Sample records for graaff confetti explosion

  1. Confetti Bean Salsa Ingredients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Confetti Bean Salsa Ingredients: 15 ounces black beans, canned 11 ounces corn, sweet 1 cup salsa 8 ounces low sodium whole-wheat crackers Directions 1. Open beans and corn and pour into a colander. Rinse under running water to remove sodium. Allow to drain, and add to medium size bowl. 2. Measure salsa

  2. Confetti Ordering by Polymer Brushes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galen T. Pickett

    2015-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    I consider the ordering of dilute platelet additives when incorporated into an end-grafted polymer brush. The competition between wetting interactions and the anisotropic stress environment of the interior of the brush causes these platelet additives to either remain suspended at the outer edge of the brush laying flat against the brush surface (as bits of confetti at rest on the ground), or to invade the interior of the brush in which case the platelets stand end-on and in some cases protrude above the outer edge of the brush. The orientation of the additives is controlled by the ratio of the diameter of the additive to the thickness of the bare brush, as well as the ratio of solvent-monomer and solvent-platelet interactions.

  3. Explosives tester

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haas, Jeffrey S. (San Ramon, CA); Howard, Douglas E. (Livermore, CA); Eckels, Joel D. (Livermore, CA); Nunes, Peter J. (Danville, CA)

    2011-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    An explosives tester that can be used anywhere as a screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are provided. A heater is provided for receiving the first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers.

  4. The design and construction of a low cost Van de Graaff generator for nuclear research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riggs, James Willborn

    1953-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    &;e for ', ?clear . '. v're+i?atinns?v ~r& 'sisal &e view& 43r 1&2! l?ebr. &ary~ Io33 ~ &urbnar &rite& &tat &. s paten rnuriuer &'iu999, 1984~ c' te& ny it, , :, Var& de 'iraaff? 1& ~ T. ", , omptnn, an& '. . . ?~ "ar. f tta "Pi&e . le;t. n- 'roii!:?ln: of ! iah...T!!F. LFGI:R A!:F. G!Fi'BI'R!. 'G IGK GF A LUW 10?~ VA" I!R GRAAFF G. X(. RA~!'R FCR ! I'AR R; . ". AR"L Jacss "-illlborn Rt~e, Jr. A Thesis Gubcdttsd to the . 'iraduate School of tho Agricultural and Vschantcal Gclle~ of Texas in ~ar+~~1...

  5. DOE Explosives Safety Manual

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1996-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This Manual describes DOE's explosives safety requirements applicable to operations involving the development, testing, handling, and processing of explosives or assemblies containing explosives.

  6. Explosive complexes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huynh, My Hang V. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2011-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Lead-free primary explosives of the formula [M.sup.II(A).sub.R(B.sup.X).sub.S](C.sup.Y).sub.T, where A is 1,5-diaminotetrazole, and syntheses thereof are described. Substantially stoichiometric equivalents of the reactants lead to high yields of pure compositions thereby avoiding dangerous purification steps.

  7. Explosive complexes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huynh, My Hang V. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2009-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Lead-free primary explosives of the formula [M.sup.II(A).sub.R(B.sup.X).sub.S](C.sup.Y).sub.T, where A is 1,5-diaminotetrazole, and syntheses thereof are described. Substantially stoichiometric equivalents of the reactants lead to high yields of pure compositions thereby avoiding dangerous purification steps.

  8. Explosive simulants for testing explosive detection systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kury, John W. (Danville, CA); Anderson, Brian L. (Lodi, CA)

    1999-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Explosives simulants that include non-explosive components are disclosed that facilitate testing of equipment designed to remotely detect explosives. The simulants are non-explosive, non-hazardous materials that can be safely handled without any significant precautions. The simulants imitate real explosives in terms of mass density, effective atomic number, x-ray transmission properties, and physical form, including moldable plastics and emulsions/gels.

  9. Explosives Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Environmental Assessments (EA) /EmailMolecular Solids1spectroscopies |Explosives

  10. Nuclear Explosive Safety

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2015-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This Department of Energy (DOE) Order establishes requirements to implement the nuclear explosive safety (NES) elements of DOE O 452.1E, Nuclear Explosive and Weapon Surety Program, or successor directive, for routine and planned nuclear explosive operations (NEOs).

  11. Nuclear Explosive Safety

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2014-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The Order establishes requirements to implement the nuclear explosive safety (NES) elements of DOE O 452.1E, Nuclear Explosive and Weapon Surety Program, for routine and planned nuclear explosive operations (NEOs).

  12. Insensitive Extrudable Explosive

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Insensitive Extrudable Explosive Applications: Plastic and extrudable explosive replacement Demolition Seismic prospecting Geographical...

  13. Extrusion cast explosive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scribner, Kenneth J. (Livermore, CA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Improved, multiphase, high performance, high energy, extrusion cast explosive compositions, comprising, a crystalline explosive material; an energetic liquid plasticizer; a urethane prepolymer, comprising a blend of polyvinyl formal, and polycaprolactone; a polyfunctional isocyanate; and a catalyst are disclosed. These new explosive compositions exhibit higher explosive content, a smooth detonation front, excellent stability over long periods of storage, and lower sensitivity to mechanical stimulants.

  14. Inspection tester for explosives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haas, Jeffrey S. (San Ramon, CA); Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Satcher, Joe H. (Patterson, CA)

    2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    An inspection tester that can be used anywhere as a primary screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. It includes a body with a sample pad. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are operatively connected to the body and the sample pad. The first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagents to the sample pad. A is heater operatively connected to the sample pad.

  15. Nuclear Explosive Safety Manual

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2009-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This Manual provides supplemental details to support the requirements of DOE O 452.2D, Nuclear Explosive Safety.

  16. Inspection tester for explosives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haas, Jeffrey S. (San Ramon, CA); Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Satcher, Joe H. (Patterson, CA)

    2007-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    An inspection tester that can be used anywhere as a primary screening tool by non-technical personnel to determine whether a surface contains explosives. It includes a body with a sample pad. First and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are operatively connected to the body and the sample pad. The first and second explosives detecting reagent holders and dispensers are positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagents to the sample pad. A is heater operatively connected to the sample pad.

  17. Extrusion cast explosive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scribner, K.J.

    1985-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is an improved, multiphase, high performance, high energy, extrusion cast explosive compositions, comprising, a crystalline explosive material; an energetic liquid plasticizer; a urethane prepolymer, comprising a blend of polyvinyl formal, and polycaprolactone; a polyfunctional isocyanate; and a catalyst. These new explosive compositions exhibit higher explosive content, a smooth detonation front, excellent stability over long periods of storage, and lower sensitivity to mechanical stimulants. 1 fig.

  18. Extrusion cast explosive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scribner, K.J.

    1985-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Improved, multiphase, high performance, high energy, extrusion cast explosive compositions, comprising, a crystalline explosive material; an energetic liquid plasticizer; a urethane prepolymer, comprising a blend of polyvinyl formal, and polycaprolactone; a polyfunctional isocyanate; and a catalyst are disclosed. These new explosive compositions exhibit higher explosive content, a smooth detonation front, excellent stability over long periods of storage, and lower sensitivity to mechanical stimulants. 1 fig.

  19. Plastic explosives Mike Hopkins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ravenel, Douglas

    Plastic explosives Mike Hill Mike Hopkins Doug Ravenel What this talk is about The poster The HHRH The reduced E4 -term 1.1 Plastic explosives: A C4 analog of the Kervaire invariant calculation Conference of Virginia Mike Hopkins Harvard University Doug Ravenel University of Rochester #12;Plastic explosives Mike

  20. DOE Explosives Safety Manual

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2006-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The Manual describes the Departments explosive safety requirements applicable to operations involving the development, testing, handling, and processing of explosives or assemblies containing explosives. Cancels DOE M 440.1-1. Canceled by DOE O 440.1B Chg 1.

  1. Nuclear Explosive Safety

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2009-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This Order establishes requirements to implement the nuclear explosive safety elements of DOE O 452.1D, Nuclear Explosive and Weapon Surety Program, for routine and planned nuclear explosive operations. Cancels DOE O 452.2C. Admin Chg 1, 7-10-13

  2. Nuclear Explosive Safety

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2009-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This Department of Energy (DOE) Order establishes requirements to implement the nuclear explosive safety (NES) elements of DOE O 452.1D, Nuclear Explosive and Weapon Surety Program, for routine and planned nuclear explosive operations (NEOs). Cancels DOE O 452.2C. Admin Chg 1, dated 7-10-13, cancels DOE O 452.2D.

  3. Modeling of buried explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaffney, E.S.; Wohletz, K.H.; House, J.W.; Brown, J.A.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has been and continues developing techniques for modeling buried explosions using a large geotechnical centrifuge. When fully developed, the techniques should permit the accurate modeling of large explosions in complex geometries. Our intentional application is to study the phenomena of explosive cavity formation and collapse. However, the same methods should also be applicable to simulation of bursts shallow enough to produce craters, and perhaps even of airbursts in situations where soil overburden is important. We have placed primary emphasis on test bed construction methods and on accurate measurement of the ground shock produced by the explosions. 8 refs., 7 figs.

  4. Explosively pumped laser light

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piltch, Martin S. (Los Alamos, NM); Michelotti, Roy A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A single shot laser pumped by detonation of an explosive in a shell casing. The shock wave from detonation of the explosive causes a rare gas to luminesce. The high intensity light from the gas enters a lasing medium, which thereafter outputs a pulse of laser light to disable optical sensors and personnel.

  5. Nuclear Explosive Safety

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2006-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The directive establishes specific nuclear explosive safety (NES) program requirements to implement the DOE NES standards and other NES criteria for routine and planned nuclear explosive operations. Cancels DOE O 452.2B. Canceled by DOE O 452.2D.

  6. Non-detonable explosive simulators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Pruneda, Cesar O. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs and calibrating sensitive analytical instruments. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques, a first involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and the second involves coating inert beads with thin layers of explosive molecules.

  7. Non-detonable explosive simulators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, R.L.; Pruneda, C.O.

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs and calibrating sensitive analytical instruments. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques, a first involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and the second involves coating inert beads with thin layers of explosive molecules. 5 figs.

  8. Lithium niobate explosion monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bundy, Charles H. (Clearwater, FL); Graham, Robert A. (Los Lunas, NM); Kuehn, Stephen F. (Albuquerque, NM); Precit, Richard R. (Albuquerque, NM); Rogers, Michael S. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Monitoring explosive devices is accomplished with a substantially z-cut lithium niobate crystal in abutment with the explosive device. Upon impact by a shock wave from detonation of the explosive device, the crystal emits a current pulse prior to destruction of the crystal. The current pulse is detected by a current viewing transformer and recorded as a function of time in nanoseconds. In order to self-check the crystal, the crystal has a chromium film resistor deposited thereon which may be heated by a current pulse prior to detonation. This generates a charge which is detected by a charge amplifier.

  9. Explosion suppression system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapko, Michael J. (Finleyville, PA); Cortese, Robert A. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An explosion suppression system and triggering apparatus therefor are provided for quenching gas and dust explosions. An electrically actuated suppression mechanism which dispenses an extinguishing agent into the path ahead of the propagating flame is actuated by a triggering device which is light powered. This triggering device is located upstream of the propagating flame and converts light from the flame to an electrical actuation signal. A pressure arming device electrically connects the triggering device to the suppression device only when the explosion is sensed by a further characteristic thereof beside the flame such as the pioneer pressure wave. The light powered triggering device includes a solar panel which is disposed in the path of the explosion and oriented between horizontally downward and vertical. Testing mechanisms are also preferably provided to test the operation of the solar panel and detonator as well as the pressure arming mechanism.

  10. Explosive Detection Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2000-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    To standardize and accelerate implementation of the Department of Energy (DOE) explosive detection program. DOE N 251.40, dated 5/3/01, extends this directive until 12/31/01.

  11. Explosive Nucleosynthesis: Prospects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Arnett

    1999-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Explosive nucleosynthesis is a combination of the nuclear physics of thermonuclear reactions, and the hydrodynamics of the plasma in which the reactions occur. It depends upon the initial conditions---the stellar evolution up to the explosive instability, and the nature of the explosion mechanism. Some key issues for explosive nucleosynthesis are the interaction of burning with hydrodynamics, the degree of microscopic mixing in convective zones, and the breaking of spherical symmetry by convection and rotation. Recent experiments on high intensity lasers provides new opportunities for laboratory testing of astrophysical hydrodynamic codes. Implications of SN1987A, SN1998bw (GRB980425?), and eta Carina are discussed, as well as the formation of black holes or neutron stars.

  12. Idaho Explosive Detection System

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Klinger, Jeff

    2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Learn how INL researchers are making the world safer by developing an explosives detection system that can inspect cargo. For more information about INL security research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory

  13. Nuclear Explosive Safety

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2006-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The directive provides supplemental details to support the requirements of DOE O 452.2C, Nuclear Explosive Safety, dated 6-12-06. Canceled by DOE M 452.2-1A.

  14. Improving airport explosives detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krause, C.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ORNL has developed the technology to detect hidden explosives in luggage using X ray and neutron detection devices. The Federal Aviation Administration has ordered the airlines to buy and install Thermal Neutron Analysis (TNA) units. The combined pulsed-neutron and X-ray interrogation inspection (CPNX) system developed at ORNL uses less radioactive materials as well as being more sensitive to weapons, electronic devices and plastic explosives.

  15. DOE explosives safety manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy (DOE) policy requires that all DOE activities be conducted in a manner that protects the safety of the public and provides a safe and healthful workplace for employees. DOE has also prescribed that all personnel be protected in any explosives operation undertaken. The level of safety provided shall be at least equivalent to that of the best industrial practice. The risk of death or serious injury shall be limited to the lowest practicable minimum. DOE and contractors shall continually review their explosives operations with the aim of achieving further refinements and improvements in safety practices and protective features. This manual describes the Department's explosive safety requirements applicable to operations involving the development, testing, handling, and processing of explosives or assemblies containing explosives. It is intended to reflect the state-of-the-art in explosives safety. In addition, it is essential that applicable criteria and requirements for implementing this policy be readily available and known to those responsible for conducting DOE programs.

  16. Nuclear explosive safety study process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear explosives by their design and intended use require collocation of high explosives and fissile material. The design agencies are responsible for designing safety into the nuclear explosive and processes involving the nuclear explosive. The methodology for ensuring safety consists of independent review processes that include the national laboratories, Operations Offices, Headquarters, and responsible Area Offices and operating contractors with expertise in nuclear explosive safety. A NES Study is an evaluation of the adequacy of positive measures to minimize the possibility of an inadvertent or deliberate unauthorized nuclear detonation, high explosive detonation or deflagration, fire, or fissile material dispersal from the pit. The Nuclear Explosive Safety Study Group (NESSG) evaluates nuclear explosive operations against the Nuclear Explosive Safety Standards specified in DOE O 452.2 using systematic evaluation techniques. These Safety Standards must be satisfied for nuclear explosive operations.

  17. Non-detonable and non-explosive explosive simulators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Pruneda, Cesar O. (Livermore, CA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable or explodable. The simulator is a combination of an explosive material with an inert material, either in a matrix or as a coating, where the explosive has a high surface ratio but small volume ratio. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs, calibrating analytical instruments which are sensitive to either vapor or elemental composition, or other applications where the hazards associated with explosives is undesirable but where chemical and/or elemental equivalence is required. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques. A first method involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and a second method involves coating inert substrates with thin layers of explosive.

  18. Non-detonable and non-explosive explosive simulators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, R.L.; Pruneda, C.O.

    1997-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable or explodable is disclosed. The simulator is a combination of an explosive material with an inert material, either in a matrix or as a coating, where the explosive has a high surface ratio but small volume ratio. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs, calibrating analytical instruments which are sensitive to either vapor or elemental composition, or other applications where the hazards associated with explosives is undesirable but where chemical and/or elemental equivalence is required. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques. A first method involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and a second method involves coating inert substrates with thin layers of explosive. 11 figs.

  19. Thermoelectric Bulk Materials from the Explosive Consolidation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bulk Materials from the Explosive Consolidation of Nanopowders Thermoelectric Bulk Materials from the Explosive Consolidation of Nanopowders Describes technique of explosively...

  20. Microcantilever detector for explosives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thundat, T.G.

    1999-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and apparatus for detecting the presence of explosives by analyzing a vapor sample from the suspect vicinity utilize at least one microcantilever. Explosive gas molecules which have been adsorbed onto the microcantilever are subsequently heated to cause combustion. Heat, along with momentum transfer from combustion, causes bending and a transient resonance response of the microcantilever which may be detected by a laser diode which is focused on the microcantilever and a photodetector which detects deflection of the reflected laser beam caused by heat-induced deflection and resonance response of the microcantilever. 2 figs.

  1. explosion: Role of hydrogen thermonuclear explosion in support of cometary hypothesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. E. Kim

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    deuteron fusion rates and that a thermonuclear explosion may compete with a thermo-chemical explosion

  2. Nuclear Explosive Safety Evaluation Processes

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2009-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This Manual provides supplemental details to support the nuclear explosive safety evaluation requirement of DOE O 452.2D, Nuclear Explosive Safety. Does not cancel other directives. Admin Chg 1, 7-10-13.

  3. Nuclear Explosive Safety Manual

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2009-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This Department of Energy (DOE) Manual provides supplemental details on selected topics to support the requirements of DOE O 452.2D, Nuclear Explosive Safety, dated 4/14/09. Cancels DOE M 452.2-1. Admin Chg 1, dated 7-10-13, cancels DOE M 452.2-1A.

  4. Initiative for Explosives Detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    capabilities. Staff at PNNL are developing effective integrated systems for explosives detection, addressing, fundamental science and health. Battelle, based in Columbus, Ohio, has operated PNNL since 1965. PNNL's long. PNNL is located in Richland, Washington. Additional web resources are at: http

  5. Portable raman explosives detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, David Steven [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scharff, Robert J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent advances in portable Raman instruments have dramatically increased their application to emergency response and forensics, as well as homeland defense. This paper reviews the relevant attributes and disadvantages of portable Raman spectroscopy, both essentially and instrumentally, to the task of explosives detection in the field.

  6. Big Explosives Experimental Facility - BEEF

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2015-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The Big Explosives Experimental Facility or BEEF is a ten acre fenced high explosive testing facility that provides data to support stockpile stewardship and other national security programs. At BEEF conventional high explosives experiments are safely conducted providing sophisticated diagnostics such as high speed optics and x-ray radiography.

  7. Big Explosives Experimental Facility - BEEF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2014-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Big Explosives Experimental Facility or BEEF is a ten acre fenced high explosive testing facility that provides data to support stockpile stewardship and other national security programs. At BEEF conventional high explosives experiments are safely conducted providing sophisticated diagnostics such as high speed optics and x-ray radiography.

  8. Dust cluster explosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saxena, Vikrant [School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar (India); Avinash, K. [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, New Delhi (India); Sen, A. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar (India)

    2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A model for the dust cluster explosion where micron/sub-micron sized particles are accelerated at the expense of plasma thermal energy, in the afterglow phase of a complex plasma discharge is proposed. The model is tested by molecular dynamics simulations of dust particles in a confining potential. The nature of the explosion (caused by switching off the discharge) and the concomitant dust acceleration is found to depend critically on the pressure of the background neutral gas. At low gas pressure, the explosion is due to unshielded Coulomb repulsion between dust particles and yields maximum acceleration, while in the high pressure regime it is due to shielded Yukawa repulsion and yields much feebler acceleration. These results are in agreement with experimental findings. Our simulations also confirm a recently proposed electrostatic (ES) isothermal scaling relation, P{sub E}{proportional_to}V{sub d}{sup -2} (where P{sub E} is the ES pressure of the dust particles and V{sub d} is the confining volume).

  9. Cotton Gin Dust Explosibility Determinations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vanderlick, Francis Jerome

    2014-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    COTTON GIN DUST EXPLOSIBILITY DETERMINATIONS A Thesis by FRANCIS JEROME VANDERLICK Submitted to the Office of Graduate and Professional Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... Francis Jerome Vanderlick ii ABSTRACT Following the recent Imperial sugar dust explosion in 2008, a comprehensive survey of past dust explosions was conducted by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) to determine potential...

  10. Zirconium hydride containing explosive composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walker, Franklin E. (18 Shadow Oak Rd., Danville, CA 94526); Wasley, Richard J. (4290 Colgate Way, Livermore, CA 94550)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved explosive composition is disclosed and comprises a major portion of an explosive having a detonation velocity between about 1500 and 10,000 meters per second and a minor amount of a donor additive comprising a non-explosive compound or mixture of non-explosive compounds which when subjected to an energy fluence of 1000 calories/cm.sup.2 or less is capable of releasing free radicals each having a molecular weight between 1 and 120. Exemplary donor additives are dibasic acids, polyamines and metal hydrides.

  11. Laser machining of explosives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perry, Michael D. (Livermore, CA); Stuart, Brent C. (Fremont, CA); Banks, Paul S. (Livermore, CA); Myers, Booth R. (Livermore, CA); Sefcik, Joseph A. (Tracy, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention consists of a method for machining (cutting, drilling, sculpting) of explosives (e.g., TNT, TATB, PETN, RDX, etc.). By using pulses of a duration in the range of 5 femtoseconds to 50 picoseconds, extremely precise and rapid machining can be achieved with essentially no heat or shock affected zone. In this method, material is removed by a nonthermal mechanism. A combination of multiphoton and collisional ionization creates a critical density plasma in a time scale much shorter than electron kinetic energy is transferred to the lattice. The resulting plasma is far from thermal equilibrium. The material is in essence converted from its initial solid-state directly into a fully ionized plasma on a time scale too short for thermal equilibrium to be established with the lattice. As a result, there is negligible heat conduction beyond the region removed resulting in negligible thermal stress or shock to the material beyond a few microns from the laser machined surface. Hydrodynamic expansion of the plasma eliminates the need for any ancillary techniques to remove material and produces extremely high quality machined surfaces. There is no detonation or deflagration of the explosive in the process and the material which is removed is rendered inert.

  12. Nuclear Explosive Safety Evaluation Processes

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2009-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This Manual provides supplemental details to support the nuclear explosive safety (NES) evaluation requirement of Department of Energy (DOE) Order (O) 452.2D, Nuclear Explosive Safety, dated 4/14/09. Admin Chg 1, dated 7-10-13, cancels DOE M 452.2-2.

  13. Gas Explosion Characterization, Wave Propagation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    s & Dt^boooo^j Risø-R-525 Gas Explosion Characterization, Wave Propagation (Small-Scale Experiments EXPLOSION CHARACTERIZATION, WAVE PROPAGATION (Small-Scale Experiments) G.C. Larsen Abstract. A number characteristics 14 3.5. Characteristics of the primary pressure wave 21 3.6. Pressure propagation over a hard

  14. Cotton Gin Dust Explosibility Determinations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vanderlick, Francis Jerome

    2014-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    test method was found to be flawed. It used pressure as the only criterion for a dust explosion, utilized high energy ignition sources, limited the amount of oxygen, and had no requirement for a dust to have a minimum explosible concentration (MEC...

  15. Trace Explosive Detection Using Nanosensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Senesac, Larry R [ORNL; Thundat, Thomas George [ORNL

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Selective and sensitive detection of explosives is very important in countering terrorist threats. Detecting trace explosives has become a very complex and expensive endeavor because of a number of factors, such as the wide variety of materials that can be used as explosives, the lack of easily detectable signatures, the vast number of avenues by which these weapons can be deployed, and the lack of inexpensive sensors with high sensitivity and selectivity. High sensitivity and selectivity, combined with the ability to lower the deployment cost of sensors using mass production, is essential in winning the war on explosives-based terrorism. Nanosensors have the potential to satisfy all the requirements for an effective platform for the trace detection of explosives.

  16. Nuclear Explosive and Weapon Surety Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2014-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The Order defines the Nuclear Explosive and Weapon Surety (NEWS) Program, which was established to prevent unintended/unauthorized detonation and deliberate unauthorized use of nuclear explosives.

  17. Vapor generation methods for explosives detection research. ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vapor generation methods for explosives detection research. Vapor generation methods for explosives detection research. Abstract: The generation of calibrated vapor samples of...

  18. Explosive detection research and development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malotky, L.O.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The detection of explosives carried by a passenger or included in checked baggage is a priority objective of the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Security Research and Development Program. Significant accomplishments have been made in the detection of explosives in checked baggage. A technology, thermal neutron analysis, has been developed and tested extensively in airports with actual passenger baggage. The screening of people for explosives is also progressing with laboratory testing underway of an integrated passenger screening portal. The portal is designed to extract and detect not only the more volatile explosives but also the low-vapor-pressure military explosives. In addition to these two mature technologies, the FAA is also funding research in new technologies for bulk and vapor detection of explosives to identify and refine approaches which will be more efficient and effective. The ultimate objective is to field systems to protect the traveling public from terrorist-placed explosives without interrupting the free flow of people and materials we have grown to expect.

  19. Detection of explosives in soils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chambers, William B. (Edgewood, NM); Rodacy, Philip J. (Albuquerque, NM); Phelan, James M. (Bosque Farms, NM); Woodfin, Ronald L. (Sandia Park, NM)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for detecting explosive-indicating compounds in subsurface soil. The apparatus has a probe with an adsorbent material on some portion of its surface that can be placed into soil beneath the ground surface, where the adsorbent material can adsorb at least one explosive-indicating compound. The apparatus additional has the capability to desorb the explosive-indicating compound through heating or solvent extraction. A diagnostic instrument attached to the probe detects the desorbed explosive-indicating compound. In the method for detecting explosive-indicating compounds in soil, the sampling probe with an adsorbent material on at least some portion of a surface of the sampling probe is inserted into the soil to contact the adsorbent material with the soil. The explosive-indicating compounds are then desorbed and transferred as either a liquid or gas sample to a diagnostic tool for analysis. The resulting gas or liquid sample is analyzed using at least one diagnostic tool selected from the group consisting of an ion-mobility spectrometer, a gas chromatograph, a high performance liquid chromatograph, a capillary electrophoresis chromatograph, a mass spectrometer, a Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer and a Raman spectrometer to detect the presence of explosive-indicating compounds.

  20. Explosive plane-wave lens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marsh, S.P.

    1988-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    An explosive plane-wave air lens which enables a spherical wave form to be converted to a planar wave without the need to specially machine or shape explosive materials is described. A disc-shaped impactor having a greater thickness at its center than around its periphery is used to convert the spherical wave into a plane wave. When the wave reaches the impactor, the center of the impactor moves first because the spherical wave reaches the center of the impactor first. The wave strikes the impactor later in time as one moves radially along the impactor. Because the impactor is thinner as one moves radially outward, the velocity of the impactor is greater at the periphery than at the center. An acceptor explosive is positioned so that the impactor strikes the acceptor simultaneously. Consequently, a plane detonation wave is propagated through the acceptor explosive. 4 figs.

  1. Explosive plane-wave lens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marsh, S.P.

    1987-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    An explosive plane-wave air lens which enables a spherical wave form to be converted to a planar wave without the need to specially machine or shape explosive materials is described. A disc-shaped impactor having a greater thickness at its center than around its periphery is used to convert the spherical wave into a plane wave. When the wave reaches the impactor, the center of the impactor moves first because the spherical wave reaches the center of the impactor first. The wave strikes the impactor later in time as one moves radially along the impactor. Because the impactor is thinner as one moves radially outward, the velocity of the impactor is greater at the periphery than at the center. An acceptor explosive is positioned so that the impactor strikes the acceptor simultaneously. Consequently, a plane detonation wave is propagated through the acceptor explosive. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Nuclear Explosive and Weapon Surety Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2015-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    All nuclear explosives and nuclear explosive operations require special safety, security, and use control consideration because of the potentially unacceptable consequences of an accident or unauthorized act; therefore, a Nuclear Explosive and Weapon Surety (NEWS) Program is established to prevent unintended/unauthorized detonation and deliberate unauthorized use of nuclear explosives.

  3. System for analysis of explosives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haas, Jeffrey S. (San Ramon, CA)

    2010-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for analysis of explosives. Samples are spotted on a thin layer chromatography plate. Multi-component explosives standards are spotted on the thin layer chromatography plate. The thin layer chromatography plate is dipped in a solvent mixture and chromatography is allowed to proceed. The thin layer chromatography plate is dipped in reagent 1. The thin layer chromatography plate is heated. The thin layer chromatography plate is dipped in reagent 2.

  4. Physically based simulation of explosions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roach, Matthew Douglas

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    PHYSICALLY BASED SIMULATION OF EXPLOSIONS A Thesis by MATTHEW DOUGLAS ROACH Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE May 2005 Major Subject: Visualization Sciences PHYSICALLY BASED SIMULATION OF EXPLOSIONS A Thesis by MATTHEW DOUGLAS ROACH Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree...

  5. Permeability enhancement using explosive techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, T.F.; Schmidt, S.C.; Carter, W.J.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In situ recovery methods for many of our hydrocarbon and mineral resources depend on the ability to create or enhance permeability in the resource bed to allow uniform and predictable flow. To meet this need, a new branch of geomechanics devoted to computer prediction of explosive rock breakage and permeability enhancement has developed. The computer is used to solve the nonlinear equations of compressible flow, with the explosive behavior and constitutive properties of the medium providing the initial/boundary conditions and material response. Once the resulting computational tool has been verified and calibrated with appropriate large-scale field tests, it can be used to develop and optimize commercially useful explosive techniques for in situ resource recovery.

  6. Sandia Explosive Inventory and Information System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clements, D.A.

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Explosive Inventory and Information System (EIS) is being developed and implemented by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to incorporate a cradle to grave structure for all explosives and explosive containing devices and assemblies at SNL from acquisition through use, storage, reapplication, transfer or disposal. The system does more than track all material inventories. It provides information on material composition, characteristics, shipping requirements; life cycle cost information, plan of use; and duration of ownership. The system also provides for following the processes of explosive development; storage review; justification for retention; Resource, Recovery and Disposition Account (RRDA); disassembly and assembly; and job description, hazard analysis and training requirements for all locations and employees involved with explosive operations. In addition, other information systems will be provided through the system such as the Department of Energy (DOE) and SNL Explosive Safety manuals, the Navy`s Department of Defense (DoD) Explosive information system, and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (LLNL) Handbook of Explosives.

  7. Explosion at Ingham Colliery, Thornhill, Yorkshire 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bryan, A. M.

    MINISTRY OF FUEL AND POWER EXPLOSION AT INGHAM COLLIERY, THORNHILL, YORKSHIRE REPORT On the Causes of, and Circumstances attending the Explosion which occurred at Ingham Colliery Thornhill, Yorkshire) on the 9th September, ...

  8. Numerical Simulations of Thermobaric Explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuhl, A L; Bell, J B; Beckner, V E; Khasainov, B

    2007-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A Model of the energy evolution in thermobaric explosions is presented. It is based on the two-phase formulation: conservation laws for the gas and particle phases along with inter-phase interaction terms. It incorporates a Combustion Model based on the mass conservation laws for fuel, air and products; source/sink terms are treated in the fast-chemistry limit appropriate for such gas dynamic fields. The Model takes into account both the afterburning of the detonation products of the booster with air, and the combustion of the fuel (Al or TNT detonation products) with air. Numerical simulations were performed for 1.5-g thermobaric explosions in five different chambers (volumes ranging from 6.6 to 40 liters and length-to-diameter ratios from 1 to 12.5). Computed pressure waveforms were very similar to measured waveforms in all cases - thereby proving that the Model correctly predicts the energy evolution in such explosions. The computed global fuel consumption {mu}(t) behaved as an exponential life function. Its derivative {dot {mu}}(t) represents the global rate of fuel consumption. It depends on the rate of turbulent mixing which controls the rate of energy release in thermobaric explosions.

  9. Turbulent Combustion in SDF Explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuhl, A L; Bell, J B; Beckner, V E

    2009-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A heterogeneous continuum model is proposed to describe the dispersion and combustion of an aluminum particle cloud in an explosion. It combines the gas-dynamic conservation laws for the gas phase with a continuum model for the dispersed phase, as formulated by Nigmatulin. Inter-phase mass, momentum and energy exchange are prescribed by phenomenological models. It incorporates a combustion model based on the mass conservation laws for fuel, air and products; source/sink terms are treated in the fast-chemistry limit appropriate for such gasdynamic fields, along with a model for mass transfer from the particle phase to the gas. The model takes into account both the afterburning of the detonation products of the C-4 booster with air, and the combustion of the Al particles with air. The model equations were integrated by high-order Godunov schemes for both the gas and particle phases. Numerical simulations of the explosion fields from 1.5-g Shock-Dispersed-Fuel (SDF) charge in a 6.6 liter calorimeter were used to validate the combustion model. Then the model was applied to 10-kg Al-SDF explosions in a an unconfined height-of-burst explosion. Computed pressure histories are compared with measured waveforms. Differences are caused by physical-chemical kinetic effects of particle combustion which induce ignition delays in the initial reactive blast wave and quenching of reactions at late times. Current simulations give initial insights into such modeling issues.

  10. Lead-free primary explosives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huynh, My Hang V.

    2010-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Lead-free primary explosives of the formula (cat).sub.Y[M.sup.II(T).sub.X(H.sub.2O).sub.6-X].sub.Z, where T is 5-nitrotetrazolate, and syntheses thereof are described. Substantially stoichiometric equivalents of the reactants lead to high yields of pure compositions thereby avoiding dangerous purification steps.

  11. Removing High Explosives from Groundwater

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    LOS ALAMOS, N.M. – In an initiative supported by EM, Los Alamos National Laboratory’s Corrective Actions Program is addressing high explosive contamination in surface water and groundwater at a location this summer in the forests surrounding the laboratory.

  12. Safety of Nuclear Explosive Operations

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2001-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This directive establishes responsibilities and requirements to ensure the safety of routine and planned nuclear explosive operations and associated activities and facilities. Cancels DOE O 452.2A and DOE G 452.2A-1A. Canceled by DOE O 452.2C.

  13. Characterization of secondary grain dust explosions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schulman, Cheryl Wendler

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    explosion These include& an ignition source; oxygeni s confined space; and fuel, which 1n most instances is grain dust held. in suspension at concentration levels in excess of the minimum explosive concentration (MEC) (Palmer, 197$). The MEC is defined.... as the minimum concentration of dust in a cloud. necessary for sustained flame propagation. The MEC is also sometimes referred to as the lower explosive limit (LZL). The lower level of explosibility for most dusts ranges from 20 to 70 This thesis follows...

  14. Seismic explosive charge loader and anchor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mcreynolds, O.B.

    1981-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved seismic explosive charge loader and anchor for loading and anchoring explosives in cylindrical containers in bore holes is disclosed, which includes a snap in spring band shaped anchor which effectively anchors the loader in the well bore against upward movement, one aspect of the invention includes a snap lock threaded connection for securing an explosive container having interrupted threads to the loader and anchor, and the loader and anchor is constructed and arranged to maintain a detonator in place in the explosive container thereby assuring detonation of the explosive.

  15. Spot test kit for explosives detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pagoria, Philip F; Whipple, Richard E; Nunes, Peter J; Eckels, Joel Del; Reynolds, John G; Miles, Robin R; Chiarappa-Zucca, Marina L

    2014-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    An explosion tester system comprising a body, a lateral flow membrane swab unit adapted to be removeably connected to the body, a first explosives detecting reagent, a first reagent holder and dispenser operatively connected to the body, the first reagent holder and dispenser containing the first explosives detecting reagent and positioned to deliver the first explosives detecting reagent to the lateral flow membrane swab unit when the lateral flow membrane swab unit is connected to the body, a second explosives detecting reagent, and a second reagent holder and dispenser operatively connected to the body, the second reagent holder and dispenser containing the second explosives detecting reagent and positioned to deliver the second explosives detecting reagent to the lateral flow membrane swab unit when the lateral flow membrane swab unit is connected to the body.

  16. Explosives detection system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reber, Edward L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Jewell, James K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Rohde, Kenneth W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Seabury, Edward H. (Idaho Falls, ID); Blackwood, Larry G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Edwards, Andrew J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Derr, Kurt W. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2007-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of detecting explosives in a vehicle includes providing a first rack on one side of the vehicle, the rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a second rack on another side of the vehicle, the second rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a control system, remote from the first and second racks, coupled to the neutron generators and gamma ray detectors; using the control system, causing the neutron generators to generate neutrons; and performing gamma ray spectroscopy on spectra read by the gamma ray detectors to look for a signature indicative of presence of an explosive. Various apparatus and other methods are also provided.

  17. Type Ia Supernova Explosion Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. Hillebrandt; J. C. Niemeyer

    2000-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Because calibrated light curves of Type Ia supernovae have become a major tool to determine the local expansion rate of the Universe and also its geometrical structure, considerable attention has been given to models of these events over the past couple of years. There are good reasons to believe that perhaps most Type Ia supernovae are the explosions of white dwarfs that have approached the Chandrasekhar mass, M_ch ~ 1.39 M_sun, and are disrupted by thermonuclear fusion of carbon and oxygen. However, the mechanism whereby such accreting carbon-oxygen white dwarfs explode continues to be uncertain. Recent progress in modeling Type Ia supernovae as well as several of the still open questions are addressed in this review. Although the main emphasis will be on studies of the explosion mechanism itself and on the related physical processes, including the physics of turbulent nuclear combustion in degenerate stars, we also discuss observational constraints.

  18. Data base of chemical explosions in Kazakhstan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demin, V.N. [National Nuclear Center of Republic of Kazakhstan Institute of Geophysical Researches (Kazakhstan); Malahova, M.N. [National Nuclear Center of Republic of Kazakhstan Institute of Geophysical Researches (Kazakhstan); Martysevich, P.N. [National Nuclear Center of Republic of Kazakhstan Institute of Geophysical Researches (Kazakhstan); Mihaylova, N.N. [National Nuclear Center of Republic of Kazakhstan Institute of Geophysical Researches (Kazakhstan); Nurmagambetov, A. [National Nuclear Center of Republic of Kazakhstan Institute of Geophysical Researches (Kazakhstan); Kopnichev, Yu.F. D. [National Nuclear Center of Republic of Kazakhstan Institute of Geophysical Researches (Kazakhstan); Edomin, V.I. [National Nuclear Center of Republic of Kazakhstan Institute of Geophysical Researches (Kazakhstan)

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Within the bounds of this report, the following works were done: (1) Information about explosion quarries, located in Southern, Eastern and Northern Kasakstan was summarized. (2) The general information about seismicity of areas of location of explosion quarries was adduced. (3) The system of observation and seismic apparatus, recording the local earthquakes and quarry explosions at the territory of Kazakstan were described. (4) Data base of quarry explosions, that were carried out in Southern, Eastern and Northern Kazakstan during 1995 and first half of 1996 year was adduced. (5) Upon the data of registration of explosions in Southern Kazakstan the correlative dependences between power class of explosions and summary weight of charge were constructed. (6) Seismic records of quarry explosions were adduced. It is necessary to note, that the collection of data about quarry explosions in Kazakstan in present time is very difficult task. Organizations, that makes these explosions, are always suffering reorganizations and sometimes it is actually impossible to receive all the necessary information. Some quarries are situated in remote, almost inaccessible regions, and within the bounds of supplier financing not the every quarry was in success to visit. So the present data base upon the chemical explosions for 1995 is not full and in further it`s expansion is possible.

  19. Wireless sensor for detecting explosive material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lamberti, Vincent E; Howell, Jr., Layton N; Mee, David K; Sepaniak, Michael J

    2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a sensor for detecting explosive devices. The sensor includes a ferromagnetic metal and a molecular recognition reagent coupled to the ferromagnetic metal. The molecular recognition reagent is operable to expand upon absorption of vapor from an explosive material such that the molecular recognition reagent changes a tensile stress upon the ferromagnetic metal. The explosive device is detected based on changes in the magnetic switching characteristics of the ferromagnetic metal caused by the tensile stress.

  20. Air Activation Following an Atmospheric Explosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowrey, Justin D.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Prichard, Andrew W.; Gesh, Christopher J.

    2013-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    In addition to thermal radiation and fission products, nuclear explosions result in a very high flux of unfissioned neutrons. Within an atmospheric nuclear explosion, these neutrons can activate the various elemental components of natural air, potentially adding to the radioactive signature of the event as a whole. The goal of this work is to make an order-of-magnitude estimate of the total amount of air activation products that can result from an atmospheric nuclear explosion.

  1. Ammonia fiber explosion (AFEX) treatment of grass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ashok, Ganesh

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    solution), high-temperature treatment, and freezing in water suspensions at -75 C (Millett, Baker, and Satter, 1975), Chemical pretreatments include alkali and ammonia swelling, dilute acid extraction, NO with alkali, explosive steam decompression, wet... for ruminants. Ammonia explosion pulping has been investigated as an approach to fiber separation in wood chips (O' Connor, 1971). Recent work on pretreatment techniques includes: pretreatment of cedar with peracetic acid and steam explosion to improve...

  2. Shock Initiation of Damaged Explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chidester, S K; Vandersall, K S; Tarver, C M

    2009-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Explosive and propellant charges are subjected to various mechanical and thermal insults that can increase their sensitivity over the course of their lifetimes. To quantify this effect, shock initiation experiments were performed on mechanically and thermally damaged LX-04 (85% HMX, 15% Viton by weight) and PBX 9502 (95% TATB, 5% Kel-F by weight) to obtain in-situ manganin pressure gauge data and run distances to detonation at various shock pressures. We report the behavior of the HMX-based explosive LX-04 that was damaged mechanically by applying a compressive load of 600 psi for 20,000 cycles, thus creating many small narrow cracks, or by cutting wedge shaped parts that were then loosely reassembled, thus creating a few large cracks. The thermally damaged LX-04 charges were heated to 190 C for long enough for the beta to delta solid - solid phase transition to occur, and then cooled to ambient temperature. Mechanically damaged LX-04 exhibited only slightly increased shock sensitivity, while thermally damaged LX-04 was much more shock sensitive. Similarly, the insensitive explosive PBX 9502 was mechanically damaged using the same two techniques. Since PBX 9502 does not undergo a solid - solid phase transition but does undergo irreversible or 'rachet' growth when thermally cycled, thermal damage to PBX 9502 was induced by this procedure. As for LX-04, the thermally damaged PBX 9502 demonstrated a greater shock sensitivity than mechanically damaged PBX 9502. The Ignition and Growth reactive flow model calculated the increased sensitivities by igniting more damaged LX-04 and PBX 9502 near the shock front based on the measured densities (porosities) of the damaged charges.

  3. Method and apparatus for detecting explosives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, David Steven (Santa Fe, NM)

    2011-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus is provided for detecting explosives by thermal imaging. The explosive material is subjected to a high energy wave which can be either a sound wave or an electromagnetic wave which will initiate a chemical reaction in the explosive material which chemical reaction will produce heat. The heat is then sensed by a thermal imaging device which will provide a signal to a computing device which will alert a user of the apparatus to the possibility of an explosive device being present.

  4. Nuclear Explosive Safety Manual - DOE Directives, Delegations...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1A Admin Chg 1, Nuclear Explosive Safety Manual by Carl Sykes Functional areas: Administrative Change, Defense Nuclear Facility Safety and Health Requirement, Nuclear Safety,...

  5. Nuclear Explosive Safety Evaluation Processes - DOE Directives...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 Admin Chg 1, Nuclear Explosive Safety Evaluation Processes by Carl Sykes Functional areas: Administrative Change, Defense Nuclear Facility Safety and Health Requirement, Defense...

  6. Nuclear Explosive Safety Study Functional Area Qualification Standard

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2010-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A Nuclear Explosive Safety Study (NESS) is performed on all DOE Nuclear Explosive Operations (NEOs) in accordance with DOE O 452.1D, Nuclear Explosive and Weapon Surety Program; DOE O 452.2D, Nuclear Explosive Safety; and DOE M 452.2-2, Nuclear Explosive Safety Evaluation Processes.

  7. THE CHARACTERIZATION OF SEISMIC AND INFRASOUND SIGNALS FROM MINING EXPLOSIONS a) Explosion Source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stump, Brian W.

    MORENCIDATA TXARDATA Natural Gas Explosion and Burn in New Mexico 19 August 2000 180 km NE of site No Seismic at TXAR T. Wallace Natural Gas Explosion and Burn in New Mexico T. Wallace Ft. Hancock Infrasound ~ 180 km are illustrated below. Type 1 - Coal overburden casting (Black Thunder) where explosions are designed to expose

  8. Advancing Explosives Detection Capabilities: Vapor Detection

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Atkinson, David

    2014-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A new, PNNL-developed method provides direct, real-time detection of trace amounts of explosives such as RDX, PETN and C-4. The method selectively ionizes a sample before passing the sample through a mass spectrometer to detect explosive vapors. The method could be used at airports to improve aviation security.

  9. Prediction of Fire Spread Following Nuclear Explosions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Standiford, Richard B.

    Prediction of Fire Spread Following Nuclear Explosions Craig C. Chandler, Theodore G. Storey of Agriculture #12;Chandler, Craig C., Storey, Theodore G., and Tangren, Charles D. 1963. Prediction of fire spread following nuclear explosions. Berkeley, Calif., Pacific SW. Forest & Range Expt Sta. 110 pp

  10. Method for laser machining explosives and ordnance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muenchausen, Ross E.; Rivera, Thomas; Sanchez, John A.

    2003-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Method for laser machining explosives and related articles. A laser beam is directed at a surface portion of a mass of high explosive to melt and/or vaporize the surface portion while directing a flow of gas at the melted and/or vaporized surface portion. The gas flow sends the melted and/or vaporized explosive away from the charge of explosive that remains. The method also involves splitting the casing of a munition having an encased explosive. The method includes rotating a munition while directing a laser beam to a surface portion of the casing of an article of ordnance. While the beam melts and/or vaporizes the surface portion, a flow of gas directed at the melted and/or vaporized surface portion sends it away from the remaining portion of ordnance. After cutting through the casing, the beam then melts and/or vaporizes portions of the encased explosive and the gas stream sends the melted/vaporized explosive away from the ordnance. The beam is continued until it splits the article, after which the encased explosive, now accessible, can be removed safely for recycle or disposal.

  11. Explosive laser light initiation of propellants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piltch, M.S.

    1993-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A improved initiator for artillery shell using an explosively generated laser light to uniformly initiate the propellent. A small quantity of a high explosive, when detonated, creates a high pressure and temperature, causing the surrounding noble gas to fluoresce. This fluorescence is directed into a lasing material, which lases, and directs laser light into a cavity in the propellant, uniformly initiating the propellant.

  12. Explosions inside Ejecta and Most Luminous Supernovae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. I. Blinnikov

    2008-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The extremely luminous supernova SN2006gy is explained in the same way as other SNIIn events: light is produced by a radiative shock propagating in a dense circumstellar envelope formed by a previous weak explosion. The problems in the theory and observations of multiple-explosion SNe IIn are briefly reviewed.

  13. Glass produced by underground nuclear explosions. [Rainier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, L.; Piwinskii, A.; Ryerson, F.; Tewes, H.; Beiriger, W.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Detonation of an underground nuclear explosive produces a strong shock wave which propagates spherically outward, vaporizing the explosive and nearby rock and melting, the surrounding rock. The vaporized material expands adiabatically, forming a cavity. As the energy is dissipated during the cavity formation process, the explosive and rock debris condense and mix with the melted rock. The melt flows to the bottom of the cavity where it is quenched by fractured rock fragments falling from above as the cavity collapses. Measurements indicate that about 740 tonnes of rock and/or soil are melted for every kiloton (10/sup 12/ calories) of explosive energy, or about 25% of the explosive energy goes to melting rock. The resulting glass composition reflects the composition of the unaltered rock with explosive debris. The appearance ranges from white pumice to dense, dark lava. The bulk composition and color vary with the amount of explosive iron incorporated into the glass. The refractory explosion products are mixed with the solidified melt, although the degree of mixing is variable. Electron microprobe studies of glasses produced by Rainier in welded tuff have produced the following results: glasses are dehydrated relative to the host media, glasses are extremely heterogeneous on a 20 ..mu..m scale, a ubiquitous feature is the presence of dark marble-cake regions in the glass, which were locally enriched in iron and may be related to the debris, optically amorphous regions provide evidence of shock melting, only limited major element redistribution and homogenization occur within the cavity.

  14. Models of Type Ia Supernova Explosions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. C. Niemeyer; M. Reinecke; W. Hillebrandt

    2002-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Type Ia supernovae have become an indispensable tool for studying the expansion history of the universe, yet our understanding of the explosion mechanism is still incomplete. We describe the variety of discussed scenarios, sketch the most relevant physics, and report recent advances in multidimensional simulations of Chandrasekhar mass white dwarf explosions.

  15. Models of Type Ia Supernova Explosions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niemeyer, J C; Hillebrandt, W

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Type Ia supernovae have become an indispensable tool for studying the expansion history of the universe, yet our understanding of the explosion mechanism is still incomplete. We describe the variety of discussed scenarios, sketch the most relevant physics, and report recent advances in multidimensional simulations of Chandrasekhar mass white dwarf explosions.

  16. Fire and explosion hazards of oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Bureau of Mines publication presents the results of investigations into the fire and explosion hazards of oil shale rocks and dust. Three areas have been examined: the explosibility and ignitability of oil shale dust clouds, the fire hazards of oil shale dust layers on hot surfaces, and the ignitability and extinguishment of oil shale rubble piles. 10 refs., 54 figs., 29 tabs.

  17. NEW - DOE O 452.2E, Nuclear Explosive Safety

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    This Department of Energy (DOE) Order establishes requirements to implement the nuclear explosive safety (NES) elements of DOE O 452.1D, Nuclear Explosive and Weapon Surety Program, or successor directive, for routine and planned nuclear explosive operations (NEOs).

  18. Method for fabricating non-detonable explosive simulants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, R.L.; Pruneda, C.O.

    1995-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A simulator is disclosed which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs and calibrating sensitive analytical instruments. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques, a first involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and the second involves coating inert beads with thin layers of explosive molecules. 5 figs.

  19. Method for fabricating non-detonable explosive simulants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Pruneda, Cesar O. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs and calibrating sensitive analytical instruments. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques, a first involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and the second involves coating inert beads with thin layers of explosive molecules.

  20. Nuclear explosives testing readiness evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valk, T.C.

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This readiness evaluation considers hole selection and characterization, verification, containment issues, nuclear explosive safety studies, test authorities, event operations planning, canister-rack preparation, site preparation, diagnostic equipment setup, device assembly facilities and processes, device delivery and insertion, emplacement, stemming, control room activities, readiness briefing, arming and firing, test execution, emergency response and reentry, and post event analysis to include device diagnostics, nuclear chemistry, and containment. This survey concludes that the LLNL program and its supporting contractors could execute an event within six months of notification, and a second event within the following six months, given the NET group`s evaluation and the following three restraints: (1) FY94 (and subsequent year) funding is essentially constant with FY93, (2) Preliminary work for the initial event is completed to the historical sic months status, (3) Critical personnel, currently working in dual use technologies, would be recallable as needed.

  1. Infrared near-field spectroscopy of trace explosives using an...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    spectroscopy of trace explosives using an external cavity quantum cascade laser. Infrared near-field spectroscopy of trace explosives using an external cavity quantum cascade...

  2. Explosives exhibit opens at the Bradbury Science Museum Sept...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Explosives exhibit opens at the Bradbury Science Museum Explosives exhibit opens at the Bradbury Science Museum Sept. 18 To highlight the Laboratory's work in the field of...

  3. A different Big Bang theory: Los Alamos unveils explosives detection...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    unveils explosives detection expertise A different Big Bang theory: Los Alamos unveils explosives detection expertise A team of scientists is now rolling out a collaborative...

  4. Construction on Pantex High Explosives Pressing Facility Reaches...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Field Offices Welcome to the NNSA Production Office NPO News Releases Construction on Pantex High Explosives Pressing Facility ... Construction on Pantex High Explosives...

  5. Chemical analysis kit for the presence of explosives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eckels, Joel Del (Livermore, CA); Nunes; Peter J. (Danville, CA); Alcaraz, Armando (Livermore, CA); Whipple, Richard E. (Livermore, CA)

    2011-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A tester for testing for explosives associated with a test location comprising a first explosives detecting reagent; a first reagent holder, the first reagent holder containing the first explosives detecting reagent; a second explosives detecting reagent; a second reagent holder, the second reagent holder containing the second explosives detecting reagent; a sample collection unit for exposure to the test location, exposure to the first explosives detecting reagent, and exposure to the second explosives detecting reagent; and a body unit containing a heater for heating the sample collection unit for testing the test location for the explosives.

  6. Security and Use Control of Nuclear Explosives and Nuclear Weapons...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4C, Security and Use Control of Nuclear Explosives and Nuclear Weapons by LtCol Karl Basham Functional areas: Nuclear Explosives, Nuclear Weapons, Security The Order establishes...

  7. Nuclear Explosive Safety - DOE Directives, Delegations, and Requiremen...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2D Admin Chg 1, Nuclear Explosive Safety by Carl Sykes This Department of Energy (DOE) Order establishes requirements to implement the nuclear explosive safety (NES) elements of...

  8. Supernova neutrinos and explosive nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kajino, T. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan and Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Aoki, W. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Cheoun, M.-K. [Department of Physics, Soongsil University, Seoul 156-743 (Korea, Republic of); Hayakawa, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Shirakara-Shirane 2-4, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Hidaka, J.; Hirai, Y.; Shibagaki, S. [National Astronomical Observatory, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Mathews, G. J. [Center for Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Nakamura, K. [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Ohkubo 3-4-1, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Suzuki, T. [Department of Physics, College of Humanities and Sciences, Nihon University, Sakurajosui 3-25-40, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8550 (Japan)

    2014-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Core-collapse supernovae eject huge amount of flux of energetic neutrinos. We studied the explosive nucleosyn-thesis in supernovae and found that several isotopes {sup 7}Li, {sup 11}B, {sup 92}Nb, {sup 138}La and {sup 180}Ta as well as r-process nuclei are affected by the neutrino interactions. The abundance of these isotopes therefore depends strongly on the neutrino flavor oscillation due to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. We discuss first how to determine the neutrino temperatures in order to explain the observed solar system abundances of these isotopes, combined with Galactic chemical evolution of the light nuclei and the heavy r-process elements. We then study the effects of neutrino oscillation on their abundances, and propose a novel method to determine the still unknown neutrino oscillation parameters, mass hierarchy and ?{sub 13}, simultaneously. There is recent evidence that SiC X grains from the Murchison meteorite may contain supernova-produced light elements {sup 11}B and {sup 7}Li encapsulated in the presolar grains. Combining the recent experimental constraints on ?{sub 13}, we show that our method sug-gests at a marginal preference for an inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. Finally, we discuss supernova relic neutrinos that may indicate the softness of the equation of state (EoS) of nuclear matter as well as adiabatic conditions of the neutrino oscillation.

  9. Nuclear Explosive and Weapon Surety Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2001-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This Order provides requirements and responsibilities to prevent unintended/unauthorized detonation and deliberate unauthorized use of nuclear explosives. Cancels DOE O 452.1A. Canceled by DOE O 452.1C.

  10. Unreacted Hugoniots for porous and liquid explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gustavsen, R.L.; Sheffield, S.A.

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Numerous authors have measured the Hugoniots of a variety of granular explosives pressed to different densities. Each explosive at each density was typically then treated as a unique material having its own Hugoniot. By combining methods used by Hayes, Sheffield and Mitchell (for describing the Hugoniot of HNS at various densities) with Hermann`s P-{alpha} model, it is only necessary to know some thermodynamic constants or the Hugoniot of the initially solid material and the porous material sound speed to obtain accurate unreacted Hugoniots for the porous explosive. We discuss application of this method to several materials including HMX, PETN, TNT, and Tetryl, as well as HNS. We also show that the ``Universal Liquid Hugoniot`` can be used to calculate the unreacted Hugoniot for liquid explosives. With this method only the ambient pressure sound speed and density are needed to predict the Hugoniot. Applications presented include nitromethane and liquid TNT.

  11. Nuclear Explosive and Weapon Surety Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This Order provides requirements and responsibilities to prevent unintended/unauthorized detonation and deliberate unauthorized use of nuclear explosives. Cancels DOE O 452.1. Canceled by DOE O 452.1B.

  12. High-explosive anti-tank warheads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Nov 30, 2011 ... In Russian literature, this jet of steel formed by explosion, which pierces the armor, is called the “wire”. It is very thin indeed. You can see the.

  13. Explosive Safety Manual, to a New Order

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2010-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This memorandum provides justification for the conversion of Department of Energy (DOE) Manual (M) 440.1-1A, DOE Explosives Safety Manual, dated 1-9-06, into a new DOE Order.

  14. Nuclear Explosive and Weapon Surety Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2005-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This Order provides requirements and responsibilities to prevent unintended/unauthorized detonation and deliberate unauthorized use of nuclear explosives. Cancels DOE O 452.1B. Canceled by DOE O 452.1D

  15. Nuclear Explosive and Weapon Surety Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2009-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This Order provides requirements and responsibilities to prevent unintended/unauthorized detonation and deliberate unauthorized use of nuclear explosives. Cancels DOE O 452.1C. Canceled by DOE O 452.1D Admin Chg 1.

  16. The physics of antimatter induced fusion and thermonuclear explosions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andre Gsponer; Jean-pierre Hurni

    triggering large scale thermonuclear explosions is investigated. The number of antiproton annihilations

  17. A theoretical model of the explosive fragmentation of vesicular magma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGuinness, Mark

    fire fountaining to vigorous Vulcanian and Plinian eruptions. The range of different types of explosiveA theoretical model of the explosive fragmentation of vesicular magma A. C. Fowler, MACSI explosion can occur, and is motivated by the corresponding phenomenon of magmatic explosion during Vulcanian

  18. Explosive parcel containment and blast mitigation container

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sparks, Michael H. (Frederick County, MD)

    2001-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a containment structure for containing and mitigating explosions. The containment structure is installed in the wall of the building and has interior and exterior doors for placing suspicious packages into the containment structure and retrieving them from the exterior of the building. The containment structure has a blast deflection chute and a blowout panel to direct over pressure from explosions away from the building, surrounding structures and people.

  19. Weapons Experiments Division Explosives Operations Overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laintz, Kenneth E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Presentation covers WX Division programmatic operations with a focus on JOWOG-9 interests. A brief look at DARHT is followed by a high level overview of explosives research activities currently being conducted within in the experimental groups of WX-Division. Presentation covers more emphasis of activities and facilities at TA-9 as these efforts have been more traditionally aligned with ongoing collaborative explosive exchanges covered under JOWOG-9.

  20. The control of confined vapor phase explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scilly, N.F. [Laporte plc, Widnes (United Kingdom); Owen, O.J.R. [Fine Organics, Ltd., Middlesborough (United Kingdom); Wilberforce, J.K. [Solvay SA, Brussels (Belgium)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The probability of, for example, a fire or explosion occurring during a process operation is related both to the fire-related properties of the materials used, such as flash point, flammable limits etc., i.e. the material or intrinsic factors, and the nature of the operation and the equipment used, i.e. the extrinsic factors. The risk, or frequency of occurrence, of other hazards such as reaction runaway, major toxic release etc. can be determined in a similar manner. For a vapor phase explosion (and a fire) the probability of the event is the product of the probability of generating a flammable atmosphere and the probability of ignition. Firstly, materials may be coded using properties that are relevant to the hazard in question. Secondly, different operations have different degrees of risk and these risks are assigned as Low, Medium, High etc. according to criteria outlined here. Combination of these two factors will then be a measure of the overall risk of the operation with the specified material and may be used to define operating standards. Currently, the hazard/risk of a vapor phase explosions is examined by this method but in due course dust explosions, fires, condensed phase explosions, reaction runaways, physical explosions, major toxic releases and incompatibility will be included.

  1. Use of explosives to demolish multistory steel frame buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landry, Charles Vernon

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Explosives Engineers. The articles dealt with the state-of-the-art, covering many peripheral subjects of the use of explosives to demolish steel framed multistory buildings. The most extensive literature available on controlled demolition techniques... with the exception of several articles presented to the Annual Proceedings of the Society of Explosives Engineers and a few U. S. government studies on the use of explosives. In depth interviews were conducted with controlled explosive demolition companies...

  2. Stellar Explosions by Magnetic Towers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dmitri A. Uzdensky; Andrew I. MacFadyen

    2006-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a magnetic mechanism for the collimated explosion of a massive star relevant for GRBs, XRFs and asymmetric supernovae. We apply Lynden-Bell's magnetic tower scenario to the interior of a massive rotating star after the core has collapsed to form a black hole with an accretion disk or a millisecond magnetar acting as a central engine. We solve the force-free Grad-Shafranov equation to calculate the magnetic structure and growth of a tower embedded in a stellar environment. The pressure of the toroidal magnetic field, continuously generated by differential rotation of the central engine, drives a rapid expansion which becomes vertically collimated after lateral force balance with the surrounding gas pressure is reached. The collimation naturally occurs because hoop stress concentrates magnetic field toward the rotation axis and inhibits lateral expansion. This leads to the growth of a self-collimated magnetic tower. When embedded in a massive star, the supersonic expansion of the tower drives a strong bow shock behind which an over-pressured cocoon forms. The cocoon confines the tower by supplying collimating pressure and provides stabilization against disruption due to MHD instabilities. Because the tower consists of closed field lines starting and ending on the central engine, mixing of baryons from the cocoon into the tower is suppressed. The channel cleared by the growing tower is thus plausibly free of baryons and allows the escape of magnetic energy from the central engine through the star. While propagating down the stellar density gradient, the tower accelerates and becomes relativistic. During the expansion, fast collisionless reconnection becomes possible resulting in dissipation of magnetic energy which may be responsible for GRB prompt emission.

  3. Report on the treatability study for inerting small quantities of radioactive explosives and explosive components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loyola, V.M.; Reber, S.D.

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As a result of Sandia`s radiation hardening testing on a variety of its explosive components, radioactive waste streams were generated and have to be disposed of as radioactive waste. Due to the combined hazards of explosives and radioactivity, Sandia`s Radioactive and Mixed Waste Management organization did not have a mechanism for disposal of these waste streams. This report documents the study done to provide a method for the removal of the explosive hazard from those waste streams. The report includes the design of the equipment used, procedures followed, results from waste stream analog tests and the results from the actual explosive inerting tests on radioactive samples. As a result of the inerting treatment, the waste streams were rendered non-explosive and, thus, manageable through normal radioactive waste disposal channels.

  4. Method of digesting an explosive nitro compound

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shah, Manish M. (Richland, WA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a process wherein bleaching oxidants are used to digest explosive nitro compounds. The process has an excellent reaction rate for digesting explosives and operates under multivariate conditions. Reaction solutions may be aqueous, non-aqueous or a combination thereof, and can also be any pH, but preferably have a pH between 2 and 9. The temperature may be ambient as well as any temperature above which freezing of the solution would occur and below which any degradation of the bleaching oxidant would occur or below which any explosive reaction would be initiated. The pressure may be any pressure, but is preferably ambient or atmospheric, or a pressure above a vapor pressure of the aqueous solution to avoid boiling of the solution. Because the bleaching oxidant molecules are small, much smaller than an enzyme molecule for example, they can penetrate the microstructure of plastic explosives faster. The bleaching oxidants generate reactive hydroxyl radicals, which can destroy other organic contaminants, if necessary, along with digesting the explosive nitro compound.

  5. Airport testing an explosives detection portal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rhykerd, C.; Linker, K.; Hannum, D.; Bouchier, F.; Parmeter, J.

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At the direction of the US Congress, following the Pan Am 103 and TWA 800 crashes, the Federal Aviation Administration funded development of non-invasive techniques to screen airline passengers for explosives. Such an explosives detection portal, developed at Sandia National Laboratories, was field tested at the Albuquerque International airport in September 1997. During the 2-week field trial, 2,400 passengers were screened and 500 surveyed. Throughput, reliability, maintenance and sensitivity were studied. Follow-up testing at Sandia and at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory was conducted. A passenger stands in the portal for five seconds while overhead fans blow air over his body. Any explosive vapors or dislodged particles are collected in vents at the feet. Explosives are removed from the air in a preconcentrator and subsequently directed into an ion mobility spectrometer for detection. Throughput measured 300 passengers per hour. The non-invasive portal can detect subfingerprint levels of explosives residue on clothing. A survey of 500 passengers showed a 97% approval rating, with 99% stating that such portals, if effective, should be installed in airports to improve security. Results of the airport test, as well as operational issues, are discussed.

  6. PINS Testing and Modification for Explosive Identification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E.H. Seabury; A.J. Caffrey

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The INL's Portable Isotopic Neutron Spectroscopy System (PINS)1 non-intrusively identifies the chemical fill of munitions and sealed containers. PINS is used routinely by the U.S. Army, the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, and foreign military units to determine the contents of munitions and other containers suspected to contain explosives, smoke-generating chemicals, and chemical warfare agents such as mustard and nerve gas. The objects assayed with PINS range from softball-sized M139 chemical bomblets to 200 gallon DOT 500X ton containers. INL had previously examined2 the feasibility of using a similar system for the identification of explosives, and based on this proof-of-principle test, the development of a dedicated system for the identification of explosives in an improvised nuclear device appears entirely feasible. INL has been tasked by NNSA NA-42 Render Safe Research and Development with the development of such a system.

  7. Securing Infrastructure from High Explosive Threats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glascoe, L; Noble, C; Reynolds, J; Kuhl, A; Morris, J

    2009-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is working with the Department of Homeland Security's Science and Technology Directorate, the Transportation Security Administration, and several infrastructure partners to characterize and help mitigate principal structural vulnerabilities to explosive threats. Given the importance of infrastructure to the nation's security and economy, there is a clear need for applied research and analyses (1) to improve understanding of the vulnerabilities of these systems to explosive threats and (2) to provide decision makers with time-critical technical assistance concerning countermeasure and mitigation options. Fully-coupled high performance calculations of structural response to ideal and non-ideal explosives help bound and quantify specific critical vulnerabilities, and help identify possible corrective schemes. Experimental validation of modeling approaches and methodologies builds confidence in the prediction, while advanced stochastic techniques allow for optimal use of scarce computational resources to efficiently provide infrastructure owners and decision makers with timely analyses.

  8. Phases of a Type Ia supernova explosion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. C. Niemeyer

    1998-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    In the framework of the Chandrasekhar mass white dwarf model for Type Ia supernovae, various stages of the explosion are described in terms of the burning regimes of the thermonuclear flame front. In the early flamelet regime following the ``smoldering'' phase prior to the explosion, the flame is sufficiently thin and fast to remain laminar on small scales. As the white dwarf density declines, the thermal flame structure becomes subject to penetration by turbulent eddies, and it enters the ``distributed burning'' regime. A specific control parameter for this transition is proposed. Furthermore, we outline an argument for the coincidence of the transition between burning regimes with the onset of a deflagration-detonation-transition (DDT) in the late phase of the explosion.

  9. THE BIGGEST EXPLOSIONS IN THE UNIVERSE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Jarrett L.; Whalen, Daniel J.; Smidt, Joseph [Nuclear and Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology Group (T-2), Thermonuclear Applications Physics Group (XTD-6), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Even, Wesley; Fryer, Chris L. [Computational Physics and Methods Group (CCS-2), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Heger, Alex [Monash Centre for Astrophysics, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia); Chen, Ke-Jung, E-mail: jlj@lanl.gov [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Supermassive primordial stars are expected to form in a small fraction of massive protogalaxies in the early universe, and are generally conceived of as the progenitors of the seeds of supermassive black holes (BHs). Supermassive stars with masses of ?55, 000 M{sub ?}, however, have been found to explode and completely disrupt in a supernova (SN) with an energy of up to ?10{sup 55} erg instead of collapsing to a BH. Such events, ?10, 000 times more energetic than typical SNe today, would be among the biggest explosions in the history of the universe. Here we present a simulation of such a SN in two stages. Using the RAGE radiation hydrodynamics code, we first evolve the explosion from an early stage through the breakout of the shock from the surface of the star until the blast wave has propagated out to several parsecs from the explosion site, which lies deep within an atomic cooling dark matter (DM) halo at z ? 15. Then, using the GADGET cosmological hydrodynamics code, we evolve the explosion out to several kiloparsecs from the explosion site, far into the low-density intergalactic medium. The host DM halo, with a total mass of 4 × 10{sup 7} M{sub ?}, much more massive than typical primordial star-forming halos, is completely evacuated of high-density gas after ?< 10 Myr, although dense metal-enriched gas recollapses into the halo, where it will likely form second-generation stars with metallicities of ? 0.05 Z{sub ?} after ?> 70 Myr. The chemical signature of supermassive star explosions may be found in such long-lived second-generation stars today.

  10. Probing thermonuclear supernova explosions with neutrinos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Odrzywolek; T. Plewa

    2011-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Aims: We present neutrino light curves and energy spectra for two representative type Ia supernova explosion models: a pure deflagration and a delayed detonation. Methods: We calculate the neutrino flux from $\\beta$ processes using nuclear statistical equilibrium abundances convoluted with approximate neutrino spectra of the individual nuclei and the thermal neutrino spectrum (pair+plasma). Results: Although the two considered thermonuclear supernova explosion scenarios are expected to produce almost identical electromagnetic output, their neutrino signatures appear vastly different, which allow an unambiguous identification of the explosion mechanism: a pure deflagration produces a single peak in the neutrino light curve, while the addition of the second maximum characterizes a delayed-detonation. We identified the following main contributors to the neutrino signal: (1) weak electron neutrino emission from electron captures (in particular on the protons Co55 and Ni56) and numerous beta-active nuclei produced by the thermonuclear flame and/or detonation front, (2) electron antineutrinos from positron captures on neutrons, and (3) the thermal emission from pair annihilation. We estimate that a pure deflagration supernova explosion at a distance of 1 kpc would trigger about 14 events in the future 50 kt liquid scintillator detector and some 19 events in a 0.5 Mt water Cherenkov-type detector. Conclusions: While in contrast to core-collapse supernovae neutrinos carry only a very small fraction of the energy produced in the thermonuclear supernova explosion, the SN Ia neutrino signal provides information that allows us to unambiguously distinguish between different possible explosion scenarios. These studies will become feasible with the next generation of proposed neutrino observatories.

  11. Electromagnetic Effects in SDF Explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reichenbach, H; Neuwald, P; Kuhl, A L

    2010-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The notion of high ion and electron concentrations in the detonation of aluminized explosive mixtures has aroused some interest in electro-magnetic effects that the SDF charges might generate when detonated. Motivated by this interest we have started to investigate whether significant electro-magnetic effects show up in our small-scale experiments. However, the design of instrumentation for this purpose is far from straightforward, since there are a number of open questions. Thus the main aim of the feasibility tests is to find - if possible - a simple and reliable method that can be used as a diagnostic tool for electro-magnetic effects. SDF charges with a 0.5-g PETN booster and a filling of 1 g aluminum flakes have been investigated in three barometric bomb calorimeters with volumes ranging from 6.3 l to of 6.6 l. Though similar in volume, the barometric bombs differed in the length-to-diameter ratio. The tests were carried out with the bombs filled with either air or nitrogen at ambient pressure. The comparison of the test in air to those in nitrogen shows that the combustion of TNT detonation products or aluminum generates a substantial increase of the quasi-steady overpressure in the bombs. Repeated tests in the same configuration resulted in some scatter of the experimental results. The most likely reason is that the aluminum combustion in most or all cases is incomplete and that the amount of aluminum actually burned varies from test to test. The mass fraction burned apparently decreases with increasing aspect ratio L/D. Thus an L/D-ratio of about 1 is optimal for the performance of shock-dispersed-fuel combustion. However, at an L/D-ratio of about 5 the combustion still yields appreciable overpressure in excess of the detonation. For a multi-burst scenario in a tunnel environment with a number of SDF charges distributed along a tunnel section a spacing of 5 tunnel diameter and a fuel-specific volume of around 7 l/g might provide an acceptable compromise between optimizing the combustion performance and keeping the number of elementary charges low. Further tests in a barometric bomb calorimeter of 21.2 l volume were performed with four types of aluminum. The mass fraction burned in this case appeared to depend on the morphology of the aluminum particles. Flake aluminum exhibited a better performance than granulated aluminum with particle sizes ranging from below 25 {micro}m to 125 {micro}m for the coarsest material. In addition, a feasibility study on electro-magnetic effects from SDF charges detonated in a tunnel has been performed. A method was developed to measure the local, unsteady electro-conductivity in the detonation/combustion products cloud. This method proved to yield reproducible results. A variety of methods were tested with regard to probing electro-magnetic pulses from the detonation of SDF charges. The results showed little reproducibility and were small compared to the effect from pulsed high voltage discharges of comparatively small energy (around 32 J). Thus either no significant electromagnetic pulse is generated in our small-scale tests or the tested techniques have to be discarded as too insensitive or too limited in bandwidth to detect possibly very high frequency electro-magnetic disturbances.

  12. aux explosions nucleaires: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    essentially undisturbed, even if the explosion is strong enough to blow away all the gas located inside the halo at the onset of the explosion and reheat the IGM surrounding...

  13. Detection of Explosives via Photolytic Cleavage of Nitroesters and Nitramines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swager, Timothy Manning

    The nitramine-containing explosive RDX and the nitroester-containing explosive PETN are shown to be susceptible to photofragmentation upon exposure to sunlight. Model compounds containing nitroester and nitramine moieties ...

  14. Electrical apparatus for explosive gas atmospheres, Part 0: General introduction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IEC Technical Committee

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Recommendation has been prepared by IEC Technical Committee No. 31, Electrical Apparatus for Explosive Atmospheres; It forms one of a series of publications dealing with electrical apparatus for use in explosive gas atmospheres. This particular...

  15. Nuclear Explosive and Weapon Surety Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2009-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This Order provides requirements and responsibilities to prevent unintended/unauthorized detonation and deliberate unauthorized use of nuclear explosives. Cancels DOE O 452.1C. Admin Chg 1, dated 7-10-13, cancels DOE O 452.1D.

  16. New Dark Matter Detector using Nanoscale Explosives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lopez, Alejandro; Freese, Katherine; Kurdak, Cagliyan; Tarle, Gregory

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present nanoscale explosives as a novel type of dark matter detector and study the ignition properties. When a Weakly Interacting Massive Particle WIMP from the Galactic Halo elastically scatters off of a nucleus in the detector, the small amount of energy deposited can trigger an explosion. For specificity, this paper focuses on a type of two-component explosive known as a nanothermite, consisting of a metal and an oxide in close proximity. When the two components interact they undergo a rapid exothermic reaction --- an explosion. As a specific example, we consider metal nanoparticles of 5 nm radius embedded in an oxide. One cell contains more than a few million nanoparticles, and a large number of cells adds up to a total of 1 kg detector mass. A WIMP interacts with a metal nucleus of the nanoparticles, depositing enough energy to initiate a reaction at the interface between the two layers. When one nanoparticle explodes it initiates a chain reaction throughout the cell. A number of possible thermite mat...

  17. NUCLEAR ASPECTS OF STELLAR AND EXPLOSIVE NUCLEOSYNTHESIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rauscher, Thomas

    NUCLEAR ASPECTS OF STELLAR AND EXPLOSIVE NUCLEOSYNTHESIS Thomas Rauscher 1 , Friedrich. of Astron. and Astroph., Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 Abstract The majority of nuclear­Feshbach). The global parametrizations of the nuclear properties needed for predictions far off stability probe our

  18. Explosion proof vehicle for tank inspection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zollinger, William T. (Idaho Falls, ID); Klingler, Kerry M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Bauer, Scott G. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2012-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    An Explosion Proof Vehicle (EPV) having an interior substantially filled with an inert fluid creating an interior pressure greater than the exterior pressure. One or more flexible tubes provide the inert fluid and one or more electrical conductors from a control system to the vehicle. The vehicle is preferably used in subsurface tank inspection, whereby the vehicle is submerged in a volatile fluid.

  19. Burgess Shale: Cambrian Explosion in Full Bloom

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hagadorn, Whitey

    4 Burgess Shale: Cambrian Explosion in Full Bloom James W. Hagadorn T he middle cambrian burgess shale is one of the world's best-known and best-studied fossil deposits. The story of the discovery in the Burgess Shale Formation of the Canadian Rockies, Charles Walcott discovered a remarkable "phyl- lopod

  20. WAVE GENERATIONS FROM CONFINED EXPLOSIONS IN ROCKS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stewart, Sarah T.

    WAVE GENERATIONS FROM CONFINED EXPLOSIONS IN ROCKS C. L. Liu and Thomas J. Ahrens Seismological Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 In order to record P- and S-waves on the interactions between incident P- and SV-waves and free-surfaces of rocks. The relations between particle

  1. Type Ia Supernova Explosion: Gravitationally Confined Detonation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tomasz Plewa; Alan Calder; Don Lamb

    2004-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a new mechanism for Type Ia supernova explosions in massive white dwarfs. The proposed scenario follows from relaxing the assumption of symmetry in the model and involves a detonation created in an unconfined environment. The explosion begins with an essentially central ignition of stellar material initiating a deflagration. This deflagration results in the formation of a buoyantly-driven bubble of hot material that reaches the stellar surface at supersonic speeds. The bubble breakout forms a strong pressure wave that laterally accelerates fuel-rich outer stellar layers. This material, confined by gravity to the white dwarf, races along the stellar surface and is focused at the location opposite to the point of the bubble breakout. These streams of nuclear fuel carry enough mass and energy to trigger a detonation just above the stellar surface. The flow conditions at that moment support a detonation that will incinerate the white dwarf and result in an energetic explosion. The stellar expansion following the deflagration redistributes stellar mass in a way that ensures production of intermediate mass and iron group elements consistent with observations. The ejecta will have a strongly layered structure with a mild amount of asymmetry following from the early deflagration phase. This asymmetry, combined with the amount of stellar expansion determined by details of the evolution (principally the energetics of deflagration, timing of detonation, and structure of the progenitor), can be expected to create a family of mildly diverse Type Ia supernova explosions.

  2. ANALYSIS OF MINING EXPLOSION PERFORMANCE WITH MULTIPLE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stump, Brian W.

    Limitations of Video Data · Effect of Blast Design on Near-Source Seismograms · Different Types of Cast Blasts of Models in Visualization ß Two-Dimensional Blast Model ß Three-Dimensional Blast Models 3. Applications to Different Types of Mining Explosions · Single Shot · Cast Blast · Coal Fragmentation #12;Analysis of Mining

  3. Explosives Classifications Tracking System User Manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Genoni, R.P.

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Explosives Classification Tracking System (ECTS) presents information and data for U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) explosives classifications of interest to EM-561, Transportation Management Division, other DOE facilities, and contractors. It is intended to be useful to the scientist, engineer, and transportation professional, who needs to classify or transport explosives. This release of the ECTS reflects upgrading of the software which provides the user with an environment that makes comprehensive retrieval of explosives related information quick and easy. Quarterly updates will be provided to the ECTS throughout its development in FY 1993 and thereafter. The ECTS is a stand alone, single user system that contains unclassified, publicly available information, and administrative information (contractor names, product descriptions, transmittal dates, EX-Numbers, etc.) information from many sources for non-decisional engineering and shipping activities. The data is the most up-to-date and accurate available to the knowledge of the system developer. The system is designed to permit easy revision and updating as new information and data become available. These, additions and corrections are welcomed by the developer. This user manual is intended to help the user install, understand, and operate the system so that the desired information may be readily obtained, reviewed, and reported.

  4. Exploiting Variable Stiffness in Explosive Movement Tasks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vijayakumar, Sethu

    robots. The proposed methodology is applied to a ball- throwing task where we demonstrate that: (i, with the motivation of (i) improving safety of robots and humans (by providing an intrinsic compliance) [26], (iiExploiting Variable Stiffness in Explosive Movement Tasks David J. Braun, Matthew Howard and Sethu

  5. A mathematical simulation of earth satellite explosion debris orbital elements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mabrey, Wayne Edward

    1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    perspective: (1) By simulating the explosion of a satellite we mean that: given the knowledge of' the number of pieces and the force vector of each piece, we will simulate the resulting trajectories. (2) The simulation of a satellite trajectory... classical elements of each debris piece as a function of: (1) the trajectory of the center of mass of *he explosion debris and (2) the explosive forces. Computer program modules are developed to create an explosion and calculate the elements of each...

  6. Determination of explosive blast loading equivalencies with an explosively driven shock tube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, Scott I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hill, Larry G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morris, John S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently there has been significant interest in evaluating the potential of many different non-ideal energetic materials to cause blast damage. We present a method intended to quantitatively compare the blast loading generated by different energetic materials through use of an explosively driven shock tube. The test explosive is placed at the closed breech end of the tube and initiated with a booster charge. The resulting shock waves are then contained and focused by the tube walls to form a quasi-one-dimensional blast wave. Pressure transducers along the tube wall measure the blast overpressure versus distance from the source and allow the use of the one-dimensional blast scaling relationship to determine the energy deposited into the blast wave per unit mass of test explosive. These values are then compared for different explosives of interest and to other methods of equivalency determination.

  7. Colorimetric chemical analysis sampler for the presence of explosives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nunes, Peter J. (Danville, CA); Del Eckels, Joel (Livermore, CA); Reynolds, John G. (San Ramon, CA); Pagoria, Philip F. (Livermore, CA); Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA)

    2011-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A tester for testing for explosives comprising a body, a lateral flow swab unit operably connected to the body, a explosives detecting reagent contained in the body, and a dispenser operatively connected to the body and the lateral flow swab unit. The dispenser selectively allows the explosives detecting reagent to be delivered to the lateral flow swab unit.

  8. 3-D Earth model more accurately pinpoints explosions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - 1 - 3-D Earth model more accurately pinpoints explosions October 25, 2013 During the Cold War, U) have partnered to develop a 3-D model of the Earth's mantle and crust called SALSA3D (Sandia-Los Alamos of explosions. Significance of the research After an explosion, the energy travels through the Earth as waves

  9. Colorimetric chemical analysis sampler for the presence of explosives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nunes, Peter J.; Eckels, Joel Del; Reynolds, John G.; Pagoria, Philip F.; Simpson, Randall L.

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A tester for testing for explosives comprising a body, a lateral flow swab unit operably connected to the body, a explosives detecting reagent contained in the body, and a dispenser operatively connected to the body and the lateral flow swab unit. The dispenser selectively allows the explosives detecting reagent to be delivered to the lateral flow swab unit.

  10. Forest fires, explosions, and random trees Edward Crane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Forest fires, explosions, and random trees Edward Crane HIMR, UoB 13th January 2014 #12 and James Martin at the University of Oxford. Edward Crane (HIMR, UoB) Forest fires, explosions, and random process and the Brownian CRT. Edward Crane (HIMR, UoB) Forest fires, explosions, and random trees 13th

  11. COUPLING AND COHERENCE ESTIMATES FROM SINGLE-FIRED CYLINDRICAL EXPLOSIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stump, Brian W.

    COUPLING AND COHERENCE ESTIMATES FROM SINGLE-FIRED CYLINDRICAL EXPLOSIONS Implications for Using 4 5 6 7 8 test bench pit charge depth burden charge length explosive stemming #12;Single shot) Modeling - Source a) Explosion Source Mueller-Murphy model b) Vertical Spall Opening of horizontal crack

  12. Method and system for detecting explosives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reber, Edward L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Jewell, James K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Rohde, Kenneth W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Seabury, Edward H. (Idaho Falls, ID); Blackwood, Larry G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Edwards, Andrew J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Derr, Kurt W. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2009-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of detecting explosives in a vehicle includes providing a first rack on one side of the vehicle, the rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a second rack on another side of the vehicle, the second rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a control system, remote from the first and second racks, coupled to the neutron generators and gamma ray detectors; using the control system, causing the neutron generators to generate neutrons; and performing gamma ray spectroscopy on spectra read by the gamma ray detectors to look for a signature indicative of presence of an explosive. Various apparatus and other methods are also provided.

  13. Waveforms Measured in Confined Thermobaric Explosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reichenbach, H; Neuwald, P; Kuhl, A L

    2007-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments with 1.5-g Shock-Dispersed-Fuel (SDF) charges have been conducted in six different chambers. Both flake Aluminum and TNT were used as the fuel. Static pressure gauges on the chamber wall were the main diagnostic. Waveforms for explosions in air were significantly larger than those in nitrogen - thereby demonstrating a strong thermobaric (combustion) effect. This effect increases as the confinement volume decreases and the mixture richness approaches 1.

  14. Experiments Upon the Explosions of Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stone, Fred

    1904-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    appeared at i n t e r v a l s i n the s c i e n t i f i c papers and magazines on the heat and explosion engine, hut not u n t i l recently has the subject been considered of any great impor­ tance. After a time a magazine devoted excl u s i v e l y...

  15. DOE explosives safety manual. Revision 7

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This manual prescribes the Department of Energy (DOE) safety rules used to implement the DOE safety policy for operations involving explosives. This manual is applicable to all DOE facilities engaged in operations of development, manufacturing, handling, storage, transportation, processing, or testing of explosives, pyrotechnics and propellants, or assemblies containing these materials. The standards of this manual deal with the operations involving explosives, pyrotechnics and propellants, and the safe management of such operations. The design of all new explosives facilities shall conform to the requirements established in this manual and implemented in DOE 6430.1A, ``General Design Criteria Manual.`` It is not intended that existing physical facilities be changed arbitrarily to comply with these provisions, except as required by law. Existing facilities that do not comply with these standards may continue to be used for the balance of their functional life, as long as the current operation presents no significantly greater risk than that assumed when the facility was originally designed and it can be demonstrated clearly that a modification to bring the facility into compliance is not feasible. However, in the case of a major renovation, the facility must be brought into compliance with current standards. The standards are presented as either mandatory or advisory. Mandatory standards, denoted by the words ``shall,`` ``must,`` or ``will,`` are requirements that must be followed unless written authority for deviation is granted as an exemption by the DOE. Advisory standards denoted by ``should`` or ``may`` are standards that may be deviated from with a waiver granted by facility management.

  16. Scientists train honeybees to detect explosives

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Members of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Stealthy Insect Sensor Project team have been able to harness the honeybee's exceptional olfactory sense by using the bees' natural reaction to nectar, a proboscis extension reflex (sticking out their tongue) to record an unmistakable response to a scent. Using Pavlovian techniques, researchers were able to train the bees to give a positive detection response via the PER when exposed to vapors from TNT, C4, and TATP explosives. The Stealthy Insect Sensor Project was born out of a global threat from the growing use of improvised explosive devices or IEDs, especially those that present a critical vulnerability for American military troops in Iraq and Afghanistan, and as an emerging danger for civilians worldwide. Current strategies to detect explosives are expensive and, in the case of trained detection dogs, too obtrusive to be used very discreetly. With bees however, they are small and discreet, offering the element of surprise. They're also are inexpensive to maintain and even easier to train than dogs. As a result of this need, initial funding for the work was provided by a development grant from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency.

  17. High pressure-resistant nonincendive emulsion explosive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruhe, Thomas C. (Duquesne, PA); Rao, Pilaka P. (Baghlingampalli, IN)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved emulsion explosive composition including hollow microspheres/bulking agents having high density and high strength. The hollow microspheres/bulking agents have true particle densities of about 0.2 grams per cubic centimeter or greater and include glass, siliceous, ceramic and synthetic resin microspheres, expanded minerals, and mixtures thereof. The preferred weight percentage of hollow microspheres/bulking agents in the composition ranges from 3.0 to 10.0 A chlorinated paraffin oil, also present in the improved emulsion explosive composition, imparts a higher film strength to the oil phase in the emulsion. The emulsion is rendered nonincendive by the production of sodium chloride in situ via the decomposition of sodium nitrate, a chlorinated paraffin oil, and sodium perchlorate. The air-gap sensitivity is improved by the in situ formation of monomethylamine perchlorate from dissolved monomethylamine nitrate and sodium perchlorate. The emulsion explosive composition can withstand static pressures to 139 bars and dynamic pressure loads on the order of 567 bars.

  18. THE BIGGEST EXPLOSIONS IN THE UNIVERSE. II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whalen, Daniel J.; Smidt, Joseph [T-2, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Johnson, Jarrett L. [XTD-6, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Heger, Alexander [Monash Centre for Astrophysics, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Even, Wesley; Fryer, Chris L. [CCS-2, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2013-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the leading contenders for the origin of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) at z ?> 7 is catastrophic baryon collapse in atomically cooled halos at z ? 15. In this scenario, a few protogalaxies form in the presence of strong Lyman-Werner UV backgrounds that quench H{sub 2} formation in their constituent halos, preventing them from forming stars or blowing heavy elements into the intergalactic medium prior to formation. At masses of 10{sup 8} M{sub ?} and virial temperatures of 10{sup 4} K, gas in these halos rapidly cools by H lines, in some cases forming 10{sup 4}-10{sup 6} M{sub ?} Population III stars and, a short time later, the seeds of SMBHs. Instead of collapsing directly to black holes (BHs), some of these stars died in the most energetic thermonuclear explosions in the universe. We have modeled the explosions of such stars in the dense cores of line-cooled protogalaxies in the presence of cosmological flows. In stark contrast to the explosions in diffuse regions in previous simulations, these supernovae briefly engulf the protogalaxy, but then collapse back into its dark matter potential. Fallback drives turbulence that efficiently distributes metals throughout the interior of the halo and fuels the rapid growth of nascent BHs at its center. The accompanying starburst and X-ray emission from these line-cooled galaxies easily distinguish them from more slowly evolving neighbors and might reveal the birthplaces of SMBHs on the sky.

  19. Characterization of explosives processing waste decomposition due to composting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griest, W.H.; Tyndall, R.L.; Stewart, A.J.; Ho, C.H.; Ironside, K.S.; Caton, J.E.; Caldwell, W.M.; Tan, E.

    1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Static pile and mechanically stirred composts generated at the Umatilla Army Depot Activity in a field composting optimization study were chemically and toxicologically characterized to provide data for the evaluation of composting efficiency to decontaminate and detoxify explosives-contaminated soil. Characterization included determination of explosives and 2,4,6,-trinitrotoluene metabolites in composts and their EPA Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure Leachates, leachate toxicity to Ceriodaphnia Dubia and mutagenicity of the leachates and organic solvent extracts of the composts to Ames bacterial strains TA-98 and TA-100. The main conclusion from this study is that composting can effectively reduce the concentrations of explosives and bacterial mutagenicity in explosives -- contaminated soil, and can reduce the aquatic toxicity of leachable compounds. Small levels of explosive and metabolites, bacterial mutagenicity, and leachable aquatic toxicity remain after composting. The ultimate fate of the biotransformed explosives, and the source(s) of residual toxicity and mutagenicity remain unknown.

  20. Compacting Plastic-Bonded Explosive Molding Powders to Dense Solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B. Olinger

    2005-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Dense solid high explosives are made by compacting plastic-bonded explosive molding powders with high pressures and temperatures for extended periods of time. The density is influenced by manufacturing processes of the powders, compaction temperature, the magnitude of compaction pressure, pressure duration, and number of repeated applications of pressure. The internal density variation of compacted explosives depends on method of compaction and the material being compacted.

  1. Quadractic Model of Thermodynamic States in SDF Explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuhl, A L; Khasainov, B

    2007-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the thermodynamic states encountered during Shock-Dispersed-Fuel (SDF) explosions. Such explosions contain up to six components: three fuels (PETN, TNT and Aluminum) and their products corresponding to stoichiometric combustion with air. We establish the loci in thermodynamic state space that correctly describes the behavior of the components. Results are fit with quadratic functions that serve as fast equations of state suitable for 3D numerical simulations of SDF explosions.

  2. Mesoscale modeling of metal-loaded high explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bdzil, John Bohdan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lieberthal, Brandon [UNIV OF ILLINOIS; Srewart, Donald S [UNIV OF ILLINOIS

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe a 3D approach to modeling multi-phase blast explosive, which is primarily condensed explosive by volume with inert embedded particles. These embedded particles are uniform in size and placed on the array of a regular lattice. The asymptotic theory of detonation shock dynamics governs the detonation shock propagation in the explosive. Mesoscale hydrodynamic simulations are used to show how the particles are compressed, deformed, and accelerated by the high-speed detonation products flow.

  3. Surface effects of underground nuclear explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, B.M.; Drellack, S.L. Jr.; Townsend, M.J.

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of nuclear explosions have been observed and studied since the first nuclear test (code named Trinity) on July 16, 1945. Since that first detonation, 1,053 nuclear tests have been conducted by the US, most of which were sited underground at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The effects of underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) on their surroundings have long been the object of much interest and study, especially for containment, engineering, and treaty verification purposes. One aspect of these explosion-induced phenomena is the disruption or alteration of the near-surface environment, also known as surface effects. This report was prepared at the request of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), to bring together, correlate, and preserve information and techniques used in the recognition and documentation of surface effects of UNEs. This report has several main sections, including pertinent background information (Section 2.0), descriptions of the different types of surface effects (Section 3.0), discussion of their application and limitations (Section 4.0), an extensive bibliography and glossary (Section 6.0 and Appendix A), and procedures used to document geologic surface effects at the NTS (Appendix C). Because a majority of US surface-effects experience is from the NTS, an overview of pertinent NTS-specific information also is provided in Appendix B. It is not within the scope of this report to explore new relationships among test parameters, physiographic setting, and the types or degree of manifestation of surface effects, but rather to compile, summarize, and capture surface-effects observations and interpretations, as well as documentation procedures and the rationale behind them.

  4. Producing a computer generated explosive effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mao, Wei

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    real 3D object, C G glass must be created to render the reflection of the fire, rolling clouds, debris, etc. 1. Launch Alias, click on the Persp [Camera] window, and set the size to 645X486. This size must be set to the same size as the background.... The particles with fractal shader are illuminated by two volume lights which are scaled up during the explo sion to simulate the rolling dust clouds. Add Lights to Simulate Explosions 1. Create one point light and name it "Flash". This is the light...

  5. Detonation and incineration products of PBX explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fletcher, M.A.; Loughran, E.D.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of experiments are planned to determine detonation product gases that are released into the environment when high explosives are tested. These experiments will be done in a 1.8-m-diam confinement vessel at ambient air pressure and partial vacuum. A matrix of four shots of PBX 9501, three shots of PBX 9502 and one shot of LX-10 are analyzed to determine the reproducibility and mass balance of materials in the detonation. This paper will only report on the detonation product gases as other experiments are planned.

  6. Electromagnetic effects on explosive reaction and plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tasker, Douglas G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Whitley, Von H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mace, Jonathan L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pemberton, Steven J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sandoval, Thomas D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lee, Richard J [INDIAN HEAD DIVISION

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A number of studies have reported that electric fields can have quantifiable effects on the initiation and growth of detonation, yet the mechanisms of these effects are not clear. Candidates include Joule heating of the reaction zone, perturbations to the activation energy for chemical reaction, reduction of the Peierls energy barrier that facilitates dislocation motion, and acceleration of plasma projected from the reaction zone. In this study the possible role of plasma in the initiation and growth of explosive reaction is investigated. The effects of magnetic and electric field effects on reaction growth will be reviewed and recent experiments reported.

  7. Method and system for detecting an explosive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reber, Edward L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Rohde, Kenneth W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Blackwood, Larry G. (Bozeman, MT)

    2010-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and system for detecting at least one explosive in a vehicle using a neutron generator and a plurality of NaI detectors. Spectra read from the detectors is calibrated by performing Gaussian peak fitting to define peak regions, locating a Na peak and an annihilation peak doublet, assigning a predetermined energy level to one peak in the doublet, and predicting a hydrogen peak location based on a location of at least one peak of the doublet. The spectra are gain shifted to a common calibration, summed for respective groups of NaI detectors, and nitrogen detection analysis performed on the summed spectra for each group.

  8. High Explosives Application Facility | National Nuclear Security

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA groupTubahq.na.gov Office ofDepartmentAdministration Explosives Application

  9. Energetic Material - Explosives - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField Campaign:INEAWater UseCElizabethTwoJaniceEnerG2 Develops NewExplosives

  10. Construction on Pantex High Explosives Pressing Facility reaches...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Gallery Jobs Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home NNSA Blog Construction on Pantex High Explosives Pressing Facility ... Construction on Pantex High...

  11. Method for digesting a nitro-bearing explosive compound

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shah, Manish M. (Richland, WA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a process wherein superoxide radicals from superoxide salt are used to break down the explosive compounds. The process has an excellent reaction rate for degrading explosives, and operates at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure in aqueous or non-aqueous conditions. Because the superoxide molecules are small, much smaller than an enzyme molecule for example, they can penetrate the microstructure of plastic explosives faster. The superoxide salt generates reactive hydroxyl radicals, which can destroy other organic contaminants, if necessary, along with digesting the explosive nitro-bearing compound.

  12. Title Preactivity Survey Report for Five Tonopah Test Range Explosive...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Preactivity Survey Report for Five Tonopah Test Range Explosive Ordnance Disposal Sites Pre-activity survey report to clear areas to be cleaned up. No sensitive species were...

  13. Nuclear Explosive and Weapon Surety Program - DOE Directives...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1D Admin Chg 1, Nuclear Explosive and Weapon Surety Program by Carl Sykes Functional areas: Administrative Change, Defense Nuclear Facility Safety and Health Requirement, Defense...

  14. Nuclear Explosive Safety - DOE Directives, Delegations, and Requiremen...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    52.2E, Nuclear Explosive Safety by Angela Chambers Functional areas: Safety, Security This Department of Energy (DOE) Order establishes requirements to implement the nuclear...

  15. Nuclear Explosive and Weapon Surety Program - DOE Directives...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1E, Nuclear Explosive and Weapon Surety Program by Angela Chambers Functional areas: Defense Nuclear Facility Safety and Health Requirement, Defense Programs, Nuclear Weapons...

  16. Surface detonation in type Ia supernova explosions?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. K. Roepke; S. E. Woosley

    2006-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We explore the evolution of thermonuclear supernova explosions when the progenitor white dwarf star ignites asymmetrically off-center. Several numerical simulations are carried out in two and three dimensions to test the consequences of different initial flame configurations such as spherical bubbles displaced from the center, more complex deformed configurations, and teardrop-shaped ignitions. The burning bubbles float towards the surface while releasing energy due to the nuclear reactions. If the energy release is too small to gravitationally unbind the star, the ash sweeps around it, once the burning bubble approaches the surface. Collisions in the fuel on the opposite side increase its temperature and density and may -- in some cases -- initiate a detonation wave which will then propagate inward burning the core of the star and leading to a strong explosion. However, for initial setups in two dimensions that seem realistic from pre-ignition evolution, as well as for all three-dimensional simulations the collimation of the surface material is found to be too weak to trigger a detonation.

  17. Security and Use Control of Nuclear Explosives and Nuclear Weapons

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2010-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This Order establishes requirements to implement the nuclear explosive security and use control elements of DOE O 452.1D, Nuclear Explosive and Weapon Surety (NEWS) Program, to ensure authorized use, when directed by proper authority, and protect against deliberate unauthorized acts/deliberate unauthorized use. Cancels DOE O 452.4A.

  18. Security and Use Control of Nuclear Explosives and Nuclear Weapons

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2014-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The Order establishes requirements to implement the nuclear explosive security and use control (UC) elements of DOE O 452.1D, Nuclear Explosive and Weapon Surety (NEWS) Program, to ensure authorized use, when directed by proper authority, and protect against deliberate unauthorized acts (DUAs), deliberate unauthorized use (DUU), and denial of authorized use (DAU).

  19. Estimation of scalar moments from explosion-generated surface waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevens, J.L.

    1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rayleigh waves from underground nuclear explosions are used to estimate scaler moments for 40 Nevada Test Site (NTS) explosions and 18 explosions at the Soviet East Kazakh test site. The Rayleigh wave spectrum is written as a product of functions that depend on the elastic structure of the travel path, the elastic structure of the source region and the Q structure of the path. Results are used to examine the worldwide variability of each factor and the resulting variability of surface wave amplitudes. The path elastic structure and Q structure are found by inversion of Rayleigh wave phase and group velocities and spectral amplitudes. The Green's function derived from this structure is used to estimate the moments of explosions observed along the same path. This procedure produces more consistent amplitude estimates than conventional magnitude measurements. Network scatter in log moment is typically 0.1. In contrast with time-domain amplitudes, the elastic structure of the travel path causes little variability in spectral amplitudes. When the mantle Q is constrained to a value of approximately 100 at depths greater than 120 km, the inversion for Q and moment produces moments that remain constant with distance. Based on the best models available, surface waves from NTS explosions should be larger than surface waves from East Kazakh explosions with the same moment. Estimated scaler moments for the largest East Kazakh explosions since 1976 are smaller than the estimated moments for the largest NTS explosions for the same time period.

  20. Order Module--DOE O 452.1D, NUCLEAR EXPLOSIVE AND WEAPON SURETY...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Order Module--DOE O 452.1D, NUCLEAR EXPLOSIVE AND WEAPON SURETY PROGRAM, DOE O 452.2D, NUCLEAR EXPLOSIVE SAFETY Order Module--DOE O 452.1D, NUCLEAR EXPLOSIVE AND WEAPON SURETY...

  1. Acoustic Methods for Evaluation of High Energy Explosions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lobanovsky, Yury I

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two independent acoustic methods were used to verify the results of earlier explosion energy calculations of Chelyabinsk meteoroid. They are: estimations through a path length of infrasound wave and through maximum concentration of the wave energy. The energy of this explosion turned out the same as in earlier calculations, and it is close to 58 Mt of TNT. The first method, as well as evaluations through seismic signals and barograms, have confirmed the energy of Tunguska meteoroid explosion at 14.0 - 14.5 Mt level. Moreover, there is a good agreement between acoustic estimations and other data for the explosion energy of another meteoroid that was ended its flight over the southern part of Indian Ocean, and for two catastrophic volcanoes explosions - Bezymyanny and Krakatoa.

  2. GEOFRAC: an explosives stimulation technique for a geothermal well

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mumma, D.M.; McCullough, F. Jr.; Schmidt, E.W.; Pye, D.S.; Allen, W.C.; Pyle, D.; Hanold, R.J.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The first known use of explosives for stimulating a geothermal well was successfully conducted in December 1981 with a process called GEOFRAC. The 260/sup 0/C well was located at the Union Oil Company's Geysers Field in northern California. For the initial test, 364 kg of a new explosive called HITEX II was placed at a depth of 2256 meters and detonated to verify techniques. The explosive was contained in an aluminum canister to separate it from the well fluids. In the second test, 5000 kg of explosive was used representing a column length of approximately 191 meters. The explosive was detonated at a depth of 1697 meters in the same well. The results of these tests show that HITEX II can be safely emplaced and successfully detonated in a hot geothermal well without causing damage to the well bore or casing.

  3. Antimatter induced fusion and thermonuclear explosions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gsponer, A; Gsponer, Andre; Hurni, Jean-Pierre

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The feasibility of using antihydrogen for igniting inertial confinement fusion pellets or triggering large scale thermonuclear explosions is investigated. The number of antiproton annihilations required to start a thermonuclear burn wave in either DT or Li_2DT is found to be about 10^{21}/k^2, where k is the compression factor of the fuel to be ignited. In the second part, the technologies for producing antiprotons with high energy accelerator systems and the means for manipulating and storing microgram amounts of antihydrogen are examined. While there seems to be no theoretical obstacles to the production of 10^{18} antiprotons per day (the amount required for triggering one thermonuclear bomb), the construction of such a plant involves several techniques which are between 3 and 4 orders of magnitude away from present day technology.

  4. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDIES ON RADIATION CARCINOGENESIS IN HUMAN POPULATIONS FOLLOWING ACUTE EXPOSURE: NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS AND MEDICAL RADIATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EXPOSURE: NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS AND MEDICAL RADIATION . Jacobexposed to nuclear explosions and medical radiation. Sinceto nuclear explo ions or medical radiation, describes the

  5. A simple line wave generator using commercial explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, John S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jackson, Scott I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hill, Larry G [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a simple and inexpensive explosive line wave generator has been designed using commercial sheet explosive and plane wave lens concepts. The line wave generator is constructed using PETN and RDX based sheet explosive for the slow and fast components respectively. The design permits the creation of any desired line width. A series of experiments were performed on a 100 mm design, measuring the detonation arrival time at the output of the generator using a streak camera. An iterative technique was used to adjust the line wave generator's slow and fast components, so as to minimize the arrival time deviation. Designs, test results, and concepts for improvements will be discussed.

  6. Security and Control of Nuclear Explosives and Nuclear Weapons

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2001-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This directive establishes requirements and responsibilities to prevent the deliberate unauthorized use of U.S. nuclear explosives and U.S. nuclear weapons. Cancels DOE O 452.4.

  7. Simulation of turbulent explosion of hydrogen-air mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmed, I.; Swaminathan, N.

    2014-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    ]. Also, fundamental understanding of hydrogen combustion is important from safety view points, for example generation and accumulation of hydrogen in nuclear reactors [7] and rupturing of a pressurised hydrogen storage tank can lead to explosions. A...

  8. A parametric pressing study using a plastic-bonded explosive

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayden, D. J. (David J.); Maez, L. R. (Leland R.); Olinger, B. W. (Barton W.); Powell, S. J. (Sandra J.)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pressed plastic-bonded explosives, PBXs, are commonly used by defense and private industry. PBX 9501 is composed of HMX crystals held together with a plastic binder 'softened' with plasticizers. The detonation behavior of any explosive is very dependent upon its density, with the desire to have a uniform, high density throughout the explosive component. A parametric study has been performed pressing PBX 9501 hydrostatically and uniaxially. The effects of several pressing parameters on the bulk density and density profile, as well as mechanical properties, have been measured. The parameters investigated include pressure, temperature, number of cycles, dwell time, rest time, sack thickness, and particle distribution and size. Density distributions within the pressed explosives were also compared.

  9. Ultrafast laser based coherent control methods for explosives detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, David Steven [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The detection of explosives is a notoriously difficult problem, especially at stand-off, due to their (generally) low vapor pressure, environmental and matrix interferences, and packaging. We are exploring Optimal Dynamic Detection of Explosives (ODD-Ex), which exploits the best capabilities of recent advances in laser technology and recent discoveries in optimal shaping of laser pulses for control of molecular processes to significantly enhance the standoff detection of explosives. The core of the ODD-Ex technique is the introduction of optimally shaped laser pulses to simultaneously enhance sensitivity to explosives signatures while dramatically improving specificity, particularly against matrix materials and background interferences. These goals are being addressed by operating in an optimal non-linear fashion, typically with a single shaped laser pulse inherently containing within it coherently locked control and probe subpulses. Recent results will be presented.

  10. EDS V25 containment vessel explosive qualification test report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudolphi, John Joseph

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The V25 containment vessel was procured by the Project Manager, Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel (PMNSCM) as a replacement vessel for use on the P2 Explosive Destruction Systems. It is the first EDS vessel to be fabricated under Code Case 2564 of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, which provides rules for the design of impulsively loaded vessels. The explosive rating for the vessel based on the Code Case is nine (9) pounds TNT-equivalent for up to 637 detonations. This limit is an increase from the 4.8 pounds TNT-equivalency rating for previous vessels. This report describes the explosive qualification tests that were performed in the vessel as part of the process for qualifying the vessel for explosive use. The tests consisted of a 11.25 pound TNT equivalent bare charge detonation followed by a 9 pound TNT equivalent detonation.

  11. Explosive destruction system for disposal of chemical munitions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tschritter, Kenneth L. (Livermore, CA); Haroldsen, Brent L. (Manteca, CA); Shepodd, Timothy J. (Livermore, CA); Stofleth, Jerome H. (Albuquerque, NM); DiBerardo, Raymond A. (Baltimore, MD)

    2005-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    An explosive destruction system and method for safely destroying explosively configured chemical munitions. The system comprises a sealable, gas-tight explosive containment vessel, a fragment suppression system positioned in said vessel, and shaped charge means for accessing the interior of the munition when the munition is placed within the vessel and fragment suppression system. Also provided is a means for treatment and neutralization of the munition's chemical fills, and means for heating and agitating the contents of the vessel. The system is portable, rapidly deployable and provides the capability of explosively destroying and detoxifying chemical munitions within a gas-tight enclosure so that there is no venting of toxic or hazardous chemicals during detonation.

  12. Impulsive Spot Heating and Thermal Explosion of Interstellar Grains Revisited

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ivlev, A V; Vasyunin, A; Caselli, P

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The problem of impulsive heating of dust grains in cold, dense interstellar clouds is revisited theoretically, with the aim to better understand leading mechanisms of the explosive desorption of icy mantles. It is rigorously shown that if the heating of a reactive medium occurs within a sufficiently localized spot (e.g., heating of mantles by cosmic rays), then the subsequent thermal evolution is characterized by a single dimensionless number $\\lambda$. This number identifies a bifurcation between two distinct regimes: When $\\lambda$ exceeds a critical value (threshold), the heat equation exhibits the explosive solution, i.e., the thermal (chemical) explosion is triggered. Otherwise, thermal diffusion causes the deposited heat to spread over the entire grain -- this regime is commonly known as the whole-grain heating. The theory allows us to find a critical combination of the physical parameters that govern the explosion of icy mantles due to impulsive spot heating. In particular, the calculations suggest tha...

  13. Los Alamos Explosives Performance Key to Stockpile Stewardship

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Dattelbaum, Dana

    2015-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    As the U.S. Nuclear Deterrent ages, one essential factor in making sure that the weapons will continue to perform as designed is understanding the fundamental properties of the high explosives that are part of a nuclear weapons system. As nuclear weapons go through life extension programs, some changes may be advantageous, particularly through the addition of what are known as "insensitive" high explosives that are much less likely to accidentally detonate than the already very safe "conventional" high explosives that are used in most weapons. At Los Alamos National Laboratory explosives research includes a wide variety of both large- and small-scale experiments that include small contained detonations, gas and powder gun firings, larger outdoor detonations, large-scale hydrodynamic tests, and at the Nevada Nuclear Security Site, underground sub-critical experiments.

  14. High-speed cinematography of internal explosions for aviation security

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Settles, Gary S.

    High-speed cinematography of internal explosions for aviation security G.S. Settles1 , J.R. Benwood of a program to remedy this were shown. Having demonstrated high-speed schlieren shock wave cinematography

  15. Program to Prevent Accidental or Unauthorized Nuclear Explosive Detonations

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1980-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The order establishes the DOE program to prevent accidental or unauthorized nuclear explosive detonations, and to define responsibilities for DOE participation in the Department of Defense program for nuclear weapon and nuclear weapon system safety. Does not cancel other directives.

  16. NEW - DOE O 452.1E, Nuclear Explosive and Weapon Surety Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    All nuclear explosives and nuclear explosive operations require special safety, security, and use control consideration because of the potentially unacceptable consequences of an accident or unauthorized act; therefore, a Nuclear Explosive and Weapon Surety (NEWS) Program is established to prevent unintended/unauthorized detonation and deliberate unauthorized use of nuclear explosives.

  17. Simulation of Enhanced-Explosive Devices in Chambers and Tunnels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, J B; Kuhl, A L; Beckner, V E

    2007-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Introduction: Shock-dispersed fuel (SDF) explosives use a small chemical charge to disperse a combustible fuel that burns in the post-detonation environment. The energy released in the combustion process has the potential for generating higher pressures and temperatures than conventional explosives. However, the development of these types of novel explosive systems requires a detailed understanding of all of the modes of energy release. Objective: The objective of this project is develop a simulation capability for predicting explosion and combustion phase of SDF charges and apply that capability to quantifying the behavior of these types of explosives. Methodology: We approximate the dynamics of an SDF charge using high Reynolds number, fast chemistry model that effectively captures the thermodynamic behavior of SDF charges and accurately models the key modes of energy release. The overall computational model is combined with Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) , implemented in a parallel adaptive framework suited to the massively parallel computer systems. Results: We have developed a multiphase version of the model and used it to simulate an SDF charge in which the dispersed fuel is aluminum flakes. Flow visualizations show that the combustion field is turbulent for the chamber and tunnel cases studied. During the 3 milli-seconds of simulation, over 90% of the Al fuel was consumed for the chamber case, while about 40% was consumed in the tunnel case in agreement with Al-SDF experiments. Significance to DoD: DoD has a requirement to develop enhanced energetic materials to support future military systems. The SDF charges described here utilize the combustion mechanism to increase energy per gram of fuel by a factor of 7 to 10 over conventional (detonating) charges, and increase the temperature of the explosion cloud to 2,000-4,000 K (depending on the SDF fuel). Accurate numerical simulation of such SDF explosions allows one to understand the energy release mechanism, and thereby design full-scale systems with greatly improved explosive efficiency.

  18. Reagent Selection Methodology for a Novel Explosives Detection Platform

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This video describes research being conducted by Dr. Marvin Warner, a research scientist at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, in the individual pieces of antibodies used to set up a chemical reaction that will give off light just by mixing reagents together with a sample that contains an explosive molecule. This technology would help detect if explosives are present with just the use of a handheld system or container.

  19. HERMES: A Model to Describe Deformation, Burning, Explosion, and Detonation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reaugh, J E

    2011-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    HERMES (High Explosive Response to MEchanical Stimulus) was developed to fill the need for a model to describe an explosive response of the type described as BVR (Burn to Violent Response) or HEVR (High Explosive Violent Response). Characteristically this response leaves a substantial amount of explosive unconsumed, the time to reaction is long, and the peak pressure developed is low. In contrast, detonations characteristically consume all explosive present, the time to reaction is short, and peak pressures are high. However, most of the previous models to describe explosive response were models for detonation. The earliest models to describe the response of explosives to mechanical stimulus in computer simulations were applied to intentional detonation (performance) of nearly ideal explosives. In this case, an ideal explosive is one with a vanishingly small reaction zone. A detonation is supersonic with respect to the undetonated explosive (reactant). The reactant cannot respond to the pressure of the detonation before the detonation front arrives, so the precise compressibility of the reactant does not matter. Further, the mesh sizes that were practical for the computer resources then available were large with respect to the reaction zone. As a result, methods then used to model detonations, known as {beta}-burn or program burn, were not intended to resolve the structure of the reaction zone. Instead, these methods spread the detonation front over a few finite-difference zones, in the same spirit that artificial viscosity is used to spread the shock front in inert materials over a few finite-difference zones. These methods are still widely used when the structure of the reaction zone and the build-up to detonation are unimportant. Later detonation models resolved the reaction zone. These models were applied both to performance, particularly as it is affected by the size of the charge, and to situations in which the stimulus was less than that needed for reliable performance, whether as a result of accident, hazard, or a fault in the detonation train. These models describe the build-up of detonation from a shock stimulus. They are generally consistent with the mesoscale picture of ignition at many small defects in the plane of the shock front and the growth of the resulting hot-spots, leading to detonation in heterogeneous explosives such as plastic-bonded explosives (PBX). The models included terms for ignition, and also for the growth of reaction as tracked by the local mass fraction of product gas, {lambda}. The growth of reaction in such models incorporates a form factor that describes the change of surface area per unit volume (specific surface area) as the reaction progresses. For unimolecular crystalline-based explosives, the form factor is consistent with the mesoscale picture of a galaxy of hot spots burning outward and eventually interacting with each other. For composite explosives and propellants, where the fuel and oxidizer are segregated, the diffusion flame at the fuel-oxidizer interface can be interpreted with a different form factor that corresponds to grains burning inward from their surfaces. The form factor influences the energy release rate, and the amount of energy released in the reaction zone. Since the 19th century, gun and cannon propellants have used perforated geometric shapes that produce an increasing surface area as the propellant burns. This helps maintain the pressure as burning continues while the projectile travels down the barrel, which thereby increases the volume of the hot gas. Interior ballistics calculations use a geometric form factor to describe the changing surface area precisely. As a result, with a suitably modified form factor, detonation models can represent burning and explosion in damaged and broken reactant. The disadvantage of such models in application to accidents is that the ignition term does not distinguish between a value of pressure that results from a shock, and the same pressure that results from a more gradual increase. This disagrees with experiments, where

  20. Sensitivity of once-shocked, weathered high explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, K.L.; Harris, B.W.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Effects caused by stimulating once-shocked, weathered high explosives (OSW-HE) are investigated. The sensitivity of OSW-HE to mechanical stimuli was determined using standard industry tests. Some initial results are given. Pieces of OSW-HE were collected from active and inactive firing sites and from an area surrounding a drop tower at Los Alamos where skid and spigot tests were done. Samples evaluated were cast explosives or plastic bonded explosive (PBX) formulations containing cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX), cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (HMX), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), mock or inert HE [tris(beta-chloroethyl)phosphate (CEF)], barium nitrate, cyanuric acid, talc, and Kel-F. Once-shocked, weathered LX-10 Livermore explosive [HMX/Viton A, (95/5 wt %)], PBX 9011 [HMX/Estane, (90/10 wt %)], PBX 9404 [HMX/nitrocellulose, tris(beta-chloroethyl) phosphate, (94/3/3 wt %)], Composition B or cyclotol (TNT/RDX explosives), and PBX 9007 (90% RDX, 9.1% styrene, 0.5% dioctyl phthalate, and 0.45 resin) were subjected to the hammer test, the drop-weight impact sensitivity test, differential thermal analysis (DTA), the spark test, the Henkin`s critical temperature test, and the flame test. Samples were subjected to remote, wet cutting and drilling; remote, liquid-nitrogen-cooled grinding and crushing; and scanning electron microscope (SEM) surface analyses for morphological changes.

  1. UNIFYING THE ZOO OF JET-DRIVEN STELLAR EXPLOSIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lazzati, Davide; Blackwell, Christopher H. [Department of Physics, NC State University, 2401 Stinson Drive, Raleigh, NC 27695-8202 (United States); Morsony, Brian J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2535 Sterling Hall, 475 N. Charter Street, Madison WI 53706-1582 (United States); Begelman, Mitchell C. [JILA, University of Colorado, 440 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309-0440 (United States)

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a set of numerical simulations of stellar explosions induced by relativistic jets emanating from a central engine sitting at the center of compact, dying stars. We explore a wide range of durations of the central engine activity, two candidate stellar progenitors, and two possible values of the total energy release. We find that even if the jets are narrowly collimated, their interaction with the star unbinds the stellar material, producing a stellar explosion. We also find that the outcome of the explosion can be very different depending on the duration of the engine activity. Only the longest-lasting engines result in successful gamma-ray bursts. Engines that power jets only for a short time result in relativistic supernova (SN) explosions, akin to observed engine-driven SNe such as SN2009bb. Engines with intermediate durations produce weak gamma-ray bursts, with properties similar to nearby bursts such as GRB 980425. Finally, we find that the engines with the shortest durations, if they exist in nature, produce stellar explosions that lack sizable amounts of relativistic ejecta and are therefore dynamically indistinguishable from ordinary core-collapse SNe.

  2. Development of a trace explosives detection portal for personnel screening

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parmeter, J.E.; Linker, K.L.; Rhykerd, C.L. Jr.; Bouchier, F.A.; Hannum, D.W.

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors discuss the development, design, and operation of a walk-through trace detection portal designed to screen personnel for explosives. Developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) with primary funding from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and additional support from the Department of Energy office of Safeguards and Security, this portal is intended primarily for use in airport terminals and in other localities where a very high throughput of pedestrian traffic is combined with stringent security requirements. The portal is capable of detecting both vapor and particulate contamination, with the collection of explosive material being based upon the entrainment of that material in air flows over the body of the person being screened. This portal is capable of detecting most types of common high explosives of interest to the FAA. The authors discuss the results of field testing of the portal in the Albuquerque International Airport in September, 1997 and more recent steps towards commercialization of the portal.

  3. Method for loading explosive laterally from a borehole

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ricketts, Thomas E. (Grand Junction, CO)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is provided a method for forming an in situ oil shale retort in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. At least one void is excavated in the formation, leaving zones of unfragmented formation adjacent the void. An array of main blastholes is formed in the zone of unfragmented formation and at least one explosive charge which is shaped for forming a high velocity gas jet is placed into a main blasthole with the axis of the gas jet extending transverse to the blasthole. The shaped charge is detonated for forming an auxiliary blasthole in the unfragmented formation adjacent a side wall of the main blasthole. The auxiliary blasthole extends laterally away from the main blasthole. Explosive is placed into the main blasthole and into the auxiliary blasthole and is detonated for explosively expanding formation towards the free face for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles in the in situ oil shale retort.

  4. GRBs and Hypernova Explosions of Some Galactic Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. E. Brown; C. -H. Lee; E. Moreno Mendez

    2007-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Knowing the Kerr parameters we can make quantitative calculations of the rotational energy of black holes. We show that Nova Sco (GRO J1655 - 40), Il Lupi (4U 1543 - 47), XTE J1550 - 564 and GS 2023 + 338 are relics of gamma-ray burst (GRB) and Hypernova explosions. They had more than enough rotational energy to power themselves. In fact, they had so much energy that they would have disrupted the accretion disk of the black hole that powered them by the communicated rotational energy, so that the energy delivery was self limiting. The most important feature in producing high rotational energy in the binary is low donor (secondary star) mass. We suggest that V4641 Sgr (XTE J1819 - 254) and GRS 1915 + 105 underwent less energetic explosions; because of their large donor masses. These explosions were one or two orders of magnitude lower in energy than that of Nova Sco. Cyg X - 1 (1956 + 350) had an even less energetic explosion, because of an even larger donor mass. We find that in the evolution of the soft X-ray transient sources the donor (secondary star) is tidally locked with the helium star, which evolved from the giant, as the hydrogen envelope is stripped off in common envelope evolution. The tidal locking is transferred from the helium star to the black hole into which it falls. Depending on the mass of the donor, the black hole can be spun up to the angular momentum necessary to power the GRB and Hypernova explosion. The donor decouples, acting as a passive witness to the explosion which, for the given angular momentum, then proceeds as in the Woosley Collapsar model. High mass donors which tend to follow from low metallicity give long GRBs because their lower energy can be accepted by the central engine.

  5. Thermodynamic Model of Aluminum Combustion in SDF Explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuhl, . L

    2006-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermodynamic states encountered during combustion of Aluminum powder in Shock-Dispersed-Fuel (SDF) explosions were analyzed with the Cheetah code. Results are displayed in the Le Chatelier diagram: the locus of states of specific internal energy versus temperature. Accuracy of the results was confirmed by comparing the fuel and products curves with the heats of detonation and combustion, and species composition as measured in bomb calorimeter experiments. Results were fit with analytic functions u = f(T) suitable for specifying the thermodynamic properties required for gas-dynamic models of combustion in explosions.

  6. Safety and performance enhancement circuit for primary explosive detonators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davis, Ronald W. (Tracy, CA)

    2006-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A safety and performance enhancement arrangement for primary explosive detonators. This arrangement involves a circuit containing an energy storage capacitor and preset self-trigger to protect the primary explosive detonator from electrostatic discharge (ESD). The circuit does not discharge into the detonator until a sufficient level of charge is acquired on the capacitor. The circuit parameters are designed so that normal ESD environments cannot charge the protection circuit to a level to achieve discharge. When functioned, the performance of the detonator is also improved because of the close coupling of the stored energy.

  7. Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Engineering Program - Strategic Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casey, Leslie A. [DOE/NNSA

    2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Engineering (NEM R&E) Program is dedicated to providing knowledge, technical expertise, and products to US agencies responsible for monitoring nuclear explosions in all environments and is successful in turning scientific breakthroughs into tools for use by operational monitoring agencies. To effectively address the rapidly evolving state of affairs, the NNSA NEM R&E program is structured around three program elements described within this strategic plan: Integration of New Monitoring Assets, Advanced Event Characterization, and Next-Generation Monitoring Systems. How the Program fits into the National effort and historical accomplishments are also addressed.

  8. Radio frequency overview of the high explosive radio telemetry project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bracht, R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Dimsdle, J.; Rich, D.; Smith, F. [AlliedSignal Federal Manufacturing and Technologies, Kansas City, MO (United States)

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    High explosive radio telemetry (HERT) is a project that is being developed jointly by Los Alamos National Laboratory and AlliedSignal Federal Manufacturing and Technologies. The ultimate goal is to develop a small, modular telemetry system capable of high-speed detection of explosive events, with an accuracy on the order of 10 nanoseconds. The reliable telemetry of this data, from a high-speed missile trajectory, is a very challenging opportunity. All captured data must be transmitted in less than 20 microseconds of time duration. This requires a high bits/Hertz microwave telemetry modulation code to insure transmission of the data with the limited time interval available.

  9. Thermonuclear supernova explosions and their remnants: the case of Tycho

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carles Badenes; Eduardo Bravo; Kazimierz J. Borkowski

    2003-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose to use the thermal X-ray emission from young supernova remnants (SNRs) originated in Type Ia supernovae (SNe) to extract relevant information concerning the explosion mechanism. We focus on the differences between numerical 1D and 3D explosion calculations, and the impact that these differences could have on young SNRs. We use the remnant of the Tycho supernova (SN 1572) as a test case to compare with our predictions, discussing the observational features that allow to accept or discard a given model.

  10. Method to prevent/mitigate steam explosions in casting pits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taleyarkhan, Rusi P. (Knoxville, TN)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steam explosions can be prevented or mitigated during a metal casting process by the placement of a perforated flooring system in the casting pit. An upward flow of compressed gas through this perforated flooring system is introduced during the casting process to produce a buffer layer between any spilled molten metal and the cooling water in the reservoir. This buffer layer provides a hydrodynamic layer which acts to prevent or mitigate steam explosions resulting from hot, molten metal being spilled into or onto the cooling water.

  11. Potential applications of the natural design of internal explosion chambers in the bombardier beetle (Carabidae, Brachinus)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lai, Changquan

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Bombardier Beetle (Carabidae, Brachinus) has a unique form of defense mechanism which involves the explosive mixing of hydroquinones and hydrogen peroxide in its internal explosion chambers and using the resultant high ...

  12. Electrical apparatus for explosive gas atmospheres, Part 10: Classification of hazardous areas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IEC Technical Committee

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Report has been prepared by IEC Technical Committee No. 31, Electrical Apparatus for Explosive Atmospheres. It forms one of a series of publications dealing with electrical apparatus for use in explosive gas atmospheres. ...

  13. SciTech Connect: Some past and present uses of nuclear-explosion...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Some past and present uses of nuclear-explosion sources in physics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Some past and present uses of nuclear-explosion sources in physics...

  14. Exoplanets from supernova explosions Shlomo Dado, Arnon Dar and Erez N Ribak

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ribak, Erez

    Exoplanets from supernova explosions Shlomo Dado, Arnon Dar and Erez N Ribak Physics Department disks (few) More? See "Misaligned And Alien Planets From Explosive Death Of Stars" by Dado, Dar

  15. Precise and Accurate Density Determination of Explosives Using Hydrostatic Weighing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B. Olinger

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Precise and accurate density determination requires weight measurements in air and water using sufficiently precise analytical balances, knowledge of the densities of air and water, knowledge of thermal expansions, availability of a density standard, and a method to estimate the time to achieve thermal equilibrium with water. Density distributions in pressed explosives are inferred from the densities of elements from a central slice.

  16. The physics of antimatter induced fusion and thermonuclear explosions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andre Gsponer; Jean-pierre Hurni

    The feasibility of using antihydrogen for igniting inertial confinement fusion pellets or triggering large scale thermonuclear explosions is investigated. The number of antiproton annihilations required to start a thermonuclear burn wave in either DT or Li2DT is found to be about 10 21 /k 2, where

  17. Subaqueous Explosive Eruption and Welding of Pyroclastic Deposits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Busby, Cathy

    Subaqueous Explosive Eruption and Welding of Pyroclastic Deposits Peter Kokelaar and Cathy Busby fabrics indicative of welding of glass shards and pumice at temperatures >500"C. The occurrence emplacement temperature in pyroclas- tic deposits is welding. Welding is hot-state viscous deformation

  18. Geothermics 34 (2005) 518526 Evolution of hydrothermal explosions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    to predict possible future explosions as a natural hazard, we have monitored noble gas isotopes and gas, Tengchong volcanic region, China Zhiguan Shangguana,, Ciping Zhaob, Hengzhong Lic, Qingwu Gaoa, Mingliang Sund a Institute of Geology, China Earthquake Administration, Beijing 100029, China b Earthquake

  19. An Alternate Approach to Determine the Explosibility of Dusts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ganesan, Balaji

    2013-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    protocol that more accurately characterizes the explosibility of dusts. The CAAQES protocol for determining MEC is to test a wide range of concentrations of a dust in a 28.3-L (1 ft^(3)) Plexiglas chamber with a diaphragm and a stationary ignition source...

  20. An explosive acoustic telemetry system for seabed penetrators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauser, G.C.; Hickerson, J.

    1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses the design and past applications of an explosive acoustic telemetry system (EATS) for gathering and transmitting data from seabed penetrators. The system was first fielded in 1982 and has since been used to measure penetrator performance on three other occasions. Descriptions are given of the mechanical hardware, system electronics, and software.

  1. Sea Turtle Observations at Explosive Removals of Energy Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sea Turtle Observations at Explosive Removals of Energy Structures GREGG R. GITSCHLAG and BRYAN A. HERCZEG Introduction In July 1992 the total number of oil and gas production platformsI in the Gulfof. In that year 51 dead sea turtles were found on upper Texas beaches during mid-March to mid-April following

  2. Morphology and dynamics of explosive vents through cohesive rock formations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galland, Olivier

    to test the effects of these parameters. The experiments were used to test the effect of 2 on vent simulations were used to test the effect of 3 on vent morphology and dynamics. In the numerical models we see to underground explosions that blast the overlaying rock formations [e.g., Gisler, 2009]. This phenomenon occurs

  3. Identification of process controls for nuclear explosive operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, S.R.; Konkel, H.; Houghton, K.; Wilson, M.

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear explosive assembly/disassembly operations that are carried out under United States Department of Energy (DOE) purview are characterized by activities that primarily involve manual tasks. These process activities are governed by procedural and administrative controls that traditionally have been developed without a formal link to process hazards. This work, which was based on hazard assessment (HA) activities conducted as part of the W69 Integrated Safety Process (ISP), specifies an approach to identifying formal safety controls for controlling (i.e., preventing or mitigating) hazards associated with nuclear explosive operations. Safety analysis methods are used to identify controls, which then are integrated into a safety management framework to provide assurance to the DOE that hazardous activities are managed properly. As a result of the work on the W69 ISP dismantlement effort, the authors have developed an approach to identify controls and safety measures to improve the safety of nuclear explosive operations. The methodology developed for the W69 dismantlement effort is being adapted to the W76 ISP effort. Considerable work is still ongoing to address issues such as the adequacy or effectiveness of controls. DOE nuclear explosive safety orders and some historical insights are discussed briefly in this paper. The safety measure identification methodology developed as part of the W69 ISP dismantlement process then is summarized.

  4. Explosive Nucleosynthesis in GRB Jets Accompanied by Hypernovae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagataki, Shigehiro; /Kyoto U., Yukawa Inst., Kyoto /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Mizuta, Akira; /Garching, Max Planck Inst.; Sato, Katsuhiko; /Tokyo U. /Tokyo U., RESCEU

    2006-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations are performed to investigate explosive nucleosynthesis in a collapsar using the model of MacFadyen and Woosley (1999). It is shown that {sup 56}Ni is not produced in the jet of the collapsar sufficiently to explain the observed amount of a hypernova when the duration of the explosion is {approx} 10 sec, which is considered to be the typical timescale of explosion in the collapsar model. Even though a considerable amount of {sup 56}Ni is synthesized if all explosion energy is deposited initially, the opening angles of the jets become too wide to realize highly relativistic outflows and gamma-ray bursts in such a case. From these results, it is concluded that the origin of {sup 56}Ni in hypernovae associated with GRBs is not the explosive nucleosynthesis in the jet. We consider that the idea that the origin is the explosive nucleosynthesis in the accretion disk is more promising. We also show that the explosion becomes bi-polar naturally due to the effect of the deformed progenitor. This fact suggests that the {sup 56}Ni synthesized in the accretion disk and conveyed as outflows are blown along to the rotation axis, which will explain the line features of SN 1998bw and double peaked line features of SN 2003jd. Some fraction of the gamma-ray lines from {sup 56}Ni decays in the jet will appear without losing their energies because the jet becomes optically thin before a considerable amount of {sup 56}Ni decays as long as the jet is a relativistic flow, which may be observed as relativistically Lorentz boosted line profiles in future. We show that abundance of nuclei whose mass number {approx} 40 in the ejecta depends sensitively on the energy deposition rate, which is a result of incomplete silicon burning and alpha-rich freezeout. So it may be determined by observations of chemical composition in metal poor stars which model is the proper one as a model of a gamma-ray burst accompanied by a hypernova.

  5. Aftershock Characteristics as a Means of Discriminating Explosions from Earthquakes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ford, S R; Walter, W R

    2009-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The behavior of aftershock sequences around the Nevada Test Site in the southern Great Basin is characterized as a potential discriminant between explosions and earthquakes. The aftershock model designed by Reasenberg and Jones (1989, 1994) allows for a probabilistic statement of earthquake-like aftershock behavior at any time after the mainshock. We use this model to define two types of aftershock discriminants. The first defines M{sub X}, or the minimum magnitude of an aftershock expected within a given duration after the mainshock with probability X. Of the 67 earthquakes with M > 4 in the study region, 63 of them produce an aftershock greater than M{sub 99} within the first seven days after a mainshock. This is contrasted with only six of 93 explosions with M > 4 that produce an aftershock greater than M{sub 99} for the same period. If the aftershock magnitude threshold is lowered and the M{sub 90} criteria is used, then no explosions produce an aftershock greater than M{sub 90} for durations that end more than 17 days after the mainshock. The other discriminant defines N{sub X}, or the minimum cumulative number of aftershocks expected for given time after the mainshock with probability X. Similar to the aftershock magnitude discriminant, five earthquakes do not produce more aftershocks than N{sub 99} within 7 days after the mainshock. However, within the same period all but one explosion produce less aftershocks then N{sub 99}. One explosion is added if the duration is shortened to two days after than mainshock. The cumulative number aftershock discriminant is more reliable, especially at short durations, but requires a low magnitude of completeness for the given earthquake catalog. These results at NTS are quite promising and should be evaluated at other nuclear test sites to understand the effects of differences in the geologic setting and nuclear testing practices on its performance.

  6. Reaction rates from pressure-gauge measurements in reacting explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ginsberg, M.J.; Anderson, A.B.; Wackerle, J.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The proper hydrodynamic data and an equation of state are sufficient to describe quantitatively the reaction rates of explosives during the shock-to-detonation transition. Manganin pressure gauges embedded in the reacting explosive have provided these data for the explosives PETN, PBX 9404, TATB, and TNT. Once a pressure-field history has been assembled from individual pressure histories at different depths in the explosive, the conservation equations can be applied in a Lagrangian analysis of the data. The combination of a reactant-product equation of state with this analysis then allows the calculation of the extent of reaction and reaction rate. Successful correlation of the calculated reaction rate values with other thermodynamic variables, such as pressure or temperature, allows formulation of a rate law and the prediction of initiation behavior under circumstances quite different from the experiments that led to the rate law. The best dynamic piezoresistive pressure gauge for most applications would have a substantial output voltage and present negligible disturbance to the flow. In explosives, however, requirements for survival in the extreme temperature and pressure environment encountered by the gauge dictate compromise. Low electrical resistance (approx. 20 m..cap omega..) helps to minimize shunt conductivity failures, but this drastically reduces output and demands that much attention be given to reducingnoise. Although relatively thick insulation perturbs the flow to some extent, survivability requirements dictate its use. Pressure measurements in reactive flow can now be made routinely with gauges that successfully produce data leading to a description of the flow and a powerful predictive capability.

  7. Explosion Clad for Upstream Oil and Gas Equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banker, John G. [Dynamic Materials Corp., 5405 Spine Rd., Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Massarello, Jack [Global Metallix, Consultant to DMC, 5405 Spine Rd., Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Pauly, Stephane [DMC., Nobelclad Business Unit, 1 Allee Alfred NOBEL, 66600 Rivesaltes (France)

    2011-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Today's upstream oil and gas facilities frequently involve the combination of high pressures, high temperatures, and highly corrosive environments, requiring equipment that is thick wall, corrosion resistant, and cost effective. When significant concentrations of CO{sub 2} and/or H{sub 2}S and/or chlorides are present, corrosion resistant alloys (CRA) can become the material of choice for separator equipment, piping, related components, and line pipe. They can provide reliable resistance to both corrosion and hydrogen embrittlement. For these applications, the more commonly used CRA's are 316L, 317L and duplex stainless steels, alloy 825 and alloy 625, dependent upon the application and the severity of the environment. Titanium is also an exceptional choice from the technical perspective, but is less commonly used except for heat exchangers. Explosion clad offers significant savings by providing a relatively thin corrosion resistant alloy on the surface metallurgically bonded to a thick, lower cost, steel substrate for the pressure containment. Developed and industrialized in the 1960's the explosion cladding technology can be used for cladding the more commonly used nickel based and stainless steel CRA's as well as titanium. It has many years of proven experience as a reliable and highly robust clad manufacturing process. The unique cold welding characteristics of explosion cladding reduce problems of alloy sensitization and dissimilar metal incompatibility. Explosion clad materials have been used extensively in both upstream and downstream oil, gas and petrochemical facilities for well over 40 years. The explosion clad equipment has demonstrated excellent resistance to corrosion, embrittlement and disbonding. Factors critical to insure reliable clad manufacture and equipment design and fabrication are addressed.

  8. THE GROOVE MORTAR, A REUABLE METHOD FOR TESTING THE FLAMEPROOFNESS OF CERTAIN EXPLOSIVES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    explosives, such äs slurries and emulsions, is somewhat problematical. Taking into aecount the Polish and a summary of the results obtained so far. Explosives in French coal mines Under French regulations, explosives designed for use in Underground coal mines can be divided into three groups : - group l (in French

  9. Flying-plate detonator using a high-density high explosive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stroud, John R. (Livermore, CA); Ornellas, Donald L. (Livermore, CA)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A flying-plate detonator containing a high-density high explosive such as benzotrifuroxan (BTF). The detonator involves the electrical explosion of a thin metal foil which punches out a flyer from a layer overlying the foil, and the flyer striking a high-density explosive pellet of BTF, which is more thermally stable than the conventional detonator using pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN).

  10. The Quantitative Assessment of Risk Caused By Fire and Explosion in Chemical Process Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    The Quantitative Assessment of Risk Caused By Fire and Explosion in Chemical Process Industry Farid by the domino effect are the most destructive accidents related to industrial plants. Fire and explosion; Quantitative risk assessment; Explosions; Fires; Storage areas. 1. Introduction The accidents caused

  11. Ignition and explosion of nanopowders: something new under Olivier Dufaud1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ones concern nanopowders fires and explosions [1]. In fact, since 2002 [2], one could quote the recent of micron-sized powders do not enable to evaluate the fire and explosion risk probabilities and gravitiesIgnition and explosion of nanopowders: something new under the dust Olivier Dufaud1 , Alexis Vignes

  12. Nuclear Engineering and Design 189 (1999) 757 Lower head integrity under steam explosion loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuen, Walter W.

    Nuclear Engineering and Design 189 (1999) 7­57 Lower head integrity under steam explosion loads T Received 24 August 1998; accepted 24 November 1998 Abstract Lower head integrity under steam explosion is `physically unreasonable'. © 1999 Elsevier Science S.A. All rights reserved. Keywords: Steam explosions

  13. Regional Seismic Signals from Chemical Explosions, Nuclear Explosions and Earthquakes: Results from the Arizona Source Phenomenology Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walter, W R; Gok, R; Mayeda, K; Sicherman, A; Bonner, J; Leidig, M

    2005-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Routine industrial mining explosions play two important roles in seismic nuclear monitoring research: (1) they are a source of background events that need to be discriminated from potential nuclear explosions; (2) as some of the only explosions occurring in the current de facto global moratoria on nuclear testing, their signals should be exploited to improve the calibration of seismic m monitoring systems. A common issue monitoring arising in both of these roles is our limited physical understanding of the causes behind observed differences and similarities in the seismic signals produced by routine industrial mining blasts and small underground nuclear tests. In 2003 a consortium (Weston, SMU, LLNL, LANL and UTEP) carried out a Source Phenomenology Experiment (SPE), a series of dedicated explosions designed to improve this physical understanding, particularly as it relates to seismic methods of discriminating between signals from three different source types: earthquakes, industrial blasts, and nuclear tests. Here we very briefly review prior field experimental work that examined the seismic relationships between these source types.

  14. Apparatus and method for rapid detection of explosives residue from the deflagration signature thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Funsten, H.O.; McComas, D.J.

    1999-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus and method are disclosed for rapid detection of explosives residue from the deflagration signature thereof. A property inherent to most explosives is their stickiness, resulting in a strong tendency of explosive particulate to contaminate the environment of a bulk explosive. An apparatus for collection of residue particulate, burning the collected particulate, and measurement of the ultraviolet emission produced thereby, is described. The present invention can be utilized for real-time screening of personnel, cars, packages, suspected devices, etc., and provides an inexpensive, portable, and noninvasive means for detecting explosives. 4 figs.

  15. A HYDROGEN IGNITION MECHANISM FOR EXPLOSIONS IN NUCLEAR FACILITY PIPING SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leishear, R.

    2013-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen explosions may occur simultaneously with water hammer accidents in nuclear facilities, and a theoretical mechanism to relate water hammer to hydrogen deflagrations and explosions is presented herein. Hydrogen and oxygen generation due to the radiolysis of water is a recognized hazard in pipe systems used in the nuclear industry, where the accumulation of hydrogen and oxygen at high points in the pipe system is expected, and explosive conditions may occur. Pipe ruptures in nuclear reactor cooling systems were attributed to hydrogen explosions inside pipelines, i.e., Hamaoka, Nuclear Power Station in Japan, and Brunsbuettel in Germany. Prior to these accidents, an ignition source for hydrogen was not clearly demonstrated, but these accidents demonstrated that a mechanism was, in fact, available to initiate combustion and explosion. A new theory to identify an ignition source and explosion cause is presented here, and further research is recommended to fully understand this explosion mechanism.

  16. Rare Isotopes in Cosmic Explosions and Accelerators on Earth

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Hendrik Schatz

    2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Rare isotopes are nature?s stepping stones to produce the heavy elements, and they are produced in large quantities in stellar explosions. Despite their fleeting existence, they shape the composition of the universe and the observable features of stellar explosions. The challenge for nuclear science is to produce and study the very same rare isotopes so as to understand the origin of the elements and a range of astronomical observations. I will review the progress that has been made to date in astronomy and nuclear physics, and the prospects of finally addressing many of the outstanding issues with the future Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), which DOE will build at Michigan State University.

  17. Standoff ultraviolet raman scattering detection of trace levels of explosives.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulp, Thomas J.; Bisson, Scott E.; Reichardt, Thomas A.

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultraviolet (UV) Raman scattering with a 244-nm laser is evaluated for standoff detection of explosive compounds. The measured Raman scattering albedo is incorporated into a performance model that focused on standoff detection of trace levels of explosives. This model shows that detection at {approx}100 m would likely require tens of seconds, discouraging application at such ranges, and prohibiting search-mode detection, while leaving open the possibility of short-range point-and-stare detection. UV Raman spectra are also acquired for a number of anticipated background surfaces: tile, concrete, aluminum, cloth, and two different car paints (black and silver). While these spectra contained features in the same spectral range as those for TNT, we do not observe any spectra similar to that of TNT.

  18. Sub-sonic thermal explosions investigated by radiography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smilowitz, Laura B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Henson, Bryan F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Romero, Jerry J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Asay, Blaine W [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reviews the past 5 years of experiments utilizing radiographic techniques to study defiagration in thermal explosions in HMX based formulations. Details of triggering and timing synchronization are given. Radiographic images collected using both protons and x-rays are presented. Comparisons of experiments with varying size, case confinement, binder, and synchronization are presented. Techniques for quantifying the data in the images are presented and a mechanism for post-ignition burn propagation in a thermal explosion is discussed. From these experiments, we have observed a mechanism for sub-sonic defiagration with both gas phase convective and solid phase conductive burning. The convective front velocity is directly measured from the radiographic images and consumes only a small fraction of the HE. It lights the HE as it passes beginning the slower solid state conductive burn process. This mechanism is used to create a model to simulate the radiographic results and a comparison will be shown.

  19. Non-lead environmentally safe projectiles and explosive container

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowden, Richard A. (Clinton, TN); McCoig, Thomas M. (Maryville, TN); Dooley, Joseph B. (Kingston, TN); Smith, Cyrus M. (Knoxville, TN)

    1999-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid object having controlled frangibility, such as a bullet or a container for explosives, is made by combining two different metals in proportions calculated to achieve a desired density, without using lead. A wetting material is deposited on the base constituent which is made of a relative dense, hard material. The wetting material enhances the wettability of the base constituent with the binder constituent, which is lighter and softer than the base constituent.

  20. Non-lead, environmentally safe projectiles and explosives containers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowden, Richard A. (Clinton, TN); McCoig, Thomas M. (Maryville, TN); Dooley, Joseph B. (Kingston, TN); Smith, Cyrus M. (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid object having controlled frangibility, such as a bullet or a container for explosives, is made by combining two different metals in proportions calculated to achieve a desired density, without using lead. A wetting material is deposited on the base constituent which is made of a relative dense, hard material. The wetting material enhances the wettability of the base constituent with the binder constituent, which is lighter and softer than the base constituent.

  1. Ultraviolet Resonant Raman Enhancements in the Detection of Explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Short, B J; Carter, J C; Gunter, D; Hovland, P; Jagode, H; Karavanic, K; Marin, G; Mellor-Crummey, J; Moore, S; Norris, B; Oliker, L; Olschanowsky, C; Roth, P C; Schulz, M; Shende, S; Snavely, A; Spear, W

    2009-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Raman-based spectroscopy is potentially militarily useful for standoff detection of high explosives. Normal (non-resonance) and resonance Raman spectroscopies are both light scattering techniques that use a laser to measure the vibrational spectrum of a sample. In resonance Raman, the laser is tuned to match the wavelength of a strong electronic absorbance in the molecule of interest, whereas, in normal Raman the laser is not tuned to any strong electronic absorbance bands. The selection of appropriate excitation wavelengths in resonance Raman can result in a dramatic increase in the Raman scattering efficiency of select band(s) associated with the electronic transition. Other than the excitation wavelength, however, resonance Raman is performed experimentally the same as normal Raman. In these studies, normal and resonance Raman spectral signatures of select solid high explosive (HE) samples and explosive precursors were collected at 785 nm, 244 nm and 229 nm. Solutions of PETN, TNT, and explosive precursors (DNT & PNT) in acetonitrile solvent as an internal Raman standard were quantitatively evaluated using ultraviolet resonance Raman (UVRR) microscopy and normal Raman spectroscopy as a function of power and select excitation wavelengths. Use of an internal standard allowed resonance enhancements to be estimated at 229 nm and 244 nm. Investigations demonstrated that UVRR provided {approx}2000-fold enhancement at 244 nm and {approx}800-fold improvement at 229 nm while PETN showed a maximum of {approx}25-fold at 244 nm and {approx}190-fold enhancement at 229 nm solely from resonance effects when compared to normal Raman measurements. In addition to the observed resonance enhancements, additional Raman signal enhancements are obtained with ultraviolet excitation (i.e., Raman scattering scales as !4 for measurements based on scattered photons). A model, based partly on the resonance Raman enhancement results for HE solutions, is presented for estimating Raman enhancements for solid HE samples.

  2. Prediction of crystal densities of organic explosives by group additivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stine, J R

    1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The molar volume of crystalline organic compound is assumed to be a linear combination of its constituent volumes. Compounds consisting only of the elements hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and fluorine are considered. The constituent volumes are taken to be the volumes of atoms in particular bonding environments and are evaluated from a large set of crystallographic data. The predicted density has an expected error of about 3%. These results are applied to a large number of explosives compounds.

  3. Non-lead environmentally safe projectiles and explosive container

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowden, R.A.; McCoig, T.M.; Dooley, J.B.; Smith, C.M.

    1999-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid object having controlled frangibility, such as a bullet or a container for explosives, is made by combining two different metals in proportions calculated to achieve a desired density, without using lead. A wetting material is deposited on the base constituent which is made of a relative dense, hard material. The wetting material enhances the wettability of the base constituent with the binder constituent, which is lighter and softer than the base constituent. 10 figs.

  4. Detonating Failed Deflagration Model of Thermonuclear Supernovae I. Explosion Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tomasz Plewa

    2006-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a detonating failed deflagration model of Type Ia supernovae. In this model, the thermonuclear explosion of a massive white dwarf follows an off-center deflagration. We conduct a survey of asymmetric ignition configurations initiated at various distances from the stellar center. In all cases studied, we find that only a small amount of stellar fuel is consumed during deflagration phase, no explosion is obtained, and the released energy is mostly wasted on expanding the progenitor. Products of the failed deflagration quickly reach the stellar surface, polluting and strongly disturbing it. These disturbances eventually evolve into small and isolated shock-dominated regions which are rich in fuel. We consider these regions as seeds capable of forming self-sustained detonations that, ultimately, result in the thermonuclear supernova explosion. Preliminary nucleosynthesis results indicate the model supernova ejecta are typically composed of about 0.1-0.25 Msun of silicon group elements, 0.9-1.2 Msun of iron group elements, and are essentially carbon-free. The ejecta have a composite morphology, are chemically stratified, and display a modest amount of intrinsic asymmetry. The innermost layers are slightly egg-shaped with the axis ratio ~1.2-1.3 and dominated by the products of silicon burning. This central region is surrounded by a shell of silicon-group elements. The outermost layers of ejecta are highly inhomogeneous and contain products of incomplete oxygen burning with only small admixture of unburned stellar material. The explosion energies are ~1.3-1.5 10^51 erg.

  5. Pre-explosion companion stars in Type Iax supernovae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Zheng-Wei; Abate, Carlo; Wang, Bo

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Type Iax supernovae (SNe Iax) are proposed as one new sub-class of SNe Ia since they present sufficiently distinct observational properties from the bulk of SNe Ia. SNe Iax are the most common of all types of peculiar SNe by both number and rate, with an estimated rate of occurrence of about 5-30% of the total SN Ia rate. However, the progenitor systems of SNe Iax are still uncertain. Analyzing pre-explosion images at SN Iax positions provides a direct way to place strong constraints on the nature of progenitor systems of SNe Iax. In this work, we predict pre-explosion properties of binary companion stars in a variety of potential progenitor systems by performing detailed binary evolution calculations with the one-dimensional stellar evolution code STARS. This will be helpful for constraining progenitor systems of SNe Iax from their pre-explosion observations. With our binary evolution calculations, it is found that the non-degenerate helium (He) companion star to both a massive C/O WD (> 1.1 solar mass) and ...

  6. Signatures of Explosion Models for SN ~Ia & Cosmology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Hoeflich

    2004-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We give an overview of the current understanding of Type Ia supernovae relevant for their use as cosmological distance indicators. We present the physical basis to understand their homogeneity of the observed light curves and spectra and the observed correlations. SNe Ia have been well established as distance indicators on the 10 % level. However, the quest for the nature of the dark energy requires improvements in the accuracy to the 2 to 3 % level, we must understand the diversity within the SNe Ia population, and its evolution with redshift. Based on detailed models for the progenitors, explosions, light curves and spectra, we discuss signatures of thermonuclear explosions, and the implications for cosmology. We emphasize the relation between LC properties and spectra because, for local SNe~Ia, the diversity becomes apparent the combination of spectra and LCs whereas, by enlarge, we have to for high-z objects. At some examples, we show how we can actually probe the properties of the progenitor, its environment, and details of the explosion physics.

  7. Metallicity at the explosion sites of interacting transients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taddia, F; Fremling, C; Pastorello, A; Leloudas, G; Fransson, C; Nyholm, A; Stritzinger, M D; Ergon, M; Roy, R; Migotto, K

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Context. Some circumstellar-interacting (CSI) supernovae (SNe) are produced by the explosions of massive stars that have lost mass shortly before the SN explosion. There is evidence that the precursors of some SNe IIn were luminous blue variable (LBV) stars. For a small number of CSI SNe, outbursts have been observed before the SN explosion. Eruptive events of massive stars are named as SN impostors (SN IMs) and whether they herald a forthcoming SN or not is still unclear. The large variety of observational properties of CSI SNe suggests the existence of other progenitors, such as red supergiant (RSG) stars with superwinds. Furthermore, the role of metallicity in the mass loss of CSI SN progenitors is still largely unexplored. Aims. Our goal is to gain insight on the nature of the progenitor stars of CSI SNe by studying their environments, in particular the metallicity at their locations. Methods. We obtain metallicity measurements at the location of 60 transients (including SNe IIn, SNe Ibn, and SN IMs), via...

  8. FINDING THE FIRST COSMIC EXPLOSIONS. I. PAIR-INSTABILITY SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whalen, Daniel J.; Smidt, Joseph; Lovekin, C. C. [T-2, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Even, Wesley; Fryer, Chris L. [CCS-2, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Frey, Lucille H. [HPC-3, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Johnson, Jarrett L.; Hungerford, Aimee L. [XTD-6, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Stiavelli, Massimo [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Holz, Daniel E. [Enrico Fermi Institute, Department of Physics, and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Heger, Alexander [Monash Centre for Astrophysics, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Woosley, S. E. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, UCSC, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2013-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The first stars are the key to the formation of primitive galaxies, early cosmological reionization and chemical enrichment, and the origin of supermassive black holes. Unfortunately, in spite of their extreme luminosities, individual Population III (Pop III) stars will likely remain beyond the reach of direct observation for decades to come. However, their properties could be revealed by their supernova explosions, which may soon be detected by a new generation of near-IR (NIR) observatories such as JWST and WFIRST. We present light curves and spectra for Pop III pair-instability supernovae calculated with the Los Alamos radiation hydrodynamics code RAGE. Our numerical simulations account for the interaction of the blast with realistic circumstellar envelopes, the opacity of the envelope, and Lyman absorption by the neutral intergalactic medium at high redshift, all of which are crucial to computing the NIR signatures of the first cosmic explosions. We find that JWST will detect pair-instability supernovae out to z ?> 30, WFIRST will detect them in all-sky surveys out to z ? 15-20, and LSST and Pan-STARRS will find them at z ?< 7-8. The discovery of these ancient explosions will probe the first stellar populations and reveal the existence of primitive galaxies that might not otherwise have been detected.

  9. Characterization of explosives processing waste decomposition due to composting. Phase 2, Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griest, W.H.; Tyndall, R.L.; Stewart, A.J.; Ho, C.H.; Ironside, K.S.; Caton, J.E.; Caldwell, W.M.; Tan, E.

    1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Static pile and mechanically stirred composts generated at the Umatilla Army Depot Activity in a field composting optimization study were chemically and toxicologically characterized to provide data for the evaluation of composting efficiency to decontaminate and detoxify explosives-contaminated soil. Characterization included determination of explosives and 2,4,6,-trinitrotoluene metabolites in composts and their EPA Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure Leachates, leachate toxicity to Ceriodaphnia Dubia and mutagenicity of the leachates and organic solvent extracts of the composts to Ames bacterial strains TA-98 and TA-100. The main conclusion from this study is that composting can effectively reduce the concentrations of explosives and bacterial mutagenicity in explosives -- contaminated soil, and can reduce the aquatic toxicity of leachable compounds. Small levels of explosive and metabolites, bacterial mutagenicity, and leachable aquatic toxicity remain after composting. The ultimate fate of the biotransformed explosives, and the source(s) of residual toxicity and mutagenicity remain unknown.

  10. Method for the decontamination of soil containing solid organic explosives therein

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radtke, Corey W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Roberto, Francisco F. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An efficient method for decontaminating soil containing organic explosives ("TNT" and others) in the form of solid portions or chunks which are not ordinarily subject to effective bacterial degradation. The contaminated soil is treated by delivering an organic solvent to the soil which is capable of dissolving the explosives. This process makes the explosives more bioavailable to natural bacteria in the soil which can decompose the explosives. An organic nutrient composition is also preferably added to facilitate decomposition and yield a compost product. After dissolution, the explosives are allowed to remain in the soil until they are decomposed by the bacteria. Decomposition occurs directly in the soil which avoids the need to remove both the explosives and the solvents (which either evaporate or are decomposed by the bacteria). Decomposition is directly facilitated by the solvent pre-treatment process described above which enables rapid bacterial remediation of the soil.

  11. Thermal X-ray emission of the remnants of ashperical Supernova explosions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O. Petruk

    2001-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Evolution of adiabatic remnants of an aspherical supernova explosion in uniform medium are considered. Thermal X-ray emission of such remnants are investigated. It is shown that integral thermal X-ray characteristics (X-ray luminosity and spectrum) of the objects do not allow us to reveal the assymetry in the explosion because these characteristics are close to their Sedov counterparts. Surface distribution of X-ray emission is sensitive to anisotropy of the explosion and nonuniformity of the interstellar medium.

  12. Parameters of Chelyabinsk and Tunguska Objects and their Explosion Modes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lobanovsky, Yu I

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes briefly a mathematical model that relates the parameters of celestial body motion in spheres of activity of the Sun and the Earth with mass-energy characteristics of these celestial bodies and their explosion modes during destruction in the Earth atmosphere, that in turn are linked with phenomena observed on the underlying surface. This model was used to calculate the characteristics of the objects which are causes of Chelyabinsk and Tunguska incidents. Thus, the basic data characterizing these two outstanding phenomena were obtained with using a regular physical-mathematical procedure without any speculative hypotheses and/or assumptions.

  13. Conductivity Histories Measured in Shock-Dispersed-Fuel Explosion Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuhl, A L

    2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The notion of high ion and electron concentrations in the detonation of aluminized explosive mixtures has aroused some interest in electro-magnetic effects that the SDF charges might generate when detonated. Beside the scientific aspects at least two questions appear to be of practical interest: (1) Does the detonation of an SDF charge create electro-magnetic disturbances strong enough to affect the operation of electrical infrastructure in for example a tunnel system? (2) Does the detonation of an SDF charge in a tunnel system create an electromagnetic signature that relays information of the charge performance to the outside environment?

  14. Compact Object Formation and the Supernova Explosion Engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fryer, C L

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    When a massive star ends its life, its core collapses, forming a neutron star or black hole and producing some of the most energetic explosions in the universe. Core-collapse supernovae and long-duration gamma-ray bursts are the violent signatures of compact remnant formation. As such, both fields are intertwined and, coupled with theory, observations of transients can help us better understand compact remnants just as neutron star and black hole observations can constrain the supernova and gamma-ray burst engine. We review these ties in this paper.

  15. The physics of antimatter induced fusion and thermonuclear explosions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gsponer, A; Gsponer, Andre; Hurni, Jean-Pierre

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The possibility of using antihydrogen for igniting inertial confinement fusion pellets or triggering large scale thermonuclear explosions is investigated. The number of antiproton annihilations required to start a thermonuclear burn wave in either D or Li_2DT is found to be about 10^{21}/k^2, where k is the compression factor of the fuel to be ignited. We conclude that the financial and energy investments needed to produce such amounts of antiprotons would confine applications of antimatter triggered thermonuclear devices to the military domain.

  16. Models and Analysis of Wire Explosions Using TRAC II Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pekker, A.; Reisman, D.B.

    1999-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to understand the dynamics of Z-pinch imposions of thin wires in pulse-power accelerators, it is necessary to understand the physical process by which the initially solid wires are converted into plasma by rising current. For this purpose, we model wire explosions using TRAC II, a two-dimensional MHD code, in three distinct cases: pure tungsten, impure tungsten, and gold-plated tungsten. We compare our results--overall picture of the process, corona linear density, corona mass, and core expansion rate--to actual experiments performed at Sandia National Laboratory and Cornell University and present some explanations for the disagreements between our model and experimental observations. In Chapter 1, we discuss model results for several current waveforms (consisting of a 5 kA 50-150 ns pre-pulse and 80 kA 80 ns main pulse) for a pure tungsten wire, showing that the initial temperature of the wire does not affect the dynamics of the explosion. This suggests that different experimental results for unheated and preheated tungsten wires are due to the expulsion of impurities in the preheated wire and not to a change in the material properties of tungsten. To match the experimental set-up more accurately, we model the explosion of a tungsten wire with impurities in Chapter 2. The overall process predicted by the model agrees with experiment, namely the shunting of the current through the impurities region before tungsten expansion begins; however, quantitative results disagree with experimental observations mostly because of the extreme shunting of the current through the impurities in our model. Finally, in Chapter 3, we compare the explosions in gold-plated tungsten, pure tungsten, and pure gold wires under high (100 kA in 60 ns) and low (2 kA in 270 ns) currents, finding general agreement with experiment in the high-current case and a disagreement by a factor of ten in the low-current case. In addition, due to the similar properties of the two metals, we find no vast differences among the three cases in the high-current case, while the single-metal wire expand faster and farther than the gold-plated wire in the low-current case. We believe that the disagreement between our model and experiment can be decreased by better modeling of tungsten impurities and by improvements in the conductivity and bonding models.

  17. A Model for Multidimensional Delayed Detonations in SN Ia Explosions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. Golombek; J. C. Niemeyer

    2005-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that a flame tracking/capturing scheme originally developed for deflagration fronts can be used to model thermonuclear detonations in multidimensional explosion simulations of type Ia supernovae. After testing the accuracy of the front model, we present a set of two-dimensional simulations of delayed detonations with a physically motivated off-center deflagration-detonation-transition point. Furthermore, we demonstrate the ability of the front model to reproduce the full range of possible interactions of the detonation with clumps of burned material. This feature is crucial for assessing the viability of the delayed detonation scenario.

  18. Thermonuclear Explosions of Chandrasekhar-Mass White Dwarfs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. Hillebrandt; M. Reinecke; J. C. Niemeyer

    2000-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a new way of modeling turbulent thermonuclear deflagration fronts in Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarfs, consisting of carbon and oxygen, undergoing a type Ia supernova explosion. Our approach is a front capturing/tracking hybrid scheme, based on a level set method, which treats the front as a mathematical discontinuity and allows for full coupling between the front geometry and the flow field. First results of the method applied to the problem of type Ia supernovae are discussed. It will be shown that even in 2-D and even with a physically motivated sub-grid model numerically ``converged'' results are difficult to obtain.

  19. Operating Experience Level 3, Explosives Safety | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO2:Introduction toManagementOPAM PolicyOfEnergy Online ClassifiedExplosives Safety

  20. Explosives exhibit opens at the Bradbury Science Museum Sept. 18

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Environmental Assessments (EA) /EmailMolecular Solids1spectroscopiesExplosives

  1. Proceedings of the 24th Seismic Research Review: Nuclear Explosion

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem NotEnergy, science,Speeding access toExplosion Monitoring Technologies

  2. Proceedings of the 25th Seismic Research Review -- Nuclear Explosion

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem NotEnergy, science,Speeding access toExplosion Monitoring TechnologiesMonitoring:

  3. Literature review of the lifetime of DOE materials: Aging of plastic bonded explosives and the explosives and polymers contained therein

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burgess, C.E.; Woodyard, J.D. [West Texas A and M Univ., Canyon, TX (United States); Rainwater, K.A. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Lightfoot, J.M. [Pantex Plant, Amarillo, TX (United States); Richardson, B.R. [Engineered Carbons, Inc., Borger, TX (United States)

    1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are concerns about the lifetime of the nation`s stockpile of high explosives (HEs) and their components. The DOE`s Core Surveillance and Enhanced Surveillance programs specifically target degradation of HE, binders, and plastic-bonded explosives (PBXs) for determination of component lifetimes and handling procedures. The principal goal of this project is to identify the decomposition mechanisms of HEs, plasticizers, and plastic polymer binders resulting from exposure to ionizing radiation, heat, and humidity. The primary HEs of concern are 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) and 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazocyclooctane (HMX). Hexahydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is closely related to these two compounds and is also included in the literature review. Both Kel-F 800 and Estane are polymers of interest. A stabilizer, Irganox 1010, and an energetic plasticizer that is a blend of acetaldehyde 2,2-dinitropropyl acetal, are also of interest, but the focus of this report will be on the explosives and polymers. This presents a literature review that provides background on the synthesis, degradation, and techniques to analyze TATB, HMX, RDX, Kel-F 800, Estane, and the PBXs of these compounds. As there are many factors that can influence degradation of materials, the degradation discussion will be divided into sections based on each factor and how it might affect the degradation mechanism. The factors reviewed that influence the degradation of these materials are exposure to heat, UV- and {gamma}-irradiation, and the chemistry of these compounds. The report presents a recently compiled accounting of the available literature. 80 refs., 7 figs.

  4. THE IMPACT OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA EXPLOSIONS ON HELIUM COMPANIONS IN THE CHANDRASEKHAR-MASS EXPLOSION SCENARIO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu Zhengwei; Wang, B.; Han, Z. W. [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China); Pakmor, R. [Heidelberger Institut fuer Theoretische Studien, Schloss-Wolfsbrunnenweg 35, D-69118 Heidelberg (Germany); Seitenzahl, I. R.; Hillebrandt, W.; Kromer, M.; Edelmann, P.; Taubenberger, S. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Roepke, F. K. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Universitaet Wuerzburg, Am Hubland, D-97074 Wuerzburg (Germany); Maeda, K., E-mail: zwliu@ynao.ac.cn [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (Kavli-IPMU), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study (TODIAS), University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan)

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the version of the single-degenerate scenario of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) studied here, a carbon-oxygen white dwarf explodes close to the Chandrasekhar limit after accreting material from a non-degenerate helium (He) companion star. In the present study, we employ the STELLAR GADGET code to perform three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of the interaction of the SN Ia ejecta with the He companion star taking into account its orbital motion and spin. It is found that only 2%-5% of the initial companion mass is stripped off from the outer layers of He companion stars due to the supernova (SN) impact. The dependence of the unbound mass (or the kick velocity) on the orbital separation can be fitted to a good approximation by a power law for a given companion model. After the SN impact, the outer layers of a He donor star are significantly enriched with heavy elements from the low-expansion-velocity tail of SN Ia ejecta. The total mass of accumulated SN-ejecta material on the companion surface reaches about {approx}> 10{sup -3} M{sub Sun} for different companion models. This enrichment with heavy elements provides a potential way to observationally identify the surviving companion star in SN remnants. Finally, by artificially adjusting the explosion energy of the W7 explosion model, we find that the total accumulation of SN ejecta on the companion surface is also dependent on the explosion energy with a power-law relation to a good approximation.

  5. The detection of bulk explosives using nuclear-based techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgado, R.E.; Gozani, T.; Seher, C.C.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1986 we presented a rationale for the detection of bulk explosives based on nuclear techniques that addressed the requirements of civil aviation security in the airport environment. Since then, efforts have intensified to implement a system based on thermal neutron activation (TNA), with new work developing in fast neutron and energetic photon reactions. In this paper we will describe these techniques and present new results from laboratory and airport testing. Based on preliminary results, we contended in our earlier paper that nuclear-based techniques did provide sufficiently penetrating probes and distinguishable detectable reaction products to achieve the FAA operational goals; new data have supported this contention. The status of nuclear-based techniques for the detection of bulk explosives presently under investigation by the US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is reviewed. These include thermal neutron activation (TNA), fast neutron activation (FNA), the associated particle technique, nuclear resonance absorption, and photoneutron activation. The results of comprehensive airport testing of the TNA system performed during 1987-88 are summarized. From a technical point of view, nuclear-based techniques now represent the most comprehensive and feasible approach for meeting the operational criteria of detection, false alarms, and throughput. 9 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Type Ia Supernova Explosion Models: Homogeneity versus Diversity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. Hillebrandt; J. C. Niemeyer; M. Reinecke

    2000-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia) are generally believed to be the result of the thermonuclear disruption of Chandrasekhar-mass carbon-oxygen white dwarfs, mainly because such thermonuclear explosions can account for the right amount of Ni-56, which is needed to explain the light curves and the late-time spectra, and the abundances of intermediate-mass nuclei which dominate the spectra near maximum light. Because of their enormous brightness and apparent homogeneity SN Ia have become an important tool to measure cosmological parameters. In this article the present understanding of the physics of thermonuclear explosions is reviewed. In particular, we focus our attention on subsonic (``deflagration'') fronts, i.e. we investigate fronts propagating by heat diffusion and convection rather than by compression. Models based upon this mode of nuclear burning have been applied very successfully to the SN Ia problem, and are able to reproduce many of their observed features remarkably well. However, the models also indicate that SN Ia may differ considerably from each other, which is of importance if they are to be used as standard candles.

  7. The Thermonuclear Explosion Of Chandrasekhar Mass White Dwarfs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. C. Niemeyer; S. E. Woosley

    1996-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The flame born in the deep interior of a white dwarf that becomes a Type Ia supernova is subject to several instabilities. We briefly review these instabilities and the corresponding flame acceleration. We discuss the conditions necessary for each of the currently proposed explosion mechanisms and the attendant uncertainties. A grid of critical masses for detonation in the range $10^7$ - $2 \\times 10^9$ g cm$^{-3}$ is calculated and its sensitivity to composition explored. Prompt detonations are physically improbable and appear unlikely on observational grounds. Simple deflagrations require some means of boosting the flame speed beyond what currently exists in the literature. ``Active turbulent combustion'' and multi-point ignition are presented as two plausible ways of doing this. A deflagration that moves at the ``Sharp-Wheeler'' speed, $0.1 g_{\\rm eff} t$, is calculated in one dimension and shows that a healthy explosion is possible in a simple deflagration if the front moves with the speed of the fastest floating bubbles. The relevance of the transition to the ``distributed burning regime'' is discussed for delayed detonations. No model emerges without difficulties, but detonation in the distributed regime is plausible, will produce intermediate mass elements, and warrants further study.

  8. Why not only electric discharge but even a minimum charge on the surface of highly sensitive explosives can catalyze their gradual exothermic decomposition and how a cloud of unipolar charged explosive particles turns into ball lightning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meshcheryakov, Oleg

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Even a single excess electron or ion migrating on the surface of sensitive explosives can catalyze their gradual exothermic decomposition. Mechanisms underlying such a charge-induced gradual thermal decomposition of highly sensitive explosives can be different. If sensitive explosive is a polar liquid, intense charge-dipole attraction between excess surface charges and surrounding explosive molecules can result in repetitive attempts of solvation of these charges by polar explosive molecules. Every attempt of such uncompleted nonequilibrium solvation causes local exothermic decomposition of thermolabile polar molecules accompanied by further thermal jumping unsolvated excess charges to new surface sites. Thus, ionized mobile hot spots emerge on charged explosive surface. Stochastic migration of ionized hot spots on explosive surface causes gradual exothermic decomposition of the whole mass of the polar explosive. The similar gradual charge-catalyzed exothermic decomposition of both polar and nonpolar highly s...

  9. DOI: 10.1002/adem.201100211 Atomistic Simulation of the Explosion Welding Process**

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nordlund, Kai

    DOI: 10.1002/adem.201100211 Atomistic Simulation of the Explosion Welding Process** By Ossi Saresoja, Antti Kuronen* and Kai Nordlund Explosive welding (EXW) is an industrial process used to join. In the process, welding occurs in a high velocity collision between metal plates, achieved by using chemical

  10. IS THE DRAGON LEARNING TO FLY? AN ANALYSIS OF THE CHINESE PATENT EXPLOSION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldschmidt, Christina

    IS THE DRAGON LEARNING TO FLY? AN ANALYSIS OF THE CHINESE PATENT EXPLOSION Markus EBERHARDT of the recent explosion of patent filings by Chinese firms both in China and the United States. We construct a firm-level dataset by matching USPTO and SIPO patents to Chinese manufacturing census data

  11. Abstract--Airborne pollution and explosive gases threaten human health and occupational safety, therefore generating high

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mason, Andrew

    Abstract--Airborne pollution and explosive gases threaten human health and occupational safety and a thumb-drive sized prototype system. I. INTRODUCTION xposure to air pollution consistently ranks among to occupational safety as energy demands rise. Airborne pollutants and explosive gases vary in both time and space

  12. Fire and explosion hazards of oil shale. Report of Investigations/1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This publication presents the results of investigations into the fire and explosion hazards of oil-shale rocks and dust. Three areas were examined: the explosibility and ignitability of oil-shale dust clouds, the fire hazards of oil-shale dust layers on hot surfaces, and the ignitability and extinguishment of oil shale rubble piles.

  13. Computer Graphics Proceedings, Annual Conference Series, 2003 Animating Suspended Particle Explosions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Brien, James F.

    , or other events. The blast wave is an explosion's pri- mary effect, but it moves at supersonic speeds. By design, the real explosions employed for visual effects typically minimize blast strength while the numerically trou- blesome, and largely invisible blast wave, the method uses a relatively stable

  14. SEVERE WEATHER EXPLOSION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Alert people in the immediate area to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karonis, Nicholas T.

    SEVERE WEATHER EXPLOSION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS EVACUATE · Alert people in the immediate area producing devices · Do not try to locate the source of the explosion · Evacuate and move to designated as OUTAGE EVALUATE · Remain calm and move cautiously to a lighted area · If the fire alarm sounds or upon

  15. Infrasonic and Seismic Signals from Earthquake and Explosions in Arequipa, Peru

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haviland, David

    Infrasonic and Seismic Signals from Earthquake and Explosions in Arequipa, Peru J. Chilo, A. Jabor in characterization of infrasonic and seismic signals from mining explosions and an earthquake. Wavelet transform infrasonic and seismic signals. The ampligram may be considered as an analogy to signal decomposition

  16. Investigation on the Interface Morphologies of Explosive Welding of Inconel 625 to Steel A516 Plates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mousavi, S. A. A. Akbari; Zareie, H. R. [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, University College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study is to produce composite plates by explosive cladding process. This is a process in which the controlled energy of explosives is used to create a metallic bond between two similar or dissimilar materials. The welding conditions were tailored through parallel geometry route with different operational parameters. In this investigation, a two-pronged study was adopted to establish the conditions required for producing successful solid state welding: (a) Analytical calculations to determine the weldability domain or welding window; (b) Metallurgical investigations of explosive welding experiments carried out under different explosive ratios to produce both wavy and straight interfaces. The analytical calculations confirm the experimental results. Optical microscopy studies show that a transition from a smooth to wavy interface occurs with an increase in explosive ratio. SEM studies show that the interface was outlined by characteristic sharp transition between two materials.

  17. Nonreactor Nuclear Safety Design Criteria and Explosive Safety Criteria Guide for Use with DOE O 420.1, Facility Safety

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2000-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This Guide provides guidance on the application of requirements for nonreactor nuclear facilities and explosives facilities of Department of Energy (DOE) O 420.1, Facility Safety, Section 4.1, Nuclear and Explosives Safety Design Criteria. No cancellation.

  18. EA-1106: Explosive Waste Treatment Facility at Site 300, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, San Joaquin County, California

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of the proposal to build, permit, and operate the Explosive Waste Treatment Facility to treat explosive waste at the U.S. Department of Energy's Lawrence...

  19. Merger Driven Explosive Evolution of Distant Galaxies (Minor Mergers)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kats, A V

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We derived solutions for the Smoluchowski kinetic equation for the mass function of galaxies, which describes mergers in differential approximation, where mergers with low-mass galaxies are the dominant factor. The evolution of the initial distribution is analyzed as well as the influence of the source represented by galaxies (halos) that separate from the global cosmological expansion. It is shown that the evolution of the slope of the power-law part of the luminosity function at a constant mass-to-luminosity ratio observed in the Ultra Deep Hubble Field can be described as a result of explosive evolution driven by galaxy mergers. In this case the exponent depends exclusively on the uniformity degree of merger probability as a function of mass.

  20. Influence of insulating coating on aluminum wire explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yang; Wu, Jian, E-mail: jxjawj@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulse Radiation of Simulation and Effect, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi'an 710024 (China); Sheng, Liang; Zhao, Jizhen; Zhang, Mei; Yuan, Yuan; Peng, Bodong [State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulse Radiation of Simulation and Effect, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi'an 710024 (China); Li, Xingwen [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Single wire explosions are widely used in understanding the early stages of z-pinch experiments. This paper presents a serial of experiments conducted on the pulse power generator with ?1?kA peak current and ?10?ns rising time in Xi'an Jiao Tong University. Polyimide coated aluminum wires and uncoated ones were tested under three different voltages to analyze the effect of insulating coating. Experimental results showed that insulating coating can increase the energy deposition 10%?30% in aluminum wires by delaying the voltage collapse and raising the maximum load resistance. The substantial energy deposition resulted in about 20% faster expansion rates for coated wires. Experimental evidence that plasma channel shunts the current from the wire core was observed by streak camera and schlieren graphs. This paper also briefly discussed the influence of nonuniform coating on the morphology of wire expansion.

  1. Asymmetric explosion of clusters in intense laser fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kundu, M. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428, Gujarat (India)

    2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine asymmetric expansion of argon clusters illuminated by 800 nm laser pulses of duration Almost-Equal-To 23fs, using three-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. For this short pulse duration, laser energy absorption by cluster electrons is dominated by the nonlinear resonance (NLR) absorption process [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 123401 (2006)]. In this work, we concentrate, particularly, on the ionic outcome in the NLR regime and show that higher charge states of argon ions are produced along the laser polarization than in the transverse directions leading to the anisotropy (asymmetry) in the ion energy distribution. This anisotropy already established during the short pulse duration (or in the early duration of a long pulse) may contribute to the anisotropic ion emission reported in cluster experiments with pulse duration longer than 100 fs. Our PIC results are compared with a charged-sphere model showing that cluster explosion is mainly due to Coulomb repulsion between the cluster ions.

  2. Polarisation spectral synthesis for Type Ia supernova explosion models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bulla, M; Kromer, M

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a Monte Carlo radiative transfer technique for calculating synthetic spectropolarimetry for multi-dimensional supernova explosion models. The approach utilises "virtual-packets" that are generated during the propagation of the Monte Carlo quanta and used to compute synthetic observables for specific observer orientations. Compared to extracting synthetic observables by direct binning of emergent Monte Carlo quanta, this virtual-packet approach leads to a substantial reduction in the Monte Carlo noise. This is vital for calculating synthetic spectropolarimetry (since the degree of polarisation is typically very small) but also useful for calculations of light curves and spectra. We first validate our approach via application of an idealised test code to simple geometries. We then describe its implementation in the Monte Carlo radiative transfer code ARTIS and present test calculations for simple models for Type Ia supernovae. Specifically, we use the well-known one-dimensional W7 model to verify tha...

  3. Explosive flux compression generators for rail gun power sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fowler, C.M.; Peterson, D.R.; Caird, R.S.; Erickson, D.J.; Freeman, B.L.; King, J.C.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A class of explosive magnetic flux compression generators is described that has been used successfully to power rail guns. A program to increase current magnitudes and pulse lengths is outlined. Various generator loss terms are defined and plans to overcome some of them are discussed. Included are various modifications of the conventional strip generators that are more resistant to undesirable expansion of generator components from magnetic forces. Finally, an integral rail gun is discussed that has coaxial geometry. Integral rail guns utilize the rails themselves as flux compression generator elements and, under ideal conditions, are theoretically capable of driving projectiles to arbitrarily high velocities. Integral coaxial rail guns should be superior in some regards to their square bore counterparts.

  4. The Stimulation of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs with Subsurface Nuclear Explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LORENZ,JOHN C.

    2000-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Between 1965 and 1979 there were five documented and one or more inferred attempts to stimulate the production from hydrocarbon reservoirs by detonating nuclear devices in reservoir strata. Of the five documented tests, three were carried out by the US in low-permeability, natural-gas bearing, sandstone-shale formations, and two were done in the USSR within oil-bearing carbonates. The objectives of the US stimulation efforts were to increase porosity and permeability in a reservoir around a specific well by creating a chimney of rock rubble with fractures extending beyond it, and to connect superimposed reservoir layers. In the USSR, the intent was to extensively fracture an existing reservoir in the more general vicinity of producing wells, again increasing overall permeability and porosity. In both countries, the ultimate goals were to increase production rates and ultimate recovery from the reservoirs. Subsurface explosive devices ranging from 2.3 to about 100 kilotons were used at depths ranging from 1208 m (3963 ft) to 2568 m (8427 ft). Post-shot problems were encountered, including smaller-than-calculated fracture zones, formation damage, radioactivity of the product, and dilution of the BTU value of tie natural gas with inflammable gases created by the explosion. Reports also suggest that production-enhancement factors from these tests fell short of expectations. Ultimately, the enhanced-production benefits of the tests were insufficient to support continuation of the pro-grams within increasingly adversarial political, economic, and social climates, and attempts to stimulate hydrocarbon reservoirs with nuclear devices have been terminated in both countries.

  5. The Soviet program for peaceful uses of nuclear explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nordyke, M.D.

    1996-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The concept of utilizing the weapons of war to serve the peaceful pursuits of mankind is as old as civilization itself. Perhaps the most famous reference to this basic desire is recorded in the Book of Micah where the great prophet Isiah called upon his people `to turn your spears into pitchforks and your swords into plowshares.` As the scientists at Los Alamos worked on developing the world`s first atomic bomb, thoughts of how this tremendous new source of energy could be used for peaceful purposes generally focused on using the thermal energy generated by the slow fission of uranium in a reactor, such as those being used to produce Plutonium to drive electric power stations. However, being scientists in a new, exciting field, it was impossible to avoid letting their minds wander from the task at hand to other scientific or non-military uses for the bombs themselves. During the Manhattan Project, Otto Frisch, one of the pioneers in the development of nuclear fission process in the 1930s, first suggested using an atomic explosion as a source for a large quantities of neutrons which could used in scientific experiments designed to expand their understanding of nuclear physics. After the war was over, many grandiose ideas appeared in the popular press on how this new source of energy should be to serve mankind. Not to be left out of the growing enthusiasm for peaceful uses of atomic energy, the Soviet Union added their visions to the public record. This document details the Soviet program for using nuclear explosions in peacetime pursuits.

  6. Modelling of the Effects of Friction and Compression on Explosives ESGI80 Modelling of the Effects of Friction and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Purvis, Richard

    Modelling of the Effects of Friction and Compression on Explosives ESGI80 Modelling of the Effects of Friction and Compression on Explosives Problem presented by John Curtis Atomic Weapons Establishment, based on the compression of a sample of the explosive. The study group identified frictional heating

  7. Source Scaling of Single-Fired and Delay-Fired Explosions Constrained by In-Mine and Regional Seismograms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stump, Brian W.

    Source Scaling of Single-Fired and Delay-Fired Explosions Constrained by In-Mine and Regional (simultaneously detonated) explosions observed in the mine and at regional distances. These single-fired (360 km) using a seismic array near Pinedale, Wyoming (PDAR). The single-fired explosions ranged

  8. Wideband terahertz spectroscopy of explosives M.R. Leahy-Hoppa a,b,*, M.J. Fitch a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayden, L. Michael

    to be a promising tool in detection of explosives and explosive related compounds. To date, TDTS for many explosives radiation, we report the THz absorption spectra over an extended frequency band from 0.5 to 6 THz for four], and non-destructive imaging of illicit drugs using spectral fin- gerprints [19]. The THz region

  9. Research on the mitigation of explosions on offshore oil and gas platforms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, D.M.; Shale, G.A. [British Gas plc, Loughborough (United Kingdom). Research and Technology Div.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The combination of congestion, and confinement is characteristic of many offshore oil and gas platforms in the UK and Norwegian sectors of the North Sea. These conditions can result in severe explosion overpressures following the ignition of an accidental release of gas. The consequences of such an incident were illustrated by the Piper Alpha disaster in which an explosion initiated a sequence of events which rapidly lead to total destruction of the platform and the loss of 167 lives. A number of techniques can be considered for the control and mitigation of explosions on offshore platforms, including explosion relief, blast containment, explosion suppression, changes to platform layout and platform strengthening. These techniques are reviewed in the paper. However, many of them are difficult and expensive to implement on existing structures and, their use, even within new installations has limitations. Most offshore platforms are fitted with deluge systems for protection against fire. Recent research has shown that, under certain conditions, the water spray generated by a fire deluge system, typical of those currently installed on offshore platforms, can provide effective explosion mitigation. The paper describes the large-scale experimental research which has been carried out, and indicates the mechanisms by which water spray mitigates a gas explosion.

  10. Atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionizataion and triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry for explosives vapor detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McLuckey, S.A.; Goeringer, D.E.; Asano, K.G.; Hart, K.J.; Glish, G.L.; Grant, B.C.; Chambers, D.M.

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The detection and identification of trace vapors of hidden high explosives is an excellent example of a targeted analysis problem. It is desirable to push to ever lower levels the quantity or concentration of explosives material that provides an analytical signal, while at the same time discriminating against all other uninteresting material. The detection system must therefore combine high sensitivity with high specificity. This report describes the philosophy behind the use of atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization, which is a sensitive, rugged, and convenient means for forming anions from explosives molecules, with tandem mass spectrometry, which provides unparalleled specificity in the identification of explosives-related ions. Forms of tandem mass spectrometry are compared and contrasted to provide a summary of the characteristics to be expected from an explosives detector employing mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. The instrument developed for the FAA, an atmospheric sampling glow discharge/triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, is described in detail with particular emphasis on the ion source/spectrometer interface and on the capabilities of the spectrometer. Performance characteristics of the system are also described as they pertain to explosives of interest including a description of an automated procedure for the detection and identification of specific explosives. A comparison of various tandem mass spectrometers mated with atmospheric sampling glow discharge is then described and preliminary studies with a vapor preconcentration system provided by the FAA will be described.

  11. Method for explosive expansion toward horizontal free faces for forming an in situ oil shale retort

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ricketts, Thomas E. (Bakersfield, CA)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Formation is excavated from within a retort site in formation containing oil shale for forming a plurality of vertically spaced apart voids extending horizontally across different levels of the retort site, leaving a separate zone of unfragmented formation between each pair of adjacent voids. Explosive is placed in each zone, and such explosive is detonated in a single round for forming an in situ retort containing a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale. The same amount of formation is explosively expanded upwardly and downwardly toward each void. A horizontal void excavated at a production level has a smaller horizontal cross-sectional area than a void excavated at a lower level of the retort site immediately above the production level void. Explosive in a first group of vertical blast holes is detonated for explosively expanding formation downwardly toward the lower void, and explosive in a second group of vertical blast holes is detonated in the same round for explosively expanding formation upwardly toward the lower void and downwardly toward the production level void for forming a generally T-shaped bottom of the fragmented mass.

  12. Why not only electric discharge but even a minimum charge on the surface of highly sensitive explosives can catalyze their gradual exothermic decomposition and how a cloud of unipolar charged explosive particles turns into ball lightning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oleg Meshcheryakov

    2013-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Even a single excess electron or ion migrating on the surface of sensitive explosives can catalyze their gradual exothermic decomposition. Mechanisms underlying such a charge-induced gradual thermal decomposition of highly sensitive explosives can be different. If sensitive explosive is a polar liquid, intense charge-dipole attraction between excess surface charges and surrounding explosive molecules can result in repetitive attempts of solvation of these charges by polar explosive molecules. Every attempt of such uncompleted nonequilibrium solvation causes local exothermic decomposition of thermolabile polar molecules accompanied by further thermal jumping unsolvated excess charges to new surface sites. Thus, ionized mobile hot spots emerge on charged explosive surface. Stochastic migration of ionized hot spots on explosive surface causes gradual exothermic decomposition of the whole mass of the polar explosive. The similar gradual charge-catalyzed exothermic decomposition of both polar and nonpolar highly sensitive explosives can be also caused by intense charge-dipole attacks of surrounding water vapor molecules electrostatically attracted from ambient humid air and strongly accelerated towards charged sites on explosive surfaces. Emission of electrons, photons and heat from ionized hot spots randomly migrating on charged surface of highly sensitive explosive aerosol nanoparticles converts such particles into the form of short-circuited thermionic nanobatteries.

  13. Observation of shells in Coulomb explosions of rare-gas clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erk, B.; Hoffmann, K.; Kandadai, N.; Helal, A.; Keto, J.; Ditmire, T. [Texas Center for High Intensity Laser Science, Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The explosions of noble gas clusters from argon and xenon irradiated by intense 35-fs infrared laser pulses have been studied. The kinetic energy spectra of ions produced in small clusters (<700 atoms) show a two-mode shell structure that is attributed to originating from a radial charge distribution. With a simple classical particle simulation of Coulomb explosions, the energy structure was reproduced using information on the arrangement of charge in the cluster. It was found that, during the explosion, the inner atoms of the clusters were less ionized than the outer atoms.

  14. A Model-Based Signal Processing Approach to Nuclear Explosion Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodgers, A; Harris, D; Pasyanos, M

    2007-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes research performed under Laboratory Research and Development Project 05-ERD-019, entitled ''A New Capability for Regional High-Frequency Seismic Wave Simulation in Realistic Three-Dimensional Earth Models to Improve Nuclear Explosion Monitoring''. A more appropriate title for this project is ''A Model-Based Signal Processing Approach to Nuclear Explosion Monitoring''. This project supported research for a radically new approach to nuclear explosion monitoring as well as allowed the development new capabilities in computational seismology that can contribute to NNSA/NA-22 Programs.

  15. Hidden explosives detector employing pulsed neutron and x-ray interrogation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, Frederick J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Caldwell, John T. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and systems for the detection of small amounts of modern, highly-explosive nitrogen-based explosives, such as plastic explosives, hidden in airline baggage. Several techniques are employed either individually or combined in a hybrid system. One technique employed in combination is X-ray imaging. Another technique is interrogation with a pulsed neutron source in a two-phase mode of operation to image both nitrogen and oxygen densities. Another technique employed in combination is neutron interrogation to form a hydrogen density image or three-dimensional map. In addition, deliberately-placed neutron-absorbing materials can be detected.

  16. Hidden explosives detector employing pulsed neutron and x-ray interrogation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, F.J.; Caldwell, J.T.

    1993-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and systems for the detection of small amounts of modern, highly-explosive nitrogen-based explosives, such as plastic explosives, hidden in airline baggage. Several techniques are employed either individually or combined in a hybrid system. One technique employed in combination is X-ray imaging. Another technique is interrogation with a pulsed neutron source in a two-phase mode of operation to image both nitrogen and oxygen densities. Another technique employed in combination is neutron interrogation to form a hydrogen density image or three-dimensional map. In addition, deliberately-placed neutron-absorbing materials can be detected.

  17. Gravitational Waves from Stellar Collapse: Correlations to Explosion Asymmetries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chris L. Fryer; Daniel E. Holz; Scott A. Hughes

    2004-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The collapse of massive stars not only produces observable outbursts across the entire electromagnetic spectrum but, for Galactic (or near-Galactic) supernovae, detectable signals for ground-based neutrino and gravitational wave detectors. Gravitational waves and neutrinos provide the only means to study the actual engine behind the optical outbursts: the collapsed stellar core. While the neutrinos are most sensitive to details of the equation of state, gravitational waves provide a means to study the mass asymmetries in this central core. We present gravitational wave signals from a series of 3-dimensional core-collapse simulations with asymmetries derived from initial perturbations caused by pre-collapse convection, core rotation, and low-mode convection in the explosion engine itself. A Galactic supernovae will allow us to differentiate these different sources of asymmetry. Combining this signal with other observations of the supernova, from neutrinos to gamma-rays to the compact remnant, dramatically increases the predictive power of the gravitational wave signal. We conclude with a discussion of the gravitational wave signal arising from collapsars, the leading engine for long-duration gamma-ray bursts.

  18. Feedback effects of aspherical supernovae explosions on galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bekki, Kenji; Tsujimoto, Takuji

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate how explosions of aspherical supernovae (A-SNe) can influence star formation histories and chemical evolution of dwarf galaxies by using a new chemodynamical model. We mainly present the numerical results of two comparative models so that the A-SN feedback effects on galaxies can be more clearly seen. SNe originating from stars with masses larger than 30M_sun are A-SNe in the "ASN" model whereas all SNe are spherical ones (S-SNe) in the "SSN" model. Each S-SN and A-SN are assumed to release feedback energy of 10^{51} erg and 10^{52} erg, respectively, and chemical yields and feedback energy of A-SN ejecta depend on angles between the axis of symmetry and the ejection directions. We find that star formation can become at least by a factor of ~3 lower in the ASN model in comparison with the SSN one owing to the more energetic feedback of A-SNe. As a result of this, chemical evolution can proceed very slowly in the ASN model. A-SN feedback effects can play a significant role in the formation of gi...

  19. Development and production of two explosive components using SCB technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarbell, W.W.; Sanchez, D.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Oestreich, M.L.; Prentice, J.W. [Pacific Scientific, Inc., Chandler, AZ (United States). Energy Dynamics Div.

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For many years, explosive components have used hotwires to convert an electrical stimulus into the thermal energy required to initiate the device. A Semi-Conductor Bridge (SCB) performs the same function, but with the advantage of requiring approximately 1/10 the input energy of a comparable hotwire, while retaining excellent no-fire characteristics. The SCB also demonstrates faster function times due to its inherently-lower thermal mass. This paper discusses the development and production of two SCB-based devices, the MC4491 Initiator and the MC4492 Actuator. The initiator is designed to shock initiate a linear shaped charge by accelerating a thin metal plate across a small gap. The actuator functions several different components, serving as either an actuator by producing a rapidly expanding gas to activate piston mechanisms or as an ignitor by providing hot particles for initiating pyrotechnic mixtures. Details are provided on the construction of both devices, methods of assembly, and performance characteristics (function time, flyer velocity, pressure in a closed bomb, heat content, and no-fire and all-fire levels).

  20. US/RUSSIAN COLLABORATION; EXPERIMENTS WITH EXPLOSIVE PULSED POWER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. GOFORTH; I. LINDEMUTH; ET AL

    2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Through conferences and technical publications, personnel at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the All-Russian Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF) learned of each other's interests in both high explosive pulsed power (HEPP) systems and their applications to fusion and high magnetic field research. The principle forum for contact was the Megagauss (MG) Conference series, becoming visible in 1979 at the MG-II Conference in Washington DC and culminating in Novosibirsk at MG-V in 1989. Conversations at MG-V led to a proposal, advanced by VNIIEF in 1991, to form a collaborative research agreement. After further preliminary conversations, a contingent from VNIIEF arrived at the MG-VI conference in Albuquerque in 1992 with plans to visit Los Alamos after the conference and finalize an agreement. The two laboratories signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) at this time, November of 1992, agreeing to conduct joint experiments using at least two HEPP systems developed by VNIIEF. Since that time, joint experiments have been conducted both at LANL and VNIIEF facilities using a variety of HEPP systems. On a few occasions, the effort has focused on the HEPP system itself, but more often it has focused on scientific applications of mutual interest.

  1. Packaging and Transporting of Nuclear Explosives, Nuclear Components and Special Assemblies

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1979-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The order establishes Department of Energy (DOE) policy and assigns responsibilities and authorities for the packaging and transporting of nuclear explosives, nuclear components, and special assemblies. Cancels ERDA directive 0561, dated 9-15-75

  2. Design and optimization of polymeric silole and boronate photoluminescent probes for improved explosives detection applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanchez, Jason C.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    exposed to common organic solvents such as THF, toluene, andare exposed to common organic solvents such as THF, toluene,toluene to observe the spectral effects of different explosive analytes when exposed

  3. Towards the development of an explosives detection system using Neutron Resonance Radiography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raas, Whitney

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Detection of conventional explosives remains a challenge to air security, as indicated by recent reports detailing lapses in security screening and new requirements that mandate screening 100% of checked luggage. Neutron ...

  4. The development of a walk-through portal detector for the identification of contraband explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parmeter, J.E.; Conrad, F.J.; Hannum, D.W.; Linker, K.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lastoskie, C.M. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent worldwide events have shown that explosives are the weapon of choice of terrorists in a variety of situations. For this reason, the need exists to develop a walk-through explosives detector that can be used at airports, government buildings, and other sites requiring both high security and the rapid screening of large numbers of people. In this paper, we discuss on-going efforts at Sandia to develop a walk-through explosives detection portal for the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). We present a brief overview of detectors and detection methods currently utilized in this field, and discuss the special challenges associated with the development of portal detectors. Preliminary results obtained with the portal system at Sandia indicate that the overall portal concept is viable for the detection of contraband high explosives.

  5. An assessment of the flammability and explosion potential of transuranic waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silva, M.

    1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The explosion potential of transuranic (TRU) waste, destined for the Waste Isolation Pilot (WIPP), was recently examined in EEG-45. That investigation focused on the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the waste, particularly acetone, and concluded that an explosion due to the VOCs was unlikely. Recent evidence raises serious concerns about drums containing mixed radioactive hazardous waste bound for the WIPP. Static electricity generated by the plastic bags represents a potential ignition source for other fuels, such as methane gas or hydrogen gas, during transportation and during the test phase. The potential danger of explosion due to hydrogen gas or methane gas generation has not yet been resolved. This report investigates that potential hazard and examines documented ignitions, fires, explosions and incidents of overpressurization of containers at generating and storage sites planning to send transuranic waste to the WIPP for disposal. 68 refs., 6 figs.

  6. Electromagnetic pulse - the fifth factor in the impact of a nuclear explosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Three ionization zones form during high-altitude nuclear explosions: 1) a short-lived ionization zone in the area of the nuclear explosion; 2) radioactive cloud hovering over the center of the explosion. The cloud consists of ionized volatile products from the explosion and lingers for several hours or even days; and 3) a large zone of increased ionization resulting from gamma and x-ray radiation as well as from neutrons. The zone forms at an altitude of 40 to 70 kilometers and remains for several days. Increased ionization zones have an impact on radio wave propagation and interfere with radio communication as well as the operation of radar stations. Radiation emitted from the increased ionization zone can have an impact on changing the parameters of elements in electronic devices, especially semiconductors. This can in turn interfere with the operation of other equipment, including radio stations, radars, and infrared telescopes, and can also damage this equipment.

  7. Molecules and materials for the optical detection of explosives and toxic chemicals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Samuel William, III

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optical chemosensing, especially using amplifying fluorescent polymers, can allow for the highly sensitive and selective vapor-phase detection of both explosives and highly toxic chemicals, including chemical warfare agents. ...

  8. Mechanistic origins of bombardier beetle (Brachinini) explosion-induced defensive spray pulsation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arndt, Eric Michael

    Bombardier beetles (Brachinini) use a rapid series of discrete explosions inside their pygidial gland reaction chambers to produce a hot, pulsed, quinone-based defensive spray. The mechanism of brachinines’ spray pulsation ...

  9. Computer simulation and economic analysis for ammonia fiber explosion (AFEX) pretreatment process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Lin

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ammonia fiber explosion (AFFECT) process is a promising new pretreatment for enhancing the reactivity of lignocerulose materials with many advantages over existing processes. The material is soaked in high-pressure liquid ammonia for a few...

  10. Current shunting and formation of stationary shock waves during electric explosions of metal wires in air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivanenkov, G. V.; Gus'kov, S. Yu.; Barishpol'tsev, D. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Results of experiments on the generation of shock waves during electric explosions of fine copper and tungsten wires in air are analyzed. The generation mechanism of stationary shock wave by a plasma piston formed during the shunting breakdown of the electrode gap in the course of a wire explosion is investigated. The role of structural elements of such discharges, such as the core, corona, and wire environment, is analyzed.

  11. Features of the Acoustic Mechanism of Core-Collapse Supernova Explosions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Burrows; E. Livne; L. Dessart; C. D. Ott; J. Murphy

    2006-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    In the context of 2D, axisymmetric, multi-group, radiation/hydrodynamic simulations of core-collapse supernovae over the full 180$^{\\circ}$ domain, we present an exploration of the progenitor dependence of the acoustic mechanism of explosion. All progenitor models we have tested with our Newtonian code explode. We investigate the roles of the Standing-Accretion-Shock-Instability (SASI), the excitation of core g-modes, the generation of core acoustic power, the ejection of matter with r-process potential, the wind-like character of the explosion, and the fundamental anisotropy of the blasts. We find that the breaking of spherical symmetry is central to the supernova phenomenon and the blasts, when top-bottom asymmetric, are self-collimating. We see indications that the initial explosion energies are larger for the more massive progenitors, and smaller for the less massive progenitors, and that the neutrino contribution to the explosion energy may be an increasing function of progenitor mass. The degree of explosion asymmetry we obtain is completely consistent with that inferred from the polarization measurements of Type Ic supernovae. Furthermore, we calculate for the first time the magnitude and sign of the net impulse on the core due to anisotropic neutrino emission and suggest that hydrodynamic and neutrino recoils in the context of our asymmetric explosions afford a natural mechanism for observed pulsar proper motions. [abridged

  12. Hydrogen Cylinder Storage Array Explosion Evaluations at the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, David Howard [ORNL] [ORNL; Griffin, Frederick P [ORNL] [ORNL; Hyman III, Clifton R [ORNL] [ORNL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The safety analysis for a recently-installed cold neutron source at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) involved evaluation of potential explosion consequences from accidental hydrogen jet releases that could occur from an array of hydrogen cylinders. The scope of the safety analysis involved determination of the release rate of hydrogen, the total quantity of hydrogen assumed to be involved in the explosion, the location of an ignition point or center of the explosion from receptors of interest, and the peak overpressure at the receptors. To evaluate the total quantity of hydrogen involved in the explosion, a 2D model was constructed of the jet concentration and a radial-axial integral over the jet cloud from the centerline to the flammability limit of 4% was used to determine the hydrogen mass to be used as a source term. The location of the point source was chosen as the peak of the jet centerline concentration profile. Consequences were assessed using a combination of three methods for estimating local overpressure as a function of explosion source strength and distance: the Baker-Strehlow method, the TNT-equivalence method, and the TNO method. Results from the explosions were assessed using damage estimates in screening tables for buildings and industrial equipment.

  13. Detonation wave profiles measured in plastic bonded explosives using 1550 nm photon doppler velocimetry (PDV)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gustavsen, Richard L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bartram, Brian D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sanchez, Nathaniel (nate) J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present detonation wave profiles measured in two TATB based explosives and two HMX based explosives. Profiles were measured at the interface of the explosive and a Lithium-Fluoride (LiF) window using 1550 nm Photon Doppler Velocimetry (PDV). Planar detonations were produced by impacting the explosive with a projectile launched in a gas-gun. The impact state was varied to produce varied distance to detonation, and therefore varied support of the Taylor wave following the Chapman-Jouget (CJ) or sonic state. Profiles from experiments with different support should be the same between the Von-Neumann (VN) spike and CJ state and different thereafter. Comparison of profiles with differing support, therefore, allows us to estimate reaction zone lengths. For the TATB based explosive, a reaction zone length of {approx} 3.9 mm, 500 ns was measured in EDC-35, and a reaction zone length of {approx} 6.3 mm, 800 ns was measured in PBX 9502 pre-cooled to -55 C. The respective VN spike state was 2.25 {+-} 0.05 km/s in EDC-35 and 2.4 {+-} 0.1 km/s in the cooled PBX 9502. We do not believe we have resolved either the VN spike state (> 2.6 km/s) nor the reaction zone length (<< 50 ns) in the HMX based explosives.

  14. Method for attenuating seismic shock from detonating explosive in an in situ oil shale retort

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Studebaker, Irving G. (Grand Junction, CO); Hefelfinger, Richard (Grand Junction, CO)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In situ oil shale retorts are formed in formation containing oil shale by excavating at least one void in each retort site. Explosive is placed in a remaining portion of unfragmented formation within each retort site adjacent such a void, and such explosive is detonated in a single round for explosively expanding formation within the retort site toward such a void for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale in each retort. This produces a large explosion which generates seismic shock waves traveling outwardly from the blast site through the underground formation. Sensitive equipment which could be damaged by seismic shock traveling to it straight through unfragmented formation is shielded from such an explosion by placing such equipment in the shadow of a fragmented mass in an in situ retort formed prior to the explosion. The fragmented mass attenuates the velocity and magnitude of seismic shock waves traveling toward such sensitive equipment prior to the shock wave reaching the vicinity of such equipment.

  15. Quantification of non-ideal explosion violence with a shock tube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, Scott I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hill, Larry G [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is significant interest in quantifying the blast violence associated with various nonideal explosions. Such data is essential to evaluate the damage potential of both explosive cookoff and terrorist explosive scenarios. We present a technique designed to measure the source energy associated with a non-ideal, asymmetrical, and three-dimensional explosion. A tube is used to confine and focus energy from a blast event into a one-dimensional, quasi-planar shock front. During propagation along the length of the tube, the wave is allowed to shocksteepen into a more ideal form. Pressure transducers then measure the shock overpressure as a function of the distance from the source. One-dimensional blast scaling theory allows calculation of the source energy from this data. This small-scale test method addresses cost and noise concerns as well as boosting and symmetry issues associated with large-scale, three-dimensional, blast arena tests. Results from both ideal explosives and non-ideal explosives are discussed.

  16. Dense Heterogeneous Continuum Model of Two-Phase Explosion Fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuhl, A L; Bell, J B

    2010-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A heterogeneous continuum model is proposed to describe the dispersion of a dense Aluminum particle cloud in an explosion. Let {alpha}{sub 1} denote the volume fraction occupied by the gas and {alpha}{sub 2} the fraction occupied by the solid, satisfying the volume conservation relation: {alpha}{sub 1} + {alpha}{sub 2} = 1. When the particle phase occupies a non-negligible volume fraction (i.e., {alpha}{sub 2} > 0), additional terms, proportional to {alpha}{sub 2}, appear in the conservation laws for two-phase flows. These include: (i) a particle pressure (due to particle collisions), (ii) a corresponding sound speed (which produces real eigenvalues for the particle phase system), (iii) an Archimedes force induced on the particle phase (by the gas pressure gradient), and (iv) multi-particle drag effects (which enhance the momentum coupling between phases). These effects modify the accelerations and energy distributions in the phases; we call this the Dense Heterogeneous Continuum Model. A characteristics analysis of the Model equations indicates that the system is hyperbolic with real eigenvalues for the gas phase: {l_brace}v{sub 1}, v{sub 1} {+-} {alpha}{sub 1}{r_brace} and for the 'particle gas' phase: {l_brace}v{sub 2}, v{sub 2} {+-}{alpha}{sub 2}{r_brace} and the particles: {l_brace}v{sub 2}{r_brace}, where v{sub i} and {alpha}{sub i} denote the velocity vector and sound speed of phase i. These can be used to construct a high-order Godunov scheme to integrate the conservation laws of a dense heterogeneous continuum.

  17. Condensed-phase decomposition in thermally-aged explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erickson, K.L.; Trott, W.M.; Renlund, A.M.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In previous work, the isothermal decomposition of nitrocellulose (NC) was examined using two substantially different experimental techniques that are being developed to investigate condensed-phase chemistry occurring during the thermal decomposition of a variety of explosives. The confined isothermal aging technique involved confined thin-film samples heated to temperatures of 150 to 170{degrees}C, for 1 to 72 hours. Condensed-phase chemistry was monitored real-time using FTIR. Results indicated that the first step in decomposition was scission of the O-NO{sub 2} bond and subsequent formation of carbonyl and hydroxyl products. Scission of the O-NO{sub 2} bond appeared to occur by a first-order reaction. Additional unconfined rapid isothermal decomposition experiments with NC have been completed and are described in this paper. Those additional experiments extended the previous work and investigated the effect of varying film thickness (from about 0.2 to 0.6 microns), varying temperature (from about 420 to 640{degrees}C), and using {sup 15}NO{sub 2}-labled NC. The results indicated that decomposition of NC appears to involve at least two principal mechanisms: (1) O-NO{sub 2} bond scission, which is accompanied by carbonyl or hydroxyl formation, and (2) polymer fragmentation. These two mechanisms occur simultaneously. At temperatures of 170{degrees}C, or lower, polymer fragmentation appears negligible, but at temperatures of 420{degrees}C, or higher, polymer fragmentation is appreciable and occurs at rates comparable to those for O-NO{sub 2} bond scission. While polymer fragmentation may be associated with O-NO{sub 2} bond scission, at higher temperatures, additional steps must be involved in the fragmentation mechanism. At each end of the temperatures range from about 150 to 420{degrees}C, the rate of O-NO{sub 2} bond scission appears reasonably consistent with a mechanism dominated by a first-order decomposition step.

  18. Preparing for an explosion: Hydrodynamic instabilities and turbulence in presupernovae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Nathan; Arnett, W. David, E-mail: nathans@as.arizona.edu, E-mail: darnett@as.arizona.edu [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2014-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Both observations and numerical simulations are discordant with predictions of conventional stellar evolution codes for the latest stages of a massive star's life before core collapse. The most dramatic example of this disconnect is in the eruptive mass loss occurring in the decade preceding Type IIn supernovae. We outline the key empirical evidence that indicates severe pre-supernova instability in massive stars, and we suggest that the chief reason that these outbursts are absent in stellar evolution models may lie in the treatment of turbulent convection in these codes. The mixing length theory that is used ignores (1) finite amplitude fluctuations in velocity and temperature and (2) their nonlinear interaction with nuclear burning. Including these fluctuations is likely to give rise to hydrodynamic instabilities in the latest burning sequences, which prompts us to discuss a number of far-reaching implications for the fates of massive stars. In particular, we explore connections to enhanced pre-supernova mass loss, unsteady nuclear burning and consequent eruptions, swelling of the stellar radius that may trigger violent interactions with a companion star, and potential modifications to the core structure that could dramatically alter calculations of the core-collapse explosion mechanism itself. These modifications may also impact detailed nucleosynthesis and measured isotopic anomalies in meteorites, as well as the interpretation of young core-collapse supernova remnants. Understanding these critical instabilities in the final stages of evolution may make possible the development of an early warning system for impending core collapse, if we can identify their asteroseismological or eruptive signatures.

  19. Particle size analysis of prepared solutions and fingerprint deposits of high explosive materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carmack, W.J.; Hembree, P.B.

    1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) managed and operated by Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company (LMITCO) was tasked via the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and US Department of Energy (DOE) to conduct various studies involving the detection and measurement of explosive materials and their associated residues. This report details the results of an investigation to determine the particle size characteristics of the explosive materials used in the design, development, and testing of trace explosives detection systems. These materials, in the form of water suspensions of plastic explosives, are used to provide a quantitative means of monitoring the performance characteristics of the detection systems. The purpose of this investigation is to provide data that allows a comparison between the particles deposited using the suspension standards and the particles deposited from fingerprints. This information may support the development of quality control aids, measurement methods, or performance criteria specifications for the use of trace explosives detection systems. For this report, particle size analyses were completed on explosives standard suspensions/solutions for composition C-4, Semtex-H, and Detasheet and fingerprints for C-4, Detasheet, and pentolite. Because of the difficulty in collecting microscopic images of the particles in the suspensions from test protocol surfaces, this paper discusses the characteristics of the particles as they are found on metal, glass, and paper. The results of the particle characterization analyses indicate that the water suspensions contain particulate composed of binder materials and dissolved portions of the explosive compounds. Upon drying of the water suspensions, significant particle nucleation and growth is observed. The nucleated particulate is comparable to the particulate deposited by fingerprints.

  20. Damage predictions of aluminum thin-walled structures subjected to explosive loads.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saul, W. Venner; Reu, Phillip L.; Gruda, Jeffrey Donald; Haulenbeek, Kimberly K.; Larsen, Marvin Elwood; Phelan, James M.; Stofleth, Jerome H.; Corona, Edmundo; Gwinn, Kenneth West

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Predicting failure of thin-walled structures from explosive loading is a very complex task. The problem can be divided into two parts; the detonation of the explosive to produce the loading on the structure, and secondly the structural response. First, the factors that affect the explosive loading include: size, shape, stand-off, confinement, and chemistry of the explosive. The goal of the first part of the analysis is predicting the pressure on the structure based on these factors. The hydrodynamic code CTH is used to conduct these calculations. Secondly, the response of a structure from the explosive loading is predicted using a detailed finite element model within the explicit analysis code Presto. Material response, to failure, must be established in the analysis to model the failure of this class of structures; validation of this behavior is also required to allow these analyses to be predictive for their intended use. The presentation will detail the validation tests used to support this program. Validation tests using explosively loaded aluminum thin flat plates were used to study all the aspects mentioned above. Experimental measurements of the pressures generated by the explosive and the resulting plate deformations provided data for comparison against analytical predictions. These included pressure-time histories and digital image correlation of the full field plate deflections. The issues studied in the structural analysis were mesh sensitivity, strain based failure metrics, and the coupling methodologies between the blast and structural models. These models have been successfully validated using these tests, thereby increasing confidence of the results obtained in the prediction of failure thresholds of complex structures, including aircraft.

  1. Biodegradation of high explosives on granular activated carbon [GAC]: Enhanced desorption of high explosives from GAC -- Batch studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morley, M.C.; Speitel, G.E. Jr. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Adsorption to GAC is an effective method for removing high explosives (HE) compounds from water, but no permanent treatment is achieved. Bioregeneration, which treats adsorbed contaminants by desorption and biodegradation, is being developed as a method for reducing GAC usage rates and permanently degrading RDX and HMX. Because desorption is often the limiting mass transfer mechanism in bioregeneration systems, several methods for increasing the rate and extent of desorption of RDX and HMX are being studied. These include use of cosolvents (methanol and ethanol), surfactants (both anionic and nonionic), and {beta}- and {gamma}-cyclodextrins. Batch experiments to characterize the desorption of these HEs from GAC have been completed using Northwestern LB-830, the GAC being used at Pantex. Over a total of 11 days of desorption, about 3% of the adsorbed RDX was desorbed from the GAC using buffered water as the desorption fluid. In comparison, about 96% of the RDX was extracted from the GAC by acetonitrile over the same desorption period. Ethanol and methanol were both effective in desorbing RDX and HMX; higher alcohol concentrations were able to desorb more HE from the GAC. Surfactants varied widely in their abilities to enhance desorption of HEs. The most effective surfactant that was studied was sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), which desorbed 56.4% of the adsorbed RDX at a concentration of 500 mg SDS/L. The cyclodextrins that were used were marginally more effective than water. Continuous-flow column tests are underway for further testing the most promising of these methods. These results will be compared to column experiments that have been completed under baseline conditions (using buffered water as the desorption fluid). Results of this research will support modeling and design of further desorption and bioregeneration experiments.

  2. A study of small explosions and earthquakes during 1961--1989 near the Semipalatinsk Test Site, Kazakhstan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khalturin, V.I.; Rautian, T.G. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Physics of the Earth; Richards, P.G. [Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Palisades, NY (United States)]|[Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several Russian sources have stated that 343 underground nuclear explosions were conducted during 1961--1989 at the Semipalatinsk Test Site. However, only 282 of them appear to have been described, in the openly available technical literature, with well-determined coordinates; and only 272 have both good locations and magnitudes. The authors have used regional data from 52 stations to study 65 seismic sources initially thought to be in or near the Semipalatinsk region, additional to the 272 underground nuclear explosions with known locations and magnitudes. Of these 65 events, the authors believe 8 are not explosions on the test site, namely: two earthquakes close to the test site; three earthquakes or chemical explosions 100--300 km from the test site; and three events at greater distances from Semipalatinsk. Of the remaining 57 events: 10 were known to be underground nuclear explosions with known locations and the authors have supplied magnitudes where none were previously available; one was a chemical explosion at Degelen; they believe 21 were underground nuclear explosions; 13 were chemical explosions at Balapan; 8 were chemical explosions elsewhere on the test site; three were either nuclear or chemical explosions; and one was either a chemical explosion or a cavity collapse. The largest magnitude of their 44 possible underground nuclear explosions is around 5 (February 4, 1965, obscured at many teleseismic stations by a large Aleutian earthquake). Others lie in the magnitude range 3.5--4.5, and clearly most have sub kiloton yields. Their data set of small events is important for purposes of evaluating the detection capability of teleseismic arrays, and the detection and identification capability of regional stations.

  3. Report on Explosion and Fire at Regent Oil Co. Ltd. premises Avonmouth, Bristol on 7th September 1951 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watts, H. E.

    1952-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A12.P30(2) Report on Explosion and Fire at Regent Oil Co. Ltd. premises Avonmouth, Bristol on 7th September 1951...

  4. Dynamic Characterization of Mock Explosive Material Using Reverse Taylor Impact Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferranti, L; Gagliardi, F J; Cunningham, B J; Vandersall, K S

    2010-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The motivation for the current study is to evaluate the dynamic loading response of an inert mock explosive material used to replicate the physical and mechanical properties of LX-17-1 and PBX 9502 insensitive high explosives. The evaluation of dynamic material parameters is needed for predicting the deformation behavior including the onset of failure and intensity of fragmentation resulting from high velocity impact events. These parameters are necessary for developing and validating physically based material constitutive models that will characterize the safety and performance of energetic materials. The preliminary study uses a reverse Taylor impact configuration that was designed to measure the dynamic behavior of the explosive mock up to and including associated fragmentation. A stationary rod-shaped specimen was impacted using a compressed-gas gun by accelerating a rigid steel anvil attached to a sabot. The impact test employed high-speed imaging and velocity interferometry diagnostics for capturing the transient deformation of the sample at discrete times. Once established as a viable experimental technique with mock explosives, future studies will examine the dynamic response of insensitive high explosives and propellants.

  5. Clean, agile alternative binders, additives and plasticizers for propellant and explosive formulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, D.M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Hawkins, T.W. [Phillips Lab., Edwards AFB, CA (United States); Lindsay, G.A. [Naval Weapons Station, China Lake, CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) a clean, agile manufacturing of explosives, propellants and pyrotechniques (CANPEP) effort set about to identify new approaches to materials and processes for producing propellants, explosives and pyrotechniques (PEP). The RDX based explosive PBXN-109 and gun propellant M-43 were identified as candidates for which waste minimization and recycling modifications might be implemented in a short time frame. The binders, additives and plasticizers subgroup identified cast non-curable thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) formulations as possible replacement candidates for these formulations. Paste extrudable explosives were also suggested as viable alternatives to PBXN-109. Commercial inert and energetic TPEs are reviewed. Biodegradable and hydrolyzable binders are discussed. The applicability of various types of explosive formulations are reviewed and some issues associated with implementation of recyclable formulations are identified. It is clear that some processing and weaponization modifications will need to be made if any of these approaches are to be implemented. The major advantages of formulations suggested here over PBXN-109 and M-43 is their reuse/recyclability. Formulations using TPE or Paste could by recovered from a generic bomb or propellant and reused if they met specification or easily reprocessed and sold to the mining industry.

  6. A hydrodynamic model for asymmetric explosions of rapidly rotating collapsing supernovae with a toroidal atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. S. Imshennik; K. V. Manukovskii

    2004-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We numerically solved the two-dimensional axisymmetric hydrodynamic problem of the explosion of a low-mass neutron star in a circular orbit. In the initial conditions, we assumed a nonuniform density distribution in the space surrounding the collapsed iron core in the form of a stationary toroidal atmosphere that was previously predicted analytically and computed numerically. The con?guration of the exploded neutron star itself was modeled by a torus with a circular cross section whose central line almost coincided with its circular orbit. Using an equation of state for the stellar matter and the toroidal atmosphere in which the nuclear statistical equilibrium conditions were satisfied, we performed a series of numerical calculations that showed the propagation of a strong divergent shock wave with a total energy of 0.2x10^51 erg at initial explosion energy release of 1.0x10^51 erg. In our calculations, we rigorously took into account the gravitational interaction, including the attraction from a higher-mass (1.9M_solar) neutron star located at the coordinate origin, in accordance with the rotational explosion mechanism for collapsing supernovae.W e compared in detail our results with previous similar results of asymmetric supernova explosion simulations and concluded that we found a lower limit for the total explosion energy.

  7. BWR ex-vessel steam explosion analysis with MC3D code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leskovar, M. [Josef Stefan Inst., Jamova cesta 39, 1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A steam explosion may occur, during a severe reactor accident, when the molten core comes into contact with the coolant water. A strong enough steam explosion in a nuclear power plant could jeopardize the containment integrity and so lead to a direct release of radioactive material to the environment. To resolve the open issues in steam explosion understanding and modeling, the OECD program SERENA phase 2 was launched at the end of year 2007, focusing on reactor applications. To verify the progress made in the understanding and modeling of fuel coolant interaction key phenomena for reactor applications a reactor exercise has been performed. In this paper the BWR ex-vessel steam explosion study, which was carried out with the MC3D code in conditions of the SERENA reactor exercise for the BWR case, is presented and discussed. The premixing simulations were performed with two different jet breakup modeling approaches and the explosion was triggered also at the expected most challenging time. For the most challenging case, at the cavity wall the highest calculated pressure was {approx}20 MPa and the highest pressure impulse was {approx}90 kPa.s. (authors)

  8. SN 2009ip: Constraining the latest explosion properties by its late-phase light curve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moriya, Takashi J

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We constrain the explosion and circumstellar properties at the 2012b event of SN 2009ip based on its late-phase bolometric light curve recently reported. The explosion energy and ejected mass at the 2012b event are estimated as 0.02 Msun and 2e49 erg, respectively. The circumstellar medium is assumed to have two components: an inner shell and an outer wind. The inner shell which is likely created at the 2012a event has 0.2 Msun. The outer wind is created by the wind mass loss before the 2012a mass ejection, and the progenitor is estimated to have had the mass-loss rate about 0.1 Msun/yr with the wind velocity 550 km/s before the 2012a event. The estimated explosion energy and ejected mass indicate that the 2012b event is not caused by a regular supernova.

  9. Hydrogenless Superluminous Supernova PTF12dam in the Model of an Explosion inside an Extended Envelope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baklanov, Petr; Blinnikov, Sergei

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A model of a supernova explosion inside a dense extended hydrogenless envelope is proposed to explain the properties of the light curve for one of the superluminous supernovae PTF12dam. It is argued in the literature that the flux of this supernova rises too fast to be explained by the explosion model due to the instability associated with the electron-positron pair production (pair-instability supernova, PISNe), but it is well described by the models with energy input by a magnetar. We show that the PTF12dam-type supernovae can be explained without a magnetar in a model with a radiative shock in a dense circumstellar envelope that does not require an excessively large explosion energy.

  10. EVIDENCE OF EXPLOSIVE EVAPORATION IN A MICROFLARE OBSERVED BY HINODE/EIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, F.; Ding, M. D., E-mail: dmd@nju.edu.c [Department of Astronomy, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2010-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a detailed study of explosive chromospheric evaporation during a microflare which occurred on 2007 December 7 as observed with the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer on board Hinode. We find temperature-dependent upflows for lines formed from 1.0 to 2.5 MK and downflows for lines formed from 0.05 to 0.63 MK in the impulsive phase of the flare. Both the line intensity and the nonthermal line width appear enhanced in most of the lines and are temporally correlated with the evaporation velocity. Our results are consistent with the numerical simulations of flare models, which take into account a strong nonthermal electron beam in producing the explosive chromospheric evaporation. The explosive evaporation observed in this microflare implies that the same dynamic processes may exist in events with very different magnitudes.

  11. Two-dimensional simulations of explosive eruptions of Kick-em Jenny and other submarine volcanos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gisler, Galen R.; Weaver, R. P. (Robert P.); Mader, Charles L.; Gittings, M. L. (Michael L.)

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Kick-em Jenny, in the Eastern Caribbean, is a submerged volcanic cone that has erupted a dozen or more times since its discovery in 1939. The most likely hazard posed by this volcano is to shipping in the immediate vicinity (through volcanic missiles or loss-of-buoyancy), but it is of interest to estimate upper limits on tsunamis that might be produced by a catastrophic explosive eruption. To this end, we have performed two-dimensional simulations of such an event in a geometry resembling that of Kick-em Jenny with our SAGE adaptive mesh Eulerian multifluid compressible hydrocode. We use realistic equations of state for air, water, and basalt, and follow the event from the initial explosive eruption, through the generation of a transient water cavity and the propagation of waves away from the site. We find that even for extremely catastrophic explosive eruptions, tsunamis from Kick-em Jenny are unlikely to pose significant danger to nearby islands. For comparison, we have also performed simulations of explosive eruptions at the much larger shield volcano Vailuluu in the Samoan chain, where the greater energy available can produce a more impressive wave. In general, however, we conclude that explosive eruptions do not couple well to water waves. The waves that are produced from such events are turbulent and highly dissipative, and don't propagate well. This is consistent with what we have found previously in simulations of asteroid-impact generated tsunamis. Non-explosive events, however, such as landslides or gas hydrate releases, do couple well to waves, and our simulations of tsunamis generated by subaerial and sub-aqueous landslides demonstrate this.

  12. Hyperspectral Microscopy of Explosives Particles Using an External Cavity Quantum Cascade Laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, Mark C.; Bernacki, Bruce E.

    2012-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Using infrared hyperspectral imaging, we demonstrate microscopy of small particles of the explosives compounds RDX, tetryl, and PETN with near diffraction-limited performance. The custom microscope apparatus includes an external cavity quantum cascade laser illuminator scanned over its tuning range of 9.13-10.53 µm in four seconds, coupled with a microbolometer focal plane array to record infrared transmission images. We use the hyperspectral microscopy technique to study the infrared absorption spectra of individual explosives particles, and demonstrate sub-nanogram detection limits.

  13. Characteristics of seismic waves from Soviet peaceful nuclear explosions in salt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adushkin, V.V.; Kaazik, P.B.; Kostyuchenko, V.N.; Kuznetsov, O.P.; Nedoshivin, N.I.; Rubinshtein, K.D.; Sultanov, D.D. [Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. for Dynamics of the Geospheres

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The report is carried out by the Institute for Dynamics of the Geospheres, Russian Academy of Sciences under contract NB280344 with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, University of California. The work includes investigation of seismic waves generation and propagation from Soviet peaceful underground nuclear explosions in salt based on the data from temporary and permanent seismic stations. The explosions were conducted at the sites Azgir and Vega within the territory of the Caspian depression of the Russian platform. The data used were obtained in the following conditions of conduction: epicentral distance range from 0 to 60 degrees, yields from 1 to 65 kt and depths of burial from 160 to 1500 m.

  14. Planar blast scaling with condensed-phase explosives in a shock tube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, Scott L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Blast waves are strong shock waves that result from large power density deposition into a fluid. The rapid energy release of high-explosive (HE) detonation provides sufficiently high power density for blast wave generation. Often it is desirable to quantify the energy released by such an event and to determine that energy relative to other reference explosives to derive an explosive-equivalence value. In this study, we use condensed-phase explosives to drive a blast wave in a shock tube. The explosive material and quantity were varied to produce blast waves of differing strengths. Pressure transducers at varying lengths measured the post-shock pressure, shock-wave arrival time and sidewall impulse associated with each test. Blast-scaling concepts in a one-dimensional geometry were then used to both determine the energy release associated with each test and to verify the scaling of the shock position versus time, overpressure versus distance, and impulse. Most blast scaling measurements to-date have been performed in a three-dimensional geometry such as a blast arena. Testing in a three-dimensional geometry can be challenging, however, as spherical shock-wave symmetry is required for good measurements. Additionally, the spherical wave strength decays rapidly with distance and it can be necessary to utilize larger (several kg) quantities of explosive to prevent significant decay from occurring before an idealized blast wave has formed. Such a mode of testing can be expensive, require large quantities of explosive, and be limited by both atmospheric conditions (such as rain) and by noise complaints from the population density near the test arena. Testing is possible in more compact geometries, however. Non-planar blast waves can be formed into a quasi-planar shape by confining the shock diffraction with the walls of a shock tube. Regardless of the initial form, the wave shape will begin to approximate a planar front after successive wave reflections from the tube walls. Such a technique has previously been used to obtain blast scaling measurements in the planar geometry with gaseous explosives and the condensed-phase explosive nitroguanidine. Recently, there has been much interest in the blast characterization of various non-ideal high explosive (NIHE) materials. With non-ideals, the detonation reaction zone is significantly larger (up to several cm for ANFO) than more ideal explosives. Wave curvature, induced by charge-geometry, can significantly affect the energy release associated with NIHEs. To measure maximum NIHE energy release accurately, it is desirable to minimize any such curvature and, if possible, to overdrive the detonation shock to ensure completion of chemical reactions ahead of the sonic locus associated with the reaction zone. This is achieved in the current study through use of a powerful booster HE and a charge geometry consisting of short cylindrical lengths of NIHE initiated along the charge centerline.

  15. Bodo Ziegler VERA seminar Wien 27.10.2011 2011 Nobel Prize in Physics: Supernovae explosions and the Accelerating Universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ziegler, Bodo Leonhardt

    and the Accelerating Universe Bodo Ziegler Nobel Prize for Physics 2011 Institute for Astronomy University of Vienna Nobel Prize in Physics: Supernovae explosions and the Accelerating Universe For the discovery Prize in Physics: Supernovae explosions and the Accelerating Universe Overview Basic Cosmology Stellar

  16. DRAFT - DOE O 452.2C, Security and Use Control of Nuclear Explosives and Nuclear Weapons

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    The Order establishes requirements to implement the nuclear explosive security and use control (UC) elements of DOE O 452.1D, Nuclear Explosive and Weapon Surety (NEWS) Program, to ensure authorized use, when directed by proper authority, and protect against deliberate unauthorized acts (DUAs), deliberate unauthorized use (DUU), and denial of authorized use (DAU).

  17. Analysis, comparison, and modeling of radar interferometry, date of surface deformation signals associated with underground explosions, mine collapses and earthquakes. Phase I: underground explosions, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foxall, W; Vincent, P; Walter, W

    1999-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We have previously presented simple elastic deformation modeling results for three classes of seismic events of concern in monitoring the CTBT--underground explosions, mine collapses and earthquakes. Those results explored the theoretical detectability of each event type using synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) based on commercially available satellite data. In those studies we identified and compared the characteristics of synthetic interferograms that distinguish each event type, as well the ability of the interferograms to constrain source parameters. These idealized modeling results, together with preliminary analysis of InSAR data for the 1995 mb 5.2 Solvay mine collapse in southwestern Wyoming, suggested that InSAR data used in conjunction with regional seismic monitoring holds great potential for CTBT discrimination and seismic source analysis, as well as providing accurate ground truth parameters for regional calibration events. In this paper we further examine the detectability and ''discriminating'' power of InSAR by presenting results from InSAR data processing, analysis and modeling of the surface deformation signals associated with underground explosions. Specifically, we present results of a detailed study of coseismic and postseismic surface deformation signals associated with underground nuclear and chemical explosion tests at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Several interferograms were formed from raw ERS-1/2 radar data covering different time spans and epochs beginning just prior to the last U.S. nuclear tests in 1992 and ending in 1996. These interferograms have yielded information about the nature and duration of the source processes that produced the surface deformations associated with these events. A critical result of this study is that significant post-event surface deformation associated with underground nuclear explosions detonated at depths in excess of 600 meters can be detected using differential radar interferometry. An immediate implication of this finding is that underground nuclear explosions may not need to be captured coseismically by radar images acquired before and after an event in order to be detectable. This has obvious advantages in CTBT monitoring since suspect seismic events--which usually can be located within a 100 km by 100 km area of an ERS-1/2 satellite frame by established seismic methods-can be imaged after the event has been identified and located by existing regional seismic networks. Key Words: InSAR, SLC images, interferogram, synthetic interferogram, ERS-1/2 frame, phase unwrapping, DEM, coseismic, postseismic, source parameters.

  18. Detection of improvised explosive devices at long-range using coded aperture imaging of backscattered X-rays with dynamic reconstruction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bell, Jayna T. (Jayna Teresa)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Standoff detection of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) is a continuing problem for the U.S. military. Current X-ray detection systems cannot detect explosives at distances above a few meters and with a source-detector ...

  19. GNRATEUR DE FLASHES FONCTIONNANT PAR EXPLOSION DE FILS MTALLIQUES Par M. JEAN RIPOCHE,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    conducteurs coaxiaux (75 MD). A travers une résistance de charge Ra la batterie de condensateurs est portée of the inductance of electrical circuit (L = 1.25 03BCH), with the oscillograms obtained. During the explosion de courant de choc. s : shunt coaxial. Rd : résistance de décharge. Re : résistance de charge. E

  20. Refined Parameters of Chelyabinsk and Tunguska Meteoroids and their Explosion Modes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lobanovsky, Yury I

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes application of mathematical model that establishes relationship between parameters of celestial bodies motion in the spheres of activity of the Sun and the Earth with mass-energy characteristics of these objects and their explosion modes during destruction in the Earth atmosphere, that in turn are linked with phenomena observed on underlying surface. This model was used to calculate the characteristics of objects that caused the Chelyabinsk and Tunguska explosions with using of its trajectory parameters described in recent scientific publications (late 2013 - early 2014). It turned out that the size of Chelyabinsk meteoroid was equal to 180 - 185 meters, and its mass was close to 1.8 megatons. Energy of its explosion was equal to 57 megatons of TNT, size of Tunguska meteoroid was equal to 105 m, mass - 0.35 megatons, while energy of explosion was about of 14.5 megatons of TNT. Due to the common origin of these two celestial bodies their average density was equal - about of 570 kg/m^3.

  1. Creep Testing Plastic-Bonded Explosives in Uni-axial Compression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gagliardi, F J; Cunningham, B J

    2008-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    High fidelity measurements of time-dependent strain in the plastic-bonded explosives LX-17-1 and PBX 9502 have been performed under constant, uni-axial, compressive load using a custom designed apparatus. The apparatus uses a combination of extensometers and linear variable differential transformers coupled with a data acquisition system, thermal controls, and gravitational loading. The materials being tested consist of a crystalline explosive material mixed with a polymeric binder. The behavior of each material is related to the type of explosive and to the percentage and type of binder. For any given plastic-bonded explosive, the creep behavior is also dependent on the stress level and test temperature. Experiments were conducted using a 3 x 3 stress-temperature matrix with a temperature range of 24 C to 70 C and with stresses ranging from 250-psi to 780-psi. Analysis of the data has shown that logarithmic curve fits provide an accurate means of quantification and facilitate a long-term predictive capability. This paper will discuss the design of the apparatus, experimental results, and analyses.

  2. The Natural Aerodynamic Sampling of Trace Explosives from the Human Body

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Settles, Gary S.

    The Natural Aerodynamic Sampling of Trace Explosives from the Human Body Gary S. Settles, Huban A. Gowadia, Sean B. Strine, and Timothy E. Johnson Gas Dynamics Lab, Mechanical Engineering Dept., 301D Reber developed for this purpose, their widespread use may be too slow for airport security use and may

  3. Apparatus and methods for real-time detection of explosives devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blackburn, Brandon W [Idaho Falls, ID; Hunt, Alan W [Pocatello, ID; Chichester, David L [Idaho Falls, ID

    2014-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The present disclosure relates, according to some embodiments, to apparatus, devices, systems, and/or methods for real-time detection of a concealed or camouflaged explosive device (e.g., EFPs and IEDs) from a safe stand-off distance. Apparatus, system and/or methods of the disclosure may also be operable to identify and/or spatially locate and/or detect an explosive device. An apparatus or system may comprise an x-ray generator that generates high-energy x-rays and/or electrons operable to contact and activate a metal comprised in an explosive device from a stand-off distance; and a detector operable to detect activation of the metal. Identifying an explosive device may comprise detecting characteristic radiation signatures emitted by metals specific to an EFP, an IED or a landmine. Apparatus and systems of the disclosure may be mounted on vehicles and methods of the disclosure may be performed while moving in the vehicle and from a safe stand-off distance.

  4. Predicting Extinction or Explosion in a Galton-Watson Branching Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    sizes of an endangered species whose survival is deemed essential. Case 2. Extinction is undesirablePredicting Extinction or Explosion in a Galton-Watson Branching Process Peter Guttorp and Michael D generations of a discrete- parameter Galton-Watson branching process, one wishes to predict whether extinction

  5. Vulnerability Analysis of a Nuclear Power Plant Considering Detonations of Explosive Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cizelj, Leon

    Vulnerability Analysis of a Nuclear Power Plant Considering Detonations of Explosive Devices Marko threats to a nuclear power plant in the year 1991 and after the 9/11 events in 2001. The methodology which strength and injuries of human beings with nuclear power plant models used in probabilistic safety

  6. Tycho Brahe's 1572 supernova as a standard type Ia explosion revealed from its light echo spectrum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oliver Krause; Masaomi Tanaka; Tomonori Usuda; Takashi Hattori; Miwa Goto; Stephan Birkmann; Ken'ichi Nomoto

    2008-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are thermonuclear explosions of white dwarf stars in close binary systems. They play an important role as cosmological distance indicators and have led to the discovery of the accelerated expansion of the Universe. Among the most important unsolved questions are how the explosion actually proceeds and whether accretion occurs from a companion or via the merging of two white dwarfs. Tycho Brahe's supernova of 1572 (SN 1572) is thought to be one of the best candidates for a SN Ia in the Milky Way. The proximity of the SN 1572 remnant has allowed detailed studies, such as the possible identification of the binary companion, and provides a unique opportunity to test theories of the explosion mechanism and the nature of the progenitor. The determination of the yet unknown exact spectroscopic type of SN 1572 is crucial to relate these results to the diverse population of SNe Ia. Here we report an optical spectrum of Tycho Brahe's supernova near maximum brightness, obtained from a scattered-light echo more than four centuries after the direct light of the explosion swept past Earth. We find that SN 1572 belongs to the majority class of normal SNe Ia. The presence of a strong Ca II IR feature at velocities exceeding 20,000 km/s, which is similar to the previously observed polarized features in other SNe Ia, suggests asphericity in SN 1572.

  7. Aftershocks of an Explosively Induced Mine Collapse at White Pine, Michigan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aftershocks of an Explosively Induced Mine Collapse at White Pine, Michigan W. Scott Phillips1 , D collapse and subsequent aftershocks at White Pine, Michigan, using an array of 12 seismic stations, sited controlled mine collapse at White Pine, Michigan gave us the opportunity to study a collapse

  8. Explosive growth of inhomogeneities in the distribution of droplets in a turbulent air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. A. Derevyanko; G. Falkovich; K. Turitsyn; S. Turitsyn

    2006-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We study how the spatial distribution of inertial particles evolves with time in a random flow. We describe an explosive appearance of caustics and show how they influence an exponential growth of clusters due to smooth parts of the flow, leading in particular to an exponential growth of the average distance between particles.

  9. Constraints on explosive silicon burning in core-collapse supernovae from measured Ni/Fe ratios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jerkstrand, A; Magkotsios, G; Sim, S A; Fransson, C; Spyromilio, J; Heger, A; Müller, B; Sollerman, J; Smartt, S J

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurements of explosive nucleosynthesis yields in core-collapse supernovae provide tests for explosion models. We investigate constraints on explosive conditions derivable from measured amounts of nickel and iron after radioactive decays using nucleosynthesis networks with parameterized thermodynamic trajectories. The Ni/Fe ratio is for most regimes dominated by the production ratio of 58Ni/(54Fe + 56Ni), which tends to grow with higher neutron excess and with higher entropy. For SN 2012ec, a supernova that produced a Ni/Fe ratio of $3.4\\pm1.2$ times solar, we find that burning of a fuel with neutron excess $\\eta \\approx 6\\times 10^{-3}$ is required. Unless the progenitor metallicity is over 5 times solar, the only layer in the progenitor with such a neutron excess is the silicon shell. Supernovae producing large amounts of stable nickel thus suggest that this deep-lying layer can be, at least partially, ejected in the explosion. We find that common spherically symmetric models of $M_{\\rm ZAMS} \\lesssim 13$...

  10. Brookhaven National Laboratory/Photon Sciences Subject: NSLS Explosives Training (de minimis quantities)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ohta, Shigemi

    quantities) Number: PS-ESH-0091 Revision: 01 Effective: 06/29/2012 Page 1 of 2 The only official copy). BNL Explosives Review Committee and Photon Sciences ESH review all experiments in order to assure) Number: PS-ESH-0091 Revision: 01 Effective: 06/29/2012 Page 2 of 2 The only official copy of this file

  11. CONSTRAINING EXPLOSION TYPE OF YOUNG SUPERNOVA REMNANTS USING 24 {mu}m EMISSION MORPHOLOGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, Charee L.; Stassun, Keivan G. [Department of Physics, Fisk University, 1000 17th Ave N Nashville, TN 37208 (United States); Lopez, Laura A.; Figueroa-Feliciano, Enectali [MIT-Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, 37-664H, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico, E-mail: charee.l.peters@vanderbilt.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95060 (United States)

    2013-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Determination of the explosion type of supernova remnants (SNRs) can be challenging, as SNRs are hundreds to thousands of years old and supernovae are classified based on spectral properties days after explosion. Previous studies of thermal X-ray emission from Milky Way and Large Magellanic Cloud SNRs have shown that Type Ia and core-collapse (CC) SNRs have statistically different symmetries, and thus these sources can be typed based on their X-ray morphologies. In this Letter, we extend the same technique, a multipole expansion technique using power ratios, to infrared (IR) images of SNRs to test whether they can be typed using the symmetry of their warm dust emission as well. We analyzed archival Spitzer Space Telescope Multiband Imaging Photometer 24 {mu}m observations of the previously used X-ray sample, and we find that the two classes of SNRs separate according to their IR morphologies. The Type Ia SNRs are statistically more circular and mirror symmetric than the CC SNRs, likely due to the different circumstellar environments and explosion geometries of the progenitors. Broadly, our work indicates that the IR emission retains information of the explosive origins of the SNR and offers a new method to type SNRs based on IR morphology.

  12. Emergency Action Plan For incidents involving hazardous materials, fires, explosions, or natural gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    -492-6025. For Non-Emergency Fire and Natural Gas Questions call the CU Fire Marshall @ 303-492-4042. AdditionalEmergency Action Plan For incidents involving hazardous materials, fires, explosions, or natural gas leaks, the following actions should be taken: 1) Life Safety First 2) Evacuate Immediate Area 3

  13. Metadata of the chapter that will be visualized online Chapter Title Seismic Monitoring of Nuclear Explosions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foulger, G. R.

    Administration, Beijing, China 6 Introduction 7 The original development of nuclear weapons, and their 8 first,000 10 nuclear test explosions were conducted. About 500 of 11 these were carried out in the atmosphere with some regional concentra- 14 tions, and aroused widespread public opposition to 15 nuclear testing

  14. Cavitation induced by explosion in an ideal fluid model Christophe Josserand*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cavitation induced by explosion in an ideal fluid model Christophe Josserand* The James Franck a cavitation bubble for large enough energy. This gives a consistent view for rebound bubbles in superfluid.55.Bx, 67.55.Fa, 64.70.Fx I. INTRODUCTION Cavitation is a physical process involving such aspects

  15. Xsense -a miniaturised multi-sensor platform for explosives detection Michael Stenbk Schmidt1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    device size allows us to integrate the four sensors into one portable device at a low cost. Keywords project is based on the development of a reliable, sensitive, portable and low-cost explosives detector and provide redundancy under various environmental conditions. As each sensor can be fabricated using

  16. Fire and the related effects of nuclear explosions. 1982 Asilomar Conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, S.B.; Alger, R.S. (eds.)

    1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the proceedings of a Federal Emergency Management Agency-sponsored Conference on fire and the related effects of nuclear explosions (with passing attention to earthquakes and other nonnuclear mishaps). This conference, the fifth of an annual series (formally called Blast/Fire Interaction Conferences), was held during the week of April 25, 1982, again at Asilomar, California.

  17. Steam Explosions, Earthquakes, and Volcanic Eruptions--What's in Yellowstone's Future?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torgersen, Christian

    Steam Explosions, Earthquakes, and Volcanic Eruptions-- What's in Yellowstone's Future? U. In the background, steam vigorously rises from the hot Each year, millions of visitors come to admire the hot, such as geysers. Steam and hot water carry huge quantities of thermal en- ergy to the surface from the magma cham

  18. Analysis of the accidental explosion at Pepcon, Henderson, Nevada, May 4, 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reed, J.W.

    1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several hours of fire and numerous explosions destroyed the Pacific Engineering Company plant in Henderson, Nevada, that manufactured ammonium perchlorate (AP) for rocket fuel. This incident began about 1130 PDT on May 4, 1988, with a fire in their Batch House that grew out of control and caused a first large explosion at about 1153 PDT. The final and largest explosion occurred about 1157 PDT. Damages to the surrounding community were surveyed and interpreted as airblast overpressures versus distances, which allowed an estimate of 1-kiloton nuclear free-air-burst for the equivalent explosion yield. This could be reproduced by 250-tons TNT burst on the ground surface. Weather reports were obtained from the National Weather Services which indicated somewhat enhanced airblast propagation downwind toward northerly directions and attenuated airblast propagations upwind in southerly directions. It was impossible, for lack of winds aloft information below about 500 m above ground, to determine whether there was any atmospheric acoustic airblast focusing. Several seismic recordings in Las Vegas showed the greatest ground motion resulted from the airblast wave passage, traveling at near acoustic speed. Ground wave arrival times were not sufficiently precise to allow seismic speed interpretations. Of the 4000 tons of AP apparently stored in and around the plant, it appears that about 1500 tons detonated in the largest explosion. This leads to a conclusion that the TNT airblast equivalence factor for AP is near 1/6. An independent estimate, based on analysis of more ideal close-in structural deformations, suggested an equivalence factor of 1/3. 25 refs., 12 figs., 14 tabs.

  19. EXPLOSIVE NUCLEOSYNTHESIS IN THE NEUTRINO-DRIVEN ASPHERICAL SUPERNOVA EXPLOSION OF A NON-ROTATING 15 M{sub sun} STAR WITH SOLAR METALLICITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujimoto, Shin-ichiro [Kumamoto National College of Technology, 2659-2 Suya, Goshi, Kumamoto 861-1102 (Japan); Kotake, Kei [Division of Theoretical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatory Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Hashimoto, Masa-aki; Ono, Masaomi [Department of Physics, School of Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 810-8560 (Japan); Ohnishi, Naofumi, E-mail: fujimoto@ec.knct.ac.jp [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-01 Aramaki-Aza-Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate explosive nucleosynthesis in a non-rotating 15 M{sub sun} star with solar metallicity that explodes by a neutrino-heating supernova (SN) mechanism aided by both standing accretion shock instability (SASI) and convection. To trigger explosions in our two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations, we approximate the neutrino transport with a simple light-bulb scheme and systematically change the neutrino fluxes emitted from the protoneutron star. By a post-processing calculation, we evaluate abundances and masses of the SN ejecta for nuclei with a mass number {<=}70, employing a large nuclear reaction network. Aspherical abundance distributions, which are observed in nearby core-collapse SN remnants, are obtained for the non-rotating spherically symmetric progenitor, due to the growth of a low-mode SASI. The abundance pattern of the SN ejecta is similar to that of the solar system for models whose masses range between (0.4-0.5) M{sub sun} of the ejecta from the inner region ({<=}10, 000 km) of the precollapse core. For the models, the explosion energies and the {sup 56}Ni masses are {approx_equal} 10{sup 51}erg and (0.05-0.06) M{sub sun}, respectively; their estimated baryonic masses of the neutron star are comparable to the ones observed in neutron-star binaries. These findings may have little uncertainty because most of the ejecta is composed of matter that is heated via the shock wave and has relatively definite abundances. The abundance ratios for Ne, Mg, Si, and Fe observed in the Cygnus loop are reproduced well with the SN ejecta from an inner region of the 15 M{sub sun} progenitor.

  20. Simulation of Seismic Waves from Underground Explosions in Geologic Media: FY2009 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodgers, A; Vorobiev, O; Sjogreen, B; Petersson, N A

    2009-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes work done after one year on project LL09-Sim-NDD-02 entitled 'Exploratory Research: Advanced Simulation of Low Yield Underground Nuclear Explosions To Improve Seismic Yield Estimation and Source Identification'. Work on this effort proceeded in two thrusts: (1) parametric studies of underground explosion generated motions with GEODYN; and (2) coupling of GEODYN to WPP. GEODYN is a code for modeling hydrodynamic (shock-wave) motions in a wide variety of materials, including earth materials. WPP is an anelastic finite difference code for modeling seismic motions. The sensitivity of seismic motions to emplacement conditions was investigated with a series of parametric studies of low-yield (0.2-4 kiloton) chemical high-explosive shots at a range of burial depths in four canonical geologic media (granite, limestone, tuff and alluvium). Results indicate that the material has a strong impact on the seismic motions consistent with previous reports. Motions computed with GEODYN in realistically complex material models are very consistent with reported motions from nuclear tests by Perret and Bass (1975). The amplitude, frequency content and cavity size resulting from explosions are all strongly sensitive to the material strength. Explosions in high-strength (granite) resulted in the highest amplitude, shortest duration pulse and smallest cavities, whereas explosions in low-strength material (alluvium) resulted in the lowest amplitudes, longest duration pulse and larger cavities. The corner frequencies of P-wave motions at take-off angles corresponding to propagation to teleseismic distances show corresponding behavior, with high-strength materials having the highest corner frequency and low-strength materials having low corner frequency. Gravity has an important effect on the cavity size and outgoing motions due work done against lithostatic stress. In fact without gravity the cavity radius and elastic motions are largely insensitive to depth of burial. We investigated the effects of depth of burial for a given yield and material model in the presence of gravity and found that the cavity radius is slightly smaller for deeper shots and the resulting motions have shorter duration and higher corner frequency compared to shallower shots. On the second thrust, progress has been made on one-way coupling of GEODYN to WPP. Early in the project we demonstrated this capability from one-dimensional (1D) GEODYN calculations. We have now completed the capability to pass motions computed in 2D or 3D with GEODYN to WPP and propagated (in 3D) to large distances.

  1. Distributed Explosive-Driven Six-foot Diameter by Two-Hundred Foot Long Shock Tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VIGIL, MANUEL G.

    2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The blast parameters for the 6-foot diameter by 200-foot long, explosively driven shock tube are presented in this report. The purpose, main characteristics, and blast simulation capabilities of this PETN Primacord, explosively driven facility are included. Experimental data are presented for air and Sulfurhexaflouride (SF6) test gases with initial pressures between 0.5 to 12.1 psia (ambient). Experimental data are presented and include shock wave time of amval at various test stations, flow duration, static or side-on overpressure, and stagnation or head-on overpressure. The blast parameters calculated from the above measured parameters and presented in this report include shock wave velocity, shock strength, shock Mach number, flow Mach Number, reflected pressure, dynamic pressure, particle velocity, density, and temperature. Graphical data for the above parameters are included. Algorithms and least squares fit equations are also included.

  2. VISAR Validation Test Series at the Light Initiated High Explosive (LIHE) facility.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Covert, Timothy Todd

    2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A velocity interferometer system for any reflector (VISAR) was recently deployed at the light initiated high explosive facility (LIHE) to measure the velocity of an explosively accelerated flyer plate. The velocity data from the flyer plate experiments, using the vendor's fringe constant of 100m/s/fringe, were consistently lower than model predictions. The goal of the VISAR validation test series was to confirm the VISAR system fringe constant. A low velocity gas gun was utilized to impact and accelerate a target at the LIHE facility. VISAR velocity data from the accelerated target was compared against an independent velocity measurement. The data from this test series did in fact reveal the fringe constant was significantly higher than the vendor's specification. The correct fringe constant for the LIHE VISAR system has been determined to be 123 m/s/fringe. The Light Initiated High Explosive (LIHE) facility recently completed a Phase I test series to develop an explosively accelerated flyer plate (X-Flyer). The X-Flyer impulse technique consists of first spraying a thin layer of silver acetylide silver nitrate explosive onto a thin flyer plate. The explosive is then initiated using an intense flash of light. The explosive detonation accelerates the flyer across a small air gap towards the test item. The impact of the flyer with the test item creates a shock pulse and an impulsive load in the test unit. The goal of Phase I of the X-Flyer development series was to validate the technique theory and design process. One of the key parameters that control the shock pulse and impulsive load is the velocity of the flyer at impact. To measure this key parameter, a velocity interferometer system for any reflector (VISAR) was deployed at the LIHE facility. The VISAR system was assembled by Sandia personnel from the Explosive Projects and Diagnostics department. The VISAR was a three leg, push-pull system using a fixed delay cavity. The primary optical components consisted of a delay bar and stand off that holds the air-reference mirror. When this component was ordered 2 years ago, a fringe constant of 100 m/s/fringe for a 532nm laser was specified. The fabrication/assembly vendor went out of business shortly after delivering the component and did not deliver the certification papers with the component. The vendor documentation to verify the fringe constant was not made available to Sandia. VISAR systems were generally not calibrated because the fringe constant could be determined from a known glass index of refraction and length. The VISAR system was deployed at the LIHE facility using the specified 100m/s/fringe. The Phase I X-Flyer development series was completed successfully measuring flyer velocities using the VISAR system. However flyer velocity measurements were on average 18% lower than analytical model predictions. In an effort to resolve the consistently slow velocity data, the VISAR data was under scrutiny. The purpose of the LIHE VISAR validation test series is to verify the velocity data taken with the VISAR system.

  3. X-ray flares from dense shells formed in gamma-ray burst explosions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hascoet, R; Daigne, F; Mochkovitch, R

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bright X-ray flares are routinely detected by the Swift satellite during the early afterglow of gamma-ray bursts, when the explosion ejecta drives a blast wave into the external medium. We suggest that the flares are produced as the reverse shock propagates into the tail of the ejecta. The ejecta is expected to contain a few dense shells formed at an earlier stage of the explosion. We show an example of how such dense shells form and describe how the reverse shock interacts with them. A new reflected shock is generated in this interaction, which produces a short-lived X-ray flare. The model provides a natural explanation for the main observed features of the X-ray flares --- the fast rise, the steep power-law decline, and the characteristic peak duration \\Delta t /t= (0.1-0.3).

  4. Compact Remnant Mass Function: Dependence on the Explosion Mechanism and Metallicity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fryer, C L; Wiktorowicz, G; Dominik, M; Kalogera, V; Holz, D

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The mass distribution of neutron stars and stellar-mass black holes provides vital clues into the nature of stellar core collapse and the physical engine responsible for supernova explosions. Using recent advances in our understanding of supernova engines, we derive mass distributions of stellar compact remnants. We provide analytical prescriptions for compact object masses for major population synthesis codes. In an accompanying paper, Belczynski et al., we demonstrate that these qualitatively new results for compact objects can explain the observed gap in the remnant mass distribution between ~2-5 solar masses and that they place strong constraints on the nature of the supernova engine. Here, we show that advanced gravitational radiation detectors (like LIGO/VIRGO or the Einstein Telescope) will be able to further test the supernova explosion engine models once double black hole inspirals are detected.

  5. Thin-layer chromatography and colorimetric analysis of multi-component explosive mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pagoria, Philip F.; Mitchell, Alexander R.; Whipple, Richard E.; Carman, M. Leslie

    2014-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin-layer chromatography method for detection and identification of common military and peroxide explosives in samples includes the steps of provide a reverse-phase thin-layer chromatography plate; prepare the plate by marking spots on which to deposit the samples by touching the plate with a marker; spot one micro liter of a first standard onto one of the spots, spot one micro liter of a second standard onto another of the spots, and spot samples onto other of spots producing a spotted plate; add eluent to a developing chamber; add the spotted plate to the developing chamber; remove the spotted plate from the developing chamber producing a developed plate; place the developed plate in an ultraviolet light box; add a visualization agent to a dip tank; dip the developed plate in the dip tank and remove the developed plate quickly; and detect explosives by viewing said developed plate.

  6. Development of graphene nanoplatelet embedded polymer microcantilever for vapour phase explosive detection applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray, Prasenjit; Pandey, Swapnil; Ramgopal Rao, V. [Centre of Excellence in Nanoelectronics, Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai (India)

    2014-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, a graphene based strain sensor has been reported for explosive vapour detection applications by exploiting the piezoresistive property of graphene. Instead of silicon based cantilevers, a low cost polymeric micro-cantilever platform has been used to fabricate this strain sensor by embedding the graphene nanoplatelet layer inside the beam. The fabricated devices were characterized for their mechanical and electromechanical behaviour. This device shows a very high gauge factor which is around ~144. Also the resonant frequency of these cantilevers is high enough such that the measurements are not affected by environmental noise. These devices have been used in this work for reliable detection of explosive vapours such as 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene down to parts-per-billion concentrations in ambient conditions.

  7. Finding the first cosmic explosions. III. Pulsational pair-instability supernovae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whalen, Daniel J.; Smidt, Joseph [T-2, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Even, Wesley; Fryer, Chris L. [CCS-2, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Woosley, S. E. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, UCSC, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Heger, Alexander [Monash Centre for Astrophysics, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Stiavelli, Massimo [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Population III supernovae have been the focus of growing attention because of their potential to directly probe the properties of the first stars, particularly the most energetic events that can be seen at the edge of the observable universe. But until now pulsational pair-instability supernovae, in which explosive thermonuclear burning in massive stars fails to unbind them but can eject their outer layers into space, have been overlooked as cosmic beacons at the earliest redshifts. These shells can later collide and, like Type IIn supernovae, produce superluminous events in the UV at high redshifts that could be detected in the near infrared today. We present numerical simulations of a 110 M {sub ?} pulsational pair-instability explosion done with the Los Alamos radiation hydrodynamics code Radiation Adaptive Grid Eulerian. We find that collisions between consecutive pulsations are visible in the near infrared out to z ? 15-20 and can probe the earliest stellar populations at cosmic dawn.

  8. LIQUID PROPANE GAS (LPG) STORAGE AREA BOILING LIQUID EXPANDING VAPOR EXPLOSION (BLEVE) ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PACE, M.E.

    2004-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The PHA and the FHAs for the SWOC MDSA (HNF-14741) identified multiple accident scenarios in which vehicles powered by flammable gases (e.g., propane), or combustible or flammable liquids (e.g., gasoline, LPG) are involved in accidents that result in an unconfined vapor cloud explosion (UVCE) or in a boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE), respectively. These accident scenarios are binned in the Bridge document as FIR-9 scenarios. They are postulated to occur in any of the MDSA facilities. The LPG storage area will be in the southeast corner of CWC that is relatively remote from store distaged MAR. The location is approximately 30 feet south of MO-289 and 250 feet east of 2401-W by CWC Gate 10 in a large staging area for unused pallets and equipment.

  9. Description and validation of ERAD: An atmospheric dispersion model for high explosive detonations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boughton, B.A.; DeLaurentis, J.M.

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Explosive Release Atmospheric Dispersion (ERAD) model is a three-dimensional numerical simulation of turbulent atmospheric transport and diffusion. An integral plume rise technique is used to provide a description of the physical and thermodynamic properties of the cloud of warm gases formed when the explosive detonates. Particle dispersion is treated as a stochastic process which is simulated using a discrete time Lagrangian Monte Carlo method. The stochastic process approach permits a more fundamental treatment of buoyancy effects, calm winds and spatial variations in meteorological conditions. Computational requirements of the three-dimensional simulation are substantially reduced by using a conceptualization in which each Monte Carlo particle represents a small puff that spreads according to a Gaussian law in the horizontal directions. ERAD was evaluated against dosage and deposition measurements obtained during Operation Roller Coaster. The predicted contour areas average within about 50% of the observations. The validation results confirm the model`s representation of the physical processes.

  10. AMR Code Simulations of Turbulent Combustion in Confined and Unconfined SDF Explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuhl, A L; Bell, J B; Beckner, V

    2009-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A heterogeneous continuum model is proposed to describe the dispersion and combustion of an aluminum particle cloud in an explosion. It combines the gas-dynamic conservation laws for the gas phase with a continuum model for the dispersed phase, as formulated by Nigmatulin. Inter-phase mass, momentum and energy exchange are prescribed by phenomenological models. It incorporates a combustion model based on the mass conservation laws for fuel, air and products; source/sink terms are treated in the fast-chemistry limit appropriate for such gas dynamic fields, along with a model for mass transfer from the particle phase to the gas. The model takes into account both the afterburning of the detonation products of the booster with air, and the combustion of the Al particles with air. The model equations were integrated by high-order Godunov schemes for both the gas and particle phases. Numerical simulations of the explosion fields from 1.5-g Shock-Dispersed-Fuel (SDF) charge in a 6.6 liter calorimeter were used to validate the combustion model. Then the model was applied to 10-kg Al-SDF explosions in a vented two-room structure and in an unconfined height-of-burst explosion. Computed pressure histories are in reasonable (but not perfect) agreement with measured waveforms. Differences are caused by physical-chemical kinetic effects of particle combustion which induce ignition delays in the initial reactive blast wave and quenching of reactions at late times. Current simulations give initial insights into such modeling issues.

  11. Angle-resolved scattering spectroscopy of explosives using an external cavity quantum cascade laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suter, Jonathan D.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Phillips, Mark C.

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Investigation of angle-resolved scattering from solid explosives residues on a car door for non-contact sensing geometries. Illumination with a mid-infrared external cavity quantum cascade laser tuning between 7 and 8 microns was detected both with a sensitive single point detector and a hyperspectral imaging camera. Spectral scattering phenomena were discussed and possibilities for hyperspectral imaging at large scattering angles were outlined.

  12. Implementation of strength and burn models for plastic-bonded explosives and propellants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reaugh, J E

    2009-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We have implemented the burn model in LS-DYNA. At present, the damage (porosity and specific surface area) is specified as initial conditions. However, history variables that are used by the strength model are reserved as placeholders for the next major revision, which will be a completely interactive model. We have implemented an improved strength model for explosives based on a model for concrete. The model exhibits peak strength and subsequent strain softening in uniaxial compression. The peak strength increases with increasing strain rate and/or reduced ambient temperature. Under triaxial compression compression, the strength continues to increase (or at least not decrease) with increasing strain. This behaviour is common to both concrete and polymer-bonded explosives (PBX) because the microstructure of these composites is similar. Both have aggregate material with a broad particle size distribution, although the length scale for concrete aggregate is two orders of magnitude larger than for PBX. The (cement or polymer) binder adheres to the aggregate, and is both pressure and rate sensitive. There is a larger bind binder content in concrete, compared to the explosive, and the aggregates have different hardness. As a result we expect the parameter values to differ, but the functional forms to be applicable to both. The models have been fit to data from tests on an AWE explosive that is HMX based. The decision to implement the models in LS-DYNA was based on three factors: LS-DYNA is used routinely by the AWE engineering analysis group and has a broad base of experienced users; models implemented in LS-DYNA can be transferred easily to LLNL's ALE 3D using a material model wrapper developed by Rich Becker; and LS-DYNA could accommodate the model requirements for a significant number of additional history variables without the significant time delay associated with code modification.

  13. The science case for 37Ar as a monitor for underground nuclear explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haas, Derek A.; Orrell, John L.; Bowyer, Ted W.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Hayes, James C.

    2010-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A new calculation of the production of 37Ar from nuclear explosion neutron interactions on 40Ca in a suite of common sub-surface materials (rock, etc) is presented. Even in mineral structures that are relatively low in Ca, the resulting 37Ar signature is large enough for detection in cases of venting or gaseous diffusion driven by barometric pumping. Field and laboratory detection strategies and projected sensitivities are presented.

  14. Characterization of explosives processing waste decomposition due to composting. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griest, W.H.; Stewart, A.J.; Ho, C.H.; Tyndall, R.L.; Vass, A.A.; Caton, J.E.; Caldwell, W.M.

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work was to provide data and methodology assisting the transfer and acceptance of composting technology for the remediation of explosives-contaminated soils and sediments. Issues and activities addressed included: (a) chemical and toxicological characterization of compost samples from new field composting experiments, and the environmental availability of composting efficiency by isolation of bacterial consortia and natural surfactants from highly efficient composts, and (c) improved assessment of compost product suitability for land application.

  15. Explosive evolutionary differentiation of unique group of Mississippian-Pennsylvanian camerate crinoids (Acrocrinidae)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, R. C.; Strimple, H. L.

    1969-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    TIIE UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS PALEONTOLOGICAL CONTRIBUTIONS March 7, 1969 Paper 39 EXPLOSIVE EVOLUTIONARY DIFFERENTIATION OF UNIQUE GROUP OF MISSISSIPPIAN-PENNSYLVANIAN CAMERATE CRINOIDS (ACROCRINIDAE) RAYMOND C. MOORE and HARRELL L. STRIMPLE [The... University of Kansas and University of Iowa] ABSTRACT Crinoids classed as constituents of the family Acrocrinidae are distinguished from all other Camerata, as well as representatives of remaining subclasses, in having circlets of supplemental calyx plates...

  16. A Test for the Nature of the Type Ia Supernova Explosion Mechanism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Philip A. Pinto; Ronald G. Eastman; Tamara Rogers

    2000-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Currently popular models for Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) fall into two general classes. The first comprises explosions of nearly pure carbon/oxygen (C/O) white dwarfs at the Chandrasekhar limit which ignite near their centers. The second consists of lower-mass C/O cores which are ignited by the detonation of an accreted surface helium layer. Explosions of the latter type produce copious Fe, Co and Ni K-alpha emission from 56Ni and 56Co decay in the detonated surface layers, emission which is much weaker from Chandrasekhar-mass models. The presence of this emission provides a simple and unambiguous discriminant between these two models for SNe Ia. Both mechanisms may produce 0.1-0.6 solar masses of 56Ni, making them bright gamma-ray line emitters. The time to maximum brightness of 56Ni decay lines is distinctly shorter in the sub-Chandrasekhar mass class of model (approximately 15 days) than in the Chandrasekhar mass model (approximately 30 days), making gamma-ray line evolution another direct test of the explosion mechanism. It should just be possible to detect K-shell emission from a sub-Chandrasekhar explosion from SNe Ia as far away as the Virgo cluster with the XMM Observatory. A 1 to 2 square meter X-ray telescope such as the proposed Con-X Observatory could observe K-alpha emission from sub-Chandrasekhar mass SNe Ia in the Virgo cluster, providing not just a detection, but high-accuracy flux and kinematic information.

  17. Security training symposium: Meeting the challenge: Firearms and explosives recognition and detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    These conference proceedings have been prepared in support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Security Training Symposium on Meeting the Challenge -- Firearms and Explosives Recognition and Detection,'' November 28 through 30, 1989, in Bethesda, Maryland. This document contains the edited transcripts of the guest speakers. It also contains some of the speakers' formal papers that were distributed and some of the slides that were shown at the symposium (Appendix A).

  18. DIMENSION AS A KEY TO THE NEUTRINO MECHANISM OF CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVA EXPLOSIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nordhaus, J.; Burrows, A. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Almgren, A.; Bell, J., E-mail: nordhaus@astro.princeton.ed, E-mail: burrows@astro.princeton.ed, E-mail: ASAlmgren@lbl.go, E-mail: JBBell@lbl.go [Computational Research Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We explore the dependence on spatial dimension of the viability of the neutrino heating mechanism of core-collapse supernova explosions. We find that the tendency to explode is a monotonically increasing function of dimension, with three dimensions (3D) requiring {approx}40%-50% lower driving neutrino luminosity than one dimension and {approx}15%-25% lower driving neutrino luminosity than two dimensions (2D). Moreover, we find that the delay to explosion for a given neutrino luminosity is always shorter in 3D than 2D, sometimes by many hundreds of milliseconds. The magnitude of this dimensional effect is much larger than the purported magnitude of a variety of other effects, such as nuclear burning, inelastic scattering, or general relativity, which are sometimes invoked to bridge the gap between the current ambiguous and uncertain theoretical situation and the fact of robust supernova explosions. Since real supernovae occur in three dimensions, our finding may be an important step toward unraveling one of the most problematic puzzles in stellar astrophysics. In addition, even though in 3D, we do see pre-explosion instabilities and blast asymmetries, unlike the situation in 2D, we do not see an obvious axially symmetric dipolar shock oscillation. Rather, the free energy available to power instabilities seems to be shared by more and more degrees of freedom as the dimension increases. Hence, the strong dipolar axisymmetry seen in 2D and previously identified as a fundamental characteristic of the shock hydrodynamics may not survive in 3D as a prominent feature.

  19. Lightcurves of thermonuclear supernovae as a probe of the explosion mechanism and their use in cosmology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Blinnikov; E. Sorokina

    2002-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermonuclear supernovae are valuable for cosmology but their physics is not yet fully understood. Modeling the development and propagation of nuclear flame is complicated by numerous instabilities. The predictions of supernova light curves still involve some simplifying assumptions, but one can use the comparison of the computed fluxes with observations to constrain the explosion mechanism. In spite of great progress in recent years, a number of issues remains unsolved both in flame physics and light curve modeling.

  20. Thermonuclear Runaways on Accreting White Dwarfs: Models of Classical Novae Explosions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Margarita Hernanz; Jordi Jose

    2000-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The mechanism of classical novae explosions is explained, together with some of their observational properties. The scarce but not null impact of novae in the chemical evolution of the Milky Way is analyzed, as well as their relevance for the radioactivity in the Galaxy. A special emphasis is given to the predicted gamma-ray emission from novae and its relationship with the thermonuclear model itself and its related nucleosynthesis.

  1. A PANCHROMATIC VIEW OF THE RESTLESS SN 2009ip REVEALS THE EXPLOSIVE EJECTION OF A MASSIVE STAR ENVELOPE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friedman, Andrew Samuel

    The double explosion of SN 2009ip in 2012 raises questions about our understanding of the late stages of massive star evolution. Here we present a comprehensive study of SN 2009ip during its remarkable rebrightenings. ...

  2. Full-scale high-speed schlieren imaging of explosions and gunshots Gary S. Settles*a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Settles, Gary S.

    -speed imaging and cinematography are important in research on explosions, firearms, and homeland security. Much m at frame rates up to 30 kHz. Our previous high-speed schlieren cinematography experiments

  3. Neutrino-driven explosions of ultra-stripped type Ic supernovae generating binary neutron stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suwa, Yudai; Shibata, Masaru; Umeda, Hideyuki; Takahashi, Koh

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study explosion characteristics of ultra-stripped supernovae (SNe), which are candidates of SNe generating binary neutron stars (NSs). As a first step, we perform stellar evolutionary simulations of bare carbon-oxygen cores of mass from 1.45 to 2.0 $M_\\odot$ until the iron cores become unstable and start collapsing. We then perform axisymmetric hydrodynamics simulations with spectral neutrino transport using these stellar evolution outcomes as initial conditions. All models exhibit successful explosions driven by neutrino heating. The diagnostic explosion energy, ejecta mass, Ni mass, and NS mass are typically $\\sim 10^{50}$ erg, $\\sim 0.1 M_\\odot$, $\\sim 0.01M_\\odot$, and $\\approx 1.3 M_\\odot$, which are compatible with observations of rapidly-evolving and luminous transient such as SN 2005ek. We also find that the ultra-stripped SN is a candidate for producing the secondary low-mass NS in the observed compact binary NSs like PSR J0737-3039.

  4. MESOSCALE MODELING OF DEFLAGRATION-INDUCED DECONSOLIDATION IN POLYMER-BONDED EXPLOSIVES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Springer, H K; Glascoe, E A; Reaugh, J E; Kercher, J R; Maienschein, J L

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Initially undamaged polymer-bonded explosives can transition from conductive burning to more violent convective burning via rapid deconsolidation at higher pressures. The pressure-dependent infiltration of cracks and pores, i.e., damage, by product gases at the burn-front is a key step in the transition to convective burning. However, the relative influence of pre-existing damage and the evolution of deflagration-induced damage during the transition to convective burning is not well understood. The objective of this study is to investigate the role of microstructure and initial pressurization on deconsolidation. We performed simulations using the multi-physics hydrocode, ALE3D. HMX-Viton A served as our model explosive. A Prout-Tompkins chemical kinetic model, Vielle's Law pressure-dependent burning, Gruneisen equation-of-state, and simplified strength model were used for the HMX. The propensity for deconsolidation increased with increasing defect size and decreasing initial pressurization, as measured by the increase in burning surface area. These studies are important because they enable the development of continuum-scale damage models and the design of inherently safer explosives.

  5. Proceedings of the 24th Seismic Research Review: Nuclear Explosion Monitoring: Innovation and Integration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, N. Jill [Editor

    2002-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 24th Seismic Research Review: Nuclear Explosion Monitoring: Innovation and Integration, held 17-19 September, 2002 in Ponte Vedra Beach, Florida. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  6. Proceedings of the 26th Seismic Research Review: Trends in Nuclear Explosion Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chavez, Francesca C. [Editor; Benson, Jody [Editor; Hanson, Stephanie [Editor; Mark, Carol [Editor; Wetovsky, Marvin A. [Editor

    2004-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 26th Seismic Research Review: Trends in Nuclear Explosion Monitoring, held 21-23 September, 2004 in Orlando, Florida. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  7. Proceedings of the 25th Seismic Research Review -- Nuclear Explosion Monitoring: Building the Knowledge Base

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chavez, Francesca C. [Editor; Mendius, E. Louise [Editor

    2003-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 25th Seismic Research Review -- Nuclear Explosion Monitoring: Building the Knowledge Base, held 23-25 September, 2003 in Tucson, Arizona. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  8. Tycho Brahe's 1572 supernova as a standard type Ia explosion revealed from its light echo spectrum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krause, Oliver; Usuda, Tomonori; Hattori, Takashi; Goto, Miwa; Birkmann, Stephan; Nomoto, Ken'ichi

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are thermonuclear explosions of white dwarf stars in close binary systems. They play an important role as cosmological distance indicators and have led to the discovery of the accelerated expansion of the Universe. Among the most important unsolved questions are how the explosion actually proceeds and whether accretion occurs from a companion or via the merging of two white dwarfs. Tycho Brahe's supernova of 1572 (SN 1572) is thought to be one of the best candidates for a SN Ia in the Milky Way. The proximity of the SN 1572 remnant has allowed detailed studies, such as the possible identification of the binary companion, and provides a unique opportunity to test theories of the explosion mechanism and the nature of the progenitor. The determination of the yet unknown exact spectroscopic type of SN 1572 is crucial to relate these results to the diverse population of SNe Ia. Here we report an optical spectrum of Tycho Brahe's supernova near maximum brightness, obtained from a scatter...

  9. Delayed detonations in full-star models of Type Ia supernova explosions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. K. Roepke; J. C. Niemeyer

    2007-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Aims: We present the first full-star three-dimensional explosion simulations of thermonuclear supernovae including parameterized deflagration-to-detonation transitions that occur once the flame enters the distributed burning regime. Methods: Treating the propagation of both the deflagration and the detonation waves in a common front-tracking approach, the detonation is prevented from crossing ash regions. Results: Our criterion triggers the detonation wave at the outer edge of the deflagration flame and consequently it has to sweep around the complex structure and to compete with expansion. Despite the impeded detonation propagation, the obtained explosions show reasonable agreement with global quantities of observed type Ia supernovae. By igniting the flame in different numbers of kernels around the center of the exploding white dwarf, we set up three different models shifting the emphasis from the deflagration phase to the detonation phase. The resulting explosion energies and iron group element productions cover a large part of the diversity of type Ia supernovae. Conclusions: Flame-driven deflagration-to-detonation transitions, if hypothetical, remain a possibility deserving further investigation.

  10. Proceedings of the 29th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A. [Editor; Benson, Jody [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F. [Editor

    2007-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 29th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 25-27 September, 2007 in Denver, Colorado. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  11. Proceedings of the 2009 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wetovsky, Marv A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Aguilar - Chang, Julio [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anderson, Dale [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arrowsmith, Marie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arrowsmith, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baker, Diane [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Begnaud, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Harste, Hans [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Maceira, Monica [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Patton, Howard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Phillips, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Randall, George [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rowe, Charlotte [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stead, Richard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Steck, Lee [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Whitaker, Rod [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yang, Xiaoning ( David ) [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2009: Ground -Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 21-23 September, 2009 in Tucson, Arizona,. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States’ capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  12. Proceedings of the 27th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A. [Editor; Benson, Jody [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F. [Editor

    2005-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 27th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 20-22 September, 2005 in Rancho Mirage, California. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  13. Proceedings of the 2010 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A. [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F. [Editor

    2010-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2010: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 21-23 September, 2010 in Orlando, Florida,. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, National Science Foundation (NSF), Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  14. Proceedings of the 30th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wetovsky, Marv A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Aguilar-chang, Julio [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arrowsmith, Marie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arrowsmith, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baker, Diane [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Begnaud, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Harste, Hans [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Maceira, Monica [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Patton, Howard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Phillips, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Randall, George [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Revelle, Douglas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rowe, Charlotte [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stead, Richard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Steck, Lee [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Whitaker, Rod [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yang, Xiaoning [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 30th Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 23-25 September, 2008 in Portsmouth, Virginia. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States’ capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  15. Proceedings of the 28th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A. [Editor; Benson, Jody [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F. [Editor

    2006-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 28th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 19-21 September, 2006 in Orlando, Florida. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  16. Hydrodynamic Modeling of Air Blast Propagation from the Humble Redwood Chemical High Explosive Detonations Using GEODYN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chipman, V D

    2011-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Two-dimensional axisymmetric hydrodynamic models were developed using GEODYN to simulate the propagation of air blasts resulting from a series of high explosive detonations conducted at Kirtland Air Force Base in August and September of 2007. Dubbed Humble Redwood I (HR-1), these near-surface chemical high explosive detonations consisted of seven shots of varying height or depth of burst. Each shot was simulated numerically using GEODYN. An adaptive mesh refinement scheme based on air pressure gradients was employed such that the mesh refinement tracked the advancing shock front where sharp discontinuities existed in the state variables, but allowed the mesh to sufficiently relax behind the shock front for runtime efficiency. Comparisons of overpressure, sound speed, and positive phase impulse from the GEODYN simulations were made to the recorded data taken from each HR-1 shot. Where the detonations occurred above ground or were shallowly buried (no deeper than 1 m), the GEODYN model was able to simulate the sound speeds, peak overpressures, and positive phase impulses to within approximately 1%, 23%, and 6%, respectively, of the actual recorded data, supporting the use of numerical simulation of the air blast as a forensic tool in determining the yield of an otherwise unknown explosion.

  17. Spallation reactions in shock waves at supernova explosions and related problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ustinova, G. K., E-mail: ustinova@dubna.net.ru [RAS, V.I. Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry (Russian Federation)

    2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The isotopic anomalies of some extinct radionuclides testify to the outburst of a nearby supernova just before the collapse of the protosolar nebula, and to the fact that the supernova was Sn Ia, i.e. the carbon-detonation supernova. A key role of spallation reactions in the formation of isotopic anomalies in the primordial matter of the Solar System is revealed. It is conditioned by the diffusive acceleration of particles in the explosive shock waves, which leads to the amplification of rigidity of the energy spectrum of particles and its enrichment with heavier ions. The quantitative calculations of such isotopic anomalies of many elements are presented. It is well-grounded that the anomalous Xe-HL in meteoritic nanodiamonds was formed simultaneously with nanodiamonds themselves during the shock wave propagation at the Sn Ia explosion. The possible effects of shock wave fractionation of noble gases in the atmosphere of planets are considered. The origin of light elements Li, Be and B in spallation reactions, predicted by Fowler in the middle of the last century, is argued. All the investigated isotopic anomalies give the evidence for the extremely high magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) conditions at the initial stage of free expansion of the explosive shock wave from Sn Ia, which can be essential in solution of the problem of origin of cosmic rays. The specific iron-enriched matter of Sn Ia and its MHD-separation in turbulent processes must be taking into account in the models of origin of the Solar System.

  18. C-Safe Image Gallery from the Center for the Simulation of Accidental Fires and Explosions

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The University of Utah created an alliance with the DOE Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) program to form the Center for the Simulation of Accidental Fires and Explosions (C-SAFE). The Center focuses specifically on providing state-of-the-art, science-based tools for the numerical simulation of accidental fires and explosions, especially within the context of handling and storage of highly flammable materials. The objective of C-SAFE is to provide a system comprising a problem-solving environment in which fundamental chemistry and engineering physics are fully coupled with non-linear solvers, optimization, computational steering, visualization and experimental data verification. The availability of simulations using this system will help to better evaluate the risks and safety issues associated with fires and explosions. The scientific images at this website provide technical views of various flame types and configurations (http://www.csafe.utah.edu/Information/summary.html). See also the Container Dynamics presentations at http://www.csafe.utah.edu/Teams/ContainerDynamics/cd_presentations.html.

  19. Proceedings of the 2011 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wetovsky, Marvin A. [Editor; Patterson, Eileen F. [Editor; Sandoval, Marisa N. [Editor

    2011-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the Monitoring Research Review 2011: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, held 13-15 September, 2011 in Tucson, Arizona. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), US Army Space and Missile Defense Command, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), National Science Foundation (NSF), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States' capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  20. Thermonuclear explosion of rotating massive stars could explain core-collapse supernovae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kushnir, Doron

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is widely thought that core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe), the explosions of massive stars following the collapse of the stars' iron cores, is obtained due to energy deposition by neutrinos. So far, this scenario was not demonstrated from first principles. Kushnir and Katz (2014) have recently shown, by using one-dimensional simulations, that if the neutrinos failed to explode the star, a thermonuclear explosion of the outer shells is possible for some (tuned) initial profiles. However, the energy released was small and negligible amounts of ejected $^{56}$Ni were obtained, implying that these one-dimensional collapse induced thermonuclear explosions (CITE) are unlikely to represent typical CCSNe. Here I provide evidence supporting a scenario in which the majority of CCSNe are the result of CITE. I use two-dimensional simulations to show that collapse of stars that include slowly (few percent of breakup) rotating $\\sim0.1-10\\,M_{\\odot}$ shells of mixed helium-oxygen, leads to an ignition of a thermonuclear d...

  1. The progenitors of core-collapse supernovae suggest thermonuclear origin for the explosions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kushnir, Doron

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) are the explosions of massive stars following the collapse of the stars' iron cores. Poznanski (2013) has recently suggested an observational correlation between the ejecta velocities and the inferred masses of the red supergiant progenitors of type II-P explosions, which implies that the kinetic energy of the ejecta ($E_{\\textrm{kin}}$) increases with the mass of the progenitor. I point out that the same conclusion can be reached from the model-free observed correlation between the ejected $^{56}$Ni masses ($M_{\\textrm{Ni}}$) and the luminosities of the progenitors for type II supernovae, which was reported by Fraser et al. (2011). This correlation is in an agreement with the predictions of the collapse-induced thermonuclear explosions (CITE) for CCSNe and in a possible contradiction with the predictions of the neutrino mechanism. I show that a correlation between $M_{\\textrm{Ni}}$ and $E_{\\textrm{kin}}$ holds for all types of CCSNe (including type Ibc). This correlation sugg...

  2. Performance evaluation of booster materials in the plastic bonded explosive PBX 9502 in a hemispherical wave breakout test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hooks, Daniel E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morris, John S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hill, Larry G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Francois, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An explosive booster is normally required to initiate detonation in an insensitive high explosive (lHE). Booster materials must be ignitable by a conventional detonator and deliver sufficient energy and favorable pulse shape to initiate the IHE charge. The explosive booster should be as insensitive as reasonably possible to maintain the overall safety margin of the explosive assembly. A hemispherical wave breakout test termed the on ionskin test is one of the methods of testing the performance of booster materials in an initiation train assembly. There are several variations of this basic test which are known by other names. In this test, the wave breakout time-position history at the surface of a hemispherical IHE acceptor charge is recorded, and the relative uniformity of breakout allows qualitative comparison between booster candidates and quantitative comparison of several metrics. The results of a series of onionskin experiments evaluating the performance of some new booster formulations in the triaminotrinitrobenzene (TA TB) -based plastic bonded explosive PBX 9502 will be presented. The boosters were tested in an onionskin arrangement in which the booster pellet was cylindrical, and the tests were performed at a temperature of-55{sup o}C to emphasize variations in spreading performance. The modification from the traditional hemispherical geometry facilitated efficient explosive fabrication and charge assembly, but the results indicate that this geometry was not ideal for several reasons. Despite the complications arising from geometry, promising performance was observed from booster formulations including 3,3' -diamino-4,4'azoxyfurazan.

  3. Regional analysis of Former Soviet Union peaceful nuclear explosions recorded in the Former Soviet Union. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adushkin, V.C.

    1995-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Until the late 80`s information on Soviet underground nuclear explosions, let alone seismic recording on Soviet soil, were not generally available to the seismological community. The dramatic changes since then have resulted in access to a wide variety of seismic data from Soviet explosions. In this report the author presents a data set, unique to the field of seismic verification. The data includes a large number of waveforms from in-country seismological station Borovoye for the Soviet peaceful nuclear explosions with announced yields and origin times, some with physical and mechanical conditions at the test site. The waveforms were recorded by digital station of different types. In this report the author has summarized and reviewed information on 122 explosions, and 55 waveforms in this data set, which contains recordings obtained in the course of more than 15 years. As the characteristics of recording instruments were changing during this period of time available information on instrument calibrations is also described and reviewed. The author also has attempted to describe the observed peculiarities of P-wave by using a simple source function and magnitude correction which take in attention such parameters as the velocity of longitudinal wave, density, moisture, gas content and depth of explosion. More detail analysis was conducted for the explosions conducted in salt as there is representative sample and they were observed on local distances.

  4. The Blast-Wave-Driven Instability as a Vehicle for Understanding Supernova Explosion Structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miles, A R

    2008-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Blast-wave-driven instabilities play a rich and varied role throughout the evolution of supernovae from explosion to remnant, but interpreting their role is difficult due to the enormous complexity of the stellar systems. We consider the simpler and fundamental hydrodynamic instability problem of a material interface between two constant-density fluids perturbed from spherical and driven by a divergent central Taylor-Sedov blast wave. The existence of unified solutions at high Mach number and small density ratio suggests that general conclusions can be drawn about the likely asymptotic structure of the mixing zone. To this end we apply buoyancy-drag and bubble merger models modified to include the effects of divergence and radial velocity gradients. In general, these effects preclude the true self-similar evolution of classical Raleigh-Taylor, but can be incorporated into a quasi-self-similar growth picture. Loss of memory of initial conditions can occur in the quasi-self-similar model, but requires initial mode numbers higher than those predicted for pre-explosion interfaces in Type II SNe, suggesting that their late-time structure is likely strongly influenced by details of the initial perturbations. Where low-modes are dominant, as in the Type Ia Tycho remnant, they result from initial perturbations rather than generation from smaller scales. Therefore, structure observed now contains direct information about the explosion process. When large-amplitude modes are present in the initial conditions, the contribution to the perturbation growth from the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability is significant or dominant compared to Rayleigh-Taylor. Such Richtmyer-Meshkov growth can yield proximity of the forward shock to the growing spikes and structure that strongly resembles that observed in the Tycho. Laser-driven high-energy-density laboratory experiments offer a promising avenue for testing model and simulation descriptions of blast-wave-driven instabilities and making connections to their astrophysical counterparts.

  5. Explosives Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Engineering and Experiments (505) 667-6407 Email Center Associate Director Becky Olinger Global Security - Emerging Threats (505) 664-0540 Email Los Alamos Collaboration for...

  6. Primary explosives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hiskey, Michael A. (Los Alamos, NM); Huynh, My Hang V. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2009-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a compound of the formula (Cat).sup.+.sub.z[M.sup.++(5-nitro-1H-tetrazolato-N2).sup.-.sub.x(H.sub.2- O).sub.y] where x is 3 or 4, y is 2 or 3, x+y is 6, z is 1 or 2, and M.sup.++ is selected from the group consisting of iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, chromium, and manganese, and (Cat).sup.+ is selected from the group consisting of ammonium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and cesium. A method of preparing the compound of that formula is also disclosed.

  7. Primary explosives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hiskey, Michael A. (Los Alamos, NM); Huynh, My Hang V. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2011-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a compound of the formula (Cat).sup.+.sub.z[M.sup.++(5-nitro-1H-tetrazolato-N2).sup.-.sub.x(H.sub.2- O).sub.y] where x is 3 or 4, y is 2 or 3, x+y is 6, z is 1 or 2, and M.sup.++ is selected from the group consisting of iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, chromium, and manganese, and (Cat).sup.+ is selected from the group consisting of ammonium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and cesium. A method of preparing the compound of that formula is also disclosed.

  8. Explosives Safety

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T,OfficeEnd of Year 2010Salt |Exelon Generation Company,Wind Powerto212-2012 June

  9. high explosives

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilAElectronic Input Options Gary L. Hirsch SNLMaythe InteriorWaterhepf |0/%2A en NNSA

  10. Explosives Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Environmental Assessments (EA) /EmailMolecular Solids1spectroscopies

  11. Effects of Temperature and Humidity on the Characterization of C-4 Explosive Threats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. J. Miller

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The amount of time that an explosive is present on the surface of a material is dependent upon the original amount of explosive on the surface, adhesive forces, temperature and humidity, as well as other environmental factors. This laboratory study focused on evaluating RDX crystal morphology changes resulting from variations in temperature and humidity conditions of the sample. The temperature and humidity conditions were controlled using a Tenney THRJ environmental chamber and a Tenney T11RC-1.5 environmental chamber. These chambers allow the temperature and humidity to be held within ±3°C and ±5% RH. The temperature and humidity conditions used for this test series were: 40°F/40%RH, ~70°F/20%RH (samples left on benchtop), 70°F/70%RH, 70°F/95%RH, 95°F/40%RH, 95°F/70%RH, and 95°F/95%RH. These temperature and humidity set points were chosen to represent a wide range of conditions that may be found in real world scenarios. C-4 (RDX crystals and binder material) was deposited on the surface of one of six substrates by placing a fingerprint from the explosive block onto the matrix surface. The substrates were chosen to provide a range of items that are commonly used. Six substrate types were used during these tests: 50% cotton/50% polyester as found in T-shirts, 100% cotton with a smooth surface such as that found in a cotton dress shirt, 100% cotton on a rough surface such as that found on canvas or denim, suede leather such as might be found on jackets, purses, or shoes, painted metal obtained from a junked car hood, and a computer diskette. The samples were not pre-cleaned prior to testing and contained sizing agents, and in the case of the metal: oil, dirt, scratches, and rust spots. The substrates were photographed at various stages of testing, using a Zeiss Discover V12 stereoscope with Axiocam ICc1 3 megapixel digital camera, to determine any changes in the crystalline morphology. Some of the samples were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) in an attempt to determine how the explosive was bound to the substrate.

  12. Degradation of superconductivity in A15 V/sub 3/Si by explosive compression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, G.; Olinger, B.; Newkirk, L.R.

    1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have found that explosive compression similar to that used to create A15 Nb/sub 3/Si seriously degrades superconductivity in A15 V/sub 3/Si which, before compression, was typical of well-ordered material. Specifically, the midpoint of the bulk superconducting transition is depressed by 1.8 K, the bulk transition width is increased by a factor of 3, and the specific heat ..gamma.. is decreased by more than 20% compared to the starting material. Implications of these results for the ultimate achievable transition temperature in A15 Nb/sub 3/Si are discussed.

  13. Solid explosive plane-wave lenses pressed-to-shape with dies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olinger, B.

    2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid-explosive plane-wave lenses 1", 2" and 4Ľ" in diameter have been mass-produced from components pressed-to-shape with aluminum dies. The method used to calculate the contour between the solid plane-wave lens components pressed-to-shape with the dies is explained. The steps taken to press, machine, and assemble the lenses are described. The method of testing the lenses, the results of those tests, and the corrections to the dies are reviewed. The work on the ˝", 8", and 12" diameter lenses is also discussed.

  14. A Safer Nuclear Enterprise - Application to Nuclear Explosive Safety (NES)(U)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, Tommy J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Activities and infrastructure that support nuclear weapons are facing significant challenges. Despite an admirable record and firm commitment to make safety a primary criterion in weapons design, production, handling, and deployment - there is growing apprehension about terrorist acquiring weapons or nuclear material. At the NES Workshop in May 2012, Scott Sagan, who is a proponent of the normal accident cycle, presented. Whether a proponent of the normal accident cycle or High Reliability Organizations - we have to be diligent about our safety record. Constant vigilance is necessary to maintain our admirable safety record and commitment to Nuclear Explosive Safety.

  15. Disappearance of criticality in a branched-chain thermal explosion with heat loss

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okoya, S.S. [Department of Mathematics, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, 220005 (Nigeria)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Branched-chain thermal explosions involving simplified initiation, branching, and termination of chains, as well as heat exchange with the surroundings, are considered, but it is assumed that consumption of fuel is negligible for combustion in a mixture of H{sub 2}+O{sub 2} that covers nth Arrhenius kinetics for the chain-branching step. In particular, the effect of heat loss on the problem is considered, Mostly analytical investigations of the simplified model are presented using standard Semenov's techniques. The analytical method provides expressions for criticality and the transition points. Also, the different qualitative effects of varying the dimensionless parameters are investigated.

  16. Chemical recovery process using break up steam control to prevent smelt explosions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kohl, Arthur L. (Woodland Hills, CA); Stewart, Albert E. (Eagle Rock, CA)

    1988-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

    An improvement in a chemical recovery process in which a hot liquid smelt is introduced into a dissolving tank containing a pool of green liquor. The improvement comprises preventing smelt explosions in the dissolving tank by maintaining a first selected superatmospheric pressure in the tank during normal operation of the furnace; sensing the pressure in the tank; and further impinging a high velocity stream of steam upon the stream of smelt whenever the pressure in the tank decreases below a second selected superatmospheric pressure which is lower than said first pressure.

  17. Supernova explosion and black hole formation with hadron-quark phase transition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakazato, Ken'ichiro [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan)

    2014-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Hadronic matter undergoes a deconfinement transition to quark matter at high temperature and/or high density. It would be realized in collapsing cores of massive stars. The fates of core collapses are investigated for various cases. Equations of state including the hadron-quark phase transition with different values of bag constant are used. As a result, for the case with a small bag constant (i.e. the transition occurs at low density), the second bounce revives the shock wave leading to explosion for the model with 15 solar mass. The systematics on the bag constant is also studied for the black hole formation of a 40 solar mass progenitor.

  18. A model for predicting the evolution of damage in the plastic bonded explosive LX17

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seidel, Gary Don

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Of particular interest, Chan et al. (1997a, 1997b) observed grain boundary fracture in argillaceous salt. Along the same lines, Helms et al. (1999) employed the Tvergaard (1990) cohesive zone model in an implicit finite element code to predict grain boundary... implemented into a finite element code. The model, developed in part by Yoon and Allen (1999) and Allen and Searcy (2000, 2001a, 2001b), will use material parameters for the plastic bonded explosive LX17 in order to compare computational results...

  19. 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one, a less sensitive explosive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Kien-Yin (Los Alamos, NM); Coburn, Michael D. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A less sensitive explosive, 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one. The compound 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO) has a crystal density of 1.93 g/cm.sup.3 and calculated detonation velocity and pressure equivalent to those of RDX. It can be prepared in high yield from inexpensive starting materials in a safe synthesis. Results from initial small-scale sensitivity tests indicate that NTO is less sensitive than RDX and HMX in all respects. A 4.13 cm diameter, unconfined plate-dent test at 92% of crystal density gave the detonation pressure predicted for NTO by the BKW calculation.

  20. The Dynamics of Neutrino-Driven Supernova Explosions after Shock Revival in 2D and 3D

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Müller, Bernhard

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the growth of the explosion energy after shock revival in neutrino-driven explosions in two and three dimensions (2D/3D) using multi-group neutrino hydrodynamics simulations of an $11.2 M_\\odot$ star. The 3D model shows a faster and steadier growth of the explosion energy and already shows signs of subsiding accretion after one second. By contrast, the growth of the explosion energy in 2D is unsteady, and accretion lasts for several seconds as confirmed by additional long-time simulations of stars of similar masses. Appreciable explosion energies can still be reached, albeit at the expense of rather high neutron star masses. In 2D, the binding energy at the gain radius is larger because the strong excitation of downward-propagating $g$-modes removes energy from the freshly accreted material in the downflows. Consequently, the mass outflow rate is considerably lower in 2D than in 3D. This is only partially compensated by additional heating by outward-propagating acoustic waves in 2D. Moreover, the mas...

  1. Effects of Various Blowout Panel Configurations on the Structural Response of LANL Building 16-340 to Internal Explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jason P. Wilke

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The risk of accidental detonation is present whenever any type of high explosives processing activity is performed. These activities are typically carried out indoors to protect processing equipment from the weather and to hide possibly secret processes from view. Often, highly strengthened reinforced concrete buildings are employed to house these activities. These buildings may incorporate several design features, including the use of lightweight frangible blowout panels, to help mitigate blast effects. These panels are used to construct walls that are durable enough to withstand the weather, but are of minimal weight to provide overpressure relief by quickly moving outwards and creating a vent area during an accidental explosion. In this study the behavior of blowout panels under various blast loading conditions was examined. External loadings from explosions occurring in nearby rooms were of primary interest. Several reinforcement systems were designed to help blowout panels resist failure from external blast loads while still allowing them to function as vents when subjected to internal explosions. The reinforcements were studied using two analytical techniques, yield-line analysis and modal analysis, and the hydrocode AUTODYN. A blowout panel reinforcement design was created that could prevent panels from being blown inward by external explosions. This design was found to increase the internal loading of the building by 20%, as compared with nonreinforced panels. Nonreinforced panels were found to increase the structural loads by 80% when compared to an open wall at the panel location.

  2. Inspecting the minefield and residual explosives by fast neutron activation method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sudac, D. [Rudjer Boskovic Inst., Bijenicka c. 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Majetic, S. [DOK-ING Ltd., Kanalski put 1, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Kollar, R. [A.C.T. D.o.o., Prilesje 4, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Nad, K.; Obhodas, J. [Rudjer Boskovic Inst., Bijenicka c. 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Valkovic, V. [A.C.T. D.o.o., Prilesje 4, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As an upgrade of a robotic mobile system for antipersonnel land-mine clearance, a fast neutron probe has been considered for the detection of mines and explosive residues. Laboratory tests were made by using the 14 MeV 6 x 10{sup 7} neutrons/sec beam with the associated alpha particle detection and with a LaBr{sub 3} gamma ray detector. Simulant of the anti-personal mine was used as a target. Several measurements were made with the target buried into the soil at different depths. For each depth minimal time measurement was estimated for false negative 0.4 % and false positive equal to 10 %. Tests showed that is possible to detect buried land-mine as well as residual explosives; however, in order to reach the optimal speed of 10 cm/s for de-mining vehicle it is necessarily to use several sealed tube neutron generators and few tens of LaBr{sub 3} gamma ray detectors. (authors)

  3. Inhomogeneous cloud coverage through the Coulomb explosion of dust in substellar atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stark, Craig R; Diver, Declan A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent observations of brown dwarf spectroscopic variability in the infrared infer the presence of patchy cloud cover. This paper proposes a mechanism for producing inhomogeneous cloud coverage due to the depletion of cloud particles through the Coulomb explosion of dust in atmospheric plasma regions. Charged dust grains Coulomb-explode when the electrostatic stress of the grain exceeds its mechanical tensile stress, which results in grains below a critical radius $aexplosion of dust clouds in substellar atmospheres, the effect on the dust particle size distribution function, and the resulting radiative properties of the atmospheric regions. Our results show that for an atmospheric plasma region with an electron temperature of $T_{e}=10$~eV ($\\approx10^{5}$~K), the critical grain radius varies from $10^{-7}$ to $10^{-4}$~cm, depending on the grains' tensile strength. Higher critical radii up to $10^{-3}$~cm ...

  4. The signature of the central engine in the weakest relativistic explosions: GRB100316D

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Margutti, R; Wieringa, M H; Edwards, P G; Chevalier, R A; Morsony, B J; Duran, R Barniol; Sironi, L; Zauderer, B A; Milisavljevic, D; Kamble, A; Pian, E

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present late-time radio and X-ray observations of the nearby sub-energetic Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB)100316D associated with supernova (SN) 2010bh. Our broad-band analysis constrains the explosion properties of GRB100316D to be intermediate between highly relativistic, collimated GRBs and the spherical, ordinary hydrogen-stripped SNe. We find that ~10^49 erg is coupled to mildly-relativistic (Gamma=1.5-2), quasi-spherical ejecta, expanding into a medium previously shaped by the progenitor mass-loss with rate Mdot ~10^-5 Msun yr^-1 (for wind velocity v_w = 1000 km s^-1). The kinetic energy profile of the ejecta argues for the presence of a central engine and identifies GRB100316D as one of the weakest central-engine driven explosions detected to date. Emission from the central engine is responsible for an excess of soft X-ray radiation which dominates over the standard afterglow at late times (t>10 days). We connect this phenomenology with the birth of the most rapidly rotating magnetars. Alternatively, accretio...

  5. Joining Uranium to Aluminum using Electron Beam Welding and an Explosively Clad Niobium Interlayer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elmer, J W; Terrill, P; Brasher, D; Butler, D

    2001-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A uranium alloy was joined to a high strength aluminum alloy using a commercially pure niobium interlayer. Joining of the Nb interlayer to the aluminum alloy was performed using an explosive welding process, while joining the Nb interlayer to the uranium alloy was performed using an electron beam welding process. Explosive welding was selected to bond the Nb to the aluminum alloy in order to minimize the formation of brittle intermetallic phases. Electron beam welding was selected to join the Nb to the uranium alloy in order to precisely control melting so as to minimize mixing of the two metals. A Modified Faraday Cup (MFC) technique using computer-assisted tomography was employed to determine the power distribution of the electron beam so that the welding parameters could be directly transferred to other welding machines. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, microhardness, and tensile testing of the welds were used to characterize the resulting joints. This paper presents the welding techniques and processing parameters that were developed to produce high integrity ductile joints between these materials.

  6. Astrophysical Shrapnel: Discriminating Among Near-Earth Stellar Explosion Sources of Live Radioactive Isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brian J. Fry; Brian D. Fields; John R. Ellis

    2015-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the production and deposition on Earth of isotopes with half-lives in the range 10$^{5}$ to 10$^{8}$ years that might provide signatures of nearby stellar explosions, extending previous analyses of Core-Collapse Supernovae (CCSNe) to include Electron-Capture Supernovae (ECSNe), Super-Asymptotic Giant Branch (SAGBs) stars, Thermonuclear/Type Ia Supernovae (TNSNe), and Kilonovae/Neutron Star Mergers (KNe). We revisit previous estimates of the $^{60}$Fe and $^{26}$Al signatures, and extend these estimates to include $^{244}$Pu and $^{53}$Mn. We discuss interpretations of the $^{60}$Fe signals in terrestrial and lunar reservoirs in terms of a nearby stellar ejection ~2.2 Myr ago, showing that (i) the $^{60}$Fe yield rules out the TNSN and KN interpretations, (ii) the $^{60}$Fe signals highly constrain a SAGB interpretation but do not completely them rule out, (iii) are consistent with a CCSN origin, and (iv) are highly compatible with an ECSN interpretation. Future measurements could resolve the radioisotope deposition over time, and we use the Sedov blast wave solution to illustrate possible time-resolved profiles. Measuring such profiles would independently probe the blast properties including distance, and would provide additional constraints the nature of the explosion.

  7. High explosives vapor detection by atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization/tandem mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McLuckey, S.A.; Goeringer, D.E.; Asano, K.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical and Analytical Sciences Div.

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The combination of atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization with tandem mass spectrometry for the detection of traces of high explosives is described. Particular emphasis is placed on use of the quadrupole ion trap as the type of tandem mass spectrometer. Atmospheric sampling glow discharge provides a simple, rugged, and efficient means for anion formation while the quadrupole ion trap provides for efficient tandem mass spectrometry. Mass selective ion accumulation and non-specific ion activation methods can be used to overcome deleterious effects arising from ion/ion interactions. Such interactions constitute the major potential technical barrier to the use of the ion trap for real-time monitoring of targeted compounds in uncontrolled and highly variable matrices. Tailored waveforms can be used to effect both mass selective ion accumulation and ion activation. Concatenated tailored waveforms allow for both functions in a single experiment thereby providing the capability for monitoring several targeted species simultaneously. The combination of atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization with a state-of-the-art analytical quadrupole ion trap is a highly sensitive and specific detector for traces of high explosives. The combination is also small and inexpensive relative to virtually any other form of tandem mass spectrometry. The science and technology underlying the glow discharge/ion trap combination is sufficiently mature to form the basis for an engineering effort to make the detector portable. 85 refs.

  8. Peculiarity of convergence of shock wave generated by underwater electrical explosion of ring-shaped wire

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shafer, D.; Toker, G. R.; Gurovich, V. Tz.; Gleizer, S.; Krasik, Ya. E. [Physics Department, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel)] [Physics Department, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanosecond timescale underwater electrical wire explosions of ring-shaped Cu wires were investigated using a pulsed generator with a current amplitude up to 50 kA. It was shown that this type of wire explosion results in the generation of a toroidal shock wave (SW). Time- and space-resolved optical diagnostics were used to determine azimuthal uniformity of the shock wave front and its velocity. It was found that the shock wave preserves its circular front shape in the range of radii 50?m

  9. Metallurgical failure analysis of a propane tank boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kilgo, Alice C.; Eckelmeyer, Kenneth Hall; Susan, Donald Francis

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A severe fire and explosion occurred at a propane storage yard in Truth or Consequences, N.M., when a truck ran into the pumping and plumbing system beneath a large propane tank. The storage tank emptied when the liquid-phase excess flow valve tore out of the tank. The ensuing fire engulfed several propane delivery trucks, causing one of them to explode. A series of elevated-temperature stress-rupture tears developed along the top of a 9800 L (2600 gal) truck-mounted tank as it was heated by the fire. Unstable fracture then occurred suddenly along the length of the tank and around both end caps, along the girth welds connecting the end caps to the center portion of the tank. The remaining contents of the tank were suddenly released, aerosolized, and combusted, creating a powerful boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE). Based on metallography of the tank pieces, the approximate tank temperature at the onset of the BLEVE was determined. Metallurgical analysis of the ruptured tank also permitted several hypotheses regarding BLEVE mechanisms to be evaluated. Suggestions are made for additional work that could provide improved predictive capabilities regarding BLEVEs and for methods to decrease the susceptibility of propane tanks to BLEVEs.

  10. Near-field dispersal modeling for liquid fuel-air explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardner, D.R.

    1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The near-field, explosive dispersal of a liquid into air has been explored using a combination of analytical and numerical models. The near-field flow regime is transient, existing only as long as the explosive forces produced by the detonation of the burster charge dominate or are approximately equal in magnitude to the aerodynamic drag forces on the liquid. The near-field model provides reasonable initial conditions for the far-field model, which is described in a separate report. The near-field model consists of the CTH hydrodynamics code and a film instability model. In particular, the CTH hydrodynamics code is used to provide initial temperature, pressure, and velocity fields, and bulk material distribution for the far-field model. The film instability model is a linear stability model for a radially expanding fluid film, and is used to provide a lower bound on the breakup time and an upper and lower bound on the initial average drop diameter for the liquid following breakup. Predictions of the liquid breakup time and the initial arithmetic average drop diameter from the model compare favorably with the sparse experimental data. 26 refs., 20 figs., 8 tabs.

  11. A Neutrino-Driven Core Collapse Supernova Explosion of a 15 M Star

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mezzacappa, Anthony; Bruenn, Stephen W; Hix, W Raphael; Messer, O E Bronson; Endeve, Eirik; Blondin, John M; Harris, J Austin; Marronetti, Pedro; Yakunin, Konstantin N; Lingerfelt, Eric J

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present results from an ab initio three-dimensional, multi-physics core collapse supernova simulation for the case of a 15 M progenitor. Our simulation includes multi-frequency neutrino transport with state-of-the-art neutrino interactions in the "ray-by-ray" approximation, and approximate general relativity. Our model exhibits a neutrino-driven explosion. The shock radius begins an outward trajectory at approximately 275 ms after bounce, giving the first indication of a developing explosion in the model. The onset of this shock expansion is delayed relative to our two-dimensional counterpart model, which begins at approximately 200 ms after core bounce. At a time of 441 ms after bounce, the angle-averaged shock radius in our three-dimensional model has reached 751 km. Further quantitative analysis of the outcomes in this model must await further development of the post-bounce dynamics and a simulation that will extend well beyond 1 s after stellar core bounce, based on the results for the same progenitor ...

  12. Development of ab initio techniques critical for future science-based explosives R&D.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wixom, Ryan R.; Mattsson, Ann Elisabet

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Density Functional Theory (DFT) has emerged as an indispensable tool in materials research, since it can accurately predict properties of a wide variety of materials at both equilibrium and extreme conditions. However, for organic molecular crystal explosives, successful application of DFT has largely failed due to the inability of current exchange-correlation functionals to correctly describe intermolecular van der Waals' (vdWs) forces. Despite this, we have discovered that even with no treatment of vdWs bonding, the AM05 functional and DFT based molecular dynamics (MD) could be used to study the properties of molecular crystals under compression. We have used DFT-MD to predict the unreacted Hugoniots for PETN and HNS and validated the results by comparison with crystalline and porous experimental data. Since we are also interested in applying DFT methods to study the equilibrium volume properties of explosives, we studied the nature of the vdWs bonding in pursuit of creating a new DFT functional capable of accurately describing equilibrium bonding of molecular crystals. In this report we discuss our results for computing shock Hugoniots of molecular crystals and also what was learned about the nature of bonding in these materials.

  13. The Cellular Burning Regime in Type Ia Supernova Explosions - II. Flame Propagation into Vortical Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. K. Roepke; W. Hillebrandt; J. C. Niemeyer

    2003-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the interaction of thermonuclear flames in Type Ia supernova explosions with vortical flows by means of numerical simulations. In our study, we focus on small scales, where the flame propagation is no longer dominated by the turbulent cascade originating from large-scale effects. Here, the flame propagation proceeds in the cellular burning regime, resulting from a balance between the Landau-Darrieus instability and its nonlinear stabilization. The interaction of a cellularly stabilized flame front with a vortical fuel flow is explored applying a variety of fuel densities and strengths of the velocity fluctuations. We find that the vortical flow can break up the cellular flame structure if it is sufficiently strong. In this case the flame structure adapts to the imprinted flow field. The transition from the cellularly stabilized front to the flame structure dominated by vortices of the flow proceeds in a smooth way. The implications of the results of our simulations for Type Ia Supernova explosion models are discussed.

  14. The Cellular Burning Regime in Type Ia Supernova Explosions - I. Flame Propagation into Quiescent Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. K. Roepke; W. Hillebrandt; J. C. Niemeyer

    2003-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a numerical investigation of the cellular burning regime in Type Ia supernova explosions. This regime holds at small scales (i.e. below the Gibson scale), which are unresolved in large-scale Type Ia supernova simulations. The fundamental effects that dominate the flame evolution here are the Landau-Darrieus instability and its nonlinear stabilization, leading to a stabilization of the flame in a cellular shape. The flame propagation into quiescent fuel is investigated addressing the dependence of the simulation results on the specific parameters of the numerical setup. Furthermore, we investigate the flame stability at a range of fuel densities. This is directly connected to the questions of active turbulent combustion (a mechanism of flame destabilization and subsequent self-turbulization) and a deflagration-to-detonation transition of the flame. In our simulations we find no substantial destabilization of the flame when propagating into quiescent fuels of densities down to ~10^7 g/cm^3, corroborating fundamental assumptions of large-scale SN Ia explosion models. For these models, however, we suggest an increased lower cutoff for the flame propagation velocity to take the cellular burning regime into account.

  15. Measurement of the flow properties within a copper tube containing a deflagrating explosive

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, Larry G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morris, John S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jackson, Scott I [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the propagation of deflagration waves in the high explosive (HE) PBX 9501 (95 wt % HMX, 5 wt% binder). Our test configuration, which we call the def1agration cylinder test (DFCT), is fashioned after the detonation cylinder test (DTCT) that is used to calibrate the JWL detonation product equation of state (EOS). In the DFCT, the HE is heated to a uniform slightly subcritical temperature, and is ignited at one end by a hot wire. For some configurations and initial conditions, we observe a quasi-steady wave that flares the tube into a funnel shape, stretching it to the point of rupture. This behavior is qualitatively like the DTCT, such that, by invoking certain additional approximations that we discuss, its behavior can be analyzed by the same methods. We employ an analysis proposed by G.I. Taylor to infer the pressure-volume curve for the burning, expanding flow. By comparing this result to the EOS of HMX product gas alone. we infer that only {approx}20 wt% of the HMX has burned at tube rupture. This result confirms pre-existing observations about the role of convective burning in HMX cookoff explosions.

  16. The Cambrian Evolutionary Explosion: Novel Evidence from Fossils Studied by X-ray Tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Jun-Yuan (Nanjing University, China) [Nanjing University, China

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Cambrian explosion (from 542 million years to 488 million years ago) is one of the greatest mysteries in evolutionary biology. It wasn't until this period that complex organisms became common and diverse. the magnitude of the event can be understood based on the contrast between the biota and the degree of diversity of the fossils from both sides. great advances have been made in Cambrian palaeontology over the past century, especially the discovery of the well-preserved soft-bodied fauna from the Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale and the Lower Cambrian Maotianshan Shale deposits. The Cambrian side of the "Cambrian explosion" is richly illustrated and contrasts greatly with the Precambrian side. The study of these extraordinarily preserved fossil biota is extremely difficult. A major challenge is 3-D reconstruction and determining the patter of the cell organization in Weng'an embryos and their buried structures in Maotianshan Shale fossils. This talk will show that two recent technological approaches, propagation phase contrast synchrotron x-ray microtomography and microtomography, provide unique analytical tools that permit the nondestructive computational examination and visualization of the internal and buried characters in virtual sections in any plane, and virtual 3-D depictions of internal structures.

  17. Thermonuclear explosions of Chandrasekhar-mass C+O white dwarfs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Reinecke; W. Hillebrandt; J. C. Niemeyer

    1999-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    First results of simulations are presented which compute the dynamical evolution of a Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarf, consisting of equal amounts of carbon and oxygen, from the onset of violent thermonuclear burning, by means of a new two-dimensional numerical code. Since in the interior of such a massive white dwarf nuclear burning progresses on microscopic scales as a sharp discontinuity, a so-called flamelet, which cannot be resolved by any numerical scheme, and since on macroscopic scales the burning front propagates due to turbulence, we make an attempt to model both effects explicitly in the framework of a finite-volume hydrodynamics code. Turbulence is included by a sub-grid model, following the spirit of large eddy simulations, and the well-localized burning front is treated by means of a level set, which allows us to compute the geometrical structure of the front more accurately than with previous methods. The only free parameters of our simulations are the location and the amount of nuclear fuel that is ignited as an initial perturbation. We find that models in which explosive carbon burning is ignited at the center remain bound by the time the front reaches low densities, where we stopped the computations because our description of combustion is no longer applicable. In contrast, off-center ignition models give rise to explosions which, however, are still too weak for typical Type Ia supernovae. Possible reasons for this rather disappointing result are discussed.

  18. Explosive lithium production in the classical nova V339 Del (Nova Delphini 2013)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tajitsu, Akito; Naito, Hiroyuki; Arai, Akir; Aoki, Wako

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The origin of lithium (Li) and its production process have long been an unsettled question in cosmology and astrophysics. Candidates environments of Li production events or sites suggested by previous studies include big bang nucleosynthesis, interactions of energetic cosmic rays with interstellar matter, evolved low mass stars, novae, and supernova explosions. Chemical evolution models and observed stellar Li abundances suggest that at least half of the present Li abundance may have been produced in red giants, asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, and novae. However, no direct evidence for the supply of Li from stellar objects to the Galactic medium has yet been found. Here we report on the detection of highly blue-shifted resonance lines of the singly ionized radioactive isotope of beryllium, $^{7}$Be, in the near ultraviolet (UV) spectra of the classical nova V339 Del (Nova Delphini 2013). Spectra were obtained 38 to 48 days after the explosion. $^{7}$Be decays to form $^{7}$Li within a short time (half-li...

  19. Relativistic ejecta from XRF 060218 and the complete census of cosmic explosions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soderberg, A M; Burrows, D N; Cameron, P B; Cenko, S B; Chevalier, R A; Fox, D B; Frail, D A; Gal-Yam, A; Gehrels, N; Kasliwal, M; Kulkarni, S R; McCarthy, P J; Moon, D S; Nakar, E; Nousek, J A; Penprase, B E; Perrson, S E; Piran, T; Pooley, G; Price, P A; Sari, R; Schmidt, B P

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the last decade, long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and X-ray flashes (XRFs) have been revealed to be a rare variety of Type Ibc supernova (SN). While all these events result from the death of massive stars, the electromagnetic luminosities of GRBs and XRFs exceed those of ordinary Type Ibc SNe by many orders of magnitude. The essential physical process that causes a dying star to produce a GRB or XRF, and not just an SN, remains the crucial open question. Here we present radio and X-ray observations of XRF 060218 (associated with SN 2006aj), the second nearest GRB identified to-date, which allow us to measure its total energy and place it in the larger context of cosmic explosions. We show that this event is 100 times less energetic but ten times more common than cosmological GRBs. Moreover, it is distinguished from ordinary Type Ibc SNe by the presence of 10^48 erg of mildly-relativistic ejecta, along with a central engine which produces X-rays for weeks after the explosion. This suggests that the p...

  20. An examination of blast and impulse effects from the metal loading of explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanders, Victor E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zucker, Jonathan M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mc Afee, John M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tappan, Bryce C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Asay, Blaine W [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Explosive compositions loaded with various metal particulates were produced and tested using a unique experimental configuration. The high explosive HMX was used as the standard and was tested over a range of mass loading fractions using tungsten and tantalum as metal additives. The diagnostics used in this set of experiments included free-field blast sensors, dynamic force sensors, time-of-arrival sensors, and a high-speed digital camera. The experimental arrangement allowed for concurrent spatial measurements of the static pressure from expanding gaseous detonation products, along with the total force from the combination of gaseous products and solid particles. The total pressure from the multi-phase products was calculated by measuring the total force applied to the surface of a newly developed force sensor. The results from the force sensor and other measurement techniques were validated against existing numerical methods. The relationship between static and dynamic pressures as a function of metal loading fraction was examined empirically at several distances from the charge for two distinct metal additives.

  1. Progress on detection of liquid explosives using ultra-low field MRI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Espy, Michelle A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Matlashov, Andrei N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Volegov, Petr L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schuttz, Larry M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baguisa, Shermiyah [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dunkerley, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Magnelind, Per [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Owens, Tuba [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sandin, Henrik [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Urbaitis, Algis [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods are widely used in medicine, chemistry and industry. Over the past several years there has been increasing interest in performing NMR and MRI in the ultra-low field (ULF) regime, with measurement field strengths of 10-100 microTesla and pre-polarization fields of 30-50 mTesla. The real-time signal-to-noise ratio for such measurements is about 100. Our group at LANL has built and demonstrated the performance of SQUID-based ULF NMR/MRI instrumentation for classification of materials and detection of liquid explosives via their relaxation properties measured at ULF, using T{sub 1}, and T{sub 2}, and T{sub 1} frequency dispersion. We are also beginning to investigate the performance of induction coils as sensors. Here we present recent progress on the applications of ULF MR to the detection of liquid explosives, in imaging and relaxometry.

  2. Relativistic collapse and explosion of rotating supermassive stars with thermonuclear effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedro J. Montero; Hans-Thomas Janka; Ewald Mueller

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present results of general relativistic simulations of collapsing supermassive stars with and without rotation using the two-dimensional general relativistic numerical code Nada, which solves the Einstein equations written in the BSSN formalism and the general relativistic hydrodynamics equations with high resolution shock capturing schemes. These numerical simulations use an equation of state which includes effects of gas pressure, and in a tabulated form those associated with radiation and the electron-positron pairs. We also take into account the effect of thermonuclear energy released by hydrogen and helium burning. We find that objects with a mass of 5x10^{5} solar mass and an initial metallicity greater than Z_{CNO}~0.007 do explode if non-rotating, while the threshold metallicity for an explosion is reduced to Z_{CNO}~0.001 for objects uniformly rotating. The critical initial metallicity for a thermonuclear explosion increases for stars with mass ~10^{6} solar mass. For those stars that do not explode we follow the evolution beyond the phase of black hole formation. We compute the neutrino energy loss rates due to several processes that may be relevant during the gravitational collapse of these objects. The peak luminosities of neutrinos and antineutrinos of all flavors for models collapsing to a BH are ~10^{55} erg/s. The total radiated energy in neutrinos varies between ~10^{56} ergs for models collapsing to a BH, and ~10^{45}-10^{46} ergs for models exploding.

  3. The signature of the central engine in the weakest relativistic explosions: GRB 100316D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Margutti, R.; Soderberg, A. M.; Sironi, L.; Zauderer, B. A.; Milisavljevic, D.; Kamble, A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Wieringa, M. H.; Edwards, P. G. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Australia Telescope National Facility, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Chevalier, R. A. [Astronomy Department, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Morsony, B. J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2535 Sterling Hall, 475 N. Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706-1582 (United States); Duran, R. Barniol [Racah Institute for Physics, Edmund J. Safra Campus, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Pian, E. [Scuola Normale Superiore, 7, I-56126 Pisa (Italy)

    2013-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We present late-time radio and X-ray observations of the nearby sub-energetic gamma-ray burst (GRB)100316D associated with supernova (SN) 2010bh. Our broad-band analysis constrains the explosion properties of GRB 100316D to be intermediate between highly relativistic, collimated GRBs and the spherical, ordinary hydrogen-stripped SNe. We find that ?10{sup 49} erg is coupled to mildly relativistic (? = 1.5-2), quasi-spherical ejecta, expanding into a medium previously shaped by the progenitor mass-loss with a rate of M-dot ? 10{sup ?5} M{sub ?} yr{sup ?1} (for an assumed wind density profile and wind velocity v{sub w} = 1000 km s{sup –1}). The kinetic energy profile of the ejecta argues for the presence of a central engine and identifies GRB 100316D as one of the weakest central-engine-driven explosions detected to date. Emission from the central engine is responsible for an excess of soft X-ray radiation that dominates over the standard afterglow at late times (t > 10 days). We connect this phenomenology with the birth of the most rapidly rotating magnetars. Alternatively, accretion onto a newly formed black hole might explain the excess of radiation. However, significant departure from the standard fall-back scenario is required.

  4. Effects of binder concentration on the properties of plastic-bonded explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steele, R.D.; Stretz, L.A.; Taylor, G.W.; Rivera, T.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of plastic-bonded explosives (PBX) has been formulated with more binder than is normally contained in high-energy formulations. Adding a relatively small amount of binder to a material such as PBX 9501 (95/2.5/1.25/1.25 wt % HMX/Estane/BDNPA/BDNPF (the BDNPA and BDNPF form a eutectic that is frequently called simply the eutectic)) was found to decrease the shock sensitivity while not decreasing the energy of the explosive. The best compromise for a PBX 9501-type material contains about 92 wt % HMX. Adding additional binder does not continue to decrease the gap sensitivity of the formulation; however, the energy of the PBX decreases as expected. The higher-binder formulations are of potential use because of the possibility of formulating a PBX with energy similar to TATB formulations, such as PBX 9502 (95/5 wt % TATB/Kel-F 800), and with a higher strain to failure. 2 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Possible explosive compounds in the Savannah River Site Tank Farm facilities. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobbs, D.T.

    1995-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Since 1970, many studies have been conducted concerning the potential for explosive compounds in tank farm operations including ammonium nitrate, metal oxalates, and silver and mercury compounds. The study currently in progress is the most comprehensive to date, encompassing all previous studies and extending the scope to include all compounds that could be formed from the known species in SRS wastes. In addition to waste storage, the study also considers waste removal and waste processing operations. The total number of possible explosive compounds is so large that it would not be useful to list them all here. Instead, only those compounds are listed that are known to be present or could conceivably be formed from material that is known to be present in the waste. The general approach to the problem is: identify all of the constituents that are known to be present in the waste together with those that might be present from possible chemical and radiolytic reactions, determine the compounds that could be formed from these constituents, compare these compounds with those listed in the literature, and assess the formation and stability of these compounds against the conditions existing in the tank farm facilities.

  6. Astrophysical Shrapnel: Discriminating Among Near-Earth Stellar Explosion Sources of Live Radioactive Isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brian J. Fry; Brian D. Fields; John R. Ellis

    2015-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the production and deposition on Earth of isotopes with half-lives in the range 10$^{5}$ to 10$^{8}$ years that might provide signatures of nearby stellar explosions, extending previous analyses of Core-Collapse Supernovae (CCSNe) to include Electron-Capture Supernovae (ECSNe), Super-Asymptotic Giant Branch (SAGBs) stars, Thermonuclear/Type Ia Supernovae (TNSNe), and Kilonovae/Neutron Star Mergers (KNe). We revisit previous estimates of the $^{60}$Fe and $^{26}$Al signatures, and extend these estimates to include $^{244}$Pu and $^{53}$Mn. We discuss interpretations of the $^{60}$Fe signals in terrestrial and lunar reservoirs in terms of a nearby stellar ejection ~2.2 Myr ago, showing that (i) the $^{60}$Fe yield rules out the TNSN and KN interpretations, (ii) highly constrain a SAGB interpretation but do not completely them rule out, (iii) are consistent with a CCSN origin, and (iv) are highly compatible with an ECSN interpretation. Future measurements could resolve the radioisotope deposition over time, and we use the Sedov blast wave solution to illustrate possible time-resolved profiles. Measuring such profiles would independently probe the blast properties including distance, and would provide additional constraints the nature of the explosion.

  7. Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty seismic monitoring: 2012 USNAS report and recent explosions, earthquakes, and other seismic sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richards, Paul G. [Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, 61 Route 9W, Palisades, NY 10964 (United States)

    2014-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A comprehensive ban on nuclear explosive testing is briefly characterized as an arms control initiative related to the Non-Proliferation Treaty. The work of monitoring for nuclear explosions uses several technologies of which the most important is seismology-a physics discipline that draws upon extensive and ever-growing assets to monitor for earthquakes and other ground-motion phenomena as well as for explosions. This paper outlines the basic methods of seismic monitoring within that wider context, and lists web-based and other resources for learning details. It also summarizes the main conclusions, concerning capability to monitor for test-ban treaty compliance, contained in a major study published in March 2012 by the US National Academy of Sciences.

  8. A logic model for cook-off phenomenology in high explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eisenhawer, S. W. (Stephen W.); Bott, T. F. (Terrence F.); Luck, L. B.; Kingson, J.; Key, B. P. (Brian P.)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Logic models are valuable tools in the development of predictive models for complex physical processes. The use of deductive logic in the form of a possibility tree makes it straightforward to develop a comprehensive set of unique, alternative paths that describe the system. We demonstrate the power of this approach for the complex process of cook-off of high explosives (HE). The possibility tree describes the causal paths from heating HE to the alternative end states. One of these end states is a violent reaction. Conversion of the tree to the equivalent digraph yields a valuable visualization tool for examining the relationships between sub-processes and provides a sound framework for the development of analytical models.

  9. Solution of the explosive percolation quest: Scaling functions and critical exponents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. A. da Costa; S. N. Dorogovtsev; A. V. Goltsev; J. F. F. Mendes

    2015-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Percolation refers to the emergence of a giant connected cluster in a disordered system when the number of connections between nodes exceeds a critical value. The percolation phase transitions were believed to be continuous until recently when in a new so-called "explosive percolation" problem for a competition driven process, a discontinuous phase transition was reported. The analysis of evolution equations for this process showed however that this transition is actually continuous though with surprisingly tiny critical exponents. For a wide class of representative models, we develop a strict scaling theory of this exotic transition which provides the full set of scaling functions and critical exponents. This theory indicates the relevant order parameter and susceptibility for the problem, and explains the continuous nature of this transition and its unusual properties.

  10. Implosion and explosion of electrostatic cylindrical and spherical shocks in asymmetric pair-ion plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masood, W. [Theoretical Plasma Physics Division, PINSTECH, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad 54000 (Pakistan); National Centre for Physics (NCP), Shahdara Valley Road, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Rizvi, H. [Theoretical Plasma Physics Division, PINSTECH, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad 54000 (Pakistan)

    2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Nonlinear electrostatic shock waves are studied in unmagnetized, dissipative pair-ion plasmas. The dissipation in the system is taken into account by considering the effect of kinematic viscosity of both positive and negative ions in plasmas. The system of fluid equations for asymmetric pair-ion plasma is reduced to Korteweg-deVries-Burgers equation in the limit of small amplitude perturbation. It is observed that the system under consideration admits rarefactive shocks. Keeping in view the practical applications, the nonlinear propagation of both the exploding and imploding shocks is investigated and the differences are expounded in detail. The present study may have relevance in the study of the formation of electrostatic shocks in laser-induced implosion devices, star formation, supernovae explosion, etc.

  11. Dynamic and quasi-static measurements of PBXN-5 and comp-B explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Geoffrey W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ten Cate, James A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Deluca, Racci [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rae, Philip J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Todd, Steven N [SNL

    2009-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We have measured dynamic and quasi-static mechanical properties of PBXN-5 and Comp-B explosive materials to provide input data for modeling efforts. Dynamic measurements included acoustic and split-Hopkinson pressure bar tests. Quasi-static testing was done in compression on a load frame. Hopkinson bar and quasistatic testing was done at five temperatures from -50{sup o}C to 50{sup o}C. Our results were dominated by the low density of the samples and showed up as low acoustic velocities and lower strengths, as compared to other materials of the same or similar formulations. The effects seem to be consistent with the high porosity of the materials. The data do provide useful input to models that include density as a parameter and suggest caution when using measurements of ideal materials to predict behavior of damaged materials.

  12. Tungsten bridge for the low energy ignition of explosive and energetic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, D.A.; Bickes, R.W. Jr.; Blewer, R.S.

    1990-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A tungsten bridge device for the low energy ignition of explosive and energetic materials is disclosed. The device is fabricated on a silicon-on-sapphire substrate which has an insulating bridge element defined therein using standard integrated circuit fabrication techniques. Then, a thin layer of tungsten is selectively deposited on the silicon bridge layer using chemical vapor deposition techniques. Finally, conductive lands are deposited on each end of the tungsten bridge layer to form the device. It has been found that this device exhibits substantially shorter ignition times than standard metal bridges and foil igniting devices. In addition, substantially less energy is required to cause ignition of the tungsten bridge device of the present invention than is required for common metal bridges and foil devices used for the same purpose. 2 figs.

  13. Inhibited, Explosive and Anisotropic Relaxation in a Gas of Molecular Super-Rotors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khodorkovsky, Yuri; Hartmann, Jean-Michel; Averbukh, Ilya Sh

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, several femtosecond laser techniques have been developed that are capable of bringing gas molecules to extremely fast rotation in a very short time, while keeping their translational motion intact and relatively slow. We investigate collisional equilibration dynamics of this new state of molecular gases, and find that it follows a remarkable generic scenario. The route to equilibrium starts with a durable metastable 'gyroscopic stage', in the course of which the molecules maintain their fast rotation and orientation of the angular momentum through many collisions. The inhibited rotational-translational relaxation is characterized by a persistent anisotropy in the molecular angular distribution, and is manifested in the long-lasting optical birefringence, and anisotropic diffusion in the gas. After a certain induction time, the 'gyroscopic stage' is abruptly terminated by a self-accelerating explosive rotational-translational energy exchange leading the gas towards the final thermal equilibrium. We i...

  14. Nuclear Rocket Test Facility Decommissioning Including Controlled Explosive Demolition of a Neutron-Activated Shield Wall

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Kruzic

    2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site, the Test Cell A Facility was used in the 1960s for the testing of nuclear rocket engines, as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Program. The facility was decontaminated and decommissioned (D&D) in 2005 using the Streamlined Approach For Environmental Restoration (SAFER) process, under the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Utilities and process piping were verified void of contents, hazardous materials were removed, concrete with removable contamination decontaminated, large sections mechanically demolished, and the remaining five-foot, five-inch thick radiologically-activated reinforced concrete shield wall demolished using open-air controlled explosive demolition (CED). CED of the shield wall was closely monitored and resulted in no radiological exposure or atmospheric release.

  15. Remedial investigation of the High-Explosives (HE) Process Area, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crow, N.B.; Lamarre, A.L.

    1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of a Remedial Investigation (RI) to define the extent of high explosives (HE) compounds and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) found in the soil, rocks, and ground water of the HE Process Area of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Site 300 Facility. The report evaluates potential public health environmental risks associated with these compounds. Hydrogeologic information available before February 15, 1990, is included; however, chemical analyses and water-level data are reported through March 1990. This report is intended to assist the California Regional Water Quality Control Board (RWQCB)--Central Valley Region and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in evaluating the extent of environmental contamination of the LLNL HE Process Area and ultimately in designing remedial actions. 90 refs., 20 figs., 7 tabs.

  16. Gamma-Ray Bursts: Super-Explosions in the Universe and Related High-Energy Phenomena

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. A. Postnov

    2001-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The recent progress in studies of gamma-ray bursts, their afterglows, and host galaxies is discussed. The emphasis is given to high-energy phenomena associated with gamma-ray burst explosions: high-energy cosmic rays, neutrinos, gravitational waves. We also show how the relativistic fireball model for GRBs can be used to constrain modern theories of large and infinite extra-dimensions. In particular, in the frame of 5D gravity with the Standard Model localized on 3D brane (Dvali et al. 2000), the very existence of relativistic fireballs of $\\sim 10^{53}$ ergs puts the lower bound on the quantum gravity scale $\\sim 0.1$ eV.

  17. Tungsten bridge for the low energy ignition of explosive and energetic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, David A. (Albuquerque, NM); Bickes, Jr., Robert W. (Albuquerque, NM); Blewer, Robert S. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A tungsten bridge device for the low energy ignition of explosive and energetic materials is disclosed. The device is fabricated on a silicon-on-sapphire substrate which has an insulating bridge element defined therein using standard integrated circuit fabrication techniques. Then, a thin layer of tungsten is selectively deposited on the silicon bridge layer using chemical vapor deposition techniques. Finally, conductive lands are deposited on each end of the tungsten bridge layer to form the device. It has been found that this device exhibits substantially shorter ignition times than standard metal bridges and foil igniting devices. In addition, substantially less energy is required to cause ignition of the tungsten bridge device of the present invention than is required for common metal bridges and foil devices used for the same purpose.

  18. Rare-gas-cluster explosions under irradiation by intense short XUV pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffmann, K.; Murphy, B.; Kandadai, N.; Erk, B.; Helal, A.; Keto, J.; Ditmire, T. [Department of Physics, Texas Center for High Intensity Laser Science, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    High-intensity, extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) femtosecond interactions with large rare-gas clusters of xenon and argon have been studied at a wavelength of 38 nm. Pulses of XUV radiation with nJ energy are produced by high-order harmonic conversion from a 35-fs, near-infrared, terawatt laser. Mass resolved ion spectra show charge states up to Xe{sup 8+} and Ar{sup 4+}. Kinetic-energy measurements of ions and electrons indicate that a nanoplasma is formed and a hydrodynamic cluster explosion ensues after heating by the short wavelength pulse. It appears that the observed charge states and electron temperatures are consistent with sequential, single-photon ionization and collisional ionization of ions that have had their ionization potential depressed by plasma continuum lowering in the cluster nanoplasma.

  19. 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one: A less sensitive explosive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Kien-Yin; Coburn, M.D.

    1987-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A less sensitive explosive, 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one. The compound 3-nitro--1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO) has a crystal density of 1.93 g/cm/sup 3/ and calculated detonation velocity and pressure equivalent to those of RDX. It can be prepared in high yield from inexpensive starting materials in a safe synthesis. Results from initial small-scale sensitivity tests indicate that NTO is less sensitive than RDX and HMX in all respects. A 4.13 cm diameter, unconfined plate-dent test at 92% of crystal density gave the detonation pressure predicted for NTO by the BKW calculation. 3 tabs.

  20. Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA): Binaries, Pulsations, and Explosions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paxton, Bill; Schwab, Josiah; Bauer, Evan B; Bildsten, Lars; Cantiello, Matteo; Dessart, Luc; Farmer, R; Hu, H; Langer, N; Townsend, R H D; Townsley, Dean M; Timmes, F X

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We substantially update the capabilities of the open-source software instrument Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA). MESA can now simultaneously evolve an interacting pair of differentially rotating stars undergoing transfer and loss of mass and angular momentum, greatly enhancing the prior ability to model binary evolution. New MESA capabilities in fully coupled calculation of nuclear networks with hundreds of isotopes now allow MESA to accurately simulate advanced burning stages needed to construct supernova progenitor models. Implicit hydrodynamics with shocks can now be treated with MESA, enabling modeling of the entire massive star lifecycle, from pre-main sequence evolution to the onset of core collapse and nucleosynthesis from the resulting explosion. Coupling of the GYRE non-adiabatic pulsation instrument with MESA allows for new explorations of the instability strips for massive stars while also accelerating the astrophysical use of asteroseismology data. We improve treatment of ma...

  1. A range muon tomography performance study for the detection of explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cuellar, Leticia [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Borozdin, Konstantin N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chung, Andrew [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nicolas, Hengartner W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morris, Christopher [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schultz, Larry J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reimus, Nathaniel P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bacon, Jeffrey D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vogan - Mc Neil, Wendy [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Soft cosmic ray tomography has been shown to successfully discriminate materials with various density levels due to their ability to deeply penetrate matter, allowing sensitivity to atomic number, radiation length and density. Because the multiple muon scattering signal from high Z-materials is very strong, the technology is well suited to the detection of the illicit transportation of special and radiological nuclear materials. In addition, a recent detection technique based on measuring the lower energy particles that do not traverse the material (range radiography), allows to discriminate low and medium Z-materials. This is shown in [4] using Monte Carlo simulations. More recently, using a mini muon tracker developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory, we performed various experiments to try out the radiation length technology. This paper presents the results from real experiments and evaluates the likelihood that soft cosmic ray tomography may be applied to detect high-explosives.

  2. Spiral Disk Instability Can Drive Thermonuclear Explosions in Binary White Dwarf Mergers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kashyap, Rahul; García-Berro, Enrique; Aznar-Siguán, Gabriela; Ji, Suoqing; Lorén-Aguilar, Pablo

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermonuclear, or Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), originate from the explosion of carbon-oxygen white dwarfs, and serve as standardizable cosmological candles. However, despite their importance, the nature of the progenitor systems which give rise to SNe Ia has not been hitherto elucidated. Observational evidence favors the double-degenerate channel, in which merging white dwarf binaries lead to SNe Ia. Furthermore, significant discrepancies exist between observations and theory, and to date, there has been no self-consistent merger model which yields a SNe Ia. Here we show that a spiral mode instability in the accretion disk formed during a binary white dwarf merger leads to a detonation on a dynamical timescale. This mechanism sheds light on how white dwarf mergers may frequently yield SNe Ia.

  3. Mechanically Cooled Large-Volume Germanium Detector Systems for Nuclear Explosion Monitoring DOENA27323-1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hull, E.L.

    2006-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Compact maintenance free mechanical cooling systems are being developed to operate large volume germanium detectors for field applications. To accomplish this we are utilizing a newly available generation of Stirling-cycle mechanical coolers to operate the very largest volume germanium detectors with no maintenance. The user will be able to leave these systems unplugged on the shelf until needed. The flip of a switch will bring a system to life in ~ 1 hour for measurements. The maintenance-free operating lifetime of these detector systems will exceed 5 years. These features are necessary for remote long-duration liquid-nitrogen free deployment of large-volume germanium gamma-ray detector systems for Nuclear Explosion Monitoring. The Radionuclide Aerosol Sampler/Analyzer (RASA) will greatly benefit from the availability of such detectors by eliminating the need for liquid nitrogen at RASA sites while still allowing the very largest available germanium detectors to be reliably utilized.

  4. Physicists believe that our universe began with a huge explosion about thirteen billion years ago, called the Big Bang.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kazama, Hokto

    the cooling period, after the Big Bang explosion, quarks and electrons were formed, followed by protons particles cannot be separated from the macroscopic system at large. RHIC is the first high energy of 20th century physics indicates, scientific progress has always been made by younger researchers

  5. Supernova Explosions of Super-Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars: Multicolor Light Curves of Electron-Capture Supernovae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tominaga, Nozomu; Nomoto, Ken'ichi

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electron-capture supernova (ECSN) is a core-collapse supernova explosion of a super-asymptotic giant branch (SAGB) star with a main-sequence mass $M_{\\rm ms}\\sim7-9.5M_\\odot$. The explosion takes place in accordance with core bounce and subsequent neutrino heating and is a unique example successfully produced by first-principle simulation. This allows us to derive a first self-consistent multicolor light curves of a core-collapse supernova. Adopting the explosion properties derived by the first-principle simulation, i.e., the low explosion energy of $1.5\\times10^{50}$ erg and the small $^{56}$Ni mass of $2.5\\times10^{-3}M_\\odot$, we perform a multigroup radiation hydrodynamics calculation of ECSNe and present multicolor light curves of ECSNe of SAGB stars with various envelope mass and hydrogen abundance. We demonstrate that a shock breakout has peak luminosity of $L\\sim2\\times10^{44}$ erg/s and can evaporate circumstellar dust up to $R\\sim10^{17}$ cm for a case of carbon dust, that plateau luminosity and ...

  6. A study of a macro-spicule and a transition region explosive event in a solar coronal hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A study of a macro-spicule and a transition region explosive event in a solar coronal hole M. D Key Laboratory of Basic Plasma Physics, Univ. of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, China-spicules (jet-like structures seen at the solar limb) are believed to be the dominant mechanism for mass

  7. Performance evaluation of diaminoazoxyfurazan (DAAF) as a booster material for insensitive high explosives using the onionskin test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, John S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Francois, Elizabeth G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hooks, Daniel E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hill, Larry G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Harry, Herbert H [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Initiation of insensitive high explosive (IHE) formulations requires the use of a booster explosive in the initiation train. Booster material selection is crucial, as the initiation must reliably function across some spectrum of physical parameters. The interest in DAAF for this application stems from the fact that it possesses many traits of an IHE but is shock sensitive enough to serve as an explosive booster. A hemispherical wave breakout test, termed the onionskin test, is one of the methods used to evaluate the performance of a booster material. The wave breakout time-position history at the surface of a hemisphericallHE charge is recorded and the relative uniformity of the breakout can be quantitatively compared between booster materials. A series of onionskin tests were performed to investigate breakout and propagation diaminoazoxyfurazan (DAAF) at low temperatures to evaluate ignition and detonation spreading in comparison to other explosives commonly used in booster applications. Some wave perturbation was observed with the DAAF booster in the onionskin tests presented. The results of these tests will be presented and discussed.

  8. Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves, Vol. 46, No. 3, pp. , 2010 Combustion of Heterogeneous Nanostructural Systems (Review)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukasyan, Alexander

    Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves, Vol. 46, No. 3, pp. ­, 2010 Combustion of Heterogeneous submitted November 26, 2009. The current status of research in the field of combustion of heterogeneous mechanisms of combustion in such systems and prospects of their further applications are discussed. Key words

  9. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INSTRUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT, VOL. 53, NO. 4, AUGUST 2004 1113 Explosives Detection With Hard-Wired Moths

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daly, Kevin Charles

    , are present. The device was designed to be portable by making it lightweight, battery-powered, and energy--Bioinstrumentation, electromyography, explo- sives detection, Pavlovian conditioning. I. INTRODUCTION DETECTION of explosives conditioning [1]­[3]. Briefly, conditioning is achieved by repeated (usually six) pairings of the target odor

  10. Fabrication of Optical Fiber Mechanical Shock Sensors for the Los Alamos HERT (High Explosive Radio Telemetry) Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. E. Klingsporn

    2005-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This document lists the requirements for the fiber optic mechanical shock sensor for the Los Alamos HERT (High Explosive Radio Telemetry) project and provides detailed process steps for fabricating, testing, and assembling the fiber shock sensors for delivery to Los Alamos.

  11. Request to Cancel DOE M 452.2-2 Admin Chg 1, Nuclear Explosive Safety Evaluation Process

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    NNSA has completed a top down review of four directives that address nuclear explosives operations and is developing a revision to clarify the purpose of conducting NES evaluations, the nature and categorization of findings, and timing of reviews for ongoing operations.

  12. Non-contacting transfer of elastic energy into explosive simulants for dynamic property estimation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greeney, Nathan S.; Strovink, Kurt M.; Scales, John A. [Physics Department, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Jessop, Andrew M.; Stuart Bolton, J. [Ray W. Herrick Laboratories, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907-2099 (United States); Watson, Christopher C.; Adams, Douglas E. [Purdue Center for Systems Integrity, Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana 47905 (United States)

    2014-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Non-contacting acoustical methods can be used to extract various material properties of liquid or solid samples without disturbing the sample. These methods are useful even in the lab since they do not involve coupling anything to the sample, which might change its properties. A forteriori, when dealing with potentially dangerous materials, non-contacting methods may be the only safe solutions to mechanical characterization. Here, we show examples of using laser ultrasound to remotely insonify and monitor the elastic properties of several granular explosive simulants. The relatively short near-infrared laser pulse length (a few hundred nanoseconds) provides a broad-band thermoelastic source of ultrasound; we intentionally stay in the thermoelastic regime to avoid damaging the material. Then, we use a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer to measure the ultrasonic response of the sample. LDV technology is well established and very sensitive at ultrasonic frequencies; atomic level motions can be measured with modest averaging. The resulting impulse response of the explosive simulant can be analyzed to determine decay rates and wave speeds, with stiffer samples showing faster wave speeds and lower decay rates. On the other hand, at the low-frequency end of the acoustic spectrum, we use an electronically phased array to couple into a freely suspended sample's normal modes. This allows us to gently heat up the sample (3?°C in just under 5 min, as shown with a thermal IR camera). In addition to the practical interest in making the sample more chemically visible through heat, these two measurements (low-frequency resonant excitation vs high-frequency wave propagation) bracket the frequency range of acoustic non-destructive evaluation methods available.

  13. Demonstrated Wavelength Portability of Raman Reference Data for Explosives and Chemical Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Timothy J.; Su, Yin-Fong; Jarman, Kristin H.; Kunkel, Brenda M.; Birnbaum, Jerome C.; Joly, Alan G.; Stephan, Eric G.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Ewing, Robert G.; Dunham, Glen C.

    2012-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    As Raman spectroscopy continues to evolve, questions arise as to the portability of Raman data: dispersive versus Fourier transform, wavelength calibration, intensity calibration, and in particular the frequency of the excitation laser. While concerns about fluorescence arise in the visible or ultraviolet, most modern (portable) systems use near-infrared excitation lasers, and many of these are relatively close in wavelength. We have investigated the possibility of porting reference data sets from one NIR wavelength system to another. We have constructed a reference library consisting of 145 spectra, including 20 explosives, as well as sundry other compounds and materials using a 1064 nm spectrometer. These data were used as a reference library to evaluate the same 145 compounds whose experimental spectra were recorded using a second 785 nm spectrometer. In 128 cases of 145 (or 88.3% including 20/20 for the explosives) the compounds were correctly identified with a mean 'hit score' of 954 of 1000. Adding in criteria for when to declare a correct match versus when to declare uncertainty, the approach was able to correctly categorize 134 out of 145 spectra, giving a 92.4% accuracy. For the few that were incorrectly identified, either the matched spectra were spectroscopically similar to the target or the 785 nm signal was degraded due to fluorescence. The results indicate that imported data recorded at a different NIR wavelength can be successfully used as reference libraries, but key issues must be addressed: The reference data must be of equal or higher resolution, the systems require rigorous wavelength calibration, and wavelength-dependent intensity response should be accounted for in the different systems.

  14. On beyond the standard model for high explosives: challenges & obstacles to surmount

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menikoff, Ralph Ds [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plastic-bonded explosives (PBX) are heterogeneous materials. Nevertheless, current explosive models treat them as homogeneous materials. To compensate, an empirically determined effective burn rate is used in place of a chemical reaction rate. A significant limitation of these models is that different burn parameters are needed for applications in different regimes; for example, shock initiation of a PBX at different initial temperatures or different initial densities. This is due to temperature fluctuations generated when a heterogeneous material is shock compressed. Localized regions of high temperatures are called hot spots. They dominate the reaction for shock initiation. The understanding of hot spot generation and their subsequent evolution has been limited by the inability to measure transients on small spatial ({approx} 1 {micro}m) and small temporal ({approx} 1 ns) scales in the harsh environment of a detonation. With the advances in computing power, it is natural to try and gain an understanding of hot-spot initiation with numerical experiments based on meso-scale simulations that resolve material heterogeneities and utilize realistic chemical reaction rates. However, to capture the underlying physics correctly, such high resolution simulations will require more than fast computers with a large amount of memory. Here we discuss some of the issues that need to be addressed. These include dissipative mechanisms that generate hot spots, accurate thermal propceties for the equations of state of the reactants and products, and controlling numerical entropy error from shock impedance mismatches at material interfaces. The later can generate artificial hot spots and lead to premature reaction. Eliminating numerical hot spots is critical for shock initiation simulations due to the positive feedback between the energy release from reaction and the hydrodynamic flow.

  15. RELATIVISTIC COLLAPSE AND EXPLOSION OF ROTATING SUPERMASSIVE STARS WITH THERMONUCLEAR EFFECTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montero, Pedro J.; Janka, Hans-Thomas; Mueller, Ewald, E-mail: montero@mpa-garching.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2012-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We present results of general relativistic simulations of collapsing supermassive stars with and without rotation using the two-dimensional general relativistic numerical code Nada, which solves the Einstein equations written in the BSSN formalism and the general relativistic hydrodynamic equations with high-resolution shock-capturing schemes. These numerical simulations use an equation of state that includes the effects of gas pressure and, in a tabulated form, those associated with radiation and the electron-positron pairs. We also take into account the effect of thermonuclear energy released by hydrogen and helium burning. We find that objects with a mass of Almost-Equal-To 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} M{sub Sun} and an initial metallicity greater than Z{sub CNO} Almost-Equal-To 0.007 do explode if non-rotating, while the threshold metallicity for an explosion is reduced to Z{sub CNO} Almost-Equal-To 0.001 for objects uniformly rotating. The critical initial metallicity for a thermonuclear explosion increases for stars with a mass Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 6} M{sub Sun }. For those stars that do not explode, we follow the evolution beyond the phase of black hole (BH) formation. We compute the neutrino energy loss rates due to several processes that may be relevant during the gravitational collapse of these objects. The peak luminosities of neutrinos and antineutrinos of all flavors for models collapsing to a BH are L{sub {nu}} {approx} 10{sup 55} erg s{sup -1}. The total radiated energy in neutrinos varies between E{sub {nu}} {approx} 10{sup 56} erg for models collapsing to a BH and E{sub {nu}} {approx} 10{sup 45}-10{sup 46} erg for models exploding.

  16. Sensitivity study of explosive nucleosynthesis in Type Ia supernovae: I. Modification of individual thermonuclear reaction rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eduardo Bravo; Gabriel Martínez-Pinedo

    2012-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We explore the sensitivity of the nucleosynthesis due to type Ia supernovae with respect to uncertainties in nuclear reaction rates. We have adopted a standard one-dimensional delayed detonation model of the explosion of a Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarf, and have post-processed the thermodynamic trajectories of every mass-shell with a nucleosynthetic code, with increases (decreases) by a factor of ten on the rates of 1196 nuclear reactions. We have computed as well hydrodynamic models for different rates of the fusion reactions of 12C and of 16O. For selected reactions, we have recomputed the nucleosynthesis with alternative prescriptions for their rates taken from the JINA REACLIB database, and have analyzed the temperature ranges where modifications of their rates have the strongest effect on nucleosynthesis. The nucleosynthesis resulting from the Type Ia supernova models is quite robust with respect to variations of nuclear reaction rates, with the exception of the reaction of fusion of 12C nuclei. The energy of the explosion changes by less than \\sim4%. The changes in the nucleosynthesis due to the modification of the rates of fusion reactions are as well quite modest, for instance no species with a mass fraction larger than 0.02 experiences a variation of its yield larger than a factor of two. We provide the sensitivity of the yields of the most abundant species with respect to the rates of the most intense reactions with protons, neutrons, and alphas. In general, the yields of Fe-group nuclei are more robust than the yields of intermediate-mass elements. Among the charged particle reactions, the most influential on supernova nucleosynthesis are 30Si + p \\rightleftarrows 31P + {\\gamma}, 20Ne + {\\alpha} \\rightleftarrows 24Mg + {\\gamma}, and 24Mg + {\\alpha} \\rightleftarrows 27Al + p. The temperatures at which a modification of their rate has a larger impact are in the range 2 < T < 4 GK. (abridged)

  17. Explosive Demolition of a Fire-Water Tower At East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge TN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooksbank, R.D.; Rood, M.S.; Amrit, S.K.; Harper, M.S.; Dypolt, D.J.; Brehse, Mike [Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC, P.O. Box 4699 Oak Ridge, TN 37931 (United States)

    2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    On June 17, 2006, the Department of Energy (DOE) successfully demolished a {approx}60 year old fire-water tower (K-1206-E), located at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) in Oak Ridge, TN, using strategically placed explosive charges. The subject demolition project was executed by MCM Management Corporation and Demolition Dynamics under the management of DoE's prime contractor Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC). The K-1206-E Fire Water Tower (Tower) supported the ETTP fire water protection system from the mid- 1950's until 1991. The 378,500-L (100,000-gallon) Tower, elevated 53-m (175-feet) above grade, was located in a grassy area within 152-m (500-feet) of several other occupied facilities. Electrical, control circuits and supply water servicing the Tower were deactivated in 2003. Free liquids and sludge were removed from the tank prior to demolition. Demolition of a facility employing explosive demolition at a federal site in the 'post-9/11 era' was a substantial challenge. The subject paper discusses: - the planning and coordination steps that were taken to successfully overcome the challenges prior to the demolition of the empty, deactivated Tower; - the method used for the engineered demolition of the Tower; and - the factors responsible for the successful execution of this demolition project. At least two previous attempts were made to demolish the Tower. In the first attempt, the execution of the project was deferred by the re-allocation of funds. In the subsequent attempt in 2004, the execution of this project was postponed due to concerns that an adjacent facility would have to shut down operations during the duration of mobilization and execution of the project and thereby incur potential financial losses. A total of 51 cubic meters (1,800 cubic feet) of demolition debris was generated, which was compliantly disposed of at a local landfill followed by site restoration.

  18. A panchromatic view of the restless SN 2009ip reveals the explosive ejection of a massive star envelope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Margutti, R.; Milisavljevic, D.; Soderberg, A. M.; Chornock, R.; Zauderer, B. A.; Sanders, N. E.; Berger, E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Murase, K. [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Guidorzi, C. [Department of Physics, University of Ferrara, via Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Kuin, P. [University College London, MSSL, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); Fransson, C. [Department of Astronomy and the Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Levesque, E. M. [CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 389-UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Chandra, P.; Challis, P. [National Centre for Radio Astrophysics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Pune University Campus, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India); Bianco, F. B. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Brown, P. J. [George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A. and M. University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4242 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Chatzopoulos, E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712-1205 (United States); Cheung, C. C. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375-5352 (United States); Choi, C. [CEOU/Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Chomiuk, L. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); and others

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The double explosion of SN 2009ip in 2012 raises questions about our understanding of the late stages of massive star evolution. Here we present a comprehensive study of SN 2009ip during its remarkable rebrightenings. High-cadence photometric and spectroscopic observations from the GeV to the radio band obtained from a variety of ground-based and space facilities (including the Very Large Array, Swift, Fermi, Hubble Space Telescope, and XMM) constrain SN 2009ip to be a low energy (E ? 10{sup 50} erg for an ejecta mass ?0.5 M {sub ?}) and asymmetric explosion in a complex medium shaped by multiple eruptions of the restless progenitor star. Most of the energy is radiated as a result of the shock breaking out through a dense shell of material located at ?5 × 10{sup 14} cm with M ? 0.1 M {sub ?}, ejected by the precursor outburst ?40 days before the major explosion. We interpret the NIR excess of emission as signature of material located further out, the origin of which has to be connected with documented mass-loss episodes in the previous years. Our modeling predicts bright neutrino emission associated with the shock break-out if the cosmic-ray energy is comparable to the radiated energy. We connect this phenomenology with the explosive ejection of the outer layers of the massive progenitor star, which later interacted with material deposited in the surroundings by previous eruptions. Future observations will reveal if the massive luminous progenitor star survived. Irrespective of whether the explosion was terminal, SN 2009ip brought to light the existence of new channels for sustained episodic mass loss, the physical origin of which has yet to be identified.

  19. Recent advances in Ti and Nb explosion welding with stainless steel for 2K operating (ILC Program)- To the proceedings of LCWS11

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sabirov, B; Sissakian, A; Shirkov, G; Taran, Yu; Trubnikov, G; Dhanarai, N; Foley, M; Harms, E; Mitchell, D; Nagaitsev, S; Soyars, W; Rybakov, V; Samarokov, Yu; Zhigalov, V; Basti, A; Bedeschi, F

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The world first samples 0f Ti+SS and Nb+SS joints were manufactured by an explosion welding technology demonstrating a high mechanic properties and leak absence at 4.6 x 10^{-9} atm-cc/sec. Residual stresses in bimetallic joints resulting from explosion welding measured by neutron diffraction method are quite high (~1000 MPa). Thermal tempering of explosion welded Ti+SS and Nb+SS specimens leads to complete relaxation of internal stresses in Ti,Nb and Stainless steel and makes the transition elements quite serviceable.

  20. Recent advances in Ti and Nb explosion welding with stainless steel for 2K operating (ILC Program)- To the proceedings of LCWS11

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Sabirov; J. Budagov; A. Sissakian; G. Shirkov; Yu. Taran; G. Trubnikov; N. Dhanarai; M. Foley; E. Harms; D. Mitchell; S. Nagaitsev; W. Soyars; V. Rybakov; Yu. Samarokov; V. Zhigalov; A. Basti; F. Bedeschi

    2012-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The world first samples 0f Ti+SS and Nb+SS joints were manufactured by an explosion welding technology demonstrating a high mechanic properties and leak absence at 4.6 x 10^{-9} atm-cc/sec. Residual stresses in bimetallic joints resulting from explosion welding measured by neutron diffraction method are quite high (~1000 MPa). Thermal tempering of explosion welded Ti+SS and Nb+SS specimens leads to complete relaxation of internal stresses in Ti,Nb and Stainless steel and makes the transition elements quite serviceable.

  1. LDRD summary report. Part 1: initiation studies of thin film explosvies used for scabbling concrete. Part 2: investigation of spray techniques for use in explosive scabbling of concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benham, R.A.; Bickes, R.W. Jr.; Grubelich, M.C.; Wackerbarth, D.E.; Brock, J.L.

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe a new method for the scabbling of concrete surfaces using a thin layer of explosive material sprayed onto the surfaces. We also developed a new explosive mixture that could be applied with commercial spray painting equipment. The first part of our record describes experiments that studied methods for the initiation of the sprayed explosive. We successfully initiated layers 0.36 mm thick using a commercial EBW detonator, a flying plate detonator, and by pellet impact. The second part of our report describes a survey of spray methods and tests with two commercial spray systems that we believe could be used for developing a robotic spray system.

  2. Identification of mine collapses, explosions and earthquakes using INSAR: a preliminary investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foxall, B; Sweeney, J J; Walter, W R

    1998-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Interferograms constmcted from satellite-borne synthetic aperture radar images have the capability of mapping sub-cm ground surface deformation over areas on the order of 100 x 100 km with a spatial resolution on the order of 10 meters. We investigate the utility of synthetic aperture radar interferomehy (InSAR) used in conjunction with regional seismic methods in detecting and discriminating different types of seismic events in the context of special event analysis for the CTBT. For this initial study, we carried out elastic dislocation modeling of underground explosions, mine collapses and small (M<5.5) shallow earthquakes to produce synthetic interferograms and then analyzed satellite radar data for a large mine collapse. The synthetic modeling shows that, for a given magnitude each type of event produces a distinctive pattern of ground deformation that can be recognized in, and recovered from, the corresponding interferogram. These diagnostic characteristics include not only differences in the polarities of surface displacements but also differences in displacement amplitudes from the different sources. The technique is especially sensitive to source depth, a parameter that is crucial in discriminating earthquakes from the other event types but is often very poorly constrained by regional seismic data alone. The ERS radar data analyzed is from a ML 5.2 seismic event that occurred in southwestern Wyoming on February 3,1995. Although seismic data from the event have some characteristics of an underground explosion, based on seismological and geodetic data it has been identified as being caused by a large underground collapse in the Solvay Mine. Several pairs of before-collapse and after-collapse radar images were phase processed to obtain interferograms. The minimum time separation for a before-collapse and after-collapse pair was 548 days. Even with this long time separation, phase coherence between the image pairs was acceptable and a deformation map was successfully obtained. Two images, separated by 1 day and occurring after the mine collapse, were used to form a digital elevation map (DEM) that was used to correct for topography. The interferograms identify the large deformation at the Solvay Mine as well as some areas of lesser deformation near other mines in the area. The large amount of deformation at the Solvay Mine was identified, but (as predicted by our dislocation modeling) could not be quantified absolutely because of the incoherent interference pattern it produced

  3. Impact hazard mitigation: understanding the effects of nuclear explosive outputs on comets and asteroids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clement, Ralph R C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Plesko, Catherine S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bradley, Paul A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Conlon, Leann M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The NASA 2007 white paper ''Near-Earth Object Survey and Deflection Analysis of Alternatives'' affirms deflection as the safest and most effective means of potentially hazardous object (PHO) impact prevention. It also calls for further studies of object deflection. In principle, deflection of a PHO may be accomplished by using kinetic impactors, chemical explosives, gravity tractors, solar sails, or nuclear munitions. Of the sudden impulse options, nuclear munitions are by far the most efficient in terms of yield-per-unit-mass launched and are technically mature. However, there are still significant questions about the response of a comet or asteroid to a nuclear burst. Recent and ongoing observational and experimental work is revolutionizing our understanding of the physical and chemical properties of these bodies (e.g ., Ryan (2000) Fujiwara et al. (2006), and Jedicke et al. (2006)). The combination of this improved understanding of small solar-system bodies combined with current state-of-the-art modeling and simulation capabilities, which have also improved dramatically in recent years, allow for a science-based, comprehensive study of PHO mitigation techniques. Here we present an examination of the effects of radiation from a nuclear explosion on potentially hazardous asteroids and comets through Monte Carlo N-Particle code (MCNP) simulation techniques. MCNP is a general-purpose particle transport code commonly used to model neutron, photon, and electron transport for medical physics reactor design and safety, accelerator target and detector design, and a variety of other applications including modeling the propagation of epithermal neutrons through the Martian regolith (Prettyman 2002). It is a massively parallel code that can conduct simulations in 1-3 dimensions, complicated geometries, and with extremely powerful variance reduction techniques. It uses current nuclear cross section data, where available, and fills in the gaps with analytical models where data are not available. MCNP has undergone extensive verification and validation and is considered the gold-standard for particle transport. (Forrest B. Brown, et al., ''MCNP Version 5,'' Trans. Am. Nucl. Soc., 87, 273, November 2002.) Additionally, a new simulation capability using MCNP has become available to this collaboration. The first results of this new capability will also be presented.

  4. The Off-Site Plowshare and Vela Uniform Programs: Assessing Potential Environmental Liabilities through an Examination of Proposed Nuclear Projects,High Explosive Experiments, and High Explosive Construction Activities Volume 2 of 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beck Colleen M.,Edwards Susan R.,King Maureen L.

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document presents the results of nearly six years (2002-2008) of historical research and field studies concerned with evaluating potential environmental liabilities associated with U.S. Atomic Energy Commission projects from the Plowshare and Vela Uniform Programs. The Plowshare Program's primary purpose was to develop peaceful uses for nuclear explosives. The Vela Uniform Program focused on improving the capability of detecting, monitoring and identifying underground nuclear detonations. As a result of the Project Chariot site restoration efforts in the early 1990s, there were concerns that there might be other project locations with potential environmental liabilities. The Desert Research Institute conducted archival research to identify projects, an analysis of project field activities, and completed field studies at locations where substantial fieldwork had been undertaken for the projects. Although the Plowshare and Vela Uniform nuclear projects are well known, the projects that are included in this research are relatively unknown. They are proposed nuclear projects that were not executed, proposed and executed high explosive experiments, and proposed and executed high explosive construction activities off the Nevada Test Site. The research identified 170 Plowshare and Vela Uniform off-site projects and many of these had little or no field activity associated with them. However, there were 27 projects that merited further investigation and field studies were conducted at 15 locations.

  5. The Off-Site Plowshare and Vela Uniform Programs: Assessing Potential Environmental Liabilities through an Examination of Proposed Nuclear Projects,High Explosive Experiments, and High Explosive Construction Activities Volume 3 of 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beck Colleen M.,Edwards Susan R.,King Maureen L.

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document presents the results of nearly six years (2002-2008) of historical research and field studies concerned with evaluating potential environmental liabilities associated with U.S. Atomic Energy Commission projects from the Plowshare and Vela Uniform Programs. The Plowshare Program's primary purpose was to develop peaceful uses for nuclear explosives. The Vela Uniform Program focused on improving the capability of detecting, monitoring and identifying underground nuclear detonations. As a result of the Project Chariot site restoration efforts in the early 1990s, there were concerns that there might be other project locations with potential environmental liabilities. The Desert Research Institute conducted archival research to identify projects, an analysis of project field activities, and completed field studies at locations where substantial fieldwork had been undertaken for the projects. Although the Plowshare and Vela Uniform nuclear projects are well known, the projects that are included in this research are relatively unknown. They are proposed nuclear projects that were not executed, proposed and executed high explosive experiments, and proposed and executed high explosive construction activities off the Nevada Test Site. The research identified 170 Plowshare and Vela Uniform off-site projects and many of these had little or no field activity associated with them. However, there were 27 projects that merited further investigation and field studies were conducted at 15 locations.

  6. The Off-Site Plowshare and Vela Uniform Programs: Assessing Potential Environmental Liabilities through an Examination of Proposed Nuclear Projects,High Explosive Experiments, and High Explosive Construction Activities Volume 1 of 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beck Colleen M,Edwards Susan R.,King Maureen L.

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document presents the results of nearly six years (2002-2008) of historical research and field studies concerned with evaluating potential environmental liabilities associated with U.S. Atomic Energy Commission projects from the Plowshare and Vela Uniform Programs. The Plowshare Program's primary purpose was to develop peaceful uses for nuclear explosives. The Vela Uniform Program focused on improving the capability of detecting, monitoring and identifying underground nuclear detonations. As a result of the Project Chariot site restoration efforts in the early 1990s, there were concerns that there might be other project locations with potential environmental liabilities. The Desert Research Institute conducted archival research to identify projects, an analysis of project field activities, and completed field studies at locations where substantial fieldwork had been undertaken for the projects. Although the Plowshare and Vela Uniform nuclear projects are well known, the projects that are included in this research are relatively unknown. They are proposed nuclear projects that were not executed, proposed and executed high explosive experiments, and proposed and executed high explosive construction activities off the Nevada Test Site. The research identified 170 Plowshare and Vela Uniform off-site projects and many of these had little or no field activity associated with them. However, there were 27 projects that merited further investigation and field studies were conducted at 15 locations.

  7. The soft and hard X-rays thermal emission from star cluster winds with a supernova explosion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Castellanos-Ramirez, A; Esquivel, A; Toledo-Roy, J C; Olivares, J; Velazquez, P F

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Massive young star clusters contain dozens or hundreds of massive stars that inject mechanical energy in the form of winds and supernova explosions, producing an outflow which expands into their surrounding medium, shocking it and forming structures called superbubbles. The regions of shocked material can have temperatures in excess of 10$^6$ K, and emit mainly in thermal X-rays (soft and hard). This X-ray emission is strongly affected by the action of thermal conduction, as well as by the metallicity of the material injected by the massive stars. We present three-dimensional numerical simulations exploring these two effects, metallicity of the stellar winds and supernova explosions, as well as thermal conduction.

  8. Study of the core-corona structure formed during the explosion of an aluminum wire in vacuum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tkachenko, S. I. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (Russian Federation); Mingaleev, A. R. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation); Pikuz, S. A.; Romanova, V. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Khattatov, T. A. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (Russian Federation); Shelkovenko, T. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Ol'khovskaya, O. G.; Gasilov, V. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics (Russian Federation); Kalinin, Yu. G. [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The time evolution of the matter parameters and current distribution in the discharge channel formed during a nanosecond explosion of a 25-{mu}m-diameter 12-mm-long aluminum wire was studied in a series of experiments with the following parameters: the discharge voltage was U{sub 0} = 20 kV, the current amplitude was I{sub max} {approx} 8 kA, and the current rise rate was dI/dt {approx} 40 A/ns. Optical shadow and schlieren images of the discharge channel were obtained using the second harmonic of a YAG: Nd{sup +3} laser, and UV images of the discharge channel self-radiation were recorded using a four-frame camera with a microchannel plate. The process of aluminum wire explosion was simulated numerically (including simulations performed from the 'cold start'). The numerical results were compared with the experimental data.

  9. Predicting the amount of hydrogen stripped by the SN explosion for SN 2002cx-like SNe Ia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Zheng-Wei; Chen, X. F.; Wang, B.; Han, Z. W. [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China); Kromer, M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Fink, M.; Röpke, F. K. [Institut für Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Universität Würzburg, Am Hubland, D-97074 Würzburg (Germany); Pakmor, R., E-mail: zwliu@ynao.ac.cn [Heidelberger Institut für Theoretische Studien, Schloss-Wolfsbrunnenweg 35, D-69118 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The most favored progenitor scenarios for Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) involve the single-degenerate (SD) scenario and the double-degenerate scenario. The absence of stripped hydrogen (H) in the nebular spectra of SNe Ia challenges the SD progenitor models. Recently, it was shown that pure deflagration explosion models of Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarfs, ignited off-center, reproduce the characteristic observational features of 2002cx-like SNe Ia very well. In this work we predict, for the first time, the amount of stripped H for the off-center, pure deflagration explosions. We find that their low kinetic energies lead to inefficient H mass stripping (? 0.01 M {sub ?}), indicating that the stripped H may be hidden in (observed) late-time spectra of SN 2002cx-like SNe Ia.

  10. Failure of a neutrino-driven explosion after core-collapse may lead to a thermonuclear supernova

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kushnir, Doron

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate that $\\sim10$ seconds after core-collapse of a massive star, a thermonuclear explosion of the outer shells is possible for some (tuned) initial density and composition profiles, assuming the neutrinos failed to explode the star. The explosion may lead to a successful supernova, as first suggested by Burbidge, Burbidge, Fowler and Hoyle (1957). We perform a series of one-dimensional (1D) calculations of collapsing massive stars with simplified initial density profiles (similar to the results of stellar evolution calculations) and various compositions (not similar to 1D stellar evolution calculations). We assume that the neutrinos escaped with negligible effect on the outer layers, which inevitably collapse. As the shells collapse, they compress and heat up adiabatically, enhancing the rate of thermonuclear burning. In some cases, where significant shells of mixed helium and oxygen are present with pre-collapsed burning times of $\\lesssim100\\,\\textrm{s}$ ($\\approx10$ times the free-fall time), a ...

  11. Sensitivity effects of void density and arrangements in a REBO high explosive

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herring, Stuart Davis [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Germann, Timothy C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gronbech - Jensen, Niels [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The shock response of two-dimensional model, high explosive crystals with various arrangements of circular voids is explored. We simulate a piston impact using molecular dynamics simulations with a Reactive Empirical Bond Order (REBO) model potential for a sub-micron, sub-ns exothermic reaction in a diatomic molecular solid. In square lattices of voids all of one size, reducing that size or increasing the porosity while holding the other parameter fixed causes the hotspots to consume the material more quickly and detonation to occur sooner and at lower piston velocities. The early time behavior is seen to follow a very simple ignition and growth model. The hotspots are seen to collectively develop a broad pressure wave (a sonic, diffuse deflagration front) that, upon merging with the lead shock, transforms it into a detonation. The reaction yields produced by triangular lattices are not significantly different. With random void arrangements, the mean time to detonation is 15.5% larger than with the square lattice; the standard deviation of detonation delays is just 5.1%.

  12. High-explosive properties from classical molecular dynamics simulations and quantum-chemical computations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sewell, T. D. (Thomas D.); Gan, C. K. (Chee Kwan); Jaramillo, E. (Eugenio); Strachan, A. H. (Alejandro H.)

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We are using classical molecular dynamics and condensed phase electronic-structure methods to predict some of the thermophysical and mechanical properties that are needed as input to realistic mesoscale models for plastic-bonded explosives. The main materials studied to date are HMX, PETN, Estane copolymer, and bi(2,2-dinitropropyl) formal/acetal (BDNPF/A). Emphasis is placed on non-reactive properties and thermodynamic states relevant to cookoff and shock initiation phenomena. Both crystal and liquid-state properties are of interest. Typical simulation sizes and times are {approx}10{sup 2} molecules and 2-10 ns, respectively. The overarching goal is to develop internally consistent model thermodynamic and elastic mechanical descriptions for the materials. Prioritization among the set of properties amenable to atomistic simulation is made based on ongoing interactions with mesoscale modelers at Los Alamos and elsewhere. Recent work will be summarized and our view of profitable directions for future research will be discussed, including preliminary results for large-scale molecular dynamics simulations of shock response of crystalline HMX.

  13. High-resolution method applied to premixing phase of steam explosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leskovar, M.; Mavko, B.; Marn, J. [Univ. of Maribor (Slovenia)

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the improved version of the general two-dimensional, multiphase flow code ESE. The ESE code has been developed to model the mixing process and interaction of molten core debris with water. In case of a steam explosion, a trigger may produce locally enhanced heat transfer and pressurization and may evolve into a shock propagating through the coarse mixture. The propagation phase of the interaction is not modeled by the code; however, the ESE provides for initial condition evolution in time. The indication of the amount of well-mixed melt at the time of the trigger occurrence can be deduced based on the code`s results. The objective of this work is to present the advantages of the high-resolution method applied to a particular set of partial differential equations and to incorporate these advantages into a code that was conceived using less traveled paths, namely, ensemble averaging and use of available data in probabilistic density functions describing momentum and energy cofluctuation tensors.

  14. Explosion in the Granite Field: Hardening and Softening Behavior in Rocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lomov, I N; Antoun, T H; Glenn, L A

    2001-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Properties of rock materials under quasistatic conditions are well characterized in laboratory experiments. Unfortunately, quasistatic data alone are not sufficient to calibrate models for use to describe inelastic wave propagation associated with conventional and nuclear explosions, or with impact. First, rock properties are size-dependent. properties measured using laboratory samples on the order of a few centimeters in size need to be modified to adequately describe wave propagation in a problem on the order of a few hundred meters in size. Second, there is lack of data about the damage (softening) behavior of rock because most laboratory tests focus on the pre-peak hardening region with very little emphasis on the post-peak softening region. This paper presents a model for granite that accounts for both the hardening and softening of geologic materials, and also provides a simple description of rubblized rock. The model is shown to reproduce results of quasistatic triaxial experiments as well as peak velocity and peak displacement attenuation from a compendium of dynamic wave propagation experiments that includes US and French nuclear tests in granite.

  15. Explosion in the Granite Field: Hardening and Softening Behavior in Rocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lomov, I N; Antoun, T H; Glenn, L A

    2001-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Properties of rock materials under quasistatic conditions are well characterized in laboratory experiments. Unfortunately, quasistatic data alone are not sufficient to calibrate models for use to describe inelastic wave propagation associated with conventional and nuclear explosions, or with impact. First, rock properties are size-dependent. properties measured using laboratory samples on the order of a few centimeters in size need to be modified to adequately describe wave propagation in a problem on the order of a few hundred meters in size. Second, there is lack of data about the damage (softening) behavior of rock because most laboratory tests focus on the pre-peak hardening region with very little emphasis on the post-peak softening region. This paper presents a model for granite that accounts for both the hardening and softening of geologic materials, and also provides a simple description of rubblized rock. The model is shown to reproduce results of quasistatic triaxial experiments as well as peak velocity and peak displacement attenuation from a compendium of dynamic wave propagation experiments that includes US and French nuclear tests in granite.

  16. Nanosecond electrical explosion of thin aluminum wire in vacuum : experimental and computational investigations.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cochrane, Kyle Robert (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Struve, Kenneth William; Rosenthal, Stephen Edgar; McDaniel, Dillon Heirman; Sarkisov, Gennady Sergeevich (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Deeney, Christopher

    2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The experimental and computational investigations of nanosecond electrical explosion of thin Al wire in vacuum are presented. We have demonstrated that increasing the current rate leads to increased energy deposited before voltage collapse. Laser shadowgrams of the overheated Al core exhibit axial stratification with a {approx}100 {micro}m period. The experimental evidence for synchronization of the wire expansion and light emission with voltage collapse is presented. Two-wavelength interferometry shows an expanding Al core in a low-ionized gas condition with increasing ionization toward the periphery. Hydrocarbons are indicated in optical spectra and their influence on breakdown physics is discussed. The radial velocity of low-density plasma reaches a value of {approx}100 km/s. The possibility of an overcritical phase transition due to high pressure is discussed. 1D MHD simulation shows good agreement with experimental data. MHD simulation demonstrates separation of the exploding wire into a high-density cold core and a low-density hot corona as well as fast rejection of the current from the wire core to the corona during voltage collapse. Important features of the dynamics for wire core and corona follow from the MHD simulation and are discussed.

  17. Nanosecond electrical explosion of thin aluminum wires in a vacuum: Experimental and computational investigations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarkisov, G.S.; Rosenthal, S.E.; Cochrane, K.R.; Struve, K.W.; Deeney, C.; McDaniel, D.H. [Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123 (United States); Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123 (United States); Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental and computational investigations of nanosecond electrical explosion of a thin Al wire in vacuum are presented. We have demonstrated that increasing the current rate leads to increased energy deposited before voltage collapse. The experimental evidence for synchronization of the wire expansion and light emission with voltage collapse is presented. Hydrocarbons are indicated in optical spectra and their influence on breakdown physics is discussed. The radial velocity of low-density plasma reaches a value of {approx}100 km/s. The possibility of an overcritical phase transition due to high pressure is discussed. A one-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation shows good agreement with experimental data. The MHD simulation demonstrates separation of the exploding wire into a high-density cold core and a low-density hot corona as well as fast rejection of the current from the wire core to the corona during voltage collapse. Important features of the dynamics for the wire core and corona follow from the MHD simulation and are discussed.

  18. Pattern of explosive reaction between uranium hexafluoride and hydrocarbon oils. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rapp, K.E.

    1986-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Examination of uranium hexafluoride release incidents occurring over the past three decades of ORGDP experience has identified only four which apparently involved an explosion of a container resulting from reaction between uranium hexafluoride and an impurity. These four incidents exhibit a certain degree of commonality. Each has involved: (1) condensed phase uranium hexafluoride, (2) a moderately elevated temperature, (3) a sufficient quantity of uranium hexafluoride for a significant partial pressure to be maintained independently above that which can be consumed by chemical reaction, and (4) an organic liquid (probably hydrocarbon oil) accidentally present in the container as a contaminant. The purpose of this investigative search was to establish some conditional pattern for these four incidents to which their violent consequences could be attributed. Fortunately, the number of such incidents is relatively small, which emphasizes even more pointedly the unfortunate fact that documentation ranges from thorough to very limited. Documented sources of information are given in the bibliography. Copies of those which are not readily available are contained in six appendices. 8 refs.

  19. High power laser coupling to carbon nano-tubes and ion Coulomb explosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K, Magesh Kumar K; Tripathi, V. K. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India)] [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Linear and non linear interaction of laser with an array of carbon nanotubes is investigated. The ac conductivity of nanotubes, due to uneven response of free electrons in them to axial and transverse fields, is a tensor. The propagation constant for p-polarization shows resonance at a specific frequency that varies with the direction of laser propagation. It also shows surface plasmon resonance at ?=?{sub p}/?(2), where ?{sub p} is the plasma frequency of free electrons inside a nanotube, assumed to be uniform plasma cylinder. The attenuation constant is also resonantly enhanced around these frequencies. At large laser amplitude, the nanotubes behave as thin plasma rods. As the electrons get heated, the nanotubes undergo hydrodynamic expansion. At an instant when plasma frequency reaches ?{sub p}=?(2)?, the electron temperature rises rapidly and then saturates. For a Gaussian laser beam, the heating rate is maximum on the laser axis and falls off with the distance r from the axis. When the excursion of the electrons ? is comparable or larger than the radius of the nanotube r{sub c}, the nanotubes undergo ion Coulomb explosion. The distribution function of ions turns out to be a monotonically decreasing function of energy.

  20. Type Ia Supernovae: Can Coriolis force break the symmetry of the gravitational confined detonation explosion mechanism?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    García-Senz, D; Domínguez, I; Thielemann, F K

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nowadays the number of models aimed at explaining the Type Ia supernova phenomenon is high and discriminating between them is a must-do. In this work we explore the influence of rotation in the evolution of the nuclear flame which drives the explosion in the so called gravitational confined detonation models. Assuming that the flame starts in a point-like region slightly above the center of the white dwarf (WD) and adding a moderate amount of angular velocity to the star we follow the evolution of the deflagration using a smoothed particle hydrodynamics code. We find that the results are very dependent on the angle between the rotational axis and the line connecting the initial bubble of burned material with the center of the white dwarf at the moment of the ignition. The impact of rotation is larger for angles close to 90{\\deg} because the Coriolis force on a floating element of fluid is maximum, and its principal effect is to break the symmetry of the deflagration. Such symmetry breaking weakens the converg...