydrologic source term (HST) models which attempt to predict the migration behavior of radionuclides away from underground nuclear tests. However, experiments performed for the Yucca Mountain Program suggest that these minerals may control much of the retardation of certain radionuclides, particularly Np and Pu (Triay et al., 1991; Duff et al., 1999). As a result, recent HST model results may significantly overpredict radionuclide transport away from underground nuclear tests. The sorption model used in HST calculations performed at LLNL includes sorption to iron oxide, calcite, zeolite, smectite, and mica minerals (Zavarin and Bruton 2004a; 2004b). For the majority of radiologic source term (RST) radionuclides, we believe that this accounts for the dominant sorption processes controlling transport. However, for the case of Np, sorption is rather weak to all but the iron and manganese oxides (Figure 1). Thus, we can expect to significantly reduce predicted Np transport by accounting for Np sorption to manganese oxides. Similarly, Pu has been shown to be predominantly associated with manganese oxides in Yucca Mountain fractured tuffs (Duff et al., 1999). Recent results on colloid-facilitated Pu transport (Kersting and Reimus, 2003) also suggest that manganese oxide coatings on fracture surfaces may compete with colloids for Pu, thus reducing the effects of colloid-facilitated Pu transport (Figure 1b). The available data suggest that it is important to incorporate Np and Pu sorption to manganese oxides in reactive transport models. However, few data are available for

  1. Energy education resources - kindergarten through 12th grade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-03-01

    This resource was published to provide students, educators, and other information users, a list of generally available free or low-cost energy related educational materials.

  2. Nondestructive material characterization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deason, Vance A.; Johnson, John A.; Telschow, Kenneth L.

    1991-01-01

    A method and apparatus for nondestructive material characterization, such as identification of material flaws or defects, material thickness or uniformity and material properties such as acoustic velocity. The apparatus comprises a pulsed laser used to excite a piezoelectric (PZ) transducer, which sends acoustic waves through an acoustic coupling medium to the test material. The acoustic wave is absorbed and thereafter reflected by the test material, whereupon it impinges on the PZ transducer. The PZ transducer converts the acoustic wave to electrical impulses, which are conveyed to a monitor.

  3. Request for Information explores mineral recovery from geothermal fluids

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The DOE Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO) is seeking input on ideas that encourage geothermal development by exploring innovations in extracting critical materials found in geothermal brines....

  4. The Critical Materials Institute | Critical Materials Institute

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Critical Materials Institute Director Alex King, Operations Manager Cynthia Feller, Jenni Brockpahler and Melinda Thach. Photo left to right: CMI Director Alex King, Operations Manager Cynthia Feller, Jenni Brockpahler and Melinda Thach. Not pictured: Carol Bergman. CMI staff phone 515-296-4500, e-mail CMIdirector@ameslab.gov 2332 Pammel Drive, 134 Wilhelm Hall, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-1025 The Critical Materials Institute focuses on technologies that make better use of

  5. Commercial Grade Dedication of Software, TFC-ENG-DESIGN-C-65 | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy of Software, TFC-ENG-DESIGN-C-65 Commercial Grade Dedication of Software, TFC-ENG-DESIGN-C-65 This procedure establishes the process, methods and instruction for dedication of commercial grade computer programs (software) that affect performance of a Structure System and Component (SSC) safety function or provide controls necessary for adequate protection from nuclear facility or radiological hazards. Dedication of commercial grade computer programs for use in safety applications

  6. Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes: Optimized Slab-on-Grade

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Foundation Insulation Retrofits | Department of Energy Homes: Optimized Slab-on-Grade Foundation Insulation Retrofits Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes: Optimized Slab-on-Grade Foundation Insulation Retrofits This project used a recently developed, three-dimensional, below-grade heat transfer simulation (BUilding Foundation Energy Transport Simulation-BCVTB, BUFETS-B) that operates as a subroutine of EnergyPlus to model 10 insulation upgrade options against a base (uninsulated)

  7. Plasma-enhanced gasification of low-grade coals for compact power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uhm, Han S.; Hong, Yong C.; Shin, Dong H.; Lee, Bong J.

    2011-10-15

    A high temperature of a steam torch ensures an efficient gasification of low-grade coals, which is comparable to that of high-grade coals. Therefore, the coal gasification system energized by microwaves can serve as a moderately sized power plant due to its compact and lightweight design. This plasma power plant of low-grade coals would be useful in rural or sparsely populated areas without access to a national power grid.

  8. Jefferson Lab Offers Science Enrichment Program for 5th, 6th & 8th Grade

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Teachers | Jefferson Lab amp; 8th Grade Teachers Jefferson Lab Offers Science Enrichment Program for 5th, 6th & 8th Grade Teachers NEWPORT NEWS, Va., UPDATED August 4, 2010 - The U.S. Department of Energy's Jefferson Lab is currently accepting applications for its science enrichment program for fifth-, sixth- and eighth-grade teachers of science. The program, designed to increase teachers' knowledge of the physical sciences and strengthen their teaching skills, runs from September 2010

  9. Investment-Grade Audit Kickoff Meeting Sample Agenda | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Audit Kickoff Meeting Sample Agenda Investment-Grade Audit Kickoff Meeting Sample Agenda Document provides a sample agenda and instructions a federal agency should use for a kickoff meeting with an energy services company about an energy savings performance contract project. Download the Investment-Grade Audit Kickoff Meeting Sample Agenda. (69.5 KB) More Documents & Publications Agenda: Preliminary Assessment Kickoff Meeting Agenda: Investment-Grade Audit Midpoint Review Meeting FEMP ESPC

  10. DOE-STD-1153-2002; A Graded Approach for Evaluating Radiation...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    on Their Implementation in Evaluating Radiation Doses to Biota The graded approach was ... and issues inherent in evaluating radiation as a stressor to the environment which ...

  11. Discovery of a 〈210〉-fiber texture in medical-grade metastable...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Discovery of a 210-fiber texture in medical-grade metastable beta titanium wire This content will become publicly available on May 4, 2017 Title: Discovery of a ...

  12. Table 14. U.S. Propane (Consumer Grade) Prices by Sales Type

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and EIA-782B, "Resellers'Retailers' Monthly Petroleum Product Sales Report." 14. U.S. Propane (Consumer Grade) Prices by Sales Type 28 Energy Information Administration ...

  13. December 12, 2013 Webinar - The Use of Graded Approach in Hanford...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    December 12, 2013 Webinar - The Use of Graded Approach in Hanford Vadose Zone Modeling Alaa H. Aly (CHPRCINTERA) & Dibakar Goswami ( Washington State Department of Ecology) ...

  14. NQA-1 Requirements for Commercial Grade Item Acceptance: ICONE20-54738

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Valkenburg, Taunia S.; Holmes, Richard A.; Tepley, Daniel J.; Sandquist, Gary

    2012-07-19

    Objectives are: (1) Present the DOE Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Replacement (CMRR) Project Commercial Grade Item (CGI) Dedication Process; and (2) Present CMRR Project CGI Lessons-Learned.

  15. Microsoft PowerPoint - GradedApproach_P&RA_CoP_December2013 ...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Hanford Site Graded Approach to Vadose Zone Approach to Vadose Zone Modeling: Current Status and Future Applications pp Presented to: PA Community of Practice 12 December 2013 12 ...

  16. Table A1. Refiner/Reseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table A1. RefinerReseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD District and State, 1984-Present (Cents per Gallon...

  17. Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    table. 56 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  18. Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    table. 56 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  19. Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 6. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade and Sales Type (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) - Continued...

  20. Table A1. Refiner/Reseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 401 Table A1. RefinerReseller Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, PAD District and State, 1984-Present (Cents per Gallon...

  1. Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 7. U.S. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade and Sales Type (Million Gallons per Day) - Continued Year...

  2. Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    table. 56 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 31. Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  3. Nanostructured composite reinforced material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seals, Roland D.; Ripley, Edward B.; Ludtka, Gerard M.

    2012-07-31

    A family of materials wherein nanostructures and/or nanotubes are incorporated into a multi-component material arrangement, such as a metallic or ceramic alloy or composite/aggregate, producing a new material or metallic/ceramic alloy. The new material has significantly increased strength, up to several thousands of times normal and perhaps substantially more, as well as significantly decreased weight. The new materials may be manufactured into a component where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the bulk and/or matrix material, or as a coating where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the coating or surface of a "normal" substrate material. The nanostructures are incorporated into the material structure either randomly or aligned, within grains, or along or across grain boundaries.

  4. Geopolymer Sealing Materials

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    DOE Geothermal Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. Project objectives: Develop and characterize field-applicable geopolymer temporary sealing materials in the laboratory and to transfer this developed material technology to geothermal drilling service companies as collaborators for field validation tests.

  5. Earth-Abundant Materials

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    DOE funds research into Earth-abundant materials for thin-film solar applications in response to the issue of materials scarcity surrounding other photovoltaic (PV) technologies. The sections below...

  6. Cybersecurity Awareness Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The OCIO develops and distributes a variety of materials to enhance cyber awareness campaigns, address emerging cyber threats, and examine hot topics. These materials are available to all DOE organizations, and public and private institutions.

  7. Nuclear Materials Disposition

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In fulfilling its mission, EM frequently manages and completes disposition of surplus nuclear materials and spent nuclear fuel.  These are not waste. They are nuclear materials no longer needed for...

  8. Materials/Condensed Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials/Condensed Matter Materials/Condensed Matter Print Materials research provides the foundation on which the economic well being of our high-tech society rests. The impact of advanced materials ranges dramatically over every aspect of our modern world from the minutiae of daily life to the grand scale of our national economy. Invariably, however, breakthroughs to new technologies trace their origin both to fundamental research in the basic properties of condensed matter and to applied

  9. Instructions and Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The following are 2012 Program Peer Review Meeting instructions, materials and resource links for presenters and reviewers.

  10. ARM - Public Information Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govPublicationsPublic Information Materials Publications Journal Articles Conference Documents Program Documents Technical Reports Publications Database Public Information...

  11. Quantitative determination of mineral composition by powder X-ray diffraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pawloski, Gayle A.

    1986-01-01

    An external standard intensity ratio method is used for quantitatively determining mineralogic compositions of samples by x-ray diffraction. The method uses ratios of x-ray intensity peaks from a single run. Constants are previously determined for each mineral which is to be quantitatively measured. Ratios of the highest intensity peak of each mineral to be quantified in the sample and the highest intensity peak of a reference mineral contained in the sample are used to calculate sample composition.

  12. Quantitative determination of mineral composition by powder x-ray diffraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pawloski, G.A.

    1984-08-10

    An external standard intensity ratio method is used for quantitatively determining mineralogic compositions of samples by x-ray diffraction. The method uses ratios of x-ray intensity peaks from a single run. Constants are previously determined for each mineral which is to be quantitatively measured. Ratios of the highest intensity peak of each mineral to be quantified in the sample and the highest intensity peak of a reference mineral contained in the sample are used to calculate sample composition.

  13. Advanced neutron absorber materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Branagan, Daniel J.; Smolik, Galen R.

    2000-01-01

    A neutron absorbing material and method utilizing rare earth elements such as gadolinium, europium and samarium to form metallic glasses and/or noble base nano/microcrystalline materials, the neutron absorbing material having a combination of superior neutron capture cross sections coupled with enhanced resistance to corrosion, oxidation and leaching.

  14. Sorbent Storage Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Fuel Cell Technologies Office's sorbent storage materials research focuses on increasing the dihydrogen binding energies and improving the hydrogen volumetric capacity by optimizing the material's pore size, pore volume, and surface area, as well as investigating effects of material densification.

  15. Preliminary materials assessment for the Satellite Power System (SPS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teeter, R.R.; Jamieson, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    Presently, there are two SPS reference design concepts (one using silicon solar cells; the other using gallium arsenide solar cells). A materials assessment of both systems was performed based on the materials lists set forth in the DOE/NASA SPS Reference System Report: Concept Development and Evaluation Program. This listing identified 22 materials (plus miscellaneous and organics) used in the SPS. Tracing the production processes for these 22 materials, a total demand for over 20 different bulk materials (copper, silicon, sulfuric acid, etc.) and nealy 30 raw materials (copper ore, sand, sulfur ore, etc.) was revealed. Assessment of these SPS material requirements produced a number of potential material supply problems. The more serious problems are those associated with the solar cell materials (gallium, gallium arsenide, sapphire, and solar grade silicon), and the graphite fiber required for the satellite structure and space construction facilities. In general, the gallium arsenide SPS option exhibits more serious problems than the silicon option, possibly because gallium arsenide technology is not as well developed as that for silicon. Results are presented and discussed in detail. (WHK)

  16. Fundamental study of CO2-H2O-mineral interactions for carbon...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    E.; Wang, Yifeng; Matteo, Edward N.; Meserole, Stephen P.; Tallant, David Robert In the supercritical CO2-water-mineral systems relevant to subsurface CO2 sequestration,...

  17. The role of mineral aerosol as a reactive surface in the global...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Dust storms have become a distinct feature in many regions around the globe, including east Asia, west Africa, and South America. The mineral aerosols, uplifted in these storms, ...

  18. Method for the Production of Mineral Wool and Iron from Serpentine...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    fiber in collector Mineral wool fiber in collector Blowing fiber Blowing fiber Technology Marketing Summary This invention discloses a method to fabricate a product that has the...

  19. MINER{nu}A, a Neutrino--Nucleus Interaction Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solano Salinas, C. J.; Chamorro, A.; Romero, C.

    2007-10-26

    With the fantastic results of KamLAND and SNO for neutrino physics, a new generation of neutrino experiments are being designed and build, specially to study the neutrino oscillations to resolve most of the incognita still we have in the neutrino physics. At FERMILAB we have the experiments MINOS and, in a near future, NO{nu}A, to study this kind of oscillations. One big problem these experiments will have is the lack of a good knowledge of the Physics of neutrino interactions with matter, and this will generate big systematic errors. MINER{nu}A, also at FERMILAB, will cover this space studying with high statistics and great precision the neutrino--nucleus interactions.

  20. Catalytic effects of minerals on NOx emission from coal combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yao, M.Y.; Che, D.F.

    2007-07-01

    The catalytic effects of inherent mineral matters on NOx emissions from coal combustion have been investigated by a thermo-gravimetric analyzer (TGA) equipped with a gas analyzer. The effect of demineralization and the individual effect of Na, K, Ca, Mg, and Fe on the formation of NOx are studied as well as the combined catalytic effects of Ca + Na and Ca + Ti. Demineralization causes more Fuel-N to retain in the char, and reduction of NOx mostly. But the mechanistic effect on NOx formation varies from coal to coal. Ca and Mg promote NOx emission. Na, K, Fe suppress NOx formation to different extents. The effect of transition element Fe is the most obvious. The combination of Ca + Na and Ca + Ti can realize the simultaneous control of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides emissions.