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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "graaff confetti explosion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

Frostbite Theater - Static Electricity Experiments - Big Sparks...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Van de Graaff Confetti Explosion Previous Video (Van de Graaff Confetti Explosion) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Polar Molecules) Polar Molecules Big Sparks, Little...

2

Glossary Term - Van de Graaff Generator  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Uranus Uranus Previous Term (Uranus) Glossary Main Index Next Term (Vanadis) Vanadis Van de Graaff Generator A Van de Graaff generator discharges to a grounded metal sphere. A Van de Graaff generator is a device used to create a high voltage static charge. In this Van de Graaff generator, an electric motor pulls a latex belt over a felt covered pulley. Electrons are transferred from the felt to the belt as the belt pulls away from the pulley. The electrons ride the belt to the upper dome, where a pick-up wire transfers them from the belt to the dome. Each electron carries a negative charge and, since like charges repel, the electrons on the dome attempt to get as far away from each other as possible. At some point, too many electrons are placed on the dome. When this occurs the electrons attempt to reach the earth by leaping

3

BNL | Tandem Van de Graaff | Home  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tandem Van de Graaff Tandem Van de Graaff Tandem Home Conduct Research at the Tandem Capabilities Testing & Callibration SEU Test Facility Ion Species Ion Irradiation / Implantation Schedule Org Chart (.pdf) Contact Welcome to the Tandem The Tandem Van de Graaff Facility consists of two 15-megavolt electrostatic accelerators capable of delivering continuous, or high-intensity pulsed ion beams in a wide range of ion species at various energies to experimental chambers that are available to researchers on a full cost-recovery basis. More » Use the Tandem Follow these simple steps to determine if the Tandem meets your experimental needs, reserve beam time, and to plan for your visit. Review Capabilities Learn what ion species are available at the Tandem and at what LETs, maximum energies, and energy ranges, as well as other capabilities.

4

Van de Graaff Accelerator Utilizations in Materials Science - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nov 26, 2007 ... Abstract: Possessing a Van de Graaff accelerator in a research Institute can indeed be a blessing. American physicist Robert Jemison Van de ...

5

Robert Jemison Van de Graaff was born on December 20, 1901 in Tuscaloosa,  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Van de Graaff Picture Van de Graaff Picture Short Biography Of Robert Jemison Van de Graaff Robert Jemison Van de Graaff was born on December 20, 1901 in Tuscaloosa, Alabama. His mother was Minnie Cherokee Hargrove and his father was Adrian Sebastian Van de Graaff. Robert attended the Tuscaloosa public schools and then attended the University of Alabama where he received a BS degree in 1922 and an MS degree in 1923. Both degrees were in mechanical engineering. After graduating from college he worked for the Alabama Power Company for a year as a research assistant. He studied at the Sorbonne in Paris from 1924 to 1925 and while there, attended lectures by Marie Curie on radiation. In 1925 he went to Oxford University in England as a Rhodes Scholar. At Oxford he received a BS in physics in 1926 and a Ph.D. in physics in 1928. While

6

Explosives tester  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An explosives tester that can be used anywhere as a screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are provided. A heater is provided for receiving the first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers.

Haas, Jeffrey S. (San Ramon, CA); Howard, Douglas E. (Livermore, CA); Eckels, Joel D. (Livermore, CA); Nunes, Peter J. (Danville, CA)

2011-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

7

Insensitive explosive  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to the field of chemistry and, more particularly, to explosives. This invention is the result of a contract with the Department of Energy (Contract No. W-7405-ENG-36). It is desirable to use explosives in weapons and other applications which are less sensitive than the common explosives RDX, TNT, and HMX, since there have been catastrophic explosions of munitions which use these compounds. In preliminary characterization and sensitivity testing, it has been found that 3-amino-5-nitro-1,2,4-triazole (ANTA) is a promising insensitive high explosive. This report details the safety, production, and physical properties of ANTA.

Lee, Kien-yin; Storm, C.B.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

8

Animating explosions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we introduce techniques for animating explosions and their effects. The primary effect of an explosion is a disturbance that causes a shock wave to propagate through the surrounding medium. The disturbance determines the behavior of nearly ... Keywords: animation, atmospheric effects, computational fluid dynamics, natural phenomena, physically based animation

Gary D. Yngve; James F. O'Brien; Jessica K. Hodgins

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Microgan electron cyclotron resonance ion source in a Van de Graaff accelerator terminal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Van de Graaff accelerator at IRMM works since many years providing proton, deuteron, and helium beams for nuclear data measurements. The original ion source was of RF type with quartz bottle. This kind of source, as well known, needs regular maintenance for which the accelerator tank must be completely opened. The heavy usage at high currents of the IRMM accelerator necessitated an opening about once every month. In 2010, the full permanent magnet Microgan electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source from PANTECHNIK was installed into a new terminal platform together with a solid state amplifier of 50 W, a dedicated dosing system for 4 gases (with respective gas bottles H{sub 2}, D{sub 2}, He, and Ar), and a set of dedicated power supplies and electronic devices for the remote tuning of the source. The new system shows a very stable behaviour of the produced beam allowing running the Van de Graaf without maintenance for several months. This contribution will describe the full installed system in details (working at high pressure in the terminal, spark effects, and optic of the extraction), as well as beam results in dc or pulsed mode.

Gaubert, G.; Bieth, C.; Bougy, W.; Brionne, N.; Donzel, X.; Sineau, A.; Vallerand, C.; Villari, A. C. C. [PANTECHNIK, Bayeux (France); Chaves, C.; Gamboni, T.; Geerts, W.; Giorginis, G.; Loevestam, G.; Mondelaers, W. [EC-JRC-IRMM, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Geel (Belgium)

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

10

Nuclear explosions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A summary of the physics of a nuclear bomb explosion and its effects on human beings is presented at the level of a sophomore general physics course without calculus. It is designed to supplement a standard text for such a course and problems are included.

A. A. Broyles

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Explosive complexes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Lead-free primary explosives of the formula [M.sup.II(A).sub.R(B.sup.X).sub.S](C.sup.Y).sub.T, where A is 1,5-diaminotetrazole, and syntheses thereof are described. Substantially stoichiometric equivalents of the reactants lead to high yields of pure compositions thereby avoiding dangerous purification steps.

Huynh, My Hang V. (Los Alamos, NM)

2009-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

12

Explosive complexes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lead-free primary explosives of the formula [M.sup.II(A).sub.R(B.sup.X).sub.S](C.sup.Y).sub.T, where A is 1,5-diaminotetrazole, and syntheses thereof are described. Substantially stoichiometric equivalents of the reactants lead to high yields of pure compositions thereby avoiding dangerous purification steps.

Huynh, My Hang V. (Los Alamos, NM)

2011-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

13

Insensitive Extrudable Explosive  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Insensitive Extrudable Explosive Insensitive Extrudable Explosive Insensitive Extrudable Explosive Los Alamos National Laboratory scientists have developed a novel explosive using a new class of materials in which an energetic binder is chemically attached to a particulate solid explosive using an innovative technique. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Insensitive Extrudable Explosive Applications: Plastic and extrudable explosive replacement Demolition Seismic prospecting Geographical mapping Oil & gas industry Quarrying Mining Construction Military and law enforcement Flexible shaped charges Shock hardening Explosive welding Sheet explosives Detonating cord (cased or bare) Benefits: Compatible with standard explosives Safer than current technology (i.e. insensitive to impact and other

14

Explosives Safety  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

212-2012 212-2012 June 2012 DOE STANDARD EXPLOSIVES SAFETY U.S. Department of Energy AREA SAFT Washington, DC 20585 MEASUREMENT SENSITIVE DOE-STD-1212-2012 i TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I. PURPOSE, SCOPE and APPLICABILITY, EXEMPTIONS, WAIVERS, ABBREVIATIONS, ACRONYMS, AND DEFINITIONS .......... 1 1.0. PURPOSE ............................................................................................................. 1 1.1. Scope and Applicability.............................................................................. 1 2.0. STANDARD ADMINISTRATION AND MANAGEMENT ...................................... 3 3.0. EXEMPTIONS ....................................................................................................... 4

15

Explosive simulants for testing explosive detection systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Explosives simulants that include non-explosive components are disclosed that facilitate testing of equipment designed to remotely detect explosives. The simulants are non-explosive, non-hazardous materials that can be safely handled without any significant precautions. The simulants imitate real explosives in terms of mass density, effective atomic number, x-ray transmission properties, and physical form, including moldable plastics and emulsions/gels.

Kury, John W. (Danville, CA); Anderson, Brian L. (Lodi, CA)

1999-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

16

Ammonium nitrate explosive systems  

SciTech Connect

Novel explosives which comprise mixtures of ammonium nitrate and an ammonium salt of a nitroazole in desired ratios are disclosed. A preferred nitroazole is 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole. The explosive and physical properties of these explosives may readily be varied by the addition of other explosives and oxidizers. Certain of these mixtures have been found to act as ideal explosives.

Stinecipher, Mary M. (Los Alamos, NM); Coburn, Michael D. (Los Alamos, NM)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Wooden explosives for woodcock  

SciTech Connect

The explosives group of the Chemistry Division has spent considerable time on the high explosives portion of the Woodcock program. The preliminary results obtained in the course of this investigation as well as data accumulated at other laboratories throughout the country are presented in this memorandum. Part I is concerned with the preparation and properties of the most promising `wooden` explosives (shock insensitive and high-temperature stable) explosives. Part II deals with several substitute explosives which could be used immediately in a hydrodynamic program. Part III presents a tentative schedule and indicates the role various groups at UCRL have agreed to play in the Woodcock explosives program for the next few weeks.

Kury, J.

1958-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

18

Explosives going dark  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Explosives going dark Explosives going dark 1663 Los Alamos science and technology magazine Latest Issue:November 2013 All Issues » submit Explosives going dark An enhanced biomarker developed at Los Alamos can be used in the field to detect explosives and other hazardous materials. November 25, 2013 Explosives going dark This fluorescent protein, developed at Los Alamos, is unusually stable even when briefly boiled, making it useful for unconventional applications, such as sniffing out explosives and toxins. An enhanced green fluorescent protein stops glowing when explosives are present. Nitroorganic high explosives, including TNT and RDX, as well as certain other toxins, poisons, and nerve agents, have been shown to suppress an ultraviolet excitation mechanism that causes a fluorescent biomarker to

19

Extrusion cast explosive  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is an improved, multiphase, high performance, high energy, extrusion cast explosive compositions, comprising, a crystalline explosive material; an energetic liquid plasticizer; a urethane prepolymer, comprising a blend of polyvinyl formal, and polycaprolactone; a polyfunctional isocyanate; and a catalyst. These new explosive compositions exhibit higher explosive content, a smooth detonation front, excellent stability over long periods of storage, and lower sensitivity to mechanical stimulants. 1 fig.

Scribner, K.J.

1985-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

20

Extrusion cast explosive  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Improved, multiphase, high performance, high energy, extrusion cast explosive compositions, comprising, a crystalline explosive material; an energetic liquid plasticizer; a urethane prepolymer, comprising a blend of polyvinyl formal, and polycaprolactone; a polyfunctional isocyanate; and a catalyst are disclosed. These new explosive compositions exhibit higher explosive content, a smooth detonation front, excellent stability over long periods of storage, and lower sensitivity to mechanical stimulants. 1 fig.

Scribner, K.J.

1985-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "graaff confetti explosion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Inspection tester for explosives  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An inspection tester that can be used anywhere as a primary screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. It includes a body with a sample pad. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are operatively connected to the body and the sample pad. The first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagents to the sample pad. A is heater operatively connected to the sample pad.

Haas, Jeffrey S. (San Ramon, CA); Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Satcher, Joe H. (Patterson, CA)

2007-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

22

Inspection tester for explosives  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An inspection tester that can be used anywhere as a primary screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. It includes a body with a sample pad. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are operatively connected to the body and the sample pad. The first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagents to the sample pad. A is heater operatively connected to the sample pad.

Haas, Jeffrey S. (San Ramon, CA); Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Satcher, Joe H. (Patterson, CA)

2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

23

Explosive fracturing method  

SciTech Connect

A method of inducing a fracture system and multiple cavities in earthen formations is described. A first explosive, preferably nuclear, is buried at a sufficient depth so that its subsequent detonation is fully contained within the earth. Thereafter a second explosive, also preferably nuclear, is buried a predetermined distance from the situs of the first explosive. After detonation of the first explosive, time is allowed to elapse during which the cavity formed by the first explosive collapses to form a rubblized chimney. Thereafter, the second explosive is detonated to create a second chimney parallel to that of the first explosive together with a zone of enhanced permeability between the first and second. (10 claims)

Boardman, C.R.; Knutson, C.F.

1973-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

24

Free radical explosive composition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved explosive composition is disclosed and comprises a major portion of an explosive having a detonation velocity between about 1500 and 10,000 meters per second and a minor amount of a getter additive comprising a compound or mixture of compounds capable of capturing or deactivating free radicals or ions under mechanical or electrical shock conditions and which is not an explosive. Exemplary getter additives are isocyanates, olefins and iodine.

Walker, Franklin E. (15 Way Points Rd., Danville, CA 94526); Wasley, Richard J. (4290 Colgate Way, Livermore, CA 94550)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Explosion metal welding  

SciTech Connect

Process parameters pertaining to welding similar and dissimilar metals using explosives are reviewed. The discussion centers on the interrelationship of physical parameters which play a part in achieving desirable metallurgical results. Present activities in explosion metal welding at LASL are presented and shown how they related to the interests of the ERDA community.

Popoff, A.A.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Explosively pumped laser light  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A single shot laser pumped by detonation of an explosive in a shell casing. The shock wave from detonation of the explosive causes a rare gas to luminesce. The high intensity light from the gas enters a lasing medium, which thereafter outputs a pulse of laser light to disable optical sensors and personnel.

Piltch, Martin S. (Los Alamos, NM); Michelotti, Roy A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Non-detonable explosive simulators  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs and calibrating sensitive analytical instruments. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques, a first involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and the second involves coating inert beads with thin layers of explosive molecules. 5 figs.

Simpson, R.L.; Pruneda, C.O.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Non-detonable explosive simulators  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs and calibrating sensitive analytical instruments. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques, a first involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and the second involves coating inert beads with thin layers of explosive molecules.

Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Pruneda, Cesar O. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Lithium niobate explosion monitor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Monitoring explosive devices is accomplished with a substantially z-cut lithium niobate crystal in abutment with the explosive device. Upon impact by a shock wave from detonation of the explosive device, the crystal emits a current pulse prior to destruction of the crystal. The current pulse is detected by a current viewing transformer and recorded as a function of time in nanoseconds. In order to self-check the crystal, the crystal has a chromium film resistor deposited thereon which may be heated by a current pulse prior to detonation. This generates a charge which is detected by a charge amplifier.

Bundy, Charles H. (Clearwater, FL); Graham, Robert A. (Los Lunas, NM); Kuehn, Stephen F. (Albuquerque, NM); Precit, Richard R. (Albuquerque, NM); Rogers, Michael S. (Albuquerque, NM)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Tandem Van de Graaff  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) for further acceleration. At the time, this modification opened an entirely new area of research at the AGS. The TtB now makes it possible...

31

Forensic Database Fire Explosives Table  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fire & Explosives. Name. Subdiscipline. Maintained By. Overview & Contents. Access & Fees. Collection Method. Evidence Type. POC. ...

2013-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

32

Parametric Explosion Spectral Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Small underground nuclear explosions need to be confidently detected, identified, and characterized in regions of the world where they have never before occurred. We develop a parametric model of the nuclear explosion seismic source spectrum derived from regional phases that is compatible with earthquake-based geometrical spreading and attenuation. Earthquake spectra are fit with a generalized version of the Brune spectrum, which is a three-parameter model that describes the long-period level, corner-frequency, and spectral slope at high-frequencies. Explosion spectra can be fit with similar spectral models whose parameters are then correlated with near-source geology and containment conditions. We observe a correlation of high gas-porosity (low-strength) with increased spectral slope. The relationship between the parametric equations and the geologic and containment conditions will assist in our physical understanding of the nuclear explosion source.

Ford, S R; Walter, W R

2012-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

33

Explosion suppression system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An explosion suppression system and triggering apparatus therefor are provided for quenching gas and dust explosions. An electrically actuated suppression mechanism which dispenses an extinguishing agent into the path ahead of the propagating flame is actuated by a triggering device which is light powered. This triggering device is located upstream of the propagating flame and converts light from the flame to an electrical actuation signal. A pressure arming device electrically connects the triggering device to the suppression device only when the explosion is sensed by a further characteristic thereof beside the flame such as the pioneer pressure wave. The light powered triggering device includes a solar panel which is disposed in the path of the explosion and oriented between horizontally downward and vertical. Testing mechanisms are also preferably provided to test the operation of the solar panel and detonator as well as the pressure arming mechanism.

Sapko, Michael J. (Finleyville, PA); Cortese, Robert A. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Non-detonable and non-explosive explosive simulators  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable or explodable. The simulator is a combination of an explosive material with an inert material, either in a matrix or as a coating, where the explosive has a high surface ratio but small volume ratio. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs, calibrating analytical instruments which are sensitive to either vapor or elemental composition, or other applications where the hazards associated with explosives is undesirable but where chemical and/or elemental equivalence is required. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques. A first method involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and a second method involves coating inert substrates with thin layers of explosive.

Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Pruneda, Cesar O. (Livermore, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Non-detonable and non-explosive explosive simulators  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable or explodable is disclosed. The simulator is a combination of an explosive material with an inert material, either in a matrix or as a coating, where the explosive has a high surface ratio but small volume ratio. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs, calibrating analytical instruments which are sensitive to either vapor or elemental composition, or other applications where the hazards associated with explosives is undesirable but where chemical and/or elemental equivalence is required. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques. A first method involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and a second method involves coating inert substrates with thin layers of explosive. 11 figs.

Simpson, R.L.; Pruneda, C.O.

1997-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

36

Explosion containment device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The disclosure relates to an explosives storage container for absorbing and containing the blast, fragments and detonation products from a possible detonation of a contained explosive. The container comprises a layer of distended material having sufficient thickness to convert a portion of the kinetic energy of the explosion into thermal energy therein. A continuous wall of steel sufficiently thick to absorb most of the remaining kinetic energy by stretching and expanding, thereby reducing the momentum of detonation products and high velocity fragments, surrounds the layer of distended material. A crushable layer surrounds the continuous steel wall and accommodates the stretching and expanding thereof, transmitting a moderate load to the outer enclosure. These layers reduce the forces of the explosion and the momentum of the products thereof to zero. The outer enclosure comprises a continuous pressure wall enclosing all of the layers. In one embodiment, detonation of the contained explosive causes the outer enclosure to expand which indicates to a visual observer that a detonation has occurred.

Benedick, William B. (Albuquerque, NM); Daniel, Charles J. (Albuquerque, NM)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Molecular models for explosives  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Any fundamental understanding of detonations and explosives' behavior requires as a starting point a knowledge of molecular properties. Indeed, there is a sizable literature concerning observed decomposition kinetics, x-ray crystal structures, heats of formation, etc. for explosives. As a result of this extensive experimental work, a large and ever increasing number of observed properties of explosives are available. Given sufficient data, models for the prediction of molecular properties can be developed and calibrated. Nevertheless, many desirable molecular properties can be obtained with considerable effort and, in many cases, experimental measurements are not possible for practical reasons; e.g., bond dissociation energies are very difficult to obtain for explosives. Consequently, theoretical methods for obtaining these properties are quite desirable. In addition, it is oftentimes desired to estimate the properties of unknown molecules. Consequently, methods for the estimation of molecular properties, which might seem quite crude by other standards, can be of considerable practical value. We present in this paper some of our recent efforts at extending and developing molecular models for explosives. These efforts fall into three main areas: Estimation of crystal densities of organic nitrates and perchlorates by an entirely empirical group additivity method; calculation of molecular heats of formation and bond dissociation energies (BDE's) by a semi-empirical molecular orbital method (AM1); and the electronic structure of nitrobenzene as obtained from non-empirical (sometimes called ab initio molecular orbital calculations. 10 refs.

Ritchie, J.P.; Bachrach, S.M.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Explosively separable casing  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An explosively separable casing including a cylindrical afterbody and a circular cover for one end of the afterbody is disclosed. The afterbody has a cylindrical tongue extending longitudinally from one end which is matingly received in a corresponding groove in the cover. The groove is sized to provide a pocket between the end of the tongue and the remainder of the groove so that an explosive can be located therein. A seal is also provided between the tongue and the groove for sealing the pocket from the atmosphere. A frangible holding device is utilized to hold the cover to the afterbody. When the explosive is ignited, the increase in pressure in the pocket causes the cover to be accelerated away from the afterbody. Preferably, the inner wall of the afterbody is in the same plane as the inner wall of the tongue to provide a maximum space for storage in the afterbody and the side wall of the cover is thicker than the side wall of the afterbody so as to provide a sufficiently strong surrounding portion for the pocket in which the explosion takes place. The detonator for the explosive is also located on the cover and is carried away with the cover during separation. The seal is preferably located at the longitudinal end of the tongue and has a chevron cross section.

Jacobson, Albin K. (Albuquerque, NM); Rychnovsky, Raymond E. (Livermore, CA); Visbeck, Cornelius N. (Livermore, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Novel high explosive compositions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This is a technique of preparing explosive compositions by the in-situ reaction of polynitroaliphatic compounds with one or more carboranes or carborane derivatives. One or more polynitroaliphatic reactants are combined with one or more carborane reactants in a suitable container and mixed to a homogeneous reaction mixture using a stream of inert gas or conventional mixing means. Ordinarily the container is a fissure, crack, or crevice in which the explosive is to be implanted. The ratio of reactants will determine not only the stoichiometry of the system, but will effect the quality and quantity of combustion products, the explosive force obtained as well as the impact sensitivity. The test values can shift with even relatively slight changes or modifications in the reaction conditions. Eighteen illustrative examples accompany the disclosure. (46 claims)

Perry, D.D.; Fein, M.M.; Schoenfelder, C.W.

1968-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

40

Calcium nitrate explosive composition  

SciTech Connect

A blasting agent is composed of about 40% by wt of a mixture of calcium nitrate, water, a second inorganic oxidizing salt, and a water miscible organic fuel. These 4 components are provided in proportions to each other so as to provide an effective blasting agent. Optionally, up to 60% of additives well known in the explosives art, e.g., organic and inorganic fuels, sensitizers, density control agents, thickeners and gelling agents, inorganic nitrate based explosive compositions, can be incorporated into the blasting agent to provide certain desired characteristics. (42 claims)

Clark, W.F.; Slykhouse, T.E.

1974-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "graaff confetti explosion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Microcantilever detector for explosives  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods and apparatus for detecting the presence of explosives by analyzing a vapor sample from the suspect vicinity utilize at least one microcantilever. Explosive gas molecules which have been adsorbed onto the microcantilever are subsequently heated to cause combustion. Heat, along with momentum transfer from combustion, causes bending and a transient resonance response of the microcantilever which may be detected by a laser diode which is focused on the microcantilever and a photodetector which detects deflection of the reflected laser beam caused by heat-induced deflection and resonance response of the microcantilever.

Thundat, Thomas G. (Knoxville, TN)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Explosive Z Pinch  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose an explanation for the recently observed powerful contained explosion in a Z pinch experiment performed at Sandia National Laboratories. Our arguments are based on the assumption that a pure SU(2) Yang-Mills theory of scale $\\sim 0.5 $MeV is responsible for the emergence of the electron and its neutrino.

Giacosa, F; Schwarz, M; Giacosa, Francesco; Hofmann, Ralf; Schwarz, Markus

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Explosive Z Pinch  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose an explanation for the recently observed powerful contained explosion in a Z pinch experiment performed at Sandia National Laboratories. Our arguments are based on the assumption that a pure SU(2) Yang-Mills theory of scale $\\sim 0.5 $MeV is responsible for the emergence of the electron and its neutrino.

Francesco Giacosa; Ralf Hofmann; Markus Schwarz

2006-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

44

Initiative for Explosives Detection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

capabilities. Staff at PNNL are developing effective integrated systems for explosives detection, addressing, fundamental science and health. Battelle, based in Columbus, Ohio, has operated PNNL since 1965. PNNL's long. PNNL is located in Richland, Washington. Additional web resources are at: http

45

Upper Stage Explosion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The explosion of a failed launch vehicle upper stage on 16 October created thousands of new debris which pose collision risks to hundreds of satellites operating in low Earth orbit (LEO), including the International Space Station (ISS). Fortunately, the threat will be relatively short-lived with the majority of the debris expected to reenter the atmosphere within one year. The explosion of the Proton Briz-M stage (International Designator 2012-044C, U.S. Satellite Number 38746) occurred just a day after the publication of the October 2012 issue of the Orbital Debris Quarterly News, which contained an article describing the potential for just such a breakup (ODQN, October 2012, pp. 2-3). The stage

Places Leo; Satellites Risk

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Dismantling by explosives  

SciTech Connect

Explosives have rarely been used in decommissioning of nuclear reactors. Nevertheless, controlled blasting can be used advantageously during careful destruction of nuclear power plants for removal of concrete, pipe systems, and other components. Experiments performed within a former nuclear power plant demonstrate the feasibility of this method, employing explosive masses up to 15 kg per blast. The loadings of the components and the total plant structure were measured and compared with code predictions. The experiments show a response of the containment predominantly in frequency ranges above 100 Hz, thus keeping the building and components below German regulation limits for shock excitation. The blast wave pressures are reduced drastically within short distances in the building. Dust and debris can be contained with simple methods such as curtains. Use of this method seems to be applicable to actual dismantling projects.

Freund, H.U. (Battelle-Institut e.V., Postfach 900160, D-6000 Frankfurt/Main (DE)); Muller, K. (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe G.m.b.H. (Germany, F.R.))

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Dust cluster explosion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A model for the dust cluster explosion where micron/sub-micron sized particles are accelerated at the expense of plasma thermal energy, in the afterglow phase of a complex plasma discharge is proposed. The model is tested by molecular dynamics simulations of dust particles in a confining potential. The nature of the explosion (caused by switching off the discharge) and the concomitant dust acceleration is found to depend critically on the pressure of the background neutral gas. At low gas pressure, the explosion is due to unshielded Coulomb repulsion between dust particles and yields maximum acceleration, while in the high pressure regime it is due to shielded Yukawa repulsion and yields much feebler acceleration. These results are in agreement with experimental findings. Our simulations also confirm a recently proposed electrostatic (ES) isothermal scaling relation, P{sub E}{proportional_to}V{sub d}{sup -2} (where P{sub E} is the ES pressure of the dust particles and V{sub d} is the confining volume).

Saxena, Vikrant [School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar (India); Avinash, K. [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, New Delhi (India); Sen, A. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar (India)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

48

Tagging explosives with sulfur hexafluoride  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method and apparatus for tagging explosives with a source of SF.sub.6 permitting the detection of their presence utilizing sensitive sniffing apparatus.

Dietz, Russell N. (Shoreham, NY); Cote, Edgar A. (Yaphank, NY); Vogel, William (East Islip, NY); Dempsey, John C. (Frederick, MD)

1976-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

49

Explosive Waste Treatment Facility  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

106 106 Environment a 1 Assessment for th.e Explosive Waste Treatment Facility at Site 300 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory MASTER November 1995 U.S. Department of Energy Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Washington, DOC. 20585 Portions of this document maly be illegible in electronic image products. Images are produced from the best available original document. Table of Contents 1 . 0 2.0 3 . 0 4.0 5 . 0 6.0 7 . 0 8 . 0 Document Summary .............................................................. 1 Purpose and Need for Agency Action ............................................. 3 Description of the Proposed Action and Alternatives ............................ 4 3.1.1 Location ............................................................. 4

50

Laser machining of explosives  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention consists of a method for machining (cutting, drilling, sculpting) of explosives (e.g., TNT, TATB, PETN, RDX, etc.). By using pulses of a duration in the range of 5 femtoseconds to 50 picoseconds, extremely precise and rapid machining can be achieved with essentially no heat or shock affected zone. In this method, material is removed by a nonthermal mechanism. A combination of multiphoton and collisional ionization creates a critical density plasma in a time scale much shorter than electron kinetic energy is transferred to the lattice. The resulting plasma is far from thermal equilibrium. The material is in essence converted from its initial solid-state directly into a fully ionized plasma on a time scale too short for thermal equilibrium to be established with the lattice. As a result, there is negligible heat conduction beyond the region removed resulting in negligible thermal stress or shock to the material beyond a few microns from the laser machined surface. Hydrodynamic expansion of the plasma eliminates the need for any ancillary techniques to remove material and produces extremely high quality machined surfaces. There is no detonation or deflagration of the explosive in the process and the material which is removed is rendered inert.

Perry, Michael D. (Livermore, CA); Stuart, Brent C. (Fremont, CA); Banks, Paul S. (Livermore, CA); Myers, Booth R. (Livermore, CA); Sefcik, Joseph A. (Tracy, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Radiography used to image thermal explosions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radiography used to image thermal explosions Radiography used to image thermal explosions Radiography used to image thermal explosions Researchers have gained an understanding of the mechanism of thermal explosions and have created a model capturing the stages of the explosion. October 9, 2012 Tabletop X-ray radiography of a thermal explosion. Tabletop X-ray radiography of a thermal explosion. Researchers have gained an understanding of the mechanism of thermal explosions and have created a model capturing the stages of the explosion. Proton radiography (pRad) at LANSCE imaged thermal explosions at high speeds to provide a real-time look at how an explosion unfolds and releases its energy. Specifically, it is important to know the range of temperature over which ignition may occur and the subsequent power of the explosion.

52

Gas Explosion Characterization, Wave Propagation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of nuclear power plants. However, an evi- dent lack of knowledge in the field had demanded for a detaileds & Dt^boooo^j Risø-R-525 Gas Explosion Characterization, Wave Propagation (Small-Scale Experiments EXPLOSION CHARACTERIZATION, WAVE PROPAGATION (Small-Scale Experiments) G.C. Larsen Abstract. A number

53

Microsoft Word - Operationalizing Explosives Safety.docx  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Operationalizing Explosives Safety Incorporating Explosives Safety and Munitions Risk Management into the Joint Operation Planning Process Department of Defense Issues and...

54

Donor free radical explosive composition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved explosive composition is disclosed and comprises a major portion of an explosive having a detonation velocity between about 1500 and 10,000 meters per second and a minor amount of a donor additive comprising an organic compound or mixture of organic compounds capable of releasing low molecular weight free radicals or ions under mechanical or electrical shock conditions and which is not an explosive, or an inorganic compound or mixture of inorganic compounds capable of releasing low molecular weight free radicals or ions under mechanical or electrical shock conditions and selected from ammonium or alkali metal persulfates.

Walker, Franklin E. (15 Way Points Rd., Danville, CA 94526); Wasley, Richard J. (4290 Colgate Way, Livermore, CA 94550)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

System for analysis of explosives  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for analysis of explosives. Samples are spotted on a thin layer chromatography plate. Multi-component explosives standards are spotted on the thin layer chromatography plate. The thin layer chromatography plate is dipped in a solvent mixture and chromatography is allowed to proceed. The thin layer chromatography plate is dipped in reagent 1. The thin layer chromatography plate is heated. The thin layer chromatography plate is dipped in reagent 2.

Haas, Jeffrey S. (San Ramon, CA)

2010-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

56

Manhole Event Gas Explosion Modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides the second update on work reported in the December 2007 report, Manhole Event Risk Management: Mitigation Strategies (1013886), and the March 2008 report, Manhole Event Gas Explosion Modeling: Phase I (1016476). The report summarizes the status of the software development effort and identifies some unexpected phenomena, difficulties, and explosion characteristics. Theories to explain these phenomena are proposed, and code modifications are outlined that achieve reasonable agreement b...

2008-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

57

Manhole Event Gas Explosion Modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides an update on work reported in December 2007 in Manhole Event Risk Management: Mitigation Strategies (EPRI report 1013886). It summarizes software development efforts to model gas-related explosion events in manholes and identifies some unexpected phenomena, difficulties, and explosion characteristics revealed during tests at the Lenox facility. The report proposes theories to explain these phenomena and outlines code modifications to achieve reasonable agreement between computed and ...

2008-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

58

Explosive blasting method and means  

SciTech Connect

An explosive blasting method and apparatus are claimed for producing rock fragmentation and reducing the amplitude of seismic effects (ground vibration) in the vicinity of the blast. It utilizes an air gap method and apparatus for superheating the air surrounding the charge in a borehole. This raises the pressure therein coupled with the use of multiple detonation points along the borehole for the reduction of burn time. This reduces the quantity of explosives used along with a marked reduction of seismic shock, sound, and dust effects to the surrounding area.

Bowling, D.S.; Moore, R.N.

1983-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

59

Applications of explosion-welded transition joints  

SciTech Connect

Explosion welding is presented as an alternate process of joining dissimilar metals. The process is compared with brazing, the most appropriate process for comparison, and the bond zone obtained through explosion welding is characterized. Several applications are described where transition joints were made from explosion-bonded dissimilar-metal combinations for subsequent assembly through fusion welding.

Popoff, A.A.; Casey, H.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Thermally stable, plastic-bonded explosives  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

By use of an appropriate thermoplastic rubber as the binder, the thermal stability and thermal stress characteristics of plastic-bonded explosives may be greatly improved. In particular, an HMX-based explosive composition using an oil-extended styrene-ethylenebutylene-styrene block copolymer as the binder exhibits high explosive energy and thermal stability and good handling safety and physical properties.

Benziger, Theodore M. (Santa Fe, NM)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "graaff confetti explosion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Turbulent Combustion in SDF Explosions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A heterogeneous continuum model is proposed to describe the dispersion and combustion of an aluminum particle cloud in an explosion. It combines the gas-dynamic conservation laws for the gas phase with a continuum model for the dispersed phase, as formulated by Nigmatulin. Inter-phase mass, momentum and energy exchange are prescribed by phenomenological models. It incorporates a combustion model based on the mass conservation laws for fuel, air and products; source/sink terms are treated in the fast-chemistry limit appropriate for such gasdynamic fields, along with a model for mass transfer from the particle phase to the gas. The model takes into account both the afterburning of the detonation products of the C-4 booster with air, and the combustion of the Al particles with air. The model equations were integrated by high-order Godunov schemes for both the gas and particle phases. Numerical simulations of the explosion fields from 1.5-g Shock-Dispersed-Fuel (SDF) charge in a 6.6 liter calorimeter were used to validate the combustion model. Then the model was applied to 10-kg Al-SDF explosions in a an unconfined height-of-burst explosion. Computed pressure histories are compared with measured waveforms. Differences are caused by physical-chemical kinetic effects of particle combustion which induce ignition delays in the initial reactive blast wave and quenching of reactions at late times. Current simulations give initial insights into such modeling issues.

Kuhl, A L; Bell, J B; Beckner, V E

2009-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

62

Transuranic drum hydrogen explosion tests  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Radiolysis of transuranic (TRU) waste can produce flammable ({gt}4%) mixtures of hydrogen gas in 55 gallon vented waste storage drums. Explosion testing was conducted at the E. I. duPont Explosion Hazards Laboratory to determine the minimum concentration at which a drum lid removal occurs. A secondary objective was to investigate the maximum pressure and rate of pressure rise as a function of hydrogen concentration. Prior to beginning any drum explosion tests, small-scale pressure vessel tests and drum mixing tests were completed. The pressure vessel tests established a relationship between hydrogen concentration and the maximum pressure and pressure rise. These small-scale tests were used to establish the concentration range over which a drum lid removal might occur. Mixing tests were also conducted to determine the equilibration times for two different hydrogen-air mixtures in a TRU drum. Nine successful drum explosion tests were conducted over a hydrogen concentration range of 13--36% (v/v), test results suggest total integrity failure via drum lid removal will not occur below 15% (v/v). Controlled small-scale pressure vessel tests were conducted over a range of 5--50% (v/v) to determine the pressure and pressure rise as a function of hydrogen concentration. No similar relationship could be established for the drum explosion tests due to the variability in drum lid sealing and retaining ring closure. Mixing tests conducted at 5% and 25% (v/v) indicate adding pure hydrogen to the middle of a drum causes some initial stratification along the drum length, but the air and hydrogen become well-mixed after 50 minutes. 4 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

Dykes, K.L.; Meyer, M.L.

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Explosives detection system and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of detecting explosives in a vehicle includes providing a first rack on one side of the vehicle, the rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a second rack on another side of the vehicle, the second rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a control system, remote from the first and second racks, coupled to the neutron generators and gamma ray detectors; using the control system, causing the neutron generators to generate neutrons; and performing gamma ray spectroscopy on spectra read by the gamma ray detectors to look for a signature indicative of presence of an explosive. Various apparatus and other methods are also provided.

Reber, Edward L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Jewell, James K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Rohde, Kenneth W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Seabury, Edward H. (Idaho Falls, ID); Blackwood, Larry G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Edwards, Andrew J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Derr, Kurt W. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2007-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

64

Stellar explosions, instabilities, and turbulence  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It has become very clear that the evolution of structure during supernovae is centrally dependent on the pre-existing structure in the star. Modeling of the pre-existing structure has advanced significantly, leading to improved understanding and to a physically based assessment of the structure that will be present when a star explodes. It remains an open question whether low-mode asymmetries in the explosion process can produce the observed effects or whether the explosion mechanism somehow produces jets of material. In any event, the workhorse processes that produce structure in an exploding star are blast-wave driven instabilities. Laboratory experiments have explored these blast-wave-driven instabilities and specifically their dependence on initial conditions. Theoretical work has shown that the relative importance of Richtmyer-Meshkov and Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities varies with the initial conditions and does so in ways that can make sense of a range of astrophysical observations.

Drake, R. P.; Kuranz, C. C. [University of Michigan, 2455 Hayward St., Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Miles, A. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7500 East Ave., Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Muthsam, H. J. [Faculty of Mathematics, University of Vienna, Nordbergstr. 15, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Plewa, T. [School of Computational Science, Florida State University, DSL 443, Tallahassee, Florida 32306 (United States)

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

65

RADIOACTIVE FALLOUT FROM NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS  

SciTech Connect

A nontechnical description of the mechanisms of local and world-wide fall-out from nuclear explosions is given. The relative importance of local fall-out in a nuclear war is discussed. The effects upon man of world-wide fall-out from past nuclear testing is discussed. It is pointed out that doses to man frcm testing are quite small when compared to the natural radiation background. (auth)

Parker, E.N.

1960-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

66

Data base of chemical explosions in Kazakhstan  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Within the bounds of this report, the following works were done: (1) Information about explosion quarries, located in Southern, Eastern and Northern Kasakstan was summarized. (2) The general information about seismicity of areas of location of explosion quarries was adduced. (3) The system of observation and seismic apparatus, recording the local earthquakes and quarry explosions at the territory of Kazakstan were described. (4) Data base of quarry explosions, that were carried out in Southern, Eastern and Northern Kazakstan during 1995 and first half of 1996 year was adduced. (5) Upon the data of registration of explosions in Southern Kazakstan the correlative dependences between power class of explosions and summary weight of charge were constructed. (6) Seismic records of quarry explosions were adduced. It is necessary to note, that the collection of data about quarry explosions in Kazakstan in present time is very difficult task. Organizations, that makes these explosions, are always suffering reorganizations and sometimes it is actually impossible to receive all the necessary information. Some quarries are situated in remote, almost inaccessible regions, and within the bounds of supplier financing not the every quarry was in success to visit. So the present data base upon the chemical explosions for 1995 is not full and in further it`s expansion is possible.

Demin, V.N. [National Nuclear Center of Republic of Kazakhstan Institute of Geophysical Researches (Kazakhstan); Malahova, M.N. [National Nuclear Center of Republic of Kazakhstan Institute of Geophysical Researches (Kazakhstan); Martysevich, P.N. [National Nuclear Center of Republic of Kazakhstan Institute of Geophysical Researches (Kazakhstan); Mihaylova, N.N. [National Nuclear Center of Republic of Kazakhstan Institute of Geophysical Researches (Kazakhstan); Nurmagambetov, A. [National Nuclear Center of Republic of Kazakhstan Institute of Geophysical Researches (Kazakhstan); Kopnichev, Yu.F. D. [National Nuclear Center of Republic of Kazakhstan Institute of Geophysical Researches (Kazakhstan); Edomin, V.I. [National Nuclear Center of Republic of Kazakhstan Institute of Geophysical Researches (Kazakhstan)

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Coal-mine explosives: their characteristics, selection, and safe use  

SciTech Connect

Characteristics of nonpermissible explosives and dangers attending their use are pointed out. Instructions are given on storage, distribution, and use of explosives. Detonation of electric blasting caps, primers, delay-action detonators, and blasting units, causes of premature explosions, and blasting with permissible explosives are discussed. ''Permissible'' explosives are defined and their characteristics given.

Tiffany, J.E.

1938-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Matter Mixing in Axisymmetric Supernova Explosion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Growth of Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) instabilities under the axisymmetric explosion are investigated by two-dimensional hydrodynamical calculations. The degree of the axisymmetric explosion and amplitude of the initial perturbation are varied parametrically to find the most favorable parameter for reproducing the observed line profile of heavy elements. It is found that spherical explosion can not produce $^{56}Ni$ travelling at high velocity ($\\sim 3000$km/sec), the presence of which is affirmed by the observation, even if the amplitude of initial perturbation is as large as 30%. On the other hand, strong axisymmetric explosion model produce high velocity $^{56}Ni$ too much. Weak axisymmetric explosion are favored for the reproduction of the observed line profile. We believe this result shows upper limit of the degree of the axisymmetric explosion. This fact will be important for the simulation of the collapse-driven supernova including rotation, magnetic field, and axisymmetric neutrino radiation, which have a possibility to cause axisymmetric supernova explosion. In addition, the origin of such a large perturbation does not seem to be the structure of the progenitor but the dynamics of the core collapse explosion itself since small perturbation can not produce the high velocity element even if the axisymmetric explosion models are adopted.

Shigehiro Nagataki; Tetsuya Shimizu; Katsuhiko Sato

1997-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

69

High Explosives Application Facility | National Nuclear Security...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog The National Nuclear Security Administration High Explosives Application Facility Home > About Us > Our...

70

In-situ degradation of high explosives.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The purpose of this research is to develop an in situ method to biodegrade high explosives in the vadose zone. The research project involves the… (more)

Brown, Justin Heath

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Method and apparatus for detecting explosives  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus is provided for detecting explosives by thermal imaging. The explosive material is subjected to a high energy wave which can be either a sound wave or an electromagnetic wave which will initiate a chemical reaction in the explosive material which chemical reaction will produce heat. The heat is then sensed by a thermal imaging device which will provide a signal to a computing device which will alert a user of the apparatus to the possibility of an explosive device being present.

Moore, David Steven (Santa Fe, NM)

2011-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

72

Explosive demolition of activated concrete  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the removal of a radiologically contaminated concrete pad. This pad was removed during 1979 by operating personnel under the direction of the Waste Management Program of EG and G Idaho, Inc. The concrete pad was the foundation for the Organic Moderated Reactor Experiment (OMRE) reactor vessel located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The pad consisted of a cylindrical concrete slab 15 ft in diameter, 2 ft thick, and reinforced with steel bar. It was poured directly onto basalt rocks approximately 20 ft below grade. The entire pad contained induced radioactivity and was therefore demolished, boxed, and buried rather than being decontaminated. The pad was demolished by explosive blasting.

Smith, D.L.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Fire and explosion hazards of oil shale  

SciTech Connect

The US Bureau of Mines publication presents the results of investigations into the fire and explosion hazards of oil shale rocks and dust. Three areas have been examined: the explosibility and ignitability of oil shale dust clouds, the fire hazards of oil shale dust layers on hot surfaces, and the ignitability and extinguishment of oil shale rubble piles. 10 refs., 54 figs., 29 tabs.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

High-explosive driven crowbar switch  

SciTech Connect

The disclosure relates to a compact explosive driven switch for use as a low resistance, low inductance crowbar switch. A high-explosive charge extrudes a deformable conductive metallic plate through a polyethylene insulating layer to achieve a hard current contact with a supportive annular conductor.

Dike, Robert S. (Los Alamos, NM); Kewish, Jr., Ralph W. (Los Alamos, NM)

1976-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

75

Method for fabricating non-detonable explosive simulants  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A simulator is disclosed which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs and calibrating sensitive analytical instruments. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques, a first involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and the second involves coating inert beads with thin layers of explosive molecules. 5 figs.

Simpson, R.L.; Pruneda, C.O.

1995-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

76

Method for fabricating non-detonable explosive simulants  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs and calibrating sensitive analytical instruments. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques, a first involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and the second involves coating inert beads with thin layers of explosive molecules.

Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Pruneda, Cesar O. (Livermore, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Atomic Energy Commission Explores Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Explosions...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nuclear Explosions As part of the Plowshare program seeking to develop peaceful uses for nuclear explosives, the Atomic Energy Commission conducts the Sedan test at the Nevada...

78

National Nuclear SecurityAdministration's Nuclear ExplosiveSafety...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

National Nuclear SecurityAdministration's Nuclear ExplosiveSafety Study Program, IG-0581 National Nuclear SecurityAdministration's Nuclear ExplosiveSafety Study Program, IG-0581 To...

79

OE Summary 2006-05: Preliminary Findings on Fatal Explosion...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

PRELIMINARY FINDINGS ON FATAL EXPLOSION AT TEXAS REFINERY Operating Experience Summary 2005-11 described the March 23, 2005, explosions at the BP America Refinery in Texas City,...

80

Explosion and Fire at Texas Chemical Plant Result from Faulty...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

regarding an explosion and fire that occurred at the Marcus Oil facility in Houston, Texas in December 2004. Investigators determined that the explosion resulted from faulty...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "graaff confetti explosion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Construction on Pantex High Explosives Pressing Facility Reaches...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Offices > Welcome to the NNSA Production Office > NPO Press Releases > Construction on Pantex High Explosives Pressing Facility ... Construction on Pantex High Explosives Pressing...

82

Chemical analysis kit for the presence of explosives  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A tester for testing for explosives associated with a test location comprising a first explosives detecting reagent; a first reagent holder, the first reagent holder containing the first explosives detecting reagent; a second explosives detecting reagent; a second reagent holder, the second reagent holder containing the second explosives detecting reagent; a sample collection unit for exposure to the test location, exposure to the first explosives detecting reagent, and exposure to the second explosives detecting reagent; and a body unit containing a heater for heating the sample collection unit for testing the test location for the explosives.

Eckels, Joel Del (Livermore, CA); Nunes; Peter J. (Danville, CA); Alcaraz, Armando (Livermore, CA); Whipple, Richard E. (Livermore, CA)

2011-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

83

Nuclear Explosive Safety Study Process  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

3015-2001 3015-2001 February 2001 Superseding DOE-STD-3015-97 January 1997 DOE STANDARD NUCLEAR EXPLOSIVE SAFETY STUDY PROCESS U.S. Department of Energy AREA SAFT Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This document has been reproduced from the best available copy. Available to DOE and DOE contractors from ES&H Technical Information Services, U.S. Department of Energy, (800) 473-4375, fax: (301) 903-9823. Available to the public from the U.S. Department of Commerce, Technology Administration, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161; (703) 605-6000. DOE-STD-3015-2001 iii CONTENTS FOREWORD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v 1. PURPOSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2. SCOPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

84

Asymmetric Explosions of Thermonuclear Supernovae  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A type Ia supernova explosion starts in a white dwarf as a laminar deflagration at the center of the star and soon several hydrodynamic instabilities (in particular, the Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) instability) begin to act. In previous work (Ghezzi, de Gouveia Dal Pino, & Horvath 2001), we addressed the propagation of an initially laminar thermonuclear flame in presence of a magnetic field assumed to be dipolar. We were able to show that, within the framework of a fractal model for the flame velocity, the front is affected by the field through the quenching of the R-T instability growth in the direction perpendicular to the field lines. As a consequence, an asymmetry develops between the magnetic polar and the equatorial axis that gives a prolate shape to the burning front. We have here computed numerically the total integrated asymmetry as the flame front propagates outward through the expanding shells of decreasing density of the magnetized white dwarf progenitor, for several chemical compositions, and found that a total asymmetry of about 50 % is produced between the polar and equatorial directions for progenitors with a surface magnetic field B ~ 5 x 10^{7} G, and a composition C12 = 0.2 and O16 = 0.8 (in this case, the R-T instability saturates at scales \\~ 20 times the width of the flame front). This asymmetry is in good agreement with the inferred asymmetries from spectropolarimetric observations of very young supernova remnants, which have recently revealed intrinsic linear polarization interpreted as evidence of an asymmetric explosion in several objects,such as SN1999by, SN1996X, and SN1997dt. Larger magnetic field strengths will produce even larger asymmetries. We have also found that for lighter progenitors the total asymmetry is larger.

C. R. Ghezzi; E. M. de Gouveia Dal Pino; J. E. Horvath

2002-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

85

High Explosives Application Facility | National Nuclear Security  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Explosives Application Facility | National Nuclear Security Explosives Application Facility | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog The National Nuclear Security Administration High Explosives Application Facility Home > About Us > Our Programs > Defense Programs > Office of Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation > Office of Research and Development >

86

1) Ullage Protection Ownership Cost for KC-130J: Explosion ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... polyether polyurethane, explosion suppressant charcoal colored, Type IV ... personnel; witnessed maintenance activities; incorporated actual hours 5 ...

2011-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

87

An Investigation of Explosively Deepening Oceanic Cyclones  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The explosively deepening oceanic cyclone or “bomb,” one which has central pressure falls of 12 mb (12 h)?1 or greater, has been studied using composites constructed from North Atlantic and Pacific weather ship rawinsonde data during the period ...

Eric Rogers; Lance F. Bosart

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Explosive stimulation of a geothermal well: GEOFRAC  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper describes the first known explosive stimulation successfully conducted in a geothermal well. Two tests were performed in a 2690-meter-(8826-ft.) deep Union Oil well at the Geysers field in Northern California in December 1981. The heat-resistant process, called GEOFRAC, uses a new unique, explosive HITEX 2, which is a nondetonable solid at room temperature. Upon melting at a temperature of 177[degrees]C (350[degrees]F), the HITEX 2 liquid becomes an explosive that can be safely heated to temperatures greater than 260[degrees]C (500[degrees]F). These unique properties of the explosive were exploited in the GEOFRAC process through the cooperative efforts of Physics International Company (PI), Rocket Research Company (RRC), Union oil Company (UO), and the university of California Los Alamos National Laboratories (LANL).

Mumma, D.M. (Physics International Co., San Leandro, CA (United States))

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

General Counsel Guidance on Explosives Safety Requirements  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DOE contractors "may choose a successor version of the Manual's CRD, if approved by DOE." As part of DOE's Directives review process, DOE M 440.1-1A, Explosive Safety, h a s...

90

Projectile-generating explosive access tool  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An explosive device that can generate a projectile from the opposite side of a wall from the side where the explosive device is detonated. The projectile can be generated without breaching the wall of the structure or container. The device can optionally open an aperture in a solid wall of a structure or a container and form a high-kinetic-energy projectile from the portion of the wall removed to create the aperture.

Jakaboski, Juan-Carlos (Albuquerque, NM; Hughs, Chance G. (Tijeras, NM); Todd, Steven N. (Rio Rancho, NM)

2011-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

91

Projectile-generating explosive access tool  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for generating a projectile using an explosive device that can generate a projectile from the opposite side of a wall from the side where the explosive device is detonated. The projectile can be generated without breaching the wall of the structure or container. The device can optionally open an aperture in a solid wall of a structure or a container and form a high-kinetic-energy projectile from the portion of the wall removed to create the aperture.

Jakaboski, Juan-Carlos; Hughs, Chance G; Todd, Steven N

2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

92

Explosive laser light initiation of propellants  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of an improved initiator for artillery shell using an explosively generated laser light to uniformly initiate the propellent. A small quantity of a high explosive, when detonated, creates a high pressure and temperature, causing the surrounding noble gas to fluoresce. This fluorescence is directed into a lasing material, which lases, and directs laser light into a cavity in the propellant, uniformly initiating the propellant.

Piltch, M.S.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

93

Explosive parcel containment and blast mitigation container  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a containment structure for containing and mitigating explosions. The containment structure is installed in the wall of the building and has interior and exterior doors for placing suspicious packages into the containment structure and retrieving them from the exterior of the building. The containment structure has a blast deflection chute and a blowout panel to direct over pressure from explosions away from the building, surrounding structures and people.

Sparks, Michael H. (Frederick County, MD)

2001-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

94

Weapons Experiments Division Explosives Operations Overview  

SciTech Connect

Presentation covers WX Division programmatic operations with a focus on JOWOG-9 interests. A brief look at DARHT is followed by a high level overview of explosives research activities currently being conducted within in the experimental groups of WX-Division. Presentation covers more emphasis of activities and facilities at TA-9 as these efforts have been more traditionally aligned with ongoing collaborative explosive exchanges covered under JOWOG-9.

Laintz, Kenneth E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

95

Sensitivity testing of liquid high explosives  

SciTech Connect

This article describes a test procedure for a liquid high explosive. The liquid to be tested is NTN, a mixture of nitromethane, tetranitomethane, and 1-nitropropane in 52, 33.3, and 14.7 weight per cent. The test is to study the sensitivity of the explosive to shock by firing it in projectiles from a M1A1 155mm howlitzer, with a charge such that it will not exceed 16,500 g`s acceleration.

O`Connell, L.

1961-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

96

Asymmetric Explosions of Thermonuclear Supernovae  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A type Ia supernova explosion starts in a white dwarf as a laminar deflagration at the center of the star and soon several hydrodynamic instabilities (in particular, the Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) instability) begin to act. In previous work (Ghezzi, de Gouveia Dal Pino, & Horvath 2001), we addressed the propagation of an initially laminar thermonuclear flame in presence of a magnetic field assumed to be dipolar. We were able to show that, within the framework of a fractal model for the flame velocity, the front is affected by the field through the quenching of the R-T instability growth in the direction perpendicular to the field lines. As a consequence, an asymmetry develops between the magnetic polar and the equatorial axis that gives a prolate shape to the burning front. We have here computed numerically the total integrated asymmetry as the flame front propagates outward through the expanding shells of decreasing density of the magnetized white dwarf progenitor, for several chemical compositions, and found...

Ghezzi, C R; Horváth, J E

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Asymmetric Explosions of Thermonuclear Supernovae  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A type Ia supernova explosion starts in a white dwarf as a laminar deflagration at the center of the star and soon several hydrodynamic instabilities (in particular, the Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) instability) begin to act. In previous work (Ghezzi, de Gouveia Dal Pino, & Horvath 2001), we addressed the propagation of an initially laminar thermonuclear flame in presence of a magnetic field assumed to be dipolar. We were able to show that, within the framework of a fractal model for the flame velocity, the front is affected by the field through the quenching of the R-T instability growth in the direction perpendicular to the field lines. As a consequence, an asymmetry develops between the magnetic polar and the equatorial axis that gives a prolate shape to the burning front. We have here computed numerically the total integrated asymmetry as the flame front propagates outward through the expanding shells of decreasing density of the magnetized white dwarf progenitor, for several chemical compositions, and found that a total asymmetry of about 50 % is produced between the polar and equatorial directions for progenitors with a surface magnetic field B ? 5 × 10 7 G, and

C. R. Ghezzi; J. E. Horvath; São Paulo

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Studies of the laser-induced fluorescence of explosives and explosive compositions.  

SciTech Connect

Continuing use of explosives by terrorists throughout the world has led to great interest in explosives detection technology, especially in technologies that have potential for standoff detection. This LDRD was undertaken in order to investigate the possible detection of explosive particulates at safe standoff distances in an attempt to identify vehicles that might contain large vehicle bombs (LVBs). The explosives investigated have included the common homogeneous or molecular explosives, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), cyclonite or hexogen (RDX), octogen (HMX), and the heterogeneous explosive, ammonium nitrate/fuel oil (ANFO), and its components. We have investigated standard excited/dispersed fluorescence, laser-excited prompt and delayed dispersed fluorescence using excitation wavelengths of 266 and 355 nm, the effects of polarization of the laser excitation light, and fluorescence imaging microscopy using 365- and 470-nm excitation. The four nitro-based, homogeneous explosives (TNT, PETN, RDX, and HMX) exhibit virtually no native fluorescence, but do exhibit quenching effects of varying magnitude when adsorbed on fluorescing surfaces. Ammonium nitrate and fuel oil mixtures fluoresce primarily due to the fuel oil, and, in some cases, due to the presence of hydrophobic coatings on ammonium nitrate prill or impurities in the ammonium nitrate itself. Pure ammonium nitrate shows no detectable fluorescence. These results are of scientific interest, but they provide little hope for the use of UV-excited fluorescence as a technique to perform safe standoff detection of adsorbed explosive particulates under real-world conditions with a useful degree of reliability.

Hargis, Philip Joseph, Jr. (,; .); Thorne, Lawrence R.; Phifer, Carol Celeste; Parmeter, John Ethan; Schmitt, Randal L.

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Simulating thermal explosion of RDX-based explosives: Model comparison with experiment  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We compare two-dimensional model results with measurements for the thermal, chemical and mechanical behavior in a thermal explosion experiment. Confined high explosives are heated at a rate of 1 C per hour until an explosion is observed. The heating, ignition, and deflagration phases are modeled using an Arbitrarily Lagrangian-Eulerian code (ALE3D) that can handle a wide range of time scales that vary from a structural to a dynamic hydro time scale. During the pre-ignition phase, quasi-static mechanics and diffusive thermal transfer from a heat source to the HE are coupled with the finite chemical reactions that include both endothermic and exothermic processes. Once the HE ignites, a hydro dynamic calculation is performed as a burn front propagates through the HE. Two RDX-based explosives, C-4 and PBXN-109, are considered, whose chemical-thermal-mechanical models are constructed based on measurements of thermal and mechanical properties along with small scale thermal explosion measurements. The simulated dynamic response of HE confinement during the explosive phase is compared to measurements in large scale thermal explosion tests. The explosion temperatures for both HE's are predicted to within 5 C. Calculated and measured wall strains provide an indication of vessel pressurization during the heating phase and violence during the explosive phase. During the heating phase, simulated wall strains provide only an approximate representation of measured values indicating a better numerical treatment is needed to provide accurate results. The results also show that more numerical accuracy is needed for vessels with lesser confinement strength. For PBXN-109, the measured wall strains during the explosion are well represented by the ALE3D calculations.

Yoh, J J; McClelland, M A; Maienschein, J L; Wardell, J F; Tarver, C M

2004-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

100

Calculation of explosive rock breakage: oil shale  

SciTech Connect

Improved efficiency in explosive rock breakage becomes increasingly important as mining costs and the need to tap underground resources continue to grow. Industry has recognized this need for many years and has done a great deal in developing new products and new blasting techniques, generally by purely empirical means. One particular application that has received added attention within the past several years, and one that lends itself to a more objective theoretical study, is explosive fracture of oil shale for conventional and in situ fossil energy recovery. Numerical calculation of oil shale fracturization with commercial explosives has the potential to add to an objective understanding of the breakage process. Often, in such numerical studies, only one or two parts of the total problem are addressed with any degree of sophistication or completeness. Here an attempt is made to treat the entire problem, i.e., explosive characterization, constitutive behavior of intact rock, and a mathematical description of rock fracture. The final results are two-dimensional calculations of explosively induced fracture damage in oil shale.

Johnson, J.N.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "graaff confetti explosion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Visualizing Type Ia Supernova Explosions at NERSC  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Supernova Explosions Supernova Explosions Visualizing Type Ia Supernova Explosions Childs1a-Supernovasm.png Deep inside a dying star in a galaxy far, far away, a carbon fusion flame ignites. Ignition may happen in the middle or displaced slightly to one side, but this simulation explores the consequences of central ignition. In a localized hot spot, represented here by a deformed sphere with an average radius of 100 km, carbon is assumed to have already fused to iron, producing hot ash (~10 billion K) with a density about 20% less than its surroundings. As the burning progresses, this hot buoyant ash rises up and interacts with cold fuel. Rayleigh-Taylor fingers give rise to shear and turbulence, which interacts with the flame, causing it to move faster. In about 2 seconds, the energy released blows the entire white dwarf star up,

102

DSD front models : nonideal explosive detonation  

SciTech Connect

The Detonation Shock Dynamics (DSD) method for propagating detonation in numerical simulation of detonation in high explosive (HE) is based on three elements: (1) a subscale theory of multi-dimensional detonation that treats the evolving detonation as a front with dynamics that depends only on metrics of the front (such as curvature, etc.), (2) high-resolution direct numerical sirnuliltion of detonation serving both to test existing subscale theories and suggest modifications, and (3) physical experiments to characterize multi-dimensional detonation propagation on real explosives and to calibrate the front models for use in engineering simulations. In this paper we describe our work on all three of these elements of the DSD method as it applies to detonation in nonideal explosives.

Bdzil, J. B. (John Bohdan); Short, M. (Mark Short); Aslam, T. D. (Tariq D.); Catanach, R. A. (Richard A.); Hill, L. G. (Larry G.)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

PINS Testing and Modification for Explosive Identification  

SciTech Connect

The INL's Portable Isotopic Neutron Spectroscopy System (PINS)1 non-intrusively identifies the chemical fill of munitions and sealed containers. PINS is used routinely by the U.S. Army, the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, and foreign military units to determine the contents of munitions and other containers suspected to contain explosives, smoke-generating chemicals, and chemical warfare agents such as mustard and nerve gas. The objects assayed with PINS range from softball-sized M139 chemical bomblets to 200 gallon DOT 500X ton containers. INL had previously examined2 the feasibility of using a similar system for the identification of explosives, and based on this proof-of-principle test, the development of a dedicated system for the identification of explosives in an improvised nuclear device appears entirely feasible. INL has been tasked by NNSA NA-42 Render Safe Research and Development with the development of such a system.

E.H. Seabury; A.J. Caffrey

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Spectroscopic research of underwater electrical wire explosion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Results of spectroscopic research in the visible range of light of the radiation generated by underwater electrical wire explosions (UEWE) are presented. A pulsed generator with an output voltage of {approx}110 kV, current of {approx}70 kA, and rise time of {approx}60 ns was used for electrical explosion of Cu wires 0.1 mm in diameter and 50 mm in length. It was shown that UEWE is not governed by the 'polarity' effect, which plays an important role in electrical wire explosions in vacuum. The results of detailed space- and time-resolved spectroscopic measurements show that the radiation spectrum differs significantly of the spectrum expected from the exploding wire. A model is suggested based on the formation of a few {mu}m 'water' plasma layer in the vicinity of the exploding wire plasma which efficiently absorbs the radiation of the exploding wire.

Fedotov, A.; Sheftman, D.; Gurovich, V. Tz.; Efimov, S.; Bazilitski, G.; Krasik, Ya. E. [Physics Department, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, 32000 Haifa (Israel); Oreshkin, V. I. [Institute of High Current Electronics, RAS, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

105

Study of Explosive and Nonexplosive Cyclogenesis during FGGE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Explosive cyclogenesis during the winter of the First Global GARP Experiment (January–February 1979) is analyzed using the revised European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) analyses. Explosive cyclogenesis is defined as a ...

Carlyle H. Wash; Robert A. Hale; Paul H. Dobos; Eric J. Wright

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Low flammability cap-sensitive flexible explosive composition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cap-sensitive flexible explosive composition of reduced flammability is provided by incorporating a finely divided, cap-sensitive explosive in a flame resistant polymeric binder system which contains a compatible flame retardant material.

Wagner, Martin G. (Wilmington, DE)

1992-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

107

Robotic Systems for Deployment of Explosive Detection Sensors and Instruments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

against a fast evolving spectrum of terrorist threats to commercial air transport. The paper describes explosive vapor emissions, taggant vapor emissions, and explosives solids in bulk in cargo, in luggage explosives types, and the operating methods employed by terrorists, we can select the instrument source

Siegel, Mel

108

Shipping containers for small samples of high explosives  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two sizes of shipping containers for high explosives have been designed and tested at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The containers have been tested by detonating a powerful, HMX-based explosive in the containers. The containers were approved for shipping 70% of the minimum weight of explosive that could cause vessel failure.

Hildner, R.A.; Urizar, M.J.

1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Explosion proof vehicle for tank inspection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An Explosion Proof Vehicle (EPV) having an interior substantially filled with an inert fluid creating an interior pressure greater than the exterior pressure. One or more flexible tubes provide the inert fluid and one or more electrical conductors from a control system to the vehicle. The vehicle is preferably used in subsurface tank inspection, whereby the vehicle is submerged in a volatile fluid.

Zollinger, William T. (Idaho Falls, ID); Klingler, Kerry M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Bauer, Scott G. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2012-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

110

Computations of Explosive Boiling in Microgravity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dynamics of the explosive growth of a vapor bubble in microgravity is investigated by direct numerical simulation. A front tracking/finite difference technique is used to solve for the velocity and the temperature field in both phases and to account ... Keywords: front tracking, liquid/vapor phase change, microgravity, unstable boiling

Asghar Esmaeeli; Grétar Tryggvason

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

NUCLEAR ASPECTS OF STELLAR AND EXPLOSIVE NUCLEOSYNTHESIS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NUCLEAR ASPECTS OF STELLAR AND EXPLOSIVE NUCLEOSYNTHESIS Thomas Rauscher 1 , Friedrich. of Astron. and Astroph., Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 Abstract The majority of nuclear­Feshbach). The global parametrizations of the nuclear properties needed for predictions far off stability probe our

Rauscher, Thomas

112

Burgess Shale: Cambrian Explosion in Full Bloom  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

4 Burgess Shale: Cambrian Explosion in Full Bloom James W. Hagadorn T he middle cambrian burgess shale is one of the world's best-known and best-studied fossil deposits. The story of the discovery in the Burgess Shale Formation of the Canadian Rockies, Charles Walcott discovered a remarkable "phyl- lopod

Hagadorn, Whitey

113

FAQS Qualification Card - Nuclear Explosive Safety Study | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Nuclear Explosive Safety Study Nuclear Explosive Safety Study FAQS Qualification Card - Nuclear Explosive Safety Study A key element for the Department's Technical Qualification Programs is a set of common Functional Area Qualification Standards (FAQS) and associated Job Task Analyses (JTA). These standards are developed for various functional areas of responsibility in the Department, including oversight of safety management programs identified as hazard controls in Documented Safety Analyses (DSA). For each functional area, the FAQS identify the minimum technical competencies and supporting knowledge and skills for a typical qualified individual working in the area. FAQC-NuclearExplosiveSafetyStudy.docx Description Nuclear Explosive Safety Study Qualification Card More Documents & Publications

114

Construction on Pantex High Explosives Pressing Facility Reaches 85% Mark |  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Media Room > Press Releases > Construction on Pantex High Explosives Media Room > Press Releases > Construction on Pantex High Explosives Pressing Facility ... Press Release Construction on Pantex High Explosives Pressing Facility Reaches 85% Mark Dec 16, 2013 Project on time, under budget and scheduled to be completed next summer WASHINGTON, D.C. - Work on the National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) High Explosives Pressing Facility at its Pantex Plant, located near Amarillo, Texas, this month passed the 85 percent construction completion mark and is on schedule and under budget. The new 45,000 square-foot state-of-the-art facility will provide safer, more reliable production by consolidating high explosives operations from numerous buildings and greatly reducing the movement of high explosives within the plant. High explosives are a key component of a nuclear weapon,

115

Hazard Analysis Reports for Nuclear Explosive Operations  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

NA-STD-3016-2006 NA-STD-3016-2006 May 2006 DOE LIMITED STANDARD HAZARD ANALYSIS REPORTS FOR NUCLEAR EXPLOSIVE OPERATIONS U.S. Department of Energy AREA SAFT Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. NOT MEASUREMENT SENSITIVE ii Available on the Department of Energy Technical Standards Program web site at http://www.eh.doe.gov/techstds/ DOE-NA-STD-3016-2006 iii FORWARD This Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) technical standard is approved for use by the Assistant Deputy Administrator for Military Application and Stockpile Operations (NA-12), and is available for use to prepare Nuclear Explosive Operation (NEO) Hazard Analysis Reports (HARs) as required by 10 CFR 830, "Nuclear Safety Management." This Standard is

116

Method and system for detecting explosives  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of detecting explosives in a vehicle includes providing a first rack on one side of the vehicle, the rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a second rack on another side of the vehicle, the second rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a control system, remote from the first and second racks, coupled to the neutron generators and gamma ray detectors; using the control system, causing the neutron generators to generate neutrons; and performing gamma ray spectroscopy on spectra read by the gamma ray detectors to look for a signature indicative of presence of an explosive. Various apparatus and other methods are also provided.

Reber, Edward L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Jewell, James K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Rohde, Kenneth W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Seabury, Edward H. (Idaho Falls, ID); Blackwood, Larry G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Edwards, Andrew J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Derr, Kurt W. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2009-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

117

DOE explosives safety manual. Revision 7  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This manual prescribes the Department of Energy (DOE) safety rules used to implement the DOE safety policy for operations involving explosives. This manual is applicable to all DOE facilities engaged in operations of development, manufacturing, handling, storage, transportation, processing, or testing of explosives, pyrotechnics and propellants, or assemblies containing these materials. The standards of this manual deal with the operations involving explosives, pyrotechnics and propellants, and the safe management of such operations. The design of all new explosives facilities shall conform to the requirements established in this manual and implemented in DOE 6430.1A, ``General Design Criteria Manual.`` It is not intended that existing physical facilities be changed arbitrarily to comply with these provisions, except as required by law. Existing facilities that do not comply with these standards may continue to be used for the balance of their functional life, as long as the current operation presents no significantly greater risk than that assumed when the facility was originally designed and it can be demonstrated clearly that a modification to bring the facility into compliance is not feasible. However, in the case of a major renovation, the facility must be brought into compliance with current standards. The standards are presented as either mandatory or advisory. Mandatory standards, denoted by the words ``shall,`` ``must,`` or ``will,`` are requirements that must be followed unless written authority for deviation is granted as an exemption by the DOE. Advisory standards denoted by ``should`` or ``may`` are standards that may be deviated from with a waiver granted by facility management.

Not Available

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

High pressure-resistant nonincendive emulsion explosive  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved emulsion explosive composition including hollow microspheres/bulking agents having high density and high strength. The hollow microspheres/bulking agents have true particle densities of about 0.2 grams per cubic centimeter or greater and include glass, siliceous, ceramic and synthetic resin microspheres, expanded minerals, and mixtures thereof. The preferred weight percentage of hollow microspheres/bulking agents in the composition ranges from 3.0 to 10.0 A chlorinated paraffin oil, also present in the improved emulsion explosive composition, imparts a higher film strength to the oil phase in the emulsion. The emulsion is rendered nonincendive by the production of sodium chloride in situ via the decomposition of sodium nitrate, a chlorinated paraffin oil, and sodium perchlorate. The air-gap sensitivity is improved by the in situ formation of monomethylamine perchlorate from dissolved monomethylamine nitrate and sodium perchlorate. The emulsion explosive composition can withstand static pressures to 139 bars and dynamic pressure loads on the order of 567 bars.

Ruhe, Thomas C. (Duquesne, PA); Rao, Pilaka P. (Baghlingampalli, IN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Explosive performance measurements on large, multiple-hole arrays and large masses of conventional explosive  

SciTech Connect

The COntinuous Reflectometry for Radius vs. Time EXperiment (CORRTEX) system was developed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory for determining the energy released in a nuclear explosion by measuring the position of its shock front as a function of time. The CORRTEX system, fielding techniques, and the methods and software for data reduction and analysis were developed over a 15 year period with hundreds of measurements made on nuclear tests and high explosive experiments. CORRTEX is a compact, portable, fast-sampling, microprocessor-controlled system, based on time domain reflectometry, requiring only a 24 volt power source and a sensing element. Only the sensing element (a length of 50 ohm coaxial cable) is expended during the detonation. In 1979, the CORRTEX system was shown to be ideally suited for chemical explosive performance measurements. Its utility for diagnosing chemical explosives was further demonstrated with successful measurements on large multiple-hole chemical shots in rock quarries and strip mines. Accurate timing of the detonation of sequenced or ripple fired arrays, as well as data characterizing the initiation, explosive performance and detonation anomalies are obtained. This information can serve as the basis for empirical or modeled improvements to blasting operations. A summary of the special CORRTEX features and well developed analysis techniques together with the experiment designs, data, and conclusions regarding the measurements and explosive performance from several array detonations and the Chemical Kiloton Experiment, 2.9 million pounds of an ammonium nitrate-fuel oil (ANFO) and emulsion blend conducted on the Nevada Test Site in 1993, are presented.

McKown, T.O. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Eilers, D.D. [Raytheon Services Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Williams, P.E. [New Mexico Tech., Socorro, New Mexico (United States). Energetic Materials Research and Testing Center

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Factors in selecting and applying commercial explosives and blasting agents  

SciTech Connect

In this report, commercial blasting compounds are classified according to their nitroglycerin (or equivalent explosive oil) and ammonium nitrate content as dynamites, gelatins, blasting agents, military explosives, and blasting accessories. The ingredients and more significant properties of each explosive are tabulated and briefly discussed. Properties discussed are weight strength, cartridge strength, detonation velocity, density, detonation pressure, water resistance, and fume class. The weakness of the strength rating system and the importance of detonation pressure, density, and detonation velocity in rating explosives are discussed. The terms blasting agent and slurry, which are often misused, are defined. Trends indicate that blasting agents (that is, blasting mixtures with none of the ingredients singly classified as an explosive), particularly high-density slurry blasting agents, will dominate the explosives field in the future. (22 refs.)

Dick, R.A.

1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "graaff confetti explosion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Recovery Act Changes Hanford Skyline with Explosive Demolitions |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Recovery Act Changes Hanford Skyline with Explosive Demolitions Recovery Act Changes Hanford Skyline with Explosive Demolitions Recovery Act Changes Hanford Skyline with Explosive Demolitions American Recovery and Reinvestment Act workers at the Hanford Site recently used explosives to demolish industrial structures that supported plutonium processing for national defense. The explosive demolitions took down two 250-foot-tall exhaust chimneys, two 90-foot-fall air filter structures, and a 140-foot-tall water tower. The water tower was marked by a "Work Safely" motto that greeted workers. "Given the sheer height of the structures, explosive demolition was selected as the safer method of demolition," said Kurt Kehler, vice president and decommissioning and demolition project manager of CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, DOE's contractor at the

122

Explosive Demolitions To Change Hanford's Skyline | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Explosive Demolitions To Change Hanford's Skyline Explosive Demolitions To Change Hanford's Skyline Explosive Demolitions To Change Hanford's Skyline February 17, 2011 - 12:00pm Addthis 284W Power House on the Hanford Site 284W Power House on the Hanford Site Media Contacts Cameron Hardy, DOE (509) 376-5365 Cameron.Hardy@rl.doe.gov Andre Armstrong, CHPRC (509) 376-6773 andre_l_armstrong@rl.gov RICHLAND, WASH. - U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contractor CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) will use explosives to demolish several structures near the center of the Hanford Site on two separate days - February 18 and March 4. CHPRC subcontractor, Controlled Demolition Inc. (CDI), will detonate explosive charges to bring down industrial structures at central Hanford that have stood for over 50 years. On February 18, explosive demolition of the support structures of the 284

123

Recovery Act Changes Hanford Skyline with Explosive Demolitions |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Recovery Act Changes Hanford Skyline with Explosive Demolitions Recovery Act Changes Hanford Skyline with Explosive Demolitions Recovery Act Changes Hanford Skyline with Explosive Demolitions American Recovery and Reinvestment Act workers at the Hanford Site recently used explosives to demolish industrial structures that supported plutonium processing for national defense. The explosive demolitions took down two 250-foot-tall exhaust chimneys, two 90-foot-fall air filter structures, and a 140-foot-tall water tower. The water tower was marked by a "Work Safely" motto that greeted workers. "Given the sheer height of the structures, explosive demolition was selected as the safer method of demolition," said Kurt Kehler, vice president and decommissioning and demolition project manager of CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, DOE's contractor at the

124

Experiment Hazard Class 6.7 - Explosive and Energetic Materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

.7 - Explosive and Energetic Materials .7 - Explosive and Energetic Materials Applicability All experiments involving the use of small quantities ( < 10 mg total) of explosive material for beamline analysis. Visiting scientists at the APS periodically perform beamline experiments involving small quantities of explosive material (ie, TATB, HMX, RDX, PETN, HNFX). The samples that are analyzed within the x-ray beam are typically encased within a Diamond Anvil Cell (DAC) that is designed to exert pressures of ~ 100 GPa as its routine function. Following a few hours of analysis within the x-ray flux, the samples degrade and must be replenished. For this purpose, up to ten 1 mg samples of the explosive material are shipped with the DAC to allow for a complete data set. Explosive material must be transported to and from ANL through Bldg. 46,

125

Inspection Report - Management of Explosives at Selected Department Sites  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Management of Explosives at Selected Management of Explosives at Selected Department Sites INS-O-12-02 July 2012 Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 July 2, 2012 MEMORANDUM FOR THE CHIEF HEALTH, SAFETY AND SECURITY OFFICER MANAGER, IDAHO OPERATIONS OFFICE MANAGER, SAVANNAH RIVER SITE MANAGER, SANDIA SITE OFFICE MANAGER, LOS ALAMOS SITE OFFICE FROM: Sandra D. Bruce Assistant Inspector General for Inspections Office of Inspector General SUBJECT: INFORMATION: Inspection Report on "Management of Explosives at Selected Department Sites" INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE In support of its research and development mission and security of its facilities, the Department of Energy maintains a significant inventory of explosives. In terms of mission, the Department

126

Guide for the Selection of Explosives Detection and Blast ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... or as a high explosive bursting charge. ... Backscatter x-ray/gamma-ray imaging not only discriminates between ... image from scattered x-rays from the ...

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Construction on Pantex High Explosives Pressing Facility Reaches...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

on Pantex High Explosives Pressing Facility Reaches 85% Mark | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the...

128

Review of the Procyon explosive pulsed power system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Procyon explosive pulsed power system is designed for powering plasma z-pinch experiments. It begins with a helical explosive-driven magnetic flux compression generator (MCG) for amplifying seed current from a capacitor bank into a storage inductor. One conductor element of the storage inductor is an explosively formed fuse (EFF) opening switch tailored to divert current to a plasma flow switch (PFS) in less than 3 [mu]s. The PFS, in turn, delivers current to a z-pinch load. Experiments to date have concentrated on the explosive pulsed power components and PFS. This paper focuses on the results of a recent full energy MCG/EFF/PFS test.

Goforth, J.H.; Oona, H.; Greene, A.E. (and others)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Review of the Procyon explosive pulsed power system  

SciTech Connect

The Procyon explosive pulsed power system is designed for powering plasma z-pinch experiments. It begins with a helical explosive-driven magnetic flux compression generator (MCG) for amplifying seed current from a capacitor bank into a storage inductor. One conductor element of the storage inductor is an explosively formed fuse (EFF) opening switch tailored to divert current to a plasma flow switch (PFS) in less than 3 {mu}s. The PFS, in turn, delivers current to a z-pinch load. Experiments to date have concentrated on the explosive pulsed power components and PFS. This paper focuses on the results of a recent full energy MCG/EFF/PFS test.

Goforth, J.H.; Oona, H.; Greene, A.E. [and others

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

New NIST Trace Explosives Standard Slated for Homeland ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... explosives. According to MacCrehan, efforts also are underway to develop reference materials to help train bomb-sniffing dogs.

2012-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

131

Chemical foaming of water-bearing explosives  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for preparing foamed semi-solid colloidal dispersions of water-bearing blasting agents, especially water gels or thickened water-bearing explosives, and emulsion-type blasting agents. It consists of mixing inorganic oxidizing salt, fuel, and water. The improvement consists of separately incorporating into the mix each component of a 2-component foaming agent composition: (1) a hydrazine or derivative and (2) an oxidizing agent that aids in decomposing the hydrazine or derivative to produce gas. This foams and sensitizes the blasting agent. When thickener is added to the mix, the thickener should be nonoxidizable in the mix during preparation of the blasting agent. (20 claims)

Chrisp, J.D.

1972-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

132

Explosively-driven magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator studies  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Plasma jet generators have been designed and tested which used an explosive driver and shocktube with a rectangular cross section that optimize the flow velocity and electrical conductivity. The latest in a series of designs has been tested using a reactive load to diagnose the electrical properties of the MHD generator/electromagnet combination. The results of these tests indicate that the plasma jet/MHD generator design does generate a flow velocity greater than 25 km/s and produces several gigawatts of pulsed power in a very small package size. A larger, new generator design is also presented.

Agee, F.J.; Lehr, F.M. [Phillips Lab., Kirtland AFB, NM (United States); Vigil, M.; Kaye, R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gaudet, J.; Shiffler, D. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

An explosively driven, fast shock tube  

SciTech Connect

A simple, cylindrically configured fast shock tube (FST) has been employed as a tool to investigate the hydrodynamics of plate drive under a very high impulse-loading condition. The shock tube has a high-explosive outer shell and a low-density foam core. The implosion produces a well-defined Mach disk that is then subsequently used to drive a metallic plate. A thin stainless steel (SS) plate has been successfully launched to 9 km/s with this device. The experimental results from the study of material flow will be presented and compared with numerical calculation. Various interesting measurement techniques will also be discussed.

Tan, T.H.; Marsh, S.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

An explosively driven, fast shock tube  

SciTech Connect

A simple, cylindrically configured fast shock tube (FST) has been employed as a tool to investigate the hydrodynamics of plate drive under a very high impulse-loading condition. The shock tube has a high-explosive outer shell and a low-density foam core. The implosion produces a well-defined Mach disk that is then subsequently used to drive a metallic plate. A thin stainless steel (SS) plate has been successfully launched to 9 km/s with this device. The experimental results from the study of material flow will be presented and compared with numerical calculation. Various interesting measurement techniques will also be discussed.

Tan, T.H.; Marsh, S.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

The Ranchero explosive pulsed power system  

SciTech Connect

The authors are currently developing a high explosive pulsed power system concept that they call Ranchero. Ranchero systems consist of series-parallel combinations of simultaneously initiated coaxial magnetic flux compression generators, and are intended to operate in the range from 50 MA to a few hundred MA currents. One example of a Ranchero system is shown here. The coaxial modules lend themselves to extracting the current output either from one end or along the generator midplane. They have previously published design considerations related to the different module configurations, and in this paper they concentrate on the system that they will use for their first imploding liner tests. A single module with end output. The module is 1.4-m long and expands the armature by a factor of two to reach the 30-cm OD stator. The first heavy liner implosion experiments will be conducted in the range of 40--50 MA currents. Electrical tests, to date, have employed high explosive (HE) charges 43-cm long. They have performed tests and related 1D MHD calculations at the 45-MA current level with small loads. From these results, they determine that they can deliver currents of approximately 50 MA to loads of 8 nH.

Goforth, J.H.; Atchison, W.L.; Bartram, D.E. [and others

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

A proposal for detecting hidden explosives to high distance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper author describes a proposal for an apparatus utilising o nuclear physics techniques to identify hidden explosives to a distance of several tenth of meters. The apparatus uses a modified PFNA (Pulsed Fast neutron Analysis) with the gamma ... Keywords: application of nuclear physics, electronic instrumentation, explosives detection, security apparatus

Carlo Artemi

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Radiographic study of impact in polymer-bonded explosives  

SciTech Connect

Computer-tomography generated material-density maps from flash x-ray radiographs of the impact of cylinders of mockup polymer-bonded explosive (PBX) striking a steel plate. Comparison of the density fields with computer simulation allowed discrimination of rather complex deformation and flow models for insensitive explosives to be used in further studies of chemical reactions initiated by shock waves.

Fugelso, E.; Jacobson, J.D.; Karpp, R.R.; Jensen, R.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

High-speed Visualization of Flame Propagation in Explosions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flow visualization data is presented to describe the structure of flames propagating in methane-air explosions in semi-confined enclosures. The role of turbulence is well established as a mechanism for increasing burning velocity by fragmenting the flame ... Keywords: combustion, explosions, high-speed, imaging, laser-sheet

G. K. Hargrave; T. C. Williams; S. Jarvis

2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

High Explosives Pressing Facility on budget and on schedule | National  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Explosives Pressing Facility on budget and on schedule | National Explosives Pressing Facility on budget and on schedule | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home > NNSA Blog > High Explosives Pressing Facility on budget and ... High Explosives Pressing Facility on budget and on schedule Posted By Office of Public Affairs Construction crews prepare to pour concrete at the new High Explosives

140

LANL highlights explosives work | National Nuclear Security Administration  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

explosives work | National Nuclear Security Administration explosives work | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home > NNSA Blog > LANL highlights explosives work LANL highlights explosives work Posted By Office of Public Affairs For more than 70 years, Los Alamos National Laboratory has been a frontrunner in explosives research, development and applications. To

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "graaff confetti explosion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

GEOFRAC: an explosives stimulation technique for a geothermal well  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The first known use of explosives for stimulating a geothermal well was successfully conducted in December 1981 with a process called GEOFRAC. The 260/sup 0/C well was located at the Union Oil Company's Geysers Field in northern California. For the initial test, 364 kg of a new explosive called HITEX II was placed at a depth of 2256 meters and detonated to verify techniques. The explosive was contained in an aluminum canister to separate it from the well fluids. In the second test, 5000 kg of explosive was used representing a column length of approximately 191 meters. The explosive was detonated at a depth of 1697 meters in the same well. The results of these tests show that HITEX II can be safely emplaced and successfully detonated in a hot geothermal well without causing damage to the well bore or casing.

Mumma, D.M.; McCullough, F. Jr.; Schmidt, E.W.; Pye, D.S.; Allen, W.C.; Pyle, D.; Hanold, R.J.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

HYDROGEN IGNITION MECHANISM FOR EXPLOSIONS IN NUCLEAR FACILITY PIPE SYSTEMS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrogen and oxygen generation due to the radiolysis of water is a recognized hazard in pipe systems used in the nuclear industry, where the accumulation of hydrogen and oxygen at high points in the pipe system is expected, and explosive conditions exist. Pipe ruptures at nuclear facilities were attributed to hydrogen explosions inside pipelines, in nuclear facilities, i.e., Hamaoka, Nuclear Power Station in Japan, and Brunsbuettel in Germany. Prior to these accidents an ignition source for hydrogen was questionable, but these accidents, demonstrated that a mechanism was, in fact, available to initiate combustion and explosion. Hydrogen explosions may occur simultaneously with water hammer accidents in nuclear facilities, and a theoretical mechanism to relate water hammer to hydrogen deflagrations and explosions is presented herein.

Leishear, R

2010-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

143

Flash Ignition and Initiation of Explosives-Nanotubes Mixture  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The recent astounding discoveries of ignition in single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) after exposure to an ordinary photographic flash, (1) other formulations of carbons containing noble metals, (2) and polyaniline nanofibers (3) prompted us to explore a possible further instigation of explosive materials. Here, we report that an ignition and initiation process, further leading to actual detonation, does occur for explosives in lax contact with carbon nanotubes that are prone to opto-thermal activity via a conventional flashbulb. Optical ignition and initiation of explosives could thus far only be accomplished through lasers, (4) with specific characteristic of high power, pulse length, wavelength, and a small target area that greatly inhibit their applications. Our results have the implication that explosives with opto-thermally active SWNTs formulations are new ideal candidates for remote optical triggering of safety apparatus such as the firing of bolts on space shuttles rockets and aircraft exit doors, and for controlled burning of explosives as actuators.

Manaa, M R; Mitchell, A R; Garza, R G; Pagoria, P F; Watkins, B E

2005-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

144

DOE O 452.2D Admin Chg 1, Nuclear Explosive Safety  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

This Department of Energy (DOE) Order establishes requirements to implement the nuclear explosive safety (NES) elements of DOE O 452.1D, Nuclear Explosive and ...

2009-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

145

DOE O 452.4B, Security and Use Control of Nuclear Explosives and Nuclear Weapons  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

This Order establishes requirements to implement the nuclear explosive security and use control elements of DOE O 452.1D, Nuclear Explosive and Weapon Surety ...

2010-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

146

Atomic Energy Commission Explores Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Explosions |  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Explores Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Explosions | Explores Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Explosions | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home > About Us > Our History > NNSA Timeline > Atomic Energy Commission Explores Peaceful Uses of ... Atomic Energy Commission Explores Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Explosions July 06, 1962

147

Thermally stable booster explosive and process for manufacture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A thermally stable booster explosive and process for the manufacture of the explosive. The product explosive is 2,4,7,9-tetranitro-10H-benzo[4,5]furo[3,2-b]indole (TNBFI). A reactant/solvent such as n-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) or dimethyl formamide (DMF) is made slightly basic. The solution is heated to reduce the water content. The solution is cooled and hexanitrostilbene is added. The solution is heated to a predetermined temperature for a specific time period, cooled, and the product is collected by filtration.

Quinlin, William T. (Amarillo, TX); Thorpe, Raymond (Amarillo, TX); Lightfoot, James M. (Amarillo, TX)

2006-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

148

Proceedings of the twenty-first annual conference on explosives and blasting technique. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings contain 34 papers presented at the conference. Topics relate to explosive fracturing for construction projects (tunnels, pipelines, dams), rock drilling for explosive fracturing, surface mining, rock fragmentation, environmental impacts, storage and transport of high explosives, underwater blasting, toxic fumes, and explosives malfunctions. Most papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

149

Correlation of the electrical and space-time characteristics during electrical explosion of wires  

SciTech Connect

The electrical and space-time characteristics during electrical explosion of wires is studied. (AIP)

Litvinenko, V.P.; Koval' , S.V.

1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Empirical and scientific application of explosives and blasting agents  

SciTech Connect

A new system for comparing modern blasting agents and evaluating their performance in large-scale, massive rock blasting, such as the taconites of the Mesabi Range of Minnesota, has been devised. This paper briefly describes various explosives and blasting agents and makes some rather interesting comparisons based on their physical chemistry. The actual performance in rock is evaluated, based on the theory that rock fragmentation is more dependent on the physical characteristics of the rock mass and shot geometry than on explosive type. The energy absorption capacity of a rock, its physical properties, determines the relative effect of the applied explosive or blasting agent. And the method of force relief based primarily on shot geometry (multiple rows and holes) and elastic and physical properties of the rock determines how the rock mass will fragment. The relative affect of the applied explosive is dependent on its total energy, gas-volume and type, temperature, and reaction time.

Klima, F.J.

1966-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Explosive destruction system for disposal of chemical munitions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An explosive destruction system and method for safely destroying explosively configured chemical munitions. The system comprises a sealable, gas-tight explosive containment vessel, a fragment suppression system positioned in said vessel, and shaped charge means for accessing the interior of the munition when the munition is placed within the vessel and fragment suppression system. Also provided is a means for treatment and neutralization of the munition's chemical fills, and means for heating and agitating the contents of the vessel. The system is portable, rapidly deployable and provides the capability of explosively destroying and detoxifying chemical munitions within a gas-tight enclosure so that there is no venting of toxic or hazardous chemicals during detonation.

Tschritter, Kenneth L. (Livermore, CA); Haroldsen, Brent L. (Manteca, CA); Shepodd, Timothy J. (Livermore, CA); Stofleth, Jerome H. (Albuquerque, NM); DiBerardo, Raymond A. (Baltimore, MD)

2005-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

152

Explosive destruction system for disposal of chemical munitions  

SciTech Connect

An explosive destruction system and method for safely destroying explosively configured chemical munitions. The system comprises a sealable, gas-tight explosive containment vessel, a fragment suppression system positioned in said vessel, and shaped charge means for accessing the interior of the munition when the munition is placed within the vessel and fragment suppression system. Also provided is a means for treatment and neutralization of the munition's chemical fills, and means for heating and agitating the contents of the vessel. The system is portable, rapidly deployable and provides the capability of explosively destroying and detoxifying chemical munitions within a gas-tight enclosure so that there is no venting of toxic or hazardous chemicals during detonation.

Tschritter, Kenneth L. (Livermore, CA); Haroldsen, Brent L. (Manteca, CA); Shepodd, Timothy J. (Livermore, CA); Stofleth, Jerome H. (Albuquerque, NM); DiBerardo, Raymond A. (Baltimore, MD)

2005-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

153

3-D Earth model more accurately pinpoints explosions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3-D Earth model more accurately pinpoints explosions 3-D Earth model more accurately pinpoints explosions 3-D Earth model more accurately pinpoints explosions The purpose of this model is to assist the U.S. Air Force and the international Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization with more accurately locating all types of explosions. October 25, 2013 A one-dimensional velocity profile with depth plotted within a three-dimensional Earth. The colors are compressional wave velocity in km/s. The rays are examples coming from a pseudo station at the North Pole. This model is used as the starting point to calculate the full SALSA3D velocity model. A one-dimensional velocity profile with depth plotted within a three-dimensional Earth. The colors are compressional wave velocity in km/s. The rays are examples coming from a pseudo station at the North Pole.

154

Pantex installs new high explosives equipment | National Nuclear Security  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

high explosives equipment | National Nuclear Security high explosives equipment | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home > NNSA Blog > Pantex installs new high explosives equipment Pantex installs new high explosives equipment Posted By Office of Public Affairs Joel Ramos works with the lathe. Big jobs are nothing new for the Projects Division at Pantex, and the

155

Trinity Site - World's First Nuclear Explosion | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Manhattan Project » Signature Manhattan Project » Signature Facilities » Trinity Site - World's First Nuclear Explosion Trinity Site - World's First Nuclear Explosion Trinity Site - World's First Nuclear Explosion The world's first nuclear explosion occurred on July 16, 1945, when a plutonium implosion device was tested at a site located 210 miles south of Los Alamos on the barren plains of the Alamogordo Bombing Range, known as the Jornada del Muerto. Inspired by the poetry of John Donne, J. Robert Oppenheimer code-named the test Trinity. Hoisted atop a 150-foot tower, the plutonium device, or Gadget, detonated at precisely 5:30 a.m. over the New Mexico desert, releasing 18.6 kilotons of power, instantly vaporizing the tower and turning the surrounding asphalt and sand into green glass.

156

3-D Earth model more accurately pinpoints explosions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3-D Earth model more accurately pinpoints explosions 3-D Earth model more accurately pinpoints explosions 3-D Earth model more accurately pinpoints explosions The purpose of this model is to assist the U.S. Air Force and the international Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization with more accurately locating all types of explosions. October 25, 2013 A one-dimensional velocity profile with depth plotted within a three-dimensional Earth. The colors are compressional wave velocity in km/s. The rays are examples coming from a pseudo station at the North Pole. This model is used as the starting point to calculate the full SALSA3D velocity model. A one-dimensional velocity profile with depth plotted within a three-dimensional Earth. The colors are compressional wave velocity in km/s. The rays are examples coming from a pseudo station at the North Pole.

157

Pantex installs new high explosives equipment | National Nuclear Security  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

high explosives equipment | National Nuclear Security high explosives equipment | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home > NNSA Blog > Pantex installs new high explosives equipment Pantex installs new high explosives equipment Posted By Office of Public Affairs Joel Ramos works with the lathe. Big jobs are nothing new for the Projects Division at Pantex, and the

158

FAQS Job Task Analyses - Nuclear Explosive Safety Study  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Nuclear Explosive Safety Study FAQS Nuclear Explosive Safety Study FAQS STEP 1: Job Task Analysis for Tasks Task (and Number) Source Importance Frequency (1) Serves as a member or chair of the NESSG. FAQS Duties and Responsibilities Paragraph A 5 3 (2) Provides guidance on and interpretation of nuclear explosive safety (NES) requirements and policy. FAQS Duties and Responsibilities Paragraph B 5 4 (3) Drafts policy directives for the DOE/NNSA, Nuclear Explosive Safety Operations Branch (NESB) and reviews DOE/NNSA policies on NES. FAQS Duties and Responsibilities Paragraph D 5 3 (4) Provides instruction and guidance regarding NES to individuals assigned NES responsibilities. FAQS Duties and Responsibilities Paragraph E 5 3-4 (5) Monitors ongoing NEOs to ensure compliance with NES standards and

159

Explosive joints in Nb--Ti/Cu composite superconductors  

SciTech Connect

Explosive welding techniques have been applied to the joining of a Nb-Ti/ Cu composite conductor. Details of the process are given together with mechanical and electrical evaluations of the resulting joints. (auth)

Cornish, D.N.; Zbasnik, J.P.; Pattee, H.E.

1975-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Ultrafast laser based coherent control methods for explosives detection  

SciTech Connect

The detection of explosives is a notoriously difficult problem, especially at stand-off, due to their (generally) low vapor pressure, environmental and matrix interferences, and packaging. We are exploring Optimal Dynamic Detection of Explosives (ODD-Ex), which exploits the best capabilities of recent advances in laser technology and recent discoveries in optimal shaping of laser pulses for control of molecular processes to significantly enhance the standoff detection of explosives. The core of the ODD-Ex technique is the introduction of optimally shaped laser pulses to simultaneously enhance sensitivity to explosives signatures while dramatically improving specificity, particularly against matrix materials and background interferences. These goals are being addressed by operating in an optimal non-linear fashion, typically with a single shaped laser pulse inherently containing within it coherently locked control and probe subpulses. Recent results will be presented.

Moore, David Steven [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "graaff confetti explosion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Localized Shear Bands in Explosively Bonded Alloy 718/ Copper ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

copper (with silver content of 0.078 wt %) was cold worked to 40% before bonding. Two plates of Alloy 718 with one plate of copper in between were explosively.

162

Insensitive explosive composition of halogenated copolymer and triaminotrinitrobenzene  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A highly insensitive and heat resistant plastic-bonded explosive containing 90 wt % triaminotrinitrobenzene and 10 wt % of a fully saturated copolymer of chlorotrifluoroethylene and vinylidene fluoride is readily manufactured by the slurry process.

Benziger, Theodore M. (Santa Fe, NM)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Numerical Simulations of a Case of Explosive Marine Cyclogenesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The extratropical cyclone which damaged the liner Queen Elizabeth II in September 1978 is a well-documented example of explosive marine cyclogenesis in which the 24 h surface central pressure fall was 60 mb commencing 1200 GMT 9 September. ...

Richard A. Anthes; Ying-Hwa Kuo; John R. Gyakum

1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Construction on Pantex High Explosives Pressing Facility reaches...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Public Affairs Pantex workers complete a construction pour at HEPF Workers at the Pantex Plant last month finished the largest concrete pour to date on the High Explosives...

165

EDS V25 containment vessel explosive qualification test report.  

SciTech Connect

The V25 containment vessel was procured by the Project Manager, Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel (PMNSCM) as a replacement vessel for use on the P2 Explosive Destruction Systems. It is the first EDS vessel to be fabricated under Code Case 2564 of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, which provides rules for the design of impulsively loaded vessels. The explosive rating for the vessel based on the Code Case is nine (9) pounds TNT-equivalent for up to 637 detonations. This limit is an increase from the 4.8 pounds TNT-equivalency rating for previous vessels. This report describes the explosive qualification tests that were performed in the vessel as part of the process for qualifying the vessel for explosive use. The tests consisted of a 11.25 pound TNT equivalent bare charge detonation followed by a 9 pound TNT equivalent detonation.

Rudolphi, John Joseph

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Benefits of explosive cutting for nuclear-facility applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The study discussed in this report was a cost/benefit analysis to determine: (1) whether explosive cutting is cost effective in comparison with alternative metal sectioning methods and (2) whether explosive cutting would reduce radiation exposure or provide other benefits. Two separate approaches were pursued. The first was to qualitatively assess cutting methods and factors involved in typical sectioning cases and then compare the results for the cutting methods. The second was to prepare estimates of work schedules and potential radiation exposures for candidate sectioning methods for two hypothetical, but typical, sectioning tasks. The analysis shows that explosive cutting would be cost effective and would also reduce radiation exposure when used for typical nuclear facility sectioning tasks. These results indicate that explosive cutting should be one of the principal cutting methods considered whenever steel or similar metal structures or equipment in a nuclear facility are to be sectioned for repair or decommissioning. 13 figures, 7 tables. (DLC)

Hazelton, R.F.; Lundgren, R.A.; Allen, R.P.

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Pantex neighbors get rare chance to see high explosives test...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Public Affairs NNSA Blog NNSA Blog For homeowners around the Pantex Plant in Amarillo, Texas, occasional shockwaves and loud booms from test explosions are a normal part of life....

168

Modeling emission from the first explosions: pitfalls and problems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Observations of the explosions of the population III stars have the potential to teach us much about the formation and evolution of these zero metallicity objects. But to reach this potential, we must tie the observed emission to and explosion model. This requires accurate light-curve/spectral calculations. Here we discuss many of the pitfalls and problems involved in such calculations, presenting some preliminary results from radiation-hydrodynamics calculations.

Fryer, Christopher Lee [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Whalen, Daniel J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Frey, Lucille H [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Rail gun powered by an integral explosive generator  

SciTech Connect

We propose the use of a rail gun powered by an explosive magnetic flux compression generator built into the rail gun itself in which the rails of the gun are driven together behind the projectile by explosives. The magnetic field established between the rails by an initial current supplied by an external source at the breech of the gun is trapped and compressed by the collapsing rails to accelerate the projectile down the bore of the gun.

Peterson, D.R.; Fowler, C.M.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Mechanistic Reactive Burn Modeling of Solid Explosives  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a computational framework for reactive burn modeling of solid explosives and the development of a test case where physical mechanisms represent RDX or RDX-based materials. The report is a sequel to LA-13794-MS, ''A Unifying Framework for Hot Spots and the Ignition of Energetic Materials,'' where we proposed a new approach to the building of a general purpose model that captures the essential features of the three primary origins of hot-spot formation: void collapse, shear banding, friction. The purpose of the present report is to describe the continuing task of coupling the unifying hot-spot model to hydrodynamic calculations to develop a mechanistic reactive burn model. The key components of the coupling include energy localization, the growth of hot spots, overall hot-spot behavior, and a phase-averaged mixture equation of state (EOS) in a Mie-Grueneisen form. The nucleation and growth of locally heated regions is modeled by a phenomenological treatment as well as a statistical model based on an exponential size distribution. The Mie-Grueneisen form of the EOS is one of many possible choices and is not a critical selection for implementing the model. In this report, model calculations are limited to proof-of-concept illustrations for shock loading. Results include (1) shock ignition and growth-to-detonation, (2) double shock ignition, and (3) quenching and reignition. A comparative study of Pop-plots is discussed based on the statistical model.

Y.Horie; Y.Hamate; D.Greening

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Emission properties of explosive field emission cathodes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The research results of the explosive field emission cathode plasma expansion velocity and the initial emission area in the planar diode configuration with cathodes made of graphite, stainless steel, polymer velvet, carbon coated, and carbon fiber (needle type) cathodes are presented. The experiments have been performed at the electron accelerator LIA-200 (200 kV, 100 ns, and 4 kA). The diode voltage has been varied from 28-225 kV, whereas the current density has been varied from 86-928 A/cm{sup 2} with 100 ns pulse duration. The experimentally obtained electron beam diode perveance has been compared with the 1 dimensional Child-Langmuir- law. It was found that initially only a part of the cathode take part in the emission process. The plasma expands at 1.7-5.2 cm/{mu}s for 4 mm anode-cathode gap for various cathode materials. It was found that the plasma expansion velocity increases with the decrease in the cathode diameter. At the beginning of the accelerating pulse, the entire cathode area participates in the electron emission process only for the multiple needle type carbon fiber cathode.

Roy, Amitava; Patel, Ankur; Menon, Rakhee; Sharma, Archana; Chakravarthy, D. P. [Accelerator and Pulse Power Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Patil, D. S. [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

172

Shortcut estimation of safety distances of pipelines from explosives  

SciTech Connect

Purposely or accidentally detonating explosives near pressurized gas pipelines may have severe consequences on them, ranging from permanent deformation to gas loss or even violent rupture. Owing to lack of analytical prediction models, a shortcut is proposed in this article by which conservative estimations can be obtained of the safety distance of a pipeline from an explosion source, when explosive quantity is known. Alternatively, the maximum allowable explosive quantity can be calculated, provided distance is given. If both explosive quantity and distance are given, stresses on the pipeline may be estimated. Experimentally determined ratios of circumferential to longitudinal strains found in the literature are used. This ratio depends on soil peak particle velocity in contact with the pipeline. For total stress estimations on the pipeline, either biaxial or Huber-Hencky-Mises stresses are used, the latter being more conservative. Validation of proposed method is obtained against experimental observations and results. In this prediction model the characteristics of the explosion source, of the soil, and of the pipeline are taken into account.

Rigas, F.; Sebos, I. [National Technical Univ. of Athens (Greece)

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

HERMES: A Model to Describe Deformation, Burning, Explosion, and Detonation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

HERMES (High Explosive Response to MEchanical Stimulus) was developed to fill the need for a model to describe an explosive response of the type described as BVR (Burn to Violent Response) or HEVR (High Explosive Violent Response). Characteristically this response leaves a substantial amount of explosive unconsumed, the time to reaction is long, and the peak pressure developed is low. In contrast, detonations characteristically consume all explosive present, the time to reaction is short, and peak pressures are high. However, most of the previous models to describe explosive response were models for detonation. The earliest models to describe the response of explosives to mechanical stimulus in computer simulations were applied to intentional detonation (performance) of nearly ideal explosives. In this case, an ideal explosive is one with a vanishingly small reaction zone. A detonation is supersonic with respect to the undetonated explosive (reactant). The reactant cannot respond to the pressure of the detonation before the detonation front arrives, so the precise compressibility of the reactant does not matter. Further, the mesh sizes that were practical for the computer resources then available were large with respect to the reaction zone. As a result, methods then used to model detonations, known as {beta}-burn or program burn, were not intended to resolve the structure of the reaction zone. Instead, these methods spread the detonation front over a few finite-difference zones, in the same spirit that artificial viscosity is used to spread the shock front in inert materials over a few finite-difference zones. These methods are still widely used when the structure of the reaction zone and the build-up to detonation are unimportant. Later detonation models resolved the reaction zone. These models were applied both to performance, particularly as it is affected by the size of the charge, and to situations in which the stimulus was less than that needed for reliable performance, whether as a result of accident, hazard, or a fault in the detonation train. These models describe the build-up of detonation from a shock stimulus. They are generally consistent with the mesoscale picture of ignition at many small defects in the plane of the shock front and the growth of the resulting hot-spots, leading to detonation in heterogeneous explosives such as plastic-bonded explosives (PBX). The models included terms for ignition, and also for the growth of reaction as tracked by the local mass fraction of product gas, {lambda}. The growth of reaction in such models incorporates a form factor that describes the change of surface area per unit volume (specific surface area) as the reaction progresses. For unimolecular crystalline-based explosives, the form factor is consistent with the mesoscale picture of a galaxy of hot spots burning outward and eventually interacting with each other. For composite explosives and propellants, where the fuel and oxidizer are segregated, the diffusion flame at the fuel-oxidizer interface can be interpreted with a different form factor that corresponds to grains burning inward from their surfaces. The form factor influences the energy release rate, and the amount of energy released in the reaction zone. Since the 19th century, gun and cannon propellants have used perforated geometric shapes that produce an increasing surface area as the propellant burns. This helps maintain the pressure as burning continues while the projectile travels down the barrel, which thereby increases the volume of the hot gas. Interior ballistics calculations use a geometric form factor to describe the changing surface area precisely. As a result, with a suitably modified form factor, detonation models can represent burning and explosion in damaged and broken reactant. The disadvantage of such models in application to accidents is that the ignition term does not distinguish between a value of pressure that results from a shock, and the same pressure that results from a more gradual increase. This disagrees with experiments, where

Reaugh, J E

2011-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

174

HERMES: A Model to Describe Deformation, Burning, Explosion, and Detonation  

SciTech Connect

HERMES (High Explosive Response to MEchanical Stimulus) was developed to fill the need for a model to describe an explosive response of the type described as BVR (Burn to Violent Response) or HEVR (High Explosive Violent Response). Characteristically this response leaves a substantial amount of explosive unconsumed, the time to reaction is long, and the peak pressure developed is low. In contrast, detonations characteristically consume all explosive present, the time to reaction is short, and peak pressures are high. However, most of the previous models to describe explosive response were models for detonation. The earliest models to describe the response of explosives to mechanical stimulus in computer simulations were applied to intentional detonation (performance) of nearly ideal explosives. In this case, an ideal explosive is one with a vanishingly small reaction zone. A detonation is supersonic with respect to the undetonated explosive (reactant). The reactant cannot respond to the pressure of the detonation before the detonation front arrives, so the precise compressibility of the reactant does not matter. Further, the mesh sizes that were practical for the computer resources then available were large with respect to the reaction zone. As a result, methods then used to model detonations, known as {beta}-burn or program burn, were not intended to resolve the structure of the reaction zone. Instead, these methods spread the detonation front over a few finite-difference zones, in the same spirit that artificial viscosity is used to spread the shock front in inert materials over a few finite-difference zones. These methods are still widely used when the structure of the reaction zone and the build-up to detonation are unimportant. Later detonation models resolved the reaction zone. These models were applied both to performance, particularly as it is affected by the size of the charge, and to situations in which the stimulus was less than that needed for reliable performance, whether as a result of accident, hazard, or a fault in the detonation train. These models describe the build-up of detonation from a shock stimulus. They are generally consistent with the mesoscale picture of ignition at many small defects in the plane of the shock front and the growth of the resulting hot-spots, leading to detonation in heterogeneous explosives such as plastic-bonded explosives (PBX). The models included terms for ignition, and also for the growth of reaction as tracked by the local mass fraction of product gas, {lambda}. The growth of reaction in such models incorporates a form factor that describes the change of surface area per unit volume (specific surface area) as the reaction progresses. For unimolecular crystalline-based explosives, the form factor is consistent with the mesoscale picture of a galaxy of hot spots burning outward and eventually interacting with each other. For composite explosives and propellants, where the fuel and oxidizer are segregated, the diffusion flame at the fuel-oxidizer interface can be interpreted with a different form factor that corresponds to grains burning inward from their surfaces. The form factor influences the energy release rate, and the amount of energy released in the reaction zone. Since the 19th century, gun and cannon propellants have used perforated geometric shapes that produce an increasing surface area as the propellant burns. This helps maintain the pressure as burning continues while the projectile travels down the barrel, which thereby increases the volume of the hot gas. Interior ballistics calculations use a geometric form factor to describe the changing surface area precisely. As a result, with a suitably modified form factor, detonation models can represent burning and explosion in damaged and broken reactant. The disadvantage of such models in application to accidents is that the ignition term does not distinguish between a value of pressure that results from a shock, and the same pressure that results from a more gradual increase. This disagrees with experiments, where

Reaugh, J E

2011-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

175

Optimization of steam explosion pretreatment. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Different operating conditions are required to optimize the yield from each of the various fractions in the substrate. Xylose recovery is maximized at short cooking times whereas maximum lignin recovery requires much longer cooking times. Peak glucose yield and rumen digestibility occur at intermediate times. If process conditions are set for maximum glucose yield we have achieved a yield of 68% of the theoretical, based on an average of a dozen substrates tested. Individual results ranged from 46 to 87%. If the process is optimized for maximum total sugars (i.e. glucose plus xylose) we have obtained an average yield of 60%, with a range of 31 to 75%. With rumen microflora, the average value of the in-vitro cellulose digestibility was 82%, with a range of 41 to 90%. The optimum operating conditions for total sugars are a pressure of 500 to 550 psig with a cooking time of 40 to 50 seconds and 35% starting moisture content. Particle size is not a significant factor, nor is pre-steaming or use of a constricting die in the gun nozzle. High quality lignin can be extracted with 80% yield. The Iotech lignin is very soluble, has a low molecular weight and is reactive. The unique properties of the lignin derive from the explosion at the end of the pretreatment. A lignin formaldehyde resin has been successfully formulated and tested. It represents a high value utilization of the lignin byproduct with immediate market potential. A detailed engineering design of the process gives an estimated operating cost of $7.50/OD ton of biomass. At this low cost, the Iotech process achieves many important pretreatment goals in a single step. The substrate has been sterilized; it has been pulverized into a powder; the cellulose has been accessible; and a highly reactive lignin fraction can be recovered and utilized.

Foody, P.

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

A design guide and specification for small explosive containment structures  

SciTech Connect

The design of structural containments for testing small explosive devices requires the designer to consider the various aspects of the explosive loading, i.e., shock and gas or quasistatic pressure. Additionally, if the explosive charge has the potential of producing damaging fragments, provisions must be made to arrest the fragments. This may require that the explosive be packed in a fragment attenuating material, which also will affect the loads predicted for containment response. Material also may be added just to attenuate shock, in the absence of fragments. Three charge weights are used in the design. The actual charge is used to determine a design fragment. Blast loads are determined for a {open_quotes}design charge{close_quotes}, defined as 125% of the operational charge in the explosive device. No yielding is permitted at the design charge weight. Blast loads are also determined for an over-charge, defined as 200% of the operational charge in the explosive device. Yielding, but no failure, is permitted at this over-charge. This guide emphasizes the calculation of loads and fragments for which the containment must be designed. The designer has the option of using simplified or complex design-analysis methods. Examples in the guide use readily available single degree-of-freedom (sdof) methods, plus static methods for equivalent dynamic loads. These are the common methods for blast resistant design. Some discussion of more complex methods is included. Generally, the designer who chooses more complex methods must be fully knowledgeable in their use and limitations. Finally, newly fabricated containments initially must be proof tested to 125% of the operational load and then inspected at regular intervals. This specification provides guidance for design, proof testing, and inspection of small explosive containment structures.

Marchand, K.A.; Cox, P.A.; Polcyn, M.A. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States)

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Dust explosion hazards due to blasting of oil shale  

SciTech Connect

The conditions favoring secondary explosions of dust or gas accompanying the blasting of oil shale are the subject of continuing investigation by the Bureau of Mines. In the present study, oil shale dust was dispersed in a gallery and ignited by various blasting agents blown out of a cannon according to a standard testing procedure. Parallel tests were conducted in the Bureau's Experimental Mine to test propagation as well as ignition of oil shale dust. In both gallery and mine, the minimum explosion limits were determined as a function of dust loading, weight and type of blasting agent, and amount of added methane. The results of these experiments are compared with previous measurements using methane-air explosions as an initiation source. In view of recent mine dust sampling data, the main explosion hazard in nongassy oil shale mines is likely to be limited to the region of the face. But in gassy mines, dust-gas explosions could be expected to propagate considerable distances.

Richmond, J.K.; Beitel, F.P.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

UNIFYING THE ZOO OF JET-DRIVEN STELLAR EXPLOSIONS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a set of numerical simulations of stellar explosions induced by relativistic jets emanating from a central engine sitting at the center of compact, dying stars. We explore a wide range of durations of the central engine activity, two candidate stellar progenitors, and two possible values of the total energy release. We find that even if the jets are narrowly collimated, their interaction with the star unbinds the stellar material, producing a stellar explosion. We also find that the outcome of the explosion can be very different depending on the duration of the engine activity. Only the longest-lasting engines result in successful gamma-ray bursts. Engines that power jets only for a short time result in relativistic supernova (SN) explosions, akin to observed engine-driven SNe such as SN2009bb. Engines with intermediate durations produce weak gamma-ray bursts, with properties similar to nearby bursts such as GRB 980425. Finally, we find that the engines with the shortest durations, if they exist in nature, produce stellar explosions that lack sizable amounts of relativistic ejecta and are therefore dynamically indistinguishable from ordinary core-collapse SNe.

Lazzati, Davide; Blackwell, Christopher H. [Department of Physics, NC State University, 2401 Stinson Drive, Raleigh, NC 27695-8202 (United States); Morsony, Brian J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2535 Sterling Hall, 475 N. Charter Street, Madison WI 53706-1582 (United States); Begelman, Mitchell C. [JILA, University of Colorado, 440 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309-0440 (United States)

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Sensitivity of numerical dispersion modeling to explosive source parameters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The calculation of downwind concentrations from non-traditional sources, such as explosions, provides unique challenges to dispersion models. The US Department of Energy has assigned the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) the task of estimating the impact of accidental radiological releases to the atmosphere anywhere in the world. Our experience includes responses to over 25 incidents in the past 16 years, and about 150 exercises a year. Examples of responses to explosive accidents include the 1980 Titan 2 missile fuel explosion near Damascus, Arkansas and the hydrogen gas explosion in the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. Based on judgment and experience, we frequently estimate the source geometry and the amount of toxic material aerosolized as well as its particle size distribution. To expedite our real-time response, we developed some automated algorithms and default assumptions about several potential sources. It is useful to know how well these algorithms perform against real-world measurements and how sensitive our dispersion model is to the potential range of input values. In this paper we present the algorithms we use to simulate explosive events, compare these methods with limited field data measurements, and analyze their sensitivity to input parameters. 14 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

Baskett, R.L. (EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (USA)); Cederwall, R.T. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))

1991-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

180

PINS Measurements and Simulations for Stand-Off Detection of High Explosives  

SciTech Connect

There has been some interest in the ability of Idaho National Laboratory's (INL) Portable Isotopic Neutron Spectroscopy System's (PINS) ability to detect high explosives at a distance. In order to assess the system's ability to perform this task, laboratory experiments on simulated or mock explosives and Monte Carlo simulations using MCNP on both mock and real explosives have been performed. The simulations and experiments on mock explosives have essentially identical configurations, allowing the models to be confirmed with experiment. This provides greater confidence in the simulations on real explosives without the need for experiment on live explosives.

E.H. Seabury

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

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181

Recovery Act Changes Hanford Skyline with Explosive Demolitions  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

American Recovery and Reinvestment Act workers at the Hanford Site recently American Recovery and Reinvestment Act workers at the Hanford Site recently used explosives to demolish industrial structures that supported plutonium processing for national defense. The explosive demolitions took down two 250-foot-tall exhaust chimneys, two 90-foot-fall air filter structures, and a 140-foot-tall water tower. The water tower was marked by a "Work Safely" motto that greeted workers. "Given the sheer height of the structures, explosive demolition was selected as the safer method of demolition," said Kurt Kehler, vice president and decommissioning and demolition project manager of CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, DOE's contractor at the Hanford Site. The structures supported the 284 West Power House, which was built in 1943 as

182

Construction on Pantex High Explosives Pressing Facility Reaches 85% Mark |  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Field Offices > Welcome to the NNSA Production Office > NPO Press Field Offices > Welcome to the NNSA Production Office > NPO Press Releases > Construction on Pantex High Explosives Pressing Facility ... Construction on Pantex High Explosives Pressing Facility Reaches 85% Mark January 3, 2014 Work on the National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) High Explosives Pressing Facility at its Pantex Plant, located near Amarillo, Texas, this month passed the 85 percent construction completion mark and is on schedule and under budget. Download Press Release Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr General Information NPO Press Releases Public Contact Us Mission Links NEPA Reading Room NPO Press Releases January 2014 (1) March 2013 (1) January 2013 (2) October 2012 (1) September 2012 (1) July 2012 (1) June 2012 (3) April 2012 (1) March 2012 (1)

183

High Explosives Pressing Facility on budget and on schedule | National  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Pressing Facility on budget and on schedule | National Pressing Facility on budget and on schedule | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home > NNSA Blog > High Explosives Pressing Facility on budget and ... High Explosives Pressing Facility on budget and on schedule Posted By Office of Public Affairs Construction crews prepare to pour concrete at the new High Explosives

184

GENERIC MODEL FOR MAGNETIC EXPLOSIONS APPLIED TO SOLAR FLARES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An accepted model for magnetospheric substorms is proposed as the basis for a generic model for magnetic explosions and is applied to solar flares. The model involves widely separated energy-release and particle-acceleration regions, with energy transported Alfvenically between them. On a global scale, these regions are coupled by a large-scale current that is set up during the explosion by redirection of pre-existing current associated with the stored magnetic energy. The explosion-related current is driven by an electromotive force (EMF) due to the changing magnetic flux enclosed by this current. The current path and the EMF are identified for an idealized quadrupolar model for a flare.

Melrose, D. B. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

2012-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

185

Dusty boundary layer in a surface-burst explosion  

SciTech Connect

Dusty boundary layers are an inherent feature of explosions over ground surfaces. Detailed knowledge of dusty boundary layer characteristics is needed in explosion safety analysis (e.g., to calculate the drag loads on structures). Also, to predicct the amount of dust in the rising fireball of an explsion, one must know the dusty boundary layer swept up during the positive and negative phases of the blast wave and how much of this boundary layer dust is entrained into the stem of the dust cloud. This paper describes the results of numerical simulations of the dusty boundary layer created by a surface burst explosion. The evolution of the flow was calculated by a high-order Godunov code that solves the nonsteady conservation laws.

Kuhl, A.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., El Segundo, CA (United States); Ferguson, R.E.; Chien, K.Y.; Collins, J.P. [Naval Surface Warfare Center, Silver Spring, MD (United States)

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Method for loading explosive laterally from a borehole  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

There is provided a method for forming an in situ oil shale retort in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. At least one void is excavated in the formation, leaving zones of unfragmented formation adjacent the void. An array of main blastholes is formed in the zone of unfragmented formation and at least one explosive charge which is shaped for forming a high velocity gas jet is placed into a main blasthole with the axis of the gas jet extending transverse to the blasthole. The shaped charge is detonated for forming an auxiliary blasthole in the unfragmented formation adjacent a side wall of the main blasthole. The auxiliary blasthole extends laterally away from the main blasthole. Explosive is placed into the main blasthole and into the auxiliary blasthole and is detonated for explosively expanding formation towards the free face for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles in the in situ oil shale retort.

Ricketts, Thomas E. (Grand Junction, CO)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Explosive welding of a tube into a tube sheet  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cartridge containing an explosive charge is placed within a tube assembled within a tube sheet. The charge is detonated through use of a detonator cord containing a minimum but effective amount of explosive material. The cord is contained inside a tubular shield throughout most of its length within the cartridge. A small length of the cord extends beyond the tubular shield to contact and detonate the explosive charge in its rear portion near the cartridge base. The cartridge base is provided of substantial mass and thickness in respect to side and front walls of the cartridge to minimize bulging beyond the rear face of the tube sheet. For remote activation an electrically activated detonator of higher charge density than the cord is attached to the cord at a location spaced from the tube sheet, cartridge and tube.

Green, Sheryll C. (London, OH); Linse, Vonne D. (Columbus, OH)

1978-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

188

''Water bath'' effect during the electrical underwater wire explosion  

SciTech Connect

The results of a simulation of underwater electrical wire explosion at a current density >10{sup 9} A/cm{sup 2}, total discharge current of {approx}3 MA, and rise time of the current of {approx}100 ns are presented. The electrical wire explosion was simulated using a one-dimensional radiation-magnetohydrodynamic model. It is shown that the radiation of the exploded wire produces a thin conducting plasma shell in the water in the vicinity of the exploding wire surface. It was found that this plasma shell catches up to 30% of the discharge current. Nevertheless, it was shown that the pressure and temperature of the wire material remain unchanged as compared with the idealized case of the electrical wire explosion in vacuum. This result is explained by a 'water bath' effect.

Oreshkin, V. I.; Chaikovsky, S. A.; Ratakhin, N. A.; Grinenko, A.; Krasik, Ya. E. [High Current Electronic Institute SB RAS, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Physics Department, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

189

NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS - PEACEFUI APPLICATIONS PROJECT WUL 1 SON  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

EXPLOSIONS - PEACEFUI EXPLOSIONS - PEACEFUI APPLICATIONS PROJECT WUL 1 SON F I N A L OPERATIONAL WAB$OACTIVI TY REPORT PRODUCT1 ON TESTS FEBRUARY 1972 PEACEFUL APPLICATIONS DIVISION NEVADA OPER4TIONS OFFICE This page intentionally left blank TABLE OF CONTENTS Subject Page N o . Abstract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Acknowledgements i i i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I . Introduction 1 I1 . F i r s t Production Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I11 . Second Production Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 IV . Third Production Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 V . Data Tables A . First Production Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 B . Second Production Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 C . Third Production Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Figures I . Road Map of Northwest Colorado . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . I1 . Total 3~ and 8

190

Method to prevent/mitigate steam explosions in casting pits  

SciTech Connect

Steam explosions can be prevented or mitigated during a metal casting process by the placement of a perforated flooring system in the casting pit. An upward flow of compressed gas through this perforated flooring system is introduced during the casting process to produce a buffer layer between any spilled molten metal and the cooling water in the reservoir. This buffer layer provides a hydrodynamic layer which acts to prevent or mitigate steam explosions resulting from hot, molten metal being spilled into or onto the cooling water.

Taleyarkhan, Rusi P. (Knoxville, TN)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Explosive fluid transmitted shock method for mining deeply buried coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for recovering coal from deeply buried deposits comprising drilling a hole down into a coal seam, filling the hole with water, and periodically detonating an explosive charge at the bottom of the water-filled hole. The water transmits the explosive shock wave to the face of the coal seam, thereby fracturing and dislodging the coal. The resulting suspension of loose coal in water is then pumped to the surface where the coal is recovered and the water is recycled to the mining operation.

Archibald, Paul B. (Pleasanton, CA)

1976-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

192

Calculation of the impact sensitivity characteristics of solid explosives  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method is proposed for calculating the critical impact initiation parameters of solid explosive in connection with fall-hammer sensitivity tests using a Kholevo No. 2 instrument. Tables present the initial data for calculating the critical initiation parameters of a series of common explosives, and the results of the calculations. Also shown are the results of calculating p and delta as functions of the composition of an ammonium perchlorate-Plexiglas mixture. The experimental data on the sensitivity of this mixture are consistent with the calculations made on the assumption of a chemical reaction between the ammonium-perchlorate and the Plexiglas (or their thermal decomposition products) on impact.

Dubovik, A.V.

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Method to prevent/mitigate steam explosions in casting pits  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Steam explosions can be prevented or mitigated during a metal casting process by the placement of a perforated flooring system in the casting pit. An upward flow of compressed gas through this perforated flooring system is introduced during the casting process to produce a buffer layer between any spilled molten metal and the cooling water in the reservoir. This buffer layer provides a hydrodynamic layer which acts to prevent or mitigate steam explosions resulting from hot, molten metal being spilled into or onto the cooling water. 3 figs.

Taleyarkhan, R.P.

1996-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

194

Safety and performance enhancement circuit for primary explosive detonators  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A safety and performance enhancement arrangement for primary explosive detonators. This arrangement involves a circuit containing an energy storage capacitor and preset self-trigger to protect the primary explosive detonator from electrostatic discharge (ESD). The circuit does not discharge into the detonator until a sufficient level of charge is acquired on the capacitor. The circuit parameters are designed so that normal ESD environments cannot charge the protection circuit to a level to achieve discharge. When functioned, the performance of the detonator is also improved because of the close coupling of the stored energy.

Davis, Ronald W. (Tracy, CA)

2006-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

195

The Dynamics of an Explosively Developing Cyclone Simulated by a General Circulation Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The synoptic structure and dynamics of an explosively developing winter extratropical cyclone simulated by NCAR’s CCM2 general circulation model is examined and compared with cyclones that have developed explosively in nature. The primary ...

Karen D. Walthorn; Phillip J. Smith

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Underwater Explosive Shock Consolidation of Nanocomposite Pr2Fe14B/-Fe Magnetic Powders  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PR O O FS Underwater Explosive Shock Consolidation of Nanocomposite Pr2Fe14B/-Fe Magnetic Powders; Accepted January 6, 2005) Keywords: explosive compaction, underwater shock wave, nanocomposites, magnetic

Liu, J. Ping

197

Potential applications of the natural design of internal explosion chambers in the bombardier beetle (Carabidae, Brachinus)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Bombardier Beetle (Carabidae, Brachinus) has a unique form of defense mechanism which involves the explosive mixing of hydroquinones and hydrogen peroxide in its internal explosion chambers and using the resultant high ...

Lai, Changquan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Predictability of Explosive Cyclogenesis over the Northwestern Pacific Region Using Ensemble Reanalysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The predictability of explosive cyclones over the northwestern Pacific region is investigated using an ensemble reanalysis dataset. Explosive cyclones are categorized into two types according to whether the region of the most rapid development is ...

Akira Kuwano-Yoshida; Takeshi Enomoto

199

NIST, ASTM Land a One-Two Punch to Fight Explosives ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

NIST, ASTM Land a One-Two Punch to Fight Explosives Terrorism. From NIST Tech Beat: March 30, 2011. ...

2012-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

200

Proceedings of the eighth annual symposium on explosives and blasting research  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This edition of the proceedings of the annual symposium on Explosives and Blasting Research held concurrent with the 18th Annual Conference on Explosives and Blasting Technique is the eighth in a series published by the International Society of Explosives Engineers. A variety of laboratory and field research is presented on explosives, mining, detonators, and shock waves. Seventeen papers are selected for the energy data base.

Not Available

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "graaff confetti explosion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Explosive Bonding of 316L to C18150 CuCrZr Alloy for ITER ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2010. Symposium, Joining of Advanced and Specialty Materials XII. Presentation Title, Explosive ...

202

DOE O 452.1D Admin Chg 1, Nuclear Explosive and Weapon Surety Program  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

This Order provides requirements and responsibilities to prevent unintended/unauthorized detonation and deliberate unauthorized use of nuclear explosives. ...

2009-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

203

Silane-O/sub 2/ explosions, their characteristics and their control  

SciTech Connect

Prior results on the stoichiometry, upper pressure explosion limits and reaction mechanism of SiH/sub 2/-O/sub 2/ explosion reactions are discussed, and new data on the effects of added disilane on the pyrophoric and explosive characters of metastable SiH/sub 4/-O/sub 2/ mixtures are presented. The results have possible application to the prevention of serious explosions due to silane leaks into air.

Ring, M.A.; O'Neil, H.E.; Famil-Ghiriha, J.

1988-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

204

Proceedings of the twenty-first annual conference on explosives and blasting technique. Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings contain 28 papers presented at the conference. Topics relate to drilling for explosive fracturing, pre-blast surveys, blasting regulations, underground and surface mining, tunneling, efficiency and optimization of explosive fracturing, blasting accidents, blast damage control, environmental control, and the use of explosive fracturing in remedial action. Many papers were processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

205

Proceedings of the twelfth conference on explosives and blasting techniques  

SciTech Connect

This book presents the papers given at a conference on the use of explosive fracturing to construct underground energy facilities. Topics considered at the conference included the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's underground research laboratory, drilling and blasting techniques for canals, pipeline trenches, blasting costs, underground coal mining, presplitting of granite, energy consumption, and overburden blasting vibrations.

Konya, C.J.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Precise and Accurate Density Determination of Explosives Using Hydrostatic Weighing  

SciTech Connect

Precise and accurate density determination requires weight measurements in air and water using sufficiently precise analytical balances, knowledge of the densities of air and water, knowledge of thermal expansions, availability of a density standard, and a method to estimate the time to achieve thermal equilibrium with water. Density distributions in pressed explosives are inferred from the densities of elements from a central slice.

B. Olinger

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

A Case Study of Explosive Cyclogenesis in the Eastern Pacific  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An explosive cyclogenesis that occurred in the eastern Pacific on 13 November 1981 is described and discussed on the basis of surface and upper air analyses and satellite imagery. During one 12-h period the storm deepened by nearly 40 mb and ...

Richard J. Reed; Mark D. Albright

1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Explosive Nucleosynthesis in GRB Jets Accompanied by Hypernovae  

SciTech Connect

Two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations are performed to investigate explosive nucleosynthesis in a collapsar using the model of MacFadyen and Woosley (1999). It is shown that {sup 56}Ni is not produced in the jet of the collapsar sufficiently to explain the observed amount of a hypernova when the duration of the explosion is {approx} 10 sec, which is considered to be the typical timescale of explosion in the collapsar model. Even though a considerable amount of {sup 56}Ni is synthesized if all explosion energy is deposited initially, the opening angles of the jets become too wide to realize highly relativistic outflows and gamma-ray bursts in such a case. From these results, it is concluded that the origin of {sup 56}Ni in hypernovae associated with GRBs is not the explosive nucleosynthesis in the jet. We consider that the idea that the origin is the explosive nucleosynthesis in the accretion disk is more promising. We also show that the explosion becomes bi-polar naturally due to the effect of the deformed progenitor. This fact suggests that the {sup 56}Ni synthesized in the accretion disk and conveyed as outflows are blown along to the rotation axis, which will explain the line features of SN 1998bw and double peaked line features of SN 2003jd. Some fraction of the gamma-ray lines from {sup 56}Ni decays in the jet will appear without losing their energies because the jet becomes optically thin before a considerable amount of {sup 56}Ni decays as long as the jet is a relativistic flow, which may be observed as relativistically Lorentz boosted line profiles in future. We show that abundance of nuclei whose mass number {approx} 40 in the ejecta depends sensitively on the energy deposition rate, which is a result of incomplete silicon burning and alpha-rich freezeout. So it may be determined by observations of chemical composition in metal poor stars which model is the proper one as a model of a gamma-ray burst accompanied by a hypernova.

Nagataki, Shigehiro; /Kyoto U., Yukawa Inst., Kyoto /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Mizuta, Akira; /Garching, Max Planck Inst.; Sato, Katsuhiko; /Tokyo U. /Tokyo U., RESCEU

2006-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

209

Hard target penetrator explosive development optimization of fragment, blast and survivability properties of explosives for hard target applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Several new explosives have been developed for hard target and related applications. Materials having energy densities as high as 20 KJ/cc have been made. Mid-scale field trials have been carried out at Eglin Air Force Base. Fragmentation improvements 150% that of Tritonal have been attained.

Simpson, R. L., LLNL

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Apparatus and method for rapid detection of explosives residue from the deflagration signature thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus and method for rapid detection of explosives residue from the deflagration signature thereof. A property inherent to most explosives is their stickiness, resulting in a strong tendency of explosive particulate to contaminate the environment of a bulk explosive. An apparatus for collection of residue particulate, burning the collected particulate, and measurement of the ultraviolet emission produced thereby, is described. The present invention can be utilized for real-time screening of personnel, cars, packages, suspected devices, etc., and provides an inexpensive, portable, and noninvasive means for detecting explosives.

Funsten, Herbert O. (Los Alamos, NM); McComas, David J. (Los Alamos, NM)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Apparatus and method for rapid detection of explosives residue from the deflagration signature thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus and method for rapid detection of explosives residue from the deflagration signature thereof. A property inherent to most explosives is their stickiness, resulting in a strong tendency of explosive particulate to contaminate the environment of a bulk explosive. An apparatus for collection of residue particulate, burning the collected particulate, and measurement of the optical emission produced thereby is described. The present invention can be utilized for real-time screening of personnel, cars, packages, suspected devices, etc., and provides an inexpensive, portable, and noninvasive means for detecting explosives.

Funsten, Herbert O. (Los Alamos, NM); McComas, David J. (Los Alamos, NM)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Apparatus and method for rapid detection of explosives residue from the deflagration signature thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus and method are disclosed for rapid detection of explosives residue from the deflagration signature thereof. A property inherent to most explosives is their stickiness, resulting in a strong tendency of explosive particulate to contaminate the environment of a bulk explosive. An apparatus for collection of residue particulate, burning the collected particulate, and measurement of the ultraviolet emission produced thereby, is described. The present invention can be utilized for real-time screening of personnel, cars, packages, suspected devices, etc., and provides an inexpensive, portable, and noninvasive means for detecting explosives. 4 figs.

Funsten, H.O.; McComas, D.J.

1999-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

213

Order Module--DOE O 452.1D, NUCLEAR EXPLOSIVE AND WEAPON SURETY PROGRAM,  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Order Module--DOE O 452.1D, NUCLEAR EXPLOSIVE AND WEAPON SURETY Order Module--DOE O 452.1D, NUCLEAR EXPLOSIVE AND WEAPON SURETY PROGRAM, DOE O 452.2D, NUCLEAR EXPLOSIVE SAFETY Order Module--DOE O 452.1D, NUCLEAR EXPLOSIVE AND WEAPON SURETY PROGRAM, DOE O 452.2D, NUCLEAR EXPLOSIVE SAFETY "To prevent accidents and inadvertent or unauthorized use of U.S. nuclear weapons and nuclear explosives. In conjunction with the Department of Defense (DoD), to protect the public health and safety by providing dual-agency judgment and responsibility for the safety, security, and use control (surety) of nuclear weapons. To establish nuclear explosive surety standards and nuclear weapon design surety requirements. To address surety vulnerabilities during all phases of the nuclear weapon life cycle and to upgrade surety during weapon stockpile refurbishments and/or new weapon

214

A HYDROGEN IGNITION MECHANISM FOR EXPLOSIONS IN NUCLEAR FACILITY PIPING SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen explosions may occur simultaneously with water hammer accidents in nuclear facilities, and a theoretical mechanism to relate water hammer to hydrogen deflagrations and explosions is presented herein. Hydrogen and oxygen generation due to the radiolysis of water is a recognized hazard in pipe systems used in the nuclear industry, where the accumulation of hydrogen and oxygen at high points in the pipe system is expected, and explosive conditions may occur. Pipe ruptures in nuclear reactor cooling systems were attributed to hydrogen explosions inside pipelines, i.e., Hamaoka, Nuclear Power Station in Japan, and Brunsbuettel in Germany. Prior to these accidents, an ignition source for hydrogen was not clearly demonstrated, but these accidents demonstrated that a mechanism was, in fact, available to initiate combustion and explosion. A new theory to identify an ignition source and explosion cause is presented here, and further research is recommended to fully understand this explosion mechanism.

Leishear, R.

2013-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

215

SECURITY AND CONTROL OF NUCLEAR EXPLOSIVES AND NUCLEAR WEAPONS  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

http://www.nnsa.energy.gov Office of Nuclear Weapon Surety and Quality http://www.nnsa.energy.gov Office of Nuclear Weapon Surety and Quality SUPPLEMENTAL DIRECTIVE Approved: 7-7-11 IMPLEMENTATION AND EVALUATION OF CONTROLS TO PREVENT DELIBERATE UNAUTHORIZED USE NATIONAL NUCLEAR SECURITY ADMINISTRATION Office of Defense Programs NA SD 452.4 NA SD 452.4 1 7-7-11 IMPLEMENTATION AND EVALUATION OF CONTROLS TO PREVENT DELIBERATE UNAUTHORIZED USE 1. PURPOSE. This NNSA Supplemental Directive (SD) supports the requirements of DOE O 452.4B, Security and Use Control of Nuclear Explosives and Nuclear Weapons. Specifically, this SD supports the Order's requirements to implement deliberate unauthorized use (DUU) preventive measures for nuclear explosive operations (NEO) and associated activities and to perform independent evaluations to determine if NEOs

216

Hydrogen explosion testing with a simulated transuranic drum  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Transuranic (TRU) waste generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently stored onsite for future retrieval and permanent disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Some of the TRU waste is stored in vented 210-liter (55-gallon) drums and consists of gloves, wipes, plastic valves, tools, etc. Gas generation caused by radiolysis and biodegradation of these organic waste materials may produce a flammable hydrogen-air mixture (>4% v/v) in the multi-layer plastic waste bags. Using a worst case scenario, a drum explosion test program was carried out to determine the hydrogen concentration necessary to cause removal of the drum lid. Test results indicate an explosive mixture up to 15% v/v of hydrogen can be contained in an SRS TRU drum without total integrity failure via lid removal.

Dykes, K.L.; Meyer, M.L.

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

217

New sensor technology detects chemical, biological, nuclear and explosive  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

New New sensor technology detects chemical, biological, nuclear and explosive materials Director's Welcome Organization Achievements Highlights Fact Sheets, Brochures & Other Documents Multimedia Library About Nuclear Energy Nuclear Reactors Designed by Argonne Argonne's Nuclear Science and Technology Legacy Opportunities within NE Division Visit Argonne Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE on Flickr Celebrating the 70th Anniversary of Chicago Pile 1 (CP-1) Argonne OutLoud on Nuclear Energy Argonne Energy Showcase 2012 Highlights Bookmark and Share New sensor technology detects chemical, biological, nuclear and explosive materials Applications for homeland security, emergency planning Instruments in Argonne's Terahertz Test Facility, such as the one Sami Gopalsami is using, can detect trace chemicals at the part-per-billion level.

218

Smashing science: Livermore scientists discover how explosives respond to  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 3 For immediate release: 12/12/2013 | NR-13-12-03 High Resolution Image A schematic representation of the shock experiment. The resulting energy release pushed the shock front to the left. Image by Liam Krauss/LLNL. Smashing science: Livermore scientists discover how explosives respond to shockwaves Anne M Stark, LLNL, (925) 422-9799, stark8@llnl.gov Watch Video A laser pulse impinging on an aluminum ablation layer (which is coated on a glass substrate to the right), which generates a rapidly expanding plasma. This small explosion pushes the ablator to the left and drives a shock wave in the sample. The experiment simultaneously measures the speed of the shock wave in the sample, and the speed of the ablator expansion, which allows Livermore researchers to estimate the pressure and density of the

219

Hydrogen explosion testing with a simulated transuranic drum  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Transuranic (TRU) waste generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently stored onsite for future retrieval and permanent disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Some of the TRU waste is stored in vented 210-liter (55-gallon) drums and consists of gloves, wipes, plastic valves, tools, etc. Gas generation caused by radiolysis and biodegradation of these organic waste materials may produce a flammable hydrogen-air mixture (>4% v/v) in the multi-layer plastic waste bags. Using a worst case scenario, a drum explosion test program was carried out to determine the hydrogen concentration necessary to cause removal of the drum lid. Test results indicate an explosive mixture up to 15% v/v of hydrogen can be contained in an SRS TRU drum without total integrity failure via lid removal.

Dykes, K.L.; Meyer, M.L.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

MAGNETIC EXPLOSIONS: ROLE OF THE INDUCTIVE ELECTRIC FIELD  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Inclusion of the inductive electric field, E{sub ind}, due to the temporally changing B, in magnetic explosions is discussed, with emphasis on solar flares. Several roles played by E{sub ind} are identified: on a global scale, E{sub ind} produces the electromotive force that drives the explosion; the associated E{sub ind} Multiplication-Sign B drift is identified with the inflow of magnetic field lines into a reconnection region; the polarization current, associated with {partial_derivative}E{sub ind}/{partial_derivative}t, implies a J Multiplication-Sign B force that accelerates this inflow; and the component of E{sub ind} parallel to B accelerates the energetic electrons that cause hard X-ray emission and type III radio bursts. Some simple models that describe these effects are presented. A resolution of the long-standing 'number problem' in solar flares is suggested.

Melrose, D. B. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

2012-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "graaff confetti explosion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Chemistry Resolved Kinetic Flow Modeling of TATB Based Explosives  

SciTech Connect

Detonation waves in insensitive, TATB based explosives are believed to have multi-time scale regimes. The initial burn rate of such explosives has a sub-microsecond time scale. However, significant late-time slow release in energy is believed to occur due to diffusion limited growth of carbon. In the intermediate time scale concentrations of product species likely change from being in equilibrium to being kinetic rate controlled. They use the thermo-chemical code CHEETAH linked to an ALE hydrodynamics code to model detonations. They term their model chemistry resolved kinetic flow as CHEETAH tracks the time dependent concentrations of individual species in the detonation wave and calculates EOS values based on the concentrations. A HE-validation suite of model simulations compared to experiments at ambient, hot, and cold temperatures has been developed. They present here a new rate model and comparison with experimental data.

Vitello, P A; Fried, L E; Howard, W M; Levesque, G; Souers, P C

2011-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

222

High explosive systems for equation-of-state studies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Experimental and calculational studies were made to specify a suite of explosive impactor systems to be used in high pressure equation-of-state (EOS) measurements. 316 stainless steel (SS) was used as the driver or impactor. The investigation included some systems where the high explosive (HE) driving the plate to be used as the impactor was preshocked by another thicker SS plate. The effect of lateral confinement, either by HE or iron rings constituted part of the study. The effect of separating the HE and driver was also studied. The velocity range encompassed was from less than 4 km/s to over 9 km/s, which was observed in a two-stage experiment. 4 figs., 1 tab.

McQueen, R.G.; Marsh, S.P.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Standoff ultraviolet raman scattering detection of trace levels of explosives.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ultraviolet (UV) Raman scattering with a 244-nm laser is evaluated for standoff detection of explosive compounds. The measured Raman scattering albedo is incorporated into a performance model that focused on standoff detection of trace levels of explosives. This model shows that detection at {approx}100 m would likely require tens of seconds, discouraging application at such ranges, and prohibiting search-mode detection, while leaving open the possibility of short-range point-and-stare detection. UV Raman spectra are also acquired for a number of anticipated background surfaces: tile, concrete, aluminum, cloth, and two different car paints (black and silver). While these spectra contained features in the same spectral range as those for TNT, we do not observe any spectra similar to that of TNT.

Kulp, Thomas J.; Bisson, Scott E.; Reichardt, Thomas A.

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Boiling of nuclear liquid in core-collapse supernova explosions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the possibility of boiling instability of nuclear liquid in the inner core of the proto-neutron star formed in the core collapse of a type II supernova. We derive a simple criterion for boiling to occur. Using this criterion for one of best described equations of state of supernova matter, we find that boiling is quite possible under the conditions realized inside the proto-neutron star. We discuss consequences of this process such as the increase of heat transfer rate and pressure in the boiling region. We expect that taking this effect into account in the conventional neutrino-driven delayed-shock mechanism of type II supernova explosions can increase the explosion energy and reduce the mass of the neutron-star remnant.

Peter Fomin; Dmytro Iakubovskyi; Yuri Shtanov

2007-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

225

Boiling of nuclear liquid in core-collapse supernova explosions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the possibility of boiling instability of nuclear liquid in the inner core of the proto-neutron star formed in the core collapse of a type II supernova. We derive a simple criterion for boiling to occur. Using this criterion for one of best described equations of state of supernova matter, we find that boiling is quite possible under the conditions realized inside the proto-neutron star. We discuss consequences of this process such as the increase of heat transfer rate and pressure in the boiling region. We expect that taking this effect into account in the conventional neutrino-driven delayed-shock mechanism of type II supernova explosions can increase the explosion energy and reduce the mass of the neutron-star remnant.

Fomin, Peter; Shtanov, Yuri

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Development of a high-explosive driven crowbar switch  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A compact explosively-driven, metal-to-metal contact, solid dielectric switch was developed for use as a low-resistance, <10- mu OMEGA , low- inductance, < 10-nH, crowbar switch. A l00-milligram high-explosive charge is used to extrude a 0.090-in. plate through 0.040-in. polyethylene and achieve a hard current contact with a 0.625-in.-diameter die plate. The closure time, from the signal, which initiates the charge, to beginning of current rise in the switch, is 11.0 mu sec plus or minus 0.3 mu sec. In crowbar application the switch has carried 180 to 330 kA, which decays with a 1/e time of approximately 1.2 msec. (auth)

Dike, R.S.; Kewish, R.W. Jr.

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Strongly coupled copper plasma generated by underwater electrical wire explosion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A number of theoretical approaches to the analysis of the parameters of a discharge channel consisting of strongly coupled plasma generated in the process of underwater electrical wire explosion are presented. The analysis is based on experimental results obtained from discharges employing Cu wire. The obtained experimental data included electrical measurements and optical observations from which information about the dynamics of the water flow was extrapolated. Numerical calculation based on a 1D magnetohydrodynamic model was used to simulate the process of underwater wire explosion. A wide range conductivity model was applied in this calculation and good agreement with a set of experimental data was obtained. A method of determining the average temperature of the discharge channel based on this model and experimental results is proposed, and the limits of this method's applicability are discussed.

Grinenko, A.; Gurovich, V.Tz.; Saypin, A.; Efimov, S.; Krasik, Ya.E.; Oreshkin, V.I. [Physics Department, Technion, 32000 Haifa (Israel); Institute of High Current Electronics, SB RAN, 634055 Tomsk (Russian Federation)

2005-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

228

Direct calibration of the yield of nuclear explosion  

SciTech Connect

The determination of the power of underground nuclear explosions (UNE) is of great significance. The seismic method of UNE yield determination allows monitoring at large distances, but is less precise than local monitoring methods. A way is proposed to calibrate UNE based on the idea of the vibroseis method in which powerful vibrators are used to produce seismic waves in the UNE epicenter; UNE calibration is carried out by comparison of the vibroseis record with a UNE seismogram. Results of preliminary work on the problem are presented. It is based on experience with vibrosounding of the Earth as well as earthquakes and chemical and nuclear explosions wave field structure studies. It is concluded that UNE calibration with the aid of seismic vibrators is both possible and expedient.

Nakanishi, K.; Nikolayev, A. [SYNAPSE Science Center/Moscow IRIS Data Analysis Center, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Ultraviolet Resonant Raman Enhancements in the Detection of Explosives  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Raman-based spectroscopy is potentially militarily useful for standoff detection of high explosives. Normal (non-resonance) and resonance Raman spectroscopies are both light scattering techniques that use a laser to measure the vibrational spectrum of a sample. In resonance Raman, the laser is tuned to match the wavelength of a strong electronic absorbance in the molecule of interest, whereas, in normal Raman the laser is not tuned to any strong electronic absorbance bands. The selection of appropriate excitation wavelengths in resonance Raman can result in a dramatic increase in the Raman scattering efficiency of select band(s) associated with the electronic transition. Other than the excitation wavelength, however, resonance Raman is performed experimentally the same as normal Raman. In these studies, normal and resonance Raman spectral signatures of select solid high explosive (HE) samples and explosive precursors were collected at 785 nm, 244 nm and 229 nm. Solutions of PETN, TNT, and explosive precursors (DNT & PNT) in acetonitrile solvent as an internal Raman standard were quantitatively evaluated using ultraviolet resonance Raman (UVRR) microscopy and normal Raman spectroscopy as a function of power and select excitation wavelengths. Use of an internal standard allowed resonance enhancements to be estimated at 229 nm and 244 nm. Investigations demonstrated that UVRR provided {approx}2000-fold enhancement at 244 nm and {approx}800-fold improvement at 229 nm while PETN showed a maximum of {approx}25-fold at 244 nm and {approx}190-fold enhancement at 229 nm solely from resonance effects when compared to normal Raman measurements. In addition to the observed resonance enhancements, additional Raman signal enhancements are obtained with ultraviolet excitation (i.e., Raman scattering scales as !4 for measurements based on scattered photons). A model, based partly on the resonance Raman enhancement results for HE solutions, is presented for estimating Raman enhancements for solid HE samples.

Short, B J; Carter, J C; Gunter, D; Hovland, P; Jagode, H; Karavanic, K; Marin, G; Mellor-Crummey, J; Moore, S; Norris, B; Oliker, L; Olschanowsky, C; Roth, P C; Schulz, M; Shende, S; Snavely, A; Spear, W

2009-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

230

Non-lead environmentally safe projectiles and explosive container  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid object having controlled frangibility, such as a bullet or a container for explosives, is made by combining two different metals in proportions calculated to achieve a desired density, without using lead. A wetting material is deposited on the base constituent which is made of a relative dense, hard material. The wetting material enhances the wettability of the base constituent with the binder constituent, which is lighter and softer than the base constituent.

Lowden, Richard A. (Clinton, TN); McCoig, Thomas M. (Maryville, TN); Dooley, Joseph B. (Kingston, TN); Smith, Cyrus M. (Knoxville, TN)

1999-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

231

Safe arming system for two-explosive munitions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for safely and positively detonating high-explosive munitions, including a source of electrical signals, a split-phase square-loop transformer responsive solely to a unique series of signals from the source for charging an energy storage circuit through a voltage doubling circuit, and a spark-gap trigger for initiating discharge of the energy in the storage circuit to actuate a detonator and thereby fire the munitions.

Jaroska, Miles F. (Livermore, CA); Niven, William A. (Livermore, CA); Morrison, Jasper J. (Livermore, CA)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Gas Explosion Tests on Con Edison's Prototype Covers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is an account of continuing research by ConEdison and EPRI to address issues related to manhole events caused by the accumulation of gases in underground structures. It summarizes the results of gas explosion tests performed in 2006 and 2007 on prototype rectangular steel vented and composite vented covers for secondary boxes and new Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) compliant round cast iron vented Roman Stone covers for manholes.

2009-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

233

60 kilograms high explosive containment with multi-diagnostic capability  

SciTech Connect

In anticipation of increasingly stringent environmental regulations, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) proposes to construct a 60 kilogram (kg) firing chamber to provide blast-effects containment for most of its open-air, high explosives, firing operations. Even though these operations are within current environmental limits, containment of the blast effects and hazardous debris will further drastically reduce emissions to the environment and minimize the generated hazardous waste.

Simmons, L F

1998-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

234

Detonating Failed Deflagration Model of Thermonuclear Supernovae I. Explosion Dynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a detonating failed deflagration model of Type Ia supernovae. In this model, the thermonuclear explosion of a massive white dwarf follows an off-center deflagration. We conduct a survey of asymmetric ignition configurations initiated at various distances from the stellar center. In all cases studied, we find that only a small amount of stellar fuel is consumed during deflagration phase, no explosion is obtained, and the released energy is mostly wasted on expanding the progenitor. Products of the failed deflagration quickly reach the stellar surface, polluting and strongly disturbing it. These disturbances eventually evolve into small and isolated shock-dominated regions which are rich in fuel. We consider these regions as seeds capable of forming self-sustained detonations that, ultimately, result in the thermonuclear supernova explosion. Preliminary nucleosynthesis results indicate the model supernova ejecta are typically composed of about 0.1-0.25 Msun of silicon group elements, 0.9-1.2 Msun of iron group elements, and are essentially carbon-free. The ejecta have a composite morphology, are chemically stratified, and display a modest amount of intrinsic asymmetry. The innermost layers are slightly egg-shaped with the axis ratio ~1.2-1.3 and dominated by the products of silicon burning. This central region is surrounded by a shell of silicon-group elements. The outermost layers of ejecta are highly inhomogeneous and contain products of incomplete oxygen burning with only small admixture of unburned stellar material. The explosion energies are ~1.3-1.5 10^51 erg.

Tomasz Plewa

2006-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

235

Non-lead environmentally safe projectiles and explosive container  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid object having controlled frangibility, such as a bullet or a container for explosives, is made by combining two different metals in proportions calculated to achieve a desired density, without using lead. A wetting material is deposited on the base constituent which is made of a relative dense, hard material. The wetting material enhances the wettability of the base constituent with the binder constituent, which is lighter and softer than the base constituent. 10 figs.

Lowden, R.A.; McCoig, T.M.; Dooley, J.B.; Smith, C.M.

1999-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

236

Evaluation of Explosive Cleaning Damage in Ferritic Boiler Tubes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Utilities have reported boiler tube damage after explosive cleaning to control or remove slag deposits. The damage typically consists of tube crushing, denting, microcracking, and inner diameter (ID) initiated cracking. Because the latter two might not propagate through tube wall thickness initially, these types of cracking are not commonly detected during the cleaning process. However, tube failures after the boiler resumed service have been attributed to these ID-related cracking. Many utilities have r...

2010-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

237

IMAGING HIGH SPEED PARTICLES IN EXPLOSIVE DRIVEN BLAST WAVES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This research describes a new application of a commercially available particle image velocimetry (PIV) instrument adapted for imaging particles in a blast wave. Powder was dispersed through the PIV light sheet using a right circular cylindrical charge containing aluminum powder filled in the annular space between the explosive core and exterior paper tube wall of the charge. Images acquired from each shot showed particle agglomeration and unique structures with the smaller particle diameters having developed structured appearances.

Jenkins, C. M. [Dept. of Environmental Engineering Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-6450 (United States); Air Force Research Laboratory, Munitions Directorate, Eglin AFB FL 32542 (United States); Horie, Y. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Munitions Directorate, Eglin AFB FL 32542 (United States); Ripley, R. C.; Wu, C.-Y. [Martec Limited, Suite 400-1888 Brunswick Street, Halifax, NS, B3J3J8 (Canada)

2009-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

238

Project Drum Inlet: explosive excavation in saturated sand  

SciTech Connect

Seasonal storms during February of 1971 completely closed the Drum Inlet navigation channel through the Outer Banks off the North Carolina coast. This channel is highly useful to commercial and sport fishing industries in the Carteret County vicinity of North Carolina, and is vital to maintenance of the ecological balance in the inland Core Sound waters. To reopen Drum Inlet, an alignment about 2.1 miles south of the original location was selected. A contract dredge excavated a channel from the inland Core Sound waterway to and part way through the Outer Banks. The final 385-ft-long section of sand separating the Core Sound from the Atlantic Ocean was excavated with large explosive charges, This report describes the explosive excavation of that portion of the channel. Twenty-two separate canisters, each containing 1 ton of aluminized ammonium-nitrate slurry blasting agent, were emplaced in two rows. All charges were detonated simultaneously at 1327 hours, 23 Decembcr 1971. The detonation successfully removed the sand barrier, forming a continuous channel over 80 ft in width. This channel subsequently washed out to a width of about 1000 ft and was used:is an access route to the Raleigh Bay fishing grounds. The Drum Inlet project demonstrated the practicality of explosive channel excavation in saturated sand under the special conditions encountered at this site. (auth)

Snell, C.M.; Gillespie, R.H.

1973-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Computer simulation of explosive fracture of oil shale  

SciTech Connect

The steps in assembling the computational tools needed to simulate the explosive fracture of oil shale have been described. The resulting code, with its input data, was then used to simulate three explosive field experiments. The results of the calculations are in good agreement with what actually occurred in the field. Further detailed comparisons are in progress for these experiments and the others that have been conducted. As this is done, improvements will be made in the input data and in the code physics. The development of computer codes as tools to predict rock breakage makes a variety of interesting studies possible. The properties of the explosive can be changed to see how the extent of rubbling is affected. Studies of spacing and delays for decked charges are also possible. Finally, the codes can be applied in situations, such as confined-volume blasting, at the frontiers of blasting technology. These areas are vital to the effective utilization of our oil shale resources, especially with in situ techniques. Computer simulation will play a central role in the development of new technology for energy and mineral resource recovery.

Adams, T.F.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

LINKING TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA PROGENITORS AND THEIR RESULTING EXPLOSIONS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Comparing the ejecta velocities at maximum brightness and narrow circumstellar/interstellar Na D absorption line profiles of a sample of 23 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), we determine that the properties of SN Ia progenitor systems and explosions are intimately connected. As demonstrated by Sternberg et al., half of all SNe Ia with detectable Na D absorption at the host-galaxy redshift in high-resolution spectroscopy have Na D line profiles with significant blueshifted absorption relative to the strongest absorption component, which indicates that a large fraction of SN Ia progenitor systems have strong outflows. In this study, we find that SNe Ia with blueshifted circumstellar/interstellar absorption systematically have higher ejecta velocities and redder colors at maximum brightness relative to the rest of the SN Ia population. This result is robust at a 98.9%-99.8% confidence level, providing the first link between the progenitor systems and properties of the explosion. This finding is further evidence that the outflow scenario is the correct interpretation of the blueshifted Na D absorption, adding additional confirmation that some SNe Ia are produced from a single-degenerate progenitor channel. An additional implication is that either SN Ia progenitor systems have highly asymmetric outflows that are also aligned with the SN explosion or SNe Ia come from a variety of progenitor systems where SNe Ia from systems with strong outflows tend to have more kinetic energy per unit mass than those from systems with weak or no outflows.

Foley, Ryan J.; Kirshner, Robert P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Simon, Joshua D.; Burns, Christopher R. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Gal-Yam, Avishay [Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics, Faculty of Physics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Hamuy, Mario [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Morrell, Nidia I.; Phillips, Mark M. [Las Campanas Observatory, Carnegie Observatories, Casilla 601, La Serena (Chile); Shields, Gregory A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Sternberg, Assaf, E-mail: rfoley@cfa.harvard.edu [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 1, 85741 Garching (Germany)

2012-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "graaff confetti explosion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Explosives program development study: Phase 3, Final report  

SciTech Connect

Under the sponsorship of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the Defense Advanced Research Agency (DARPA), The BDM Corporation has been conducting a survey and assessment of the status of research and development in high energy materials, particulary explosives. The objectives of the DARPA Explosives Program Development Study is to provide LLNL and DARPA with: (1) An assessment of the current research and development in high energy materials and an identification of needs for further work; (2) A set of recommendations to address those needs with DARPA (3) A program plan to implement these recommendations. The study consisted of review of papers from the principal high energy materials research and development conferences of 1985 - 1987; personal and telephone interviews with experts in the field in military services and DOE laboratories; review of papers of the ONR detonation symposia; principal technical journals; government reports; and a questionnaire survey of the explosives community for their ranking of research topics in materials. Four principal categories of operational issues and requirements were surveyed: energetic materials; performance; sensitivity/vulnerability; and manufacture and cost factors. These four categories are fully covered. 24 refs.

Hill, M.E.

1988-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

242

The effects of the topographic bench on ground motion from mining explosions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Understanding the effects of the bench on ground motion can improve the design of cast blasts and achieve improved blast efficiency while remaining below vibration requirements. A new dataset recorded in September 2003 from a coal mine in Arizona has allowed us to examine the excitation of short-period Rayleigh-type surface waves from four simultaneously-detonated explosions in and below a topographic bench of a mine. The explosions were recorded on a network of over 150 seismic sensors, providing an extensive understanding of the ground motion radiation patterns from these explosions. We detonated two separate explosions in the deepest pit of the mine, thus the explosions were shot to solid rock. Within 25 meters of these two explosions, we detonated two additional explosions of similar explosive yields in a bench, thus these explosions were shot to the free face. Radiation patterns and spectral ratios from the explosions show increased amplitudes at azimuths behind the bench relative to the amplitudes in front of the bench. We compared these findings to seismic observations from two {approximately} 1.5 million pound cast blasts at the same mine and found similar radiations patterns. Modeling of these blasts shows that the variations in ground motion are caused by the topographic bench as a result of 1) horizontal spalling of the rock falling into the pit and 2) non-linear scattering near the free-face. Shooting to a buffer also causes the azimuthal variations to be significantly reduced.

Bonner, J.L.; Blomberg, W.S.; Hopper, H.; Leidig, M. [Weston Geophysical Corporation (United States)

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Photo Gallery from LLNL's High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF)  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

DOE/NNSA has identified LLNL's High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF) as the complex-wide "Center of Excellence" for High-Explosives Research and Development. In this capacity HEAF is a source of subject matter expertise for high explosives and other energetic materials. Its mission is to provide this expertise to serve multiple government agencies including DOE, DoD, TSA, Homeland Security, the FBI and other law enforcement and government intelligence organizations. From its conception, HEAF was designed to integrate the operations of synthesis, formulation, and explosives testing in a single synergistic facility. Today, the nationally recognized team of approximately 120 chemists, physicists, engineers, and technicians contribute to the nation's understanding of explosives by developing new explosives in the synthesis and formulation laboratories, conducting explosives properties testing, developing experimental diagnostics, designing and executing diamond-anvil-cell experiments for basic explosives properties research, studying explosives at the micron scale in its microdetonics laboratory, and utilizing multiple firing tanks for larger scale explosives experiments. No other facility in the world supports such a multidisciplinary mission under one roof. (Extracted from text found at https://wci.llnl.gov/fac/heaf/mission_statement.html).

244

EA-1106: Explosive Waste Treatment Facility at Site 300, Lawrence Livermore  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

106: Explosive Waste Treatment Facility at Site 300, Lawrence 106: Explosive Waste Treatment Facility at Site 300, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, San Joaquin County, California EA-1106: Explosive Waste Treatment Facility at Site 300, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, San Joaquin County, California SUMMARY This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of the proposal to build, permit, and operate the Explosive Waste Treatment Facility to treat explosive waste at the U.S. Department of Energy's Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Experimental Test Site, Site 300. PUBLIC COMMENT OPPORTUNITIES None available at this time. DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD April 16, 1996 EA-1106: Finding of No Significant Impact Explosive Waste Treatment Facility at Site 300, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory April 16, 1996

245

Method for the decontamination of soil containing solid organic explosives therein  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An efficient method for decontaminating soil containing organic explosives ("TNT" and others) in the form of solid portions or chunks which are not ordinarily subject to effective bacterial degradation. The contaminated soil is treated by delivering an organic solvent to the soil which is capable of dissolving the explosives. This process makes the explosives more bioavailable to natural bacteria in the soil which can decompose the explosives. An organic nutrient composition is also preferably added to facilitate decomposition and yield a compost product. After dissolution, the explosives are allowed to remain in the soil until they are decomposed by the bacteria. Decomposition occurs directly in the soil which avoids the need to remove both the explosives and the solvents (which either evaporate or are decomposed by the bacteria). Decomposition is directly facilitated by the solvent pre-treatment process described above which enables rapid bacterial remediation of the soil.

Radtke, Corey W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Roberto, Francisco F. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

THE CORONA STABILIZATION SYSTEM OF A VAN DE GRAAFF GENERATOR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

length of the corona needles. Pt = the tank gas pressure. of the corona discharge is the time the charge formé. De ce circuit on peut calculer un facteur de stabilisation S. Les valeurs théoriques du facteur is given. From this diagram a stabilizing factor S can be calculated. A comparison between the theoretical

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

247

Proceedings of the eighteenth annual conference on explosives and blasting technique  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This edition of the Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Explosives and Blasting Techniques is the eighteenth in a series published by the International Society of Explosives Engineers. The papers cover a wide variety of explosives and blasting techniques, including: rock mechanics, rock drilling, perimeter control, handling and documenting blasting complaints, blast vibration frequencies, blasting techniques for surface and underground coal mines, explosives for permafrost blasting, lightning detection, use of slow motion video to analyze blasts, tunneling, and close-in blasting control. Papers have been processed individually for inclusion on the data base.

Not Available

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Proceedings of the thirty-first annual conference on explosives and blasting technique  

SciTech Connect

Papers discussed various aspects of blasting and explosive techniques used in the mining and construction industry, and elsewhere. Four papers have been abstracted separately.

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Laboratory investigation of explosives degradation in vadose zone soil using carbon source additions.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Explosives contamination in vadose zone soil presents difficulties in remediation. Because vadose zone contamination can extend deep into the subsurface and underneath existing buildings and… (more)

Radtke, Corey William

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Bioremediation of explosives in vadose zone soil using vapor phase carbon source additions.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Explosives contamination in vadose zone soil presents difficulties in remediation. Because vadose zone contamination can extend deep into the subsurface and underneath existing buildings and… (more)

Radtke, Corey William

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDIES ON RADIATION CARCINOGENESIS IN HUMAN POPULATIONS FOLLOWING ACUTE EXPOSURE: NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS AND MEDICAL RADIATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

exposure to radioactive fallout in Radiation-Associated inIslanders, who were exposed to fallout H-bomb test explosion

Fabrikant, J.I.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Three-dimensional modeling and simulation of vapor explosions in Light Water Reactors.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Steam explosions can occur during a severe accident in light water nuclear reactors with the core melting as the consequence of interaction of molten core… (more)

Schröder, Maxim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

DOE M 452.2-2 Admin Chg 1, Nuclear Explosive Safety Evaluation Processes  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

This Manual provides supplemental details to support the nuclear explosive safety (NES) evaluation requirement of Department of Energy (DOE) Order (O) 452.2D, ...

2009-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

254

DOE M 452.2-1A Admin Chg 1, Nuclear Explosive Safety Manual  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

This Department of Energy (DOE) Manual provides supplemental details on selected topics to support the requirements of DOE O 452.2D, Nuclear Explosive Safety, ...

2009-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

255

Nuclear Explosives Safety Study Functional Area Qualification Standard  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

85-2007 85-2007 September 2007 DOE STANDARD NUCLEAR EXPLOSIVE SAFETY STUDY FUNCTIONAL AREA QUALIFICATION STANDARD DOE Defense Nuclear Facilities Technical Personnel U.S. Department of Energy AREA TRNG Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. DRAFT DOE-STD-1185-2007 ii This document is available on the Department of Energy Technical Standards Program Web Site at http://www.hss.energy.gov/nuclearsafety/techstds/ DRAFT DOE-STD-1185-2007 iv INTENTIONALLY BLANK DRAFT DOE-STD-1185-2007 v TABLE OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGMENT ................................................................................................................ vii PURPOSE ....................................................................................................................................1

256

Literature review of the lifetime of DOE materials: Aging of plastic bonded explosives and the explosives and polymers contained therein  

SciTech Connect

There are concerns about the lifetime of the nation`s stockpile of high explosives (HEs) and their components. The DOE`s Core Surveillance and Enhanced Surveillance programs specifically target degradation of HE, binders, and plastic-bonded explosives (PBXs) for determination of component lifetimes and handling procedures. The principal goal of this project is to identify the decomposition mechanisms of HEs, plasticizers, and plastic polymer binders resulting from exposure to ionizing radiation, heat, and humidity. The primary HEs of concern are 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) and 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazocyclooctane (HMX). Hexahydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is closely related to these two compounds and is also included in the literature review. Both Kel-F 800 and Estane are polymers of interest. A stabilizer, Irganox 1010, and an energetic plasticizer that is a blend of acetaldehyde 2,2-dinitropropyl acetal, are also of interest, but the focus of this report will be on the explosives and polymers. This presents a literature review that provides background on the synthesis, degradation, and techniques to analyze TATB, HMX, RDX, Kel-F 800, Estane, and the PBXs of these compounds. As there are many factors that can influence degradation of materials, the degradation discussion will be divided into sections based on each factor and how it might affect the degradation mechanism. The factors reviewed that influence the degradation of these materials are exposure to heat, UV- and {gamma}-irradiation, and the chemistry of these compounds. The report presents a recently compiled accounting of the available literature. 80 refs., 7 figs.

Burgess, C.E.; Woodyard, J.D. [West Texas A and M Univ., Canyon, TX (United States); Rainwater, K.A. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Lightfoot, J.M. [Pantex Plant, Amarillo, TX (United States); Richardson, B.R. [Engineered Carbons, Inc., Borger, TX (United States)

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Emulsion explosives containing high concentrations of calcium nitrate  

SciTech Connect

A water-in-oil emulsion blasting agent is described having a discontinuous aqueous oxidizer salt solution phase which contains a calcium nitrate (CN) to ammonium nitrate (AN) weight ratio of 1.5 or greater, a continuous oil or water-immiscible liquid organic phase, an emulsifier, and, optionally, a density reducing agent. It is found that emulsion slurry blasting agents containing this relatively high amount of CN to AN have properties that conventional emulsion slurry explosives, those containing more AN than CN or solely AN, do not. Specifically, one property is that the high-CN emulsion blasting agents of the present composition can have much smaller critical diameters but yet pass the US DOT Blasting Agent tests. This result will be shown in the examples that follow. Thus, if AN is present as the principal oxidizer salt, emulsion explosives that have small critical diameters, and even those with relatively large critical diameters, generally are too sensitive to pass the Blasting Agent tests. If CN is the principal oxidizer, the emulsion blasting agents are less sensitive and more likely to pass the tests. This effect of CN has commercial significance. 10 claims.

Jessop, H.A.; Funk, A.G.

1982-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

258

Thermal properties of explosives. Quarterly report, January, February, March 1964  

SciTech Connect

Henkin`s test data are reported for comparisons of the following: dry-to-moist samples, PBX 9404 in brass and gold-plated blasting caps, Holston HMX with Bridgewater HMX, LX-04-1 and LX-04-1 + Ucon oil, and PETN, LX-04-1 and Extex. The time-to-explosion curves for HMX and PBX 9404 are also given. A description of the pyrolysis apparatus and the method of calibrating the sample temperature to the response of the thermal conductivity detector are reported. The pyrolytic decomposition curves of several standard explosives and six specially prepared HMX samples (LRL raw material No. A-311 through A-316) are included. A controlled atmosphere D.T.A. is described and the thermograms of PETN with an atmosphere of air at 85 psi, nitrogen at 85 psi and 200 psi are given. The thermograms indicate that PETN becomes more sensitive as the pressure increases. Chemical reactivity data are reported for Comp B, Comp B-3, Comp C-4, HMX, PBX 9011, PBX 9205, Tetryl and TNT. Also, test results are reported for LX-01-1 and Comp B-3 heated at 150{degrees}C for 22 hours, LX-02-1 heated at 100{degrees}C for 22 hours, and pressed pellets of PBX 9404 and PBX 9404 + powdered lead.

Myers, L.C.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Could a nearby supernova explosion have caused a mass extinction?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We examine the possibility that a nearby supernova explosion could have caused one or more of the mass extinctions identified by palaeontologists. We discuss the likely rate of such events in the light of the recent identification of Geminga as a supernova remnant less than 100 pc away and the discovery of a millisecond pulsar about 150 pc away, and observations of SN 1987A. The fluxes of $\\gamma$ radiation and charged cosmic rays on the Earth are estimated, and their effects on the Earth's ozone layer discussed. A supernova explosion of the order of 10 pc away could be expected every few hundred million years, and could destroy the ozone layer for hundreds of years, letting in potentially lethal solar ultraviolet radiation. In addition to effects on land ecology, this could entail mass destruction of plankton and reef communities, with disastrous consequences for marine life as well. A supernova extinction should be distinguishable from a meteorite impact such as the one that presumably killed the dinosaurs.

John Ellis; David N. Schramm

1993-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

260

Explosive photodissociation of methane induced by ultrafast intense laser  

SciTech Connect

A new type of molecular fragmentation induced by femtosecond intense laser at the intensity of 2x10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2} is reported. For the parent molecule of methane, ethylene, n-butane, and 1-butene, fluorescence from H (n=3{yields}2), CH (A {sup 2}{delta}, B {sup 2}{sigma}{sup -}, and C {sup 2}{sigma}{sup +}{yields}X {sup 2}{pi}), or C{sub 2} (d {sup 3}{pi}{sub g}{yields}a {sup 3}{pi}{sub u}) is observed in the spectrum. It shows that the fragmentation is a universal property of neutral molecule in the intense laser field. Unlike breaking only one or two chemical bonds in conventional UV photodissociation, the fragmentation caused by the intense laser undergoes vigorous changes, breaking most of the bonds in the molecule, like an explosion. The fragments are neutral species and cannot be produced through Coulomb explosion of multiply charged ion. The laser power dependence of CH (A{yields}X) emission of methane on a log-log scale has a slope of 10{+-}1. The fragmentation is thus explained as multiple channel dissociation of the superexcited state of parent molecule, which is created by multiphoton excitation.

Kong Fanao; Luo Qi; Xu Huailiang; Sharifi, Mehdi; Song Di; Chin, See Leang [Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Department of Physics, Engineering Physics and Optics, Laval University, Quebec G1K 7P4, Canada and Center for Optics, Photonics, and Laser, Laval University, Quebec G1K 7P4 (Canada); Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Department of Physics, Engineering Physics and Optics, Laval University, Quebec G1K 7P4 (Canada) and Center for Optics, Photonics, and Laser, Laval University, Quebec G1K 7P4 (Canada)

2006-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "graaff confetti explosion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

A study of explosively formed fuse (EFF) opening switch resistance  

SciTech Connect

Many pulsed power experiments need pulse shaping to optimize the power flow from a flux compression generator (FCG) to an experimental load. In a laboratory environment this can be a simple task where the switches are not destroyed. However, in experiments with high explosives, where a large amount of damage occurs, a single use EFF opening switch may be a good choice. In an EFF, explosives are used to thin a current carrying sheet of aluminum as it is forced into a grooved dye. The current is modified by the time dependent changes in resistance as the aluminum is stretched. We will correlate the hydrodynamic effects with resistance. The hydrodynamic profile is determined by Mesa-2D, a well proven hydrodynamics computer code, and MA THEMA TICA is used convert material contours into total resistance using the resistivity as a function of time from various sources. Experimentally, we will determine the actual resistance and compare it with the calculated values. We have used these switches for decades but still do not understand the details of the physics. The resistance change may be due to several processes but in this paper we will concentrate on stretching as the most important contribution. Also, in this paper we will compare the details of the hydrodynamics with the details of experimental and calculated resistance and hopefully generate a predictive model for future designs with other geometries and materials.

Oona, Henn [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Goforth, James H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Herrera, Dennis H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tasker, Douglas G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Torres, D. T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

262

Proceedings of the twenty-second annual conference on explosives and blasting technique. Volume 1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

These proceedings contain 30 papers presented at the conference. Topics relate to productivity blasting in surface mining, dragline effectiveness, evaluation of production blasts, environmental effects of blast induced immissions, accidental explosions in blasting operations, explosive safety, tunnel excavation, and the use of video technology for shot analysis. Most papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

NONE

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Proceedings of the seventeenth annual conference on explosives and blasting technique. Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

Papers from this conference dealt with the following topics: surface and underground mine blasting, ground vibrations and blast effects, design for explosive fracturing of rock, sequential timing for blasting control, design for production optimization, use of blasting for abandoned mine reclamation, chemical explosives, lightning warning systems, magazine security, fire safety, and drilling equipment. Papers have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

NEW CONCEPTS FOR EXPLOSION ALLEVIATION IN SHRED-FIRST SOLID WASTE PLANTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

had installed in the New CasUe, Delaware Plant were designed to withstand 20 psi; they were in stalled-explosion deSign that can be guaranteed to eliminate damage from explosions in solid waste plalHs that shred by a cutoff blade on centrifugal fans. The installation of the "air gate" provides a positive downflow

Columbia University

265

An Automatic Control System for a Manufacturing Process in an Explosive Environment  

SciTech Connect

The authors describe a state-of-the-art automatic control system as it is used to control a manufacturing process in an explosive environment. Compact, explosion proof sensing devices and a custom designed interface to a controller input are discussed.

Page, D. O; Draut, C. F.

1973-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Non-uniform isentropic gas flow analysis of explosion in fractured solid media  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a new formulation of non-uniform isentropic gas flow during an explosion in solid media. The present form takes into account additional effects of variations in geometries of voids and crack openings. Variations of mass, density, ... Keywords: Blast, Combined finite/discrete element method, Explosion, Gas-solid interaction

S. Mohammadi; A. Pooladi

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Final Report on Explosion Tests of Clogged Vented Covers for Con Edison at Lenox  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of vented manhole covers is a potential way of diminishing the severity of explosive events, but the vents in the covers often become blocked by debris. Manhole covers with blocked vents performed in much the same way as non-vented covers in explosion tests conducted at EPRI's Lenox, Massachusetts facility.

2007-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

268

Isotropic and Nonisotropic Components of Earthquakes and Nuclear Explosions on the Lop Nor Test Site, China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Isotropic and Nonisotropic Components of Earthquakes and Nuclear Explosions on the Lop Nor Test and 1996 following events (seven nuclear explosions, three earthquakes) that occurred on the Lop Nor test Abstract Ð We test the hypothesis that the existence of an observable non-zero isotropic component

Ritzwolle, Mike

269

Comparison of Single-Fired and Delay-Fired Explosions at Regional and Local Distances,  

SciTech Connect

A wide range of blasting practices are utilized by the U.S. mining industry resulting in dramatically different local and regional seismic signatures. This variability in blasting and resulting seismograms suggests that no single discriminant may be appropriate for identifying this class of sources. A range of blasting styles are identified in this paper and the distinguishing characteristics at regional distances are determined. The blasting styles are quantified with the help of mining company records and close-in acoustic,seismic and video graphic data. The regional data consists of portable deployments of high frequency and broadband sensors as well as data from the International Monitoring System Primary Array at Pinedale, Wyoming. Critical to the success of this study is the comparison of regional data from the mining explosions to data from contained, single-fired explosions. Two types of single-fired explosions are utilized, the first a calibration explosion (8 vertical boreholes with 5,000 lbs of explosives each) fired simultaneous. The second, single-fired explosion consists of a number of boreholes detonated simultaneously in the mine for the purpose of pre-splitting the material (driving fractures between boreholes) prior to a large cast shot. Data from these explosions provide the basis for identifying the source signatures of the more typical delay-fired explosions. At high frequencies the single-fired and delay-fired explosions exhibit very similar waveforms at regional distances.Both event types show a high P/L{sub g} ratio at the highest frequencies with L{sub g} dominating at lower frequencies. Mining explosions that cast material show an enrichment in surface wave energy at relatively long periods of 4-12 seconds. Timing anomalies are identified in a high percentage of mining explosions designed to cast material. The accidental, simultaneous detonation of a number of boreholes has been observed in 2 of 9 carefully instrumented cast blasts. These produce regional waveforms that can have characteristics of a single-fired explosion. Spectral scalloping is observed from some delay-fired explosions while not from others. The existence of these characteristics is dependent on the exact delay pattern utilized. Data from a single- fired explosion allows the assessment of local receiver effects that might appear as a characteristic of delay-firing. 9 figs.

Stump, B.W., Pearson, D.C.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

270

Investigation on the Interface Morphologies of Explosive Welding of Inconel 625 to Steel A516 Plates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this study is to produce composite plates by explosive cladding process. This is a process in which the controlled energy of explosives is used to create a metallic bond between two similar or dissimilar materials. The welding conditions were tailored through parallel geometry route with different operational parameters. In this investigation, a two-pronged study was adopted to establish the conditions required for producing successful solid state welding: (a) Analytical calculations to determine the weldability domain or welding window; (b) Metallurgical investigations of explosive welding experiments carried out under different explosive ratios to produce both wavy and straight interfaces. The analytical calculations confirm the experimental results. Optical microscopy studies show that a transition from a smooth to wavy interface occurs with an increase in explosive ratio. SEM studies show that the interface was outlined by characteristic sharp transition between two materials.

Mousavi, S. A. A. Akbari; Zareie, H. R. [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, University College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2011-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

271

Modelling steam explosions for the Savannah River Site reactor probabilistic risk assessment. Revision 1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As part of the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) for the Savannah River Site (SRS) reactors, a theoretical model has been used to evaluate the magnitude of steam explosions that could occur during postulated severe accidents at the plant. The model predicts pressure, steam generation and mechanical work during the explosion phase of the interaction. The model is applied to two hypothetical events illustrating typical small-scale and large-scale explosions found in the PRA. These two examples show that yield predictions may range from megajoules to gigajoules for kinetic energy, 10 to 1000 kg for steam generated, and 10 to 1000 atm for peak explosion-zone pressures. A brief study is made to characterize the sensitivity of kinetic energy yield to initial fuel mass and fuel temperature. Explosion kinetic energy increases linearly in proportion to fuel mass, but displays a non-linear dependence on fuel temperature over parameter values of interest.

Vonderfecht, B.E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Smith, D.C. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

272

Modelling steam explosions for the Savannah River Site reactor probabilistic risk assessment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As part of the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) for the Savannah River Site (SRS) reactors, a theoretical model has been used to evaluate the magnitude of steam explosions that could occur during postulated severe accidents at the plant. The model predicts pressure, steam generation and mechanical work during the explosion phase of the interaction. The model is applied to two hypothetical events illustrating typical small-scale and large-scale explosions found in the PRA. These two examples show that yield predictions may range from megajoules to gigajoules for kinetic energy, 10 to 1000 kg for steam generated, and 10 to 1000 atm for peak explosion-zone pressures. A brief study is made to characterize the sensitivity of kinetic energy yield to initial fuel mass and fuel temperature. Explosion kinetic energy increases linearly in proportion to fuel mass, but displays a non-linear dependence on fuel temperature over parameter values of interest.

Vonderfecht, B.E. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Smith, D.C. (Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Informal progress report of the explosives group. Quarterly progress report, September--November 1958  

SciTech Connect

The relatively high heats of combustion of CHN compounds containing multiple bonds has prompted an investigation of the possible use of these compounds as explosives components. Three possible systems are being considered for testing in the small scale plate push apparatus: acrylonitrile-tetranitromethane, propiolonitrile-tetranitromethane and dicyanoacetylene-tetranitromethane. Samples of propiolamide and acetylene dicarboxamide, intermediates in the synthesis of propiolonitrile and dicyanoacetylene respectively, have been prepared and their infrared spectra determined. The heats of explosion of uncased charges of bis-trinitroethylnitramine has been performed. A program to investigate some properties of high explosives at microwave frequencies is being undertaken. Heterogeneous explosives consisting of metal-loaded organic explosives were also tested. Synthesis work was performed on nitrogen-fluorine compounds, boron-hydrogen-nitrogen compounds, reaction of hexachloromelamine with chlorinetrifluoride, and nitration studies.

Kury, J.

1959-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

274

Underground Nuclear Explosions and the Control of Earthquakes Author(s): Cesare Emiliani, Christopher G. A. Harrison, Mary Swanson  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Underground Nuclear Explosions and the Control of Earthquakes Author(s): Cesare Emiliani- ground nuclear explosions has been ex- plored in some detail during the past 2 years. In an examination with under- ground nuclear explosions has been ex- plored in some detail during the past 2 years

Miami, University of

275

Littoral blasts: Pumice-water heat transfer and the conditions for steam explosions when pyroclastic flows enter the ocean  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Littoral blasts: Pumice-water heat transfer and the conditions for steam explosions when June 2007; accepted 26 July 2007; published 16 November 2007. [1] Steam explosions, or littoral blasts, phenomena. The development of steam explosions rather than passive steam production is related to the rate

Manga, Michael

276

Nuclear Explosive Safety Study Functional Area Qualification Standard  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

NOT MEASUREMENT SENSITIVE DOE-STD-1185-2007 CHANGE NOTICE No.1 April 2010 DOE STANDARD NUCLEAR EXPLOSIVE SAFETY STUDY FUNCTIONAL AREA QUALIFICATION STANDARD DOE Defense Nuclear Facilities Technical Personnel U.S. Department of Energy AREA TRNG Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. DOE-STD-1185-2007 ii This document is available on the Department of Energy Technical Standards Program Web Site at http://www.hss.energy.gov/nuclearsafety/ns/techstds DOE-STD-1185-2007 iii APPROVAL The Federal Technical Capability Panel consists of senior U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) managers responsible for overseeing the Federal Technical Capability Program. This Panel is

277

Power, energy, and spectrum of a naked singularity explosion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Naked singularity occurs in the gravitational collapse of an inhomogeneous dust ball from an initial density profile which is physically reasonable. We show that explosive radiation is emitted during the formation process of the naked singularity. The energy flux is proportional to $(t_{\\rm CH}-t)^{-3/2}$ for a minimally coupled massless scalar field, while is proportional to $(t_{\\rm CH}-t)^{-1}$ for a conformally coupled massless scalar field, where $t_{\\rm CH}-t$ is the `remained time' until the distant observer could observe the singularity if the naked singularity was formed. As a consequence, the radiated energy grows unboundedly for both scalar fields. The amount of the power and the energy depends on parameters which characterize the initial density profile but do not depend on the gravitational mass of the cloud. In particular, there is characteristic frequency $\

Tomohiro Harada; Hideo Iguchi; Ken-ichi Nakao

2000-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

278

Asymmetric explosion of clusters in intense laser fields  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We examine asymmetric expansion of argon clusters illuminated by 800 nm laser pulses of duration Almost-Equal-To 23fs, using three-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. For this short pulse duration, laser energy absorption by cluster electrons is dominated by the nonlinear resonance (NLR) absorption process [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 123401 (2006)]. In this work, we concentrate, particularly, on the ionic outcome in the NLR regime and show that higher charge states of argon ions are produced along the laser polarization than in the transverse directions leading to the anisotropy (asymmetry) in the ion energy distribution. This anisotropy already established during the short pulse duration (or in the early duration of a long pulse) may contribute to the anisotropic ion emission reported in cluster experiments with pulse duration longer than 100 fs. Our PIC results are compared with a charged-sphere model showing that cluster explosion is mainly due to Coulomb repulsion between the cluster ions.

Kundu, M. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428, Gujarat (India)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

279

Explosive hydrogen burning during type I X-ray bursts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Explosive hydrogen burning in type I X-ray bursts (XRBs) comprise charged particle reactions creating isotopes with masses up to A~100. Since charged particle reactions in a stellar environment are very temperature sensitive, we use a realistic time-dependent general relativistic and self-consistent model of type I x-ray bursts to provide accurate values of the burst temperatures and densities. This allows a detailed and accurate time-dependent identification of the reaction flow from the surface layers through the convective region and the ignition region to the neutron star ocean. Using this, we determine the relative importance of specific nuclear reactions in the X-ray burst.

Jacob Lund Fisker; Hendrik Schatz; Friedrich-Karl Thielemann

2007-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

280

Plutonium explosive dispersal modeling using the MACCS2 computer code  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this paper is to derive the necessary parameters to be used to establish a defensible methodology to perform explosive dispersal modeling of respirable plutonium using Gaussian methods. A particular code, MACCS2, has been chosen for this modeling effort due to its application of sophisticated meteorological statistical sampling in accordance with the philosophy of Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guide 1.145, ``Atmospheric Dispersion Models for Potential Accident Consequence Assessments at Nuclear Power Plants``. A second advantage supporting the selection of the MACCS2 code for modeling purposes is that meteorological data sets are readily available at most Department of Energy (DOE) and NRC sites. This particular MACCS2 modeling effort focuses on the calculation of respirable doses and not ground deposition. Once the necessary parameters for the MACCS2 modeling are developed and presented, the model is benchmarked against empirical test data from the Double Tracks shot of project Roller Coaster (Shreve 1965) and applied to a hypothetical plutonium explosive dispersal scenario. Further modeling with the MACCS2 code is performed to determine a defensible method of treating the effects of building structure interaction on the respirable fraction distribution as a function of height. These results are related to the Clean Slate 2 and Clean Slate 3 bunkered shots of Project Roller Coaster. Lastly a method is presented to determine the peak 99.5% sector doses on an irregular site boundary in the manner specified in NRC Regulatory Guide 1.145 (1983). Parametric analyses are performed on the major analytic assumptions in the MACCS2 model to define the potential errors that are possible in using this methodology.

Steele, C.M.; Wald, T.L.; Chanin, D.I.

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "graaff confetti explosion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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281

The Soviet program for peaceful uses of nuclear explosions  

SciTech Connect

The concept of utilizing the weapons of war to serve the peaceful pursuits of mankind is as old as civilization itself. Perhaps the most famous reference to this basic desire is recorded in the Book of Micah where the great prophet Isiah called upon his people `to turn your spears into pitchforks and your swords into plowshares.` As the scientists at Los Alamos worked on developing the world`s first atomic bomb, thoughts of how this tremendous new source of energy could be used for peaceful purposes generally focused on using the thermal energy generated by the slow fission of uranium in a reactor, such as those being used to produce Plutonium to drive electric power stations. However, being scientists in a new, exciting field, it was impossible to avoid letting their minds wander from the task at hand to other scientific or non-military uses for the bombs themselves. During the Manhattan Project, Otto Frisch, one of the pioneers in the development of nuclear fission process in the 1930s, first suggested using an atomic explosion as a source for a large quantities of neutrons which could used in scientific experiments designed to expand their understanding of nuclear physics. After the war was over, many grandiose ideas appeared in the popular press on how this new source of energy should be to serve mankind. Not to be left out of the growing enthusiasm for peaceful uses of atomic energy, the Soviet Union added their visions to the public record. This document details the Soviet program for using nuclear explosions in peacetime pursuits.

Nordyke, M.D.

1996-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

282

Modeling Explosive/Rock Interaction During Presplitting Using ALE Computational Methods  

SciTech Connect

Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) computational techniques allow treatment of gases, liq- uids, and solids in the same simulation. ALE methods include the ability to treat shockwaves in gases, liquids, and solids and the interaction of shockwaves with each other and with media from one of the other categories. ALE codes can also treat explosive detonation and the expansion of the explosive gases and their interaction with air and solids. ALEGRA is a 3-DALE code that has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories over the past few years. ALEGRA has been applied to a 2-D simulation of presplitting using decoupled explosives in rock blasting with very interesting results. The detonation of the explosive at the bottom of the hole sends a shock wave up the borehole driven by the explosive gas expanding into air. The explosive gas compresses the air against the stemming column where it rebounds and recompresses at the bottom of the borehole. This type of ringing takes several cycles to damp out. The explosively induced expansion of the borehole is also treated by ALEGRA as well as the shock wave imparted to the rock. The presentation of this paper will include sev- eral computer animations to aid in understanding this complex phenomenon.

Jensen, Richard P.; Preece, Dale S.

1999-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

283

The influence of material models on chemical or nuclear-explosion source functions  

SciTech Connect

Physical models of explosion sources are needed to explain the variations in the performance of existing discriminants in different regions, and to help develop more robust methods for identifying underground explosions. In this paper, we assess the sensitivity of explosion source functions to material properties by means of numerical simulations. Specifically, we have calculated the effect of varying the yield strength, overburden pressure, and gas porosity on the spectra of the reduced velocity potential for both nuclear and chemical explosions, and compared these with experimental results derived from free-field particle acceleration and regional seismic (LNN) data. The chemical-explosion calculations were intended to simulate the kiloton experiment recently conducted in Area 12 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) that has been dubbed the Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE). We found that the asymptotic (long period) value of the reduced displacement potential, {phi}{infinity}, for explosions with the ANFO blasting agent used in the NPE, was larger than that derived for a tamped nuclear explosion of the same yield by a factor of 1.9, in good agreement with the experimental results derived from free-field particle velocity measurements, and also with m{sub b}(P{sub n}) data from the Livermore Nevada Network (LNN).

Glenn, L.A.; Goldstein, P.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Method for explosive expansion toward horizontal free faces for forming an in situ oil shale retort  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Formation is excavated from within a retort site in formation containing oil shale for forming a plurality of vertically spaced apart voids extending horizontally across different levels of the retort site, leaving a separate zone of unfragmented formation between each pair of adjacent voids. Explosive is placed in each zone, and such explosive is detonated in a single round for forming an in situ retort containing a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale. The same amount of formation is explosively expanded upwardly and downwardly toward each void. A horizontal void excavated at a production level has a smaller horizontal cross-sectional area than a void excavated at a lower level of the retort site immediately above the production level void. Explosive in a first group of vertical blast holes is detonated for explosively expanding formation downwardly toward the lower void, and explosive in a second group of vertical blast holes is detonated in the same round for explosively expanding formation upwardly toward the lower void and downwardly toward the production level void for forming a generally T-shaped bottom of the fragmented mass.

Ricketts, Thomas E. (Bakersfield, CA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Developmental of a Vapor Cloud Explosion Risk Analysis Tool Using Exceedance Methodology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In development projects, designers should take into consideration the possibility of a vapor cloud explosion in the siting and design of a process plant from day one. The most important decisions pertinent to the location of different process areas, separation between different areas, location of occupied buildings and overall layout may be made at the conceptual stage of the project. During the detailed design engineering stage the final calculation of gas explosion loads is an important activity. However, decisions related to the layout and location of occupied buildings at this stage could be very costly. Therefore, at the conceptual phase of the development project for a hydrocarbon facility, it would be helpful to get a picture of possible vapor cloud explosion loads to be used in studying various options. This thesis presents the analytical parameters that are used in vapor cloud explosion risk analysis. It proposes a model structure for the analysis of vapor cloud explosion risks to buildings based on exceedance methodology. This methodology was developed in a computer program which is used to support this thesis. The proposed model considers all possible gas release scenarios through the use of the Monte Carlo simulation. The risk of vapor cloud explosions can be displayed using exceedance curves. The resulting model provides a predictive tool for vapor cloud explosion problems at the early stages of development projects, particularly in siting occupied buildings in onshore hydrocarbon facilities. It can also be used as a quick analytical tool for investigating various aspects of vapor cloud explosions. This model has been applied to a case study, a debutanizer process unit. The model was used to explore the different alternatives of locating a building near the facility. The results from the model were compared to the results of other existing software to determine the model validity. The results show that the model can effectively examine the risk of vapor cloud explosions.

Alghamdi, Salem

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Hidden explosives detector employing pulsed neutron and x-ray interrogation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Methods and systems for the detection of small amounts of modern, highly-explosive nitrogen-based explosives, such as plastic explosives, hidden in airline baggage. Several techniques are employed either individually or combined in a hybrid system. One technique employed in combination is X-ray imaging. Another technique is interrogation with a pulsed neutron source in a two-phase mode of operation to image both nitrogen and oxygen densities. Another technique employed in combination is neutron interrogation to form a hydrogen density image or three-dimensional map. In addition, deliberately-placed neutron-absorbing materials can be detected.

Schultz, Frederick J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Caldwell, John T. (Los Alamos, NM)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Hidden explosives detector employing pulsed neutron and x-ray interrogation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods and systems for the detection of small amounts of modern, highly-explosive nitrogen-based explosives, such as plastic explosives, hidden in airline baggage. Several techniques are employed either individually or combined in a hybrid system. One technique employed in combination is X-ray imaging. Another technique is interrogation with a pulsed neutron source in a two-phase mode of operation to image both nitrogen and oxygen densities. Another technique employed in combination is neutron interrogation to form a hydrogen density image or three-dimensional map. In addition, deliberately-placed neutron-absorbing materials can be detected.

Schultz, F.J.; Caldwell, J.T.

1993-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

288

A Model-Based Signal Processing Approach to Nuclear Explosion Monitoring  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes research performed under Laboratory Research and Development Project 05-ERD-019, entitled ''A New Capability for Regional High-Frequency Seismic Wave Simulation in Realistic Three-Dimensional Earth Models to Improve Nuclear Explosion Monitoring''. A more appropriate title for this project is ''A Model-Based Signal Processing Approach to Nuclear Explosion Monitoring''. This project supported research for a radically new approach to nuclear explosion monitoring as well as allowed the development new capabilities in computational seismology that can contribute to NNSA/NA-22 Programs.

Rodgers, A; Harris, D; Pasyanos, M

2007-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

289

Observation of shells in Coulomb explosions of rare-gas clusters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The explosions of noble gas clusters from argon and xenon irradiated by intense 35-fs infrared laser pulses have been studied. The kinetic energy spectra of ions produced in small clusters (shell structure that is attributed to originating from a radial charge distribution. With a simple classical particle simulation of Coulomb explosions, the energy structure was reproduced using information on the arrangement of charge in the cluster. It was found that, during the explosion, the inner atoms of the clusters were less ionized than the outer atoms.

Erk, B.; Hoffmann, K.; Kandadai, N.; Helal, A.; Keto, J.; Ditmire, T. [Texas Center for High Intensity Laser Science, Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

290

Evaluation of Flammability and Explosibility Characteristics of Powder River Basin Coals and Switchgrass  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Biomass co-firing is currently a low-cost renewable-energy option; Powder River Basin (PRB) coal is currently a low-sulfur, low-NOx fuel. Both biomass and PRB are very dusty fuels, and with the proper concentrations and an ignition source, these dusts can create powerful explosions. Understanding and measuring their levels of concentration and explosibility will aid in avoiding a high concentration of these dusts in identified power plant locations. This knowledge will help lower the risk of explosion at...

2010-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

291

Systematic approach to verification and validation: High explosive burn models  

SciTech Connect

Most material models used in numerical simulations are based on heuristics and empirically calibrated to experimental data. For a specific model, key questions are determining its domain of applicability and assessing its relative merits compared to other models. Answering these questions should be a part of model verification and validation (V and V). Here, we focus on V and V of high explosive models. Typically, model developers implemented their model in their own hydro code and use different sets of experiments to calibrate model parameters. Rarely can one find in the literature simulation results for different models of the same experiment. Consequently, it is difficult to assess objectively the relative merits of different models. This situation results in part from the fact that experimental data is scattered through the literature (articles in journals and conference proceedings) and that the printed literature does not allow the reader to obtain data from a figure in electronic form needed to make detailed comparisons among experiments and simulations. In addition, it is very time consuming to set up and run simulations to compare different models over sufficiently many experiments to cover the range of phenomena of interest. The first difficulty could be overcome if the research community were to support an online web based database. The second difficulty can be greatly reduced by automating procedures to set up and run simulations of similar types of experiments. Moreover, automated testing would be greatly facilitated if the data files obtained from a database were in a standard format that contained key experimental parameters as meta-data in a header to the data file. To illustrate our approach to V and V, we have developed a high explosive database (HED) at LANL. It now contains a large number of shock initiation experiments. Utilizing the header information in a data file from HED, we have written scripts to generate an input file for a hydro code, run a simulation, and generate a comparison plot showing simulated and experimental velocity gauge data. These scripts are then applied to several series of experiments and to several HE burn models. The same systematic approach is applicable to other types of material models; for example, equations of state models and material strength models.

Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scovel, Christina A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

292

The Role of Antecedent Surface Vorticity Development as a Conditioning Process in Explosive Cyclone Intensification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We examine the idea that antecedent vorticity development, defined as the surface vorticity spinup in the period prior to a cyclone's maximum intensification, is an important dynamical conditioning process for explosive cyclogenesis. Previous ...

John R. Gyakum; Paul J. Roebber; Timothy A. Bullock

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

A Diagnostic Case Study of Self-Development as an Antecedent Conditioning Process in Explosive Cyclogenesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A diagnostic study of two, successive operational model forecasts of a case of explosive cyclogenesis is presented, with the goal of understanding the rather substantial differences in the simulations. The rapid cyclogenesis, Which occurred to ...

Paul J. Roebber

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

An Automatically Controlled Electrical Heating System for Use in an Explosive Environment  

SciTech Connect

An automatically controlled electrical heating system was developed to heat specific components of a compacting system for the production of explosive pellets. The electrical heating system was designed for application in a hazardous environment.

Page, D. O.; Draut, C. F.

1974-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

295

Latent Heat Release in an Extratropical Cyclone that Developed Explosively over the Southeastern United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using the Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres FGGE Level III-b analyses, the latent heat release (LHR) associated with an extratropical cyclone that deepened explosively over the southeastern United States is investigated. Parameterized LUR was ...

Earl K. Fosdick; Phillip J. Smith

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Prediction of Nine Explosive Cyclones over the Western Atlantic Ocean with a Regional Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A series of 14 numerical experiments were conducted using the Pennsylvania State University/National Center for Atmospheric Research mesoscale model on nine cases of explosive marine cyclogenesis. The main objective was to identify key factors ...

Ying-Hwa Kuo; Simon Low-Nam

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Substantiation of Thermodynamic Criteria of Explosion Safety in Process of Severe Accidents in Pressure Vessel Reactors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The paper represents original development of thermodynamic criteria of occurrence conditions of steam-gas explosions in the process of severe accidents. The received results can be used for modelling of processes of severe accidents in pressure vessel reactors.

Skalozubov, V I; Jarovoj, S S; Kochnyeva, V Yu

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Substantiation of Thermodynamic Criteria of Explosion Safety in Process of Severe Accidents in Pressure Vessel Reactors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The paper represents original development of thermodynamic criteria of occurrence conditions of steam-gas explosions in the process of severe accidents. The received results can be used for modelling of processes of severe accidents in pressure vessel reactors.

V. I. Skalozubov; V. N. Vashchenko; S. S. Jarovoj; V. Yu. Kochnyeva

2012-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

299

An assessment of the flammability and explosion potential of transuranic waste  

SciTech Connect

The explosion potential of transuranic (TRU) waste, destined for the Waste Isolation Pilot (WIPP), was recently examined in EEG-45. That investigation focused on the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the waste, particularly acetone, and concluded that an explosion due to the VOCs was unlikely. Recent evidence raises serious concerns about drums containing mixed radioactive hazardous waste bound for the WIPP. Static electricity generated by the plastic bags represents a potential ignition source for other fuels, such as methane gas or hydrogen gas, during transportation and during the test phase. The potential danger of explosion due to hydrogen gas or methane gas generation has not yet been resolved. This report investigates that potential hazard and examines documented ignitions, fires, explosions and incidents of overpressurization of containers at generating and storage sites planning to send transuranic waste to the WIPP for disposal. 68 refs., 6 figs.

Silva, M.

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Molecules and materials for the optical detection of explosives and toxic chemicals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optical chemosensing, especially using amplifying fluorescent polymers, can allow for the highly sensitive and selective vapor-phase detection of both explosives and highly toxic chemicals, including chemical warfare agents. ...

Thomas, Samuel William, III

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "graaff confetti explosion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Explosive Cyclone Development in the Southern Hemisphere and a Comparison with Northern Hemisphere Events  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A compilation of Southern Hemisphere (SH) explosively developing cyclones (or “bombs”) has been assembled based on the National Centers for Environmental Prediction–Department of Energy reanalysis-2 data over the 21-yr period from 1979 to 1999. ...

Eun-Pa Lim; Ian Simmonds

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

A Local Energetics Analysis of the Life Cycle Differences between Consecutive, Explosively Deepening, Continental Cyclones  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Local energetics diagnostics of the life cycles of consecutive, explosively deepening, extratropical cyclones that migrated across central North America in April 2001 are presented. Both storms developed rapidly and followed nearly identical ...

Steven G. Decker; Jonathan E. Martin

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDIES ON RADIATION CARCINOGENESIS IN HUMAN POPULATIONS FOLLOWING ACUTE EXPOSURE: NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS AND MEDICAL RADIATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki (17). Here, there is an age-atomic bomb survivors (17) and Marshall Islanders (18) exposed to nuclear explosions. Here, there is an age-

Fabrikant, J.I.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Recent Changes in Explosively Developing Extratropical Cyclones over the Winter Northwestern Pacific  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study investigated recent changes in the characteristics of explosively developing extratropical cyclones over the northwestern Pacific region in winter from 1979/80 to 2010/11 by using reanalysis data from the Japanese 25-yr Reanalysis/Japan ...

Koki Iwao; Masaru Inatsu; Masahide Kimoto

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Heat Budgets of Analyses and Forecasts of an Explosively Deepening Maritime Cyclone  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Diagnosis of the conditions associated with explosive maritime cyclogenesis is hindered by the lack of observations. A heat budget approach with analyses and forecasts for a rapid cyclogenesis event during the FGGE period is used in this study. ...

Chi-Sann Liou; Russel L. Elsberry

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

The Frontal Structure of an Explosive Oceanic Cyclone: Airbone Radar Observations of ERICA IOP 4  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Observation taken during the Experiment on Rapidly Intensifying Cyclones over the Atlantic (ERICA) have permitted analyses of explosive oceanic cyclogenesis of unprecedented detail. The most intense of the cyclones that occurred during this ...

Roger M. Wakimoto; Warren Blier; Chinghwang Liu

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

The Role of Latent Heat Release in Explosive Cyclogenesis: Three Examples Based on ECMWF Operational Forecasts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Operational forecasts from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts of three cases of explosive cyclogenesis of large magnitude that occurred in the North Atlantic during a 1-week period in January 1986 are presented, and results of ...

Richard J. Reed; Mark D. Albright; Adrian J. Sammons; Per Undén

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

A Diagnosis of a Model-Simulated Explosively Developing Extratropical Cyclone  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper examines a simulation of the explosive development phase of the ERICA IOP 4 extratropical cyclone case obtained from the 70-km Limited Area Mesoscale Prediction System. A detailed diagnosis of the simulated cyclone is performed using ...

Robert L. M. Rausch; Phillip J. Smith

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Towards the development of an explosives detection system using Neutron Resonance Radiography  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Detection of conventional explosives remains a challenge to air security, as indicated by recent reports detailing lapses in security screening and new requirements that mandate screening 100% of checked luggage. Neutron ...

Raas, Whitney

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Explosive East Coast Cyclogenesis: Numerical Experimentation and Model-Based Diagnostics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Numerical experimentation of explosive East Coast cyclogenesis is performed using the Florida State University Global Spectral Model (FSUGSM). The three cases examined here are the Presidents'Day storm of 18–19 February 1979 and the North ...

John Manobianco

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Hyperspectral microscopy using an external cavity quantum cascade laser and its applications for explosives detection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A hyperspectral infrared microscope using external cavity quantum cascade laser illumination and a microbolometer focal plane array is used to characterize nanogram-scale particles of the explosives RDX, tetryl, and PETN at fast acquisition rates.

Phillips, Mark C.; Suter, Jonathan D.; Bernacki, Bruce E.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Explosive Cyclogenesis and Large-Scale Circulation Changes: Implications for Atmospheric Blocking  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Large-scale circulation changes attending explosive surface cyclogenesis are quantitatively examined in two cases selected from recent winter seasons. Both cases feature a rapidly deepening surface cyclone over the western Atlantic Ocean, but ...

Stephen J. Colucci

1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Review of potential impacts to sea turtles from underwater explosive removal of offshore structures  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to collect and synthesize existing information relevant to the explosive removal of offshore structures (EROS) in aquatic environments. Data sources were organized and summarized by topic - explosive removal methods, physics of underwater explosions, sea turtle resources, documented impacts to sea turtles, and mitigation of effects. Information was gathered via electronic database searches and literature source review. Bulk explosive charges are the most commonly used technique in EROS. While the physical principles of underwater detonations and the propagation of pressure and acoustic waves are well understood, there are significant gaps in the application of this knowledge. Impacts to sea turtles from explosive removal operations may range from non-injurious effects (e.g. acoustic annoyance; mild tactile detection or physical discomfort) to varying levels of injury (i.e. non-lethal and lethal injuries). Very little information exists regarding the impacts of underwater explosions on sea turtles. Effects of explosions on turtles often must be inferred from documented effects to other vertebrates with lungs or other gas-containing organs, such as mammals and most fishes. However, a cautious approach should be used when determining impacts to sea turtles based on extrapolations from other vertebrates. The discovery of beached sea turtles and bottlenose dolphins following an explosive platform removal event in 1986 prompted the initiation of formal consultation between the U.S. Department of the Interior, Minerals Management Service (MMS) and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), authorized through the Endangered Species Act Section 7, to determine a mechanism to minimize potential impacts to listed species. The initial consultation resulted in a requirement for oil and gas companies to obtain a permit (through separate consultations on a case-by-case basis) prior to using explosives in Federal waters. Because many offshore structure removal operations are similar, a 'generic' Incidental Take Statement was established by the NMFS that describes requirements to protect sea turtles when an operator's individual charge weights did not exceed 50 lb (23 kg). Requirements associated with the Incidental Take Permit were revised in 2003 and 2006 to accommodate advances in explosive charge technologies, removals of structures in deeper waters, and adequate protection of deep water marine mammal species in Gulf of Mexico waters. Generally, these requirements include pre- and post-detonation visual monitoring using standard surface and aerial survey methods for sea turtles and marine mammals, and, in some scenarios, passive acoustic survey methods for marine mammals within a specified radius from an offshore structure. The survey program has been successful in mitigating impacts to sea turtles associated with EROS. However, even with these protective measures in place, there have been observations of sea turtles affected by explosive platform removals.

Viada, Stephen T. [CSA International, Inc., 759 Parkway Street, Jupiter, FL 33477 (United States)], E-mail: sviada@conshelf.com; Hammer, Richard M. [CSA International, Inc., 759 Parkway Street, Jupiter, FL 33477 (United States)], E-mail: rhammer@conshelf.com; Racca, Roberto [JASCO Research Ltd., Vancouver Island Technology Park, Suite 2101, 4464 Markham Street, Victoria, British Columbia, V8Z 7X8 (Canada)], E-mail: rob@jasco.com; Hannay, David [JASCO Research Ltd., Vancouver Island Technology Park, Suite 2101, 4464 Markham Street, Victoria, British Columbia, V8Z 7X8 (Canada)], E-mail: dave@jasco.com; Thompson, M. John [CSA International, Inc., 759 Parkway Street, Jupiter, FL 33477 (United States)], E-mail: jthompson@conshelf.com; Balcom, Brian J. [CSA International, Inc., 759 Parkway Street, Jupiter, FL 33477 (United States)], E-mail: bbalcom@conshelf.com; Phillips, Neal W. [CSA International, Inc., 759 Parkway Street, Jupiter, FL 33477 (United States)], E-mail: nphillips@conshelf.com

2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

314

DOE/EA-1613: Environmental Assessment for the Proposed High Explosive Pressing Facility (June 2008)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DOE/EA-1613 DOE/EA-1613 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE PROPOSED HIGH EXPLOSIVE PRESSING FACILITY PANTEX PLANT * AMARILLO, TEXAS * JUNE 2008 Environmental Assessment for the Proposed High Explosive Pressing Facility Pantex Plant June 2008 Page i CONTENTS 1.0 INTRODUCTION.......................................................................................................................... 1 2.0 BACKGROUND ............................................................................................................................ 1 2.1 Alternatives ........................................................................................................................... 1 2.1.1 Preferred Alternative ..............................................................................................

315

Computer Graphics Proceedings, Annual Conference Series, 2003 Animating Suspended Particle Explosions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

- sults with a photograph of a staged coal-dust explosion in the Bruceton Experimental Mine. (Photo c 1986 P4 .7 min 2.53 GHz P4 Coal mine 4 & 5 35Ã?45Ã?35 0.50 m 1,500,000 5.6 sec 8.2 sec 3.06 GHz P4 with a photograph of an actual coal-dust explosion exiting the entrance of a mine [Cashdol- lar, 1986

O'Brien, James F.

316

Mitigation of Boiler Tubing Damage from Use of Explosive Cleaning Methods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Combustion of fossil fuels results in formation of slags that cover boiler tubes. Efficient boiler operation requires periodic removal of these slags, and explosive cleaning is an excellent cleaning method. While boiler tube cleaning using explosives is an established technology, a number of cases of tube damage have been reported, including cracking and denting of boiler tubes. This report details the work accomplished in Phase I of this project to capture the current understanding and practice of explo...

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Insensitive explosive composition and method of fracturing rock using an extrudable form of the composition  

SciTech Connect

Insensitive explosive compositions were prepared by reacting di-isocyanate and/or poly-isocyanate monomers with an explosive diamine monomer. Prior to a final cure, the compositions are extrudable. The di-isocyanate monomers tend to produce tough, rubbery materials while polyfunctional monomers (i.e. having more than two isocyanate groups) tend to form rigid products. The extrudable form of the composition may be used in a variety of applications including rock fracturing.

Davis, Lloyd L

2013-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

318

Use of explosives for boiler deslagging gains acceptance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article examines an unconventional technique for removing slag from solid-fuel-fired boilers, used for more than two decades, that recently has exploded in popularity. The risks are very real; extensive damage at several recent jobs confirms that all blasters are not created equal. At solid-fuel-fired powerplants, slag removal can be a constant battle. Conventional weapons include picks, jackhammers, shotguns fired through portholes, hydro-blasting, and CO{sub 2}-blasting. But each of these methods is labor intensive, consumes substantial amounts of downtime, and may not dislodge severe deposits. In the 1960s, a midwestern plant superintendent, short of personnel because of a labor strike and frustrated by seemingly immovable slagging, resorted to dynamite. The good results surprised both the superintendent and the blasting contractor who had been called in from a nearby civil engineering job. Over the next two decades or so, the technique spread through a core group of believers at powerplants who largely relied on the one original blasting contractor. In recent years, explosive deslagging has become more widely accepted as a state-of-the-art combat technique and several hundred powerplants through the US now make use of it during annual outages. As the technique`s acceptance has grown, so has the number of contractors entering the field. Some veterans worry that the industry has expanded too fast, and unqualified blasters are being allowed into the powerplant.

Swanekamp, R.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

MAGNETIC FIELD INTENSIFICATION BY THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL 'EXPLOSION' PROCESS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We investigate an intensification mechanism for the magnetic field near the base of the solar convection zone that does not rely on differential rotation. Such mechanism in addition to differential rotation has been suggested by studies of flux emergence, which typically require field strength in excess of those provided by differential rotation alone. We study here a process in which potential energy of the superadiabatically stratified convection zone is converted into magnetic energy. This mechanism, known as the 'explosion of magnetic flux tubes', has been previously studied in thin flux tube approximation as well as two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations; here we expand the investigation to three-dimensional MHD simulations. Our main result is that enough intensification can be achieved in a three-dimensional magnetic flux sheet as long as the spatial scale of the imposed perturbation normal to the magnetic field is sufficiently large. When this spatial scale is small, the flux sheet tends to rise toward the surface, resulting in a significant decrease of the magnetic field amplification.

Hotta, H.; Yokoyama, T. [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Rempel, M., E-mail: hotta.h@eps.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO 80307 (United States)

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Transport of Explosive Residue Surrogates in Saturated Porous Media  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Department of Defense operational ranges may become contaminated by particles of explosives residues (ER) as a result of low-order detonations of munitions. The goal of this study was to determine the extent to which particles of ER could migrate through columns of sandy sediment, representing model aquifer materials. Transport experiments were conducted in saturated columns (2 x 20 cm) packed with different grain sizes of clean sand or glass beads. Fine particles (approximately 2 to 50 {mu}m) of 2,6-dinitrotoluene (DNT) were used as a surrogate for ER. DNT particles were applied to the top 1 cm of sand or beads in the columns, and the columns were subsequently leached with artificial groundwater solutions. DNT migration occurred as both dissolved and particulate phases. Concentration differences between unfiltered and filtered samples indicate that particulate DNT accounted for up to 41% of the mass recovered in effluent samples. Proportionally, more particulate than dissolved DNT was recovered in effluent solutions from columns with larger grain sizes, while total concentrations of DNT in effluent were inversely related to grain size. Of the total DNT mass applied to the uppermost layer of the column, <3% was recovered in the effluent with the bulk remaining in the top 2 cm of the column. Our results suggest there is some potential for subsurface migration of ER particles and that most of the particles will be retained over relatively short transport distances.

Lavoie, Bethsheba [ORNL; Mayes, Melanie [ORNL; McKay, Larry Donald [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "graaff confetti explosion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Method for attenuating seismic shock from detonating explosive in an in situ oil shale retort  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In situ oil shale retorts are formed in formation containing oil shale by excavating at least one void in each retort site. Explosive is placed in a remaining portion of unfragmented formation within each retort site adjacent such a void, and such explosive is detonated in a single round for explosively expanding formation within the retort site toward such a void for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale in each retort. This produces a large explosion which generates seismic shock waves traveling outwardly from the blast site through the underground formation. Sensitive equipment which could be damaged by seismic shock traveling to it straight through unfragmented formation is shielded from such an explosion by placing such equipment in the shadow of a fragmented mass in an in situ retort formed prior to the explosion. The fragmented mass attenuates the velocity and magnitude of seismic shock waves traveling toward such sensitive equipment prior to the shock wave reaching the vicinity of such equipment.

Studebaker, Irving G. (Grand Junction, CO); Hefelfinger, Richard (Grand Junction, CO)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Hydrogen Cylinder Storage Array Explosion Evaluations at the High Flux Isotope Reactor  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The safety analysis for a recently-installed cold neutron source at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) involved evaluation of potential explosion consequences from accidental hydrogen jet releases that could occur from an array of hydrogen cylinders. The scope of the safety analysis involved determination of the release rate of hydrogen, the total quantity of hydrogen assumed to be involved in the explosion, the location of an ignition point or center of the explosion from receptors of interest, and the peak overpressure at the receptors. To evaluate the total quantity of hydrogen involved in the explosion, a 2D model was constructed of the jet concentration and a radial-axial integral over the jet cloud from the centerline to the flammability limit of 4% was used to determine the hydrogen mass to be used as a source term. The location of the point source was chosen as the peak of the jet centerline concentration profile. Consequences were assessed using a combination of three methods for estimating local overpressure as a function of explosion source strength and distance: the Baker-Strehlow method, the TNT-equivalence method, and the TNO method. Results from the explosions were assessed using damage estimates in screening tables for buildings and industrial equipment.

Cook, David Howard [ORNL; Griffin, Frederick P [ORNL; Hyman III, Clifton R [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Neutron Resonance Radiography for Explosives Detection: Technical Challenges  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fast Neutron Resonance Radiography (NRR) has recently become a focus of investigation as a supplement to conventional x-ray systems as a non-invasive, non-destructive means of detecting explosive material concealed in checked luggage or cargo containers at airports. Using fast (1-6 MeV) neutrons produced by the D(d,n){sup 3}He reaction, NRR provides both an imaging capability and the ability to determine the chemical composition of materials in baggage or cargo. Elemental discrimination is achieved by exploiting the resonance features of the neutron cross-section for oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and hydrogen. Simulations have shown the effectiveness of multiple-element NRR through Monte Carlo transport methods; this work is focused on the development of a prototype system that will incorporate an accelerator-based neutron source and a neutron detection and imaging system to demonstrate the realistic capabilities of NRR in distinguishing the elemental components of concealed objects. Preliminary experiments have exposed significant technical difficulties unapparent in simulations, including the presence of image contamination from gamma ray production, the detection of low-fluence fast neutrons in a gamma field, and the mechanical difficulties inherent in the use of thin foil windows for gas cell confinement. To mitigate these concerns, a new gas target has been developed to simultaneously reduce gamma ray production and increase structural integrity in high flux gas targets. Development of a neutron imaging system and neutron counting based on characteristic neutron pulse shapes have been investigated as a means of improving signal to noise ratios, reducing irradiation times, and increasing the accuracy of elemental determination.

Raas, W L; Blackburn, B; Boyd, E; Hall, J M; Kohse, G; Lanza, R; Rusnak, B; Watterson, J W

2005-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

324

Explosions and other uncontrolled chemical reactions at non-reactor nuclear facilities of the Savannah River Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes five energetic reactions (explosions) that have occurred at the Savannah River Plant non-reactor nuclear facilities. 1 fig.

Durant, W.S.; Gray, L.W.; Wallace, R.M.; Yau, W.W.F.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Guidance for characterizing explosives contaminated soils: Sampling and selecting on-site analytical methods  

SciTech Connect

A large number of defense-related sites are contaminated with elevated levels of secondary explosives. Levels of contamination range from barely detectable to levels above 10% that need special handling due to the detonation potential. Characterization of explosives-contaminated sites is particularly difficult due to the very heterogeneous distribution of contamination in the environment and within samples. To improve site characterization, several options exist including collecting more samples, providing on-site analytical data to help direct the investigation, compositing samples, improving homogenization of samples, and extracting larger samples. On-site analytical methods are essential to more economical and improved characterization. On-site methods might suffer in terms of precision and accuracy, but this is more than offset by the increased number of samples that can be run. While verification using a standard analytical procedure should be part of any quality assurance program, reducing the number of samples analyzed by the more expensive methods can result in significantly reduced costs. Often 70 to 90% of the soil samples analyzed during an explosives site investigation do not contain detectable levels of contamination. Two basic types of on-site analytical methods are in wide use for explosives in soil, calorimetric and immunoassay. Calorimetric methods generally detect broad classes of compounds such as nitroaromatics or nitramines, while immunoassay methods are more compound specific. Since TNT or RDX is usually present in explosive-contaminated soils, the use of procedures designed to detect only these or similar compounds can be very effective.

Crockett, A.B. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Craig, H.D. [Environmental Protection Agency, Portland, OR (United States). Oregon Operations Office; Jenkins, T.F. [Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Lab., Hanover, NH (United States); Sisk, W.E. [Army Environmental Center, Aberdeen Proving Grounds, MD (United States)

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Use of explosives in deep rock mining: in situ energy and mineral recovery  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Chemical explosives may become a key element in many of the in situ energy and mineral recovery methods under development. The potential role of explosives in deep rock mining for resource recovery is discussed. Several energy and mineral recovery programs described are an outgrowth of the Plowshare Program and Explosives R and D conducted as part of the AEC/ERDA mission at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Several important aspects of the use of explosives in deep rock mining are reviewed. First, the status of knowledge of deep rock fracturing to create permeability underground is discussed. Completely contained blasting has not been a widely applied tool used in the mining industry. It is concluded that data available on deep rock fracture is minimal and that the mechanisms that control the processes must be understood before technical and economic feasibility can be established. The unusual problems in the selection of an explosive or blasting agent for deep rock applications including emphasis on the functioning at depth and safety aspects are also discussed. Finally, a brief review of similar activities within the U.S. is given.

Finger, M.; Larson, D.

1976-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

327

Addressing the efficiency of the energy transfer to the water flow by underwater electrical wire explosion  

SciTech Connect

Experimental and hydrodynamic simulation results of submicrosecond time scale underwater electrical explosions of planar Cu and Al wire arrays are presented. A pulsed low-inductance generator having a current amplitude of up to 380 kA was used. The maximum current rise rate and maximum power achieved during wire array explosions were dI/dt<=830 A/ns and approx10 GW, respectively. Interaction of the water flow generated during wire array explosion with the target was used to estimate the efficiency of the transfer of the energy initially stored in the generator energy to the water flow. It was shown that efficiency is in the range of 18%-24%. In addition, it was revealed that electrical explosion of the Al wire array allows almost double the energy to be transferred to the water flow due to efficient combustion of the Al wires. The latter allows one to expect a significant increase in the pressure at the front of converging strong shock waves in the case of cylindrical Al wire array underwater explosion.

Efimov, S.; Gurovich, V. Tz.; Bazalitski, G.; Fedotov, A.; Krasik, Ya. E. [Physics Department, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Method of detonating explosives for fragmenting oil shale formation toward a vertical free face  

SciTech Connect

A description is given of a method for explosively expanding oil shale formation toward a limited void volume provided by a void excavated in a retort site in formation containing oil shale, wherein said void has at least one vertical free face, the improvement comprising the steps of: placing explosive in a roiw of blasting holes in a remaining portion of unfragmented formation within the retort site adjacent such a vertical free face, said blasting holes being mutually spaced apart along the length of the void; and detonating explosive in the blasting holes in a single round in a time delay sequence progressing along the length of the row of blasting holes for explosivelyexpanding formation in said remaining portion of unfragmented formation toward such vertical free face for forming at least a portion of a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale in an in situ oil shale retort.

Hutchins, N.; Ridley, R.

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

High-temperature explosive development for geothermal well stimulation. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A two-component, temperature-resistant liquid explosive called HITEX has been developed which is capable of withstanding 561/sup 0/K (550/sup 0/F) for 24 hours in a geothermal environment. The explosive is intended for the stimulation of nonproducing or marginally producing geothermal (hot dry rock, vapor-dominated or hydrothermal) reservoirs by fracturing the strata in the vicinity of a borehole. The explosive is inherently safe because it is mixed below ground downhole from two nondetonable liquid components. Development and safety tests included differential scanning calorimetry, thermal stability, minerals compatibility, drop-weight sensitivity, adiabatic compression, electrostatic discharge sensitivity, friction sensitivity, detonation arrest capability, cook-off tests, detonability at ambient and elevated pressure, detonation velocity and thin film propagation in a wedge.

Schmidt, E.W.; Mars, J.E.; Wang, C.

1978-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

330

The observed neutron star mass distribution as a probe of the supernova explosion mechanism  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The observed distribution of neutron star (NS) masses reflects the physics of core-collapse supernova explosions and the structure of the massive stars that produce them at the end of their evolution. We present a Bayesian analysis that directly compares the NS mass distribution observed in double NS systems to theoretical models of NS formation. We find that models with standard binary mass ratio distributions are strongly preferred over independently picking the masses from the initial mass function, although the strength of the inference depends on whether current assumptions for identifying the remnants of the primary and secondary stars are correct. Second, NS formation models with no mass fallback are favored because they reduce the dispersion in NS masses. The double NS system masses thus directly point to the mass coordinate where the supernova explosion was initiated, making them an excellent probe of the supernova explosion mechanism. If we assume no fallback and simply vary the mass coordinate sepa...

Pejcha, Ondrej; Kochanek, Christopher S

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

General chemistry technical note no. 61--new developments in plastic bonded explosives  

SciTech Connect

Two new explosives are under development at Lawrence Radiation Laboratory (LRL) which show considerable promise as replacements for PBX 9404 (and also PBX 9010). Three primary considerations have guided us in the development of these explosives. Compared to PBX 9404 we have sought a significant decrease it sensitivity, a substantial gain in mechanical properties and as little loss in energy and detonation velocity as possible. While testing is not complete on these materials and probably won`t be for quite some time sufficient information is available to warrant a complete status report at this time. An index of the topics covered herein is: Formulations and Raw Materials; Molding Powder; Explosive Performance; Sensitivity; Thermal Stability; Compatibility; Mechanical Properties; Machinability; Pressability; and Comparison of the Two Materials.

Scribner, K.; James, E.

1961-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

332

Data acquisition and analysis of the UNCOSS underwater explosive neutron sensor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of the FP7 UNCOSS project (Underwater Coastal Sea Surveyor, http://www.uncoss-project.org) is to develop a neutron-based underwater explosive sensor to detect unexploded ordnance lying on the sea bottom. The Associated Particle Technique is used to focus the inspection on a suspicious object located by optical and electromagnetic sensors and to determine if there is an explosive charge inside. This paper presents the data acquisition electronics and data analysis software which have been developed for this project. The electronics digitize and process the signal in real-time based on a field programmable gate array structure to perform precise time-of-flight and gamma-ray energy measurements. UNCOSS software offers the basic tools to analyze the time-of-flight and energy spectra of the interrogated object. It allows to unfold the gamma-ray spectrum into pure elemental count proportions, mainly C, N, O, Fe, Al, Si, and Ca. The C, N, and O count fractions are converted into chemical proportions by taking into account the gamma-ray production cross sections, as well as neutron and photon attenuation in the different shields between the ROV (Remotely Operated Vehicle) and the explosive, such as the explosive iron shell, seawater, and ROV envelop. These chemical ratios are plotted in a two-dimensional (2D) barycentric representation to position the measured point with respect to common explosives. The systematic uncertainty due to the above attenuation effects and counting statistical fluctuations are combined with a Monte Carlo method to provide a 3D uncertainty area in a barycentric plot, which allows to determine the most probable detected materials in view to make a decision about the presence of explosive. (authors)

Carasco, C.; Eleon, C.; Perot, B. [CEA, DEN, Cadarache, Nuclear Measurement Laboratory, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Boudergui, K.; Kondrasovs, V.; Corre, G.; Normand, S.; Sannie, G.; Woo, R.; Bourbotte, J. M. [CEA, LIST, Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Navy explosive ordnance disposal project: Optical ordnance system development. Final report  

SciTech Connect

An optical ordnance firing system consisting of a portable hand held solid state rod laser and an optically ignited detonator has been developed for use in explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) activities. Solid state rod laser systems designed to have an output of 150 mJ in a 500 microsecond pulse have been produced and evaluated. A laser ignited detonator containing no primary explosives has been designed and fabricated. The detonator has the same functional output as an electrically fired blasting cap. The optical ordnance firing system has demonstrated the ability to reliably detonate Comp C-4 through 1000 meters of optical fiber.

Merson, J.A.; Salas, F.J.; Helsel, F.M.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

The Mechanism of Core-Collapse Supernova Explosions: A Status Report  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We review the status of the current quest to understand the mechanism of core-collapse supernovae, if neutrino-driven. In the process, we discuss the spherical explosion paradigm and its problems, some results from our new suite of collapse calculations performed using a recently-developed 1D implicit, multi-group, Feautrier/tangent-ray, Boltzmann solver coupled to explicit predictor/corrector hydrodynamics, the basic energetics of supernova explosions, and the promise of multi-D radiation/hydro simulations to explain why the cores of massive stars explode.

Adam Burrows; Todd A. Thompson

2002-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

335

Reactive Flow Modeling of Liquid Explosives via ALE3D/Cheetah Simulations  

SciTech Connect

We carried out reactive flow simulations of liquid explosives such as nitromethane using the hydrodynamic code ALE3D coupled with equations of state and reaction kinetics modeled by the thermochemical code Cheetah. The simulation set-up was chosen to mimic cylinder experiments. For pure unconfined nitromethane we find that the failure diameter and detonation velocity dependence on charge diameter are in agreement with available experimental results. Such simulations are likely to be useful for determining detonability and failure behavior for a wide range of experimental conditions and explosive compounds.

Kuo, I W; Bastea, S; Fried, L E

2010-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

336

Method for removal of explosives from aqueous solution using suspended plant cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The use of plant suspension cultures to remove ionic metallic species and TNT-based explosives and their oxidation products from aqueous solution is described. Several plant strains were investigated including D. innoxia, Citrus citrus, and Black Mexican Sweet Corn. All showed significant ability to remove metal ions. Ions removed to sub-ppm levels include barium, iron, and plutonium. D. innoxia cells growing in media containing weapons effluent contaminated with Ba.sup.2+ also remove TNT, other explosives and oxidation products thereof from solution. The use of dead, dehydrated cells was also found to be of use in treating waste directly.

Jackson, Paul J. (Los Alamos, NM); Torres, deceased, Agapito P. (late of Los Alamos, NM); Delhaize, Emmanuel (Giralang, AU)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

The explosive components facility - fulfilling its role as a national resource  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Explosive Components Facility (ECF) is a major, low-hazard, non-nuclear, research and development facility of the Sandia National Laboratories/Albuquerque (SNL). Sandia Corporation, a subsidiary of Lockheed-Martin, operates this designated User Facility for the Department of Energy (DOE). The ECF consolidates many SNL energetic-materials activities and provides a unique combination of explosive-technologies, neutronic-components, batteries, and weapons-evaluation capabilities. This paper describes the project objectives, the basic building features, programmatic capabilities, and the processes used to beneficially occupy and assess readiness to operate.

Johnson, D.R.; Bonzon, L.L.

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Challenges of infrared reflective spectroscopy of solid-phase explosives and chemicals on surfaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reliable active and passive hyperspectral imaging and detection of explosives and solid-phase chemical residue on surfaces remains a challenge and an active area of research and development. Both methods rely on reference libraries for material identification, but in many cases the reference spectra do not sufficiently resemble those instrumental signals scattered from real-world objects. We describe a physics-based model using the dispersive complex dielectric constant to explain what is often thought of as anomalous behavior of scattered or non-specular signatures encountered in active and passive sensing of explosives or chemicals on surfaces and show modeling and experimental results for RDX.

Phillips, Mark C.; Suter, Jonathan D.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Johnson, Timothy J.

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

A Diagnostic Study of an Explosively Developing Extratropical Cyclone and an Associated 500-hPa Trough Merger  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a diagnosis of an explosively developing cyclone (1.3 Ber) that occurred in conjunction with a 500-hPa synoptic-scale trough merger over the eastern United States in November 1999. The explosive development occurred in ...

Jennifer L. S. Strahl; Phillip J. Smith

2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Chemical Spills, Releases, Explosions, Exposures, or Injuries (includes corrosive, reactive, flammable, and toxic chemicals in solid, liquid or gas form)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chemical Spills, Releases, Explosions, Exposures, or Injuries (includes corrosive, reactive, flammable, and toxic chemicals in solid, liquid or gas form) EHS Contact: Kate Lumley-Sapanski (kxl3@psu apply: When to Report: · All chemical exposures or explosions requiring medical attention must

Yener, Aylin

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "graaff confetti explosion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

DOE Order Self Study Modules - DOE O 452.1D, Nuclear Explosive and Weapon Surety Program and  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

CONTINUING TRAINING SELF- CONTINUING TRAINING SELF- STUDY PROGRAM DOE O 452.1D NUCLEAR EXPLOSIVE AND WEAPON SURETY PROGRAM DOE O 452.2D NUCLEAR EXPLOSIVE SAFETY DOE O 452.1D and DOE O 452.2D Familiar Level June 2011 1 DOE O 452.1D NUCLEAR EXPLOSIVE AND WEAPON SURETY PROGRAM DOE O 452.2D NUCLEAR EXPLOSIVE SAFETY FAMILIAR LEVEL OBJECTIVES Given the familiar level of this module and the resources listed below, you will be able to answer the following questions: 1. What are the objectives of implementing U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) O 452.1D? 2. Define the following terms as they apply to this Order: Abnormal environment High explosive detonation 3. What are the objectives of implementing DOE O 452.2D? 4. What are the general requirements of DOE O 452.2D?

342

Modeling unit cell interactions for the microstructure of a heterogeneous explosive: detonation diffraction past an inert sphere  

SciTech Connect

We describe an approach being used to model multi-phase blast explosive, that is mostly condensed explosive by volume with inert embedded particles. The asymptotic theory of detonation shock dynamics is used to describe the detonation shock propagation in the explosive. The shock motion rule in the explosive requires that the shock move at a normal speed that depends on the shock curvature. The angle that the shock makes with the particle boundary is also prescribed. We describe theory that can be used to predict the behavior of a collection of such detonation shock/particle interactions in the larger aggregate. A typical unit cell problem of a detonation shock diffraction over a sphere is analyzed by analytical and numerical means and the properties of an ensemble of such unit cell problems is discussed with implications for the macroscopic limiting behavior of the heterogeneous explosive.

Bdzil, John B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stewart, Donald S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Walter, John W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Aida, Toru [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Staggered array of explosives for fragmented oil shale formation toward a vertical free face  

SciTech Connect

Oil shale formation is explosively expanded toward a limited void volume for forming an in situ oil shale retort in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. In one embodiment, a void in the form of a vertical slot is excavated within a retort site, leaving at least one portion of unfragmented formation within the retort site adjacent to a vertical free face of the slot. Explosive is placed in at least two rows of vertical blasting holes in the remaining portion of unfragmented formation adjacent the vertical free face. The blasting holes in each row are mutually spaced apart along the length of the slot and longitudinally offset from blasting holes in the next adjacent row, and the row of blasting holes extends generally parallel to the vertical free face. Explosive in the blasting holes is detonated in a time delay sequence starting near one end of the slot and progressing along the length of the slot for explosively expanding formation in the remaining portion of unfragmented formation toward the vertical free face for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale in an in situ oil shale retort.

Hutchins, N.M.; Studebaker, I.G.

1980-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

344

Method of detonating explosives for fragmenting oil shale formation toward a vertical free face  

SciTech Connect

An oil shale formation is explosively expanded toward a limited void volume for forming an in situ oil shale retort in a subterranean formation. A void in the form of a narrow vertical slot is excavated within a retort site, leaving at least one portion of unfragmented formation within the retort site adjacent a vertical free face of the slot. Explosive is placed in a row of vertical blasting holes in the remaining portion of unfragmented formation adjacent the vertical free face. The blasting holes are mutually spaced apart along the length of the slot, and the row of blasting holes extends parallel to the vertical free face. Explosive in the blasting holes is detonated in a time delay sequence starting near one end of the slot and progressing along the length of the slot for explosively expanding the formation in the vertical free face. A fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale is formed in an in situ oil shale retort. 34 claims.

Hutchins, N.M.; Ridley, R.D.

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Staggered array of explosives for fragmented oil shale formation toward a vertical free face  

SciTech Connect

Oil shale formation is explosively expanded toward a limited void volume for forming an in situ oil shale retort in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. In one embodiment, a void in the form of a vertical slot is excavated within a retort site, leaving at least one portion of unfragmented formation within the retort site adjacent a vertical free face of the slot. Explosive is placed in at least 2 rows of vertical blasting holes in the remaining portion of unfragmented formation adjacent the vertical free face. The blasting holes in each row are mutually spaced apart along the length of the slot and longitudinally offset from blasting holes in the next adjacent row, and the row of blasting holes extends generally parallel to the vertical free face. Explosive in the blasting holes is detonated in a time delay sequence starting near one end of the slot and progressing along the length of the slot for explosively expanding formation in the remaining portion of unfragmented formation toward the vertical free face for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale in an in situ oil shale retort. 31 claims.

Studebaker, I.G.; Hutchins, N.M.

1980-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

346

Proceedings of the tenth annual symposium on explosives and blasting research  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

These proceedings contain 26 papers presented at the conference. Topics relate to blast vibration analysis and modeling, malfunctioning explosives, detonators, rock fragmentation, structural response of buildings to blasting, computer modeling, blast design, and measurement of rock properties. Most of the papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

NONE

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

347

The use of explosives by the US Antarctic Program. Environmental report  

SciTech Connect

This report was prepared to assist principal investigators and others in complying with NEPA and the protocol on environmental protection to the Antarctic Treaty. Research activities and associated support operations in Antarctica sometimes require use of explosives. This report evaluates potential environmental impacts associated with such activities and possible methods for mitigating those impacts. The greatest single use of explosives, and the only type of blasting that will occur on the Polar Plateau (an exception is the rare use of explosives to cave in dangerous ice for safety reasons), is for seismic surveys. The charges for these are small-scale, are placed in or on the snow or ice, are distributed linearly over long distances, and present no potential impacts to soil or geological substrata. Impacts from those would be less than minor or transitory. Wherever possible, blasting holes in sea ice will be replaced by drilling by auger or melting. Other uses of explosives, such as in geologic research and construction, are discussed.

Ensminger, J.T.; Blasing, T.J.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

TRANSLATIONAL EFFECTS OF AIR BLAST FROM HIGH EXPLOSIVES. Technical Progress Report  

SciTech Connect

A computational model was used in studies of the biological effects of blast from nuclear explosions. The translational effects of blast waves for objects as small as a 10-mg stone and as large as a 168-lb man were computed from theoretical studies and results were compared to field data for near-ideal blast waves from nuclear explosions. Results indicate that the motion of experimental objects can be satisfactorily predicted for free-field conditions or for window glass in houses. Results were computed for high explosives with free air burst. Parameters computed include velocity, displacement, and acceleration as functions of time for a variety of objects exposed to blast waves with 12 maximum overpressures ranging from 1 to 20 atm. All computations were made for one ton of high explosives burst in free air, but the results may be readily scaled to lower or higher yields and to surface bursts. The missiles are identified by their acceleration coefficients which range from 0.01 to 6.0 ft/sup 2//lb. (C.H.)

Bowen, I.G.; Woodworth, P.B.; Franklin, M.E.; White, C.S.

1962-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Meteorological Precursors to the Explosive Intensification of the QE II Storm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this research is to define the meteorological conditions prior to the explosive development of the QE II storm. By using conventional data and detailed McIDAS satellite imagery we document the genesis of this storm along a ...

John R. Gyakum

1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Completely mechanical quick changeable joints for multipurpose explosive ordnance disposal robots  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper is an investigation of completely mechanical quick changeable joints for multipurpose explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) robots. With the assistance of a quick changeable joint, an ordinary EOD robot becomes a multipurpose robot with an end ... Keywords: Joint testing, Multipurpose robot, Quick changeable joint

E. faruk Kececi

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Study on the Technology of Explosive Welding Incoloy800-SS304  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

austenite phase with large grain size (about 80-120 lm). The size of austenitic grains is ... No other element that does not belong to. SS304 is detected. .... Explosion Welding, ASM Handbook, Materials Park, 1993, p 896–900. 13. S.A.A. Akbari ...

352

Possible explosive compounds in the Savannah River Site waste tank farm facilities  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Based on a comparison of the known constituents in high-level nuclear waste stored at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and explosive compounds reported in the literature, only two classes of explosive compounds (metal NO{sub x} compounds and organic compounds) were identified as requiring further work to determine if they exist in the waste, and if so, in what quantities. Of the fourteen classes of explosive compounds identified as conceivably being present in tank farm operations, nine classes (metal fulminates, metal azides, halogen compounds, metal-amine complexes, nitrate/oxalate mixtures, metal oxalates, metal oxohalogenates, metal cyanides/cyanates, and peroxides) are not a hazard because these classes of compounds cannot be formed or accumulated in sufficient quantity, or they are not reactive at the conditions which exist in the tank farm facilities. Three of the classes (flammable gases, metal nitrides, and ammonia compounds and derivatives) are known to have the potential to build up to concentrations at which an observable reaction might occur. Controls have been in place for some time to limit the formation or control the concentration of these classes of compounds. A comprehensive list of conceivable explosive compounds is provided in Appendix 3.

Hobbs, D.T.

1992-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

353

Vulnerability Analysis of a Nuclear Power Plant Considering Detonations of Explosive Devices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Vulnerability Analysis of a Nuclear Power Plant Considering Detonations of Explosive Devices Marko threats to a nuclear power plant in the year 1991 and after the 9/11 events in 2001. The methodology which strength and injuries of human beings with nuclear power plant models used in probabilistic safety

Cizelj, Leon

354

Nuclear Engineering and Design 189 (1999) 757 Lower head integrity under steam explosion loads  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to four wall-fractions affected by voids, as indicated in Table 3. The fragility is obtained by applying fractions in it), spanning the range of energy yields from 0.4 to 11.6 GJ. They found that explosions quantities, mixed with water along the length of a 1-m-long tube (the KROTOS facility). The calculations were

Yuen, Walter W.

355

Gas Explosion Tests on East Jordan Iron Works Rectangular Composite Secondary Box Covers for Con Edison  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is an account of continuing research by Con Edison and EPRI to address issues related to manhole events caused by the accumulation of gases in underground structures. It summarizes the results of gas explosion tests performed in June 2008 on rectangular composite vented covers produced by East Jordan Iron Works Company.

2009-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

356

Detection of Explosives Using a Micro-cantilever Array Nano-Calorimeter System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Over the past few decades, the likeliness of an attack from explosives has increased dramatically. Hence, the need to find a reliable device with the ability to detect explosives has increased even more. Sensing schemes based on micro-cantilever beams and their bending responses to specific explosives are considered to be an effective technique for explosives detection. In this study the bending responses of an array of micro-cantilever beams integrated with micro-heaters are recorded when they are exposed to various combustible materials. The results show that the micro-cantilever beams display a distinct response when exposed to different combustible materials. In the experiments it was observed that typically the deflection of the micro-cantilever beam in response to the thermal bi-metallic actuation was greater when exposed to acetone vapors than that for alcohol and air. Also, the deflection of the beam was greater for experiments using iso-propyl alcohol than that for air. These results are consistent with prior reports in the literature.

Lane, Matthew

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Poisonous Effects of Asteroid Impacts or Nuclear Explosions in the Western Regions of the Black Sea  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The impact of an asteroid or a very large nuclear explosion in the Black Sea may cause a poisonous hydrogen sulfide gas release into the atmosphere. Some effects of this phenomenon on the western Black Sea coasts are evaluated in this paper. Two ...

Viorel Badescu

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Radio-frequency emission from an explosive instability in an electron beam  

SciTech Connect

The explosive instability which occurs when an electron beam moves through a helical resonator is studied. This instability can be exploited to generate rf oscillations at high efficiency (20% in these experiments). The spectral width is narrower than the characteristic width for linear instabilities.

Buts, V.A.; Izmailov, A.N.

1978-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

A coupled gas-solid interaction model for FE/DE simulation of explosion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Blasting is a complicated phenomenon usually assumed to be too complex for deterministic analysis, and many engineers have preferred empirical approaches. In this paper, however, a numerical simulation based on the discrete element methodology is presented ... Keywords: combined finite/discrete element method, explosion, gas flow, gas solid interaction, rock blasting

S. Mohammadi; A. Bebamzadeh

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

A coupled gas-solid interaction model for FE/DE simulation of explosion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Blasting is a complicated phenomenon usually assumed to be too complex for deterministic analysis, and many engineers have preferred empirical approaches. In this paper, however, a numerical simulation based on the discrete element methodology is presented ... Keywords: Combined finite/discrete element method, Explosion, Gas flow, Gas solid interaction, Rock blasting

S. Mohammadi; A. Bebamzadeh

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "graaff confetti explosion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Impacts of Nuclear Burning on Reviving Weak Shocks of Neutrino-Driven Supernova Explosions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We explore potential impacts of nuclear burning on assisting an onset of the neutrino-driven explosions of core-collapse supernovae. By changing the neutrino luminosity and its decay time to obtain parametric explosions in 1D and 2D models with or without a 13-isotope alpha network, we study how the inclusion of nuclear burning could affect the postbounce dynamics for four progenitor models. We find that the energy supply due to nuclear burning of infalling material behind the shock can energize the shock expansion especially for models that produce only marginal explosions in the absence of nuclear burning. These models enjoy the assistance from nuclear burning typically in the following two ways, whether the shock front passes through the silicon-rich layer, or later it touches to the oxygen-rich layer. Depending on the neutrino luminosity and its decay time, the explosion energy increases up to a few times 10^50 erg for models with nuclear burning compared to the corresponding models without. The differenc...

Nakamura, Ko; Kotake, Kei; Nishimura, Nobuya

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Emergency Action Plan For incidents involving hazardous materials, fires, explosions, or natural gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-492-6025. For Non-Emergency Fire and Natural Gas Questions call the CU Fire Marshall @ 303-492-4042. AdditionalEmergency Action Plan For incidents involving hazardous materials, fires, explosions, or natural gas leaks, the following actions should be taken: 1) Life Safety First 2) Evacuate Immediate Area 3

Colorado at Boulder, University of

363

Steam Explosions, Earthquakes, and Volcanic Eruptions--What's in Yellowstone's Future?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Steam Explosions, Earthquakes, and Volcanic Eruptions-- What's in Yellowstone's Future? U. In the background, steam vigorously rises from the hot Each year, millions of visitors come to admire the hot, such as geysers. Steam and hot water carry huge quantities of thermal en- ergy to the surface from the magma cham

Fleskes, Joe

364

Supernova explosions, 511 keV photons, gamma ray bursts and mirror matter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There are three astroparticle physics puzzles which fire the imagination: the origin of the ``Great Positron Producer'' in the galactic bulge, the nature of the gamma-ray bursts central engine and the mechanism of supernova explosions. We show that the mirror matter model has the potential to solve all three of these puzzles in one beautifully simple strike.

R. Foot; Z. K. Silagadze

2004-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

365

Improvements to Regional Explosion Identification using Attenuation Models of the Lithosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Regional P/S amplitudes have been recognized as an effective discriminant between earthquakes and explosions. While closely spaced earthquake and explosions generally discriminate easily, the application of this technique to broad regions has been hampered by large variations in the amplitude of regional phases due to the attenuation structure of the crust and upper mantle. Making use of a recent P-wave and S-wave attenuation model of the lithosphere, we have found that correcting the events using our amplitude methodology significantly reduces the scattering in the earthquake population. We demonstrate an application of this technique to station NIL (Nilore, Pakistan) using broad area earthquakes and the 1998 Indian nuclear explosion recorded at the station using the Pn/Lg discriminant in the 1-2 Hz passband. We find that the explosion, which is lost in the scatter of the earthquakes in the uncorrected discriminant, clearly separates by correcting for the attenuation structure. We see a similar reduction in scatter and separation for the Pn/Sn and Pg/Lg discriminants in the same passband.

Pasyanos, M E; Walter, W R

2009-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

366

The Impact of Initial Condition Uncertainty on Numerical Simulations of Large-scale Explosive Cyclogenesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The impact of initial condition uncertainty on short-range (up to 48 h) forecasts of large-scale explosive cyclogenesis is examined. Predictability experiments are conducted on 11 cases of rapid oceanic cyclogenesis that occurred in a long-term, ...

Steven L. Mullen; David P. Baumhefner

1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Detection of explosive events by monitoring acoustically-induced geomagnetic perturbations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Black Thunder Coal Mine (BTCM) near Gillette, Wyoming was used as a test bed to determine the feasibility of detecting explosion-induced geomagnetic disturbances with ground-based induction magnetometers. Two magnetic observatories were fielded at distances of 50 km and 64 km geomagnetically north from the northernmost edge of BTCM. Each observatory consisted of three separate but mutually orthogonal magnetometers, Global Positioning System (GPS) timing, battery and solar power, a data acquisition and storage system, and a three-axis seismometer. Explosions with yields of 1 to 3 kT of TNT equivalent occur approximately every three weeks at BTCM. We hypothesize that explosion-induced acoustic waves propagate upward and interact collisionally with the ionosphere to produce ionospheric electron density (and concomitant current density) perturbations which act as sources for geomagnetic disturbances. These disturbances propagate through an ionospheric Alfven waveguide that we postulate to be leaky (due to the imperfectly conducting lower ionospheric boundary). Consequently, wave energy may be observed on the ground. We observed transient pulses, known as Q-bursts, with pulse widths about 0.5 s and with spectral energy dominated by the Schumann resonances. These resonances appear to be excited in the earth-ionosphere cavity by Alfven solitons that may have been generated by the explosion-induced acoustic waves reaching the ionospheric E and F regions and that subsequently propagate down through the ionosphere to the atmosphere. In addition, we observe late time (> 800 s) ultra low frequency (ULF) geomagnetic perturbations that appear to originate in the upper F region ({approximately}300 km) and appear to be caused by the explosion-induced acoustic wave interacting with that part of the ionosphere. We suggest that explosion-induced Q-bursts may be discriminated from naturally occurring Q-bursts by association of the former with the late time explosion-induced ULF perturbations. We also present evidence for an acoustically-induced magnetic signal at both magnetic observatories, indicating that magnetometers act as highly sensitive detectors of acoustically-induced ground motion. Further experimental and theoretical work are required to improve confidence in these conclusions.

Lewis, J P; Rock, D R; Shaeffer, D L; Warshaw, S I

1999-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

368

Analysis of the accidental explosion at Pepcon, Henderson, Nevada, May 4, 1988  

SciTech Connect

Several hours of fire and numerous explosions destroyed the Pacific Engineering Company plant in Henderson, Nevada, that manufactured ammonium perchlorate (AP) for rocket fuel. This incident began about 1130 PDT on May 4, 1988, with a fire in their Batch House that grew out of control and caused a first large explosion at about 1153 PDT. The final and largest explosion occurred about 1157 PDT. Damages to the surrounding community were surveyed and interpreted as airblast overpressures versus distances, which allowed an estimate of 1-kiloton nuclear free-air-burst for the equivalent explosion yield. This could be reproduced by 250-tons TNT burst on the ground surface. Weather reports were obtained from the National Weather Services which indicated somewhat enhanced airblast propagation downwind toward northerly directions and attenuated airblast propagations upwind in southerly directions. It was impossible, for lack of winds aloft information below about 500 m above ground, to determine whether there was any atmospheric acoustic airblast focusing. Several seismic recordings in Las Vegas showed the greatest ground motion resulted from the airblast wave passage, traveling at near acoustic speed. Ground wave arrival times were not sufficiently precise to allow seismic speed interpretations. Of the 4000 tons of AP apparently stored in and around the plant, it appears that about 1500 tons detonated in the largest explosion. This leads to a conclusion that the TNT airblast equivalence factor for AP is near 1/6. An independent estimate, based on analysis of more ideal close-in structural deformations, suggested an equivalence factor of 1/3. 25 refs., 12 figs., 14 tabs.

Reed, J.W.

1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

NUCLEOSYNTHESIS IN TWO-DIMENSIONAL DELAYED DETONATION MODELS OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA EXPLOSIONS  

SciTech Connect

For the explosion mechanism of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), different scenarios have been suggested. In these, the propagation of the burning front through the exploding white dwarf (WD) star proceeds in different modes, and consequently imprints of the explosion model on the nucleosynthetic yields can be expected. The nucleosynthetic characteristics of various explosion mechanisms are explored based on three two-dimensional explosion simulations representing extreme cases: a pure turbulent deflagration, a delayed detonation following an approximately spherical ignition of the initial deflagration, and a delayed detonation arising from a highly asymmetric deflagration ignition. Apart from this initial condition, the deflagration stage is treated in a parameter-free approach. The detonation is initiated when the turbulent burning enters the distributed burning regime. This occurs at densities around 10{sup 7} g cm{sup -3}-relatively low as compared to existing nucleosynthesis studies for one-dimensional spherically symmetric models. The burning in these multidimensional models is different from that in one-dimensional simulations as the detonation wave propagates both into unburned material in the high-density region near the center of a WD and into the low-density region near the surface. Thus, the resulting yield is a mixture of different explosive burning products, from carbon-burning products at low densities to complete silicon-burning products at the highest densities, as well as electron-capture products synthesized at the deflagration stage. Detailed calculations of the nucleosynthesis in all three models are presented. In contrast to the deflagration model, the delayed detonations produce a characteristic layered structure and the yields largely satisfy constraints from Galactic chemical evolution. In the asymmetric delayed detonation model, the region filled with electron capture species (e.g., {sup 58}Ni, {sup 54}Fe) is within a shell, showing a large off-set, above the bulk of {sup 56}Ni distribution, while species produced by the detonation are distributed more spherically.

Maeda, K. [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (IPMU), University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Roepke, F.K.; Fink, M.; Hillebrandt, W.; Travaglio, C. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 1, 85741 Garching (Germany); Thielemann, F.-K., E-mail: keiichi.maeda@ipmu.j [Department Physik, Universitaet Basel, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland)

2010-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

370

EXPLOSIVE NUCLEOSYNTHESIS IN THE NEUTRINO-DRIVEN ASPHERICAL SUPERNOVA EXPLOSION OF A NON-ROTATING 15 M{sub sun} STAR WITH SOLAR METALLICITY  

SciTech Connect

We investigate explosive nucleosynthesis in a non-rotating 15 M{sub sun} star with solar metallicity that explodes by a neutrino-heating supernova (SN) mechanism aided by both standing accretion shock instability (SASI) and convection. To trigger explosions in our two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations, we approximate the neutrino transport with a simple light-bulb scheme and systematically change the neutrino fluxes emitted from the protoneutron star. By a post-processing calculation, we evaluate abundances and masses of the SN ejecta for nuclei with a mass number {<=}70, employing a large nuclear reaction network. Aspherical abundance distributions, which are observed in nearby core-collapse SN remnants, are obtained for the non-rotating spherically symmetric progenitor, due to the growth of a low-mode SASI. The abundance pattern of the SN ejecta is similar to that of the solar system for models whose masses range between (0.4-0.5) M{sub sun} of the ejecta from the inner region ({<=}10, 000 km) of the precollapse core. For the models, the explosion energies and the {sup 56}Ni masses are {approx_equal} 10{sup 51}erg and (0.05-0.06) M{sub sun}, respectively; their estimated baryonic masses of the neutron star are comparable to the ones observed in neutron-star binaries. These findings may have little uncertainty because most of the ejecta is composed of matter that is heated via the shock wave and has relatively definite abundances. The abundance ratios for Ne, Mg, Si, and Fe observed in the Cygnus loop are reproduced well with the SN ejecta from an inner region of the 15 M{sub sun} progenitor.

Fujimoto, Shin-ichiro [Kumamoto National College of Technology, 2659-2 Suya, Goshi, Kumamoto 861-1102 (Japan); Kotake, Kei [Division of Theoretical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatory Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Hashimoto, Masa-aki; Ono, Masaomi [Department of Physics, School of Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 810-8560 (Japan); Ohnishi, Naofumi, E-mail: fujimoto@ec.knct.ac.jp [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-01 Aramaki-Aza-Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Explosive East Coast Cyclogenesis over the West-Central North Atlantic Ocean: A Composite Study Derived from ECMWF Operational Analyses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes the observational aspects of explosive East Coast cyclogenesis using composites constructed from the daily global analyses generated and archived by the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). An ...

John Manobianco

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

EA-507; Environmental Assessment and FONSI For The FAA Explosive Detection System Independent Validation And Verification Program INEL  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

07; Environmental Assessment and FONSI For The FAA Explosive 07; Environmental Assessment and FONSI For The FAA Explosive Detection System Independent Validation And Verification Program INEL Table of Contents 1. NEED FOR PROPOSED ACTION 2. DESCRIPTION OF THE PROPOSED ACTION 3. ALTERNATIVES TO PROPOSED ACTION 4. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF PROPOSED ACTION 5. CONCLUSIONS/SUMMARY 6. LIST OF PREPARERS 7. REFERENCES APPENDIX I Map of WRRTF APPENDIX II Accident Safety Analysis FINDING OF NO SIGNIFICANT IMPACT FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION EXPLOSIVE DETECTION SYSTEM - INDEPENDENT VALIDATION AND VERIFICATION PROGRAM LIST OF FIGURES Page XXX WATER REACTOR RESEARCH TEST FACT 1. NEED FOR PROPOSED ACTION The urgent development, fabrication, and operation of advanced explosive detection systems are needed by the Federal Aviation Agency (FAA) to

373

Nuclear Explosives Safety Evaluation Process (DOE-STD-3015-2004)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

SENSITIVE DOE-STD-3015-2004 November 2004 Superseding DOE-STD-3015-2001 DOE STANDARD NUCLEAR EXPLOSIVE SAFETY EVALUATION PROCESS U.S. Department of Energy AREA SAFT Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Available on the Department of Energy Technical Standards Program Web site at http://tis.eh.doe.gov/techstds/. DOE-STD-3015-2004 iii FOREWORD This Department of Energy (DOE) Technical Standard is approved for use by the Assistant Deputy Administrator for Military Application and Stockpile Operations, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), and is available for use with DOE O 452.1, NUCLEAR EXPLOSIVE AND WEAPON SURETY PROGRAM, and DOE O 452.2, SAFETY OF

374

A Preparation Zone For Volcanic Explosions Beneath Naka-Dake Crater, Aso  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » A Preparation Zone For Volcanic Explosions Beneath Naka-Dake Crater, Aso Volcano, As Inferred From Magnetotelluric Surveys Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: A Preparation Zone For Volcanic Explosions Beneath Naka-Dake Crater, Aso Volcano, As Inferred From Magnetotelluric Surveys Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) Abstract: The 1st crater of Naka-dake, Aso volcano, is one of the most active craters in Japan, and known to have a characteristic cycle of activity that consists of the formation of a crater lake, drying-up of the

375

LIQUID PROPANE GAS (LPG) STORAGE AREA BOILING LIQUID EXPANDING VAPOR EXPLOSION (BLEVE) ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

The PHA and the FHAs for the SWOC MDSA (HNF-14741) identified multiple accident scenarios in which vehicles powered by flammable gases (e.g., propane), or combustible or flammable liquids (e.g., gasoline, LPG) are involved in accidents that result in an unconfined vapor cloud explosion (UVCE) or in a boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE), respectively. These accident scenarios are binned in the Bridge document as FIR-9 scenarios. They are postulated to occur in any of the MDSA facilities. The LPG storage area will be in the southeast corner of CWC that is relatively remote from store distaged MAR. The location is approximately 30 feet south of MO-289 and 250 feet east of 2401-W by CWC Gate 10 in a large staging area for unused pallets and equipment.

PACE, M.E.

2004-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

376

Lessons learned from a hydrogen explosion at a photovoltaic research facility  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

At the Institute of Energy Conversion (IEC), University of Delaware, a hydrogen explosion occurred an September 1, 1992. A formal investigation was conducted. Suggestions provided by the Accident Investigation Team formed the basis for a complete review and upgrade of the compressed gas handling systems and procedures. In this paper, the causes of the explosion are discussed along with resulting modifications made to the gas handling system, facility, and procedures to prevent a recurrence of this type of incident and to improve the safety of this facility. Lessons learned from this incident and the resulting investigation and response are highlighted, including the need to regularly review both hardware and procedures to ensure that all aspects of the research program and facilities are up-to-date.

Moskowitz, P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Buchanan, W.; Shafarman, W. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States). Institute of Energy Conversion

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Proceedings of the twenty-third annual conference on explosives and blasting technique  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This proceedings contains articles which were accepted for presentation at the Annual Conference on Explosives and Blasting Techniques. The articles cover a range of topics from practical to theoretical, and the reader must keep in mind that the safety or applicability of these techniques to his or her applications must be studied on a case by case basis. Separate abstracts have been indexed for inclusion in the energy data base.

NONE

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Bulk delivery of crosslinkable aqueous slurry explosive with crosslinking agent in a separate feed  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for bulk delivery of an aqueous slurry blasting agent to the packaging unit of an explosive plant or into the borehole of a blasting operation by pumping through a conduit. A suspension is injected into a moving stream of pumpable aqueous slurry blasting mixture containing guar gum under controlled conditions of pH whereby the end product emerging from the conduit is crosslinked to a desired degree of firmness. (10 claims)

Hopler, R.B. Jr.

1970-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

379

Security training symposium: Meeting the challenge: Firearms and explosives recognition and detection  

SciTech Connect

These conference proceedings have been prepared in support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Security Training Symposium on Meeting the Challenge -- Firearms and Explosives Recognition and Detection,'' November 28 through 30, 1989, in Bethesda, Maryland. This document contains the edited transcripts of the guest speakers. It also contains some of the speakers' formal papers that were distributed and some of the slides that were shown at the symposium (Appendix A).

Not Available

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Angle-resolved scattering spectroscopy of explosives using an external cavity quantum cascade laser  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Investigation of angle-resolved scattering from solid explosives residues on a car door for non-contact sensing geometries. Illumination with a mid-infrared external cavity quantum cascade laser tuning between 7 and 8 microns was detected both with a sensitive single point detector and a hyperspectral imaging camera. Spectral scattering phenomena were discussed and possibilities for hyperspectral imaging at large scattering angles were outlined.

Suter, Jonathan D.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Phillips, Mark C.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "graaff confetti explosion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE CHARACTER OF PRE-EXPLOSION CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVA SHOCK MOTION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We investigate the structure of the stalled supernova shock in both two and three dimensions (2D and 3D, respectively) and explore the differences in the effects of neutrino heating and the standing accretion shock instability (SASI). We find that early on the amplitude of the dipolar mode of the shock is factors of {approx}2-3 smaller in 3D than in 2D. However, later in both 3D and 2D, the monopole and dipole modes start to grow until explosion. Whereas in 2D, the (l, m) = (1, 0) mode changes sign quasi-periodically, producing the 'up-and-down' motion always seen in modern 2D simulations, in 3D this almost never happens. Rather, in 3D when the dipolar mode starts to grow, it grows in magnitude and wanders stochastically in direction until settling before explosion to a particular patch of solid angle. Furthermore, in 2D, we find that the amplitude of the dipolar shock deformation separates into two classes. For the first, identified with the SASI and for a wide range of 'low' neutrino luminosities, this amplitude remains small and roughly constant. For the other, identified with higher luminosities and neutrino-driven convection, the dipolar amplitude grows sharply. Importantly, it is only for this higher luminosity class that we see neutrino-driven explosions within {approx}1 s of bounce. Moreover, for the 'low' luminosity runs (including zero), the power spectra of these dipolar oscillations peak in the 30-50 Hz range associated with advection timescales, while for the high-luminosity runs the power spectra at lower frequencies are significantly more prominent. We associate this enhanced power at lower frequencies with slower convective effects and the secular growth of the dipolar shock amplitude. Though our study involves a simplified, parameterized approach, on the basis of it we hypothesize that neutrino-driven buoyant convection should almost always dominate the SASI when the supernova explosion is neutrino-driven.

Burrows, Adam; Dolence, Joshua C.; Murphy, Jeremiah W., E-mail: burrows@astro.princeton.edu, E-mail: jdolence@astro.princeton.edu, E-mail: jmurphy@astro.princeton.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

A Test for the Nature of the Type Ia Supernova Explosion Mechanism  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Currently popular models for Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) fall into two general classes. The first comprises explosions of nearly pure carbon/oxygen (C/O) white dwarfs at the Chandrasekhar limit which ignite near their centers. The second consists of lower-mass C/O cores which are ignited by the detonation of an accreted surface helium layer. Explosions of the latter type produce copious Fe, Co and Ni K-alpha emission from 56Ni and 56Co decay in the detonated surface layers, emission which is much weaker from Chandrasekhar-mass models. The presence of this emission provides a simple and unambiguous discriminant between these two models for SNe Ia. Both mechanisms may produce 0.1-0.6 solar masses of 56Ni, making them bright gamma-ray line emitters. The time to maximum brightness of 56Ni decay lines is distinctly shorter in the sub-Chandrasekhar mass class of model (approximately 15 days) than in the Chandrasekhar mass model (approximately 30 days), making gamma-ray line evolution another direct test of the explosion mechanism. It should just be possible to detect K-shell emission from a sub-Chandrasekhar explosion from SNe Ia as far away as the Virgo cluster with the XMM Observatory. A 1 to 2 square meter X-ray telescope such as the proposed Con-X Observatory could observe K-alpha emission from sub-Chandrasekhar mass SNe Ia in the Virgo cluster, providing not just a detection, but high-accuracy flux and kinematic information.

Philip A. Pinto; Ronald G. Eastman; Tamara Rogers

2000-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

383

Characterization of explosives processing waste decomposition due to composting. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this work was to provide data and methodology assisting the transfer and acceptance of composting technology for the remediation of explosives-contaminated soils and sediments. Issues and activities addressed included: (a) chemical and toxicological characterization of compost samples from new field composting experiments, and the environmental availability of composting efficiency by isolation of bacterial consortia and natural surfactants from highly efficient composts, and (c) improved assessment of compost product suitability for land application.

Griest, W.H.; Stewart, A.J.; Ho, C.H.; Tyndall, R.L.; Vass, A.A.; Caton, J.E.; Caldwell, W.M.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Explosive metalworking of Type 304 austenitic stainless steel pipes. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Intergranular stress corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless steel piping is a phenomenon which can be corrected by cladding with appropriate materials to protect vulnerable locations or by producing a favorable residual stress distributions. Explosive metalworking processes have the potential to accomplish either of these desired results. The feasibility for using this approach is explored both theoretically and experimentally. It is demonstrated that both desired results can be achieved under laboratory conditions.

Lalwaney, N.S.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Security training symposium: Meeting the challenge: Firearms and explosives recognition and detection  

SciTech Connect

These conference proceedings have been prepared in support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Security Training Symposium on Meeting the Challenge -- Firearms and Explosives Recognition and Detection,'' November 28 through 30, 1989, in Bethesda, Maryland. This document contains the edited transcripts of the guest speakers. It also contains some of the speakers' formal papers that were distributed and some of the slides that were shown at the symposium (Appendix A).

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Interim report on the development of an epoxy resin bonded explosive  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the work done to date on the development of an epoxy resin bonded explosive (HMX). The original target values have been satisfied and further investigations will be on a semi-pilot plant scale. The following characteristics have been determined on laboratory specimens. Compressive strength, 11-12,000 psi; sensitivity (50 % height) 31 cm; density, 1.81 gm/cc; vacuum stability (cc gas/gm/24 hrs at 100{degrees}C), .42 cc/gm.

Archibald, P.

1957-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

387

NUCLEOSYNTHESIS IN CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVA EXPLOSIONS TRIGGERED BY A QUARK-HADRON PHASE TRANSITION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We explore heavy-element nucleosynthesis in the explosion of massive stars that are triggered by a quark-hadron phase transition during the early post-bounce phase of core-collapse supernovae. The present study is based on general-relativistic radiation hydrodynamics simulations with three-flavor Boltzmann neutrino transport in spherical symmetry, which utilize a quark-hadron hybrid equation of state based on the MIT bag model for strange quark matter. The quark-hadron phase transition inside the stellar core forms a shock wave propagating toward the surface of the proto-neutron star. This shock wave results in an explosion and ejects neutron-rich matter from the outer accreted layers of the proto-neutron star. Later, during the cooling phase, the proto-neutron star develops a proton-rich neutrino-driven wind. We present a detailed analysis of the nucleosynthesis outcome in both neutron-rich and proton-rich ejecta and compare our integrated nucleosynthesis with observations of the solar system and metal-poor stars. For our standard scenario, we find that a 'weak' r-process occurs and elements up to the second peak (A {approx} 130) are successfully synthesized. Furthermore, uncertainties in the explosion dynamics could barely allow us to obtain the strong r-process which produces heavier isotopes, including the third peak (A {approx} 195) and actinide elements.

Nishimura, Nobuya; Thielemann, Friedrich-Karl; Hempel, Matthias; Kaeppeli, Roger; Rauscher, Thomas; Winteler, Christian [Department of Physics, University of Basel, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Fischer, Tobias; Martinez-Pinedo, Gabriel [GSI, Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Froehlich, Carla [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, NC 27695 (United States); Sagert, Irina, E-mail: nobuya.nishimura@unibas.ch [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, MI 48824 (United States)

2012-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

388

Proceedings of the 25th Seismic Research Review -- Nuclear Explosion Monitoring: Building the Knowledge Base  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 25th Seismic Research Review -- Nuclear Explosion Monitoring: Building the Knowledge Base, held 23-25 September, 2003 in Tucson, Arizona. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

Chavez, Francesca C. [Editor; Mendius, E. Louise [Editor

2003-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

389

Proceedings of the 27th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 27th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 20-22 September, 2005 in Rancho Mirage, California. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

Wetovsky, Marvin A. [Editor; Benson, Jody [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F. [Editor

2005-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

390

Proceedings of the 29th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 29th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 25-27 September, 2007 in Denver, Colorado. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

Wetovsky, Marvin A. [Editor; Benson, Jody [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F. [Editor

2007-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

391

Proceedings of the 26th Seismic Research Review: Trends in Nuclear Explosion Monitoring  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 26th Seismic Research Review: Trends in Nuclear Explosion Monitoring, held 21-23 September, 2004 in Orlando, Florida. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

Chavez, Francesca C. [Editor; Benson, Jody [Editor; Hanson, Stephanie [Editor; Mark, Carol [Editor; Wetovsky, Marvin A. [Editor

2004-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

392

An electromagnetic and thermodynamic lumped parameter model of an explosively driven regenerative magnetohydrodynamic generator  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this research is to develop a simple, yet accurate, lumped parameter mathematical model for an explosively driven magnetohydrodynamic generator that can predict the pulse power variables of voltage and current from startup through regenerative operation. The inputs to the model will be the plasma properties entering the generator as predicted by the explosive shock model of Reference [1]. The strategy used was to simplify electromagnetic and thermodynamic three dimensional effects into a zero dimensional model. The model will provide a convenient tool for researchers to optimize designs to be used in pulse power applications. The model is validated using experimental data of Reference [1]. An overview of the operation of the explosively driven generator is first presented. Then a simplified electrical circuit model that describes basic performance of the device is developed. Then a lumped parameter model that incorporates the coupled electromagnetic and thermodynamic effects that govern generator performance is described and developed. The model is based on fundamental physical principles and parameters that were either obtained directly from design data or estimated from experimental data. The model was used to obtain parameter sensitivities and predict beyond the limits observed in the experiments to the levels desired by the potential Department of Defense sponsors. The model identifies process limitations that provide direction for future research.

Morrison, J.L.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Proceedings of the 2009 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2009: Ground -Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 21-23 September, 2009 in Tucson, Arizona,. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States’ capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

Wetovsky, Marv A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Aguilar - Chang, Julio [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anderson, Dale [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arrowsmith, Marie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arrowsmith, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baker, Diane [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Begnaud, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Harste, Hans [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Maceira, Monica [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Patton, Howard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Phillips, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Randall, George [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rowe, Charlotte [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stead, Richard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Steck, Lee [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Whitaker, Rod [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yang, Xiaoning ( David ) [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

394

Proceedings of the 30th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 30th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 23-25 September, 2008 in Portsmouth, Virginia. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States’ capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

Wetovsky, Marv A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Aguilar-chang, Julio [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arrowsmith, Marie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arrowsmith, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baker, Diane [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Begnaud, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Harste, Hans [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Maceira, Monica [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Patton, Howard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Phillips, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Randall, George [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Revelle, Douglas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rowe, Charlotte [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stead, Richard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Steck, Lee [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Whitaker, Rod [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yang, Xiaoning [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

395

Proceedings of the 2010 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2010: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 21-23 September, 2010 in Orlando, Florida,. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, National Science Foundation (NSF), Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

Wetovsky, Marvin A. [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F. [Editor

2010-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

396

Proceedings of the 2011 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2011: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 13-15 September, 2011 in Tucson, Arizona. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), National Science Foundation (NSF), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States' capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

Wetovsky, Marvin A. [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F. [Editor; Sandoval, Marisa N. [Editor

2011-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

397

Remediating explosive-contaminated groundwater by in situ redox manipulation (ISRM) of aquifer sediments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In situ chemical reduction of clays and iron oxides in subsurface environments is an emerging technology for treatment of contaminated groundwater. Our objective was to determine the efficacy of dithionite-reduced sediments from the perched Pantex Aquifer (Amarillo, TX) to abiotically degrade the explosives RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine), HMX (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro- 1,3,5,7-tetrazocine), and TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene). The effects of dithionite/buffer concentrations, sediments-solution ratios, and the contribution of Fe(II) were evaluated in batch experiments. Results showed that reduced Pantex sediments were highly effective in degrading all three high explosives. Degradation rates increased with increasing dithionite/buffer concentrations and soil to solution ratios (1:80–1:10 w/v). When Fe(II) was partially removed from the reduced sediments by washing (citrate-bicarbonate buffer), RDX degradation slowed, but degradation efficiency could be restored by adding Fe(II) back to the treated sediments and maintaining an alkaline pH. These data support in situ redox manipulation as a remedial option for treating explosive-contaminated groundwater at the Pantex site.

Boparai, Hardiljeet K.; Comfort, Steve; Shea, Phyllis J.; Szecsody, James E.

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Proceedings of the 24th Seismic Research Review: Nuclear Explosion Monitoring: Innovation and Integration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 24th Seismic Research Review: Nuclear Explosion Monitoring: Innovation and Integration, held 17-19 September, 2002 in Ponte Vedra Beach, Florida. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

Warren, N. Jill [Editor

2002-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

399

C-Safe Image Gallery from the Center for the Simulation of Accidental Fires and Explosions  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

The University of Utah created an alliance with the DOE Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) program to form the Center for the Simulation of Accidental Fires and Explosions (C-SAFE). The Center focuses specifically on providing state-of-the-art, science-based tools for the numerical simulation of accidental fires and explosions, especially within the context of handling and storage of highly flammable materials. The objective of C-SAFE is to provide a system comprising a problem-solving environment in which fundamental chemistry and engineering physics are fully coupled with non-linear solvers, optimization, computational steering, visualization and experimental data verification. The availability of simulations using this system will help to better evaluate the risks and safety issues associated with fires and explosions. The scientific images at this website provide technical views of various flame types and configurations (http://www.csafe.utah.edu/Information/summary.html). See also the Container Dynamics presentations at http://www.csafe.utah.edu/Teams/ContainerDynamics/cd_presentations.html.

400

Survey of recent work on explosive-driven magnetic flux compression generators  

SciTech Connect

There are five widely-used classes of explosive-driven flux compression generators. They are the spiral, coaxial, strip, plate and cylindrical implosion systems. The configurations are described and the characteristics of the various types are compared. There are a number of techniques for sharpening or impedance-matching the output pulse of the generators. The use of switching, fuses and transformers are discussed. Some of the areas of application of the generators are outlined briefly. Much of the recent work at Los Alamos has been directed toward the development of the plate generator. This type consists essentially of a transmission line with explosive slabs on the flat surfaces. These plates may be parallel or at an angle with respect to each other. A plane detonation front in the explosive allows a large area of conductor to be driven simultaneously. As a result, the power and current outputs are very high - many megamperes at the terawatt level. This generator is particularly well suited to driving low impedance plasma devices. The results of the plate generator tests are discussed.

Caird, R.S.; Fowler, C.M.; Erickson, D.J.; Freeman, B.L.; Garn, W.B.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "graaff confetti explosion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Hydrodynamic Modeling of Air Blast Propagation from the Humble Redwood Chemical High Explosive Detonations Using GEODYN  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two-dimensional axisymmetric hydrodynamic models were developed using GEODYN to simulate the propagation of air blasts resulting from a series of high explosive detonations conducted at Kirtland Air Force Base in August and September of 2007. Dubbed Humble Redwood I (HR-1), these near-surface chemical high explosive detonations consisted of seven shots of varying height or depth of burst. Each shot was simulated numerically using GEODYN. An adaptive mesh refinement scheme based on air pressure gradients was employed such that the mesh refinement tracked the advancing shock front where sharp discontinuities existed in the state variables, but allowed the mesh to sufficiently relax behind the shock front for runtime efficiency. Comparisons of overpressure, sound speed, and positive phase impulse from the GEODYN simulations were made to the recorded data taken from each HR-1 shot. Where the detonations occurred above ground or were shallowly buried (no deeper than 1 m), the GEODYN model was able to simulate the sound speeds, peak overpressures, and positive phase impulses to within approximately 1%, 23%, and 6%, respectively, of the actual recorded data, supporting the use of numerical simulation of the air blast as a forensic tool in determining the yield of an otherwise unknown explosion.

Chipman, V D

2011-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

402

MESOSCALE MODELING OF DEFLAGRATION-INDUCED DECONSOLIDATION IN POLYMER-BONDED EXPLOSIVES  

SciTech Connect

Initially undamaged polymer-bonded explosives can transition from conductive burning to more violent convective burning via rapid deconsolidation at higher pressures. The pressure-dependent infiltration of cracks and pores, i.e., damage, by product gases at the burn-front is a key step in the transition to convective burning. However, the relative influence of pre-existing damage and the evolution of deflagration-induced damage during the transition to convective burning is not well understood. The objective of this study is to investigate the role of microstructure and initial pressurization on deconsolidation. We performed simulations using the multi-physics hydrocode, ALE3D. HMX-Viton A served as our model explosive. A Prout-Tompkins chemical kinetic model, Vielle's Law pressure-dependent burning, Gruneisen equation-of-state, and simplified strength model were used for the HMX. The propensity for deconsolidation increased with increasing defect size and decreasing initial pressurization, as measured by the increase in burning surface area. These studies are important because they enable the development of continuum-scale damage models and the design of inherently safer explosives.

Springer, H K; Glascoe, E A; Reaugh, J E; Kercher, J R; Maienschein, J L

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Proceedings of the 28th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 28th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 19-21 September, 2006 in Orlando, Florida. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

Wetovsky, Marvin A. [Editor; Benson, Jody [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F. [Editor

2006-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

404

Proceedings of the 23rd Seismic Research Symposium: Worldwide Monitoring of Nuclear Explosions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 23rd Seismic Research Review: Worldwide Monitoring of Nuclear Explosions, held 2-5 October, 2001 in Jackson Hole, Wyoming. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

Warren, N. Jill [Editor; Chavez, Francesca C. [Editor

2001-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

405

Performance evaluation of booster materials in the plastic bonded explosive PBX 9502 in a hemispherical wave breakout test  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An explosive booster is normally required to initiate detonation in an insensitive high explosive (lHE). Booster materials must be ignitable by a conventional detonator and deliver sufficient energy and favorable pulse shape to initiate the IHE charge. The explosive booster should be as insensitive as reasonably possible to maintain the overall safety margin of the explosive assembly. A hemispherical wave breakout test termed the on ionskin test is one of the methods of testing the performance of booster materials in an initiation train assembly. There are several variations of this basic test which are known by other names. In this test, the wave breakout time-position history at the surface of a hemispherical IHE acceptor charge is recorded, and the relative uniformity of breakout allows qualitative comparison between booster candidates and quantitative comparison of several metrics. The results of a series of onionskin experiments evaluating the performance of some new booster formulations in the triaminotrinitrobenzene (TA TB) -based plastic bonded explosive PBX 9502 will be presented. The boosters were tested in an onionskin arrangement in which the booster pellet was cylindrical, and the tests were performed at a temperature of-55{sup o}C to emphasize variations in spreading performance. The modification from the traditional hemispherical geometry facilitated efficient explosive fabrication and charge assembly, but the results indicate that this geometry was not ideal for several reasons. Despite the complications arising from geometry, promising performance was observed from booster formulations including 3,3' -diamino-4,4'azoxyfurazan.

Hooks, Daniel E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morris, John S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hill, Larry G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Francois, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Improving Earthquake-Explosion Discrimination using Attenuation Models of the Crust and Upper Mantle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the past year, we have made significant progress on developing and calibrating methodologies to improve earthquake-explosion discrimination using high-frequency regional P/S amplitude ratios. Closely-spaced earthquakes and explosions generally discriminate easily using this method, as demonstrated by recordings of explosions from test sites around the world. In relatively simple geophysical regions such as the continental parts of the Yellow Sea and Korean Peninsula (YSKP) we have successfully used a 1-D Magnitude and Distance Amplitude Correction methodology (1-D MDAC) to extend the regional P/S technique over large areas. However in tectonically complex regions such as the Middle East, or the mixed oceanic-continental paths for the YSKP the lateral variations in amplitudes are not well predicted by 1-D corrections and 1-D MDAC P/S discrimination over broad areas can perform poorly. We have developed a new technique to map 2-D attenuation structure in the crust and upper mantle. We retain the MDAC source model and geometrical spreading formulation and use the amplitudes of the four primary regional phases (Pn, Pg, Sn, Lg), to develop a simultaneous multi-phase approach to determine the P-wave and S-wave attenuation of the lithosphere. The methodology allows solving for attenuation structure in different depth layers. Here we show results for the P and S-wave attenuation in crust and upper mantle layers. When applied to the Middle East, we find variations in the attenuation quality factor Q that are consistent with the complex tectonics of the region. For example, provinces along the tectonically-active Tethys collision zone (e.g. Turkish Plateau, Zagros) have high attenuation in both the crust and upper mantle, while the stable outlying regions like the Indian Shield generally have low attenuation. In the Arabian Shield, however, we find that the low attenuation in this Precambrian crust is underlain by a high-attenuation upper mantle similar to the nearby Red Sea Rift. Applying this 2-D MDAC methodology with the new attenuation models can significantly improve earthquake-explosion discrimination using regional P/S amplitude ratios. We demonstrate applications of this technique, including a study at station NIL (Nilore, Pakistan) using broad area earthquakes and the 1998 Indian nuclear explosion using a number of regional amplitude ratio discriminants. We are currently applying the technique in the YSKP region as well.

Pasyanos, M E; Walter, W R; Matzel, E M; Rodgers, A J; Ford, S R; Gok, R; Sweeney, J J

2009-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

407

Application of Precision Mechanical Engineering Techniques to the Design of a Moderate Energy Beam Transport for the FAA Explosive Detection System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Application of Precision Mechanical Engineering Techniques to the Design of a Moderate Energy Beam Transport for the FAA Explosive Detection System

Lujan, R

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

THE MECHANISMS FOR THE ONSET AND EXPLOSIVE ERUPTION OF CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS AND ERUPTIVE FLARES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have investigated the onset and acceleration of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and eruptive flares. To isolate the eruption physics, our study uses the breakout model, which is insensitive to the energy buildup process leading to the eruption. We performed 2.5D simulations with adaptive mesh refinement that achieved the highest overall spatial resolution to date in a CME/eruptive flare simulation. The ultra-high resolution allows us to separate clearly the timing of the various phases of the eruption. Using new computational tools, we have determined the number and evolution of all X- and O-type nulls in the system, thereby tracking both the progress and the products of reconnection throughout the computational domain. Our results show definitively that CME onset is due to the start of fast reconnection at the breakout current sheet. Once this reconnection begins, eruption is inevitable; if this is the only reconnection in the system, however, the eruption will be slow. The explosive CME acceleration is triggered by fast reconnection at the flare current sheet. Our results indicate that the explosive eruption is caused by a resistive instability, not an ideal process. Moreover, both breakout and flare reconnections begin first as a form of weak tearing characterized by slowly evolving plasmoids, but eventually transition to a fast form with well-defined Alfvenic reconnection jets and rapid flux transfer. This transition to fast reconnection is required for both CME onset and explosive acceleration. We discuss the key implications of our results for CME/flare observations and for theories of magnetic reconnection.

Karpen, J. T.; Antiochos, S. K. [Code 674, NASA GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); DeVore, C. R. [Code 6042, NRL, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

2012-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

409

THE BLAST-WAVE-DRIVEN INSTABILITY AS A VEHICLE FOR UNDERSTANDING SUPERNOVA EXPLOSION STRUCTURE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Blast-wave-driven instabilities play a rich and varied role in supernovae (SNe) evolution from explosion to remnant, but interpreting their role is difficult due to the enormous complexity of stellar systems. We consider the simpler idealized problem of an interface between two constant-density fluids perturbed from spherical and driven by a central blast wave. Where valid, the existence of unified solutions suggests that general conclusions can be drawn about the likely asymptotic structure of the mixing zone. To this end, we apply buoyancy-drag and bubble merger models that include effects of divergence and compressibility. In general, these effects preclude the true self-similar evolution of classical Rayleigh-Taylor (RT), but can be incorporated into a quasi-self-similar growth model. Loss of memory of initial conditions (ICs) can occur in the model, but requires pre-explosion mode numbers higher than predicted for Type II SNe, suggesting that their late-time structure is influenced by details of the initial perturbations. Where low modes dominate, as in the Type Ia Tycho remnant, they result from initial perturbations rather than generation from smaller scales. Therefore, the structure observed now contains direct information about the explosion process. When large-amplitude modes exist in the ICs, the contribution from the Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instability is significant compared to RT. Such RM growth can yield proximity of the forward shock to the growing spikes and structure that strongly resembles that observed in Tycho. Laser-driven laboratory experiments offer a promising avenue for testing model and simulation descriptions of blast-wave-driven instabilities and making connections to their astrophysical counterparts.

Miles, Aaron R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)], E-mail: miles15@llnl.gov

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

The Blast-Wave-Driven Instability as a Vehicle for Understanding Supernova Explosion Structure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Blast-wave-driven instabilities play a rich and varied role throughout the evolution of supernovae from explosion to remnant, but interpreting their role is difficult due to the enormous complexity of the stellar systems. We consider the simpler and fundamental hydrodynamic instability problem of a material interface between two constant-density fluids perturbed from spherical and driven by a divergent central Taylor-Sedov blast wave. The existence of unified solutions at high Mach number and small density ratio suggests that general conclusions can be drawn about the likely asymptotic structure of the mixing zone. To this end we apply buoyancy-drag and bubble merger models modified to include the effects of divergence and radial velocity gradients. In general, these effects preclude the true self-similar evolution of classical Raleigh-Taylor, but can be incorporated into a quasi-self-similar growth picture. Loss of memory of initial conditions can occur in the quasi-self-similar model, but requires initial mode numbers higher than those predicted for pre-explosion interfaces in Type II SNe, suggesting that their late-time structure is likely strongly influenced by details of the initial perturbations. Where low-modes are dominant, as in the Type Ia Tycho remnant, they result from initial perturbations rather than generation from smaller scales. Therefore, structure observed now contains direct information about the explosion process. When large-amplitude modes are present in the initial conditions, the contribution to the perturbation growth from the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability is significant or dominant compared to Rayleigh-Taylor. Such Richtmyer-Meshkov growth can yield proximity of the forward shock to the growing spikes and structure that strongly resembles that observed in the Tycho. Laser-driven high-energy-density laboratory experiments offer a promising avenue for testing model and simulation descriptions of blast-wave-driven instabilities and making connections to their astrophysical counterparts.

Miles, A R

2008-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

411

A Study of the Afterglows of Four GRBs: Constraining the Explosion and Fireball Model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We employ a fireball model of the GRB explosion to constrain intrinsic and environmental parameters of four events with good broadband afterglow data; GRB970508, GRB980329, GRB980703, and GRB000926. Using standard assumptions of constant circumburst density and no evolution of the fraction of the explosion energy in the post-shock magnetic field, we investigate the uniformity of the derived explosion and shock physics parameters among the events. We find densities that range from those of the ISM to diffuse clouds, energies comparable to the total GRB gamma-ray energy, collimations from near-isotropy to 0.04 rad, substantial electron energy fractions of 10-30% with energy distribution indices of 2.1-2.9 and magnetic energy fractions from 0.2-25%. We also investigate the level to which the data constrain standard model assumptions, such as the magnetic field evolution, and the allowed density profiles of the medium. Fits generally improve slightly with an increasing magnetic energy fraction epB. Good fits can be produced with epB accumulating or decaying with the shock strength over the afterglow as epB~gamma^x; -2<=x<=+1. The data are not very sensitive to increasing density profiles, allowing good fits even with density ~r^10. Some parameter values change by up to an order of magnitude under altered assumptions; parameters of even good fits cannot be taken at face value. The data are sensitive to decreasing densities; r^-2 profiles may produce reasonable fits; steeper profiles, even r^-2.5, will not fit the data.

S. A. Yost; F. A. Harrison; R. Sari; D. A. Frail

2003-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

412

A Safer Nuclear Enterprise - Application to Nuclear Explosive Safety (NES)(U)  

SciTech Connect

Activities and infrastructure that support nuclear weapons are facing significant challenges. Despite an admirable record and firm commitment to make safety a primary criterion in weapons design, production, handling, and deployment - there is growing apprehension about terrorist acquiring weapons or nuclear material. At the NES Workshop in May 2012, Scott Sagan, who is a proponent of the normal accident cycle, presented. Whether a proponent of the normal accident cycle or High Reliability Organizations - we have to be diligent about our safety record. Constant vigilance is necessary to maintain our admirable safety record and commitment to Nuclear Explosive Safety.

Morris, Tommy J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

413

Effects of Temperature and Humidity on the Characterization of C-4 Explosive Threats  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The amount of time that an explosive is present on the surface of a material is dependent upon the original amount of explosive on the surface, adhesive forces, temperature and humidity, as well as other environmental factors. This laboratory study focused on evaluating RDX crystal morphology changes resulting from variations in temperature and humidity conditions of the sample. The temperature and humidity conditions were controlled using a Tenney THRJ environmental chamber and a Tenney T11RC-1.5 environmental chamber. These chambers allow the temperature and humidity to be held within ±3°C and ±5% RH. The temperature and humidity conditions used for this test series were: 40°F/40%RH, ~70°F/20%RH (samples left on benchtop), 70°F/70%RH, 70°F/95%RH, 95°F/40%RH, 95°F/70%RH, and 95°F/95%RH. These temperature and humidity set points were chosen to represent a wide range of conditions that may be found in real world scenarios. C-4 (RDX crystals and binder material) was deposited on the surface of one of six substrates by placing a fingerprint from the explosive block onto the matrix surface. The substrates were chosen to provide a range of items that are commonly used. Six substrate types were used during these tests: 50% cotton/50% polyester as found in T-shirts, 100% cotton with a smooth surface such as that found in a cotton dress shirt, 100% cotton on a rough surface such as that found on canvas or denim, suede leather such as might be found on jackets, purses, or shoes, painted metal obtained from a junked car hood, and a computer diskette. The samples were not pre-cleaned prior to testing and contained sizing agents, and in the case of the metal: oil, dirt, scratches, and rust spots. The substrates were photographed at various stages of testing, using a Zeiss Discover V12 stereoscope with Axiocam ICc1 3 megapixel digital camera, to determine any changes in the crystalline morphology. Some of the samples were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) in an attempt to determine how the explosive was bound to the substrate.

C. J. Miller

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Chemical recovery process using break up steam control to prevent smelt explosions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improvement in a chemical recovery process in which a hot liquid smelt is introduced into a dissolving tank containing a pool of green liquor. The improvement comprises preventing smelt explosions in the dissolving tank by maintaining a first selected superatmospheric pressure in the tank during normal operation of the furnace; sensing the pressure in the tank; and further impinging a high velocity stream of steam upon the stream of smelt whenever the pressure in the tank decreases below a second selected superatmospheric pressure which is lower than said first pressure.

Kohl, Arthur L. (Woodland Hills, CA); Stewart, Albert E. (Eagle Rock, CA)

1988-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

415

NONDESTRUCTIVE IDENTIFICATION OF CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS AND EXPLOSIVES BY NEUTRON GENERATOR-DRIVEN PGNAA  

SciTech Connect

Prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) is now a proven method for the identification of chemical warfare agents and explosives in military projectiles and storage containers. Idaho National Laboratory is developing a next-generation PGNAA instrument based on the new Ortec Detective mechanically-cooled HPGe detector and a neutron generator. In this paper we review PGNAA analysis of suspect chemical warfare munitions, and we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of replacing the californium-252 radioisotopic neutron source with a compact accelerator neutron generator.

T. R. Twomey; A. J. Caffrey; D. L. Chichester

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Solid explosive plane-wave lenses pressed-to-shape with dies  

SciTech Connect

Solid-explosive plane-wave lenses 1", 2" and 4¼" in diameter have been mass-produced from components pressed-to-shape with aluminum dies. The method used to calculate the contour between the solid plane-wave lens components pressed-to-shape with the dies is explained. The steps taken to press, machine, and assemble the lenses are described. The method of testing the lenses, the results of those tests, and the corrections to the dies are reviewed. The work on the ½", 8", and 12" diameter lenses is also discussed.

Olinger, B.

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Primary explosives  

SciTech Connect

The present invention provides a compound of the formula (Cat).sup.+.sub.z[M.sup.++(5-nitro-1H-tetrazolato-N2).sup.-.sub.x(H.sub.2- O).sub.y] where x is 3 or 4, y is 2 or 3, x+y is 6, z is 1 or 2, and M.sup.++ is selected from the group consisting of iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, chromium, and manganese, and (Cat).sup.+ is selected from the group consisting of ammonium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and cesium. A method of preparing the compound of that formula is also disclosed.

Hiskey, Michael A. (Los Alamos, NM); Huynh, My Hang V. (Los Alamos, NM)

2011-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

418

Primary explosives  

SciTech Connect

The present invention provides a compound of the formula (Cat).sup.+.sub.z[M.sup.++(5-nitro-1H-tetrazolato-N2).sup.-.sub.x(H.sub.2- O).sub.y] where x is 3 or 4, y is 2 or 3, x+y is 6, z is 1 or 2, and M.sup.++ is selected from the group consisting of iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, chromium, and manganese, and (Cat).sup.+ is selected from the group consisting of ammonium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and cesium. A method of preparing the compound of that formula is also disclosed.

Hiskey, Michael A. (Los Alamos, NM); Huynh, My Hang V. (Los Alamos, NM)

2009-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

419

Utilization of near-source video and ground motion in the assessment of seismic source functions from mining explosions  

SciTech Connect

Constraint of the operative physical processes in the source region of mining explosions and the linkage to the generation of seismic waveforms provides the opportunity for controlling ground motion. Development of these physical models can also be used in conjunction with the ground motion data as diagnostics of blasting efficiency. In order to properly address the multi-dimensional aspect of data sets designed to constrain these sources, we are investigating a number of modem visualization tools that have only recently become available with new, high-speed graphical computers that can utilize relatively large data sets. The data sets that are combined in the study of mining explosion sources include near-source ground motion acceleration and velocity records, velocity of detonation measurements in each explosive hole, high speed film, video and shot design information.

Stump, B.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Anderson, D.P. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Comparative analysis of hydrogen fire and explosion incidents: quarterly report No. 2, December 1, 1977--February 28, 1978  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Additional hydrogen incident reports compiled during this quarter have increased the size of the computerized data base to a current total of 280 incidents. Listings of 165 incidents that have occurred in industrial and transportation operations since 1968 are presented here. Sample case histories in six different cause categories are provided together with a discussion of common safety problems contributing to these incidents. Some of these problems are inadequate detection measures for hydrogen leaks and fires and ineffective purging with inert gas. A preliminary comparison of losses due to natural gas fires/explosions and hydrogen incidents indicates that hydrogen explosions have been, on the average, four-to-six times as damaging as natural gas explosions. Some tentative explanations for this result are presented but await confirmation from a more sophisticated statistical analysis.

Zalosh, R.G.; Short, T.P.

1978-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "graaff confetti explosion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Use of CORRTEX to measure explosive performance and stem behavior in oil shale fragmentation tests  

SciTech Connect

Continuous Reflectometry for Radius vs Time Experiments (CORRTEX) was used to monitor several conditions of blasts such as the detonation velocity of the explosive column, the functioning of different types of initiators and initiation schemes, and the behavior of the stemming column confining the explosive. The CORRTEX data were also used to deduce the occurrence of dead-pressing of ANFO slurry. Measurements of propagation speeds of shock waves in the stem column with various cables allowed some conclusions concerning bridging, stem failure, and stress levels in the stem. CORRTEX used time-domain reflectometry to interrogate the two-way transit time (TWTT) of a coaxial cable. As the shock front advanced the cable was shorted or destroyed and the resultant TWTT was shorter. Interpretation of these changes as a function of time allowed the position of the shock front to be inferred also as a function of time. This paper describes in some detail the CORRTEX technique and how it was applied to in-situ measurements. Detonation velocities are provided for pelletized ANFO and TNT as well as various ANFO slurries. Observations are made on stem performance as well as shock propagation velocities in several stem materials. Cable characteristics and methods of cable selection are discussed as are techniques for instrumentation of complex blasts to provide initiation time and burn velocity. 3 references, 7 figures.

Schmitt, G.G.; Dick, R.D.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Joining Uranium to Aluminum using Electron Beam Welding and an Explosively Clad Niobium Interlayer  

SciTech Connect

A uranium alloy was joined to a high strength aluminum alloy using a commercially pure niobium interlayer. Joining of the Nb interlayer to the aluminum alloy was performed using an explosive welding process, while joining the Nb interlayer to the uranium alloy was performed using an electron beam welding process. Explosive welding was selected to bond the Nb to the aluminum alloy in order to minimize the formation of brittle intermetallic phases. Electron beam welding was selected to join the Nb to the uranium alloy in order to precisely control melting so as to minimize mixing of the two metals. A Modified Faraday Cup (MFC) technique using computer-assisted tomography was employed to determine the power distribution of the electron beam so that the welding parameters could be directly transferred to other welding machines. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, microhardness, and tensile testing of the welds were used to characterize the resulting joints. This paper presents the welding techniques and processing parameters that were developed to produce high integrity ductile joints between these materials.

Elmer, J W; Terrill, P; Brasher, D; Butler, D

2001-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

423

Computer simulation and economic analysis for ammonia fiber explosion (AFEX) pretreatment process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The ammonia fiber explosion (AFFECT) process is a promising new pretreatment for enhancing the reactivity of lignocerulose materials with many advantages over existing processes. The material is soaked in high-pressure liquid ammonia for a few minutes then the pressure is explosively released. A combined chemical (cellulose decrystamution) and physical (increased surface area) effect increases the enzymatic digestibility of lignocelmose. The laboratory phase of AFEX development is nearing completion, and a brief preliminary economic analysis (without detailed sizing) was finished. However, a commercial size plant has not been developed. This study was undertaken in an effort to support and assist AFEX commercialization through process simulation and cost analysis. In this study, a steady state computer simulation package was developed for the AFEX process. Corn fiber was used as the representative biomass treated by AFEX. Different ammonia loadings, water loadings, temperatures and pressures were used as operational parameters. Mass balances and energy balances are the major determinants of the equipments selected and sized. 'nermodynamic models or kinetic models are also included. A preliminary cost estimate includes total purchased-equipment cost using the equipment cost ratio method. The process computer simulation model was programmed in FORTRAN. FORTRAN subroutine libraries from IMSL (International Mathematical and Statistics Library), Inc. were used as needed. To increase the portability of the program, the programming was done on an EBM compatible PC.

Wang, Lin

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

An examination of blast and impulse effects from the metal loading of explosives  

SciTech Connect

Explosive compositions loaded with various metal particulates were produced and tested using a unique experimental configuration. The high explosive HMX was used as the standard and was tested over a range of mass loading fractions using tungsten and tantalum as metal additives. The diagnostics used in this set of experiments included free-field blast sensors, dynamic force sensors, time-of-arrival sensors, and a high-speed digital camera. The experimental arrangement allowed for concurrent spatial measurements of the static pressure from expanding gaseous detonation products, along with the total force from the combination of gaseous products and solid particles. The total pressure from the multi-phase products was calculated by measuring the total force applied to the surface of a newly developed force sensor. The results from the force sensor and other measurement techniques were validated against existing numerical methods. The relationship between static and dynamic pressures as a function of metal loading fraction was examined empirically at several distances from the charge for two distinct metal additives.

Sanders, Victor E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zucker, Jonathan M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mc Afee, John M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tappan, Bryce C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Asay, Blaine W [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Possible explosive compounds in the Savannah River Site Tank Farm facilities. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

Since 1970, many studies have been conducted concerning the potential for explosive compounds in tank farm operations including ammonium nitrate, metal oxalates, and silver and mercury compounds. The study currently in progress is the most comprehensive to date, encompassing all previous studies and extending the scope to include all compounds that could be formed from the known species in SRS wastes. In addition to waste storage, the study also considers waste removal and waste processing operations. The total number of possible explosive compounds is so large that it would not be useful to list them all here. Instead, only those compounds are listed that are known to be present or could conceivably be formed from material that is known to be present in the waste. The general approach to the problem is: identify all of the constituents that are known to be present in the waste together with those that might be present from possible chemical and radiolytic reactions, determine the compounds that could be formed from these constituents, compare these compounds with those listed in the literature, and assess the formation and stability of these compounds against the conditions existing in the tank farm facilities.

Hobbs, D.T.

1995-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

426

Optically powered firing system for the Procyon high explosive pulse power system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An optically powered fireset has been developed for the Procyon high explosive pulsed-power generator at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The fireset was located inside this flux compression experiment where large magnetic fields are generated. No energy sources were allowed inside the experiment and no wire connections can penetrate through the wall, of the experiment because of the high magnetic fields. The flux compression was achieved with high explosives in the experiment. The fireset was used to remotely charge a 1.2 {micro}f capacitor to 6,500V and to provide a readout of the voltage on the capacitor at the control room. The capacitor was charged by using two 7W fiber coupled GaAlAs laser diodes to illuminate two fiber coupled 12V solar cells. The solar cell outputs were connected in parallel to the input of a DC-DC converter which step up a 12V to 6,500V. A voltmeter, powered by illuminating a third 12V solar cell with 1W laser diode, was used to monitor the charge on the capacitor. The voltage was measured with a divider circuit, then converted to frequency in a V-F converter and transmitted to the control room over a fiber optic link. A fiducial circuit measured the capacitor firing current and provided an optical output timing pulse.

Earley, L.; Paul, J.; Rohlev, L.; Goforth, J.; Hall, C.R.

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Multispecies toxicity assessment of compost produced in bioremediation of an explosives-contaminated sediment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A multispecies terrestrial test system was used to assess the environmental effectiveness of composting for bioremediation of explosives-contaminated soils. The assessment involved comparing biological responses, from the individual to the community level, in remediated and reference composts. A 6-month greenhouse study incorporated two soil invertebrate species, three plant species and an associated symbiont, and the naturally occurring complement of soil microorganisms. Measured parameters included growth and reproduction of earthworms and isopods; soil mote diversity; soil lipid class composition as an indicator of soil microbial community structure; plant growth, photosynthesis, and reproduction; and root nodulation and symbiotic N{sub 2} fixation. Additional short-term toxicity tests of seed germination and earthworm survival were performed to supplement the mesocosm data. Compost prepared from the explosives-contaminated soil inhibited several aspects of plant growth and physiology, but few adverse effects on soil invertebrates were detected. An initial lag in earthworm and isopod reproduction occurred in the reference compost, reflecting some inherent compost differences not associated with contamination, and highlighting the importance and the difficulty of finding appropriate reference soils for assessing hazardous waste sites or remediation technologies. Nonetheless, the results from this study suggested some nonlethal effects from the contaminated-soil compost, primarily to plants. The mesocosm methodology used in this study can bridge the gap between traditional short-term toxicity testing and longer term field assessments, and provide information on ecological effects by explicitly including measurements of multiple species across several levels of ecological organization.

Gunderson, C.A.; Napolitano, G.E.; Wicker, L.F.; Richmond, J.E.; Stewart, A.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; Kostuk, J.M. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Crop and Soil Sciences; Gibbs, M.H. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Center for Environmental Biotechnology

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

The Cambrian Evolutionary Explosion: Novel Evidence from Fossils Studied by X-ray Tomography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Cambrian explosion (from 542 million years to 488 million years ago) is one of the greatest mysteries in evolutionary biology. It wasn't until this period that complex organisms became common and diverse. the magnitude of the event can be understood based on the contrast between the biota and the degree of diversity of the fossils from both sides. great advances have been made in Cambrian palaeontology over the past century, especially the discovery of the well-preserved soft-bodied fauna from the Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale and the Lower Cambrian Maotianshan Shale deposits. The Cambrian side of the "Cambrian explosion" is richly illustrated and contrasts greatly with the Precambrian side. The study of these extraordinarily preserved fossil biota is extremely difficult. A major challenge is 3-D reconstruction and determining the patter of the cell organization in Weng'an embryos and their buried structures in Maotianshan Shale fossils. This talk will show that two recent technological approaches, propagation phase contrast synchrotron x-ray microtomography and microtomography, provide unique analytical tools that permit the nondestructive computational examination and visualization of the internal and buried characters in virtual sections in any plane, and virtual 3-D depictions of internal structures.

Chen, Jun-Yuan [Nanjing University, China

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Predicting runaway reaction in a solid explosive containing a single crack  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mechanically damaged high explosive (HE) undergoing defiagration has recently been shown capable of generating combustion pressures and flame speeds dramatically in excess of those observed in undamaged HE. Flame penetration of HE cracks large enough to support the reaction zone serves to increase the burning surface area and the rate of gas production. Cracks confine the product gas, elevating the local pressure and reducing the reaction zone thickness such that the flame can enter smaller-width cracks. As the reaction zone decreases sufficiently to enter the smallest cracks, the flame surface area will grow appreciably, rapidly pressurizing the cracks. This runaway of pressure and burning area, termed combustion bootstrapping, can dramatically accelerate the combustion mode and in the most extreme cases may result in deflagration-to-detonation transition [3, 4]. The current study is intended to help predict the conditions required for the onset of reaction runaway in a narrow slot in HE. We review experiments [5] where flames were observed to propagate though a narrow slot (intended to simulate a well-formed crack) in high explosive at velocities up to 10 km/s, reaching pressures in excess of 1 kbar. Pressurization of the slot due to gas-dynamic choking is then used to predict the onset of runaway reaction. This model agrees with experimental pressure measurements of observed reaction runaway in slots.

Jackson, Scott I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hill, Larry G [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Explosive engineering problems from fragmentation tests in oil shale at the Anvil Points Mine, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

During 1981 and 1982, an extensive oil shale fragmentation research program was conducted at the Anvil Points Mine near Rifle, Colorado. The primary goals were to investigate factors involved for adequate fragmentation of oil shale and to evaluate the feasibility of using the modified in situ retort (MIS) method for recovery of oil from oil shale. The field test program included single-deck, single-borehole experiments to obtain basic fragmentation data; multiple-deck, multiple-borehole experiments to evaluate some practical aspects for developing an in situ retort; and the development of a variety of instrumentation technique to diagnose the blast event. This paper discusses some explosive engineering problems encountered, such as electric cap performance in complex blasting patterns, explosive and stem performance in a variety of configurations from the simple to the complex, and the difficulties experienced when reversing the direction of throw of the oil shale in a subscale retort configuration. These problems need solutions before an adequate MIS retort can be created in a single-blast event and even before an experimental mini-retort can be formed. 6 references, 7 figures, 3 tables.

Dick, R.D.; Fourney, W.L.; Young, C.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Field screening of soils contaminated with explosives using ion mobility spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

This study involved the comparison of IMS screening with EPA`s standard method for explosives, Method 8330. The US Army Corps of Engineers provided a large number of soil samples that had been collected from three locations at each of three explosive contaminated installations. The samples had been dried, ground, homogenized and analyzed in duplicate by Method 8330. Duplicate two gram aliquots of these samples were extracted with 10 mL of acetone by shaking for three minutes, allowed to settle, then analyzed by IMS for Method 8330 compounds. Half of the extracts from one location have also been analyzed in duplicate by IMS for TNT. Results from TNT contaminated soils look extremely promising. Correlation between IMS and EPA Method 8330 results was very high (r = 0.99). Based on these results, the intention is to further develop and evaluate IMS for simultaneously quantifying multiple analytes. IMS throughput and cost per sample makes it an attractive technique. The ultimate objective is to provide adequate validation data to EPA for inclusion of the method as a screening procedure in SW-846.

Atkinson, D.A.; Crockett, A.B. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Jenkins, T.F. [Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Lab., Hanover, NH (United States)

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Generalized Interpolation Material Point Approach to High Melting Explosive with Cavities Under Shock  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Criterion for contacting is critically important for the Generalized Interpolation Material Point(GIMP) method. We present an improved criterion by adding a switching function. With the method dynamical response of high melting explosive(HMX) with cavities under shock is investigated. The physical model used in the present work is an elastic-to-plastic and thermal-dynamical model with Mie-Gr\\"uneissen equation of state. We mainly concern the influence of various parameters, including the impacting velocity $v$, cavity size $R$, etc, to the dynamical and thermodynamical behaviors of the material. For the colliding of two bodies with a cavity in each, a secondary impacting is observed. Correspondingly, the separation distance $D$ of the two bodies has a maximum value $D_{\\max}$ in between the initial and second impacts. When the initial impacting velocity $v$ is not large enough, the cavity collapses in a nearly symmetric fashion, the maximum separation distance $D_{\\max}$ increases with $v$. When the initial shock wave is strong enough to collapse the cavity asymmetrically along the shock direction, the variation of $D_{\\max}$ with $v$ does not show monotonic behavior. Our numerical results show clear indication that the existence of cavities in explosive helps the creation of ``hot spots''.

X. F. Pan; Aiguo Xu; Guangcai Zhang; Jianshi Zhu

2007-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

433

Review of Soviet data on the peaceful uses of nuclear explosions  

SciTech Connect

Over the last several years through a series of international meetings sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and a number of publications, the Soviet union has disclosed that they have a very active program for developing peaceful uses of nuclear explosions (PNE) in their rational economy. They have described the results of 14 experimental and industrial explosions designed to develop nine different applications in the petroleum, gas, and minerals industries as well as for water resources development. However, when one considers large number of large unidentified seismic events that have been reported over the last seven years in areas of the Soviet Union outside the normal nuclear-weapon test areas, it is obvious that they have an even more active program than they have publicly described, one that must be approaching a routine industrial technology in some areas. The PNE program that the Soviets have publicly discussed in various reports and at various meetings is summarized and, when appropriate, compared to data from the US Plowshare Program. (auth)

Nordyke, M.D.

1973-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

434

Detection of an outburst one year prior to the explosion of SN 2011ht  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using imaging from the Pan-STARRS1 survey, we identify a precursor outburst at epochs 287 and 170 days prior to the reported explosion of the purported Type IIn supernova (SN) 2011ht. In the Pan-STARRS data, a source coincident with SN 2011ht is detected exclusively in the \\zps\\ and \\yps-bands. An absolute magnitude of M$_z\\simeq$-11.8 suggests that this was an outburst of the progenitor star. Unfiltered, archival Catalina Real Time Transient survey images also reveal a coincident source from at least 258 to 138 days before the main event. We suggest that the outburst is likely to be an intrinsically red eruption, although we cannot conclusively exclude a series of erratic outbursts which were observed only in the redder bands by chance. This is only the fourth detection of an outburst prior to a claimed SN, and lends credence to the possibility that many more interacting transients have pre-explosion outbursts, which have been missed by current surveys.

Fraser, M; Kotak, R; Smartt, S J; Smith, K W; Polshaw, J; Drake, A J; Boles, T; Lee, C -H; Burgett, W S; Chambers, K C; Draper, P W; Flewelling, H; Hodapp, K W; Kaiser, N; Kudritzki, R -P; Magnier, E A; Price, P A; Tonry, J L; Wainscoat, R J; Waters, C

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

g-MODE EXCITATION DURING THE PRE-EXPLOSIVE SIMMERING OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE  

SciTech Connect

Prior to the explosive burning of a white dwarf (WD) that makes a Type Ia supernova (SN Ia), the star 'simmers' for {approx}10{sup 3} yr in a convecting, carbon-burning region. I estimate the excitation of g-modes by convection during this phase and explore their possible effect on the WD. As these modes propagate from the core of the WD toward its surface, their amplitudes grow with decreasing density. Once the modes reach nonlinear amplitudes, they break and deposit their energy into a shell of mass {approx}10{sup -4} M{sub sun}. This raises the surface temperature by {approx}4 x 10{sup 8} K, which is sufficient to ignite a layer of helium, as is expected to exist for some SN Ia scenarios. This predominantly synthesizes {sup 40}Ca, but some amount of {sup 28}Si, {sup 32}S, and {sup 44}Ti may also be present. These ashes are expanded out with the subsequent explosion up to velocities of {approx}20, 000 km s{sup -1}, which may explain the high velocity features (HVFs) seen in many SNe Ia. The appearance of HVFs would therefore be a useful discriminant for determining between progenitors, since a flammable helium-rich layer will not be present for accretion from a C/O WD as in a merger scenario. I also discuss the implications of {sup 44}Ti production.

Piro, Anthony L., E-mail: piro@caltech.edu [Theoretical Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E California Blvd., M/C 350-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Comparison of chemical and nuclear explosions: Numerical simulations of the Non-Proliferation Experiment  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the authors discuss numerical simulations of the Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE), which was an underground explosion conducted in September 1993 in the volcanic tuff of the Nevada Test Site. The NPE source consisted of 1.29 {times} 10{sup 6} kg of ANFO-emulsion blasting agent, with the approximate energy of 1.1 kt, emplaced 389 m beneath the surface of Rainier Mesa. The authors compare detailed numerical simulations of the NPE with data collected from that experiment, and with calculations of an equally energetic nuclear explosion in identical geology. Calculated waveforms, at ranges out to approximately 1 km, agree moderately well in the time domain with free-field data, and are in qualitative agreement with free-surface records. Comparison of computed waveforms for equally energetic chemical and nuclear sources reveals relatively minor differences beyond the immediate near-source region, with the chemical source having an {approximately}25% greater seismic moment but otherwise indistinguishable (close-in) seismic source properties. 41 refs., 67 figs., 7 tabs.

Kamm, J.R.; Bos, R.J.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

A Combustion Model for the TWA 800 Center-Wing Fuel Tank Explosion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In support of the National Transportation Safety Board investigation of the TWA Flight 800 accident, a combined experimental/computational effort was conducted that focused on quarter-scale testing and simulation of the fuel-air explosion in the Boeing 747 center wing fuel tank. This report summarizes the modeling approach used at Sandia National Laboratories. In this approach approximations are introduced that capture the essential physics associated with turbulent flame propagation in multiple compartment fuel tanks. This model efficiently defines the pressure loading conditions during a jet-fuel air explosion in a fuel tank confinement. Modeling calculations compare favorably with a variety of experimental quarter-scale tests conducted in rigid confinement. The modeling describes well the overpressure history in several geometry configurations. Upon demonstrating a reasonable comparison to experimental observations, a parametric study of eight possible ignition sources is then discussed. Model calculations demonstrate that different loading conditions arise as the location of the ignition event is varied. By comparing the inferred damage and calculated impulses to that seen in the recovered tank, it maybe possible to reduce the number of likely sources. A possible extension of this work to better define tank damage includes coupling the combustion model as a pressure loading routine for structural failure analysis.

Baer, M.R.; Gross, R.J.

1998-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

438

Generation of extreme state of water by spherical wire array underwater electrical explosion  

SciTech Connect

The results of the first experiments on the underwater electrical explosion of a spherical wire array generating a converging strong shock wave are reported. Using a moderate pulse power generator with a stored energy of {<=}6 kJ and discharge current of {<=}500 kA with a rise-time of {approx}300 ns, explosions of Cu and Al wire arrays of different diameters and with a different number and diameter of wires were tested. Electrical, optical, and destruction diagnostics were used to determine the energy deposited into the array, the time-of-flight of the shock wave to the origin of the implosion, and the parameters of water at that location. The experimental and numerical simulation results indicate that the convergence of the shock wave leads to the formation of an extreme state of water in the vicinity of the implosion origin that is characterized by pressure, temperature, and compression factors of (2 {+-} 0.2) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} Pa, 8 {+-} 0.5 eV, and 7 {+-} 0.5, respectively.

Antonov, O.; Gilburd, L.; Efimov, S.; Bazalitski, G.; Gurovich, V. Tz.; Krasik, Ya. E. [Physics Department, Technion, Haifa 3200 (Israel)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

439

The Cellular Burning Regime in Type Ia Supernova Explosions - II. Flame Propagation into Vortical Fuel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the interaction of thermonuclear flames in Type Ia supernova explosions with vortical flows by means of numerical simulations. In our study, we focus on small scales, where the flame propagation is no longer dominated by the turbulent cascade originating from large-scale effects. Here, the flame propagation proceeds in the cellular burning regime, resulting from a balance between the Landau-Darrieus instability and its nonlinear stabilization. The interaction of a cellularly stabilized flame front with a vortical fuel flow is explored applying a variety of fuel densities and strengths of the velocity fluctuations. We find that the vortical flow can break up the cellular flame structure if it is sufficiently strong. In this case the flame structure adapts to the imprinted flow field. The transition from the cellularly stabilized front to the flame structure dominated by vortices of the flow proceeds in a smooth way. The implications of the results of our simulations for Type Ia Supernova explosion models are discussed.

F. K. Roepke; W. Hillebrandt; J. C. Niemeyer

2003-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

440

The Cellular Burning Regime in Type Ia Supernova Explosions - I. Flame Propagation into Quiescent Fuel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a numerical investigation of the cellular burning regime in Type Ia supernova explosions. This regime holds at small scales (i.e. below the Gibson scale), which are unresolved in large-scale Type Ia supernova simulations. The fundamental effects that dominate the flame evolution here are the Landau-Darrieus instability and its nonlinear stabilization, leading to a stabilization of the flame in a cellular shape. The flame propagation into quiescent fuel is investigated addressing the dependence of the simulation results on the specific parameters of the numerical setup. Furthermore, we investigate the flame stability at a range of fuel densities. This is directly connected to the questions of active turbulent combustion (a mechanism of flame destabilization and subsequent self-turbulization) and a deflagration-to-detonation transition of the flame. In our simulations we find no substantial destabilization of the flame when propagating into quiescent fuels of densities down to ~10^7 g/cm^3, corroborating fundamental assumptions of large-scale SN Ia explosion models. For these models, however, we suggest an increased lower cutoff for the flame propagation velocity to take the cellular burning regime into account.

F. K. Roepke; W. Hillebrandt; J. C. Niemeyer

2003-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

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441

Integrated Experimental and Modeling Studies to Predict the Impact Response of Explosives and Propellants  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Understanding and predicting the impact response of explosives and propellants remains a challenging area in the energetic materials field. Efforts are underway at LLNL (and other laboratories) to apply modern diagnostic tools and computational analysis to move beyond the current level of imprecise approximations towards a predictive approach more closely based on fundamental understanding of the relevant mechanisms. In this paper we will discuss a set of underlying mechanisms that govern the impact response of explosives and propellants: (a) mechanical insult (impact) leading to material damage and/or direct ignition; (b) ignition leading to flame spreading; (c) combustion being driven by flame spreading, perhaps in damaged materials; (d) combustion causing further material damage; (e) combustion leading to pressure build-up or relief; (f) pressure changes driving the rates of combustion and flame spread; (g) pressure buildup leading to structural response and damage, which causes many of the physical hazards. We will briefly discuss our approach to modeling up these mechanistic steps using ALE 3D, the LLNL hydrodynamic code with fully coupled chemistry, heat flow, mass transfer, and slow mechanical motion as well as hydrodynamic processes. We will identify the necessary material properties needed for our models, and will discuss our experimental efforts to characterize these properties and the overall mechanistic steps, in order to develop and parameterize the models in ALE 3D and to develop a qualitative understanding of impact response.

Maienschein, J L; Nichols III, A L; Reaugh, J E; McClelland, M E; Hsu, P C

2005-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

442

Electrical resistance of gases in explosive magnetic flux compression generator environments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gases that are electrical insulators at STP can become conductors when subjected to the high pressure and temperature environment in explosive magnetic flux compression generators (FCGs). This thesis describes experiments performed to determine the electrical properties of several gases in the FCG environment. The hydrodynamics in a helical explosive magnetic flux compression generator (FCG) are modeled using the Gurney method and a shock physics code, CTH, developed at Sandia National Laboratory. The armature in a typical FCG is calculated to approach the stator at approximately 3 km/s. To simulate FCG operating conditions in the volume between the armature and stator, expendable, stagnated shock, explosively driven shock tubes are designed to propel aluminum flyer plates towards dense stainless steel plugs. Two opposing copper probes are inserted into the shock tube walls and charged to 2 kV by an external capacitor bank. The voltage across these probes is tracked by oscilloscope and the current is measured with a Pearson transformer at the capacitor bank. The current and voltage measurements are used to calculate a bulk resistance for the gas between the probes. Current limited experiments with series resistors have also been conducted. Experiments were performed using argon, helium, sulfur hexafluoride, and synthetic air (20% oxygen/80% nitrogen) as the shock tube fill gas. Argon readily ionizes throughout its volume in the shock tube. This effect is believed to be due to photo-ionization from radiation emitted in the shocked region. Helium only becomes ionized when the initial shock wave reflects off the stainless steel plug and stagnates. Air ionizes in the shock wave and maintains a resistance near 3 Ohms when the initially shocked region is measured. SF6 is ionized and becomes less resistive as the shocked region crosses the probes. The SF6 resistance measurement is 200 Ohms for the initial shock wave. In all cases, the reflected shock wave is expected to have sufficient energy to begin disassembling the shock tube, and calculations based on measurements made after the reflected shock wave reaches the voltage probes are unreliable.

Dorsey, Daniel John

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Explosive Cyclogenesis over the West-Central North Atlantic Ocean, 1981–84. Part II. Evaluation of LFM Model Performance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A study was made of the performance of the Limited-Area Fine-Mesh (LFM) operational forecasts for cases of explosive cyclogenesis in the west-central North Atlantic Ocean during 1981–84. For 51 instances in which the observed 12-h deepening was ...

Frederick Sanders

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves, Vol. 46, No. 3, pp. , 2010 Combustion of Heterogeneous Nanostructural Systems (Review)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves, Vol. 46, No. 3, pp. ­, 2010 Combustion of Heterogeneous submitted November 26, 2009. The current status of research in the field of combustion of heterogeneous mechanisms of combustion in such systems and prospects of their further applications are discussed. Key words

Mukasyan, Alexander

445

Recent research results in the analysis of pipeline response to buried explosive detonations  

SciTech Connect

The increasing use of explosives over the past several years for strip mining and urban development calls for some method to predict the effects of blasting within 100 ft of buried natural gas pipelines; previous methods applied only to greater standoff distances or to aboveground pipelines. Consequently, A.G.A.'s Pipeline Research Committee hired Southwest Research Institute to develop an analytical approach, a test program, and several techniques for defining the maximum blasting stresses on a pipeline and predicting the pipe's response under a wide variety of conditions. A review of this research includes a synopsis of the theoretical approach, the experimental methods used, and a basic procedure for handling blasting encroachment, from the initial notification through the post-blast activities.

Means, J.K.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

DOE-STD-1185-2004; Nuclear Explosive Safety Study Functional Area Qualification Standard  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

STD-1185-2004 STD-1185-2004 August 2004 DOE STANDARD NUCLEAR EXPLOSIVE SAFETY STUDY FUNCTIONAL AREA QUALIFICATION STANDARD DOE Defense Nuclear Facilities Technical Personnel U.S. Department of Energy AREA TRNG Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. NOT MEASUREMENT SENSITIVE DOE-STD-1185-2004 i This document has been reproduced directly from the best available copy. Available to DOE and DOE contractors from ES&H Technical Information Services, U.S. Department of Energy, (800) 473-4375, fax: (301) 903-9823. Available to the public from the U.S. Department of Commerce, Technology Administration, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161; (703) 605-6000. DOE-STD-1185-2004

447

Remedial investigation of the High-Explosives (HE) Process Area, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents the results of a Remedial Investigation (RI) to define the extent of high explosives (HE) compounds and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) found in the soil, rocks, and ground water of the HE Process Area of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Site 300 Facility. The report evaluates potential public health environmental risks associated with these compounds. Hydrogeologic information available before February 15, 1990, is included; however, chemical analyses and water-level data are reported through March 1990. This report is intended to assist the California Regional Water Quality Control Board (RWQCB)--Central Valley Region and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in evaluating the extent of environmental contamination of the LLNL HE Process Area and ultimately in designing remedial actions. 90 refs., 20 figs., 7 tabs.

Crow, N.B.; Lamarre, A.L.

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Environmental assessment of the thermal neutron activation explosive detection system for concourse use at US airports  

SciTech Connect

This document is an environmental assessment of a system designed to detect the presence of explosives in checked airline baggage or cargo. The system is meant to be installed at the concourse or lobby ticketing areas of US commercial airports and uses a sealed radioactive source of californium-252 to irradiate baggage items. The major impact of the use of this system arises from direct exposure of the public to scattered or leakage radiation from the source and to induced radioactivity in baggage items. Under normal operation and the most likely accident scenarios, the environmental impacts that would be created by the proposed licensing action would not be significant. 44 refs., 19 figs., 18 tabs.

Jones, C.G.

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Prospects for Type Ia Supernova explosion mechanism identification with gamma rays  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The explosion mechanism associated with thermonuclear supernovae (SNIa) is still a matter of debate. There is a wide agreement that high amounts of of radioactive nuclei are produced during these events and they are expected to be strong gamma-ray emitters. In the past, several authors have investigated the use of this gamma-ray emission as a diagnostic tool. In this paper we have done a complete study of the gamma-ray spectra associated with all the different scenarios currently proposed. This includes detonation, delayed detonation, deflagration and the off-center detonation. We have performed accurate simulations for this complete set of models in order to determine the most promising spectral features that could be used to discriminate among the different models. Our study is not limited to qualitative arguments. Instead, we have quantified the differences among the spectra and established distance limits for their detection. The calculations have been performed considering the best current response estim...

Gómez-Gomar, J; Jean, P; Gomez-Gomar, Jordi; Isern, Jordi; Jean, Pierre

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Explosively produced fracture of oil shale. Progress report, April-June 1982  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos National Laboratory is conducting rock fragmentation research in oil shale to develop the blasting technologies and designs required to prepare a rubble bed for a modified in situ retort. The first section of this report describes the progress in our experimental work at Anvil Points Mine in cooperation with the Oil Shale Consortium, Sandia National Laboratories, and Science Applications, Inc. It details further studies in explosive characterization and in validation of numerical calculation techniques. It also discusses the development of a physical theory for the determination of permeability and describes the file experiments conducted this quarter. The second section focuses on the cratering experiments at the Colony Mine and the influence of site-specific geology on oil shale fragmentation experiments. 40 figures, 1 table.

1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Project: Modeling Relativistic Electrons from Nuclear Explosions in the Magnetosphere  

SciTech Connect

We present a summary of the FY12 activities for DTRA-funded project 'Modeling Relativistic Electrons from Nuclear Explosions in the Magnetosphere'. We briefly review the outstanding scientific questions and discuss the work done in the last year to try to answer these questions. We then discuss the agenda for this Technical Meeting with the DTRA sponsors. In the last year, we have continued our efforts to understand artificial radiation belts from several different perspectives: (1) Continued development of Electron Source Model (ESM) and comparison to HANE test data; (2) Continued studies of relativistic electron scattering by waves in the natural radiation belts; (3) Began study of self-generated waves from the HANE electrons; and (4) Began modeling for the UCLA laser experiment.

Cowee, Misa [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gary, S. Peter [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Winske, Dan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Liu, Kaijun [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

452

Enabling R&D for accurate simulation of non-ideal explosives.  

SciTech Connect

We implemented two numerical simulation capabilities essential to reliably predicting the effect of non-ideal explosives (NXs). To begin to be able to treat the multiple, competing, multi-step reaction paths and slower kinetics of NXs, Sandia's CTH shock physics code was extended to include the TIGER thermochemical equilibrium solver as an in-line routine. To facilitate efficient exploration of reaction pathways that need to be identified for the CTH simulations, we implemented in Sandia's LAMMPS molecular dynamics code the MSST method, which is a reactive molecular dynamics technique for simulating steady shock wave response. Our preliminary demonstrations of these two capabilities serve several purposes: (i) they demonstrate proof-of-principle for our approach; (ii) they provide illustration of the applicability of the new functionality; and (iii) they begin to characterize the use of the new functionality and identify where improvements will be needed for the ultimate capability to meet national security needs. Next steps are discussed.

Aidun, John Bahram; Thompson, Aidan Patrick; Schmitt, Robert Gerard

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Deflagration Rate Measurements of Three Insensitive High Explosives: LLM-105, TATB, and DAAF  

SciTech Connect

The pressure dependent deflagration rates of LLM-105, DAAF and TATB based formulations were measured in the LLNL high pressure strand burner. The role of binder amount, explosive type, and thermal damage and their effects on the deflagration rate will be discussed. One DAAF formulation, two different formulations of LLM-105, and four formulations of TATB were studied; results indicate that binder amount and type play a minor role in the deflagration behavior. This is in sharp contrast to the HMX based formulations which strongly depend on binder amount and type. The effect of preheating these samples was considerably more dramatic. In the case of LLM-105, preheating the sample appears to have little effect on the deflagration rate. In contrast, preheating DAAF and TATB formulations causes the deflagration rate to accelerate. The thermal and mechanical properties of these formulations will be discussed in the context of their pressure and temperature dependent deflagration rates.

Glascoe, E A; Maienschein, J L; Lorenz, K T; Tan, N; Koerner, J G

2010-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

454

PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE DEPENDENT DEFLAGRATION RATE MEASUREMENTS OF LLM-105 AND TATB BASED EXPLOSIVES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The pressure dependent deflagration rates of LLM-105 and TATB based formulations were measured in the LLNL high pressure strand burner. The role of binder amount, explosive type, and thermal damage and their effects on the deflagration rate will be discussed. Two different formulations of LLM-105 and three formulations of TATB were studied and results indicate that binder amount and type play a minor role in the deflagration behavior. This is in sharp contrast to the HMX based formulations which strongly depend on binder amount and type. The effect of preheating these samples was considerably more dramatic. In the case of LLM-105, preheating the sample appears to have little effect on the deflagration rate. In contrast, preheating TATB formulations causes the deflagration rate to accelerate and become erratic. The thermal and mechanical properties of these formulations will be discussed in the context of their pressure and temperature dependent deflagration rates.

Glascoe, E A; Tan, N; Koerner, J; Lorenz, K T; Maienschein, J L

2009-11-10T23:59:59.000Z