National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for graaff confetti explosion

  1. Research at the BNL Tandem Van de Graaff Facility, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    Research programs at the Brookhaven Van de Graaff accelerators are summarized. Major accomplishments of the laboratory are discussed including quasielastic reactions, high-spin spectroscopy, yrast spectra, fusion reactions, and atomic physics. The outside user program at the Laboratory is discussed. Research proposed for 1981 is outlined. (GHT)

  2. Micro-Bubble Experiments at the Van de Graaff Accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Z. J.; Wardle, Kent E.; Quigley, K. J.; Gromov, Roman; Youker, A. J.; Makarashvili, Vakhtang; Bailey, James; Stepinski, D. C.; Chemerisov, S. D.; Vandegrift, G. F.

    2015-02-01

    In order to test and verify the experimental designs at the linear accelerator (LINAC), several micro-scale bubble ("micro-bubble") experiments were conducted with the 3-MeV Van de Graaff (VDG) electron accelerator. The experimental setups included a square quartz tube, sodium bisulfate solution with different concentrations, cooling coils, gas chromatography (GC) system, raster magnets, and two high-resolution cameras that were controlled by a LabVIEW program. Different beam currents were applied in the VDG irradiation. Bubble generation (radiolysis), thermal expansion, thermal convection, and radiation damage were observed in the experiments. Photographs, videos, and gas formation (O2 + H2) data were collected. The micro-bubble experiments at VDG indicate that the design of the full-scale bubble experiments at the LINAC is reasonable.

  3. Explosives Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Explosives Science Explosives Science Current efforts in explosives science cover many areas critical to national security. One particular area is the need for countermeasures against explosive threats. v Comprehensive explosives process Los Alamos National Laboratory offers a comprehensive explosives process. This process leverages entire technical divisions dedicated to explosives science. Los Alamos scientists combine advanced expertise and capabilities with modern facilities. These assets

  4. Explosives Safety

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2012-06-27

    The Standard provides the basic technical requirements for an explosives safety program necessary for operations involving explosives, explosives assemblies, pyrotechnics and propellants, and assemblies containing these materials.

  5. Explosives Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Explosives Center Explosives Center at Los Alamos National Laboratory A world leader in energetic materials research, development and applications, the Explosives Center's unique capabilities enable a dynamic, flexible response to address multiple evolving mission needs. explosives experiment Comprehensive energetic materials development, characterization and testing are key strengths at Los Alamos National Laboratory. An experimental explosive is shown igniting during small-scale impact

  6. Explosives tester

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haas, Jeffrey S.; Howard, Douglas E.; Eckels, Joel D.; Nunes, Peter J.

    2011-01-11

    An explosives tester that can be used anywhere as a screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are provided. A heater is provided for receiving the first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers.

  7. Explosive Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Explosive National Security Science Latest Issue:April 2016 past issues All Issues » submit Explosive Results Scientists at Los Alamos are solving national security challenges, from the threat of toothpaste-tube bombs on airliners to ensuring the safety of our nuclear stockpile. April 1, 2016 Explosive Results To test whether a travel-toothpaste-tube-sized bomb could bring down an airliner, Los Alamos scientists tried to blow a hole through half-inch-thick aircraft-grade aluminum using an

  8. DOE Explosives Safety Manual

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1996-03-29

    This Manual describes DOE's explosives safety requirements applicable to operations involving the development, testing, handling, and processing of explosives or assemblies containing explosives.

  9. Explosive laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robinson, C.P.; Jensen, R.J.; Davis, W.C.; Sullivan, J.A.

    1975-09-01

    This patent relates to a laser system wherein reaction products from the detonation of a condensed explosive expand to form a gaseous medium with low translational temperature but high vibration population. Thermal pumping of the upper laser level and de-excitation of the lower laser level occur during the expansion, resulting in a population inversion. The expansion may be free or through a nozzle as in a gas-dynamic configuration. In one preferred embodiment, the explosive is such that its reaction products are CO$sub 2$ and other species that are beneficial or at least benign to CO$sub 2$ lasing. (auth)

  10. Explosive complexes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huynh, My Hang V.

    2009-09-22

    Lead-free primary explosives of the formula [M.sup.II(A).sub.R(B.sup.X).sub.S](C.sup.Y).sub.T, where A is 1,5-diaminotetrazole, and syntheses thereof are described. Substantially stoichiometric equivalents of the reactants lead to high yields of pure compositions thereby avoiding dangerous purification steps.

  11. Explosive complexes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huynh, My Hang V.

    2011-08-16

    Lead-free primary explosives of the formula [M.sup.II(A).sub.R(B.sup.X).sub.S](C.sup.Y).sub.T, where A is 1,5-diaminotetrazole, and syntheses thereof are described. Substantially stoichiometric equivalents of the reactants lead to high yields of pure compositions thereby avoiding dangerous purification steps.

  12. Explosive simulants for testing explosive detection systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kury, John W.; Anderson, Brian L.

    1999-09-28

    Explosives simulants that include non-explosive components are disclosed that facilitate testing of equipment designed to remotely detect explosives. The simulants are non-explosive, non-hazardous materials that can be safely handled without any significant precautions. The simulants imitate real explosives in terms of mass density, effective atomic number, x-ray transmission properties, and physical form, including moldable plastics and emulsions/gels.

  13. Nuclear Explosive Safety

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2014-07-10

    The Order establishes requirements to implement the nuclear explosive safety (NES) elements of DOE O 452.1E, Nuclear Explosive and Weapon Surety Program, for routine and planned nuclear explosive operations (NEOs).

  14. Extrusion cast explosive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scribner, Kenneth J.

    1985-01-01

    Improved, multiphase, high performance, high energy, extrusion cast explosive compositions, comprising, a crystalline explosive material; an energetic liquid plasticizer; a urethane prepolymer, comprising a blend of polyvinyl formal, and polycaprolactone; a polyfunctional isocyanate; and a catalyst are disclosed. These new explosive compositions exhibit higher explosive content, a smooth detonation front, excellent stability over long periods of storage, and lower sensitivity to mechanical stimulants.

  15. UCID-20974 Spherical Explosions

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    UCID-20974 Spherical Explosions and the Equation of State of Water D. J. Steinberg ... Explosions and the Equation of State of Water D. J. Steinberg February 1987 r This is an ...

  16. Inspection tester for explosives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haas, Jeffrey S.; Simpson, Randall L.; Satcher, Joe H.

    2007-11-13

    An inspection tester that can be used anywhere as a primary screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. It includes a body with a sample pad. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are operatively connected to the body and the sample pad. The first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagents to the sample pad. A is heater operatively connected to the sample pad.

  17. Inspection tester for explosives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haas, Jeffrey S.; Simpson, Randall L.; Satcher, Joe H.

    2010-10-05

    An inspection tester that can be used anywhere as a primary screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. It includes a body with a sample pad. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are operatively connected to the body and the sample pad. The first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagents to the sample pad. A is heater operatively connected to the sample pad.

  18. Nuclear Explosive Safety Manual

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2009-04-14

    This Manual provides supplemental details to support the requirements of DOE O 452.2D, Nuclear Explosive Safety.

  19. High Explosives Testing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Administration | (NNSA) High Explosives Application Facility A Livermore scientist uses a laser spectroscopic method with a diamond anvil DOE/NNSA has identified LLNL's High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF) as the complex-wide "Center of Excellence" for High-Explosives Research and Development. In this capacity, HEAF is a source of subject matter expertise for high explosives and other energetic materials. Its mission is to provide this expertise to serve multiple government

  20. Extrusion cast explosive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scribner, K.J.

    1985-11-26

    Disclosed is an improved, multiphase, high performance, high energy, extrusion cast explosive compositions, comprising, a crystalline explosive material; an energetic liquid plasticizer; a urethane prepolymer, comprising a blend of polyvinyl formal, and polycaprolactone; a polyfunctional isocyanate; and a catalyst. These new explosive compositions exhibit higher explosive content, a smooth detonation front, excellent stability over long periods of storage, and lower sensitivity to mechanical stimulants. 1 fig.

  1. Extrusion cast explosive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scribner, K.J.

    1985-01-29

    Improved, multiphase, high performance, high energy, extrusion cast explosive compositions, comprising, a crystalline explosive material; an energetic liquid plasticizer; a urethane prepolymer, comprising a blend of polyvinyl formal, and polycaprolactone; a polyfunctional isocyanate; and a catalyst are disclosed. These new explosive compositions exhibit higher explosive content, a smooth detonation front, excellent stability over long periods of storage, and lower sensitivity to mechanical stimulants. 1 fig.

  2. Nuclear Explosive Safety

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2009-04-14

    This Department of Energy (DOE) Order establishes requirements to implement the nuclear explosive safety (NES) elements of DOE O 452.1D, Nuclear Explosive and Weapon Surety Program, for routine and planned nuclear explosive operations (NEOs). Cancels DOE O 452.2C. Admin Chg 1, dated 7-10-13, cancels DOE O 452.2D.

  3. Nuclear Explosive Safety

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2009-04-14

    This Order establishes requirements to implement the nuclear explosive safety elements of DOE O 452.1D, Nuclear Explosive and Weapon Surety Program, for routine and planned nuclear explosive operations. Cancels DOE O 452.2C. Admin Chg 1, 7-10-13

  4. Nuclear Explosive Safety

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2015-01-26

    This Department of Energy (DOE) Order establishes requirements to implement the nuclear explosive safety (NES) elements of DOE O 452.1E, Nuclear Explosive and Weapon Surety Program, or successor directive, for routine and planned nuclear explosive operations (NEOs). Supersedes DOE O 452.2D and DOE M 452.2-1A.

  5. DOE Explosives Safety Manual

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2006-01-09

    The Manual describes the Departments explosive safety requirements applicable to operations involving the development, testing, handling, and processing of explosives or assemblies containing explosives. Cancels DOE M 440.1-1. Canceled by DOE O 440.1B Chg 1.

  6. Free radical explosive composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walker, Franklin E.; Wasley, Richard J.

    1979-01-01

    An improved explosive composition is disclosed and comprises a major portion of an explosive having a detonation velocity between about 1500 and 10,000 meters per second and a minor amount of a getter additive comprising a compound or mixture of compounds capable of capturing or deactivating free radicals or ions under mechanical or electrical shock conditions and which is not an explosive. Exemplary getter additives are isocyanates, olefins and iodine.

  7. Explosives tester with heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Del Eckels, Joel; Nunes, Peter J.; Simpson, Randall L.; Whipple, Richard E.; Carter, J. Chance; Reynolds, John G.

    2010-08-10

    An inspection tester system for testing for explosives. The tester includes a body and a swab unit adapted to be removeably connected to the body. At least one reagent holder and dispenser is operatively connected to the body. The reagent holder and dispenser contains an explosives detecting reagent and is positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagent to the swab unit. A heater is operatively connected to the body and the swab unit is adapted to be operatively connected to the heater.

  8. Nuclear Explosive Safety

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2006-06-12

    The directive establishes specific nuclear explosive safety (NES) program requirements to implement the DOE NES standards and other NES criteria for routine and planned nuclear explosive operations. Cancels DOE O 452.2B. Canceled by DOE O 452.2D.

  9. Explosively pumped laser light

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piltch, Martin S.; Michelotti, Roy A.

    1991-01-01

    A single shot laser pumped by detonation of an explosive in a shell casing. The shock wave from detonation of the explosive causes a rare gas to luminesce. The high intensity light from the gas enters a lasing medium, which thereafter outputs a pulse of laser light to disable optical sensors and personnel.

  10. Interim explosives detection alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Syler, R.P. )

    1991-01-01

    There is a general concern with insiders smuggling bomb quantities of explosives into sensitive facilities such as nuclear facilities. At this time, there is no single explosives detection device that is suitable for monitoring personnel and their packages for explosives in an operational facility environment. However, there are techniques combining available commercial technologies with procedures and threat analysis that can significantly increase the insiders risk and reduce the population of adversaries. This paper describes the available applicable explosives detection technologies and discusses the techniques that could be implemented on an interim basis. It is important that these techniques be considered, so that some interim level of security against the explosives threat can be established until more sophisticated equipment that is under development becomes available.

  11. Non-detonable explosive simulators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, Randall L.; Pruneda, Cesar O.

    1994-01-01

    A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs and calibrating sensitive analytical instruments. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques, a first involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and the second involves coating inert beads with thin layers of explosive molecules.

  12. Non-detonable explosive simulators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, R.L.; Pruneda, C.O.

    1994-11-01

    A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs and calibrating sensitive analytical instruments. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques, a first involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and the second involves coating inert beads with thin layers of explosive molecules. 5 figs.

  13. Lithium niobate explosion monitor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bundy, Charles H.; Graham, Robert A.; Kuehn, Stephen F.; Precit, Richard R.; Rogers, Michael S.

    1990-01-01

    Monitoring explosive devices is accomplished with a substantially z-cut lithium niobate crystal in abutment with the explosive device. Upon impact by a shock wave from detonation of the explosive device, the crystal emits a current pulse prior to destruction of the crystal. The current pulse is detected by a current viewing transformer and recorded as a function of time in nanoseconds. In order to self-check the crystal, the crystal has a chromium film resistor deposited thereon which may be heated by a current pulse prior to detonation. This generates a charge which is detected by a charge amplifier.

  14. Lithium niobate explosion monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bundy, C.H.; Graham, R.A.; Kuehn, S.F.; Precit, R.R.; Rogers, M.S.

    1990-01-09

    Monitoring explosive devices is accomplished with a substantially z-cut lithium niobate crystal in abutment with the explosive device. Upon impact by a shock wave from detonation of the explosive device, the crystal emits a current pulse prior to destruction of the crystal. The current pulse is detected by a current viewing transformer and recorded as a function of time in nanoseconds. In order to self-check the crystal, the crystal has a chromium film resistor deposited thereon which may be heated by a current pulse prior to detonation. This generates a charge which is detected by a charge amplifier. 8 figs.

  15. Explosive Detection Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2000-10-26

    To standardize and accelerate implementation of the Department of Energy (DOE) explosive detection program. DOE N 251.40, dated 5/3/01, extends this directive until 12/31/01.

  16. Parametric Explosion Spectral Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ford, S R; Walter, W R

    2012-01-19

    Small underground nuclear explosions need to be confidently detected, identified, and characterized in regions of the world where they have never before occurred. We develop a parametric model of the nuclear explosion seismic source spectrum derived from regional phases that is compatible with earthquake-based geometrical spreading and attenuation. Earthquake spectra are fit with a generalized version of the Brune spectrum, which is a three-parameter model that describes the long-period level, corner-frequency, and spectral slope at high-frequencies. Explosion spectra can be fit with similar spectral models whose parameters are then correlated with near-source geology and containment conditions. We observe a correlation of high gas-porosity (low-strength) with increased spectral slope. The relationship between the parametric equations and the geologic and containment conditions will assist in our physical understanding of the nuclear explosion source.

  17. Explosion suppression system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapko, Michael J. (Finleyville, PA); Cortese, Robert A. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1992-01-01

    An explosion suppression system and triggering apparatus therefor are provided for quenching gas and dust explosions. An electrically actuated suppression mechanism which dispenses an extinguishing agent into the path ahead of the propagating flame is actuated by a triggering device which is light powered. This triggering device is located upstream of the propagating flame and converts light from the flame to an electrical actuation signal. A pressure arming device electrically connects the triggering device to the suppression device only when the explosion is sensed by a further characteristic thereof beside the flame such as the pioneer pressure wave. The light powered triggering device includes a solar panel which is disposed in the path of the explosion and oriented between horizontally downward and vertical. Testing mechanisms are also preferably provided to test the operation of the solar panel and detonator as well as the pressure arming mechanism.

  18. Idaho Explosive Detection System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klinger, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Learn how INL researchers are making the world safer by developing an explosives detection system that can inspect cargo. For more information about INL security research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory

  19. Nuclear Explosive Safety

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2006-06-12

    The directive provides supplemental details to support the requirements of DOE O 452.2C, Nuclear Explosive Safety, dated 6-12-06. Canceled by DOE M 452.2-1A.

  20. Idaho Explosive Detection System

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Klinger, Jeff

    2013-05-28

    Learn how INL researchers are making the world safer by developing an explosives detection system that can inspect cargo. For more information about INL security research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory

  1. Nuclear explosive safety study process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear explosives by their design and intended use require collocation of high explosives and fissile material. The design agencies are responsible for designing safety into the nuclear explosive and processes involving the nuclear explosive. The methodology for ensuring safety consists of independent review processes that include the national laboratories, Operations Offices, Headquarters, and responsible Area Offices and operating contractors with expertise in nuclear explosive safety. A NES Study is an evaluation of the adequacy of positive measures to minimize the possibility of an inadvertent or deliberate unauthorized nuclear detonation, high explosive detonation or deflagration, fire, or fissile material dispersal from the pit. The Nuclear Explosive Safety Study Group (NESSG) evaluates nuclear explosive operations against the Nuclear Explosive Safety Standards specified in DOE O 452.2 using systematic evaluation techniques. These Safety Standards must be satisfied for nuclear explosive operations.

  2. Non-detonable and non-explosive explosive simulators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, R.L.; Pruneda, C.O.

    1997-07-15

    A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable or explodable is disclosed. The simulator is a combination of an explosive material with an inert material, either in a matrix or as a coating, where the explosive has a high surface ratio but small volume ratio. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs, calibrating analytical instruments which are sensitive to either vapor or elemental composition, or other applications where the hazards associated with explosives is undesirable but where chemical and/or elemental equivalence is required. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques. A first method involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and a second method involves coating inert substrates with thin layers of explosive. 11 figs.

  3. Non-detonable and non-explosive explosive simulators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, Randall L.; Pruneda, Cesar O.

    1997-01-01

    A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable or explodable. The simulator is a combination of an explosive material with an inert material, either in a matrix or as a coating, where the explosive has a high surface ratio but small volume ratio. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs, calibrating analytical instruments which are sensitive to either vapor or elemental composition, or other applications where the hazards associated with explosives is undesirable but where chemical and/or elemental equivalence is required. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques. A first method involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and a second method involves coating inert substrates with thin layers of explosive.

  4. Explosion containment device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benedick, William B.; Daniel, Charles J.

    1977-01-01

    The disclosure relates to an explosives storage container for absorbing and containing the blast, fragments and detonation products from a possible detonation of a contained explosive. The container comprises a layer of distended material having sufficient thickness to convert a portion of the kinetic energy of the explosion into thermal energy therein. A continuous wall of steel sufficiently thick to absorb most of the remaining kinetic energy by stretching and expanding, thereby reducing the momentum of detonation products and high velocity fragments, surrounds the layer of distended material. A crushable layer surrounds the continuous steel wall and accommodates the stretching and expanding thereof, transmitting a moderate load to the outer enclosure. These layers reduce the forces of the explosion and the momentum of the products thereof to zero. The outer enclosure comprises a continuous pressure wall enclosing all of the layers. In one embodiment, detonation of the contained explosive causes the outer enclosure to expand which indicates to a visual observer that a detonation has occurred.

  5. Explosively separable casing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Albin K. (Albuquerque, NM); Rychnovsky, Raymond E. (Livermore, CA); Visbeck, Cornelius N. (Livermore, CA)

    1985-01-01

    An explosively separable casing including a cylindrical afterbody and a circular cover for one end of the afterbody is disclosed. The afterbody has a cylindrical tongue extending longitudinally from one end which is matingly received in a corresponding groove in the cover. The groove is sized to provide a pocket between the end of the tongue and the remainder of the groove so that an explosive can be located therein. A seal is also provided between the tongue and the groove for sealing the pocket from the atmosphere. A frangible holding device is utilized to hold the cover to the afterbody. When the explosive is ignited, the increase in pressure in the pocket causes the cover to be accelerated away from the afterbody. Preferably, the inner wall of the afterbody is in the same plane as the inner wall of the tongue to provide a maximum space for storage in the afterbody and the side wall of the cover is thicker than the side wall of the afterbody so as to provide a sufficiently strong surrounding portion for the pocket in which the explosion takes place. The detonator for the explosive is also located on the cover and is carried away with the cover during separation. The seal is preferably located at the longitudinal end of the tongue and has a chevron cross section.

  6. Novel high explosive compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perry, D.D.; Fein, M.M.; Schoenfelder, C.W.

    1968-04-16

    This is a technique of preparing explosive compositions by the in-situ reaction of polynitroaliphatic compounds with one or more carboranes or carborane derivatives. One or more polynitroaliphatic reactants are combined with one or more carborane reactants in a suitable container and mixed to a homogeneous reaction mixture using a stream of inert gas or conventional mixing means. Ordinarily the container is a fissure, crack, or crevice in which the explosive is to be implanted. The ratio of reactants will determine not only the stoichiometry of the system, but will effect the quality and quantity of combustion products, the explosive force obtained as well as the impact sensitivity. The test values can shift with even relatively slight changes or modifications in the reaction conditions. Eighteen illustrative examples accompany the disclosure. (46 claims)

  7. High-nitrogen explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naud, D.; Hiskey, M. A.; Kramer, J. F.; Bishop, R. L.; Harry, H. H.; Son, S. F.; Sullivan, G. K.

    2002-01-01

    The syntheses and characterization of various tetrazine and furazan compounds offer a different approach to explosives development. Traditional explosives - such as TNT or RDX - rely on the oxidation of the carbon and hydrogen atoms by the oxygen carrying nitro group to produce the explosive energy. High-nitrogen compounds rely instead on large positive heats of formation for that energy. Some of these high-nitrogen compounds have been shown to be less sensitive to initiation (e.g. by impact) when compared to traditional nitro-containing explosives of similar performances. Using the precursor, 3,6-bis-(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)-s-tetrazine (BDT), several useful energetic compounds based on the s-tetrazine system have been synthesized and studied. The compound, 3,3{prime}-azobis(6-amino-s-tetrazine) or DAAT, detonates as a half inch rate stick despite having no oxygen in the molecule. Using perfluoroacetic acid, DAAT can be oxidized to give mixtures of N-oxide isomers (DAAT03.5) with an average oxygen content of about 3.5. This energetic mixture burns at extremely high rates and with low dependency on pressure. Another tetrazine compound of interest is 3,6-diguanidino-s-tetrazine(DGT) and its dinitrate and diperchlorate salts. DGT is easily synthesized by reacting BDT with guanidine in methanol. Using Caro's acid, DGT can be further oxidized to give 3,6-diguanidino-s-tetrazine-1,4-di-N-oxide (DGT-DO). Like DGT, the di-N-oxide can react with nitric acid or perchloric acid to give the dinitrate and the diperchlorate salts. The compounds, 4,4{prime}-diamino-3,3{prime}-azoxyfurazan (DAAF) and 4,4{prime}-diamino-3,3{prime}-azofurazan (DAAzF), may have important future roles in insensitive explosive applications. Neither DAAF nor DAAzF can be initiated by laboratory impact drop tests, yet both have in some aspects better explosive performances than 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene TATB - the standard of insensitive high explosives. The thermal stability of DAAzF is

  8. Microcantilever detector for explosives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thundat, Thomas G.

    1999-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for detecting the presence of explosives by analyzing a vapor sample from the suspect vicinity utilize at least one microcantilever. Explosive gas molecules which have been adsorbed onto the microcantilever are subsequently heated to cause combustion. Heat, along with momentum transfer from combustion, causes bending and a transient resonance response of the microcantilever which may be detected by a laser diode which is focused on the microcantilever and a photodetector which detects deflection of the reflected laser beam caused by heat-induced deflection and resonance response of the microcantilever.

  9. Microcantilever detector for explosives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thundat, T.G.

    1999-06-29

    Methods and apparatus for detecting the presence of explosives by analyzing a vapor sample from the suspect vicinity utilize at least one microcantilever. Explosive gas molecules which have been adsorbed onto the microcantilever are subsequently heated to cause combustion. Heat, along with momentum transfer from combustion, causes bending and a transient resonance response of the microcantilever which may be detected by a laser diode which is focused on the microcantilever and a photodetector which detects deflection of the reflected laser beam caused by heat-induced deflection and resonance response of the microcantilever. 2 figs.

  10. Nuclear Explosive Safety Evaluation Processes

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2009-04-14

    This Manual provides supplemental details to support the nuclear explosive safety evaluation requirement of DOE O 452.2D, Nuclear Explosive Safety. Does not cancel other directives. Admin Chg 1, 7-10-13.

  11. Nuclear Explosive Safety Manual

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2009-04-14

    This Department of Energy (DOE) Manual provides supplemental details on selected topics to support the requirements of DOE O 452.2D, Nuclear Explosive Safety, dated 4/14/09. Cancels DOE M 452.2-1. Admin Chg 1, dated 7-10-13, cancels DOE M 452.2-1A.

  12. explosives | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    explosives Meet a Machine: Explosive science is booming at Livermore Lab's Contained Firing Facility A key mission of the National Nuclear Security Administration is to maintain the safety, security, and effectiveness of the U.S. nuclear weapons stockpile without nuclear explosive testing. Data gathered from experiments at the Contained Firing Facility (CFF) help validate computer... NNSA Conducts Fifth Experiment aimed to Improve U.S. Ability to Detect Foreign Nuclear Explosions WASHINGTON,

  13. Hand held explosives detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Conrad, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a sensitive hand-held explosives detection device capable of detecting the presence of extremely low quantities of high explosives molecules, and which is applicable to sampling vapors from personnel, baggage, cargo, etc., as part of an explosives detection system.

  14. Big Explosives Experimental Facility - BEEF

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2015-01-07

    The Big Explosives Experimental Facility or BEEF is a ten acre fenced high explosive testing facility that provides data to support stockpile stewardship and other national security programs. At BEEF conventional high explosives experiments are safely conducted providing sophisticated diagnostics such as high speed optics and x-ray radiography.

  15. Big Explosives Experimental Facility - BEEF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-10-31

    The Big Explosives Experimental Facility or BEEF is a ten acre fenced high explosive testing facility that provides data to support stockpile stewardship and other national security programs. At BEEF conventional high explosives experiments are safely conducted providing sophisticated diagnostics such as high speed optics and x-ray radiography.

  16. Thermoelectric Bulk Materials from the Explosive Consolidation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermoelectric Bulk Materials from the Explosive Consolidation of Nanopowders Describes technique of explosively consolidating nanopowders to yield fully dense, consolidated, ...

  17. Explosive bulk charge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Jacob Lee

    2015-04-21

    An explosive bulk charge, including: a first contact surface configured to be selectively disposed substantially adjacent to a structure or material; a second end surface configured to selectively receive a detonator; and a curvilinear side surface joining the first contact surface and the second end surface. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface form a bi-truncated hemispherical structure. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface are formed from an explosive material. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface each have a substantially circular shape. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface consist of planar structures that are aligned substantially parallel or slightly tilted with respect to one another. The curvilinear side surface has one of a smooth curved geometry, an elliptical geometry, and a parabolic geometry.

  18. Dust cluster explosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saxena, Vikrant [School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar (India); Avinash, K. [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, New Delhi (India); Sen, A. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar (India)

    2012-09-15

    A model for the dust cluster explosion where micron/sub-micron sized particles are accelerated at the expense of plasma thermal energy, in the afterglow phase of a complex plasma discharge is proposed. The model is tested by molecular dynamics simulations of dust particles in a confining potential. The nature of the explosion (caused by switching off the discharge) and the concomitant dust acceleration is found to depend critically on the pressure of the background neutral gas. At low gas pressure, the explosion is due to unshielded Coulomb repulsion between dust particles and yields maximum acceleration, while in the high pressure regime it is due to shielded Yukawa repulsion and yields much feebler acceleration. These results are in agreement with experimental findings. Our simulations also confirm a recently proposed electrostatic (ES) isothermal scaling relation, P{sub E}{proportional_to}V{sub d}{sup -2} (where P{sub E} is the ES pressure of the dust particles and V{sub d} is the confining volume).

  19. Radiography used to image thermal explosions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    October » Radiography used to image thermal explosions Radiography used to image thermal explosions Researchers have gained an understanding of the mechanism of thermal explosions and have created a model capturing the stages of the explosion. October 9, 2012 Tabletop X-ray radiography of a thermal explosion. Tabletop X-ray radiography of a thermal explosion. Researchers have gained an understanding of the mechanism of thermal explosions and have created a model capturing the stages of the

  20. Tagging explosives with sulfur hexafluoride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietz, Russell N.; Cote, Edgar A.; Vogel, William; Dempsey, John C.

    1976-11-16

    Method and apparatus for tagging explosives with a source of SF.sub.6 permitting the detection of their presence utilizing sensitive sniffing apparatus.

  1. Zirconium hydride containing explosive composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walker, Franklin E.; Wasley, Richard J.

    1981-01-01

    An improved explosive composition is disclosed and comprises a major portion of an explosive having a detonation velocity between about 1500 and 10,000 meters per second and a minor amount of a donor additive comprising a non-explosive compound or mixture of non-explosive compounds which when subjected to an energy fluence of 1000 calories/cm.sup.2 or less is capable of releasing free radicals each having a molecular weight between 1 and 120. Exemplary donor additives are dibasic acids, polyamines and metal hydrides.

  2. Explosive scabbling of structural materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bickes, Jr., Robert W.; Bonzon, Lloyd L.

    2002-01-01

    A new approach to scabbling of surfaces of structural materials is disclosed. A layer of mildly energetic explosive composition is applied to the surface to be scabbled. The explosive composition is then detonated, rubbleizing the surface. Explosive compositions used must sustain a detonation front along the surface to which it is applied and conform closely to the surface being scabbled. Suitable explosive compositions exist which are stable under handling, easy to apply, easy to transport, have limited toxicity, and can be reliably detonated using conventional techniques.

  3. Low voltage nonprimary explosive detonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dinegar, Robert H.; Kirkham, John

    1982-01-01

    A low voltage, electrically actuated, nonprimary explosive detonator is disclosed wherein said detonation is achieved by means of an explosive train in which a deflagration-to-detonation transition is made to occur. The explosive train is confined within a cylindrical body and positioned adjacent to low voltage ignition means have electrical leads extending outwardly from the cylindrical confining body. Application of a low voltage current to the electrical leads ignites a self-sustained deflagration in a donor portion of the explosive train which then is made to undergo a transition to detonation further down the train.

  4. Laser machining of explosives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perry, Michael D.; Stuart, Brent C.; Banks, Paul S.; Myers, Booth R.; Sefcik, Joseph A.

    2000-01-01

    The invention consists of a method for machining (cutting, drilling, sculpting) of explosives (e.g., TNT, TATB, PETN, RDX, etc.). By using pulses of a duration in the range of 5 femtoseconds to 50 picoseconds, extremely precise and rapid machining can be achieved with essentially no heat or shock affected zone. In this method, material is removed by a nonthermal mechanism. A combination of multiphoton and collisional ionization creates a critical density plasma in a time scale much shorter than electron kinetic energy is transferred to the lattice. The resulting plasma is far from thermal equilibrium. The material is in essence converted from its initial solid-state directly into a fully ionized plasma on a time scale too short for thermal equilibrium to be established with the lattice. As a result, there is negligible heat conduction beyond the region removed resulting in negligible thermal stress or shock to the material beyond a few microns from the laser machined surface. Hydrodynamic expansion of the plasma eliminates the need for any ancillary techniques to remove material and produces extremely high quality machined surfaces. There is no detonation or deflagration of the explosive in the process and the material which is removed is rendered inert.

  5. Nuclear Explosive Safety Evaluation Processes

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2009-04-14

    This Manual provides supplemental details to support the nuclear explosive safety (NES) evaluation requirement of Department of Energy (DOE) Order (O) 452.2D, Nuclear Explosive Safety, dated 4/14/09. Admin Chg 1, dated 7-10-13, cancels DOE M 452.2-2.

  6. Project: Modeling Relativistic Electrons from Nuclear Explosions...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electrons from Nuclear Explosions in the Magnetosphere Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Project: Modeling Relativistic Electrons from Nuclear Explosions in the ...

  7. Nuclear Explosive and Weapon Surety Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2014-08-05

    The Order defines the Nuclear Explosive and Weapon Surety (NEWS) Program, which was established to prevent unintended/unauthorized detonation and deliberate unauthorized use of nuclear explosives.

  8. Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Engineering Program...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Program Document: Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Engineering Program - Strategic Plan Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research ...

  9. Detection of explosives in soils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chambers, William B.; Rodacy, Philip J.; Phelan, James M.; Woodfin, Ronald L.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method for detecting explosive-indicating compounds in subsurface soil. The apparatus has a probe with an adsorbent material on some portion of its surface that can be placed into soil beneath the ground surface, where the adsorbent material can adsorb at least one explosive-indicating compound. The apparatus additional has the capability to desorb the explosive-indicating compound through heating or solvent extraction. A diagnostic instrument attached to the probe detects the desorbed explosive-indicating compound. In the method for detecting explosive-indicating compounds in soil, the sampling probe with an adsorbent material on at least some portion of a surface of the sampling probe is inserted into the soil to contact the adsorbent material with the soil. The explosive-indicating compounds are then desorbed and transferred as either a liquid or gas sample to a diagnostic tool for analysis. The resulting gas or liquid sample is analyzed using at least one diagnostic tool selected from the group consisting of an ion-mobility spectrometer, a gas chromatograph, a high performance liquid chromatograph, a capillary electrophoresis chromatograph, a mass spectrometer, a Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer and a Raman spectrometer to detect the presence of explosive-indicating compounds.

  10. Donor free radical explosive composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walker, Franklin E. [15 Way Points Rd., Danville, CA 94526; Wasley, Richard J. [4290 Colgate Way, Livermore, CA 94550

    1980-04-01

    An improved explosive composition is disclosed and comprises a major portion of an explosive having a detonation velocity between about 1500 and 10,000 meters per second and a minor amount of a donor additive comprising an organic compound or mixture of organic compounds capable of releasing low molecular weight free radicals or ions under mechanical or electrical shock conditions and which is not an explosive, or an inorganic compound or mixture of inorganic compounds capable of releasing low molecular weight free radicals or ions under mechanical or electrical shock conditions and selected from ammonium or alkali metal persulfates.

  11. Light metal explosives and propellants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, Lowell L.; Ishikawa, Muriel Y.; Nuckolls, John H.; Pagoria, Phillip F.; Viecelli, James A.

    2005-04-05

    Disclosed herein are light metal explosives, pyrotechnics and propellants (LME&Ps) comprising a light metal component such as Li, B, Be or their hydrides or intermetallic compounds and alloys containing them and an oxidizer component containing a classic explosive, such as CL-20, or a non-explosive oxidizer, such as lithium perchlorate, or combinations thereof. LME&P formulations may have light metal particles and oxidizer particles ranging in size from 0.01 .mu.m to 1000 .mu.m.

  12. Explosive actuated valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Byrne, Kenneth G.

    1983-01-01

    1. A device of the character described comprising the combination of a housing having an elongate bore and including a shoulder extending inwardly into said bore, a single elongate movable plunger disposed in said bore including an outwardly extending flange adjacent one end thereof overlying said shoulder, normally open conduit means having an inlet and an outlet perpendicularly piercing said housing intermediate said shoulder and said flange and including an intermediate portion intersecting and normally openly communicating with said bore at said shoulder, normally closed conduit means piercing said housing and intersecting said bore at a location spaced from said normally open conduit means, said elongate plunger including a shearing edge adjacent the other end thereof normally disposed intermediate both of said conduit means and overlying a portion of said normally closed conduit means, a deformable member carried by said plunger intermediate said flange and said shoulder and normally spaced from and overlying the intermediate portion of said normally open conduit means, and means on the housing communicating with the bore to retain an explosive actuator for moving said plunger to force the deformable member against the shoulder and extrude a portion of the deformable member out of said bore into portions of the normally open conduit means for plugging the same and to effect the opening of said normally closed conduit means by the plunger shearing edge substantially concomitantly with the plugging of the normally open conduit means.

  13. Furball Explosive Breakout Test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carroll, Joshua David

    2015-08-05

    For more than 30 years the Onionskin test has been the primary way to study the surface breakout of a detonation wave. Currently the Onionskin test allows for only a small, one dimensional, slice of the explosive in question to be observed. Asymmetrical features are not observable with the Onionskin test and its one dimensional view. As a result, in 2011, preliminary designs for the Hairball and Furball were developed then tested. The Hairball used shorting pins connected to an oscilloscope to determine the arrival time at 24 discrete points. This limited number of data points, caused by the limited number of oscilloscope channels, ultimately led to the Hairball’s demise. Following this, the Furball was developed to increase the number of data points collected. Instead of shorting pins the Furball uses fiber optics imaged by a streak camera to determine the detonation wave arrival time for each point. The original design was able to capture the detonation wave’s arrival time at 205 discrete points with the ability to increase the number of data points if necessary.

  14. Explosive plane-wave lens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marsh, S.P.

    1988-03-08

    An explosive plane-wave air lens which enables a spherical wave form to be converted to a planar wave without the need to specially machine or shape explosive materials is described. A disc-shaped impactor having a greater thickness at its center than around its periphery is used to convert the spherical wave into a plane wave. When the wave reaches the impactor, the center of the impactor moves first because the spherical wave reaches the center of the impactor first. The wave strikes the impactor later in time as one moves radially along the impactor. Because the impactor is thinner as one moves radially outward, the velocity of the impactor is greater at the periphery than at the center. An acceptor explosive is positioned so that the impactor strikes the acceptor simultaneously. Consequently, a plane detonation wave is propagated through the acceptor explosive. 4 figs.

  15. Explosive plane-wave lens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marsh, S.P.

    1987-03-12

    An explosive plane-wave air lens which enables a spherical wave form to be converted to a planar wave without the need to specially machine or shape explosive materials is described. A disc-shaped impactor having a greater thickness at its center than around its periphery is used to convert the spherical wave into a plane wave. When the wave reaches the impactor, the center of the impactor moves first because the spherical wave reaches the center of the impactor first. The wave strikes the impactor later in time as one moves radially along the impactor. Because the impactor is thinner as one moves radially outward, the velocity of the impactor is greater at the periphery than at the center. An acceptor explosive is positioned so that the impactor strikes the acceptor simultaneously. Consequently, a plane detonation wave is propagated through the acceptor explosive. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. The challenge of improvised explosives

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Maienschein, Jon L.

    2012-06-14

    Energetic materials have been developed for decades, and indeed centuries, with a common set of goals in mind. Performance (as a detonating explosive, a propellant, or a pyrotechnic) has always been key, equally important have been the attributes of safety, stability, and reproducibility. Research and development with those goals has led to the set of energetic materials commonly used today. In the past few decades, the adoption and use of improvised explosives in attacks by terrorists or third-world parties has led to many questions about these materials, e.g., how they may be made, what threat they pose to the intendedmore » target, how to handle them safely, and how to detect them. The unfortunate advent of improvised explosives has opened the door for research into these materials, and there are active programs in many countries. I will discuss issues and opportunities facing research into improvised explosives.« less

  17. Explosive plane-wave lens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marsh, Stanley P. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1988-01-01

    An explosive plane-wave air lens which enables a spherical wave form to be converted to a planar wave without the need to specially machine or shape explosive materials is described. A disc-shaped impactor having a greater thickness at its center than around its periphery is used to convert the spherical wave into a plane wave. When the wave reaches the impactor, the center of the impactor moves first because the spherical wave reaches the center of the impactor first. The wave strikes the impactor later in time as one moves radially along the impactor. Because the impactor is thinner as one moves radially outward, the velocity of the impactor is greater at the periphery than at the center. An acceptor explosive is positioned so that the impactor strikes the acceptor simultaneously. Consequently, a plane detonation wave is propagated through the acceptor explosive.

  18. Nuclear Explosive and Weapon Surety Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2015-01-26

    All nuclear explosives and nuclear explosive operations require special safety, security, and use control consideration because of the potentially unacceptable consequences of an accident or unauthorized act; therefore, a Nuclear Explosive and Weapon Surety (NEWS) Program is established to prevent unintended/unauthorized detonation and deliberate unauthorized use of nuclear explosives. Supersedes DOE O 452.1D.

  19. System for analysis of explosives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haas, Jeffrey S.

    2010-06-29

    A system for analysis of explosives. Samples are spotted on a thin layer chromatography plate. Multi-component explosives standards are spotted on the thin layer chromatography plate. The thin layer chromatography plate is dipped in a solvent mixture and chromatography is allowed to proceed. The thin layer chromatography plate is dipped in reagent 1. The thin layer chromatography plate is heated. The thin layer chromatography plate is dipped in reagent 2.

  20. Thermodynamic States in Explosion Fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuhl, A L

    2009-10-16

    Here we investigate the thermodynamic states occurring in explosion fields from the detonation of condensed explosives in air. In typical applications, the pressure of expanded detonation products gases is modeled by a Jones-Wilkins-Lee (JWL) function: P{sub JWL} = f(v,s{sub CJ}); constants in that function are fit to cylinder test data. This function provides a specification of pressure as a function of specific volume, v, along the expansion isentrope (s = constant = s{sub CJ}) starting at the Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) state. However, the JWL function is not a fundamental equation of thermodynamics, and therefore gives an incomplete specification of states. For example, explosions inherently involve shock reflections from surfaces; this changes the entropy of the products, and in such situations the JWL function provides no information on the products states. In addition, most explosives are not oxygen balanced, so if hot detonation products mix with air, they after-burn, releasing the heat of reaction via a turbulent combustion process. This raises the temperature of explosion products cloud to the adiabatic flame temperature ({approx}3,000K). Again, the JWL function provides no information on the combustion products states.

  1. The vapor pressures of explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ewing, Robert G.; Waltman, Melanie J.; Atkinson, David A.; Grate, Jay W.; Hotchkiss, Peter

    2013-01-05

    The vapor pressures of many explosive compounds are extremely low and thus determining accurate values proves difficult. Many researchers, using a variety of methods, have measured and reported the vapor pressures of explosives compounds at single temperatures, or as a function of temperature using vapor pressure equations. There are large variations in reported vapor pressures for many of these compounds, and some errors exist within individual papers. This article provides a review of explosive vapor pressures and describes the methods used to determine them. We have compiled primary vapor pressure relationships traceable to the original citations and include the temperature ranges for which they have been determined. Corrected values are reported as needed and described in the text. In addition, after critically examining the available data, we calculate and tabulate vapor pressures at 25 C.

  2. Insensitive fuze train for high explosives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cutting, Jack L.; Lee, Ronald S.; Von Holle, William G.

    1994-01-01

    A generic insensitive fuze train to initiate insensitive high explosives, such as PBXW-124. The insensitive fuze train uses a slapper foil to initiate sub-gram quantities of an explosive, such as HNS-IV or PETN. This small amount of explosive drives a larger metal slapper onto a booster charge of an insensitive explosive, such as UF-TATB. The booster charge initiates a larger charge of an explosive, such as LX-17, which in turn, initiates the insensitive high explosive, such as PBXW-124.

  3. Insensitive fuze train for high explosives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cutting, J.L.; Lee, R.S.; Von Holle, W.G.

    1994-01-04

    A generic insensitive fuze train to initiate insensitive high explosives, such as PBXW-124 is described. The insensitive fuze train uses a slapper foil to initiate sub-gram quantities of an explosive, such as HNS-IV or PETN. This small amount of explosive drives a larger metal slapper onto a booster charge of an insensitive explosive, such as UF-TATB. The booster charge initiates a larger charge of an explosive, such as LX-17, which in turn, initiates the insensitive high explosive, such as PBXW-124. 3 figures.

  4. Sandia Explosive Inventory and Information System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clements, D.A.

    1994-08-01

    The Explosive Inventory and Information System (EIS) is being developed and implemented by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to incorporate a cradle to grave structure for all explosives and explosive containing devices and assemblies at SNL from acquisition through use, storage, reapplication, transfer or disposal. The system does more than track all material inventories. It provides information on material composition, characteristics, shipping requirements; life cycle cost information, plan of use; and duration of ownership. The system also provides for following the processes of explosive development; storage review; justification for retention; Resource, Recovery and Disposition Account (RRDA); disassembly and assembly; and job description, hazard analysis and training requirements for all locations and employees involved with explosive operations. In addition, other information systems will be provided through the system such as the Department of Energy (DOE) and SNL Explosive Safety manuals, the Navy`s Department of Defense (DoD) Explosive information system, and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (LLNL) Handbook of Explosives.

  5. Prompt detonation of secondary explosives by laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paisley, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    Secondary high explosives have been promptly detonated by directing a laser beam of various wavelengths from 266 nanometers to 1.06 micron on the surface of the explosives. For this paper ''prompt'' means the excess transit time through an explosive charge is /approximately/250 nanoseconds (or less) less than the accepted full detonation velocity time. Timing between laser pulse, explosive initiation and detonation velocity and function time have been recorded. The laser parameters studied include: wavelength, pulse length, energy and power density, and beam diameter (spot size). Explosives evaluated include: PETN, HNS, HMX, and graphited PETN, HNS, and HMX. Explosive parameters that have been correlated with optical parameters include: density, surface area, critical diameter (spot size), spectral characteristics and enhance absorption. Some explosives have been promptly detonated over the entire range of wavelengths, possibly by two competing initiating mechanisms. Other explosives could not be detonated at any of the wavelengths or power densities tested. 8 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Measuring explosive non-ideality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Souers, P C

    1999-02-17

    The sonic reaction zone length may be measured by four methods: (1) size effect, (2) detonation front curvature, (3) crystal interface velocity and (4) in-situ gauges. The amount of data decreases exponentially from (1) to (4) with there being almost no gauge data for prompt detonation at steady state. The ease and clarity of obtaining the reaction zone length increases from (1) to (4). The method of getting the reaction zone length, , is described for the four methods. A measure of non-ideality is proposed: the reaction zone length divided by the cylinder radius. N = /R{sub o}. N = 0 for true ideality. It also decreases with increasing radius as it should. For N < 0.10, an equilibrium EOS like the JWL may be used. For N > 0.10, a time-dependent description is essential. The crystal experiment, which measures the particle velocity of an explosive-transparent material interface, is presently rising in importance. We examine the data from three experiments and apply: (1) an impedance correction that transfers the explosive C-J particle velocity to the corresponding value for the interface, and (2) multiplies the interface time by 3/4 to simulate the explosive speed of sound. The result is a reaction zone length comparable to those obtained by other means. A few explosives have reaction zones so small that the change of slope in the particle velocity is easily seen.

  7. Turbulent Combustion in SDF Explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuhl, A L; Bell, J B; Beckner, V E

    2009-11-12

    A heterogeneous continuum model is proposed to describe the dispersion and combustion of an aluminum particle cloud in an explosion. It combines the gas-dynamic conservation laws for the gas phase with a continuum model for the dispersed phase, as formulated by Nigmatulin. Inter-phase mass, momentum and energy exchange are prescribed by phenomenological models. It incorporates a combustion model based on the mass conservation laws for fuel, air and products; source/sink terms are treated in the fast-chemistry limit appropriate for such gasdynamic fields, along with a model for mass transfer from the particle phase to the gas. The model takes into account both the afterburning of the detonation products of the C-4 booster with air, and the combustion of the Al particles with air. The model equations were integrated by high-order Godunov schemes for both the gas and particle phases. Numerical simulations of the explosion fields from 1.5-g Shock-Dispersed-Fuel (SDF) charge in a 6.6 liter calorimeter were used to validate the combustion model. Then the model was applied to 10-kg Al-SDF explosions in a an unconfined height-of-burst explosion. Computed pressure histories are compared with measured waveforms. Differences are caused by physical-chemical kinetic effects of particle combustion which induce ignition delays in the initial reactive blast wave and quenching of reactions at late times. Current simulations give initial insights into such modeling issues.

  8. Lead-free primary explosives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huynh, My Hang V.

    2010-06-22

    Lead-free primary explosives of the formula (cat).sub.Y[M.sup.II(T).sub.X(H.sub.2O).sub.6-X].sub.Z, where T is 5-nitrotetrazolate, and syntheses thereof are described. Substantially stoichiometric equivalents of the reactants lead to high yields of pure compositions thereby avoiding dangerous purification steps.

  9. Removing High Explosives from Groundwater

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    LOS ALAMOS, N.M. – In an initiative supported by EM, Los Alamos National Laboratory’s Corrective Actions Program is addressing high explosive contamination in surface water and groundwater at a location this summer in the forests surrounding the laboratory.

  10. Safety of Nuclear Explosive Operations

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2001-08-07

    This directive establishes responsibilities and requirements to ensure the safety of routine and planned nuclear explosive operations and associated activities and facilities. Cancels DOE O 452.2A and DOE G 452.2A-1A. Canceled by DOE O 452.2C.

  11. High Explosives Application Facility | National Nuclear Security

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Administration | (NNSA) High Explosives Application Facility A Livermore scientist uses a laser spectroscopic method with a diamond anvil DOE/NNSA has identified LLNL's High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF) as the complex-wide "Center of Excellence" for High-Explosives Research and Development. In this capacity, HEAF is a source of subject matter expertise for high explosives and other energetic materials. Its mission is to provide this expertise to serve multiple government

  12. Thermally stable, plastic-bonded explosives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benziger, Theodore M.

    1979-01-01

    By use of an appropriate thermoplastic rubber as the binder, the thermal stability and thermal stress characteristics of plastic-bonded explosives may be greatly improved. In particular, an HMX-based explosive composition using an oil-extended styrene-ethylenebutylene-styrene block copolymer as the binder exhibits high explosive energy and thermal stability and good handling safety and physical properties.

  13. high explosives | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    high explosives NNSA honors Pantex explosives experts A group of explosives experts have been honored with a Defense Programs Award of Excellence for their help in securing supply of a critical material for the Departments of Energy and Defense. The four Pantexans, Tod Botcher, Tony Dutton, Ken Franklin and Kathy Mitchell, played a leadership role in

  14. Spot test kit for explosives detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pagoria, Philip F; Whipple, Richard E; Nunes, Peter J; Eckels, Joel Del; Reynolds, John G; Miles, Robin R; Chiarappa-Zucca, Marina L

    2014-03-11

    An explosion tester system comprising a body, a lateral flow membrane swab unit adapted to be removeably connected to the body, a first explosives detecting reagent, a first reagent holder and dispenser operatively connected to the body, the first reagent holder and dispenser containing the first explosives detecting reagent and positioned to deliver the first explosives detecting reagent to the lateral flow membrane swab unit when the lateral flow membrane swab unit is connected to the body, a second explosives detecting reagent, and a second reagent holder and dispenser operatively connected to the body, the second reagent holder and dispenser containing the second explosives detecting reagent and positioned to deliver the second explosives detecting reagent to the lateral flow membrane swab unit when the lateral flow membrane swab unit is connected to the body.

  15. Hazards of explosives dusts: Particle size effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cashdollar, K L; Hertzberg, M; Green, G M

    1992-02-01

    At the request of the Department of Energy, the Bureau of Mines has investigated the hazards of military explosives dispersed as dust clouds in a 20-L test chamber. In this report, the effect of particle size for HMX, HNS, RDX, TATB, and TNT explosives dusts is studied in detail. The explosibility data for these dusts are also compared to those for pure fuel dusts. The data show that all of the sizes of the explosives dusts that were studied were capable of sustaining explosions as dust clouds dispersed in air. The finest sizes (<10 [mu]m) of explosives dusts were less reactive than the intermediate sizes (20 to 60 [mu]m); this is opposite to the particle size effect observed previously for the pure fuel dusts. At the largest sizes studied, the explosives dusts become somewhat less reactive as dispersed dust clouds. The six sizes of the HMX dust were also studied as dust clouds dispersed in nitrogen.

  16. Stellar explosions, instabilities, and turbulence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drake, R. P.; Kuranz, C. C.; Miles, A. R.; Muthsam, H. J.; Plewa, T.

    2009-04-15

    It has become very clear that the evolution of structure during supernovae is centrally dependent on the pre-existing structure in the star. Modeling of the pre-existing structure has advanced significantly, leading to improved understanding and to a physically based assessment of the structure that will be present when a star explodes. It remains an open question whether low-mode asymmetries in the explosion process can produce the observed effects or whether the explosion mechanism somehow produces jets of material. In any event, the workhorse processes that produce structure in an exploding star are blast-wave driven instabilities. Laboratory experiments have explored these blast-wave-driven instabilities and specifically their dependence on initial conditions. Theoretical work has shown that the relative importance of Richtmyer-Meshkov and Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities varies with the initial conditions and does so in ways that can make sense of a range of astrophysical observations.

  17. Printable sensors for explosive detonation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffith, Matthew J. Cooling, Nathan A.; Elkington, Daniel C.; Belcher, Warwick J.; Dastoor, Paul C.; Muller, Elmar

    2014-10-06

    Here, we report the development of an organic thin film transistor (OTFT) based on printable solution processed polymers and employing a quantum tunnelling composite material as a sensor to convert the pressure wave output from detonation transmission tubing (shock tube) into an inherently amplified electronic signal for explosives initiation. The organic electronic detector allows detection of the signal in a low voltage operating range, an essential feature for sites employing live ordinances that is not provided by conventional electronic devices. We show that a 30-fold change in detector response is possible using the presented detector assembly. Degradation of the OTFT response with both time and repeated voltage scans was characterised, and device lifetime is shown to be consistent with the requirements for on-site printing and usage. The integration of a low cost organic electronic detector with inexpensive shock tube transmission fuse presents attractive avenues for the development of cheap and simple assemblies for precisely timed initiation of explosive chains.

  18. Explosives detection system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reber, Edward L.; Jewell, James K.; Rohde, Kenneth W.; Seabury, Edward H.; Blackwood, Larry G.; Edwards, Andrew J.; Derr, Kurt W.

    2007-12-11

    A method of detecting explosives in a vehicle includes providing a first rack on one side of the vehicle, the rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a second rack on another side of the vehicle, the second rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a control system, remote from the first and second racks, coupled to the neutron generators and gamma ray detectors; using the control system, causing the neutron generators to generate neutrons; and performing gamma ray spectroscopy on spectra read by the gamma ray detectors to look for a signature indicative of presence of an explosive. Various apparatus and other methods are also provided.

  19. Elasticity of crystalline molecular explosives

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hooks, Daniel E.; Ramos, Kyle J.; Bolme, C. A.; Cawkwell, Marc J.

    2015-04-14

    Crystalline molecular explosives are key components of engineered explosive formulations. In precision applications a high degree of consistency and predictability is desired under a range of conditions to a variety of stimuli. Prediction of behaviors from mechanical response and failure to detonation initiation and detonation performance of the material is linked to accurate knowledge of the material structure and first stage of deformation: elasticity. The elastic response of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX), and cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (HMX), including aspects of material and measurement variability, and computational methods are described in detail. Experimental determinations of elastic tensors are compared, andmore » an evaluation of sources of error is presented. Furthermore, computed elastic constants are also compared for these materials and for triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB), for which there are no measurements.« less

  20. Elasticity of crystalline molecular explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hooks, Daniel E.; Ramos, Kyle J.; Bolme, C. A.; Cawkwell, Marc J.

    2015-04-14

    Crystalline molecular explosives are key components of engineered explosive formulations. In precision applications a high degree of consistency and predictability is desired under a range of conditions to a variety of stimuli. Prediction of behaviors from mechanical response and failure to detonation initiation and detonation performance of the material is linked to accurate knowledge of the material structure and first stage of deformation: elasticity. The elastic response of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX), and cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (HMX), including aspects of material and measurement variability, and computational methods are described in detail. Experimental determinations of elastic tensors are compared, and an evaluation of sources of error is presented. Furthermore, computed elastic constants are also compared for these materials and for triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB), for which there are no measurements.

  1. Explosive Formulation Code Naming SOP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martz, H. E.

    2014-09-19

    The purpose of this SOP is to provide a procedure for giving individual HME formulations code names. A code name for an individual HME formulation consists of an explosive family code, given by the classified guide, followed by a dash, -, and a number. If the formulation requires preparation such as packing or aging, these add additional groups of symbols to the X-ray specimen name.

  2. Thermodynamic States in Explosion Fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuhl, A L

    2010-03-12

    We investigate the thermodynamic states occurring in explosion fields from condensed explosive charges. These states are often modeled with a Jones-Wilkins-Lee (JWL) function. However, the JWL function is not a Fundamental Equation of Thermodynamics, and therefore cannot give a complete specification of such states. We use the Cheetah code of Fried to study the loci of states of the expanded detonation products gases from C-4 charges, and their combustion products air. In the Le Chatelier Plane of specific-internal-energy versus temperature, these loci are fit with a Quadratic Model function u(T), which has been shown to be valid for T < 3,000 K and p < 1k-bar. This model is used to derive a Fundamental Equation u(v,s) for C-4. Given u(v,s), one can use Maxwell's Relations to derive all other thermodynamic functions, such as temperature: T(v,s), pressure: p(v,s), enthalpy: h(v,s), Gibbs free energy: g(v,s) and Helmholz free energy: f(v,s); these loci are displayed in figures for C-4. Such complete equations of state are needed for numerical simulations of blast waves from explosive charges, and their reflections from surfaces.

  3. Data base of chemical explosions in Kazakhstan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demin, V.N.; Malahova, M.N.; Martysevich, P.N.; Mihaylova, N.N.; Nurmagambetov, A.; Kopnichev, Yu.F. D.; Edomin, V.I.

    1996-12-01

    Within the bounds of this report, the following works were done: (1) Information about explosion quarries, located in Southern, Eastern and Northern Kasakstan was summarized. (2) The general information about seismicity of areas of location of explosion quarries was adduced. (3) The system of observation and seismic apparatus, recording the local earthquakes and quarry explosions at the territory of Kazakstan were described. (4) Data base of quarry explosions, that were carried out in Southern, Eastern and Northern Kazakstan during 1995 and first half of 1996 year was adduced. (5) Upon the data of registration of explosions in Southern Kazakstan the correlative dependences between power class of explosions and summary weight of charge were constructed. (6) Seismic records of quarry explosions were adduced. It is necessary to note, that the collection of data about quarry explosions in Kazakstan in present time is very difficult task. Organizations, that makes these explosions, are always suffering reorganizations and sometimes it is actually impossible to receive all the necessary information. Some quarries are situated in remote, almost inaccessible regions, and within the bounds of supplier financing not the every quarry was in success to visit. So the present data base upon the chemical explosions for 1995 is not full and in further it`s expansion is possible.

  4. Shock Initiation of Damaged Explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chidester, S K; Vandersall, K S; Tarver, C M

    2009-10-22

    Explosive and propellant charges are subjected to various mechanical and thermal insults that can increase their sensitivity over the course of their lifetimes. To quantify this effect, shock initiation experiments were performed on mechanically and thermally damaged LX-04 (85% HMX, 15% Viton by weight) and PBX 9502 (95% TATB, 5% Kel-F by weight) to obtain in-situ manganin pressure gauge data and run distances to detonation at various shock pressures. We report the behavior of the HMX-based explosive LX-04 that was damaged mechanically by applying a compressive load of 600 psi for 20,000 cycles, thus creating many small narrow cracks, or by cutting wedge shaped parts that were then loosely reassembled, thus creating a few large cracks. The thermally damaged LX-04 charges were heated to 190 C for long enough for the beta to delta solid - solid phase transition to occur, and then cooled to ambient temperature. Mechanically damaged LX-04 exhibited only slightly increased shock sensitivity, while thermally damaged LX-04 was much more shock sensitive. Similarly, the insensitive explosive PBX 9502 was mechanically damaged using the same two techniques. Since PBX 9502 does not undergo a solid - solid phase transition but does undergo irreversible or 'rachet' growth when thermally cycled, thermal damage to PBX 9502 was induced by this procedure. As for LX-04, the thermally damaged PBX 9502 demonstrated a greater shock sensitivity than mechanically damaged PBX 9502. The Ignition and Growth reactive flow model calculated the increased sensitivities by igniting more damaged LX-04 and PBX 9502 near the shock front based on the measured densities (porosities) of the damaged charges.

  5. Explosives performance key to stockpile stewardship

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Explosives performance key to stockpile stewardship Explosives performance key to stockpile stewardship A new video shows how researchers use scientific guns to induce shock waves into explosive materials to study their performance and properties. November 3, 2014 Adam Pacheco of shock and detonation physics presses the "fire" button during an experiment at the two-stage gas gun facility. Adam Pacheco of shock and detonation physics presses the "fire" button during an

  6. Air Activation Following an Atmospheric Explosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowrey, Justin D.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Prichard, Andrew W.; Gesh, Christopher J.

    2013-03-13

    In addition to thermal radiation and fission products, nuclear explosions result in a very high flux of unfissioned neutrons. Within an atmospheric nuclear explosion, these neutrons can activate the various elemental components of natural air, potentially adding to the radioactive signature of the event as a whole. The goal of this work is to make an order-of-magnitude estimate of the total amount of air activation products that can result from an atmospheric nuclear explosion.

  7. Explosives performance key to stockpile stewardship

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Explosives performance key to stockpile stewardship Alumni Link: Opportunities, News and Resources for Former Employees Latest Issue:September 2015 all issues All Issues » submit Explosives performance key to stockpile stewardship A new video shows how researchers use scientific guns to induce shock waves into explosive materials to study their performance and properties January 1, 2015 Adam Pacheco of shock and detonation physics presses the "fire" button during an experiment at the

  8. Wireless sensor for detecting explosive material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lamberti, Vincent E; Howell, Jr., Layton N; Mee, David K; Sepaniak, Michael J

    2014-10-28

    Disclosed is a sensor for detecting explosive devices. The sensor includes a ferromagnetic metal and a molecular recognition reagent coupled to the ferromagnetic metal. The molecular recognition reagent is operable to expand upon absorption of vapor from an explosive material such that the molecular recognition reagent changes a tensile stress upon the ferromagnetic metal. The explosive device is detected based on changes in the magnetic switching characteristics of the ferromagnetic metal caused by the tensile stress.

  9. Nuclear Explosive Safety Study Process

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3015-2001 February 2001 Superseding DOE-STD-3015-97 January 1997 DOE STANDARD NUCLEAR EXPLOSIVE SAFETY STUDY PROCESS U.S. Department of Energy AREA SAFT Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This document has been reproduced from the best available copy. Available to DOE and DOE contractors from ES&H Technical Information Services, U.S. Department of Energy, (800) 473-4375, fax: (301) 903-9823. Available to the public from

  10. The Explosives Center at Los Alamos

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    goals are to integrate and advance the Laboratory's explosives capabilities for the modern nuclear weapons mission and a range of national security challenges. Since its...

  11. high explosives pressing facility | National Nuclear Security...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    pressing facility high explosives pressing facility Thornberry hosts House Majority Leader at Pantex visit Rep. Mac Thornberry, R-Texas, hosted Majority Leader Kevin McCarthy,...

  12. Method and apparatus for detecting explosives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, David Steven

    2011-05-10

    A method and apparatus is provided for detecting explosives by thermal imaging. The explosive material is subjected to a high energy wave which can be either a sound wave or an electromagnetic wave which will initiate a chemical reaction in the explosive material which chemical reaction will produce heat. The heat is then sensed by a thermal imaging device which will provide a signal to a computing device which will alert a user of the apparatus to the possibility of an explosive device being present.

  13. Nuclear Explosive Safety Study Functional Area Qualification Standard

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2010-05-27

    A Nuclear Explosive Safety Study (NESS) is performed on all DOE Nuclear Explosive Operations (NEOs) in accordance with DOE O 452.1D, Nuclear Explosive and Weapon Surety Program; DOE O 452.2D, Nuclear Explosive Safety; and DOE M 452.2-2, Nuclear Explosive Safety Evaluation Processes.

  14. High temperature two component explosive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mars, James E.; Poole, Donald R.; Schmidt, Eckart W.; Wang, Charles

    1981-01-01

    A two component, high temperature, thermally stable explosive composition comprises a liquid or low melting oxidizer and a liquid or low melting organic fuel. The oxidizer and fuel in admixture are incapable of substantial spontaneous exothermic reaction at temperatures on the order of 475.degree. K. At temperatures on the order of 475.degree. K., the oxidizer and fuel in admixture have an activation energy of at least about 40 kcal/mol. As a result of the high activation energy, the preferred explosive compositions are nondetonable as solids at ambient temperature, and become detonable only when heated beyond the melting point. Preferable oxidizers are selected from alkali or alkaline earth metal nitrates, nitrites, perchlorates, and/or mixtures thereof. Preferred fuels are organic compounds having polar hydrophilic groups. The most preferred fuels are guanidinium nitrate, acetamide and mixtures of the two. Most preferred oxidizers are eutectic mixtures of lithium nitrate, potassium nitrate and sodium nitrate, of sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate, and of potassium nitrate, calcium nitrate and sodium nitrate.

  15. Explosive double salts and preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cady, Howard H.; Lee, Kien-yin

    1984-01-01

    Applicants have discovered a new composition of matter which is an explosive addition compound of ammonium nitrate (AN) and diethylenetriamine trinitrate (DETN) in a 50:50 molar ratio. The compound is stable over extended periods of time only at temperatures higher than 46.degree. C., decomposing to a fine-grained eutectic mixture (which is also believed to be new) of AN and DETN at temperatures lower than 46.degree. C. The compound of the invention has an x-ray density of 1.61 g/cm.sup.3, explodes to form essentially only gaseous products, has higher detonation properties (i.e., detonation velocity and pressure) than those of any mechanical mixture having the same density and composition as the compound of the invention, is a quite insensitive explosive material, can be cast at temperatures attainable by high pressure steam, and is prepared from inexpensive ingredients. Methods of preparing the compound of the invention and the fine-grained eutectic composition of the invention are given.

  16. Advancing Explosives Detection Capabilities: Vapor Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atkinson, David

    2012-10-15

    A new, PNNL-developed method provides direct, real-time detection of trace amounts of explosives such as RDX, PETN and C-4. The method selectively ionizes a sample before passing the sample through a mass spectrometer to detect explosive vapors. The method could be used at airports to improve aviation security.

  17. Method for laser machining explosives and ordnance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muenchausen, Ross E.; Rivera, Thomas; Sanchez, John A.

    2003-05-06

    Method for laser machining explosives and related articles. A laser beam is directed at a surface portion of a mass of high explosive to melt and/or vaporize the surface portion while directing a flow of gas at the melted and/or vaporized surface portion. The gas flow sends the melted and/or vaporized explosive away from the charge of explosive that remains. The method also involves splitting the casing of a munition having an encased explosive. The method includes rotating a munition while directing a laser beam to a surface portion of the casing of an article of ordnance. While the beam melts and/or vaporizes the surface portion, a flow of gas directed at the melted and/or vaporized surface portion sends it away from the remaining portion of ordnance. After cutting through the casing, the beam then melts and/or vaporizes portions of the encased explosive and the gas stream sends the melted/vaporized explosive away from the ordnance. The beam is continued until it splits the article, after which the encased explosive, now accessible, can be removed safely for recycle or disposal.

  18. Fire and explosion hazards of oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The US Bureau of Mines publication presents the results of investigations into the fire and explosion hazards of oil shale rocks and dust. Three areas have been examined: the explosibility and ignitability of oil shale dust clouds, the fire hazards of oil shale dust layers on hot surfaces, and the ignitability and extinguishment of oil shale rubble piles. 10 refs., 54 figs., 29 tabs.

  19. Advancing Explosives Detection Capabilities: Vapor Detection

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Atkinson, David

    2014-07-24

    A new, PNNL-developed method provides direct, real-time detection of trace amounts of explosives such as RDX, PETN and C-4. The method selectively ionizes a sample before passing the sample through a mass spectrometer to detect explosive vapors. The method could be used at airports to improve aviation security.

  20. Explosive laser light initiation of propellants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piltch, M.S.

    1993-05-18

    A improved initiator for artillery shell using an explosively generated laser light to uniformly initiate the propellent. A small quantity of a high explosive, when detonated, creates a high pressure and temperature, causing the surrounding noble gas to fluoresce. This fluorescence is directed into a lasing material, which lases, and directs laser light into a cavity in the propellant, uniformly initiating the propellant.

  1. NEW - DOE O 452.2E, Nuclear Explosive Safety

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    This Department of Energy (DOE) Order establishes requirements to implement the nuclear explosive safety (NES) elements of DOE O 452.1D, Nuclear Explosive and Weapon Surety Program, or successor directive, for routine and planned nuclear explosive operations (NEOs).

  2. Method for fabricating non-detonable explosive simulants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, Randall L.; Pruneda, Cesar O.

    1995-01-01

    A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs and calibrating sensitive analytical instruments. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques, a first involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and the second involves coating inert beads with thin layers of explosive molecules.

  3. Method for fabricating non-detonable explosive simulants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, R.L.; Pruneda, C.O.

    1995-05-09

    A simulator is disclosed which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs and calibrating sensitive analytical instruments. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques, a first involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and the second involves coating inert beads with thin layers of explosive molecules. 5 figs.

  4. A different Big Bang theory: Los Alamos unveils explosives detection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    expertise unveils explosives detection expertise A different Big Bang theory: Los Alamos unveils explosives detection expertise A team of scientists is now rolling out a collaborative project to defeat explosives threats through enhanced detection technologies. February 11, 2015 Instructors discuss the production of aluminum based explosives, part of an advanced course in worldwide threats from homemade explosives created by the Los Alamos Collaboration for Explosives Detection (LACED).

  5. Ignition dynamics of high explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali, A.N.; Son, S.F.; Sander, R.K.; Asay, B.W.; Brewster, M.Q.

    1999-04-01

    The laser ignition of the explosives HMX (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine, C{sub 4}H{sub 8}N{sub 8}O{sub 8}), {delta}-phase HMX, PBX 9501 (95% HMX, 2.5% Estane, 2.5% BDNPA/BDNPF), TATB (1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene, C{sub 6}H{sub 6}N{sub 6}O{sub 6}), and PBX 9502 (95% TATB, 5% Kel-F) and aged PBX 9502 has been conducted with the intent to compare the relative sensitivities of those explosives and to investigate the effect of beam profile, binder addition, and porosity. It has been found that there was little difference between a gaussian beam and a top hat profile on the laser ignition of HMX. The authors observe that the addition of binder in the amounts present in PBX 9501 resulted in longer ignition delays than that of HMX. In contrast to HMX, the addition of binder to TATB in PBX 9502 shows no measurable effect. Porosity effects were considered by comparing the ignition of granular HMX and pressed HMX pellets. Porosity appears to increase ignition delay due to an increased effective absorption scale and increased convective heat loss. This porosity effect also resulted in longer ignition delays for {delta}-phase HMX than for {beta}-phase HMX. In order to simulate ignition in voids or cracks, the standard ignition experiment was modified to include a NaCl window placed at variable distances above the sample surface. When ignition experiments were performed at 29 W/cm{sup 2} and 38 W/cm{sup 2} a critical gap distance was observed of 6 {+-} 0.4 mm below which ignition was severely inhibited. This result underscores the importance of gas phase processes in ignition and illustrates that conditions can exist where simple ignition criteria such as surface temperature is inadequate.

  6. Recovery Act Changes Hanford Skyline with Explosive Demolitions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    American Recovery and Reinvestment Act workers at the Hanford Site recently used explosives to demolish industrial structures that supported plutonium processing for national defense. The explosive...

  7. First in-situ images of void collapse in explosives

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    First in-situ images of void collapse in explosives Los Alamos researchers and collaborators demonstrated a crucial diagnostic for studying how voids affect explosives under...

  8. Picture of the Week: Training the explosives experts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6 Training the explosives experts Lab scientists use their expertise to teach EOD techs ... April 10, 2016 Training the explosives experts Lab scientists use their expertise to teach ...

  9. Atomic Energy Commission Explores Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Explosions...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Explosions Nevada Test Site, NV As part of the Plowshare program seeking to develop peaceful uses for nuclear explosives, the Atomic Energy Commission conducts the Sedan test ...

  10. Title Preactivity Survey Report for Five Tonopah Test Range Explosive...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Preactivity Survey Report for Five Tonopah Test Range Explosive Ordnance Disposal Sites ... PREACTIVITY AND RECLAMATION SURVEY REPORTS FOR FIVE TONOPAH TEST RANGE EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE ...

  11. Simulation of Explosion Ground Motions Using a Hydrodynamic-to...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Simulation of Explosion Ground Motions Using a Hydrodynamic-to-Elastic Coupling Approach in Three-Dimensions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Simulation of Explosion ...

  12. Specific heat and thermal conductivity of explosives, mixtures...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Specific heat and thermal conductivity of explosives, mixtures, and plastic-bonded explosives determined experimentally Baytos, J.F. 45 MILITARY TECHNOLOGY, WEAPONRY, AND NATIONAL...

  13. A different Big Bang theory: Los Alamos unveils explosives detection...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    unveils explosives detection expertise A different Big Bang theory: Los Alamos unveils explosives detection expertise A team of scientists is now rolling out a collaborative...

  14. 2012 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies Citation Details In-Document Search Title: 2012 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring ...

  15. THE ENVIRONMENT CREATED BY A NUCLEAR EXPLOSION IN SALT. Project...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    THE ENVIRONMENT CREATED BY A NUCLEAR EXPLOSION IN SALT. Project GNOME Citation Details In-Document Search Title: THE ENVIRONMENT CREATED BY A NUCLEAR EXPLOSION IN SALT. Project ...

  16. Proceedings of the 24th Seismic Research Review: Nuclear Explosion...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nuclear Explosion Monitoring: Innovation and Integration Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Proceedings of the 24th Seismic Research Review: Nuclear Explosion ...

  17. Proceedings of the 25th Seismic Research Review -- Nuclear Explosion...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    -- Nuclear Explosion Monitoring: Building the Knowledge Base Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Proceedings of the 25th Seismic Research Review -- Nuclear Explosion ...

  18. The Soviet program for peaceful uses of nuclear explosions (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The Soviet program for peaceful uses of nuclear explosions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Soviet program for peaceful uses of nuclear explosions You are ...

  19. LANL highlights explosives work | National Nuclear Security Administra...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    leader in explosives applications. It will feature LANL's work with explosives, from synthesis of new molecules to waste treatment. The exhibit also examines a variety of...

  20. Enterprise Assessments Review of Explosives Safety Program Implementat...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Explosives Safety Program Implementation at the Pantex Plant - November 2015 Enterprise Assessments Review of Explosives Safety Program Implementation at the Pantex Plant - ...

  1. Chemical analysis kit for the presence of explosives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eckels, Joel Del; Nunes; Peter J.; Alcaraz, Armando; Whipple, Richard E.

    2011-05-10

    A tester for testing for explosives associated with a test location comprising a first explosives detecting reagent; a first reagent holder, the first reagent holder containing the first explosives detecting reagent; a second explosives detecting reagent; a second reagent holder, the second reagent holder containing the second explosives detecting reagent; a sample collection unit for exposure to the test location, exposure to the first explosives detecting reagent, and exposure to the second explosives detecting reagent; and a body unit containing a heater for heating the sample collection unit for testing the test location for the explosives.

  2. Explosive-array performance measurement using TDR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKown, T.O.; Eilers, D.D.

    1994-04-01

    The system known as CORRTEX was developed for determining the yield of a nuclear explosion by measuring the position of its shock front as a function of time. The CORRTEX system is a compact, fast sampling TDR based system where only a length of 50 ohm coaxial cable (the sensing element) is expended in the detonation. In 1979, the application of the CORRTEX system to measure the explosive bum of columns of conventional explosive in one or more drill holes was demonstrated. Subsequently, the CORRTEX system was used to diagnose complicated multiple hole high explosive oilshale, rock quarry and strip mining shots. The diagnostic timing and explosive characterization data from large array or large mass detonations provide a basis for performance improvement and comparison with calculational models. A summary of the CORRTEX capabilities and analysis techniques will be presented. Experiment designs and data from large array detonations will be presented, results from a confined large mass ANFO explosion will be summarized and other possible non-explosive applications may be presented.

  3. Supernova neutrinos and explosive nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kajino, T. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan and Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Aoki, W. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Cheoun, M.-K. [Department of Physics, Soongsil University, Seoul 156-743 (Korea, Republic of); Hayakawa, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Shirakara-Shirane 2-4, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Hidaka, J.; Hirai, Y.; Shibagaki, S. [National Astronomical Observatory, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Mathews, G. J. [Center for Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Nakamura, K. [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Ohkubo 3-4-1, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Suzuki, T. [Department of Physics, College of Humanities and Sciences, Nihon University, Sakurajosui 3-25-40, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8550 (Japan)

    2014-05-09

    Core-collapse supernovae eject huge amount of flux of energetic neutrinos. We studied the explosive nucleosyn-thesis in supernovae and found that several isotopes {sup 7}Li, {sup 11}B, {sup 92}Nb, {sup 138}La and {sup 180}Ta as well as r-process nuclei are affected by the neutrino interactions. The abundance of these isotopes therefore depends strongly on the neutrino flavor oscillation due to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. We discuss first how to determine the neutrino temperatures in order to explain the observed solar system abundances of these isotopes, combined with Galactic chemical evolution of the light nuclei and the heavy r-process elements. We then study the effects of neutrino oscillation on their abundances, and propose a novel method to determine the still unknown neutrino oscillation parameters, mass hierarchy and ?{sub 13}, simultaneously. There is recent evidence that SiC X grains from the Murchison meteorite may contain supernova-produced light elements {sup 11}B and {sup 7}Li encapsulated in the presolar grains. Combining the recent experimental constraints on ?{sub 13}, we show that our method sug-gests at a marginal preference for an inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. Finally, we discuss supernova relic neutrinos that may indicate the softness of the equation of state (EoS) of nuclear matter as well as adiabatic conditions of the neutrino oscillation.

  4. Trinity Site- World's First Nuclear Explosion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The world's first nuclear explosion occurred on July 16, 1945, when a plutonium implosion device was tested at a site located 210 miles south of Los Alamos on the barren plains of the Alamogordo...

  5. Nuclear Explosive and Weapon Surety Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2001-08-06

    This Order provides requirements and responsibilities to prevent unintended/unauthorized detonation and deliberate unauthorized use of nuclear explosives. Cancels DOE O 452.1A. Canceled by DOE O 452.1C.

  6. Nuclear Explosive and Weapon Surety Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2005-09-20

    This Order provides requirements and responsibilities to prevent unintended/unauthorized detonation and deliberate unauthorized use of nuclear explosives. Cancels DOE O 452.1B. Canceled by DOE O 452.1D

  7. Nuclear Explosive and Weapon Surety Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2009-04-14

    This Order provides requirements and responsibilities to prevent unintended/unauthorized detonation and deliberate unauthorized use of nuclear explosives. Cancels DOE O 452.1C. Canceled by DOE O 452.1D Admin Chg 1.

  8. CRAD, NNSA- Nuclear Explosive Safety (NES)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    CRAD for Nuclear Explosive Safety (NES). Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) that can be used to conduct a well-organized and thorough assessment of elements of safety and health programs.

  9. Explosive Safety Manual, to a New Order

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2010-12-02

    This memorandum provides justification for the conversion of Department of Energy (DOE) Manual (M) 440.1-1A, DOE Explosives Safety Manual, dated 1-9-06, into a new DOE Order.

  10. Nuclear Explosive and Weapon Surety Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-01-17

    This Order provides requirements and responsibilities to prevent unintended/unauthorized detonation and deliberate unauthorized use of nuclear explosives. Cancels DOE O 452.1. Canceled by DOE O 452.1B.

  11. Weapons Experiments Division Explosives Operations Overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laintz, Kenneth E.

    2012-06-19

    Presentation covers WX Division programmatic operations with a focus on JOWOG-9 interests. A brief look at DARHT is followed by a high level overview of explosives research activities currently being conducted within in the experimental groups of WX-Division. Presentation covers more emphasis of activities and facilities at TA-9 as these efforts have been more traditionally aligned with ongoing collaborative explosive exchanges covered under JOWOG-9.

  12. Uncovering the mysteries of cosmic explosions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Uncovering the mysteries of cosmic explosions Uncovering the mysteries of cosmic explosions An automated software system developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory played a key role in the discovery of supernova iPTF 14atg and could provide insight, a virtual Rosetta stone, into future supernovae and their underlying physics. May 20, 2015 A Los Alamos simulation of an exploding white dwarf, in which the supernova drives an expanding shock wave that collides with a torus of material accreted

  13. Explosive parcel containment and blast mitigation container

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sparks, Michael H.

    2001-06-12

    The present invention relates to a containment structure for containing and mitigating explosions. The containment structure is installed in the wall of the building and has interior and exterior doors for placing suspicious packages into the containment structure and retrieving them from the exterior of the building. The containment structure has a blast deflection chute and a blowout panel to direct over pressure from explosions away from the building, surrounding structures and people.

  14. Projectile-generating explosive access tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jakaboski, Juan-Carlos; Todd, Steven N.

    2011-10-18

    An explosive device that can generate a projectile from the opposite side of a wall from the side where the explosive device is detonated. The projectile can be generated without breaching the wall of the structure or container. The device can optionally open an aperture in a solid wall of a structure or a container and form a high-kinetic-energy projectile from the portion of the wall removed to create the aperture.

  15. Projectile-generating explosive access tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jakaboski, Juan-Carlos; Hughs, Chance G; Todd, Steven N

    2013-06-11

    A method for generating a projectile using an explosive device that can generate a projectile from the opposite side of a wall from the side where the explosive device is detonated. The projectile can be generated without breaching the wall of the structure or container. The device can optionally open an aperture in a solid wall of a structure or a container and form a high-kinetic-energy projectile from the portion of the wall removed to create the aperture.

  16. Vapor generation methods for explosives detection research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grate, Jay W.; Ewing, Robert G.; Atkinson, David A.

    2012-12-01

    The generation of calibrated vapor samples of explosives compounds remains a challenge due to the low vapor pressures of the explosives, adsorption of explosives on container and tubing walls, and the requirement to manage (typically) multiple temperature zones as the vapor is generated, diluted, and delivered. Methods that have been described to generate vapors can be classified as continuous or pulsed flow vapor generators. Vapor sources for continuous flow generators are typically explosives compounds supported on a solid support, or compounds contained in a permeation or diffusion device. Sources are held at elevated isothermal temperatures. Similar sources can be used for pulsed vapor generators; however, pulsed systems may also use injection of solutions onto heated surfaces with generation of both solvent and explosives vapors, transient peaks from a gas chromatograph, or vapors generated by s programmed thermal desorption. This article reviews vapor generator approaches with emphasis on the method of generating the vapors and on practical aspects of vapor dilution and handling. In addition, a gas chromatographic system with two ovens that is configurable with up to four heating ropes is proposed that could serve as a single integrated platform for explosives vapor generation and device testing. Issues related to standards, calibration, and safety are also discussed.

  17. Explosives exhibit opens at the Bradbury Science Museum Sept. 18

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Explosives exhibit opens at the Bradbury Science Museum Explosives exhibit opens at the Bradbury Science Museum Sept. 18 To highlight the Laboratory's work in the field of explosives, the museum is opening a new exhibit titled "The Science of Explosives." September 12, 2013 A typical explosives experiment fired in front of the PHERMEX bunker produces a brilliant fireball long after the hydrodynamics measurements have been recorded. PHERMEX was the location for more than 1,000

  18. Questing for the Holy Grail of High Explosives

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Holy Grail National Security Science Latest Issue:April 2016 past issues All Issues » submit Questing for the Holy Grail of High Explosives A molecule invented by Los Alamos scientist David E. Chavez might herald the arrival of a new class of insensitive high explosives. March 22, 2016 Questing for the Holy Grail of High Explosives Explosives chemist David Chavez has developed new explosives molecules that offer high energy with enhanced safety-they cannot be detonated by spark, friction, or

  19. Studies of the laser-induced fluorescence of explosives and explosive compositions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hargis, Philip Joseph, Jr.; Thorne, Lawrence R.; Phifer, Carol Celeste; Parmeter, John Ethan; Schmitt, Randal L.

    2006-10-01

    Continuing use of explosives by terrorists throughout the world has led to great interest in explosives detection technology, especially in technologies that have potential for standoff detection. This LDRD was undertaken in order to investigate the possible detection of explosive particulates at safe standoff distances in an attempt to identify vehicles that might contain large vehicle bombs (LVBs). The explosives investigated have included the common homogeneous or molecular explosives, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), cyclonite or hexogen (RDX), octogen (HMX), and the heterogeneous explosive, ammonium nitrate/fuel oil (ANFO), and its components. We have investigated standard excited/dispersed fluorescence, laser-excited prompt and delayed dispersed fluorescence using excitation wavelengths of 266 and 355 nm, the effects of polarization of the laser excitation light, and fluorescence imaging microscopy using 365- and 470-nm excitation. The four nitro-based, homogeneous explosives (TNT, PETN, RDX, and HMX) exhibit virtually no native fluorescence, but do exhibit quenching effects of varying magnitude when adsorbed on fluorescing surfaces. Ammonium nitrate and fuel oil mixtures fluoresce primarily due to the fuel oil, and, in some cases, due to the presence of hydrophobic coatings on ammonium nitrate prill or impurities in the ammonium nitrate itself. Pure ammonium nitrate shows no detectable fluorescence. These results are of scientific interest, but they provide little hope for the use of UV-excited fluorescence as a technique to perform safe standoff detection of adsorbed explosive particulates under real-world conditions with a useful degree of reliability.

  20. Report on the treatability study for inerting small quantities of radioactive explosives and explosive components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loyola, V.M.; Reber, S.D.

    1996-02-01

    As a result of Sandia`s radiation hardening testing on a variety of its explosive components, radioactive waste streams were generated and have to be disposed of as radioactive waste. Due to the combined hazards of explosives and radioactivity, Sandia`s Radioactive and Mixed Waste Management organization did not have a mechanism for disposal of these waste streams. This report documents the study done to provide a method for the removal of the explosive hazard from those waste streams. The report includes the design of the equipment used, procedures followed, results from waste stream analog tests and the results from the actual explosive inerting tests on radioactive samples. As a result of the inerting treatment, the waste streams were rendered non-explosive and, thus, manageable through normal radioactive waste disposal channels.

  1. Method of digesting an explosive nitro compound

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shah, Manish M.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is a process wherein bleaching oxidants are used to digest explosive nitro compounds. The process has an excellent reaction rate for digesting explosives and operates under multivariate conditions. Reaction solutions may be aqueous, non-aqueous or a combination thereof, and can also be any pH, but preferably have a pH between 2 and 9. The temperature may be ambient as well as any temperature above which freezing of the solution would occur and below which any degradation of the bleaching oxidant would occur or below which any explosive reaction would be initiated. The pressure may be any pressure, but is preferably ambient or atmospheric, or a pressure above a vapor pressure of the aqueous solution to avoid boiling of the solution. Because the bleaching oxidant molecules are small, much smaller than an enzyme molecule for example, they can penetrate the microstructure of plastic explosives faster. The bleaching oxidants generate reactive hydroxyl radicals, which can destroy other organic contaminants, if necessary, along with digesting the explosive nitro compound.

  2. Securing Infrastructure from High Explosive Threats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glascoe, L; Noble, C; Reynolds, J; Kuhl, A; Morris, J

    2009-03-20

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is working with the Department of Homeland Security's Science and Technology Directorate, the Transportation Security Administration, and several infrastructure partners to characterize and help mitigate principal structural vulnerabilities to explosive threats. Given the importance of infrastructure to the nation's security and economy, there is a clear need for applied research and analyses (1) to improve understanding of the vulnerabilities of these systems to explosive threats and (2) to provide decision makers with time-critical technical assistance concerning countermeasure and mitigation options. Fully-coupled high performance calculations of structural response to ideal and non-ideal explosives help bound and quantify specific critical vulnerabilities, and help identify possible corrective schemes. Experimental validation of modeling approaches and methodologies builds confidence in the prediction, while advanced stochastic techniques allow for optimal use of scarce computational resources to efficiently provide infrastructure owners and decision makers with timely analyses.

  3. Local magnitudes of small contained explosions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chael, Eric Paul

    2009-12-01

    The relationship between explosive yield and seismic magnitude has been extensively studied for underground nuclear tests larger than about 1 kt. For monitoring smaller tests over local ranges (within 200 km), we need to know whether the available formulas can be extrapolated to much lower yields. Here, we review published information on amplitude decay with distance, and on the seismic magnitudes of industrial blasts and refraction explosions in the western U. S. Next we measure the magnitudes of some similar shots in the northeast. We find that local magnitudes ML of small, contained explosions are reasonably consistent with the magnitude-yield formulas developed for nuclear tests. These results are useful for estimating the detection performance of proposed local seismic networks.

  4. PINS Testing and Modification for Explosive Identification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E.H. Seabury; A.J. Caffrey

    2011-09-01

    The INL's Portable Isotopic Neutron Spectroscopy System (PINS)1 non-intrusively identifies the chemical fill of munitions and sealed containers. PINS is used routinely by the U.S. Army, the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, and foreign military units to determine the contents of munitions and other containers suspected to contain explosives, smoke-generating chemicals, and chemical warfare agents such as mustard and nerve gas. The objects assayed with PINS range from softball-sized M139 chemical bomblets to 200 gallon DOT 500X ton containers. INL had previously examined2 the feasibility of using a similar system for the identification of explosives, and based on this proof-of-principle test, the development of a dedicated system for the identification of explosives in an improvised nuclear device appears entirely feasible. INL has been tasked by NNSA NA-42 Render Safe Research and Development with the development of such a system.

  5. Electromagnetic Effects in SDF Explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reichenbach, H; Neuwald, P; Kuhl, A L

    2010-02-12

    The notion of high ion and electron concentrations in the detonation of aluminized explosive mixtures has aroused some interest in electro-magnetic effects that the SDF charges might generate when detonated. Motivated by this interest we have started to investigate whether significant electro-magnetic effects show up in our small-scale experiments. However, the design of instrumentation for this purpose is far from straightforward, since there are a number of open questions. Thus the main aim of the feasibility tests is to find - if possible - a simple and reliable method that can be used as a diagnostic tool for electro-magnetic effects. SDF charges with a 0.5-g PETN booster and a filling of 1 g aluminum flakes have been investigated in three barometric bomb calorimeters with volumes ranging from 6.3 l to of 6.6 l. Though similar in volume, the barometric bombs differed in the length-to-diameter ratio. The tests were carried out with the bombs filled with either air or nitrogen at ambient pressure. The comparison of the test in air to those in nitrogen shows that the combustion of TNT detonation products or aluminum generates a substantial increase of the quasi-steady overpressure in the bombs. Repeated tests in the same configuration resulted in some scatter of the experimental results. The most likely reason is that the aluminum combustion in most or all cases is incomplete and that the amount of aluminum actually burned varies from test to test. The mass fraction burned apparently decreases with increasing aspect ratio L/D. Thus an L/D-ratio of about 1 is optimal for the performance of shock-dispersed-fuel combustion. However, at an L/D-ratio of about 5 the combustion still yields appreciable overpressure in excess of the detonation. For a multi-burst scenario in a tunnel environment with a number of SDF charges distributed along a tunnel section a spacing of 5 tunnel diameter and a fuel-specific volume of around 7 l/g might provide an acceptable compromise

  6. Detonation Reaction Zones in Condensed Explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarver, C M

    2005-07-14

    Experimental measurements using nanosecond time resolved embedded gauges and laser interferometric techniques, combined with Non-Equilibrium Zeldovich--von Neumann--Doring (NEZND) theory and Ignition and Growth reactive flow hydrodynamic modeling, have revealed the average pressure/particle velocity states attained in reaction zones of self-sustaining detonation waves in several solid and liquid explosives. The time durations of these reaction zone processes is discussed for explosives based on pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), nitromethane, octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), triaminitrinitrobenzene(TATB) and trinitrotoluene (TNT).

  7. Explosive-driven, high speed, arcless switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skogmo, Phillip J.; Tucker, Tillman J.

    1987-01-01

    An explosive-actuated, fast-acting arcless switch contains a highly conductive foil to carry high currents positioned adjacent a dielectric surface within a casing. At one side of the foil opposite the dielectric surface is an explosive which, when detonated, drives the conductive foil against the dielectric surface. A pattern of grooves in the dielectric surface ruptures the foil to establish a rupture path having a pattern corresponding to the pattern of the grooves. The impedance of the ruptured foil is greater than that of the original foil to divert high current to a load. Planar and cylindrical embodiments of the switch are disclosed.

  8. Explosive-driven, high speed, arcless switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skogmo, P.J.; Tucker, T.J.

    1987-07-14

    An explosive-actuated, fast-acting arcless switch contains a highly conductive foil to carry high currents positioned adjacent a dielectric surface within a casing. At one side of the foil opposite the dielectric surface is an explosive which, when detonated, drives the conductive foil against the dielectric surface. A pattern of grooves in the dielectric surface ruptures the foil to establish a rupture path having a pattern corresponding to the pattern of the grooves. The impedance of the ruptured foil is greater than that of the original foil to divert high current to a load. Planar and cylindrical embodiments of the switch are disclosed. 7 figs.

  9. Explosive-driven, high speed, arcless switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skogmo, P.J.; Tucker, T.J.

    1986-05-02

    An explosive-actuated, fast-acting arcless switch contains a highly conductive foil to carry high currents positioned adjacent a dielectric surface within a casing. At one side of the foil opposite the dielectric surface is an explosive which, when detonated, drives the conductive foil against the dielectric surface. A pattern of grooves in the dielectric surface ruptures the foil to establish a rupture path having a pattern corresponding to the pattern of the grooves. The impedance of the ruptured foil is greater than that of the original foil to divert high current to a load. Planar and cylindrical embodiments of the switch are disclosed.

  10. Using fly ash to mitigate explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taulbee, D.

    2008-07-01

    In 2005 the University of Kentucky's Center for Applied Energy Research was given funding to evaluate the use of coal combustion by-products (CCBs) to reduce the explosive potential of ammonium nitrate (AN) fertilizers. Fly ash C (FAC), fly ash F (FAF) and flue gas desulfurization by-product (FGD) were evaluated. It was found that applying a CCB coating to the AN particles at concentrations of 5 wt% or greater prevented the AN explosion from propagating. The article reports on results so far and outlines further work to be done. 6 figs.

  11. Lessons learned from a hydrogen explosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neville, A.

    2009-05-15

    On January 8, 2007 a hydrogen explosion at the Msukingum River Power plant's 585-MW coal-fired supercritical unit 5 caused one fatality, injuries to 10 other people and significant damage to several buildings. The explosion occurred during a routine delivery of hydrogen, used to cool generating units, when a hydrogen relief device failed, which allowed the contents of the hydrogen tank to escape and be ignited by an unknown source. This article covers the findings of the incident investigation and the actions the plant has taken to prevent a reoccurrence. 4 photos.

  12. Explosive shaped charge penetration into tuff rock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vigil, M.G.

    1988-10-01

    Analysis and data for the use of Explosive Shaped Charges (ESC) to generate holes in tuff rock formation is presented. The ESCs evaluated include Conical Shaped Charges (CSC) and Explosive Formed Projectiles (EFP). The CSCs vary in size from 0.158 to 9.1 inches inside cone diameter. The EFPs were 5.0 inches in diameter. Data for projectile impact angles of 30 and 90 degrees are presented. Analytically predicted depth of penetration data generally compared favorably with experimental data. Predicted depth of penetration versus ESC standoff data and hole profile dimensions in tuff are also presented. 24 refs., 45 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Picture of the Week: Making the (reactive) case for explosives...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a lab View on Flickr An explosion of 3D printing technology An explosion of 3D printing technology View on Flickr Hot cells for isotopes Hot cells for isotopes View on Flickr...

  14. Security and Use Control of Nuclear Explosives and Nuclear Weapons...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    O 452.4C, Security and Use Control of Nuclear Explosives and Nuclear Weapons by LtCol Karl Basham Functional areas: Nuclear Explosives, Nuclear Weapons, Security, Safety, Weapon...

  15. Low flammability cap-sensitive flexible explosive composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, Martin G.

    1992-01-14

    A cap-sensitive flexible explosive composition of reduced flammability is provided by incorporating a finely divided, cap-sensitive explosive in a flame resistant polymeric binder system which contains a compatible flame retardant material.

  16. Explosion proof vehicle for tank inspection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zollinger, William T.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Bauer, Scott G.

    2012-02-28

    An Explosion Proof Vehicle (EPV) having an interior substantially filled with an inert fluid creating an interior pressure greater than the exterior pressure. One or more flexible tubes provide the inert fluid and one or more electrical conductors from a control system to the vehicle. The vehicle is preferably used in subsurface tank inspection, whereby the vehicle is submerged in a volatile fluid.

  17. Glass ceramics for explosive device headers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ballard, C. P.; Eagan, R. J.; Kjeldgaard, E. A.

    1980-01-01

    The desired features of a header for our advanced explosive devices include small size; 700 Mpa static burst strength; corrosion resistant alloys for electrodes, bridgewire, and housing; integral charge holder; high thermal conductivity (approaching that of alumina ceramic); no braze around the electrodes; design flexibility and quick turnaround time for fabrication of development prototypes; and low cost.

  18. Continuous wave laser irradiation of explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGrane, Shawn D.; Moore, David S.

    2010-12-01

    Quantitative measurements of the levels of continuous wave (CW) laser light that can be safely applied to bare explosives during contact operations were obtained at 532 nm, 785 nm, and 1550 nm wavelengths. A thermal camera was used to record the temperature of explosive pressed pellets and single crystals while they were irradiated using a measured laser power and laser spot size. A visible light image of the sample surface was obtained before and after the laser irradiation. Laser irradiation thresholds were obtained for the onset of any visible change to the explosive sample and for the onset of any visible chemical reaction. Deflagration to detonation transitions were not observed using any of these CW laser wavelengths on single crystals or pressed pellets in the unconfined geometry tested. Except for the photochemistry of DAAF, TATB and PBX 9502, all reactions appeared to be thermal using a 532 nm wavelength laser. For a 1550 nm wavelength laser, no photochemistry was evident, but the laser power thresholds for thermal damage in some of the materials were significantly lower than for the 532 nm laser wavelength. No reactions were observed in any of the studied explosives using the available 300 mW laser at 785 nm wavelength. Tables of laser irradiance damage and reaction thresholds are presented for pressed pellets of PBX9501, PBX9502, Composition B, HMX, TATB, RDX, DAAF, PETN, and TNT and single crystals of RDX, HMX, and PETN for each of the laser wavelengths.

  19. Scaled experiments of explosions in cavities

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Grun, J.; Cranch, G. A.; Lunsford, R.; Compton, S.; Walton, O. R.; Weaver, J.; Dunlop, W.; Fournier, K. B.

    2016-05-11

    Consequences of an explosion inside an air-filled cavity under the earth's surface are partly duplicated in a laboratory experiment on spatial scales 1000 smaller. The experiment measures shock pressures coupled into a block of material by an explosion inside a gas-filled cavity therein. The explosion is generated by suddenly heating a thin foil that is located near the cavity center with a short laser pulse, which turns the foil into expanding plasma, most of whose energy drives a blast wave in the cavity gas. Variables in the experiment are the cavity radius and explosion energy. Measurements and GEODYN code simulationsmore » show that shock pressuresmeasured in the block exhibit a weak dependence on scaled cavity radius up to ~25 m/kt1/3, above which they decrease rapidly. Possible mechanisms giving rise to this behavior are described. As a result, the applicability of this work to validating codes used to simulate full-scale cavityexplosions is discussed.« less

  20. Nuclear Explosive and Weapon Surety Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2009-04-14

    This Order provides requirements and responsibilities to prevent unintended/unauthorized detonation and deliberate unauthorized use of nuclear explosives. Cancels DOE O 452.1C. Admin Chg 1, dated 7-10-13, cancels DOE O 452.1D.

  1. Picture of the Week: Tickling the dragon for explosives science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9 Tickling the dragon for explosives science Los Alamos scientists perform the first 3D simulation of electromagnetic radiation interacting with explosives. May 26, 2016 3D simulation of electromagnetic radiation interacting with explosives For obvious reasons, detecting explosives without blowing them up is a prime goal in law enforcement, anti-terror operations, and combat. But avoiding detonation requires a deep understanding of the complex interplay of chemistry and heat transport in

  2. Explosive composition with group VIII metal nitroso halide getter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walker, Franklin E.; Wasley, Richard J.

    1982-01-01

    An improved explosive composition is disclosed and comprises a major portion of an explosive having a detonation velocity between about 1,500 and 10,000 meters per second and a minor amount of a getter additive comprising a non-explosive compound or mixture of non-explosive compounds capable of chemically reacting with free radicals or ions under shock initiation conditions of 2,000 calories/cm.sup.2 or less of energy fluence.

  3. Explosive composition with group VIII metal nitroso halide getter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walker, F.E.; Wasley, R.J.

    1982-06-22

    An improved explosive composition is disclosed and comprises a major portion of an explosive having a detonation velocity between about 1,500 and 10,000 meters per second and a minor amount of a getter additive comprising a non-explosive compound or mixture of non-explosive compounds capable of chemically reacting with free radicals or ions under shock initiation conditions of 2,000 calories/cm[sup 2] or less of energy fluence.

  4. Atomic Energy Commission Explores Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Explosions |

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) Explores Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Explosions Atomic Energy Commission Explores Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Explosions Nevada Test Site, NV As part of the Plowshare program seeking to develop peaceful uses for nuclear explosives, the Atomic Energy Commission conducts the Sedan test at the Nevada Test Site

  5. Colorimetric chemical analysis sampler for the presence of explosives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nunes, Peter J.; Eckels, Joel Del; Reynolds, John G.; Pagoria, Philip F.; Simpson, Randall L.

    2014-07-01

    A tester for testing for explosives comprising a body, a lateral flow swab unit operably connected to the body, a explosives detecting reagent contained in the body, and a dispenser operatively connected to the body and the lateral flow swab unit. The dispenser selectively allows the explosives detecting reagent to be delivered to the lateral flow swab unit.

  6. Colorimetric chemical analysis sampler for the presence of explosives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nunes, Peter J.; Del Eckels, Joel; Reynolds, John G.; Pagoria, Philip F.; Simpson, Randall L.

    2011-09-27

    A tester for testing for explosives comprising a body, a lateral flow swab unit operably connected to the body, a explosives detecting reagent contained in the body, and a dispenser operatively connected to the body and the lateral flow swab unit. The dispenser selectively allows the explosives detecting reagent to be delivered to the lateral flow swab unit.

  7. First in-situ images of void collapse in explosives

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    First in-situ images of void collapse in explosives First in-situ images of void collapse in explosives Los Alamos researchers and collaborators demonstrated a crucial diagnostic for studying how voids affect explosives under shock loading. July 24, 2014 Dynamic x-ray image of void collapse in shocked explosive. The void (bright spot in the center) collapses as the shock wave passes through it. Dynamic x-ray image of void collapse in shocked explosive. The void (bright spot in the center)

  8. DOE TMD transportation training module 14 transportation of explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffith, R.L. Jr.

    1994-07-01

    The Department of Energy Transportation Management Division has developed training module 14, entitled {open_quotes}Transportation of Explosives{close_quotes} to compliment the basic {open_quotes}core ten{close_quotes} training modules of the Hazardous Materials Modular Training Program. The purpose of this training module is to increase awareness of the Department of Transportation (DOT) requirements concerning the packaging and transportation of explosives. Topics covered in module 14 include the classification of explosives, approval and registration of explosives, packaging requirements, hazard communication requirements, separation and segregation compatibility requirements, loading and unloading operations, as well as safety measures required in the event of a vehicle accident involving explosives.

  9. Inelastic processes in seismic wave generation by underground explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodean, H.C.

    1980-08-01

    Theories, computer calculations, and measurements of spherical stress waves from explosions are described and compared, with emphasis on the transition from inelastic to almost-elastic relations between stress and strain. Two aspects of nonspherical explosion geometry are considered: tectonic strain release and surface spall. Tectonic strain release affects the generation of surface waves; spall closure may also. The reduced-displacement potential is a common solution (the equivalent elastic source) of the forward and inverse problems, assuming a spherical source. Measured reduced-displacement potentials are compared with potentials calculated as solutions of the direct and inverse problems; there are significant differences between the results of the two types of calculations and between calculations and measurements. The simple spherical model of an explosion is not sufficient to account for observations of explosions over wide ranges of depth and yield. The explosion environment can have a large effect on explosion detection and yield estimation. The best sets of seismic observations for use in developing discrimination techniques are for high-magnitude high-yield explosions; the identification problem is most difficult for low-magnitude low-yield explosions. Most of the presently available explosion data (time, medium, depth, yield, etc.) are for explosions in a few media at the Nevada Test Site; some key questions concerning magnitude vs yield and m/sub b/ vs M/sub s/ relations can be answered only by data for explosions in other media at other locations.

  10. One-Dimensional Time to Explosion (Thermal Sensitivity) of ANPZ

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, P.; Hust, G.; McClelland, M.; Gresshoff, M.

    2014-11-12

    Incidents caused by fire and combat operations can heat energetic materials that may lead to thermal explosion and result in structural damage and casualty. Some explosives may thermally explode at fairly low temperatures (< 100 C) and the violence from thermal explosion may cause a significant damage. Thus it is important to understand the response of energetic materials to thermal insults. The One Dimensional Time to Explosion (ODTX) system at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has been used for decades to measure times to explosion, threshold thermal explosion temperature, and determine kinetic parameters of energetic materials. Samples of different configurations (pressed part, powder, paste, and liquid) can be tested in the system. The ODTX testing can also provide useful data for assessing the thermal explosion violence of energetic materials. This report summarizes the recent ODTX experimental data and modeling results for 2,6-diamino-3,5-dintropyrazine (ANPZ).

  11. Insensitive detonator apparatus for initiating large failure diameter explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perry, III, William Leroy

    2015-07-28

    A munition according to a preferred embodiment can include a detonator system having a detonator that is selectively coupled to a microwave source that functions to selectively prime, activate, initiate, and/or sensitize an insensitive explosive material for detonation. The preferred detonator can include an explosive cavity having a barrier within which an insensitive explosive material is disposed and a waveguide coupled to the explosive cavity. The preferred system can further include a microwave source coupled to the waveguide such that microwaves enter the explosive cavity and impinge on the insensitive explosive material to sensitize the explosive material for detonation. In use the preferred embodiments permit the deployment and use of munitions that are maintained in an insensitive state until the actual time of use, thereby substantially preventing unauthorized or unintended detonation thereof.

  12. Internal Detonation Velocity Measurements Inside High Explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benterou, J; Bennett, C V; Cole, G; Hare, D E; May, C; Udd, E

    2009-01-16

    In order to fully calibrate hydrocodes and dynamic chemistry burn models, initiation models and detonation models of high explosives, the ability to continuously measure the detonation velocity within an explosive is required. Progress on an embedded velocity diagnostic using a 125 micron diameter optical fiber containing a chirped fiber Bragg grating is reported. As the chirped fiber Bragg grating is consumed by the moving detonation wave, the physical length of the unconsumed Bragg grating is monitored with a fast InGaAs photodiode. Experimental details of the associated equipment and data in the form of continuous detonation velocity records within PBX-9502 are presented. This small diameter fiber sensor has the potential to measure internal detonation velocities on the order of 10 mm/{micro}sec along path lengths tens of millimeters long.

  13. Method and system for detecting explosives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reber, Edward L.; Jewell, James K.; Rohde, Kenneth W.; Seabury, Edward H.; Blackwood, Larry G.; Edwards, Andrew J.; Derr, Kurt W.

    2009-03-10

    A method of detecting explosives in a vehicle includes providing a first rack on one side of the vehicle, the rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a second rack on another side of the vehicle, the second rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a control system, remote from the first and second racks, coupled to the neutron generators and gamma ray detectors; using the control system, causing the neutron generators to generate neutrons; and performing gamma ray spectroscopy on spectra read by the gamma ray detectors to look for a signature indicative of presence of an explosive. Various apparatus and other methods are also provided.

  14. Combined dispersion & explosion modeling in process safety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fry, M.A.

    1996-08-01

    Computer modeling of explosions within process facilities is usually a multistep process. A procedure might be: First, accidental releases of gases are postulated and then modeled with a dispersion code. Flammable materials are analyzed to find the contours within the flammability limits. Next, the amount of material and physical extent is fed to a explosion code, which outputs the overpressure and impulse. Then the damage must be related to pressure and impulse through P-1 diagrams, which are empirically derived. A separate calculation for thermal output is also required to analyze damage from direct radiation and secondary fires. We present a modular computer architecture that can be used to determine the sensitivity of not only the input scenario, but the accuracy of each of the models used in the process. For example, we have combined computer models, which can assess damage from toxic only clouds and/or flammable clouds. The PCBLAST{sup {reg_sign}}methodology and DEGADIS have been combined into an integrated computer architecture that allows the user the ability to see damage levels for any scenario. This approach can be used with any set of dispersion and explosion models. Furthermore, at each step of the procedure, error bars are placed on the model output. These errors propagate and affect the final answer, the damage. In this way a probabilistic assessment of damage can be ascertained either from scenario variation or model inaccuracy. The accuracy of the models, both dispersion and explosion, is of importance. However, the uncertainties in the scenarios may diminish the need for highly accurate models. For example, the PCBLAST{sup {reg_sign}}computer module is based on first principles physics, and as a result is highly accurate. Combining the modeling process into a linked and interactive computer code allows one to quantitatively assess the source of the uncertainties; in the models and/or in the definition of scenarios.

  15. Waveforms Measured in Confined Thermobaric Explosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reichenbach, H; Neuwald, P; Kuhl, A L

    2007-05-04

    Experiments with 1.5-g Shock-Dispersed-Fuel (SDF) charges have been conducted in six different chambers. Both flake Aluminum and TNT were used as the fuel. Static pressure gauges on the chamber wall were the main diagnostic. Waveforms for explosions in air were significantly larger than those in nitrogen - thereby demonstrating a strong thermobaric (combustion) effect. This effect increases as the confinement volume decreases and the mixture richness approaches 1.

  16. The Full Function Test Explosive Generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reisman, D B; Javedani, J B; Griffith, L V; Ellsworth, G F; Kuklo, R M; Goerz, D A; White, A D; Tallerico, L J; Gidding, D A; Murphy, M J; Chase, J B

    2009-12-13

    We have conducted three tests of a new pulsed power device called the Full Function Test (FFT). These tests represented the culmination of an effort to establish a high energy pulsed power capability based on high explosive pulsed power (HEPP) technology. This involved an extensive computational modeling, engineering, fabrication, and fielding effort. The experiments were highly successful and a new US record for magnetic energy was obtained.

  17. Energetic Material - Explosives - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Explosives Idaho National Laboratory Contact INL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary INL has invented a process for creating energetic materials, including trinitrotoluene (TNT). By using a carbon dioxide environment, which reduces the amount of acid generated from the nitration reaction (orthonitrotoluene, ONT and dinitrotoluene, DNT). The process uses a surfactant, a nitrating agent, and a source of organic material to be nitrated. Description The method makes trinitrotoluene by

  18. DOE explosives safety manual. Revision 7

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This manual prescribes the Department of Energy (DOE) safety rules used to implement the DOE safety policy for operations involving explosives. This manual is applicable to all DOE facilities engaged in operations of development, manufacturing, handling, storage, transportation, processing, or testing of explosives, pyrotechnics and propellants, or assemblies containing these materials. The standards of this manual deal with the operations involving explosives, pyrotechnics and propellants, and the safe management of such operations. The design of all new explosives facilities shall conform to the requirements established in this manual and implemented in DOE 6430.1A, ``General Design Criteria Manual.`` It is not intended that existing physical facilities be changed arbitrarily to comply with these provisions, except as required by law. Existing facilities that do not comply with these standards may continue to be used for the balance of their functional life, as long as the current operation presents no significantly greater risk than that assumed when the facility was originally designed and it can be demonstrated clearly that a modification to bring the facility into compliance is not feasible. However, in the case of a major renovation, the facility must be brought into compliance with current standards. The standards are presented as either mandatory or advisory. Mandatory standards, denoted by the words ``shall,`` ``must,`` or ``will,`` are requirements that must be followed unless written authority for deviation is granted as an exemption by the DOE. Advisory standards denoted by ``should`` or ``may`` are standards that may be deviated from with a waiver granted by facility management.

  19. Dynamic Fracture Simulations of Explosively Loaded Cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arthur, Carly W.; Goto, D. M.

    2015-11-30

    This report documents the modeling results of high explosive experiments investigating dynamic fracture of steel (AerMet® 100 alloy) cylinders. The experiments were conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) during 2007 to 2008 [10]. A principal objective of this study was to gain an understanding of dynamic material failure through the analysis of hydrodynamic computer code simulations. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional computational cylinder models were analyzed using the ALE3D multi-physics computer code.

  20. Explosive Detection in Aviation Applications Using CT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martz, H E; Crawford, C R

    2011-02-15

    CT scanners are deployed world-wide to detect explosives in checked and carry-on baggage. Though very similar to single- and dual-energy multi-slice CT scanners used today in medical imaging, some recently developed explosives detection scanners employ multiple sources and detector arrays to eliminate mechanical rotation of a gantry, photon counting detectors for spectral imaging, and limited number of views to reduce cost. For each bag scanned, the resulting reconstructed images are first processed by automated threat recognition algorithms to screen for explosives and other threats. Human operators review the images only when these automated algorithms report the presence of possible threats. The US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has requirements for future scanners that include dealing with a larger number of threats, higher probability of detection, lower false alarm rates and lower operating costs. One tactic that DHS is pursuing to achieve these requirements is to augment the capabilities of the established security vendors with third-party algorithm developers. A third-party in this context refers to academics and companies other than the established vendors. DHS is particularly interested in exploring the model that has been used very successfully by the medical imaging industry, in which university researchers develop algorithms that are eventually deployed in commercial medical imaging equipment. The purpose of this paper is to discuss opportunities for third-parties to develop advanced reconstruction and threat detection algorithms.

  1. High pressure-resistant nonincendive emulsion explosive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruhe, Thomas C.; Rao, Pilaka P.

    1994-01-01

    An improved emulsion explosive composition including hollow microspheres/bulking agents having high density and high strength. The hollow microspheres/bulking agents have true particle densities of about 0.2 grams per cubic centimeter or greater and include glass, siliceous, ceramic and synthetic resin microspheres, expanded minerals, and mixtures thereof. The preferred weight percentage of hollow microspheres/bulking agents in the composition ranges from 3.0 to 10.0 A chlorinated paraffin oil, also present in the improved emulsion explosive composition, imparts a higher film strength to the oil phase in the emulsion. The emulsion is rendered nonincendive by the production of sodium chloride in situ via the decomposition of sodium nitrate, a chlorinated paraffin oil, and sodium perchlorate. The air-gap sensitivity is improved by the in situ formation of monomethylamine perchlorate from dissolved monomethylamine nitrate and sodium perchlorate. The emulsion explosive composition can withstand static pressures to 139 bars and dynamic pressure loads on the order of 567 bars.

  2. Scientists train honeybees to detect explosives

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-07-24

    Members of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Stealthy Insect Sensor Project team have been able to harness the honeybee's exceptional olfactory sense by using the bees' natural reaction to nectar, a proboscis extension reflex (sticking out their tongue) to record an unmistakable response to a scent. Using Pavlovian techniques, researchers were able to train the bees to give a positive detection response via the PER when exposed to vapors from TNT, C4, and TATP explosives. The Stealthy Insect Sensor Project was born out of a global threat from the growing use of improvised explosive devices or IEDs, especially those that present a critical vulnerability for American military troops in Iraq and Afghanistan, and as an emerging danger for civilians worldwide. Current strategies to detect explosives are expensive and, in the case of trained detection dogs, too obtrusive to be used very discreetly. With bees however, they are small and discreet, offering the element of surprise. They're also are inexpensive to maintain and even easier to train than dogs. As a result of this need, initial funding for the work was provided by a development grant from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency.

  3. Scientists train honeybees to detect explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-03-21

    Members of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Stealthy Insect Sensor Project team have been able to harness the honeybee's exceptional olfactory sense by using the bees' natural reaction to nectar, a proboscis extension reflex (sticking out their tongue) to record an unmistakable response to a scent. Using Pavlovian techniques, researchers were able to train the bees to give a positive detection response via the PER when exposed to vapors from TNT, C4, and TATP explosives. The Stealthy Insect Sensor Project was born out of a global threat from the growing use of improvised explosive devices or IEDs, especially those that present a critical vulnerability for American military troops in Iraq and Afghanistan, and as an emerging danger for civilians worldwide. Current strategies to detect explosives are expensive and, in the case of trained detection dogs, too obtrusive to be used very discreetly. With bees however, they are small and discreet, offering the element of surprise. They're also are inexpensive to maintain and even easier to train than dogs. As a result of this need, initial funding for the work was provided by a development grant from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency.

  4. Explosive performance measurements on large, multiple-hole arrays and large masses of conventional explosive

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKown, T.O.; Eilers, D.D.; Williams, P.E.

    1994-11-01

    The COntinuous Reflectometry for Radius vs. Time EXperiment (CORRTEX) system was developed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory for determining the energy released in a nuclear explosion by measuring the position of its shock front as a function of time. The CORRTEX system, fielding techniques, and the methods and software for data reduction and analysis were developed over a 15 year period with hundreds of measurements made on nuclear tests and high explosive experiments. CORRTEX is a compact, portable, fast-sampling, microprocessor-controlled system, based on time domain reflectometry, requiring only a 24 volt power source and a sensing element. Only the sensing element (a length of 50 ohm coaxial cable) is expended during the detonation. In 1979, the CORRTEX system was shown to be ideally suited for chemical explosive performance measurements. Its utility for diagnosing chemical explosives was further demonstrated with successful measurements on large multiple-hole chemical shots in rock quarries and strip mines. Accurate timing of the detonation of sequenced or ripple fired arrays, as well as data characterizing the initiation, explosive performance and detonation anomalies are obtained. This information can serve as the basis for empirical or modeled improvements to blasting operations. A summary of the special CORRTEX features and well developed analysis techniques together with the experiment designs, data, and conclusions regarding the measurements and explosive performance from several array detonations and the Chemical Kiloton Experiment, 2.9 million pounds of an ammonium nitrate-fuel oil (ANFO) and emulsion blend conducted on the Nevada Test Site in 1993, are presented.

  5. New model more accurately tracks gases for underground nuclear explosion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    detection Model tracks gases for underground nuclear explosion detection New model more accurately tracks gases for underground nuclear explosion detection Scientists have developed a new, more thorough method for detecting underground nuclear explosions by coupling two fundamental elements-seismic models with gas-flow models. December 17, 2015 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and

  6. Quadractic Model of Thermodynamic States in SDF Explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuhl, A L; Khasainov, B

    2007-05-04

    We study the thermodynamic states encountered during Shock-Dispersed-Fuel (SDF) explosions. Such explosions contain up to six components: three fuels (PETN, TNT and Aluminum) and their products corresponding to stoichiometric combustion with air. We establish the loci in thermodynamic state space that correctly describes the behavior of the components. Results are fit with quadratic functions that serve as fast equations of state suitable for 3D numerical simulations of SDF explosions.

  7. Compacting Plastic-Bonded Explosive Molding Powders to Dense Solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B. Olinger

    2005-04-15

    Dense solid high explosives are made by compacting plastic-bonded explosive molding powders with high pressures and temperatures for extended periods of time. The density is influenced by manufacturing processes of the powders, compaction temperature, the magnitude of compaction pressure, pressure duration, and number of repeated applications of pressure. The internal density variation of compacted explosives depends on method of compaction and the material being compacted.

  8. NNSA honors Pantex explosives experts | National Nuclear Security

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Administration | (NNSA) honors Pantex explosives experts Wednesday, March 12, 2014 - 1:00pm A group of explosives experts have been honored with a Defense Programs Award of Excellence for their help in securing supply of a critical material for the Departments of Energy and Defense. The four Pantexans, Tod Botcher, Tony Dutton, Ken Franklin and Kathy Mitchell, played a leadership role in a Defense Logistics Agency team that was tasked with developing a supply of a type of high explosives

  9. Mesoscale modeling of metal-loaded high explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bdzil, John Bohdan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lieberthal, Brandon [UNIV OF ILLINOIS; Srewart, Donald S [UNIV OF ILLINOIS

    2010-01-01

    We describe a 3D approach to modeling multi-phase blast explosive, which is primarily condensed explosive by volume with inert embedded particles. These embedded particles are uniform in size and placed on the array of a regular lattice. The asymptotic theory of detonation shock dynamics governs the detonation shock propagation in the explosive. Mesoscale hydrodynamic simulations are used to show how the particles are compressed, deformed, and accelerated by the high-speed detonation products flow.

  10. Upscaling Laws in Premixed Explosions | Argonne Leadership Computing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Facility Isosurface of temperature showing the flame wrinkling and acceleration after its interaction with obstacles during the simulation on an explosion Isosurface of temperature showing the flame wrinkling and acceleration after its interaction with obstacles during the simulation on an explosion. Projection of 2D cut planes of velocity field (bottom) and heat release (right). Upscaling Laws in Premixed Explosions PI Name: Thierry Poinsot PI Email: poinsot@cerfacs.fr Institution: CERFACS

  11. Enterprise Assessments Review of Explosives Safety Program Implementation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    at the Pantex Plant - November 2015 | Department of Energy Explosives Safety Program Implementation at the Pantex Plant - November 2015 Enterprise Assessments Review of Explosives Safety Program Implementation at the Pantex Plant - November 2015 November 2015 Review of the Explosives Safety Program Implementation at the Pantex Plant The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Enterprise Assessments (EA), Office of Environment, Safety and Health Assessments, conducted an independent review

  12. Method and system for detecting an explosive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reber, Edward L.; Rohde, Kenneth W.; Blackwood, Larry G.

    2010-12-07

    A method and system for detecting at least one explosive in a vehicle using a neutron generator and a plurality of NaI detectors. Spectra read from the detectors is calibrated by performing Gaussian peak fitting to define peak regions, locating a Na peak and an annihilation peak doublet, assigning a predetermined energy level to one peak in the doublet, and predicting a hydrogen peak location based on a location of at least one peak of the doublet. The spectra are gain shifted to a common calibration, summed for respective groups of NaI detectors, and nitrogen detection analysis performed on the summed spectra for each group.

  13. Method for digesting a nitro-bearing explosive compound

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shah, Manish M.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is a process wherein superoxide radicals from superoxide salt are used to break down the explosive compounds. The process has an excellent reaction rate for degrading explosives, and operates at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure in aqueous or non-aqueous conditions. Because the superoxide molecules are small, much smaller than an enzyme molecule for example, they can penetrate the microstructure of plastic explosives faster. The superoxide salt generates reactive hydroxyl radicals, which can destroy other organic contaminants, if necessary, along with digesting the explosive nitro-bearing compound.

  14. On-site Analysis of Explosives in Various Matrices (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    States) Atmospheric System Research Bartlesville ... Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program (United ... SciTech Connect Conference: On-site Analysis of Explosives ...

  15. Construction on Pantex High Explosives Pressing Facility Reaches...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Construction on Pantex High Explosives Pressing Facility Reaches 85% Mark January 03, 2014 ... passed the 85 percent construction completion mark and is on schedule and under budget. ...

  16. Draft Environmental Assessment for the High Explosive Science...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... 18 4.1 Water Resources ... Explosive Science and Engineering Facility Pantex Plant ... unit: 12 ft. wide 2 ft. deep 6 ft. high. Second ...

  17. EA-1993: Proposed High Explosive Science & Engineering Project...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    The proposed action would be to design, construct, and operate a High Explosive Science ... scientific staff and supporting computational and experimental capabilities as well ...

  18. United States Marks 20 Years without Underground Nuclear Explosive...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    United States Marks 20 Years without Underground Nuclear Explosive Testing September 21, 2012 WASHINGTON, DC -- Twenty years ago, on September 23, 1992, the United States conducted ...

  19. NNSA, Pantex Break Ground on High Explosives Pressing Facility...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... The Pantex Plant has a long history with high explosives. HE capabilities developed ... U.S. nuclear weapons stockpile without nuclear testing; reduces the global danger from weapons ...

  20. Explosive Release Atmospheric Dispersal 3.2

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2001-06-26

    ERAD (Explosive Release Atmospheric Dispersal) is a 3D numerical transport and diffusion model, used to model the consequences associated with the buoyant (or nonbuoyant) dispersal of radioactive material It incorporates an integral plume rise model to simulate the buoyant rise of heated gases following an explosive detonation. treating buoyancy effects from time zero onward, eliminating the need for the stabilized doud assumption, and enabling the penetration of inversions. Modeling of the atmospheric boundary layer usesmore » contemporary parameterization based on scaling theories derived from observational, laboratory and numerical studies. A Monte Carlo stochastic process simulates particle dispersion. Results were validated for both dose and deposition against measurements taken during Operation Roller Coaster (a joint US-UK test performed at NTS). Meteorology is defined using a single vertical sounding containing wind speed and direction and temperature as a function of height. Post processing applies 50-year CEDE DCFs (either ICRP 26 or 60) to determine the contribution of the relevant dose pathways (inhalation, submersion, and ground shine) as well as the total dose received. Dose and deposition contours are overlaid on a fully integrated worldwide GIS and tabulates hearth effects (fatalities and casualties) to resident population. The software runs on a laptop and takes less than 2 minutes to process. The Municipal version of ERAD does not include the ability to model the mitigation effects of aqueous foam.« less

  1. Delayed signatures of underground nuclear explosions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Carrigan, Charles R.; Sun, Yunwei; Hunter, Steven L.; Ruddle, David G.; Wagoner, Jeffrey L.; Myers, Katherine B. L.; Emer, Dudley F.; Drellack, Sigmund L.; Chipman, Veraun D.

    2016-03-16

    Radionuclide signals from underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) are strongly influenced by the surrounding hydrogeologic regime. One effect of containment is delay of detonation-produced radioxenon reaching the surface as well as lengthening of its period of detectability compared to uncontained explosions. Using a field-scale tracer experiment, we evaluate important transport properties of a former UNE site. Here, we observe the character of signals at the surface due to the migration of gases from the post-detonation chimney under realistic transport conditions. Background radon signals are found to be highly responsive to cavity pressurization suggesting that large local radon anomalies may be anmore » indicator of a clandestine UNE. Computer simulations, using transport properties obtained from the experiment, track radioxenon isotopes in the chimney and their migration to the surface. They show that the chimney surrounded by a fractured containment regime behaves as a leaky chemical reactor regarding its effect on isotopic evolution introducing a dependence on nuclear yield not previously considered. This evolutionary model for radioxenon isotopes is validated by atmospheric observations of radioxenon from a 2013 UNE in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK). In conclusion, our model produces results similar to isotopic observations with nuclear yields being comparable to seismic estimates.« less

  2. Security and Use Control of Nuclear Explosives and Nuclear Weapons

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2010-01-22

    This Order establishes requirements to implement the nuclear explosive security and use control elements of DOE O 452.1D, Nuclear Explosive and Weapon Surety (NEWS) Program, to ensure authorized use, when directed by proper authority, and protect against deliberate unauthorized acts/deliberate unauthorized use. Cancels DOE O 452.4A. Canceled by DOE O 452.4C.

  3. Multi-megampere current interruption from explosive deformation of conductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goforth, J.H.; Williams, A.H.; Marsh, S.P.

    1985-01-01

    Two approaches for using explosives to interrupt current flowing in solid conductors are described. One concept uses explosives to extrude the switch conductor into thin regions that fuse due to current in the switch. A preliminary scaling law is presented. The second approach employs dielectric jets to sever current carrying conductors. A feasibility experiment and an improved design are described.

  4. Security and Use Control of Nuclear Explosives and Nuclear Weapons

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2014-11-19

    The Order establishes requirements to implement the nuclear explosive security and use control (UC) elements of DOE O 452.1D, Nuclear Explosive and Weapon Surety (NEWS) Program, to ensure authorized use, when directed by proper authority, and protect against deliberate unauthorized acts (DUAs), deliberate unauthorized use (DUU), and denial of authorized use (DAU).

  5. Burn propagation in a PBX 9501 thermal explosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henson, B. F.; Smilowitz, L.; Romero, J. J.; Sandstrom, M. M.; Asay, B. W.; Schwartz, C.; Saunders, A.; Merrill, F.; Morris, C.; Murray, M. M.; McNeil, W. V.; Marr-Lyon, M.; Rightley, P. M.

    2007-12-12

    We have applied proton radiography to study the conversion of solid density to gaseous combustion products subsequent to ignition of a thermal explosion in PBX 9501. We apply a thermal boundary condition to the cylindrical walls of the case, ending with an induction period at 205 C. We then introduce a laser pulse that accelerates the thermal ignition and synchronizes the explosion with the proton accelerator. We then obtain fast, synchronized images of the evolution of density loss with few microsecond resolution during the approximately 100 microsecond duration of the explosion. We present images of the solid explosive during the explosion and discuss measured rates and assumed mechanisms of burning the role of pressure in this internal burning.

  6. HYDROGEN IGNITION MECHANISM FOR EXPLOSIONS IN NUCLEAR FACILITY PIPE SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leishear, R

    2010-05-02

    Hydrogen and oxygen generation due to the radiolysis of water is a recognized hazard in pipe systems used in the nuclear industry, where the accumulation of hydrogen and oxygen at high points in the pipe system is expected, and explosive conditions exist. Pipe ruptures at nuclear facilities were attributed to hydrogen explosions inside pipelines, in nuclear facilities, i.e., Hamaoka, Nuclear Power Station in Japan, and Brunsbuettel in Germany. Prior to these accidents an ignition source for hydrogen was questionable, but these accidents, demonstrated that a mechanism was, in fact, available to initiate combustion and explosion. Hydrogen explosions may occur simultaneously with water hammer accidents in nuclear facilities, and a theoretical mechanism to relate water hammer to hydrogen deflagrations and explosions is presented herein.

  7. Trace Explosive Detection using Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krause, Adam R; Van Neste, Charles W; Senesac, Larry R; Thundat, Thomas George; Finot, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Satisfying the conditions of high sensitivity and high selectivity using portable sensors that are also reversible is a challenge. Miniature sensors such as microcantilevers offer high sensitivity but suffer from poor selectivity due to the lack of sufficiently selective receptors. Although many of the mass deployable spectroscopic techniques provide high selectivity, they do not have high sensitivity. Here, we show that this challenge can be overcome by combining photothermal spectroscopy on a bimaterial microcantilever with the mass induced change in the cantilever's resonance frequency. Detection using adsorption-induced resonant frequency shift together with photothermal deflection spectroscopy shows extremely high selectivity with a subnanogram limit of detection for vapor phase adsorbed explosives, such as pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX), and trinitrotoluene (TNT).

  8. Multistage reaction pathways in detonating high explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Ying; Kalia, Rajiv K.; Nakano, Aiichiro; Nomura, Ken-ichi; Vashishta, Priya

    2014-11-17

    Atomistic mechanisms underlying the reaction time and intermediate reaction products of detonating high explosives far from equilibrium have been elusive. This is because detonation is one of the hardest multiscale physics problems, in which diverse length and time scales play important roles. Here, large spatiotemporal-scale reactive molecular dynamics simulations validated by quantum molecular dynamics simulations reveal a two-stage reaction mechanism during the detonation of cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine crystal. Rapid production of N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O within ?10 ps is followed by delayed production of CO molecules beyond ns. We found that further decomposition towards the final products is inhibited by the formation of large metastable carbon- and oxygen-rich clusters with fractal geometry. In addition, we found distinct unimolecular and intermolecular reaction pathways, respectively, for the rapid N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O productions.

  9. Containment of explosions in spherical vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffey, T.A.; Greene, J.M. ); Baker, W.E. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Lewis, B.B. )

    1992-01-01

    A correlation of the experimentally recorded dynamic response of a spherical containment vessel with theoretical finite element calculations is presented. Three experiments were performed on the 6-ft-diameter steel vessel using centrally located 12-lb. and 40-lb. high explosive charges. Pressure-time loading on the inner wall of the vessel was recorded for each test using pressure transducers. Resulting dynamic response of the vessel was recorded for each test using strain gages mounted at selected locations on the outer surface of the vessel. Response of the vessel was primarily elastic. A finite element model of the vessel was run using DYNA3D, a dynamic structural analysis code. Pressure loading for the finite element model was based on results from a one-dimensional reactive hydrodynamics code. Correlations between experiments and analysis were generally good for the tests for frequency and strain magnitude at most locations. Comparisons of experimental and calculated pressure-time histories were less satisfactory.

  10. Containment of explosions in spherical vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffey, T.A.; Greene, J.M.; Baker, W.E.; Lewis, B.B.

    1992-12-31

    A correlation of the experimentally recorded dynamic response of a spherical containment vessel with theoretical finite element calculations is presented. Three experiments were performed on the 6-ft-diameter steel vessel using centrally located 12-lb. and 40-lb. high explosive charges. Pressure-time loading on the inner wall of the vessel was recorded for each test using pressure transducers. Resulting dynamic response of the vessel was recorded for each test using strain gages mounted at selected locations on the outer surface of the vessel. Response of the vessel was primarily elastic. A finite element model of the vessel was run using DYNA3D, a dynamic structural analysis code. Pressure loading for the finite element model was based on results from a one-dimensional reactive hydrodynamics code. Correlations between experiments and analysis were generally good for the tests for frequency and strain magnitude at most locations. Comparisons of experimental and calculated pressure-time histories were less satisfactory.

  11. CRAD, Explosives Safety- February 19, 2015 (EA CRAD 32-01, Rev. 0)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    CRAD, Explosives Safety – February 19, 2015 (EA CRAD 32-01, Rev. 0) Explosives Safety Criteria Review and Approach Document (EA CRAD 32-01, Rev. 0)

  12. Process and apparatus for producing ultrafine explosive particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGowan, Michael J.

    1992-10-20

    A method and an improved eductor apparatus for producing ultrafine explosive particles is disclosed. The explosive particles, which when incorporated into a binder system, have the ability to propagate in thin sheets, and have very low impact sensitivity and very high propagation sensitivity. A stream of a solution of the explosive dissolved in a solvent is thoroughly mixed with a stream of an inert nonsolvent by obtaining nonlaminar flow of the streams by applying pressure against the flow of the nonsolvent stream, to thereby diverge the stream as it contacts the explosive solution, and violently agitating the combined stream to rapidly precipitate the explosive particles from the solution in the form of generally spheroidal, ultrafine particles. The two streams are injected coaxially through continuous, concentric orifices of a nozzle into a mixing chamber. Preferably, the nonsolvent stream is injected centrally of the explosive solution stream. The explosive solution stream is injected downstream of and surrounds the nonsolvent solution stream for a substantial distance prior to being ejected into the mixing chamber.

  13. Fatigue of LX-14 and LX-19 plastic bonded explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, D. M., LLNL

    1998-04-23

    The DOD uses the plastic bonded explosive (PBX) LX-14 in a wide variety of applications including shaped charges and explosively forged projectiles. LX- 19 is a higher energy explosive, which could be easily substituted for LX-14 because it contains the identical Estane 5703p binder and more energetic CL-20 explosive. Delivery systems for large shaped charges, such as TOW-2, include the Apache helicopter. Loads associated with vibrations and expansion from thermal excursions in field operations may, even at low levels over long time periods, cause flaws, already present in the PBX to grow. Flaws near the explosive/liner interface of a shaped charge can reduce performance. Small flaws in explosives are one mechanism (the hot spot mechanism) proposed for initiation and growth to detonation of PBXs like LX-14, PBXN 5, LX-04 and LX-17 among others. Unlike cast-cured explosives and propellants, PBXs cannot usually be compression molded to full density. Generally, the amount of explosive ignited by a shock wave is approximately equal to the original void volume. Whether or not these flaws or cracks grow during field operations to an extent sufficient to adversely affect the shaped charge performance or increase the vulnerability of the PBX is the ultimate question this effort could address. Currently the fatigue life of LX-14 under controlled conditions is being studied in order to generate its failure stress as a function of the number of fatigue cycles (S- N curve). Proposed future work will address flaw and crack growth and their relationship to hot-spot concentration and explosive vulnerability to shock and/or fragment initiation.

  14. Thermally stable booster explosive and process for manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Quinlin, William T.; Thorpe, Raymond; Lightfoot, James M.

    2006-03-21

    A thermally stable booster explosive and process for the manufacture of the explosive. The product explosive is 2,4,7,9-tetranitro-10H-benzo[4,5]furo[3,2-b]indole (TNBFI). A reactant/solvent such as n-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) or dimethyl formamide (DMF) is made slightly basic. The solution is heated to reduce the water content. The solution is cooled and hexanitrostilbene is added. The solution is heated to a predetermined temperature for a specific time period, cooled, and the product is collected by filtration.

  15. A simple line wave generator using commercial explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, John S; Jackson, Scott I; Hill, Larry G

    2009-01-01

    We present a simple and inexpensive explosive line wave generator has been designed using commercial sheet explosive and plane wave lens concepts. The line wave generator is constructed using PETN and RDX based sheet explosive for the slow and fast components respectively. The design permits the creation of any desired line width. A series of experiments were performed on a 100 mm design, measuring the detonation arrival time at the output of the generator using a streak camera. An iterative technique was used to adjust the line wave generator's slow and fast components, so as to minimize the arrival time deviation. Designs, test results, and concepts for improvements will be discussed.

  16. The use of combustible metals in explosive incendiary devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, S.H.; Grubelich, M.C.

    1996-08-01

    We have investigated tailoring damage effects of explosive devices by addition of unconventional materials, specifically combustible metals. Initial small-scale as well as full-scale testing has been performed. The explosives functioned to disperse and ignite these materials. Incendiary, enhanced-blast, and fragment-damage effect have been identified. These types of effects can be used to extend the damage done to hardened facilities. In other cases it is desirable to disable the target with minimal collateral damage. Use of unconventional materials allows the capability to tailor the damage and effects of explosive devices for these and other applications. Current work includes testing of an incendiary warhead for a penetrator.

  17. Establishment of data base of regional seismic recordings from earthquakes, chemical explosions and nuclear explosions in the Former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ermolenko, N.A.; Kopnichev, Yu.F.; Kunakov, V.G.; Kunakova, O.K.; Rakhmatullin, M.Kh.; Sokolova, I.N.; Vybornyy, Zh.I.

    1995-06-01

    In this report results of work on establishment of a data base of regional seismic recordings from earthquakes, chemical explosions and nuclear explosions in the former Soviet Union are described. This work was carried out in the Complex Seismological Expedition (CSE) of the Joint Institute of Physics of the Earth of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The recording system, methods of investigations and primary data processing are described in detail. The largest number of digital records was received by the permanent seismic station Talgar, situated in the northern Tien Shan, 20 km to the east of Almaty city. More than half of the records are seismograms of underground nuclear explosions and chemical explosions. The nuclear explosions were recorded mainly from the Semipalatinsk test site. In addition, records of the explosions from the Chinese test site Lop Nor and industrial nuclear explosions from the West Siberia region were obtained. Four records of strong chemical explosions were picked out (two of them have been produced at the Semipalatinsk test site and two -- in Uzbekistan). We also obtained 16 records of crustal earthquakes, mainly from the Altai region, close to the Semipalatinsk test site, and also from the West China region, close to the Lop Nor test site. In addition, a small number of records of earthquakes and underground nuclear explosions, received by arrays of temporary stations, that have been working in the southern Kazakhstan region are included in this report. Parameters of the digital seismograms and file structure are described. Possible directions of future work on the digitizing of unique data archive are discussed.

  18. Method for enhancing stability of high explosives, for purposes of transport or storage, and the stabilized high explosives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nutt, Gerald L.

    1991-01-01

    The stability of porous solid high explosives, for purposes of transport or storage, is enhanced by reducing the sensitivity to shock initiation of a reaction that leads to detonation. The pores of the explosive down to a certain size are filled under pressure with a stable, low melt temperature material in liquid form, and the combined material is cooled so the pore filling material solidifies. The stability can be increased to progressively higher levels by filling smaller pores. The pore filling material can be removed, at least partially, by reheating above its melt temperature and drained off so that the explosive is once more suitable for detonation.

  19. Novel methods for detecting buried explosive devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kercel, S.W.; Burlage, R.S.; Patek, D.R.; Smith, C.M.; Hibbs, A.D.; Rayner, T.J.

    1997-04-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Quantum Magnetics, Inc. (QM) are exploring novel landmine detection technologies. Technologies considered here include bioreporter bacteria, swept acoustic resonance, nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR), and semiotic data fusion. Bioreporter bacteria look promising for third-world humanitarian applications; they are inexpensive, and deployment does not require high-tech methods. Swept acoustic resonance may be a useful adjunct to magnetometers in humanitarian demining. For military demining, NQR is a promising method for detecting explosive substances; of 50,000 substances that have been tested, none has an NQR signature that can be mistaken for RDX or TNT. For both military and commercial demining, sensor fusion entails two daunting tasks, identifying fusible features in both present-day and emerging technologies, and devising a fusion algorithm that runs in real-time on cheap hardware. Preliminary research in these areas is encouraging. A bioreporter bacterium for TNT detection is under development. Investigation has just started in swept acoustic resonance as an approach to a cheap mine detector for humanitarian use. Real-time wavelet processing appears to be a key to extending NQR bomb detection into mine detection, including TNT-based mines. Recent discoveries in semiotics may be the breakthrough that will lead to a robust fused detection scheme.

  20. Simulations aimed at safer transport of explosives | Argonne...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    click to view larger. Simulations aimed at safer transport of explosives By Jim Collins * January 7, 2015 Tweet EmailPrint In 2005, a semi truck hauling 35,000 pounds of...

  1. Security and Control of Nuclear Explosives and Nuclear Weapons

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2001-12-17

    This directive establishes requirements and responsibilities to prevent the deliberate unauthorized use of U.S. nuclear explosives and U.S. nuclear weapons. Cancels DOE O 452.4.

  2. Enterprise Assessments Review of Explosives Safety Program Implementat...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... for explosives operating locations defined in DOE-STD-1212-2012 and the National Electrical Code as Hazardous (Classified) Locations, Classes I, II, III, Divisions 1 and 2. In ...

  3. Explosives exhibit opens at the Bradbury Science Museum Sept...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    exhibit opens at the Bradbury Science Museum Sept. 18 To highlight the Laboratory's work in the field of explosives, the museum is opening a new exhibit titled "The Science of...

  4. Los Alamos Explosives Performance Key to Stockpile Stewardship

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Dattelbaum, Dana

    2015-01-05

    As the U.S. Nuclear Deterrent ages, one essential factor in making sure that the weapons will continue to perform as designed is understanding the fundamental properties of the high explosives that are part of a nuclear weapons system. As nuclear weapons go through life extension programs, some changes may be advantageous, particularly through the addition of what are known as "insensitive" high explosives that are much less likely to accidentally detonate than the already very safe "conventional" high explosives that are used in most weapons. At Los Alamos National Laboratory explosives research includes a wide variety of both large- and small-scale experiments that include small contained detonations, gas and powder gun firings, larger outdoor detonations, large-scale hydrodynamic tests, and at the Nevada Nuclear Security Site, underground sub-critical experiments.

  5. Insensitive explosive composition of halogenated copolymer and triaminotrinitrobenzene

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benziger, Theodore M.

    1976-01-01

    A highly insensitive and heat resistant plastic-bonded explosive containing 90 wt % triaminotrinitrobenzene and 10 wt % of a fully saturated copolymer of chlorotrifluoroethylene and vinylidene fluoride is readily manufactured by the slurry process.

  6. Program to Prevent Accidental or Unauthorized Nuclear Explosive Detonations

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1980-12-18

    The order establishes the DOE program to prevent accidental or unauthorized nuclear explosive detonations, and to define responsibilities for DOE participation in the Department of Defense program for nuclear weapon and nuclear weapon system safety. Does not cancel other directives.

  7. Los Alamos Explosives Performance Key to Stockpile Stewardship

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dattelbaum, Dana

    2014-11-03

    As the U.S. Nuclear Deterrent ages, one essential factor in making sure that the weapons will continue to perform as designed is understanding the fundamental properties of the high explosives that are part of a nuclear weapons system. As nuclear weapons go through life extension programs, some changes may be advantageous, particularly through the addition of what are known as "insensitive" high explosives that are much less likely to accidentally detonate than the already very safe "conventional" high explosives that are used in most weapons. At Los Alamos National Laboratory explosives research includes a wide variety of both large- and small-scale experiments that include small contained detonations, gas and powder gun firings, larger outdoor detonations, large-scale hydrodynamic tests, and at the Nevada Nuclear Security Site, underground sub-critical experiments.

  8. EDS V25 containment vessel explosive qualification test report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudolphi, John Joseph

    2012-04-01

    The V25 containment vessel was procured by the Project Manager, Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel (PMNSCM) as a replacement vessel for use on the P2 Explosive Destruction Systems. It is the first EDS vessel to be fabricated under Code Case 2564 of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, which provides rules for the design of impulsively loaded vessels. The explosive rating for the vessel based on the Code Case is nine (9) pounds TNT-equivalent for up to 637 detonations. This limit is an increase from the 4.8 pounds TNT-equivalency rating for previous vessels. This report describes the explosive qualification tests that were performed in the vessel as part of the process for qualifying the vessel for explosive use. The tests consisted of a 11.25 pound TNT equivalent bare charge detonation followed by a 9 pound TNT equivalent detonation.

  9. Advances in explosives analysis-part I. animal, chemical, ion...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    to Explosives Analysis (Moore and Goodpaster, Anal Bioanal Chem 395(2):245-246, 2009). ... Authors: Brown, Kathryn E. 1 ; Greenfield, Margo T. 1 ; McGrane, Shawn D. 1 ; Moore, ...

  10. Ultrafast laser based coherent control methods for explosives detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, David Steven

    2010-12-06

    The detection of explosives is a notoriously difficult problem, especially at stand-off, due to their (generally) low vapor pressure, environmental and matrix interferences, and packaging. We are exploring Optimal Dynamic Detection of Explosives (ODD-Ex), which exploits the best capabilities of recent advances in laser technology and recent discoveries in optimal shaping of laser pulses for control of molecular processes to significantly enhance the standoff detection of explosives. The core of the ODD-Ex technique is the introduction of optimally shaped laser pulses to simultaneously enhance sensitivity to explosives signatures while dramatically improving specificity, particularly against matrix materials and background interferences. These goals are being addressed by operating in an optimal non-linear fashion, typically with a single shaped laser pulse inherently containing within it coherently locked control and probe subpulses. Recent results will be presented.

  11. Explosive destruction system for disposal of chemical munitions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tschritter, Kenneth L.; Haroldsen, Brent L.; Shepodd, Timothy J.; Stofleth, Jerome H.; DiBerardo, Raymond A.

    2005-04-19

    An explosive destruction system and method for safely destroying explosively configured chemical munitions. The system comprises a sealable, gas-tight explosive containment vessel, a fragment suppression system positioned in said vessel, and shaped charge means for accessing the interior of the munition when the munition is placed within the vessel and fragment suppression system. Also provided is a means for treatment and neutralization of the munition's chemical fills, and means for heating and agitating the contents of the vessel. The system is portable, rapidly deployable and provides the capability of explosively destroying and detoxifying chemical munitions within a gas-tight enclosure so that there is no venting of toxic or hazardous chemicals during detonation.

  12. Contributed Review: Quantum cascade laser based photoacoustic detection of explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, J. S. Yu, B.; Fischer, H.; Chen, W.; Yalin, A. P.

    2015-03-15

    Detecting trace explosives and explosive-related compounds has recently become a topic of utmost importance for increasing public security around the world. A wide variety of detection methods and an even wider range of physical chemistry issues are involved in this very challenging area. Optical sensing methods, in particular mid-infrared spectrometry techniques, have a great potential to become a more desirable tools for the detection of explosives. The small size, simplicity, high output power, long-term reliability make external cavity quantum cascade lasers (EC-QCLs) the promising spectroscopic sources for developing analytical instrumentation. This work reviews the current technical progress in EC-QCL-based photoacoustic spectroscopy for explosives detection. The potential for both close-contact and standoff configurations using this technique is completely presented over the course of approximately the last one decade.

  13. NEW - DOE O 452.1E, Nuclear Explosive and Weapon Surety Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    All nuclear explosives and nuclear explosive operations require special safety, security, and use control consideration because of the potentially unacceptable consequences of an accident or unauthorized act; therefore, a Nuclear Explosive and Weapon Surety (NEWS) Program is established to prevent unintended/unauthorized detonation and deliberate unauthorized use of nuclear explosives.

  14. Construction on Pantex High Explosives Pressing Facility Reaches 85% Mark |

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) Construction on Pantex High Explosives Pressing Facility Reaches 85% Mark January 03, 2014 Work on the National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) High Explosives Pressing Facility at its Pantex Plant, located near Amarillo, Texas, this month passed the 85 percent construction completion mark and is on schedule and under budget. File 2014-01-03 NPO HEPF.docx NPO Press Releases September 2016 (1) August 2016 (1) May 2016 (1) February

  15. Revised Environmental Assessment Large-Scale, Open-Air Explosive

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Environmental Assessment Large-Scale, Open-Air Explosive Detonation, DIVINE STRAKE, at the Nevada Test Site May 2006 Prepared by Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Environmental Assessment May 2006 Large-Scale, Open-Air Explosive Detonation, DIVINE STRAKE, at the Nevada Test Site TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0 PURPOSE AND NEED FOR ACTION.....................................................1-1 1.1 Introduction and

  16. Reagent Selection Methodology for a Novel Explosives Detection Platform

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2012-12-31

    This video describes research being conducted by Dr. Marvin Warner, a research scientist at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, in the individual pieces of antibodies used to set up a chemical reaction that will give off light just by mixing reagents together with a sample that contains an explosive molecule. This technology would help detect if explosives are present with just the use of a handheld system or container.

  17. Development of a non-propagating explosives storage cabinet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Couch, W.A. ); Schneider, B.A. . Engineering Research Inst.)

    1991-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (SNL) has completed the design of an Explosive Components Facility (ECF). Construction of the ECF is scheduled to begin in 1992 with completion in 1995. An integral part of the ECF will be on-site storage of explosives in six earth-covered service magazines. Each magazine will contain a non-propagating Explosives Storage Cabinet (ESC) system made up to twenty modular units. In addition to the secure storage of explosives, a primary purpose of the cabinet system is to prevent a sympathetic detonation of the explosives stored in the surrounding units as a result of an accidental detonation of up to 5.0 pounds of explosives (TNT equivalent) stored in a donor'' unit in the cabinet. Therefore, the maximum creditable event'' for each service magazine is 5.0 pounds, even though each magazine could contain up to 100 pounds of explosives stored in 5.0 pounds increments. A new material being developed at the New Mexico Engineering Research Institute (NMERI) known as SIFCON (Slurry Infiltrated Fiber CONcrete), had been shown to be highly resistant to back spall from blast loadings, and penetration by high-velocity ballistic projectiles and fragments. These, and other characteristics unique to SIFCON, such as very high strength and ductility, appeared to make it an excellent candidate material for the modular units of the ESC. In 1989 SNL contracted with NMERI to develop a SIFCON modular unit for the ESC. Based upon the success of Phase 1 program, a more extensive Phase 2 program was undertaken in 1990 and has been successfully completed. This paper is a summary of the Phase 1 and Phase 2 work, which includes the design, fabrication, and explosive testing of the modular units.

  18. Direct Real-Time Detection of Vapors from Explosive Compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ewing, Robert G.; Clowers, Brian H.; Atkinson, David A.

    2013-10-03

    The real-time detection of vapors from low volatility explosives including PETN, tetryl, RDX and nitroglycerine along with various compositions containing these substances is demonstrated. This was accomplished with an atmospheric flow tube (AFT) using a non-radioactive ionization source and coupled to a mass spectrometer. Direct vapor detection was demonstrated in less than 5 seconds at ambient temperature without sample pre-concentration. The several seconds of residence time of analytes in the AFT provides a significant opportunity for reactant ions to interact with analyte vapors to achieve ionization. This extended reaction time, combined with the selective ionization using the nitrate reactant ions (NO3- and NO3-HNO3), enables highly sensitive explosives detection. Observed signals from diluted explosive vapors indicate detection limits below 10 ppqv using selected ion monitoring (SIM) of the explosive-nitrate adduct at m/z 349, 378, 284 and 289 for tetryl, PETN, RDX and NG respectively. Also provided is a demonstration of the vapor detection from 10 different energetic formulations, including double base propellants, plastic explosives and commercial blasting explosives using SIM for the NG, PETN and RDX product ions.

  19. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for propellants, explosives, and pyrotechnics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, N.M.; Torres, H.M.

    1996-04-01

    In 1991, a DOE ``Tiger Team`` audited the SNL/California Explosives Program and cited Sandia for not being in compliance with the DOE Explosives Safety Manual requirements for having an explosives storage review program. At that time, SNL/California did not have a site-wide inventory record of explosives, and no storage review as in place. Sandia corporately owns approximately 1,800,000 lb energetic material, which is located at various sites throughout the country. In 1992, in response to the Tiger Team findings, Sandia formed the Propellants, Explosives, and Pyrotechnics Evaluation and Reapplication Task Force (PEPER) to develop the tools to implement life-cycle management of energetic materials at Sandia. PEPER met the following objectives: (1) create an accurate inventory of all energetic materials owned by Sandia; (2) evaluate the stability of the inventory, and thereby identify and destroy all imminent hazards; (3) draw down the inventory to be consistent with post-Cold War business needs; (4) create a cradle-to-grave ownership process. This pollution prevention opportunity assessment was conducted to document the activities at SNL/California that have involved propellants, explosives, and pyrotechnics; and to outline options for minimizing energetic materials and waste at SNL/California.

  20. Optimization of steam explosion pretreatment. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foody, P.

    1980-04-01

    Different operating conditions are required to optimize the yield from each of the various fractions in the substrate. Xylose recovery is maximized at short cooking times whereas maximum lignin recovery requires much longer cooking times. Peak glucose yield and rumen digestibility occur at intermediate times. If process conditions are set for maximum glucose yield we have achieved a yield of 68% of the theoretical, based on an average of a dozen substrates tested. Individual results ranged from 46 to 87%. If the process is optimized for maximum total sugars (i.e. glucose plus xylose) we have obtained an average yield of 60%, with a range of 31 to 75%. With rumen microflora, the average value of the in-vitro cellulose digestibility was 82%, with a range of 41 to 90%. The optimum operating conditions for total sugars are a pressure of 500 to 550 psig with a cooking time of 40 to 50 seconds and 35% starting moisture content. Particle size is not a significant factor, nor is pre-steaming or use of a constricting die in the gun nozzle. High quality lignin can be extracted with 80% yield. The Iotech lignin is very soluble, has a low molecular weight and is reactive. The unique properties of the lignin derive from the explosion at the end of the pretreatment. A lignin formaldehyde resin has been successfully formulated and tested. It represents a high value utilization of the lignin byproduct with immediate market potential. A detailed engineering design of the process gives an estimated operating cost of $7.50/OD ton of biomass. At this low cost, the Iotech process achieves many important pretreatment goals in a single step. The substrate has been sterilized; it has been pulverized into a powder; the cellulose has been accessible; and a highly reactive lignin fraction can be recovered and utilized.

  1. A Window on Surface Explosions: Tartaric Acid on Cu(110)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mhatre, B. S.; Pushkarev, V.; Holsclaw, B.; Lawton, T. J.; Sykes, E. C. H.; Gellman, A. J.

    2013-04-18

    Autocatalytic reaction mechanisms are observed in a range of important chemical processes including catalysis, radical-mediated explosions, and biosynthesis. Because of their complexity, the microscopic details of autocatalytic reaction mechanisms have been difficult to study on surfaces and heterogeneous catalysts. Autocatalytic decomposition reactions of S,S- and R,R-tartaric acid (TA) adsorbed on Cu(110) offer molecular-level insight into aspects of these processes, which until now, were largely a matter of speculation. The decomposition of TA/Cu(110) is initiated by a slow, irreversible process that forms vacancies in the adsorbed TA layer, followed by a vacancy-mediated, explosive decomposition process that yields CO{sub 2} and small hydrocarbon products. Initiation of the explosive decomposition of TA/Cu(110) has been studied by measurement of the reaction kinetics, time-resolved low energy electron diffraction (LEED), and time-resolved scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Initiation results in a decrease in the local coverage of TA and a concomitant increase in the areal vacancy concentration. Observations of explosive TA decomposition on the Cu(651)S surface suggest that initiation does not occur at structural defects in the surface, as has been suggested in the past. Once the vacancy concentration reaches a critical value, the explosive, autocatalytic decomposition step dominates the TA decomposition rate. The onset of the explosive decomposition of TA on Cu(110) is accompanied by the extraction of Cu atoms from the surface to form a (±6,7; {-+}2,1) overlayer that is readily observable using LEED and STM. The explosive decomposition step is second-order in vacancy concentration and accelerates with increasing extent of reaction.

  2. Sensitivity of once-shocked, weathered high explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, K.L.; Harris, B.W.

    1998-07-01

    Effects caused by stimulating once-shocked, weathered high explosives (OSW-HE) are investigated. The sensitivity of OSW-HE to mechanical stimuli was determined using standard industry tests. Some initial results are given. Pieces of OSW-HE were collected from active and inactive firing sites and from an area surrounding a drop tower at Los Alamos where skid and spigot tests were done. Samples evaluated were cast explosives or plastic bonded explosive (PBX) formulations containing cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX), cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (HMX), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), mock or inert HE [tris(beta-chloroethyl)phosphate (CEF)], barium nitrate, cyanuric acid, talc, and Kel-F. Once-shocked, weathered LX-10 Livermore explosive [HMX/Viton A, (95/5 wt %)], PBX 9011 [HMX/Estane, (90/10 wt %)], PBX 9404 [HMX/nitrocellulose, tris(beta-chloroethyl) phosphate, (94/3/3 wt %)], Composition B or cyclotol (TNT/RDX explosives), and PBX 9007 (90% RDX, 9.1% styrene, 0.5% dioctyl phthalate, and 0.45 resin) were subjected to the hammer test, the drop-weight impact sensitivity test, differential thermal analysis (DTA), the spark test, the Henkin`s critical temperature test, and the flame test. Samples were subjected to remote, wet cutting and drilling; remote, liquid-nitrogen-cooled grinding and crushing; and scanning electron microscope (SEM) surface analyses for morphological changes.

  3. Infrared Spectroscopy of Explosives Residues: Measurement Techniques and Spectral Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, Mark C.; Bernacki, Bruce E.

    2015-03-11

    Infrared laser spectroscopy of explosives is a promising technique for standoff and non-contact detection applications. However, the interpretation of spectra obtained in typical standoff measurement configurations presents numerous challenges. Understanding the variability in observed spectra from explosives residues and particles is crucial for design and implementation of detection algorithms with high detection confidence and low false alarm probability. We discuss a series of infrared spectroscopic techniques applied toward measuring and interpreting the reflectance spectra obtained from explosives particles and residues. These techniques utilize the high spectral radiance, broad tuning range, rapid wavelength tuning, high scan reproducibility, and low noise of an external cavity quantum cascade laser (ECQCL) system developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The ECQCL source permits measurements in configurations which would be either impractical or overly time-consuming with broadband, incoherent infrared sources, and enables a combination of rapid measurement speed and high detection sensitivity. The spectroscopic methods employed include standoff hyperspectral reflectance imaging, quantitative measurements of diffuse reflectance spectra, reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy, microscopic imaging and spectroscopy, and nano-scale imaging and spectroscopy. Measurements of explosives particles and residues reveal important factors affecting observed reflectance spectra, including measurement geometry, substrate on which the explosives are deposited, and morphological effects such as particle shape, size, orientation, and crystal structure.

  4. UNIFYING THE ZOO OF JET-DRIVEN STELLAR EXPLOSIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lazzati, Davide; Blackwell, Christopher H.; Morsony, Brian J.; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    2012-05-01

    We present a set of numerical simulations of stellar explosions induced by relativistic jets emanating from a central engine sitting at the center of compact, dying stars. We explore a wide range of durations of the central engine activity, two candidate stellar progenitors, and two possible values of the total energy release. We find that even if the jets are narrowly collimated, their interaction with the star unbinds the stellar material, producing a stellar explosion. We also find that the outcome of the explosion can be very different depending on the duration of the engine activity. Only the longest-lasting engines result in successful gamma-ray bursts. Engines that power jets only for a short time result in relativistic supernova (SN) explosions, akin to observed engine-driven SNe such as SN2009bb. Engines with intermediate durations produce weak gamma-ray bursts, with properties similar to nearby bursts such as GRB 980425. Finally, we find that the engines with the shortest durations, if they exist in nature, produce stellar explosions that lack sizable amounts of relativistic ejecta and are therefore dynamically indistinguishable from ordinary core-collapse SNe.

  5. Method for loading explosive laterally from a borehole

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ricketts, Thomas E.

    1981-01-01

    There is provided a method for forming an in situ oil shale retort in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. At least one void is excavated in the formation, leaving zones of unfragmented formation adjacent the void. An array of main blastholes is formed in the zone of unfragmented formation and at least one explosive charge which is shaped for forming a high velocity gas jet is placed into a main blasthole with the axis of the gas jet extending transverse to the blasthole. The shaped charge is detonated for forming an auxiliary blasthole in the unfragmented formation adjacent a side wall of the main blasthole. The auxiliary blasthole extends laterally away from the main blasthole. Explosive is placed into the main blasthole and into the auxiliary blasthole and is detonated for explosively expanding formation towards the free face for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles in the in situ oil shale retort.

  6. Modeling Hot-Spot Contributions in Shocked High Explosives at the Mesoscale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrier, Danielle

    2015-08-12

    When looking at performance of high explosives, the defects within the explosive become very important. Plastic bonded explosives, or PBXs, contain voids of air and bonder between the particles of explosive material that aid in the ignition of the explosive. These voids collapse in high pressure shock conditions, which leads to the formation of hot spots. Hot spots are localized high temperature and high pressure regions that cause significant changes in the way the explosive material detonates. Previously hot spots have been overlooked with modeling, but now scientists are realizing their importance and new modeling systems that can accurately model hot spots are underway.

  7. Method to prevent/mitigate steam explosions in casting pits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taleyarkhan, R.P.

    1996-12-24

    Steam explosions can be prevented or mitigated during a metal casting process by the placement of a perforated flooring system in the casting pit. An upward flow of compressed gas through this perforated flooring system is introduced during the casting process to produce a buffer layer between any spilled molten metal and the cooling water in the reservoir. This buffer layer provides a hydrodynamic layer which acts to prevent or mitigate steam explosions resulting from hot, molten metal being spilled into or onto the cooling water. 3 figs.

  8. Method to prevent/mitigate steam explosions in casting pits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taleyarkhan, Rusi P.

    1996-01-01

    Steam explosions can be prevented or mitigated during a metal casting process by the placement of a perforated flooring system in the casting pit. An upward flow of compressed gas through this perforated flooring system is introduced during the casting process to produce a buffer layer between any spilled molten metal and the cooling water in the reservoir. This buffer layer provides a hydrodynamic layer which acts to prevent or mitigate steam explosions resulting from hot, molten metal being spilled into or onto the cooling water.

  9. Steam Explosions in Slurry-fed Ceramic Melters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, J.T.

    2001-03-28

    This report assesses the potential and consequences of a steam explosion in Slurry Feed Ceramic Melters (SFCM). The principles that determine if an interaction is realistically probable within a SFCM are established. Also considered are the mitigating effects due to dissolved, non-condensable gas(es) and suspended solids within the slurry feed, radiation, high glass viscosity, and the existence of a cold cap. The report finds that, even if any explosion were to occur, however, it would not be large enough to compromise vessel integrity.

  10. HERMES: A Model to Describe Deformation, Burning, Explosion, and Detonation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reaugh, J E

    2011-11-22

    HERMES (High Explosive Response to MEchanical Stimulus) was developed to fill the need for a model to describe an explosive response of the type described as BVR (Burn to Violent Response) or HEVR (High Explosive Violent Response). Characteristically this response leaves a substantial amount of explosive unconsumed, the time to reaction is long, and the peak pressure developed is low. In contrast, detonations characteristically consume all explosive present, the time to reaction is short, and peak pressures are high. However, most of the previous models to describe explosive response were models for detonation. The earliest models to describe the response of explosives to mechanical stimulus in computer simulations were applied to intentional detonation (performance) of nearly ideal explosives. In this case, an ideal explosive is one with a vanishingly small reaction zone. A detonation is supersonic with respect to the undetonated explosive (reactant). The reactant cannot respond to the pressure of the detonation before the detonation front arrives, so the precise compressibility of the reactant does not matter. Further, the mesh sizes that were practical for the computer resources then available were large with respect to the reaction zone. As a result, methods then used to model detonations, known as {beta}-burn or program burn, were not intended to resolve the structure of the reaction zone. Instead, these methods spread the detonation front over a few finite-difference zones, in the same spirit that artificial viscosity is used to spread the shock front in inert materials over a few finite-difference zones. These methods are still widely used when the structure of the reaction zone and the build-up to detonation are unimportant. Later detonation models resolved the reaction zone. These models were applied both to performance, particularly as it is affected by the size of the charge, and to situations in which the stimulus was less than that needed for reliable

  11. Safety and performance enhancement circuit for primary explosive detonators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davis, Ronald W.

    2006-04-04

    A safety and performance enhancement arrangement for primary explosive detonators. This arrangement involves a circuit containing an energy storage capacitor and preset self-trigger to protect the primary explosive detonator from electrostatic discharge (ESD). The circuit does not discharge into the detonator until a sufficient level of charge is acquired on the capacitor. The circuit parameters are designed so that normal ESD environments cannot charge the protection circuit to a level to achieve discharge. When functioned, the performance of the detonator is also improved because of the close coupling of the stored energy.

  12. Explosive fluid transmitted shock method for mining deeply buried coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Archibald, Paul B.

    1976-06-22

    A method for recovering coal from deeply buried deposits comprising drilling a hole down into a coal seam, filling the hole with water, and periodically detonating an explosive charge at the bottom of the water-filled hole. The water transmits the explosive shock wave to the face of the coal seam, thereby fracturing and dislodging the coal. The resulting suspension of loose coal in water is then pumped to the surface where the coal is recovered and the water is recycled to the mining operation.

  13. Security and Use Control of Nuclear Explosives and Nuclear Weapons

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2015-08-28

    The order establishes requirements to implement the nuclear explosive security and use control elements of DOE O 452.1E to ensure authorized use, when directed by proper authority, and protect against deliberate unauthorized acts, deliberate unauthorized use, and denial of authorized use. Supersedes DOE O 452.4B, dated 1-22-10.

  14. NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS - PEACEFUI APPLICATIONS PROJECT WUL 1 SON

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    EXPLOSIONS - PEACEFUI APPLICATIONS PROJECT WUL 1 SON F I N A L OPERATIONAL WAB$OACTIVI TY REPORT PRODUCT1 ON TESTS FEBRUARY 1972 PEACEFUL APPLICATIONS DIVISION NEVADA OPER4TIONS OFFICE This page intentionally left blank TABLE OF CONTENTS Subject Page N o . Abstract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Acknowledgements i i i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I . Introduction 1 I1 . F i r s t Production Test . . . . . . . . .

  15. Explosive Demolitions To Change Hanford’s Skyline

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    RICHLAND, WASH. – U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contractor CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) will use explosives to demolish several structures near the center of the Hanford Site on two separate days – February 18 and March 4

  16. Safety analysis of optically ignited explosive and pyrotechnic devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merson, J.A.; Salas, F.J.; Holswade, S.

    1994-05-01

    The future of optical ordnance depends on the acceptance, validation and verification of the stated safety enhancement claims of optical ordnance over existing electrical explosive devices (EED`s). Sandia has been pursuing the development of optical ordnance, with the primary motivation of this effort being the enhancement of explosive safety by specifically reducing the potential of premature detonation that can occur with low energy electrically ignited explosive devices. By using semiconductor laser diodes for igniting these devices, safety improvements can be made without being detrimental to current system concerns since the inputs required for these devices are similar to electrical systems. Laser Diode Ignition (LDI) of the energetic material provides the opportunity to remove the bridgewire and electrically conductive pins from the charge cavity, creating a Faraday cage and thus isolating the explosive or pyrotechnic materials from stray electrical ignition sources. Recent results from our continued study of safety enhancements are presented. The areas of investigation which are presented include: (1) unintended optical source analysis, specifically lightning insensitivity, (2) electromagnetic radiation (EMR) and electrostatic discharge (ESD) insensitivity analysis, and (3) powder safety.

  17. Quantum control for initiation and detection of explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenfield, Margo T; Mc Grane, Shawn D; Scharff, R. Jason; Moore, David S

    2010-01-01

    We employ quantum control methods towards detection and quantum controlled initiation (QCI) of energetic materials. Ultrafast pulse shaping of broadband Infrared ({approx}750 nm to 850 run) and ultraviolet (266 nm, 400 nm) light is utilized for control. The underlying principals behind optimal control can be utilized to both detect and initiate explosives. In each case, time dependent phase shaped electric fields drive the chemical systems towards a desired state. For optimal dynamic detection of explosives (ODD-Ex) a phase specific broadband infrared pulse is created which increases not only the sensitivity of detection but also the selectivity of an explosive's spectral signatures in a background of interferents. QCI on the other hand, seeks to initiate explosives by employing shaped ultraviolet light. QCI is ideal for use with explosive detonators as it removes the possibility of unintentional initiation from an electrical source while adding an additional safety feature, initiation only with the proper pulse shape. Quantum control experiments require: (1) the ability to phase and amplitude shape the laser pulse and (2) the ability to effectively search for the pulse shape which controls the reaction. In these adaptive experiments we utilize both global and local optimization search routines such as genetic algorithm, differential evolution, and downhill simplex. Pulse shaping the broadband IR light, produced by focusing 800 nm light through a pressurized tube of Argon, is straightforward as commercial pulse shapers are available at and around 800 nm. Pulse shaping in the UV requires a home built shaper. Our system is an acoustic optical modulator (AOM) pulse shaper in which consists of a fused silica AOM crystal placed in the Fourier plane of a 4-f zero dispersion compressor.

  18. Evaluation of EL836 explosive stimulation of Devonian gas shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbour, T G

    1980-07-01

    This report presents an evaluation of EL836, an explosive developed at E.I. duPont de Nemours and Company Laboratories, in stimulating gas shale. EL836 is a water gel type explosive with a high aluminum content. The computational evaluation of EL836 involved four one-dimensional cyclindrical geometry calculations to assess the influence of two equation-of-state descriptios of EL836, the effect or rock yielding and the effect of internal crack pressurization. Results of a computational evaluation of the EL836 explosive in stimulating Devonian gas shale suggest the following: Extensive plastic yielding will occur in a region immediate to the borehole. Extensive tensile fracture will occur in a region that begins at the outer boundary of plastic deformation and terminates at more than 100 borehole radii. Without a mechanism of ;near-wellbore fracture, such as crushing or pre-cracking during drilling or intentional borehole grooving, the plastic flow that occurs adjacent to the wellbore causes stress redistributions which prohibit early-time (less than a millisecond) tensile fracture immediate to the wellbore and thus prohibits gas penetration from the wellbore into the crack system. The barrier that the near-wellbore plastic zone presents to gas flow from the wellbore is reduced in radial dimension as time increases. Natural fractures in the wellbore wall or cataclysmic deformation and fracture adjacent to the wellbore, as a result of the explosive detonation, will likely assist in breaking down the barrier to gas flow. Very significatn enhancement is achieved in the EL836 stimulation treatment when gases penetrate the stress-wave induced radial cracks. Only minor differences were observed in the EL836 stimulation effects when comparison is made between two different explosive equations-of-state. 33 figures, 2 tables.

  19. Flying-plate detonator using a high-density high explosive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stroud, John R.; Ornellas, Donald L.

    1988-01-01

    A flying-plate detonator containing a high-density high explosive such as benzotrifuroxan (BTF). The detonator involves the electrical explosion of a thin metal foil which punches out a flyer from a layer overlying the foil, and the flyer striking a high-density explosive pellet of BTF, which is more thermally stable than the conventional detonator using pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN).

  20. Development of mine explosion ground truth smart sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, Steven R.; Harben, Phillip E.; Jarpe, Steve; Harris, David B.

    2015-09-14

    Accurate seismo-acoustic source location is one of the fundamental aspects of nuclear explosion monitoring. Critical to improved location is the compilation of ground truth data sets for which origin time and location are accurately known. Substantial effort by the National Laboratories and other seismic monitoring groups have been undertaken to acquire and develop ground truth catalogs that form the basis of location efforts (e.g. Sweeney, 1998; Bergmann et al., 2009; Waldhauser and Richards, 2004). In particular, more GT1 (Ground Truth 1 km) events are required to improve three-dimensional velocity models that are currently under development. Mine seismicity can form the basis of accurate ground truth datasets. Although the location of mining explosions can often be accurately determined using array methods (e.g. Harris, 1991) and from overhead observations (e.g. MacCarthy et al., 2008), accurate origin time estimation can be difficult. Occasionally, mine operators will share shot time, location, explosion size and even shot configuration, but this is rarely done, especially in foreign countries. Additionally, shot times provided by mine operators are often inaccurate. An inexpensive, ground truth event detector that could be mailed to a contact, placed in close proximity (< 5 km) to mining regions or earthquake aftershock regions that automatically transmits back ground-truth parameters, would greatly aid in development of ground truth datasets that could be used to improve nuclear explosion monitoring capabilities. We are developing an inexpensive, compact, lightweight smart sensor unit (or units) that could be used in the development of ground truth datasets for the purpose of improving nuclear explosion monitoring capabilities. The units must be easy to deploy, be able to operate autonomously for a significant period of time (> 6 months) and inexpensive enough to be discarded after useful operations have expired (although this may not be part of our business

  1. Apparatus and method for rapid detection of explosives residue from the deflagration signature thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Funsten, Herbert O. (Los Alamos, NM); McComas, David J. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01

    Apparatus and method for rapid detection of explosives residue from the deflagration signature thereof. A property inherent to most explosives is their stickiness, resulting in a strong tendency of explosive particulate to contaminate the environment of a bulk explosive. An apparatus for collection of residue particulate, burning the collected particulate, and measurement of the ultraviolet emission produced thereby, is described. The present invention can be utilized for real-time screening of personnel, cars, packages, suspected devices, etc., and provides an inexpensive, portable, and noninvasive means for detecting explosives.

  2. Apparatus and method for rapid detection of explosives residue from the deflagration signature thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Funsten, Herbert O. (Los Alamos, NM); McComas, David J. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1997-01-01

    Apparatus and method for rapid detection of explosives residue from the deflagration signature thereof. A property inherent to most explosives is their stickiness, resulting in a strong tendency of explosive particulate to contaminate the environment of a bulk explosive. An apparatus for collection of residue particulate, burning the collected particulate, and measurement of the optical emission produced thereby is described. The present invention can be utilized for real-time screening of personnel, cars, packages, suspected devices, etc., and provides an inexpensive, portable, and noninvasive means for detecting explosives.

  3. Apparatus and method for rapid detection of explosives residue from the deflagration signature thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Funsten, H.O.; McComas, D.J.

    1999-06-15

    Apparatus and method are disclosed for rapid detection of explosives residue from the deflagration signature thereof. A property inherent to most explosives is their stickiness, resulting in a strong tendency of explosive particulate to contaminate the environment of a bulk explosive. An apparatus for collection of residue particulate, burning the collected particulate, and measurement of the ultraviolet emission produced thereby, is described. The present invention can be utilized for real-time screening of personnel, cars, packages, suspected devices, etc., and provides an inexpensive, portable, and noninvasive means for detecting explosives. 4 figs.

  4. Munitions having an insensitive detonator system for initiating large failure diameter explosives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perry, III, William Leroy

    2015-08-04

    A munition according to a preferred embodiment can include a detonator system having a detonator that is selectively coupled to a microwave source that functions to selectively prime, activate, initiate, and/or sensitize an insensitive explosive material for detonation. The preferred detonator can include an explosive cavity having a barrier within which an insensitive explosive material is disposed and a waveguide coupled to the explosive cavity. The preferred system can further include a microwave source coupled to the waveguide such that microwaves enter the explosive cavity and impinge on the insensitive explosive material to sensitize the explosive material for detonation. In use the preferred embodiments permit the deployment and use of munitions that are maintained in an insensitive state until the actual time of use, thereby substantially preventing unauthorized or unintended detonation thereof.

  5. A HYDROGEN IGNITION MECHANISM FOR EXPLOSIONS IN NUCLEAR FACILITY PIPING SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leishear, R.

    2013-03-28

    Hydrogen explosions may occur simultaneously with water hammer accidents in nuclear facilities, and a theoretical mechanism to relate water hammer to hydrogen deflagrations and explosions is presented herein. Hydrogen and oxygen generation due to the radiolysis of water is a recognized hazard in pipe systems used in the nuclear industry, where the accumulation of hydrogen and oxygen at high points in the pipe system is expected, and explosive conditions may occur. Pipe ruptures in nuclear reactor cooling systems were attributed to hydrogen explosions inside pipelines, i.e., Hamaoka, Nuclear Power Station in Japan, and Brunsbuettel in Germany. Prior to these accidents, an ignition source for hydrogen was not clearly demonstrated, but these accidents demonstrated that a mechanism was, in fact, available to initiate combustion and explosion. A new theory to identify an ignition source and explosion cause is presented here, and further research is recommended to fully understand this explosion mechanism.

  6. Relative Infrared (IR) and Terahertz (THz) Signatures of Common Explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharpe, Steven W.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Sheen, David M.; Atkinson, David A.

    2006-11-13

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has recently recorded the infrared (IR) and far-infrared (sometimes called the terahertz, THz) spectral signatures of four common explosives, in the condensed phase. The signatures of RDX, PETN, TNT and Tetryl were recorded both in the infrared and the THz domains, using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Samples consisted of thin films and were made by depositing and subsequent evaporation of an acetone-explosive mixture. The complete spectrum spanned the range from 4,000 to 8 cm-1 at 2.0 cm-1 spectral resolution. Preliminary results in the infrared agree with those of previous workers, while the THz signatures are one order of magnitude weaker than the strongest IR bands.

  7. Physical properties of conventional explosives deduced from radio frequency emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harlin, Jeremiah D; Nemzek, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory collected broadband radio frequency (RF) electric field change measurements from multiple detonations of high explosives (HE). Three types of HE were used: small cylinders of flake TNT, solid TNT, and PBX-9501. Low frequency signals (<80 MHz) were shot-to-shot repeatable and occurred within the first 100 {mu} s at measured amplitudes of about 2 V m{sup -1} at 35 m distance. High frequency signals (>290 MHz) occurred later, were an order of magnitude lower in signal strength, and were not repeatable. There is a positive correlation between the maximum electric field change and the shock velocity of the HE. The amount of free charge produced in the explosion estimated from the first RF pulse is between 10 and 150 {mu} C. This implies a weakly ionized plasma with temperatures between 2600 and 2900 K.

  8. Nanomaterial-Based Biosensors for Detection of Pesticides and Explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jun; Lin, Yuehe

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe nanomaterial-based biosensors for detecting OP pesticides and explosives. CNTs and functionalized silica nanoparticles have been chosen for this study. The biosensors were combined with the flow-injection system, providing great advantages for onsite, real-time, and continuous detection of environmental pollutants such as OPs and TNT. The sensors take advantage of the electrocatalytic properties of CNTs, which makes it feasible to achieve a sensitive electrochemical detection of the products from enzymatic reactions at low potential. This approach uses a large aspect ratio of silica nanoparticles, which can be used as a carrier for loading a large amount of electroactive species, such as poly(guanine), for amplified detection of explosives. These methods offer a new environmental monitoring tool for rapid, inexpensive, and highly sensitive detection of OPs or TNT compounds.

  9. Characterization of plasma sprayed and explosively consolidated simulated lunar soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, S.J.; Inal, O.T.; Smith, M.F.

    1997-06-01

    Two methods for the use of lunar materials for the construction of shelters on the Moon are being proposed: explosive consolidation of the soil into structural components and plasma spraying of the soil to join components. The plasma-sprayed coating would also provide protection from the intense radiation. In this work, a mare simulant was plasma-sprayed onto a stainless steel substrate. Deposition of a 0.020 inch coating using power inputs of 23, 25, 27 and 29 kW were compared. Hardness of the coatings increased with each increase of power to the system, while porosity at the interface decreased. All coatings exhibited good adhesion. Simultaneously, an explosively consolidated sample was similarly characterized to afford a comparison of structural features associated with each mode of proposed use.

  10. Rare Isotopes in Cosmic Explosions and Accelerators on Earth

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Schatz, Hendrick [Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, United States

    2010-01-08

    Rare isotopes are nature?s stepping stones to produce the heavy elements, and they are produced in large quantities in stellar explosions. Despite their fleeting existence, they shape the composition of the universe and the observable features of stellar explosions. The challenge for nuclear science is to produce and study the very same rare isotopes so as to understand the origin of the elements and a range of astronomical observations. I will review the progress that has been made to date in astronomy and nuclear physics, and the prospects of finally addressing many of the outstanding issues with the future Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), which DOE will build at Michigan State University.

  11. Sub-sonic thermal explosions investigated by radiography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smilowitz, Laura B; Henson, Bryan F; Romero, Jerry J; Asay, Blaine W

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the past 5 years of experiments utilizing radiographic techniques to study defiagration in thermal explosions in HMX based formulations. Details of triggering and timing synchronization are given. Radiographic images collected using both protons and x-rays are presented. Comparisons of experiments with varying size, case confinement, binder, and synchronization are presented. Techniques for quantifying the data in the images are presented and a mechanism for post-ignition burn propagation in a thermal explosion is discussed. From these experiments, we have observed a mechanism for sub-sonic defiagration with both gas phase convective and solid phase conductive burning. The convective front velocity is directly measured from the radiographic images and consumes only a small fraction of the HE. It lights the HE as it passes beginning the slower solid state conductive burn process. This mechanism is used to create a model to simulate the radiographic results and a comparison will be shown.

  12. Optical ordance system for use in explosive ordnance disposal activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merson, J.A.; Salas, F.J.; Helsel, F.M.

    1994-01-01

    A portable hand-held solid state rod laser system and an optically-ignited detonator have been developed for use in explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) activities. Laser prototypes from Whittaker Ordnance and Universal Propulsion have been tested and evaluated. The optical detonator contains 2-(5 cyanotetrazolato) pentaamine cobalt III perchlorate (CP) as the DDT column and the explosive Octahydro 1, 3, 5, 7 -- tetranitro -- 1, 3, 5, 7 -- tetrazocine (HMX) as the output charge. The laser is designed to have an output of 150 mJ in a 500 microsecond pulse. This output allows firing through 2000 meters of optical fiber. The detonator can also be ignited with a portable laser diode source through a shorter length of fiber.

  13. Ultraviolet Resonant Raman Enhancements in the Detection of Explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Short, B J; Carter, J C; Gunter, D; Hovland, P; Jagode, H; Karavanic, K; Marin, G; Mellor-Crummey, J; Moore, S; Norris, B; Oliker, L; Olschanowsky, C; Roth, P C; Schulz, M; Shende, S; Snavely, A; Spear, W

    2009-06-03

    Raman-based spectroscopy is potentially militarily useful for standoff detection of high explosives. Normal (non-resonance) and resonance Raman spectroscopies are both light scattering techniques that use a laser to measure the vibrational spectrum of a sample. In resonance Raman, the laser is tuned to match the wavelength of a strong electronic absorbance in the molecule of interest, whereas, in normal Raman the laser is not tuned to any strong electronic absorbance bands. The selection of appropriate excitation wavelengths in resonance Raman can result in a dramatic increase in the Raman scattering efficiency of select band(s) associated with the electronic transition. Other than the excitation wavelength, however, resonance Raman is performed experimentally the same as normal Raman. In these studies, normal and resonance Raman spectral signatures of select solid high explosive (HE) samples and explosive precursors were collected at 785 nm, 244 nm and 229 nm. Solutions of PETN, TNT, and explosive precursors (DNT & PNT) in acetonitrile solvent as an internal Raman standard were quantitatively evaluated using ultraviolet resonance Raman (UVRR) microscopy and normal Raman spectroscopy as a function of power and select excitation wavelengths. Use of an internal standard allowed resonance enhancements to be estimated at 229 nm and 244 nm. Investigations demonstrated that UVRR provided {approx}2000-fold enhancement at 244 nm and {approx}800-fold improvement at 229 nm while PETN showed a maximum of {approx}25-fold at 244 nm and {approx}190-fold enhancement at 229 nm solely from resonance effects when compared to normal Raman measurements. In addition to the observed resonance enhancements, additional Raman signal enhancements are obtained with ultraviolet excitation (i.e., Raman scattering scales as !4 for measurements based on scattered photons). A model, based partly on the resonance Raman enhancement results for HE solutions, is presented for estimating Raman

  14. Characterization Of High Explosives Detonations Via Laser-Induced Plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Villa-Aleman, E.

    2015-10-08

    One objective of the Department of Energy’s National Security Administration is to develop technologies that can help the United States government to detect foreign nuclear weapons development activities. The realm of high explosive (HE) experiments is one of the key areas to assess the nuclear ambitions of a country. SRNL has participated in the collection of particulates from HE experiments and characterized the material with the purpose to correlate particulate matter with HE. Since these field campaigns are expensive, on-demand simulated laboratory-scale explosion experiments are needed to further our knowledge of the chemistry and particle formation in the process. Our goal is to develop an experimental test bed in the laboratory to test measurement concepts and correlate particle formation processes with the observables from the detonation fireball. The final objective is to use this knowledge to tailor our experimental setups in future field campaigns. The test bed uses pulsed laser-induced plasmas to simulate micro-explosions, with the intent to study the temporal behavior of the fireball observed in field tests. During FY15, a plan was prepared and executed which assembled two laser ablation systems, procured materials for study, and tested a Step-Scan Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (SS-FTIR). Designs for a shadowgraph system for shock wave analysis, design for a micro-particulate collector from ablated pulse were accomplished. A novel spectroscopic system was conceived and a prototype system built for acquisition of spectral/temporal characterization of a high speed event such as from a high explosive detonation. Experiments and analyses will continue into FY16.

  15. Thermal initiation caused by fragment impact on cased explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schnurr, N.M. )

    1989-01-01

    Numerical calculations have been used to predict the velocity threshold for thermal initiation of a cased explosive caused by fragment impact. A structural analysis code was used to determine temperature profiles and a thermal analysis code was used to calculate reaction rates. Results generated for the United States Air Force MK 82 bomb indicate that the velocity threshold for thermal initiation is slightly higher than that for the shock-to-detonation process. 8 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Non-lead, environmentally safe projectiles and explosives containers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowden, Richard A.; McCoig, Thomas M.; Dooley, Joseph B.; Smith, Cyrus M.

    2001-01-16

    A solid object having controlled frangibility, such as a bullet or a container for explosives, is made by combining two different metals in proportions calculated to achieve a desired density, without using lead. A wetting material is deposited on the base constituent which is made of a relative dense, hard material. The wetting material enhances the wettability of the base constituent with the binder constituent, which is lighter and softer than the base constituent.

  17. Nuclear Explosive Safety Study Functional Area Qualification Standard

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    i NOT MEASUREMENT SENSITIVE DOE-STD-1185-2007 CHANGE NOTICE No.1 April 2010 DOE STANDARD NUCLEAR EXPLOSIVE SAFETY STUDY FUNCTIONAL AREA QUALIFICATION STANDARD DOE Defense Nuclear Facilities Technical Personnel U.S. Department of Energy AREA TRNG Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. DOE-STD-1185-2007 ii This document is available on the Department of Energy Technical Standards Program Web Site at

  18. Nuclear Explosives Safety Study Functional Area Qualification Standard

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    85-2007 September 2007 DOE STANDARD NUCLEAR EXPLOSIVE SAFETY STUDY FUNCTIONAL AREA QUALIFICATION STANDARD DOE Defense Nuclear Facilities Technical Personnel U.S. Department of Energy AREA TRNG Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. DRAFT DOE-STD-1185-2007 ii This document is available on the Department of Energy Technical Standards Program Web Site at http://www.hss.energy.gov/nuclearsafety/techstds/ DRAFT DOE-STD-1185-2007 iv

  19. Non-lead environmentally safe projectiles and explosive container

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowden, Richard A.; McCoig, Thomas M.; Dooley, Joseph B.; Smith, Cyrus M.

    1999-06-15

    A solid object having controlled frangibility, such as a bullet or a container for explosives, is made by combining two different metals in proportions calculated to achieve a desired density, without using lead. A wetting material is deposited on the base constituent which is made of a relative dense, hard material. The wetting material enhances the wettability of the base constituent with the binder constituent, which is lighter and softer than the base constituent.

  20. Thermoelectric Bulk Materials from the Explosive Consolidation of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Nanopowders | Department of Energy Describes technique of explosively consolidating nanopowders to yield fully dense, consolidated, nanostructured thermoelectric material nemir.pdf (3.11 MB) More Documents & Publications The Bottom-Up Approach forThermoelectric Nanocomposites, plusƒ Enhancing the Figure-of-Merit in Half-Heuslers for Vehicle Waste Heat Recovery Correlation Between Structure and Thermoelectric Properties of Bulk High Performance Materials for Energy Conversion

  1. Safe arming system for two-explosive munitions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jaroska, Miles F.; Niven, William A.; Morrison, Jasper J.

    1978-01-01

    A system for safely and positively detonating high-explosive munitions, including a source of electrical signals, a split-phase square-loop transformer responsive solely to a unique series of signals from the source for charging an energy storage circuit through a voltage doubling circuit, and a spark-gap trigger for initiating discharge of the energy in the storage circuit to actuate a detonator and thereby fire the munitions.

  2. Non-lead environmentally safe projectiles and explosive container

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowden, R.A.; McCoig, T.M.; Dooley, J.B.; Smith, C.M.

    1999-06-15

    A solid object having controlled frangibility, such as a bullet or a container for explosives, is made by combining two different metals in proportions calculated to achieve a desired density, without using lead. A wetting material is deposited on the base constituent which is made of a relative dense, hard material. The wetting material enhances the wettability of the base constituent with the binder constituent, which is lighter and softer than the base constituent. 10 figs.

  3. Present and Future Computing Requirements Radiative Transfer of Astrophysical Explosions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Requirements Radiative Transfer of Astrophysical Explosions Daniel Kasen (UCB/LBNL) SciDAC computational astrophysics consortium Stan Woosley, Ann Almgren, John Bell, Haitao Ma, Peter Nugent, Rollin Thomas, Weiquin Zhang, Adam Burrows, Jason Nordhaus, Louis Howell, Mike Zingale topics and open questions * thermonuclear supernova: What are the progenitors: 1 or 2 white dwarfs? How does the nuclear runaway ignite and develop? How regular are these "standard candles" for cosmology? * core

  4. Explosively driven air blast in a conical shock tube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, Joel B. Pecora, Collin

    2015-03-15

    Explosively driven shock tubes present challenges in terms of safety concerns and expensive upkeep of test facilities but provide more realistic approximations to the air blast resulting from free-field detonations than those provided by gas-driven shock tubes. Likewise, the geometry of conical shock tubes can naturally approximate a sector cut from a spherically symmetric blast, leading to a better agreement with the blast profiles of free-field detonations when compared to those provided by shock tubes employing constant cross sections. The work presented in this article documents the design, fabrication, and testing of an explosively driven conical shock tube whose goal was to closely replicate the blast profile seen from a larger, free-field detonation. By constraining the blast through a finite area, large blasts (which can add significant damage and safety constraints) can be simulated using smaller explosive charges. The experimental data presented herein show that a close approximation to the free-field air blast profile due to a 1.5 lb charge of C4 at 76 in. can be achieved by using a 0.032 lb charge in a 76-in.-long conical shock tube (which translates to an amplification factor of nearly 50). Modeling and simulation tools were used extensively in designing this shock tube to minimize expensive fabrication costs.

  5. Theoretical and computer models of detonation in solid explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarver, C.M.; Urtiew, P.A.

    1997-10-01

    Recent experimental and theoretical advances in understanding energy transfer and chemical kinetics have led to improved models of detonation waves in solid explosives. The Nonequilibrium Zeldovich - von Neumann - Doring (NEZND) model is supported by picosecond laser experiments and molecular dynamics simulations of the multiphonon up-pumping and internal vibrational energy redistribution (IVR) processes by which the unreacted explosive molecules are excited to the transition state(s) preceding reaction behind the leading shock front(s). High temperature, high density transition state theory calculates the induction times measured by laser interferometric techniques. Exothermic chain reactions form product gases in highly excited vibrational states, which have been demonstrated to rapidly equilibrate via supercollisions. Embedded gauge and Fabry-Perot techniques measure the rates of reaction product expansion as thermal and chemical equilibrium is approached. Detonation reaction zone lengths in carbon-rich condensed phase explosives depend on the relatively slow formation of solid graphite or diamond. The Ignition and Growth reactive flow model based on pressure dependent reaction rates and Jones-Wilkins-Lee (JWL) equations of state has reproduced this nanosecond time resolved experimental data and thus has yielded accurate average reaction zone descriptions in one-, two- and three- dimensional hydrodynamic code calculations. The next generation reactive flow model requires improved equations of state and temperature dependent chemical kinetics. Such a model is being developed for the ALE3D hydrodynamic code, in which heat transfer and Arrhenius kinetics are intimately linked to the hydrodynamics.

  6. Waveform inversion of acoustic waves for explosion yield estimation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kim, K.; Rodgers, A. J.

    2016-07-08

    We present a new waveform inversion technique to estimate the energy of near-surface explosions using atmospheric acoustic waves. Conventional methods often employ air blast models based on a homogeneous atmosphere, where the acoustic wave propagation effects (e.g., refraction and diffraction) are not taken into account, and therefore, their accuracy decreases with increasing source-receiver distance. In this study, three-dimensional acoustic simulations are performed with a finite difference method in realistic atmospheres and topography, and the modeled acoustic Green's functions are incorporated into the waveform inversion for the acoustic source time functions. The strength of the acoustic source is related to explosionmore » yield based on a standard air blast model. The technique was applied to local explosions (<10 km) and provided reasonable yield estimates (<~30% error) in the presence of realistic topography and atmospheric structure. In conclusion, the presented method can be extended to explosions recorded at far distance provided proper meteorological specifications.« less

  7. The effects of the topographic bench on ground motion from mining explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonner, J.L.; Blomberg, W.S.; Hopper, H.; Leidig, M.

    2005-07-01

    Understanding the effects of the bench on ground motion can improve the design of cast blasts and achieve improved blast efficiency while remaining below vibration requirements. A new dataset recorded in September 2003 from a coal mine in Arizona has allowed us to examine the excitation of short-period Rayleigh-type surface waves from four simultaneously-detonated explosions in and below a topographic bench of a mine. The explosions were recorded on a network of over 150 seismic sensors, providing an extensive understanding of the ground motion radiation patterns from these explosions. We detonated two separate explosions in the deepest pit of the mine, thus the explosions were shot to solid rock. Within 25 meters of these two explosions, we detonated two additional explosions of similar explosive yields in a bench, thus these explosions were shot to the free face. Radiation patterns and spectral ratios from the explosions show increased amplitudes at azimuths behind the bench relative to the amplitudes in front of the bench. We compared these findings to seismic observations from two {approximately} 1.5 million pound cast blasts at the same mine and found similar radiations patterns. Modeling of these blasts shows that the variations in ground motion are caused by the topographic bench as a result of 1) horizontal spalling of the rock falling into the pit and 2) non-linear scattering near the free-face. Shooting to a buffer also causes the azimuthal variations to be significantly reduced.

  8. Method for the decontamination of soil containing solid organic explosives therein

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radtke, Corey W.; Roberto, Francisco F.

    2000-01-01

    An efficient method for decontaminating soil containing organic explosives ("TNT" and others) in the form of solid portions or chunks which are not ordinarily subject to effective bacterial degradation. The contaminated soil is treated by delivering an organic solvent to the soil which is capable of dissolving the explosives. This process makes the explosives more bioavailable to natural bacteria in the soil which can decompose the explosives. An organic nutrient composition is also preferably added to facilitate decomposition and yield a compost product. After dissolution, the explosives are allowed to remain in the soil until they are decomposed by the bacteria. Decomposition occurs directly in the soil which avoids the need to remove both the explosives and the solvents (which either evaporate or are decomposed by the bacteria). Decomposition is directly facilitated by the solvent pre-treatment process described above which enables rapid bacterial remediation of the soil.

  9. Explosion Source Phenomena Using Soviet, Test-Era, Waveform Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richards, Paul G.; Rautian, Tatyana G.; Khalturin, Vitaly I.; Phillips, W. Scott

    2006-04-12

    During the nuclear testing era, the former Soviet Union carried out extensive observations of underground nuclear explosions, recording both their own shots and those of foreign nuclear states. Between 1961 and 1989, the Soviet Complex Seismological Expedition deployed seismometers at time-varying subsets of over 150 sites to record explosions at regional distances from the Semipalatinsk and Lop Nor test sites and from the shot points of peaceful nuclear explosions. This data set included recordings from broadband, multi-channel ChISS seismometers that produced a series of narrow band outputs, which could then be measured to perform spectral studies. [ChISS is the Russian abbreviation for multichannel spectral seismometer. In this instrument the signal from the seismometer is passed through a system of narrow bandpass filters and recorded on photo paper. ChISS instruments have from 8 to 16 channels in the frequency range from 100 sec to 40 Hz. We used data mostly from 7 channels, ranging from 0.08 to 5 Hz.] Quantitative, pre-digital era investigations of high-frequency source scaling relied on this type of data. To augment data sets of central Central Asia explosions, we have measured and compiled 537 ChISS coda envelopes for 124 events recorded at Talgar, Kazakhstan, at a distance of about 750 km from Semipalatinsk. Envelopes and calibration levels were measured manually from photo paper records for seven bands between 0.08 and 5 Hz. We obtained from 2 to 10 coda envelope measurements per event, depending on the event size and instrument magnification. Coda lengths varied from 250 to 1400 s. For small events, only bands between 0.6 and 2.5 Hz could be measured. Envelope levels were interpolated or extrapolated to 500 s and we have obtained the dependence of this quantity on magnitude. Coda Q was estimated and found to increase from 232 at 0.08 Hz to 1270 at 5 Hz. These relationships were used to construct an average scaling law of coda spectra for Semipalatinsk

  10. Gasdynamic Model of Turbulent Combustion in TNT Explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuhl, A L; Bell, J B; Beckner, V E

    2010-01-08

    A model is proposed to simulate turbulent combustion in confined TNT explosions. It is based on: (i) the multi-component gasdynamic conservation laws, (ii) a fast-chemistry model for TNT-air combustion, (iii) a thermodynamic model for frozen reactants and equilibrium products, (iv) a high-order Godunov scheme providing a non-diffusive solution of the governing equations, and (v) an ILES approach whereby adaptive mesh refinement is used to capture the energy bearing scales of the turbulence on the grid. Three-dimensional numerical simulations of explosion fields from 1.5-g PETN/TNT charges were performed. Explosions in six different chambers were studied: three calorimeters (volumes of 6.6-l, 21.2-l and 40.5-l with L/D = 1), and three tunnels (L/D = 3.8, 4.65 and 12.5 with volumes of 6.3-l) - to investigate the influence of chamber volume and geometry on the combustion process. Predicted pressures histories were quite similar to measured pressure histories for all cases studied. Experimentally, mass fraction of products, Y{sub p}{sup exp}, reached a peak value of 88% at an excess air ratio of twice stoichiometric, and then decayed with increasing air dilution; mass fractions Y{sub p}{sup calc} computed from the numerical simulations followed similar trends. Based on this agreement, we conclude that the dominant effect that controls the rate of TNT combustion with air is the turbulent mixing rate; the ILES approach along with the fast-chemistry model used here adequately captures this effect.

  11. Critical surface for explosions of rotational core-collapse supernovae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iwakami, Wakana; Nagakura, Hiroki [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Oiwake-cho, Kitashirakawa, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8502 (Japan); Yamada, Shoichi, E-mail: wakana@heap.phys.waseda.ac.jp [Advanced Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1, Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo, 169-8555 (Japan)

    2014-09-20

    The effect of rotation on the explosion of core-collapse supernovae is investigated systematically in three-dimensional simulations. In order to obtain the critical conditions for explosion as a function of mass accretion rate, neutrino luminosity, and specific angular momentum, rigidly rotating matter was injected from the outer boundary with an angular momentum, which is increased every 500 ms. It is found that there is a critical value of the specific angular momentum, above which the standing shock wave revives, for a given combination of mass accretion rate and neutrino luminosity, i.e., an explosion can occur by rotation even if the neutrino luminosity is lower than the critical value for a given mass accretion rate in non-rotational models. The coupling of rotation and hydrodynamical instabilities plays an important role in characterizing the dynamics of shock revival for the range of specific angular momentum that are supposed to be realistic. Contrary to expectations from past studies, the most rapidly expanding direction of the shock wave is not aligned with the rotation axis. Being perpendicular to the rotation axis on average, it can be oriented in various directions. Its dispersion is small when the spiral mode of the standing accretion shock instability (SASI) governs the dynamics, while it is large when neutrino-driven convection is dominant. As a result of the comparison between two-dimensional and three-dimensional rotational models, it is found that m ? 0 modes of neutrino-driven convection or SASI are important for shock revival around the critical surface.

  12. Researcher from NNSA lab helps develop new system for instant explosive

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    detection | National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) Researcher from NNSA lab helps develop new system for instant explosive detection Tuesday, June 7, 2016 - 10:00am Chemicals used in explosives give off signatures that can be read by spectroscopic systems. One practical application for this technology would be for use at airport screening stations. A spectroscopic detection system would be able to tell the difference between explosive chemicals and shampoo by measuring the

  13. Meet a Machine: Explosive science is booming at Livermore Lab's Contained

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Firing Facility | National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) Explosive science is booming at Livermore Lab's Contained Firing Facility Thursday, July 28, 2016 - 2:59pm A key mission of the National Nuclear Security Administration is to maintain the safety, security, and effectiveness of the U.S. nuclear weapons stockpile without nuclear explosive testing. Data gathered from experiments at the Contained Firing Facility (CFF) help validate computer modeling about how the explosives and

  14. Explosive containment and propagation evaluations for commonly used handling and storage containers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LeBlanc, R.

    1994-01-01

    A series of explosive tests were performed to establish containment integrity data for commonly used handling and storage containers of energetic materials at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, N.M. The tests consisted of two phases: (1) each container was tested for explosive integrity and propagation, and (2) the data were used to evaluate a nominal donor-receptor test matrix for verifying the confinement integrity of a typical explosives service locker.

  15. Conductivity Histories Measured in Shock-Dispersed-Fuel Explosion Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuhl, A L

    2010-04-01

    The notion of high ion and electron concentrations in the detonation of aluminized explosive mixtures has aroused some interest in electro-magnetic effects that the SDF charges might generate when detonated. Beside the scientific aspects at least two questions appear to be of practical interest: (1) Does the detonation of an SDF charge create electro-magnetic disturbances strong enough to affect the operation of electrical infrastructure in for example a tunnel system? (2) Does the detonation of an SDF charge in a tunnel system create an electromagnetic signature that relays information of the charge performance to the outside environment?

  16. The application of a figure of merit for nuclear explosive utility...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: The application of a figure of merit for nuclear explosive utility as metric for material attractiveness in a nuclear material theft scenario Citation Details ...

  17. DMSO/base hydrolysis method for the disposal of high explosives and related energetic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Desmare, Gabriel W.; Cates, Dillard M.

    2002-05-14

    High explosives and related energetic materials are treated via a DMSO/base hydrolysis method which renders them non-explosive and/or non-energetic. For example, high explosives such as 1,3,5,7-tetraaza-1,3,5,7-tetranitrocyclooctane (HMX), 1,3,5-triaza-1,3,5-trinitrocyclohexane (RDX), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), or mixtures thereof, may be dissolved in a polar, aprotic solvent and subsequently hydrolyzed by adding the explosive-containing solution to concentrated aqueous base. Major hydrolysis products typically include nitrite, formate, and nitrous oxide.

  18. Variation of methods in small-scale safety and thermal testing of improvised explosives

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sandstrom, Mary M.; Brown, Geoffrey W.; Preston, Daniel N.; Pollard, Colin J.; Warner, Kirsten F.; Sorensen, Daniel N.; Remmers, Daniel L.; Phillips, Jason J.; Shelley, Timothy J.; Reyes, Jose A.; et al

    2014-09-29

    Here, one of the first steps in establishing safe handling procedures for explosives is small-scale safety and thermal (SSST) testing. To better understand the response of homemade or improvised explosives (HMEs) to SSST testing, 16 HME materials were compared to 3 standard military explosives in a proficiency-type round robin study among five laboratories, two U.S. Department of Defense and three U.S. Department of Energy, sponsored by the Department of Homeland Security, Science & Technology Directorate, Explosives Division.

  19. Thermal properties of explosives. Quarterly report, January, February, March 1964

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, L.C.

    1997-09-01

    Henkin`s test data are reported for comparisons of the following: dry-to-moist samples, PBX 9404 in brass and gold-plated blasting caps, Holston HMX with Bridgewater HMX, LX-04-1 and LX-04-1 + Ucon oil, and PETN, LX-04-1 and Extex. The time-to-explosion curves for HMX and PBX 9404 are also given. A description of the pyrolysis apparatus and the method of calibrating the sample temperature to the response of the thermal conductivity detector are reported. The pyrolytic decomposition curves of several standard explosives and six specially prepared HMX samples (LRL raw material No. A-311 through A-316) are included. A controlled atmosphere D.T.A. is described and the thermograms of PETN with an atmosphere of air at 85 psi, nitrogen at 85 psi and 200 psi are given. The thermograms indicate that PETN becomes more sensitive as the pressure increases. Chemical reactivity data are reported for Comp B, Comp B-3, Comp C-4, HMX, PBX 9011, PBX 9205, Tetryl and TNT. Also, test results are reported for LX-01-1 and Comp B-3 heated at 150{degrees}C for 22 hours, LX-02-1 heated at 100{degrees}C for 22 hours, and pressed pellets of PBX 9404 and PBX 9404 + powdered lead.

  20. Explosive photodissociation of methane induced by ultrafast intense laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kong Fanao; Luo Qi; Xu Huailiang; Sharifi, Mehdi; Song Di; Chin, See Leang

    2006-10-07

    A new type of molecular fragmentation induced by femtosecond intense laser at the intensity of 2x10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2} is reported. For the parent molecule of methane, ethylene, n-butane, and 1-butene, fluorescence from H (n=3{yields}2), CH (A {sup 2}{delta}, B {sup 2}{sigma}{sup -}, and C {sup 2}{sigma}{sup +}{yields}X {sup 2}{pi}), or C{sub 2} (d {sup 3}{pi}{sub g}{yields}a {sup 3}{pi}{sub u}) is observed in the spectrum. It shows that the fragmentation is a universal property of neutral molecule in the intense laser field. Unlike breaking only one or two chemical bonds in conventional UV photodissociation, the fragmentation caused by the intense laser undergoes vigorous changes, breaking most of the bonds in the molecule, like an explosion. The fragments are neutral species and cannot be produced through Coulomb explosion of multiply charged ion. The laser power dependence of CH (A{yields}X) emission of methane on a log-log scale has a slope of 10{+-}1. The fragmentation is thus explained as multiple channel dissociation of the superexcited state of parent molecule, which is created by multiphoton excitation.

  1. Order Module--DOE O 452.1D, NUCLEAR EXPLOSIVE AND WEAPON SURETY PROGRAM, DOE O 452.2D, NUCLEAR EXPLOSIVE SAFETY

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    "To prevent accidents and inadvertent or unauthorized use of U.S. nuclear weapons and nuclear explosives. In conjunction with the Department of Defense (DoD), to protect the public health and...

  2. Study of the fast reaction characteristics of aluminized PETN explosive powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu Dong; Sun Zhumei

    1996-05-01

    The fast reaction characteristics of aluminized PETN (pentaerythrite tetranitrate) explosive powders have been studied successfully by means of a spectrum-detecting and recovery technique. The results show that the appropriate particle size and content of aluminium powder in the aluminized PETN explosive powders are 44 {micro}m and 33%, respectively.

  3. Draft Environmental Assessment for the High Explosive Science and Engineering Facility Pantex Plant

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    DRAFT DOE/EA-1993 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE HIGH EXPLOSIVE SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING FACILITY PANTEX PLANT * AMARILLO, TEXAS * 2015 Draft Environmental Assessment for the High Explosive Science and Engineering Facility Pantex Plant August 2015 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................... 1 2.0 BACKGROUND

  4. Fire and explosion hazards of oil shale. Report of Investigations/1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This publication presents the results of investigations into the fire and explosion hazards of oil-shale rocks and dust. Three areas were examined: the explosibility and ignitability of oil-shale dust clouds, the fire hazards of oil-shale dust layers on hot surfaces, and the ignitability and extinguishment of oil shale rubble piles.

  5. EA-1993: Proposed High Explosive Science & Engineering Project, Pantex Plant, Amarillo, Texas

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The proposed action would be to design, construct, and operate a High Explosive Science and Engineering (HE S&E) facility that would support NNSA’s mission at the Pantex Plant. The HE S&E facility would serve as the scientific and engineering hub supporting all High Explosive Center of Excellence activities and technology development activities at Pantex.

  6. STUDY OF THERMAL SENSITIVITY AND THERMAL EXPLOSION VIOLENCE OF ENERGETIC MATERIALS IN THE LLNL ODTX SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HSU, P C; Hust, G; May, C; Howard, M; Chidester, S K; Springer, H K; Maienschein, J L

    2011-08-03

    Some energetic materials may explode at fairly low temperatures and the violence from thermal explosion may cause a significant damage. Thus it is important to understand the response of energetic materials to thermal insults for safe handling and storage of energetic materials. The One Dimensional Time to Explosion (ODTX) system at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory can measure times to explosion, lowest explosion temperatures, and determine kinetic parameters of energetic materials. Samples of different configurations can be tested in the system. The ODTX testing can also generate useful data for determining thermal explosion violence of energetic materials. We also performed detonation experiments of LX-10 in aluminum anvils to determine the detonation violence and validated the Zerilli Armstrong aluminum model. Results of the detonation experiments agreed well with the model prediction.

  7. Investigation on the Interface Morphologies of Explosive Welding of Inconel 625 to Steel A516 Plates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mousavi, S. A. A. Akbari; Zareie, H. R.

    2011-01-17

    The purpose of this study is to produce composite plates by explosive cladding process. This is a process in which the controlled energy of explosives is used to create a metallic bond between two similar or dissimilar materials. The welding conditions were tailored through parallel geometry route with different operational parameters. In this investigation, a two-pronged study was adopted to establish the conditions required for producing successful solid state welding: (a) Analytical calculations to determine the weldability domain or welding window; (b) Metallurgical investigations of explosive welding experiments carried out under different explosive ratios to produce both wavy and straight interfaces. The analytical calculations confirm the experimental results. Optical microscopy studies show that a transition from a smooth to wavy interface occurs with an increase in explosive ratio. SEM studies show that the interface was outlined by characteristic sharp transition between two materials.

  8. Optically-energized, emp-resistant, fast-acting, explosion initiating device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, David A.; Kuswa, Glenn W.

    1987-01-01

    Optical energy, provided from a remote user-operated source, is utilized to initially electrically charge a capacitor in a circuit that also contains an explosion initiating transducer in contact with a small explosive train contained in an attachable housing. Additional optical energy is subsequently supplied in a preferred embodiment to an optically responsive phototransistor acting in conjunction with a silicon controlled rectifer to release the stored electrical energy through the explosion initiating transducer to set off the explosive train. All energy transfers between the user and the explosive apparatus, either for charging it up or for setting it off, are conveyed optically and may be accomplished in a single optical fiber with coding to distinguish between specific optical energy transfers and between these and any extraneous signals.

  9. Nonreactor Nuclear Safety Design Criteria and Explosive Safety Criteria Guide for Use with DOE O 420.1, Facility Safety

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2000-03-28

    This Guide provides guidance on the application of requirements for nonreactor nuclear facilities and explosives facilities of Department of Energy (DOE) O 420.1, Facility Safety, Section 4.1, Nuclear and Explosives Safety Design Criteria. No cancellation.

  10. EA-1106: Explosive Waste Treatment Facility at Site 300, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, San Joaquin County, California

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of the proposal to build, permit, and operate the Explosive Waste Treatment Facility to treat explosive waste at the U.S. Department of Energy's Lawrence...

  11. Radiation-induced decomposition of explosives under extreme conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giefers, Hubertus; Pravica, Michael; Yang, Wenge; Liermann, Peter

    2008-11-03

    We present high-pressure and high temperature studies of the synchrotron radiation-induced decomposition of powder secondary high explosives pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) and 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) using white beam synchrotron radiation at the 16 BM-B and 16 BM-D sectors of the HP-CAT beamline at the Advanced Photon Source. The radiation-induced decomposition rate TATB showed dramatic slowing with pressure up to 26.6 GPa (the highest pressure studied), implying a positive activation volume of the activated complex. The decomposition rate of PETN varied little with pressure up to 15.7 GPa (the highest pressure studied). Diffraction line intensities were measured as a function of time using energy-dispersive methods. By measuring the decomposition rate as a function of pressure and temperature, kinetic and other constants associated with the decomposition reactions were extracted.

  12. Kinetic calculations of explosives with slow-burning constituents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howard, W.M.; Souers, P.C.; Pried, L.E.

    1997-07-01

    The equilibrium thermochemical code CHEETAH V 1.40 has been modified to detonate part of the explosive and binder. An Einstein thermal description of the unreacted constituents is used, and the Einstein temperature may be increased to reduce heat absorption. We study the effect of the reactivity and thermal transport on the detonation velocity. Hydroxy-terminated-polybutadiene binders have low energy and density and would degrade the detonation velocity if they burned. Runs with unburned binder are closer to the measured values. Aluminum and ammonium Perchlorate are also largely unburned within the sonic reaction zone that determines the detonation velocity. All three materials appear not to fully absorb heat as well. The normal assumption of total reaction in a thermochemical code is clearly not true for these special cases, where the detonation velocities have widely different values for different combinations of processes.

  13. Influence of insulating coating on aluminum wire explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yang; Wu, Jian; Sheng, Liang; Zhao, Jizhen; Zhang, Mei; Yuan, Yuan; Peng, Bodong; Li, Xingwen

    2014-10-15

    Single wire explosions are widely used in understanding the early stages of z-pinch experiments. This paper presents a serial of experiments conducted on the pulse power generator with ?1?kA peak current and ?10?ns rising time in Xi'an Jiao Tong University. Polyimide coated aluminum wires and uncoated ones were tested under three different voltages to analyze the effect of insulating coating. Experimental results showed that insulating coating can increase the energy deposition 10%?30% in aluminum wires by delaying the voltage collapse and raising the maximum load resistance. The substantial energy deposition resulted in about 20% faster expansion rates for coated wires. Experimental evidence that plasma channel shunts the current from the wire core was observed by streak camera and schlieren graphs. This paper also briefly discussed the influence of nonuniform coating on the morphology of wire expansion.

  14. A method for calculating the consequences of explosive radiological releases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Layman, B.J. )

    1991-01-01

    Radiological releases resulting from detonations are a primary concern of analysts when they are dealing with radiological sabotage. Calculating the consequences of these explosive releases is an integral part of the risk assessment process. This paper presents a method for relating the consequences of a release to the resultant doses by using the appropriate radiological guidelines. The doses are calculated as the product of dose conversion factors and building source terms. The uses of relative activities and committed dose equivalent factors, organ weighting factors, and meteorological data for calculating the dose conversion factors are discussed. Material at risk, release fractions, respirable fractions, and leak path factors, which are used to compute the building source terms, are also addressed.

  15. A new 40 MA ranchero explosive pulsed power system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goforth, James; Herrera, Dennis; Oona, Hank; Torres, David; Atchison, W L; Colgate, S A; Griego, J R; Guzik, J; Holtkamp, D B; Idzorek, G; Kaul, A; Kirkpatrick, R C; Menikoff, R; Reardon, P T; Reinovsky, R E; Rousculp, C L; Sgro, A G; Tabaka, L J; Tierney, T E; Watt, R G

    2009-01-01

    We are developing a new high explosive pulsed power (HEPP) system based on the 1.4 m long Ranchero generator which was developed in 1999 for driving solid density z-pinch loads. The new application requires approximately 40 MA to implode similar liners, but the liners cannot tolerate the 65 {micro}s, 3 MA current pulse associated with delivering the initial magnetic flux to the 200 nH generator. To circumvent this problem, we have designed a system with an internal start switch and four explosively formed fuse (EFF) opening switches. The integral start switch is installed between the output glide plane and the armature. It functions in the same manner as a standard input crowbar switch when armature motion begins, but initially isolates the load. The circuit is completed during the flux loading phase using post hole convolutes. Each convolute attaches the inner (coaxial) output transmission line to the outside of the outer coax through a penetration of the outer coaxial line. The attachment is made with the conductor of an EFF at each location. The EFFs conduct 0.75 MA each, and are actuated just after the internal start switch connects to the load. EFFs operating at these parameters have been tested in the past. The post hole convolutes must withstand as much as 80 kV at peak dl/dt during the Ranchero load current pulse. We describe the design of this new HEPP system in detail, and give the experimental results available at conference time. In addition, we discuss the work we are doing to test the upper current limits of a single standard size Ranchero module. Calculations have suggested that the generator could function at up to {approx}120 MA, the rule of thumb we follow (1 MA/cm) suggests 90 MA, and simple flux compression calculations, along with the {approx}4 MA seed current available from our capacitor bank, suggests 118 MA is the currently available upper limit.

  16. The Soviet program for peaceful uses of nuclear explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nordyke, M.D.

    1996-07-24

    The concept of utilizing the weapons of war to serve the peaceful pursuits of mankind is as old as civilization itself. Perhaps the most famous reference to this basic desire is recorded in the Book of Micah where the great prophet Isiah called upon his people `to turn your spears into pitchforks and your swords into plowshares.` As the scientists at Los Alamos worked on developing the world`s first atomic bomb, thoughts of how this tremendous new source of energy could be used for peaceful purposes generally focused on using the thermal energy generated by the slow fission of uranium in a reactor, such as those being used to produce Plutonium to drive electric power stations. However, being scientists in a new, exciting field, it was impossible to avoid letting their minds wander from the task at hand to other scientific or non-military uses for the bombs themselves. During the Manhattan Project, Otto Frisch, one of the pioneers in the development of nuclear fission process in the 1930s, first suggested using an atomic explosion as a source for a large quantities of neutrons which could used in scientific experiments designed to expand their understanding of nuclear physics. After the war was over, many grandiose ideas appeared in the popular press on how this new source of energy should be to serve mankind. Not to be left out of the growing enthusiasm for peaceful uses of atomic energy, the Soviet Union added their visions to the public record. This document details the Soviet program for using nuclear explosions in peacetime pursuits.

  17. The Stimulation of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs with Subsurface Nuclear Explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LORENZ,JOHN C.

    2000-12-08

    Between 1965 and 1979 there were five documented and one or more inferred attempts to stimulate the production from hydrocarbon reservoirs by detonating nuclear devices in reservoir strata. Of the five documented tests, three were carried out by the US in low-permeability, natural-gas bearing, sandstone-shale formations, and two were done in the USSR within oil-bearing carbonates. The objectives of the US stimulation efforts were to increase porosity and permeability in a reservoir around a specific well by creating a chimney of rock rubble with fractures extending beyond it, and to connect superimposed reservoir layers. In the USSR, the intent was to extensively fracture an existing reservoir in the more general vicinity of producing wells, again increasing overall permeability and porosity. In both countries, the ultimate goals were to increase production rates and ultimate recovery from the reservoirs. Subsurface explosive devices ranging from 2.3 to about 100 kilotons were used at depths ranging from 1208 m (3963 ft) to 2568 m (8427 ft). Post-shot problems were encountered, including smaller-than-calculated fracture zones, formation damage, radioactivity of the product, and dilution of the BTU value of tie natural gas with inflammable gases created by the explosion. Reports also suggest that production-enhancement factors from these tests fell short of expectations. Ultimately, the enhanced-production benefits of the tests were insufficient to support continuation of the pro-grams within increasingly adversarial political, economic, and social climates, and attempts to stimulate hydrocarbon reservoirs with nuclear devices have been terminated in both countries.

  18. Moderate Velocity Ball Impact of a Mock High-Explosive

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furmanski, Jevan; Rae, Philip; Clements, Bradford E.

    2012-06-05

    Modeling of thermal and mechanical events in high-explosive materials is complicated by the composite nature of the material, which experiences viscoelastic and plastic deformations and sustains damage in the form of microcracks that can dominate its overall behavior. A mechanical event of interest is projectile interaction with the material, which leads to extreme local deformation and adiabatic heating, which can potentially lead to adverse outcomes in an energetic material. Simulations of such an event predicted large local temperature rises near the path of a spherical projectile, but these were experimentally unconfirmed and hence potentially non-physical. This work concerns the experimental verification of local temperatures both at the surface and in the wake of a spherical projectile penetrating a mock (unreactive) high-explosive at {approx}700 m/s. Fast response thermocouples were embedded radially in a mid-plane of a cylindrical target, which was bonded around the thermocouples with epoxy and recorded by an oscilloscope through a low-pass filter with a bandwidth of 500 Hz. A peak temperature rise of 70 K was measured both at the equator of the projectile and in its wake, in good agreement with the temperature predicted in the minimally distorted elements at those locations by a finite element model in ABAQUS employing the ViscoSCRAM constitutive model. Further work is needed to elucidate the extreme temperature rises in material undergoing crushing or fragmentation, which is difficult to predict with meshed finite element methods due to element distortion, and also challenging to quantify experimentally.

  19. Method for explosive expansion toward horizontal free faces for forming an in situ oil shale retort

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ricketts, Thomas E.

    1980-01-01

    Formation is excavated from within a retort site in formation containing oil shale for forming a plurality of vertically spaced apart voids extending horizontally across different levels of the retort site, leaving a separate zone of unfragmented formation between each pair of adjacent voids. Explosive is placed in each zone, and such explosive is detonated in a single round for forming an in situ retort containing a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale. The same amount of formation is explosively expanded upwardly and downwardly toward each void. A horizontal void excavated at a production level has a smaller horizontal cross-sectional area than a void excavated at a lower level of the retort site immediately above the production level void. Explosive in a first group of vertical blast holes is detonated for explosively expanding formation downwardly toward the lower void, and explosive in a second group of vertical blast holes is detonated in the same round for explosively expanding formation upwardly toward the lower void and downwardly toward the production level void for forming a generally T-shaped bottom of the fragmented mass.

  20. Detecting Weak Explosions at Local Distances by Fusing Multiple Geophysical Phenomenologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carmichael, Joshua D.; Nemzek, Robert J.; Arrowsmith, Stephen J.; Sentz, Kari

    2015-03-23

    Comprehensive explosion monitoring requires the technical capability to identify certain signatures at low signal strengths. For particularly small, evasively conducted explosions, conventional monitoring methods that use single geophysical phenomenologies may produce marginal or absent detections. To address this challenge, we recorded coincident acoustic, seismic and radio-frequency emissions during the above-ground detonation of ~ 2-12 kg solid charges and assessed how waveform data could be fused to increase explosion-screening capability. Our data provided identifiable explosion signatures that we implemented as template-events in multichannel correlation detectors to search for similar, matching waveforms. We thereby observed that these highly sensitive correlation detectors missed explosive events when applied separately to data streams that were heavily contaminated with noise and signal clutter. By then adding the p-values of these statistics through Fisher’s combined probability test, we correctly identified the explosion signals at thresholds consistent with the false alarm rates of the correlation detectors. This resulting Fisher test thereby provided high-probability detections, zero false alarms, and higher theoretical detection capability. We conclude that inclusion of these fusion methods in routine monitoring operations will likely lower both detection thresholds for small explosions, while reducing false attribution rates.

  1. Results of the Triggered TROI Steam Explosion Experiments with a Narrow Interaction Vessel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, J.H.; Park, I.K.; Min, B.T.; Hong, S.W.; Hong, S.H.; Song, J.H.; Kim, H.D.

    2006-07-01

    The effect of the interaction vessel geometry has been studied on the energetics of a steam explosion in the TROI experiment. The interaction vessel was 30 cm in diameter (1-D geometry). Two types of corium composition were used as a melt. One was spontaneously non-explosive 80 : 20 corium (UO{sub 2} : ZrO{sub 2}) and the other was spontaneously explosive 70 : 30 eutectic corium. A test with 80 : 20 corium was carried out without an external triggering. Another test with 80 : 20 corium was also carried out with an external trigger. In addition, two tests with 70 : 30 corium were carried out with an external trigger. The external trigger was applied just before the contact between the melt and the bottom of the interaction vessel. This time was thought to be the triggering time of a spontaneous steam explosion. The external trigger was a chemical explosive of PETN 1.0 g. However, none of these tests led to steam explosions even with an external triggering. Since eutectic corium led to spontaneous or triggered steam explosions in a previous test using a 60 cm wide interaction vessel (3-D geometry), it is quite probable that a geometry effect of the interaction vessel could exist. The reason for no steam explosions in the narrow (1-D) interaction vessel is believed to be a relatively high void fraction in the vessel when compared with the 3-D vessel. Due to the high void fraction, a steam explosion could not propagate to the surroundings of the melt where the water was depleted. (authors)

  2. The use of MAVIS II to integrate the modeling and analysis of explosive valve interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ng, R.; Kwon, D.M.

    1998-12-31

    The MAVIS II computer program provides for the modeling and analysis of explosive valve interactions. This report describes the individual components of the program and how MAVIS II is used with other available tools to integrate the design and understanding of explosive valves. The rationale and model used for each valve interaction is described. Comparisons of the calculated results with available data have demonstrated the feasibility and accuracy of using MAVIS II for analytical studies of explosive valve interactions. The model used for the explosive or pyrotechnic used as the driving force in explosive valves is the most critical to be understood and modeled. MAVIS II is an advanced version that incorporates a plastic, as well as elastic, modeling of the deformations experienced when plungers are forced into a bore. The inclusion of a plastic model has greatly expanded the use of MAVIS for all categories (opening, closure, or combined) of valves, especially for the closure valves in which the sealing operation requires the plastic deformation of either a plunger or bore over a relatively large area. In order to increase its effectiveness, the use of MAVIS II should be integrated with the results from available experimental hardware. Test hardware such as the Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR) and Velocity Generator test provide experimental data for accurate comparison of the actual valve functions. Variable Explosive Chamber (VEC) and Constant Explosive Volume (CEV) tests are used to provide the proper explosive equation-of-state for the MAVIS calculations of the explosive driving forces. The rationale and logistics of this integration is demonstrated through an example. A recent valve design is used to demonstrate how MAVIS II can be integrated with experimental tools to provide an understanding of the interactions in this valve.

  3. LOS ALAMOS, N.M., Oct. 22, 2015-Los Alamos National Laboratory explosives

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rings of Fire: New explosives provide enhanced safety, high energy October 22, 2015 LOS ALAMOS, N.M., Oct. 22, 2015-Los Alamos National Laboratory explosives chemist David Chavez has synthesized a pair of novel molecules, one possessing a unique fused three-ring structure. These materials could usher in a new class of explosives that provide high-energy output with enhanced safety. "There is a general trend that the higher the performance of an energetic material, the more sensitive the

  4. A Model-Based Signal Processing Approach to Nuclear Explosion Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodgers, A; Harris, D; Pasyanos, M

    2007-03-14

    This report describes research performed under Laboratory Research and Development Project 05-ERD-019, entitled ''A New Capability for Regional High-Frequency Seismic Wave Simulation in Realistic Three-Dimensional Earth Models to Improve Nuclear Explosion Monitoring''. A more appropriate title for this project is ''A Model-Based Signal Processing Approach to Nuclear Explosion Monitoring''. This project supported research for a radically new approach to nuclear explosion monitoring as well as allowed the development new capabilities in computational seismology that can contribute to NNSA/NA-22 Programs.

  5. Hidden explosives detector employing pulsed neutron and x-ray interrogation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, Frederick J.; Caldwell, John T.

    1993-01-01

    Methods and systems for the detection of small amounts of modern, highly-explosive nitrogen-based explosives, such as plastic explosives, hidden in airline baggage. Several techniques are employed either individually or combined in a hybrid system. One technique employed in combination is X-ray imaging. Another technique is interrogation with a pulsed neutron source in a two-phase mode of operation to image both nitrogen and oxygen densities. Another technique employed in combination is neutron interrogation to form a hydrogen density image or three-dimensional map. In addition, deliberately-placed neutron-absorbing materials can be detected.

  6. Hidden explosives detector employing pulsed neutron and x-ray interrogation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, F.J.; Caldwell, J.T.

    1993-04-06

    Methods and systems for the detection of small amounts of modern, highly-explosive nitrogen-based explosives, such as plastic explosives, hidden in airline baggage. Several techniques are employed either individually or combined in a hybrid system. One technique employed in combination is X-ray imaging. Another technique is interrogation with a pulsed neutron source in a two-phase mode of operation to image both nitrogen and oxygen densities. Another technique employed in combination is neutron interrogation to form a hydrogen density image or three-dimensional map. In addition, deliberately-placed neutron-absorbing materials can be detected.

  7. Systematic approach to verification and validation: High explosive burn models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menikoff, Ralph; Scovel, Christina A.

    2012-04-16

    Most material models used in numerical simulations are based on heuristics and empirically calibrated to experimental data. For a specific model, key questions are determining its domain of applicability and assessing its relative merits compared to other models. Answering these questions should be a part of model verification and validation (V and V). Here, we focus on V and V of high explosive models. Typically, model developers implemented their model in their own hydro code and use different sets of experiments to calibrate model parameters. Rarely can one find in the literature simulation results for different models of the same experiment. Consequently, it is difficult to assess objectively the relative merits of different models. This situation results in part from the fact that experimental data is scattered through the literature (articles in journals and conference proceedings) and that the printed literature does not allow the reader to obtain data from a figure in electronic form needed to make detailed comparisons among experiments and simulations. In addition, it is very time consuming to set up and run simulations to compare different models over sufficiently many experiments to cover the range of phenomena of interest. The first difficulty could be overcome if the research community were to support an online web based database. The second difficulty can be greatly reduced by automating procedures to set up and run simulations of similar types of experiments. Moreover, automated testing would be greatly facilitated if the data files obtained from a database were in a standard format that contained key experimental parameters as meta-data in a header to the data file. To illustrate our approach to V and V, we have developed a high explosive database (HED) at LANL. It now contains a large number of shock initiation experiments. Utilizing the header information in a data file from HED, we have written scripts to generate an input file for a hydro code

  8. Supercritical Solubility of Binders Used in Explosive Formulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A. Bell

    2002-09-14

    The dissolution of polymers in supercritical carbon dioxide was measured using in-situ ultraviolet absorbance. This research was carried out to provide data to support the development of a new process to produce plastic-bonded explosive molding powder. Estane 5703, the polymer used to bind PBX 9501, was insoluble at the tested conditions. The dissolution of Kraton FG 1901 was tested at 27 to 100{degrees}C and 29 to 65 MPa. Only a small fraction of this polymer dissolved, and the quantity that dissolved increased with the polymer sample size. The tested polymer was polydisperse, and it is thought that the lowest molecular weight fraction of the polymer preferentially dissolved. Based on this observation, dissolution of the polymer prior to molding powder synthesis is recommended to obtain a uniform molding powder product. The dissolution of nearly monodisperse samples of polyethylacrylate were tested at 27 to 90{degrees}C and 10 to 65 MPa. The resulting solutions were very dilute, on the order of 100 mg/liter, and the solutions did not reach saturation during the 90 hour test period. The slow approach to saturation indicates that mass transfer rates may significantly affect process performance.

  9. Development and production of two explosive components using SCB technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarbell, W.W.; Sanchez, D.H.; Oestreich, M.L.; Prentice, J.W.

    1995-05-01

    For many years, explosive components have used hotwires to convert an electrical stimulus into the thermal energy required to initiate the device. A Semi-Conductor Bridge (SCB) performs the same function, but with the advantage of requiring approximately 1/10 the input energy of a comparable hotwire, while retaining excellent no-fire characteristics. The SCB also demonstrates faster function times due to its inherently-lower thermal mass. This paper discusses the development and production of two SCB-based devices, the MC4491 Initiator and the MC4492 Actuator. The initiator is designed to shock initiate a linear shaped charge by accelerating a thin metal plate across a small gap. The actuator functions several different components, serving as either an actuator by producing a rapidly expanding gas to activate piston mechanisms or as an ignitor by providing hot particles for initiating pyrotechnic mixtures. Details are provided on the construction of both devices, methods of assembly, and performance characteristics (function time, flyer velocity, pressure in a closed bomb, heat content, and no-fire and all-fire levels).

  10. Radionuclide gas transport through nuclear explosion-generated fracture networks

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jordan, Amy B.; Stauffer, Philip H.; Knight, Earl E.; Rougier, Esteban; Anderson, Dale N.

    2015-12-17

    Underground nuclear weapon testing produces radionuclide gases which may seep to the surface. Barometric pumping of gas through explosion-fractured rock is investigated using a new sequentially-coupled hydrodynamic rock damage/gas transport model. Fracture networks are produced for two rock types (granite and tuff) and three depths of burial. The fracture networks are integrated into a flow and transport numerical model driven by surface pressure signals of differing amplitude and variability. There are major differences between predictions using a realistic fracture network and prior results that used a simplified geometry. Matrix porosity and maximum fracture aperture have the greatest impact on gasmore » breakthrough time and window of opportunity for detection, with different effects between granite and tuff simulations highlighting the importance of accurately simulating the fracture network. In particular, maximum fracture aperture has an opposite effect on tuff and granite, due to different damage patterns and their effect on the barometric pumping process. From stochastic simulations using randomly generated hydrogeologic parameters, normalized detection curves are presented to show differences in optimal sampling time for granite and tuff simulations. In conclusion, seasonal and location-based effects on breakthrough, which occur due to differences in barometric forcing, are stronger where the barometric signal is highly variable.« less

  11. Radionuclide gas transport through nuclear explosion-generated fracture networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, Amy B.; Stauffer, Philip H.; Knight, Earl E.; Rougier, Esteban; Anderson, Dale N.

    2015-12-17

    Underground nuclear weapon testing produces radionuclide gases which may seep to the surface. Barometric pumping of gas through explosion-fractured rock is investigated using a new sequentially-coupled hydrodynamic rock damage/gas transport model. Fracture networks are produced for two rock types (granite and tuff) and three depths of burial. The fracture networks are integrated into a flow and transport numerical model driven by surface pressure signals of differing amplitude and variability. There are major differences between predictions using a realistic fracture network and prior results that used a simplified geometry. Matrix porosity and maximum fracture aperture have the greatest impact on gas breakthrough time and window of opportunity for detection, with different effects between granite and tuff simulations highlighting the importance of accurately simulating the fracture network. In particular, maximum fracture aperture has an opposite effect on tuff and granite, due to different damage patterns and their effect on the barometric pumping process. From stochastic simulations using randomly generated hydrogeologic parameters, normalized detection curves are presented to show differences in optimal sampling time for granite and tuff simulations. In conclusion, seasonal and location-based effects on breakthrough, which occur due to differences in barometric forcing, are stronger where the barometric signal is highly variable.

  12. Hyperspectral microscopy using an external cavity quantum cascade laser and its applications for explosives detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, Mark C.; Suter, Jonathan D.; Bernacki, Bruce E.

    2012-04-01

    A hyperspectral infrared microscope using external cavity quantum cascade laser illumination and a microbolometer focal plane array is used to characterize nanogram-scale particles of the explosives RDX, tetryl, and PETN at fast acquisition rates.

  13. Electromagnetic pulse - the fifth factor in the impact of a nuclear explosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-01-16

    Three ionization zones form during high-altitude nuclear explosions: 1) a short-lived ionization zone in the area of the nuclear explosion; 2) radioactive cloud hovering over the center of the explosion. The cloud consists of ionized volatile products from the explosion and lingers for several hours or even days; and 3) a large zone of increased ionization resulting from gamma and x-ray radiation as well as from neutrons. The zone forms at an altitude of 40 to 70 kilometers and remains for several days. Increased ionization zones have an impact on radio wave propagation and interfere with radio communication as well as the operation of radar stations. Radiation emitted from the increased ionization zone can have an impact on changing the parameters of elements in electronic devices, especially semiconductors. This can in turn interfere with the operation of other equipment, including radio stations, radars, and infrared telescopes, and can also damage this equipment.

  14. An assessment of the flammability and explosion potential of transuranic waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silva, M.

    1991-06-01

    The explosion potential of transuranic (TRU) waste, destined for the Waste Isolation Pilot (WIPP), was recently examined in EEG-45. That investigation focused on the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the waste, particularly acetone, and concluded that an explosion due to the VOCs was unlikely. Recent evidence raises serious concerns about drums containing mixed radioactive hazardous waste bound for the WIPP. Static electricity generated by the plastic bags represents a potential ignition source for other fuels, such as methane gas or hydrogen gas, during transportation and during the test phase. The potential danger of explosion due to hydrogen gas or methane gas generation has not yet been resolved. This report investigates that potential hazard and examines documented ignitions, fires, explosions and incidents of overpressurization of containers at generating and storage sites planning to send transuranic waste to the WIPP for disposal. 68 refs., 6 figs.

  15. RoboHound:developing sample collection and preconcentration hardware for a remote trace explosives detection system.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, David J.; Denning, David J.; Hobart, Clinton G.; Lenz, Michael C.; Anderson, Robert J.; Carlson, Dennis L.; Hunter, John Anthony; Gladwell, T. Scott; Mitchell, Mary-Anne; Hannum, David W.; Baumann, Mark J.

    2005-09-01

    The RoboHound{trademark} Project was a three-year, multiphase project at Sandia National Laboratories to build and refine a working prototype trace explosive detection system as a tool for a commercial robot. The RoboHound system was envisioned to be a tool for emergency responders to test suspicious items (i.e., packages or vehicles) for explosives while maintaining a safe distance. The project investigated combining Sandia's expertise in trace explosives detection with a wheeled robotic platform that could be programmed to interrogate suspicious items remotely for the presence of explosives. All of the RoboHound field tests were successful, especially with regards to the ability to collect and detect trace samples of RDX. The project has gone from remote sampling with human intervention to a fully automatic system that requires no human intervention until the robot returns from a sortie. A proposal is being made for additional work leading towards commercialization.

  16. Field sampling and selecting on-site analytical methods for explosives in soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crockett, A.B.; Craig, H.D.; Jenkins, T.F.; Sisk, W.E.

    1996-12-01

    A large number of defense-related sites are contaminated with elevated levels of secondary explosives. Levels of contamination range from barely detectable to levels above 10% that need special handling because of the detonation potential. Characterization of explosives-contaminated sites is particularly difficult because of the very heterogeneous distribution of contamination in the environment and within samples. To improve site characterization, several options exist including collecting more samples, providing on-site analytical data to help direct the investigation, compositing samples, improving homogenization of the samples, and extracting larger samples. This publication is intended to provide guidance to Remedial Project Managers regarding field sampling and on-site analytical methods for detecting and quantifying secondary explosive compounds in soils, and is not intended to include discussions of the safety issues associated with sites contaminated with explosive residues.

  17. Tracing explosive in solvent using quantum cascade laser with pulsed electric discharge system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Seong-Wook; Tian, Chao; Martini, Rainer; Chen, Gang; Chen, I-chun Anderson

    2014-11-03

    We demonstrated highly sensitive detection of explosive dissolved in solvent with a portable spectroscopy system (Q-MACS) by tracing the explosive byproduct, N{sub 2}O, in combination with a pulsed electric discharge system for safe explosive decomposition. Using Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), the gas was monitored and analyzed by Q-MACS and the presence of the dissolved explosive clearly detected. While HMX presence could be identified directly in the air above the solutions even without plasma, much better results were achieved under the decomposition. The experiment results give an estimated detection limit of 10 ppb, which corresponds to a 15 pg of HMX.

  18. The Surface Wave Magnitude for the 9 October 2006 North Korean Nuclear Explosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonner, J; Herrmann, R; Harkrider, D; Pasyanos, M

    2008-03-11

    Surface waves were generated by the North Korean nuclear explosion of 9 October 2006 and recorded at epicentral distances up to 34 degrees, from which we estimated a surface wave magnitude (M{sub s}) of 2.94 with an interstation standard deviation of 0.17 magnitude units. The International Data Centre estimated a body wave magnitude (m{sub b}) of 4.1. This is the only explosion we have analyzed that was not easily screened as an explosion based on the differences between the M{sub s} and m{sub b} estimates. Additionally, this M{sub s} predicts a yield, based on empirical M{sub s}/Yield relationships, that is almost an order of magnitude larger then the 0.5 to 1 kiloton reported for this explosion. We investigate how emplacement medium effects on surface wave moment and magnitude may have contributed to the yield discrepancy.

  19. Packaging and Transporting of Nuclear Explosives, Nuclear Components and Special Assemblies

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1979-09-09

    The order establishes Department of Energy (DOE) policy and assigns responsibilities and authorities for the packaging and transporting of nuclear explosives, nuclear components, and special assemblies. Cancels ERDA directive 0561, dated 9-15-75

  20. New X-ray method allows scientists to probe molecular explosions...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New X-ray method allows scientists to probe molecular explosions By Jared Sagoff * June ... However, these aren't new releases from Hollywood studios; they're one type of new ...

  1. Qualitative assessment of the ignition of highly flammable fuels by primary explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elischer, P.P.; De Yong, L.

    1983-06-01

    An assessment of the ignition of fuel/air mixtures and of fabrics soaked with different fuels (ethanol, n-hexane and diethyl ether) by primary explosives has been carried out.

  2. Development of Non-hazardous Explosives for Security Training and Testing (NESTT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kury, J.W.; Simpson, R.L.; Hallowell, S.F.

    1996-01-01

    The security force at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) routinely used canines to search for explosives and other contraband substances. The use of threat quantities of explosive for realistic training in populated or sensitive Laboratory areas has not been permitted because of the hazard. To overcome this limitation a series of non-hazardous materials with authentic signatures have been prepared and evaluated. A series of materials has been prepared that have authentic properties of explosives but are non-hazardous. These NESTT materials are prepared by coating a few micron thick layer of an explosive on a non-reactive substrate. This produces a formulation with an authentic vapor and molecular signature. Authentic x-ray and oxygen/nitrogen density signatures are obtained through the appropriate choice of a substrate. The signatures of NESTT TNT and NESTT Comp. C-4 have been verified by instrument and canine (K-9) detection in a Beta Test Program.

  3. Picture of the Week: An explosion of 3D printing technology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    structure. May 24, 2015 An explosion of 3D printing technology x View image on Flickr Additive Manufacturing, known also as 3D printing, allows for the rapid production of...

  4. NNSA scientists find more effective ways to detect nuclear explosions near

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    and far | National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) scientists find more effective ways to detect nuclear explosions near and far Wednesday, April 6, 2016 - 10:36am NNSA Blog NNSA activities are vital to detecting nuclear explosions and helping verify compliance with the testing ban worldwide. Recent developments at NNSA's Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will help NNSA meet this commitment. Using computer-generated models and field experiments, LLNL simulates how gases produced

  5. Insensitive explosive composition and method of fracturing rock using an extrudable form of the composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davis, Lloyd L

    2013-11-05

    Insensitive explosive compositions were prepared by reacting di-isocyanate and/or poly-isocyanate monomers with an explosive diamine monomer. Prior to a final cure, the compositions are extrudable. The di-isocyanate monomers tend to produce tough, rubbery materials while polyfunctional monomers (i.e. having more than two isocyanate groups) tend to form rigid products. The extrudable form of the composition may be used in a variety of applications including rock fracturing.

  6. Insensitive explosive composition and method of fracturing rock using an extrudable form of the composition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, Lloyd L.

    2015-07-28

    Insensitive explosive compositions were prepared by reacting di-isocyanate and/or poly-isocyanate monomers with an explosive diamine monomer. Prior to a final cure, the compositions are extrudable. The di-isocyanate monomers tend to produce tough, rubbery materials while polyfunctional monomers (i.e. having more than two isocyanate groups) tend to form rigid products. The extrudable form of the composition may be used in a variety of applications including rock fracturing.

  7. Method for attenuating seismic shock from detonating explosive in an in situ oil shale retort

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Studebaker, Irving G.; Hefelfinger, Richard

    1980-01-01

    In situ oil shale retorts are formed in formation containing oil shale by excavating at least one void in each retort site. Explosive is placed in a remaining portion of unfragmented formation within each retort site adjacent such a void, and such explosive is detonated in a single round for explosively expanding formation within the retort site toward such a void for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale in each retort. This produces a large explosion which generates seismic shock waves traveling outwardly from the blast site through the underground formation. Sensitive equipment which could be damaged by seismic shock traveling to it straight through unfragmented formation is shielded from such an explosion by placing such equipment in the shadow of a fragmented mass in an in situ retort formed prior to the explosion. The fragmented mass attenuates the velocity and magnitude of seismic shock waves traveling toward such sensitive equipment prior to the shock wave reaching the vicinity of such equipment.

  8. Detonation wave profiles measured in plastic bonded explosives using 1550 nm photon doppler velocimetry (PDV)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gustavsen, Richard L; Bartram, Brian D; Sanchez, Nathaniel J

    2009-01-01

    We present detonation wave profiles measured in two TATB based explosives and two HMX based explosives. Profiles were measured at the interface of the explosive and a Lithium-Fluoride (LiF) window using 1550 nm Photon Doppler Velocimetry (PDV). Planar detonations were produced by impacting the explosive with a projectile launched in a gas-gun. The impact state was varied to produce varied distance to detonation, and therefore varied support of the Taylor wave following the Chapman-Jouget (CJ) or sonic state. Profiles from experiments with different support should be the same between the Von-Neumann (VN) spike and CJ state and different thereafter. Comparison of profiles with differing support, therefore, allows us to estimate reaction zone lengths. For the TATB based explosive, a reaction zone length of {approx} 3.9 mm, 500 ns was measured in EDC-35, and a reaction zone length of {approx} 6.3 mm, 800 ns was measured in PBX 9502 pre-cooled to -55 C. The respective VN spike state was 2.25 {+-} 0.05 km/s in EDC-35 and 2.4 {+-} 0.1 km/s in the cooled PBX 9502. We do not believe we have resolved either the VN spike state (> 2.6 km/s) nor the reaction zone length (<< 50 ns) in the HMX based explosives.

  9. Thermal Decomposition of Trinitrotoluene (TNT) with a New One-Dimensional Time to Explosion (ODTX) Apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tran, T D; Simpson, R L; Maienschein, J; Tarver, C

    2001-03-23

    The thermal explosion of trinitrotoluene (TNT) is used as a basis for evaluating the performance of a new One-Dimensional-Time-to-Explosion (ODTX) apparatus. The ODTX experiment involves holding a 12.7 mm-diameter spherical explosive sample under confinement (150 MPa) at a constant elevated temperature until the confining pressure is exceeded by the evolution of gases during chemical decomposition. The resulting time to explosion as a function of temperature provides valuable decomposition kinetic information. A comparative analysis of the measurements obtained from the new unit and an older system is presented. Discussion on selected performance aspects of the new unit will also be presented. The thermal explosion of TNT is highly dependent on the material. Analysis of the time to explosion is complicated by historical and experimental factors such as material variability, sample preparation, temperature measurement and system errors. Many of these factors will be addressed. Finally, a kinetic model using a coupled thermal and heat transport code (chemical TOPAZ) was used to match the experimental data.

  10. Small-scale thermal studies of volatile homemade explosives

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sandstrom, Mary M.; Brown, Geoffrey W.; Warner, Kirsten F.; Sorensen, Daniel N.; Phillips, Jason J.; Shelley, Timothy J.; Reyes, Jose A.; Hsu, Peter C.; Reynolds, John G.

    2016-01-26

    Several homemade or improvised explosive mixtures that either contained volatile components or produced volatile products were examined using standard small-scale safety and thermal (SSST) testing that employed differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques (constant heating rate and standard sample holders). KClO3 and KClO4 mixtures with dodecane exhibited different enthalpy behavior when using a vented sample holder in contrast to a sealed sample holder. The standard configuration produced profiles that exhibited only endothermic transitions. The sealed system produced profiles that exhibited additional exothermic transitions absent in the standard configuration produced profiles. When H2O2/fuel mixtures were examined, the volatilization of the peroxide (endothermic)more » dominated the profiles. When a sealed sample holder was used, the energetic releases of the mixture could be clearly observed. For AN and AN mixtures, the high temperature decomposition appears as an intense endothermic event. Using a nominally sealed sample holder also did not adequately contain the system. Only when a high-pressure rated sample holder was used the high temperature decomposition of the AN could be detected as an exothermic release. The testing was conducted during a proficiency (or round-robin type) test that included three U.S. Department of Energy and two U.S. Department of Defense laboratories. In the course of this proficiency test, certain HMEs exhibited thermal behavior that was not adequately accounted for by standard techniques. Further examination of this atypical behavior highlighted issues that may have not been recognized previously because some of these materials are not routinely tested. More importantly, if not recognized, the SSST testing results could lead to inaccurate safety assessments. Furthermore, this study provides examples, where standard techniques can be applied, and results can be obtained, but these results may be misleading in establishing

  11. High explosive spot test analyses of samples from Operable Unit (OU) 1111

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McRae, D.; Haywood, W.; Powell, J.; Harris, B.

    1995-01-01

    A preliminary evaluation has been completed of environmental contaminants at selected sites within the Group DX-10 (formally Group M-7) area. Soil samples taken from specific locations at this detonator facility were analyzed for harmful metals and screened for explosives. A sanitary outflow, a burn pit, a pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) production outflow field, an active firing chamber, an inactive firing chamber, and a leach field were sampled. Energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) was used to obtain semi-quantitative concentrations of metals in the soil. Two field spot-test kits for explosives were used to assess the presence of energetic materials in the soil and in items found at the areas tested. PETN is the major explosive in detonators manufactured and destroyed at Los Alamos. No measurable amounts of PETN or other explosives were detected in the soil, but items taken from the burn area and a high-energy explosive (HE)/chemical sump were contaminated. The concentrations of lead, mercury, and uranium are given.

  12. Underwater vapor phase burning of aluminum particles and on aluminum ignition during steam explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Epstein, M. )

    1991-09-01

    Recently reported experimental studies on aluminum-water steam explosions indicate that there may be a critical metal temperature at which the process changes over from a physical explosion to one which is very violent and involves the rapid liberation of chemical energy. In this report we examine the hypothesis that vapor-phase burning of aluminum is a necessary condition for the occurrence of such ignition-type'' steam explosions. An available two-phase stagnation flow film-boiling model is used to calculate the steam flux to the vaporizing aluminum surface. Combining this calculation with the notion that there is an upper limit to the magnitude of the metal vaporization rate at which the reaction regime must change from vapor phase to surface burning, leads to prediction of the critical metal surface temperature below which vapor phase burning is impossible. The critical temperature is predicted for both the aluminum-water pre-mixture configuration in which coarse drops of aluminum are falling freely through water and for the finely-fragmented aluminum drops in the wake of the pressure shock that triggers'' the explosion. Vapor phase burning is predicted to be possible during the pre-mixture phase but not very likely during the trigger phase of a steam explosion. The implications of these findings in terms of the validity of the hypothesis that ignition may begin with the vapor phase burning of aluminum is discussed. Recently postulated, alternative mechanisms of underwater aluminum ignition are also discussed.

  13. Underwater vapor phase burning of aluminum particles and on aluminum ignition during steam explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Epstein, M.

    1991-09-01

    Recently reported experimental studies on aluminum-water steam explosions indicate that there may be a critical metal temperature at which the process changes over from a physical explosion to one which is very violent and involves the rapid liberation of chemical energy. In this report we examine the hypothesis that vapor-phase burning of aluminum is a necessary condition for the occurrence of such ``ignition-type`` steam explosions. An available two-phase stagnation flow film-boiling model is used to calculate the steam flux to the vaporizing aluminum surface. Combining this calculation with the notion that there is an upper limit to the magnitude of the metal vaporization rate at which the reaction regime must change from vapor phase to surface burning, leads to prediction of the critical metal surface temperature below which vapor phase burning is impossible. The critical temperature is predicted for both the aluminum-water pre-mixture configuration in which coarse drops of aluminum are falling freely through water and for the finely-fragmented aluminum drops in the wake of the pressure shock that ``triggers`` the explosion. Vapor phase burning is predicted to be possible during the pre-mixture phase but not very likely during the trigger phase of a steam explosion. The implications of these findings in terms of the validity of the hypothesis that ignition may begin with the vapor phase burning of aluminum is discussed. Recently postulated, alternative mechanisms of underwater aluminum ignition are also discussed.

  14. Advances in explosives analysis—part I. animal, chemical, ion, and mechanical methods

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Brown, Kathryn E.; Greenfield, Margo T.; McGrane, Shawn D.; Moore, David S.

    2015-10-13

    The number and capability of explosives detection and analysis methods have increased substantially since the publication of the Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry special issue devoted to Explosives Analysis (Moore and Goodpaster, Anal Bioanal Chem 395(2):245–246, 2009). We review and critically evaluate the latest (the past five years) important advances in explosives detection, with details of the improvements over previous methods, and suggest possible avenues towards further advances in, e.g., stand-off distance, detection limit, selectivity, and penetration through camouflage or packaging. The review consists of two parts. Moreover, Part I, reviews methods based on animals, chemicals (including colorimetry, molecularly imprinted polymers,more » electrochemistry, and immunochemistry), ions (both ion-mobility spectrometry and mass spectrometry), and mechanical devices. Part II will review methods based on photons, from very energetic photons including X-rays and gamma rays down to the terahertz range, and neutrons.« less

  15. Advances in explosives analysis—part I. animal, chemical, ion, and mechanical methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Kathryn E.; Greenfield, Margo T.; McGrane, Shawn D.; Moore, David S.

    2015-10-13

    The number and capability of explosives detection and analysis methods have increased substantially since the publication of the Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry special issue devoted to Explosives Analysis (Moore and Goodpaster, Anal Bioanal Chem 395(2):245–246, 2009). We review and critically evaluate the latest (the past five years) important advances in explosives detection, with details of the improvements over previous methods, and suggest possible avenues towards further advances in, e.g., stand-off distance, detection limit, selectivity, and penetration through camouflage or packaging. The review consists of two parts. Moreover, Part I, reviews methods based on animals, chemicals (including colorimetry, molecularly imprinted polymers, electrochemistry, and immunochemistry), ions (both ion-mobility spectrometry and mass spectrometry), and mechanical devices. Part II will review methods based on photons, from very energetic photons including X-rays and gamma rays down to the terahertz range, and neutrons.

  16. Uses of Fabry-Perot velocimeters in studies of high explosives detonation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Breithaupt, R.D.; Tarver, C.M.

    1990-08-27

    The Fabry Perot has become an important and valuable tool by which explosive performance information can be obtained relatively easily and inexpensively. Principle uses of the Fabry Perot have been free surface, and particle velocity measurements in one dimensional studies of explosive performance. In the cylinder test, it has been very useful to resolve early wall motions. We have refined methods of characterizing new explosives i.e. equation of state, C-J pressure, via the cylinder shot, flat plate, and particle velocity techniques. All of these use Fabry Perot as one of the principle diagnostics. Each of these experimental techniques are discussed briefly and some of the results obtained. Modeling developed to fit Fabry-Perot results are described along with future testing.

  17. Prediction of explosive cylinder tests using equations of state from the PANDA code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerley, G.I.; Christian-Frear, T.L.

    1993-09-28

    The PANDA code is used to construct tabular equations of state (EOS) for the detonation products of 24 explosives having CHNO compositions. These EOS, together with a reactive burn model, are used in numerical hydrocode calculations of cylinder tests. The predicted detonation properties and cylinder wall velocities are found to give very good agreement with experimental data. Calculations of flat plate acceleration tests for the HMX-based explosive LX14 are also made and shown to agree well with the measurements. The effects of the reaction zone on both the cylinder and flat plate tests are discussed. For TATB-based explosives, the differences between experiment and theory are consistently larger than for other compositions and may be due to nonideal (finite dimameter) behavior.

  18. Advances in explosives analysis—part II: photon and neutron methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Kathryn E.; Greenfield, Margo T.; McGrane, Shawn D.; Moore, David S.

    2015-10-07

    The number and capability of explosives detection and analysis methods have increased dramatically since publication of the Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry special issue devoted to Explosives Analysis [Moore DS, Goodpaster JV, Anal Bioanal Chem 395:245–246, 2009]. Here we review and critically evaluate the latest (the past five years) important advances in explosives detection, with details of the improvements over previous methods, and suggest possible avenues towards further advances in, e.g., stand-off distance, detection limit, selectivity, and penetration through camouflage or packaging. Our review consists of two parts. Part I discussed methods based on animals, chemicals (including colorimetry, molecularly imprinted polymers, electrochemistry, and immunochemistry), ions (both ion-mobility spectrometry and mass spectrometry), and mechanical devices. In Part II, we review methods based on photons, from very energetic photons including X-rays and gamma rays down to the terahertz range, and neutrons.

  19. An Improved Reaction Rate Equation for Simulating the Ignition and Growth of Reaction in High Explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, M J

    2010-03-08

    We describe an improved reaction rate equation for simulating ignition and growth of reaction in high explosives. It has been implemented into CALE and ALE3D as an alternate to the baseline the Lee-Tarver reactive flow model. The reactive flow model treats the explosive in two phases (unreacted/reactants and reacted/products) with a reaction rate equation to determine the fraction reacted, F. The improved rate equation has fewer parameters, is continuous with continuous derivative, results in a unique set of reaction rate parameters for each explosive while providing the same functionality as the baseline rate equation. The improved rate equation uses a cosine function in the ignition term and a sine function in the growth and completion terms. The improved rate equation is simpler with fewer parameters.

  20. Advances in explosives analysis—part II: photon and neutron methods

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Brown, Kathryn E.; Greenfield, Margo T.; McGrane, Shawn D.; Moore, David S.

    2015-10-07

    The number and capability of explosives detection and analysis methods have increased dramatically since publication of the Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry special issue devoted to Explosives Analysis [Moore DS, Goodpaster JV, Anal Bioanal Chem 395:245–246, 2009]. Here we review and critically evaluate the latest (the past five years) important advances in explosives detection, with details of the improvements over previous methods, and suggest possible avenues towards further advances in, e.g., stand-off distance, detection limit, selectivity, and penetration through camouflage or packaging. Our review consists of two parts. Part I discussed methods based on animals, chemicals (including colorimetry, molecularly imprinted polymers,more » electrochemistry, and immunochemistry), ions (both ion-mobility spectrometry and mass spectrometry), and mechanical devices. In Part II, we review methods based on photons, from very energetic photons including X-rays and gamma rays down to the terahertz range, and neutrons.« less

  1. High-speed photography of the first hydrogen-bomb explosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brixner, B.

    1992-09-01

    Obtaining detailed photographs of the early stages of the first hydrogen bomb explosion in 1952 posed a number of problems. First, it was necessary to invent a continuous-access camera which could solve the problem that existing million-picture-per-second cameras were blind most of the time. The solution here was to alter an existing camera design so that two modified cameras could be mounted around a single high-speed rotating mirror. A second problem, acquiring the necessary lenses of precisely specified focal lengths, was solved by obtaining a large number of production lenses from war surplus salvage. A third hurdle to be overcome was to test the new camera at an A-bomb explosion. Finally, it was necessary to solve the almost impossible difficulty of building a safe camera shelter close to a megaton explosion. This paper describes the way these problems were solved. Unfortunately the successful pictures that were taken are sill classified.

  2. High-speed photography of the first hydrogen-bomb explosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brixner, B.

    1992-01-01

    Obtaining detailed photographs of the early stages of the first hydrogen bomb explosion in 1952 posed a number of problems. First, it was necessary to invent a continuous-access camera which could solve the problem that existing million-picture-per-second cameras were blind most of the time. The solution here was to alter an existing camera design so that two modified cameras could be mounted around a single high-speed rotating mirror. A second problem, acquiring the necessary lenses of precisely specified focal lengths, was solved by obtaining a large number of production lenses from war surplus salvage. A third hurdle to be overcome was to test the new camera at an A-bomb explosion. Finally, it was necessary to solve the almost impossible difficulty of building a safe camera shelter close to a megaton explosion. This paper describes the way these problems were solved. Unfortunately the successful pictures that were taken are sill classified.

  3. Stress wave propagationin the site 12 hydraulic/explosive fracturing experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boade, R. R.; Reed, R. P.

    1980-05-01

    The Site 12 experiment was a heavily instrumented field event performed to examine the hydraulic/explosive fracturing concept for preparing an underground oil shale bed for true in situ processing. One of the key phases of this fracturing concept is the blasting operation which involves the insertion and detonation of slurry explosive in a pre-formed system of hydrofractures. To obtain a sound understanding of the nature of the blasting operations, a rather extensive array of stress gages, accelerometers, and time-of-arrival gages was installed in the rock mass in the vacinity of the explosive to monitor the dynamic events initiated by the detonation. These gages provided considerable amounts of information which were useful in evaluating overall results of the experiment. Details of the gage array, of the data, of analysis methods, and of the results and conclusions are considered in the report.

  4. Two-dimensional simulations of explosive eruptions of Kick-em Jenny and other submarine volcanos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gisler, Galen R.; Weaver, R. P.; Mader, Charles L.; Gittings, M. L.

    2004-01-01

    Kick-em Jenny, in the Eastern Caribbean, is a submerged volcanic cone that has erupted a dozen or more times since its discovery in 1939. The most likely hazard posed by this volcano is to shipping in the immediate vicinity (through volcanic missiles or loss-of-buoyancy), but it is of interest to estimate upper limits on tsunamis that might be produced by a catastrophic explosive eruption. To this end, we have performed two-dimensional simulations of such an event in a geometry resembling that of Kick-em Jenny with our SAGE adaptive mesh Eulerian multifluid compressible hydrocode. We use realistic equations of state for air, water, and basalt, and follow the event from the initial explosive eruption, through the generation of a transient water cavity and the propagation of waves away from the site. We find that even for extremely catastrophic explosive eruptions, tsunamis from Kick-em Jenny are unlikely to pose significant danger to nearby islands. For comparison, we have also performed simulations of explosive eruptions at the much larger shield volcano Vailuluu in the Samoan chain, where the greater energy available can produce a more impressive wave. In general, however, we conclude that explosive eruptions do not couple well to water waves. The waves that are produced from such events are turbulent and highly dissipative, and don't propagate well. This is consistent with what we have found previously in simulations of asteroid-impact generated tsunamis. Non-explosive events, however, such as landslides or gas hydrate releases, do couple well to waves, and our simulations of tsunamis generated by subaerial and sub-aqueous landslides demonstrate this.

  5. Explosive Contamination from Substrate Surfaces: Differences and Similarities in Contamination Techniques using RDX and C-4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C.J. Miller; T.S. Yoder

    2010-06-01

    The amount of time that an explosive is present on the surface of a material is dependent upon the original amount of explosive on the surface, temperature, humidity, rain, etc. This laboratory study focused on looking at similarities and differences in three different surface contamination techniques that are used when performance testing explosive trace detection equipment in an attempt to determine how effective the techniques are at replicating actual field samples. The three techniques used were dry transfer deposition of solutions using the Transportation Security Laboratory (TSL) patented dry transfer techniques (US patent 6470730), direct deposition of explosive standards, and fingerprinting of actual explosives. Explosives were deposited on the surface of one of five substrates using one of the three different deposition techniques. The process was repeated for each surface type using each contamination technique. The surface types used were: 50% cotton/50% polyester as found in T-shirts, 100% cotton with a smooth surface such as that found in a cotton dress shirt, 100% cotton on a rough surface such as that found on canvas or denim, suede leather such as might be found on jackets, purses, or shoes, and metal obtained from a car hood at a junk yard. The samples were not pre-cleaned prior to testing and contained sizing agents, and in the case of the metal, oil and dirt. The substrates were photographed using a Zeiss Discover V12 stereoscope with Axiocam ICc1 3 megapixel digital camera to determine the difference in the crystalline structure and surface contamination in an attempt to determine differences and similarities associated with current contamination techniques.

  6. Hyperspectral Microscopy of Explosives Particles Using an External Cavity Quantum Cascade Laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, Mark C.; Bernacki, Bruce E.

    2012-12-26

    Using infrared hyperspectral imaging, we demonstrate microscopy of small particles of the explosives compounds RDX, tetryl, and PETN with near diffraction-limited performance. The custom microscope apparatus includes an external cavity quantum cascade laser illuminator scanned over its tuning range of 9.13-10.53 m in four seconds, coupled with a microbolometer focal plane array to record infrared transmission images. We use the hyperspectral microscopy technique to study the infrared absorption spectra of individual explosives particles, and demonstrate sub-nanogram detection limits.

  7. Calculating the dynamics of High Explosive Violent Response (HEVR) after ignition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reaugh, J E

    2008-10-15

    We are developing models to describe the circumstances when molecular and composite explosives undergo a rapid release of energy without detonating, and to describe the evolution of the energy release. The models also apply to the behavior of rocket propellants subject to mechanical insult, whether for accidents (Hazards) or the suite of standardized tests used to assess whether the system can be designated an Insensitive Munition (IM). In the applications described here, we are studying a UK-developed HMX (1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane) explosive, which is 91% by weight HMX and 9% binder-plasticizer. Most explosives and propellants, when subjected to a mechanical insult such as a drop or impact that is well below the threshold for detonation, have been observed to react. In some circumstances the reaction can be violent. This behavior is known as High Explosive Violent Response (HEVR). Fundamental to our model is the observation that the mechanical insult produces damage in a volume of the explosive near the trajectory of the impactor. The damage is manifest as surface area through the creation of cracks and fragments, and also as porosity through the separation of crack faces and isolation of the fragments. Open porosity permits a flame to spread easily and so ignite the newly formed surface area. The additional surface area leads to a direct increase in the mass-burning rate. As the kinetic energy and power of the insult increases, the degree of damage and the volume of damage both increase. Upon a localized ignition, the flame spreads to envelop the damaged volume, and the pressure rises at an accelerated rate until neither mechanical strength nor inertial confinement can successfully contain the pressure. The confining structure begins to expand. This reduces the pressure and may even extinguish the flame. Both the mass of explosive involved and the rate at which the gas is produced contribute to each of several different measures of violence

  8. Navy explosive ordnance disposal project: Optical ordnance system development. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merson, J.A.; Salas, F.J.; Helsel, F.M.

    1996-03-01

    An optical ordnance firing system consisting of a portable hand held solid state rod laser and an optically ignited detonator has been developed for use in explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) activities. Solid state rod laser systems designed to have an output of 150 mJ in a 500 microsecond pulse have been produced and evaluated. A laser ignited detonator containing no primary explosives has been designed and fabricated. The detonator has the same functional output as an electrically fired blasting cap. The optical ordnance firing system has demonstrated the ability to reliably detonate Comp C-4 through 1000 meters of optical fiber.

  9. Method for removal of explosives from aqueous solution using suspended plant cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jackson, Paul J.; Torres, deceased, Agapito P.; Delhaize, Emmanuel

    1994-01-01

    The use of plant suspension cultures to remove ionic metallic species and TNT-based explosives and their oxidation products from aqueous solution is described. Several plant strains were investigated including D. innoxia, Citrus citrus, and Black Mexican Sweet Corn. All showed significant ability to remove metal ions. Ions removed to sub-ppm levels include barium, iron, and plutonium. D. innoxia cells growing in media containing weapons effluent contaminated with Ba.sup.2+ also remove TNT, other explosives and oxidation products thereof from solution. The use of dead, dehydrated cells was also found to be of use in treating waste directly.

  10. Preliminary evaluation of non-hazardous explosives for security training and testing (NESTT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moody, G.L.; Pruneda, C.O.; Simpson, R.L.; Kury, J.W.; Dumais, D.A.

    1993-09-01

    A series of materials has been prepared that have authentic properties of explosives but are non-hazardous. These NESTT materials are prepared by coating a few micron layer of an explosive on a non-reactive substrate. This produces a formulation with an authentic vapor signature. Authentic x-ray and oxygen/nitrogen density signatures can also be obtained through the appropriate choice of substrate. Sensitivity tests on the materials made to date show that they are non-hazardous. One such material is now in use for canine training at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  11. DRAFT - DOE O 452.2C, Security and Use Control of Nuclear Explosives and Nuclear Weapons

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    The Order establishes requirements to implement the nuclear explosive security and use control (UC) elements of DOE O 452.1D, Nuclear Explosive and Weapon Surety (NEWS) Program, to ensure authorized use, when directed by proper authority, and protect against deliberate unauthorized acts (DUAs), deliberate unauthorized use (DUU), and denial of authorized use (DAU).

  12. Multi-Phenomenology Explosion Monitoring (Multi-PEM). Signal Detection. Research to target smaller sources for tomorrow’s missions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carmichael, Joshua Daniel

    2015-12-12

    This a guide on how to detect and identify explosions from various sources. For example, nuclear explosions produce acoustic, optical, and EMP outputs. Each signal can be buried in noise, but fusing detection statistics from seismic, acoustic, and electromagnetic signals results in clear detection otherwise unobtainable.

  13. Identification of Explosives from Porous Materials: Applications Using Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography and Gas Chromatography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C.J. Miller; G. Elias; N.C. Schmitt; C. Rae

    2010-06-01

    High performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography techniques are well documented and widely used for the detection of trace explosives from organic solvents. These techniques were modified to specifically identify and quantify explosives extracted from various materials taken from people who had recently handled explosives. Documented techniques were modified to specifically detect and quantify RDX, TNT, and PETN from denim, colored flannel, vinyl, and canvas extracted in methanol using no sample cleanup prior to analysis. The methanol extracts were injected directly into several different column types and analyzed by HPLC-UV and/or GC-ECD. This paper describes general screening methods that were used to determine the presence of explosives in unknown samples and techniques that have been optimized for quantification of each explosive from the substrate extracts.

  14. Numerical modeling of the action of an explosion on an iron slab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugak, S.G.; Fortov, V.E.; Kanel', G.I.; Ni, A.L.; Stel'makh, V.G.

    1983-09-01

    This article examines the explosion of a condensed high explosive (HE) by a flat Armco iron slab. The fundamental physical processes accompanying the nonstationary two-dimensional compression pulse propagation in a metal are analyzed, a mathematical model of the process is formulated, and its numerical characteristics are determined. A cylindrical charge of trinitrotoluene of 20 mm diameter and height, initiated at the axial point on the free surface, was mounted on a 10-mm-thick and 120-mm-diameter armco iron disk. A finite-difference method using a quadrangular computational mesh is employed. It is assumed that the process of detonation transformation occurs instantaneously and is characterized only by singularities in the equation of state. Numerical modeling of the loading of an iron slab by an explosion showed that the simple kinetic relationship proposed for the fracture computation will assure a realistic description of the fracture process. It is determined that the progress of a reversible polymorphic transformation in the specimen material substantially influences the nature of its fracture by explosion. The magnitude of the strain on the strength properties of the material must be taken into account in order to achieve a detailed description of the fracture.

  15. Prompt laser ignition and transition to detonation in a secondary explosive

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Setchell, R.E.; Trott, W.M.

    1995-05-01

    A two-stage approach to achieving detonation in a secondary explosive was developed in previous studies in which ignition resulted from low-energy hot wires or from laser diodes. In the current study, this approach was examined in some detail for the case of ignition by a pulsed, solid-state (rod) laser. An initial series of experiments used Nd/glass, Nd/YAG, and Ti/sapphire lasers to investigate the ignition of graphite-doped HMX in highly confined optical fixtures that incorporated a fast piezoelectric pressure transducer. Experimental parameters included the laser power history and the explosive column length. The results of these experiments guided a second series of experiments in which the ignition column explosive was terminated by a thin rupture disc in contact with a transition column of low-density HMX or some other material. The transition column was terminated with a piezoelectric time-of-arrival detector for determining overall function times. Parameters investigated included different laser sources, rupture disc thicknesses, and the transition column explosive characteristics. Overall function times less than 50 microseconds were obtained, and trends established by the various parameter studies indicate that further reductions in function time can be achieved.

  16. Fire and the related effects of nuclear explosions. 1982 Asilomar Conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, S.B.; Alger, R.S.

    1982-11-01

    This report summarizes the proceedings of a Federal Emergency Management Agency-sponsored Conference on fire and the related effects of nuclear explosions (with passing attention to earthquakes and other nonnuclear mishaps). This conference, the fifth of an annual series (formally called Blast/Fire Interaction Conferences), was held during the week of April 25, 1982, again at Asilomar, California.

  17. Stochasticity and efficiency of convection-dominated vs. SASI-dominated supernova explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cardall, Christian Y.; Budiardja, Reuben D.

    2015-10-22

    We present an initial report on 160 simulations of a highly simplified model of the post-bounce supernova environment in three position space dimensions (3D). We set different values of a parameter characterizing the impact of nuclear dissociation at the stalled shock in order to regulate the post-shock fluid velocity, thereby determining the relative importance of convection and the stationary accretion shock instability (SASI). While our convection-dominated runs comport with the paradigmatic notion of a `critical neutrino luminosity' for explosion at a given mass accretion rate (albeit with a nontrivial spread in explosion times just above threshold), the outcomes of our SASI-dominated runs are more stochastic: a sharp threshold critical luminosity is `smeared out' into a rising probability of explosion over a $\\sim 20\\%$ range of luminosity. We also find that the SASI-dominated models are able to explode with 3 to 4 times less efficient neutrino heating, indicating that progenitor properties, and fluid and neutrino microphysics, conducive to the SASI would make the neutrino-driven explosion mechanism more robust.

  18. Stochasticity and efficiency of convection-dominated vs. SASI-dominated supernova explosions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cardall, Christian Y.; Budiardja, Reuben D.

    2015-10-22

    We present an initial report on 160 simulations of a highly simplified model of the post-bounce supernova environment in three position space dimensions (3D). We set different values of a parameter characterizing the impact of nuclear dissociation at the stalled shock in order to regulate the post-shock fluid velocity, thereby determining the relative importance of convection and the stationary accretion shock instability (SASI). While our convection-dominated runs comport with the paradigmatic notion of a `critical neutrino luminosity' for explosion at a given mass accretion rate (albeit with a nontrivial spread in explosion times just above threshold), the outcomes of our SASI-dominated runs are more stochastic: a sharp threshold critical luminosity is `smeared out' into a rising probability of explosion over amore » $$\\sim 20\\%$$ range of luminosity. We also find that the SASI-dominated models are able to explode with 3 to 4 times less efficient neutrino heating, indicating that progenitor properties, and fluid and neutrino microphysics, conducive to the SASI would make the neutrino-driven explosion mechanism more robust.« less

  19. Prototype explosives-detection system based on nuclear-resonance absorption in nitrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgado, R.E.; Arnone, G.; Cappiello, C.C.; Gardner, S.D.; Hollas, C.L.; Ussery, L.E.; White, J.M.; Zahrt, J.D.; Krauss, R.A.

    1994-06-01

    A prototype explosives-detection system (EDS) that was developed for experimental evaluation of a nuclear-resonance absorption technique is described. The major subsystems are a proton accelerator and beam transport, high-temperature proton target, an airline-luggage tomographic inspection station, and an image-processing/detection-alarm subsystem. The detection system performance, based on a limited experimental test, is reported.

  20. Apparatus and methods for real-time detection of explosives devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blackburn, Brandon W; Hunt, Alan W; Chichester, David L

    2014-01-07

    The present disclosure relates, according to some embodiments, to apparatus, devices, systems, and/or methods for real-time detection of a concealed or camouflaged explosive device (e.g., EFPs and IEDs) from a safe stand-off distance. Apparatus, system and/or methods of the disclosure may also be operable to identify and/or spatially locate and/or detect an explosive device. An apparatus or system may comprise an x-ray generator that generates high-energy x-rays and/or electrons operable to contact and activate a metal comprised in an explosive device from a stand-off distance; and a detector operable to detect activation of the metal. Identifying an explosive device may comprise detecting characteristic radiation signatures emitted by metals specific to an EFP, an IED or a landmine. Apparatus and systems of the disclosure may be mounted on vehicles and methods of the disclosure may be performed while moving in the vehicle and from a safe stand-off distance.

  1. Prompt laser ignition and transition to detonation in a secondary explosive

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Setchell, R.E.; Trott, W.M.

    1994-05-01

    A two-stage approach to achieving detonation in a secondary explosive was developed in previous studies in which ignition resulted from low-energy hot wires or from laser diodes. In the current study, this approach was examined in some detail for the case of ignition by a pulsed, solid-state (rod) laser. An initial series of experiments used Nd/glass, ND/YAG, and Ti/sapphire lasers to investigate the ignition of graphite-doped HMX in highly confined optical fixtures that incorporated a fast piezoelectric pressure transducer. Experimental parameters included the laser power history and the explosive column length. The results of these experiments guided a second series of experiments in which the ignition column explosive was terminated by a thin rupture disc in contact with a transition column of low density HMX or some other material. The transition column was terminated with a piezoelectric time-of-arrival detector for determining overall function times. Parameters investigated included different laser sources, rupture disc thicknesses, and the transition column explosive characteristics. Overall function times less than 50 microseconds were obtained, and trends established by the various parameter studies indicate that further reductions in function time can be achieved.

  2. Chemically-functionalized microcantilevers for detection of chemical, biological and explosive material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pinnaduwage, Lal A; Thundat, Thomas G; Brown, Gilbert M; Hawk, John Eric; Boiadjiev, Vassil I

    2007-04-24

    A chemically functionalized cantilever system has a cantilever coated on one side thereof with a reagent or biological species which binds to an analyte. The system is of particular value when the analyte is a toxic chemical biological warfare agent or an explosive.

  3. Progress in model development to quantify High Explosive Violent Response (HEVR) to mechancial insult

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reaugh, J E

    2008-07-29

    The rapid release of chemical energy has found application for industrial and military purposes since the invention of gunpowder. Black powder, smokeless powder of various compositions, and pyrotechnics all exhibit the rapid release of energy without detonation when they are being used as designed. The rapidity of energy release for these materials is controlled by adjustments to the particle surface area (propellant grain configuration or powder particle size) in conjunction with the measured pressure-dependent burning rate, which is very subsonic. In this way a manufacturing process can be used to engineer the desired violence of the explosion. Detonations in molecular explosives, in contrast, propagate with a supersonic velocity that depends on the loading density, but is independent of the surface area. In ideal detonations, the reaction is complete within a small distance of the propagating shock front. Non-ideal detonations in molecular and composite explosives proceed with a slower velocity, and the reaction may continue well behind the shock front. We are developing models to describe the circumstances when molecular and composite explosives undergo a rapid release of energy without detonating. The models also apply to the behavior of rocket propellants subject to mechanical insult, whether for accidents (Hazards) or the suite of standardized tests used to assess whether the system can be designated an Insensitive Munition (IM). In the application described here, we are studying an HMX (1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane) explosive developed in the UK, which is 91% by weight HMX and 9% binder-plasticizer. Most explosives and propellants, when subjected to a mechanical insult, drop or impact that is well below the threshold for detonation have been observed to react violently. This behavior is known as High Explosive Violent Reaction (HEVR). The basis of our model is the observation that the mechanical insult produces damage in a volume of the

  4. Examination of phase transformations and decomposition chemistry in thermally aged thin-film explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erickson, K.L.; Trott, W.M.; Renlund, A.M.

    1993-09-01

    To develop predictive models for the response of weapon systems to abnormal thermal environments, such as cookoff, an improved understanding of temperature-dependent thermophysical phenomena (such as phase transformations) and decomposition chemistry in totally confined explosive samples is needed. It is particularly important to examine the effects of maintaining-intimate contact between the decomposition products and the remaining condensed-phase explosive during slow reaction at elevated temperatures since confinement of the decomposition products may significantly affect thermophysical phenomena and decomposition reaction rates. The purpose of this work has been to examine experimentally the effects on condensed-phase chemistry which result when decomposition products remain in intimate contact with the reacting explosive during isothermal aging experiments at temperatures below those of the DTA exotherm for the explosive. To provide confinement, minimize vapor space, and permit condensed-phase chemical analysis, experiments were done using thin-film samples of the explosive, which were pressed and sealed between two infrared-transmitting windows, so that condensed-phase chemistry could be monitored using infrared spectroscopy. Experiments were done with NC, HMX, HMX-NC composite, and RDX samples. Results from the experiments with NC showed that for some decomposition mechanisms, the reaction rates for confined samples compared favorably with published reaction rates from unconfined samples. However, the results also demonstrated that for other mechanisms, the reaction rates were significantly affected by confinement of the decomposition products. The experiments with HMX and RDX indicated that some decomposition occurred at temperatures well below the temperatures of the respective DTA exotherms, and the experiments with HMX-NC composite samples showed some interaction between NC and HMX at temperatures as low as 150{degrees}C.

  5. Precursors prior to type IIn supernova explosions are common: Precursor rates, properties, and correlations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ofek, Eran O.; Steinbok, Aviram; Arcavi, Iair; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Tal, David; Ben-Ami, Sagi; Yaron, Ofer; Sullivan, Mark; Shaviv, Nir J.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Nugent, Peter E.; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Silverman, Jeffrey M.

    2014-07-10

    There is a growing number of Type IIn supernovae (SNe) which present an outburst prior to their presumably final explosion. These precursors may affect the SN display, and are likely related to poorly charted phenomena in the final stages of stellar evolution. By coadding Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) images taken prior to the explosion, here we present a search for precursors in a sample of 16 Type IIn SNe. We find five SNe IIn that likely have at least one possible precursor event (PTF 10bjb, SN 2010mc, PTF 10weh, SN 2011ht, and PTF 12cxj), three of which are reported here for the first time. For each SN we calculate the control time. We find that precursor events among SNe IIn are common: at the one-sided 99% confidence level, >50% of SNe IIn have at least one pre-explosion outburst that is brighter than 3 × 10{sup 7} L{sub ☉} taking place up to 1/3 yr prior to the SN explosion. The average rate of such precursor events during the year prior to the SN explosion is likely ≳ 1 yr{sup –1}, and fainter precursors are possibly even more common. Ignoring the two weakest precursors in our sample, the precursors rate we find is still on the order of one per year. We also find possible correlations between the integrated luminosity of the precursor and the SN total radiated energy, peak luminosity, and rise time. These correlations are expected if the precursors are mass-ejection events, and the early-time light curve of these SNe is powered by interaction of the SN shock and ejecta with optically thick circumstellar material.

  6. EXPLOSIVE NUCLEOSYNTHESIS IN THE NEUTRINO-DRIVEN ASPHERICAL SUPERNOVA EXPLOSION OF A NON-ROTATING 15 M{sub sun} STAR WITH SOLAR METALLICITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujimoto, Shin-ichiro; Kotake, Kei; Hashimoto, Masa-aki; Ono, Masaomi; Ohnishi, Naofumi

    2011-09-01

    We investigate explosive nucleosynthesis in a non-rotating 15 M{sub sun} star with solar metallicity that explodes by a neutrino-heating supernova (SN) mechanism aided by both standing accretion shock instability (SASI) and convection. To trigger explosions in our two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations, we approximate the neutrino transport with a simple light-bulb scheme and systematically change the neutrino fluxes emitted from the protoneutron star. By a post-processing calculation, we evaluate abundances and masses of the SN ejecta for nuclei with a mass number {<=}70, employing a large nuclear reaction network. Aspherical abundance distributions, which are observed in nearby core-collapse SN remnants, are obtained for the non-rotating spherically symmetric progenitor, due to the growth of a low-mode SASI. The abundance pattern of the SN ejecta is similar to that of the solar system for models whose masses range between (0.4-0.5) M{sub sun} of the ejecta from the inner region ({<=}10, 000 km) of the precollapse core. For the models, the explosion energies and the {sup 56}Ni masses are {approx_equal} 10{sup 51}erg and (0.05-0.06) M{sub sun}, respectively; their estimated baryonic masses of the neutron star are comparable to the ones observed in neutron-star binaries. These findings may have little uncertainty because most of the ejecta is composed of matter that is heated via the shock wave and has relatively definite abundances. The abundance ratios for Ne, Mg, Si, and Fe observed in the Cygnus loop are reproduced well with the SN ejecta from an inner region of the 15 M{sub sun} progenitor.

  7. The development of explosions in axisymmetric ab initio core-collapse supernova simulations of 12–25 M⊙ stars

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bruenn, Stephen W.; Lentz, Eric J.; Hix, William Raphael; Mezzacappa, Anthony; Harris, James Austin; Messer, O. E. Bronson; Endeve, Eirik; Blondin, John M.; Chertkow, Merek Austin; Lingerfelt, Eric J.; et al

    2016-02-16

    We present four ab initio axisymmetric core-collapse supernova simulations initiated from 12, 15, 20, and 25 M⊙ zero-age main sequence progenitors. All of the simulations yield explosions and have been evolved for at least 1.2 s after core bounce and 1 s after material first becomes unbound. These simulations were computed with our Chimera code employing RbR spectral neutrino transport, special and general relativistic transport effects, and state-of-the-art neutrino interactions. Continuing the evolution beyond 1 s after core bounce allows the explosions to develop more fully and the processes involved in powering the explosions to become more clearly evident. Wemore » compute explosion energy estimates, including the negative gravitational binding energy of the stellar envelope outside the expanding shock, of 0.34, 0.88, 0.38, and 0.70 Bethe (B ≡ 1051 erg) and increasing at 0.03, 0.15, 0.19, and 0.52 BS–1, respectively, for the 12, 15, 20, and 25 M⊙ models at the endpoint of this report. We examine the growth of the explosion energy in our models through detailed analyses of the energy sources and flows. We discuss how the explosion energies may be subject to stochastic variations as exemplfied by the effect of the explosion geometry of the 20 M⊙ model in reducing its explosion energy. We compute the proto-neutron star masses and kick velocities. In conclusion, we compare our results for the explosion energies and ejected 56Ni masses against some observational standards despite the large error bars in both models and observations.« less

  8. Operation Greenhouse. Scientific Director's Report. Annex 1. 12. Long-distance measurement of energy yield of an atomic explosion. Nuclear explosions 1951

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hudgins, A.J.

    1984-10-31

    The energy yield of an atomic explosion was determined at logn distance by measuring the time variation of the light from the explosion and applying an empirical formula that relates this to the energy yield. The light was detected by an RCA 5819 photomultiplier tube and was recorded on a magnetic-tape recorder. Measurements at Shot Easy were made from A C-54 airplane flying at 12,500 ft at a distance of 630 miles northwest of Eniwetok. The time to the minimum of light intensity was 23.5 + or - 0.8 msec, corresponding to a yield of 53 + or - 4 kt. The yield calculated from the radiochemical measurements was 46.8 + or - 1.0 kt. The peak intensity of the flash above the ambient was measured to be 1.7 millicandles/sq ft. This experiment indicated that energy yield can be measured at a distance greater than 630 miles at night. Possible propagation mechanisms are discussed. Studies of the maximum range in daylight and of improvements in technique are suggested.

  9. Associated particle technique in single-sided geometry for detection of explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy, Tushar Kashyap, Yogesh; Shukla, Mayank; Agrawal, Ashish; Bajpai, Shefali; Patel, Tarun; Sinha, Amar

    2015-03-23

    Associated particle technique (APT) for detection of explosives is well established but has been implemented mostly for fixed portal systems. In certain situations, a portable system is required where the suspect object cannot be moved from site. This paper discusses the development of a portable APT system in single-sided geometry which can be transported to site and requires only one-sided access to the object. The system comprised D-T neutron source and bismuth germanate (BGO) detectors fixed on a portable module. Different aspects of the system have been discussed such as background contribution, time selection, and elemental signatures. The system was used to detect benign samples and explosive simulants under laboratory condition. The elemental ratios obtained by analyzing the gamma spectra show good match with the theoretical ratios.

  10. Laser-driven miniature flyer plates for shock initiation of secondary explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paisley, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    Miniature flyer plates (<1-mm diameter X <5-micron thick) of aluminum and other materials are accelerated by a 10-ns pulsed Nd:YAG laser to velocities >5 km/s. Velocity profiles are recorded by velocity interferometry (VISAR) techniques and impact planarity by electronic streak photography. Techniques for improving energy coupling from laser to flyer plate will be discussed. Flyer plate performance parameters will be compared with material properties. The P/sup n/t criteria for shock initiation of explosives will be compared for various flyer materials, pressure, and pulse duration. Performance of secondary explosives (PETN, HNS, HMX, various PBX, others) will be reported. These data will detail the experimental effect of t (in P/sup n/t) approaching values of a few nanoseconds. 9 refs., 5 figs.

  11. LIQUID PROPANE GAS (LPG) STORAGE AREA BOILING LIQUID EXPANDING VAPOR EXPLOSION (BLEVE) ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PACE, M.E.

    2004-01-13

    The PHA and the FHAs for the SWOC MDSA (HNF-14741) identified multiple accident scenarios in which vehicles powered by flammable gases (e.g., propane), or combustible or flammable liquids (e.g., gasoline, LPG) are involved in accidents that result in an unconfined vapor cloud explosion (UVCE) or in a boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE), respectively. These accident scenarios are binned in the Bridge document as FIR-9 scenarios. They are postulated to occur in any of the MDSA facilities. The LPG storage area will be in the southeast corner of CWC that is relatively remote from store distaged MAR. The location is approximately 30 feet south of MO-289 and 250 feet east of 2401-W by CWC Gate 10 in a large staging area for unused pallets and equipment.

  12. Development of graphene nanoplatelet embedded polymer microcantilever for vapour phase explosive detection applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray, Prasenjit; Pandey, Swapnil; Ramgopal Rao, V.

    2014-09-28

    In this work, a graphene based strain sensor has been reported for explosive vapour detection applications by exploiting the piezoresistive property of graphene. Instead of silicon based cantilevers, a low cost polymeric micro-cantilever platform has been used to fabricate this strain sensor by embedding the graphene nanoplatelet layer inside the beam. The fabricated devices were characterized for their mechanical and electromechanical behaviour. This device shows a very high gauge factor which is around ~144. Also the resonant frequency of these cantilevers is high enough such that the measurements are not affected by environmental noise. These devices have been used in this work for reliable detection of explosive vapours such as 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene down to parts-per-billion concentrations in ambient conditions.

  13. Experimental study of the nonlinear diffusion of a magnetic field and skin explosion of cylindrical conductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaikovsky, S. A.; Datsko, I. M.; Labetskaya, N. A.; Rybka, D. V.; Ratakhin, N. A.; Oreshkin, V. I.

    2015-11-15

    The paper presents the results of an experimental study of the skin explosion of cylindrical conductors of diameter 1–3 mm (copper, aluminum, titanium, steel 3, and stainless steel) at a peak magnetic field of 200–600 T. The experiments were carried out on the MIG pulsed power generator at a current of up to 2.5 MA and a current rise time of 100 ns. The surface explosion of a conductor was identified by the appearance of a flash of extreme ultraviolet radiation. A minimum magnetic induction has been determined below which no plasma is generated at the conductor surface. For copper, aluminum, steel 3, titanium, and stainless steel, the minimum magnetic induction has been estimated to be (to within 10%) 375, 270, 280, 220, and 245 T, respectively.

  14. Ground motion analyses: OSSY (a high explosive experiment) and MERLIN (a nuclear event)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, R.P.

    1991-10-01

    We have analyzed recorded data and conducted numerical simulations of the seismic-calibration high explosive experiment OSSY and of the underground nuclear event MERLIN to determine if there is any physical correlation in their ground motion response. Waveforms recorded on OSSY and MERLIN show a distinct similarity in the form of a dual-pulse structure, with the second pulse as large or larger than the first pulse. Results with 1D and 2D simulations show that there is no correlation. The dual-pulse structure for OSSY can best be accounted for by a dilatancy feature resulting from pore recovery during unloading. There is also a notable influence on the pulse shape caused by the large length-to-diameter ratio of the high explosive charge. The dual-pulse structure recorded in MERLIN is most likely due to refraction from a higher-impedance layer about 60 m below the workout. 15 refs., 26 figs.

  15. Thin-layer chromatography and colorimetric analysis of multi-component explosive mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pagoria, Philip F.; Mitchell, Alexander R.; Whipple, Richard E.; Carman, M. Leslie

    2014-08-26

    A thin-layer chromatography method for detection and identification of common military and peroxide explosives in samples includes the steps of provide a reverse-phase thin-layer chromatography plate; prepare the plate by marking spots on which to deposit the samples by touching the plate with a marker; spot one micro liter of a first standard onto one of the spots, spot one micro liter of a second standard onto another of the spots, and spot samples onto other of spots producing a spotted plate; add eluent to a developing chamber; add the spotted plate to the developing chamber; remove the spotted plate from the developing chamber producing a developed plate; place the developed plate in an ultraviolet light box; add a visualization agent to a dip tank; dip the developed plate in the dip tank and remove the developed plate quickly; and detect explosives by viewing said developed plate.

  16. SHOCK INITIATION EXPERIMENTS ON THE TATB BASED EXPLOSIVE RX-03-GO WITH IGNITION AND GROWTH MODELING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vandersall, K S; Garcia, F; Tarver, C M

    2009-06-23

    Shock initiation experiments on the TATB based explosive RX-03-GO (92.5% TATB, 7.5% Cytop A by weight) were performed to obtain in-situ pressure gauge data, characterize the run-distance-to-detonation behavior, and calculate Ignition and Growth modeling parameters. A 101 mm diameter propellant driven gas gun was utilized to initiate the explosive sample with manganin piezoresistive pressure gauge packages placed between sample slices. The RX-03-GO formulation utilized is similar to that of LX-17 (92.5% TATB, 7.5% Kel-f by weight) with the notable differences of a new binder material and TATB that has been dissolved and recrystallized in order to improve the purity and morphology. The shock sensitivity will be compared with that of prior data on LX-17 and other TATB formulations. Ignition and Growth modeling parameters were obtained with a reasonable fit to the experimental data.

  17. Investigation of the fracture and fragmentation of explosively driven rings and cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goto, D M; Becker, R C; Orzechowski, T J; Springer, H K; Sunwoo, A J; Syn, C K

    2007-04-18

    Cylinders and rings fabricated from AerMet{reg_sign} 100 alloy and AISI 1018 steel have been explosively driven to fragmentation in order to determine the fracture strains for these materials under plane strain and uniaxial stress conditions. The phenomena associated with the dynamic expansion and subsequent break up of the cylinders are monitored with high-speed diagnostics. In addition, complementary experiments are performed in which fragments from the explosively driven cylinders are recovered and analyzed to determine the statistical distribution associated with the fragmentation process as well as to determine failure mechanisms. The data are used to determine relevant coefficients for the Hancock-McKenzie (Johnson-Cook) fracture model. Metallurgical analysis of the fragments provides information on damage and failure mechanisms.

  18. AMR Code Simulations of Turbulent Combustion in Confined and Unconfined SDF Explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuhl, A L; Bell, J B; Beckner, V

    2009-05-29

    A heterogeneous continuum model is proposed to describe the dispersion and combustion of an aluminum particle cloud in an explosion. It combines the gas-dynamic conservation laws for the gas phase with a continuum model for the dispersed phase, as formulated by Nigmatulin. Inter-phase mass, momentum and energy exchange are prescribed by phenomenological models. It incorporates a combustion model based on the mass conservation laws for fuel, air and products; source/sink terms are treated in the fast-chemistry limit appropriate for such gas dynamic fields, along with a model for mass transfer from the particle phase to the gas. The model takes into account both the afterburning of the detonation products of the booster with air, and the combustion of the Al particles with air. The model equations were integrated by high-order Godunov schemes for both the gas and particle phases. Numerical simulations of the explosion fields from 1.5-g Shock-Dispersed-Fuel (SDF) charge in a 6.6 liter calorimeter were used to validate the combustion model. Then the model was applied to 10-kg Al-SDF explosions in a vented two-room structure and in an unconfined height-of-burst explosion. Computed pressure histories are in reasonable (but not perfect) agreement with measured waveforms. Differences are caused by physical-chemical kinetic effects of particle combustion which induce ignition delays in the initial reactive blast wave and quenching of reactions at late times. Current simulations give initial insights into such modeling issues.

  19. Environmental assessment for the Explosive Waste Treatment Facility at Site 300, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-11-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory proposes to build, permit, and operate the Explosive Waste Treatment Facility (EWTF) to treat explosive waste at LLNL`s Experimental Test Site, Site 300. It is also proposed to close the EWTF at the end of its useful life in accordance with the regulations. The facility would replace the existing Building 829 Open Burn Facility (B829) and would treat explosive waste generated at the LLNL Livermore Site and at Site 300 either by open burning or open detonation, depending on the type of waste. The alternatives addressed in the 1992 sitewide EIS/EIR are reexamined in this EA. These alternatives included: (1) the no-action alternative which would continue open burning operations at B829; (2) continuation of only open burning at a new facility (no open detonation); (3) termination of open burning operations with shipment of explosive waste offsite; and (4) the application of alternative treatment technologies. This EA examines the impact of construction, operation, and closure of the EWTF. Construction of the EWTF would result in the clearing of a small amount of previously disturbed ground. No adverse impact is expected to any state or federal special status plant or animal species (special status species are classified as threatened, endangered, or candidate species by either state or federal legislation). Operation of the EWTF is expected to result in a reduced threat to involved workers and the public because the proposed facility would relocate existing open burning operations to a more remote area and would incorporate design features to reduce the amount of potentially harmful emissions. No adverse impacts were identified for activities necessary to close the EWTF at the end of its useful life.

  20. Security training symposium: Meeting the challenge: Firearms and explosives recognition and detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    These conference proceedings have been prepared in support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Security Training Symposium on Meeting the Challenge -- Firearms and Explosives Recognition and Detection,'' November 28 through 30, 1989, in Bethesda, Maryland. This document contains the edited transcripts of the guest speakers. It also contains some of the speakers' formal papers that were distributed and some of the slides that were shown at the symposium (Appendix A).

  1. Measurement of an Explosively Driven Hemispherical Shell Using 96 Points of Optical Velocimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danielson, J. R.; Daykin, E P; Diaz, A. B.; Doty, D. L.; Frogget, B. C.; Furlanetto, M. R.; Gallegos, C. H.; Gibo, M; Garza, A; Holtkamp, D B; Hutchins, M S; Perez, C; Perez, C; Pena, M; Romero, V T; Shinas, M A; Teel, M G; Tabaka, L J

    2014-04-01

    We report the measurement of the surface motion of a hemispherical copper shell driven by high explosives. This measurement was made using three 32-channel multiplexed photonic Doppler velocimetry (PDV) systems, in combination with a novel compound optical probe. Clearly visible are detailed features of the motion of the shell over time, enhanced by spatial correlation. Significant non-normal motion is apparent, and challenges in measuring such a geometry are discussed.

  2. Thermonuclear ignition by Z-pinch X-ray radiation produced by current of an explosive magnetic generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garanin, S. G.; Ivanovskiy, A. V.

    2015-12-15

    The scheme of a device based a superpower disk-type magnetic explosion generator to produce a pulse of X-ray radiation with the energy exceeding the target ignition threshold is described and validated.

  3. Uptake of explosives from contaminated soil by existing vegetation at the Iowa Army Ammunition Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, J.F.; Zellmer, S.D.; Tomczyk, N.A.; Rastorier, J.R.; Chen, D.; Banwart, W.L.

    1995-02-01

    This study examines the uptake of explosives by existing vegetation growing in soils contaminated with 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and 1,3,5-trinitro-3,5-triazine (RDX) in three areas at the Iowa Army Ammunition Plant (IAAP). To determine explosives uptake under natural environmental conditions, existing plant materials and soil from the root zone were sampled at different locations in each area, and plant materials were separated by species. Standard methods were used to determine the concentrations of explosives, their derivatives, and metabolites in the soil samples. Plant materials were also analyzed. The compound TNT was not detected in the aboveground portion of plants, and vegetation growing on TNT-contaminated soils is not considered a health hazard. However, soil and plant roots may contain TNT degradation products that may be toxic; hence, their consumption is not advised. The compound RDX was found in the tops and roots of plants growing on RDX-contaminated soils at all surveyed sites. Although RDX is not a listed carcinogen, several of its potentially present degradation products are carcinogens. Therefore, the consumption of any plant tissues growing on RDX-contaminated sites should be considered a potential health hazard.

  4. Proceedings of the 2009 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wetovsky, Marv A; Aguilar - Chang, Julio; Anderson, Dale; Arrowsmith, Marie; Arrowsmith, Stephen; Baker, Diane; Begnaud, Michael; Harste, Hans; Maceira, Monica; Patton, Howard; Phillips, Scott; Randall, George; Rowe, Charlotte; Stead, Richard; Steck, Lee; Whitaker, Rod; Yang, Xiaoning

    2009-09-21

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2009: Ground -Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 21-23 September, 2009 in Tucson, Arizona,. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States’ capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  5. Proceedings of the 2011 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A.; Patterson, Eileen F.; Sandoval, Marisa N.

    2011-09-13

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2011: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 13-15 September, 2011 in Tucson, Arizona. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), National Science Foundation (NSF), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States' capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  6. The Explosion Mechanism of Core-Collapse Supernovae: Progress in Supernova Theory and Experiments

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Foglizzo, Thierry; Kazeroni, Rémi; Guilet, Jérôme; Masset, Frédéric; González, Matthias; Krueger, Brendan K.; Novak, Jérôme; Oertel, Micaela; Margueron, Jérôme; Faure, Julien; et al

    2015-03-17

    The explosion of core-collapse supernova depends on a sequence of events taking place in less than a second in a region of a few hundred kilometers at the center of a supergiant star, after the stellar core approaches the Chandrasekhar mass and collapses into a proto-neutron star, and before a shock wave is launched across the stellar envelope. Theoretical efforts to understand stellar death focus on the mechanism which transforms the collapse into an explosion. Progress in understanding this mechanism is reviewed with particular attention to its asymmetric character. We highlight a series of successful studies connecting observations of supernovamore » remnants and pulsars properties to the theory of core-collapse using numerical simulations. The encouraging results from first principles models in axisymmetric simulations is tempered by new puzzles in 3D. The diversity of explosion paths and the dependence on the pre-collapse stellar structure is stressed, as well as the need to gain a better understanding of hydrodynamical and MHD instabilities such as SASI and neutrino-driven convection. The shallow water analogy of shock dynamics is presented as a comparative system where buoyancy effects are absent. This dynamical system can be studied numerically and also experimentally with a water fountain. Lastly, we analyse the potential of this complementary research tool for supernova theory. We also review its potential for public outreach in science museums.« less

  7. Proceedings of the 25th Seismic Research Review -- Nuclear Explosion Monitoring: Building the Knowledge Base

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chavez, Francesca C.; Mendius, E. Louise

    2003-09-23

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 25th Seismic Research Review -- Nuclear Explosion Monitoring: Building the Knowledge Base, held 23-25 September, 2003 in Tucson, Arizona. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  8. Proceedings of the 28th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A.; Benson, Jody; Patterson, Eileen F.

    2006-09-19

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 28th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 19-21 September, 2006 in Orlando, Florida. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  9. Hydrodynamic Modeling of Air Blast Propagation from the Humble Redwood Chemical High Explosive Detonations Using GEODYN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chipman, V D

    2011-09-20

    Two-dimensional axisymmetric hydrodynamic models were developed using GEODYN to simulate the propagation of air blasts resulting from a series of high explosive detonations conducted at Kirtland Air Force Base in August and September of 2007. Dubbed Humble Redwood I (HR-1), these near-surface chemical high explosive detonations consisted of seven shots of varying height or depth of burst. Each shot was simulated numerically using GEODYN. An adaptive mesh refinement scheme based on air pressure gradients was employed such that the mesh refinement tracked the advancing shock front where sharp discontinuities existed in the state variables, but allowed the mesh to sufficiently relax behind the shock front for runtime efficiency. Comparisons of overpressure, sound speed, and positive phase impulse from the GEODYN simulations were made to the recorded data taken from each HR-1 shot. Where the detonations occurred above ground or were shallowly buried (no deeper than 1 m), the GEODYN model was able to simulate the sound speeds, peak overpressures, and positive phase impulses to within approximately 1%, 23%, and 6%, respectively, of the actual recorded data, supporting the use of numerical simulation of the air blast as a forensic tool in determining the yield of an otherwise unknown explosion.

  10. Proceedings of the 23rd Seismic Research Symposium: Worldwide Monitoring of Nuclear Explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, N. Jill; Chavez, Francesca C.

    2001-10-02

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 23rd Seismic Research Review: Worldwide Monitoring of Nuclear Explosions, held 2-5 October, 2001 in Jackson Hole, Wyoming. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  11. Steam-explosion pretreatment of wood: effect of chip size, acid, moisture content and pressure drop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brownell, H.H.; Yu, E.K.C.; Saddler, J.N.

    1986-06-01

    Material balances for pentosan, lignin, and hexosan, during steam-explosion pretreatment of aspenwood, showed almost quantitative recovery of cellulose in the water-insoluble fraction. Dilute acid impregnation resulted in more selective hydrolysis of pentosan relative to undesirable pyrolysis, and gave a more accessible substrate for enzymatic hydrolysis. Thermocouple probes, located inside simulated aspenwood chips heated in 240 degrees C-saturated steam, showed rapid heating of air-dry wood, whereas green or impregnated wood heated slowly. Small chips, 3.2 mm in the fiber direction, whether green or air dry gave approximately equal rates of pentosan destruction and solubilization, and similar yields of glucose and of total reducing sugars on enzmatic hydrolysis with Trichoderma harzianum. Partial pyrolysis, destroying one-third of the pentosan of aspenwood at atmospheric pressure by dry steam at 276 degrees C, gave little increase in yield of reducing sugars on enzymatic hydrolysis. Treatment with saturated steam at 240 degrees C gave essentially the same yields of butanediol and ethanol on fermentation with Klebsiella pneumoniae, whether or not 80% of the steam was bled off before explosion and even if the chips remained intact, showing that explosion was unnecessary. 17 references.

  12. Proceedings of the 27th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A.; Benson, Jody; Patterson, Eileen F.

    2005-09-20

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 27th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 20-22 September, 2005 in Rancho Mirage, California. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  13. Finding the first cosmic explosions. IV. 90–140 $$\\;{{M}_{\\odot }}$$ pair-stability supernovae

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Smidt, Joseph; Whalen, Daniel J.; Chatzopoulos, E.; Wiggins, Brandon; Chen, Ke-Jung; Kozyreva, Alexandra; Even, Wesley

    2015-05-19

    Population III stars that die as pair-instability supernovae are usually thought to fall in the mass range of 140 - 260 M⊙. However, several lines of work have now shown that rotation can build up the He cores needed to encounter the pair instability at stellar masses as low as 90 M⊙. Depending on the slope of the initial mass function of Population III stars, there could be 4 - 5 times as many stars from 90 - 140 M⊙ in the primordial universe than in the usually accepted range. We present numerical simulations of the pair-instability explosions of suchmore » stars performed with the MESA, FLASH and RAGE codes. We find that they will be visible to supernova factories such as Pan-STARRS and LSST in the optical out to z ~ 1-2 and JWST and the 30 m-class telescopes in the NIR out to z ~ 7-10. Such explosions will thus probe the stellar populations of the first galaxies and cosmic star formation rates in the era of cosmological reionization. These supernovae are also easily distinguished from more massive pair-instability explosions, underscoring the fact that there is far greater variety to the light curves of these events than previously understood.« less

  14. The Explosion Mechanism of Core-Collapse Supernovae: Progress in Supernova Theory and Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foglizzo, Thierry; Kazeroni, Rémi; Guilet, Jérôme; Masset, Frédéric; González, Matthias; Krueger, Brendan K.; Novak, Jérôme; Faure, Julien; Martin, Noël; Blottiau, Patrick; Peres, Bruno; Durand, Gilles

    2015-03-17

    The explosion of core-collapse supernova depends on a sequence of events taking place in less than a second in a region of a few hundred kilometers at the center of a supergiant star, after the stellar core approaches the Chandrasekhar mass and collapses into a proto-neutron star, and before a shock wave is launched across the stellar envelope. Theoretical efforts to understand stellar death focus on the mechanism which transforms the collapse into an explosion. Progress in understanding this mechanism is reviewed with particular attention to its asymmetric character. We highlight a series of successful studies connecting observations of supernova remnants and pulsars properties to the theory of core-collapse using numerical simulations. The encouraging results from first principles models in axisymmetric simulations is tempered by new puzzles in 3D. The diversity of explosion paths and the dependence on the pre-collapse stellar structure is stressed, as well as the need to gain a better understanding of hydrodynamical and MHD instabilities such as SASI and neutrino-driven convection. The shallow water analogy of shock dynamics is presented as a comparative system where buoyancy effects are absent. This dynamical system can be studied numerically and also experimentally with a water fountain. Lastly, we analyse the potential of this complementary research tool for supernova theory. We also review its potential for public outreach in science museums.

  15. Proceedings of the 30th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wetovsky, Marv A; Aguilar-chang, Julio; Arrowsmith, Marie; Arrowsmith, Stephen; Baker, Diane; Begnaud, Michael; Harste, Hans; Maceira, Monica; Patton, Howard; Phillips, Scott; Randall, George; Revelle, Douglas; Rowe, Charlotte; Stead, Richard; Steck, Lee; Whitaker, Rod; Yang, Xiaoning

    2008-09-23

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 30th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 23-25 September, 2008 in Portsmouth, Virginia. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States’ capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  16. Characterization of an explosively bonded aluminum proton beam window for the Spallation Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McClintock, David A; Janney, Jim G; Parish, Chad M

    2014-01-01

    An effort is underway at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) to change the design of the 1st Generation high-nickel alloy proton beam window (PBW) to one that utilizes aluminum for the window material. One of the key challenges to implementation of an aluminum PBW at the SNS was selection of an appropriate joining method to bond an aluminum window to the stainless steel bulk shielding of the PBW assembly. An explosively formed bond was selected as the most promising joining method for the aluminum PBW design. A testing campaign was conducted to evaluate the strength and efficacy of explosively formed bonds that were produced using two different interlayer materials: niobium and titanium. The characterization methods reported here include tensile testing, thermal-shock leak testing, optical microscopy, and advanced scanning electron microscopy. All tensile specimens examined failed in the aluminum interlayer and measured tensile strengths were all slightly greater than the native properties of the aluminum interlayer, while elongation values were all slightly lower. A leak developed in the test vessel with a niobium interlayer joint after repeated thermal-shock cycles, and was attributed to an extensive crack network that formed in a layer of niobium-rich intermetallics located on the bond interfaces of the niobium interlayer; the test vessel with a titanium interlayer did not develop a leak under the conditions tested. Due to the experience gained from these characterizations, the explosively formed bond with a titanium interlayer was selected for the aluminum PBW design at the SNS.

  17. Proceedings of the 26th Seismic Research Review: Trends in Nuclear Explosion Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chavez, Francesca C; Benson, Jody; Hanson, Stephanie; Mark, Carol; Wetovsky, Marvin A

    2004-09-21

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 26th Seismic Research Review: Trends in Nuclear Explosion Monitoring, held 21-23 September, 2004 in Orlando, Florida. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  18. Influence of emission threshold of explosive emission cathodes on current waveform in foilless diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, P.; Liu, G. Z.; Huo, S. F.; Sun, J.; Chen, C. H.

    2015-08-15

    The emission threshold of explosive emission cathodes (EECs) is an important factor for beam quality. It can affect the explosive emission delay time, the plasma expansion process on the cathode surface, and even the current amplitude when the current is not fully space-charge-limited. This paper researches the influence of the emission threshold of an annular EEC on the current waveform in a foilless diode when the current is measured by a Rogowski coil. The particle-in-cell simulation which is performed under some tolerable and necessary simplifications shows that the long explosive emission delay time of high-threshold cathodes may leave an apparent peak of displacement current on the rise edge of the current waveform, and this will occur only when the electron emission starts after this peak. The experimental researches, which are performed under a diode voltage of 1 MV and a repetitive frequency of 20 Hz, demonstrate that the graphite cathode has a lower emission threshold and a longer lifetime than the stainless steel cathode according to the variation of the peak of displacement current on the rise edge of the current waveform.

  19. Proceedings of the 29th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A.; Benson, Jody; Patterson, Eileen F.

    2007-09-25

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 29th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 25-27 September, 2007 in Denver, Colorado. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  20. Finding the first cosmic explosions. IV. 90–140 $\\;{{M}_{\\odot }}$ pair-stability supernovae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smidt, Joseph; Whalen, Daniel J.; Chatzopoulos, E.; Wiggins, Brandon; Chen, Ke-Jung; Kozyreva, Alexandra; Even, Wesley

    2015-05-19

    Population III stars that die as pair-instability supernovae are usually thought to fall in the mass range of 140 - 260 M. However, several lines of work have now shown that rotation can build up the He cores needed to encounter the pair instability at stellar masses as low as 90 M. Depending on the slope of the initial mass function of Population III stars, there could be 4 - 5 times as many stars from 90 - 140 M in the primordial universe than in the usually accepted range. We present numerical simulations of the pair-instability explosions of such stars performed with the MESA, FLASH and RAGE codes. We find that they will be visible to supernova factories such as Pan-STARRS and LSST in the optical out to z ~ 1-2 and JWST and the 30 m-class telescopes in the NIR out to z ~ 7-10. Such explosions will thus probe the stellar populations of the first galaxies and cosmic star formation rates in the era of cosmological reionization. These supernovae are also easily distinguished from more massive pair-instability explosions, underscoring the fact that there is far greater variety to the light curves of these events than previously understood.

  1. C-Safe Image Gallery from the Center for the Simulation of Accidental Fires and Explosions

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The University of Utah created an alliance with the DOE Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) program to form the Center for the Simulation of Accidental Fires and Explosions (C-SAFE). The Center focuses specifically on providing state-of-the-art, science-based tools for the numerical simulation of accidental fires and explosions, especially within the context of handling and storage of highly flammable materials. The objective of C-SAFE is to provide a system comprising a problem-solving environment in which fundamental chemistry and engineering physics are fully coupled with non-linear solvers, optimization, computational steering, visualization and experimental data verification. The availability of simulations using this system will help to better evaluate the risks and safety issues associated with fires and explosions. The scientific images at this website provide technical views of various flame types and configurations (http://www.csafe.utah.edu/Information/summary.html). See also the Container Dynamics presentations at http://www.csafe.utah.edu/Teams/ContainerDynamics/cd_presentations.html.

  2. Proceedings of the 2010 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A; Patterson, Eileen F

    2010-09-21

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2010: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 21-23 September, 2010 in Orlando, Florida,. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, National Science Foundation (NSF), Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  3. An electromagnetic and thermodynamic lumped parameter model of an explosively driven regenerative magnetohydrodynamic generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrison, J.L.

    1992-12-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a simple, yet accurate, lumped parameter mathematical model for an explosively driven magnetohydrodynamic generator that can predict the pulse power variables of voltage and current from startup through regenerative operation. The inputs to the model will be the plasma properties entering the generator as predicted by the explosive shock model of Reference [1]. The strategy used was to simplify electromagnetic and thermodynamic three dimensional effects into a zero dimensional model. The model will provide a convenient tool for researchers to optimize designs to be used in pulse power applications. The model is validated using experimental data of Reference [1]. An overview of the operation of the explosively driven generator is first presented. Then a simplified electrical circuit model that describes basic performance of the device is developed. Then a lumped parameter model that incorporates the coupled electromagnetic and thermodynamic effects that govern generator performance is described and developed. The model is based on fundamental physical principles and parameters that were either obtained directly from design data or estimated from experimental data. The model was used to obtain parameter sensitivities and predict beyond the limits observed in the experiments to the levels desired by the potential Department of Defense sponsors. The model identifies process limitations that provide direction for future research.

  4. Proceedings of the 24th Seismic Research Review: Nuclear Explosion Monitoring: Innovation and Integration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, N. Jill

    2002-09-17

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 24th Seismic Research Review: Nuclear Explosion Monitoring: Innovation and Integration, held 17-19 September, 2002 in Ponte Vedra Beach, Florida. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  5. THE APPLICATION OF SINGLE PARTICLE AEROSOL MASS SPECTROMETRY FOR THE DETECTION AND IDENTIFICATION OF HIGH EXPLOSIVES AND CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, A

    2006-10-23

    Single Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (SPAMS) was evaluated as a real-time detection technique for single particles of high explosives. Dual-polarity time-of-flight mass spectra were obtained for samples of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazinane (RDX), and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN); peaks indicative of each compound were identified. Composite explosives, Comp B, Semtex 1A, and Semtex 1H were also analyzed, and peaks due to the explosive components of each sample were present in each spectrum. Mass spectral variability with laser fluence is discussed. The ability of the SPAMS system to identify explosive components in a single complex explosive particle ({approx}1 pg) without the need for consumables is demonstrated. SPAMS was also applied to the detection of Chemical Warfare Agent (CWA) simulants in the liquid and vapor phases. Liquid simulants for sarin, cyclosarin, tabun, and VX were analyzed; peaks indicative of each simulant were identified. Vapor phase CWA simulants were adsorbed onto alumina, silica, Zeolite, activated carbon, and metal powders which were directly analyzed using SPAMS. The use of metal powders as adsorbent materials was especially useful in the analysis of triethyl phosphate (TEP), a VX stimulant, which was undetectable using SPAMS in the liquid phase. The capability of SPAMS to detect high explosives and CWA simulants using one set of operational conditions is established.

  6. Regional analysis of Former Soviet Union peaceful nuclear explosions recorded in the Former Soviet Union. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adushkin, V.C.

    1995-11-11

    Until the late 80`s information on Soviet underground nuclear explosions, let alone seismic recording on Soviet soil, were not generally available to the seismological community. The dramatic changes since then have resulted in access to a wide variety of seismic data from Soviet explosions. In this report the author presents a data set, unique to the field of seismic verification. The data includes a large number of waveforms from in-country seismological station Borovoye for the Soviet peaceful nuclear explosions with announced yields and origin times, some with physical and mechanical conditions at the test site. The waveforms were recorded by digital station of different types. In this report the author has summarized and reviewed information on 122 explosions, and 55 waveforms in this data set, which contains recordings obtained in the course of more than 15 years. As the characteristics of recording instruments were changing during this period of time available information on instrument calibrations is also described and reviewed. The author also has attempted to describe the observed peculiarities of P-wave by using a simple source function and magnitude correction which take in attention such parameters as the velocity of longitudinal wave, density, moisture, gas content and depth of explosion. More detail analysis was conducted for the explosions conducted in salt as there is representative sample and they were observed on local distances.

  7. Performance evaluation of booster materials in the plastic bonded explosive PBX 9502 in a hemispherical wave breakout test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hooks, Daniel E; Morris, John S; Hill, Larry G; Francois, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    An explosive booster is normally required to initiate detonation in an insensitive high explosive (lHE). Booster materials must be ignitable by a conventional detonator and deliver sufficient energy and favorable pulse shape to initiate the IHE charge. The explosive booster should be as insensitive as reasonably possible to maintain the overall safety margin of the explosive assembly. A hemispherical wave breakout test termed the on ionskin test is one of the methods of testing the performance of booster materials in an initiation train assembly. There are several variations of this basic test which are known by other names. In this test, the wave breakout time-position history at the surface of a hemispherical IHE acceptor charge is recorded, and the relative uniformity of breakout allows qualitative comparison between booster candidates and quantitative comparison of several metrics. The results of a series of onionskin experiments evaluating the performance of some new booster formulations in the triaminotrinitrobenzene (TA TB) -based plastic bonded explosive PBX 9502 will be presented. The boosters were tested in an onionskin arrangement in which the booster pellet was cylindrical, and the tests were performed at a temperature of-55{sup o}C to emphasize variations in spreading performance. The modification from the traditional hemispherical geometry facilitated efficient explosive fabrication and charge assembly, but the results indicate that this geometry was not ideal for several reasons. Despite the complications arising from geometry, promising performance was observed from booster formulations including 3,3' -diamino-4,4'azoxyfurazan.

  8. An assessment of antineutrino detection as a tool for monitoring nuclear explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adam Bernstein; Todd West; Vipin Gupta

    1999-06-01

    The antineutrino is the only real-time nuclear signature from a fission explosion that propagates great distances through air, water, and ground. The size and sensitivity of antineutrino detectors has increased dramatically in the last decade, and will continue to do so in the next, thanks in part to the renewed interest in neutrino physics brought on by the recent discovery that neutrinos may have mass. The evolution of antineutrino detectors, and the evident interest of the signature as a means for monitoring nuclear tests motivates this review of the capabilities of existing and possible future detectors as test ban verification tools. The authors find that existing liquid scintillator ionization detectors, operating a few tens of meters below the Earth's surface and containing a few thousand tons of active material, could be used to monitor an area of a few square kilometers for nuclear explosions at the 1 kt level. Purified water Cerenkov detectors of sizes comparable to existing detectors (50,000 m{sup 3}) could be used to detect 1 kt explosions at distances of a few tens of kilometers. If neutron-absorbing dopants such as sodium chloride or gadolinium could be added to purified water, the resulting background reduction would allow extension of the range for sensitivity to a pulse of 10 antineutrino events from a 1 kt explosion out to approximately 1000 km. Beyond 1000 km, backgrounds from the world's nuclear reactors would become prohibitively large. The engineering hurdles for such detectors would be formidable. The size of a doped detector operating at the 100 km range, suitable for cooperative monitoring of existing nuclear test sites, is about 60 times that of the largest existing water detector, and would require a factor of several dozen more photomultiplier tubes than what is now used in large scale physics experiments. At a price per phototube of $1000, capital costs would amount to several billions of dollars, even for a detector at this modest

  9. high explosives

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    of work with HE; expertise that made Pantex the DOE's HE Center of Excellence for Manufacturing.

    The HE, known as Triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB), is used by both the DOD...

  10. Explosives Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    supporting the warfighter missions. gas gun A Los Alamos researcher installs a target ... Dana Dattelbaum with two-stage gas gun Dana Dattelbaum: Creatively connecting fundamental ...

  11. Explosives Safety

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Schnetzer, Kimball O. Merewether, and Roy E. Jorgenson; May 1993 (current version 06 August 2002) Life Safety Code: NFPA 101, National Fire Protection Association (current version) ...

  12. Primary explosives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hiskey, Michael A. (Los Alamos, NM); Huynh, My Hang V. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2011-01-25

    The present invention provides a compound of the formula (Cat).sup.+.sub.z[M.sup.++(5-nitro-1H-tetrazolato-N2).sup.-.sub.x(H.sub.2- O).sub.y] where x is 3 or 4, y is 2 or 3, x+y is 6, z is 1 or 2, and M.sup.++ is selected from the group consisting of iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, chromium, and manganese, and (Cat).sup.+ is selected from the group consisting of ammonium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and cesium. A method of preparing the compound of that formula is also disclosed.

  13. Primary explosives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hiskey, Michael A. (Los Alamos, NM); Huynh, My Hang V. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2009-03-03

    The present invention provides a compound of the formula (Cat).sup.+.sub.z[M.sup.++(5-nitro-1H-tetrazolato-N2).sup.-.sub.x(H.sub.2- O).sub.y] where x is 3 or 4, y is 2 or 3, x+y is 6, z is 1 or 2, and M.sup.++ is selected from the group consisting of iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, chromium, and manganese, and (Cat).sup.+ is selected from the group consisting of ammonium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and cesium. A method of preparing the compound of that formula is also disclosed.

  14. THE MECHANISMS FOR THE ONSET AND EXPLOSIVE ERUPTION OF CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS AND ERUPTIVE FLARES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karpen, J. T.; Antiochos, S. K.; DeVore, C. R.

    2012-11-20

    We have investigated the onset and acceleration of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and eruptive flares. To isolate the eruption physics, our study uses the breakout model, which is insensitive to the energy buildup process leading to the eruption. We performed 2.5D simulations with adaptive mesh refinement that achieved the highest overall spatial resolution to date in a CME/eruptive flare simulation. The ultra-high resolution allows us to separate clearly the timing of the various phases of the eruption. Using new computational tools, we have determined the number and evolution of all X- and O-type nulls in the system, thereby tracking both the progress and the products of reconnection throughout the computational domain. Our results show definitively that CME onset is due to the start of fast reconnection at the breakout current sheet. Once this reconnection begins, eruption is inevitable; if this is the only reconnection in the system, however, the eruption will be slow. The explosive CME acceleration is triggered by fast reconnection at the flare current sheet. Our results indicate that the explosive eruption is caused by a resistive instability, not an ideal process. Moreover, both breakout and flare reconnections begin first as a form of weak tearing characterized by slowly evolving plasmoids, but eventually transition to a fast form with well-defined Alfvenic reconnection jets and rapid flux transfer. This transition to fast reconnection is required for both CME onset and explosive acceleration. We discuss the key implications of our results for CME/flare observations and for theories of magnetic reconnection.

  15. Chemical recovery process using break up steam control to prevent smelt explosions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kohl, Arthur L.; Stewart, Albert E.

    1988-08-02

    An improvement in a chemical recovery process in which a hot liquid smelt is introduced into a dissolving tank containing a pool of green liquor. The improvement comprises preventing smelt explosions in the dissolving tank by maintaining a first selected superatmospheric pressure in the tank during normal operation of the furnace; sensing the pressure in the tank; and further impinging a high velocity stream of steam upon the stream of smelt whenever the pressure in the tank decreases below a second selected superatmospheric pressure which is lower than said first pressure.

  16. C-Safe Image Gallery from the Center for the Simulation of Accidental Fires and Explosions

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Center for the Simulation of Accidental Fires and Explosions, created through the Department of Energy's Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Program, employed a large number of a highly skilled faculty, research scientists, staff, and students who created the Uintah Computational Framework (UCF) software. For over a decade C-SAFE produced cutting edge research in simulating complex physical phenomena including reacting flows, material properties, multi-material interactions, and atomic level chemistry. Additionally, pioneering work was done in the field of parallel computing, software frameworks, and visualization.

  17. A Safer Nuclear Enterprise - Application to Nuclear Explosive Safety (NES)(U)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, Tommy J.

    2012-07-05

    Activities and infrastructure that support nuclear weapons are facing significant challenges. Despite an admirable record and firm commitment to make safety a primary criterion in weapons design, production, handling, and deployment - there is growing apprehension about terrorist acquiring weapons or nuclear material. At the NES Workshop in May 2012, Scott Sagan, who is a proponent of the normal accident cycle, presented. Whether a proponent of the normal accident cycle or High Reliability Organizations - we have to be diligent about our safety record. Constant vigilance is necessary to maintain our admirable safety record and commitment to Nuclear Explosive Safety.

  18. DYNA3D Finite Element Analysis of Steam Explosion Loads on a Pedestal Wall Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noble, C R

    2007-01-18

    The objective of this brief report is to document the ESBWR pedestal wall finite element analyses that were performed as a quick turnaround effort in July 2005 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and describe the assumptions and failure criteria used for these analyses [Ref 4]. The analyses described within are for the pedestal wall design that included an internal steel liner. The goal of the finite element analyses was to assist in determining the load carrying capacity of the ESBWR pedestal wall subjected to an impulsive pressure generated by a steam explosion.

  19. 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one, a less sensitive explosive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Kien-Yin; Coburn, Michael D.

    1988-01-01

    A less sensitive explosive, 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one. The compound 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO) has a crystal density of 1.93 g/cm.sup.3 and calculated detonation velocity and pressure equivalent to those of RDX. It can be prepared in high yield from inexpensive starting materials in a safe synthesis. Results from initial small-scale sensitivity tests indicate that NTO is less sensitive than RDX and HMX in all respects. A 4.13 cm diameter, unconfined plate-dent test at 92% of crystal density gave the detonation pressure predicted for NTO by the BKW calculation.

  20. Nonlinear structures: Explosive, soliton, and shock in a quantum electron-positron-ion magnetoplasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabry, R.; Moslem, W. M.; Haas, F.; Shukla, P. K.; Ali, S.

    2008-12-15

    Theoretical and numerical studies are performed for the nonlinear structures (explosive, solitons, and shock) in quantum electron-positron-ion magnetoplasmas. For this purpose, the reductive perturbation method is employed to the quantum hydrodynamical equations and the Poisson equation, obtaining extended quantum Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation. The latter has been solved using the generalized expansion method to obtain a set of analytical solutions, which reflects the possibility of the propagation of various nonlinear structures. The relevance of the present investigation to the white dwarfs is highlighted.

  1. Nuclear Explosives Safety Evaluation Process (DOE-STD-3015-2004)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SENSITIVE DOE-STD-3015-2004 November 2004 Superseding DOE-STD-3015-2001 DOE STANDARD NUCLEAR EXPLOSIVE SAFETY EVALUATION PROCESS U.S. Department of Energy AREA SAFT Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Available on the Department of Energy Technical Standards Program Web site at http://tis.eh.doe.gov/techstds/. DOE-STD-3015-2004 iii FOREWORD This Department of Energy (DOE) Technical Standard is approved for use by the Assistant

  2. NONDESTRUCTIVE IDENTIFICATION OF CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS AND EXPLOSIVES BY NEUTRON GENERATOR-DRIVEN PGNAA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T. R. Twomey; A. J. Caffrey; D. L. Chichester

    2007-02-01

    Prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) is now a proven method for the identification of chemical warfare agents and explosives in military projectiles and storage containers. Idaho National Laboratory is developing a next-generation PGNAA instrument based on the new Ortec Detective mechanically-cooled HPGe detector and a neutron generator. In this paper we review PGNAA analysis of suspect chemical warfare munitions, and we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of replacing the californium-252 radioisotopic neutron source with a compact accelerator neutron generator.

  3. Comparison of explosive and vibroseis source energy penetration during COCORP deep seismic reflection profiling in the Williston basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steer, D.N.; Brown, L.D.; Knapp, J.H.; Baird, D.J. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)] [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Comparison of high-fold (50) vibroseis recordings with coincident low-fold (6) explosive source data from deep reflection surveys in the Williston Basin indicates that while vibroseis generated energy decays to ambient noise levels at 7--9 s two-way traveltime (twtt) (20--30 km depth), energy from explosive sources remains above ambient levels to 35--60 s twtt (105--180 km depth). Moreover, single, moderately sized (30 kg) and well-placed charges proved to be as effective as larger (90 kg) sources at penetrating to mantle traveltimes in this area. However, the explosive source energy proved highly variable, with source-to-ground coupling being a major limiting factor in shot efficacy. Stacked results from the vibroseis sources provide superior imagery of shallow and moderate crustal levels by virtue of greater redundancy and shot-to-shot uniformity; shot statics, low fold, and ray-path distortion across the relatively large (24--30 km aperture) spreads used during the explosive recording have proven to be especially problematic in producing conventional seismic sections. In spite of these complications, the explosive source recording served its primary purpose in confirming Moho truncation and the presence of a dipping reflection fabric in the upper mantle along the western flank of the Trans-Hudson orogen buried beneath the Williston Basin.

  4. Effects of Various Blowout Panel Configurations on the Structural Response of LANL Building 16-340 to Internal Explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jason P. Wilke

    2005-09-30

    The risk of accidental detonation is present whenever any type of high explosives processing activity is performed. These activities are typically carried out indoors to protect processing equipment from the weather and to hide possibly secret processes from view. Often, highly strengthened reinforced concrete buildings are employed to house these activities. These buildings may incorporate several design features, including the use of lightweight frangible blowout panels, to help mitigate blast effects. These panels are used to construct walls that are durable enough to withstand the weather, but are of minimal weight to provide overpressure relief by quickly moving outwards and creating a vent area during an accidental explosion. In this study the behavior of blowout panels under various blast loading conditions was examined. External loadings from explosions occurring in nearby rooms were of primary interest. Several reinforcement systems were designed to help blowout panels resist failure from external blast loads while still allowing them to function as vents when subjected to internal explosions. The reinforcements were studied using two analytical techniques, yield-line analysis and modal analysis, and the hydrocode AUTODYN. A blowout panel reinforcement design was created that could prevent panels from being blown inward by external explosions. This design was found to increase the internal loading of the building by 20%, as compared with nonreinforced panels. Nonreinforced panels were found to increase the structural loads by 80% when compared to an open wall at the panel location.

  5. Metallurgical failure analysis of a propane tank boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kilgo, Alice C.; Eckelmeyer, Kenneth Hall; Susan, Donald Francis

    2005-01-01

    A severe fire and explosion occurred at a propane storage yard in Truth or Consequences, N.M., when a truck ran into the pumping and plumbing system beneath a large propane tank. The storage tank emptied when the liquid-phase excess flow valve tore out of the tank. The ensuing fire engulfed several propane delivery trucks, causing one of them to explode. A series of elevated-temperature stress-rupture tears developed along the top of a 9800 L (2600 gal) truck-mounted tank as it was heated by the fire. Unstable fracture then occurred suddenly along the length of the tank and around both end caps, along the girth welds connecting the end caps to the center portion of the tank. The remaining contents of the tank were suddenly released, aerosolized, and combusted, creating a powerful boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE). Based on metallography of the tank pieces, the approximate tank temperature at the onset of the BLEVE was determined. Metallurgical analysis of the ruptured tank also permitted several hypotheses regarding BLEVE mechanisms to be evaluated. Suggestions are made for additional work that could provide improved predictive capabilities regarding BLEVEs and for methods to decrease the susceptibility of propane tanks to BLEVEs.

  6. In-situ Raman spectroscopy and high-speed photography of a shocked triaminotrinitrobenzene based explosive

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saint-Amans, C.; Hébert, P. Doucet, M.; Resseguier, T. de

    2015-01-14

    We have developed a single-shot Raman spectroscopy experiment to study at the molecular level the initiation mechanisms that can lead to sustained detonation of a triaminotrinitrobenzene-based explosive. Shocks up to 30 GPa were generated using a two-stage laser-driven flyer plate generator. The samples were confined by an optical window and shock pressure was maintained for at least 30 ns. Photon Doppler Velocimetry measurements were performed at the explosive/window interface to determine the shock pressure profile. Raman spectra were recorded as a function of shock pressure and the shifts of the principal modes were compared to static high-pressure measurements performed in a diamond anvil cell. Our shock data indicate the role of temperature effects. Our Raman spectra also show a progressive extinction of the signal which disappears around 9 GPa. High-speed photography images reveal a simultaneous progressive darkening of the sample surface up to total opacity at 9 GPa. Reflectivity measurements under shock compression show that this opacity is due to a broadening of the absorption spectrum over the entire visible region.

  7. High explosives vapor detection by atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization/tandem mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McLuckey, S.A.; Goeringer, D.E.; Asano, K.G.

    1996-02-01

    The combination of atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization with tandem mass spectrometry for the detection of traces of high explosives is described. Particular emphasis is placed on use of the quadrupole ion trap as the type of tandem mass spectrometer. Atmospheric sampling glow discharge provides a simple, rugged, and efficient means for anion formation while the quadrupole ion trap provides for efficient tandem mass spectrometry. Mass selective ion accumulation and non-specific ion activation methods can be used to overcome deleterious effects arising from ion/ion interactions. Such interactions constitute the major potential technical barrier to the use of the ion trap for real-time monitoring of targeted compounds in uncontrolled and highly variable matrices. Tailored waveforms can be used to effect both mass selective ion accumulation and ion activation. Concatenated tailored waveforms allow for both functions in a single experiment thereby providing the capability for monitoring several targeted species simultaneously. The combination of atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization with a state-of-the-art analytical quadrupole ion trap is a highly sensitive and specific detector for traces of high explosives. The combination is also small and inexpensive relative to virtually any other form of tandem mass spectrometry. The science and technology underlying the glow discharge/ion trap combination is sufficiently mature to form the basis for an engineering effort to make the detector portable. 85 refs.

  8. Spall strength and ejecta production of gold under explosively driven shock wave compression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    La Lone, B. M.; Stevens, G. D.; Turley, W. D.; Veeser, L. R.; Holtkamp, D. B.

    2013-12-16

    Explosively driven shock wave experiments were conducted to characterize the spall strength and ejecta production of high-purity cast gold samples. The samples were from 0.75 to 1.84 mm thick and 30 mm in diameter. Peak stresses up to 44 GPa in gold were generated using PBX-9501 high explosive. Sample free surface and ejecta velocities were recorded using photonic Doppler velocimetry techniques. Lithium niobate pins were used to quantify the time dependence of the ejecta density and the total ejected mass. An optical framing camera for time-resolved imaging and a single-image x-ray radiograph were used for additional characterization. Free surface velocities exhibited a range of spall strengths from 1.7 to 2.4 GPa (mean: 2.0 ±0.3 GPa). The pullback signals were faint, minimal ringing was observed in the velocity records, and the spall layer continued to decelerate after first pull back. These results suggest finite tensile strength was present for some time after the initial void formation. Ejecta were observed for every sample with a roughened free surface, and the ejecta density increased with increased surface roughness, which was different in every experiment. The total ejected mass is consistent with the missing mass model.

  9. Inspecting the minefield and residual explosives by fast neutron activation method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sudac, D.; Majetic, S.; Kollar, R.; Nad, K.; Obhodas, J.; Valkovic, V.

    2011-07-01

    As an upgrade of a robotic mobile system for antipersonnel land-mine clearance, a fast neutron probe has been considered for the detection of mines and explosive residues. Laboratory tests were made by using the 14 MeV 6 x 10{sup 7} neutrons/sec beam with the associated alpha particle detection and with a LaBr{sub 3} gamma ray detector. Simulant of the anti-personal mine was used as a target. Several measurements were made with the target buried into the soil at different depths. For each depth minimal time measurement was estimated for false negative 0.4 % and false positive equal to 10 %. Tests showed that is possible to detect buried land-mine as well as residual explosives; however, in order to reach the optimal speed of 10 cm/s for de-mining vehicle it is necessarily to use several sealed tube neutron generators and few tens of LaBr{sub 3} gamma ray detectors. (authors)

  10. Skin explosion of double-layer conductors in fast-rising high magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaikovsky, S. A. Datsko, I. M.; Labetskaya, N. A.; Ratakhin, N. A.

    2014-04-15

    An experiment has been performed to study the electrical explosion of thick cylindrical conductors using the MIG pulsed power generator capable of producing a peak current of 2.5 MA within 100?ns rise time. The experimental goal was to compare the skin explosion of a solid conductor with that of a double-layer conductor whose outer layer had a lower conductivity than the inner one. It has been shown that in magnetic fields of peak induction up to 300?T and average induction rise rate 3??10{sup 9}?T/s, the double-layer structure of a conductor makes it possible to achieve higher magnetic induction at the conductor surface before it explodes. This can be accounted for, in particular, by the reduction of the ratio of the Joule heat density to the energy density of the magnetic field at the surface of a double-layer conductor due to redistribution of the current density over the conductor cross section.

  11. INITIAL EVALUATION OF A PULSED WHITE SPECTRUM NEUTRON GENERATOR FOR EXPLOSIVE DETECTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, Michael J.; Miller, Gill T.; Reijonen, Jani; Ji, Qing; Andresen, Nord; Gicquel,, Frederic; Kavlas, Taneli; Leung, Ka-Ngo; Kwan, Joe

    2008-06-02

    Successful explosive material detection in luggage and similar sized containers is acritical issue in securing the safety of all airline passengers. Tensor Technology Inc. has recently developed a methodology that will detect explosive compounds with pulsed fast neutron transmission spectroscopy. In this scheme, tritium beams will be used to generate neutrons with a broad energy spectrum as governed by the T(t,2n)4He fission reaction that produces 0-9 MeV neutrons. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), in collaboration with Tensor Technology Inc., has designedand fabricated a pulsed white-spectrum neutron source for this application. The specifications of the neutron source are demanding and stringent due to the requirements of high yield and fast pulsing neutron emission, and sealed tube, tritium operation. In a unique co-axial geometry, the ion source uses ten parallel rf induction antennas to externally couple power into a toroidal discharge chamber. There are 20 ion beam extraction slits and 3 concentric electrode rings to shape and accelerate the ion beam into a titanium cone target. Fast neutron pulses are created by using a set ofparallel-plate deflectors switching between +-1500 volts and deflecting the ion beams across a narrow slit. The generator is expected to achieve 5 ns neutron pulses at tritium ion beam energies between 80 - 120 kV. First experiments demonstrated ion source operation and successful beam pulsing.

  12. Development of explosive event scale model testing capability at Sandia`s large scale centrifuge facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanchat, T.K.; Davie, N.T.; Calderone, J.J.

    1998-02-01

    Geotechnical structures such as underground bunkers, tunnels, and building foundations are subjected to stress fields produced by the gravity load on the structure and/or any overlying strata. These stress fields may be reproduced on a scaled model of the structure by proportionally increasing the gravity field through the use of a centrifuge. This technology can then be used to assess the vulnerability of various geotechnical structures to explosive loading. Applications of this technology include assessing the effectiveness of earth penetrating weapons, evaluating the vulnerability of various structures, counter-terrorism, and model validation. This document describes the development of expertise in scale model explosive testing on geotechnical structures using Sandia`s large scale centrifuge facility. This study focused on buried structures such as hardened storage bunkers or tunnels. Data from this study was used to evaluate the predictive capabilities of existing hydrocodes and structural dynamics codes developed at Sandia National Laboratories (such as Pronto/SPH, Pronto/CTH, and ALEGRA). 7 refs., 50 figs., 8 tabs.

  13. SN 2008D: A WOLF-RAYET EXPLOSION THROUGH A THICK WIND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Svirski, Gilad; Nakar, Ehud

    2014-06-10

    Supernova (SN) 2008D/XRT 080109 is considered to be the only direct detection of a shock breakout from a regular SN to date. While a breakout interpretation was favored by several papers, inconsistencies remain between the observations and current SN shock breakout theory. Most notably, the duration of the luminous X-ray pulse is considerably longer than expected for a spherical breakout through the surface of a type Ibc SN progenitor, and the X-ray radiation features, mainly its flat spectrum and its luminosity evolution, are enigmatic. We apply a recently developed theoretical model for the observed radiation from a Wolf-Rayet SN exploding through a thick wind and show that it naturally explains all of the observed features of SN 2008D X-ray emission, including the energetics, the spectrum, and the detailed luminosity evolution. We find that the inferred progenitor and SN parameters are typical for an exploding Wolf-Rayet. A comparison of the wind density found at the breakout radius and the density at much larger radii, as inferred by late radio observations, suggests an enhanced mass-loss rate taking effect about 10 days prior to the SN explosion. This finding joins accumulating evidence for a possible late phase in the stellar evolution of massive stars, involving vigorous mass loss a short time before the SN explosion.

  14. Explosive engineering problems from fragmentation tests in oil shale at the Anvil Points Mine, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dick, R.D.; Fourney, W.L.; Young, C.

    1985-01-01

    During 1981 and 1982, an extensive oil shale fragmentation research program was conducted at the Anvil Points Mine near Rifle, Colorado. The primary goals were to investigate factors involved for adequate fragmentation of oil shale and to evaluate the feasibility of using the modified in situ retort (MIS) method for recovery of oil from oil shale. The field test program included single-deck, single-borehole experiments to obtain basic fragmentation data; multiple-deck, multiple-borehole experiments to evaluate some practical aspects for developing an in situ retort; and the development of a variety of instrumentation technique to diagnose the blast event. This paper discusses some explosive engineering problems encountered, such as electric cap performance in complex blasting patterns, explosive and stem performance in a variety of configurations from the simple to the complex, and the difficulties experienced when reversing the direction of throw of the oil shale in a subscale retort configuration. These problems need solutions before an adequate MIS retort can be created in a single-blast event and even before an experimental mini-retort can be formed. 6 references, 7 figures, 3 tables.

  15. Peculiarity of convergence of shock wave generated by underwater electrical explosion of ring-shaped wire

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shafer, D.; Toker, G. R.; Gurovich, V. Tz.; Gleizer, S.; Krasik, Ya. E.

    2013-05-15

    Nanosecond timescale underwater electrical wire explosions of ring-shaped Cu wires were investigated using a pulsed generator with a current amplitude up to 50 kA. It was shown that this type of wire explosion results in the generation of a toroidal shock wave (SW). Time- and space-resolved optical diagnostics were used to determine azimuthal uniformity of the shock wave front and its velocity. It was found that the shock wave preserves its circular front shape in the range of radii 50?m

  16. Development of ab initio techniques critical for future science-based explosives R&D.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wixom, Ryan R.; Mattsson, Ann Elisabet

    2013-10-01

    Density Functional Theory (DFT) has emerged as an indispensable tool in materials research, since it can accurately predict properties of a wide variety of materials at both equilibrium and extreme conditions. However, for organic molecular crystal explosives, successful application of DFT has largely failed due to the inability of current exchange-correlation functionals to correctly describe intermolecular van der Waals' (vdWs) forces. Despite this, we have discovered that even with no treatment of vdWs bonding, the AM05 functional and DFT based molecular dynamics (MD) could be used to study the properties of molecular crystals under compression. We have used DFT-MD to predict the unreacted Hugoniots for PETN and HNS and validated the results by comparison with crystalline and porous experimental data. Since we are also interested in applying DFT methods to study the equilibrium volume properties of explosives, we studied the nature of the vdWs bonding in pursuit of creating a new DFT functional capable of accurately describing equilibrium bonding of molecular crystals. In this report we discuss our results for computing shock Hugoniots of molecular crystals and also what was learned about the nature of bonding in these materials.

  17. DETECTION OF AN OUTBURST ONE YEAR PRIOR TO THE EXPLOSION OF SN 2011ht

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fraser, M.; Magee, M.; Kotak, R.; Smartt, S. J.; Smith, K. W.; Polshaw, J.; Drake, A. J.; Boles, T.; Lee, C.-H.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Hodapp, K. W.; Kaiser, N.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Magnier, E. A.; Tonry, J. L.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Draper, P. W.; Price, P. A.; and others

    2013-12-10

    Using imaging from the Pan-STARRS1 survey, we identify a precursor outburst at 287 and 170days prior to the reported explosion of the purported Type IIn supernova (SN) 2011ht. In the Pan-STARRS data, a source coincident with SN 2011ht is detected exclusively in the z {sub P1} and y {sub P1}-bands. An absolute magnitude of M{sub z} ? 11.8 suggests that this was an outburst of the progenitor star. Unfiltered, archival Catalina Real Time Transient Survey images also reveal a coincident source from at least 258 to 138days before the main event. We suggest that the outburst is likely to be an intrinsically red eruption, although we cannot conclusively exclude a series of erratic outbursts which were observed only in the redder bands by chance. This is only the fourth detection of an outburst prior to a claimed SN, and lends credence to the possibility that many more interacting transients have pre-explosion outbursts, which have been missed by current surveys.

  18. A Combustion Model for the TWA 800 Center-Wing Fuel Tank Explosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baer, M.R.; Gross, R.J.

    1998-10-02

    In support of the National Transportation Safety Board investigation of the TWA Flight 800 accident, a combined experimental/computational effort was conducted that focused on quarter-scale testing and simulation of the fuel-air explosion in the Boeing 747 center wing fuel tank. This report summarizes the modeling approach used at Sandia National Laboratories. In this approach approximations are introduced that capture the essential physics associated with turbulent flame propagation in multiple compartment fuel tanks. This model efficiently defines the pressure loading conditions during a jet-fuel air explosion in a fuel tank confinement. Modeling calculations compare favorably with a variety of experimental quarter-scale tests conducted in rigid confinement. The modeling describes well the overpressure history in several geometry configurations. Upon demonstrating a reasonable comparison to experimental observations, a parametric study of eight possible ignition sources is then discussed. Model calculations demonstrate that different loading conditions arise as the location of the ignition event is varied. By comparing the inferred damage and calculated impulses to that seen in the recovered tank, it maybe possible to reduce the number of likely sources. A possible extension of this work to better define tank damage includes coupling the combustion model as a pressure loading routine for structural failure analysis.

  19. Response of a water-filled spherical vessel to an internal explosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, M.W.; Wilson, T.L.

    1997-06-01

    Many problems of interest to the defense community involve fluid-structure interaction (FSI). Such problems include underwater blast loading of structures, bubble dynamics and jetting around structures, and hydrodynamic ram events. These problems may involve gas, fluid, and solid dynamics, nonlinear material behavior, cavitation, reaction kinetics, material failure, and nonlinearity that is due to varying geometry and contact conditions within a structure or between structures. Here, the authors model the response of a water-filled, thick-walled, spherical steel vessel to an internal explosion of 30 grams of C-4 with FSI2D--a two-dimensional coupled finite element and finite volume hydrodynamics code. The gas phase detonation products were modeled with a Becker-Kistiakowsky-Wilson high-explosive equation of state. Predictions from a fully coupled model were compared to experimental results in the form of strain gauge traces. Agreement was reasonably good. Additionally, the calculation was run in an uncoupled mode to understand the importance of fluid-structure interaction in this problem. The uncoupled model results in an accumulation of nonphysical energy in the vessel.

  20. Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty seismic monitoring: 2012 USNAS report and recent explosions, earthquakes, and other seismic sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richards, Paul G.

    2014-05-09

    A comprehensive ban on nuclear explosive testing is briefly characterized as an arms control initiative related to the Non-Proliferation Treaty. The work of monitoring for nuclear explosions uses several technologies of which the most important is seismology-a physics discipline that draws upon extensive and ever-growing assets to monitor for earthquakes and other ground-motion phenomena as well as for explosions. This paper outlines the basic methods of seismic monitoring within that wider context, and lists web-based and other resources for learning details. It also summarizes the main conclusions, concerning capability to monitor for test-ban treaty compliance, contained in a major study published in March 2012 by the US National Academy of Sciences.

  1. Molecular dynamics simulation of Coulomb explosion, melting and shock wave creation in silicon after an ionization pulse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Zhongyu; Shao, Lin; Chen, Di; Wang, Jing

    2014-04-14

    Strong electronic stopping power of swift ions in a semiconducting or insulating substrate can lead to localized electron stripping. The subsequent repulsive interactions among charged target atoms can cause Coulomb explosion. Using molecular dynamics simulation, we simulate Coulomb explosion in silicon by introducing an ionization pulse lasting for different periods, and at different substrate temperatures. We find that the longer the pulse period, the larger the melting radius. The observation can be explained by a critical energy density model assuming that melting required thermal energy density is a constant value and the total thermal energy gained from Coulomb explosion is linearly proportional to the ionization period. Our studies also show that melting radius is larger at higher substrate temperatures. The temperature effect is explained due to a longer structural relaxation above the melting temperature at original ionization boundary due to lower heat dissipation rates. Furthermore, simulations show the formation of shock waves, created due to the compression from the melting core.

  2. MODEL-BASED HYDROACOUSTIC BLOCKAGE ASSESSMENT AND DEVELOPMENT OF AN EXPLOSIVE SOURCE DATABASE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matzel, E; Ramirez, A; Harben, P

    2005-07-11

    We are continuing the development of the Hydroacoustic Blockage Assessment Tool (HABAT) which is designed for use by analysts to predict which hydroacoustic monitoring stations can be used in discrimination analysis for any particular event. The research involves two approaches (1) model-based assessment of blockage, and (2) ground-truth data-based assessment of blockage. The tool presents the analyst with a map of the world, and plots raypath blockages from stations to sources. The analyst inputs source locations and blockage criteria, and the tool returns a list of blockage status from all source locations to all hydroacoustic stations. We are currently using the tool in an assessment of blockage criteria for simple direct-path arrivals. Hydroacoustic data, predominantly from earthquake sources, are read in and assessed for blockage at all available stations. Several measures are taken. First, can the event be observed at a station above background noise? Second, can we establish backazimuth from the station to the source. Third, how large is the decibel drop at one station relative to other stations. These observational results are then compared with model estimates to identify the best set of blockage criteria and used to create a set of blockage maps for each station. The model-based estimates are currently limited by the coarse bathymetry of existing databases and by the limitations inherent in the raytrace method. In collaboration with BBN Inc., the Hydroacoustic Coverage Assessment Model (HydroCAM) that generates the blockage files that serve as input to HABAT, is being extended to include high-resolution bathymetry databases in key areas that increase model-based blockage assessment reliability. An important aspect of this capability is to eventually include reflected T-phases where they reliably occur and to identify the associated reflectors. To assess how well any given hydroacoustic discriminant works in separating earthquake and in-water explosion

  3. Near-critical phase explosion promoting breakdown plasma ignition during laser ablation of graphite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ionin, A. A.; Kudryashov, S. I.; Seleznev, L. V.

    2010-07-15

    Removal rate, air shock, and ablative recoil pressure parameters were measured as a function of laser intensity I{sub peak} during nanosecond laser ablation of graphite. Surface vaporization of molten graphite at low intensities I{sub peak}<0.15 GW/cm{sup 2} was observed to transform into its near-critical phase explosion (intense homogeneous boiling) at the threshold intensity I{sub PE}approx =0.15 GW/cm{sup 2} in the form of a drastic, correlated rise of removal rate, air shock, and ablative recoil pressure magnitudes. Just above this threshold (I{sub peak}>=0.25 GW/cm{sup 2}), the explosive mass removal ended up with saturation of the removal rate, much slower increase of the air and recoil pressure magnitudes, and appearance of a visible surface plasma spark. In this regime, the measured far-field air shock pressure amplitude exhibits a sublinear dependence on laser intensity (propor toI{sub peak}{sup 4/9}), while the source plasma shock pressure demonstrates a sublinear trend (propor toI{sub peak}{sup 3/4}), both indicating the subcritical character of the plasma. Against expectations, in this regime the plasma recoil pressure increases versus I{sub peak} superlinearly (propor toI{sub peak}{sup 1.1}), rather than sublinearly (propor toI{sub peak}{sup 3/4}), with the mentioned difference related to the intensity-dependent initial spatial plasma dimensions within the laser waist on the graphite surface and to the plasma formation time during the heating laser pulse (overall, the pressure source effect). The strict coincidence of the phase explosion, providing high (kbar) hydrodynamic pressures of ablation products, and the ignition of ablative laser plasma in the carbon plume may indicate the ablative pressure-dependent character of the underlying optical breakdown at the high plume pressures, initiating the plasma formation. The experimental data evidence that the spatiotemporal extension of the plasma in the laser plume and ambient air during the heating laser

  4. Mechanically Cooled Large-Volume Germanium Detector Systems for Nuclear Explosion Monitoring DOENA27323-1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hull, E.L.

    2006-07-28

    Compact maintenance free mechanical cooling systems are being developed to operate large volume germanium detectors for field applications. To accomplish this we are utilizing a newly available generation of Stirling-cycle mechanical coolers to operate the very largest volume germanium detectors with no maintenance. The user will be able to leave these systems unplugged on the shelf until needed. The flip of a switch will bring a system to life in ~ 1 hour for measurements. The maintenance-free operating lifetime of these detector systems will exceed 5 years. These features are necessary for remote long-duration liquid-nitrogen free deployment of large-volume germanium gamma-ray detector systems for Nuclear Explosion Monitoring. The Radionuclide Aerosol Sampler/Analyzer (RASA) will greatly benefit from the availability of such detectors by eliminating the need for liquid nitrogen at RASA sites while still allowing the very largest available germanium detectors to be reliably utilized.

  5. Direct Observation of the Phenomenology of a Solid Thermal Explosion Using Time-Resolved Proton Radiography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smilowitz, L.; Henson, B. F.; Romero, J. J.; Asay, B. W.; Schwartz, C. L.; Saunders, A.; Merrill, F. E.; Morris, C. L.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Hogan, G.; Nedrow, P.; Murray, M. M.; Thompson, T. N.; McNeil, W.; Rightley, P.; Marr-Lyon, M.

    2008-06-06

    We present a new phenomenology for burn propagation inside a thermal explosion based on dynamic radiography. Radiographic images were obtained of an aluminum cased solid cylindrical sample of a plastic bonded formulation of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine. The phenomenology observed is ignition followed by cracking in the solid accompanied by the propagation of a radially symmetric front of increasing proton transmission. This is followed by a further increase in transmission through the sample, ending after approximately 100 {mu}s. We show that these processes are consistent with the propagation of a convective burn front followed by consumption of the remaining solid by conductive particle burning.

  6. Remedial investigation of the High-Explosives (HE) Process Area, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crow, N.B.; Lamarre, A.L.

    1990-08-01

    This report presents the results of a Remedial Investigation (RI) to define the extent of high explosives (HE) compounds and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) found in the soil, rocks, and ground water of the HE Process Area of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Site 300 Facility. The report evaluates potential public health environmental risks associated with these compounds. Hydrogeologic information available before February 15, 1990, is included; however, chemical analyses and water-level data are reported through March 1990. This report is intended to assist the California Regional Water Quality Control Board (RWQCB)--Central Valley Region and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in evaluating the extent of environmental contamination of the LLNL HE Process Area and ultimately in designing remedial actions. 90 refs., 20 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE DEPENDENT DEFLAGRATION RATE MEASUREMENTS OF LLM-105 AND TATB BASED EXPLOSIVES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glascoe, E A; Tan, N; Koerner, J; Lorenz, K T; Maienschein, J L

    2009-11-10

    The pressure dependent deflagration rates of LLM-105 and TATB based formulations were measured in the LLNL high pressure strand burner. The role of binder amount, explosive type, and thermal damage and their effects on the deflagration rate will be discussed. Two different formulations of LLM-105 and three formulations of TATB were studied and results indicate that binder amount and type play a minor role in the deflagration behavior. This is in sharp contrast to the HMX based formulations which strongly depend on binder amount and type. The effect of preheating these samples was considerably more dramatic. In the case of LLM-105, preheating the sample appears to have little effect on the deflagration rate. In contrast, preheating TATB formulations causes the deflagration rate to accelerate and become erratic. The thermal and mechanical properties of these formulations will be discussed in the context of their pressure and temperature dependent deflagration rates.

  8. Deflagration Rate Measurements of Three Insensitive High Explosives: LLM-105, TATB, and DAAF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glascoe, E A; Maienschein, J L; Lorenz, K T; Tan, N; Koerner, J G

    2010-03-08

    The pressure dependent deflagration rates of LLM-105, DAAF and TATB based formulations were measured in the LLNL high pressure strand burner. The role of binder amount, explosive type, and thermal damage and their effects on the deflagration rate will be discussed. One DAAF formulation, two different formulations of LLM-105, and four formulations of TATB were studied; results indicate that binder amount and type play a minor role in the deflagration behavior. This is in sharp contrast to the HMX based formulations which strongly depend on binder amount and type. The effect of preheating these samples was considerably more dramatic. In the case of LLM-105, preheating the sample appears to have little effect on the deflagration rate. In contrast, preheating DAAF and TATB formulations causes the deflagration rate to accelerate. The thermal and mechanical properties of these formulations will be discussed in the context of their pressure and temperature dependent deflagration rates.

  9. Real time explosive hazard information sensing, processing, and communication for autonomous operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Versteeg, Roelof J; Few, Douglas A; Kinoshita, Robert A; Johnson, Doug; Linda, Ondrej

    2015-02-24

    Methods, computer readable media, and apparatuses provide robotic explosive hazard detection. A robot intelligence kernel (RIK) includes a dynamic autonomy structure with two or more autonomy levels between operator intervention and robot initiative A mine sensor and processing module (ESPM) operating separately from the RIK perceives environmental variables indicative of a mine using subsurface perceptors. The ESPM processes mine information to determine a likelihood of a presence of a mine. A robot can autonomously modify behavior responsive to an indication of a detected mine. The behavior is modified between detection of mines, detailed scanning and characterization of the mine, developing mine indication parameters, and resuming detection. Real time messages are passed between the RIK and the ESPM. A combination of ESPM bound messages and RIK bound messages cause the robot platform to switch between modes including a calibration mode, the mine detection mode, and the mine characterization mode.

  10. Parallel adaptive fluid-structure interaction simulation of explosions impacting on building structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deiterding, Ralf; Wood, Stephen L

    2013-01-01

    We pursue a level set approach to couple an Eulerian shock-capturing fluid solver with space-time refinement to an explicit solid dynamics solver for large deformations and fracture. The coupling algorithms considering recursively finer fluid time steps as well as overlapping solver updates are discussed in detail. Our ideas are implemented in the AMROC adaptive fluid solver framework and are used for effective fluid-structure coupling to the general purpose solid dynamics code DYNA3D. Beside simulations verifying the coupled fluid-structure solver and assessing its parallel scalability, the detailed structural analysis of a reinforced concrete column under blast loading and the simulation of a prototypical blast explosion in a realistic multistory building are presented.

  11. Project:Modeling Relativistic Electrons from Nuclear Explosions in the Magnetosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cowee, Misa; Gary, S. Peter; Winske, Dan; Liu, Kaijun

    2012-07-17

    We present a summary of the FY12 activities for DTRA-funded project 'Modeling Relativistic Electrons from Nuclear Explosions in the Magnetosphere'. We briefly review the outstanding scientific questions and discuss the work done in the last year to try to answer these questions. We then discuss the agenda for this Technical Meeting with the DTRA sponsors. In the last year, we have continued our efforts to understand artificial radiation belts from several different perspectives: (1) Continued development of Electron Source Model (ESM) and comparison to HANE test data; (2) Continued studies of relativistic electron scattering by waves in the natural radiation belts; (3) Began study of self-generated waves from the HANE electrons; and (4) Began modeling for the UCLA laser experiment.

  12. Implosion and explosion of electrostatic cylindrical and spherical shocks in asymmetric pair-ion plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masood, W.; Rizvi, H.

    2011-04-15

    Nonlinear electrostatic shock waves are studied in unmagnetized, dissipative pair-ion plasmas. The dissipation in the system is taken into account by considering the effect of kinematic viscosity of both positive and negative ions in plasmas. The system of fluid equations for asymmetric pair-ion plasma is reduced to Korteweg-deVries-Burgers equation in the limit of small amplitude perturbation. It is observed that the system under consideration admits rarefactive shocks. Keeping in view the practical applications, the nonlinear propagation of both the exploding and imploding shocks is investigated and the differences are expounded in detail. The present study may have relevance in the study of the formation of electrostatic shocks in laser-induced implosion devices, star formation, supernovae explosion, etc.

  13. New 100 mm Gun Assembly Installation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory High Explosives Applications Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vandersall, K S; Lee, R A; Chiao, P I; Garcia, F; Travis, J O; Forbes, J W

    2003-10-28

    A new 100mm gun assembly was recently installed and tested at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories located in the High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF). Thiot Ingenierie performed the design of the replacement barrel, based on improvements to the initial design. This design incorporated barrel and breech sections forged from CLARM series high-strength alloys obtained from Tecphy Corporation and machined by Manufacture de Forage. Part of the improvement of the design was implementing a laser alignment system for quick and accurate barrel alignment checks. This laser is also used to align the target assembly. This paper will detail the design changes incorporated into the installation, the testing process, and future direction of research for the new gun.

  14. Uncertainty quantification of a containment vessel dynamic response subjected to high-explosive detonation impulse loading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, E. A.; Pepin, J. E.; Thacker, B. H.; Riha, D. S.

    2002-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), in cooperation with Southwest Research Institute, has been developing capabilities to provide reliability-based structural evaluation techniques for performing weapon component and system reliability assessments. The development and applications of Probabilistic Structural Analysis Methods (PSAM) is an important ingredient in the overall weapon reliability assessments. Focus, herein, is placed on the uncertainty quantification associated with the structural response of a containment vessel for high-explosive (HE) experiments. The probabilistic dynamic response of the vessel is evaluated through the coupling of the probabilistic code NESSUS with the non-linear structural dynamics code, DYNA-3D. The probabilistic model includes variations in geometry and mechanical properties, such as Young's Modulus, yield strength, and material flow characteristics. Finally, the probability of exceeding a specified strain limit, which is related to vessel failure, is determined.

  15. Lightning Protection Certification for High Explosives Facilities at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clancy, T J; Brown, C G; Ong, M M; Clark, G A

    2006-01-11

    Presented here is an innovation in lighting safety certification, and a description of its implementation for high explosives processing and storage facilities at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Lightning rods have proven useful in the protection of wooden structures; however, modern structures made of rebar, concrete, and the like, require fresh thinking. Our process involves a rigorous and unique approach to lightning safety for modern buildings, where the internal voltages and currents are quantified and the risk assessed. To follow are the main technical aspects of lightning protection for modern structures and these methods comply with the requirements of the National Fire Protection Association, the National Electrical Code, and the Department of Energy [1][2]. At the date of this release, we have certified over 70 HE processing and storage cells at our Site 300 facility.

  16. Tungsten bridge for the low energy ignition of explosive and energetic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, David A.; Bickes, Jr., Robert W.; Blewer, Robert S.

    1990-01-01

    A tungsten bridge device for the low energy ignition of explosive and energetic materials is disclosed. The device is fabricated on a silicon-on-sapphire substrate which has an insulating bridge element defined therein using standard integrated circuit fabrication techniques. Then, a thin layer of tungsten is selectively deposited on the silicon bridge layer using chemical vapor deposition techniques. Finally, conductive lands are deposited on each end of the tungsten bridge layer to form the device. It has been found that this device exhibits substantially shorter ignition times than standard metal bridges and foil igniting devices. In addition, substantially less energy is required to cause ignition of the tungsten bridge device of the present invention than is required for common metal bridges and foil devices used for the same purpose.

  17. Real time explosive hazard information sensing, processing, and communication for autonomous operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Versteeg, Roelof J.; Few, Douglas A.; Kinoshita, Robert A.; Johnson, Douglas; Linda, Ondrej

    2015-12-15

    Methods, computer readable media, and apparatuses provide robotic explosive hazard detection. A robot intelligence kernel (RIK) includes a dynamic autonomy structure with two or more autonomy levels between operator intervention and robot initiative A mine sensor and processing module (ESPM) operating separately from the RIK perceives environmental variables indicative of a mine using subsurface perceptors. The ESPM processes mine information to determine a likelihood of a presence of a mine. A robot can autonomously modify behavior responsive to an indication of a detected mine. The behavior is modified between detection of mines, detailed scanning and characterization of the mine, developing mine indication parameters, and resuming detection. Real time messages are passed between the RIK and the ESPM. A combination of ESPM bound messages and RIK bound messages cause the robot platform to switch between modes including a calibration mode, the mine detection mode, and the mine characterization mode.

  18. Tungsten bridge for the low energy ignition of explosive and energetic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, D.A.; Bickes, R.W. Jr.; Blewer, R.S.

    1990-12-11

    A tungsten bridge device for the low energy ignition of explosive and energetic materials is disclosed. The device is fabricated on a silicon-on-sapphire substrate which has an insulating bridge element defined therein using standard integrated circuit fabrication techniques. Then, a thin layer of tungsten is selectively deposited on the silicon bridge layer using chemical vapor deposition techniques. Finally, conductive lands are deposited on each end of the tungsten bridge layer to form the device. It has been found that this device exhibits substantially shorter ignition times than standard metal bridges and foil igniting devices. In addition, substantially less energy is required to cause ignition of the tungsten bridge device of the present invention than is required for common metal bridges and foil devices used for the same purpose. 2 figs.

  19. 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one: A less sensitive explosive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Kien-Yin; Coburn, M.D.

    1987-01-30

    A less sensitive explosive, 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one. The compound 3-nitro--1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO) has a crystal density of 1.93 g/cm/sup 3/ and calculated detonation velocity and pressure equivalent to those of RDX. It can be prepared in high yield from inexpensive starting materials in a safe synthesis. Results from initial small-scale sensitivity tests indicate that NTO is less sensitive than RDX and HMX in all respects. A 4.13 cm diameter, unconfined plate-dent test at 92% of crystal density gave the detonation pressure predicted for NTO by the BKW calculation. 3 tabs.

  20. Nuclear Rocket Test Facility Decommissioning Including Controlled Explosive Demolition of a Neutron-Activated Shield Wall

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Kruzic

    2007-09-01

    Located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site, the Test Cell A Facility was used in the 1960s for the testing of nuclear rocket engines, as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Program. The facility was decontaminated and decommissioned (D&D) in 2005 using the Streamlined Approach For Environmental Restoration (SAFER) process, under the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Utilities and process piping were verified void of contents, hazardous materials were removed, concrete with removable contamination decontaminated, large sections mechanically demolished, and the remaining five-foot, five-inch thick radiologically-activated reinforced concrete shield wall demolished using open-air controlled explosive demolition (CED). CED of the shield wall was closely monitored and resulted in no radiological exposure or atmospheric release.