National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for glycoside hydrolase family

  1. Strategies to reduce end-product inhibition in family 48 glycoside hydrolases

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chen, Mo; Bu, Lintao; Alahuhta, Markus; Brunecky, Roman; Xu, Qi; Lunin, Vladimir V.; Brady, John W.; Crowley, Michael F.; Himmel, Michael E.; Bomble, Yannick J.

    2016-02-01

    Family 48 cellobiohydrolases are some of the most abundant glycoside hydrolases in nature. They are able to degrade cellulosic biomass and therefore serve as good enzyme candidates for biofuel production. Family 48 cellulases hydrolyze cellulose chains via a processive mechanism, and produce end products composed primarily of cellobiose as well as other cellooligomers (dp ≤ 4). The challenge of utilizing cellulases in biofuel production lies in their extremely slow turnover rate. A factor contributing to the low enzyme activity is suggested to be product binding to enzyme and the resulting performance inhibition. In this study, we quantitatively evaluated the productmore » inhibitory effect of four family 48 glycoside hydrolases using molecular dynamics simulations and product expulsion free-energy calculations. We also suggested a series of single mutants of the four family 48 glycoside hydrolases with theoretically reduced level of product inhibition. As a result, the theoretical calculations provide a guide for future experimental studies designed to produce mutant cellulases with enhanced activity.« less

  2. Variants of glycoside hydrolases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Teter, Sarah; Ward, Connie; Cherry, Joel; Jones, Aubrey; Harris, Paul; Yi, Jung

    2013-02-26

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent glycoside hydrolase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 21, 94, 157, 205, 206, 247, 337, 350, 373, 383, 438, 455, 467, and 486 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2, and optionally further comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 8, 22, 41, 49, 57, 113, 193, 196, 226, 227, 246, 251, 255, 259, 301, 356, 371, 411, and 462 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2 a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 8, 22, 41, 49, 57, 113, 193, 196, 226, 227, 246, 251, 255, 259, 301, 356, 371, 411, and 462 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2, wherein the variants have glycoside hydrolase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant glycoside hydrolases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

  3. Variants of glycoside hydrolases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Teter, Sarah; Ward, Connie; Cherry, Joel; Jones, Aubrey; Harris, Paul; Yi, Jung

    2011-04-26

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent glycoside hydrolase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 21, 94, 157, 205, 206, 247, 337, 350, 373, 383, 438, 455, 467, and 486 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2, and optionally further comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 8, 22, 41, 49, 57, 113, 193, 196, 226, 227, 246, 251, 255, 259, 301, 356, 371, 411, and 462 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2 a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 8, 22, 41, 49, 57, 113, 193, 196, 226, 227, 246, 251, 255, 259, 301, 356, 371, 411, and 462 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2, wherein the variants have glycoside hydrolase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant glycoside hydrolases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

  4. Differential Recognition and Hydrolysis of Host Carbohydrate Antigens by Streptococcus pneumoniae Family 98 Glycoside Hydrolases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Higgins, M.; Whitworth, G; El Warry, N; Randriantsoa, M; Samain, E; Burke, R; Vocadlo, D; Boraston, A

    2009-01-01

    The presence of a fucose utilization operon in the Streptococcus pneumoniae genome and its established importance in virulence indicates a reliance of this bacterium on the harvesting of host fucose-containing glycans. The identities of these glycans, however, and how they are harvested is presently unknown. The biochemical and high resolution x-ray crystallographic analysis of two family 98 glycoside hydrolases (GH98s) from distinctive forms of the fucose utilization operon that originate from different S. pneumoniae strains reveal that one enzyme, the predominant type among pneumococcal isolates, has a unique endo-{beta}-galactosidase activity on the LewisY antigen. Altered active site topography in the other species of GH98 enzyme tune its endo-{beta}-galactosidase activity to the blood group A and B antigens. Despite their different specificities, these enzymes, and by extension all family 98 glycoside hydrolases, use an inverting catalytic mechanism. Many bacterial and viral pathogens exploit host carbohydrate antigens for adherence as a precursor to colonization or infection. However, this is the first evidence of bacterial endoglycosidase enzymes that are known to play a role in virulence and are specific for distinct host carbohydrate antigens. The strain-specific distribution of two distinct types of GH98 enzymes further suggests that S. pneumoniae strains may specialize to exploit host-specific antigens that vary from host to host, a factor that may feature in whether a strain is capable of colonizing a host or establishing an invasive infection.

  5. Targeted discovery of glycoside hydrolases from a switchgrass-adapted compost community

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allgaier, M.; Reddy, A.; Park, J. I.; Ivanova, N.; D'haeseleer, P.; Lowry, S.; Sapra, R.; Hazen, T.C.; Simmons, B.A.; VanderGheynst, J. S.; Hugenholtz, P.

    2009-11-15

    Development of cellulosic biofuels from non-food crops is currently an area of intense research interest. Tailoring depolymerizing enzymes to particular feedstocks and pretreatment conditions is one promising avenue of research in this area. Here we added a green-waste compost inoculum to switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and simulated thermophilic composting in a bioreactor to select for a switchgrass-adapted community and to facilitate targeted discovery of glycoside hydrolases. Small-subunit (SSU) rRNA-based community profiles revealed that the microbial community changed dramatically between the initial and switchgrass-adapted compost (SAC) with some bacterial populations being enriched over 20-fold. We obtained 225 Mbp of 454-titanium pyrosequence data from the SAC community and conservatively identified 800 genes encoding glycoside hydrolase domains that were biased toward depolymerizing grass cell wall components. Of these, {approx}10% were putative cellulases mostly belonging to families GH5 and GH9. We synthesized two SAC GH9 genes with codon optimization for heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and observed activity for one on carboxymethyl cellulose. The active GH9 enzyme has a temperature optimum of 50 C and pH range of 5.5 to 8 consistent with the composting conditions applied. We demonstrate that microbial communities adapt to switchgrass decomposition using simulated composting condition and that full-length genes can be identified from complex metagenomic sequence data, synthesized and expressed resulting in active enzyme.

  6. Targeted Discovery of Glycoside Hydrolases from a Switchgrass-Adapted Compost Community

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reddy, Amitha; Allgaier, Martin; Park, Joshua I.; Ivanoval, Natalia; Dhaeseleer, Patrik; Lowry, Steve; Sapra, Rajat; Hazen, Terry C.; Simmons, Blake A.; VanderGheynst, Jean S.; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2011-05-11

    Development of cellulosic biofuels from non-food crops is currently an area of intense research interest. Tailoring depolymerizing enzymes to particular feedstocks and pretreatment conditions is one promising avenue of research in this area. Here we added a green-waste compost inoculum to switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and simulated thermophilic composting in a bioreactor to select for a switchgrass-adapted community and to facilitate targeted discovery of glycoside hydrolases. Smallsubunit (SSU) rRNA-based community profiles revealed that the microbial community changed dramatically between the initial and switchgrass-adapted compost (SAC) with some bacterial populations being enriched over 20-fold. We obtained 225 Mbp of 454-titanium pyrosequence data from the SAC community and conservatively identified 800 genes encoding glycoside hydrolase domains that were biased toward depolymerizing grass cell wall components. Of these, ,10percent were putative cellulasesmostly belonging to families GH5 and GH9. We synthesized two SAC GH9 genes with codon optimization for heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and observed activity for one on carboxymethyl cellulose. The active GH9 enzyme has a temperature optimum of 50uC and pH range of 5.5 to 8 consistent with the composting conditions applied. We demonstrate that microbial communities adapt to switchgrass decomposition using simulated composting condition and that full-length genes can be identified from complex metagenomic sequence data, synthesized and expressed resulting in active enzyme.

  7. New perspective on glycoside hydrolase binding to lignin from pretreated corn stover

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yarbrough, John M.; Mittal, Ashutosh; Mansfield, Elisabeth; Taylor, II, Larry E.; Hobdey, Sarah E.; Sammond, Deanne W.; Bomble, Yannick J.; Crowley, Michael F.; Decker, Stephen R.; Himmel, Michael E.; et al

    2015-12-18

    In this study, non-specific binding of cellulases to lignin has been implicated as a major factor in the loss of cellulase activity during biomass conversion to sugars. It is believed that this binding may strongly impact process economics through loss of enzyme activities during hydrolysis and enzyme recycling scenarios. The current model suggests glycoside hydrolase activities are lost though non-specific/non-productive binding of carbohydrate-binding domains to lignin, limiting catalytic site access to the carbohydrate components of the cell wall.

  8. Strategies to reduce end-product inhibition in family 48 glycoside...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: 09 BIOMASS FUELS; 59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES glycoside hydrolases; product inhibition; biofuels; cellulose; molecular dynamics Word Cloud More Like This Free Publicly ...

  9. The Structure and Function of an Arabinan-specific [alpha]-1,2-Arabinofuranosidase Identified from Screening the Activities of Bacterial GH43 Glycoside Hydrolases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cartmell, Alan; McKee, Lauren S.; Pena, Maria J.; Larsbrink, Johan; Brumer, Harry; Kaneko, Satoshi; Ichinose, Hitomi; Lewis, Richard J.; Vikso-Nielsen, Anders; Gilbert, Harry; Marles-Wright, Jon

    2012-03-26

    Reflecting the diverse chemistry of plant cell walls, microorganisms that degrade these composite structures synthesize an array of glycoside hydrolases. These enzymes are organized into sequence-, mechanism-, and structure-based families. Genomic data have shown that several organisms that degrade the plant cell wall contain a large number of genes encoding family 43 (GH43) glycoside hydrolases. Here we report the biochemical properties of the GH43 enzymes of a saprophytic soil bacterium, Cellvibrio japonicus, and a human colonic symbiont, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron. The data show that C. japonicus uses predominantly exo-acting enzymes to degrade arabinan into arabinose, whereas B. thetaiotaomicron deploys a combination of endo- and side chain-cleaving glycoside hydrolases. Both organisms, however, utilize an arabinan-specific {alpha}-1,2-arabinofuranosidase in the degradative process, an activity that has not previously been reported. The enzyme can cleave {alpha}-1,2-arabinofuranose decorations in single or double substitutions, the latter being recalcitrant to the action of other arabinofuranosidases. The crystal structure of the C. japonicus arabinan-specific {alpha}-1,2-arabinofuranosidase, CjAbf43A, displays a five-bladed {beta}-propeller fold. The specificity of the enzyme for arabinan is conferred by a surface cleft that is complementary to the helical backbone of the polysaccharide. The specificity of CjAbf43A for {alpha}-1,2-L-arabinofuranose side chains is conferred by a polar residue that orientates the arabinan backbone such that O2 arabinose decorations are directed into the active site pocket. A shelflike structure adjacent to the active site pocket accommodates O3 arabinose side chains, explaining how the enzyme can target O2 linkages that are components of single or double substitutions.

  10. Colloid-based multiplexed method for screening plant biomass-degrading glycoside hydrolase activities in microbial communities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reindl, W.; Deng, K.; Gladden, J.M.; Cheng, G.; Wong, A.; Singer, S.W.; Singh, S.; Lee, J.-C.; Yao, J.-S.; Hazen, T.C.; Singh, A.K; Simmons, B.A.; Adams, P.D.; Northen, T.R.

    2011-05-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysis of long-chain polysaccharides is a crucial step in the conversion of biomass to lignocellulosic biofuels. The identification and characterization of optimal glycoside hydrolases is dependent on enzyme activity assays, however existing methods are limited in terms of compatibility with a broad range of reaction conditions, sample complexity, and especially multiplexity. The method we present is a multiplexed approach based on Nanostructure-Initiator Mass Spectrometry (NIMS) that allowed studying several glycolytic activities in parallel under diverse assay conditions. Although the substrate analogs carried a highly hydrophobic perfluorinated tag, assays could be performed in aqueous solutions due colloid formation of the substrate molecules. We first validated our method by analyzing known {beta}-glucosidase and {beta}-xylosidase activities in single and parallel assay setups, followed by the identification and characterization of yet unknown glycoside hydrolase activities in microbial communities.

  11. Identifying the ionically bound cell wall and intracellular glycoside hydrolases in late growth stage Arabidopsis stems: Implications for the genetic engineering of bioenergy crops

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wei, Hui; Brunecky, Roman; Donohoe, Bryon S.; Ding, Shi -You; Ciesielski, Peter N.; Yang, Shihui; Tucker, Melvin P.; Himmel, Michael E.

    2015-05-13

    Identifying the cell wall-ionically bound glycoside hydrolases (GHs) in Arabidopsis stems is important for understanding the regulation of cell wall integrity. For cell wall proteomics studies, the preparation of clean cell wall fractions is a challenge since cell walls constitute an open compartment, which is more likely to contain a mixture of intracellular and extracellular proteins due to cell leakage at the late growth stage. Here, for this study, we utilize a CaCl2-extraction procedure to isolate non-structural proteins from Arabidopsis whole stems, followed by the in-solution and in-gel digestion methods coupled with Nano-LC-MS/MS, bioinformatics and literature analyses. This has ledmore » to the identification of 75 proteins identified using the in-solution method and 236 proteins identified by the in-gel method, among which about 10% of proteins predicted to be secreted. Together, eight cell wall proteins, namely AT1G75040, AT5G26000, AT3G57260, AT4G21650, AT3G52960, AT3G49120, AT5G49360, and AT3G14067, were identified by the in-solution method; among them, three were the GHs (AT5G26000, myrosinase 1, GH1; AT3G57260, β-1,3-glucanase 2, GH17; AT5G49360, bifunctional XYL 1/α-L-arabinofuranosidase, GH3). Moreover, four more GHs: AT4G30270 (xyloglucan endotransferase, GH16), AT1G68560 (bifunctional α-l-arabinofuranosidase/XYL, GH31), AT1G12240 (invertase, GH32) and AT2G28470 (β-galactosidase 8, GH35), were identified by the in-gel solution method only. Notably, more than half of above identified GHs are xylan- or hemicellulose-modifying enzymes, and will likely have an impact on cellulose accessibility, which is a critical factor for downstream enzymatic hydrolysis of plant tissues for biofuels production. Finally, the implications of these cell wall proteins identified at the late growth stage for the genetic engineering of bioenergy crops are discussed.« less

  12. Identifying the ionically bound cell wall and intracellular glycoside hydrolases in late growth stage Arabidopsis stems: Implications for the genetic engineering of bioenergy crops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Hui; Brunecky, Roman; Donohoe, Bryon S.; Ding, Shi -You; Ciesielski, Peter N.; Yang, Shihui; Tucker, Melvin P.; Himmel, Michael E.

    2015-05-13

    Identifying the cell wall-ionically bound glycoside hydrolases (GHs) in Arabidopsis stems is important for understanding the regulation of cell wall integrity. For cell wall proteomics studies, the preparation of clean cell wall fractions is a challenge since cell walls constitute an open compartment, which is more likely to contain a mixture of intracellular and extracellular proteins due to cell leakage at the late growth stage. Here, for this study, we utilize a CaCl2-extraction procedure to isolate non-structural proteins from Arabidopsis whole stems, followed by the in-solution and in-gel digestion methods coupled with Nano-LC-MS/MS, bioinformatics and literature analyses. This has led to the identification of 75 proteins identified using the in-solution method and 236 proteins identified by the in-gel method, among which about 10% of proteins predicted to be secreted. Together, eight cell wall proteins, namely AT1G75040, AT5G26000, AT3G57260, AT4G21650, AT3G52960, AT3G49120, AT5G49360, and AT3G14067, were identified by the in-solution method; among them, three were the GHs (AT5G26000, myrosinase 1, GH1; AT3G57260, β-1,3-glucanase 2, GH17; AT5G49360, bifunctional XYL 1/α-L-arabinofuranosidase, GH3). Moreover, four more GHs: AT4G30270 (xyloglucan endotransferase, GH16), AT1G68560 (bifunctional α-l-arabinofuranosidase/XYL, GH31), AT1G12240 (invertase, GH32) and AT2G28470 (β-galactosidase 8, GH35), were identified by the in-gel solution method only. Notably, more than half of above identified GHs are xylan- or hemicellulose-modifying enzymes, and will likely have an impact on cellulose accessibility, which is a critical factor for downstream enzymatic hydrolysis of plant tissues for biofuels production. Finally, the implications of these cell wall proteins identified at the late growth stage for the genetic engineering of bioenergy crops are discussed.

  13. A constitutive expression system for glycosyl hydrolase family 7 cellobiohydrolases in Hypocrea jecorina

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Linger, Jeffrey G.; Taylor, II, Larry E.; Baker, John O.; Vander Wall, Todd; Hobdey, Sarah E.; Podkaminer, Kara; Himmel, Michael E.; Decker, Stephen R.

    2015-03-18

    One of the primary industrial-scale cellulase producers is the ascomycete fungus, Hypocrea jecorina, which produces and secretes large quantities of diverse cellulolytic enzymes. Perhaps the single most important biomass degrading enzyme is cellobiohydrolase I (cbh1or Cel7A) due to its enzymatic proficiency in cellulose depolymerization. However, production of Cel7A with native-like properties from heterologous expression systems has proven difficult. In this study, we develop a protein expression system in H. jecorina (Trichoderma reesei) useful for production and secretion of heterologous cellobiohydrolases from glycosyl hydrolase family 7. Building upon previous work in heterologous protein expression in filamentous fungi, we have integrated amore » native constitutive enolase promoter with the native cbh1 signal sequence. The results are the following: The constitutive eno promoter driving the expression of Cel7A allows growth on glucose and results in repression of the native cellulase system, severely reducing background endo- and other cellulase activity and greatly simplifying purification of the recombinant protein. Coupling this system to a Δcbh1 strain of H. jecorina ensures that only the recombinant Cel7A protein is produced. Two distinct transformant colony morphologies were observed and correlated with high and null protein production. Production levels in ‘fast’ transformants are roughly equivalent to those in the native QM6a strain of H. jecorina, typically in the range of 10 to 30 mg/L when grown in continuous stirred-tank fermenters. ‘Slow’ transformants showed no evidence of Cel7A production. Specific activity of the purified recombinant Cel7A protein is equivalent to that of native protein when assayed on pretreated corn stover, as is the thermal stability and glycosylation level. Purified Cel7A produced from growth on glucose demonstrated remarkably consistent specific activity. Purified Cel7A from the same strain grown on lactose

  14. Comparison of pectin-degrading fungal communities in temperate forests using glycosyl hydrolase family 28 pectinase primers targeting Ascomycete fungi

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gacura, Matthew D.; Sprockett, Daniel D.; Heidenreich, Bess; Blackwood, Christopher B.

    2016-02-17

    Here, fungi have developed a wide assortment of enzymes to break down pectin, a prevalent polymer in plant cell walls that is important in plant defense and structure. One enzyme family used to degrade pectin is the glycosyl hydrolase family 28 (GH28). In this studywe developed primers for the amplification of GH28 coding genes from a database of 293 GH28 sequences from40 fungal genomes. The primerswere used to successfully amplify GH28 pectinases from all Ascomycota cultures tested, but only three out of seven Basidiomycota cultures. In addition, we further tested the primers in PCRs on metagenomic DNA extracted from senescedmore » tree leaves from different forest ecosystems, followed by cloning and sequencing. Taxonomic specificity for Ascomycota GH28 genes was tested by comparing GH28 composition in leaves to internal transcribed spacer (ITS) amplicon composition using pyrosequencing. All sequences obtained from GH28 primers were classified as Ascomycota; in contrast, ITS sequences indicated that fungal communitieswere up to 39% Basidiomycetes. Analysis of leaf samples indicated that both forest stand and ecosystemtype were important in structuring fungal communities. However, site played the prominent role in explaining GH28 composition, whereas ecosystem type was more important for ITS composition, indicating possible genetic drift between populations of fungi. Overall, these primers will have utility in understanding relationships between fungal community composition and ecosystem processes, as well as detection of potentially pathogenic Ascomycetes.« less

  15. A constitutive expression system for glycosyl hydrolase family 7 cellobiohydrolases in Hypocrea jecorina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linger, Jeffrey G.; Taylor, II, Larry E.; Baker, John O.; Vander Wall, Todd; Hobdey, Sarah E.; Podkaminer, Kara; Himmel, Michael E.; Decker, Stephen R.

    2015-03-18

    One of the primary industrial-scale cellulase producers is the ascomycete fungus, Hypocrea jecorina, which produces and secretes large quantities of diverse cellulolytic enzymes. Perhaps the single most important biomass degrading enzyme is cellobiohydrolase I (cbh1or Cel7A) due to its enzymatic proficiency in cellulose depolymerization. However, production of Cel7A with native-like properties from heterologous expression systems has proven difficult. In this study, we develop a protein expression system in H. jecorina (Trichoderma reesei) useful for production and secretion of heterologous cellobiohydrolases from glycosyl hydrolase family 7. Building upon previous work in heterologous protein expression in filamentous fungi, we have integrated a native constitutive enolase promoter with the native cbh1 signal sequence. The results are the following: The constitutive eno promoter driving the expression of Cel7A allows growth on glucose and results in repression of the native cellulase system, severely reducing background endo- and other cellulase activity and greatly simplifying purification of the recombinant protein. Coupling this system to a Δcbh1 strain of H. jecorina ensures that only the recombinant Cel7A protein is produced. Two distinct transformant colony morphologies were observed and correlated with high and null protein production. Production levels in ‘fast’ transformants are roughly equivalent to those in the native QM6a strain of H. jecorina, typically in the range of 10 to 30 mg/L when grown in continuous stirred-tank fermenters. ‘Slow’ transformants showed no evidence of Cel7A production. Specific activity of the purified recombinant Cel7A protein is equivalent to that of native protein when assayed on pretreated corn stover, as is the thermal stability and glycosylation level. Purified Cel7A produced from growth on glucose demonstrated remarkably consistent specific activity. Purified Cel7A from the same strain grown on lactose

  16. On the protonation states, hydrogen bonding and catalytic mechanism of family 11 glycosidases: Direct visualization with neutrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisher, Suzanne Zoe; Graham, David E.; Hanson, Leif; Kovalevskyi, Andrii Y.; Langan, Paul; Parks, Jerry M.; Wan, Qun; Ostermann, Andreas; Schrader, Tobias

    2015-10-06

    Most enzymatic reactions involve hydrogen or proton transfer among the enzyme, substrate, and water at physiological pH. Thus, enzyme catalysis cannot be fully understood without accurate mapping of hydrogen atom positions in these macromolecular catalysts. Direct information on the location of hydrogen atoms can be obtained using neutron crystallography. We used neutron crystallography and biomolecular simulation to characterize the initial stage of the glycoside hydrolysis reaction catalyzed by a family 11 glycoside hydrolase. We provide evidence that the catalytic glutamate residue alternates between two conformations bearing different basicities, first to obtain a proton from the bulk solvent, and then to deliver it to the glycosidic oxygen to initiate the hydrolysis reaction.

  17. On the protonation states, hydrogen bonding and catalytic mechanism of family 11 glycosidases: Direct visualization with neutrons

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fisher, Suzanne Zoe; Graham, David E.; Hanson, Leif; Kovalevskyi, Andrii Y.; Langan, Paul; Parks, Jerry M.; Wan, Qun; Ostermann, Andreas; Schrader, Tobias

    2015-10-06

    Most enzymatic reactions involve hydrogen or proton transfer among the enzyme, substrate, and water at physiological pH. Thus, enzyme catalysis cannot be fully understood without accurate mapping of hydrogen atom positions in these macromolecular catalysts. Direct information on the location of hydrogen atoms can be obtained using neutron crystallography. We used neutron crystallography and biomolecular simulation to characterize the initial stage of the glycoside hydrolysis reaction catalyzed by a family 11 glycoside hydrolase. We provide evidence that the catalytic glutamate residue alternates between two conformations bearing different basicities, first to obtain a proton from the bulk solvent, and then tomore » deliver it to the glycosidic oxygen to initiate the hydrolysis reaction.« less

  18. Cellulase variants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blazej, Robert; Toriello, Nicholas; Emrich, Charles; Cohen, Richard N.; Koppel, Nitzan

    2015-07-14

    This invention provides novel variant cellulolytic enzymes having improved activity and/or stability. In certain embodiments the variant cellulotyic enzymes comprise a glycoside hydrolase with or comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to one or more of residues F64, A226, and/or E246 in Thermobifida fusca Cel9A enzyme. In certain embodiments the glycoside hydrolase is a variant of a family 9 glycoside hydrolase. In certain embodiments the glycoside hydrolase is a variant of a theme B family 9 glycoside hydrolase.

  19. Community dynamics and glycoside hydrolase activities of thermophilic bacterial consortia adapted to switchgrass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gladden, J.M.; Allgaier, M.; Miller, C.S.; Hazen, T.C.; VanderGheynst, J.S.; Hugenholtz, P.; Simmons, B.A.; Singer, S.W.

    2011-05-01

    Industrial-scale biofuel production requires robust enzymatic cocktails to produce fermentable sugars from lignocellulosic biomass. Thermophilic bacterial consortia are a potential source of cellulases and hemicellulases adapted to harsher reaction conditions than commercial fungal enzymes. Compost-derived microbial consortia were adapted to switchgrass at 60 C to develop thermophilic biomass-degrading consortia for detailed studies. Microbial community analysis using small-subunit rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing and short-read metagenomic sequencing demonstrated that thermophilic adaptation to switchgrass resulted in low-diversity bacterial consortia with a high abundance of bacteria related to thermophilic paenibacilli, Rhodothermus marinus, and Thermus thermophilus. At lower abundance, thermophilic Chloroflexi and an uncultivated lineage of the Gemmatimonadetes phylum were observed. Supernatants isolated from these consortia had high levels of xylanase and endoglucanase activities. Compared to commercial enzyme preparations, the endoglucanase enzymes had a higher thermotolerance and were more stable in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2mim][OAc]), an ionic liquid used for biomass pretreatment. The supernatants were used to saccharify [C2mim][OAc]-pretreated switchgrass at elevated temperatures (up to 80 C), demonstrating that these consortia are an excellent source of enzymes for the development of enzymatic cocktails tailored to more extreme reaction conditions.

  20. Computational Investigation of Glycosylation Effects on a Family 1 Carbohydrate-Binding Module

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, C. B.; Talib, M. F.; McCabe, C.; Bu, L.; Adney, W. S.; Himmel, M. E.; Crowley, M. F.; Beckham, G. T.

    2012-01-27

    Carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) are ubiquitous components of glycoside hydrolases, which degrade polysaccharides in nature. CBMs target specific polysaccharides, and CBM binding affinity to cellulose is known to be proportional to cellulase activity, such that increasing binding affinity is an important component of performance improvement. To ascertain the impact of protein and glycan engineering on CBM binding, we use molecular simulation to quantify cellulose binding of a natively glycosylated Family 1 CBM. To validate our approach, we first examine aromatic-carbohydrate interactions on binding, and our predictions are consistent with previous experiments, showing that a tyrosine to tryptophan mutation yields a 2-fold improvement in binding affinity. We then demonstrate that enhanced binding of 3-6-fold over a nonglycosylated CBM is achieved by the addition of a single, native mannose or a mannose dimer, respectively, which has not been considered previously. Furthermore, we show that the addition of a single, artificial glycan on the anterior of the CBM, with the native, posterior glycans also present, can have a dramatic impact on binding affinity in our model, increasing it up to 140-fold relative to the nonglycosylated CBM. These results suggest new directions in protein engineering, in that modifying glycosylation patterns via heterologous expression, manipulation of culture conditions, or introduction of artificial glycosylation sites, can alter CBM binding affinity to carbohydrates and may thus be a general strategy to enhance cellulase performance. Our results also suggest that CBM binding studies should consider the effects of glycosylation on binding and function.

  1. Crystal Structure of the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Inhibitory Factor Cif Reveals Novel Active-Site Features of an Epoxide Hydrolase Virulence Factor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bahl, C.; Morisseau, C; Bomberger, J; Stanton, B; Hammock, B; O' Toole, G; Madden, D

    2010-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) inhibitory factor (Cif) is a virulence factor secreted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa that reduces the quantity of CFTR in the apical membrane of human airway epithelial cells. Initial sequence analysis suggested that Cif is an epoxide hydrolase (EH), but its sequence violates two strictly conserved EH motifs and also is compatible with other {alpha}/{beta} hydrolase family members with diverse substrate specificities. To investigate the mechanistic basis of Cif activity, we have determined its structure at 1.8-{angstrom} resolution by X-ray crystallography. The catalytic triad consists of residues Asp129, His297, and Glu153, which are conserved across the family of EHs. At other positions, sequence deviations from canonical EH active-site motifs are stereochemically conservative. Furthermore, detailed enzymatic analysis confirms that Cif catalyzes the hydrolysis of epoxide compounds, with specific activity against both epibromohydrin and cis-stilbene oxide, but with a relatively narrow range of substrate selectivity. Although closely related to two other classes of {alpha}/{beta} hydrolase in both sequence and structure, Cif does not exhibit activity as either a haloacetate dehalogenase or a haloalkane dehalogenase. A reassessment of the structural and functional consequences of the H269A mutation suggests that Cif's effect on host-cell CFTR expression requires the hydrolysis of an extended endogenous epoxide substrate.

  2. Thermodynamics of enzyme-catalyzed reactions. Part 3. Hydrolases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldberg, R.N.; Tewari, Y.B.

    1994-11-01

    Equilibrium constants and enthalpy changes for reactions catalyzed by the hydrolase class of enzymes have been compiled. For each reaction the following information is given: the reference for the data; the reaction studied; the name of the enzyme used and its Enzyme Commission number; the method of measurement; the conditions of measurement (temperature, pH, ionic strength, and the buffer(s) and cofactor(s) used); the data and an evaluation of it; and, sometimes, commentary on the data and on any corrections which have been applied to it or any calculations for which the data have been used. The data from 146 references have been examined and evaluated. Chemical Abstract Service registry numbers are given for the substances involved in these various reactions. There is a cross reference between the substances and the Enzyme Commission numbers of the enzymes used to catalyze the reactions in which the substances participate.

  3. Conformational Variability of Organophosphorus Hydrolase upon Soman and Paraoxon Binding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gomes, Diego Eb; Lins, Roberto D.; Pascutti, Pedro G.; Lei, Chenghong; Soares, Thereza A.

    2011-12-31

    The bacterial enzyme organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) exhibits both catalytic and substrate promiscuity. It hydrolyzes bonds in a variety of phosphotriester (P-O), phosphonothioate (P-S), phosphofluoridate (P-F) and phosphonocyanate (F-CN) compounds. However, its catalytic efficiency varies markedly for different substrates, limiting the broad-range application of OPH as catalyst in the bioremediation of pesticides and chemical war agents. In the present study, pK{sub a} calculations and multiple explicit-solvent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to characterize and contrast the structural dynamics of OPH bound to two substrates hydrolyzed with very distinct catalytic efficiencies: the nerve agent soman (O-pinacolyl-methyl-phosphonofluoridate) and the pesticide paraoxon (diethyl p-nitrophenyl phosphate). pK{sub a} calculations for the substrate-bound and unbound enzyme showed a significant pK{sub a} shift from standard values ({Delta}pK{sub a} = {+-} 3 units) for residues 254His and 275Arg. MD simulations of the doubly protonated 254His revealed a dynamic hydrogen bond network connecting the catalytic residue 301Asp via 254His to 232Asp, 233Asp, 275Arg and 235Asp, and is consistent with a previously postulated proton relay mechanism to ferry protons away from the active site with substrates that do not require activation of the leaving group. Hydrogen bonds between 301Asp and 254His were persistent in the OPH-paraoxon complex but not in the OPH-soman one, suggesting a potential role for such interaction in the more efficient hydrolysis of paraoxon over soman by OPH. These results are in line with previous mutational studies of residue 254His, which led to an increase of the catalytic efficiency of OPH over soman yet decreased its efficiency for paraoxon. In addition, comparative analysis of the molecular trajectories for OPH bound to soman and paraoxon suggests that binding of the latter facilitates the conformational transition of OPH from the

  4. Structural Studies of the Nudix GDP-mannose Hydrolase from E. coli Reveals a New Motif for Mannose Recognition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A Boto; W Xu; J Jakoncic; A Pannuri; T Romeo; M Bessman; S Gabelli; L Amzel

    2011-12-31

    The Nudix hydrolase superfamily, characterized by the presence of the signature sequence GX5EX7REUXEEXGU (where U is I, L, or V), is a well-studied family in which relations have been established between primary sequence and substrate specificity for many members. For example, enzymes that hydrolyze the diphosphate linkage of ADP-ribose are characterized by having a proline 15 amino acids C-terminal of the Nudix signature sequence. GDPMK is a Nudix enzyme that conserves this characteristic proline but uses GDP-mannose as the preferred substrate. By investigating the structure of the GDPMK alone, bound to magnesium, and bound to substrate, the structural basis for this divergent substrate specificity and a new rule was identified by which ADP-ribose pyrophosphatases can be distinguished from purine-DP-mannose pyrophosphatases from primary sequence alone. Kinetic and mutagenesis studies showed that GDPMK hydrolysis does not rely on a single glutamate as the catalytic base. Instead, catalysis is dependent on residues that coordinate the magnesium ions and residues that position the substrate properly for catalysis. GDPMK was thought to play a role in biofilm formation because of its upregulation in response to RcsC signaling; however, GDPMK knockout strains show no defect in their capacity of forming biofilms.

  5. NREL Support for a Functional Genomics Approach to Investigate Regulation of Phenolic Glycoside: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA number CRD-07-00218

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, M.

    2010-07-01

    NREL and MTU collaborated on a proposal 'A Functional Genomics Approach to Investigate Regulation of Phenolic Glycoside Metabolism in Populus' funded by the National Science Foundation.

  6. Methods of using thermal tolerant avicelase from Acidothermus cellulolyticus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adney, William S.; Vinzant, Todd B.; Ding, Shih-You; Himmel, Michael E.

    2011-04-26

    The invention provides a thermal tolerant (thermostable) cellulase, AviIII, that is a member of the glycoside hydrolase (GH) family. AviIII was isolated and characterized from Acidothermus cellulolyticus, and, like many cellulases, the disclosed polypeptide and/or its derivatives may be useful for the conversion of biomass into biofuels and chemicals.

  7. Thermal tolerant avicelase from Acidothermus cellulolyticus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ding, Shi-You; Adney, William S.; Vinzant, Todd B.; Himmel, Michael E.

    2009-05-26

    The invention provides a thermal tolerant (thermostable) cellulase, AviIII, that is a member of the glycoside hydrolase (GH) family. AviIII was isolated and characterized from Acidothermus cellulolyticus and, like many cellulases, the disclosed polypeptide and/or its derivatives may be useful for the conversion of biomass into biofuels and chemicals.

  8. Thermal tolerant avicelase from Acidothermus cellulolyticus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ding, Shi-You; Adney, William S.; Vinzant, Todd B.; Himmel, Michael E.

    2008-04-29

    The invention provides a thermal tolerant (thermostable) cellulase, AviIII, that is a member of the glycoside hydrolase (GH) family. AviIII was isolated and characterized from Acidothermus cellulolyticus and, like many cellulases, the disclosed polypeptide and/or its derivatives may be useful for the conversion of biomass into biofuels and chemicals.

  9. Thermal tolerant exoglucanase from Acidothermus cellulolyticus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adney, William S.; Ding, Shi-You; Vinzant, Todd B.; Himmel, Michael E.; Decker, Stephen R.; McCarter, Suzanne Lantz

    2008-07-01

    The invention provides a thermal tolerant cellulase that is a member of the glycoside hydrolase family. The invention further discloses this cellulase as Gux1. Gux1 has been isolated and characterized from Acidothermus cellulolyticus. The invention further provides recombinant forms of the identified Gux1. Methods of making and using Gux1 polypeptides, including fusions, variants, and derivatives, are also disclosed.

  10. Determination of Organophosphate Pesticides at a Carbon Nanotube/Organophosphorus Hydrolase Electrochemical Biosensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deo, R P.; Wang, Joseph; Block, I; Mulchandani, Ashok; Joshi, K; Trojanowicz, M; Scholz, F; Chen, Wilfred; Lin, Yuehe

    2005-02-08

    An amperometric biosensor for organophosphorus (OP) pesticides based on a carbon-nanotube (CNT) modified transducer and an organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) biocatalyst is described. A bilayer approach with the OPH layer atop of the CNT film was used for preparing the CNT/OPH biosensor. The CNT layer leads to a greatly improved anodic detection of the enzymatically-generated p-nitrophenol product, including higher sensitivity and stability. The sensor performance was optimized with respect to the surface modification and operating conditions. Under the optimal conditions the biosensor was used to measure as low as 0.15 {micro}M paraoxon and 0.8 {micro}M methyl parathion with sensitivities of 25 and 6 nA/{micro}M, respectively.

  11. Insights into Substrate Specificity of NlpC/P60 Cell Wall Hydrolases Containing Bacterial SH3 Domains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Qingping; Mengin-Lecreulx, Dominique; Liu, Xueqian W.; Patin, Delphine; Farr, Carol L.; Grant, Joanna C.; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Knuth, Mark W.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Elsliger, Marc-André; Deacon, Ashley M.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2015-09-15

    ABSTRACT

    Bacterial SH3 (SH3b) domains are commonly fused with papain-like Nlp/P60 cell wall hydrolase domains. To understand how the modular architecture of SH3b and NlpC/P60 affects the activity of the catalytic domain, three putative NlpC/P60 cell wall hydrolases were biochemically and structurally characterized. These enzymes all have γ-d-Glu-A2pm (A2pm is diaminopimelic acid) cysteine amidase (ordl-endopeptidase) activities but with different substrate specificities. One enzyme is a cell wall lysin that cleaves peptidoglycan (PG), while the other two are cell wall recycling enzymes that only cleave stem peptides with an N-terminall-Ala. Their crystal structures revealed a highly conserved structure consisting of two SH3b domains and a C-terminal NlpC/P60 catalytic domain, despite very low sequence identity. Interestingly, loops from the first SH3b domain dock into the ends of the active site groove of the catalytic domain, remodel the substrate binding site, and modulate substrate specificity. Two amino acid differences at the domain interface alter the substrate binding specificity in favor of stem peptides in recycling enzymes, whereas the SH3b domain may extend the peptidoglycan binding surface in the cell wall lysins. Remarkably, the cell wall lysin can be converted into a recycling enzyme with a single mutation.

    IMPORTANCEPeptidoglycan is a meshlike polymer that envelops the bacterial plasma membrane and bestows structural integrity. Cell wall lysins and recycling enzymes are part of a set of lytic enzymes that target covalent bonds connecting the amino acid and amino sugar building blocks of the PG network. These hydrolases are involved in processes such as cell growth and division, autolysis, invasion, and PG turnover and recycling. To avoid cleavage of unintended substrates, these enzymes have very selective substrate specificities. Our biochemical and structural

  12. Insights into substrate specificity of NlpC/P60 cell wall hydrolases containing bacterial SH3 domains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Qingping; Mengin-Lecreulx, Dominique; Liu, Xueqian W.; Patin, Delphine; Farr, Carol L.; Grant, Joanna C.; Chiu, Hsiu -Ju; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Knuth, Mark W.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Elsliger, Marc -André; Deacon, Ashley M.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2015-09-15

    Bacterial SH3 (SH3b) domains are commonly fused with papain-like Nlp/P60 cell wall hydrolase domains. To understand how the modular architecture of SH3b and NlpC/P60 affects the activity of the catalytic domain, three putative NlpC/P60 cell wall hydrolases were biochemically and structurally characterized. In addition, these enzymes all have γ-d-Glu-A2pm (A2pm is diaminopimelic acid) cysteine amidase (ordl-endopeptidase) activities but with different substrate specificities. One enzyme is a cell wall lysin that cleaves peptidoglycan (PG), while the other two are cell wall recycling enzymes that only cleave stem peptides with an N-terminall-Ala. Their crystal structures revealed a highly conserved structure consisting of two SH3b domains and a C-terminal NlpC/P60 catalytic domain, despite very low sequence identity. Interestingly, loops from the first SH3b domain dock into the ends of the active site groove of the catalytic domain, remodel the substrate binding site, and modulate substrate specificity. Two amino acid differences at the domain interface alter the substrate binding specificity in favor of stem peptides in recycling enzymes, whereas the SH3b domain may extend the peptidoglycan binding surface in the cell wall lysins. Remarkably, the cell wall lysin can be converted into a recycling enzyme with a single mutation.

    Peptidoglycan is a meshlike polymer that envelops the bacterial plasma membrane and bestows structural integrity. Cell wall lysins and recycling enzymes are part of a set of lytic enzymes that target covalent bonds connecting the amino acid and amino sugar building blocks of the PG network. These hydrolases are involved in processes such as cell growth and division, autolysis, invasion, and PG turnover and recycling. To avoid cleavage of unintended substrates, these enzymes have very selective substrate specificities. Our biochemical and structural analysis of three modular NlpC/P60

  13. Insights into substrate specificity of NlpC/P60 cell wall hydrolases containing bacterial SH3 domains

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xu, Qingping; Mengin-Lecreulx, Dominique; Liu, Xueqian W.; Patin, Delphine; Farr, Carol L.; Grant, Joanna C.; Chiu, Hsiu -Ju; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Knuth, Mark W.; Godzik, Adam; et al

    2015-09-15

    Bacterial SH3 (SH3b) domains are commonly fused with papain-like Nlp/P60 cell wall hydrolase domains. To understand how the modular architecture of SH3b and NlpC/P60 affects the activity of the catalytic domain, three putative NlpC/P60 cell wall hydrolases were biochemically and structurally characterized. In addition, these enzymes all have γ-d-Glu-A2pm (A2pm is diaminopimelic acid) cysteine amidase (ordl-endopeptidase) activities but with different substrate specificities. One enzyme is a cell wall lysin that cleaves peptidoglycan (PG), while the other two are cell wall recycling enzymes that only cleave stem peptides with an N-terminall-Ala. Their crystal structures revealed a highly conserved structure consisting ofmore » two SH3b domains and a C-terminal NlpC/P60 catalytic domain, despite very low sequence identity. Interestingly, loops from the first SH3b domain dock into the ends of the active site groove of the catalytic domain, remodel the substrate binding site, and modulate substrate specificity. Two amino acid differences at the domain interface alter the substrate binding specificity in favor of stem peptides in recycling enzymes, whereas the SH3b domain may extend the peptidoglycan binding surface in the cell wall lysins. Remarkably, the cell wall lysin can be converted into a recycling enzyme with a single mutation.Peptidoglycan is a meshlike polymer that envelops the bacterial plasma membrane and bestows structural integrity. Cell wall lysins and recycling enzymes are part of a set of lytic enzymes that target covalent bonds connecting the amino acid and amino sugar building blocks of the PG network. These hydrolases are involved in processes such as cell growth and division, autolysis, invasion, and PG turnover and recycling. To avoid cleavage of unintended substrates, these enzymes have very selective substrate specificities. Our biochemical and structural analysis of three modular NlpC/P60 hydrolases, one lysin, and two recycling enzymes, show

  14. Structure-Based Optimization of Arylamides as Inhibitors of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eldrup, Anne B.; Soleymanzadeh, Fariba; Taylor, Steven J.; Muegge, Ingo; Farrow, Neil A.; Joseph, David; McKellop, Keith; Man, Chuk C.; Kukulka, Alison; De Lombaert, Stephane

    2009-11-04

    Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is hypothesized to lead to an increase in circulating levels of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, resulting in the potentiation of their in vivo pharmacological properties. As part of an effort to identify inhibitors of sEH with high and sustained plasma exposure, we recently performed a high throughput screen of our compound collection. The screen identified N-(3,3-diphenyl-propyl)-nicotinamide as a potent inhibitor of sEH. Further profiling of this lead revealed short metabolic half-lives in microsomes and rapid clearance in the rat. Consistent with these observations, the determination of the in vitro metabolic profile of N-(3,3-diphenyl-propyl)-nicotinamide in rat liver microsomes revealed extensive oxidative metabolism and a propensity for metabolite switching. Lead optimization, guided by the analysis of the solid-state costructure of N-(3,3-diphenyl-propyl)-nicotinamide bound to human sEH, led to the identification of a class of potent and selective inhibitors. An inhibitor from this class displayed an attractive in vitro metabolic profile and high and sustained plasma exposure in the rat after oral administration.

  15. New Cellulase Identification Method Holds Promise for Lower-Cost Biofuels (Fact Sheet), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A new computational approach to genomic data effectively distinguishes cellulases and non-cellulases within the protein family GH48, a key component for degrading lignocellulose for biofuels. Cellulase enzymes, particularly from the glycoside hydrolase family 48 (GH48), are a critical component of many lignocellulose-degrading systems that produce biomass to use for biofu- els. Typically it has been difficult and costly-but necessary-to distinguish required cellulase enzymes from unwanted

  16. A thiocyanate hydrolase of Thiobacillus thioparus. A novel enzyme catalyzing the formation of carbonyl sulfide from thiocyanate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katayama, Y.; Narahara, Y.; Inoue, Y.; Amano, F.; Kanagawa, T.; Kuraishi, H. (Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, (Japan))

    1992-05-05

    A thiocyanate hydrolase that catalyzes the first step in thiocyanate degradation was purified to homogeneity from Thiobacillus thioparus, an obligate chemolithotrophic eubacterium metabolizing thiocyanate to sulfate as an energy source. The thiocyanate hydrolase was purified 52-fold by steps involving ammonium sulfate precipitation, DEAE-Sephacel column chromatography, and hydroxylapatite column chromatography. The enzyme hydrolyzed 1 mol of thiocyanate to form 1 mol of carbonyl sulfide and 1 mol of ammonia as follows: SCN- + 2H2O----COS + NH3 + OH-. This is the first report describing the hydrolysis of thiocyanate to carbonyl sulfide by an enzyme. The enzyme had a molecular mass of 126 kDa and was composed of three different subunits: alpha (19 kDa), beta (23 kDa), and gamma (32 kDa). The enzyme exhibited optimal activities at pH 7.5-8.0 and at temperatures ranging from 30 to 40 degrees C. The Km value for thiocyanate was approximately 11 mM. Immunoblot analysis with polyclonal antibodies against the purified enzyme suggested that it was induced in T. thioparus cells when the cells were grown with thiocyanate.

  17. Thermal Tolerant Cellulase from Acidothermus Cellulolyticus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ding, S. Y.; Adney, W. S.; Vinzant, T. B.; Himmel, M. E.; Decker, S. R.

    2006-06-13

    The invention provides a thermal tolerant cellulase that is a member of the glycoside hydrolase family. The invention further discloses this cellulase as GuxA. GuxA has been isolated and characterized from Acidothermus cellulolyticus. The invention further provides recombinant forms of the identified GuxA. Methods of making and using GuxA polypeptides, including fusions, variants, and derivatives, are also disclosed.

  18. Thermal tolerant cellulase from Acidothermus cellulolyticus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ding, Shi-You; Adney, William S.; Vinzant, Todd B.; Himmel, Michael E.; Decker, Stephen R.

    2006-06-13

    The invention provides a thermal tolerant cellulase that is a member of the glycoside hydrolase family. The invention further discloses this cellulase as GuxA. GuxA has been isolated and characterized from Acidothermus cellulolyticus. The invention further provides recombinant forms of the identified GuxA. Methods of making and using GuxA polypeptides, including fusions, variants, and derivatives, are also disclosed.

  19. Successful Family Engagement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Families are a young child's most important first teachers, but engaging busy families in meaningful interactive learning can be a challenge. Join Pittsburgh's Carnegie Science Center and...

  20. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Filter Results Filter by Subject biomass fuels (3) basic biological sciences (1) basic biological sciences glycoside hydrolases (1) bioethanol (1) biofuels (1) cellulases (1) ...

  1. Thermal tolerant mannanase from acidothermus cellulolyticus ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - Visit the NREL Commercialization and Technology Transfer Website Abstract: The invention provides a thermal tolerant mannanase that is a member of the glycoside hydrolase...

  2. Thermal tolerant exoglucanase from acidothermus cellulolyticus...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - Visit the NREL Commercialization and Technology Transfer Website Abstract: The invention provides a thermal tolerant cellulase that is a member of the glycoside hydrolase...

  3. Thermal tolerant cellulase from acidothermus cellulolyticus ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - Visit the NREL Commercialization and Technology Transfer Website Abstract: The invention provides a thermal tolerant cellulase that is a member of the glycoside hydrolase...

  4. Thermal tolerant cellulase from Acidothermus cellulolyticus ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enzymes for the Conversion of Biomass to Biofuels and Chemicals Abstract: The invention provides a thermal tolerant cellulase that is a member of the glycoside hydrolase...

  5. Thermal tolerant exoglucanase from Acidothermus cellulolyticus...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enzymes for the Conversion of Biomass to Biofuels and Chemicals Abstract: The invention provides a thermal tolerant cellulase that is a member of the glycoside hydrolase...

  6. Thermal tolerant mannanase from acidothermus cellulolyticus ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enzymes for the Conversion of Biomass to Biofuels and Chemicals Abstract: The invention provides a thermal tolerant mannanase that is a member of the glycoside hydrolase...

  7. The Vital Function of Fe3O4@Au nanocomposites for Hydrolase Biosensor Design and Its Application in Detection of Methyl Parathion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Yuting; Zhang, Weiying; Lin, Yuehe; Du, Dan

    2013-02-04

    A nanocomposite of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) decorating a magnetic Fe3O4 core was synthesized using cysteamine (SHNH2) as linker, and characterized by TEM, XPS, UV and electrochemistry. Then a hydrolase biosensor, based on self-assembly of methyl parathion hydrolase (MPH) on the Fe3O4@Au nanocomposite, was developed for sensitive and selective detection of the organophosphorus pesticide (OP) methyl parathion. The magnetic nanocomposite provides an easy way to construct the enzyme biosensor by simply exerting an external magnetic field, and also provides a simple way to renew the electrode surface by removing the magnet. Unlike inhibition-based enzyme biosensors, the hydrolase is not poisoned by OPs and thus is reusable for continuous measurement. AuNPs not only provide a large surface area, high loading efficiency and fast electron transfer, but also stabilize the enzyme through electrostatic interactions. The MPH biosensor shows rapid response and high selectivity for detection of methyl parathion, with a linear range from 0.5 to 1000 ng/mL and a detection limit of 0.1 ng/mL. It also shows acceptable reproducibility and stability. The simplicity and ease of operation of the proposed method has great potential for on-site detection of PS containing pesticides and provides a promising strategy to construct a robust biosensor.

  8. The Role of Non-Bonded Interactions in the Conformational Dynamics of Organophosphorous Hydrolase Adsorbed onto Functionalized Mesoporous Silica Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gomes, Diego Enry B.; Lins, Roberto D.; Pascutti, Pedro G.; Lei, Chenghong; Soares, Thereza A.

    2010-01-14

    The enzyme organophosphorous hydrolase (OPH) catalyzes the hydrolysis of a wide variety of organophosphorous compounds with high catalytic efficiency and broad substrate specificity. The immobilization of OPH in functionalized mesoporous silica surfaces increases significantly its catalytic specific activity compared to the enzyme in solution with important applications for the detection and decontamination of insecticides and chemical warfare agents. Experimental measurements of immobilization efficiency as function of the charge and coverage percentage of different functional groups have been interpreted as electrostatic forces being the predominant interactions underlying the adsorption of OPH onto functionalized mesoporous silica surfaces. Explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulations have been performed for OPH in bulk solution and adsorbed onto two distinct interaction potential models of the mesoporous silica functional groups in order to investigate the relative contributions of non-bonded interactions to the conformational dynamics and adsorption of the protein. Our results support the conclusion that while electrostatic interactions are responsible for the specific binding of OPH to the FMS surface, van der Waals forces are detrimental for enhanced interfacial adhesion. Key-words: molecular dynamics simulations; bacterial phosphotriesterase; conformational changes; confined environments; coarse-grain and atomistic models; silanol molecular model.

  9. X-ray Crystallographic Analysis of [alpha]-Ketoheterocycle Inhibitors Bound to a Humanized Variant of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mileni, Mauro; Garfunkle, Joie; Ezzili, Cyrine; Kimball, F.Scott; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Stevens, Raymond C.; Boger, Dale L.

    2010-11-03

    Three cocrystal X-ray structures of the {alpha}-ketoheterocycle inhibitors 3-5 bound to a humanized variant of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) are disclosed and comparatively discussed alongside those of 1 (OL-135) and its isomer 2. These five X-ray structures systematically probe each of the three active site regions key to substrate or inhibitor binding: (1) the conformationally mobile acyl chain-binding pocket and membrane access channel responsible for fatty acid amide substrate and inhibitor acyl chain binding, (2) the atypical active site catalytic residues and surrounding oxyanion hole that covalently binds the core of the {alpha}-ketoheterocycle inhibitors captured as deprotonated hemiketals mimicking the tetrahedral intermediate of the enzyme-catalyzed reaction, and (3) the cytosolic port and its uniquely important imbedded ordered water molecules and a newly identified anion binding site. The detailed analysis of their key active site interactions and their implications on the interpretation of the available structure-activity relationships are discussed providing important insights for future design.

  10. Energy Landscape for the Interaction of the Family 1 Carbohydrate-Binding Module and the Cellulose Surface is Altered by Hydrolyzed Glycosidic Bonds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bu, L.; Beckham, G. T.; Crowley, M. F.; Chang, C. H.; Matthews, J. F.; Bomble, Y. J.; Adney, W. S.; Himmel, M. E.; Nimlos, M. R.

    2009-01-01

    A multiscale simulation model is used to construct potential and free energy surfaces for the carbohydrate-binding module [CBM] from an industrially important cellulase, Trichoderma reesei cellobiohydrolase I, on the hydrophobic face of a coarse-grained cellulose I{beta} polymorph. We predict from computation that the CBM alone exhibits regions of stability on the hydrophobic face of cellulose every 5 and 10 {angstrom}, corresponding to a glucose unit and a cellobiose unit, respectively. In addition, we predict a new role for the CBM: specifically, that in the presence of hydrolyzed cellulose chain ends, the CBM exerts a thermodynamic driving force to translate away from the free cellulose chain ends. This suggests that the CBM is not only required for binding to cellulose, as has been known for two decades, but also that it has evolved to both assist the enzyme in recognizing a cellulose chain end and exert a driving force on the enzyme during processive hydrolysis of cellulose.

  11. Development of monoclonal antibodies to human microsomal epoxide hydrolase and analysis of preneoplastic antigen-like molecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duan, Hongying; Yoshimura, Kazunori; Kobayashi, Nobuharu; Sugiyama, Kazuo; Sawada, Jun-ichi; Saito, Yoshiro; Morisseau, Christophe; Hammock, Bruce D.; Akatsuka, Toshitaka

    2012-04-01

    Microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) is a drug metabolizing enzyme which resides on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane and catalyzes the hydration of reactive epoxide intermediates that are formed by cytochrome P450s. mEH is also thought to have a role in bile acid transport on the plasma membrane of hepatocytes. It is speculated that efficient execution of such multiple functions is secured by its orientation and association with cytochrome P450 enzymes on the ER membrane and formation of a multiple transport system on the plasma membrane. In certain disease status, mEH loses its association with the membrane and can be detected as distinct antigens in the cytosol of preneoplastic foci of liver (preneoplastic antigen), in the serum in association with hepatitis C virus infection (AN antigen), or in some brain tumors. To analyze the antigenic structures of mEH in physiological and pathological conditions, we developed monoclonal antibodies against different portions of mEH. Five different kinds of antibodies were obtained: three, anti-N-terminal portions; one anti-C-terminal; and one, anti-conformational epitope. By combining these antibodies, we developed antigen detection methods which are specific to either the membrane-bound form or the linearized form of mEH. These methods detected mEH in the culture medium released from a hepatocellular carcinoma cell line and a glioblastoma cell line, which was found to be a multimolecular complex with a unique antigenic structure different from that of the membrane-bound form of mEH. These antibodies and antigen detection methods may be useful to study pathological changes of mEH in various human diseases. -- Highlights: ? Monoclonal antibodies against different portions of mEH were developed. ? They discriminate between the membrane-bound and the linearized forms of mEH. ? We analyze the antigenic structure of the altered form of mEH in tumor cells. ? Preneoplastic antigen is a multimolecular complex of mEH with a

  12. Mutational, Structural, and Kinetic Evidence for a Dissociative Mechanism in the GDP-mannose Mannosyl Hydrolase Reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xia,Z.; Azurmendi, H.; lairson, L.; Withers, S.; Gabelli, S.; Bianchet, M.; Amzel, L.; Mildvan, A.

    2005-01-01

    GDP-mannose hydrolase (GDPMH) catalyzes the hydrolysis of GDP-{alpha}-D-sugars by nucleophilic substitution with inversion at the anomeric C1 atom of the sugar, with general base catalysis by H124. Three lines of evidence indicate a mechanism with dissociative character. First, in the 1.3 Angstrom X-ray structure of the GDPMH-Mg{sup 2+}-GDP{center_dot}Tris{sup +} complex, the GDP leaving group interacts with five catalytic components: R37, Y103, R52, R65, and the essential Mg{sup 2+}. As determined by the effects of site-specific mutants on k{sub cat}, these components contribute factors of 24-, 100-, 309-, 24-, and {ge}10{sup 5}-fold, respectively, to catalysis. Both R37 and Y103 bind the {beta}-phosphate of GDP and are only 5.0 Angstroms apart. Accordingly, the R37Q/Y103F double mutant exhibits partially additive effects of the two single mutants on k{sub cat}, indicating cooperativity of R37 and Y103 in promoting catalysis, and antagonistic effects on K{sub m}. Second, the conserved residue, D22, is positioned to accept a hydrogen bond from the C2-OH group of the sugar undergoing substitution at C1, as was shown by modeling an {alpha}-D-mannosyl group into the sugar binding site. The D22A and D22N mutations decreased k{sub cat} by factors of 10{sup 2.1} and 10{sup 2.6}, respectively, for the hydrolysis of GDP-{alpha}-D-mannose, and showed smaller effects on K{sub m}, suggesting that the D22 anion stabilizes a cationic oxocarbenium transition state. Third, the fluorinated substrate, GDP-2F-{alpha}-D-mannose, for which a cationic oxocarbenium transition state would be destabilized by electron withdrawal, exhibited a 16-fold decrease in k{sub cat} and a smaller, 2.5-fold increase in K{sub m}. The D22A and D22N mutations further decreased the k{sub cat} with GDP-2F-{alpha}-D-mannose to values similar to those found with GDP-{alpha}-D-mannose, and decreased the K{sub m} of the fluorinated substrate. The choice of histidine as the general base over glutamate, the

  13. X-ray, NMR, and Mutational Studies of the Catalytic Cycle of the GDP-Mannose Mannosyl Hydrolase Reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gabelli,S.; Azurmendi, H.; Bianchet, M.; Amzel, L.; Mildva, A.

    2006-01-01

    GDP-mannose hydrolase catalyzes the hydrolysis with inversion of GDP-{alpha}-D-hexose to GDP and {beta}-D-hexose by nucleophilic substitution by water at C1 of the sugar. Two new crystal structures (free enzyme and enzyme-substrate complex), NMR, and site-directed mutagenesis data, combined with the structure of the enzyme-product complex reported earlier, suggest a four-stage catalytic cycle. An important loop (L6, residues 119-125) contains a ligand to the essential Mg{sup 2+} (Gln-123), the catalytic base (His-124), and three anionic residues. This loop is not ordered in the X-ray structure of the free enzyme due to dynamic disorder, as indicated by the two-dimensional 1H-15N HMQC spectrum, which shows selective exchange broadening of the imidazole nitrogen resonances of His-124 (k{sub ex} = 6.6 x 10{sup 4} s{sup -1}). The structure of the enzyme-Mg{sup 2+}-GDP-mannose substrate complex of the less active Y103F mutant shows loop L6 in an open conformation, while the structure of the enzyme-Mg{sup 2+}-GDP product complex showed loop L6 in a closed, 'active' conformation. 1H-15N HMQC spectra show the imidazole N of His-124 to be unprotonated, appropriate for general base catalysis. Substituting Mg{sup 2+} with the more electrophilic metal ions Mn{sup 2+} or Co{sup 2+} decreases the pK{sub a} in the pH versus k{sub cat} rate profiles, showing that deprotonation of a metal-bound water is partially rate-limiting. The H124Q mutation, which decreases k{sub cat} 103.4-fold and largely abolishes its pH dependence, is rescued by the Y103F mutation, which increases k{sub cat} 23-fold and restores its pH dependence. The structural basis of the rescue is the fact that the Y103F mutation shifts the conformational equilibrium to the open form moving loop L6 out of the active site, thus permitting direct access of the specific base hydroxide from the solvent. In the proposed dissociative transition state, which occurs in the closed, active conformation of the enzyme, the

  14. Thermal tolerant mannanase from acidothermus cellulolyticus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ding, Shi-You; Adney, William S.; Vinzant, Todd B.; Himmel, Michael E.

    2006-09-26

    The invention provides a thermal tolerant mannanase that is a member of the glycoside hydrolase family. The invention further discloses this mannanase as ManA. ManA has been isolated and characterized from Acidothermus cellulolyticus. The invention further provides recombinant forms of the identified ManA. Methods of making ManA polypeptides, including fusions, variants, and derivatives, are also disclosed. Methods of using mannanase A, including for the processing of food and for use in food stuffs as bulking agents and the like, are also disclosed.

  15. The Structural Basis of Substrate Recognition in an exo-b-d-glucosaminidase Involved in Chitosan Hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Bueren, A.; Ghinet, M; Gregg, K; Fleury, A; Brzezinski, R; Boraston, A

    2009-01-01

    Family 2 of the glycoside hydrolase classification is one of the largest families. Structurally characterized members of this family include enzymes with ?-galactosidase activity (Escherichia coli LacZ), ?-glucuronidase activity (Homo sapiens GusB), and ?-mannosidase activity (Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron BtMan2A). Here, we describe the structure of a family 2 glycoside hydrolase, CsxA, from Amycolatopsis orientalis that has exo-?-d-glucosaminidase (exo-chitosanase) activity. Analysis of a product complex (1.85 A resolution) reveals a unique negatively charged pocket that specifically accommodates the nitrogen of nonreducing end glucosamine residues, allowing this enzyme to discriminate between glucose and glucosamine. This also provides structural evidence for the role of E541 as the catalytic nucleophile and D469 as the catalytic acid/base. The structures of an E541A mutant in complex with a natural ?-1,4-d-glucosamine tetrasaccharide substrate and both E541A and D469A mutants in complex with a pNP-?-d-glucosaminide synthetic substrate provide insight into interactions in the + 1 subsite of this enzyme. Overall, a comparison with the active sites of other GH2 enzymes highlights the unique architecture of the CsxA active site, which imparts specificity for its cationic substrate.

  16. The Structural Basis of Substrate Recognition in an exo-beta-d-Glucosaminidase Involved in Chitosan Hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lammerts van Bueren, A.; Ghinet, M; Gregg, K; Fleury, A; Brzezinski, R; Boraston, A

    2009-01-01

    Family 2 of the glycoside hydrolase classification is one of the largest families. Structurally characterized members of this family include enzymes with beta-galactosidase activity (Escherichia coli LacZ), beta-glucuronidase activity (Homo sapiens GusB), and beta-mannosidase activity (Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron BtMan2A). Here, we describe the structure of a family 2 glycoside hydrolase, CsxA, from Amycolatopsis orientalis that has exo-beta-D-glucosaminidase (exo-chitosanase) activity. Analysis of a product complex (1.85 A resolution) reveals a unique negatively charged pocket that specifically accommodates the nitrogen of nonreducing end glucosamine residues, allowing this enzyme to discriminate between glucose and glucosamine. This also provides structural evidence for the role of E541 as the catalytic nucleophile and D469 as the catalytic acid/base. The structures of an E541A mutant in complex with a natural beta-1,4-D-glucosamine tetrasaccharide substrate and both E541A and D469A mutants in complex with a pNP-beta-D-glucosaminide synthetic substrate provide insight into interactions in the +1 subsite of this enzyme. Overall, a comparison with the active sites of other GH2 enzymes highlights the unique architecture of the CsxA active site, which imparts specificity for its cationic substrate.

  17. Deletion of Caldicellulosiruptor bescii CelA reveals its crucial role in the deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, Jenna; Chung, Daehwan; Bomble, Yannick J.; Himmel, Michael E.; Westpheling, Janet

    2014-10-09

    Background: Members of the bacterial genus Caldicellulosiruptor are the most thermophilic cellulolytic organisms described to date, and have the ability to grow on lignocellulosic biomass without conventional pretreatment. Different species vary in their abilities to degrade cellulose, and the presence of CelA, a bifunctional glycoside hydrolase that contains a Family 48 and a Family 9 catalytic domain, correlates well with cellulolytic ability in members of this genus. For example, C. hydrothermalis, which does not contain a CelA homolog, or a GH48 Family or GH9 Family glycoside hydrolase, is the least cellulolytic of the Caldicellulosiruptor species so far described. C. bescii, which contains CelA and expresses it constitutively, is among the most cellulolytic. In fact, CelA is the most abundant extracellular protein produced in C. bescii. The enzyme contains two catalytic units, a Family 9A-CBM3c processive endoglucanase and a Family 48 exoglucanase, joined by two Family 3b carbohydrate-binding domains. Although there are two non-reducing end-specific Family 9 and three reducing end-specific Family 48 glycoside hydrolases (producing primarily glucose and cellobiose; and cellobiose and cellotriose, respectively) in C. bescii, CelA is the only protein that combines both enzymatic activities. Results: A deletion of the celA gene resulted in a dramatic reduction in the microorganism’s ability to grow on crystalline cellulose (Avicel) and diminished growth on lignocellulosic biomass. A comparison of the overall endoglucanase and exoglucanase activities of the mutant compared with the wild-type suggests that the loss of the endoglucanase activity provided by the GH9 family domain is perhaps compensated for by other enzymes produced by the cell. In contrast, it appears that no other enzymes in the C. bescii secretome can compensate for the loss of exoglucanase activity. The change in enzymatic activity in the celA mutant resulted in a 15-fold decrease in sugar

  18. Deletion of Caldicellulosiruptor bescii CelA reveals its crucial role in the deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Young, Jenna; Chung, Daehwan; Bomble, Yannick J.; Himmel, Michael E.; Westpheling, Janet

    2014-10-09

    Background: Members of the bacterial genus Caldicellulosiruptor are the most thermophilic cellulolytic organisms described to date, and have the ability to grow on lignocellulosic biomass without conventional pretreatment. Different species vary in their abilities to degrade cellulose, and the presence of CelA, a bifunctional glycoside hydrolase that contains a Family 48 and a Family 9 catalytic domain, correlates well with cellulolytic ability in members of this genus. For example, C. hydrothermalis, which does not contain a CelA homolog, or a GH48 Family or GH9 Family glycoside hydrolase, is the least cellulolytic of the Caldicellulosiruptor species so far described. C. bescii,more » which contains CelA and expresses it constitutively, is among the most cellulolytic. In fact, CelA is the most abundant extracellular protein produced in C. bescii. The enzyme contains two catalytic units, a Family 9A-CBM3c processive endoglucanase and a Family 48 exoglucanase, joined by two Family 3b carbohydrate-binding domains. Although there are two non-reducing end-specific Family 9 and three reducing end-specific Family 48 glycoside hydrolases (producing primarily glucose and cellobiose; and cellobiose and cellotriose, respectively) in C. bescii, CelA is the only protein that combines both enzymatic activities. Results: A deletion of the celA gene resulted in a dramatic reduction in the microorganism’s ability to grow on crystalline cellulose (Avicel) and diminished growth on lignocellulosic biomass. A comparison of the overall endoglucanase and exoglucanase activities of the mutant compared with the wild-type suggests that the loss of the endoglucanase activity provided by the GH9 family domain is perhaps compensated for by other enzymes produced by the cell. In contrast, it appears that no other enzymes in the C. bescii secretome can compensate for the loss of exoglucanase activity. The change in enzymatic activity in the celA mutant resulted in a 15-fold decrease in

  19. Family Chemistry | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Family Chemistry Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) Family Chemistry Family gathers at the dinner table and, sometimes, the conference table or the science lab. Paul and Mark Buckley both work at the Global Research Center in Niskayuna, New York and, collectively, have more than 45 years of experience

  20. Metatranscriptomic analysis of lignocellulolytic microbial communities involved in high-solids decomposition of rice straw

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Simmons, Christopher W.; Reddy, Amitha P.; D’haeseleer, Patrik; Khudyakov, Jane; Billis, Konstantinos; Pati, Amrita; Simmons, Blake A.; Singer, Steven W.; Thelen, Michael P.; VanderGheynst, Jean S.

    2014-12-31

    New lignocellulolytic enzymes are needed that maintain optimal activity under the harsh conditions present during industrial enzymatic deconstruction of biomass, including high temperatures, the absence of free water, and the presence of inhibitors from the biomass. Enriching lignocellulolytic microbial communities under these conditions provides a source of microorganisms that may yield robust lignocellulolytic enzymes tolerant to the extreme conditions needed to improve the throughput and efficiency of biomass enzymatic deconstruction. Identification of promising enzymes from these systems is challenging due to complex substrate-enzyme interactions and requirements to assay for activity. In this study, metatranscriptomes from compost-derived microbial communities enriched onmore » rice straw under thermophilic and mesophilic conditions were sequenced and analyzed to identify lignocellulolytic enzymes overexpressed under thermophilic conditions. To determine differential gene expression across mesophilic and thermophilic treatments, a method was developed which pooled gene expression by functional category, as indicated by Pfam annotations, since microbial communities performing similar tasks are likely to have overlapping functions even if they share no specific genes. Differential expression analysis identified enzymes from glycoside hydrolase family 48, carbohydrate binding module family 2, and carbohydrate binding module family 33 domains as significantly overexpressed in the thermophilic community. Overexpression of these protein families in the thermophilic community resulted from expression of a small number of genes not currently represented in any protein database. Genes in overexpressed protein families were predominantly expressed by a single Actinobacteria genus, Micromonospora. In conclusion, coupling measurements of deconstructive activity with comparative analyses to identify overexpressed enzymes in lignocellulolytic communities provides a

  1. Metatranscriptomic analysis of lignocellulolytic microbial communities involved in high-solids decomposition of rice straw

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, Christopher W.; Reddy, Amitha P.; D’haeseleer, Patrik; Khudyakov, Jane; Billis, Konstantinos; Pati, Amrita; Simmons, Blake A.; Singer, Steven W.; Thelen, Michael P.; VanderGheynst, Jean S.

    2014-12-31

    New lignocellulolytic enzymes are needed that maintain optimal activity under the harsh conditions present during industrial enzymatic deconstruction of biomass, including high temperatures, the absence of free water, and the presence of inhibitors from the biomass. Enriching lignocellulolytic microbial communities under these conditions provides a source of microorganisms that may yield robust lignocellulolytic enzymes tolerant to the extreme conditions needed to improve the throughput and efficiency of biomass enzymatic deconstruction. Identification of promising enzymes from these systems is challenging due to complex substrate-enzyme interactions and requirements to assay for activity. In this study, metatranscriptomes from compost-derived microbial communities enriched on rice straw under thermophilic and mesophilic conditions were sequenced and analyzed to identify lignocellulolytic enzymes overexpressed under thermophilic conditions. To determine differential gene expression across mesophilic and thermophilic treatments, a method was developed which pooled gene expression by functional category, as indicated by Pfam annotations, since microbial communities performing similar tasks are likely to have overlapping functions even if they share no specific genes. Differential expression analysis identified enzymes from glycoside hydrolase family 48, carbohydrate binding module family 2, and carbohydrate binding module family 33 domains as significantly overexpressed in the thermophilic community. Overexpression of these protein families in the thermophilic community resulted from expression of a small number of genes not currently represented in any protein database. Genes in overexpressed protein families were predominantly expressed by a single Actinobacteria genus, Micromonospora. In conclusion, coupling measurements of deconstructive activity with comparative analyses to identify overexpressed enzymes in lignocellulolytic communities provides a targeted

  2. The DOE Feeds Families Festival

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Department of Energy employees took a moment to give back to the Washington, D.C. community by holding our first "DOE Feeds Families Festival" outside of the Forrestal Building.

  3. Multi-Family Housing Loans and Grants

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Multi-family housing programs offer rural rental housing loans to provide affordable multi-family rental housing for very low-, low-, and moderate-income families, the elderly, and persons with...

  4. Feds feed Families | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Feds feed Families Feds feed Families September 3, 2014 - 12:27pm Addthis Feds feed Families Feds feed Families September 2, 2014 Feds feed Families Representatives of the Office of Enterprise Assessments delivered more than 1,600 pounds of non-perishable food to the Manna Food Center on September 2, 2014 as part of the 2014 Feds Feed Families campaign. Manna feeds about 3,300 needy families in Montgomery County. Manna also provides food to 48 Montgomery County soup kitchens, food pantries,

  5. Product Binding Varies Dramatically between Processive and Nonprocessive Cellulase Enzymes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bu, L.; Nimlos, M. R.; Shirts, M. R.; Stahlberg, J.; Himmel, M. E.; Crowley, M. F.; Beckham, G. T.

    2012-07-13

    Cellulases hydrolyze {beta}-1,4 glycosidic linkages in cellulose, which are among the most prevalent and stable bonds in Nature. Cellulases comprise many glycoside hydrolase families and exist as processive or nonprocessive enzymes. Product inhibition negatively impacts cellulase action, but experimental measurements of product-binding constants vary significantly, and there is little consensus on the importance of this phenomenon. To provide molecular level insights into cellulase product inhibition, we examine the impact of product binding on processive and nonprocessive cellulases by calculating the binding free energy of cellobiose to the product sites of catalytic domains of processive and nonprocessive enzymes from glycoside hydrolase families 6 and 7. The results suggest that cellobiose binds to processive cellulases much more strongly than nonprocessive cellulases. We also predict that the presence of a cellodextrin bound in the reactant site of the catalytic domain, which is present during enzymatic catalysis, has no effect on product binding in nonprocessive cellulases, whereas it significantly increases product binding to processive cellulases. This difference in product binding correlates with hydrogen bonding between the substrate-side ligand and the cellobiose product in processive cellulase tunnels and the additional stabilization from the longer tunnel-forming loops. The hydrogen bonds between the substrate- and product-side ligands are disrupted by water in nonprocessive cellulase clefts, and the lack of long tunnel-forming loops results in lower affinity of the product ligand. These findings provide new insights into the large discrepancies reported for binding constants for cellulases and suggest that product inhibition will vary significantly based on the amount of productive binding for processive cellulases on cellulose.

  6. Crystallization and preliminary diffraction studies of CBM3b of cellobiohydrolase 9A from Clostridium thermocellum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jindou, Sadanari; Petkun, Svetlana; Shimon, Linda; Bayer, Edward A.; Lamed, Raphael; Frolow, Felix

    2007-12-01

    The cloning, expression, purification and crystallization of the CBM3b module of cellobiohydrolase 9A from C. thermocellum is described. The crystals diffract to 2.68 Å. Family 3 carbohydrate-binding modules (CBM3s) are associated with the scaffoldin subunit of the multi-enzyme cellulosome complex and with the family 9 glycoside hydrolases, which are multimodular enzymes that act on plant cell-wall polysaccharides, notably cellulose. Here, the crystallization of CBM3b from cellobiohydrolase 9A is reported. The crystals are tetragonal and belong to space group P4{sub 1} or P4{sub 3}. X-ray diffraction data for CBM3b have been collected to 2.68 Å resolution on beamline ID14-4 at the ESRF.

  7. 'Lollachilipalooza' benefits Feds Feed Families effort | National...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    'Lollachilipalooza' benefits Feds Feed Families effort Deputy Secretary of Energy Daniel Poneman led his band, "Yellow Cake," at "Lollachilipalooza" today to benefit DOE's 2014 ...

  8. Proteomic and Functional Analysis of the Cellulase System Expressed by Postia placenta during Brown Rot of Solid Wood

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryu, Jae San; Shary, Semarjit; Houtman, Carl J.; Panisko, Ellen A.; Korripally, Premsagar; St John, Franz J.; Crooks, Casey; Siika-aho, Matti; Magnuson, Jon K.; Hammel, Ken

    2011-11-01

    Abstract Brown rot basidiomycetes have an important ecological role in lignocellulose recycling and are notable for their rapid degradation of wood polymers via oxidative and hydrolytic mechanisms. However, most of these fungi apparently lack processive (exo-acting) cellulases, such as cellobiohydrolases, which are generally required for efficient cellulolysis. The recent sequencing of the Postia placenta genome now permits a proteomic approach to this longstanding conundrum. We grew P. placenta on solid aspen wood, extracted proteins from the biodegrading substrate, and analyzed tryptic digests by shotgun liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Comparison of the data with the predicted P. placenta proteome revealed the presence of 34 likely glycoside hydrolases, but only four of these-two in glycoside hydrolase family 5, one in family 10, and one in family 12-have sequences that suggested possible activity on cellulose. We expressed these enzymes heterologously and determined that they all exhibited endoglucanase activity on phosphoric acid-swollen cellulose. They also slowly hydrolyzed filter paper, a more crystalline substrate, but the soluble/insoluble reducing sugar ratios they produced classify them as nonprocessive. Computer simulations indicated that these enzymes produced soluble/insoluble ratios on reduced phosphoric acid-swollen cellulose that were higher than expected for random hydrolysis, which suggests that they could possess limited exo activity, but they are at best 10-fold less processive than cellobiohydrolases. It appears likely that P. placenta employs a combination of oxidative mechanisms and endo-acting cellulases to degrade cellulose efficiently in the absence of a significant processive component.

  9. Genomic and experimental evidence for multiple metabolic functions in the RidA/YjgF/YER057c/UK114 (Rid) protein family

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Niehaus, Thomas D.; Gerdes, Svetlana; Hodge-Hanson, Kelsey; Zhukov, Aleksey; Cooper, Arthur J.L.; ElBadawi-Sidhu, Mona; Fiehn, Oliver; Downs, Diana M.; Hanson, Andrew D.

    2015-05-15

    It is now recognized that enzymatic or chemical side-reactions can convert normal metabolites to useless or toxic ones and that a suite of enzymes exists to mitigate such metabolite damage. Examples are the reactive imine/enamine intermediates produced by threonine dehydratase, which damage the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate cofactor of various enzymes causing inactivation. This damage is pre-empted by RidA proteins, which hydrolyze the imines before they do harm. RidA proteins belong to the YjgF/YER057c/UK114 family (here renamed the Rid family). Most other members of this diverse and ubiquitous family lack defined functions. Phylogenetic analysis divided the Rid family into a widely distributed,more » apparently archetypal RidA subfamily and seven other subfamilies (Rid1 to Rid7) that are largely confined to bacteria and often co-occur in the same organism with RidA and each other. The Rid1 to Rid3 subfamilies, but not the Rid4 to Rid7 subfamilies, have a conserved arginine residue that, in RidA proteins, is essential for imine-hydrolyzing activity. Analysis of the chromosomal context of bacterial RidA genes revealed clustering with genes for threonine dehydratase and other pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent enzymes, which fits with the known RidA imine hydrolase activity. Clustering was also evident between Rid family genes and genes specifying FAD-dependent amine oxidases or enzymes of carbamoyl phosphate metabolism. Biochemical assays showed that Salmonella enterica RidA and Rid2, but not Rid7, can hydrolyze imines generated by amino acid oxidase. Genetic tests indicated that carbamoyl phosphate overproduction is toxic to S. enterica cells lacking RidA, and metabolomic profiling of Rid knockout strains showed ten-fold accumulation of the carbamoyl phosphate-related metabolite dihydroorotate. Like the archetypal RidA subfamily, the Rid2, and probably the Rid1 and Rid3 subfamilies, have imine-hydrolyzing activity and can pre-empt damage from imines formed by amine

  10. Structure of cellobiose phosphorylase from Clostridium thermocellum in complex with phosphate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bianchetti, Christopher M.; Elsen, Nathaniel L.; Fox, Brian G.; Phillips, Jr., George N.

    2012-03-27

    Clostridium thermocellum is a cellulosome-producing bacterium that is able to efficiently degrade and utilize cellulose as a sole carbon source. Cellobiose phosphorylase (CBP) plays a critical role in cellulose degradation by catalyzing the reversible phosphate-dependent hydrolysis of cellobiose, the major product of cellulose degradation, into -D-glucose 1-phosphate and D-glucose. CBP from C. thermocellum is a modular enzyme composed of four domains [N-terminal domain, helical linker, (/)6-barrel domain and C-terminal domain] and is a member of glycoside hydrolase family 94. The 2.4 {angstrom} resolution X-ray crystal structure of C. thermocellum CBP reveals the residues involved in coordinating the catalytic phosphate as well as the residues that are likely to be involved in substrate binding and discrimination.

  11. Homologous Expression of the Caldicellulosiruptor bescii CelA Reveals that the Extracellular Protein Is Glycosylated

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chung, Daehwan; Young, Jenna; Bomble, Yannick J.; Vander Wall, Todd A.; Groom, Joseph; Himmel, Michael E.; Westpheling, Janet

    2015-03-23

    Members of the bacterial genus Caldicellulosiruptor are the most thermophilic cellulolytic microbes described with ability to digest lignocellulosic biomass without conventional pretreatment. The cellulolytic ability of different species varies dramatically and correlates with the presence of the multimodular cellulase CelA, which contains both a glycoside hydrolase family 9 endoglucanase and a glycoside hydrolase family 48 exoglucanase known to be synergistic in their activity, connected by three cellulose-binding domains via linker peptides. This architecture exploits the cellulose surface ablation driven by its general cellulase processivity as well as excavates cavities into the surface of the substrate, revealing a novel paradigm formore » cellulase activity. We recently reported that a deletion of celA in C. bescii had a significant effect on its ability to utilize complex biomass. To analyze the structure and function of CelA and its role in biomass deconstruction, we constructed a new expression vector for C. bescii and were able, for the first time, to express significant quantities of full-length protein in vivo in the native host. The protein, which contains a Histidine tag, was active and excreted from the cell. Expression of CelA protein with and without its signal sequence allowed comparison of protein retained intracellularly to protein transported extracellularly. Analysis of protein in culture supernatants revealed that the extracellular CelA protein is glycosylated whereas the intracellular CelA is not, suggesting that either protein transport is required for this post-translational modification or that glycosylation is required for protein export. The mechanism and role of protein glycosylation in bacteria is poorly understood and the ability to express CelA in vivo in C. bescii will allow the study of the mechanism of protein glycosylation in this thermophile. Finally, it will also allow the study of glycosylation of CelA itself and its role

  12. EM Helps Military Families in Need

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    LAS VEGAS – Six families from Nellis Air Force Base in Las Vegas recently received nearly $4,000 in donations — funds that helped provide a welcome relief during the holidays.

  13. North Shore Gas- Single Family Direct Install

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Owners of single-family homes, condos, townhomes and two-flats may be eligible for a free installation of new programmable thermostats, pipe insulation, showerheads, Compact Fluorescent Bulbs (CFLs...

  14. Surface theory of a family of topological Kondo insulators (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Surface theory of a family of topological Kondo insulators Prev Next Title: Surface theory of a family of topological Kondo insulators Authors: Roy, Bitan ; Sau, Jay D. ; ...

  15. The Standard Work Specifications for Single-Family Home Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Standard Work Specifications for Single-Family Home Energy Upgrades are now available at your fingertips The Standard Work Specifications for Single-Family Home Energy ...

  16. Austin Energy- Multi-Family Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Austin Energy Multi-Family Program provides cash incentives to owners, developers, and property managers of apartments and other multi-family properties for making energy efficiency...

  17. TIGRFAMS: The TIGRFAMs database of protein families

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    TIGRFAMs are protein families based on Hidden Markov Models or HMMs. Use this page to see the curated seed alignmet for each TIGRFam, the full alignment of all family members and the cutoff scores for inclusion in each of the TIGRFAMs. Also use this page to search through the TIGRFAMs and HMMs for text in the TIGRFAMs Text Search or search for specific sequences in the TIGRFAMs Sequence Search.[Copied from the Overview at http://www.jcvi.org/cms/research/projects/tigrfams/overview/] See also TIGRFAMs ordered by the roles they play at http://cmr.jcvi.org/tigr-scripts/CMR/shared/EvidenceList.cgi?ev_type=TIGRFAM&order_type=role.

  18. Genetic linkage analysis in familial breast and ovarian cancer: Results from 214 families

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Easton, D.F.; Ford, D. ); Bishop, D.T.; Crockford, G.P. )

    1993-04-01

    This paper reports the results of a collaborative linkage study involving 214 breast cancer families, including 57 breast-ovarian cancer families; this represents almost all the known families with 17q linkage data. Six markers on 17q, spanning approximately 30 cM, were typed in the families. The aims of the study were to define more precisely the localization of the disease gene, the extent of genetic heterogeneity and the characteristics of linked families and to estimate the penetrance of the 17q gene. Under the assumption of no genetic heterogeneity, the strongest linkage evidence was obtained with D17S588. Multipoint linkage analysis allowing for genetic heterogeneity provided evidence that the predisposing gene lies between the markers D17S588 and D17S250, an interval whose genetic length is estimated to be 8.3 cM in males and 18.0 cM in females. This position was supported over other intervals by odds of 66:1. The location of the gene with respect to D17S579 could not be determined unequivocally. Under the genetic model used in the analysis, the best estimate of the proportion of linked breast-ovarian cancer families was 1.0 (lower LOD -- 1 limit 0.79). In contrast, there was significant evidence of genetic heterogeneity among the families without ovarian cancer, with an estimated 45% being linked. These results suggest that a gene(s) on chromosome 17q accounts for the majority of families in which both early-onset breast cancer and ovarian cancer occur but that other genes predisposing to breast cancer exist. By examining the fit of the linkage data to different penetrance functions, the cumulative risk associated with the 17q gene was estimated to be 59% by age 50 years and 82% by age 70 years. The corresponding estimates for the breast-ovary families were 67% and 76%, and those for the families without ovarian cancer were 49% and 90%; these penetrance functions did not differ significantly from one another. 42 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Be SMART Multi-Family Efficiency Loan Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Under the Be SMART Multi-Family Program, the Maryland Department of Housing and Community Development (DHCD) offers loans for energy efficiency improvements in existing multi-family rental proper...

  20. Application for State Land Use Lease: Commercial/Multi-Family...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    CommercialMulti-Family Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Reference: Application for State Land Use Lease: CommercialMulti-Family Published...

  1. Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Multi-Family Peer Exchange...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Neighborhood Program Multi- Family Peer Exchange Call: Shared Space vs. In- unit Upgrades ... focusing on shared space and technology in multi-family buildings vs. in-unit upgrades? ...

  2. Atomic veterans and their families: Responses to radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, B.C.; Ellis, P.; Greenberg, S. )

    1990-07-01

    In-depth interviews with seven atomic veterans and their families indicated powerful psychological effects on all family members from exposure to low-level ionizing radiation. Four themes emerged: the invalidation of their experiences by government and other authority figures; family concerns about genetic effects on future generations; family members' desire to protect each other from fears of physical consequences; and desire to leave a record of their experiences to help prevent future suffering.

  3. Vladimir V. Lunin | Bioenergy | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vladimir V. Lunin Vladimir V. Lunin Senior Scientist, Protein Crystallography Vladimir.Lunin@nrel.gov | 303-384-7754 Research Interests Glycoside hydrolases, lyases, transferases Establishing molecular mechanisms of protein-substrate interaction for enzymes involved in polysaccharide synthesis, modification, or breakdown Biomass deconstruction and recalcitrance Areas of Expertise Protein purification Protein crystallization X-ray diffraction data collection Protein structure determination

  4. Page 7, A Family-Friendly Workplace

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7 of 11 Previous Page A Family-Friendly Workplace The Department of Energy (DOE) takes its commitment to recruiting, retaining, and motivating a highly skilled, diverse, and productive workforce very seriously. Our objective is to be the employer of choice in the public sector. The U.S. Department of Energy is the Top-Ranked Cabinet-Level Agency for employee satisfaction and engagement according to the 2005 Best Places to Work in the Federal Government Rankings. Below is a summary of additional

  5. Leptonic mixing, family symmetries, and neutrino phenomenology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Medeiros Varzielas, I. de [Departamento de Fisica and Centro de Fisica Teorica de Particulas, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Fakultaet fuer Physik, Technische Universitaet Dortmund D-44221 Dortmund (Germany); Gonzalez Felipe, R. [Departamento de Fisica and Centro de Fisica Teorica de Particulas, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, Rua Conselheiro Emidio Navarro, 1959-007 Lisboa (Portugal); Serodio, H. [Departamento de Fisica and Centro de Fisica Teorica de Particulas, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-02-01

    Tribimaximal leptonic mixing is a mass-independent mixing scheme consistent with the present solar and atmospheric neutrino data. By conveniently decomposing the effective neutrino mass matrix associated to it, we derive generic predictions in terms of the parameters governing the neutrino masses. We extend this phenomenological analysis to other mass-independent mixing schemes which are related to the tribimaximal form by a unitary transformation. We classify models that produce tribimaximal leptonic mixing through the group structure of their family symmetries in order to point out that there is often a direct connection between the group structure and the phenomenological analysis. The type of seesaw mechanism responsible for neutrino masses plays a role here, as it restricts the choices of family representations and affects the viability of leptogenesis. We also present a recipe to generalize a given tribimaximal model to an associated model with a different mass-independent mixing scheme, which preserves the connection between the group structure and phenomenology as in the original model. This procedure is explicitly illustrated by constructing toy models with the transpose tribimaximal, bimaximal, golden ratio, and hexagonal leptonic mixing patterns.

  6. Rural Development Multi-Family Housing Energy Efficiency Initiative |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Rural Development Multi-Family Housing Energy Efficiency Initiative Rural Development Multi-Family Housing Energy Efficiency Initiative In order to help create a more energy independent rural America for the next century, the USDA Rural Development Multi-Family Housing Energy Efficiency Initiative enables applicants to several USDA housing programs to increase their program funding eligibility by incorporating green building practices into project designs, construction,

  7. Saving American Families and Businesses Money through Lighting Efficiency |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Saving American Families and Businesses Money through Lighting Efficiency Saving American Families and Businesses Money through Lighting Efficiency February 12, 2016 - 1:38pm Addthis Saving American Families and Businesses Money through Lighting Efficiency David Friedman David Friedman Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (Acting) What are the key facts? The Department of Energy released a new proposed efficiency rule for lightbulbs to make it

  8. Structures of Cyanobactin Maturation Enzymes Define a Family...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Structures of Cyanobactin Maturation Enzymes Define a Family of Transamidating Proteases Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Structures of Cyanobactin Maturation Enzymes ...

  9. Energy Auditor - Single Family 2.0: General Construction and...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    General Construction and Carpentry Energy Auditor - Single Family 2.0: General Construction and Carpentry General Construction and Carpentry - Complete (3.02 MB) Lesson Plan: ...

  10. Synthesis, Electrochemistry and Photophysics of a Family of Phlorin...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Synthesis, Electrochemistry and Photophysics of a Family of Phlorin Macrocycles that Display Cooperative Fluoride Binding Citation Details In-Document Search ...

  11. Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Multi-family/ Low Income...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... 3152012 3152012 3152012 3152012 GIS Mapping pre-1990 construction 3152012 3... The GIS department could then cross- reference properties that are coded as multi-family ...

  12. A family of GE engineers | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A family of GE engineers Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) A family of GE engineers Father's Day is a time dedicated to celebrating family ties. In the GE family, there are many types of relationships and connections, including some that originated in the same household. Meet Monte and children, Ashlee and

  13. NNSA Production Office tops Feds Feed Families campaign goal...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    tops Feds Feed Families campaign goal | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation...

  14. Saving American Families and Businesses Money through Lighting...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Saving American Families and Businesses Money through Lighting Efficiency David Friedman ... to make cost-effective, energy efficient choices for lighting their homes and offices. ...

  15. Willi Ernst and family members | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    founder and Managing Director. He sold his shares to Centrosolar but continues to run Biohaus. References: Willi Ernst (and family members)1 This article is a stub. You...

  16. Standard Work Specifications for Single-Family Home Energy Upgrades...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    stakeholders developed the Standard Work Specifications for Single-Family Home Energy Upgrades to define the minimum requirements for high-quality residential energy upgrades. ...

  17. The Energy Department Feeds Families | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Last year, Energy Department employee Tyesha Bennett and her family recently gleaned 4,400 pounds of sweet potatoes from Cheltenham Warehouse in Maryland -- meaning more fresh, ...

  18. Alabama Family Staying Nice and Cozy This Fall

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Recovery Act money to weatherize homes has resulted in much lower energy bills for Alabama families, including Mary, whose bill is about $300 cheaper now.

  19. SoCalGas- Multi-Family Residential Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Southern California Gas Company provides incentives to encourage the owners and managers of multi-family residential buildings to increase their energy efficiency. The program offers rebates for...

  20. BRCA1-linked marker in postmenopausal breast cancer families

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Folsom, A.R.; Chen, P.L.; Sellers, T.A.

    1994-09-01

    A majority of breast and ovarian cancer families and half of the early-onset breast cancer families are linked to markers on 17q (BRCA1). While linkage has been demonstrated in families with premenopausal disease, few studies have tested these markers in families with postmenopausal breast cancer. In the Iowa Women`s Health Study, a population-based study of over 42,000 women, an association of waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) with the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer was found predominantly in women with a positive family history -- this interaction was associated with a 3.2-fold elevated risk. This effect was even more pronounced when the definition of family history included breast and ovarian cancer, known to be linked to 17q markers. We evaluated evidence for linkage with D17S579, a BRCA-1-linked marker, in 13 families in which the index case had postmenopausal breast cancer. Genotyping for alleles at D17S579 was performed on 84 blood samples. Linkage analysis assumed that the breast cancer trait had an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance with a penetrance of 80%. For the 13 families studied, the maximum lod score was 0.29 at a theta of 0.27. There was significant evidence against tight linkage of breast cancer with D17S579 (theta<0.4). Heterogeneity analysis suggested evidence for the presence of both linked and unlinked families. Partitioning informative families on WHR of the index case suggested heterogeneity. These data suggest that, in a subset of families identified by a postmenopausal breast cancer proband, risk of breast cancer may be mediated by BRCA1, with heterogeneity defined by WHR.

  1. Linkage heterogeneity among 59 Dutch hereditary breast cancer families

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cornelis, R.S.; Vliet, M. van; Leeuwen, I. van

    1994-09-01

    We have investigated 59 Dutch kindreds with at least three first-degree relatives with breast and/or ovarian cancer for linkage to BRCA1 on 17q12-q21, using at least 4 microsatellite markers flanking BRCA1 on either side. Assuming no heterogeneity, the overall multipoint lod score in this group of families was -7.59. A marked clustering of lod scores >0.5 was observed among the 13 families with a mean age of onset lower than 45 (total lod score: +3.36). Among the 8 kindreds with a mean age of onset lower than 45 and {ge}3 cases diagnosed under 45, the lod score was +4.43. Interestingly, most of the evidence against linkage was found in 17 families with a mean age of onset between 45 and 54 (total lod score of -8.72). It was estimated that 28% of the breast-only families might be caused by BRCA1. Over the 16 breast-ovarian cancer families a lod score of -3.78 was obtained under homogeneity. The highest lod score was +0.57, assuming heterogeneity with 33% of the families being linked to BRCA1. One family gave a multipoint lod score of -2.01 and thereby satisfies the conventional criterion of an unlinked family. Our results support the conclusions from earlier work by others, namely that BRCA1 predisposes particularly to early-onset breast cancer. The proportion of breast-ovarian cancer families we found linked to BRCA1 is much lower than that found by the Breast Cancer Linkage Consortium. This might be caused by the single unlinked family against an insufficient number of families able to give conclusive positive lod scores.

  2. Caldicellulosiruptor Core and Pangenomes Reveal Determinants for

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blumer-Schuette, Sara E.; Giannone, Richard J; Zurawski, Jeffrey V; Ozdemir, Inci; Ma, Qin; Yin, Yanbin; Xu, Ying; Kataeva, Irena; Poole, Farris; Adams, Michael W. W.; Hamilton-Brehm, Scott; Elkins, James G; Larimer, Frank W; Land, Miriam L; Hauser, Loren John; Cottingham, Robert W; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L; Kelly, Robert M

    2012-01-01

    Extremely thermophilic bacteria of the genus Caldicellulosiruptor utilize carbohydrate components of plant cell walls, including cellulose and hemicellulose, facilitated by a diverse set of glycoside hydrolases (GHs). From a biofuel perspective, this capability is crucial for deconstruction of plant biomass into fermentable sugars. While all species from the genus grow on xylan and acidpretreated switchgrass, growth on crystalline cellulose is variable. The basis for this variability was examined using microbiological, genomic, and proteomic analyses of eight globally diverse Caldicellulosiruptor species. The open Caldicellulosiruptor pangenome (4,009 open reading frames [ORFs]) encodes 106 GHs, representing 43 GH families, but only 26 GHs from 17 families are included in the core (noncellulosic) genome (1,543 ORFs). Differentiating the strongly cellulolytic Caldicellulosiruptor species from the others is a specific genomic locus that encodes multidomain cellulases from GH families 9 and 48, which are associated with cellulose-binding modules. This locus also encodes a novel adhesin associated with type IV pili, which was identified in the exoproteome bound to crystalline cellulose. Taking into account the core genomes, pangenomes, and individual genomes, the ancestral Caldicellulosiruptor was likely cellulolytic and evolved, in some cases, into species that lost the ability to degrade crystalline cellulose while maintaining the capacity to hydrolyze amorphous cellulose and hemicellulose.

  3. Jefferson Lab Invites Families, Groups, Classes to Physics Fest Events |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jefferson Lab Families, Groups, Classes to Physics Fest Events Jefferson Lab Invites Families, Groups, Classes to Physics Fest Events Small Business A student watches in amazement at the behavior of inflated balloons after they have been pulled from a container of liquid nitrogen (at a temperature of -321 Fahrenheit). NEWPORT NEWS, Va., June 3, 2010 - The U.S. Department of Energy's Jefferson Lab invites families, groups and classes to sign up now for a summer 2010 or school year 2010-2011

  4. Suite of Activity-Based Probes for Cellulose-Degrading Enzymes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chauvigne-Hines, Lacie M.; Anderson, Lindsey N.; Weaver, Holly M.; Brown, Joseph N.; Koech, Phillip K.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Hofstad, Beth A.; Smith, Richard D.; Wilkins, Michael J.; Callister, Stephen J.; Wright, Aaron T.

    2012-12-19

    Microbial glycoside hydrolases play a dominant role in the biochemical conversion of cellulosic biomass to high-value biofuels. Anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria are capable of producing multicomplex catalytic subunits containing cell-adherent cellulases, hemicellulases, xylanases, and other glycoside hydrolases to facilitate the degradation of highly recalcitrant cellulose and other related plant cell wall polysaccharides. Clostridium thermocellum is a cellulosome producing bacterium that couples rapid reproduction rates to highly efficient degradation of crystalline cellulose. Herein, we have developed and applied a suite of difluoromethylphenyl aglycone, N-halogenated glycosylamine, and 2-deoxy-2-fluoroglycoside activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) probes to the direct labeling of the C. thermocellum cellulosomal secretome. These activity-based probes (ABPs) were synthesized with alkynes to harness the utility and multimodal possibilities of click chemistry, and to increase enzyme active site inclusion for LC-MS analysis. We directly analyzed ABP-labeled and unlabeled global MS data, revealing ABP selectivity for glycoside hydrolase (GH) enzymes in addition to a large collection of integral cellulosome-containing proteins. By identifying reactivity and selectivity profiles for each ABP, we demonstrate our ability to widely profile the functional cellulose degrading machinery of the bacterium. Derivatization of the ABPs, including reactive groups, acetylation of the glycoside binding groups, and mono- and disaccharide binding groups, resulted in considerable variability in protein labeling. Our probe suite is applicable to aerobic and anaerobic cellulose degrading systems, and facilitates a greater understanding of the organismal role associated within biofuel development.

  5. A Nuclear Family: Extras - Introduction | Y-12 National Security...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... A Nuclear Family: Extras - Introduction The mp4 video format is not supported by this browser. Download video Captions: On Time: 6:59 min. D. Ray Smith, Y-12 historian,...

  6. Sam's Family Spa Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Technology's Geo-Heat Center Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleSam%27sFamilySpaPool%26SpaLowTemperatureGeothermalFacility&oldid305482" ...

  7. Weatherization Saves Families Energy and Money | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Weatherization Saves Families Energy and Money Weatherization Saves Families Energy and Money October 28, 2013 - 12:50pm Addthis William Stewart, with Veterans Green Jobs, blows cellulose insulation in the interior walls of a Lakewood, Colorado, home. This home is part of the Energy Department's Weatherization Assistance Program that supports energy efficiency upgrades to low-income homes in Denver. | Photo courtesy of Dennis Schroeder, NREL. William Stewart, with Veterans Green Jobs, blows

  8. Secretaries Chu and Donovan Sign Agreement to Help Working Families

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Weatherize Their Homes | Department of Energy Donovan Sign Agreement to Help Working Families Weatherize Their Homes Secretaries Chu and Donovan Sign Agreement to Help Working Families Weatherize Their Homes May 6, 2009 - 12:00am Addthis WASHINGTON - U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) Secretary Shaun Donovan and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Secretary Steven Chu today announced an important step forward in the partnership between HUD and DOE to streamline and better

  9. Secretaries Donovan and Chu Announce Partnership to Help Working Families

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Weatherize Their Homes | Department of Energy Donovan and Chu Announce Partnership to Help Working Families Weatherize Their Homes Secretaries Donovan and Chu Announce Partnership to Help Working Families Weatherize Their Homes February 27, 2009 - 12:00am Addthis Philadelphia, PA - U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) Secretary Shaun Donovan and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Secretary Steven Chu today announced a major partnership between HUD and DOE that will streamline

  10. Utilities Bringing More Solar Energy to Families and Businesses |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Utilities Bringing More Solar Energy to Families and Businesses Utilities Bringing More Solar Energy to Families and Businesses January 26, 2016 - 12:26pm Addthis This two megawatt installation at Denver International Airport is owned by Constellation Energy, a utility based in Baltimore, MD. (Photo Courtesy: Denver International Airport) This two megawatt installation at Denver International Airport is owned by Constellation Energy, a utility based in Baltimore, MD.

  11. A Family-Friendly Workplace | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Services » New Employee Orientation » A Family-Friendly Workplace A Family-Friendly Workplace The Department of Energy (DOE) takes its commitment to recruiting, retaining, and motivating a highly skilled, diverse, and productive workforce very seriously. Our objective is to be the employer of choice in the public sector. The U.S. Department of Energy is the Top-Ranked Cabinet-Level Agency for employee satisfaction and engagement according to the 2005 Best Places to Work in the Federal

  12. Conversion of levoglucosan and cellobiosan by Pseudomonas putida KT2440

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Linger, Jeffrey G.; Hobdey, Sarah E.; Franden, Mary Ann; Fulk, Emily M.; Beckham, Gregg T.

    2016-02-02

    Pyrolysis offers a straightforward approach for the deconstruction of plant cell wall polymers into bio-oil. Recently, there has been substantial interest in bio-oil fractionation and subsequent use of biological approaches to selectively upgrade some of the resulting fractions. A fraction of particular interest for biological upgrading consists of polysaccharide-derived substrates including sugars and sugar dehydration products such as levoglucosan and cellobiosan, which are two of the most abundant pyrolysis products of cellulose. Levoglucosan can be converted to glucose-6-phosphate through the use of a levoglucosan kinase (LGK), but to date, the mechanism for cellobiosan utilization has not been demonstrated. Here, wemore » engineer the microbe Pseudomonas putida KT2440 to use levoglucosan as a sole carbon and energy source through LGK integration. Furthermore, we demonstrate that cellobiosan can be enzymatically converted to levoglucosan and glucose with β-glucosidase enzymes from both Glycoside Hydrolase Family 1 and Family 3. β-glucosidases are commonly used in both natural and industrial cellulase cocktails to convert cellobiose to glucose to relieve cellulase product inhibition and to facilitate microbial uptake of glucose. Using an exogenous β-glucosidase, we demonstrate that the engineered strain of P. putida can grow on levoglucosan up to 60 g/L and can also utilize cellobiosan. Overall, this study elucidates the biological pathway to co-utilize levoglucosan and cellobiosan, which will be a key transformation for the biological upgrading of pyrolysis-derived substrates.« less

  13. Functional and structural diversity in GH62 α-L-arabinofuranosidases from the thermophilic fungus Scytalidium thermophilum

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kaur, Amrit Pal; Nocek, Boguslaw P.; Xu, Xiaohui; Lowden, Michael J.; Leyva, Juan Francisco; Stogios, Peter J.; Cui, Hong; Leo, Rosa Di; Powlowski, Justin; Tsang, Adrian; et al

    2015-05-01

    The genome of the thermophilic fungus Scytalidium thermophilum (strain CBS 625.91) harbours a wide range of genes involved in carbohydrate degradation, including three genes, abf62A, abf62B and abf62C, predicted to encode glycoside hydrolase family 62 (GH62) enzymes. Transcriptome analysis showed that only abf62A and abf62C are actively expressed during growth on diverse substrates including straws from barley, alfalfa, triticale and canola. The abf62A and abf62C genes were expressed in Escherichia coli and the resulting recombinant proteins were characterized. Calcium-free crystal structures of Abf62C in apo and xylotriose bound forms were determined to 1.23 and 1.48 Å resolution respectively. Site-directed mutagenesismore » confirmed Asp55, Asp171 and Glu230 as catalytic triad residues, and revealed the critical role of non-catalytic residues Asp194, Trp229 and Tyr338 in positioning the scissile α-L-arabinofuranoside bond at the catalytic site. Further, the +2R substrate-binding site residues Tyr168 and Asn339, as well as the +2NR residue Tyr226, are involved in accommodating long-chain xylan polymers. Overall, our structural and functional analysis highlights characteristic differences between Abf62A and Abf62C, which represent divergent subgroups in the GH62 family.« less

  14. Purification, crystallization and crystallographic analysis of Clostridium thermocellum endo-1,4-β-d-xylanase 10B in complex with xylohexaose

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Najmudin, Shabir; Pinheiro, Benedita A.; Romão, Maria J.; Prates, José A. M.; Fontes, Carlos M. G. A.

    2008-08-01

    The N-terminal moiety of C. thermocellum endo-1,4-β-d-xylanase 10B, comprising a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM22-1) and a GH10 E337A mutant domain, has been crystallized in complex with xylohexaose. The crystals belong to the trigonal space group P3{sub 2}21, contain a dimer in the asymmetric unit and diffract to beyond 2.0 Å resolution. The cellulosome of Clostridium thermocellum is a highly organized multi-enzyme complex of cellulases and hemicellulases involved in the hydrolysis of plant cell-wall polysaccharides. The bifunctional multi-modular xylanase Xyn10B is one of the hemicellulase components of the C. thermocellum cellulosome. The enzyme contains an internal glycoside hydrolase family 10 catalytic domain (GH10) and a C-terminal family 1 carbohydrate esterase domain (CE1). The N-terminal moiety of Xyn10B (residues 32–551), comprising a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM22-1) and the GH10 E337A mutant, was crystallized in complex with xylohexaose. The crystals belong to the trigonal space group P3{sub 2}21 and contain a dimer in the asymmetric unit. The crystals diffracted to beyond 2.0 Å resolution.

  15. Detection of eight BRCA1 mutations in 10 breast/ovarian cancer families, including 1 family with male breast cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sruewing, J.P.; Brody, L.C.; Erdos, M.R.

    1995-07-01

    Genetic epidemiological evidence suggests that mutations in BRCA1 may be responsible for approximately one half of early onset familial breast cancer and the majority of familial breast/ovarian cancer. The recent cloning of BRCA1 allows for the direct detection of mutations, but the feasibility of presymptomatic screening for cancer susceptibility is unknown. We analyzed genomic DNA from one affected individual from each of 24 families with at least three cases of ovarian or breast cancer, using SSCP assays. Variant SSCP bands were subcloned and sequenced. Allele-specific oligonucleotide hybridization was used to verify sequence changes and to screen DNA from control individuals. Six frameshift and two missense mutations were detected in 10 different families. A frameshift mutation was detected in a male proband affected with both breast and prostate cancer. A 40-bp deletion was detected in a patient who developed intra-abdominal carcinomatosis 1 year after prophylactic oophorectomy. Mutations were detected throughout the gene, and only one was detected in more than a single family. These results provide further evidence that inherited breast and ovarian cancer can occur as a consequence of a wide array of BRCA1 mutations. These results suggests that development of a screening test for BRCA1 mutations will be technically challenging. The finding of a mutation in a family with male breast cancer, not previously thought to be related to BRCA1, also illustrates the potential difficulties of genetic counseling for individuals known to carry mutations. 37 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  16. Evolutionary analyses of non-family genes in plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye, Chuyu; Li, Ting; Yin, Hengfu; Weston, David; Tuskan, Gerald A; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Yang, Xiaohan

    2013-03-01

    There are a large number of non-family (NF) genes that do not cluster into families with three or more members per genome. While gene families have been extensively studied, a systematic analysis of NF genes has not been reported. We performed comparative studies on NF genes in 14 plant species. Based on the clustering of protein sequences, we identified ~94,000 NF genes across these species that were divided into five evolutionary groups: Viridiplantae-wide, angiosperm-specific, monocot-specific, dicot-specific, and those that were species-specific. Our analysis revealed that the NF genes resulted largely from less frequent gene duplications and/or a higher rate of gene loss after segmental duplication relative to genes in both low-copy-number families (LF; 3 10 copies per genome) and high-copy-number families (HF; >10 copies). Furthermore, we identified functions enriched in the NF gene set as compared with the HF genes. We found that NF genes were involved in essential biological processes shared by all plant lineages (e.g., photosynthesis and translation), as well as gene regulation and stress responses associated with phylogenetic diversification. In particular, our analysis of an Arabidopsis protein-protein interaction network revealed that hub proteins with the top 10% most connections were over-represented in the NF set relative to the HF set. This research highlights the roles that NF genes may play in evolutionary and functional genomics research.

  17. Evolutionary analyses of non-family genes in plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye, Chuyu; Li, Ting; Yin, Hengfu; Weston, David; Tuskan, Gerald A; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Yang, Xiaohan

    2013-01-01

    There are a large number of non-family (NF) genes that do not cluster into families with three or more members per genome. While gene families have been extensively studied, a systematic analysis of NF genes has not been reported. We performed comparative studies on NF genes in 14 plant species. Based on the clustering of protein sequences, we identified ~94 000 NF genes across these species that were divided into five evolutionary groups: Viridiplantae wide, angiosperm specific, monocot specific, dicot specific, and those that were species specific. Our analysis revealed that the NF genes resulted largely from less frequent gene duplications and/or a higher rate of gene loss after segmental duplication relative to genes in both lowcopy- number families (LF; 3 10 copies per genome) and high-copy-number families (HF; >10 copies). Furthermore, we identified functions enriched in the NF gene set as compared with the HF genes. We found that NF genes were involved in essential biological processes shared by all plant lineages (e.g. photosynthesis and translation), as well as gene regulation and stress responses associated with phylogenetic diversification. In particular, our analysis of an Arabidopsis protein protein interaction network revealed that hub proteins with the top 10% most connections were over-represented in the NF set relative to the HF set. This research highlights the roles that NF genes may play in evolutionary and functional genomics research.

  18. A Common Catalytic Mechanism for Proteins of the HutI Family

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyagi,R.; Eswaramoorthy, S.; Burley, S.; Raushel, F.; Swaminathan, S.

    2008-01-01

    Imidazolonepropionase (HutI) (imidazolone-5-propanote hydrolase, EC 3.5.2.7) is a member of the amidohydrolase superfamily and catalyzes the conversion of imidazolone-5-propanoate to N-formimino-l-glutamate in the histidine degradation pathway. We have determined the three-dimensional crystal structures of HutI from Agrobacterium tumefaciens (At-HutI) and an environmental sample from the Sargasso Sea Ocean Going Survey (Es-HutI) bound to the product [N-formimino-l-glutamate (NIG)] and an inhibitor [3-(2, 5-dioxoimidazolidin-4-yl)propionic acid (DIP)], respectively. In both structures, the active site is contained within each monomer, and its organization displays the landmark feature of the amidohydrolase superfamily, showing a metal ligand (iron), four histidines, and one aspartic acid. A catalytic mechanism involving His265 is proposed on the basis of the inhibitor-bound structure. This mechanism is applicable to all HutI forms.

  19. High quality draft genome sequence of Flavobacterium rivuli type strain WB 3.3-2T (DSM 21788T), a valuable source of polysaccharide decomposing enzymes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hahnke, Richard L.; Stackebrandt, Erko; Meier-Kolthoff, Jan P.; Tindall, Brian J.; Huang, Sixing; Rohde, Manfred; Lapidus, Alla; Han, James; Trong, Stephan; Haynes, Matthew; et al

    2015-07-30

    Flavobacterium rivuli Ali et al. 2009 emend. Dong et al. 2013 is one of about 100 species in the genus Flavobacterium (family Flavobacteriacae, phylum Bacteroidetes) with a validly published name, and has been isolated from the spring of a hard water rivulet in Northern Germany. Including all type strains of the genus Myroides and Flavobacterium into the 16S rRNA gene sequence phylogeny revealed a clustering of members of the genus Myroides as a monophyletic group within the genus Flavobacterium. Furthermore, F. rivuli WB 3.3-2T and its next relatives seem more closely related to the genus Myroides than to the typemore » species of the genus Flavobacterium, F. aquatile. The 4,489,248 bp long genome with its 3,391 protein-coding and 65 RNA genes is part of the G enomic E ncyclopedia of B acteria and A rchaea project. The genome of F. rivuli has almost as many genes encoding carbohydrate active enzymes (151 CAZymes) as genes encoding peptidases (177). Peptidases comprised mostly metallo (M) and serine (S) peptidases. Among CAZymes, 30 glycoside hydrolase families, 10 glycosyl transferase families, 7 carbohydrate binding module families and 7 carbohydrate esterase families were identified. Furthermore, we found four polysaccharide utilization loci (PUL) and one large CAZy rich gene cluster that might enable strain WB 3.3-2T to decompose plant and algae derived polysaccharides. In conclusion, based on these results we propose F. rivuli as an interesting candidate for further physiological studies and the role of Bacteroidetes in the decomposition of complex polymers in the environment.« less

  20. Family Moderate Income Homeowners In New York State

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    "Family Moderate Income Homeowners In New York State: Enhancing Resource Accessibility Through Process Improvement and Targeted Outreach," by Residential Energy Efficiency Solutions, July 10, 2012, Arlington, Virginia. Provides an overview of broadening accessibility to financing through process improvement and targeted outreach.

  1. HUD rehabilitation energy guidelines for multi-family dwellings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-09-01

    The Guidebook has been prepared to help people, like yourself, involved in the rehabilitation of a multi-family building. It will help you understand the basics of residential energy conservation, and to think positively about the potential economic benefits. The Guidebook, and the HUD Rehabilitation Energy Guidelines, are applicable to all climates from hot and humid Florida to the northern reaches of Alaska.

  2. Experimental plan for the Single-Family Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berry, L.G.; Brown, M.A.; Wright, T.; White, D.L.

    1991-09-01

    The national evaluation of the Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) consists of five separate studies. The Single-Family Study is one of three studies that will estimate program energy savings and cost effectiveness in principal WAP submarkets. This report presents the experimental plan for the Single-Family Study, which will be implemented over the next three years (1991--1993). The Single-Family Study will directly estimate energy savings for a nationally representative sample of single-family and small multifamily homes weatherized in the 1989 program year. Savings will be estimated from gas and electric utility billing records using the Princeton Scorekeeping Method (PRISM). The study will also assess nonenergy impacts (e.g., health, comfort, safety, and housing affordability), estimate cost effectiveness, and analyze factors influencing these outcomes. For homes using fuels such as wood, coal, fuel oil, kerosene, and propane as the primary source of space conditioning, energy savings will be studied indirectly. The study will assemble a large nationally representative data base. A cluster sampling approach will be used, in which about 400 subgrantees are selected in a first stage and weatherized homes are selected in a second range. To ensure that the Single-Family Study is able to identify promising opportunities for future program development, two purposively selected groups of subgrantees will be included: (1) subgrantees that install cooling measures (such as more efficient air conditioning equipment or radiant barriers), and (2) exemplary subgrantees that use state-of-the-art technologies and service delivery procedures (such as advanced audit techniques, blower door tests, infrared scanners, extensive client education, etc.). These two groups of subgrantees will be analyzed to identify the most effective program elements in specific circumstances. 14 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Brandon Knott | Bioenergy | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Brandon Knott Brandon Knott Staff Engineer Brandon.Knott@nrel.gov | 303-384-6223 Research Interests Molecular mechanisms of cellulose biosynthesis Molecular mechanisms of cellulose-degrading enzymes Structure-function relationships in glycoside hydrolases Techno-economic analysis (TEA) of biomass conversion technologies Methane clathrate hydrates formation Molecular Mechanisms of Cellulose Biosynthesis Illustration of the domains of the synthase enzyme, represented as Cellulose is the primary

  4. Hui Wei | Bioenergy | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hui Wei Hui Wei Research Scientist Hui.Wei@nrel.gov | 303-384-6620 Research Interests Genetic modification of plants with glycoside hydrolase and biocatalyst overexpression to increase the biomass pretreatability and digestibility Genetic engineering of yeast and bacteria for the production of advanced biofuels Biomaterials and biomanufacturing Affiliated Research Programs Targeted Microbial Development Advanced concepts for producing hydrocarbons, 2015-present Targeted Conversion Research

  5. Living in the Nuclear Age: Families and the threat of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demorest, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    The main interest of this research was to add to the body of knowledge about the possible psychological impact of the nuclear threat on the family unit. Data were utilized from the Family Interaction, Stress and Nuclear War study conducted by Jules Riskin, M.D. and Victoria Dickerson, Ph.D. at the Mental Research Institute in Palo Alto, California. The sample consisted of ten families who were recruited for this study. In order to examine family-interaction variables and the impact of the threat of nuclear war, a standardized semi-structured family interview was conducted. Topics ranged from ordinary activities to external, non-nuclear stresses such as landslides or hurricanes, to the topic of nuclear war. A distinction is drawn between a family's level of nuclear concern while they discuss nuclear issues and a family's level of nuclear concern when viewed in the context of their overall pattern of family communication. In terms of family coping, family nuclear concern was found to be significantly related to two family-coping strategies. Families who utilized the coping strategies of seeking spiritual support and mobilizing the family to acquire and accept help were significantly less concerned about the threat of nuclear war.

  6. Overexpression, purification and crystallization of the two C-terminal domains of the bifunctional cellulase ctCel9D-Cel44A from Clostridium thermocellum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Najmudin, Shabir; Guerreiro, Catarina I. P. D.; Ferreira, Luís M. A.; Romão, Maria J. C.; Fontes, Carlos M. G. A.; Prates, José A. M.

    2005-12-01

    The two C-terminal domains of the cellulase ctCel9D-Cel44A from C. thermocellum cellulosome have been crystallized in tetragonal space group P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2 and X-ray diffraction data have been collected to 2.1 and 2.8 Å from native and seleno-l-methionine-derivative crystals, respectively. Clostridium thermocellum produces a highly organized multi-enzyme complex of cellulases and hemicellulases for the hydrolysis of plant cell-wall polysaccharides, which is termed the cellulosome. The bifunctional multi-modular cellulase ctCel9D-Cel44A is one of the largest components of the C. thermocellum cellulosome. The enzyme contains two internal catalytic domains belonging to glycoside hydrolase families 9 and 44. The C-terminus of this cellulase, comprising a polycystic kidney-disease module (PKD) and a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM44), has been crystallized. The crystals belong to the tetragonal space group P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2, containing a single molecule in the asymmetric unit. Native and seleno-l-methionine-derivative crystals diffracted to 2.1 and 2.8 Å, respectively.

  7. Impact of Pretreated Switchgrass and Biomass Carbohydrates on Clostridium thermocellum 27405 Cellulosome Composition- a Quantitative Proteomic Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raman, Babu; Pan, Chongle; Hurst, Gregory {Greg} B; Rodriguez, Jr., Miguel; McKeown, Catherine K; Lankford, Patricia K; Samatova, Nagiza F; Mielenz, Jonathan R

    2009-01-01

    The anaerobic thermophilic bacterium Clostridium thermocellum is a cellulolytic organism capable of hydrolyzing cellulose and fermenting the hydrolysis products to ethanol and other metabolic products. C. thermocellum achieves efficient cellulose hydrolysis using multiprotein extracellular enzymatic complexes, termed the cellulosomes. In this study, we used quantitative proteomics (multidimensional LC-MS/MS and 15N-metabolic labeling) to measure relative changes in levels of cellulosomal subunit proteins (per CipA scaffoldin basis) when C. thermocellum was grown on a variety of carbon sources [dilute-acid pretreated switchgrass, cellobiose, amorphous cellulose, crystalline cellulose (Avicel) and combinations of crystalline cellulose with pectin or xylan or both]. Cellulosome samples isolated from cultures grown on these carbon sources were compared to 15N labeled cellulosome samples isolated from crystalline cellulose grown cultures. In total from all samples, proteomic analysis identified 59 dockerin- and 8 cohesin-module containing components, including 15 previously undetected cellulosomal subunits. Many cellulosomal components showed differential protein abundance in the presence of non-cellulose substrates in the growth medium. Cellulosome samples from amorphous cellulose, cellobiose and pretreated switchgrass grown cultures displayed the most distinct differences in composition as compared to cellulosome samples from crystalline cellulose grown cultures. While Glycoside Hydrolase Family 9 enzymes showed increased levels in the presence of crystalline cellulose, and pretreated switchgrass in particular, GH5 enzymes showed increased levels in response to the presence of cellulose in general, amorphous or crystalline. Overall, the results suggest a coordinated substrate-specific regulation of cellulosomal composition in C. thermocellum.

  8. Lynden Archer > James A. Friend Family Distinguished Professor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering > Faculty Directory > The Energy Materials Center at Cornell Lynden Archer James A. Friend Family Distinguished Professor Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Research Group Webpage laa25@cornell.edu Professor Archer received the Career Award from the National Science Foundation, 1996, Dupont Young Professor Award 1996-1999, 3M Company Non-Tenured Faculty Award 1995, and the George Armistead Faculty Fellowship 1999-2000. Lynden joined the Cornell

  9. Jefferson Lab invites families, groups to Summer 2005 Physics Fests |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jefferson Lab groups to Summer 2005 Physics Fests Science Education staff member Steve Gagnon Steve Gagnon, Science Education, doing the popular "Deep Freeze (cryogenics)" presentation at the 2003 Open House. Photo credit: Greg Adams. Jefferson Lab invites families, groups to Summer 2005 Physics Fests April 7, 2005 Wednesday, June 8 Wednesday, June 29 Tuesday, July 12 Wednesday, July 27 Wednesday, August 10 This two-hour presentation (10 a.m. - noon) includes an interactive summary

  10. Jefferson Lab invites families, groups to Summer Physics Fests | Jefferson

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lab groups to Summer Physics Fests Jefferson Lab invites families, groups to Summer Physics Fests April 12, 2004 Wednesday, June 9 Wednesday, June 30 Wednesday, July 28 Wednesday, August 11 Wednesday, August 25 This two-hour presentation (10 a.m. - noon) includes an interactive summary of the research conducted at the Department of Energy's Jefferson Lab followed by the popular "Deep Freeze (cryogenics) and Hot Stuff (plasmas)" presentations, which demonstrate some of the

  11. Structure and T Cell Inhibition Properties of B7 Family Member...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Structure and T Cell Inhibition Properties of B7 Family Member, B7-H3 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Structure and T Cell Inhibition Properties of B7 Family Member, ...

  12. ETO family protein Mtgr1 mediates Prdm14 functions in stem cell...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ETO family protein Mtgr1 mediates Prdm14 functions in stem cell maintenance and primordial germ cell formation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ETO family protein Mtgr1 ...

  13. BC Hydro Brings Energy Savings to Low-Income Families in Canada...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    BC Hydro Brings Energy Savings to Low-Income Families in Canada BC Hydro Brings Energy Savings to Low-Income Families in Canada The number of British Columbia, Canada, households ...

  14. STEP-UP Coaches a University Park Family to Comfort and Savings...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    STEP-UP Coaches a University Park Family to Comfort and Savings STEP-UP Coaches a University Park Family to Comfort and Savings The average American household spends nearly 2,000 ...

  15. PG&E (Gas)- Multi-Family Residential Energy Efficiency Rebates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Through the Rebates for Multi-Family Properties Program, PG&E offers prescriptive rebates for owners and managers of multi-family properties of two or more units. Boilers, furnaces, clothes...

  16. Y-12 and East TN Public Broadcasting System ? A Nuclear Family...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - A Nuclear Family Video Miniseries The fourth and final episode of A Nuclear Family: Y-12 National Security Complex documentary film miniseries is complete and East TN PBS is...

  17. Energy Auditor - Single Family 2.0: Blower Door Basics | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Blower Door Basics Energy Auditor - Single Family 2.0: Blower Door Basics Blower Door Basics - Complete (12.5 MB) Lesson Plan: Blower Door Basics (225.08 KB) PowerPoint: Blower Door Basics (12.84 MB) More Documents & Publications Energy Auditor - Single Family 2.0: Mechanical Ventilation Energy Auditor - Single Family 2.0: Zone Pressure Diagnostics Energy Auditor - Single Family 2.0: Building Science Basics

  18. Energy Auditor - Single Family 2.0: Building Shell Retrofit Strategies |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Building Shell Retrofit Strategies Energy Auditor - Single Family 2.0: Building Shell Retrofit Strategies Building Shell Retrofit Strategies - Complete (3.79 MB) Lesson Plan: Building Shell Retrofit Strategies (320.22 KB) PowerPoint: Building Shell Retrofit Strategies (3.67 MB) More Documents & Publications Energy Auditor - Single Family 2.0: Zone Pressure Diagnostics Energy Auditor - Single Family 2.0: Mobile Home Assessment Energy Auditor - Single Family 2.0: House

  19. Energy Auditor - Single Family 2.0: Mechanical Ventilation | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Auditor - Single Family 2.0: Mechanical Ventilation Energy Auditor - Single Family 2.0: Mechanical Ventilation Mechanical Ventilation - Complete (22.2 MB) Lesson Plan: Mechanical Ventilation (222.33 KB) PowerPoint: Mechanical Ventilation (22.61 MB) More Documents & Publications Weatherization Installer/Technician Fundamentals 2.0 - Mechanical Ventilation Rough-In Guidelines Energy Auditor - Single Family 2.0: Blower Door Basics Energy Auditor - Single Family 2.0: Mobile Home

  20. Heterologous Expression of Glycosyl Hydrolases in planta: A New...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Find in Google Scholar Find in Google Scholar Search WorldCat Search WorldCat to find libraries that may hold this journal Have feedback or suggestions for a way to improve these ...

  1. Coastal Maine Botanical Gardens Bosarge Family Education Center

    High Performance Buildings Database

    Boothbay, ME The Bosarge Family Education Center offers the Gardens a unique opportunity to educate, influence and inspire the public regarding environmental sustainable living practices. The building is a new ~8000 SF Education Center adjacent to the existing Visitors Center in Boothbay ME, owned by Coastal Maine Botanical Gardens (CMBG). This project provides an important addition to CMBG's environmental programming and expands the Gardens' public image. It houses administrative office space as well as flexible and adaptable classroom space that can also be used for various events and gatherings.

  2. The development of a prechamber diesel engine family

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Filtri, G.; Morello, L.; Stroppiana, B.

    1989-01-01

    The development of a new family of prechamber diesel engines, based on a technological commonalty with the gasoline engines is reported. The range of diesel engines, all of them four-cylinder-in line, consist of 3 displacements: 1365cc - 1697cc - 1930cc either naturally aspirated or turbocharged. Mention is also made of their most significant technical innovations about their architecture and combustion chambers, and the main components such as block cylinder, head, crankshaft, connecting rods, pistons, timing gear and injection pump control, intake and exhaust manifolds.

  3. Jefferson Lab invites families, groups, to Summer 2006 Physiscs Fests |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jefferson Lab groups, to Summer 2006 Physiscs Fests Jefferson Lab invites families, groups to Summer 2006 Physics Fests March 17, 2006 Thursday, June 1 Wednesday, July 12 Wednesday, July 26 A Physics Fest is a two-hour presentation (10 a.m. - noon) that includes an interactive summary of the research conducted at the Department of Energy's Jefferson Lab followed by the popular "Deep Freeze (cryogenics) and Hot Stuff (plasmas)" presentations, which demonstrate some of the technology

  4. Identifying the ionically bound cell wall and intracellular glycoside...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Find in Google Scholar Find in Google Scholar Search WorldCat Search WorldCat to find libraries that may hold this journal Have feedback or suggestions for a way to improve these ...

  5. Identifying the Ionically Bound Cell Wall and Intracellular Glycoside...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Stems: Implications for the Genetic Engineering of Bioenergy Crops; Article 315 Title: ... Stems: Implications for the Genetic Engineering of Bioenergy Crops; Article 315 ...

  6. An evaluation of genetic heterogeneity in 145 breast-ovarian cancer families

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narod, S.A.; Ford, D.; Devilee, P.; Barkardottir, R.B.; Lynch, H.T.; Smith, S.A.; Ponder, B.A.J.; Weber, B.L.; Garber, J.E.; Birch, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    The breast-ovary cancer-family syndrome is a dominant predisposition to cancer of the breast and ovaries which has been mapped to chromosome region 17q12-q21. The majority, but not all, of breast-ovary cancer families show linkage to this susceptibility locus, designated BRCA1. We report the results of a linkage analysis of 145 families with both breast and ovarian cancer. These families contain either a total of three or more cases of early-onset (before age 60 years) breast cancer or ovarian cancer. All families contained at least one case of ovarian cancer. Overall, an estimated 76% of the 145 families are linked to the BRCA1 locus. None of the 13 families with cases of male breast cancer appear to be linked, but it is estimated that 92% (95% confidence interval 76%-100%) of families with no male breast cancer and with two or more ovarian cancers are linked to BRCA1. These data suggest that the breast-ovarian cancer-family syndrome is genetically heterogeneous. However, the large majority of families with early-onset breast cancer and with two or more cases of ovarian cancer are likely to be due to BRCA1 mutations. 39 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. A novel family of small proteins that affect plant development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Charles Walker

    2011-04-29

    The DVL genes represent a new group of plant proteins that influence plant growth and development. Overexpression of DVL1, and other members of the DVL family, causes striking phenotypic changes. The DVL proteins share sequence homology in their C-terminal half. Point mutations in the C-terminal domain show it is necessary and deletion studies demonstrate the C-terminal domain is sufficient to confer the overexpression phenotypes. The phenotypes observed, and the conservation of the protein sequence in the plant kingdom, does suggest the DVL proteins have a role in modulating plant growth and development. Our working hypothesis is the DVL proteins function as regulators of cellular signaling pathways that control growth and development.

  8. Palmitoylation of POTE family proteins for plasma membrane targeting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Sudipto; Ise, Tomoko; Nagata, Satoshi; Maeda, Hiroshi; Bera, Tapan K.; Pastan, Ira

    2007-11-23

    The POTE gene family is composed of 13 paralogs and likely evolved by duplications and remodeling of the human genome. One common property of POTE proteins is their localization on the inner aspect of the plasma membrane. To determine the structural elements required for membrane localization, we expressed mutants of different POTEs in 293T cells as EGFP fusion proteins. We also tested their palmitoylation by a biotin-switch assay. Our data indicate that the membrane localizations of different POTEs are mediated by similar 3-4 short cysteine rich repeats (CRRs) near the amino-terminuses and that palmitoylation on paired cysteine residues in each CRR motif is responsible for the localization. Multiple palmitoylation in the small CRRs can result in the strong association of whole POTEs with plasma membrane.

  9. A new family of salts for lithium secondary batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baril, D.; Beranger, S.; Ravet, N.; Michot, C.; Armand, M.

    2000-07-01

    A novel family of salts suitable for lithium battery application was synthesized and characterized. These salts have a large delocalized anion whose charge is spread over a single SO{sub 2} and a phenyl ring. Remarkable properties were obtained for the lithium N-(3-trifluoromethyl phenyl) trifluoromethanesulfonamide salt or LiTFPTS. The electrochemical stability window is around 4.0 V and its conductivity in solid poly(ethylene oxide) or PEO is close to the one of the lithium perchlorate salt. Calorimetric analysis also showed that LiTFPTS behaves as a plasticizer since it hinders, to a certain extent, the PEO crystallization when it is used in a solid polymer matrix. Above all, its synthesis is quite straightforward and leads to potentially inexpensive salts as the starting amines are made commercially on a large scale.

  10. Y-12 employees, families and friends help East Tennessee during annual

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Volunteer Day | Y-12 National Security Complex employees, families ... Y-12 employees, families and friends help East Tennessee during annual Volunteer Day Posted: May 7, 2015 - 3:34pm Chris Clark, Contractor Assurance manager, and Rick Glass, Vice President of Mission Assurance for CNS, volunteered at the Oak Ridge Children's Museum. Y-12 National Security Complex employees, their families and friends lent helping hands to some 32 projects throughout the area - painting, landscaping,

  11. Energy Auditor - Single Family 2.0: Mobile Home Assessment | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Mobile Home Assessment Energy Auditor - Single Family 2.0: Mobile Home Assessment Mobile Home Assessment - Complete (5.85 MB) Lesson Plan: Mobile Home Assessment (310.8 KB) PowerPoint: Mobile Home Assessment (5.69 MB) More Documents & Publications Weatherization Installer/Technician Fundamentals 2.0 - Mechanical Systems and Improve Duct Systems Energy Auditor - Single Family 2.0: Building Shell Retrofit Strategies Energy Auditor - Single Family 2.0: HVAC Distribution System

  12. Linkage analysis of 19 French breast cancer families, with five chromosome 17q markers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazoyer, S.; Jamot, B.; Sobol, H. ); Lalle, P.; Bignon, Y.J.; Courjal, F. ); Narod, S.A. ); Dutrillaux, B.; Stoppa-Lyonnet, D. )

    1993-04-01

    Nineteen French breast and breast-ovarian cancer families were tested for linkage with five chromosome 17q markers. The five breast-ovarian cancer families as a group give positive evidence for linkage, whereas the 14 breast cancer-only families do not. Heterogeneity of linkage of breast and breast-ovarian cancers is significant in France and supports the existence of more than one susceptibility gene. 15 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Energy Auditor - Single Family 2.0: Energy Movement | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Movement Energy Auditor - Single Family 2.0: Energy Movement Energy Movement - Complete (3.44 MB) Lesson Plan: Energy Movement (227.1 KB) PowerPoint: Energy Movement (2.86 MB) Quiz: Energy Movement (229.1 KB) Quiz Key: Energy Movement (233.08 KB) More Documents & Publications Energy Auditor - Single Family 2.0: House as a System Energy Auditor - Single Family 2.0: Building Shell Retrofit Strategies Energy Auditor - Single Family 2.0: Mobile Home Assessment

  14. "Feds Feed Families" Events to Be Held at Department of Energy Facilities |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy "Feds Feed Families" Events to Be Held at Department of Energy Facilities "Feds Feed Families" Events to Be Held at Department of Energy Facilities August 4, 2011 - 9:23am Addthis Deputy Secretary Daniel Poneman and his band "Yellow Cake" at last year's Feds Feed Families event. | Energy Department photo Deputy Secretary Daniel Poneman and his band "Yellow Cake" at last year's Feds Feed Families event. | Energy Department photo

  15. Weatherized Homes Saving Money for Families Across the U.S.

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    750 thousand homes have been weatherized over the past three years through the Department's Weatherization Assistance Program, saving families $400 a year on their heating and cooling bills.

  16. An interactive grid generator for TOUGH family code

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-01-09

    WinGridder has been developed for designing, generating, and visualizing (at various spatial scales) numerical grids used in reservoir simulations and groundwater modeling studies. It can save mesh files for TOUGH family codes and output additional grid information for various purposes in either graphic format or plain text format, many important features, such as inclined faults and offset, layering structure, local refinements, and embedded engineering structures, can be represented in the grid. The main advantages ofmore » this grid-generation software are its user friendly graphical interfaces, flexible grid design capabilities, efficient grid generation, and powerful searching and post-processing capability, especially for large size grid (e.g., a grid of million grid cells). The main improvements of the version 2.0 are (1) to add a capability of handling a repository with multiple sub-regions and specified drifts, (2) to use an interpolation method, instead of picking the nearest point, in calculating the geological data from the given digital geological model, and (3) enhanced searching and other capability.« less

  17. Heterogeneity analysis in 40 X-linked retinitis pigmentosa families

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teague, P.W.; Aldred, M.A.; Dempster, M.; Harrison, C.; Carothers, A.D.; Hardwick, L.J.; Evans, H.J.; Wright, A.F.; Strain, L.; Brock, D.J.H. )

    1994-07-01

    Analysis of genetic heterogeneity in 40 kindreds with X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP), with 20 polymorphic markers, showed that significant heterogeneity is present (P=.001) and that 56% of kindreds are of RP3 type and that 26% are of RP2 type. The location of the RP3 locus was found to be 0.4 cM distal to OTC in the Xp21.1 region, and that of the RP2 locus was 6.5 cM proximal to DXS7 in Xp11.2-p11.3. Bayesian probabilities of linkage to RP2, RP3, or to neither locus were calculated. This showed that 20 of 40 kindreds could be assigned to one or the other locus, with a probability >.70 (14 kindreds with RP3 and 6 kindreds with RP2 disease). A further three kindreds were found to be unlinked to either locus, with a probability >.8. The remaining 17 kindreds could not be classified unambiguously. This highlights the difficulty of classifying families in the presence of genetic heterogeneity, where two loci are separated by an estimated 16 cM. 34 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  18. Pyrin gene and mutants thereof, which cause familial Mediterranean fever

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kastner, Daniel L.; Aksentijevichh, Ivona; Centola, Michael; Deng, Zuoming; Sood, Ramen; Collins, Francis S.; Blake, Trevor; Liu, P. Paul; Fischel-Ghodsian, Nathan; Gumucio, Deborah L.; Richards, Robert I.; Ricke, Darrell O.; Doggett, Norman A.; Pras, Mordechai

    2003-09-30

    The invention provides the nucleic acid sequence encoding the protein associated with familial Mediterranean fever (FMF). The cDNA sequence is designated as MEFV. The invention is also directed towards fragments of the DNA sequence, as well as the corresponding sequence for the RNA transcript and fragments thereof. Another aspect of the invention provides the amino acid sequence for a protein (pyrin) associated with FMF. The invention is directed towards both the full length amino acid sequence, fusion proteins containing the amino acid sequence and fragments thereof. The invention is also directed towards mutants of the nucleic acid and amino acid sequences associated with FMF. In particular, the invention discloses three missense mutations, clustered in within about 40 to 50 amino acids, in the highly conserved rfp (B30.2) domain at the C-terminal of the protein. These mutants include M6801, M694V, K695R, and V726A. Additionally, the invention includes methods for diagnosing a patient at risk for having FMF and kits therefor.

  19. Functional and structural diversity in GH62 ?-L-arabinofuranosidases from the thermophilic fungus Scytalidium thermophilum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaur, Amrit Pal; Nocek, Boguslaw P.; Xu, Xiaohui; Lowden, Michael J.; Leyva, Juan Francisco; Stogios, Peter J.; Cui, Hong; Leo, Rosa Di; Powlowski, Justin; Tsang, Adrian; Savchenko, Alexei

    2015-05-01

    The genome of the thermophilic fungus Scytalidium thermophilum (strain CBS 625.91) harbours a wide range of genes involved in carbohydrate degradation, including three genes, abf62A, abf62B and abf62C, predicted to encode glycoside hydrolase family 62 (GH62) enzymes. Transcriptome analysis showed that only abf62A and abf62C are actively expressed during growth on diverse substrates including straws from barley, alfalfa, triticale and canola. The abf62A and abf62C genes were expressed in Escherichia coli and the resulting recombinant proteins were characterized. Calcium-free crystal structures of Abf62C in apo and xylotriose bound forms were determined to 1.23 and 1.48 resolution respectively. Site-directed mutagenesis confirmed Asp55, Asp171 and Glu230 as catalytic triad residues, and revealed the critical role of non-catalytic residues Asp194, Trp229 and Tyr338 in positioning the scissile ?-L-arabinofuranoside bond at the catalytic site. Further, the +2R substrate-binding site residues Tyr168 and Asn339, as well as the +2NR residue Tyr226, are involved in accommodating long-chain xylan polymers. Overall, our structural and functional analysis highlights characteristic differences between Abf62A and Abf62C, which represent divergent subgroups in the GH62 family.

  20. Where are the mini Kreutz-family comets?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye, Quan-Zhi; Wiegert, Paul A.; Hui, Man-To; Kracht, Rainer

    2014-12-01

    The Kreutz family of sungrazing comets contains over 2000 known members, many of which are believed to be under ∼100 m sizes (mini comets) and have only been studied at small heliocentric distances (r {sub H}) with space-based SOHO/STEREO spacecraft. To understand the brightening process of mini Kreutz comets, we conducted a survey using CFHT/MegaCam at moderate r {sub H} guided by SOHO/STEREO observations. We identify two comets that should be in our search area but are not detected, indicating that the comets have either followed a steeper brightening rate within the previously reported rapid brightening stage (the brightening burst), or the brightening burst starts earlier than expected. We present a composite analysis of the pre-perihelion light curves of five Kreutz comets that cover to ∼1 AU. We observe significant diversity in the light curves that can be used to grossly classify them into two types: C/Ikeya-Seki and C/SWAN follow the canonical r{sub H}{sup −4} while the others follow r{sub H}{sup −7}. In particular, C/SWAN seems to have undergone an outburst (Δm > 5 mag) or a rapid brightening (n ≳ 11) between r {sub H} = 1.06 AU and 0.52 AU, and shows hints of structural/compositional differences compared to other bright Kreutz comets. We also find evidence that the Kreutz comets as a population lose their mass less efficiently than the dynamically new comet, C/ISON, and are relatively devoid of species that drive C/ISON's activity at large r {sub H}. Concurrent observations of C/STEREO in different wavelengths also suggest that a blueward species such as CN may be the main driver for brightening bursts, instead of sodium as previously thought.

  1. PATtyFams: Protein families for the microbial genomes in the PATRIC database

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Davis, James J.; Gerdes, Svetlana; Olsen, Gary J.; Olson, Robert; Pusch, Gordon D.; Shukla, Maulik; Vonstein, Veronika; Wattam, Alice R.; Yoo, Hyunseung

    2016-02-08

    The ability to build accurate protein families is a fundamental operation in bioinformatics that influences comparative analyses, genome annotation, and metabolic modeling. For several years we have been maintaining protein families for all microbial genomes in the PATRIC database (Pathosystems Resource Integration Center, patricbrc.org) in order to drive many of the comparative analysis tools that are available through the PATRIC website. However, due to the burgeoning number of genomes, traditional approaches for generating protein families are becoming prohibitive. In this report, we describe a new approach for generating protein families, which we call PATtyFams. This method uses the k-mer-based functionmore » assignments available through RAST (Rapid Annotation using Subsystem Technology) to rapidly guide family formation, and then differentiates the function-based groups into families using a Markov Cluster algorithm (MCL). In conclusion, this new approach for generating protein families is rapid, scalable and has properties that are consistent with alignment-based methods.« less

  2. Tactical Response Force 1 graduation: a family reunion of sorts | Y-12

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Security Complex Tactical Response Force 1 ... Tactical Response Force 1 graduation: a family reunion of sorts Posted: July 28, 2016 - 2:51pm Tactical Response Force 1 Class 3-16. "Family ties" makes a fitting theme for Tactical Response Force 1 Class 3-16's graduation ceremony. Three kinds of family attended the graduation at New Hope Center: graduates' proud parents, spouses and children; CNS employees watching their children or other relatives graduate; and the

  3. Roy Williams as recalled by his son and family ? Or: Roy Williams...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    his son and family - Or: Roy Williams: A leader among many (title at it appeared The Oak Ridger) The rewards for writing stories about Y-12 history come in many and varied formsl...

  4. A Nuclear Family: Extras - About the Series | Y-12 National Security...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - ... A Nuclear Family: Extras - About the Series The mp4 video format is not supported by this browser. Download video Captions: On Time: 11:49 min. D. Ray Smith, Y-12 historian,...

  5. A Nuclear Family: I've Seen It | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    I've ... A Nuclear Family: I've Seen It The mp4 video format is not supported by this browser. Download video Captions: On Time: 26:42 min. Episode 1 shows how the lives of East...

  6. A Nuclear Family: Lifting The Veil | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lifting ... A Nuclear Family: Lifting The Veil The mp4 video format is not supported by this browser. Download video Captions: On Time: 26:40 min. Episode 4 describes Y-12's focus...

  7. A Nuclear Family: A Race For Peace | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Race ... A Nuclear Family: A Race For Peace The mp4 video format is not supported by this browser. Download video Captions: On Time: 26:40 min. Episode 3 reveals how Y-12 helped...

  8. Working Families Tax Relief Act of 2004 (released in AEO2005)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    The Working Families Tax Relief Act of 2004 was signed into law on October 13, 2004. Primarily, the Act reduces taxes for individuals and businesses. At least two provisions relate to energy: Depletion of marginal properties and qualified vehicles.

  9. Guidelines for Home Energy Professionals: Standard Work Specifications for Single-Family Home Energy Upgrades

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Standard Work Specifications (SWS) for Single-Family Home Energy Upgrades define the minimum acceptable outcomes for any weatherization or home performance task to be effective, durable, and safe.

  10. Zero Energy-Ready Single-Family Homes - Building America Top...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    View other Top Innovations in the House-as-a-System Business Case category. Zero Energy-Ready Single-Family Homes (766.18 KB) More Documents & Publications Building America Top ...

  11. Table 5.8. U.S. Vehicle Fuel Consumption by Family Income, 1994

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and 1994 Vehicle Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total 1993 Family Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral Assist- ance 1 RSE Row Factor: Less than 5,000 5,000...

  12. Table 5.10. U.S. Average Vehicle Fuel Consumption by Family...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1993 Household Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total 1993 Family Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral Assist- ance 1 RSE Row Factor: Less than 5,000 5,000...

  13. Table 5.9. U.S. Average Vehicle-Miles Traveled by Family Income...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1993 Household Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total 1993 Family Income Below Poverty Line Eli- gible for Fed- eral Assist- ance 1 RSE Row Factor: Less than 5,000 5,000...

  14. PG&E- Multi-Family Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    PG&E offers prescriptive rebates for owners and managers of multi-family properties of two or more units. Appliances, boilers, water heating, HVAC, and lighting improvements are among the...

  15. Seattle City Light- Multi-Family Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Seattle City Light provides incentives for multi-family housing properties with 5 or more units to increase their energy efficiency. Rebates are offered for common area lighting and weatherization...

  16. NNSA Production Office donates 50,177 pounds of food for Feds Feed Families

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    campaign | National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) NNSA Production Office donates 50,177 pounds of food for Feds Feed Families campaign September 09, 2016 Amarillo, Texas -- Employees of the National Nuclear Security Administration Production Office (NPO) have donated 50,177pounds of food as part of the annual U.S. Department of Energy's Feds Feed Families (FFF) campaign. The amount of food donated is almost double the amount donated in the 2015 campaign and continues NPO's

  17. The Standard Work Specifications for Single-Family Home Energy Upgrades are

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    now available€ at your fingertips! | Department of Energy The Standard Work Specifications for Single-Family Home Energy Upgrades are now available€ at your fingertips! The Standard Work Specifications for Single-Family Home Energy Upgrades are now available€ at your fingertips! This announcement contains information on the availability of the SWS Online Tool. sws_tool_available.pdf (121.85 KB) More Documents & Publications Guidelines for Home Energy Professionals: Request for

  18. BC Hydro Brings Energy Savings to Low-Income Families in Canada |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy BC Hydro Brings Energy Savings to Low-Income Families in Canada BC Hydro Brings Energy Savings to Low-Income Families in Canada The number of British Columbia, Canada, households eligible for Better Buildings Residential Network member BC Hydro's Energy Conservation Assistance Program (ECAP) just doubled. British Columbia Energy Minister Bill Bennett recently announced an increase in the low-income qualification cutoff for BC Hydro's free home energy-saving kits and

  19. Critical Question #7: What are the Best Practices for Single-Family

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ventilation in All Climate Regions? | Department of Energy 7: What are the Best Practices for Single-Family Ventilation in All Climate Regions? Critical Question #7: What are the Best Practices for Single-Family Ventilation in All Climate Regions? Why ventilate? What are the ultimate goals of ventilation requirements in codes and standards? What are the characteristics of an effective ventilation system in new vs. existing construction? What are the risks and solutions associated with

  20. Analysis of Installed Measures and Energy Savings for Single-Family Residential Better Buildings Projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heaney, M.; Polly, B.

    2015-04-30

    This report presents an analysis of data for residential single-family projects reported by 37 organizations that were awarded federal financial assistance (cooperative agreements or grants) by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Better Buildings Neighborhood Program.1 The report characterizes the energy-efficiency measures installed for single-family residential projects and analyzes energy savings and savings prediction accuracy for measures installed in a subset of those projects.

  1. A high incidence of BRCA1 mutations in 20 breast-ovarian cancer families

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serova, O.; Montagna, M.; Sylla, B.

    1996-01-01

    We have analyzed 20 breast-ovarian cancer families, the majority of which show positive evidence of linkage to chromosome 17q12, for germ-line mutations in the BRCA1 gene. BRCA1 mutations cosegregating with breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility were identified in 16 families, including 1 family with a case of male breast cancer. Nine of these mutations have not been reported previously. The majority of mutations were found to generate a premature stop codon leading to the formation of a truncated BRCA1 protein of 2%-88% of the expected normal length. Two mutations altered the RING finger domain. Sequencing of genomic DNA led to the identification of a mutation in the coding region of BRCA1 in 12 families, and cDNA analysis revealed an abnormal or missing BRCA1 transcript in 4 of the 8 remaining families. A total of eight mutations were associated with a reduced quantity of BRCA1 transcript. We were unable to detect BRCA1 mutations in 4 of the 20 families, but only 1 of these was clearly linked to BRCA1. It is expected that the majority of clear examples of the breast-ovarian cancer syndrome will be associated with germ-line mutations in the coding region of BRCA1. 30 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. miR-92a family and their target genes in tumorigenesis and metastasis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Molin; Guan, Xingfang; Sun, Yuqiang; Mi, Jun; Shu, Xiaohong; Liu, Fang; Li, Chuangang

    2014-04-15

    The miR-92a family, including miR-25, miR-92a-1, miR-92a-2 and miR-363, arises from three different paralog clusters miR-17-92, miR-106a-363, and miR-106b-25 that are highly conservative in the process of evolution, and it was thought as a group of microRNAs (miRNAs) correlated with endothelial cells. Aberrant expression of miR-92a family was detected in multiple cancers, and the disturbance of miR-92a family was related with tumorigenesis and tumor development. In this review, the progress on the relationship between miR-92a family and their target genes and malignant tumors will be summarized. - Highlights: Aberrant expression of miR-92a, miR-25 and miR-363 can be observed in many kinds of malignant tumors. The expression of miR-92a family is regulated by LOH, epigenetic alteration, transcriptional factors such as SP1, MYC, E2F, wild-type p53 etc. Roles of miR-92a family in tumorigenesis and development: promoting cell proliferation, invasion and metastasis, inhibiting cell apoptosis.

  3. An estimated 5% of new protein structures solved today represent a new Pfam family

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mistry, Jaina; Kloppmann, Edda; Rost, Burkhard; Punta, Marco

    2013-11-01

    This study uses the Pfam database to show that the sequence redundancy of protein structures deposited in the PDB is increasing. The possible reasons behind this trend are discussed. High-resolution structural knowledge is key to understanding how proteins function at the molecular level. The number of entries in the Protein Data Bank (PDB), the repository of all publicly available protein structures, continues to increase, with more than 8000 structures released in 2012 alone. The authors of this article have studied how structural coverage of the protein-sequence space has changed over time by monitoring the number of Pfam families that acquired their first representative structure each year from 1976 to 2012. Twenty years ago, for every 100 new PDB entries released, an estimated 20 Pfam families acquired their first structure. By 2012, this decreased to only about five families per 100 structures. The reasons behind the slower pace at which previously uncharacterized families are being structurally covered were investigated. It was found that although more than 50% of current Pfam families are still without a structural representative, this set is enriched in families that are small, functionally uncharacterized or rich in problem features such as intrinsically disordered and transmembrane regions. While these are important constraints, the reasons why it may not yet be time to give up the pursuit of a targeted but more comprehensive structural coverage of the protein-sequence space are discussed.

  4. The Sorcerer II Global Ocean Sampling Expedition: Expanding theUniverse of Protein Families

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yooseph, Shibu; Sutton, Granger; Rusch, Douglas B.; Halpern,Aaron L.; Williamson, Shannon J.; Remington, Karin; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Heidelberg, Karla B.; Manning, Gerard; Li, Weizhong; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Cieplak, Piotr; Miller, Christopher S.; Li, Huiying; Mashiyama, Susan T.; Joachimiak, Marcin P.; van Belle, Christopher; Chandonia, John-Marc; Soergel, David A.; Zhai, Yufeng; Natarajan, Kannan; Lee, Shaun; Raphael,Benjamin J.; Bafna, Vineet; Friedman, Robert; Brenner, Steven E.; Godzik,Adam; Eisenberg, David; Dixon, Jack E.; Taylor, Susan S.; Strausberg,Robert L.; Frazier, Marvin; Venter, J.Craig

    2006-03-23

    Metagenomics projects based on shotgun sequencing of populations of micro-organisms yield insight into protein families. We used sequence similarity clustering to explore proteins with a comprehensive dataset consisting of sequences from available databases together with 6.12 million proteins predicted from an assembly of 7.7 million Global Ocean Sampling (GOS) sequences. The GOS dataset covers nearly all known prokaryotic protein families. A total of 3,995 medium- and large-sized clusters consisting of only GOS sequences are identified, out of which 1,700 have no detectable homology to known families. The GOS-only clusters contain a higher than expected proportion of sequences of viral origin, thus reflecting a poor sampling of viral diversity until now. Protein domain distributions in the GOS dataset and current protein databases show distinct biases. Several protein domains that were previously categorized as kingdom specific are shown to have GOS examples in other kingdoms. About 6,000 sequences (ORFans) from the literature that heretofore lacked similarity to known proteins have matches in the GOS data. The GOS dataset is also used to improve remote homology detection. Overall, besides nearly doubling the number of current proteins, the predicted GOS proteins also add a great deal of diversity to known protein families and shed light on their evolution. These observations are illustrated using several protein families, including phosphatases, proteases, ultraviolet-irradiation DNA damage repair enzymes, glutamine synthetase, and RuBisCO. The diversity added by GOS data has implications for choosing targets for experimental structure characterization as part of structural genomics efforts. Our analysis indicates that new families are being discovered at a rate that is linear or almost linear with the addition of new sequences, implying that we are still far from discovering all protein families in nature.

  5. Relativistic static thin dust disks with an inner edge: An infinite family of new exact solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzalez, Guillermo A.; Gutierrez-Pineres, Antonio C.; Vina-Cervantes, Viviana M.

    2009-06-15

    An infinite family of new exact solutions of the vacuum Einstein equations is presented. The solutions are static and axially symmetric and correspond to an infinite family of thin dust disks with a central inner edge. The metric functions of all the solutions can be explicitly computed, and can be expressed in a simple manner in terms of oblate spheroidal coordinates. The energy density of all the disks of the family is positive everywhere and well behaved, so that the corresponding energy-momentum tensor is in full agreement with all the energy conditions. Moreover, although the total mass of the disks is infinite, the solutions are asymptotically flat and the Riemann tensor is regular everywhere, as it is shown by computing the curvature scalars. Now, besides its importance as a new family of exact solutions of the vacuum Einstein equations, the main importance of this family of solutions is that it can be easily superposed with the Schwarzschild solution in order to describe thin disks surrounding a central black hole. Accordingly, a detailed analysis of this superposition will be presented in a subsequent paper.

  6. Linkage studies with 17q and 18q markers in a breast/ovarian cancer family

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milner, B.J.; Allan, L.A.; Kelly, K.F.; Johnston, A.; Haites, N. ); Cruickshank, D.; Hall, M.; Kitchener, H.; Parkin, D. )

    1993-04-01

    Genes on chromosomes 17q and 18q have been shown to code for putative tumor suppressors. By a combination of allele-loss studies on sporadic ovarian carcinomas and linkage analysis on a breast/ovarian cancer family, the authors have investigated the involvement of such genes in these diseases. Allele loss occurred in sporadic tumors from both chromosome 17p, in 18/26 (69%) cases, and chromosome 17q, in 15/22 (68%) cases. In the three familial tumors studied, allele loss also occurred on chromosome 17 (in 2/3 cases for 17p markers and in 2/2 cases for a 17q allele). Allele loss on chromosome 18q, at the DCC (deleted in colorectal carcinomas) locus, was not as common (6/16 cases [38%]) in sporadic ovarian tumors but had occurred in all three familial tumors. The results of linkage analysis on the breast/ovarian cancer family suggested linkage between the disease locus and 17q markers, with a maximum lod score of 1.507 obtained with Mfd188 (D17S579) polymorphism at 5% recombination. The maximum lod score for DCC was 0.323 at 0.1% recombination. In this family the results are consistent with a predisposing gene for breast/ovarian cancer being located at chromosome 17q21. 24 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  7. Comparative genomics of the white-rot fungi, Phanerochaete carnosa and P. chrysosporium, to elucidate the genetic basis of the distinct wood types they colonize

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suzuki, Hitoshi; MacDonald, Jacqueline; Syed, Khajamohiddin; Salamov, Asaf; Hori, Chiaki; Aerts, Andrea; Henrissat, Bernard; Wiebenga, Ad; vanKuyk, Patricia A.; Barry, Kerrie; Lindquist, Erika; LaButti, Kurt; Lapidus, Alla; Lucas, Susan; Coutinho, Pedro; Gong, Yunchen; Samejima, Masahiro; Mahadevan, Radhakrishnan; Abou-Zaid, Mamdouh; de Vries, Ronald P.; Igarashi, Kiyohiko; Yadav, Jagit S.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Master, Emma R.

    2012-02-17

    Background Softwood is the predominant form of land plant biomass in the Northern hemisphere, and is among the most recalcitrant biomass resources to bioprocess technologies. The white rot fungus, Phanerochaete carnosa, has been isolated almost exclusively from softwoods, while most other known white-rot species, including Phanerochaete chrysosporium, were mainly isolated from hardwoods. Accordingly, it is anticipated that P. carnosa encodes a distinct set of enzymes and proteins that promote softwood decomposition. To elucidate the genetic basis of softwood bioconversion by a white-rot fungus, the present study reports the P. carnosa genome sequence and its comparative analysis with the previously reported P. chrysosporium genome. Results P. carnosa encodes a complete set of lignocellulose-active enzymes. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that P. carnosa is enriched with genes encoding manganese peroxidase, and that the most divergent glycoside hydrolase families were predicted to encode hemicellulases and glycoprotein degrading enzymes. Most remarkably, P. carnosa possesses one of the largest P450 contingents (266 P450s) among the sequenced and annotated wood-rotting basidiomycetes, nearly double that of P. chrysosporium. Along with metabolic pathway modeling, comparative growth studies on model compounds and chemical analyses of decomposed wood components showed greater tolerance of P. carnosa to various substrates including coniferous heartwood. Conclusions The P. carnosa genome is enriched with genes that encode P450 monooxygenases that can participate in extractives degradation, and manganese peroxidases involved in lignin degradation. The significant expansion of P450s in P. carnosa, along with differences in carbohydrate- and lignin-degrading enzymes, could be correlated to the utilization of heartwood and sapwood preparations from both coniferous and hardwood species.

  8. Multifunctional cellulase catalysis targeted by fusion to different carbohydrate-binding modules

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Walker, Johnnie A.; Takasuka, Taichi E.; Deng, Kai; Bianchetti, Christopher M.; Udell, Hannah S.; Prom, Ben M.; Kim, Hyunkee; Adams, Paul D.; Northen, Trent R.; Fox, Brian G.

    2015-12-21

    Carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs) bind polysaccharides and help target glycoside hydrolases catalytic domains to their appropriate carbohydrate substrates. To better understand how CBMs can improve cellulolytic enzyme reactivity, representatives from each of the 18 families of CBM found in Ruminoclostridium thermocellum were fused to the multifunctional GH5 catalytic domain of CelE (Cthe_0797, CelEcc), which can hydrolyze numerous types of polysaccharides including cellulose, mannan, and xylan. Since CelE is a cellulosomal enzyme, none of these fusions to a CBM previously existed. CelEcc_CBM fusions were assayed for their ability to hydrolyze cellulose, lichenan, xylan, and mannan. Several CelEcc_CBM fusions showed enhanced hydrolyticmore » activity with different substrates relative to the fusion to CBM3a from the cellulosome scaffoldin, which has high affinity for binding to crystalline cellulose. Additional binding studies and quantitative catalysis studies using nanostructure-initiator mass spectrometry (NIMS) were carried out with the CBM3a, CBM6, CBM30, and CBM44 fusion enzymes. In general, and consistent with observations of others, enhanced enzyme reactivity was correlated with moderate binding affinity of the CBM. Numerical analysis of reaction time courses showed that CelEcc_CBM44, a combination of a multifunctional enzyme domain with a CBM having broad binding specificity, gave the fastest rates for hydrolysis of both the hexose and pentose fractions of ionic-liquid pretreated switchgrass. In conclusion, we have shown that fusions of different CBMs to a single multifunctional GH5 catalytic domain can increase its rate of reaction with different pure polysaccharides and with pretreated biomass. This fusion approach, incorporating domains with broad specificity for binding and catalysis, provides a new avenue to improve reactivity of simple combinations of enzymes within the complexity of plant biomass.« less

  9. Multifunctional cellulase catalysis targeted by fusion to different carbohydrate-binding modules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Johnnie A.; Takasuka, Taichi E.; Deng, Kai; Bianchetti, Christopher M.; Udell, Hannah S.; Prom, Ben M.; Kim, Hyunkee; Adams, Paul D.; Northen, Trent R.; Fox, Brian G.

    2015-12-21

    Carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs) bind polysaccharides and help target glycoside hydrolases catalytic domains to their appropriate carbohydrate substrates. To better understand how CBMs can improve cellulolytic enzyme reactivity, representatives from each of the 18 families of CBM found in Ruminoclostridium thermocellum were fused to the multifunctional GH5 catalytic domain of CelE (Cthe_0797, CelEcc), which can hydrolyze numerous types of polysaccharides including cellulose, mannan, and xylan. Since CelE is a cellulosomal enzyme, none of these fusions to a CBM previously existed. CelEcc_CBM fusions were assayed for their ability to hydrolyze cellulose, lichenan, xylan, and mannan. Several CelEcc_CBM fusions showed enhanced hydrolytic activity with different substrates relative to the fusion to CBM3a from the cellulosome scaffoldin, which has high affinity for binding to crystalline cellulose. Additional binding studies and quantitative catalysis studies using nanostructure-initiator mass spectrometry (NIMS) were carried out with the CBM3a, CBM6, CBM30, and CBM44 fusion enzymes. In general, and consistent with observations of others, enhanced enzyme reactivity was correlated with moderate binding affinity of the CBM. Numerical analysis of reaction time courses showed that CelEcc_CBM44, a combination of a multifunctional enzyme domain with a CBM having broad binding specificity, gave the fastest rates for hydrolysis of both the hexose and pentose fractions of ionic-liquid pretreated switchgrass. In conclusion, we have shown that fusions of different CBMs to a single multifunctional GH5 catalytic domain can increase its rate of reaction with different pure polysaccharides and with pretreated biomass. This fusion approach, incorporating domains with broad specificity for binding and catalysis, provides a new avenue to improve reactivity of simple combinations of enzymes within the complexity of plant biomass.

  10. Complete genome of the cellyloytic thermophile Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B provides insights into its ecophysiological and evloutionary adaptations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barabote, Ravi D.; Xie, Gary; Leu, David H.; Normand, Philippe; Necsulea, Anamaria; Daubin, Vincent; Medigue, Claudine; Adney, William S.; Xu,Xin Clare; Lapidus, Alla; Detter, Chris; Pujic, Petar; Bruce, David; Lavire, Celine; Challacombe, Jean F.; Brettin, Thomas S.; Berry, Alison M.

    2009-01-01

    We present here the complete 2.4 Mb genome of the cellulolytic actinobacterial thermophile, Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B. New secreted glycoside hydrolases and carbohydrate esterases were identified in the genome, revealing a diverse biomass-degrading enzyme repertoire far greater than previously characterized, and significantly elevating the industrial value of this organism. A sizable fraction of these hydrolytic enzymes break down plant cell walls and the remaining either degrade components in fungal cell walls or metabolize storage carbohydrates such as glycogen and trehalose, implicating the relative importance of these different carbon sources. A novel feature of the A. cellulolyticus secreted cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes is that they are fused to multiple tandemly arranged carbohydrate binding modules (CBM), from families 2 and 3. Interestingly, CBM3 was found to be always N-terminal to CBM2, suggesting a functional constraint driving this organization. While the catalytic domains of these modular enzymes are either diverse or unrelated, the CBMs were found to be highly conserved in sequence and may suggest selective substrate-binding interactions. For the most part, thermophilic patterns in the genome and proteome of A. cellulolyticus were weak, which may be reflective of the recent evolutionary history of A. cellulolyticus since its divergence from its closest phylogenetic neighbor Frankia, a mesophilic plant endosymbiont and soil dweller. However, ribosomal proteins and non-coding RNAs (rRNA and tRNAs) in A. cellulolyticus showed thermophilic traits suggesting the importance of adaptation of cellular translational machinery to environmental temperature. Elevated occurrence of IVYWREL amino acids in A. cellulolyticus orthologs compared to mesophiles, and inverse preferences for G and A at the first and third codon positions also point to its ongoing thermoadaptation. Additional interesting features in the genome of this cellulolytic, hot

  11. Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Multi-family/Low Income Peer Exchange Call: Strategies to Address Split Incentives in Multi-family Buildings Call Slides and Discussion Summary, April 26, 2012

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    26, 2012 Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Multi- family/Low Income Peer Exchange Call: Strategies to Address Split Incentives in Multi-family Buildings Call Slides and Discussion Summary Agenda * Call Logistics and Attendance  How are you working with owners and tenants on multi-family upgrades? * Program Experience and Lessons:  Michael Croston, Repower Bremerton * Discussion:  What are some of the key challenges for working with rental properties?  What are effective

  12. Discrete family of dissipative soliton pairs in mode-locked fiber lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zavyalov, Aleksandr; Iliew, Rumen; Egorov, Oleg; Lederer, Falk

    2009-05-15

    We numerically investigate the formation of soliton pairs (bound states) in mode-locked fiber ring lasers. In the distributed model (complex cubic-quintic Ginzburg-Landau equation) we observe a discrete family of soliton pairs with equidistantly increasing peak separation. This family was identified by two alternative numerical schemes and the bound state instability was disclosed by a linear stability analysis. Moreover, similar families of unstable bound state solutions have been found in a more realistic lumped laser model with an idealized saturable absorber (instantaneous response). We show that a stabilization of these bound states can be achieved when the finite relaxation time of the saturable absorber is taken into account. The domain of stability can be controlled by varying this relaxation time.

  13. Homogenization of a thin plate reinforced with periodic families of rigid rods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nazarov, Sergei A; Sweers, Guido H; Slutskij, Andrey S

    2011-08-31

    The asymptotics of the solution to the elastic bending problem for a thin plate reinforced with several periodic families of closely spaced but disjoint rods are constructed and justified, the result of homogenization being substantially different from the case when the rods are welded together into a single periodic mesh. The material in the rods is assumed to be appreciably more rigid than that in the plate. An averaged fourth-order differential operator is obtained from summing the nonelliptic operators generated by each of the families of the rods. This operator is shown to be elliptic if and only if the rods from at least two families are nonparallel. As a simplified example, the paper examines a similar stationary heat conduction problem. Bibliography: 24 titles.

  14. A new method of calibration and normalization for neutron detector families

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menlove, H.O.; Stewart, J.E.

    1988-04-01

    A calibration and cross-reference is presented for passive and active neutron assay instruments. The method reduces and number of physical standards required to calibrate families of neutron detectors and also ties together much of the calibration information currently available. The basic approach is to carefully calibrate one member of the family (reference detector) over the complete mass range of interest. Other members of the family can be cross-referenced to the calibrated detector using a single sample or radioactive source. Calibration and cross-reference information is presented for the Inventory Sample Counter, High-Level Neutron Coincidence Counter. Active Well Coincidence Counter, and the Neutron Collar. 1 ref., 15 figs., 20 tabs.

  15. Familial site-specific Ovarian cancer is linked to BRCA1 on 17q12-21

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steichen-Gersdorf, E.; Gallion, H.H.; Ponder, M.A.; Pye, C.; Mazoyer, S.; Smith, S.A.; Ponder, B.A.J.; Ford, D.; Easton, D.F.; Girodet, C.

    1994-11-01

    In a study of nine families with {open_quotes}site-specific{close_quotes} ovarian cancer (criterion: three or more cases of epithelial ovarian cancer and no cases of breast cancer diagnosed at age <50 years) we have obtained evidence of linkage to the breast-ovarian cancer susceptibility gene, BRCA1 on 17q12-21. If the risk of cancer in these families is assumed to be restricted to the ovary, the best estimate of the proportion of families linked to BRCA1 is .78 (95% confidence interval .32-1.0). If predisposition to both breast and ovarian cancer is assumed, the proportion linked is 1.0 (95% confidence interval .46-1.0). The linkage of familial site-specific ovarian cancer to BRCA1 indicates the possibility of predictive testing in such families; however, this is only appropriate in families where the evidence for linkage to BRCA1 is conclusive. 17 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  16. NNSA Production Office tops Feds Feed Families campaign goal | Y-12

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Security Complex tops ... NNSA Production Office tops Feds Feed Families campaign goal Posted: September 16, 2013 - 9:45am Oak Ridge, Tenn. - Employees of the National Nuclear Security Administration Production Office have donated 17,348 pounds of food as part of the annual U.S. Department of Energy's "Feds Feed Families" campaign. The campaign, which ended on September 6, surpassed the goal of 17,000 pounds. "I am extremely proud and moved by the generosity of NPO

  17. Energy Department Provides $140.3 Million to Low-Income Families for Home

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Weatherization | Department of Energy 140.3 Million to Low-Income Families for Home Weatherization Energy Department Provides $140.3 Million to Low-Income Families for Home Weatherization April 3, 2006 - 9:55am Addthis Funding is first installment of $243 million in total weatherization grants for FY 2006 WASHINGTON, D.C. - U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Secretary Samuel W. Bodman today announced $140.3 million in weatherization program grants to 31 states and the Navajo Nation to make

  18. DOE Provides $96.4 Million to Low-Income Families for Home Weatherization |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy $96.4 Million to Low-Income Families for Home Weatherization DOE Provides $96.4 Million to Low-Income Families for Home Weatherization July 6, 2006 - 2:50pm Addthis Funding is Second Installment of $243 Million in Total Weatherization Grants for FY 2006 WASHINGTON, D.C. - U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Secretary Samuel W. Bodman today announced $96.4 million in weatherization program grants to 19 states to make energy efficiency improvements in homes of low-income

  19. 10,000th Waste Shipment Milestone is All in the Family | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Waste Shipment Milestone is All in the Family 10,000th Waste Shipment Milestone is All in the Family August 29, 2011 - 12:00pm Addthis A Waste Isolation Pilot Plant facility shift manager inspects the shipping manifest of the 10,000th safe shipment to roll through the gates at the Department of Energy’s Waste Isolation Pilot Plant on Sept. 24, 2011. A Waste Isolation Pilot Plant facility shift manager inspects the shipping manifest of the 10,000th safe shipment to roll through

  20. An Invitation for Family Fun at PPPL's Open House on June 1 | Princeton

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plasma Physics Lab An Invitation for Family Fun at PPPL's Open House on June 1 By Jeanne Jackson DeVoe May 13, 2013 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook An Invitation for Family Fun at PPPL's Open House on June 1 The U.S. Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Open House will be a fun science festival for every age, with NASA moon rocks, a Hall of Machines, an art show of paintings of PPPL, science activities for kids and tours of fusion machines. The event on June 1

  1. Department of Energy Provides Nearly $112 Million to Low-Income Families

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Home Weatherization | Department of Energy 112 Million to Low-Income Families for Home Weatherization Department of Energy Provides Nearly $112 Million to Low-Income Families for Home Weatherization March 29, 2007 - 12:17pm Addthis Funding is First Installment of $204.5 Million in Total Weatherization Grants for FY 2007 WASHINGTON, DC - U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today announced $111.6 million in weatherization grants to 30 states and the Navajo Nation to make energy efficiency

  2. Department of Energy Provides Nearly $88 Million to Low-Income Families for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Home Weatherization | Department of Energy 88 Million to Low-Income Families for Home Weatherization Department of Energy Provides Nearly $88 Million to Low-Income Families for Home Weatherization June 29, 2007 - 2:36pm Addthis Funding is Second Installment of $200 Million in Total Weatherization Grants for FY 2007 WASHINGTON, DC - U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today announced $88 million in weatherization grants to 20 states to make energy efficiency improvements in homes of low-income

  3. Pantexans donate more than $6,000 of cookware to families in need |

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) donate more than $6,000 of cookware to families in need Thursday, April 3, 2014 - 10:00am Cooking dinner will be a lot easier for about 20 needy families in Amarillo thanks to the generosity of Pantexans, who used a grocery store promotion to secure more than $6,000 of cookware for a local charity. More than 70 pots and pans were donated to local charities by Pantexans Scott and Lauri Minton, who had been collecting stickers donated by their

  4. Genetic heterogeneity and localization of a familial breast-ovarian cancer gene on chromosome 17q12-q21

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, S.A.; Ponder, M.; Pye, C.; Ponder, B.A.J. ); Easton, D.F.; Ford, D.; Peto, J.; Anderson, K.; Averill, D.; Stratton, M. )

    1993-04-01

    In a study of 31 breast cancer families and 12 breast-ovarian cancer families, we have obtained clear evidence of linkage to markers on chromosome 17q in the families with ovarian cancer (maximum lod score 3.34 at [theta] = .04) but only weak evidence in those without ovarian cancer. Recombinant events indicate that the gene lies between D17S588 and D17S250. 9 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Implementation of the Research Performance Progress Report (RPPR) and the SF-428 Tangible Personal Property Report Forms Family

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The new Research Performance Progress Report (RPPR) and SF-428 Tangible Personal Property Report Forms Family are now available for use.

  6. The Fokker-Planck limit of a family of transport differencing methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anistratov, D.Y.

    1998-12-31

    Recently, Pomraning performed an asymptotic analysis of the Fokker-Planck (FP) limit for the analytic transport equation with a forward-peaked scattering kernel. Then, Adams and Pautz extended this analysis to the discrete ordinates transport equation and studied some difference schemes. In this paper a broad family of transport differencing methods is analyzed.

  7. Weatherization and Indoor Air Quality: Measured Impacts in Single Family Homes Under the Weatherization Assistance Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pigg, Scott; Cautley, Dan; Francisco, Paul; Hawkins, Beth A; Brennan, Terry M

    2014-09-01

    This report summarizes findings from a national field study of indoor air quality parameters in homes treated under the Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP). The study involved testing and monitoring in 514 single-family homes (including mobile homes) located in 35 states and served by 88 local weatherization agencies.

  8. Do Babies Matter? The Effect of Family Formation on Men and Women in Science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mary Ann Mason

    2007-10-30

    Mary Ann Mason, Professor of Social Welfare and Law at the University of California, Berkeley, presents "Do Babies Matter? The Effect of Family Formation on Men and Women in Science." In her talk, she discusses the difficulties of women who have a career in science or in other male-dominated professions.

  9. West Valley Demonstration Project Food Drive Delivers Food for 700 Families

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    WEST VALLEY, N.Y. – EM employees at West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) helped collect and deliver 114,843 pounds of food, including 360 turkeys, to nine food pantries in the West Valley area, just in time to benefit about 700 families in need during the holidays.

  10. Do Babies Matter? The Effect of Family Formation on Men and Women in Science

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Mary Ann Mason

    2010-09-01

    Mary Ann Mason, Professor of Social Welfare and Law at the University of California, Berkeley, presents "Do Babies Matter? The Effect of Family Formation on Men and Women in Science." In her talk, she discusses the difficulties of women who have a career in science or in other male-dominated professions.

  11. Friedreich ataxia in Acadian families from eastern Canada: Clinical diversity with conserved haplotypes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richter, A.; Poirier, J.; Mercier, J.

    1996-09-06

    The gene for Friedreich ataxia (FRDA), an autosomal-recessive neurodegenerative disease, remains elusive. The current candidate region of about 150 kb lies between loci FR2 and F8101 near the D9S15/D9S5 linkage group at 9q13-21.1. Linkage homogeneity between classical FRDA and a milder, slowly progressive Acadian variant (FRDA-Acad) has been demonstrated. An extended D9S15-D9S5 haplotype (C6) predominates in FRDA-Acad chromosomes from Louisiana. We studied 10 Acadian families from New Brunswick, Canada. In eight families, affected individuals conformed to the clinical description of FRDA-Acad; in one, 2 sibs presented with spastic ataxia (SPA-Acad). In the last family, 2 sibs had FRDA-Acad, and one had SPA-Acad. We found that SPA-Acad is linked to the FRDA gene region. The C6 haplotype and a second major haplotype (137) were identified. The same ataxia-linked haplotypes segregated with both FRDA-Acad and SPA-Acad in two unrelated families. The parental origins of these haplotypes were different. Our observation of different phenotypes associated with the same combination of haplotypes may point to the influence of the parent of origin on gene expression, indicate the effect of modifier genes, or reflect the presence of different mutations on the same haplotype. Our findings underline the need to investigate families with autosomal-recessive ataxias for linkage to the FRDA region, despite lack of key diagnostic manifestations such as cardiomyopathy or absent deep-tendon reflexes. 28 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Genome-wide analysis of the omega-3 fatty acid desaturase gene family in Gossypium

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yurchenko, Olga P.; Park, Sunjung; Ilut, Daniel C.; Inmon, Jay J.; Millhollon, Jon C.; Liechty, Zach; Page, Justin T.; Jenks, Matthew A.; Chapman, Kent D.; Udall, Joshua A.; et al

    2014-11-18

    The majority of commercial cotton varieties planted worldwide are derived from Gossypium hirsutum, which is a naturally occurring allotetraploid produced by interspecific hybridization of A- and D-genome diploid progenitor species. While most cotton species are adapted to warm, semi-arid tropical and subtropical regions, and thus perform well in these geographical areas, cotton seedlings are sensitive to cold temperature, which can significantly reduce crop yields. One of the common biochemical responses of plants to cold temperatures is an increase in omega-3 fatty acids, which protects cellular function by maintaining membrane integrity. The purpose of our study was to identify and characterizemore » the omega-3 fatty acid desaturase (FAD) gene family in G. hirsutum, with an emphasis on identifying omega-3 FADs involved in cold temperature adaptation. Results: Eleven omega-3 FAD genes were identified in G. hirsutum, and characterization of the gene family in extant A and D diploid species (G. herbaceum and G. raimondii, respectively) allowed for unambiguous genome assignment of all homoeologs in tetraploid G. hirsutum. The omega-3 FAD family of cotton includes five distinct genes, two of which encode endoplasmic reticulum-type enzymes (FAD3-1 and FAD3-2) and three that encode chloroplast-type enzymes (FAD7/8-1, FAD7/8-2, and FAD7/8-3). The FAD3-2 gene was duplicated in the A genome progenitor species after the evolutionary split from the D progenitor, but before the interspecific hybridization event that gave rise to modern tetraploid cotton. RNA-seq analysis revealed conserved, gene-specific expression patterns in various organs and cell types and semi-quantitative RT-PCR further revealed that FAD7/8-1 was specifically induced during cold temperature treatment of G. hirsutum seedlings. Conclusions: The omega-3 FAD gene family in cotton was characterized at the genome-wide level in three species, showing relatively ancient establishment of the gene family prior

  13. The earth-coupled heat pump: Utilizing innovative technology in single family rehabilitation strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-11-01

    The study examines the feasibility of incorporating the use of earth-coupled heat pump technology in single-family housing rehabilitation projects, based on energy conservation attributes and financial considerations. Following evaluation of a theoretical model which indicated that installations of the heat pumps were feasible, the heat pumps were tested under actual conditions in five single family housing units which were part of the Urban Homesteading Program, and were matched with comparable units which did not receive special treatment. Energy consumption information was collected for all units for twelve months. Variables were identified, and the data was analyzed for individual housing units and compared with the results predicted by the theoretical model to determine the practicality of incorporating such technology in large scale rehabilitation projects. 14 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Most Complete Functional Map of an Entire Enzyme Family| U.S. DOE Office of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science (SC) Most Complete Functional Map of an Entire Enzyme Family Biological and Environmental Research (BER) BER Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Searchable Archive of BER Highlights External link Benefits of BER Funding Opportunities Biological & Environmental Research Advisory Committee (BERAC) Community Resources Contact Information Biological and Environmental Research U.S. Department of Energy SC-23/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC

  15. National impacts of the Weatherization Assistance Program in single-family and small multifamily dwellings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, M.A.; Berry, L.G.; Balzer, R.A.; Faby, E.

    1993-05-01

    Since 1976, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has operated one of the largest energy conservation programs in the nation -- the low-income Weatherization Assistance Program. The program strives to increase the energy efficiency of dwellings occupied by low-income persons in order to reduce their energy consumption, lower their fuel bills, increase the comfort of their homes, and safeguard their health. It targets vulnerable groups including the elderly, people with disabilities, and families with children. The most recent national evaluation of the impacts of the Program was completed in 1984 based on energy consumption data for households weatherized in 1981. DOE Program regulations and operations have changed substantially since then: new funding sources, management principles, diagnostic procedures, and weatherization technologies have been incorporated. Many of these new features have been studied in isolation or at a local level; however, no recent evaluation has assessed their combined, nationwide impacts to date or their potential for the future. In 1990, DOE initiated such an evaluation. This evaluation is comprised of three ``impact`` studies (the Single-Family Study, High-Density Multifamily Study, and Fuel-Oil Study) and two ``policy`` studies. Altogether, these five studies will provide a comprehensive national assessment of the Weatherization Assistance Program as it existed in the 1989 Program Year (PY 1989). This report presents the results of the first phase of the Single-Family Study. It evaluates the energy savings and cost effectiveness of the Program as it has been applied to the largest portion of its client base -- low-income households that occupy single-family dwellings, mobile homes, and small (2- to 4-unit) multifamily dwellings. It is based upon a representative national sample that covers the full range of conditions under which the program was implemented in PY 1989.

  16. Standard Work Specifications for Single-Family Home Energy Upgrades Summary Fact Sheet

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and numerous industry stakeholders developed the Standard Work Specifications for Single-Family Home Energy Upgrades to define the minimum requirements for high-quality residential energy upgrades. Today, the Standard Work Specifications provide a unique source for defining high-quality home energy upgrades, establishing clear expectations for homeowners, contractors, trainers, workers, program administrators, and organizations that provide financing for energy upgrades.

  17. Standard Work Specifications for Single-Family Home Energy Upgrades Summary (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and numerous industry stakeholders developed the Standard Work Specifications for Single-Family Home Energy Upgrades to define the minimum requirements for high-quality residential energy upgrades. Today, the Standard Work Specifications provide a unique source for defining high-quality home energy upgrades, establishing clear expectations for homeowners, contractors, trainers, workers, program administrators, and organizations that provide financing for energy upgrades.

  18. Identifying Inefficient Single-Family Homes With Utility Bill Analysis: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casey, S.; Krarti, M.; Bianchi, M.; Roberts, D.

    2010-08-01

    Differentiating between energy-efficient and inefficient single-family homes on a community scale helps identify and prioritize candidates for energy-efficiency upgrades. Prescreening diagnostic procedures can further retrofit efforts by providing efficiency information before a site-visit is conducted. We applied the prescreening diagnostic to a simulated community of homes in Boulder, Colorado and analyzed energy consumption data to identify energy-inefficient homes.

  19. Inverse scattering method and soliton double solution family for the general symplectic gravity model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao Yajun

    2008-08-15

    A previously established Hauser-Ernst-type extended double-complex linear system is slightly modified and used to develop an inverse scattering method for the stationary axisymmetric general symplectic gravity model. The reduction procedures in this inverse scattering method are found to be fairly simple, which makes the inverse scattering method applied fine and effective. As an application, a concrete family of soliton double solutions for the considered theory is obtained.

  20. Two-dimensional Laguerre-Gaussian soliton family in strongly nonlocal nonlinear media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhong Weiping; Yi Lin

    2007-06-15

    We have studied Laguerre-Gaussian spatial solitary waves in strongly nonlocal nonlinear media analytically and numerically. An exact analytical solution of two-dimensional self-similar waves is obtained. Furthermore, a family of different spatial solitary waves has been found. It is interesting that the spatial soliton profile and its width remain unchanged with increasing propagation distance. The theoretical predictions may give new insights into low-energetic spatial soliton transmission with high fidelity.

  1. DOE Fact Sheet: Cost-Effectiveness of Deep Green Alterations of Multi-family Buildings in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fact Sheet: Cost-Effectiveness of Deep Green Alterations of Multi-family Buildings in Seattle Overview The City of Seattle was a multiple awardee of the Climate Action Champions (CAC) Notice of Technical Assistance (NOTA). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)'s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy offered technical assistance from its Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) Program to provide CACs with additional opportunities for technical assistance to support and advance their

  2. Managing the Drivers of Air Flow and Water Vapor Transport in Existing Single-Family Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cummings, James; Withers, Charles; Martin, Eric; Moyer, Neil

    2012-10-01

    This report is a revision of an earlier report titled: Measure Guideline: Managing the Drivers of Air Flow and Water Vapor Transport in Existing Single-Family Homes. Revisions include: Information in the text box on page 1 was revised to reflect the most accurate information regarding classifications as referenced in the 2012 International Residential Code. “Measure Guideline” was dropped from the title of the report. An addition was made to the reference list.

  3. Stockbridge-Munsee Health & Wellness Center and Family Center Renewable Energy Feasibility Study

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Stockbridge-Munsee Health & Wellness Center & Family Center Renewable Energy Feasibility Study. Stockbridge-Munsee Tribal Overview * A Band of Mohican Indians * From the Algonquin language group of Tribes. Papscanee Village Site Painting follows archeological reports & accurately depicts pre European village. Tribal History * The tribe lived along the Muh-he-con-ne-ok River, "where the waters are never still". (now the Hudson River) * The Stockbridge name came from the town

  4. Stockbridge-Munsee Health & Wellness Center and Family Center Renewable Energy Feasibility Study

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Stockbridge-Munsee Health & Wellness Center & Family Center Renewable Energy Feasibility Study. Stockbridge-Munsee Tribal Overview * A Band of Mohican Indians * From the Algonquin language group of Tribes. Papscanee Village Site Painting follows archeological reports & accurately depicts pre European village. Tribal History * The tribe lived along the Muh-he-con-ne-ok River, "where the waters are never still". (now the Hudson River) * The Stockbridge name came from the town

  5. A new family of β-helix proteins with similarities to the polysaccharide lyases

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Close, Devin W.; D'Angelo, Sara; Bradbury, Andrew R. M.

    2014-09-27

    Microorganisms that degrade biomass produce diverse assortments of carbohydrate-active enzymes and binding modules. Despite tremendous advances in the genomic sequencing of these organisms, many genes do not have an ascribed function owing to low sequence identity to genes that have been annotated. Consequently, biochemical and structural characterization of genes with unknown function is required to complement the rapidly growing pool of genomic sequencing data. A protein with previously unknown function (Cthe_2159) was recently isolated in a genome-wide screen using phage display to identify cellulose-binding protein domains from the biomass-degrading bacterium Clostridium thermocellum. Here, the crystal structure of Cthe_2159 is presentedmore » and it is shown that it is a unique right-handed parallel β-helix protein. Despite very low sequence identity to known β-helix or carbohydrate-active proteins, Cthe_2159 displays structural features that are very similar to those of polysaccharide lyase (PL) families 1, 3, 6 and 9. Cthe_2159 is conserved across bacteria and some archaea and is a member of the domain of unknown function family DUF4353. This suggests that Cthe_2159 is the first representative of a previously unknown family of cellulose and/or acid-sugar binding β-helix proteins that share structural similarities with PLs. More importantly, these results demonstrate how functional annotation by biochemical and structural analysis remains a critical tool in the characterization of new gene products.« less

  6. A new family of β-helix proteins with similarities to the polysaccharide lyases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Close, Devin W.; D'Angelo, Sara; Bradbury, Andrew R. M.

    2014-09-27

    Microorganisms that degrade biomass produce diverse assortments of carbohydrate-active enzymes and binding modules. Despite tremendous advances in the genomic sequencing of these organisms, many genes do not have an ascribed function owing to low sequence identity to genes that have been annotated. Consequently, biochemical and structural characterization of genes with unknown function is required to complement the rapidly growing pool of genomic sequencing data. A protein with previously unknown function (Cthe_2159) was recently isolated in a genome-wide screen using phage display to identify cellulose-binding protein domains from the biomass-degrading bacterium Clostridium thermocellum. Here, the crystal structure of Cthe_2159 is presented and it is shown that it is a unique right-handed parallel β-helix protein. Despite very low sequence identity to known β-helix or carbohydrate-active proteins, Cthe_2159 displays structural features that are very similar to those of polysaccharide lyase (PL) families 1, 3, 6 and 9. Cthe_2159 is conserved across bacteria and some archaea and is a member of the domain of unknown function family DUF4353. This suggests that Cthe_2159 is the first representative of a previously unknown family of cellulose and/or acid-sugar binding β-helix proteins that share structural similarities with PLs. More importantly, these results demonstrate how functional annotation by biochemical and structural analysis remains a critical tool in the characterization of new gene products.

  7. HUD rehabilitation energy guidelines for one-to-four family dwellings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-09-01

    The Guidebook has been prepared to help people who are involved in the rehabilitation of a single-family house (or low-rise building with up to four housing units). It helps to understand the basics of residential energy conservation, and to think positively about the potential economic benefits. The Guidebook, and the HUD Rehabilitation Energy Guidelines are designed for all climates ranging from hot and humid Florida to the northern reaches of Alaska. Chapter 1 outlines how investments in energy conservation can be `cost-effective` and actually put money into your pocket each year. Chapter 2 provides an introduction to the issues and factors that determine how much energy your building will consume. Chapter 3 of the Guidebook contains the specific HUD Rehabilitation Energy Guidelines for One-to-Four Family Dwellings. Chapter 4 provides some examples of typical energy conservation measures in various climates. Appendix A is where you will find the climate zone for the appropriate county in your state. In the back of the book, Appendix G contains a blank copy of the One-to-Four Family Cost-Effectiveness Worksheet to copy or tear out for use on your project.

  8. Retrofit of a MultiFamily Mass Masonry Building in New England

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ueno, K.; Kerrigan, P.; Wytrykowska, H.; Van Straaten, R.

    2013-08-01

    Merrimack Valley Habitat for Humanity (MVHfH) has partnered with Building Science Corporation to provide high performance affordable housing for 10 families in the retrofit of an existing brick building (a former convent) into condominiums. The research performed for this project provides information regarding advanced retrofit packages for multi-family masonry buildings in Cold climates. In particular, this project demonstrates safe, durable, and cost-effective solutions that will potentially benefit millions of multi-family brick buildings throughout the East Coast and Midwest (Cold climates). The retrofit packages provide insight on the opportunities for and constraints on retrofitting multifamily buildings with ambitious energy performance goals but a limited budget. The condominium conversion project will contribute to several areas of research on enclosures, space conditioning, and water heating. Enclosure items include insulation of mass masonry building on the interior, airtightness of these types of retrofits, multi-unit building compartmentalization, window selection, and roof insulation strategies. Mechanical system items include combined hydronic and space heating systems with hydronic distribution in small (low load) units, and ventilation system retrofits for multifamily buildings.

  9. Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Multi-family/ Low Income Peer Exchange Call: Information Technology Tools for Multi-family Building Programs Call Slides and Discussion Summary, March 15, 2012

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5, 2012 Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Multi-family/ Low Income Peer Exchange Call: Information Technology Tools for Multi-family Building Programs Call Slides and Discussion Summary Agenda * Call Logistics and Attendance  What information technology tools is your program using for project information, marketing, assessment, tracking or evaluation? What do you wish you had? * Program Experience and Lessons:  Heather Larson, StopWaste.org, Energy Upgrade California  Adam Palmer,

  10. Energy Department Awards $92.5 Million to 19 States to Weatherize Homes of Low-Income Families

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    WASHINGTON, DC - Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman announced that $92.5 million has been awarded to 19 states to improve the energy efficiency of low-income family homes. The Department of...

  11. The Standard Work Specifications for Single-Family Home Energy Upgrades are now available€ at your fingertips!

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Standard Work Specifications for Single-Family Home Energy Upgrades are now availableat your fingertips! The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) are pleased to announce that the Standard Work Specifications for Single-Family Home Energy Upgrades are now available via a user-friendly online tool, with specifications for manufactured housing and multifamily homes to follow. Explore the Standard Work Specifications Online Tool now. Standard work

  12. Experimental evidence of negative linear compressibility in the MIL-53 metal–organic framework family

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Serra-Crespo, Pablo; Dikhtiarenko, Alla; Stavitski, Eli; Juan-Alcañiz, Jana; Kapteijn, Freek; Coudert, François-Xavier; Gascon, Jorge

    2014-03-24

    Here we report a series of powder X-ray diffraction experiments performed on the soft porous crystals MIL-53(Al) and NH2-MIL-53(Al) in a diamond anvil cell under different pressurization media. Systematic refinements of the obtained powder patterns demonstrate that these materials expand along a specific direction while undergoing total volume reduction under an increasing hydrostatic pressure. The results confirm for the first time the negative linear compressibility behaviour of this family of materials, recently predicted from quantum chemical calculations.

  13. Experimental Evidence of Negative Linear Compressibility in the MIL-53 Metal-Organic Framework Family

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serra-Crespo, Pablo; Dikhtiarenko, Alla; Stavitski, Eli; Juan-Alcaniz, Jana; Kapeteijn, Freek; Coudert, Francois-Xavier; Gascon, Jorge

    2014-03-24

    Here, we report a series of powder X-ray diffraction experiments performed on the soft porous crystals MIL-53(Al) and NH2-MIL-53(Al) in a diamond anvil cell under different pressurization media. Systematic refinements of the obtained powder patterns demonstrate that these materials expand along a specific direction while undergoing total volume reduction under an increasing hydrostatic pressure. Our results confirm for the first time the negative linear compressibility behaviour of this family of materials, recently predicted from quantum chemical calculations.

  14. Experimental Evidence of Negative Linear Compressibility in the MIL-53 Metal-organic Framework Family

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serra-Crespo, Pablo; Dikhtiarenko, Alla; Stavitski, Eli; Juan-Alcaniz, Jana; Kapteijn, Freek; Coudert, Francois-Xavier; Gascon, Jorge

    2014-03-24

    Here we report a series of powder X-ray diffraction experiments performed on the soft porous crystals MIL-53(Al) and NH2-MIL-53(Al) in a diamond anvil cell under different pressurization media. Systematic refinements of the obtained powder patterns demonstrate that these materials expand along a specific direction while undergoing total volume reduction under an increasing hydrostatic pressure. Our results confirm for the first time the negative linear compressibility behaviour of this family of materials, recently predicted from quantum chemical calculations.

  15. Economic analysis of a passive solar multiple-family dwelling for upstate New York

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laquatra, J. Jr.

    1982-02-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the economic feasibility of passive solar energy as applied to a multiple-family dwelling in three upstate New York cities: Buffalo, Rochester, and Syracuse. Specifically, two passive solar applications - a Trombe wall and a direct-gain system - for a nine-unit structure designed by Total Environmental Action, Inc. were analyzed through the use of a solar economic performance code. City-specific data, including climatological information, building construction costs, utility rates, and property taxes were used, as were various economic parameters to reflect economic conditions in general and specifically those of the solar systems' owners.

  16. Philips Light Sources & Electronics is Developing an Efficient, Smaller, Cost-Effective Family of LED Drivers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    With the help of DOE funding, Philips Light Sources & Electronics is developing a new family of LED drivers that are more efficient and cost-effective as well as smaller in size than currently available drivers. The new drivers are switch-mode power supplies that are similar to today's drivers, but with an improved design. In addition, they have a different topology—boost plus LLC—for wattages of 40W and above, but they retain the commonly used flyback topology at lower wattages.

  17. An invitation for family fun at PPPL's Open House on June 1 | Princeton

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plasma Physics Lab An invitation for family fun at PPPL's Open House on June 1 By Jeanne Jackson DeVoe May 13, 2013 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook Adam Cohen, PPPL's deputy director for operations, far left, and engineer James Chrzanowski, far right, both in black, talk to visitors during a tour at PPPL's 2010 Open House. (Photo by Elle Starkman/ PPPL Office of Communications) Adam Cohen, PPPL's deputy director for operations, far left, and engineer James Chrzanowski, far

  18. Structural Characterization of Inhibitors with Selectivity against Members of a Homologous Enzyme Family

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pavlovsky, Alexander G.; Liu, Xuying; Faehnle, Christopher R.; Potente, Nina; Viola, Ronald E.

    2013-01-31

    The aspartate biosynthetic pathway provides essential metabolites for many important biological functions, including the production of four essential amino acids. As this critical pathway is only present in plants and microbes, any disruptions will be fatal to these organisms. An early pathway enzyme, L-aspartate-{beta}-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, produces a key intermediate at the first branch point of this pathway. Developing potent and selective inhibitors against several orthologs in the L-aspartate-{beta}-semialdehyde dehydrogenase family can serve as lead compounds for antibiotic development. Kinetic studies of two small molecule fragment libraries have identified inhibitors that show good selectivity against L-aspartate-{beta}-semialdehyde dehydrogenases from two different bacterial species, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Vibrio cholerae, despite the presence of an identical constellation of active site amino acids in this homologous enzyme family. Structural characterization of enzyme-inhibitor complexes have elucidated different modes of binding between these structurally related enzymes. This information provides the basis for a structure-guided approach to the development of more potent and more selective inhibitors.

  19. The actin family protein ARP6 contributes to the structure and the function of the nucleolus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kitamura, Hiroshi; Matsumori, Haruka; Kalendova, Alzbeta; Hozak, Pavel; Goldberg, Ilya G.; Nakao, Mitsuyoshi; Saitoh, Noriko; Harata, Masahiko

    2015-08-21

    The actin family members, consisting of actin and actin-related proteins (ARPs), are essential components of chromatin remodeling complexes. ARP6, one of the nuclear ARPs, is part of the Snf-2-related CREB-binding protein activator protein (SRCAP) chromatin remodeling complex, which promotes the deposition of the histone variant H2A.Z into the chromatin. In this study, we showed that ARP6 influences the structure and the function of the nucleolus. ARP6 is localized in the central region of the nucleolus, and its knockdown induced a morphological change in the nucleolus. We also found that in the presence of high concentrations of glucose ARP6 contributed to the maintenance of active ribosomal DNA (rDNA) transcription by placing H2A.Z into the chromatin. In contrast, under starvation, ARP6 was required for cell survival through the repression of rDNA transcription independently of H2A.Z. These findings reveal novel pleiotropic roles for the actin family in nuclear organization and metabolic homeostasis. - Highlights: • ARP6, an actin related protein, is important for nucleolar function and structure. • A population of ARP6 is localized in the center of nucleolus. • Depletion of ARP6 resulted in aberrant shape of the nucleolus. • ARP6 maintains the active rDNA transcription under high glucose. • ARP6 is required for the repression of rDNA transcription under starvation.

  20. Biochemical and structural characterizations of two Dictyostelium cellobiohydrolases from the amoebozoa kingdom reveal a high level of conservation between distant phylogenetic trees of life

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hobdey, Sarah E.; Knott, Brandon C.; Momeni, Majid Haddad; Taylor, II, Larry E.; Borisova, Anna S.; Podkaminer, Kara K.; VanderWall, Todd A.; Himmel, Michael E.; Decker, Stephen R.; Beckham, Gregg T.; et al

    2016-04-01

    Glycoside hydrolase family 7 (GH7) cellobiohydrolases (CBHs) are enzymes often employed in plant cell wall degradation across eukaryotic kingdoms of life, as they provide significant hydrolytic potential in cellulose turnover. To date, many fungal GH7 CBHs have been examined, yet many questions regarding structure-activity relationships in these important natural and commercial enzymes remain. Here, we present the crystal structures and a biochemical analysis of two GH7 CBHs from social amoeba: Dictyostelium discoideum Cel7A (DdiCel7A) and Dictyostelium purpureum Cel7A (DpuCel7A). DdiCel7A and DpuCel7A natively consist of a catalytic domain and do not exhibit a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM). The structures of DdiCel7Amore » and DpuCel7A, resolved to 2.1 Å and 2.7 Å, respectively, are homologous to those of other GH7 CBHs with an enclosed active-site tunnel. Two primary differences between the Dictyostelium CBHs and the archetypal model GH7 CBH, Trichoderma reesei Cel7A (TreCel7A), occur near the hydrolytic active site and the product-binding sites. To compare the activities of these enzymes with the activity of TreCel7A, the family 1 TreCel7A CBM and linker were added to the C terminus of each of the Dictyostelium enzymes, creating DdiCel7ACBM and DpuCel7ACBM, which were recombinantly expressed in T. reesei. DdiCel7ACBM and DpuCel7ACBM hydrolyzed Avicel, pretreated corn stover, and phosphoric acid-swollen cellulose as efficiently as TreCel7A when hydrolysis was compared at their temperature optima. The Ki of cellobiose was significantly higher for DdiCel7ACBM and DpuCel7ACBM than for TreCel7A: 205, 130, and 29 μM, respectively. Finally, taken together, the present study highlights the remarkable degree of conservation of the activity of these key natural and industrial enzymes across quite distant phylogenetic trees of life.« less

  1. Biochemical and Structural Characterization of Two Dictyostelium Cellobiohydrolases from the Amoebozoa Kingdom Reveal a High Level of Conservation Between Distant Phylogenetic Trees of Life

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hobdey, Sarah E.; Knott, Brandon C.; Momeni, Majid Haddad; Taylor, II, Larry E.; Borisova, Anna S.; Podkaminer, Kara K.; VanderWall, Todd A.; Himmel, Michael E.; Decker, Stephen R.; Beckham, Gregg T.; et al

    2016-06-01

    Glycoside Hydrolase Family 7 (GH7) cellobiohydrolases (CBHs) are commonly employed enzymes in plant cell wall degradation across eukaryotic kingdoms of life, as they provide significant hydrolytic potential in cellulose turnover. To date, many fungal GH7 CBHs have been examined, yet many questions remain regarding structure-activity relationships in these important natural and commercial enzymes. Here, we present crystal structures and biochemical analysis of two GH7 CBHs from social amoeba: Dictyostelium discoideum and Dictyostelium purpureum (DdiCel7A and DpuCel7A, respectively). DdiCel7A and DpuCel7A natively consist of a catalytic domain and do not exhibit a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM). The structures, resolved to 2.1 Amore » (DdiCel7A), and 2.7 A (DpuCel7A), are homologous to other GH7 CBHs with an enclosed active site tunnel. Two primary differences between the Dictyostelium CBHs and the archetypal model GH7 CBH from Trichoderma reesei Cel7A (TreCel7A) occur near the hydrolytic active site and the product binding sites. To compare the activity of these enzymes with TreCel7A, the Family 1 TreCel7A CBM and linker was added to the C-terminus of the Dictyostelium enzymes, DdiCel7ACBM and DpuCel7ACBM, which were recombinantly expressed in T. reesei. DdiCel7ACBM and DpuCel7ACBM hydrolyze Avicel, pretreated corn stover, and phosphoric acid swollen cellulose as efficiently as TreCel7A when compared at their temperature optima. The Ki of cellobiose is significantly higher for DdiCel7ACBM and DpuCel7ACBM than for TreCel7A: 205, 130, and 29 uM, respectively. Taken together, the present study highlights the remarkable conservation in the activity of these key natural and industrial enzymes across quite distant phylogenetic trees of life.« less

  2. Installation guidelines for Solar Heating System, single-family residence at New Castle, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The Solar Heating System installer guidelines are provided for each subsystem and includes testing and filling the system. This single-family residential heating system is a solar-assisted, hydronic-to-warm-air system with solar-assisted domestic water heating. It is composed of the following major components: liquid cooled flat plate collectors; water storage tank; passive solar-fired domestic water preheater; electric hot water heater; heat pump with electric backup; solar hot water coil unit; tube-and-shell heat exchanger, three pumps, and associated pipes and valving in an energy transport module; control system; and air-cooled heat purge unit. Information is also provided on the operating procedures, controls, caution requirements, and routine and schedule maintenance. Information consists of written procedures, schematics, detail drawings, pictures and manufacturer's component data.

  3. Adverse reproductive outcomes in families of atomic veterans: The feasibility of epidemiologic studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-31

    This is an outstanding report from a distinguished academy committee, which in 71 pages of text provides the scientific basis for the carefully crafted 8-page executive summary. The principles and issues of the required epidemiological study are presented calmly and concisely, as are the ensuing short chapters on radiation biology, genetics and risk estimation, and all other adverse reproductive outcomes. The committee was mandated by Congress to determine the feasibility, cost and duration of a study on adverse reproductive outcomes in families of atomic veteran. The committee found that a scientifically adequate and epidemiologically valid study could not be mounted and the cost would be tens of millions of dollars lasting a decade. The Committee presents a number of well-discussed approaches in support of their position.

  4. Support and utilization of the LSI-11 processor family at SLAC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kieffer, J.; Logg, C.A.; Farwell, D.E.

    1981-01-01

    Microcomputer systems based on the DEC LSI-11 processor family have been in use at SLAC for five years. They are used for a wide variety of applications. The support of these systems is divided into three general areas: engineering, maintenance, and software. Engineering specifies the system to match user requirements. SLAC has been able to design one general purpose system which can be tailored to fit many specific requirements. Maintenance provides system and component diagnostic services and repair. Software support includes software consulting services, assistance in systems design, and the development and support of special purpose operating systems and programs. These support functions are handled as subtasks by three teams in the SLAC Electronics Instrumentation Group. Each of these teams utilizes several LSI-11 systems in the performance of its primary tasks. They work closely together to jointly provide overall support for the larger SLAC community.

  5. Single Dirac Cone Topological Surface State and Unusual Thermoelectric Property of Compounds from a New Topological Insulator Family

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Y

    2011-08-18

    Angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) study on TlBiTe2 and TlBiSe2 from a Thallium-based III-V-VI2 ternary chalcogenides family revealed a single surface Dirac cone at the center of the Brillouin zone for both compounds. For TlBiSe{sub 2}, the large bulk gap ({approx} 200meV) makes it a topological insulator with better mechanical properties than the previous binary 3D topological insualtor family. For TlBiTe{sub 2}, the observed negative bulk gap indicates it as a semi-metal, rather than a narrow gap semi-conductor as conventionally believed; this semi-metality naturally explains its mysteriously small thermoelectric figure of merit comparing to other compounds in the family. Finally, the unique band structures of TlBiTe{sub 2} also suggests it as a candidate for topological superconductors.

  6. Pathways and barriers to genetic testing and screening: Molecular genetics meets the high-risk family. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duster, T.

    1998-11-01

    The proliferation of genetic screening and testing is requiring increasing numbers of Americans to integrate genetic knowledge and interventions into their family life and personal experience. This study examines the social processes that occur as families at risk for two of the most common autosomal recessive diseases, sickle cell disease (SC) and cystic fibrosis (CF), encounter genetic testing. Each of these diseases is found primarily in a different ethnic/racial group (CF in Americans of North European descent and SC in Americans of West African descent). This has permitted them to have a certain additional lens on the role of culture in integrating genetic testing into family life and reproductive planning. A third type of genetic disorder, the thalassemias was added to the sample in order to extent the comparative frame and to include other ethnic and racial groups.

  7. Novel inherited mutations and variable expressivity of BRCA1 alleles, including the founder mutation 185delAG in Ashkenazi Jewish families

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedman, L.S.; Szabo, C.I.; Ostermeyer, E.A.

    1995-12-01

    Thirty-seven families with four or more cases of breast cancer or breast and ovarian cancer were analyzed for mutations in BRCA1. Twelve different germ-line mutations, four novel and eight previously observed, were detected in 16 families. Five families of Ashkenazi Jewish descent carried the 185delAG mutation and shared the same haplotype at eight polymorphic markers spanning {approximately}850 kb at BRCA1. Expressivity of 185delAG in these families varied, from early-onset bilateral breast cancer and ovarian cancer to late-onset breast cancer without ovarian cancer. Mutation 4184delTCAA occurred independently in two families. In one family, penetrance was complete, with females developing early-onset breast cancer or ovarian cancer and the male carrier developing prostatic cancer, whereas, in the other family, penetrance was incomplete and only breast cancer occurred, diagnosed at ages 38-81 years. Two novel nonsense mutations led to the loss of mutant BRCA1 transcript in families with 10 and 6 cases of early-onset breast cancer and ovarian cancer. A 665-nt segment of the BRCA1 3{prime}-UTR and 1.3 kb of genomic sequence including the putative promoter region were invariant by single-strand conformation analysis in 13 families without coding-sequence mutations. Overall in our series, BRCA1 mutations have been detected in 26 families: 16 with positive BRCA1 lod scores, 7 with negative lod scores (reflecting multiple sporadic breast cancers), and 3 not tested for linkage. Three other families have positive lod scores for linkage to BRCA2, but 13 families without detected BRCA1 mutations have negative lod scores for both BRCA1 and BRCA2. 57 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Subunit composition and glycosidic activities of the cellulase complex from Clostridium thermocellum JW20

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohring, S.; Mayer, F. ); Wiegel, J. )

    1990-12-01

    The subunit composition of the extracellular complex from Clostridium thermocellum was analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Twenty-six bands, representing proteins with apparent molecular sizes ranging from 37,500 to 185,000 Da, could be detected by silver staining. Endoglucanase activity was exhibited in 15 of 26 bands and 13 showed xylanase activity. In 8 of the 26 bands, both activities could be found. As minor activities, {beta}-glucosidase, {beta}-xylosidase, {beta}-galactosidase, and {beta}-mannosidase activities could be demonstrated in the cellulase complex. Upon measuring the release of para-nitrophenol (PNP) from PNP-cellobioside and determining the amount of glucose formed, the presence of exoglucanase activity was indicated. Upon glycoprotein staining of SDS-polyacrylamide gels, 14 of the 26 bands reacted positive, indicating the glycoprotein nature of the respective proteins. Four proteins (apparent molecular sizes, 58,000, 72,500, 94,000, and 110,000 Da) could be enriched from the originally bound cellulase complex by preparative SDS-PAGE. The two smaller proteins exhibited xylanase activity, whereas the 94,000-Da protein had endo- and exoglucanase activity, and the 110,000-Da protein degraded PNP-pyranosides.

  9. Measured energy savings and economics of retrofitting existing single- family homes: An update of the BECA-B database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, S.D.; Goldman, C.A.; Harris, J.P.

    1991-02-01

    These appendices are the companion volume to report number LBL--28147 Vol.1, with the same title. The summary data tables include physical characteristics, energy consumption, savings, and the retrofit measures installed and their costs for each retrofit project. Each existing single family residential building'' retrofit project in the BECA-B database is described. 99 refs. (BM)

  10. Binding Preferences, Surface Attachment, Diffusivity, and Orientation of a Family 1 Carbohydrate-Binding Module on Cellulose

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nimlos, M. R.; Beckham, G. T.; Matthews, J. F.; Bu, L.; Himmel, M. E.; Crowley, M. F.

    2012-06-08

    Cellulase enzymes often contain carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) for binding to cellulose. The mechanisms by which CBMs recognize specific surfaces of cellulose and aid in deconstruction are essential to understand cellulase action. The Family 1 CBM from the Trichoderma reesei Family 7 cellobiohydrolase, Cel7A, is known to selectively bind to hydrophobic surfaces of native cellulose. It is most commonly suggested that three aromatic residues identify the planar binding face of this CBM, but several recent studies have challenged this hypothesis. Here, we use molecular simulation to study the CBM binding orientation and affinity on hydrophilic and hydrophobic cellulose surfaces. Roughly 43 {mu}s of molecular dynamics simulations were conducted, which enables statistically significant observations. We quantify the fractions of the CBMs that detach from crystal surfaces or diffuse to other surfaces, the diffusivity along the hydrophobic surface, and the overall orientation of the CBM on both hydrophobic and hydrophilic faces. The simulations demonstrate that there is a thermodynamic driving force for the Cel7A CBM to bind preferentially to the hydrophobic surface of cellulose relative to hydrophilic surfaces. In addition, the simulations demonstrate that the CBM can diffuse from hydrophilic surfaces to the hydrophobic surface, whereas the reverse transition is not observed. Lastly, our simulations suggest that the flat faces of Family 1 CBMs are the preferred binding surfaces. These results enhance our understanding of how Family 1 CBMs interact with and recognize specific cellulose surfaces and provide insights into the initial events of cellulase adsorption and diffusion on cellulose.

  11. Variant Humicola grisea CBH1.1

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goedegebuur, Frits; Gualfetti, Peter; Mitchinson, Colin; Larenas, Edmund

    2014-03-18

    Disclosed are variants of Humicola grisea Cel7A (CBH1.1), H. jecorina CBH1 variant or S. thermophilium CBH1, nucleic acids encoding the same and methods for producing the same. The variant cellulases have the amino acid sequence of a glycosyl hydrolase of family 7A wherein one or more amino acid residues are substituted.

  12. Variant Humicola grisea CBH1.1

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goedegebuur, Frits; Gualfetti, Peter; Mitchinson, Colin; Larenas, Edmund

    2012-08-07

    Disclosed are variants of Humicola grisea Cel7A (CBH1.1), H. jecorina CBH1 variant or S. thermophilium CBH1, nucleic acids encoding the same and methods for producing the same. The variant cellulases have the amino acid sequence of a glycosyl hydrolase of family 7A wherein one or more amino acid residues are substituted.

  13. Variant humicola grisea CBH1.1

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goedegebuur, Frits; Gualfetti, Peter; Mitchinson, Colin; Edmund, Larenas

    2014-09-09

    Disclosed are variants of Humicola grisea Cel7A (CBH1.1), H. jecorina CBH1 variant or S. thermophilium CBH1, nucleic acids encoding the same and methods for producing the same. The variant cellulases have the amino acid sequence of a glycosyl hydrolase of family 7A wherein one or more amino acid residues are substituted.

  14. Variant Humicola grisea CBH1.1

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goedegeburr, Frits; Gualfetti, Peter; Mitchinson, Colin; Larenas, Edmund

    2013-02-19

    Disclosed are variants of Humicola grisea Cel7A (CBH1.1), H. jecorina CBH1 variant or S. thermophilium CBH1, nucleic acids encoding the same and methods for producing the same. The variant cellulases have the amino acid sequence of a glycosyl hydrolase of family 7A wherein one or more amino acid residues are substituted.

  15. CBH1 homologs and variant CBH1 cellulases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goedegebuur, Frits; Gualfetti, Peter; Mitchinson, Colin; Neefe, Paulien

    2011-05-31

    Disclosed are a number of homologs and variants of Hypocrea jecorina Cel7A (formerly Trichoderma reesei cellobiohydrolase I or CBH1), nucleic acids encoding the same and methods for producing the same. The homologs and variant cellulases have the amino acid sequence of a glycosyl hydrolase of family 7A wherein one or more amino acid residues are substituted and/or deleted.

  16. CBH1 homologs and variant CBH1 cellulases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goedegebuur, Frits; Gualfetti, Peter; Mitchinson, Colin; Neefe, Paulien

    2008-11-18

    Disclosed are a number of homologs and variants of Hypocrea jecorina Cel7A (formerly Trichoderma reesei cellobiohydrolase I or CBH1), nucleic acids encoding the same and methods for producing the same. The homologs and variant cellulases have the amino acid sequence of a glycosyl hydrolase of family 7A wherein one or more amino acid residues are substituted and/or deleted.

  17. CBH1 homologs and varian CBH1 cellulase

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goedegebuur, Frits; Gualfetti, Peter; Mitchinson, Colin; Neefe, Paulien

    2014-07-01

    Disclosed are a number of homologs and variants of Hypocrea jecorina Cel7A (formerly Trichoderma reesei cellobiohydrolase I or CBH1), nucleic acids encoding the same and methods for producing the same. The homologs and variant cellulases have the amino acid sequence of a glycosyl hydrolase of family 7A wherein one or more amino acid residues are substituted and/or deleted.

  18. Variant Humicola grisea CBH1.1

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goedegebuur, Frits; Gualfetti, Peter; Mitchinson, Colin; Larenas, Edmund

    2011-05-31

    Disclosed are variants of Humicola grisea Cel7A (CBH1.1), H. jecorina CBH1 variant or S. thermophilium CBH1, nucleic acids encoding the same and methods for producing the same. The variant cellulases have the amino acid sequence of a glycosyl hydrolase of family 7A wherein one or more amino acid residues are substituted.

  19. Variant Humicola grisea CBH1.1

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goedegebuur, Frits; Gualfetti, Peter; Mitchinson, Colin; Larenas, Edmund

    2011-08-16

    Disclosed are variants of Humicola grisea Cel7A (CBH1.1), H. jecorina CBH1 variant or S. thermophilium CBH1, nucleic acids encoding the same and methods for producing the same. The variant cellulases have the amino acid sequence of a glycosyl hydrolase of family 7A wherein one or more amino acid residues are substituted.

  20. Variant Humicola grisea CBH1.1

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goedegebuur, Frits; Gualfetti, Peter; Mitchinson, Colin; Larenas, Edmund

    2008-12-02

    Disclosed are variants of Humicola grisea Cel7A (CBH1.1), H. jecorina CBH1 variant or S. thermophilium CBH1, nucleic acids encoding the same and methods for producing the same. The variant cellulases have the amino acid sequence of a glycosyl hydrolase of family 7A wherein one or more amino acid residues are substituted.

  1. Effectiveness of duct sealing and duct insulation in multi-family buildings. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karins, N.H.; Tuluca, A.; Modera, M.

    1997-07-01

    This research investigated the cost-effectiveness of sealing and insulating the accessible portions of duct systems exposed to unconditioned areas in multifamily housing. Airflow and temperature measurements were performed in 25 apartments served by 10 systems a 9 multi-family properties. The measurements were performed before and after each retrofit, and included apartment airflow (supply and return), duct system temperatures, system fan flow and duct leakage area. The costs for each retrofit were recorded. The data were analyzed and used to develop a prototypical multifamily house. This prototype was used in energy simulations (DOE-2.1E) and air infiltration simulations (COMIS 2.1). The simulations were performed for two climates: New York City and Albany. In each climate, one simulation was performed assuming the basement was tight, and another assuming the basement was leaky. Simulation results and average retrofit costs were used to calculate cost-effectiveness. The results of the analysis indicate that sealing leaks of the accessible ductwork is cost-effective under all conditions simulated (simple payback was between 3 and 4 years). Insulating the accessible ductwork, however, is only cost-effective for buildings with leaky basement, in both climates (simple paybacks were less than 5 years). The simple payback period for insulating the ducts in buildings with tight basements was greater than 10 years, the threshold of cost-effectiveness for this research. 13 refs., 5 figs., 27 tabs.

  2. HTGR Technology Family Assessment for a Range of Fuel Cycle Missions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven J. Piet; Samuel E. Bays; Nick Soelberg

    2010-08-01

    This report examines how the HTGR technology family can provide options for the once through, modified open cycle (MOC), or full recycle fuel cycle strategies. The HTGR can serve all the fuel cycle missions that an LWR can; both are thermal reactors. Additional analyses are warranted to determine if HTGR “full recycle” service could provide improved consumption of transuranic (TRU) material than LWRs (as expected), to analyze the unique proliferation resistance issues associated with the “pebble bed” approach, and to further test and analyze methods to separate TRISO-coated fuel particles from graphite and/or to separate used HTGR fuel meat from its TRISO coating. The feasibility of these two separation issues is not in doubt, but further R&D could clarify and reduce the cost and enable options not adequately explored at present. The analyses here and the now-demonstrated higher fuel burnup tests (after the illustrative designs studied here) should enable future MOC and full recycle HTGR concepts to more rapidly consume TRU, thereby offering waste management advantages. Interest in “limited separation” or “minimum fuel treatment” separation approaches motivates study of impurity-tolerant fuel fabrication. Several issues are outside the scope of this report, including the following: thorium fuel cycles, gas-cooled fast reactors, the reliability of TRISO-coated particles (billions in a reactor), and how soon any new reactor or fuel type could be licensed and then deployed and therefore impact fuel cycle performance measures.

  3. HTGR Technology Family Assessment for a Range of Fuel Cycle Missions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven J. Piet; Samuel E. Bays; Nick R. Soelberg

    2010-11-01

    This report examines how the HTGR technology family can provide options for the once through, modified open cycle (MOC), or full recycle fuel cycle strategies. The HTGR can serve all the fuel cycle missions that an LWR can; both are thermal reactors. Additional analyses are warranted to determine if HTGR “full recycle” service could provide improved consumption of transuranic (TRU) material than LWRs (as expected), to analyze the unique proliferation resistance issues associated with the “pebble bed” approach, and to further test and analyze methods to separate TRISO-coated fuel particles from graphite and/or to separate used HTGR fuel meat from its TRISO coating. The feasibility of these two separation issues is not in doubt, but further R&D could clarify and reduce the cost and enable options not adequately explored at present. The analyses here and the now-demonstrated higher fuel burnup tests (after the illustrative designs studied here) should enable future MOC and full recycle HTGR concepts to more rapidly consume TRU, thereby offering waste management advantages. Interest in “limited separation” or “minimum fuel treatment” separation approaches motivates study of impurity-tolerant fuel fabrication.

  4. Genome-wide analysis of the omega-3 fatty acid desaturase gene family in Gossypium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yurchenko, Olga P.; Park, Sunjung; Ilut, Daniel C.; Inmon, Jay J.; Millhollon, Jon C.; Liechty, Zach; Page, Justin T.; Jenks, Matthew A.; Chapman, Kent D.; Udall, Joshua A.; Gore, Michael A.; Dyer, John M.

    2014-11-18

    The majority of commercial cotton varieties planted worldwide are derived from Gossypium hirsutum, which is a naturally occurring allotetraploid produced by interspecific hybridization of A- and D-genome diploid progenitor species. While most cotton species are adapted to warm, semi-arid tropical and subtropical regions, and thus perform well in these geographical areas, cotton seedlings are sensitive to cold temperature, which can significantly reduce crop yields. One of the common biochemical responses of plants to cold temperatures is an increase in omega-3 fatty acids, which protects cellular function by maintaining membrane integrity. The purpose of our study was to identify and characterize the omega-3 fatty acid desaturase (FAD) gene family in G. hirsutum, with an emphasis on identifying omega-3 FADs involved in cold temperature adaptation. Results: Eleven omega-3 FAD genes were identified in G. hirsutum, and characterization of the gene family in extant A and D diploid species (G. herbaceum and G. raimondii, respectively) allowed for unambiguous genome assignment of all homoeologs in tetraploid G. hirsutum. The omega-3 FAD family of cotton includes five distinct genes, two of which encode endoplasmic reticulum-type enzymes (FAD3-1 and FAD3-2) and three that encode chloroplast-type enzymes (FAD7/8-1, FAD7/8-2, and FAD7/8-3). The FAD3-2 gene was duplicated in the A genome progenitor species after the evolutionary split from the D progenitor, but before the interspecific hybridization event that gave rise to modern tetraploid cotton. RNA-seq analysis revealed conserved, gene-specific expression patterns in various organs and cell types and semi-quantitative RT-PCR further revealed that FAD7/8-1 was specifically induced during cold temperature treatment of G. hirsutum seedlings. Conclusions: The omega-3 FAD gene family in cotton was characterized at the genome-wide level

  5. CTH: A software family for multi-dimensional shock physics analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hertel, E.S. Jr.; Bell, R.L.; Elrick, M.G.; Farnsworth, A.V.; Kerley, G.I.; McGlaun, J.M.; Petney, S.V.; Silling, S.A.; Taylor, P.A.; Yarrington, L.

    1992-12-31

    CTH is a family of codes developed at Sandia National Laboratories for modeling complex multi-dimensional, multi-material problems that are characterized by large deformations and/or strong shocks. A two-step, second-order accurate Eulerian solution algorithm is used to solve the mass, momentum, and energy conservation equations. CTH includes models for material strength, fracture, porous materials, and high explosive detonation and initiation. Viscoplastic or rate-dependent models of material strength have been added recently. The formulations of Johnson-Cook, Zerilli-Armstrong, and Steinberg-Guinan-Lund are standard options within CTH. These models rely on using an internal state variable to account for the history dependence of material response. The implementation of internal state variable models will be discussed and several sample calculations will be presented. Comparison with experimental data will be made among the various material strength models. The advancements made in modelling material response have significantly improved the ability of CTH to model complex large-deformation, plastic-flow dominated phenomena. Detonation of energetic material under shock loading conditions has been of great interest. A recently developed model of reactive burn for high explosives (HE) has been added to CTH. This model along with newly developed tabular equations-of-state for the HE reaction by-products has been compared to one- and two-dimensional explosive detonation experiments. These comparisons indicate excellent agreement of CTH predictions with experimental results. The new reactive burn model coupled with the advances in equation-of-state modeling make it possible to predict multi-dimensional burn phenomena without modifying the model parameters for different dimensionality. Examples of the features of CTH will be given. The emphasis in simulations shown will be in comparison with well characterized experiments covering key phenomena of shock physics.

  6. Downstream effects of mountaintop coal mining: comparing biological conditions using family- and genus-level macroinvertebrate bioassessment tools

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pond, G.J.; Passmore, M.E.; Borsuk, F.A.; Reynolds, L.; Rose, C.J.

    2008-09-15

    Surface coal mining with valley fills has impaired the aquatic life in numerous streams in the Central Appalachian Mountains. We characterized macroinvertebrate communities from riffles in 37 small West Virginia streams (10 unmined and 27 mined sites with valley fills) sampled in the spring index period (March-May) and compared the assessment results using family- and genus-level taxonomic data. Specific conductance was used to categorize levels of mining disturbance in mined watersheds as low (<500 {mu} S/cm), medium (500-1000 {mu} S/cm), or high (>1000 {mu} S/cm). Four lines of evidence indicate that mining activities impair biological condition of streams: shift in species assemblages, loss of Epherneroptera taxa, changes in individual metrics and indices, and differences in water chemistry. Results were consistent whether family- or genus-level data were used. In both family- and genus-level nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMS) ordinations, mined sites were significantly separated from unmined sites, indicating that shifts in community structure were caused by mining. Several Epherneroptera genera (e.g., Ephemerella, Epeorus, Drunella) and their families (Ephemerellidae, Heptageniidae) were correlated most strongly with the primary NMS axis. These same Ephemeroptera were absent and, thus, eliminated from most of the mined sites. Total Ephemeroptera richness and relative abundance both declined with increasing mining disturbance. Several other metrics, such as richness, composition, tolerance, and diversity, clearly discriminated unmined vs mined sites. The results show that mining activity has had subtle to severe impacts on benthic macroinvertebrate communities and that the biological condition most strongly correlates with a gradient of ionic strength.

  7. Concentrations of the urinary pyrethroid metabolite 3-phenoxybenzoic acid in farm worker families in the MICASA study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trunnelle, Kelly J.; Bennett, Deborah H.; Ahn, Ki Chang; Schenker, Marc B.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Gee, Shirley J.; Stoecklin-Marois, Maria T.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2014-05-01

    Indoor pesticide exposure is a growing concern, particularly from pyrethroids, a commonly used class of pesticides. Pyrethroid concentrations may be especially high in homes of immigrant farm worker families who often live in close proximity to agricultural fields, and are faced with poor housing conditions, causing higher pest infestation and more pesticide use. We investigate exposure of farm worker families to pyrethroids in a study of mothers and children living in Mendota, CA within the population-based Mexican Immigration to California: Agricultural Safety and Acculturation (MICASA) Study. We present pyrethroid exposure based on an ELISA analysis of urinary metabolite 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3PBA) levels among 105 women and 103 children. The median urinary 3PBA levels (children=2.56 ug/g creatinine, mothers=1.46 ug/g creatinine) were higher than those reported in population based studies for the United States general population, but similar to or lower than studies with known high levels of pyrethroid exposure. A positive association was evident between poor housing conditions and the urinary metabolite levels, showing that poor housing conditions are a contributing factor to the higher levels of 3PBA seen in the urine of these farm worker families. Further research is warranted to fully investigate sources of exposure. - Highlights: We investigate exposure of farm worker families to pyrethroids. We present pyrethroid exposure based on an ELISA analysis of urinary 3PBA levels. 3PBA levels were higher than those reported for the U.S. general population. Poor housing conditions may be associated with pyrethroid exposure.

  8. Haplotype and phenotype analysis of six recurrent BRCA1 mutations in 61 families: Results of an international study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neuhausen, S.L.; Skolnick, M.H.; Goldgar, D.E.

    1996-02-01

    Several BRCA1 mutations have now been found to occur in geographically diverse breast and ovarian cancer families. To investigate mutation origin and mutation-specific phenotypes due to BRCA1, we constructed a haplotype of nine polymorphic markers within or immediately flanking the BRCA1 locus in a set of 61 breast/ovarian cancer families selected for having one of six recurrent BRCA1 mutations. Tests of both mutations and family-specific differences in age at diagnosis were not significant. A comparison of the six mutations in the relative proportions of cases of breast and ovarian cancer was suggestive of an effect (P = .069), with 57% of women presumed affected because of the 1294 del 40 BRCA1 mutation having ovarian cancer, compared with 14% of affected women with the splice-site mutation in intron 5 of BRCA1. For the BRCA1 mutations studied here, the individual mutations are estimated to have arisen 9-170 generations ago. In general, a high degree of haplotype conservation across the region was observed, with haplotype differences most often due to mutations in the short-tandem-repeat markers, although some likely instances of recombination also were observed. For several of the instances, there was evidence for multiple, independent, BRCA1 mutational events. 22 refs., 1 fig., 4 tab.

  9. Modes of Action and Functions of ERECTA-family Receptor-like Kinases in Plant Organ Growth and Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    TORII, Keiko U.

    2012-05-01

    Higher plants constitute the central resource for renewable lignocellulose biomass that can supplement for the world's depleting stores of fossil fuels. As such, understanding the molecular and genetic mechanisms of plant organ growth will provide key knowledge and genetic resources that enables manipulation of plant biomass feedstock for better growth and productivity. The goal of this proposal is to understand how cell proliferation and growth are coordinated during aboveground organ morphogenesis, and how cell-cell signaling mediated by a family of receptor kinases coordinates plant organogenesis. The well-established model plant Arabidopsis thaliana is used for our research to facilitate rapid progress. Specifically, we focus on how ERECTA-family leucine-rich repeat receptor kinases (LRR-RLKs) interact in a synergistic manner to promote organogenesis and pattern formation in Arabidopsis. This project was highly successful, resulted in fourteen publications including nine peer-reviewed original research articles. One provisional US patent has been filed through this DOE funding. We have addressed the critical roles for a family of receptor kinases in coordinating proliferation and differentiation of plants, and we successfully elucidated the downstream targets of this signaling pathway in specifying stomatal patterning.

  10. MeshVoro: A Three-Dimensional Voronoi Mesh Building Tool for the TOUGH Family of Codes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freeman, C. M.; Boyle, K. L.; Reagan, M.; Johnson, J.; Rycroft, C.; Moridis, G. J.

    2013-09-30

    Few tools exist for creating and visualizing complex three-dimensional simulation meshes, and these have limitations that restrict their application to particular geometries and circumstances. Mesh generation needs to trend toward ever more general applications. To that end, we have developed MeshVoro, a tool that is based on the Voro (Rycroft 2009) library and is capable of generating complex threedimensional Voronoi tessellation-based (unstructured) meshes for the solution of problems of flow and transport in subsurface geologic media that are addressed by the TOUGH (Pruess et al. 1999) family of codes. MeshVoro, which includes built-in data visualization routines, is a particularly useful tool because it extends the applicability of the TOUGH family of codes by enabling the scientifically robust and relatively easy discretization of systems with challenging 3D geometries. We describe several applications of MeshVoro. We illustrate the ability of the tool to straightforwardly transform a complex geological grid into a simulation mesh that conforms to the specifications of the TOUGH family of codes. We demonstrate how MeshVoro can describe complex system geometries with a relatively small number of grid blocks, and we construct meshes for geometries that would have been practically intractable with a standard Cartesian grid approach. We also discuss the limitations and appropriate applications of this new technology.

  11. Simulation of a high temperature thermal energy storage system employing several families of phase-change storage material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adebiyi, G.A.

    1989-03-01

    Previous work by the author entailed modeling of the Packed Bed Thermal Energy Storage System, utilizing Phase-Change Materials, and a performance evaluation of the system based on the Second Law of thermodynamics. A principal conclusion reached is that the use of a single family of phase-change storage material may not in fact produce a thermodynamically superior system relative to one utilizing sensible heat storage material. This prompted us to modify our model so that we could investigate whether or not a significantly improved performance may be achieved via the use of multiple families of phase-change materials instead. Other factors investigated in the present work include the effect on system performance due to the thermal mass of the containment vessel wall, varying temperature and mass flow rate of the flue gas entering the packed bed during the storage process, and thermal radiation which could be a significant factor at high temperature levels. The resulting model is intended to serve as an integral part of a real-time simulation of the application of a high temperature regenerator in a periodic brick plant. This paper describes the more comprehensive model of the high temperature thermal energy storage system and presents results indicating that improved system performance could be achieved via a judicious choice of multiple families of phase-change materials.

  12. Linkage analysis of chromosome 17q markers and breast-ovarian cancer in Icelandic families, and possible relationship to prostatic cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arason, A.; Barkardottir, R.B.; Egilsson, V. )

    1993-04-01

    Seven families, selected for breast cancer segregation, have been analyzed for chromosome 17q12-q23 linkage to breast and ovarian cancer. In two of them, linkage is seen with most markers tested, increasing toward the most proximal region, but without informative recombinations above NM23. In the remaining families, no linkage is observed. Families with 17q linkage are not easily distinguished by clinical characteristics such as early onset (mean age at diagnosis [le]45 years) or organs involved. In fact, the family with the highest lod scores ([ge]2.3) belongs to the [open quotes]later onset[close quotes] (>45 years) category of families. Interestingly, prostatic cancer is the most frequent malignancy, after breast cancer, in the families that were studied (13 cases total, all metastasizing) and is especially prevalent in males presumed to carry the trait. Of 16 paternal carriers, 7 (44%) had developed prostatic cancer. Haplotype analysis in families with 17q linkage reveals two further prostatic cases as potential carriers. The authors propose that breast cancer genes may predispose to prostatic cancer in male carriers. 12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Structure of the first representative of Pfam family PF09410 (DUF2006) reveals a structural signature of the calycin superfamily that suggests a role in lipid metabolism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Bakolitsa, Constantina; Skerra, Arne; Lomize, Andrei; Carlton, Dennis; Miller, Mitchell D.; Krishna, S. Sri; Abdubek, Polat; Astakhova, Tamara; Axelrod, Herbert L.; Clayton, Thomas; Deller, Marc C.; Duan, Lian; Feuerhelm, Julie; Grant, Joanna C.; Grzechnik, Slawomir K.; Han, Gye Won; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Jin, Kevin K.; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Kozbial, Piotr; Kumar, Abhinav; Marciano, David; McMullan, Daniel; Morse, Andrew T.; Nigoghossian, Edward; Okach, Linda; Paulsen, Jessica; Reyes, Ron; Rife, Christopher L.; van den Bedem, Henry; Weekes, Dana; Xu, Qingping; Hodgson, Keith O.; Wooley, John; Elsliger, Marc-Andre; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2015-10-15

    The first structural representative of the domain of unknown function DUF2006 family, also known as Pfam family PF09410, comprises a lipocalin-like fold with domain duplication. The finding of the calycin signature in the N-terminal domain, combined with remote sequence similarity to two other protein families (PF07143 and PF08622) implicated in isoprenoid metabolism and the oxidative stress response, support an involvement in lipid metabolism. Clusters of conserved residues that interact with ligand mimetics suggest that the binding and regulation sites map to the N-terminal domain and to the interdomain interface, respectively.

  14. A family of rare earth molybdenum bronzes: Oxides consisting of periodic arrays of interacting magnetic units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneemeyer, L.F.; Siegrist, T.; Besara, T.; Lundberg, M.; Sun, J.; Singh, D.J.

    2015-07-15

    The family of rare earth molybdenum bronzes, reduced ternary molybdates of composition LnMo{sub 16}O{sub 44,} was synthesized and a detailed structural study carried out. Bond valence sum (BVS) calculations clearly show that the molybdenum ions in tetrahedral coordination are hexavalent while the electron count in the primitive unit cell is odd. Yet, measurements show that the phases are semiconductors. The temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility of samples containing several different rare earth elements was measured. These measurements verified the presence of a 6.5 K magnetic phase transition not arising from the rare earth constituent, but likely associated with the unique isolated ReO{sub 3}-type Mo{sub 8}O{sub 36} structural subunits in this phase. To better understand the behavior of these materials, electronic structure calculations were performed within density functional theory. Results suggest a magnetic state in which these structural moieties have an internal ferromagnetic arrangement, with small ~1/8 μ{sub B} moments on each Mo. We suggest that the Mo{sub 8}O{sub 36} units behave like pseudoatoms with spin 1/2 derived from a single hole distributed over the eight Mo atoms that are strongly hybridized with the O atoms of the subunit. Interestingly, while the compound is antiferromagnetic, our calculations suggest that a field-stabilized ferromagnetic state, if achievable, will be a narrow band half-metal. - Graphical abstract: LnMo{sub 16}O{sub 44} phases comprise corner sharing tetrahedral and octahedral molybdenum ions. The MoO{sub 6} octahedra form Mo{sub 8}O{sub 36} units that are well separated and act like pseudo-atoms, accommodating 11 electrons each. - Highlights: • Single crystal X-ray diffraction refinements of LnMo{sub 16}O{sub 44} single crystals for Ln=Ce, Pr, Nd, Tb, Dy and Ho. • DFT calculations based on LaMo{sub 16}O{sub 44}. • [Mo{sub 8}O{sub 36}] units behaving as superatoms with a net magnetic moment of 1 µ

  15. Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Multi-Family and Low Income Peer Exchange Call: Using Partnerships to Drive Demand and Provide Services in Communities, February 2, 2012

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Multi-Family and Low Income Peer Exchange Call: Using Partnerships to Drive Demand and Provide Services in Communities Agenda * Call Logistics and Attendance  What kind of partnerships does your program have for multi-family or low income outreach or service delivery? * Program Experience and Lessons:  Kelvin Keraga, NYSERDA, EmPower New York  Jeanine Otte, CNT Energy, Chicago  Rosemary Olsen, Community Development Corporation of Long Island, Long Island Green Homes * Discussion: 

  16. Linkage and association of haplotypes at the APOA1/C3/A4/A5 genecluster to familial combined hyperlipidemia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eichenbaum-Voline, Sophie; Olivier, Michael; Jones, Emma L.; Naoumova, Rossitza P.; Jones, Bethan; Gau, Brian; Seed, Mary; Betteridge,D. John; Galton, David J.; Rubin, Edward M.; Scott, James; Shoulders,Carol C.; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2002-09-15

    Combined hyperlipidemia (CHL) is a common disorder of lipidmetabolism that leads to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Thelipid profile of CHL is characterised by high levels of atherogeniclipoproteins and low levels of high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol.Apolipoprotein (APO) A5 is a newly discovered gene involved in lipidmetabolism located within 30kbp of the APOA1/C3/A4 gene cluster. Previousstudies have indicated that sequence variants in this cluster areassociated with increased plasma lipid levels. To establish whethervariation at the APOA5 gene contributes to the transmission of CHL, weperformed linkage and linkage disequilibrium (LD) tests on a large cohortof families (n=128) with familial CHL (FCHL). The linkage data producedevidence for linkage of the APOA1/C3/A4/A5 genomic interval to FCHL (NPL= 1.7, P = 0.042). The LD studies substantiated these data. Twoindependent rare alleles, APOA5c.56G and APOC3c.386G of this gene clusterwere over-transmitted in FCHL (P = 0.004 and 0.007, respectively), andthis was associated with a reduced transmission of the most commonAPOA1/C3/A4/A5 haplotype (frequency 0.4425) to affected subjects (P =0.013). The APOA5c.56G allele was associated with increased plasmatriglyceride levels in FCHL probands, whereas the second, andindependent, APOC3c.386G allele was associated with increased plasmatriglyceride levels in FCHL pedigree founders. Thus, this allele (or anallele in LD) may mark a quantitative trait associated with FCHL, as wellas representing a disease susceptibility locus for the condition. Thisstudy establishes that sequence variation in the APOA1/C3/A4/A5 genecluster contributes to the transmission of FCHL in a substantialproportion of affected families, and that these sequence variants mayalso contribute to the lipid abnormalities of the metabolic syndrome,which is present in up to 40 percent of persons with cardiovasculardisease.

  17. SU(3){sub c} x SU(3){sub L} x U(1){sub X} models with four families

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benavides, Richard H.; Ponce, William A.; Giraldo, Yithsbey

    2010-07-01

    In the context of the local gauge group SU(3){sub c} x SU(3){sub L} x U(1){sub X}, we look for possible four family models, where all the particles carry ordinary electric charges. Thirteen different anomaly-free fermion structures emerge, out of which only two are realistic. For the simplest physical structure, we calculate the charged and neutral weak currents and the tree-level Fermion masses. We also look for new sources of flavor changing neutral currents in the quark sector in connection with the upcoming experimental results at the Large Hadron Collider.

  18. Design and fabrication of 6.1-.ANG. family semiconductor devices using semi-insulating A1Sb substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sherohman, John W.; Coombs, III, Arthur W.; Yee, Jick Hong; Wu, Kuang Jen J.

    2007-05-29

    For the first time, an aluminum antimonide (AlSb) single crystal substrate is utilized to lattice-match to overlying semiconductor layers. The AlSb substrate establishes a new design and fabrication approach to construct high-speed, low-power electronic devices while establishing inter-device isolation. Such lattice matching between the substrate and overlying semiconductor layers minimizes the formation of defects, such as threaded dislocations, which can decrease the production yield and operational life-time of 6.1-.ANG. family heterostructure devices.

  19. Harnessing Glycosylation to Improve Cellulase Activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beckham, G. T.; Dai, Z.; Matthews, J. F.; Momany, M.; Payne, C. M.; Adney, W. S.; Baker, S. E.; Himmel, M. E.

    2012-06-01

    Cellulases and hemicellulases are responsible for the turnover of plant cell wall polysaccharides in the biosphere, and thus form the foundation of enzyme engineering efforts in biofuels research. Many of these carbohydrate-active enzymes from filamentous fungi contain both N-linked and O-linked glycosylation, the extent and heterogeneity of which depends on growth conditions, expression host, and the presence of glycan trimming enzymes in the secretome, all of which in turn impact enzyme activity. As the roles of glycosylation in enzyme function have not been fully elucidated, here we discuss the potential roles of glycosylation on glycoside hydrolase enzyme structure and function after secretion. We posit that glycosylation, instead of hindering cellulase engineering, can be used as an additional tool to enhance enzyme activity, given deeper understanding of its molecular-level role in biomass deconstruction.

  20. Harnessing glycosylation to improve cellulase activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beckham, Gregg T.; Dai, Ziyu; Mattews, James F.; Momany, Michelle; Payne, Christina M.; Adney, William S.; Baker, Scott E.; Himmel, Michael E.

    2012-06-11

    Cellulases and hemicellulases are responsible for the turnover of plant cell wall polysaccharides in the biosphere, and thus form the foundation of enzyme engineering efforts in biofuels research. Many of these carbohydrate-active enzymes from filamentous fungi contain both N-linked and O-linked glycosylation, the extent and heterogeneity of which depends on growth conditions, expression host, and the presence of glycan trimming enzymes in the secretome, all of which in turn impacts enzyme activity. As the roles of glycosylation in enzyme function have not been fully elucidated, here we discuss the potential roles of glycosylation on glycoside hydrolase enzyme structure and function after secretion. We posit that glycosylation, instead of hindering cellulase engineering, can be used as an additional tool to enhance enzyme activity, given deeper understanding of its molecular-level role in biomass deconstruction.

  1. Simultaneous knockdown of six non-family genes using a single synthetic RNAi fragment in Arabidopsis thaliana

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Czarnecki, Olaf; Bryan, Anthony C.; Jawdy, Sara S.; Yang, Xiaohan; Cheng, Zong-Ming; Chen, Jin-Gui; Tuskan, Gerald A.

    2016-02-17

    Genetic engineering of plants that results in successful establishment of new biochemical or regulatory pathways requires stable introduction of one or more genes into the plant genome. It might also be necessary to down-regulate or turn off expression of endogenous genes in order to reduce activity of competing pathways. An established way to knockdown gene expression in plants is expressing a hairpin-RNAi construct, eventually leading to degradation of a specifically targeted mRNA. Knockdown of multiple genes that do not share homologous sequences is still challenging and involves either sophisticated cloning strategies to create vectors with different serial expression constructs ormore » multiple transformation events that is often restricted by a lack of available transformation markers. Synthetic RNAi fragments were assembled in yeast carrying homologous sequences to six or seven non-family genes and introduced into pAGRIKOLA. Transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana and subsequent expression analysis of targeted genes proved efficient knockdown of all target genes. In conclusion, we present a simple and cost-effective method to create constructs to simultaneously knockdown multiple non-family genes or genes that do not share sequence homology. The presented method can be applied in plant and animal synthetic biology as well as traditional plant and animal genetic engineering.« less

  2. Theory of nodal s±-wave pairing symmetry in the Pu-based 115 superconductor family

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Tanmoy; Zhu, Jian -Xin; Graf, Matthias J.

    2015-02-27

    The spin-fluctuation mechanism of superconductivity usually results in the presence of gapless or nodal quasiparticle states in the excitation spectrum. Nodal quasiparticle states are well established in copper-oxide, and heavy-fermion superconductors, but not in iron-based superconductors. Here, we study the pairing symmetry and mechanism of a new class of plutonium-based high-Tc superconductors and predict the presence of a nodal s⁺⁻ wave pairing symmetry in this family. Starting from a density-functional theory (DFT) based electronic structure calculation we predict several three-dimensional (3D) Fermi surfaces in this 115 superconductor family. We identify the dominant Fermi surface “hot-spots” in the inter-band scattering channel, which are aligned along the wavevector Q = (π, π, π), where degeneracy could induce sign-reversal of the pairing symmetry. Our calculation demonstrates that the s⁺⁻ wave pairing strength is stronger than the previously thought d-wave pairing; and more importantly, this pairing state allows for the existence of nodal quasiparticles. Finally, we predict the shape of the momentum- and energy-dependent magnetic resonance spectrum for the identification of this pairing symmetry.

  3. Theory of nodal s±-wave pairing symmetry in the Pu-based 115 superconductor family

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Das, Tanmoy; Zhu, Jian -Xin; Graf, Matthias J.

    2015-02-27

    The spin-fluctuation mechanism of superconductivity usually results in the presence of gapless or nodal quasiparticle states in the excitation spectrum. Nodal quasiparticle states are well established in copper-oxide, and heavy-fermion superconductors, but not in iron-based superconductors. Here, we study the pairing symmetry and mechanism of a new class of plutonium-based high-Tc superconductors and predict the presence of a nodal s⁺⁻ wave pairing symmetry in this family. Starting from a density-functional theory (DFT) based electronic structure calculation we predict several three-dimensional (3D) Fermi surfaces in this 115 superconductor family. We identify the dominant Fermi surface “hot-spots” in the inter-band scattering channel,more » which are aligned along the wavevector Q = (π, π, π), where degeneracy could induce sign-reversal of the pairing symmetry. Our calculation demonstrates that the s⁺⁻ wave pairing strength is stronger than the previously thought d-wave pairing; and more importantly, this pairing state allows for the existence of nodal quasiparticles. Finally, we predict the shape of the momentum- and energy-dependent magnetic resonance spectrum for the identification of this pairing symmetry.« less

  4. Direct and indirect effect of changes in family structure and lifestyle upon energy consumption, 1950-1080

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stever, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    This research project examines both the direct and indirect influence of changes in family structure and lifestyle dimensions upon residential energy consumption patterns from 1950 to 1980. These relationships are investigated on a macro level using three national energy surveys administered from 1974 to 1980 and the Census Bureau and other government sources of documenting changes in social characteristics and energy consumption levels over thirty years. Stage I looks at changes in residential consumption from 1950 to 1980 and conservation behavior from 1965 to 1980. The objective of Stage II is to identify those family structure and lifestyle characteristics that constrain conservation measures in which a household engages. Stage III examines the commonly held assumption that investment in conservation equipment will result in reduced consumption. Stage IV explores the potential influence that changes in structural and lifestyle characteristics of householders may have upon average consumption levels from 1950 to 1980. The primary implications of this study are: (1) in order to obtain a complete picture of the current energy situation, it is necessary to examine consumption and conservation behavior both before and after the 1973 oil embargo, and (2) changes in social structural and lifestyle of households over time appear to have contributed as much, if not more, to reduce consumption in the late 1970s as did conscious conservation efforts by householders.

  5. Structural insight into dynamic bypass of the major cisplatin-DNA adduct by Y-family polymerase Dpo4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, Jimson H.Y.; Brown, Jessica A.; Suo, Zucai; Blum, Paul; Nohmi, Takehiko; Ling, Hong

    2010-08-23

    Y-family DNA polymerases bypass Pt-GG, the cisplatin-DNA double-base lesion, contributing to the cisplatin resistance in tumour cells. To reveal the mechanism, we determined three structures of the Y-family DNA polymerase, Dpo4, in complex with Pt-GG DNA. The crystallographic snapshots show three stages of lesion bypass: the nucleotide insertions opposite the 3{prime}G (first insertion) and 5{prime}G (second insertion) of Pt-GG, and the primer extension beyond the lesion site. We observed a dynamic process, in which the lesion was converted from an open and angular conformation at the first insertion to a depressed and nearly parallel conformation at the subsequent reaction stages to fit into the active site of Dpo4. The DNA translocation-coupled conformational change may account for additional inhibition on the second insertion reaction. The structures illustrate that Pt-GG disturbs the replicating base pair in the active site, which reduces the catalytic efficiency and fidelity. The in vivo relevance of Dpo4-mediated Pt-GG bypass was addressed by a dpo-4 knockout strain of Sulfolobus solfataricus, which exhibits enhanced sensitivity to cisplatin and proteomic alterations consistent with genomic stress.

  6. Supernova 2010as: the lowest-velocity member of a family of flat-velocity type IIb supernovae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Folatelli, Gastn; Bersten, Melina C.; Nomoto, Ken'ichi [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Kuncarayakti, Hanindyo; Hamuy, Mario [Departamento de Astronoma, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Olivares Estay, Felipe; Pignata, Giuliano [Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Avda. Republica 252, Santiago (Chile); Anderson, Joseph P. [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Holmbo, Simon; Stritzinger, Maximilian [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Maeda, Keiichi [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Morrell, Nidia; Contreras, Carlos; Phillips, Mark M. [Las Campanas Observatory, Carnegie Observatories, Casilla 601, La Serena (Chile); Frster, Francisco [Center for Mathematical Modelling, Universidad de Chile, Avenida Blanco Encalada 2120 Piso 7, Santiago (Chile); Prieto, Jos Luis [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, 4 Ivy Lane, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Valenti, Stefano [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Afonso, Paulo; Altenmller, Konrad; Elliott, Jonny, E-mail: gaston.folatelli@ipmu.jp [Max-Planck-Institut fr extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrae 1, D-85740 Garching (Germany); and others

    2014-09-01

    We present extensive optical and near-infrared photometric and spectroscopic observations of the stripped-envelope supernova SN 2010as. Spectroscopic peculiarities such as initially weak helium features and low expansion velocities with a nearly flat evolution place this object in the small family of events previously identified as transitional Type Ib/c supernovae (SNe). There is ubiquitous evidence of hydrogen, albeit weak, in this family of SNe, indicating that they are in fact a peculiar kind of Type IIb SNe that we name 'flat-velocity' Type IIb. The flat-velocity evolutionwhich occurs at different levels between 6000 and 8000 km s{sup 1} for different SNesuggests the presence of a dense shell in the ejecta. Despite the spectroscopic similarities, these objects show surprisingly diverse luminosities. We discuss the possible physical or geometrical unification picture for such diversity. Using archival Hubble Space Telescope images, we associate SN 2010as with a massive cluster and derive a progenitor age of ?6 Myr, assuming a single star-formation burst, which is compatible with a Wolf-Rayet progenitor. Our hydrodynamical modeling, on the contrary, indicates that the pre-explosion mass was relatively low, ?4 M {sub ?}. The seeming contradiction between a young age and low pre-SN mass may be solved by a massive interacting binary progenitor.

  7. Effects of quark family nonuniversality in SU(3){sub c} x SU(4){sub L} x U(1){sub X} models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nisperuza, Jorge L.; Sanchez, Luis A.

    2009-08-01

    Flavor changing neutral currents arise in the SU(3){sub c} x SU(4){sub L} x U(1){sub X} extension of the standard model because anomaly cancellation among the fermion families requires one generation of quarks to transform differently from the other two under the gauge group. In the weak basis the distinction between quark families is meaningless. However, in the mass eigenstates basis, the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa mixing matrix motivates us to classify left-handed quarks in families. In this sense there are, in principle, three different assignments of quark weak eigenstates into mass eigenstates. In this work, by using measurements at the Z pole, atomic parity violation data, and experimental input from neutral meson mixing, we examine two different models without exotic electric charges based on the 3-4-1 symmetry, and address the effects of quark family nonuniversality on the bounds on the mixing angle between two of the neutral currents present in the models and on the mass scales M{sub Z{sub 2}} and M{sub Z{sub 3}} of the new neutral gauge bosons predicted by the theory. The heaviest family of quarks must transform differently in order to keep lower bounds on M{sub Z{sub 2}} and M{sub Z{sub 3}} as low as possible without violating experimental constraints.

  8. Genome Sequence and Analysis of the Soil Cellulolytic ActinomyceteThermobifida fusca

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lykidis, Athanasios; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Ivanova, Natalia; Anderson, Iain; Land, Miriam; DiBartolo, Genevieve; Martinez, Michele; Lapidus, Alla; Lucas, Susan; Copeland, Alex; Richardson, Paul; Wilson,David B.; Kyrpides, Nikos

    2007-02-01

    Thermobifida fusca is a moderately thermophilic soilbacterium that belongs to Actinobacteria. 3 It is a major degrader ofplant cell walls and has been used as a model organism for the study of 4secreted, thermostable cellulases. The complete genome sequence showedthat T. fusca has a 5 single circular chromosome of 3642249 bp predictedto encode 3117 proteins and 65 RNA6 species with a coding densityof 85percent. Genome analysis revealed the existence of 29 putative 7glycoside hydrolases in addition to the previously identified cellulasesand xylanases. The 8 glycosyl hydrolases include enzymes predicted toexhibit mainly dextran/starch and xylan 9 degrading functions. T. fuscapossesses two protein secretion systems: the sec general secretion 10system and the twin-arginine translocation system. Several of thesecreted cellulases have 11 sequence signatures indicating theirsecretion may be mediated by the twin-arginine12 translocation system. T.fusca has extensive transport systems for import of carbohydrates 13coupled to transcriptional regulators controlling the expression of thetransporters and14 glycosylhydrolases. In addition to providing anoverview of the physiology of a soil 15 actinomycete, this study presentsinsights on the transcriptional regulation and secretion of16 cellulaseswhich may facilitate the industrial exploitation of thesesystems.

  9. [Environmental Hazards Assessment Program annual report, June 1992--June 1993]. Results of the environmental health activities and needs assessment of the South Carolina statewide family practice system for the Environmental Hazards Assessment Program: EHAP Volume 1, No. 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Musham, C.; Hainer, B.

    1993-05-01

    An activities and needs assessment was conducted to determine what each of the seven family practice residency programs in South Carolina is providing in environmental health education. In addition, this study was designed to determine: what are the barriers to greater emphasis on environmental health in family practice residency programs and, what the basic environmental health educational goals for family practice residency programs should be.

  10. QM/MM Analysis of Cellulase Active Sites and Actions of the Enzymes on Substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saharay, Moumita; Guo, Hao-Bo; Smith, Jeremy C; Guo, Hong

    2010-01-01

    Biodegradation of cellulosic biomass requires the actions of three types of secreted enzymes; endoglucanase (EC 3.2.1.4), cellobiohydrolase or exoglucanase (EC 3.2.1.91), and -glucosidase (EC 4.2.1.21). These enzymes act synergistically to hydrolyse the -1,4 bonds of cellulose and converts it into simple sugar. Hydrolysis of the glycosidic bond can occur either by net retention or by inversion of anomeric configuration at the anomeric center. QM/MM simulations are useful tools to study the energetics of the reactions and analyze the active-site structures at different states of the catalysis, including the formation of unstable transition states. Here, a brief description of previous work on glycoside hydrolases is first given. The results of the QM/MM potential energy and free energy simulations corresponding to glycosylation and deglycosylation processes are then provided for two retaining endoglucanases, Cel12A and Cel5A. The active-site structural features are analyzed based on the QM/MM results. The role of different residues and hydrogen bonding interactions during the catalysis and the importance of the sugar ring distortion are discussed for these two enzymes.

  11. Covalent Coupling of Organophosphorus Hydrolase Loaded Quantum Dots to Carbon Nanotube/Au Nanocomposite for Enhanced Detection of Methyl Parathion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, Dan; Chen, Wenjuan; Zhang, Weiying; Liu, Deli; Li, Haibing; Lin, Yuehe

    2010-02-15

    An amperometric biosensor for highly selective and sensitive determination of methyl parathion (MP) was developed based on dual signal amplification: (1) a large amount of introduced enzyme on the electrode surface and (2) synergistic effects of nanoparticles towards enzymatic catalysis. The fabrication process includes (1) electrochemical deposition of gold nanoparticles by a multi-potential step technique at multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) film pre-cast on a glassy carbon electrode and (2) immobilization of methyl parathion degrading enzyme (MPDE) onto a modified electrode through CdTe quantum dots (CdTe QDs) covalent attachment. The introduced MWCNT and gold nanoparticles significantly increased the surface area and exhibited synergistic effects towards enzymatic catalysis. CdTe QDs are further used as carriers to load a large amount of enzyme. As a result of these two important enhancement factors, the proposed biosensor exhibited extremely sensitive, perfectly selective, and rapid response to methyl parathion in the absence of a mediator.

  12. Stockbridge Munsee Community Health and Wellness Center and the Mohican Family Center Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeRocher, Andy; Barrnett, Michael

    2014-03-14

    The results of the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Feasibility Study of Stockbridge Munsee Community’s Health and Wellness Center (HWC) indicate that a variety of renewable energy options and energy conservation measures (ECMs) exist for the facility. A requirement of the Request for Proposal for this study was to assess renewable energy options that could offset 30 to 100 percent of the HWC’s energy use. This study identifies that a geothermal system is the most cost effective renewable energy option available to decrease the HWC’s energy consumption by 30 to 100 percent. Currently the HWC performs in the lowest 8 percent of buildings in its building category, as scored in the EPA portfolio manager benchmarking tool. Multiple ECM opportunities have been identified with paybacks of less than five years to yield an estimated 25-percent decrease in annual energyconsumption. The ECMs within this payback period are estimated to save $26,800 per year with an implementation cost of just $4,650 (0.2 year payback). For the Mohican Family Center document: The results of the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Feasibility Study of Stockbridge Munsee Community’s Mohican Family Center (MFC) indicate that a variety of renewable energy options and energy conservation measures (ECMs) exist for the facility. A requirement of the Request for Proposal for this study was to assess renewable energy options that could offset 30 to 100 percent of the MFC’s energy use. This study identifies that a geothermal system is the most cost effective renewable energy option available to decrease the MFC’s energy consumption by 30 to 100 percent. Currently the MFC performs better than 80 percent of buildings in its building category, as scored in the EPA portfolio manager benchmarking tool. Multiple ECM opportunities have been identified with short term paybacks to yield an estimated 13-percent decrease in energy consumption. The ECMs within this payback period are estimated

  13. SU(4){sub L} x U(1){sub X} three-family model for the electroweak interaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanchez, Luis A.; Wills-Toro, Luis A.; Zuluaga, Jorge I.

    2008-02-01

    An extension of the gauge group SU(2){sub L} x U(1){sub Y} of the standard model to the symmetry group SU(4){sub L} x U(1){sub X} (3-4-1 for short) is presented. The model does not contain exotic electric charges and anomaly cancellation is achieved with a family of quarks transforming differently from the other two, thus leading to FCNC. By introducing a discrete Z{sub 2} symmetry we obtain a consistent fermion mass spectrum, and avoid unitarity violation of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa mixing matrix arising from the mixing of ordinary and exotic quarks. The neutral currents coupled to all neutral vector bosons are studied, and by using CERN LEP and SLAC Linear Collider data at Z-pole and atomic parity violation data, we bound parameters of the model related to tree-level Z-Z{sup '} mixing. These parameters are further constrained by using experimental input from neutral meson mixing in the analysis of sources of FCNC present in the model. Constraints coming from the contribution of exotic particles to the one-loop oblique electroweak parameters S, T and U are also briefly discussed. Finally, a comparison is done of the predictions of different classes of 3-4-1 models without exotic electric charges.

  14. Recent Progress in the Structure Determination of GPCRs, a Membrane Protein Family with High Potential as Pharmaceutical Targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cherezov, Vadim; Abola, Enrique; Stevens, Raymond C.

    2015-11-30

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute a highly diverse and ubiquitous family of integral membrane proteins, transmitting signals inside the cells in response to an assortment of disparate extra-cellular stimuli. Their strategic location on the cell surface and their involvement in crucial cellular and physiological processes turn these receptors into highly important pharmaceutical targets. Recent technological developments aimed at stabilization and crystallization of these receptors have led to significant breakthroughs in GPCR structure determination efforts. One of the successful approaches involved receptor stabilization with the help of a fusion partner combined with crystallization in lipidic cubic phase (LCP). The success of using an LCP matrix for crystallization is generally attributed to the creation of a more native, membrane-like stabilizing environment for GPCRs just prior to nucleation and to the formation of type I crystal lattices, thus generating highly ordered and strongly diffracting crystals. Here they describe protocols for reconstituting purified GPCRs in LCP, performing pre-crystallization assays, setting up crystallization trials in manual mode, detecting crystallization hits, optimizing crystallization conditions, harvesting, and collecting crystallographic data. The protocols provide a sensible framework for approaching crystallization of stabilized GPCRs in LCP, however, as in any crystallization experiment, extensive screening and optimization of crystallization conditions as well as optimization of protein construct and purification steps are required. The process remains risky and these protocols do not necessarily guarantee success.

  15. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of human kallikrein 7, a serine protease of the multigene kallikrein family

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fernndez, Israel S.; Stndker, Ludger; Forssmann, Wolf-Georg; Gimnez-Gallego, Guillermo; Romero, Antonio

    2007-08-01

    The cloning, expression, purification and crystallization of recombinant human kallikrein 7, directly synthesized in the active form in E. coli, is described. Diffraction data were collected to 2.8 resolution from native crystals. Human kallikreins are a group of serine proteases of high sequence homology whose genes are grouped as a single cluster at chromosome 19. Although the physiological roles of kallikreins are generally still unknown, members of the kallikrein family have been clearly implicated in pathological situations such as cancer and psoriasis. Human kallikrein 7 (hK7) has been shown to be involved in pathological keratinization, psoriasis and ovarian cancer. In order to gain insight into the molecular structure of this protein, hK7 was crystallized after recombinant production in its folded and active form using a periplasmic secretion vector in Escherichia coli. The crystals belonged to the rhombohedral space group H32 and diffracted to 2.8 . The phase problem was solved by molecular replacement using the mouse kallikrein-related protein neuropsin. Completion of the model and structure refinement are under way.

  16. Lithium Polysulfidophosphates: A Family of Lithium-Conducting Sulfur-Rich Compounds for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Zhan; Liu, Zengcai; Fu, Wujun; Dudney, Nancy J; Liang, Chengdu

    2013-01-01

    Given the great potential for improving the energy density of state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries by a factor of 5, a breakthrough in lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries will have a dramatic impact in a broad scope of energy related fields. Conventional Li-S batteries that use liquid electrolytes are intrinsically short-lived with low energy efficiency. The challenges stem from the poor electronic and ionic conductivities of elemental sulfur and its discharge products. We report herein lithium polysulfidophosphates (LPSP), a family of sulfur-rich compounds, as the enabler of long-lasting and energy-efficient Li-S batteries. LPSP have ionic conductivities of 3.0 10-5 S cm-1 at 25 oC, which is 8 orders of magnitude higher than that of Li2S (~10-13 S cm-1). The high Li-ion conductivity of LPSP is the salient characteristic of these compounds that impart the excellent cycling performance to Li-S batteries. In addition, the batteries are configured in an all-solid state that promises the safe cycling of high-energy batteries with metallic lithium anodes.

  17. Dear Family and friends,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    He holds a B.S. in geology from Muenster University in Germany and an M.S. in geology from the Technical University of Berlin, Germany. He edited the volume "Deep Geologic ...

  18. Your Family Today!

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    place. The alarm may need to be moved to a new location. Some of the newer models have a "hush" button that silences nuisance alarms. How Long will my Smoke Alarm Last? Most alarms...

  19. A common region of deletion on chromosome 17q in both sporadic and familial epithelial ovarian tumors distal to BRCA1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Godwin, A.K.; Vanderveer, L.; Schultz, D.C.; Altomare, D.A.; Buetow, K.H.; Daly, M.; Getts, L.A.; Masny, A.; Rosenblum, N.

    1994-10-01

    Linkage analysis in familial breast and ovarian cancer and studies of allelic deletion in sporadic ovarian tumors have identified a region on chromosome 17q containing a candidate tumor-suppressor gene (referred to as BRCA1) of likely importance in ovarian carcinogenesis. We have examined normal and tumor DNA samples from 32 patients with sporadic and 8 patients with familial forms of the disease, for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at 21 loci on chromosome 17 (7 on 17p and 14 on 17q). LOH on 17p was 55% (22/40) for informative 17p13.1 and 17p13.3 markers. When six polymorphic markers flanking the familial breast/ovarian cancer susceptibility locus on 17q12-q21 were used, LOH was 58% (23/40), with one tumor showing telomeric retention. Evaluation of a set of markers positioned telomeric to BRCA1 resulted in the highest degree of LOH, 73% (29/40), indicating that a candidate locus involved in ovarian cancer may reside distal to BRCA1. Five of the tumors demonstrating allelic loss for 17q markers were from individuals with a strong family history of breast and ovarian cancer. More important, two of these tumors (unique patient number [UPN] 57 and UPN 79) retained heterozygosity for all informative markers spanning the BRCA1 locus but showed LOH at loci distal to but not including the anonymous markers CMM86 (D17S74) and 42D6 (D17S588), respectively. Deletion mapping of seven cases (two familial and five sporadic) showing limited LOH on 17q revealed a common region of deletion, distal to GH and proximal to D17S4, that spans {approximately} 25 cM. These results suggest that a potential tumor-suppressor gene involved in both sporadic and familial ovarian cancer may reside on the distal portion of chromosome 17q and is distinct from the BRCA1 gene. 58 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Design, development and testing of a solar-powered multi-family residential size prototype turbocompressor heat pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1981-03-01

    A program described to design, fabricate, and conduct preliminary testing of a prototype solar-powered Rankine cycle turbocompressor heat pump module for a multi-family residential building is presented. A solar system designed to use the turbocompressor heat pump module including all of the subsystems required and the various system operating modes is described in Section I. Section II includes the preliminary design analyses conducted to select the heat pump module components and operating features, working fluid, configuration, size and performance goals, and estimated performance levels in the cooling and heating modes. Section III provides a detailed description of the other subsystems and components required for a complete solar installation. Using realistic performance and cost characteristics for all subsystems, the seasonal performance of the UTC heat pump is described in various US locations. In addition, the estimated energy savings and an assessment of the economic viability of the solar system is presented in Section III. The detailed design of the heat pump module and the arrangement of components and controls selected to conduct the laboratory performance tests are described in Section IV. Section V provides a description of the special laboratory test facility, including the subsystems to simulate the collectors and storage tanks for building load and ambient conditions and the instrumentation, monitoring, and data acquisition equipment. The test results and sample computer analyses and comparisons with predicted performance levels are presented in Section VI. Various appendices provide supplementary and background information concerning working fluid selection (A), configuration selection (B), capacity control concepts (C), building models (D), computer programs used to determine component and system performance and total system economics (E), and weather data (F).

  1. Benchmarking for electric utilities, tree trimming benchmarking, service line installation to single family residence, and distribution revenue meter testing and repair

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harder, J.

    1994-12-31

    An American Public Power Association (APPA) task force study on benchmarking for electric utilities is presented. Benchmark studies were made of three activities: (1) Tree trimming; (2) Service line installation to single family residence; (3) Distribution revenue meter testing and repair criteria. The results of the study areas are summarized for 15 utilities. The methodologies used for data collection and analysis are discussed. 28 figs., 9 tabs.

  2. EA-2001: Energy Efficiency Standards for New Federal Commercial and Multi-Family High-Rise Residential Buildings' Baseline Standards Update (RIN 1904-AD39)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is publishing this final rule to implement provisions in the Energy Conservation and Production Act (ECPA) that require DOE to update the baseline Federal energy efficiency performance standards for the construction of new Federal commercial and multi-family high-rise residential buildings. This rule updates the baseline Federal commercial standard to the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 90.1-2013.

  3. Map refinement of locus RP13 to human chromosome 17p13.3 in a second family with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kojis, T.L.; Heinzmann, C.; Ngo, J.T.

    1996-02-01

    In order to elucidate the genetic basis of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP) in a large eight-generation family (UCLA-RP09) of British descent, we assessed linkage between the UCLA-RP09 adRP gene and numerous genetic loci, including eight adRP candidate genes, five anonymous adRP-linked DNA loci, and 20 phenotypic markers. Linkage to the UCLA-RP09 disease gene was excluded for all eight candidate genes analyzed, including rhodopsin (RP4) and peripherin/RDS (RP7), for the four adRP loci RP1, RP9, RP10 and RP11, as well as for 17 phenotypic markers. The anonymous DNA marker locus D17S938, linked to adRP locus RP13 on chromosome 17p13.1, yielded a suggestive but not statistically significant positive lod score. Linkage was confirmed between the UCLA-RP09 adRP gene and markers distal to D17S938 in the chromosomal region 17p13.3. A reanalysis of the original RP13 data from a South African adRP family of British descent, in conjunction with our UCLA-RP09 data, suggests that only one adRP locus exists on 17p but that it maps to a more telomeric position, at band 17p13.3, than previously reported. Confirmation of the involvement of RP13 in two presumably unrelated adRP families, both of British descent, suggests that this locus is a distinct adRP gene in a proportion of British, and possibly other, adRP families. 39 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Better Buildings Residential Network Multi-Family & Low-Income Housing Peer Exchange Call Series: Loan Programs for Low- and Moderate-Income Households, March 13, 2014

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Family & Low-Income Housing Peer Exchange Call Series: Loan Programs for Low- and Moderate-Income Households March 13, 2014 Agenda  Call Logistics and Introductions  Featured Participants  Becca Harmon Murphy (Indianapolis Neighborhood Housing Partnership)  Discussion:  What strategies or approaches has your program used to build interest in your loan programs for moderate- and low-income households? What has worked well, and why do you think it was effective?  What

  5. Better Buildings Residential Network Multi-Family/ Low Income Peer Exchange Call Series: Strengthening Relationships between Energy and Housing Programs, October 31, 2013

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Family/ Low Income Peer Exchange Call Series: Strengthening Relationships between Energy and Housing Programs October 31, 2013 Agenda  Call Logistics and Introductions  Discussion:  What are some examples of energy and housing programs working together?  What are the benefits of pursuing housing and energy goals simultaneously?  What strategies are there for strengthening the relationship between energy and housing programs?  Are there challenges with this approach?  Other

  6. Standard Work Specifications for Single-Family Home Energy Upgrades Summary (Fact Sheet), Guidelines For Home Energy Professionals, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Stand-Off Furring in Deep Energy Retrofits Syracuse, New York PROJECT INFORMATION Project Name: Deep Energy Retrofit Location: Syracuse, NY Project Partners: GreenHomes America, www.greenhomesamerica.com/ IBACOS, www.ibacos.com Building Component: Building envelope Application: Single-family retrofit Year Tested: 2012 Applicable Climate Zone(s): Cold PERFORMANCE DATA Cost of energy efficiency measure (including labor): $23,518 Projected energy savings: Approximately 50% overall savings Exterior

  7. EA-2001: Energy Efficiency Design Standards: New Federal Commercial and Multi-Family High-Rise Residential Buildings and New Federal Low-Rise Residential Buildings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is publishing this final rule to implement provisions in the Energy Conservation and Production Act (ECPA) that require DOE to update the baseline Federal energy efficiency performance standards for the construction of new Federal commercial and multi-family high-rise residential buildings. This rule updates the baseline Federal commercial standard to the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 90.1-2013.

  8. Structural Insight on the Mechanism of Regulation of the MarR Family of Proteins: High-Resolution Crystal Structure of a Transcriptional Repressor from Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saridakis, Vivian; Shahinas, Dea; Xu, Xiaohui; Christendat, Dinesh

    2008-03-31

    Transcriptional regulators belonging to the MarR family are characterized by a winged-helix DNA binding domain. These transcriptional regulators regulate the efflux and influx of phenolic agents in bacteria and archaea. In Escherichia coli, MarR regulates the multiple antibiotic resistance operon and its inactivation produces a multiple antibiotic resistance phenotype. In some organisms, active efflux of drug compounds will produce a drug resistance phenotype, whereas in other organisms, active influx of chlorinated hydrocarbons results in their rapid degradation. Although proteins in the MarR family are regulators of important biological processes, their mechanism of action is not well understood and structural information about how phenolic agents regulate the activity of these proteins is lacking. This article presents the three-dimensional structure of a protein of the MarR family, MTH313, in its apo form and in complex with salicylate, a known inactivator. A comparison of these two structures indicates that the mechanism of regulation involves a large conformational change in the DNA binding lobe. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay and biophysical analyses further suggest that salicylate inactivates MTH313 and prevents it from binding to its promoter region.

  9. Localization to Xq22 and clinical update of a family with X-linked recessive mental retardation with progression sensorineural deafness, progressive tapeto-retinal degeneration and dystonia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tranebjaerg, L.; Schwartz, C.; Huggins, K.; Barker, D.; Stevenson, R.; Arena, J.F.; Gedde-Dahl, T.; Mikkelsen, M.; Mellgren, S.; Anderson, K. ||||

    1994-07-15

    In a reinvestigation of a six-generation Norwegian family, originally reported with non-syndromic X-linked recessive deafness by Mohr and Mageroy, we have demonstrated several syndromic manifestations. The 10 clinically characterized affected males range in age from 14-61 years, and show progressive mental deterioration and visual disability. Ophthalmological and electrophysiological studies showed myopia, decreased visual acuity, combined cone-rod dystrophy as well as central areolar dystrophy by means of ERG. Brain CT-scans showed cortical and central atrophy without predilection to specific areas. Linkage analysis, using X-chromosomal RFLPs and CA-repeats, yielded a maximum LOD score of 4.37 with linkage to DXS17. DXS17 is localized to Xq22. One recombinant with COL4A5 (deficient in Alport syndrome) was observed. Results from the studies of this family will be important in reclassification of non-syndromic X-linked deafness since the family now represents syndromic deafness and XLMR with a specific phenotype.

  10. An ABCA1 truncation shows no dominant negative effect in a familial hypoalphalipoproteinemia pedigree with three ABCA1 mutations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorrenson, Brie; Suetani, Rachel J.; Bickley, Vivienne M.; George, Peter M.; Williams, Michael J.A.; Scott, Russell S.; McCormick, Sally P.A.

    2011-06-10

    Highlights: {yields} Characterisation of an ABCA1 truncation mutant, C978fsX988, in a pedigree with three ABCA1 mutations. {yields} Functional analysis of C978fsX988 in patient fibroblasts and HEK 293 cells shows no cholesterol efflux function. {yields} Allele-specific quantification shows C978fsX988 not expressed at mRNA level in fibroblasts. {yields} Unlike other ABCA1 truncations, C978fsX988 mutant shows no dominant negative effect at mRNA or protein level. -- Abstract: The ATP binding cassette transporter (ABCA1) A1 is a key determinant of circulating high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Mutations in ABCA1 are a major genetic contributor to low HDL-C levels within the general population. Following the finding of three different ABCA1 mutations, p.C978fsX988, p.T1512M and p.N1800H in a subject with hypoalphalipoproteinemia, we aimed to establish whether the p.C978fsX988 truncation exerted a dominant negative effect on the full-length ABCA1 alleles within family members as has been reported for other ABCA1 truncations. Characterisation of the p.C978fsX988 mutant in transfected HEK 293 cells showed it to be expressed as a GFP fusion protein but lacking in cholesterol efflux function. This was in keeping with results from cholesterol efflux assays in the fibroblasts of p.C978fsX988 carriers which also showed impaired efflux. Allele- specific quantification of p.C978fsX988 mRNA and analysis of ABCA1 protein levels in the fibroblasts of p.C978fsX988 heterozygotes showed negligible levels of mRNA and protein expression. There was no evidence of a dominant negative effect on wildtype or p.N1800H protein levels. We conclude that in the case of the p.C978fsX988 truncated mutant a lack of expression precludes it from having a dominant negative effect.

  11. Ovate family protein1 interaction with BLH3 regulates transition timing from vegetative to reproductive phase in Arabidopsis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Liguo; Zhang, Xiaofei; Ju, Hanxun; Chen, Jingui; Wang, Shucai; Wang, Hemeng; Zhao, Yuanling; Chang, Ying

    2016-01-23

    We study the Three-Amino-acid-Loop-Extension(TALE) homeodomain transcription factor BLH3 that regulates timing of transition from vegetative to reproductive phase. Previous preliminary results obtained using large-scale yeast two-hybrids indicate that BLH3 protein possibly interact with Ovate Family Proteins(OFPs) transcription co-regulators. Nevertheless, it is uncertain whether OFP1–BLH3 complex is involved in regulation of timing of transition from vegetative to reproductive phase in Arabidopsis. The interaction between BLH3 and OFP1 was re-tested and verified by a yeast two-hybrid system. We found that the BLH3–OFP1 interaction was mainly mediated through the BLH3 homeodomain. Meanwhile, this interaction was further confirmed by bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) inmore » vivo. In addition, by establishing protoplast transient expression, we discovered that BLH3 acts as a transcriptional activator, whereas OFP1 functioned as a repressor. The interactions between OFP1 and BLH3 can reduce BLH3 transcriptional activity. The ofp1 mutant lines and blh3 mutant lines, OFP1 overexpress lines and BLH3 overexpress lines can both influence timing of transition from vegetative to reproductive phase. Furthermore, 35s:OFP1/blh3 plants exhibited flowering and leaf quantity similar to that of the wild-type controls. 35s:BLH3/ofp1 plants flowered earlier and had less leaves than wild-type controls, indicating that OFP1 protein might depend partially on BLH3 in its function to regulate the timing of transition from vegetative to reproductive phase. In conclusion, these results support our assumption that, by interacting with OFP1, BLH3 forms a functional protein complex that controls timing of progression from vegetative to reproductive phase, and OFP1 might negatively regulate BLH3 or the BLH-KNOX complex, an important interaction for sustaining the normal transition from vegetative to reproductive phase.« less

  12. Probing the nature of electron transfer in metalloproteins on graphene-family materials as nanobiocatalytic scaffold using electrochemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Sanju; Irihamye, Aline

    2015-03-15

    Graphene-based nanomaterials have shown great promise not only in nanoelectronics due to ultrahigh electron mobility but also as biocatalytic scaffolds owing to irreversible protein surface adsorption and facilitating direct electron transfer. In this work, we synthesized stable dispersions of graphene using liquid-phase exfoliation approach based on non-covalent interactions between graphene and 1-pyrenesulfonic acid sodium salt (Py–1SO{sub 3}), 1-pyrenemethylamine salt (Py − Me-NH{sub 2}) and Pluronic{sup ®} P-123 surfactant using only water as solvent compatible with biomolecules. The resulting graphene nanoplatelets (Gr-LPE) are characterized by a combination of analytical (microscopy and spectroscopy) techniques revealing mono- to few-layer graphene displaying that the exfoliation efficiency strongly depends upon the type of pyrene-based salts and organic surfactants. Moreover being completely water-based approach, we build robust nanoscaffolds of graphene-family nanomaterials (GFNs) namely, monolayer graphene, Gr-LPE (the one prepared with Pluronic{sup ®} P-123), graphene oxide (GO) and its reduced form (rGO) on glassy carbon electrode surface with three important metalloproteins include cytochrome c (Cyt c) [for electron transfer], myoglobin (Mb) [for oxygen storage] and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) [for catalyzing the biochemical reaction]. In order to demonstrate the nanobiocatalytical activity of these proteins, we used electrochemical interfacial direct electron transfer (DET) kinetics and attempt to determine the rate constant (k{sub ET}) using two different analytical approaches namely, linear sweep voltammetry and Laviron’s theory. We elucidated that all of the metalloproteins retain their structural integrity (secondary structure) upon forming mixtures with GFNs confirmed through optical and vibrational spectroscopy and biological activity using electrochemistry. Among the GFNs studied, Gr-LPE, GO and rGO support the efficient electrical

  13. Activation of IL-2 receptor {alpha}-chain gene by individual members of the rel oncogene family in association with serum response factor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierce, J.W.; Jamieson, C.A.; Ross, J.L.

    1995-08-15

    Expression of the IL-2R{alpha} gene is regulated by members of the c-Rel/NF-{kappa}B family of transcription factors binding to the {kappa}B site in the promoter. Previous work has not defined the role of individual members of the c-Rel family in the activation of the IL-2R{alpha} gene. Using the COS cell system, we were able to reconstitute the regulation of the IL-2R{alpha} promoter by expressing cloned Rel family members with serum response factor (SRF). We found that c-rel alone activated the IL-2R{alpha} promoter only weakly but worked with the p50 subunit of NF-{kappa}B (NFKB1) to give a higher level of expression. We showed that c-rel heterodimerizes with p50 and the amount of this heterodimer correlated with the level of IL-2R{alpha} gene expression. Our results provide evidence that c-rel/p50 heterodimers activate gene expression in the context of a cellular promoter. We show that c-rel or p65 can cooperate with SRF in the activation of this promoter and the transactivation by c-rel with SRF was enhanced by p50. Synergistic activation required both {kappa}B an CArG sites, and binding studies show that these that these adjacent sites can be occupied simultaneously. The transactivation observed with cloned transcription factors mimics the physiologic induction of the IL-2R{alpha} gene since multiple sequence elements cooperate to give gene activation. The data support the model that c-rel/p50 or p65 can cooperate with SRF to specifically target the expression of the IL-2R{alpha} gene in activated T cells.

  14. EA-1918: Final Rule, 10 CFR 433, "Energy Efficiency Standards for New Federal Commercial and MultiFamily High-Rise Residential Buildings" RIN 1904-AC60

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of implementing provisions in the Energy Conservation and Production Act (ECPA) that require DOE to update the baseline Federal energy efficiency performance standards for the construction of new Federal buildings, including commercial and multi-family high-rise residential buildings. This EA addresses Federal commercial standard to the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 90.1-2010. The Final Rule was published in the Federal Register on July 9, 2013, 78 FR 40945.

  15. IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THERMOBIFIDA FUSCA GENES INVOLVED IN PLANT CELL WALL DEGRADATION.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David B. Wilson

    2006-01-23

    Micro-array experiments identified a number of Thermobifida fusca genes which were upregulated by growth on cellulose or plant biomass. Five of these genes were cloned, overexpressed in E. coli and the expressed proteins were purified and characterized. These were a xyloglucanase,a 1-3,beta glucanase, a family 18 hydrolase and twocellulose binding proteins that contained no catalytic domains. The catalyic domain of the family 74 endoxyloglucanase with a C-terminal, cellulose binding module was crystalized and its 3-dimensional structure was determined by X-ray crystallography.

  16. Asymptomatic and late-onset ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency caused by a A208T mutation: Clinical, biochemical and DNA analyses in a four-generation family

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ausems, M.G.E.M.; Bakker, E.; Kneppers, A.L.J.

    1997-01-20

    We describe a 4-generation family in which a previously healthy 10-year-old boy died of late-onset ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency. Pedigree analysis and allopurinol loading tests in female relatives were not informative. A missense mutation (A208T) in the OTC gene was detected in the deceased patient and in several clinically healthy male and female relatives, the oldest male being 97 years old. OTC deficiency was established in autopsy liver tissue of the propositus and liver biopsy samples of his sister, mother, and a maternal uncle. The males had 4% and 6% residual activity, respectively, the females 58% and 67%, respectively. The observed relation between the mutation and the decreased OTC activity in liver tissue of these subjects suggests that the mutation is a deleterious one. Late-onset, {open_quotes}mild{close_quotes} OTC deficiency can have a fatal or a favorable outcome. The disease can segregate undetected in families. 16 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  17. A Zinc-Finger-Family Transcription Factor, AbVf19, Is Required for the Induction of a Gene Subset Important for Virulence in Alternaria brassicicola

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srivastava, Akhil; Ohm, Robin A.; Oxiles, Lindsay; Brooks, Fred; Lawrence, Christopher B.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Cho, Yangrae

    2011-10-26

    Alternaria brassicicola is a successful saprophyte and necrotrophic plant pathogen with a broad host range within the family Brassicaceae. It produces secondary metabolites that marginally affect virulence. Cell wall degrading enzymes (CDWE) have been considered important for pathogenesis but none of them individually have been identified as significant virulence factors in A. brassicicola. In this study, knockout mutants of a gene, AbVf19, were created and produced considerably smaller lesions than the wild type on inoculated host plants. The presence of tandem zinc-finger domains in the predicted amino acid sequence and nuclear localization of AbVf19- reporter protein suggested that it was a transcription factor. Gene expression comparisons using RNA-seq identified 74 genes being downregulated in the mutant during a late stage of infection. Among the 74 downregulated genes, 28 were putative CWDE genes. These were hydrolytic enzyme genes that composed a small fraction of genes within each family of cellulases, pectinases, cutinases, and proteinases. The mutants grew slower than the wild type on an axenic medium with pectin as a major carbon source. This study demonstrated the existence and the importance of a transcription factor that regulates a suite of genes that are important for decomposing and utilizing plant material during the late stage of plant infection.

  18. The CD36, CLA-1(CD36L1), and LIMPII (CD36L2) gene family: Cellular distribution, chromosomal location, and genetic evolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calvo, D.; Vega, M.A.; Dopazo, J.

    1995-01-01

    CD36, CLA-1, and LIMPII are single polypeptide membrane glycoproteins, and the genes encoding them constitute a recently described gene family. In the present paper, a cDNA encoding the human lysosomal membrane protein LIMPII was used to determine its expression pattern in cells of various lineages. Like CLA-1, and in contrast with the restricted expression of CD36, the expression of LIMPII is widespread. Mapping of the human LIMPII and CLA-1 genes (gene symbols CD36L2 and CD36L1, respectively) to specific chromosomes revealed that CLA-1, LIMPII, and CD36 do not form a gene cluster, but are found dispersed on chromosomes 12, 4, and 7, respectively. These data, together with the phylogenetic analysis carried out for the members of this family, indicate that the LIMPII, CIA-1, and CD36 genes diverged early in evolution from an ancestor gene, possibly before the divergence between the arthropods and the vertebrates. 48 refs., 5 figs.

  19. Site-directed mutagenesis and molecular modelling studies show the role of Asp82 and cysteines in rat acylase 1, a member of the M20 family

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herga, Sameh; Brutus, Alexandre; Vitale, Rosa Maria; Miche, Helene; Perrier, Josette; Puigserver, Antoine; Scaloni, Andrea; Giardina, Thierry . E-mail: thierry.giardina@univ.u-3mrs.fr

    2005-05-06

    Acylase 1 from rat kidney catalyzes the hydrolysis of acyl-amino acids. Sequence alignment has shown that this enzyme belongs to the metalloprotein family M20. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments led to the identification of one functionally important amino acid residue located near one of the zinc coordinating residues, which play a critical role in the enzymatic activity. The D82N- and D82E-substituted forms showed no significant activity and very low activity, respectively, along with a loss of zinc coordination. Molecular modelling investigations indicated a putative role of D82 in ensuring a proper protonation of catalytic histidine. In addition, none of the five cysteine residues present in the rat kidney acylase 1 sequence seemed involved in the catalytic process: the loss of activity induced by the C294A substitution was probably due to a conformational change in the 3D structure.

  20. Fluorescent detection of apoptotic cells using a family of zinc coordination complexes with selective affinity for membrane surfaces that are enriched with phosphatidylserine.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Bradley D.; Lambert, Timothy N.; Lakshmi, C.; Hanshaw, Roger, G.

    2005-03-01

    The appearance of phosphatidylserine on the membrane surface of apoptotic cells (Jurkat, CHO, HeLa) is monitored by using a family of bis(Zn{sup 2+}-2,2{prime}-dipicolylamine) coordination compounds with appended fluorescein or biotin groups as reporter elements. The phosphatidylserine affinity group is also conjugated directly to a CdSe/CdS quantum dot to produce a probe suitable for prolonged observation without photobleaching. Apoptosis can be detected under a wide variety of conditions, including variations in temperature, incubation time, and binding media. Binding of each probe appears to be restricted to the cell membrane exterior, because no staining of organelles or internal membranes is observed.

  1. New energy-conserving passive solar single-family homes. Cycle 5, Category 2 HUD solar heating and cooling demonstration program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The 91 new single-family, energy-conserving passive solar homes described represent award winning designs of the series of five demonstration cycles of the HUD program. Information is presented to help builders and lenders to understand passive solar design, to recognize passive solar buildings, and to provide specific design, construction, and marketing suggestions and details. The first section describes the concept of passive solar energy, explains the various functions which passive solar systems must perform, and discusses the various types of passive systems found in the Cycle 5 projects. The second section discusses each of the 91 solar homes. The third section details the issues of climate requirements and site design concerns, gives examples of building construction, and suggests how to market solar homes. The appendices address more technical aspects of the design and evaluation of passive solar homes.

  2. Two distinct origins of a common BRCA1 mutation in breast-ovarian cancer families: A genetic study of 15 185delAG-mutation kindreds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berman, D.B.; Schultz, D.C.; Godwin, A.K.

    1996-06-01

    We screened 163 women from breast-ovarian cancer-prone families, as well as 178 individuals affected with breast and/or ovarian cancer but unselected for family history, for germ-line mutations in exon 2 of BRCA1, by SSCP analysis and direct sequencing. A total of 25 mutations were detected. Thirteen of 64 Jewish Ashkenazi women and 2 non-Jewish individuals were found to possess the 185delAG mutation. Haplotype data for all 15 individuals, with markers intragenic to BRCA1, suggest that the Jewish Ashkenazi individuals share a common ancestry that is distinct from the lineage shared by the other two women. These data provide the first evidence of two distinct lines of transmission for the 185delAG mutation, only one of which has its origins in the Jewish Ashkenazi population. Our screening also uncovered 10 affected individuals with an 11-bp deletion at nucleotide 188 of BRCA1 (188del11), 4 of whom are Ashkenazi Jews. This is only the third reported mutation detected within the Jewish Ashkenazi population and may represent the second most common alteration in BRCA1 found in Ashkenazi Jews in the United States. The observed overrepresentation of specific mutations within a subgroup of the general population may eventually contribute to the development of inexpensive and routine tests for BRCA1 mutations, as well as to the elucidation of other contributory factors (e.g., diet, environment, and chemical exposures) that may play a key role in cancer initiation and development. The implications of the mutational data, as well as the role that founder effect, demographic history, and penetrance play in the resulting observed phenomena, are discussed. 32 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Tuning complexity by lithiation: A family of intergrowth structures using condensed hypho-icosahedra in the Li-doped Ca–Zn system

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lin, Qisheng; Zhu, Ran; Miller, Gordon J.

    2016-04-26

    Cluster chemistry of intermetallics with valence electron counts (VECs) in the range of 2.0–3.0 is intriguing. Lithiation of polar intermetallics in this VEC region is found to be an effective chemical route to produce new complex structures with different stability mechanisms. In this work, two new complex intermetallic structures have been discovered in the Ca–Li–Zn system: Ca12LixZn59–x and Ca15LixZn75–x. Ca12LixZn59–x, x ≈ 5.65(3)–14.95(3), forms in the trigonal space group R3m, with a = 9.074(1)–9.1699(2) Å, c = 53.353(1)–53.602(1) Å, and Z = 3. In comparison, Ca15LixZn75–x, x ≈ 19.07(2), crystallizes in the space group P63/mmc, with a ≈ 9.183(1) Å,more » c ≈ 45.191(5) Å), and Z = 2. Both structures are members of a large intergrowth family featuring slabs of dimers (D) and trimers (T) stacking along [001], with the sequences DTDDTDDTD for Ca12LixZn59–x and TDDDTDDD for Ca15LixZn75–x. Each dimer consists of two face-sharing Zn-centered hypho-icosahedra, and each trimer comprises a Li-centered icosahedron sandwiched by two hypho-icosahedra. Furthermore, this intergrowth family includes several known intermetallic structure types involving very electropositive metals, e.g., SrMg5.2, Ba2Li4.21Al4.79, and Sr9Li17.5Al25.5. Because of cluster defects and condensation, both Ca12LixZn59–x and Ca15LixZn75–x are electronically akin to close-packed metals, and their structural stabilities can be interpreted by a Hume-Rothery mechanism rather than the Zintl–Klemm concept.« less

  4. BTG/Tob family members Tob1 and Tob2 inhibit proliferation of mouse embryonic stem cells via Id3 mRNA degradation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Yuanfan; Wang, Chenchen; Wu, Jenny; Li, Lingsong

    2015-07-03

    The mammalian BTG/Tob family is a group of proteins with anti-proliferative ability, and there are six members including BTG1, BTG2/PC3/Tis21, BTG3/ANA, BTG4/PC3B, Tob1/Tob and Tob2. Among them, Tob subfamily members, specifically Tob1/Tob and Tob2, have the most extensive C-terminal regions. As previously reported, overexpression of BTG/Tob proteins is associated with the inhibition of G1 to S-phase cell cycle progression and decreased cell proliferation in a variety of cell types. Tob subfamily proteins have similar anti-proliferative effects on cell cycle progression in cultured tumor cells. An important unresolved question is whether or not they have function in rapidly proliferating cells, such as embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Tob1 and Tob2 were expressed ubiquitously in mouse ESCs (mESCs), suggesting a possible role in early embryonic development and mESCs. To address the above question and explore the possible functions of the Tob subfamily in ESCs, we established ESCs from different genotypic knockout inner cell mass (ICM). We found that Tob1{sup −/−}, Tob2{sup −/−}, and Tob1/2 double knockout (DKO, Tob1{sup −/−} & Tob2{sup −/−}) ESCs grew faster than wild type (WT) ESCs without losing pluripotency, and we provide a possible mechanistic explanation for these observations: Tob1 and Tob2 inhibit the cell cycle via degradation of Id3 mRNA, which is a set of directly targeted genes of BMP4 signaling in mESCs that play critical roles in the maintenance of ESC properties. Together, our data suggest that BTG/Tob family protein Tob1 and Tob2 regulation cell proliferation does not compromise the basic properties of mESCs. - Highlights: • We established mouse Tob1/2 double knockout embryonic stem cells. • Tob1 and Tob2 inhibit the proliferation of ESCs without effect on pluripotency. • Tob1 and Tob2 involved in the degradation of Id3 in mESCs.

  5. Human KZNF Gene Catalog - A comprehensive catalog of human KRAB-associated zinc finger genes: insights into the evolutionary history of a large family of transcriptional repressors

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Huntley, S; Baggott, D. M.; Hamilton, A. T.; Tran-Gyamfi, M.; Yang, S.; Kim, J.; Gordon, L.; Branscomb, E.; Stubbs, L.

    Kruppel-type zinc finger (ZNF) motifs are prevalent components of transcription factor proteins in all eukaryotes. KRAB-ZNF proteins, in which a potent repressor domain is attached to a tandem array of DNA-binding zinc-finger motifs, are specific to tetrapod vertebrates and represent the largest class of ZNF proteins in mammals. To define the full repertoire of human KRAB-ZNF proteins, we searched the genome sequence for key motifs and then constructed and manually curated gene models incorporating those sequences. The resulting gene catalog contains 423 KRAB-ZNF protein-coding loci, yielding alternative transcripts that altogether predict at least 742 structurally distinct proteins. Active rounds of segmental duplication, involving single genes or larger regions and including both tandem and distributed duplication events, have driven the expansion of this mammalian gene family. Comparisons between the human genes and ZNF loci mined from the draft mouse, dog, and chimpanzee genomes not only identified 103 KRAB-ZNF genes that are conserved in mammals but also highlighted a substantial level of lineage-specific change; at least 136 KRAB-ZNF coding genes are primate specific, including many recent duplicates. KRAB-ZNF genes are widely expressed and clustered genes are typically not coregulated, indicating that paralogs have evolved to fill roles in many different biological processes. To facilitate further study, we have developed a Web-based public resource with access to gene models, sequences, and other data, including visualization tools to provide genomic context and interaction with other public data sets. [This abstract was copied from: S Huntley, DM Baggott, AT Hamilton, M Tran-Gyamfi, S Yang, J Kim, L Gordon, E Branscomb, and L Stubbs. 2006. A comprehensive catalog of human KRAB-associated zinc finger genes: insights into the evolutionary history of a large family of transcriptional repressors, Genome Research 16(5):669 - 677] The website provides the

  6. SYNTHESIS OF A NEW FAMILY OF FLUORINATED BORONATE COMPOUNDS AS ANION RECEPTORS AND STUDIES OF THEIR USE AS ADDITIVES IN LITHIUM BATTERY ELECTROLYTES.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MCBREEN,J.; LEE,H.S.; YANG,X.Q.

    2001-06-08

    Numerous studies have been done on developing new electrolytes for lithium batteries with high ionic conductivity, and good chemical and electrochemical stability. In addition to the research on new salts and solvents, the use of cation receptors to reduce ion pairing in non-aqueous electrolytes has been considered as an approach to improve the properties of electrolytes. Although both cation and anion receptors enhance the dissociation of ion pairs and increase the conductivity of electrolytes, the use of anion receptors is more attractive for a lithium battery electrolyte because anion receptors increase the lithium transference number in the electrolyte. However, most available neutral anion receptors complex with anions through hydrogen binding and cannot be used in lithium batteries. Recently, we have reported on synthesis of a series of new neutral boron compounds as anion receptors based on the idea that electron-deficient boron would complex the anion of the ion pair. The anion complexation effect of these boron compounds was further enhanced by attaching electron-withdrawing groups. Here we report synthesis of another new family of boronate compounds. The effect of these new compounds on conductivity of lithium salts in non-aqueous solution was studied. The molecular weights of these new boronate compounds are lower than our previously reported boron compounds. Therefore, their effects on conductivity enhancement are superior. They also display high electrochemical stability up to 5 V.

  7. A fourth polymorph in the family of BEDT-TTF salts with thiocyanatocuprate(I) anions: (BEDT-TTF){<_4}Cu{<_3}(NCS){<_5}.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schlueter, J. A.; Geiser, U.; Wang, H. H.; Manson, J. L.

    2012-05-01

    A new crystallographic modification was found in the family of BEDT-TTF salts containing thiocyanatocuprate(I) anions. The cation radical salt crystallizes in the P{sup {bar 1}} space group with a = 8.2720(9) {angstrom}, b = 19.099(2) {angstrom}, c = 43.758(5) {angstrom}, {alpha} = 81.088(4){sup o}, {beta} = 87.253(4){sup o}, {gamma} = 83.790(4){sup o}, V = 6786.2(13) {angstrom}{sup 3} at 150 K. The BEDT-TTF radical cations pack in an {alpha}-type motif, but every four columns, there is a slip in the layer. Where this slip occurs, the stacks are coupled in a {beta}'' manner. The material exhibits semiconductive behavior with an activation energy of 0.13 eV above 250 K and 0.22 eV below. Packing motif of the (BEDT-TTF){sub 4}Cu{sub 3}(NCS){sub 5} structure.

  8. Metazoan Gene Families from Metazome

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Metazome is a joint project of the Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute and the Center for Integrative Genomics to facilitate comparative genomic studies amongst metazoans. Clusters of orthologous and paralogous genes that represent the modern descendents of ancestral gene sets are constructed at key phylogenetic nodes. These clusters allow easy access to clade specific orthology/paralogy relationships as well as clade specific genes and gene expansions. As of version 2.0.4, Metazome provides access to twenty-four sequenced and annotated metazoan genomes, clustered at nine evolutionarily significant nodes. Where possible, each gene has been annotated with PFAM, KOG, KEGG, and PANTHER assignments, and publicly available annotations from RefSeq, UniProt, Ensembl, and JGI are hyper-linked and searchable. The included organisms (by common name) are: Human, Mouse, Rat, Dog, Opossum, Chicken, Frog, Stickleback, Medaka, Fugu pufferfish; Zebrafish, Seasquirt - savignyi, Seasquirt - intestinalis, Amphioxus, Sea Urchin, Fruitfly, Mosquite, Yellow Fever Mosquito, Silkworm, Red Flour Beetle, Worm, Briggsae Worm, Owl limpet (snail), and Sea anemone. [Copied from Metazome Overview at http://www.metazome.net/Metazome_info.php

  9. Comparative mapping of DNA markers from the familial Alzheimer disease and Down syndrome regions of human chromosome 21 to mouse chromosomes 16 and 17

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, S.V.; Nadeau, J.H.; Tanzi, R.E.; Watkins, P.C.; Jagadesh, J.; Taylor, B.A.; Haines, J.L.; Sacchi, N.; Gusella, J.F. )

    1988-08-01

    Mouse trisomy 16 has been proposed as an animal model of Down syndrome (DS), since this chromosome contains homologues of several loci from the q22 band of human chromosome 21. The recent mapping of the defect causing familial Alzheimer disease (FAD) and the locus encoding the Alzheimer amyloid {beta} precursor protein (APP) to human chromosome 21 has prompted a more detailed examination of the extent of conservation of this linkage group between the two species. Using anonymous DNA probes and cloned genes from human chromosome 21 in a combination of recombinant inbred and interspecific mouse backcross analyses, the authors have established that the linkage group shared by mouse chromosome 16 includes not only the critical DS region of human chromosome 21 but also the APP gene and FAD-linked markers. Extending from the anonymous DNA locus D21S52 to ETS2, the linkage map of six loci spans 39% recombination in man but only 6.4% recombination in the mouse. A break in synteny occurs distal to ETS2, with the homologue of the human marker D21S56 mapping to mouse chromosome 17. Conservation of the linkage relationships of markers in the FAD region suggests that the murine homologue of the FAD locus probably maps to chromosome 16 and that detailed comparison of the corresponding region in both species could facilitate identification of the primary defect in this disorder. The break in synteny between the terminal portion of human chromosome 21 and mouse chromosome 16 indicates, however, that mouse trisomy 16 may not represent a complete model of DS.

  10. Linkage analysis of idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) and marker loci on chromosome 6p in families of patients with juvenile myocloni epilepsy: No evidence for an epilepsy locus in the HLA region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitehouse, W.P.; Rees, M.; Curtis, D.; Sundqvist, A.; Parker, K.; Chung, E.; Baralle, D.; Gardiner, R.M.

    1993-09-01

    Evidence for a locus (EJM1) in the HLA region of chromosome 6p predisposing to idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) in the families of patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) has been obtained in two previous studies of separately ascertained groups of kindreds. Linkage analysis has been undertaken in a third set of 25 families including a patient with JME and at least one first-degree relative with IGE. Family members were typed for eight polymorphic loci on chromosome 6p: F13A, D6889, D6S109, D6S105, D6S10, C4B, DQA1/A2, and TCTE1. Pairwise and multipoint linkage analysis was carried out assuming autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive inheritance and age-dependent high or low penetrance. No significant evidence in favor of linkage was obtained at any locus. Multipoint linkage analysis generated significant exclusion data (lod score < -2.0) at HLA and for a region 10-30 cM telomeric to HLA, the extent of which varied with the level of penetrance assumed. These observations indicate that genetic heterogeneity exists within this epilepsy phenotype. 39 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Phytophthora Genome Sequences Uncover Evolutionary Origins and Mechanisms of Pathogenesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler, Brett M.; Tripathy, Sucheta; Zhang, Xuemin; Dehal, Paramvir; Jiang, Rays H. Y.; Aerts, Andrea; Arredondo, Felipe D.; Baxter, Laura; Bensasson, Douda; Beynon, JIm L.; Chapman, Jarrod; Damasceno, Cynthia M. B.; Dorrance, Anne E.; Dou, Daolong; Dickerman, Allan W.; Dubchak, Inna L.; Garbelotto, Matteo; Gijzen, Mark; Gordon, Stuart G.; Govers, Francine; Grunwald, NIklaus J.; Huang, Wayne; Ivors, Kelly L.; Jones, Richard W.; Kamoun, Sophien; Krampis, Konstantinos; Lamour, Kurt H.; Lee, Mi-Kyung; McDonald, W. Hayes; Medina, Monica; Meijer, Harold J. G.; Nordberg, Erik K.; Maclean, Donald J.; Ospina-Giraldo, Manuel D.; Morris, Paul F.; Phuntumart, Vipaporn; Putnam, Nicholas J.; Rash, Sam; Rose, Jocelyn K. C.; Sakihama, Yasuko; Salamov, Asaf A.; Savidor, Alon; Scheuring, Chantel F.; Smith, Brian M.; Sobral, Bruno W. S.; Terry, Astrid; Torto-Alalibo, Trudy A.; Win, Joe; Xu, Zhanyou; Zhang, Hongbin; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2006-04-17

    Draft genome sequences have been determined for the soybean pathogen Phytophthora sojae and the sudden oak death pathogen Phytophthora ramorum. Oömycetes such as these Phytophthora species share the kingdom Stramenopila with photosynthetic algae such as diatoms, and the presence of many Phytophthora genes of probable phototroph origin supports a photosynthetic ancestry for the stramenopiles. Comparison of the two species' genomes reveals a rapid expansion and diversification of many protein families associated with plant infection such as hydrolases, ABC transporters, protein toxins, proteinase inhibitors, and, in particular, a superfamily of 700 proteins with similarity to known oömycete avirulence genes.

  12. Genome and Transcriptome of Clostridium phytofermentans, Catalyst for the Direct Conversion of Plant Feedstocks to Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petit, Elsa; Coppi, Maddalena V.; Hayes, James C.; Tolonen, Andrew C.; Warnick, Thomas; Latouf, William G.; Amisano, Danielle; Biddle, Amy; Mukherjee, Supratim; Ivanova, Natalia; Lykidis, Athanassios; Land, Miriam; Hauser, Loren; Kyrpides, Nikos; Henrissat, Bernard; Lau, Joanne; Schnell, Danny J.; Church, George M.; Leschine, Susan B.; Blanchard, Jeffrey L.

    2015-06-02

    Clostridium phytofermentans was isolated from forest soil and is distinguished by its capacity to directly ferment plant cell wall polysaccharides into ethanol as the primary product, suggesting that it possesses unusual catabolic pathways. The objective of our present study was to understand the molecular mechanisms of biomass conversion to ethanol in a single organism, Clostridium phytofermentans, by analyzing its complete genome and transcriptome during growth on plant carbohydrates. The saccharolytic versatility of C. phytofermentans is reflected in a diversity of genes encoding ATP-binding cassette sugar transporters and glycoside hydrolases, many of which may have been acquired through horizontal gene transfer. These genes are frequently organized as operons that may be controlled individually by the many transcriptional regulators identified in the genome. Preferential ethanol production may be due to high levels of expression of multiple ethanol dehydrogenases and additional pathways maximizing ethanol yield. The genome also encodes three different proteinaceous bacterial microcompartments with the capacity to compartmentalize pathways that divert fermentation intermediates to various products. Lastly, these characteristics make C. phytofermentans an attractive resource for improving the efficiency and speed of biomass conversion to biofuels.

  13. Lignocellulose Degradation Mechanisms Across the Tree of Life

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cragg, Simon M.; Beckham, Gregg T.; Bruce, Neil C.; Bugg, Timothy D. H.; Distel, Daniel L.; Dupree, Paul; Etxabe, Amaia Green; Goodell, Barry S.; Jellison, Jody; McGeehan, John E.; et al

    2015-11-14

    Organisms use diverse mechanisms involving multiple complementary enzymes, particularly glycoside hydrolases (GHs), to deconstruct lignocellulose. Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) produced by bacteria and fungi facilitate deconstruction as does the Fenton chemistry of brown-rot fungi. Lignin depolymerisation is achieved by white-rot fungi and certain bacteria, using peroxidases and laccases. Meta-omics is now revealing the complexity of prokaryotic degradative activity in lignocellulose-rich environments. Protists from termite guts and some oomycetes produce multiple lignocellulolytic enzymes. We found that the Lignocellulose-consuming animals secrete some GHs, but most harbour a diverse enzyme-secreting gut microflora in a mutualism that is particularly complex in termites. Shipworms however,more » house GH-secreting and LPMO-secreting bacteria separate from the site of digestion and the isopod Limnoria relies on endogenous enzymes alone. Moreover, the omics revolution is identifying many novel enzymes and paradigms for biomass deconstruction, but more emphasis on function is required, particularly for enzyme cocktails, in which LPMOs may play an important role.« less

  14. Lignocellulose Degradation Mechanisms Across the Tree of Life

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cragg, Simon M.; Beckham, Gregg T.; Bruce, Neil C.; Bugg, Timothy D. H.; Distel, Daniel L.; Dupree, Paul; Etxabe, Amaia Green; Goodell, Barry S.; Jellison, Jody; McGeehan, John E.; McQueen-Mason, Simon J.; Schnorr, Kirk; Walton, Paul H.; Watts, Joy E. M.; Zimmer, Martin

    2015-11-14

    Organisms use diverse mechanisms involving multiple complementary enzymes, particularly glycoside hydrolases (GHs), to deconstruct lignocellulose. Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) produced by bacteria and fungi facilitate deconstruction as does the Fenton chemistry of brown-rot fungi. Lignin depolymerisation is achieved by white-rot fungi and certain bacteria, using peroxidases and laccases. Meta-omics is now revealing the complexity of prokaryotic degradative activity in lignocellulose-rich environments. Protists from termite guts and some oomycetes produce multiple lignocellulolytic enzymes. We found that the Lignocellulose-consuming animals secrete some GHs, but most harbour a diverse enzyme-secreting gut microflora in a mutualism that is particularly complex in termites. Shipworms however, house GH-secreting and LPMO-secreting bacteria separate from the site of digestion and the isopod Limnoria relies on endogenous enzymes alone. Moreover, the omics revolution is identifying many novel enzymes and paradigms for biomass deconstruction, but more emphasis on function is required, particularly for enzyme cocktails, in which LPMOs may play an important role.

  15. Genome and Transcriptome of Clostridium phytofermentans, Catalyst for the Direct Conversion of Plant Feedstocks to Fuels

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Petit, Elsa; Coppi, Maddalena V.; Hayes, James C.; Tolonen, Andrew C.; Warnick, Thomas; Latouf, William G.; Amisano, Danielle; Biddle, Amy; Mukherjee, Supratim; Ivanova, Natalia; et al

    2015-06-02

    Clostridium phytofermentans was isolated from forest soil and is distinguished by its capacity to directly ferment plant cell wall polysaccharides into ethanol as the primary product, suggesting that it possesses unusual catabolic pathways. The objective of our present study was to understand the molecular mechanisms of biomass conversion to ethanol in a single organism, Clostridium phytofermentans, by analyzing its complete genome and transcriptome during growth on plant carbohydrates. The saccharolytic versatility of C. phytofermentans is reflected in a diversity of genes encoding ATP-binding cassette sugar transporters and glycoside hydrolases, many of which may have been acquired through horizontal gene transfer.more » These genes are frequently organized as operons that may be controlled individually by the many transcriptional regulators identified in the genome. Preferential ethanol production may be due to high levels of expression of multiple ethanol dehydrogenases and additional pathways maximizing ethanol yield. The genome also encodes three different proteinaceous bacterial microcompartments with the capacity to compartmentalize pathways that divert fermentation intermediates to various products. Lastly, these characteristics make C. phytofermentans an attractive resource for improving the efficiency and speed of biomass conversion to biofuels.« less

  16. The NifA-RpoN regulon of Mesorhizobium loti strain R7A and its symbiotic activation by a novel Lacl/GalR-family regulator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, John T.; Brown, Steven D; Ronson, Professor Clive William

    2013-01-01

    Mesorhizobium loti is the microsymbiont of Lotus species, including the model legume L. japonicus. M. loti differs from other rhizobia in that it contains two copies of the key nitrogen fixation regulatory gene nifA, nifA1 and nifA2, both of which are located on the symbiosis island ICEMlSymR7A. M. loti R7A also contains two rpoN genes, rpoN1 located on the chromosome outside of ICEMlSymR7A and rpoN2 that is located on ICEMlSymR7A. The aims of the current work were to establish how nifA expression was activated in M. loti and to characterise the NifA-RpoN regulon. The nifA2 and rpoN2 genes were essential for nitrogen fixation whereas nifA1 and rpoN1 were dispensable. Expression of nifA2 was activated, possibly in response to an inositol derivative, by a novel regulator of the LacI/GalR family encoded by the fixV gene located upstream of nifA2. Other than the well-characterized nif/fix genes, most NifA2-regulated genes were not required for nitrogen fixation although they were strongly expressed in nodules. The NifA-regulated nifZ and fixU genes, along with nifQ which was not NifA-regulated, were required in M. loti for a fully effective symbiosis although they are not present in some other rhizobia. The NifA-regulated gene msi158 that encodes a porin was also required for a fully effective symbiosis. Several metabolic genes that lacked NifA-regulated promoters were strongly expressed in nodules in a NifA2-dependent manner but again mutants did not have an overt symbiotic phenotype. In summary, many genes encoded on ICEMlSymR7A were strongly expressed in nodules but not free-living rhizobia, but were not essential for symbiotic nitrogen fixation. It seems likely that some of these genes have functional homologues elsewhere in the genome and that bacteroid metabolism may be sufficiently plastic to adapt to loss of certain enzymatic functions.

  17. Structural and Biochemical Characterization of the Salicylyl-acyltranferase SsfX3 from a Tetracycline Biosynthetic Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pickens, Lauren B.; Sawaya, Michael R.; Rasool, Huma; Pashkov, Inna; Yeates, Todd O.; Tang, Yi

    2012-03-14

    SsfX3 is a GDSL family acyltransferase that transfers salicylate to the C-4 hydroxyl of a tetracycline intermediate in the penultimate step during biosynthesis of the anticancer natural product SF2575. The C-4 salicylate takes the place of the more common C-4 dimethylamine functionality, making SsfX3 the first acyltransferase identified to act on a tetracycline substrate. The crystal structure of SsfX3 was determined at 2.5 {angstrom}, revealing two distinct domains as follows: an N-terminal {beta}-sandwich domain that resembles a carbohydrate-binding module, and a C-terminal catalytic domain that contains the atypical {alpha}/{beta}-hydrolase fold found in the GDSL hydrolase family of enzymes. The active site lies at one end of a large open binding pocket, which is spatially defined by structural elements from both the N- and C-terminal domains. Mutational analysis in the putative substrate binding pocket identified residues from both domains that are important for binding the acyl donor and acceptor. Furthermore, removal of the N-terminal carbohydrate-binding module-like domain rendered the stand-alone {alpha}/{beta}-hydrolase domain inactive. The additional noncatalytic module is therefore proposed to be required to define the binding pocket and provide sufficient interactions with the spatially extended tetracyclic substrate. SsfX3 was also demonstrated to accept a variety of non-native acyl groups. This relaxed substrate specificity toward the acyl donor allowed the chemoenzymatic biosynthesis of C-4-modified analogs of the immediate precursor to the bioactive SF2575; these were used to assay the structure activity relationships at the C-4 position.

  18. A component of green tea (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, promotes apoptosis in T24 human bladder cancer cells via modulation of the PI3K/Akt pathway and Bcl-2 family proteins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qin Jie [Department of Urology, First Affiliated Hospital, Medical College, Zhejiang University, Qingchun Road 79, Hangzhou 310003, Zhejiang Province (China); Xie Liping [Department of Urology, First Affiliated Hospital, Medical College, Zhejiang University, Qingchun Road 79, Hangzhou 310003, Zhejiang Province (China)]. E-mail: xielp@zjuem.zju.edu.cn; Zheng Xiangyi [Department of Urology, First Affiliated Hospital, Medical College, Zhejiang University, Qingchun Road 79, Hangzhou 310003, Zhejiang Province (China); Wang Yunbin [Department of Urology, First Affiliated Hospital, Medical College, Zhejiang University, Qingchun Road 79, Hangzhou 310003, Zhejiang Province (China); Bai Yu [Department of Urology, First Affiliated Hospital, Medical College, Zhejiang University, Qingchun Road 79, Hangzhou 310003, Zhejiang Province (China); Shen Huafeng [Department of Urology, First Affiliated Hospital, Medical College, Zhejiang University, Qingchun Road 79, Hangzhou 310003, Zhejiang Province (China); Li Longcheng [Department of Urology, University of California San Francisco and Veteran Affairs Medical Center San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Dahiya, Rajvir [Department of Urology, University of California San Francisco and Veteran Affairs Medical Center San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2007-03-23

    Bladder cancer is the fourth most common cancer in men and ninth most common in women. It has a protracted course of progression and is thus an ideal candidate for chemoprevention strategies and trials. This study was conducted to evaluate the chemopreventive/antiproliferative potential of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG, the major phytochemical in green tea) against bladder cancer and its mechanism of action. Using the T24 human bladder cancer cell line, we found that EGCG treatment caused dose- and time-dependent inhibition of cellular proliferation and cell viability, and induced apoptosis. Mechanistically, EGCG inhibits phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase/Akt activation that, in turn, results in modulation of Bcl-2 family proteins, leading to enhanced apoptosis of T24 cells. These findings suggest that EGCG may be an important chemoprevention agent for the management of bladder cancer.

  19. Superactive cellulase formulation using cellobiohydrolase-1 from Penicillium funiculosum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adney, William S.; Baker, John O.; Decker, Stephen R.; Chou, Yat-Chen; Himmel, Michael E.; Ding, Shi-You

    2012-10-09

    Purified cellobiohydrolase I (glycosyl hydrolase family 7 (Cel7A)) enzymes from Penicillium funiculosum demonstrate a high level of specific performance in comparison to other Cel7 family member enzymes when formulated with purified EIcd endoglucanase from A. cellulolyticus and tested on pretreated corn stover. This result is true of the purified native enzyme, as well as recombinantly expressed enzyme, for example, that enzyme expressed in a non-native Aspergillus host. In a specific example, the specific performance of the formulation using purified recombinant Cel7A from Penicillium funiculosum expressed in A. awamori is increased by more than 200% when compared to a formulation using purified Cel7A from Trichoderma reesei.

  20. Superactive cellulase formulation using cellobiohydrolase-1 from Penicillium funiculosum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adney, William S.; Baker, John O.; Decker, Stephen R.; Chou, Yat-Chen; Himmel, Michael E.; Ding, Shi-You

    2008-11-11

    Purified cellobiohydrolase I (glycosyl hydrolase family 7 (Cel7A) enzymes from Penicillium funiculosum demonstrate a high level of specific performance in comparison to other Cel7 family member enzymes when formulated with purified EIcd endoglucanase from A. cellulolyticus and tested on pretreated corn stover. This result is true of the purified native enzyme, as well as recombinantly expressed enzyme, for example, that enzyme expressed in a non-native Aspergillus host. In a specific example, the specific performance of the formulation using purified recombinant Cel7A from Penicillium funiculosum expressed in A. awamori is increased by more than 200% when compared to a formulation using purified Cel7A from Trichoderma reesei.

  1. Proteomics based compositional analysis of complex cellulase...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    VIRIDE cellulase; hemicellulase; glycosyl hydrolases; spectral counting; cellulosic ethanol; enzymatic hydrolysis; lignocellulose; mass spectrometry; LC-MSMS; Environmental ...

  2. Methodology and assumptions for evaluating heating and cooling energy requirements in new single-family residential buildings: Technical support document for the PEAR (Program for Energy Analysis of Residences) microcomputer program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Y.J.; Ritschard, R.; Bull, J.; Byrne, S.; Turiel, I.; Wilson, D.; Hsui, C.; Foley, D.

    1987-01-01

    This report provides technical documentation for a software package called PEAR (Program for Energy Analysis of Residences) developed by LBL. PEAR offers an easy-to-use and accurate method of estimating the energy savings associated with various energy conservation measures used in site-built, single-family homes. This program was designed for use by non-technical groups such as home builders, home buyers or others in the buildings industry, and developed as an integral part of a set of voluntary guidelines entitled Affordable Housing Through Energy Conservation: A Guide to Designing and Constructing Energy Efficient Homes. These guidelines provide a method for selecting and evaluating cost-effective energy conservation measures based on the energy savings estimated by PEAR. This work is part of a Department of Energy program aimed at conducting research that will improve the energy efficiency of the nation's stock of conventionally-built and manufactured homes, and presenting the results to the public in a simplified format.

  3. We have created a new family of...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Commercialization Path We are presently identifying key materials for our batteries. We seek to partner with aqueous flow battery companies and utilize their infrastructure and ...

  4. Metazoan Gene Families from Metazome () | Data Explorer

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    These clusters allow easy access to clade specific orthologyparalogy relationships as well as clade specific genes and gene expansions. As of version 2.0.4, Metazome provides ...

  5. fed feed families | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    NNSA Livermore Field Office donates over 4,000 pounds of food to food banks The NNSA Livermore Field Office in California donated over 4,000 pounds of food to local food banks, ...

  6. Fermilab | Newsroom | Press Releases | Fermilab Outdoor Family...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    falcons and owls as well as a collection of bird bones, droppings, feathers and hunting gear. The program is designed for first through seventh grade students. Scout troops are...

  7. Chicagoland Single-Family Housing Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spanier, J.; Scheu, R.; Brand, L.; Yang, J.

    2012-06-01

    In this report, the PARR team identifies housing characteristics and energy use for fifteen housing types (groups) in the Chicagoland (Cook County, Illinois) region and specifies measure packages that provide an optimum level of energy savings based on a BEopt analysis. The analysis is based on assessor data and actual energy consumption data on 432,605 houses representing approximately 30% of the population.

  8. Chicagoland Single-Family Housing Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spanier, J.; Scheu, R.; Brand, L.; Yang, J.

    2012-06-01

    In this report, the PARR team identifies housing characteristics and energy use for fifteen housing types in the Chicagoland (Cook County, Illinois) region and specifies measure packages that provide an optimum level of energy savings based on a BEopt analysis. The analysis is based on assessor data and actual energy consumption data on 432,605 houses representing approximately 30% of the population.

  9. Savannah River Nuclear Solutions awards family scholarships ...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    45,000 were awarded to 15 area students. May 17, 2013 at 4:00 pm Blog archive October 2015 (8) September 2015 (9) August 2015 (10) July 2015 (8) June 2015 (6) May 2015 (18) April...

  10. BTS Case Study: The Galloway Family Home

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandegee Group

    1999-03-08

    Case study of an energy-efficient Habitat for Humanity house that uses 30% less energy than conventional residential construction. The project was part of the Jimmy Carter Work Project in rural Appalachia in 1997.

  11. 2013 Feds Feed Families: Your Generosity Counts

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Federal employees are asked to help local food banks replenish supplies for the hungry during the summer months.

  12. Weatherization Saves Families Energy and Money

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On October 30, communities throughout the nation will celebrate National Weatherization Day, which recognizes an industry of weatherization service providers, state and local agencies, and researchers dedicated to improving the energy efficiency of...

  13. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Straus Family Creamery...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    To date, the company owns three plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), and has installed five, free PEV charging stations for employees at its two locations. As an organic processor, ...

  14. Complete genome of the cellulolytic thermophile Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B provides insights into its ecophysiological and evolutionary adaptations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, Gary; Detter, John C; Bruce, David C; Challacombe, Jean F; Brettin, Thomas S; Necsulea, Anamaria; Daubin, Vincent; Medigue, Claudine; Adney, William S; Xu, Xin C; Lapidus, Alla; Pujic, Pierre; Berry, Alison M; Barabote, Ravi D; Leu, David; Normand, Phillipe

    2009-01-01

    We present here the complete 2.4 MB genome of the actinobacterial thermophile, Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B, that surprisingly reveals thermophilic amino acid usage in only the cytosolic subproteome rather than its whole proteome. Thermophilic amino acid usage in the partial proteome implies a recent, ongoing evolution of the A. cellulolyticus genome since its divergence about 200-250 million years ago from its closest phylogenetic neighbor Frankia, a mesophilic plant symbiont. Differential amino acid usage in the predicted subproteomes of A. cellulolyticus likely reflects a stepwise evolutionary process of modern thermophiles in general. An unusual occurrence of higher G+C in the non-coding DNA than in the transcribed genome reinforces a late evolution from a higher G+C common ancestor. Comparative analyses of the A. cellulolyticus genome with those of Frankia and other closely-related actinobacteria revealed that A. cellulolyticus genes exhibit reciprocal purine preferences at the first and third codon positions, perhaps reflecting a subtle preference for the dinucleotide AG in its mRNAs, a possible adaptation to a thermophilic environment. Other interesting features in the genome of this cellulolytic, hot-springs dwelling prokaryote reveal streamlining for adaptation to its specialized ecological niche. These include a low occurrence of pseudo genes or mobile genetic elements, a flagellar gene complement previously unknown in this organism, and presence of laterally-acquired genomic islands of likely ecophysiological value. New glycoside hydrolases relevant for lignocellulosic biomass deconstruction were identified in the genome, indicating a diverse biomass-degrading enzyme repertoire several-fold greater than previously characterized, and significantly elevating the industrial value of this organism.

  15. Complete genome of the cellulolytic thermophile Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B provides insights into its ecophysiological and evolutionary adaptations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, Gary; Detter, Chris; Bruce, David; Challacome, Jean F; Brettin, Thomas S; Barabote, Ravi D; Leu, David; Normand, Philippe; Necsula, Anamaria; Daubin, Vincent; Medigue, Claudine; Xu, Xin C; Lapidus, Alla; Pujic, Pierre; Richardson, Paul; Berry, Alison M

    2008-01-01

    We present here the complete 2.4 MB genome of the actinobacterial thermophile, Acidothermus cellulolyticus lIB, that surprisingly reveals thermophilic amino acid usage in only the cytosolic subproteome rather than its whole proteome. Thermophilic amino acid usage in the partial proteome implies a recent, ongoing evolution of the A. cellulolyticus genome since its divergence about 200-250 million years ago from its closest phylogenetic neighbor Frankia, a mesophilic plant symbiont. Differential amino acid usage in the predicted subproteomes of A. cellulolyticus likely reflects a stepwise evolutionary process of modern thermophiles in general. An unusual occurrence of higher G+C in the non-coding DNA than in the transcribed genome reinforces a late evolution from a higher G+C common ancestor. Comparative analyses of the A. cellulolyticus genome with those of Frankia and other closely-related actinobacteria revealed that A. cellulolyticus genes exhibit reciprocal purine preferences at the first and third codon positions, perhaps reflecting a subtle preference for the dinucleotide AG in its mRNAs, a possible adaptation to a thermophilic environment. Other interesting features in the genome of this cellulolytic, hot-springs dwelling prokaryote reveal streamlining for adaptation to its specialized ecological niche. These include a low occurrence of pseudogenes or mobile genetic elements, a flagellar gene complement previously unknown in this organism, and presence of laterally-acquired genomic islands of likely ecophysiological value. New glycoside hydrolases relevant for lignocellulosic biomass deconstruction were identified in the genome, indicating a diverse biomass-degrading enzyme repertoire several-fold greater than previously characterized, and significantly elevating the industrial value of this organism.

  16. Genome, transcriptome, and secretome analysis of wood decay fungus Postia placenta supports unique mechanisms of lignocellulose conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinez, Diego; Challacombe, Jean; Morgenstern, Ingo; Hibbett, David; Schmoll, Monika; Kubicek, Christian P.; Ferreira, Patricia; Ruiz-Duenas, Francisco; Martinez, Angel T.; Kersten, Phil; Hammel, Ken; Vanden Wymelenberg, Amber; Gaskell, Jill; Lindquist, Erika; Sabat, Gregorz; Splinter Bondurant, Sandra; Larrondo, Luis F.; Canessa, Paulo; Vicuna, Rafael; Yadev, Jagjit; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan; Subramanian, Venkataramanan; Pisabarro, Antonio; Lavin, Jose L.; Oguiza, Jose A.; Master, Emma; Henrissat, Bernard; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Harris, Paul; Magnuson, Jon K.; Baker, Scott E.; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Kenealy, William; Hoegger, Patrik; Kues, Ursula; Ramaiya, Preethi; Lucas, Susan; Salamov, Asaf; Shapiro, Harris; Tu, Hank; Chee, Christine L.; Misra, Monica; Xie, Gary; Teter, Sarah; Yaver, Debbie; James, Tim; Mokrejs, Martin; Pospisek, Martin; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Brettin, T.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Berka, Randy; Cullen, Dan

    2009-02-10

    Brown-rot fungi such as Postia placenta are common inhabitants of forest ecosystems and are also largely responsible for the destructive decay of wooden structures. Rapid depolymerization of cellulose is a distinguishing feature of brown-rot, but the biochemical mechanisms and underlying genetics are poorly understood. Systematic examination of the P. placenta genome, transcriptome, and secretome revealed unique extracellular enzyme systems, including an unusual repertoire of extracellular glycoside hydrolases. Genes encoding exocellobiohydrolases and cellulose-binding domains, typical of cellulolytic microbes, are absent in this efficient cellulose-degrading fungus. When P. placenta was grown in media containing cellulose as sole carbon source, transcripts corresponding to many hemicellulases and to a single putative ?-1-4 endoglucanase were expressed at high levels relative to glucose grown cultures. These transcript profiles were confirmed by direct identification of peptides by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Also upregulated under cellulolytic culture conditions were putative iron reductases, quinone reductase, and structurally divergent oxidases potentially involved in extracellular generation of Fe(II) and H2O2. These observations are consistent with a biodegradative role for Fenton chemistry in which Fe(II) and H2O2 react to form hydroxyl radicals, highly reactive oxidants capable of depolymerizing cellulose. The P. placenta genome resources provide unparalleled opportunities for investigating such unusual mechanisms of cellulose conversion. More broadly, the genome offers insight into the diversification of lignocellulose degrading mechanisms in fungi. In particular, comparisons between P. placenta and the closely related white-rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium support an evolutionary shift from white-rot to brown-rot during which efficient depolymerization of lignin was lost.

  17. Activity-based protein profiling of secreted cellulolytic enzyme activity dynamics in Trichoderma reesei QM6a, NG14, and RUT-C30

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Lindsey N.; Culley, David E.; Hofstad, Beth A.; Chauvigne-Hines, Lacie M.; Zink, Erika M.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Smith, Richard D.; Callister, Stephen J.; Magnuson, Jon M.; Wright, Aaron T.

    2013-12-01

    Development of alternative, non-petroleum based sources of bioenergy that can be applied in the short-term find great promise in the use of highly abundant and renewable lignocellulosic plant biomass.1 This material obtained from different feedstocks, such as forest litter or agricultural residues, can yield liquid fuels and other chemical products through biorefinery processes.2 Biofuels are obtained from lignocellulosic materials by chemical pretreatment of the biomass, followed by enzymatic decomposition of cellulosic and hemicellulosic compounds into soluble sugars that are converted to desired chemical products via microbial metabolism and fermentation.3, 4 To release soluble sugars from polymeric cellulose multiple enzymes are required, including endoglucanase, exoglucanase, and ?-glucosidase.5, 6 However, the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose into soluble sugars remains a significant limiting factor to the efficient and economically viable utilization of lignocellulosic biomass for transport fuels.7, 8 The primary industrial source of cellulose and hemicellulases is the mesophilic soft-rot fungus Trichoderma reesei,9 having widespread applications in food, feed, textile, pulp, and paper industries.10 The genome encodes 200 glycoside hydrolases, including 10 cellulolytic and 16 hemicellulolytic enzymes.11 The hypercellulolytic catabolite derepressed strain RUT-C30 was obtained through a three-step UV and chemical mutagenesis of the original T. reesei strain QM6a,12, 13 in which strains M7 and NG14 were intermediate, having higher cellulolytic activity than the parent strain but less activity and higher catabolite repression than RUT-C30.14 Numerous methods have been employed to optimize the secreted enzyme cocktail of T. reesei including cultivation conditions, operational parameters, and mutagenesis.3 However, creating an optimal and economical enzyme mixture for production-scale biofuels synthesis may take thousands of experiments to identify.

  18. 2007 GRC on Cellulases and Cellulosomes (July 29-August 3, 2007)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Morrison Nancy Ryan Gray

    2008-09-22

    Cellulose, a key component of the plant cell wall, comprises the most abundant source of organic carbon on the planet and its microbial degradation is of considerable biological and industrial importance. Indeed, the microbial degradation of cellulose and other plant structural polysaccharides is critical to the maintenance of the carbon cycle in terrestrial and marine microbial ecosystems, host invasion by several phytopathogens, and herbivore nutrition. While the enzymes that attack cellulose are already widely used in several biotechnology-based industries, the major future application of these biocatalysts is the conversion of plant biomass into bio-ethanol and other forms of energy. In that context, the 2007 Conference will present the latest breakthroughs in our understanding of the enzymology, structural biology and (meta)genomics underpinning the conversion of plant structural polysaccharides into fermentable sugars, both in natural and engineered processes. There is also an increased emphasis on the roles of other carbohydrate active enzymes in plant biomass conversion. The themes for the scientific sessions include: (1) crystallographic and biochemical analyses of enzyme structure and function; (2) molecular mechanisms underpinning enzyme catalysis, processivity and specificity; (3) functional and comparative analyses of carbohydrate binding modules and enzyme-substrate interactions; (4) directed evolution for the development of catalytically superior glycoside hydrolases; (5) biophysical and structural analyses of native and chemically pretreated plant biomass and component polysaccharides; (6) genomics of specialist polysaccharide degrading microbes; (7) metagenomics and ecophysiology of plant biomass degradation in natural and engineered processes and; (8) enhancement of industrial bioprocesses by metabolic engineering and related approaches. While the Conference draws many of its participants from academia and government agencies, colleagues from

  19. Genome, transcriptome, and secretome analysis of wood decay fungus postia placenta supports unique mechanisms of lignocellulose conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinez, Diego; Challacombe, Jean F; Misra, Monica; Xie, Gary; Brettin, Thomas; Morgenstern, Ingo; Hibbett, David; Schmoll, Monika; Kubicek, Christian P; Ferreira, Patricia; Ruiz - Duenase, Francisco J; Martinez, Angel T; Kersten, Phil; Hammel, Kenneth E; Vanden Wymelenberg, Amber; Gaskell, Jill; Lindquist, Erika; Sabati, Grzegorz; Bondurant, Sandra S; Larrondo, Luis F; Canessa, Paulo; Vicunna, Rafael; Yadavk, Jagiit; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan; Subramaniank, Venkataramanan; Pisabarro, Antonio G; Lavin, Jose L; Oguiza, Jose A; Master, Emma; Henrissat, Bernard; Coutinho, Pedro M; Harris, Paul; Magnuson, Jon K; Baker, Scott; Bruno, Kenneth; Kenealy, William; Hoegger, Patrik J; Kues, Ursula; Ramaiva, Preethi; Lucas, Susan; Salamov, Asaf; Shapiro, Harris; Tuh, Hank; Chee, Christine L; Teter, Sarah; Yaver, Debbie; James, Tim; Mokrejs, Martin; Pospisek, Martin; Grigoriev, Igor; Rokhsar, Dan; Berka, Randy; Cullen, Dan

    2008-01-01

    Brown-rot fungi such as Postia placenta are common inhabitants of forest ecosystems and are also largely responsible for the destructive decay of wooden structures. Rapid depolymerization of cellulose is a distinguishing feature of brown-rot, but the biochemical mechanisms and underlying genetics are poorly understood. Systematic examination of the P. placenta genome, transcriptome and secretome revealed unique extracellular enzyme systems, including an unusual repertoire of extracellular glycoside hydrolases. Genes encoding exocellobiohydrolases and cellulose-binding domains, typical of cellulolytic microbes, are absent in this efficient cellulose-degrading fungus. When P. placenta was grown in medium containing cellulose as sole carbon source, transcripts corresponding to many hemicellulases and to a single putative {beta}-1-4 endoglucanase were expressed at high levels relative to glucose grown cultures. These transcript profiles were confirmed by direct identification of peptides by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC{center_dot}MSIMS). Also upregulated during growth on cellulose medium were putative iron reductases, quinone reductase, and structurally divergent oxidases potentially involved in extracellular generation of Fe(II) and H202. These observations are consistent with a biodegradative role for Fenton chemistry in which Fe(II) and H202 react to form hydroxyl radicals, highly reactive oxidants capable of depolymerizing cellulose. The P. placenta genome resources provide unparalleled opportunities for investigating such unusual mechanisms of cellulose conversion. More broadly, the genome offers insight into the diversification of lignocellulose degrading mechanisms in fungi. Comparisons to the closely related white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium support an evolutionary shift from white-rot to brown-rot during which the capacity for efficient depolymerization of lignin was lost.

  20. Syntheses and properties of a family of new compounds RE{sub 3}Sb{sub 3}Co{sub 2}O{sub 14} (RE=La, Pr, Nd, Sm–Ho) with an ordered pyrochlore structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Kuo; Hu, Yufei; Wang, Yingxia; Kamiyama, Takashi; Wang, Bingwu; Li, Zhaofei; Lin, Jianhua

    2014-09-15

    Isostructural compounds RE{sub 3}Sb{sub 3}Co{sub 2}O{sub 14} (RE=La, Pr, Nd, Sm–Ho) with an ordered pyrochlore structure were synthesized. The structure of La{sub 3}Sb{sub 3}Co{sub 2}O{sub 14} was solved ab initio based on powder XRD data, and refined by combining with high resolution neutron diffraction data. La{sub 3}Sb{sub 3}Co{sub 2}O{sub 14} crystallizes in the space group R-3m with the unit cell parameters a=7.52954(2) Å and c=17.59983(6) Å. The structures of other members in this family are confirmed by Rietveld refinement using powder X-ray diffraction data. The cations (RE, Sb and Co) in RE{sub 3}Sb{sub 3}Co{sub 2}O{sub 14} are orderly distributed, presenting as [RE{sub 3}Co][Sb{sub 3}Co]O{sub 14} formula, and giving rise to two distinctive Kagome lattices constructed by RE{sup 3+} and Sb{sup 5+}, respectively. Co{sup 2+} occupies 8-coordinated and 6-coordinated environments, showing low spin (S=1/2) and high spin (S=3/2) states respectively. The magnetic susceptibility and UV–visual spectroscopy supports the magnetic observation. TDDFT calculation was performed to interpret the electronic states. The compounds [RE{sub 3}Co][Sb{sub 3}Co]O{sub 14} provide a profound example in which the ideal 2D Kagome lattice is derived from the 3D pyrochlore-type structure by an ordered distribution of the metal cations. - Graphical abstract: La{sub 3}Sb{sub 3}Co{sub 2}O{sub 14} crystallizes in a pyrochlore related structure with an ordered distribution of cations, giving rise to two sets of ideal 2D Kagome lattices formed by La{sup 3+} or Sb{sup 5+} respectively. This rhombohedral pyrochlore is a tolerant structure for stable compounds composed by many light rare-earth and d-transition elements. Substituting Zn{sup 2+} or Mg{sup 2+} for Co{sup 2+} will provide a series of compounds useful for studying magnetic interactions in the rare-earth Kagome lattices. - Highlights: • Pyrochlore-type La{sub 3}Sb{sub 3}Co{sub 2}O{sub 14} shows an ordered distribution of

  1. Orpinomyces cellulase CelE protein and coding sequences

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Xin-Liang; Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Chen, Huizhong

    2000-08-29

    A CDNA designated celE cloned from Orpinomyces PC-2 encodes a polypeptide (CelE) of 477 amino acids. CelE is highly homologous to CelB of Orpinomyces (72.3% identity) and Neocallimastix (67.9% identity), and like them, it has a non-catalytic repeated peptide domain (NCRPD) at the C-terminal end. The catalytic domain of CelE is homologous to glycosyl hydrolases of Family 5, found in several anaerobic bacteria. The gene of celE is devoid of introns. The recombinant proteins CelE and CelB of Orpinomyces PC-2 randomly hydrolyze carboxymethylcellulose and cello-oligosaccharides in the pattern of endoglucanases.

  2. Magnetocrystalline interactions and oxidation state determination of Mn{sub (2?x)}V{sub (1+x)}O{sub 4} (x=0, 1/3 and 1) magnetorresistive spinel family

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pomiro, F.; Ceppi, S.; De Paoli, J.M.; Snchez, R.D.; Mesquita, A.; Tirao, G.; and others

    2013-09-15

    Oxidation states of transition metal cations in spinels-type oxides are sometimes extremely difficult to determine by conventional spectroscopic methods. One of the most complex cases occurs when there are different cations, each one with several possible oxidation states, as in the case of the magnetoresistant Mn{sub (2?x)}V{sub (1+x)}O{sub 4} (x=0, 1/3 and 1) spinel-type family. In this contribution we describe the determination of the oxidation state of manganese and vanadium in Mn{sub (2?x)}V{sub (1+x)}O{sub 4} (x=0, 1/3,1) spinel-type compounds by analyzing XANES and high-resolution K? X-ray fluorescence spectra. The ionic models found are Mn{sup 2+}{sub 2}V{sup 4+}O{sub 4}, Mn{sup 2+}{sub 5/3}V{sup 3.5+}{sub 4/3}O{sub 4} and Mn{sup 2+}V{sup 3+}{sub 2}O{sub 4}. Combination of the present results with previous data provided a reliable cation distribution model. For these spinels, single magnetic electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) lines are observed at 480 K showing the interaction among the different magnetic ions. The analysis of the EPR parameters show that g-values and relative intensities are highly influenced by the concentration and the high-spin state of Mn{sup 2+}. EPR broadening linewidth is explained in terms of the bottleneck effect, which is due to the presence of the fast relaxing V{sup 3+} ion instead of the weak Mn{sup 2+} (S state) coupled to the lattice. The EPR results, at high temperature, are well explained assuming the oxidation states of the magnetic ions obtained by the other spectroscopic techniques. - Graphical abstract: View of the crystallographic structure of a spinel. It shows as an example one of the models of ion distribution determined for the spinels Mn{sub (2?x)}V{sub (1+x)}O{sub 4} (x=0, 1/3,1). Display Omitted - Highlights: Determination of oxidation state of the metallic ions in Mn{sub (2?x)}V{sub (1+x)}O{sub 4} (x=0,1/3,1) by XAS and XES techniques. The ionic models found are Mn{sup 2+}{sub 2}V{sup 4+}O{sub 4}, Mn

  3. Crystal structure of syndesmos and its interaction with Syndecan-4 proteoglycan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Heeyoun; Yoo, Jiho; Lee, Inhwan; Kang, Ying Jin; Cho, Hyun-Soo; Lee, Weontae

    2015-08-07

    Syndesmos, nucleoside diphosphate linked moiety X (nudix)-type motif 16-like 1 (Nudt16l1), is evolutionarily divergent from the Nudt16 family. Syndesmos, which is co-localized with syndecan-4 cytoplasmic domain (Syn4{sup cyto}) in focal contacts, interacts with various cell adhesion adaptor proteins to control cell signaling. We determined the X-ray crystal structure of syndesmos; it is composed of seven α-helices and seven β-strands. Although syndesmos has a molecular topology similar to that of nudix hydrolase proteins, the structure of the nudix motif differs from that of X29. The dimeric interface of syndesmos is composed of α-helix 4, 7 and β-strand 2, 7, which primarily form hydrophobic interactions. The binding interaction between syndesmos and syn4{sup cyto} was characterized as a low-affinity interaction (K{sub d} = 62 μM) by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The NMR resonances of Lys (177, 178, 179), Gly182, and Ser183 in the C1 region and Lys193 and Lys194 in the V region of syndecan-4 are perturbed upon syndesmos binding. Our results provide structural insight into the molecular function of syndesmos in the regulation of cell signaling via binding to syndecan-4. - Highlights: • Crystal structure of syndesmos has been determined as a dimer at 2.01 Å resolution. • The molecular topology of syndesmos resembles that of the Nudix hydrolase protein. • The structure of the Nudix motif of syndesmos is quite different from that of X29. • Syndesmos binds cytoplasmic domain of syndecan-4 proteoglycan with low affinity.

  4. Apo- and Cellopentaose-bound Structures of the Bacterial Cellulose Synthase Subunit BcsZ

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazur, Olga; Zimmer, Jochen

    2012-10-25

    Cellulose, a very abundant extracellular polysaccharide, is synthesized in a finely tuned process that involves the activity of glycosyl-transferases and hydrolases. The cellulose microfibril consists of bundles of linear {beta}-1,4-glucan chains that are synthesized inside the cell; however, the mechanism by which these polymers traverse the cell membrane is currently unknown. In Gram-negative bacteria, the cellulose synthase complex forms a trans-envelope complex consisting of at least four subunits. Although three of these subunits account for the synthesis and translocation of the polysaccharide, the fourth subunit, BcsZ, is a periplasmic protein with endo-{beta}-1,4-glucanase activity. BcsZ belongs to family eight of glycosyl-hydrolases, and its activity is required for optimal synthesis and membrane translocation of cellulose. In this study we report two crystal structures of BcsZ from Escherichia coli. One structure shows the wild-type enzyme in its apo form, and the second structure is for a catalytically inactive mutant of BcsZ in complex with the substrate cellopentaose. The structures demonstrate that BcsZ adopts an ({alpha}/{alpha}){sub 6}-barrel fold and that it binds four glucan moieties of cellopentaose via highly conserved residues exclusively on the nonreducing side of its catalytic center. Thus, the BcsZ-cellopentaose structure most likely represents a posthydrolysis state in which the newly formed nonreducing end has already left the substrate binding pocket while the enzyme remains attached to the truncated polysaccharide chain. We further show that BcsZ efficiently degrades {beta}-1,4-glucans in in vitro cellulase assays with carboxymethyl-cellulose as substrate.

  5. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... regulation. *TFEB promotes the recruitment of mature Hex and Gal on cell surface. -- Abstract: Lysosomes are membrane-enclosed organelles containing acid hydrolases. ...

  6. Cazymes Analysis Toolkit (CAT): Webservice for searching and analyzing carbohydrateactive enzymes in a newly sequenced organism using CAZy database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karpinets, Tatiana V; Park, Byung; Syed, Mustafa H; Uberbacher, Edward C; Leuze, Michael Rex

    2010-01-01

    The Carbohydrate-Active Enzyme (CAZy) database provides a rich set of manually annotated enzymes that degrade, modify, or create glycosidic bonds. Despite rich and invaluable information stored in the database, software tools utilizing this information for annotation of newly sequenced genomes by CAZy families are limited. We have employed two annotation approaches to fill the gap between manually curated high-quality protein sequences collected in the CAZy database and the growing number of other protein sequences produced by genome or metagenome sequencing projects. The first approach is based on a similarity search against the entire non-redundant sequences of the CAZy database. The second approach performs annotation using links or correspondences between the CAZy families and protein family domains. The links were discovered using the association rule learning algorithm applied to sequences from the CAZy database. The approaches complement each other and in combination achieved high specificity and sensitivity when cross-evaluated with the manually curated genomes of Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405 and Saccharophagus degradans 2-40. The capability of the proposed framework to predict the function of unknown protein domains (DUF) and of hypothetical proteins in the genome of Neurospora crassa is demonstrated. The framework is implemented as a Web service, the CAZymes Analysis Toolkit (CAT), and is available at http://cricket.ornl.gov/cgi-bin/cat.cgi.

  7. Engineering towards a complete heterologous cellulase secretome in Yarrowia lipolytica reveals its potential for consolidated bioprocessing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wei, Hui; Wang, Wei; Alahuhta, Markus; Vander Wall, Todd; Baker, John O.; Taylor, Larry E.; Decker, Stephen R.; Himmel, Michael E.; Zhang, Min

    2014-10-16

    Background: Yarrowia lipolytica is an oleaginous yeast capable of metabolizing glucose to lipids, which then accumulate intracellularly. However, it lacks the suite of cellulolytic enzymes required to break down biomass cellulose and cannot therefore utilize biomass directly as a carbon source. Toward the development of a direct microbial conversion platform for the production of hydrocarbon fuels from cellulosic biomass, the potential for Y. lipolytica to function as a consolidated bioprocessing strain was investigated by first conducting a genomic search and functional testing of its endogenous glycoside hydrolases. Once the range of endogenous enzymes was determined, the critical cellulases from Trichodermamore » reesei were cloned into Yarrowia. Results: Initially, work to express T. reesei endoglucanase II (EGII) and cellobiohydrolase (CBH) II in Y. lipolytica resulted in the successful secretion of active enzymes. However, a critical cellulase, T. reesei CBHI, while successfully expressed in and secreted from Yarrowia, showed less than expected enzymatic activity, suggesting an incompatibility (probably at the post-translational level) for its expression in Yarrowia. This result prompted us to evaluate alternative or modified CBHI enzymes. Our subsequent expression of a T. reesei-Talaromyces emersonii (Tr-Te) chimeric CBHI, Chaetomium thermophilum CBHI, and Humicola grisea CBHI demonstrated remarkably improved enzymatic activities. Specifically, the purified chimeric Tr-Te CBHI showed a specific activity on Avicel that is comparable to that of the native T. reesei CBHI. Furthermore, the chimeric Tr-Te CBHI also showed significant synergism with EGII and CBHII in degrading cellulosic substrates, using either mixed supernatants or co-cultures of the corresponding Y. lipolytica transformants. The consortia system approach also allows rational volume mixing of the transformant cultures in accordance with the optimal ratio of cellulases required for efficient

  8. Engineering towards a complete heterologous cellulase secretome in Yarrowia lipolytica reveals its potential for consolidated bioprocessing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Hui; Wang, Wei; Alahuhta, Markus; Vander Wall, Todd; Baker, John O.; Taylor, Larry E.; Decker, Stephen R.; Himmel, Michael E.; Zhang, Min

    2014-10-16

    Background: Yarrowia lipolytica is an oleaginous yeast capable of metabolizing glucose to lipids, which then accumulate intracellularly. However, it lacks the suite of cellulolytic enzymes required to break down biomass cellulose and cannot therefore utilize biomass directly as a carbon source. Toward the development of a direct microbial conversion platform for the production of hydrocarbon fuels from cellulosic biomass, the potential for Y. lipolytica to function as a consolidated bioprocessing strain was investigated by first conducting a genomic search and functional testing of its endogenous glycoside hydrolases. Once the range of endogenous enzymes was determined, the critical cellulases from Trichoderma reesei were cloned into Yarrowia. Results: Initially, work to express T. reesei endoglucanase II (EGII) and cellobiohydrolase (CBH) II in Y. lipolytica resulted in the successful secretion of active enzymes. However, a critical cellulase, T. reesei CBHI, while successfully expressed in and secreted from Yarrowia, showed less than expected enzymatic activity, suggesting an incompatibility (probably at the post-translational level) for its expression in Yarrowia. This result prompted us to evaluate alternative or modified CBHI enzymes. Our subsequent expression of a T. reesei-Talaromyces emersonii (Tr-Te) chimeric CBHI, Chaetomium thermophilum CBHI, and Humicola grisea CBHI demonstrated remarkably improved enzymatic activities. Specifically, the purified chimeric Tr-Te CBHI showed a specific activity on Avicel that is comparable to that of the native T. reesei CBHI. Furthermore, the chimeric Tr-Te CBHI also showed significant synergism with EGII and CBHII in degrading cellulosic substrates, using either mixed supernatants or co-cultures of the corresponding Y. lipolytica transformants. The consortia system approach also allows rational volume mixing of the transformant cultures in accordance with the optimal ratio of cellulases required for efficient

  9. EA-1871: Environmental Assessment for Final Rule, 10 CFR 433, “EE Standards for New Federal Commercial and High-Rise Multi-Family Residential Buildings” and 10 CFR 435, “EE Standards for New Federal Residential Low-Rise Residential Buildings"

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this Environmental Assessment (EA) for DOE‘s Final Rule, 10 CFR 433, ―Energy Efficiency Standards for New Federal Commercial and High-Rise Multi-Family Residential Buildings‖ and 10 CFR 435, ―Energy Efficiency Standards for New Federal Residential Low-Rise Residential Buildings‖ Baseline Standards Update. The final rule updates the baseline standards in 10 CFR 433 and 10 CFR 435 to the latest private sector standards based on the cost-effectiveness of the latest private sector standards and DOE‘s determination that energy efficiency has been improved in these codes as required by 42 U.S.C 6831 et seq. DOE is issuing its final determinations on American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (ASHRAE)/Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) Standard 90.1-2007 (ASHRAE 2007) and the International Code Council‘s 2009 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) in the same edition of the Federal Register as this final rule.

  10. A Nuclear Family: The Manhattan District | Y-12 National Security...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The mp4 video format is not supported by this browser. Download video Captions: On Time: 26:40 min. Episode 2 tells our World War II era story and describes the contribution Oak ...

  11. Rural Development Multi-Family Housing Energy Efficiency Initiative...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    incorporating green building practices into project designs, construction, and operations. ... Rural Publication Date: NA Resource Link: http:www.rurdev.usda.goveehome.html

  12. SDG&E (Electric) - Multi-Family Residential Efficiency Program...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    State California Program Type Rebate Program Rebate Amount Clothes Washers: 75-150 Room Air Conditioner: 50 Central Heat Pumps: 100 Insulation: 0.15sq. ft. CFLs: 4-10...

  13. CenterPoint Energy Low-Rise Multi Family Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Note: This Incentive is only available to customers in the CenterPoint Energy Houston electric territory.

  14. Geothermal System Saves Dollars, Makes Sense for Maryland Family

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Derwood, Maryland resident Chris Gearon shares how he used a tax credit from the Recovery Act to help upgrade the heating and cooling system in his home to a geothermal one helping him save money and energy.

  15. Better Buildings Residential Network Multi-Family & Low-Income...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Discussion: What strategies or approaches has your ... (4663) * INHP program marketing drives customers to the ... was not proven to be a successful strategy. 25 Discussion: ...

  16. Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Multi-family/Low Income...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... 2) * ECP Resident Engagement Tools: http:www.enterprisecommunity.comsolutions-and-innovationenterprise- green-communitiesresourcesresident-engagement * ECP Green ...

  17. NNSA Production Office more than doubles Feds Feed Families campaign...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    fund CNS supports Tenn. Science Bowl CNS helps provide housing to homeless veterans Robbins named NNSA Production Office Deputy Manager Uranium project achieves safety milestone...

  18. ‘Can Do’ Attitude Brings EM Family Together

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    OAK RIDGE, Tenn. – It’s 7:51 a.m. on a Tuesday morning. A white, long-bed 4x4 Dodge Ram turns the corner, entering the parking lot. The rumble of the hemi-powered engine stops and the door opens as Jim Kopotic, the federal project director for the East Tennessee Technology Park, one of EM’s primary cleanup sites in Oak Ridge, exits the cab.

  19. ORISE: Beryllium Awareness for Employees and Families (Video)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transcript (MS-Word)

  20. Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Multi-Family Peer Exchange...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... with the University of Texas and Apartment Finders on a website with an interactive GIS interface-the plan is to highlight EE properties on it The goal of the project is ...

  1. Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Multi-family and Low Income...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ...pdfCondominiumEnergySmartTips.pdf http:shelteranalytics.comsitesdefaultfilesenergyefficiencyresourcetoolbox9-25-12.pdf Program Experience * New Orleans: Rolled out ...

  2. Save Energy at This Year's Family Reunion | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... So sit back and enjoy that one last energy-efficient hurrah before the kids go back to school, the weather begins to cool down, and everyone gets back into the swing of things and ...

  3. Puget Sound Energy- Multi-Family Efficiency Retrofit Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    PSE’s Multifamily Program incentives include a range of measures aimed at assisting existing multifamily buildings. There are prescriptive rebates for equipment such as windows, insulation, light...

  4. Family-Owned Restaurant Serves Up Huge Energy Savings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    When high energy bills and a dwindling customer base threatened the Athenian Corner's well-being, the restaurant turned to energy efficiency upgrades to help operating costs and improve its bottom line.

  5. Neutrons Reveal New Electrocatalyst Family for Producing Hydrogen...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Most renewable energy is produced in the form of electricity, which is expensive to store ... transported than electricity generated through competing photovoltaic (PV) technologies. ...

  6. Retiree Heads Back to Work, Helps Families Stay Afloat

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Mark Morris of South Bend, Ind., is among many in the country who were already retired, but whose 401(k) account took a big hit when the stock market crashed. Mark had retired as a utility-company supervisor in mid-2007, but he lost 40 percent of his retirement money and knew he had to go back to work.

  7. Energy behaviours of northern California Girl Scouts and their families

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boudet, H; Ardoin, NM; Flora, J; Armel, KC; Desai, M; Robinson, TN

    2014-10-01

    Climate change is likely the most critical societal challenge to the futures of today's children. Mitigation will require a concerted effort to change household energy behaviour electricity use, transportation and food consumption patterns. A first step to changing behaviour is to better understand current behaviour and its intrapersonal (knowledge and attitudes), interpersonal (norms, communication and behaviour) and contextual (demographics and geography) correlates. To date, our understanding of the energy behaviours of children is limited. To begin to fill this gap, we report the results of a survey on the electricity, transportation and food-related energy behaviours of 323 fourth- and fifth-grade girls and their parents in 31 Girl Scout troops in Northern California. Our findings show positive attitudes and perceived norms toward energy-saving behaviours among child and adult respondents, but low or moderate levels of knowledge, communication, and behaviour, particularly for behaviours that require adult assistance. Girls' choices about electricity behaviours appear to be governed by intrapersonal and interpersonal influences, while transportation behaviour is constrained by geographic context. Food-related behaviour, particularly meat consumption, was not readily modelled. Policy and education-related implications for future interventions aimed at enhancing children's energy-saving behaviours are discussed. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. NNSA Production Office tops Feds Feed Families campaign goal...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - 9:45am Oak Ridge, Tenn. - Employees of the National Nuclear Security Administration Production Office have donated 17,348 pounds of food as part of the annual U.S. Department...

  9. NNSA Administrator Kicks Off DOE's 'Feds Feed Families' Campaign |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    July 27, 2016 NNMCAB Board Agenda: July 2016 Santa Fe Agenda for the July 27, 2016 Board meeting: at Santa Fe Community College Presentation by Doug Hintz, DOE EM-LA, "Los Alamos Cleanup Lifecycle Cost Estimate" Presentation by David Rhodes, DOE EM-LA, "LLCC Draft Request for Proposal" May 18, 2016 NNMCAB Board Agenda: May 2016 Pojoaque Agenda for the May 18, 2016 Board Meeting at Cities of Gold Conference Center Presentation by NMED Secretary Ryan Flynn "Comments

  10. Durable Airtightness in Single-Family Dwellings - Field Measurementsand Analysis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chan, Wanyu R.; Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max H.

    2015-06-01

    Here, durability of the building envelope is important to new homes that are increasingly built with improved levels of airtightness. It is also important to weatherized homes such that energy savings from retrofit measures, such as air sealing, are persistent. This paper presents a comparison of air leakage measurements collected in November 2013 through March 2014, with two sets of prior data collected between 2001-2003 from 17 new homes located near Atlanta, GA, and 17 homes near Boise, ID that were weatherized in 2007- 2008. The purpose of the comparison is to determine if there are changes to the airtightnessmore » of building envelopes over time. The air leakage increased in all but one of the new homes, with a mean increase of about 25%. The weatherized homes also showed an increase in the mean air leakage (12%). A regression analysis was performed to describe the relationship between prior and current measurements in terms of normalized leakage (NL). The best estimate of the ageing factor predicts a 15% increase in NL over ten years. Further analysis using ResDB data (LBNL’s Residential Diagnostic Database) showed the expected changes in air leakage if ageing were modelled. These results imply the need to examine the causes of increased leakage and methods to avoid them. This increase in leakage with time should be accounted for in long-term population-wide energy savings estimates, such as those used in ratings or energy savings programs.« less

  11. SCE - Multi-Family Residential Energy Efficiency Programs | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    High Efficiency Clothes Washers: 50 - 100unit Energy Star Refrigerators: 50unit Dual Pane Windows: 0.75sq. ft. Central Air and Heat Pumps: 150unit Water Heaters: 30...

  12. Seattle City Light - Multi-Family Residential Energy Efficiency...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    for common area lighting and weatherization measures including the installation of dual-pane windows and increased insulation, although insulation-only jobs are not eligible...

  13. New Jersey: Reducing Energy Bills for Camden's Families | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    accomplishments" by DOE in 2000, and "Best New Home Product" by This Old House Magazine in 2001. In 2001, DOE's Weatherization Assistance Program served as a test bed for...

  14. Structure of a PL17 Family Alginate Lyase Demonstrates Functional...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DOI: 10.1074jbc.M113.531111 Select the DOI to obtain a copy of this journal article from the publisher. Find in Google Scholar Find in Google Scholar Search WorldCat Search ...

  15. POLICY GUIDANCE MEMORANDUM #21 Family Members | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Office of Personnel Management (OPM) Guidance on Diversity and Inclusion POLICY GUIDANCE MEMORANDUM 14 Establishing a Residence for a Relocation ...

  16. Delivering Energy Efficiency to Middle Income Single Family Households

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2011-12-01

    Provides state and local policymakers with information on successful approaches to the design and implementation of residential efficiency programs for households ineligible for low-income programs.

  17. Family-wide Characterization of Histone Binding Abilities of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Liu, Yanli ; Tempel, Wolfram ; Zhang, Qi ; Liang, Xiao ; Loppnau, Peter ; Qin, Su ; Min, Jinrong 1 ; Toronto) 2 + Show Author Affiliations (CCNL--China) ( Publication ...

  18. How Do You Encourage Your Family to Use Less Water?

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    While there are many ways to keep your HOT water use to a minimum, sometimes the best thing to do is just shut off the water as much as possible!

  19. Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Multi-Family and Low Income...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in Communities Agenda * Call Logistics and Attendance What kind of partnerships does your program have for ... York Jeanine Otte, CNT Energy, Chicago Rosemary ...

  20. Secretaries Chu and Donovan Sign Agreement to Help Working Families...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... of residents in rural communities -- mostly seniors and ... Block Grants for cities, counties, states and Indian Tribes, 3.1 billion for the State Energy Program, and other programs. ...

  1. An Update on Feds Feeds Families | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    33,315 pounds Under Secretary for Science: 30,413 pounds Energy Programs: 5,544 pounds Additionally, there were DOE headquarters events and direct deliveries to the Capital Area ...

  2. Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Multi-family/Low Income...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    What resources do you need? * Potential Future Call Topics 7282011 2 Participating Grant Programs * Phoenix, AZ * New Hampshire * Kansas City, MO * New York * Connecticut * ...

  3. Y-12 employees, families and friends help East Tennessee during...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    resource center at the Volunteer Ministry Center in Knoxville. Donna Bennett (at left), James Woody of the Local 252C Chemical Operators (kneeling) and Atomic Trades and Labor...

  4. Better Buildings Multi-Family Peer Exchange Call Featuring: Stewards...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    using: Effective messaging: safety, comfort, health Work through developers, ... incentivesdisincentives Lessonsmodels from other areas (e.g., commercial, ...

  5. Purification, Crystallization and Preliminary X-ray Diffraction Analysis of Cif, a Virulence Factor Secreted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bahl, C.; MacEachran, D; O' Toole, G; Madden, D

    2010-01-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa secretes a protein that triggers the accelerated degradation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in airway epithelial cells. This protein, which is known as the CFTR inhibitory factor (Cif), acts as a virulence factor and may facilitate airway colonization by P. aeruginosa. Based on sequence similarity Cif appears to be an epoxide hydrolase (EH), but it lacks several of the conserved features found in the active sites of canonical members of the EH family. Here, the crystallization of purified recombinant Cif by vapor diffusion is reported. The crystals formed in space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 167.4, b = 83.6, c = 88.3 {angstrom}, {beta} = 100.6{sup o}. The crystals diffracted to 2.39 {angstrom} resolution on a rotating-anode source. Based on the calculated Matthews coefficient (2.2 {angstrom}{sup 3} Da{sup -1}), it appears that the asymmetric unit contains four molecules.

  6. Crystallographic Snapshot of Glycosylasparaginase Precursor Poised for Autoprocessing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Y.; Guo, H

    2010-01-01

    Glycosylasparaginase belongs to a family of N-terminal nucleophile hydrolases that autoproteolytically generate their mature enzymes from single-chain protein precursors. Previously, based on a precursor structure paused at pre-autoproteolysis stage by a reversible inhibitor (glycine), we proposed a mechanism of intramolecular autoproteolysis. A key structural feature, a highly strained conformation at the scissile peptide bond, had been identified and was hypothesized to be critical for driving autoproteolysis through an N-O acyl shift. To examine this 'twist-and-break' hypothesis, we report here a 1.9-{angstrom}-resolution structure of an autoproteolysis-active precursor (a T152C mutant) that is free of inhibitor or ligand and is poised to undergo autoproteolysis. The current crystallographic study has provided direct evidence for the natural conformation of the glycosylasparaginase autocatalytic site without influence from any inhibitor or ligand. This finding has confirmed our previous proposal that conformational strain is an intrinsic feature of an active precursor.

  7. Theoretical Study of the Inverting Mechanism in a Processive Cellobiohydrolase with Quantum Mechanical Calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, S.; Payne, C. M.; Himmel, M. E.; Crowley, M. F.; Paton, R. S.; Beckham, G. T.

    2012-01-01

    The Hypocrea jecorina Family 6 cellobiohydrolase (Cel6A) is one of most efficient enzymes for cellulose deconstruction to soluble sugars and is thus of significant current interest for the growing biofuels industry. Cel6A is known to hydrolyze b(1,4)-glycosidic linkages in cellulose via an inverting mechanism, but there are still questions that remain regarding the role of water and the catalytic base. Here we study the inverting, single displacement, hydrolytic reaction mechanism in Cel6A using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The computational model used to follow the reaction is a truncated active site model with several explicit waters based on structural studies of H. jecorina Cel6A. Proposed mechanisms are evaluated with several density functionals. From our calculations, the role of the water in nucleophilic attack on the anomeric carbon, and the roles of several residues in the active site loops are elucidated explicitly for the first time. We also apply quantum mechanical calculations to understand the proton transfer reaction which completes the catalytic cycle.

  8. Comparative proteomic analysis of outer membrane vesicles from Shigella flexneri under different culture conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Yong; Liu, Liguo; Fu, Hua; Wei, Candong Jin, Qi

    2014-10-31

    Highlights: • We utilized mTRAQ-based quantification to study protein changes in Congo red-induced OMVs. • A total of 148 proteins were identified in S. flexneri-derived OMVs. • Twenty-eight and five proteins are significantly up- and down-regulated in the CR-induced OMV, respectively. • The result implied that a special sorting mechanism of particular proteins into OMVs may exist. • Key node proteins in the protein interaction network might be important for pathogenicity. - Abstract: The production of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) is a common and regulated process of gram-negative bacteria. Nonetheless, the processes of Shigella flexneri OMV production still remain unclear. S. flexneri is the causative agent of endemic shigellosis in developing countries. The Congo red binding of strains is associated with increased infectivity of S. flexneri. Therefore, understanding the modulation pattern of OMV protein expression induced by Congo red will help to elucidate the bacterial pathogenesis. In the present study, we investigated the proteomic composition of OMVs and the change in OMV protein expression induced by Congo red using mTRAQ-based quantitative comparative proteomics. mTRAQ labelling increased the confidence in protein identification, and 148 total proteins were identified in S. flexneri-derived OMVs. These include a variety of important virulence factors, including Ipa proteins, TolC family, murein hydrolases, and members of the serine protease autotransporters of Enterobacteriaceae (SPATEs) family. Among the identified proteins, 28 and five proteins are significantly up- and down-regulated in the Congo red-induced OMV, respectively. Additionally, by comprehensive comparison with previous studies focused on DH5a-derived OMV, we identified some key node proteins in the protein–protein interaction network that may be involved in OMV biogenesis and are common to all gram-negative bacteria.

  9. Computer Simulations Reveal Multiple Functions for Aromatic Residues in Cellulase Enzymes (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-07-01

    NREL researchers use high-performance computing to demonstrate fundamental roles of aromatic residues in cellulase enzyme tunnels. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) computer simulations of a key industrial enzyme, the Trichoderma reesei Family 6 cellulase (Cel6A), predict that aromatic residues near the enzyme's active site and at the entrance and exit tunnel perform different functions in substrate binding and catalysis, depending on their location in the enzyme. These results suggest that nature employs aromatic-carbohydrate interactions with a wide variety of binding affinities for diverse functions. Outcomes also suggest that protein engineering strategies in which mutations are made around the binding sites may require tailoring specific to the enzyme family. Cellulase enzymes ubiquitously exhibit tunnels or clefts lined with aromatic residues for processing carbohydrate polymers to monomers, but the molecular-level role of these aromatic residues remains unknown. In silico mutation of the aromatic residues near the catalytic site of Cel6A has little impact on the binding affinity, but simulation suggests that these residues play a major role in the glucopyranose ring distortion necessary for cleaving glycosidic bonds to produce fermentable sugars. Removal of aromatic residues at the entrance and exit of the cellulase tunnel, however, dramatically impacts the binding affinity. This suggests that these residues play a role in acquiring cellulose chains from the cellulose crystal and stabilizing the reaction product, respectively. These results illustrate that the role of aromatic-carbohydrate interactions varies dramatically depending on the position in the enzyme tunnel. As aromatic-carbohydrate interactions are present in all carbohydrate-active enzymes, the results have implications for understanding protein structure-function relationships in carbohydrate metabolism and recognition, carbon turnover in nature, and protein engineering strategies for

  10. A novel transcriptional regulator of L-arabinose utilization in human gut bacteria

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chang, Changsoo; Tesar, Christine; Li, Xiaoqing; Kim, Youngchang; Rodionov, Dmitry A.; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2015-10-04

    We report that carbohydrate metabolism plays a crucial role in the ecophysiology of human gut microbiota. Mechanisms of transcriptional regulation of sugar catabolism in commensal and prevalent human gut bacteria such as Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron remain mostly unknown. By a combination of bioinformatics and experimental approaches, we have identified an NrtR family transcription factor (BT0354 in B. thetaiotaomicron, BtAraR) as a novel regulator controlling the arabinose utilization genes. L-arabinose was confirmed to be a negative effector of BtAraR. We have solved the crystal structures of the apo and L-arabinose-bound BtAraR proteins, as well as the complex of apo-protein with a specificmore » DNA operator. BtAraR forms a homodimer with each subunit comprised of the ligand-binding Nudix hydrolase-like domain and the DNA-binding winged-helix-turn-helix (wHTH) domain. We have identified the residues involved in binding of L-arabinose and recognition of DNA. The majority of these residues are well conserved in the AraR orthologs in Bacteroidetes. In the structure of the BtAraR–DNA complex, we found the unique interaction of arginine intercalating its guanidinum moiety into the base pair stacking of B-DNA. L-arabinose binding induces movement of wHTH domains, resulting in a conformation unsuitable for DNA binding. Furthermore, our analysis facilitates reconstruction of the metabolic and regulatory networks involved in carbohydrate utilization in human gut Bacteroides.« less

  11. A novel transcriptional regulator of L-arabinose utilization in human gut bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Changsoo; Tesar, Christine; Li, Xiaoqing; Kim, Youngchang; Rodionov, Dmitry A.; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2015-10-04

    We report that carbohydrate metabolism plays a crucial role in the ecophysiology of human gut microbiota. Mechanisms of transcriptional regulation of sugar catabolism in commensal and prevalent human gut bacteria such as Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron remain mostly unknown. By a combination of bioinformatics and experimental approaches, we have identified an NrtR family transcription factor (BT0354 in B. thetaiotaomicron, BtAraR) as a novel regulator controlling the arabinose utilization genes. L-arabinose was confirmed to be a negative effector of BtAraR. We have solved the crystal structures of the apo and L-arabinose-bound BtAraR proteins, as well as the complex of apo-protein with a specific DNA operator. BtAraR forms a homodimer with each subunit comprised of the ligand-binding Nudix hydrolase-like domain and the DNA-binding winged-helix-turn-helix (wHTH) domain. We have identified the residues involved in binding of L-arabinose and recognition of DNA. The majority of these residues are well conserved in the AraR orthologs in Bacteroidetes. In the structure of the BtAraR–DNA complex, we found the unique interaction of arginine intercalating its guanidinum moiety into the base pair stacking of B-DNA. L-arabinose binding induces movement of wHTH domains, resulting in a conformation unsuitable for DNA binding. Furthermore, our analysis facilitates reconstruction of the metabolic and regulatory networks involved in carbohydrate utilization in human gut Bacteroides.

  12. A New Family Member for 2D Nanomaterials | U.S. DOE Office of...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Popular in electronic devices including solar panels, silicon has its limits. Scientists are devising replacements to meet the technology demands of an energy-hungry nation. A team ...

  13. NNSA Production Office more than doubles Feds Feed Families campaign goal |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (NNSA) Operations NNSA Office of General Counsel The NNSA Office of the General Counsel is responsible for the provision of legal services, counsel and support to the NNSA Administrator and all NNSA elements worldwide. The NNSA Office of the General Counsel is responsible for the provision of legal services, counsel and support to the NNSA Administrator and all NNSA elements worldwide. In addition to a team of attorneys at Headquarters in Washington, D.C., the NNSA Office of the General

  14. Growth of tungsten bronze family crystals. Final technical report, 6 May 1985-30 November 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neurgaonkar, R.R.; Cross, L.E.

    1988-03-01

    A systematic investigation of tungsten bronze crystals for electro-optic and photorefractive applications was carried out successfully. The Sr{sub 1-X}BaXNb{sub 2}O{sub 6} (SBN) and Ba{sub 2-X}SrXK{sub 1-y}NaYNb{sub 5}O{sub 15} (BSKNN) system crystals were grown in optical quality with and without specific impurities whose purpose is to enhance photorefractive coupling and speed. Both SBN and BSKNN crystals appear to be excellent hosts for electro-optic applications, e.g., modulators, waveguides, and spatial light modulators (SLM) and photorefractive applications, e.g., phase conjugation, image processing, optical computing and laser hardening. For photorefractive applications, cerium and chromium doping show the largest effects on photorefractive coupling and speed.

  15. The activity of CouR, a MarR family transcriptional regulator...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Altogether, our data point to a novel mechanism of action in which the ligand abrogates ... Type: Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Nucleic Acids Research Additional Journal ...

  16. Characterization of a Y-Family DNA Polymerase eta from the Eukaryotic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    GrantContract Number: FG0207ER64326 Type: Published Article Journal Name: Journal of Nucleic Acids Additional Journal Information: Journal Volume: 2010; Journal ID: ISSN 2090-021X ...

  17. Characterization of a Y-Family DNA Polymerase eta from the Eukaryotic ThermophileAlvinella pompejana

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kashiwagi, Sayo; Kuraoka, Isao; Fujiwara, Yoshie; Hitomi, Kenichi; Cheng, Quen J.; Fuss, Jill O.; Shin, David S.; Masutani, Chikahide; Tainer, John A.; Hanaoka, Fumio; et al

    2010-01-01

    Human DNA polymerase?(HsPol?) plays an important role in translesion synthesis (TLS), which allows for replication past DNA damage such as UV-inducedcis-syncyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs). Here, we characterized ApPol?from the thermophilic wormAlvinella pompejana, which inhabits deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimneys. ApPol?shares sequence homology with HsPol?and contains domains for binding ubiquitin and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Sun-induced UV does not penetrateAlvinella'senvironment; however, this novel DNA polymerase catalyzed efficient and accurate TLS past CPD, as well as 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine and isomers of thymine glycol induced by reactive oxygen species. In addition, we found that ApPol?is more thermostable than HsPol?, as expected from its habitat temperature.moreMoreover, the activity of this enzyme was retained in the presence of a higher concentration of organic solvents. Therefore, ApPol?provides a robust, human-like Pol?that is more active after exposure to high temperatures and organic solvents.less

  18. The CopC Family: Structural and Bioinformatic Insights into a...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    OSTI Identifier: 1249255 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: Biochemistry-US; Journal Volume: 55; Journal Issue: (15) ; 04, 2016 Research Org: Advanced ...

  19. Zero Energy-Ready Single-Family Homes- Building America Top Innovation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Many Building America teams (ARBI, BA-PIRC, BSC, CARB, IBACOS, NorthernSTAR, PHI, etc.) have worked with home builders to design and test zero-energy-ready homes.

  20. A PUBLICATION FOR ALL MEMBERS OF THE NNSA/NSO FAMILY Issue

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Although similar gas guns have been and are in operation at ... cies, the American Red Cross, and the Canadian government. ... The Aerial Measuring System (AMS) deployed the fixed wing ...

  1. Durable Airtightness in Single-Family Dwellings: Field Measurements and Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chan, Wanyu; Walker, Iain; Sherman, Max

    2015-06-01

    Durability of the building envelope is important to new homes that are increasingly built with improved levels of airtightness. It is also important to weatherized homes such that energy savings from retrofit measures, such as air sealing, are persistent. This paper presents a comparison of air leakage measurements collected in November 2013 through March 2014, with two sets of prior data collected between 2001-2003 from 17 new homes located near Atlanta, GA, and 17 homes near Boise, ID that were weatherized in 2007-2008. The purpose of the comparison is to determine if there are changes to the airtightness of building envelopes over time. The air leakage increased in all but one of the new homes, with a mean increase of about 25%. A regression analysis was performed to describe the relationship between prior and current measurements in terms of normalized leakage (NL).

  2. Categorizing resonances X(1835), X(2120), and X(2370) in the pseudoscalar meson family

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu Jiesheng; Sun Zhifeng; Liu, Xiang; Zhao, Qiang

    2011-06-01

    Inspired by the newly observed three resonances X(1835), X(2120), and X(2370), in this work we systematically study the two-body strong decays and double pion decays of {eta}(1295)/{eta}(1475), {eta}(1760)/X(1835), and X(2120)/X(2370) by categorizing {eta}(1295)/{eta}(1475), {eta}(1760)/X(1835), X(2120), and X(2370) as the radial excitations of {eta}(548)/{eta}{sup '}(958). Our numerical results indicate the followings: (1) The obtained theoretical strong decay widths of three pseudoscalar states {eta}(1295), {eta}(1475), and {eta}(1760) are consistent with the experimental measurements; (2) X(1835) could be the second radial excitation of {eta}{sup '}(958); (3) X(2120) and X(2370) can be explained as the third and fourth radial excitations of {eta}(548)/{eta}{sup '}(958), respectively. The predicted two-body decay patterns of {eta}(1295)/{eta}(1475), {eta}(1760)/X(1835), and X(2120)/X(2370) and their double pion decays should be useful for further testing the conventional meson assignment to {eta}(1295)/{eta}(1475), {eta}(1760)/X(1835), X(2120), and X(2370).

  3. A PUBLICATION FOR ALL MEMBERS OF THE NNSA/NSO FAMILY Contents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Her new organization includes prime contracts, procurement, administrative resources, and property management. Dr. Jeff Moon is the acting occupational medicine manager, replacing ...

  4. A PUBLICATION FOR ALL MEMBERS OF THE NNSA/NSO FAMILY Contents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Bechtel Nevada 40 years Las Vegas - Roosevelt Rogers Jr.; Nevada Test Site - Maxwell ... - Heather Huckins-Gang, Lynn Jaussi, Charles Lohrstorfer 5 years Las Vegas - Virginia ...

  5. A PUBLICATION FOR ALL MEMBERS OF THE NNSA/NSO FAMILY Contents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Hobbies Interests: Computers and working on cars Name: Teri Rogers Company: Wackenhut ... Bechtel Nevada 40 years Las Vegas - Ronald Head, Charles Madsen, Gary Schmidt 35 years Las ...

  6. Feds Feed Families Wraps Up Successful Campaign to Stock Area Food Banks |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    These resources from several federal offices can assist those who are working to develop community solar projects. Fannie Mae - HomeStyle Energy Program This new mortgage option gives borrowers the ability to complete clean energy upgrades for up to 15% the appraised value of their homes. Borrowers are able to finance energy-efficient upgrades when purchasing or refinancing a home, eliminating the need for a subordinate lien, home equity line of credit, Property Assessed Clean Energy (PACE)

  7. Test results of NREL 10M, special-purpose family of thin airfoils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starcher, K.L.; Nelson, V.C.; Wei, Jun

    1996-12-31

    Two 25 kW Carter Wind Systems were tested to determine performance differences between production blades and rotors with NREL Special Purpose Thin Airfoils. Blade design, mold preparation, blade production, and testing were conducted. Design tools were created for computer modeling of the blade. The blades had the same twist, taper, and length as production blades. Flap natural frequency was adjusted to be as similar as possible between rotors, as was blade mass, blade center of gravity and rotor moment of inertia. Data collected were; wind speed at hub height, blade root flap & edgewise loads, main shaft torque, azimuth position, teeter angle, yaw angle and electrical power. These data were collected at 128 Hertz for data sets of eight seconds. This data set was then written to hard disk and the cycle repeated resulting in a file containing five and one half minutes of data. A data run consisted of; preflight checkout/warm-up of equipment, preflight calibration/verification of all sensors on both turbines, collection of five files of data (about thirty minutes of data), post flight calibration/verification of sensors. During this high speed data collection period there were a total of twenty-four data runs collected. Data were collected for wind speeds in the range about 7, 10 and 13 m/s. A data matrix was filled for clean, medium and heavy surface roughness. Baseline power curves, parametric pitch variation runs to establish testing pitch settings, high speed data collection runs with and without applied surface roughness were completed and analyzed. Data were compared using simple arithmetic mean, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis, rainflow counting algorithms and wavelet analysis. The NREL airfoils showed much less sensitivity to surface roughness. There were minimal root bending load differences. Annual energy production during long term operation is being determined. 9 refs., 7 figs.

  8. California Solar Initiative- Single-Family Affordable Solar Housing (SASH) Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The California Solar Initiative (CSI) provides financial incentives for installing solar technologies through a variety of smaller sub-programs. Of the $3.2 billion in total funding for the CSI, ...

  9. Structure of GDNF Family Ligand Artemin Complexed with Its GFRa3...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    motor neurons has stimulated interest in their use for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's. These structurally related neurotrophic factors signal by...

  10. Structural basis for specificity of TGF[beta] family receptor small molecule inhibitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogunjimi, Abiodun A.; Zeqiraj, Elton; Ceccarelli, Derek F.; Sicheri, Frank; Wrana, Jeffrey L.; David, Laurent

    2012-07-24

    Transforming growth factor-{beta} (TGF{beta}) receptor kinase inhibitors have a great therapeutic potential. SB431542 is one of the mainly used kinase inhibitors of the TGF{beta}/Activin pathway receptors, but needs improvement of its EC{sub 50} (EC{sub 50} = 1 {mu}M) to be translated to clinical use. A key feature of SB431542 is that it specifically targets receptors from the TGF{beta}/Activin pathway but not the closely related receptors from the bone morphogenic proteins (BMP) pathway. To understand the mechanisms of this selectivity, we solved the crystal structure of the TGF{beta} type I receptor (T{beta}RI) kinase domain in complex with SB431542. We mutated T{beta}RI residues coordinating SB431542 to their counterparts in activin-receptor like kinase 2 (ALK2), a BMP receptor kinase, and tested the kinase activity of mutated T{beta}RI. We discovered that a Ser280Thr mutation yielded a T{beta}RI variant that was resistant to SB431542 inhibition. Furthermore, the corresponding Thr283Ser mutation in ALK2 yielded a BMP receptor sensitive to SB431542. This demonstrated that Ser280 is the key determinant of selectivity for SB431542. This work provides a framework for optimising the SB431542 scaffold to more potent and selective inhibitors of the TGF{beta}/Activin pathway.

  11. A PUBLICATION FOR ALL MEMBERS OF THE NNSA/NV FAMILY Contents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... and the contribution of knowledge, innovation, process efficien- cy, technical complexity, application, or combinations of such to the fields of science and engineering. ...

  12. CNS donations help lower-income Appalachian families | Y-12 National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    or ADFAC's, School Supply Program was able to serve a record breaking 2,808 children, providing necessary school supplies to students in 29 area schools in a...

  13. New Materials Family on the Block | U.S. DOE Office of Science...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    in the grain; a result confirmed by additional analyses of other grains in the material: lead (Pb), zirconium (Zr), titanium (Ti), iron (Fe), niobium (Nb), and oxygen (O). ...

  14. Appropriate conservation measures for single-family buildings in hot, humid climates. [DOE-2. 1B

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McLain, H.A.; MacDonald, J.M.; Goldenberg, D.

    1985-01-01

    The effectiveness of a number of energy conservation measures for homes located in hot, humid climates was analyzed using the DOE-2.1B building simulation model. Measures having the greatest benefits to the homeowner are predicted to be the addition of ceiling insulation only if the house is not already insulated, weatherization, and reduction of the wall outer surface solar absorptance. The weatherization and solar absorptance reduction measures should be do-it-yourself installations to be cost-effective. Replacement of an air-conditioning unit with a new high-efficiency unit was very effective in reducing peak demand and annual cooling energy. Unless the energy efficiency ratio of the existing unit is low (<6), replacement is generally not cost-effective. The measures were predicted to result in slightly increased indoor humidities, but their effect on human comfort was predicted to be small. However, this conclusion should be considered preliminary since the simulation models used for these predictions have limitations. The amount of energy that can be saved by these measures is very dependent on the occupant's lifestyle, such as the degree to which the occupants will alter clothing to achieve comfort. 15 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Comment on 'Waves and solitons in the two-family Calogero model'

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andric, I.; Jonke, L.; Jurman, D.

    2008-05-15

    We argue that in the paper we comment on the authors failed to prove that all known solutions of the Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield sector of duality-based Calogero model are indeed all solutions.

  16. California Solar Initiative- Multi-Family Affordable Solar Housing (MASH) Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    '''''Track 2 was closed in 2011. Track 1 incentives have been fully subscribed for all three program administrators and waitlists have been established. Contact the appropriate program...

  17. 9-2-14_CBFO_Employees_Help_Locally_In_Annual_Feds_Feed_Families...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    local area food banks. -DOE- 010DR0914 U.S. Department of Energy Carlsbad Field Office Waste Isolation Pilot Plant P.O. Box 3090 Carlsbad, New Mexico 88221 Media Contact: Deb Gill...

  18. Building America Top Innovations 2013 Profile – Zero Energy-Ready Single-Family Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2013-09-01

    Building homes that are zero energy-ready is a goal of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America program and one embodied in Building America’s premier home certification program, the Challenge Home program. This case study describes several examples of successful zero energy-ready home projects completed by Building America teams and partner builders.

  19. California Solar Initiative- Single-Family Affordable Solar Housing (SASH) Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The California Solar Initiative (CSI), enacted by SB 1 of 2006, provides financial incentives for installing solar technologies through a variety of smaller sub-programs. Of the $3.2 billion in t...

  20. California Solar Initiative- Multi-Family Affordable Solar Housing (MASH) Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The California Solar Initiative (CSI), enacted by SB 1 of 2006, provides financial incentives to customers in investor-owned utility (IOU) territories of Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&...

  1. Food and gift drives help make holidays brighter for regional families

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Food and Beverage (2010 MECS) Food and Beverage (2010 MECS) Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint for Food and Beverage Sector (NAICS 311, 312) Energy use data source: 2010 EIA MECS (with adjustments) Footprint Last Revised: February 2014 View footprints for other sectors here. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint Food and Beverage (126.07 KB) More Documents & Publications MECS 2006 - Food and Beverage All Manufacturing (2010 MECS) Cement

    STEM skills Community Connections: Your

  2. 9-2-14_CBFO_Employees_Help_Locally_In_Annual_Feds_Feed_Families_Effort_2014

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9 Cool Technologies at the Bay Area Maker Faire 9 Cool Technologies at the Bay Area Maker Faire May 12, 2016 - 10:14am Addthis PARTS FROM THE WORLD’S LARGEST LASER 1 of 9 PARTS FROM THE WORLD'S LARGEST LASER You're looking at the inside of the world's largest and most powerful laser. It focuses the intense energy of 192 giant laser beams on a BB-sized target in experiments to create nuclear fusion. Examples of the optics that focus the lasers and targets at which they're aimed will be on

  3. Unification of gauge, family, and flavor symmetries illustrated in gauged SU(12) models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Albright, Carl H.; Feger, Robert P.; Kephart, Thomas W.

    2016-04-25

    In this study, to explain quark and lepton masses and mixing angles, one has to extend the standard model, and the usual practice is to put the quarks and leptons into irreducible representations of discrete groups. We argue that discrete flavor symmetries (and their concomitant problems) can be avoided if we extend the gauge group. In the framework of SU(12) we give explicit examples of models having varying degrees of predictability obtained by scanning over groups and representations and identifying cases with operators contributing to mass and mixing matrices that need little fine- tuning of prefactors. Fitting with quark andmore » lepton masses run to the GUT scale and known mixing angles allows us to make predictions for the neutrino masses and hierarchy, the octant of the atmospheric mixing angle, leptonic CP violation, Majorana phases, and the effective mass observed in neutrinoless double beta decay.« less

  4. A PUBLICATION FOR ALL MEMBERS OF THE NNSA/NSO FAMILY Contents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... resumption of non-critical High Enriched Uranium (HEU) facilities and upgrade of ... The following acronyms appear frequently in SiteLines: BN Bechtel Nevada ES&H Environment, ...

  5. Measurement-Based Evaluation of Installed Filtration System Performance in Single-Family Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chan, Wanyu Rengie; Singer, Brett C.

    2014-04-03

    This guide discusses important study design issues to consider when conducting an on-site evaluation of filtration system performance. The two most important dichotomies to consider in developing a study protocol are (1) whether systems are being evaluated in occupied or unoccupied homes and (2) whether different systems are being compared in the same homes or if the comparison is between systems installed in different homes. This document provides perspective and recommendations about a suite of implementation issues including the choice of particle measurement devices, selection of sampling locations, ways to control and/or monitor factors and processes that can impact particle concentrations, and data analysis approaches.

  6. A PUBLICATION FOR ALL MEMBERS OF THE NNSA/NSO FAMILY Issue

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    place to offer a wide range of real-world exercises and training to the Nation's ... Well drilling at NLV 4 complex Dosimeters at risk for expo- sure 5 Inadvertently creating ...

  7. Wind-induced Ground-surface Pressures Around a Single-Family House

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, W.J.; Gadgil, A.J.; Nazaroff, W.W.

    1996-02-01

    Wind induces a ground-surface pressure field around a building that can substantially affect the flow of soil gas and thereby the entry of radon and other soil-gas contaminants into the building. To quantify the effect of the wind-induced groundsurface pressure field on contaminant entry rates, the mean ground-surface pressure field was experimentally measured in a wind tunnel for several incidence angles of the wind, two atmospheric boundary layers, and two house geometries. The experimentally measured ground-surface pressure fields are compared with those predicted by a k-e turbulence model. Despite the fundamental limitations in applying a k-e model to a system with flow separation, predictions from the numerical simulations were good for the two wind incidence angles tested.

  8. Oregon State Energy-Efficiency Appliance Rebate Program Helps Low-Income Families

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Statewide program provides low-income homeowners with rebates on money-saving, energy-efficient appliances.

  9. New Family of Multilevel Matrix Converters for Wind Power Applications: Final Report, July 2002 - March 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erickson, R.; Angkititrakul, S.; Almazeedi, K.

    2006-12-01

    The goal of this project was to develop a new modular multilevel matrix converter for wind power applications and to demonstrate a working scale model in the laboratory.

  10. A family of peroxo-titanate materials tailored for optimal strontium...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DOE Contract Number: AC04-94AL85000 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: Proposed for presentation at the Chemistry of Materials. Research Org: Sandia ...

  11. A SURVEY OF STELLAR FAMILIES: MULTIPLICITY OF SOLAR-TYPE STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raghavan, Deepak; McAlister, Harold A.; Henry, Todd J.; Gies, Douglas R.; White, Russel J.; Latham, David W.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Mason, Brian D.; Ten Brummelaar, Theo A.

    2010-09-15

    We present the results of a comprehensive assessment of companions to solar-type stars. A sample of 454 stars, including the Sun, was selected from the Hipparcos catalog with {pi}>40 mas, {sigma}{sub {pi}/{pi}} < 0.05, 0.5 {<=} B - V {<=} 1.0 ({approx}F6-K3), and constrained by absolute magnitude and color to exclude evolved stars. These criteria are equivalent to selecting all dwarf and subdwarf stars within 25 pc with V-band flux between 0.1 and 10 times that of the Sun, giving us a physical basis for the term 'solar-type'. New observational aspects of this work include surveys for (1) very close companions with long-baseline interferometry at the Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy Array, (2) close companions with speckle interferometry, and (3) wide proper-motion companions identified by blinking multi-epoch archival images. In addition, we include the results from extensive radial-velocity monitoring programs and evaluate companion information from various catalogs covering many different techniques. The results presented here include four new common proper-motion companions discovered by blinking archival images. Additionally, the spectroscopic data searched reveal five new stellar companions. Our synthesis of results from many methods and sources results in a thorough evaluation of stellar and brown dwarf companions to nearby Sun-like stars. The overall observed fractions of single, double, triple, and higher-order systems are 56% {+-} 2%, 33% {+-} 2%, 8% {+-} 1%, and 3% {+-} 1%, respectively, counting all confirmed stellar and brown dwarf companions. If all candidate, i.e., unconfirmed, companions identified are found to be real, the percentages would change to 54% {+-} 2%, 34% {+-} 2%, 9% {+-} 2%, and 3% {+-} 1%, respectively. Our completeness analysis indicates that only a few undiscovered companions remain in this well-studied sample, implying that the majority (54% {+-} 2%) of solar-type stars are single, in contrast to the results of prior multiplicity studies. Our sample is large enough to enable a check of the multiplicity dependence on various physical parameters by analyzing appropriate subsamples. Bluer, more massive stars are seen as more likely to have companions than redder, less massive ones, consistent with the trend seen over the entire spectral range. Systems with larger interaction cross sections, i.e., those with more than two components or long orbital periods, are preferentially younger, suggesting that companions may be stripped over time by dynamical interactions. We confirm the planet-metallicity correlation (i.e., higher metallicity stars are more likely to host planets), but are unable to check it for brown dwarfs due to the paucity of such companions, implying that the brown dwarf desert extends over all separation regimes. We find no correlation between stellar companions and metallicity for B - V < 0.625, but among the redder subset, metal-poor stars ([Fe/H] <-0.3) are more likely to have companions with a 2.4{sigma} significance. The orbital-period distribution of companions is unimodal and roughly log normal with a peak and median of about 300 years. The period-eccentricity relation shows the expected circularization for periods below 12 days, caused by tidal forces over the age of the Galaxy, followed by a roughly flat distribution. The mass-ratio distribution shows a preference for like-mass pairs, which occur more frequently in relatively close pairs. The fraction of planet hosts among single, binary, and multiple systems are statistically indistinguishable, suggesting that planets are as likely to form around single stars as they are around components of binary or multiple systems with sufficiently wide separations. This, along with the preference of long orbital periods among stellar systems, increases the space around stars conducive for planet formation, and perhaps life.

  12. A PUBLICATION FOR ALL MEMBERS OF THE NNSA/NV FAMILY Contents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Desert Research Institute; Grapevine Junction; Lockheed Martin Systems Management; ... Meeting begins at 6:00 p.m. Clark County Government Center, 500 Grand Central Parkway, Las ...

  13. Affinity Maturation of a Potent Family of HIV Antibodies Is Primarily...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Leopold ; Puchades, Cristina ; Hua, Yuanzi ; Stanfield, Robyn L. ; Burton, Dennis R. ; Moore, John P. ; Sanders, Rogier W. ; Ward, Andrew B. ; Wilson, Ian A. Publication Date: ...

  14. BCL-2 family protein, BAD is down-regulated in breast cancer and inhibits cell invasion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cekanova, Maria; Fernando, Romaine I.; Siriwardhana, Nalin; Sukhthankar, Mugdha; Parra, Columba de la; Woraratphoka, Jirayus; Malone, Christine; Ström, Anders; Baek, Seung J.; Wade, Paul A.; Saxton, Arnold M.; Donnell, Robert M.; Pestell, Richard G.; and others

    2015-02-01

    We have previously demonstrated that the anti-apoptotic protein BAD is expressed in normal human breast tissue and shown that BAD inhibits expression of cyclin D1 to delay cell-cycle progression in breast cancer cells. Herein, expression of proteins in breast tissues was studied by immunohistochemistry and results were analyzed statistically to obtain semi-quantitative data. Biochemical and functional changes in BAD-overexpressing MCF7 breast cancer cells were evaluated using PCR, reporter assays, western blotting, ELISA and extracellular matrix invasion assays. Compared to normal tissues, Grade II breast cancers expressed low total/phosphorylated forms of BAD in both cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments. BAD overexpression decreased the expression of β-catenin, Sp1, and phosphorylation of STATs. BAD inhibited Ras/MEK/ERK and JNK signaling pathways, without affecting the p38 signaling pathway. Expression of the metastasis-related proteins, MMP10, VEGF, SNAIL, CXCR4, E-cadherin and TlMP2 was regulated by BAD with concomitant inhibition of extracellular matrix invasion. Inhibition of BAD by siRNA increased invasion and Akt/p-Akt levels. Clinical data and the results herein suggest that in addition to the effect on apoptosis, BAD conveys anti-metastatic effects and is a valuable prognostic marker in breast cancer. - Highlights: • BAD and p-BAD expressions are decreased in breast cancer compared with normal breast tissue. • BAD impedes breast cancer invasion and migration. • BAD inhibits the EMT and transcription factors that promote cancer cell migration. • Invasion and migration functions of BAD are distinct from the BAD's role in apoptosis.

  15. Get the Family in on the Energy-Saving Act | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Current: Switch on Clean Energy Coloring Book Get Current: Switch on Clean Energy Coloring Book Below is information about the student activity/lesson plan from your search. Grades K-4 Subject Energy Basics Summary Kids can be part of the Clean Energy Generation: This coloring book teaches them about renewable energies such as wind, water and solar, as well as good habits in energy efficiency to practice at home. (Available in both English and Spanish.) Curriculum Science, Language Arts Plan

  16. ConEd (Gas)- Multi-family Energy Efficiency Incentives Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Con Edison offers a free energy audit and rebates for Multifamily buildings. Incentives are offered for energy efficient heating equipment for 5-75 unit buildings in the eligible service area....

  17. STEP-UP Coaches a University Park Family to Comfort and Savings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The average American household spends nearly $2,000 per year on energy used in the home, $200 to $400 of which could be paying for wasted energy due to drafts, air leaks around openings, and...

  18. Dy-Mn-Si as a representative of family of 'Dy-TransitionMetal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The ternary solid solution based on the binary compounds of ... of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, McMaster ... OSTI Identifier: 22274124 Resource Type: Journal Article ...

  19. Characterization of a Y-Family DNA Polymerase eta from the Eukaryotic Thermophile Alvinella pompejana

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kashiwagi, Sayo; Kuraoka, Isao; Fujiwara, Yoshie; Hitomi, Kenichi; Cheng, Quen J.; Fuss, Jill O.; Shin, David S.; Masutani, Chikahide; Tainer, John A.; Hanaoka, Fumio; et al

    2010-01-01

    Humore » man DNA polymerase η (HsPol η ) plays an important role in translesion synthesis (TLS), which allows for replication past DNA damage such as UV-induced cis-syn cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs). Here, we characterized ApPol η from the thermophilic worm Alvinella pompejana , which inhabits deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimneys. ApPol η shares sequence homology with HsPol η and contains domains for binding ubiquitin and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Sun-induced UV does not penetrate Alvinella's environment; however, this novel DNA polymerase catalyzed efficient and accurate TLS past CPD, as well as 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine and isomers of thymine glycol induced by reactive oxygen species. In addition, we found that ApPol η is more thermostable than HsPol η , as expected from its habitat temperature. Moreover, the activity of this enzyme was retained in the presence of a higher concentration of organic solvents. Therefore, ApPol η provides a robust, human-like Pol η that is more active after exposure to high temperatures and organic solvents.« less

  20. FINAL REPORT: The Role of RUB (related to ubiquitin) Family of Proteins in the Hormone Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Callis, Judy

    2013-03-27

    The Rub pathway is a conserved protein modification pathway. RUB (called Rubp1 in budding yeast, Nedd8 in animals and RUB in plants) is a ubiquitin-like 76-amino acid protein. It covalently attaches to protein using an enzymatic machinery analogous to the enzymes that attach ubiquitin to its substrate proteins. However, the nature of the complement of Rub-modified proteins in organisms was not clear. From bioinformatics analyses, one can identify a Rub activating enzymes and Rub conjugating enzymes. However, in many cases, their biochemical properties were not described. In DOE-funded work, we made major advances in our understanding of the Rub pathway in yeast and plants, work that is applicable to other organisms as well. There is a multi-subunit enzyme called SCF in all eukaryotes. The SCF consists of several subunits that serve as a scaffold (the cullin, SKP and RBX subunits) and one subunit that interacts with the substrate. This cullin protein (called Cdc53p in yeast and CULLIN 1 in plants and animals) was a known Rub target. In this work, we identified additional Rub targets in yeast as the other cullin-like proteins Cul3p and Rtt101p. Additionally we described the conservation of the Rub pathway because plant RUB1 can conjugated to yeast Cdc53p- in yeast. In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, we characterized the Rub activating enzymes and showed that they are not biochemically equivalent. We also showed that the Rub pathway is essential in plants and characterized plants with reduced levels of rub proteins. These plants are affected in multiple developmental processes. We discovered that they over-produce ethylene as dark-grown seedlings. We characterized a mutant allele of CULLIN1 in Arabidopsis with impaired interaction with RBX and showed that it is unstable in vivo. We used our knowledge of monitoring protein degradation to map the degradation determinants in a plant transcription factor. Finally, we took a mass spectrometric approach to identify novel Rub targets in plants and identified DDB1a, a subunit of an different ubiquitin ligase as a potential Rub-modified protein. Altogether, these studies have advanced our knowledge of the Rub pathway in all organisms.

  1. Investigation of a family of power conditioners integrated into a utility grid: final report Category I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, P.; Putkovich, R.P.

    1981-07-01

    A study was conducted of the requirements for and technologies applicable to power conditioning equipment in residential solar photovoltaic systems. A survey of companies known or thought to manufacture power conditioning equipment was conducted to asses the technology. Technical issues regarding ac and dc interface requirements were studied. A baseline design was selected to be a good example of existing technology which would not need significant development effort for its implementation. Alternative technologies are evaluated to determine which meet the baseline specification, and their costs and losses are evaluated. Areas in which cost improvements can be obtained are studied, and the three best candidate technologies--the current-sourced converter, the HF front end converter, and the programmed wave converter--are compared. It is concluded that the designs investigated will meet, or with slight improvement could meet, short term efficiency goals. Long term efficiency goals could be met if an isolation transformer were not required in the power conditioning equipment. None of the technologies studied can meet cost goals unless further improvements are possible. (LEW)

  2. Ameren Illinois (Electric & Gas)- Multi-Family Properties Energy Efficiency Incentives

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The shell measure segment offers incentives for air sealing the shell of multifamily buildings. Incentives will be paid based on the total CFM reduction. Insulation incentives will be based on sq...

  3. A New Family Member for 2D Nanomaterials | U.S. DOE Office of...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    ... Unlike other 2D materials, the hybrid perovskite sheets have an unusual atomic-scale ... Source (grazing-incidence wide-angle x-ray scattering), DOE Office of Science User ...

  4. Energy Department Provides $140.3 Million to Low-Income Families...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... 6,938,192 Michigan 15,446,624 Mississippi 1,850,660 Montana 2,623,349 New Hampshire 1,593,171 New Jersey 5,266,959 New York 21,818,047 Ohio 14,242,973 Oklahoma ...

  5. A new family of fluidic precursors for the self-templated synthesis of hierarchical nanoporous carbons

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fulvio, Pasquale F; Hillesheim, Patrick C; Oyola, Yatsandra; Mahurin, Shannon Mark; Veith, Gabriel M; Dai, Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Hierarchical nanoporous nitrogen-doped carbons were prepared from task specific ionic liquids having a bis-imidazolium motif linked with various organic groups. While ethyl chains linking the imidazolium ions afford microporous-mesoporous carbons, long or aromatic groups resulted in microporous samples.

  6. Managing the Drivers of Air Flow and Water Vapor Transport in Existing Single Family Homes (Revised)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cummings, J.; Withers, C.; Martin, E.; Moyer, N.

    2012-10-01

    This document focuses on managing the driving forces which move air and moisture across the building envelope. While other previously published Measure Guidelines focus on elimination of air pathways, the ultimate goal of this Measure Guideline is to manage drivers which cause air flow and water vapor transport across the building envelope (and also within the home), control air infiltration, keep relative humidity (RH) within acceptable limits, avoid combustion safety problems, improve occupant comfort, and reduce house energy use.

  7. A Meta-Analysis of Single-Family Deep Energy Retrofit Performance...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    non-energy benefits (NEBs), and retrofit measures may add value to a home at resale similarly to general remodeling, PV panel installation, and greenenergy efficient home labels. ...

  8. Burlington Electric Department- Multi-Family Rental Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Burlington Electric Department offers an innovative rebate program geared towards rental apartment owners. The program is designed to offer rebates on some of the most energy intensive household...

  9. Intrinsic and extrinsic defects in a family of coal-derived graphene quantum dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singamaneni, Srinivasa Rao E-mail: tour@rice.edu; Tol, Johan van; Ye, Ruquan; Tour, James M. E-mail: tour@rice.edu

    2015-11-23

    In this letter, we report on the high frequency (239.2 and 336 GHz) electron spin resonance (ESR) studies performed on graphene quantum dots (GQDs), prepared through a wet chemistry route from three types of coal: (a) bituminous, (b) anthracite, and (c) coke; and from non-coal derived GQDs. The microwave frequency-, power-, and temperature-dependent ESR spectra coupled with computer-aided simulations reveal four distinct magnetic defect centers. In bituminous- and anthracite-derived GQDs, we have identified two of them as intrinsic carbon-centered magnetic defect centers (a broad signal of peak to peak width = 697 (10{sup −4} T), g = 2.0023; and a narrow signal of peak to peak width = 60 (10{sup −4} T), g = 2.003). The third defect center is Mn{sup 2+} ({sup 6}S{sub 5/2}, 3d{sup 5}) (signal width = 61 (10{sup −4} T), g = 2.0023, A{sub iso} = 93(10{sup −4} T)), and the fourth defect is identified as Cu{sup 2+} ({sup 2}D{sub 5/2}, 3d{sup 9}) (g{sub ⊥} = 2.048 and g{sub ‖} = 2.279), previously undetected. Coke-derived and non-coal derived GQDs show Mn{sup 2+} and two-carbon related signals, and no Cu{sup 2+} signal. The extrinsic impurities most likely originate from the starting coal. Furthermore, Raman, photoluminescence, and ESR measurements detected no noticeable changes in the properties of the bituminous GQDs after one year. This study highlights the importance of employing high frequency ESR spectroscopy in identifying the (magnetic) defects, which are roadblocks for spin relaxation times of graphene-based materials. These defects would not have been possible to probe by other spin transport measurements.

  10. A PUBLICATION FOR ALL MEMBERS OF THE NNSA/NSO FAMILY Contents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... framing camera to evaluate performance of optical diagnostic experiments (Z pinch radiation, laser shadowgra- phy, interferometry) on the Z Machine at Sandia National Laboratory. ...

  11. HUD rehabilation energy guidelines for one-to-four family dwellings (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-09-01

    The guidebook and Microsoft Excel worksheet diskette allows the user to calculate which enery consevation improvements are cost-effective when properties are rehabilitated. The information is applicable for all climates, from Florida to Alaska. The information is presented in a manner so that owners of building can better assess the needs and opportunities of a particular renovation project. They will also be able to ask better question of designers, builders, and contractors. The guidebook explains how properlly rehabilitating dwellings can increase energy efficiency and reduce costs. It discusses the issues and factors that determine how much energy a building will consume, including heat flow, air leakage, insulation, and heating and cooling systems. The guide also includes the specific HUD Rehabilitation Energy Guidelines for Dwellings with general and location-specific recommendations for energy conservation improvements. These guidelines are followed by examples of typical energy conservation measures in different climates. Each of these examples includes a Cost Effectiveness Excel Worksheet to show the overall simple payback. This easy-to-use worksheet walks through the entire evaluation process. The user simply enters in the appropriate information, much of which is menu driven. Appendicies provide a table that shows counties nationwide by climate zone, a list of resources, a glossary, and sample surveys and worksheets to help owners with their rehabilitation projects. Regulatory Background: The guidelines used in this guidebook are the Department of Housing and Urban Development`s `Standards for Cost Effective Energy Conservation` for property rehabilitation undertaken with HUD assistance. The information that used to be included in the regulations, with respect to energy efficiency, published as 24CFR39, is now contained in these guidelines.

  12. HUD rehabilitation energy guidelines for multi-family dwellings (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-09-01

    The guidebook and Microsoft Excel worksheet diskette allows the user to calculate which enery consevation improvements are cost-effective when properties are rehabilitated. The information is applicable for all climates, from Florida to Alaska. The information is presented in a manner so that owners of building can better assess the needs and opportunities of a particular renovation project. They will also be able to ask better question of designers, builders, and contractors. The guidebook explains how properlly rehabilitating dwellings can increase energy efficiency and reduce costs. It discusses the issues and factors that determine how much energy a building will consume, including heat flow, air leakage, insulation, and heating and cooling systems. The guide also includes the specific HUD Rehabilitation Energy Guidelines for Dwellings with general and location-specific recommendations for energy conservation improvements. These guidelines are followed by examples of typical energy conservation measures in different climates. Each of these examples includes a Cost Effectiveness Excel Worksheet to show the overall simple payback. This easy-to-use worksheet walks through the entire evaluation process. The user simply enters in the appropriate information, much of which is menu driven. Appendicies provide a table that shows counties nationwide by climate zone, a list of resources, a glossary, and sample surveys and worksheets to help owners with their rehabilitation projects. Regulatory Background: The guidelines used in this guidebook are the Department of Housing and Urban Development`s `Standards for Cost Effective Energy Conservation` for property rehabilitation undertaken with HUD assistance. The information that used to be included in the regulations, with respect to energy efficiency, published as 24CFR39, is now contained in these guidelines.

  13. RESRAD Family of Codes - A Suite of Tools for Environmental Radiologic...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Radiological Assistance Directory Web Conference June 27, 2012 Presentation ... of charge Thank you More Info at RESRAD Web Site: http:www.evs.anl.govresrad Email: ...

  14. A flavone derivative from Sesbania sesban leaves and its cytotoxicity against murine leukemia P-388 cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dianhar, Hanhan Syah, Yana Maolana Mujahidin, Didin Hakim, Euis Holisotan Juliawaty, Lia Dewi

    2014-03-24

    Sesbania sesban, locally named as Jayanti, is one of Indonesia plants belonging to Fabaceae family. This species is traditionally used by Indonesian people to cure digestive disorders, fever, or headache. Jayanti can grow well in tropical to subtropical region, such as in Asia and Africa. Based on literature, qualitative analysis of the methanol extract of leaves of S. sesban showed that it contained flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins and glycosides. In addition, the activity assay of extracts of different tissues of this species showed antitumor, antimalarial, and antidiabetic activityies (leaves and seed extracts), antioxidants (flower extract), and analgesic (wood extract). Though the extracts of S. sesban parts showed interesting activities, chemical study of those extracts have not been widely reported. Therefore, the objective of this research was to isolate the secondary metabolites from methanol extract of leaves of S. sesban and to determine their cytotoxicity against murine leukemia P-388 cells. One compound has been obtained and identified as 3-hydroxy-4',7-dimethoxyflavone (1), a new isolated compound from nature. This compound was obtained through separation of methanol extract using various chromatographic techniques, such as vacuum liquid chromatography and radial chromatography. The structure elucidation of isolated compound was based on 1D NMR ({sup 1}H-NMR and {sup 13}C-NMR) and 2D NMR (HMBC). The cytotoxicity of methanol extract and compound 1 against murine leukemia P-388 cells examined through MTT assay showed IC{sub 50} value of 60.04 ?g/mL and 5.40 ?g/mL, respectively.

  15. The activity of CouR, a MarR family transcriptional regulator, is modulated through a novel molecular mechanism

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Otani, Hiroshi; Stogios, Peter J.; Xu, Xiaohui; Nocek, Boguslaw; Li, Shu -Nan; Savchenko, Alexei; Eltis, Lindsay D.

    2015-09-22

    CouR, a MarR-type transcriptional repressor, regulates the cou genes, encoding p-hydroxycinnamate catabolism in the soil bacterium Rhodococcus jostii RHA1. The CouR dimer bound two molecules of the catabolite p-coumaroyl–CoA (Kd = 11 ± 1 μM). The presence of p-coumaroyl–CoA, but neither p-coumarate nor CoASH, abrogated CouR's binding to its operator DNA in vitro. The crystal structures of ligand-free CouR and its p-coumaroyl–CoA-bound form showed no significant conformational differences, in contrast to other MarR regulators. The CouR–p-coumaroyl–CoA structure revealed two ligand molecules bound to the CouR dimer with their phenolic moieties occupying equivalent hydrophobic pockets in each protomer and their CoAmore » moieties adopting non-equivalent positions to mask the regulator's predicted DNA-binding surface. More specifically, the CoA phosphates formed salt bridges with predicted DNA-binding residues Arg36 and Arg38, changing the overall charge of the DNA-binding surface. The substitution of either arginine with alanine completely abrogated the ability of CouR to bind DNA. By contrast, the R36A/R38A double variant retained a relatively high affinity for p-coumaroyl–CoA (Kd = 89 ± 6 μM). Altogether, our data point to a novel mechanism of action in which the ligand abrogates the repressor's ability to bind DNA by steric occlusion of key DNA-binding residues and charge repulsion of the DNA backbone.« less

  16. The activity of CouR, a MarR family transcriptional regulator, is modulated through a novel molecular mechanism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Otani, Hiroshi; Stogios, Peter J.; Xu, Xiaohui; Nocek, Boguslaw; Li, Shu -Nan; Savchenko, Alexei; Eltis, Lindsay D.

    2015-09-22

    CouR, a MarR-type transcriptional repressor, regulates the cou genes, encoding p-hydroxycinnamate catabolism in the soil bacterium Rhodococcus jostii RHA1. The CouR dimer bound two molecules of the catabolite p-coumaroyl–CoA (Kd = 11 ± 1 μM). The presence of p-coumaroyl–CoA, but neither p-coumarate nor CoASH, abrogated CouR's binding to its operator DNA in vitro. The crystal structures of ligand-free CouR and its p-coumaroyl–CoA-bound form showed no significant conformational differences, in contrast to other MarR regulators. The CouR–p-coumaroyl–CoA structure revealed two ligand molecules bound to the CouR dimer with their phenolic moieties occupying equivalent hydrophobic pockets in each protomer and their CoA moieties adopting non-equivalent positions to mask the regulator's predicted DNA-binding surface. More specifically, the CoA phosphates formed salt bridges with predicted DNA-binding residues Arg36 and Arg38, changing the overall charge of the DNA-binding surface. The substitution of either arginine with alanine completely abrogated the ability of CouR to bind DNA. By contrast, the R36A/R38A double variant retained a relatively high affinity for p-coumaroyl–CoA (Kd = 89 ± 6 μM). Altogether, our data point to a novel mechanism of action in which the ligand abrogates the repressor's ability to bind DNA by steric occlusion of key DNA-binding residues and charge repulsion of the DNA backbone.

  17. A DUF-246 family glycosyltransferase-like gene affects male fertility and the biosynthesis of pectic arabinogalactans

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Stonebloom, Solomon; Ebert, Berit; Xiong, Guangyan; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Birdseye, Devon; Lao, Jeemeng; Pauly, Markus; Hahn, Michael G.; Heazlewood, Joshua L.; Scheller, Henrik Vibe

    2016-04-18

    We report pectins are a group of structurally complex plant cell wall polysaccharides whose biosynthesis and function remain poorly understood. The pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan-I (RG-I) has two types of arabinogalactan side chains, type-I and type-II arabinogalactans. To date few enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of pectin have been described. Here we report the identification of a highly conserved putative glycosyltransferase encoding gene, Pectic ArabinoGalactan synthesis-Related (PAGR), affecting the biosynthesis of RG-I arabinogalactans and critical for pollen tube growth. T-DNA insertions in PAGR were identified in Arabidopsis thaliana and were found to segregate at a 1:1 ratio of heterozygotes to wildmore » type. We were unable to isolate homozygous pagr mutants as pagr mutant alleles were not transmitted via pollen. In vitro pollen germination assays revealed reduced rates of pollen tube formation in pollen from pagr heterozygotes. To characterize a loss-of-function phenotype for PAGR, the Nicotiana benthamiana orthologs, NbPAGR-A and B, were transiently silenced using Virus Induced Gene Silencing. NbPAGR-silenced plants exhibited reduced internode and petiole expansion. Cell wall materials from NbPAGR-silenced plants had reduced galactose content compared to the control. Immunological and linkage analyses support that RG-I has reduced type-I arabinogalactan content and reduced branching of the RG-I backbone in NbPAGR-silenced plants. Arabidopsis lines overexpressing PAGR exhibit pleiotropic developmental phenotypes and the loss of apical dominance as well as an increase in RG-I type-II arabinogalactan content. Together, results support a function for PAGR in the biosynthesis of RG-I arabinogalactans and illustrate the essential roles of these polysaccharides in vegetative and reproductive plant growth.« less

  18. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: A Disruptive Concept for a Whole Family of New Battery Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Parthian Energy at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about a disruptive concept for a...

  19. A Meta-Analysis of Single-Family Deep Energy Retrofit Performance in the U.S.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Less, Brennan; Walker, Iain

    2014-03-01

    The current state of Deep Energy Retrofit (DER) performance in the U.S. has been assessed in 116 homes in the United States (US), using actual and simulated data gathered from the available domestic literature. Substantial airtightness reductions averaging 63% (n=48) were reported (two- to three-times more than in conventional retrofits), with average post-retrofit airtightness of 4.7 Air Changes per House at 50 Pascal (ACH50) (n=94). Yet, mechanical ventilation was not installed consistently. In order to avoid indoor air quality (IAQ) issues, all future DERs should comply with ASHRAE 62.2-2013 requirements or equivalent. Projects generally achieved good energy results, with average annual net-site and net-source energy savings of 47%±20% and 45%±24% (n=57 and n=35), respectively, and carbon emission reductions of 47%±22% (n=23). Net-energy reductions did not vary reliably with house age, airtightness, or reported project costs, but pre-retrofit energy usage was correlated with total reductions (MMBtu). Annual energy costs were reduced $1,283±$804 (n=31), from a pre-retrofit average of $2,738±$1,065 to $1,588±$561 post-retrofit (n=25 and n=39). The average reported incremental project cost was $40,420±$30,358 (n=59). When financed on a 30-year term, the median change in net-homeownership cost was only $1.00 per month, ranging from $149 in savings to an increase of $212 (mean=$15.67±$87.74; n=28), and almost half of the projects resulted in reductions in net-cost. The economic value of a DER may be much greater than is suggested by these net-costs, because DERs entail substantial non-energy benefits (NEBs), and retrofit measures may add value to a home at resale similarly to general remodeling, PV panel installation, and green/energy efficient home labels. These results provide estimates of the potential of DERs to address energy use in existing homes across climate zones that can be used in future estimates of the technical potential to reduce household energy use and greenhouse gas emissions through DERs.

  20. Bacillus cereus Phosphopentomutase Is an Alkaline Phosphatase Family Member That Exhibits an Altered Entry Point into the Catalytic Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panosian, Timothy D.; Nannemann, David P.; Watkins, Guy R.; Phelan, Vanessa V.; McDonald, W. Hayes; Wadzinski, Brian E.; Bachmann, Brian O.; Iverson, Tina M.

    2011-09-15

    Bacterial phosphopentomutases (PPMs) are alkaline phosphatase superfamily members that interconvert {alpha}-D-ribose 5-phosphate (ribose 5-phosphate) and {alpha}-D-ribose 1-phosphate (ribose 1-phosphate). We investigated the reaction mechanism of Bacillus cereus PPM using a combination of structural and biochemical studies. Four high resolution crystal structures of B. cereus PPM revealed the active site architecture, identified binding sites for the substrate ribose 5-phosphate and the activator {alpha}-D-glucose 1,6-bisphosphate (glucose 1,6-bisphosphate), and demonstrated that glucose 1,6-bisphosphate increased phosphorylation of the active site residue Thr-85. The phosphorylation of Thr-85 was confirmed by Western and mass spectroscopic analyses. Biochemical assays identified Mn{sup 2+}-dependent enzyme turnover and demonstrated that glucose 1,6-bisphosphate treatment increases enzyme activity. These results suggest that protein phosphorylation activates the enzyme, which supports an intermolecular transferase mechanism. We confirmed intermolecular phosphoryl transfer using an isotope relay assay in which PPM reactions containing mixtures of ribose 5-[{sup 18}O{sub 3}]phosphate and [U-{sup 13}C{sub 5}]ribose 5-phosphate were analyzed by mass spectrometry. This intermolecular phosphoryl transfer is seemingly counter to what is anticipated from phosphomutases employing a general alkaline phosphatase reaction mechanism, which are reported to catalyze intramolecular phosphoryl transfer. However, the two mechanisms may be reconciled if substrate encounters the enzyme at a different point in the catalytic cycle.

  1. Synthesis, structures and properties of a family of four two-dimensional coordination polymers constructed from 5-hydroxyisophthalate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Kou-Lin; Zhang, Jing-Bo; Jing, Chu-Yue; Zhang, Lei; Walton, Richard I.; Zhu, Peizhi; Ng, Seik Weng

    2014-03-15

    Four 2D coordination polymers (CPs) with different structures containing the multifunctional ligand 5-hydroxyisophthalate (5-OH-BDC{sup 2−}), [Zn(5-OH-BDC)(btb)]·2H{sub 2}O (1), [Cd(5-OH-BDC)(btp)(H{sub 2}O)]·3H{sub 2}O (2), [Cd(5-OH-BDC)(bth){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)]·H{sub 2}O (3) and [Pb(5-OH-BDC)]·H{sub 2}O (4) [btp=1, 3-bis(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)propane, btb=1,4-bis(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)butane, bth=1, 6-bis(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)hexane] were obtained. 1–3 were synthesised hydrothermally, while 4 was obtained under ambient condition. The adjacent (2D→2D) polycatenated 2D layers of 1 polythread in a parallel manner to form an unusual 2D→3D polythreaded framework. 2 contains an undulated 2D (4, 4) network and further extends into an “embracing” double-layer structure through the C–H···π and π···π stacking interactions. 3 exhibits a non-interpenetrating 2D (4, 4)-network. 4 exhibits a 2D double-layered binodal (4, 4)-net containing oblong nanochannels with symbol (4{sup 3}6{sup 3}){sub 2}. Reversible dehydration–rehydration is observed in 1, 2 and 4, which fall within the category of “recoverable collapsing” and “guest-induced re-formation” frameworks, while 3 exhibits irreversible dehydration–rehydration behaviour. The solid state fluorescent properties of 1–4 have been investigated. -- Graphical abstract: Among four 2D CPs reported, 1 is an unusual 2D→3D polythreaded framework. 4 exhibits 2D double-layered binodal (4, 4)-net containing nanochannels. Reversible dehydration–rehydration is observed in 1, 2 and 4. Highlights: • Four 2D CPs based on 5-hydroxyisophthalate with d{sup 10} and Pb(II) ions were reported. • 1 is an unusual 2D→3D polythreaded framework. • 4 shows a binodal (4, 4)-connected 2D double-layer network with nanochannels. • The materials 1, 2 and 4 show reversible dehydration–rehydration behaviours. • Solid state fluorescent properties were investigated.

  2. SISGR-Fundamental Experimental and Theoretical Studies on a Novel Family of Oxide Catalyst Supports for Water Electrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumta, Prashant

    2014-10-03

    Identification and development of non-noble metal based electro-catalysts or electro-catalysts with significant reduction of expensive noble metal contents (E.g. IrO2, Pt) with comparable electrochemical performance as the standard noble metal/metal oxide for proton exchange membrane (PEM) based water electrolysis would constitute a major breakthrough in the generation of hydrogen by water electrolysis. Accomplishing such a system would not only result reduction of the overall capital costs of PEM based water electrolyzers, but also help attain the targeted hydrogen production cost [< $ 3.0 / gallon gasoline equivalent (gge)] comparable to conventional liquid fuels. In line with these goals, it was demonstrated that fluorine doped IrO2 thin films and nanostructured high surface area powders display remarkably higher electrochemical activity, and comparable durability as pure IrO2 electro-catalyst for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in PEM based water electrolysis. Furthermore, corrosion resistant SnO2 and NbO2 support has been doped with F and coupled with IrO2 or RuO2 for use as an OER electro-catalyst. A solid solution of SnO2:F or NbO2:F with only 20 - 30 mol.% IrO2 or RuO2 yielding a rutile structure in the form of thin films and bulk nanoparticles displays similar electrochemical activity and stability as pure IrO2/RuO2. This would lead to more than 70 mol.% reduction in the noble metal oxide content. Novel nanostructured ternary (Ir,Sn,Nb)O2 thin films of different compositions FUNDAMENTAL STUDY OF NANOSTRUCTURED ELECTRO-CATALYSTS WITH REDUCED NOBLE METAL CONTENT FOR PEM BASED WATER ELECTROLYSIS 4 have also been studied. It has been shown that (Ir0.40Sn0.30Nb0.30)O2 shows similar electrochemical activity and enhanced chemical robustness as compared to pure IrO2. F doping of the ternary (Ir,Sn,Nb)O2 catalyst helps in further decreasing the noble metal oxide content of the catalyst. As a result, these reduced noble metal oxide catalyst systems would potentially be preferred as OER electro-catalysts for PEM electrolysis. The excellent performance of the catalysts coupled with its robustness would make them great candidates for contributing to significant reduction in the overall capital costs of PEM based water electrolyzers. This s.thesis provides a detailed fundamental study of the synthesis, materials, characterization, theoretical studies and detailed electrochemical response and potential mechanisms of these novel electro-catalysts for OER processes.

  3. Characterization and analysis of the cotton cyclopropane fatty acid synthase family and their contribution to cyclopropane fatty acid synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu X. H.; Shanklin J.; Rawat, R.

    2011-05-01

    Cyclopropane fatty acids (CPA) have been found in certain gymnosperms, Malvales, Litchi and other Sapindales. The presence of their unique strained ring structures confers physical and chemical properties characteristic of unsaturated fatty acids with the oxidative stability displayed by saturated fatty acids making them of considerable industrial interest. While cyclopropenoid fatty acids (CPE) are well-known inhibitors of fatty acid desaturation in animals, CPE can also inhibit the stearoyl-CoA desaturase and interfere with the maturation and reproduction of some insect species suggesting that in addition to their traditional role as storage lipids, CPE can contribute to the protection of plants from herbivory. Three genes encoding cyclopropane synthase homologues GhCPS1, GhCPS2 and GhCPS3 were identified in cotton. Determination of gene transcript abundance revealed differences among the expression of GhCPS1, 2 and 3 showing high, intermediate and low levels, respectively, of transcripts in roots and stems; whereas GhCPS1 and 2 are both expressed at low levels in seeds. Analyses of fatty acid composition in different tissues indicate that the expression patterns of GhCPS1 and 2 correlate with cyclic fatty acid (CFA) distribution. Deletion of the N-terminal oxidase domain lowered GhCPS's ability to produce cyclopropane fatty acid by approximately 70%. GhCPS1 and 2, but not 3 resulted in the production of cyclopropane fatty acids upon heterologous expression in yeast, tobacco BY2 cell and Arabidopsis seed. In cotton GhCPS1 and 2 gene expression correlates with the total CFA content in roots, stems and seeds. That GhCPS1 and 2 are expressed at a similar level in seed suggests both of them can be considered potential targets for gene silencing to reduce undesirable seed CPE accumulation. Because GhCPS1 is more active in yeast than the published Sterculia CPS and shows similar activity when expressed in model plant systems, it represents a strong candidate gene for CFA accumulation via heterologous expression in production plants.

  4. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: A Disruptive Concept for a Whole Family of New Battery Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Parthian Energy at the 2016 DOE Vehicle Technologies Office and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Batteries

  5. A Meta-Analysis of Single-Family Deep Energy Retrofit Performance in the U.S.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Less, Brennan; Walker, Iain

    2014-08-01

    The current state of Deep Energy Retrofit (DER) performance in the U.S. has been assessed in 116 homes in the United States, using actual and simulated data gathered from the available domestic literature. Substantial airtightness reductions averaging 63% (n=48) were reported (two- to three-times more than in conventional retrofits), with average post-retrofit airtightness of 4.7 Air Changes per House at 50 Pascal (ACH50) (n=94). Yet, mechanical ventilation was not installed consistently. In order to avoid indoor air quality (IAQ) issues, all future DERs should comply with ASHRAE 62.2-2013 requirements or equivalent. Projects generally achieved good energy results, with average annual net-site and net-source energy savings of 47%±20% and 45%±24% (n=57 and n=35), respectively, and carbon emission reductions of 47%±22% (n=23). Net-energy reductions did not vary reliably with house age, airtightness, or reported project costs, but pre-retrofit energy usage was correlated with total reductions (MMBtu).

  6. Identification and characterization of core cellulolytic enzymes from Talaromyces cellulolyticus (formerly Acremonium cellulolyticus) critical for hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Inoue, Hiroyuki; Decker, Stephen R.; Taylor, Larry E.; Yano, Shinichi; Sawayama, Shigeki

    2014-10-09

    Background: Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass is an essential process for the production of fermentable sugars for industrial use. A better understanding of fungal cellulase systems will provide clues for maximizing the hydrolysis of target biomass. Talaromyces cellulolyticus is a promising fungus for cellulase production and efficient biomass hydrolysis. Several cellulolytic enzymes purified from T. cellulolyticus were characterized in earlier studies, but the core enzymes critical for hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass remain unknown. Results: Six cellulolytic enzymes critical for the hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose were purified from T. cellulolyticus culture supernatant using an enzyme assay based on synergistic hydrolysis of Avicel. The purified enzymes were identified by their substrate specificities and analyses of trypsin-digested peptide fragments and were classified into the following glycosyl hydrolase (GH) families: GH3 (β-glucosidase, Bgl3A), GH5 (endoglucanase, Cel5A), GH6 (cellobiohydrolase II, Cel6A), GH7 (cellobiohydrolase I and endoglucanase, Cel7A and Cel7B, respectively), and GH10 (xylanase, Xyl10A). Hydrolysis of dilute acid-pretreated corn stover (PCS) with mixtures of the purified enzymes showed that Cel5A, Cel7B, and Xyl10A each had synergistic effects with a mixture of Cel6A and Cel7A. Cel5A seemed to be more effective in the synergistic hydrolysis of the PCS than Cel7B. The ratio of Cel5A, Cel6A, Cel7A, and Xyl10A was statistically optimized for the hydrolysis of PCS glucan in the presence of Bgl3A. The resultant mixture achieved higher PCS glucan hydrolysis at lower enzyme loading than a culture filtrate from T. cellulolyticus or a commercial enzyme preparation, demonstrating that the five enzymes play a role as core enzymes in the hydrolysis of PCS glucan. In Conclusion: Core cellulolytic enzymes in the T. cellulolyticus cellulase system were identified to Cel5A, Cel6A, Cel7A, Xyl10A, and Bgl3A and

  7. Identification and characterization of core cellulolytic enzymes from Talaromyces cellulolyticus (formerly Acremonium cellulolyticus) critical for hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Inoue, Hiroyuki; Decker, Stephen R.; Taylor, Larry E.; Yano, Shinichi; Sawayama, Shigeki

    2014-10-09

    Background: Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass is an essential process for the production of fermentable sugars for industrial use. A better understanding of fungal cellulase systems will provide clues for maximizing the hydrolysis of target biomass. Talaromyces cellulolyticus is a promising fungus for cellulase production and efficient biomass hydrolysis. Several cellulolytic enzymes purified from T. cellulolyticus were characterized in earlier studies, but the core enzymes critical for hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass remain unknown. Results: Six cellulolytic enzymes critical for the hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose were purified from T. cellulolyticus culture supernatant using an enzyme assay based on synergistic hydrolysismore » of Avicel. The purified enzymes were identified by their substrate specificities and analyses of trypsin-digested peptide fragments and were classified into the following glycosyl hydrolase (GH) families: GH3 (β-glucosidase, Bgl3A), GH5 (endoglucanase, Cel5A), GH6 (cellobiohydrolase II, Cel6A), GH7 (cellobiohydrolase I and endoglucanase, Cel7A and Cel7B, respectively), and GH10 (xylanase, Xyl10A). Hydrolysis of dilute acid-pretreated corn stover (PCS) with mixtures of the purified enzymes showed that Cel5A, Cel7B, and Xyl10A each had synergistic effects with a mixture of Cel6A and Cel7A. Cel5A seemed to be more effective in the synergistic hydrolysis of the PCS than Cel7B. The ratio of Cel5A, Cel6A, Cel7A, and Xyl10A was statistically optimized for the hydrolysis of PCS glucan in the presence of Bgl3A. The resultant mixture achieved higher PCS glucan hydrolysis at lower enzyme loading than a culture filtrate from T. cellulolyticus or a commercial enzyme preparation, demonstrating that the five enzymes play a role as core enzymes in the hydrolysis of PCS glucan. In Conclusion: Core cellulolytic enzymes in the T. cellulolyticus cellulase system were identified to Cel5A, Cel6A, Cel7A, Xyl10A, and Bgl3A

  8. Thermophilic and thermoacidophilic biopolymer-degrading genes and enzymes from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius and related organisms, methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, David N.; Apel, William A.; Thompson, Vicki S.; Reed, David W.; Lacey, Jeffrey A.; Henriksen, Emily D.

    2015-06-02

    Isolated and/or purified polypeptides and nucleic acid sequences encoding polypeptides from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius are provided. Further provided are methods of at least partially degrading, cleaving, or removing polysaccharides, lignocellulose, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, starch, chitin, polyhydroxybutyrate, heteroxylans, glycosides, xylan-, glucan-, galactan-, or mannan-decorating groups using isolated and/or purified polypeptides and nucleic acid sequences encoding polypeptides from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius.

  9. Thermophilic and thermoacidophilic biopolymer-degrading genes and enzymes from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius and related organisms, methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, David N; Apel, William A; Thompson, Vicki S; Reed, David W; Lacey, Jeffrey A; Henriksen, Emily D

    2013-04-23

    Isolated and/or purified polypeptides and nucleic acid sequences encoding polypeptides from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius are provided. Further provided are methods of at least partially degrading, cleaving, or removing polysaccharides, lignocellulose, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, starch, chitin, polyhydroxybutyrate, heteroxylans, glycosides, xylan-, glucan-, galactan-, or mannan-decorating groups using isolated and/or purified polypeptides and nucleic acid sequences encoding polypeptides from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius.

  10. Thermophilic and thermoacidophilic biopolymer-degrading genes and enzymes from alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius and related organisms, methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, David N; Apel, William A; Thompson, Vicki S; Reed, David W; Lacey, Jeffrey A; Henriksen, Emily D

    2013-07-30

    Isolated and/or purified polypeptides and nucleic acid sequences encoding polypeptides from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius are provided. Further provided are methods of at least partially degrading, cleaving, or removing polysaccharides, lignocellulose, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, starch, chitin, polyhydroxybutyrate, heteroxylans, glycosides, xylan-, glucan-, galactan-, or mannan-decorating groups using isolated and/or purified polypeptides and nucleic acid sequences encoding polypeptides from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius.

  11. Catalytic Routes for the Conversion of Biomass Derivatives to Hydrocarbons and/or Platform Chemicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silks, III, Louis A.

    2015-10-07

    Unprotected carbohydrates were reacted in amine-catalyzed cascade reactions with various methyl ketones to give a direct access to C-glycosides by an operationally simple protocol. As the reaction mechanism,an aldol condensation followed by an intramolecular conjugate addition is assumed.

  12. Thermophilic and thermoacidophilic biopolymer-degrading genes and enzymes from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius and related organisms, methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, David N.; Apel, William A.; Thompson, Vicki S.; Reed, David W.; Lacey, Jeffrey A.

    2013-10-15

    Isolated and/or purified polypeptides and nucleic acid sequences encoding polypeptides from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius are provided. Further provided are methods of at least partially degrading, cleaving, or removing polysaccharides, lignocellulose, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, starch, chitin, polyhydroxybutyrate, heteroxylans, glycosides, xylan-, glucan-, galactan-, or mannan-decorating groups using isolated and/or purified polypeptides and nucleic acid sequences encoding polypeptides from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius.

  13. Thermophilic and thermoacidophilic biopolymer-degrading genes and enzymes from alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius and related organisms, methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, David N.; Apel, William A.; Thompson, Vicki S.; Reed, David W.; Lacey, Jeffrey A.; Henriksen, Emily D.

    2010-12-28

    Isolated and/or purified polypeptides and nucleic acid sequences encoding polypeptides from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius are provided. Further provided are methods of at least partially degrading, cleaving, or removing polysaccharides, lignocellulose, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, starch, chitin, polyhydroxybutyrate, heteroxylans, glycosides, xylan-, glucan-, galactan, or mannan-decorating groups using isolated and/or purified polypeptides and nucleic acid sequences encoding polypeptides from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius.

  14. Thermophilic and thermoacidophilic biopolymer-degrading genes and enzymes from alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius and related organisms, methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, David N.; Apel, William A.; Thompson, Vicki S.; Reed, David W.; Lacey, Jeffrey A.; Henriksen, Emily D.

    2012-06-19

    Isolated and/or purified polypeptides and nucleic acid sequences encoding polypeptides from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius are provided. Further provided are methods of at least partially degrading, cleaving, or removing polysaccharides, lignocellulose, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, starch, chitin, polyhydroxybutyrate, heteroxylans, glycosides, xylan-, glucan-, galactan-, or mannan-decorating groups using isolated and/or purified polypeptides and nucleic acid sequences encoding polypeptides from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius.

  15. Genetic analysis of the regulation of TCH gene expression, Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braam, Janet

    2008-10-28

    investigation of CML24 function and regulation led to the finding that CML24 has a critical role in nitric oxide regulation. Distinct tilling mutant alleles demonstrated that CML24 can act as a switch in the response to day length perception. Because of potential redundancy with the related CML23 gene, CML23 T-DNA insertion mutants were identified and characterized. Together, CML23 and CML24 impact the autonomous regulatory pathway of the transition to flowering. Nitric oxide levels are elevated in cml23/cml24 double mutants. Therefore, CML23 and CML24 are potential calcium sensors regulate nitric oxide accumulation. In collaboration with Drs. McCann and Carpita, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to assess, verify and classify wall architectural changes that occur as a result of single XTH insertion mutations. Thirty-four homozygous mutant lines of Arabidopsis representing 21 members of the xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase gene family provided a set of mutants to characterize. Kohonen networks classified cell wall architectures of xth mutant lines and previously characterized cell wall mutants. The xth mutants were found to have chemical changes in their cell walls not detectable as phenotypic growth and development changes, consistent with the existence of feed-back loops that modify wall composition in response to a life-long deficiency of a cell wall enzyme. To gain insight into the potential physiological relevance of the distinct members of the XTH family, GUS reporter fusion genes were constructed, and plants expressing these transgenes were characterized to reveal spatial and temporal patterns of expression. In addition, Genevestigator sources were mined for comprehensive and comparative XTH expression regulation analysis. These data revealed that the Arabidopsis XTHs are likely expressed in every developmental stage from seed germination through flowering. All organs showed XTH::GUS expression and most, if not all, are found to express

  16. Structure of a Rhamnogalacturonan Fragment from Apple Pectin: Implications for Pectin Architecture

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wu, Xiangmei; Mort, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    A comore » mmercial apple pectin was sequentially digested with the cloned enzymes endopolygalacturonase, galactanase, arabinofuranosidase, xylogalacturonase, and rhamnogalacturonan hydrolase. The rhamnogalacturonan hydrolase-generated oligosaccharides were separated by ultrafiltration, anion exchange, and size-exclusion chromatography. Fractions from the ion exchange chromatography were pooled, lyophilized, and screened by MALDI-TOF MS. An oligosaccharide (RGP14P3) was identified and its structure, α -D-Gal p A- ( 1 → 2 ) - α -L-Rha p - ( 1 → 4 ) - α -D-Gal p A- ( 1 → 2 ) - α -L-Rha p - ( 1 → 4 ) - α -D-Gal p A, determined by 1D and 2D NMR spectrometry. This oligosaccharide probably represents a direct connection between homogalacturonan and rhamnogalacturonan in pectin. Alternatively, it could indicate that the nonreducing end of rhamnogalacturonan starts with a galacturonic acid residue.« less

  17. EFFICACY OF FILTRATION PROCESSES TO OBTAIN WATER CLARITY AT K EAST SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL (SNF) BASIN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DUNCAN JB

    2006-09-28

    The objective is to provide water clarity to the K East Basin via filtration processes. Several activities are planned that will challenge not only the capacity of the existing ion exchange modules to perform as needed but also the current filtration system to maintain water clarity. Among the planned activities are containerization of sludge, removal of debris, and hydrolasing the basin walls to remove contamination.

  18. Fenitrothion action at the endocannabinoid system leading to spermatotoxicity in Wistar rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ito, Yuki; Tomizawa, Motohiro; Suzuki, Himiko; Okamura, Ai; Ohtani, Katsumi; Nunome, Mari; Noro, Yuki; Wang, Dong; Nakajima, Tamie; Kamijima, Michihiro

    2014-09-15

    Organophosphate (OP) compounds as anticholinesterase agents may secondarily act on diverse serine hydrolase targets, revealing unfavorable physiological effects including male reproductive toxicity. The present investigation proposes that fenitrothion (FNT, a major OP compound) acts on the endocannabinoid signaling system in male reproductive organs, thereby leading to spermatotoxicity (sperm deformity, underdevelopment, and reduced motility) in rats. FNT oxon (bioactive metabolite of FNT) preferentially inhibited the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), an endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) hydrolase, in the rat cellular membrane preparation from the testis in vitro. Subsequently, male Wistar rats were treated orally with 5 or 10 mg/kg FNT for 9 weeks and the subchronic exposure unambiguously deteriorated sperm motility and morphology. The activity-based protein profiling analysis with a phosphonofluoridate fluorescent probe revealed that FAAH was selectively inhibited among the FNT-treated cellular membrane proteome in testis. Intriguingly, testicular AEA (endogenous substrate of FAAH) levels were elevated along with the FAAH inhibition caused by the subchronic exposure. More importantly, linear regression analyses for the FNT-elicited spermatotoxicity reveal a good correlation between the testicular FAAH activity and morphological indices or sperm motility. Accordingly, the present study proposes that the FNT-elicited spermatotoxicity appears to be related to inhibition of FAAH leading to overstimulation of the endocannabinoid signaling system, which plays crucial roles in spermatogenesis and sperm motility acquirement. - Highlights: • Subchronic exposure to fenitrothion induces spermatotoxicity in rats. • The fatty acid amide hydrolase is a potential target for the spermatotoxicity. • Overstimulation of the endocannabinoid signal possibly leads to the spermatotoxicity.

  19. Hot Water Electric Energy Use in Single-Family Residences in the Pacific Northwest : Regional End-Use Metering Project (REMP).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, Megan E., Ritland, Keith G., Pratt, R.G.

    1991-09-01

    The Office of Energy Resources of the Bonneville Power Administration carriers out generation and conservation resource planning. The analysis of historical trends in and determinants of energy consumption is carried out by the office's End-Use Research Section. The End-Use Research Section operates a comprehensive data collection program to provide pertinent information to support demand-side conservation planning, load forecasting, and conservation program development and delivery. Part of this on-going program, commonly known as the End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program (ELCAP), was recently renamed the Regional End-Use Metering Project (REMP) to reflect an emphasis on metering rather than analytical activities. REMP is designed to collect electricity usage data through direct monitoring of end-use loads in buildings in the residential and commercial sectors and is conducted for Bonneville by Pacific Northwest Laboratories (Battelle). The detailed summary information in this report is on energy used for water heaters in the residential sector and is based on data collected from September 1985 through December 1990 for 336 of the 499 REMP metered homes. Specific information is provided on annual loads averaged over the years and their variation across residences. Descriptions are given of use as associated with demographic and energy-related characteristics. Summaries are also provided for electricity use by each year, month, and daytype, as well as at peak hot water load and peak system times. This is the second residential report. This report focuses on a specific end use and adds detail to the first report. Subsequent reports are planned on other individual end uses or sets of end uses. 15 refs., 29 figs., 10 tabs.

  20. Correlating size and composition-dependent effects with magnetic, Mössbauer, and pair distribution function measurements in a family of catalytically active ferrite nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, Stanislaus; Papaefthymiou, Georgia C.; Lewis, Crystal S.; Han, Jinkyu; Zhang, Cheng; Li, Qiang; Shi, Chenyang; Abeykoon, A. M.Milinda; Billinge, Simon J.L.; Stach, Eric; Thomas, Justin; Guerrero, Kevin; Munayco, Pablo; Munayco, Jimmy; Scorzelli, Rosa B.; Burnham, Philip; Viescas, Arthur J; Tiano, Amanda L.

    2015-05-06

    The magnetic spinel ferrites, MFe₂O₄ (wherein 'M' = a divalent metal ion such as but not limited to Mn, Co, Zn, and Ni), represent a unique class of magnetic materials in which the rational introduction of different 'M's can yield correspondingly unique and interesting magnetic behaviors. Herein we present a generalized hydrothermal method for the synthesis of single-crystalline ferrite nanoparticles with 'M' = Mg, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn, respectively, which can be systematically and efficaciously produced simply by changing the metal precursor. Our protocol can moreover lead to reproducible size control by judicious selection of various surfactants. As such, we have probed the effects of both (i) size and (ii) chemical composition upon the magnetic properties of these nanomaterials using complementary magnetometry and Mössbauer spectroscopy techniques. The structure of the samples was confirmed by atomic PDF analysis of X-ray and electron powder diffraction data as a function of particle size. These materials retain the bulk spinel structure to the smallest size (i.e., 3 nm). In addition, we have explored the catalytic potential of our ferrites as both (a) magnetically recoverable photocatalysts and (b) biological catalysts, and noted that many of our as-prepared ferrite systems evinced intrinsically higher activities as compared with their iron oxide analogues.