Sample records for global warming potential

  1. Potential Effect of Pollutantn Emissions on Global Warming: First...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Potential Effect of Pollutantn Emissions on Global Warming: First Comparisong Using External Costs on Urban Buses Potential Effect of Pollutantn Emissions on Global Warming: First...

  2. Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review...

  3. Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review Emerging Technologies...

  4. Infrared absorption spectra, radiative efficiencies, and global warming potentials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Infrared absorption spectra, radiative efficiencies, and global warming potentials absorption spectra, radiative efficiencies, and global warming potentials of perfluorocarbons: Comparison. (1995) and combined with atmospheric lifetimes from the literature to determine global warming

  5. Global warming potentials and radiative efficiencies of halocarbons and related

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Global warming potentials and radiative efficiencies of halocarbons and related compounds 7A=E472C43AD.A0794E 0794E:CA27C725 AD383CADE64E7 #12;1 Global Warming Potentials and Radiative of REs and global39 warming potentials (GWPs) for these compounds, mostly employing atmospheric lifetimes

  6. Infrared absorption spectra, radiative efficiencies, and global warming potentials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Infrared absorption spectra, radiative efficiencies, and global warming potentials of newly.mdpi.com/journal/atmosphere Article Infrared Absorption Spectra, Radiative Efficiencies, and Global Warming Potentials of Newly of 600­1730 cm-1 . These spectra are then used to calculate the radiative efficiencies and global warming

  7. Potential Effect of Pollutantn Emissions on Global Warming: First...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    E. JOUBERT & G.PLASSAT, August 2004 Pollutants Emissions Global warming Potential Effect First Comparison using External Costs on Urban Buses Gabriel PLASSAT, ADEME French Agency...

  8. Global warming potentials and radiative efficiencies of halocarbons and related

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Global warming potentials and radiative efficiencies of halocarbons and related compounds4599857392 CentAUR #7326E125C47E3E3C7E=472B43!E.E07D4 07D4:BE27B725CE9393BE647 #12;GLOBAL WARMING POTENTIALS. In addition, we provide a comprehensive and self-consistent set of new calculations of REs and global warming

  9. Predicting and mitigating the global warming potential of agro-ecosystems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Predicting and mitigating the global warming potential of agro-ecosystems S. Lehugera 1 , B and methane are the main biogenic greenhouse gases (GHG) con-2 tributing to the global warming potential (GWP to design productive16 agro-ecosystems with low global warming impact.17 Keywords18 Global warming potential

  10. Decision-making in Electricity Generation Based on Global Warming Potential and Life-cycle Assessment for Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horvath, Arpad

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the global warming effect associated with electricityin Electricity Generation Based on Global Warming Potentialin Electricity Generation Based on Global Warming Potential

  11. Working Fluids: Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your DensityEnergy U.S.-China Electric VehicleCenters | DepartmentKavitaEnergyWorking Fluids: Low Global

  12. The potential to mitigate global warming with no-tillage management is only realized when practised in the long term

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Six, J; Ogle, S M; Breidt, F J; Conant, R T; Mosier, A R; Paustian, K

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The potential to mitigate global warming with no-tillageNT adoption reduces the net global warming potential (GWP)soil for purposes of global warming mitigation. Our results

  13. Next Generation Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants R&D...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of low-global warming potential (GWP) refrigerants. DOE commissioned this roadmap to establish a set of high-priority research and development (R&D) activities that...

  14. global warming's six indias

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haller, Gary L.

    global warming's six indias: An Audience Segmentation Analysis #12;Global Warming's Six Indias 1............................................................................................................................................20 2. Global Warming Beliefs and Attitudes................................................................................ 21 Knowledge about global warming varies widely by group

  15. 4, 10591092, 2007 Global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    BGD 4, 1059­1092, 2007 Global warming potential of agro-ecosystems S. Lehuger et al. Title Page Predicting the global warming potential of agro-ecosystems S. Lehuger, B. Gabrielle, E. Larmanou, P. Laville Correspondence to: S. Lehuger (simon.lehuger@grignon.inra.fr) 1059 #12;BGD 4, 1059­1092, 2007 Global warming

  16. Global Warming

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8,Dist.NewofGeothermal Heat Pump Basics31/2007 TeppeiProgramsGlobal1

  17. QUESTIONS ABOUT GLOBAL WARMING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    QUESTIONS ABOUT GLOBAL WARMING IS IT REAL? IS IT IMPORTANT? WHAT IS IT DUE TO? HOW MUCH MORE in the atmosphere, giving Earth its temperate climate. Global Atmosphere, Global Warming GLOBAL TEMPERATURE TREND IS THIS CARBON DIOXIDE COMING FROM? Other sources are home heating and electric power production. WE ARE ALL

  18. Global Warming Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schofield, Jeremy

    Global Warming Observations: 1. Global temperature has been gradually rising in recent years #15 in range 8000 12000 nm { CFC's, methane and N 2 O important for global warming even though concentra- tions in concentration of \\greenhouse gases" like CO 2 What determines global temperature? Energy budget of earth: 1

  19. A historical perspective of Global Warming Potential from Municipal Solid Waste Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habib, Komal, E-mail: koh@kbm.sdu.dk [Institute of Chemical Engineering, Biotechnology and Environmental Technology, University of Southern Denmark, Niels Bohrs Alle 1, 5230 Odense M (Denmark); Schmidt, Jannick H.; Christensen, Per [Department of Development and Planning, Aalborg University, Fibigerstraede 13, DK-9220 Aalborg OE (Denmark)

    2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Five scenarios are compared based on different waste management systems from 1970 to 2010. Technology development for incineration and vehicular exhaust system throughout the time period is considered. Compared scenarios show continuous improvement regarding environmental performance of waste management system. Energy and material recovery from waste account for significant savings of Global Warming Potential (GWP) today. Technology development for incineration has played key role in lowering the GWP during past five decades. - Abstract: The Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) sector has developed considerably during the past century, paving the way for maximum resource (materials and energy) recovery and minimising environmental impacts such as global warming associated with it. The current study is assessing the historical development of MSWM in the municipality of Aalborg, Denmark throughout the period of 1970 to 2010, and its implications regarding Global Warming Potential (GWP{sub 100}), using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. Historical data regarding MSW composition, and different treatment technologies such as incineration, recycling and composting has been used in order to perform the analysis. The LCA results show a continuous improvement in environmental performance of MSWM from 1970 to 2010 mainly due to the changes in treatment options, improved efficiency of various treatment technologies and increasing focus on recycling, resulting in a shift from net emission of 618 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. tonne{sup ?1} to net saving of 670 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. tonne{sup ?1} of MSWM.

  20. Cows Causing Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hacker, Randi

    2008-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Broadcast Transcript: Remember when President Reagan blamed trees for air pollution? Well now the Japanese are blaming cows for global warming. Apparently, the methane emissions from burping cows account for 5% of all global greenhouse gases. Simple...

  1. global warming's six americas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haller, Gary L.

    Energy Sources 17 Subsidies for Fossil Fuel and Renewable Energy Industries 18 Support for a Carbon Tax and Costs of Reducing Fossil Fuel Use and Global Warming 8 The Alarmed 9 The Concerned 10 The Cautious 11 the spring and fall of 2012. Perceived Benefits and Costs of Reducing Fossil Fuel Use and Global Warming

  2. Global warming elucidated

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, S. [Global Warming International Center, Woodridge, IL (United States)

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The meaning of global warming and its relevance to everyday life is explained. Simple thermodynamics is used to predict an oscillatory nature of the change in climate due to global warming. Global warming causes extreme events and bad weather in the near term. In the long term it may cause the earth to transition to another equilibrium state through many oscillation in climatic patterns. The magnitudes of these oscillations could easily exceed the difference between the end points. The author further explains why many no longer fully understands the nature and magnitudes of common phenomena such as storms and wind speeds because of these oscillations, and the absorptive properties of clouds. The author links the increase in duration of the El Nino to global warming, and further predicts public health risks as the earth transitions to another equilibrium state in its young history.

  3. Original article Predicted global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Original article Predicted global warming and Douglas-fir chilling requirements DD McCreary1 DP to predicted global warming. Douglas-fir / chilling / global warming / bud burst / reforestation Résumé offer evidence that mean global warming of 3-4 °C could occur within the next century, particularly

  4. Long range global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rolle, K.C.; Pulkrabek, W.W.; Fiedler, R.A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Platteville, WI (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper explores one of the causes of global warming that is often overlooked, the direct heating of the environment by engineering systems. Most research and studies of global warming concentrate on the modification that is occurring to atmospheric air as a result of pollution gases being added by various systems; i.e., refrigerants, nitrogen oxides, ozone, hydrocarbons, halon, and others. This modification affects the thermal radiation balance between earth, sun and space, resulting in a decrease of radiation outflow and a slow rise in the earth`s steady state temperature. For this reason the solution to the problem is perceived as one of cleaning up the processes and effluents that are discharged into the environment. In this paper arguments are presented that suggest, that there is a far more serious cause for global warming that will manifest itself in the next two or three centuries; direct heating from the exponential growth of energy usage by humankind. Because this is a minor contributor to the global warming problem at present, it is overlooked or ignored. Energy use from the combustion of fuels and from the output of nuclear reactions eventually is manifest as warming of the surroundings. Thus, as energy is used at an ever increasing rate the consequent global warming also increases at an ever increasing rate. Eventually this rate will become equal to a few percent of solar radiation. When this happens the earth`s temperature will have risen by several degrees with catastrophic results. The trends in world energy use are reviewed and some mathematical models are presented to suggest future scenarios. These models can be used to predict when the global warming problem will become undeniably apparent, when it will become critical, and when it will become catastrophic.

  5. Use of Statistical Entropy and Life Cycle Analysis to Evaluate Global Warming Potential of Waste Management Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    The statistical entropy (SE) function has been applied to waste treatment systems to account for dilution solid waste (MSW). A greenhouse gas- forcing factor is also introduced to account for the entropyUse of Statistical Entropy and Life Cycle Analysis to Evaluate Global Warming Potential of Waste

  6. Heat Waves, Global Warming, and Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlson, Ann E.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat Waves, Global Warming, and Mitigation Ann E. Carlson*2008]HEAT WAVES, GLOBAL WARMING, AND MITIGATION 175 stroke2001). 2008]HEAT WAVES, GLOBAL WARMING, AND MITIGATION 177

  7. Global Warming, endogenous risk and irreversibility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Anthony C.; Narain, Urvashi

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The economics of global warming, Institute for InternationalEconomic Models of Global Warming, Cambridge, Mass. MITstochastic losses from global warming, Risk Analysis 16(2):

  8. Global Warming: Connecting the Dots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    Global Warming: Connecting the Dots from Causes to Solutions* Jim Hansen 26 February 2007 National://www.columbia.edu/~jeh1/worldwatch_nov2006.pdf) 5. Communicating dangers and opportunities in global warming, Amer-16, 2006. (http://pubs.giss.nasa.gov/docs/2006/2006_Hansen.pdf) 8. Global warming: Connecting the dots from

  9. Soil degradation, global warming and climate impacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feddema, Johannes J.; Freire, Sergio Carneiro

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    will demonstrate one methodology for assessing the potential large-scale impacts of soil degradation on African climates and water resources. In addition it will compare and contrast these impacts to those expected from global warming and compare impacts for differ...- ent watershed regions on the continent. 2. METHODS In order to make a similar comparison between pro- jected climate change scenarios due to global warming Inter-Research 2001 *E-mail: feddema@ku.edu Soil degradation, global warming and climate...

  10. Life Cycle Assessment of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007: Ethanol - Global Warming Potential and Environmental Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, G. A.; Hsu, D. D.; Inman, D.; Aden, A.; Mann, M. K.

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study is to use life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate the global warming potential (GWP), water use, and net energy value (NEV) associated with the EISA-mandated 16 bgy cellulosic biofuels target, which is assumed in this study to be met by cellulosic-based ethanol, and the EISA-mandated 15 bgy conventional corn ethanol target. Specifically, this study compares, on a per-kilometer-driven basis, the GWP, water use, and NEV for the year 2022 for several biomass feedstocks.

  11. Proving anthropogenic global warming and disproving natural warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovejoy, Shaun

    1 Proving anthropogenic global warming and disproving natural warming in global temperatures between 5 and 6o C. Although he was aware that his, these were negligible: global fossil fuel consumption was less than a twentieth

  12. GLOBAL WARMING THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    GLOBAL WARMING THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT AND YOUR FAMILY'S CONTRIBUTION TO IT Stephen E. Schwartz GREENHOUSE EFFECT #12;GLOBAL ENERGY BALANCE Global and annual average energy fluxes in watts per square meter about it.But nobody does anything about it. Mark Twain Mark Twain Now with the greenhouse effect, we

  13. Case Study #1 "The Global Warming Debate"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Christopher A.

    CHEM 001A Case Study #1 "The Global Warming Debate" Global warming is one of the most contentious issues of our time. There is an ongoing debate about whether global warming is caused by human activity.S., and because the scientific evidence used to determine if global warming is man-made is so difficult

  14. PRINT ONLY: GLOBAL WARMING Alexeev V. A.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    PRINT ONLY: GLOBAL WARMING Alexeev V. A. Global Warming: 0.6°C or Less? [#1035] The peculiarities of global warming on the Earth during the last century are discussed. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVIII (2007) full818.pdf #12;GLOBAL WARMING: 0.6 OR LESS? V.A.Alexeev; Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry

  15. GLOBAL WARMING THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    GLOBAL WARMING THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT AND YOUR FAMILY'S CONTRIBUTION TO IT Stephen E. Schwartz September 22, 2004 http://www.ecd.bnl.gov/steve/schwartz.html #12;#12;THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT #12;GLOBAL does anything about it. Mark Twain Mark Twain Now with the greenhouse effect, we ARE doing something

  16. CHILLING CONSIDERATIONS GLOBAL WARMING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    (millionsofsquarekilometers) 30 20 10 MELTING OF GREENLAND ICE CAP Satellite determination of maximum extent of glacial melt Complete melt of the Greenland ice sheet would raise the level of the global ocean 23 feet. ASAN Steffen IS INCREASING Global carbon dioxide concentration over the last thousand years Polar ice cores #12;Mann et al

  17. ARM - Global Warming

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006Datastreamstwrcam40m DocumentationJanuary 9, 2009 [Events, FeatureListGeneral Changes in DailyWarming

  18. Cosmic Rays and Global Warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sloan, T. [Physics Department, University of Lancaster, Lancaster, UK (United Kingdom); Wolfendale, A. W. [Physics Department, Durham University, Durham (United Kingdom)

    2008-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Some workers have claimed that the observed temporal correlations of (low level) terrestrial cloud cover with the cosmic ray intensity changes, due to solar modulation, are causal. The possibility arises, therefore, of a connection between cosmic rays and Global Warming. If true, the implications would be very great. We have examined this claim in some detail. So far, we have not found any evidence in support and so our conclusions are to doubt it. From the absence of corroborative evidence we estimate that less than 15% at the 95% confidence level, of the 11-year cycle warming variations are due to cosmic rays and less than 2% of the warming over the last 43 years is due to this cause. The origin of the correlation itself is probably the cycle of solar irradiance although there is, as yet, no certainty.

  19. Cosmic Rays and Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Sloan; A W Wolfendale

    2007-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    It has been claimed by others that observed temporal correlations of terrestrial cloud cover with `the cosmic ray intensity' are causal. The possibility arises, therefore, of a connection between cosmic rays and Global Warming. If true, the implications would be very great. We have examined this claim to look for evidence to corroborate it. So far we have not found any and so our tentative conclusions are to doubt it. Such correlations as appear are more likely to be due to the small variations in solar irradiance, which, of course, correlate with cosmic rays. We estimate that less than 15% of the 11-year cycle warming variations are due to cosmic rays and less than 2% of the warming over the last 35 years is due to this cause.

  20. An Explanation of Global Warming without Supercomputing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    An Explanation of Global Warming without Supercomputing (revised version) K. Miyazaki E that the anthropogenic global warming is severely limited because the Earth is a water planet. 1 Introduction Now,2,3] on this anthropogenic global warming (AGW) is essentially based on the results of elaborate and enormous computer

  1. Global Warming: The Threat to the Planet*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    Global Warming: The Threat to the Planet* Jim Hansen 17 April 2007 2007 Leo Szilard Lecture. Graham Red Squirrel #12;Survival of Species 1. "Business-as-Usual" Scenario - Global Warming ~ 3ºC - Likely Extinctions ~ 50 percent 2. "Alternative" Scenario - Global Warming ~ 1ºC - Likely Extinctions

  2. An Explanation of Global Warming without Supercomputing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    An Explanation of Global Warming without Supercomputing K. Miyazaki E-mail: miyazakiro that the climate sensitivity never exceeds 6 C. Consequently, the anthropogenic global warming is severely limited be calculated in simple terms. Global warming is like that." However, there will be not a few physicists who do

  3. Global warming, bad weather, insurance losses and the global economy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Low, N.C. [UOB Life Assurance Ltd., Singapore (Singapore); Shen, S. [Global Warming International Center, Woodridge, IL (United States)

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Global warming causes extremely bad weather in the near term. The impact on the insurance industry is described. Why global warming in the near term causes very bad weather is explained. The continuing trend of very bad weather and the future impact on the insurance industry is explored. How very bad weather can affect the global financial market is explained. Taking a historical view of the development of the modern economy, the authors describe in the near term the impact of global warming on the global economy. The long term impact of global warming on the global economy and the human race is explored. Opportunities presented by global warming are described.

  4. Development of Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerant Solutions for Commercial Refrigeration Systems using a Life Cycle Climate Performance Design Tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL] [ORNL; Fricke, Brian A [ORNL] [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Commercial refrigeration systems are known to be prone to high leak rates and to consume large amounts of electricity. As such, direct emissions related to refrigerant leakage and indirect emissions resulting from primary energy consumption contribute greatly to their Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP). In this paper, an LCCP design tool is used to evaluate the performance of a typical commercial refrigeration system with alternative refrigerants and minor system modifications to provide lower Global Warming Potential (GWP) refrigerant solutions with improved LCCP compared to baseline systems. The LCCP design tool accounts for system performance, ambient temperature, and system load; system performance is evaluated using a validated vapor compression system simulation tool while ambient temperature and system load are devised from a widely used building energy modeling tool (EnergyPlus). The LCCP design tool also accounts for the change in hourly electricity emission rate to yield an accurate prediction of indirect emissions. The analysis shows that conventional commercial refrigeration system life cycle emissions are largely due to direct emissions associated with refrigerant leaks and that system efficiency plays a smaller role in the LCCP. However, as a transition occurs to low GWP refrigerants, the indirect emissions become more relevant. Low GWP refrigerants may not be suitable for drop-in replacements in conventional commercial refrigeration systems; however some mixtures may be introduced as transitional drop-in replacements. These transitional refrigerants have a significantly lower GWP than baseline refrigerants and as such, improved LCCP. The paper concludes with a brief discussion on the tradeoffs between refrigerant GWP, efficiency and capacity.

  5. An Evaluation of the Environmental Impact of Different Commercial Supermarket Refrigeration Systems Using Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beshr, Mohamed [University of Maryland, College Park; Aute, Vikrant [University of Maryland, College Park; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Radermacher, Reinhard [University of Maryland, College Park

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Commercial refrigeration systems consumed 1.21 Quads of primary energy in 2010 and are known to be a major source for refrigerant charge leakage into the environment. Thus, it is important to study the environmental impact of commercial supermarket refrigeration systems and improve their design to minimize any adverse impacts. The system s Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP) was presented as a comprehensive metric with the aim of calculating the equivalent mass of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere throughout its lifetime, from construction to operation and destruction. In this paper, an open source tool for the evaluation of the LCCP of different air-conditioning and refrigeration systems is presented and used to compare the environmental impact of a typical multiplex direct expansion (DX) supermarket refrigeration systems based on three different refrigerants as follows: two hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants (R-404A, and R-407F), and a low global warming potential (GWP) refrigerant (N-40). The comparison is performed in 8 US cities representing different climates. The hourly energy consumption of the refrigeration system, required for the calculation of the indirect emissions, is calculated using a widely used building energy modeling tool (EnergyPlus). A sensitivity analysis is performed to determine the impact of system charge and power plant emission factor on the LCCP results. Finally, we performed an uncertainty analysis to determine the uncertainty in total emissions for both R-404A and N-40 operated systems. We found that using low GWP refrigerants causes a considerable drop in the impact of uncertainty in the inputs related to direct emissions on the uncertainty of the total emissions of the system.

  6. Global Warming and Human Health

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Environmental AssessmentsGeoffrey(SC) GettingGit GitGlobal Warming and Human

  7. Global Warming: Is There Still Time to Avoid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    Global Warming: Is There Still Time to Avoid Disastrous Human -Made Climate Change? i.e. Have We simulations. (B) Simulated and observed surface temperature change. #12;21st Century Global Warming Climate) Simulated Global Warming Warming

  8. Global warming, insurance losses and financial industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Low, N.C. [UOB Life Assurance Limited, Singapore (Singapore)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Global warming causes extremely bad weather in the near term. They have already caught the attention of the insurance industry, as they suffered massive losses in the last decade. Twenty-one out of the 25 largest catastrophes in the US, mainly in the form of hurricanes have occurred in the last decade. The insurance industry has reacted by taking the risk of global warming in decisions as to pricing and underwriting decisions. But they have yet to take a more active role in regulating the factors that contributes to global warming. How global warming can impact the financial industry and the modern economy is explored. Insurance and modern financial derivatives are key to the efficient functioning of the modern economy, without which the global economy can still function but will take a giant step backward. Any risk as global warming that causes economic surprises will hamper the efficient working of the financial market and the modern economy.

  9. The Science of Global Warming Energy Balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blais, Brian

    The Science of Global Warming ·Energy Balance ·Feedback Loops Global Warming can be understood complexities ·Introduce a Simple Model of Energy Balance ·Understand the Vocabulary ·Point out some units of energy input from the Sun = Temperature: 5.3 oC Greenhouse Effect 101: A Balance is Achieved

  10. The Impact of Global Warming and Air Pollution on Patient Visits in the Emergency Department

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Derlet, Robert W

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Review The Impact sf Global Warming and 1 Air pollution onair pollution problems and global warming will effect thesites in the human body. Global Warming Global warming goes

  11. Wildfires may contribute more to global warming than previously...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wildfires may contribute more to global warming Wildfires may contribute more to global warming than previously predicted They suggest that fire emissions could contribute a lot...

  12. Global Warming Effects on Us Hurricane Damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emanuel, Kerry Andrew

    While many studies of the effects of global warming on hurricanes predict an increase in various metrics of Atlantic basin-wide activity, it is less clear that this signal will emerge from background noise in measures of ...

  13. Hydrological consequences of global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Norman L.

    2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 2007 Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change indicates there is strong evidence that the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide far exceeds the natural range over the last 650,000 years, and this recent warming of the climate system is unequivocal, resulting in more frequent extreme precipitation events, earlier snowmelt runoff, increased winter flood likelihoods, increased and widespread melting of snow and ice, longer and more widespread droughts, and rising sea level. The effects of recent warming has been well documented and climate model projections indicate a range of hydrological impacts with likely to very likely probabilities (67 to 99 percent) of occurring with significant to severe consequences in response to a warmer lower atmosphere with an accelerating hydrologic cycle.

  14. The Global Warming Debate: A July Hottest Month on Record in U.S.--Warming and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Christopher A.

    The Global Warming Debate: A Case Study July Hottest Month on Record in U.S.--Warming and Drought was the hottest month on record in the United States, perhaps due to a combination of global warming the fact that there is more than just natural variability playing a role: Global warming from human

  15. WHAT'S IN A NAME? GLOBAL WARMING VERSUS CLIMATE CHANGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haller, Gary L.

    WHAT'S IN A NAME? GLOBAL WARMING VERSUS CLIMATE CHANGE May 2014 #12;What's In A Name? Global NATIONAL SURVEY STUDY 2: GLOBAL WARMING VS. CLIMATE CHANGE............................ 10 Is global?................................................................10 When you think of global warming / climate change, what comes first to mind

  16. Cloudy Skies: Assessing Public Understanding of Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sterman, John

    2002-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Surveys show most Americans believe global warming is real. But many advocate delaying action until there is more evidence that warming is harmful. The stock and ...

  17. Cloudy Skies: Assessing Public Understanding of Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sterman, John

    2003-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Surveys show most Americans believe global warming is real. But many advocate delaying action until there is more evidence that warming is harmful. The stock and ...

  18. ORIGINAL PAPER Global warming impact on the dominant precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Jason

    is then used to simulate the changes due to global warming over the twenty-first century. The regional climate to potentially negative impacts of climate change while decreasing the likelihood of successful region-wide adaptation strategies emerging. While much of the region has a Mediterranean-type climate, the region spans

  19. Rising Sea Levels Due to Global Warming Are Unstoppable

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rising Sea Levels Due to Global Warming Are Unstoppable Rising Sea Levels Due to Global Warming Are Unstoppable Mitigation can slow down but not prevent sea level rise for...

  20. Comparing the effects of greenhouse gas emissions on global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eckaus, Richard S.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Policies dealing with global warming require a measure of the effects of the emissions of greenhouse gases that create different magnitudes of instantaneous radiative forcing and have different lifetimes. The Global Warming ...

  1. Review: Air Pollution and Global Warming: History, Science, and Solutions, 2nd ed.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laberge, Yves

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Review: Air Pollution and Global Warming: History, Science,Jacobson, Mark Z. Air Pollution and Global Warming: History,His timely book, Air Pollution and Global Warming: History,

  2. Review: Air Pollution and Global Warming: History, Science, and Solutions, 2nd ed.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laberge, Yves

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Air Pollution and Global Warming: History, Science, andZ. Air Pollution and Global Warming: History, Science, andAir Pollution and Global Warming: History, Science, and

  3. Is the Ozone Depletion Regime a Model for an Emerging Regime on Global Warming?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lang, Winfried

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the for- mation of a global warming regime produces a highlydepletion and the global warming regimes was recognized byan Emerging Regime on Global Warming? by Winfried Lang I.

  4. Editorial The Global Warming Fight is Bringing Sexy Back, Are You Ready?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jankowska, Marta Maja

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2006, September 25). Is global warming raising a tempest?or her behavior towards global warming in 2007. *Timberlake,Editorial: The Global Warming Fight is Bringing Sexy

  5. California Policy Should Distinguish Biofuels by Differential Global Warming Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    California Policy Should Distinguish Biofuels by Differential Global Warming Effects by Richard J: _______________________________________ Date #12;California Policy Should Distinguish Biofuels by Differential Global Warming Effects Richard J, 2006 #12;#12;ABSTRACT California Policy Should Distinguish Biofuels by Differential Global Warming

  6. Genetic shift in photoperiodic response correlated with global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cochran-Stafira, D. Liane

    Genetic shift in photoperiodic response correlated with global warming William E. Bradshaw observed in insects, birds, amphibians, and plants associated with global warm- ing during the latter half- tent with an adaptive evolutionary response to recent global warming. The latter half of the 20th

  7. Global warming and hurricane intensity and frequency: The debate continues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kareem, Ahsan

    Global warming and hurricane intensity and frequency: The debate continues Megan Mc of these changes. Some scientists believe that global warming and increased sea surface temperatures are to blame, global warming and increased sea surface temperatures do appear to have influenced hurricane frequency

  8. Global Warming Time Bomb:* Actions Needed to Avert Disaster

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    Global Warming Time Bomb:* Actions Needed to Avert Disaster James Hansen 26 October 2009 Club statements relating to policy are personal opinion Global Warming Status 1. Knowledge Gap Between - What Benefits of Solution Despite the publicity that global warming has received, there is a large gap between

  9. Global warming and body mass decline in Israeli passerine birds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yom-Tov, Yoram

    Global warming and body mass decline in Israeli passerine birds Yoram Yom-Tov Department of Zoology,Tel Aviv University,Tel Aviv 69978, Israel ( yomtov@post.tau.ac.il) Global warming may a¡ect the physiology in body mass and tarsus length are due to global warming and also in accordance with Bergmann's rule

  10. Separating Signal from Noise in Global Warming Bert W. Rust

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rust, Bert W.

    Separating Signal from Noise in Global Warming Bert W. Rust Reprinted from the CD Rust, B. W. (2003) "Separating Signal from Noise in Global Warming," Computing Science and Statistics, 35, 263-277. ­ or ­ Rust, B. W. (2003) "Separating Signal from Noise in Global Warming," Computing Science and Statistics, 35

  11. Communicating Dangers and Opportunities in Global Warming 13 December Draft

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    Communicating Dangers and Opportunities in Global Warming 13 December Draft James Hansen American: "Subversion of Public Affairs Chart 7: The Global Warming Story C. Tenets of a Democracy: "An Informed Public, not as a spokesman for NASA There is a huge gap between what is understood about global warming and what is known

  12. Observationally based assessment of polar amplification of global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhatt, Uma

    Observationally based assessment of polar amplification of global warming Igor V. Polyakov,1) are similar, and do not support the predicted polar amplification of global warming. The possible moderating amplification of global warming. Intrinsic arctic variability obscures long-term changes, limiting our ability

  13. GLOBAL WARMING: THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LONG TERM RISK Guest Editorial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Todorov, Alex

    GLOBAL WARMING: THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LONG TERM RISK Guest Editorial Beyond its objective basis in natural science, understanding, discussion, and res- olution of the policy issue labeled "global warming the global warming problem. In public discussion, natu- ral scientists tend to frame the issue through

  14. Global Warming 20 Years Later: Tipping Points Near

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    Global Warming 20 Years Later: Tipping Points Near Jim Hansen 23 June 2008 National Press Club, and House Select Committee on Energy Independence & Global Warming Washington, DC #12;1988 Testimony Has Big Effects Did Not Emphasize That Global Warming Enhances Both Extremes of Water Cycle - More

  15. The Logic of Global Warming A bitter pill

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pratt, Vaughan

    The Logic of Global Warming A bitter pill Vaughan Pratt Stanford University June 23, 2011 Vaughan PrattStanford University () The Logic of Global WarmingA bitter pill June 23, 2011 1 / 1 What is climate population growth. 2. Accumulation of hazardous materials: lead, mercury, CFCs, . . . 3. Global warming

  16. Strategies to Address Global Warming Is Sundance Kid a Criminal?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    Strategies to Address Global Warming & Is Sundance Kid a Criminal? Jim Hansen In my opinion, it is still feasible to solve the global warming problem before we pass tipping points that would guarantee ppm yields global warming about 2°C (3.6°F) above the preindustrial level. Such a level of atmospheric

  17. Carbon Dioxide, Global Warming, and Michael Crichton's "State of Fear"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rust, Bert W.

    Carbon Dioxide, Global Warming, and Michael Crichton's "State of Fear" Bert W. Rust Mathematical- tioned the connection between global warming and increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide by pointing out of these plots to global warming have spilled over to the real world, inviting both praise [4, 17] and scorn [15

  18. Measuring evolutionary responses to global warming: cautionary lessons from Drosophila

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodríguez, Miguel Ángel

    Measuring evolutionary responses to global warming: cautionary lessons from Drosophila FRANCISCO. Understanding evolutionary responses to global climate warming can be daunt- ingly complex. But, primarily of the magnitude of long-term responses to global warming; standardising by equivalent seasonal tem- perature

  19. Possible global warming futures Minh Ha-Duong

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Possible global warming futures Minh Ha-Duong Minh.Ha.Duong@cmu.edu CNRS, France HDGC, Carnegie Mellon Possible global warming futures ­ p.1/36 #12;SRES: Forecasts or scenarios? +5.5 C in 2100 the controversy using imprecise probabilities, a more general information theory. . . Possible global warming

  20. Global warming and United States landfalling hurricanes Chunzai Wang1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chunzai

    Global warming and United States landfalling hurricanes Chunzai Wang1 and Sang-Ki Lee2 Received 18] A secular warming of sea surface temperature occurs almost everywhere over the global ocean. Here we use observational data to show that global warming of the sea surface is associated with a secular increase

  1. The global warming signal is the average of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Peter JS

    , uncertainty in the isopycnal diffusivity causes uncertainty of up to 50% in the global warming signalThe global warming signal is the average of years 70-80 in the increasing CO2 run minus the average represent significant uncertainty in the global warming signal (Fig. 5). The differences at high latitudes

  2. Global Warming in Geologic Time

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    David Archer

    2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The notion is pervasive in the climate science community and in the public at large that the climate impacts of fossil fuel CO2 release will only persist for a few centuries. This conclusion has no basis in theory or models of the atmosphere / ocean carbon cycle, which we review here. The largest fraction of the CO2 recovery will take place on time scales of centuries, as CO2 invades the ocean, but a significant fraction of the fossil fuel CO2, ranging in published models in the literature from 20-60%, remains airborne for a thousand years or longer. Ultimate recovery takes place on time scales of hundreds of thousands of years, a geologic longevity typically associated in public perceptions with nuclear waste. The glacial / interglacial climate cycles demonstrate that ice sheets and sea level respond dramatically to millennial-timescale changes in climate forcing. There are also potential positive feedbacks in the carbon cycle, including methane hydrates in the ocean, and peat frozen in permafrost, that are most sensitive to the long tail of the fossil fuel CO2 in the atmosphere.

  3. Global Warming in Geologic Time

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Archer

    2008-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The notion is pervasive in the climate science community and in the public at large that the climate impacts of fossil fuel CO2 release will only persist for a few centuries. This conclusion has no basis in theory or models of the atmosphere / ocean carbon cycle, which we review here. The largest fraction of the CO2 recovery will take place on time scales of centuries, as CO2 invades the ocean, but a significant fraction of the fossil fuel CO2, ranging in published models in the literature from 20-60%, remains airborne for a thousand years or longer. Ultimate recovery takes place on time scales of hundreds of thousands of years, a geologic longevity typically associated in public perceptions with nuclear waste. The glacial / interglacial climate cycles demonstrate that ice sheets and sea level respond dramatically to millennial-timescale changes in climate forcing. There are also potential positive feedbacks in the carbon cycle, including methane hydrates in the ocean, and peat frozen in permafrost, that are most sensitive to the long tail of the fossil fuel CO2 in the atmosphere.

  4. Global warming and global dioxide emission: An empirical study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linyan Sun [Xian Jiaotong Univ., Shaanxi (China); Wang, M. [Saint Mary`s Univ., Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, the dynamic relationship between global surface temperature (global warming) and global carbon dioxide emission (CO{sub 2}) is modelled and analyzed by causality and spectral analysis in the time domain and frequency domain, respectively. Historical data of global CO{sub 2} emission and global surface temperature anomalies over 129 years from 1860-1988 are used in this study. The causal relationship between the two phenomena is first examined using the Sim and Granger causality test in the time domain after the data series are filtered by ARIMA models. The Granger causal relationship is further scrutinized and confirmed by cross-spectral and multichannel spectral analysis in the frequency domain. The evidence found from both analyses proves that there is a positive causal relationship between the two variables. The time domain analysis suggests that Granger causality exists between global surface temperature and global CO{sub 2} emission. Further, CO{sub 2} emission causes the change in temperature. The conclusions are further confirmed by the frequency domain analysis, which indicates that the increase in CO{sub 2} emission causes climate warming because a high coherence exists between the two variables. Furthermore, it is proved that climate changes happen after an increase in CO{sub 2} emission, which confirms that the increase in CO{sub 2} emission does cause global warming. 27 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Computer modeling of the global warming effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Washington, W.M. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The state of knowledge of global warming will be presented and two aspects examined: observational evidence and a review of the state of computer modeling of climate change due to anthropogenic increases in greenhouse gases. Observational evidence, indeed, shows global warming, but it is difficult to prove that the changes are unequivocally due to the greenhouse-gas effect. Although observational measurements of global warming are subject to ``correction,`` researchers are showing consistent patterns in their interpretation of the data. Since the 1960s, climate scientists have been making their computer models of the climate system more realistic. Models started as atmospheric models and, through the addition of oceans, surface hydrology, and sea-ice components, they then became climate-system models. Because of computer limitations and the limited understanding of the degree of interaction of the various components, present models require substantial simplification. Nevertheless, in their present state of development climate models can reproduce most of the observed large-scale features of the real system, such as wind, temperature, precipitation, ocean current, and sea-ice distribution. The use of supercomputers to advance the spatial resolution and realism of earth-system models will also be discussed.

  6. Impact of global dimming and brightening on global warming Martin Wild,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischlin, Andreas

    Impact of global dimming and brightening on global warming Martin Wild,1 Atsumu Ohmura,1 and Knut February 2007. [1] Speculations on the impact of variations in surface solar radiation on global warming was responsible for the observed warming. To disentangle surface solar and greenhouse influences on global warming

  7. Background: Global Warming, 2009 1. Unequivocally, the climate is warming. Natural systems are affected.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    ." #12;Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Transportation Sources in Minnesota A Study gas (GHG) emissions from Minnesota's transportation sector. #12;Research Study Team UniversityBackground: Global Warming, 2009 1. Unequivocally, the climate is warming. Natural systems

  8. Global Warming and Caspian Sea Level Fluctuations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ardakanian, Reza

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coastal regions have a high social, economical and environmental importance. Due to this importance the sea level fluctuations can have many bad consequences. In this research the correlation between the increasing trend of temperature in coastal stations due to Global Warming and the Caspian Sea level has been established. The Caspian Sea level data has been received from the Jason-1 satellite. It was resulted that the monthly correlation between the temperature and sea level is high and also positive and almost the same for all the stations. But the yearly correlation was negative. It means that the sea level has decreased by the increase in temperature.

  9. The Apollo Alliance: How Global Warming Can Save

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    The Apollo Alliance: How Global Warming Can Save Democracy Joel Rogers UW-Madison, COWS, JR Commons. #12;I really wonder about power point sometimes #12;Global warming and Apollo #12;The end (orange) in recent years. Source: Arctic Climate Impact Assessment #12;Global Climate Disruption · Carbon

  10. Is the basinwide warming in the North Atlantic Ocean related to atmospheric carbon dioxide and global warming?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chunzai

    to atmospheric carbon dioxide and global warming? Chunzai Wang1 and Shenfu Dong1,2 Received 31 January 2010 is controversial. Some studies argued that the warming is due to global warming in association with the secular sea surface temperature. Here we show that both global warming and AMO variability make a contribution

  11. Global Warming: What It Is What Is Controversial About It and What We Might Do in Response to It

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Botkin, Daniel B.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    along coasts. If global warming occurs, many environmentalSee, eg. , S. SCHNEIDER, GLOBAL WARMING: ARE WE ENTERING THETRANSITION (1989); Roberts, Global Warming: Blaming The Sun,

  12. Will U.S. Agriculture Really Benefit from Global Warming? Accounting for Irrigation in the Hedonic Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlenker, Wolfram; Hanemann, W. Michael; Fisher, Anthony C.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Really Benefit from Global Warming? Accounting forR. , The Impact of Global Warming on Agriculture: Comment,371411. , The Impact of Global Warming on Agriculture: A

  13. Review: The Global Warming Reader: A Century of Writing About Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Byron P.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Review: The Global Warming Reader: A Century of WritingMcKibben, Bill, ed. The Global Warming Reader: A Century ofrecord of no action on global warming. Those who have done

  14. Review: Behind the Curve: Science and the Politics of Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Ryder W.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    realities of global warming history and contemporary climatemoral discussions about global warming at home that gives meScience and the Politics of Global Warming By Joshua P. Howe

  15. Global warming from chlorofluorocarbons and their alternatives: Time scales of chemistry and climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ko, Malcolm K.W.; Sze, Nien Dak; Molnar, Gyula; Prather, Michael J

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and their replacements on global warming. Nature Hansen J. ,gas emissions to global warming. Nature London Amendment toNature 315, 649-652, Global warming time scales WMO (World

  16. Global Warming Systemically Caused Hurricane Sandy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lakoff, George

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Warming Systemically Caused Hurricane Sandy by George Lakoffsystemically caused Hurricane Sandy -- and the Midwestenormous energy and size of Hurricane Sandy, as well as the

  17. Review: Air Pollution and Global Warming: History, Science, and Solutions, 2nd ed.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laberge, Yves

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Review: Air Pollution and Global Warming: History, Science,Jacobson, Mark Z. Air Pollution and Global Warming: History,and hazards related to pollution, Professor Mark Z. Jacobson

  18. The multimillennial sea-level commitment of global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marzeion, Ben

    The multimillennial sea-level commitment of global warming Anders Levermanna,b,1 , Peter U. Clarkc Board June 13, 2013 (received for review November 7, 2012) Global mean sea level has been steadily for different levels of global mean temperature increase above preindustrial levels. Although sea- level rise

  19. Global warming and Arctic climate. Raymond S. Bradley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mountziaris, T. J.

    Global warming and Arctic climate. Raymond S. Bradley Climate System Research Center University of Massachusetts Amherst #12;How have global temperatures changed & why? 1. Average instrumental records from around the world; express all as anomalies from 1961-90 average #12;#12;Overall trend is upward ("global

  20. Increased Climate Variability Is More Visible Than Global Warming: A General

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    Increased Climate Variability Is More Visible Than Global Warming: A General System@utep.edu Abstract While global warming is a statistically confirmed long-term phenomenon, its most visible than the global warming itself. 1 Formulation of the Problem What is global warming. The term "global

  1. Environmental Impact on Applied Technology- Global Warming CFCs & VOCs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbert, J. S.

    Hardly a day goes by that the threats to our environment are not brought to our attention. Whether you are following oil spills, groundwater contamination, global warming, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) or volatile organic compounds (VOCs), you must...

  2. Game Theory and Global Warming Steve Schecter (North Carolina State University)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schecter, Stephen

    Game Theory and Global Warming Steve Schecter (North Carolina State University) Mary Lou Zeeman global warming game It's time to negotiate a new treaty to stop global warming. · Player 1: Governments, Brazil, Mexico, . . . ). Situation: · An investment of $2 trillion is needed to stop global warming

  3. Discriminating robust and non-robust atmospheric circulation responses to global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Discriminating robust and non-robust atmospheric circulation responses to global warming Michael response to global warming in a set of atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs) is investigated. The global-warmed climate is forced by a global pattern of warmed ocean surface temperatures

  4. Joint CO2 and CH4 accountability for global warming Kirk R. Smitha,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silver, Whendee

    the causes of global warming, because the amount of global warming occurring at any time is ac- tually dueJoint CO2 and CH4 accountability for global warming Kirk R. Smitha,1,2 , Manish A. Desaia,1 for global warming is its current annual emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs)*. The second most common

  5. SOME CHILLING CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT GLOBAL WARMING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    of Arizona #12;Weiss and Overpeck, University of Arizona #12;MELTING OF GREENLAND ICE CAP Satellite Complete melt of the Greenland ice sheet would raise the level of the global ocean 7 meters. #12 thousand years Polar ice cores #12;GREENHOUSE GAS FORCING AND CHANGE IN GLOBAL MEAN SURFACE TEMPERATURE

  6. KNMI PR 2003-05, revised On the relationship between global warming,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haak, Hein

    KNMI PR 2003-05, revised On the relationship between global warming, local warming. This is supported by the spatial homogeneity of global warming during the twentieth century, the lack of seasonality century. This study addresses the statistical relationships of this rise to global warming (IPCC, 2001

  7. Predicting the fate of a living fossil: how will global warming affect sex determination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    Predicting the fate of a living fossil: how will global warming affect sex determination, an unlikely response to global warming, as many oviparous species are nesting earlier as the climate warms. Keywords: climate change; global warming; temperature-dependent sex determination; reptile; Sphenodon 1

  8. Needed : a realistic strategy for global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacoby, Henry D.; Prinn, Ronald G.; Schmalensee, Richard.

    Through a brief look at the science and economics of climate, the authors show that if climate change turns out to be a serious threat, an effective response will require a substantial and very long-term global effort. ...

  9. What Global Warming Looks Like The July 2010 global map of surface temperature anomalies (Figure 1), relative to the average

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    What Global Warming Looks Like The July 2010 global map of surface temperature anomalies (Figure 1 anomalies an example of what we can expect global warming to look like? Maps of temperature anomalies, such as Figure 1, are useful for helping people understand the role of global warming in extreme events

  10. "Global warming and global cooling are physical phenomenon. But the battle over these real or presumed developments is a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baez, John

    "Global warming and global cooling are physical phenomenon. But the battle over these real of catastrophic global warming the greatest hoax ever perpetrated on the American people" What is climate change we have ever seen" What is climate change? Lord Nicholas Stern, October 2006 #12;"Global warming

  11. Expeditious Data Center Sustainability, Flow, and Temperature Modeling: Life-Cycle Exergy Consumption Combined with a Potential Flow Based, Rankine Vortex Superposed, Predictive Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lettieri, David

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Global warming potential of different methods of electricityThe global warming potential of electricity generation inaverage global warming potential of electricity from PG&E.

  12. What Geology Has To Say About Global Warming William Menke

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menke, William

    insights about earth's climate that can be applied to the present-day global warming debate. The geological record of ancient climate is excellent. Ancient temperatures can be determined very precisely, because the composition of the shells of corals and other marine organisms varies measurably with it. Furthermore

  13. Global Warming Effects on U.S. Hurricane Damage KERRY EMANUEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Entekhabi, Dara

    that probability density distributions of aggregate damage become appreciably separated from those of the control have a substantial influence on trop- ical cyclone activity around the world. Global warming generally increases the thermodynamic potential for tropical cyclones (Emanuel 1987), while changing at- mospheric

  14. Influence of weather and global warming in chloride ingress into concrete: a stochastic approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Influence of weather and global warming in chloride ingress into concrete: a stochastic approach E the influence of weather conditions and global warming on chloride ingress into concrete. The assessment including seasonal variations and global warming is also proposed in this work. Three scenarios of global

  15. Quantifying global warming from the retreat of glaciers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oerlemans, J. (Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands))

    1994-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Records of glacier fluctuations compiled by the World Glacier Monitoring Service can be used to derive an independent estimate of global warming during the last 100 years. Records of different glaciers are made comparable by a two-step scaling procedure; one allowing for differences in glacier geometry, the other for differences in climate sensitivity. The retreat of glaciers during the last 100 years appears to be coherent over the globe. On the basis of modeling of the climate sensitivity of glaciers, the observed glacier retreat can be explained by a linear warming trend of 0.66 kelvin per century.

  16. Wednesday, December 8, 2010 Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    us we expect for future climate changes? What are the potential impacts of climate change? What energy generation currently makes up less than 10% of worlds total energy production (nuclear is CO2 free international body for the assessment of climate change. Established by the United Nations Environment Programme

  17. Energy and global warming impacts of HFC refrigerants and emerging technologies: TEWI-III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sand, J.R.; Fischer, S.K.; Baxter, V.D.

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of hydrofluorocarbons (BFCs) which were developed as alternative refrigerants and insulating foam blowing agents to replace chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) is now being affected by scientific investigations of greenhouse warming and questions about the effects of refrigerants and blowing agents on global warming. A Total Equivalent Warming Impact (TEWI) assessment analyzes the environmental affects of these halogenated working fluids in energy consuming applications by combining a direct effect resulting from the inadvertent release of HFCs to the atmosphere with an indirect effect resulting from the combustion of fossil fuels needed to provide the energy to operate equipment using these compounds as working fluids. TEWI is a more balanced measure of environmental impact because it is not based solely on the global warming potential (GWP) of the working fluid. It also shows the environmental benefit of efficient technologies that result in less CO{sub 2} generation and eventual emission to the earth`s atmosphere. The goal of TEWI is to assess total global warming impact of all the gases released to the atmosphere, including CO{sub 2} emissions from energy conversion. Alternative chemicals and technologies have been proposed as substitutes for HFCs in the vapor-compression cycle for refrigeration and air conditioning and for polymer foams in appliance and building insulations which claim substantial environmental benefits. Among these alternatives are: (1) Hydrocarbon (HC) refrigerants and blowing agents which have zero ozone depleting potential and a negligible global warming potential, (2) CO{sub 2} as a refrigerant and blowing agent, (3) Ammonia (NH{sub 3}) vapor compression systems, (4) Absorption chiller and heat pumping cycles using ammonia/water or lithium bromide/water, and (5) Evacuated panel insulations. This paper summarizes major results and conclusions of the detailed final report on the TEWI-111 study.

  18. How strong is carbon cycle-climate feedback under global warming?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maryland at College Park, University of

    and physical climate system in a global warming scenario is studied using an Earth system model including

  19. The Impact of Global Warming on U.S. Agriculture: An Econometric Analysis of Optimal Growing Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlenker, Wolfram; Hanemann, W. Michael; Fisher, Anthony C.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Really Bene?t From Global Warming? Accounting for IrrigationR. , The Economics of Global Warming, Washington, D.C. :1992. , The Impact of Global Warming on Agriculture:

  20. American Public Opinion on Global Warming in the American States: An In-Depth Study of Florida, Maine, and Massachusetts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ford, Andrew

    1 American Public Opinion on Global Warming in the American States: An In-Depth Study of Florida Public Opinion on Global Warming in the American States: An In-Depth Study of Florida, Maine warming has been happening · What might have caused global warming · Whether global warming

  1. DO GLOBAL WARMING AND CLIMATE CHANGE REPRESENT A SERIOUS THREAT TO OUR WELFARE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DO GLOBAL WARMING AND CLIMATE CHANGE REPRESENT A SERIOUS THREAT TO OUR WELFARE AND ENVIRONMENT? By Michael E. Mann I. Introduction The subjects of "global warming" and "climate change" have become parts of both the popular lexicon and the public discourse. Discussions of global warming often evoke passionate

  2. 16 APRIL 2004 VOL 304 SCIENCE www.sciencemag.org388 Future Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gazzaniga, Michael

    16 APRIL 2004 VOL 304 SCIENCE www.sciencemag.org388 Future Global Warming Scenarios INA STUDY the short-term consequences of global warming. This scenario, which predicts a shutdown of the Atlantic, if global warming were to cause a repeat of such an abrupt change, the consequences would be akin to those

  3. Climate changes mirror global warming predictions BY THOMAS CROWLEY Guest columnist

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Climate changes mirror global warming predictions BY THOMAS CROWLEY Guest columnist The Herald" and must reflect, at least in part, the climate system response to the increase in global warming. What if we wanted to prevent global warming. This is just doomsday speaking of the same type that he

  4. Role of global warming on the statistics of record-breaking temperatures S. Redner1,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Redner, Sidney

    Role of global warming on the statistics of record-breaking temperatures S. Redner1, * and Mark R in Philadelphia, as a function of the number of years of observation. We then consider the case of global warming question arises: is global warming the cause of such heat waves or are they merely statistical fluctuations

  5. Needed: A Realistic Strategy for Global Warming Henry D. Jacoby, Ronald G. Prinn and Richard Schmalensee

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Needed: A Realistic Strategy for Global Warming Henry D. Jacoby, Ronald G. Prinn and Richard of this issue. One day we hear that all responsible scientists agree that global warming is a dagger be slashed immediately to save our planet. The next day we're told that global warming is the illegitimate

  6. The Threat to the Planet* Dark & Bright Sides of Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    The Threat to the Planet* Dark & Bright Sides of Global Warming Jim Hansen 3 October 2007 presented provides most important information on global warming. Recorded human history occurs within the Holocene for these large climate change is perturbations of Earth's orbit. #12;Continental Drift Fig. 1 "Global Warming

  7. Response of the Zonal Mean Atmospheric Circulation to El Nio versus Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Gang

    Response of the Zonal Mean Atmospheric Circulation to El Niño versus Global Warming JIAN LU Pacific. The hydrological impacts of global warming also exhibit distinct patterns over the subtropics response to global warming: 1) The increase in static stability of the subtropical and midlatitude

  8. LETTER doi:10.1038/nature09407 Global metabolic impacts of recent climate warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huey, Raymond B.

    LETTER doi:10.1038/nature09407 Global metabolic impacts of recent climate warming Michael E. Dillon and projected climate warming2,13,14 . Global warming is probably having profound and diverse effects phenology3,4 , community interactions5 , genetics3,6 and extinctions7 have been attributed to recent global

  9. Global warming shifts Pacific tropical cyclone location MinHo Kwon,1,3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Tim

    Global warming shifts Pacific tropical cyclone location Tim Li,1 MinHo Kwon,1,3 Ming Zhao,3 Jong) is used to investigate the change of tropical cyclone frequency in the North Pacific under global warming, and W. Yu (2010), Global warming shifts Pacific tropical cyclone location, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L

  10. What should we do about the dangers posed by global warming? Judging by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robock, Alan

    What should we do about the dangers posed by global warming? Judging by the collective actions rainandozonedepletioninanattempt toconfusethepublicaboutthescience of global warming and delay regula- tion of greenhouse of Engineering,itdiffersfromtheothers in its attitude towards those who deny the reality of global warming, or hu

  11. Estimated solar contribution to the global surface warming using the ACRIM TSI satellite composite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scafetta, Nicola

    Estimated solar contribution to the global surface warming using the ACRIM TSI satellite composite minimally contributed $10­30% of the global surface temperature warming over the period 1980­2002. Citation: Scafetta, N., and B. J. West (2005), Estimated solar contribution to the global surface warming using

  12. Report narrows down impact of global warming People will soon be able to find out how

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feigon, Brooke

    Report narrows down impact of global warming People will soon be able to find out how vulnerable their own local area is to global warming, thanks to a new report led by UEA. STARDEX, a European Union is taken to reduce human-induced global warming. "Although more research is needed to increase our

  13. Journal of Mammalogy, 84(2):354368, 2003 MAMMALIAN RESPONSE TO GLOBAL WARMING ON VARIED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    354 Journal of Mammalogy, 84(2):354­368, 2003 MAMMALIAN RESPONSE TO GLOBAL WARMING ON VARIED how Rocky Mountain mam- malian communities changed during past global warming events characterized not) in different ways. Nevertheless, examination of past global warming episodes suggested

  14. Can Oceanic Freshwater Flux Amplify Global Warming? LIPING ZHANG AND LIXIN WU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Can Oceanic Freshwater Flux Amplify Global Warming? LIPING ZHANG AND LIXIN WU Physical Oceanography in global warming are studied using simulations of a climate model in which the freshwater flux changes that the warm climate leads to an acceleration of the global water cycle, which causes freshening in the high

  15. Detection-attribution of global warming at the regional scale: How to deal with precipitation variability?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ribes, Aurélien

    Detection-attribution of global warming at the regional scale: How to deal with precipitation record over recent decades. Citation: Douville, H. (2006), Detection-attribution of global warming at recent climate scenarios, Douville et al. [2005] showed that the precipitation response to global warming

  16. Global warming, Bergmann's rule and body mass are they related? The chukar partridge (Alectoris chukar) case

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yom-Tov, Yoram

    Global warming, Bergmann's rule and body mass ± are they related? The chukar partridge (Alectoris of chukar partridges Alectoris chukar has changed as a result of global warming. Body mass showed warming, Israel INTRODUCTION Recent global environmental changes are providing scientists

  17. Mechanisms for Tropical Tropospheric Circulation Change in Response to Global Warming*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Shang-Ping

    Mechanisms for Tropical Tropospheric Circulation Change in Response to Global Warming* JIAN MA change in global warming is studied by comparing the response of an atmospheric general circulation model globally in response to SST warming. A diagnostic framework is developed based on a linear baroclinic model

  18. A SLIPPERY SLOPE: HOW MUCH GLOBAL WARMING CONSTITUTES "DANGEROUS ANTHROPOGENIC INTERFERENCE"?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    A SLIPPERY SLOPE: HOW MUCH GLOBAL WARMING CONSTITUTES "DANGEROUS ANTHROPOGENIC INTERFERENCE on the global warming that can be tolerated without risking dangerous anthropogenic interference with climate. I" mainly as a metaphor for the danger posed by global warming. So I changed "Hell" to "disaster." What

  19. Thursday, November 13 2014 Global warming could increase U.S.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romps, David M.

    Thursday, November 13 2014 Ad Wonkblog Global warming could increase U.S. lightning strikes by 50, a team of researchers deliver an alarming prediction: A global warming world will see a major increase affect lightning. The upshot was that while precipitation may increase in some areas under global warming

  20. Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your DensityEnergy U.S.-China Electric VehicleCenters | DepartmentKavitaEnergy

  1. Energy and global warming impacts of CFC alternative technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, S.K.; Hughes, P.J.; Fairchild, P.D. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Kusik, C.L.; Dieckmann, J.T.; McMahon, E.M.; Hobday, N. (Little (Arthur D.), Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States))

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of this study is to develop representative indications of the relative energy use, associated CO{sub 2} emissions, and total equivalent warming impact (TEWI) of viable option to replace CFCs in their major energy-related application areas. It was motivated, in part, by a concern that most attention to data has focused on the DIRECT global warming effect of CFCs and their alternatives, with inadequate attention being paid to the INDIRECT effect of the CO{sub 2} emissions arising from the differences in energy consumption by systems using different alternatives. The DIRECT and INDIRECT contributions are combined in this analysis to determine the TEWI of the various technical options. The study is international in scope and takes into account significant differences in present CFC end-use practices, sources of energy, and other societal factors between Europe, Japan, and North America.

  2. Tropical drought regions in global warming and El Nin~o teleconnections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chou, Chia

    warming, and the drought regions are particularly likely to have substantial human impacts. [3] VariationsTropical drought regions in global warming and El Nin~o teleconnections J. D. Neelin Department; accepted 19 November 2003; published 24 December 2003. [1] Climate model global warming simulations predict

  3. Greenhouse-gas emission targets for limiting global warming to 2 6C

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Imamoglu, Atac

    LETTERS Greenhouse-gas emission targets for limiting global warming to 2 6C Malte Meinshausen1. Frame6,7 & Myles R. Allen7 More than 100 countries have adopted a global warming limit of 2 6C or below levels in 2050 are robust indicators of the probability that twenty-first century warming will not exceed

  4. Can ozone depletion and global warming interact to produce rapid climate change?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Limpasuvan, Varavut

    Can ozone depletion and global warming interact to produce rapid climate change? Dennis L. Hartmann of Climate Change (IPCC) assess- ment of the status of global warming, which reported that winter stratospheric ozone depletion and greenhouse warming are possible. These interactions may be responsible

  5. LETTER doi:10.1038/nature12156 Signature of ocean warming in global fisheries catch

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pauly, Daniel

    LETTER doi:10.1038/nature12156 Signature of ocean warming in global fisheries catch William W. L changes in sea surface temperature5 . This study shows that ocean warming has already affected global. Cheung1 , Reg Watson2 & Daniel Pauly3 Marine fishes and invertebrates respond to ocean warming through

  6. Why are climate models reproducing the observed global surface warming so well?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischlin, Andreas

    Why are climate models reproducing the observed global surface warming so well? Reto Knutti1 global surface warming so well?, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L18704, doi:10.1029/ 2008GL034932. 1 models reproduce the observed surface warming better than one would expect given the uncertainties

  7. Is global warming just a giant natural fluctuation? When estimating voter's intentions, pollsters know that statements like "40%

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovejoy, Shaun

    Is global warming just a giant natural fluctuation? When estimating voter theory. So what about global warming? Shouldn't we apply the same warming since the mid-20th century" (IPCC, Assessment Report 5, AR5), then surely

  8. Wildfires may contribute more to global warming than previously predicted

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengtheningWildfires may contribute more to global warming Wildfires may

  9. Wildfires may contribute more to global warming than previously predicted

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengtheningWildfires may contribute more to global warming Wildfires

  10. Entropy Shows that Global Warming Should Cause Increased Variability in the Weather

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John Michael Williams

    2001-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Elementary physical reasoning seems to leave it inevitable that global warming would increase the variability of the weather. The first two terms in an approximation to the global entropy are used to show that global warming has increased the free energy available to drive the weather, and that the variance of the weather should increase correspondingly.

  11. A Vast Machine Computer Models, Climate Data, and the Politics of Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Vast Machine Computer Models, Climate Data, and the Politics of Global Warming Paul N. Edwards models, climate data, and the politics of global warming / Paul N. Edwards. p. cm. Includes. Climatology--History. 3. Meteorology--History. 4. Climatology--Technological innovation. 5. Global temperature

  12. Climate Change over the Equatorial Indo-Pacific in Global Warming* CHIE IHARA, YOCHANAN KUSHNIR, AND MARK A. CANE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Climate Change over the Equatorial Indo-Pacific in Global Warming* CHIE IHARA, YOCHANAN KUSHNIR to global warming is investigated using model outputs submitted to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate equatorial Indian Ocean warm more than the SSTs in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean under global warming

  13. Energy and global warming impacts of CFC alternative technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, S.K.; Hughes, P.J.; Fairchild, P.D. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Kusik, C.L.; Dieckmann, J.T.; McMahon, E.M.; Hobday, N. (Little (Arthur D.), Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States))

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of this study is to develop representative indications of the relative energy use, associated CO{sub 2} emissions, and total equivalent warming impact (TEWI) of viable options to replace CFCs in their major energy-related application areas. It was motivated, in part, by a concern that most attention to date has focused on the DIRECT global warming effect of CFC's and their alternatives, with adequate attention being paid to the INDIRECT effect of the CO{sub 2} emissions arising from the differences in energy consumption by systems using different alternatives. The DIRECT and INDIRECT contributions are combined in this analysis to determine the TEWI of the various technical options. The study is international in scope and takes into account significant differences in present CFC end-use practices, sources of energy, and other societal factors between Europe, Japan, and North America. This study should be considered an overview of key issues. The analysis addressed CFCs as well as alternative chemicals and technology alternatives in uses such as refrigeration, foam insulation, and metal and electronic cleaning and drying processes.

  14. Energy and global warming impacts of CFC alternative technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, S.K.; Hughes, P.J.; Fairchild, P.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kusik, C.L.; Dieckmann, J.T.; McMahon, E.M.; Hobday, N. [Little (Arthur D.), Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of this study is to develop representative indications of the relative energy use, associated CO{sub 2} emissions, and total equivalent warming impact (TEWI) of viable options to replace CFCs in their major energy-related application areas. It was motivated, in part, by a concern that most attention to date has focused on the DIRECT global warming effect of CFC`s and their alternatives, with adequate attention being paid to the INDIRECT effect of the CO{sub 2} emissions arising from the differences in energy consumption by systems using different alternatives. The DIRECT and INDIRECT contributions are combined in this analysis to determine the TEWI of the various technical options. The study is international in scope and takes into account significant differences in present CFC end-use practices, sources of energy, and other societal factors between Europe, Japan, and North America. This study should be considered an overview of key issues. The analysis addressed CFCs as well as alternative chemicals and technology alternatives in uses such as refrigeration, foam insulation, and metal and electronic cleaning and drying processes.

  15. Warming of Global Abyssal and Deep Southern Ocean Waters between the 1990s and 2000s: Contributions to Global Heat and Sea Level Rise Budgets*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Gregory C.

    Warming of Global Abyssal and Deep Southern Ocean Waters between the 1990s and 2000s: Contributions of recent warming of these regions in global heat and sea level budgets. The authors 1) compute warming produces a 0.053 (60.017) mm yr21 increase in global average sea level and the deep warming south

  16. Energy and environmental policy and electric utilities' choice under uncertain global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takahashi, Masaki

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper reviews and discusses uncertainty about global warming science, impact on society. It also discusses what assumptions have been made and how appropriate the assumptions in scenarios have been for estimating global ...

  17. Global warming due to increasing absorbed solar radiation Kevin E. Trenberth1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fasullo, John

    Global warming due to increasing absorbed solar radiation Kevin E. Trenberth1 and John T. Fasullo1 from an energy budget standpoint comes from increases in absorbed solar radiation that stem directly. T. Fasullo (2009), Global warming due to increasing absorbed solar radiation, Geophys. Res. Lett

  18. Teaching Energy Balance using Round Numbers: A Quantitative Approach to the Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blais, Brian

    Teaching Energy Balance using Round Numbers: A Quantitative Approach to the Greenhouse Effect, 2003 Abstract The idea of energy balance used to explain the greenhouse effect and global warming and astronomy curricula. The idea of energy balance is used to explain the greenhouse effect and global warming

  19. Response and impact of equatorial ocean dynamics and tropical instability waves in the tropical Atlantic under global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Shang-Ping

    Atlantic under global warming: A regional coupled downscaling study Hyodae Seo1,2 and ShangPing Xie1. Under global warming, both global and regional models exhibit an increased (decreased) rainfall thermal stratification is suggested to be more important under global warming. The strengthened upwelling

  20. Valuation of mountain glaciation response on global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ananicheva, M.D.; Davidovich, N.V. [Institute of Geography, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantitative estimates of main climatic parameters, influencing the glacier regime (summer air temperature and annual solid precipitation), and glaciologic characteristics (mass balance components, equilibrium line altitude and rate of air temperature at this height), received on the basis of the scenario for a climate development according to R. Wetherald and S. Manabe (1982) are submitted. The possible reaction of mountain glaciation on global warming is considered for two mountain countries: South-eastern Alaska and Pamir-Alay (Central Asia). In given paper we have tried to evaluate changes of the mountain glaciation regime for a time of CO{sub 2} doubling in the atmosphere, basing on the scenario of climate development and modern statistical relationships between climatic and glaciologic parameters. The GCM scenario of R. Wetherald and C. Manabe (GFDL model) which is made with respect of mountain territories is in the basis our calculations. As initial materials we used data of long-term observations and the maps of World Atlas of Snow and Ice Resources (WASIR).

  1. Transitional solar dynamics, cosmic rays and global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Bershadskii

    2009-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar activity is studied using a cluster analysis of the time-fluctuations of the sunspot number. It is shown that in an Historic period the high activity components of the solar cycles exhibit strong clustering, whereas in a Modern period (last seven solar cycles: 1933-2007) they exhibit a white-noise (non-)clustering behavior. Using this observation it is shown that in the Historic period, emergence of the sunspots in the solar photosphere was strongly dominated by turbulent photospheric convection. In the Modern period, this domination was broken by a new more active dynamics of the inner layers of the convection zone. Then, it is shown that the dramatic change of the sun dynamics at the transitional period (between the Historic and Modern periods, solar cycle 1933-1944yy) had a clear detectable impact on Earth climate. A scenario of a chain of transitions in the solar convective zone is suggested in order to explain the observations, and a forecast for the global warming is suggested on the basis of this scenario. A relation between the recent transitions and solar long-period chaotic dynamics has been found. Contribution of the galactic turbulence (due to galactic cosmic rays) has been discussed. These results are also considered in a content of chaotic climate dynamics at millennial timescales.

  2. Role of global warming on the statistics of recordbreaking temperatures S. Redner 1, * and Mark R. Petersen 2,+

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Redner, Sidney

    Role of global warming on the statistics of record­breaking temperatures S. Redner 1, * and Mark R of global warming, where the mean temperature systematically in­ creases with time. Over the 126­year time question arises: is global warming the cause of such heat waves or are they merely statistical fluctuations

  3. Scientist warns against overselling climate change Climate change forecasters should admit that they cannot predict how global warming will affect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevenson, Paul

    that they cannot predict how global warming will affect individual countries, a leading physicist has said-of-deaths-from-ozone-predicted.html) Antarctic sea floor gives clues about effects of future global warming (/earth/environment/climatechange /5279223/Antarctic-sea-floor-gives-clues-about-affects-of-future-global-warming.html) The Vanishing Face

  4. A ten-year decrease in plant species richness on a neotropical inselberg:1 detrimental effects of global warming?2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of global warming?2 3 EMILE FONTY*, CORINNE SARTHOU, DENIS LARPIN§ and JEAN-FRAN?OIS4 PONGE*1 5 6 *Muséum 15 Keywords: aridity, biodiversity loss, global warming, low forest, plant communities, tropical16 probable cause of the observed species disappearance is global warming, which severely28 affected northern

  5. An Occam's razor view of the lead-lag dispute in global warming Tadeusz J. Ulrych1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woodbury, Allan D.

    1 An Occam's razor view of the lead-lag dispute in global warming Tadeusz J. Ulrych1 and Allan D to the solar flux) which is responsible for the undeniable global warming. For example, "The observation-correlation=non- causality' statement is bogus. The Lead-Lag Dispute in Global Warming An excellent example of the debate

  6. In Proceedings of the 76th American Meteorological SocietyMeetings,January 1996. STUDENT CONFERENCEON GLOBAL WARMING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    CONFERENCEON GLOBAL WARMING: A COLLABORATIVENETWORK-SUPPORTED ECOLOGICALLYHlERARCHIC GEOSCIENCES CURRICULUM Schoolof Education and SocialPolicy Evanston, Illinois 60208 1. INTRODUCTION A five week global warming. WHY GLOBALWARMING? The controversyaround global warming has been growing over the past few decades

  7. Global warming, energy efficiency and the role of the built environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DiBona, Donna K

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis attempts to explore the relationships between the Buildings Sector, energy efficiency and global warming. Through a qualitative analysis the author illustrates the connection between these three areas and shows ...

  8. Comment on 'Discussions on common errors in analyzing sea level accelerations, solar trends and global warming'

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benestad, R E

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Comment on Scafetta, Nicola. 'Discussion on Common Errors in Analyzing Sea Level Accelerations, Solar Trends and Global Warming.' arXiv:1305.2812 (May 13, 2013a). doi:10.5194/prp-1-37-2013.

  9. American exceptionalism? Similarities and differences in national attitudes toward energy policy and global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.M. Reiner; T.E. Curry; M.A. de Figueiredo; H.J. Herzog; S.D. Ansolabehere; K. Itaoka; F. Johnsson; M. Odenberger [University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom). Judge Business School

    2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Despite sharp differences in government policy, the views of the U.S. public on energy and global warming are remarkably similar to those in Sweden, Britain, and Japan. Americans do exhibit some differences, placing lower priority on the environment and global warming, and with fewer believing that 'global warming has been established as a serious problem and immediate action is necessary'. There also remains a small hard core of skeptics (<10%) who do not believe in the science of climate change and the need for action, a group that is much smaller in the other countries surveyed. The similarities are, however, pervasive. Similar preferences are manifest across a wide range of technology and fuel choices, in support of renewables, in research priorities, in a basic understanding of which technologies produce or reduce carbon dioxide (or misunderstandings in the case of nuclear power), and in willingness to pay for solving global warming. 29 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Collective guilt for harming future ingroup members: The case of American identity and global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferguson, Mark Allen

    2008-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    members on willingness to engage in behaviors that mitigate global warming. An experimental study extended these results by showing similar effects for actual behavior and pro-environmental attitudes. A final experiment extended the other studies...

  11. A sensitivity study of the thermodynamic environment on GFDL model hurricane intensity: Implications for global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, W.; Tuleya, R.E.; Ginis, I.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, the effect of thermodynamic environmental changes on hurricane intensity is extensively investigated with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory hurricane model for a suite of experiments with different initial upper-tropospheric temperature anomalies up to {+-}4 C and sea surface temperatures ranging from 26 to 31 C given the same relative humidity profile. The results indicate that stabilization in the environmental atmosphere and sea surface temperature (SST) increase cause opposing effects on hurricane intensity. The offsetting relationship between the effects of atmospheric stability increase (decrease) and SST increase (decrease) is monotonic and systematic in the parameter space. This implies that hurricane intensity increase due to a possible global warming associated with increased CO{sub 2} is considerably smaller than that expected from warming of the oceanic waters alone. The results also indicate that the intensity of stronger (weaker) hurricanes is more (less) sensitive to atmospheric stability and SST changes. The model-attained hurricane intensity is found to be well correlated with the maximum surface evaporation and the large-scale environmental convective available potential energy. The model-attained hurricane intensity if highly correlated with the energy available from wet-adiabatic ascent near the eyewall relative to a reference sounding in the undisturbed environment for all the experiments. Coupled hurricane-ocean experiments show that hurricane intensity becomes less sensitive to atmospheric stability and SST changes since the ocean coupling causes larger (smaller) intensity reduction for stronger (weaker) hurricanes. This implies less increase of hurricane intensity related to a possible global warming due to increased CO{sub 2}.

  12. The Great Season Climatic Oscillation and the Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boucenna, Ahmed

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present earth warming up is often explained by the atmosphere gas greenhouse effect. This explanation is in contradiction with the thermodynamics second law. The warming up by greenhouse effect is quite improbable. It is cloud reflection that gives to the earth s ground its 15 degres C mean temperature. Since the reflection of the radiation by gases is negligible, the role of the atmosphere greenhouse gases in the earth warming up by earth radiation reflection loses its importance. We think that natural climatic oscillations contribute more to earth climatic disturbances. The oscillation that we hypothesize to exist has a long period (800 to 1000 years). The glacier melting and regeneration cycles lead to variations in the cold region ocean water density and thermal conductibility according to their salinity. These variations lead one to think about a macro climate oscillating between maximum hot and minimum cold temperatures. This oscillation is materialized by the passages of the planet through hot, mil...

  13. Comparison of global warming impacts of automobile air-conditioning concepts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The global warming impacts of conventional vapor compression automobile air conditioning using HFC-134a are compared with the potential impacts of four alternative concepts. Comparisons are made on the basis of total equivalent warming impact (TEWI) which accounts for the effects of refrigerant emissions, energy use to provide comfort cooling, and fuel consumed to transport the weight of the air conditioning system. Under the most favorable assumptions on efficiency and weight, transcritical compression using CO{sub 2} as the refrigerant and adsorption cooling with water and zeolite beds could reduce TEWI by up to 18%rlative to HFC-134a compression air conditioning. Other assumptions on weight and efficiency lead to significant increases in TEWI relative to HFC-134a, and it is impossible to determine which set of assumptios is valid from existing data, Neither Stirling cycle or thermoelectric cooling will reduce TEWI relative to EFC-134a. Brief comments are also made concerning technical barriers that must be overcome for succesful development of the new technologies.

  14. Tropical Cyclone Changes in the Western North Pacific in a Global Warming Scenario MARKUS STOWASSER, YUQING WANG, AND KEVIN HAMILTON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yuqing

    Tropical Cyclone Changes in the Western North Pacific in a Global Warming Scenario MARKUS STOWASSER The influence of global warming on the climatology of tropical cyclones in the western North Pacific basin Model version 2 (CCSM2) coupled global climate model. The regional model is first tested in 10 yr

  15. A possible relationship between Global Warming and Lightning Activity in India during the period 1998-2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Felix Pereira B.; Priyadarsini G.; T. E. Girish

    2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Lightning activity on a global scale has been studied season wise using satellite data for the period from 1998 to 2009. Lightning activity shows an increasing trend during the period of study which is highly correlated with atmospheric warming. A similar increasing trend of lightning activity is observed in the Indian region during the pre-monsoon season which is correlated with global lightning trends and warming trends of surface temperature in India. Key words: Global warming, lightning activity, Solar cycle changes

  16. The Scientific and Social Challenges of Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiehl, Jeff

    ) Snow cover (decrease) Sea ice cover (decrease) Ocean heat (increase) Ocean acidity (increase) (AD 2200-2300?) High Climate Sensitivity Low Climate Sensitivity (Geol. Data) (No Arctic/Greenland ice in Technology Changes in Consumption #12;10/16/07 30 US is 5% of global population, but 25% of global

  17. An Inconvenient Truth. The Planetary Emergency of Global Warming and What We Can Do About It

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gore, Al

    2006-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This book is published to tie in with a documentary film of the same name. Both the book and film were inspired by a series of multimedia presentations on global warming that the author created and delivers to groups around the world. With this book, Gore, brings together leading-edge research from top scientists around the world; photographs, charts, and other illustrations; and personal anecdotes and observations to document the fast pace and wide scope of global warming. He presents, with alarming clarity and conclusiveness, and with humor, too, that the fact of global warming is not in question and that its consequences for the world we live in will be disastrous if left unchecked.

  18. Marine methane cycle simulations for the period of early global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, S.; Maltrud, M.; Reagan, M.T.; Moridis, G.J.; Cameron-Smith, P.J.

    2011-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Geochemical environments, fates, and effects are modeled for methane released into seawater by the decomposition of climate-sensitive clathrates. A contemporary global background cycle is first constructed, within the framework of the Parallel Ocean Program. Input from organics in the upper thermocline is related to oxygen levels, and microbial consumption is parameterized from available rate measurements. Seepage into bottom layers is then superimposed, representing typical seabed fluid flow. The resulting CH{sub 4} distribution is validated against surface saturation ratios, vertical sections, and slope plume studies. Injections of clathrate-derived methane are explored by distributing a small number of point sources around the Arctic continental shelf, where stocks are extensive and susceptible to instability during the first few decades of global warming. Isolated bottom cells are assigned dissolved gas fluxes from porous-media simulation. Given the present bulk removal pattern, methane does not penetrate far from emission sites. Accumulated effects, however, spread to the regional scale following the modeled current system. Both hypoxification and acidification are documented. Sensitivity studies illustrate a potential for material restrictions to broaden the perturbations, since methanotrophic consumers require nutrients and trace metals. When such factors are considered, methane buildup within the Arctic basin is enhanced. However, freshened polar surface waters act as a barrier to atmospheric transfer, diverting products into the deep return flow. Uncertainties in the logic and calculations are enumerated including those inherent in high-latitude clathrate abundance, buoyant effluent rise through the column, representation of the general circulation, and bacterial growth kinetics.

  19. Can Advances in Science and Technology Prevent Global Warming? A Critical Review of Limitations and Challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huesemann, Michael H.

    2006-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The most stringent emission scenarios published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) would result in the stabilization of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) at concentrations of approximately 550 ppm which would produce a global temperature increase of at least 2 C by 2100. Given the large uncertainties regarding the potential risks associated with this degree of global warming, it would be more prudent to stabilize atmospheric CO2 concentrations at or below current levels which, in turn, would require a greater than 20-fold reduction (i.e., ?95%) in per capita carbon emissions in industrialized nations within the next 50 to 100 years. Using the Kaya equation as a conceptual framework, this paper examines whether CO2 mitigation approaches such as energy efficiency improvements, carbon sequestration, and the development of carbon-free energy sources would be sufficient to bring about the required reduction in per capita carbon emissions without creating unforeseen negative impacts elsewhere. In terms of energy efficiency, large improvements (?5-fold) are in principle possible given aggressive investments in R&D and if market imperfections such as corporate subsidies are removed. However, energy efficiency improvements per se will not result in a reduction in carbon emissions if, as predicted by the IPCC, the size of the global economy has expanded 12-26 fold by 2100. Terrestrial carbon sequestration via reforestation and improved agricultural soil management has many environmental advantages but has only limited CO2 mitigation potential because the global terrestrial carbon sink (ca. 200 Gt C) is small relative to the size of fossil fuel deposits (?4000 Gt C). By contrast, very large amounts of CO2 can potentially be removed from the atmosphere via sequestration in geologic formations and oceans, but carbon storage is not permanent and is likely to create many unpredictable environmental consequences. Renewable solar energy can in theory provide large amounts of carbon-free power. However, biomass and hydroelectric energy can only be marginally expanded and large-scale solar energy installations (i.e., wind, photovoltaics, and direct thermal) are likely to have significant negative environmental impacts. Expansion of nuclear energy is highly unlikely due to concerns over reactor safety, radioactive waste management, weapons proliferation, and cost. In view of the serious limitations and liabilities of many proposed CO2 mitigation approaches it appears that there remain only few no-regrets options such as drastic energy efficiency improvements, extensive terrestrial carbon sequestration, and cautious expansion of renewable energy generation. These promising CO2 mitigation technologies have the potential to bring about the required 20-fold reduction in per capita carbon emission only if population and economic growth are halted without delay. Thus, addressing the problem of global warming requires not only technological research and development but also a reexamination of core values that mistakenly equate material consumption and economic growth to happiness and well-being.

  20. VIRGINIA CENTER FOR COAL & ENERGY RESEARCH WINTER 1998-99 / VOL. XVIII, NO. 1 Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    VIRGINIA CENTER FOR COAL & ENERGY RESEARCH WINTER 1998-99 / VOL. XVIII, NO. 1 Global Warming Our the opinion. Can the VCCER with its mandated interests in coal and energy be any different? Well, we do try QUARTERLY COAL PRODUCTION STATISTICS 5 GAS PRODUCTION STATISTICS 6 1840 1860 1880 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980

  1. BILLS IMPORTANT TO THOSE INTERESTED IN GLOBAL WARMING League of Women Voters, Washington

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BILLS IMPORTANT TO THOSE INTERESTED IN GLOBAL WARMING League of Women Voters, Washington Current.85% annually by 2010) and renewable energy (15% by 2023) standards for Washington electric utilities, increase in local tax revenues, additional income for farmers with the added benefits of stable electricity

  2. IMPLICATIONS OF CO, GLOBAL WARMING O N GREAT LAKES ICE COVER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IMPLICATIONS OF CO, GLOBAL WARMING O N GREAT LAKES ICE COVER RAYMOND A. ASSEL US. Department to project daily mean basin ice cover and annual ice cover duration for Lakes Superior and Erie. Models were), and the Oregon State University (OSU)general circulationmodels. Ice cover estimateswere made for the West

  3. Carbon capture and storage in geologic formations has been proposed as a global warming mitigation strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    Abstract Carbon capture and storage in geologic formations has been proposed as a global warming mitigation strategy that can contribute to stabilize the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide to maintain adsorbed methane in the coalbed formation. But now carbon dioxide will replace the methane

  4. Earth's Energy Out of Balance: The Smoking Gun for Global Warming April, 2005

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    evaluated the energy imbalance using precise measurements of ocean temperature obtained by ocean floatsEarth's Energy Out of Balance: The Smoking Gun for Global Warming April, 2005 Scientists at Columbia University, NASA, and the Department of Energy have found that the Earth is out of energy balance

  5. Metrics to assess the mitigation of global warming by carbon capture and storage in the ocean and in geological reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fortunat, Joos

    Metrics to assess the mitigation of global warming by carbon capture and storage in the ocean to assess mitigation of global warming by carbon capture and storage are discussed. The climatic impact penalty for carbon capture. For an annual leakage rate of 0.01, surface air temperature becomes higher

  6. Global warming and wintering in Dippers Degree project in Biology, 15hp (15 ETCS), 2014-2015

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Uppsala Universitet

    Global warming and wintering in Dippers Degree project in Biology, 15hp (15 ETCS), 2014-2015 Aim: Investigate changes in wintering ecology of the dipper over a period of 35 years in the light of global warming. Dippers overwinter in streams and they arrive to their overwintering grounds in late fall

  7. PUBLISHED ONLINE: 29 JANUARY 2012 | DOI: 10.1038/NCLIMATE1353 Enhanced warming over the global subtropical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiu, Bo

    surface ocean warming rate over the path of these currents is two to three times faster than the globalLETTERS PUBLISHED ONLINE: 29 JANUARY 2012 | DOI: 10.1038/NCLIMATE1353 Enhanced warming over the global subtropical western boundary currents Lixin Wu1 *, Wenju Cai2 , Liping Zhang1 , Hisashi Nakamura3

  8. Research & Development Roadmap: Next-Generation Low Global Warming...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    potential (GWP) when released to the atmosphere. This research and development (R&D) roadmap for next-generation low-GWP refrigerants provides recommendations to the Building...

  9. Environmental Impact on Applied Technology- Global Warming CFCs & VOCs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbert, J. S.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cogeneration projects being sited as PURPA machines where the steam host is only a token element in the energy design. In effect, these large systems have lost the potential for true "dual energy use" and many times give the steam away to the host free... contributor. Clearly, the largest changeable producer is combustion of fuels both in the production of electricity and in industrial process heat. The nuclear power option is receiving renewed consideration, but the time required to get new nuclear...

  10. Accounting for global-mean warming and scaling uncertainties in climate change impact studies Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 11(3), 12071226, 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Accounting for global-mean warming and scaling uncertainties in climate change impact studies 1207(s) 2007. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons License. Accounting for global-mean warming from a few regional climate model runs are scaled, based on different global-mean warming projections

  11. JY Tsao Some Simple Physics of Global Warming 2008 April Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    JY Tsao · Some Simple Physics of Global Warming · 2008 April Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory Sciences Center Sandia National Laboratories Some Simple Physics of Global Warming · I'm Jeff Tsao. I and on had the opportunity to delve into global warming issues, and I'm happy to be able to share a little

  12. Probability distributions for regional climate change from uncertain global mean warming and uncertain scaling relationship Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 11(3), 10971114, 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Probability distributions for regional climate change from uncertain global mean warming of probability distributions for regional climate change from uncertain global mean warming and an uncertain/precipitation per degree global mean warming. Each scaling variable is assumed to be normally distributed

  13. Analyzing the time-course variation of apple and pear tree dates of flowering1 stages in the global warming context2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    in the global warming context2 3 Yann Guédon (1) and Jean Michel Legave (2)* 4 5 (1) CIRAD, UMR DAP and INRIA the relationship between flowering advances in fruit trees and19 global warming. After an exploratory analysis;2 to consider the flowering advances in apple and pear trees as impacts of global warming. The26 suddenness

  14. Global Warming What is Climate? Ocean's Role in Climate Change Uncertainty Quantification, the Next Frontier The Role Played by Oceans in Climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Restrepo, Juan M.

    Global Warming What is Climate? Ocean's Role in Climate Change Uncertainty Quantification, the Next Department University of Arizona October 11, 2008 #12;Global Warming What is Climate? Ocean's Role in Climate, Undergraduate Students: 2. UQGQG #12;Global Warming What is Climate? Ocean's Role in Climate Change Uncertainty

  15. Reply to comment by J. L. Lean on ``Estimated solar contribution to the global surface warming using the ACRIM TSI satellite composite''

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scafetta, Nicola

    Reply to comment by J. L. Lean on ``Estimated solar contribution to the global surface warming contributed at least 10­30% of the 0.40 ± 0.04 K global surface warming) depends crucially on the adoption, because it lacks any upward trend between solar cycles 21­23, the solar contribution to the global warming

  16. The Role of Subtropical Irreversible PV Mixing in the Zonal Mean Circulation Response to Global Warming-like Thermal Forcing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Jian; Sun, Lantao; Wu, Yutian; Chen, Gang

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The atmospheric circulation response to the global warming-like tropical upper tropospheric heating is revisited using a dry atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) in light of a new diagnostics based on the concept of finite-amplitude wave activity (FAWA) on equivalent latitude. For a given tropical heating profile, the linear Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) wave refraction analysis sometimes gives a very different and even opposite prediction of the eddy momentum flux response to that of the actual full model simulation, exposing the limitation of the traditional linear approach in understanding the full dynamics of the atmospheric response under global warming. The implementation of the FAWA diagnostics reveals that in response to the upper tropospheric heating, effective diffusivity, a measure of the mixing efficiency, increases and advances upward and poleward in the subtropics and the resultant enhancement and the poleward encroachment of eddy potential vorticity mixing leads to a poleward displaced potential vorticity (PV) gradient peak in the upper troposphere. The anomalous eddy PV flux, in balance with the PV dissipation, gives rise to a poleward shift in the eddy-driven jet and eddy-driven mean meridional circulation. Sensitivity experiments show that these irreversible dissipation processes in the upper troposphere are robust, regardless of the width of the tropical heating.

  17. The effect of global warming on U.S. agriculture and its variability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Qifen

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that the temperature and precipitation changes would reduce average farm values in the U. S. However, the analysis did not factor in all the likely effects of global warming on agriculture, and therefore, the economic results were very limited. In this study, a... yields and the resultant market effects. Thus, the climate-induced-yield risk will be incorporated into the U. S. agricultural sector model in an effort to reflect the importance of such risk consideration in the economic analysis of global climate...

  18. CO2 Concentration Global warming is a hot topic these days. One of the factors that may explain increases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carriquiry, Alicia

    CO2 Concentration Global warming is a hot topic these days. One of the factors that may explain increases in global temperatures is the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere. Is there a relationship between the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and global temperatures? Data Collection

  19. Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Research & Integration Center. Life Cycle Climate Performance of supermarket refrigeration.
    Credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Life Cycle Climate Performance of...

  20. Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global-Warming-Potential Refrigerants...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    fluids along with thermophysical properties that yield high energy efficiency in refrigeration equipment. NIST cannot make the determination of the optimal fluid for any given...

  1. Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn April 23,EnergyChicopeeTechnology PerformanceDepartmentfor Improving Short

  2. Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China 2015ofDepartment of EnergyThePatricia Hoffman isTheWorkforceEnergy Brian

  3. Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants -

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently AskedEnergyIssuesEnergy SolarRadioactive LiquidSavings forinitial In thei2013 Peer

  4. Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global-Warming-Potential Refrigerants |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently AskedEnergyIssuesEnergy SolarRadioactive LiquidSavings forinitial In thei2013

  5. Potential Effect of Pollutantn Emissions on Global Warming: First

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in235-1Department of60 DATE:AnnualDepartment of EnergyComparisong

  6. Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: SinceDevelopment | Department ofPartnershipsAngieTerri QuinnCapital for Contractors Working|

  7. Does the problem of global warming exist at all? Insight from the temperature drift induced by inevitable colored noise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rusov, V D; Eingorn, M V; Zelentsova, T N; Linnik, E P; Beglaryan, M E; Vachev, B

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the present paper we state a problem of the colored noise nonremovability on the climatic 30-year time scale, which essentially changes the angle of view on the known problem of global warming.

  8. Potential Land Use Implications of a Global Biofuels Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gurgel, Angelo C.

    In this paper we investigate the potential production and implications of a global biofuels industry. We

  9. Energy and global warming impacts of CFC alternative technologies. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, S.K.; Hughes, P.J.; Fairchild, P.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kusik, C.L.; Dieckmann, J.T.; McMahon, E.M.; Hobday, N. [Little (Arthur D.), Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of this study is to develop representative indications of the relative energy use, associated CO{sub 2} emissions, and total equivalent warming impact (TEWI) of viable option to replace CFCs in their major energy-related application areas. It was motivated, in part, by a concern that most attention to data has focused on the DIRECT global warming effect of CFCs and their alternatives, with inadequate attention being paid to the INDIRECT effect of the CO{sub 2} emissions arising from the differences in energy consumption by systems using different alternatives. The DIRECT and INDIRECT contributions are combined in this analysis to determine the TEWI of the various technical options. The study is international in scope and takes into account significant differences in present CFC end-use practices, sources of energy, and other societal factors between Europe, Japan, and North America.

  10. Response of snow-dependent hydrologic extremes to continued global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diffenbaugh, Noah [Stanford University; Scherer, Martin [Stanford University; Ashfaq, Moetasim [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Snow accumulation is critical for water availability in the Northern Hemisphere1,2, raising concern that global warming could have important impacts on natural and human systems in snow-dependent regions1,3. Although regional hydrologic changes have been observed (for example, refs 1,3 5), the time of emergence of extreme changes in snow accumulation and melt remains a key unknown for assessing climate- change impacts3,6,7. We find that the CMIP5 global climate model ensemble exhibits an imminent shift towards low snow years in the Northern Hemisphere, with areas of western North America, northeastern Europe and the Greater Himalaya showing the strongest emergence during the near- termdecadesandat2 Cglobalwarming.Theoccurrenceof extremely low snow years becomes widespread by the late twenty-first century, as do the occurrences of extremely high early-season snowmelt and runoff (implying increasing flood risk), and extremely low late-season snowmelt and runoff (implying increasing water stress). Our results suggest that many snow-dependent regions of the Northern Hemisphere are likely to experience increasing stress from low snow years within the next three decades, and from extreme changes in snow-dominated water resources if global warming exceeds 2 C above the pre-industrial baseline.

  11. The world we now live in is confronted with various challenges. Environmental issues caused by global warming, and the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banbara, Mutsunori

    #12;The world we now live in is confronted with various challenges. Environmental issues caused by global warming, and the intensification of international competition over access to resources, energy by a single nation; rather, each country must work together for global solutions to tackle these environmental

  12. Postdoctoral Position at North Carolina State University Title: Consequences of urban and global warming for arthropod ecology and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Behmer, Spencer T.

    Postdoctoral Position at North Carolina State University Title: Consequences of urban and global warming for arthropod ecology and evolution Description: One postdoctoral position will be available heat islands and global climate change for arthropods of societal or economic importance. The study

  13. Atlantic warm pool, Caribbean low-level jet, and their potential impact on Atlantic hurricanes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chunzai

    Atlantic warm pool, Caribbean low-level jet, and their potential impact on Atlantic hurricanes than 28.5°C) that appears in the Gulf of Mexico, the Caribbean Sea, and the western tropical North the tropical North Atlantic into the Caribbean Sea where the flow intensifies forming the Caribbean Low

  14. The dynamic response of high Arctic glaciers to global warming and their contribution to sea-level rise

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lam, J.K.W. [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom). Scott Polar Research Inst.; Dowdeswell, J.A. [Univ. of Wales (United Kingdom)

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Simulations with General Circulation Models have indicated that global warming will be enhanced at high latitudes. Regions in the high Arctic are highly sensitive to increased concentrations of greenhouse gases, with an amplified theoretical rise of 8--14 C predicted to take place in winter and a negligible rise of 2 C in summer. Wetter conditions in these regions are quite plausible with global warming due to warmer sea surface temperatures, melting of sea ice and a greater moisture holding capacity of the atmosphere. Recent observations show a marked increase in precipitation in the high Arctic regions during the past decades, particularly in the winters. The notion of whether the increased melting of snow due to global warming would be offset by increased snowfall is investigated in this study. To make reliable predictions of the response of high Arctic glaciers to global warming and hence their contribution to sea-level rise, a numerical model has been developed to investigate the interactions of the glaciers with climate change induced by global warming. The model is a one-dimensional numerical ice-flow model coupled with a surface balance model. Accumulation and ablation at the glacier surface are determined by the surface balance model using an energy balance approach.

  15. Global Cooling: Policies to Cool the World and Offset Global Warming from CO2 Using Reflective Roofs and Pavements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen; Rosenfeld, Arthur; Elliot, Matthew

    2009-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Increasing the solar reflectance of the urban surface reduce its solar heat gain, lowers its temperatures, and decreases its outflow of thermal infrared radiation into the atmosphere. This process of 'negative radiative forcing' can help counter the effects of global warming. In addition, cool roofs reduce cooling-energy use in air conditioned buildings and increase comfort in unconditioned buildings; and cool roofs and cool pavements mitigate summer urban heat islands, improving outdoor air quality and comfort. Installing cool roofs and cool pavements in cities worldwide is a compelling win-win-win activity that can be undertaken immediately, outside of international negotiations to cap CO{sub 2} emissions. We propose an international campaign to use solar reflective materials when roofs and pavements are built or resurfaced in temperate and tropical regions.

  16. Discussion on common errors in analyzing sea level accelerations, solar trends and global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scafetta, Nicola

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Errors in applying regression models and wavelet filters used to analyze geophysical signals are discussed: (1) multidecadal natural oscillations (e.g. the quasi 60-year Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO)) need to be taken into account for properly quantifying anomalous accelerations in tide gauge records such as in New York City; (2) uncertainties and multicollinearity among climate forcing functions prevent a proper evaluation of the solar contribution to the 20th century global surface temperature warming using overloaded linear regression models during the 1900-2000 period alone; (3) when periodic wavelet filters, which require that a record is pre-processed with a reflection methodology, are improperly applied to decompose non-stationary solar and climatic time series, Gibbs boundary artifacts emerge yielding misleading physical interpretations. By correcting these errors and using optimized regression models that reduce multico...

  17. A LEO-Based Solar-Shade System to Mitigate Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suresh, Rahul

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of a Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) based solar-shade system, as part of a technically- and financially-viable multipurpose system to provide long-term solutions to global warming and the energy crisis is discussed. The proposed solar-shade and power system would be enabled by the development of a previously-proposed less-expensive, environment-friendly, space-elevator system to lift mass into space. The solar shades, even during their early deployment and growth in LEO, would provide benefits such as reduction of space-debris and depletion of the Van Allen radiation belts.The Terrestrial temperature profile has been approximated for each latitudinal zone with a one-dimensional model. A shade ring at an altitude of 2000-4000 km, consisting of thin-film mega panels totaling up to 4% of the earths surface area (to block ~1% of insolation), is proposed. The effects of such near-polar rings on the global temperature pattern has been examined using the simple model. Specific emphasis has been laid on this e...

  18. A LEO-Based Solar-Shade System to Mitigate Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rahul Suresh; Andrew Meulenberg

    2015-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of a Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) based solar-shade system, as part of a technically- and financially-viable multipurpose system to provide long-term solutions to global warming and the energy crisis is discussed. The proposed solar-shade and power system would be enabled by the development of a previously-proposed less-expensive, environment-friendly, space-elevator system to lift mass into space. The solar shades, even during their early deployment and growth in LEO, would provide benefits such as reduction of space-debris and depletion of the Van Allen radiation belts.The Terrestrial temperature profile has been approximated for each latitudinal zone with a one-dimensional model. A shade ring at an altitude of 2000-4000 km, consisting of thin-film mega panels totaling up to 4% of the earths surface area (to block ~1% of insolation), is proposed. The effects of such near-polar rings on the global temperature pattern has been examined using the simple model. Specific emphasis has been laid on this effect in the Polar Regions. One such proposed ring could reduce the peak summer temperature of the Polar Regions (80-90 degree latitude) by almost 3K. The tilting of the solar-shades, to reduce their cooling effect at the poles and to increase it in the near-polar regions, is recommended.

  19. The global optimization of Morse clusters by potential energy ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jon P. K. Doye

    2003-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Jul 15, 2003 ... The global optimization of Morse clusters by potential energy transformations. Jon P. K. Doye (jpkd1 ***at*** cam.ac.uk) Robert H. Leary (leary...

  20. Evidence for a Global Warming at the Termination I Boundary and Its Possible Cosmic Dust Cause

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paul A. LaViolette

    2005-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A comparison of northern and southern hemispheric paleotemperature profiles suggests that the Bolling-Allerod Interstadial, Younger Dryas stadial, and subsequent Preboreal warming which occurred at the end of the last ice age were characterized by temperatures that changed synchronously in various parts of the world, implying that these climatic oscillations were produced by significant changes in the Earth's energy balance. These globally coordinated oscillations are not easily explained by ocean current mechanisms such as bistable flipping of ocean deep-water production or regional temperature changes involving the NW/SE migration of the North Atlantic polar front. They also are not accounted for by Earth orbital changes in seasonality or by increases in atmospheric CO-2 or CH-4. On the other hand, evidence of an elevated cosmic ray flux and of a major interstellar dust incursion around 15,800 years B.P. suggest that a cosmic ray wind driven incursion of interstellar dust and gas may have played a key role through its activation of the Sun and alteration of light transmission through the interplanetary medium.

  1. Evidence for a Global Warming at the Termination I Boundary and Its Possible Cosmic Dust Cause

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LaViolette, P A

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A comparison of northern and southern hemispheric paleotemperature profiles suggests that the Bolling-Allerod Interstadial, Younger Dryas stadial, and subsequent Preboreal warming which occurred at the end of the last ice age were characterized by temperatures that changed synchronously in various parts of the world, implying that these climatic oscillations were produced by significant changes in the Earth's energy balance. These globally coordinated oscillations are not easily explained by ocean current mechanisms such as bistable flipping of ocean deep-water production or regional temperature changes involving the NW/SE migration of the North Atlantic polar front. They also are not accounted for by Earth orbital changes in seasonality or by increases in atmospheric CO-2 or CH-4. On the other hand, evidence of an elevated cosmic ray flux and of a major interstellar dust incursion around 15,800 years B.P. suggest that a cosmic ray wind driven incursion of interstellar dust and gas may have played a key role ...

  2. 5/29/09 6:30 PMCyclones spurt water into the stratosphere, feeding global warming --The Harvard University Gazette Page 1 of 2http://www.news.harvard.edu/gazette/2009/04.23/11-romps.html

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romps, David M.

    5/29/09 6:30 PMCyclones spurt water into the stratosphere, feeding global warming -- The Harvard water into the stratosphere, feeding global warming Tropical storms inject ice far into stratosphere readily inject ice far into the stratosphere, possibly feeding global warming. The finding, published

  3. GLOBAL CHANGE ECOLOGY -ORIGINAL RESEARCH Warming and the dependence of limber pine (Pinus flexilis)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kueppers, Lara M.

    experimental warming did not appear to reduce cold limitation at high elevation. Instead, gas exchange users. A. B. Moyes (&) L. M. Kueppers School of Natural Sciences, University of California Merced) 171:271282 DOI 10.1007/s00442-012-2410-0 #12;models forecast warming of 26 C (median 3.4 C) across

  4. Long-Term Instrumental and Reconstructed Temperature Records Contradict Anthropogenic Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horst-Joachim Ldecke

    2011-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Monthly instrumental temperature records from 5 stations in the northern hemisphere are analyzed, each of which is local and over 200 years in length, as well as two reconstructed long-range yearly records - from a stalagmite and from tree rings that are about 2000 years long. In the instrumental records, the steepest 100-year temperature fall happened in the 19th century and the steepest rise in the 20th century, both events being of about the same magnitude. Evaluation by the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) yields Hurst exponents that are in good agreement with the literature. DFA, Monte Carlo simulations, and synthetic records reveal that both 100-year events were caused by external trends. In contrast to this, the reconstructed records show stronger 100-year rises and falls as quite common during the last 2000 years. These results contradict the hypothesis of an unusual (anthropogenic) global warming during the 20th century. As a hypothesis, the sun's magnetic field, which is correlated with sunspot numbers, is put forward as an explanation. The long-term low-frequency fluctuations in sunspot numbers are not detectable by the DFA in the monthly instrumental records, resulting in the common low Hurst exponents. The same does not hold true for the 2000-year-long reconstructed records, which explains both their higher Hurst exponents and the higher probabilities of strong 100-year temperature fluctuations. A long-term synthetic record that embodies the reconstructed sunspot number fluctuations includes the different Hurst exponents of both the instrumental and the reconstructed records and, therefore, corroborates the conjecture.

  5. warming ocean and changes in currents and mixing? The global carbon cycle is also tightly coupled to the cycles of nutrients and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 warming ocean and changes in currents and mixing? The global carbon cycle is also tightly is a fundamental constituent of life and its global cycle is tightly connected to the habitability of our planet an important forcing factor of the global climate, which, on the other hand, controls the sources and sinks

  6. abordagem global utilizando: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    will soon be phased out, mainly due to their ozone depletion potentials (ODPs) and global warming potentials (GWPs). The timetable established through international...

  7. amnesia global transitoria: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    will soon be phased out, mainly due to their ozone depletion potentials (ODPs) and global warming potentials (GWPs). The timetable established through international...

  8. afasia global sem: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    will soon be phased out, mainly due to their ozone depletion potentials (ODPs) and global warming potentials (GWPs). The timetable established through international...

  9. GR Focus Review Impacts of global warming on Permo-Triassic terrestrial ecosystems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benton, Michael

    with long-term aridification and short-term bursts of warming and acid rain. Wildfires at the Permo have succumbed primarily to acid rain, mass wasting, and aridification. Plants may have been more

  10. Upward Shift of the Atmospheric General Circulation under Global Warming: Theory and Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Martin Simran

    Many features of the general circulation of the atmosphere shift upward in response to warming in simulations of climate change with both general circulation models (GCMs) and cloud-system-resolving models. The importance ...

  11. Could the Earth's surface Ultraviolet irradiance be blamed for the global warming? A new effect may exist

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Jilong; Zhao, Juan; Zheng, Yujun

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Whether natural factors could interpret the rise of the Earth's surface temperature is still controversial. Though numerous recent researches have reported apparent correlations between solar activity and the Earth's climate, solar activity has encountered a big problem when describing the rapid global warming after 1970s. Our investigation shows the good positive correlations between the Earth's surface Ultraviolet irradiance (280-400 nm) and the Earth's surface temperature both in temporal and spatial variations by analyzing the global surface Ultraviolet irradiance (280-400 nm) and global surface temperature data from 1980-1999. The rise of CO$_2$ cannot interpret the good positive correlations, and we could even get an opposite result to the good correlations when employing the rise of CO$_2$ to describe the relation between them. Based on the good positive correlations, we suggest a new effect, named "Highly Excited Water Vapor" (HEWV) effect, which can interpret how the Sun influences the Earth's surfac...

  12. Global Renewable Resource Potential | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdfGetec AG Contracting Jump to:Echo,GEF Jump to: navigation,GW by 2019Global

  13. The College of Natural Resources (CNR) is essentially UC Berkeley's college of the environment. From nutrition to global warming, biotechnology to sustainable forestry, environmental justice to energy, no other college is better

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wildermuth, Mary C

    . From nutrition to global warming, biotechnology to sustainable forestry, environmental justice&E) Concentration areas: - U.S. Environmental Policy & Management - Global Environmental Politics - Environmental and Management, Global Environmental Politics, or Environmental Justice and Development Prepare for graduate

  14. Shifts in ENSO coupling processes under global warming Sjoukje Philip1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haak, Hein

    state of the Pacific Ocean between the current climate and a high CO2 climate. Next, shifts in ENSO warming may shift the properties and dynamics of El Nin~o. We study the shifts in ENSO couplings in IPCC couplings between sea surface temperature (SST), thermocline depth and wind stress are discussed. Although

  15. Global empirical potentials from purely rotational measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dattani, Nikesh S; Sun, Ming; Johnson, Erin R; Roy, Robert J Le; Ziurys, Lucy M

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The recent advent of chirped-pulse FTMW technology has created a plethora of pure rotational spectra for molecules for which no vibrational information is known. The growing number of such spectra demands a way to build empirical potential energy surfaces for molecules, without relying on any vibrational measurements. Using ZnO as an example, we demonstrate a powerful technique for efficiently accomplishing this. We first measure eight new ultra-high precision ($\\pm2$ kHz) pure rotational transitions in the $X$-state of ZnO. Combining them with previous high-precision ($\\pm50$ kHz) pure rotational measurements of different transitions in the same system, we have data that spans the bottom 10\\% of the well. Despite not using any vibrational information, our empirical potentials are able to determine the size of the vibrational spacings and bond lengths, with precisions that are more than three and two orders of magnitude greater, respectively, than the most precise empirical values previously known, and the mo...

  16. Evaluation of food waste disposal options by LCC analysis from the perspective of global warming: Jungnang case, South Korea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Mi-Hyung, E-mail: mhkim9@snu.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Planning, Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Sillim-Dong, Gwanak-Gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Yul-Eum, E-mail: yesong0724@dongguk.edu [Department of Philosophy, Dongguk University, Pil-Dong 3-Ga, Jung-Gu, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Life Science, Dongguk University, Pil-Dong 3-Ga, Jung-Gu, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Han-Byul, E-mail: kuackyang@ssu.ac.kr [Department of Chemical Engineering, Soongsil University, Sangdo-Ro 369, Dongjak-Gu, Seoul 156-743 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung-Wk, E-mail: kimjw@snu.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Planning, Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Sillim-Dong, Gwanak-Gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Sun-Jin, E-mail: sjhwang@khu.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Center for Environmental Studies, Kyung Hee University, Seocheon-Dong, Giheung-Gu, Yongin-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: > Various food waste disposal options were evaluated from the perspective of global warming. > Costs of the options were compared by the methodology of life cycle assessment and life cycle cost analysis. > Carbon price and valuable by-products were used for analyzing environmental credits. > The benefit-cost ratio of wet feeding scenario was the highest. - Abstract: The costs associated with eight food waste disposal options, dry feeding, wet feeding, composting, anaerobic digestion, co-digestion with sewage sludge, food waste disposer, incineration, and landfilling, were evaluated in the perspective of global warming and energy and/or resource recovery. An expanded system boundary was employed to compare by-products. Life cycle cost was analyzed through the entire disposal process, which included discharge, separate collection, transportation, treatment, and final disposal stages, all of which were included in the system boundary. Costs and benefits were estimated by an avoided impact. Environmental benefits of each system per 1 tonne of food waste management were estimated using carbon prices resulting from CO{sub 2} reduction by avoided impact, as well as the prices of by-products such as animal feed, compost, and electricity. We found that the cost of landfilling was the lowest, followed by co-digestion. The benefits of wet feeding systems were the highest and landfilling the lowest.

  17. Estimated global ocean wind power potential from QuikSCAT observations, accounting for turbine characteristics and siting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Capps, Scott B; Zender, Charles S

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ZENDER: GLOBAL OCEAN WIND POWER POTENTIAL Serpetzoglou, E. ,Estimated global ocean wind power potential from QuikSCATEstimated global ocean wind power potential from QuikSCAT

  18. Sensitivity of Climate to Diapycnal Diffusivity: Part I. Equilibrium State; Part II. Global Warming Scenario

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dalan, Fabio.

    Part I: The diapycnal diffusivity in the ocean is one of the least known parameters in current climate models. Measurements of this diffusivity are sparse and insufficient for compiling a global map. Inferences from inverse ...

  19. A procedure for analyzing energy and global warming impacts of foam insulation in U.S. commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kosny, J.; Yarbrough, D.W.; Desjarlais, A.O.

    1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this paper is to develop a procedure for evaluating the energy and global warming impacts of alternative insulation technologies for US commercial building applications. The analysis is focused on the sum of the direct contribution of greenhouse gas emissions from a system and the indirect contribution of the carbon dioxide emission resulting from the energy required to operate the system over its expected lifetime. In this paper, parametric analysis was used to calculate building related CO{sub 2} emission in two US locations. A retail mail building has been used as a model building for this analysis. For the analyzed building, minimal R-values of insulation are estimated using ASHRAE 90.1 requirements.

  20. Environmental screening tools for assessment of infrastructure plans based on biodiversity preservation and global warming (PEIT, Spain)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia-Montero, Luis G., E-mail: luisgonzaga.garcia@upm.e [Dept. Forest Engineering, E.T.S. Ingenieros de Montes, Technical University of Madrid (UPM), Ciudad Universitaria s/n, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Lopez, Elena, E-mail: elopez@caminos.upm.e [TRANSyT, E.T.S. Ingenieros de Caminos, Technical University of Madrid (UPM), Avda. Profesor Aranguren s/n, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Monzon, Andres, E-mail: amonzon@caminos.upm.e [TRANSyT, E.T.S. Ingenieros de Caminos, Technical University of Madrid (UPM), Avda. Profesor Aranguren s/n, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Otero Pastor, Isabel, E-mail: isabel.otero@upm.e [TRANSyT, E.T.S. Ingenieros de Caminos, Technical University of Madrid (UPM), Avda. Profesor Aranguren s/n, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Most Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) research has been concerned with SEA as a procedure, and there have been relatively few developments and tests of analytical methodologies. The first stage of the SEA is the 'screening', which is the process whereby a decision is taken on whether or not SEA is required for a particular programme or plan. The effectiveness of screening and SEA procedures will depend on how well the assessment fits into the planning from the early stages of the decision-making process. However, it is difficult to prepare the environmental screening for an infrastructure plan involving a whole country. To be useful, such methodologies must be fast and simple. We have developed two screening tools which would make it possible to estimate promptly the overall impact an infrastructure plan might have on biodiversity and global warming for a whole country, in order to generate planning alternatives, and to determine whether or not SEA is required for a particular infrastructure plan.

  1. Polar versus temperate grounding-line sedimentary systems and marine glacier stability during sea level rise by global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, R.D. (Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States). Geology Dept.); Pyne, A.R. (Victoria Univ., Wellington (New Zealand). Antarctic Research Center); Hunter, L.E.; Rynes, N.R.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Marine-ending glaciers may retreat with global warming as sea level rises by ocean thermal expansion. If the sea floor rises by sediment accumulation, then glaciers may not feel the effect of sea level rise. A submersible ROV and other techniques have been used to collect data from temperate and polar glaciers to compare sediment production and mass balance of their grounding-line systems. Temperature Alaskan valley glaciers flow at about 0.2--2 km/a and have high volumes of supraglacial, englacial and subglacial debris. However, most sediment contributed to the base of their tidewater cliffs comes from subglacial streams or squeezing out subglacial sediment and pushing it with other marine sediment into a morainal bank. Blue Glacier, a thin, locally fed polar glacier in Antarctica, flows slowly and has minimal glacial debris. The grounding-line system at the tidewater cliff is a morainal bank that forms solely by pushing of marine sediment. An Antarctic polar outlet glacier, Mackay Glacier, terminating as a floating glacier-tongue, has similar volumes of basal debris to Alaskan temperature glaciers and flows at 250 m/a. However, no subglacial streams issued from Mackay's grounding line and all sedimentation was by rockfall and grainfall rainout from seawater undermelt of the tongue. A grounding-line wedge of glacimarine diamicton is deposited over subglacial (lodgement ) till. Although Antarctic grounding-line accumulation rates are three orders of magnitude smaller than Alaskan rates, both are capable of compensating for predicted rises in sea level by thermal heating from global warming.

  2. Evaluation of Global Onshore Wind Energy Potential and Generation Costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Yuyu; Luckow, Patrick; Smith, Steven J.; Clarke, Leon E.

    2012-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, we develop an updated global estimate of onshore wind energy potential using reanalysis wind speed data, along with updated wind turbine technology performance and cost assumptions as well as explicit consideration of transmission distance in the calculation of transmission costs. We find that wind has the potential to supply a significant portion of world energy needs, although this potential varies substantially by region as well as with assumptions such as on what types of land can be used to site wind farms. Total global wind potential under central assumptions is estimated to be approximately 89 petawatt hours per year at less than 9 cents/kWh with substantial regional variations. One limitation of global wind analyses is that the resolution of current global wind speed reanalysis data can result in an underestimate of high wind areas. A sensitivity analysis of eight key parameters is presented. Wind potential is sensitive to a number of input parameters, particularly those related to land suitability and turbine density as well as cost and financing assumptions which have important policy implications. Transmission cost has a relatively small impact on total wind costs, changing the potential at a given cost by 20-30%. As a result of sensitivities studied here we suggest that further research intended to inform wind supply curve development focus not purely on physical science, such as better resolved wind maps, but also on these less well-defined factors, such as land-suitability, that will also have an impact on the long-term role of wind power.

  3. Issues Brief #1: Clarity over the Global Warming "Hiatus" December 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedersen, Tom

    could reverse heat penetration into the ocean. When this happens, the global average surface temperature per cent) is being absorbed by the ocean. As demonstrated by climate models, the long- term trend reflect sunlight and modify clouds. An important third factor has been the uptake of heat by the ocean

  4. 1 Potential impacts of Asian carbon aerosols on future US warming 2 Haiyan Teng,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -ocean fully coupled 6 climate model to investigate possible remote impacts of 7 Asian carbonaceous aerosols effect of aerosols is included) over Asia induces 15 tropospheric heating anomalies that force large.4 C warming over the eastern 18 US during winter and over most of the US during summer. 19 Such remote

  5. PHYSICS IS THE LIBERAL ARTS OF HIGH TECH Physics for future presidents? Yes, that is a serious title. Energy, global warming,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landweber, Laura

    title. Energy, global warming, terrorism and counterterrorism, health, Internet, satellites, remote sensing, ICBMs and ABMs, DVDs and HDTVs: economic and political issues increas- ingly have a strong high is literate. Many children learn to read before kindergarten. Literacy in China is 84 percent according

  6. An assessement of global energy resource economic potentials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mercure, J F

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents an assessment of global economic energy potentials for all major natural energy resources. This work is based on both an extensive literature review and calculations using natural resource assessment data. Economic potentials are presented in the form of cost-supply curves, in terms of energy flows for renewable energy sources, or fixed amounts for fossil and nuclear resources, with strong emphasis on uncertainty, using a consistent methodology that allow direct comparisons to be made. In order to interpolate through available resource assessment data and associated uncertainty, a theoretical framework and a computational methodology are given based on statistical properties of different types of resources, justified empirically by the data, and used throughout. This work aims to provide a global database for natural energy resources ready to integrate into models of energy systems, enabling to introduce at the same time uncertainty over natural resource assessments. The supplementary mate...

  7. aarhus warm ebis: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    including variations in solar output and cosmic ray intensity. Agw Anthropogenic; Global Warming 138 Global Warming: Connecting the Dots Multidisciplinary Databases and...

  8. Potential effects of warming and drying on peatland plant community composition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Jiquan

    Dame, IN 46556 USA, {Natural Resources Research Institute, University of Minnesota, Duluth, MN 55811 or partially decayed vegetation, or peat (Sampson et al., 1993), and contribute 10% of global atmospheric

  9. Global warming implications of facade parameters: A life cycle assessment of residential buildings in Bahrain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radhi, Hassan, E-mail: h_alradhi@yahoo.com [Global Engineering Bureau, P.O Box 33130, Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain (Bahrain); Sharples, Stephen, E-mail: steve.sharples@liverpool.ac.uk [School of Architecture, University of Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    On a global scale, the Gulf Corporation Council Countries (GCCC), including Bahrain, are amongst the top countries in terms of carbon dioxide emissions per capita. Building authority in Bahrain has set a target of 40% reduction of electricity consumption and associated CO{sub 2} emissions to be achieved by using facade parameters. This work evaluates how the life cycle CO{sub 2} emissions of buildings are affected by facade parameters. The main focus is placed on direct and indirect CO{sub 2} emissions from three contributors, namely, chemical reactions during production processes (Pco{sub 2}), embodied energy (Eco{sub 2}) and operational energy (OPco{sub 2}). By means of the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology, it has been possible to show that the greatest environmental impact occurs during the operational phase (80-90%). However, embodied CO{sub 2} emissions are an important factor that needs to be brought into the systems used for appraisal of projects, and hence into the design decisions made in developing projects. The assessment shows that masonry blocks are responsible for 70-90% of the total CO{sub 2} emissions of facade construction, mainly due to their physical characteristics. The highest Pco{sub 2} emissions factors are those of window elements, particularly aluminium frames. However, their contribution of CO{sub 2} emissions depends largely on the number and size of windows. Each square metre of glazing is able to increase the total CO{sub 2} emissions by almost 30% when compared with the same areas of opaque walls. The use of autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) walls reduces the total life cycle CO{sub 2} emissions by almost 5.2% when compared with ordinary walls, while the use of thermal insulation with concrete wall reduces CO{sub 2} emissions by 1.2%. The outcome of this work offers to the building industry a reliable indicator of the environmental impact of residential facade parameters. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Life cycle carbon assessment of facade parameters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Greatest environmental impact occurs during the operational phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Masonry blocks are responsible for 70-90% of the total CO2 emissions of facade construction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Window contribution of CO2 emissions depends on the number and size of windows. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Without insulation, AAC walls offer more savings in CO2 emissions.

  10. Global Potential of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNeil, Michael A; McNeil, Michael A.; Letschert, Virginie; de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2008-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This report estimates the global potential reductions in greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 for energy efficiency improvements associated with equipment (appliances, lighting, and HVAC) in buildings by means of energy efficiency standards and labels (EES&L). A consensus has emerged among the world's scientists and many corporate and political leaders regarding the need to address the threat of climate change through emissions mitigation and adaptation. A further consensus has emerged that a central component of these strategies must be focused around energy, which is the primary generator of greenhouse gas emissions. Two important questions result from this consensus: 'what kinds of policies encourage the appropriate transformation to energy efficiency' and 'how much impact can these policies have'? This report aims to contribute to the dialogue surrounding these issues by considering the potential impacts of a single policy type, applied on a global scale. The policy addressed in this report is Energy Efficient Standards and Labeling (EES&L) for energy-consuming equipment, which has now been implemented in over 60 countries. Mandatory energy performance standards are important because they contribute positively to a nation's economy and provide relative certainty about the outcome (both timing and magnitudes). Labels also contribute positively to a nation's economy and importantly increase the awareness of the energy-consuming public. Other policies not analyzed here (utility incentives, tax credits) are complimentary to standards and labels and also contribute in significant ways to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. We believe the analysis reported here to be the first systematic attempt to evaluate the potential of savings from EES&L for all countries and for such a large set of products. The goal of the analysis is to provide an assessment that is sufficiently well-quantified and accurate to allow comparison and integration with other strategies under consideration.

  11. Next Generation Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants R&D Roadmap

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE commissioned this roadmap to establish a set of high-priority research and development (R&D) activities that will accelerate the transition to low-GWP refrigerants across the entire heating, ventilation, air-conditioning and refrigeration (HVAC&R) industry.

  12. Research & Development Roadmap for Next-Generation Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China 2015of 2005UNS Electric,RMPipeline FirstSpent NuclearHow to RequestResearch

  13. Global Warming Local Warning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Paul

    Research Unit, University of East Anglia. Used with permission. Back cover photo: Wind turbines in North working to combat aviation subsidies, since air transport is the fastest growing source of greenhouse gas

  14. CHILLING CONSIDERATIONS GLOBAL WARMING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    in the center of Long Island, Brookhaven Lab is an internationally renowned scientific research institution by Long Island's Stony Brook University, which is the largest academic user of Laboratory facilities. Brookhaven Lab also builds and operates major scientific facilities available to university, industry

  15. Final Report and Strategic Plan on the Feasibility Study to Assess Geothermal Potential on Warm Springs Reservation Lands. Report No. DOE/GO/15177

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Manion, Warm Springs Power & Water Enterprises; David McClain, McClain & Associates

    2007-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2005 the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Tribal Council authorized an evaluation of the geothermal development potential on the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon. Warm Springs Power & Water Enterprises obtained a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy to conduct a geological assessment and development estimate. Warm Springs Power & Water Enterprises utilized a team of expert consultants to conduct the study and develop a strategic plan. The resource assessment work was completed in 2006 by GeothermEx Inc., a consulting company specializing in geothermal resource assessments worldwide. The GeothermEx report indicates there is a 90% probability that a commercial geothermal resource exists on tribal lands in the Mt. Jefferson area. The geothermal resource assessment and other cost, risk and constraints information has been incorporated into the strategic plan.

  16. Two-temperature pair potentials and phonon spectra for simple metals in the warm dense matter regime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harbour, Louis; Klug, Dennis D; Lewis, Laurent J

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We develop ion-ion pair potentials for Al, Na and K for densities and temperatures relevant to the warm-dense-matter (WDM) regime. Furthermore, we emphasize non-equilibrium states where the ion temperature $T_i$ differs from the electron temperature $T_e$. This work focuses mainly on ultra-fast laser-metal interactions where the energy of the laser is almost exclusively transferred to the electron sub-system over femtosecond time scales. This results in a two-temperature system with $T_e>T_i$ and with the ions still at the initial room temperature $T_i=T_r$. First-principles calculations, such as density functional theory (DFT) or quantum Monte Carlo, are as yet not fully feasible for WDM conditions due to lack of finite-$T$ features, e.g. pseudopotentials, and extensive CPU time requirements. Simpler methods are needed to study these highly complex systems. We propose to use two-temperature pair potentials $U_{ii}(r, T_i,T_e)$ constructed from linear-response theory using the non-linear electron density $n(\\...

  17. Global warming and its implications for conservation. 3. How does it work? Part two: atmospheric science and the layer model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Creel, Scott

    that energy comes in from the sun and shines back out to space as IR. The main points are: 1. The outflow of IR energy from a planet must balance heating from the sun. 2. The planet accomplishes this balance warms the surface of the planet as it moves toward an equilibrium of energy fluxes in and out. The layer

  18. Advance of East Antarctic outlet glaciers during the Hypsithermal: Implications for the volume state of the Antarctic ice sheet under global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Domack, E.W. (Hamilton College, Clinton, NY (United States)); Jull, A.J.T. (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (United States)); Nakao, Seizo (Geological Survey of Japan, Ibaraki (Japan))

    1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors present the first circum-East Antarctic chronology for the Holocene, based on 17 radiocarbon dates generated by the accelerator method. Marine sediments form around East Antarctica contain a consistent, high-resolution record of terrigenous (ice-proximal) and biogenic (open-marine) sedimentation during Holocene time. This record demonstrates that biogenic sedimentation beneath the open-marine environment on the continental shelf has been restricted to approximately the past 4 ka, whereas a period of terrigenous sedimentation related to grounding line advance of ice tongues and ice shelves took place between 7 and 4 ka. An earlier period of open-marine (biogenic sedimentation) conditions following the late Pleistocene glacial maximum is recognized from the Prydz Bay (Ocean Drilling Program) record between 10.7 and 7.3 ka. Clearly, the response of outlet systems along the periphery of the East Antarctic ice sheet during the mid-Holocene was expansion. This may have been a direct consequence of climate warming during an Antarctic Hypsithermal. Temperature-accumulation relations for the Antarctic indicate that warming will cause a significant increase in accumulation rather than in ablation. Models that predict a positive mass balance (growth) of the Antarctic ice sheet under global warming are supported by the mid-Holocene data presented herein.

  19. A KNOWLEDGE DISCOVERY STRATEGY FOR RELATING SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURES TO FREQUENCIES OF TROPICAL STORMS AND GENERATING PREDICTIONS OF HURRICANES UNDER 21ST-CENTURY GLOBAL WARMING SCENARIOS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Race, Caitlin [University of Minnesota; Steinbach, Michael [University of Minnesota; Ganguly, Auroop R [ORNL; Semazzi, Fred [North Carolina State University; Kumar, Vipin [University of Minnesota

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The connections among greenhouse-gas emissions scenarios, global warming, and frequencies of hurricanes or tropical cyclones are among the least understood in climate science but among the most fiercely debated in the context of adaptation decisions or mitigation policies. Here we show that a knowledge discovery strategy, which leverages observations and climate model simulations, offers the promise of developing credible projections of tropical cyclones based on sea surface temperatures (SST) in a warming environment. While this study motivates the development of new methodologies in statistics and data mining, the ability to solve challenging climate science problems with innovative combinations of traditional and state-of-the-art methods is demonstrated. Here we develop new insights, albeit in a proof-of-concept sense, on the relationship between sea surface temperatures and hurricane frequencies, and generate the most likely projections with uncertainty bounds for storm counts in the 21st-century warming environment based in turn on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emissions Scenarios. Our preliminary insights point to the benefits that can be achieved for climate science and impacts analysis, as well as adaptation and mitigation policies, by a solution strategy that remains tailored to the climate domain and complements physics-based climate model simulations with a combination of existing and new computational and data science approaches.

  20. Response of precipitation extremes to idealized global warming in an aqua-planet climate model: Towards robust projection across different horizontal resolutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, F.; Collins, W.D.; Wehner, M.F.; Williamson, D.L.; Olson, J.G.

    2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Current climate models produce quite heterogeneous projections for the responses of precipitation extremes to future climate change. To help understand the range of projections from multimodel ensembles, a series of idealized 'aquaplanet' Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM) runs have been performed with the Community Atmosphere Model CAM3. These runs have been analysed to identify the effects of horizontal resolution on precipitation extreme projections under two simple global warming scenarios. We adopt the aquaplanet framework for our simulations to remove any sensitivity to the spatial resolution of external inputs and to focus on the roles of model physics and dynamics. Results show that a uniform increase of sea surface temperature (SST) and an increase of low-to-high latitude SST gradient both lead to increase of precipitation and precipitation extremes for most latitudes. The perturbed SSTs generally have stronger impacts on precipitation extremes than on mean precipitation. Horizontal model resolution strongly affects the global warming signals in the extreme precipitation in tropical and subtropical regions but not in high latitude regions. This study illustrates that the effects of horizontal resolution have to be taken into account to develop more robust projections of precipitation extremes.

  1. Potential Direct and Indirect Effects of Global Cellulosic Biofuel Production on Greenhouse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Potential Direct and Indirect Effects of Global Cellulosic Biofuel Production on Greenhouse Gas on recycled paper #12;1 Potential Direct and Indirect Effects of Global Cellulosic Biofuel Production. Melillo*, John M. Reilly , and Sergey Paltsev Abstract The production of cellulosic biofuels may have

  2. Calculation of Protein Conformation by Global Optimization of a Potential Energy Function

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jooyoung

    Calculation of Protein Conformation by Global Optimization of a Potential Energy Function Jooyoung of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland 3Cornell Theory Center, Ithaca, New York ABSTRACT A novel hierarchical- vided by CASP3. The approach is based exclusively on the global optimization of a potential energy

  3. air warming system: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from negative biases in total cloud amounts and biases in the location 2 Background: Global Warming, 2009 1. Unequivocally, the climate is warming. Natural systems are...

  4. Incorporating global warming risks in power sector planning: A case study of the New England region. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krause, F.; Busch, J.; Koomey, J.

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Growing international concern over the threat of global climate change has led to proposals to buy insurance against this threat by reducing emissions of carbon (short for carbon dioxide) and other greenhouse gases below current levels. Concern over these and other, non-climatic environmental effects of electricity generation has led a number of states to adopt or explore new mechanisms for incorporating environmental externalities in utility resource planning. For example, the New York and Massachusetts utility commissions have adopted monetized surcharges (or adders) to induce emission reductions of federally regulated air pollutants (notably, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and particulates) beyond federally mandated levels. These regulations also include preliminary estimates of the cost of reducing carbon emissions, for which no federal regulations exist at this time. Within New England, regulators and utilities have also held several workshops and meetings to discuss alternative methods of incorporating externalities as well as the feasibility of regional approaches. This study examines the potential for reduced carbon emissions in the New England power sector as well as the cost and rate impacts of two policy approaches: environmental externality surcharges and a target- based approach. We analyze the following questions: Does New England have sufficient low-carbon resources to achieve significant reductions (10% to 20% below current levels) in fossil carbon emissions in its utility sector? What reductions could be achieved at a maximum? What is the expected cost of carbon reductions as a function of the reduction goal? How would carbon reduction strategies affect electricity rates? How effective are environmental externality cost surcharges as an instrument in bringing about carbon reductions? To what extent could the minimization of total electricity costs alone result in carbon reductions relative to conventional resource plans?

  5. Short Communication Potential Remobilization of Belowground Permafrost Carbon under Future

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, Diane

    ). This is a positive feedback within the Earth System, as climate warming results in permafrost thawing that causes. This effect is not yet considered in climate model projections of future global warming. PERMAFROSTShort Communication Potential Remobilization of Belowground Permafrost Carbon under Future Global

  6. IAP Statement on Realising Global Potential in Synthetic Biology: Scientific

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swain, Peter

    in the generation and optimal use of biofuels. Further ahead there are possible applications of this biological or a less radical, incremental advance. It is the purpose of the present IAP Statement, based on previous and ongoing academy activities, to emphasise that the advance of science must be connected to global policy

  7. Int. J. Global Warming, Vol. 1, No. 4, 2009 473 Statistical evaluation of the early-stage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maryland at College Park, University of

    studies on biofuel potentials in Latin America and their potential for greenhouse gas mitigation. She Professor of Physics and Renewable Energy Technologies at Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de

  8. Warm inflation in the presence of magnetic fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gabriella Piccinelli; Angel Sanchez; Alejandro Ayala; Ana Julia Mizher

    2014-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the effects of primordial magnetic fields on the inflationary potential in the context of a warm inflation scenario. The model, based on global supersymmetry with a new-inflation-type potential and a coupling between the inflaton and a heavy intermediate superfield, is already known to preserve the flatness required for slow-roll conditions even after including thermal contributions. Here we show that the magnetic field makes the potential even flatter, retarding the transition and rendering it smoother.

  9. The Estimated Global Ocean Wind Power Potential from QuikSCAT Observations, Accounting for Turbine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zender, Charles

    The Estimated Global Ocean Wind Power Potential from QuikSCAT Observations, Accounting for Turbine: (949) 824-3256 Abstract For the first time, global ocean usable wind power is evaluated for modern offshore turbine characteristics including hub height, usable portion of the wind speed distri- bution

  10. Conference for Biomass and Energy, Copenhagen, 1996 published by Elsevier BIOMASS ENERGY PRODUCTION: THE GLOBAL POTENTIAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keeling, Stephen L.

    9th Conference for Biomass and Energy, Copenhagen, 1996 published by Elsevier 1 BIOMASS ENERGY PRODUCTION: THE GLOBAL POTENTIAL AND THE NET INFLUENCE ON THE CO2 CONCENTRATION G. AHAMER Austrian Federal

  11. NERSC Calculations Provide Independent Confirmation of Global...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Calculations Provide Independent Confirmation of Global Land Warming Since 1901 NERSC Calculations Provide Independent Confirmation of Global Land Warming Since 1901 September 9,...

  12. Evaluating the Potential for Large-Scale Biodiesel Deployments in a Global Context

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    Evaluating the Potential for Large-Scale Biodiesel Deployments in a Global Context by Matthew Johnston. All rights reserved. #12;#12;Evaluating the Potential for Large-Scale Biodiesel Deployments on the subject of biodiesel, but I can only hope she takes comfort knowing now much I appreciate everything she

  13. Supporting Information for: A Global Comparison of National Biodiesel Production Potentials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    Supporting Information for: A Global Comparison of National Biodiesel Production Potentials Matt Biodiesel Potential · Table S.2: Variables Used in Calculating Biodiesel Volumes and Prices · Figure S.3: U) · Table S.5: Well-Managed Vegetable Oil Yields · Table S.6: A Complete List of Absolute Biodiesel

  14. The Ecological Society of America www.frontiersinecology.org Societal concern over global warming and its link to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weiblen, George D

    . These plans involve two general strategies: (1) direct reduction of fossil-fuel-based CO2 emissions through , and Peter B Reich4 Many carbon dioxide (CO2) emission-reduction strategies currently under consideration in land use as potential ways to offset part of current CO2 emissions worldwide. Mitigation plans drafted

  15. Specific Examples of Global Activities Environmental assessment in Azerbaijan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , global warming, and global entrepreneurship. Discovery Park works syner- gistically with the Office competitiveness, global energy security, global warming, and global entrepreneurship. Discovery Park worksSpecific Examples of Global Activities · Environmental assessment in Azerbaijan · Study abroad

  16. Achieving Californias Land Use and Transportation Greenhouse Gas Emission Targets Under AB 32: An Exploration of Potential Policy Processes and Mechanisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaheen, Susan A.; Bejamin-Chung, Jade; Allen, Denise; Howe-Steiger, Linda

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the national level regarding global warming mitigation. Thethe national level regarding global warming mitigation. Thisincreasing sea levels due to global warming (McManus, 2007).

  17. Estimated global ocean wind power potential from QuikSCAT observations, accounting for turbine characteristics and siting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zender, Charles

    Click Here for Full Article Estimated global ocean wind power potential from QuikSCAT observations. Zender (2010), Estimated global ocean wind power potential from QuikSCAT observations, accounting, global ocean usable wind power is evaluated for modern offshore turbine characteristics including hub

  18. Derivation of an optical potential for statically deformed rare-earth nuclei from a global spherical potential

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nobre, G. P. A.; Palumbo, A.; Herman, M.; Brown, D.; Hoblit, S.; Dietrich, F. S.

    2015-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The coupled-channel theory is a natural way of treating nonelastic channels, in particular those arising from collective excitations characterized by nuclear deformations. A proper treatment of such excitations is often essential to the accurate description of experimental nuclear-reaction data and to the prediction of a wide variety of scattering observables. Stimulated by recent work substantiating the near validity of the adiabatic approximation in coupled-channel calculations for scattering on statically deformed nuclei, we explore the possibility of generalizing a global spherical optical model potential (OMP) to make it usable in coupled-channel calculations on this class of nuclei. To do this, wemorehave deformed the Koning-Delaroche global spherical potential for neutrons, coupling a sufficient number of states of the ground state band to ensure convergence. We present an extensive study of the effects of collective couplings and nuclear deformations on integrated cross sections as well as on angular distributions for neutron-induced reactions on statically deformed nuclei in the rare-earth region. We choose isotopes of three rare-earth elements (Gd, Ho, W), which are known to be nearly perfect rotors, to exemplify the results of the proposed method. Predictions from our model for total, elastic and inelastic cross sections, as well as for elastic and inelastic angular distributions, are in reasonable agreement with measured experimental data. These results suggest that the deformed Koning-Delaroche potential provides a useful regional neutron optical potential for the statically deformed rare earth nuclei.less

  19. Derivation of an optical potential for statically deformed rare-earth nuclei from a global spherical potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. P. A. Nobre; A. Palumbo; F. S. Dietrich; M. Herman; D. Brown; S. Hoblit

    2014-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The coupled-channel theory is a natural way of treating nonelastic channels, in particular those arising from collective excitations characterized by nuclear deformations. A proper treatment of such excitations is often essential to the accurate description of experimental nuclear-reaction data and to the prediction of a wide variety of scattering observables. Stimulated by recent work substantiating the near validity of the adiabatic approximation in coupled-channel calculations for scattering on statically deformed nuclei, we explore the possibility of generalizing a global spherical optical model potential (OMP) to make it usable in coupled-channel calculations on this class of nuclei. To do this, we have deformed the Koning-Delaroche global spherical potential for neutrons, coupling a sufficient number of states of the ground state band to ensure convergence. We present an extensive study of the effects of collective couplings and nuclear deformations on integrated cross sections as well as on angular distributions for neutron-induced reactions on statically deformed nuclei in the rare-earth region. We choose isotopes of three rare-earth elements (Gd, Ho, W), which are known to be nearly perfect rotors, to exemplify the results of the proposed method. Predictions from our model for total, elastic and inelastic cross sections, as well as for elastic and inelastic angular distributions, are in reasonable agreement with measured experimental data. These results suggest that the deformed Koning-Delaroche potential provides a useful regional neutron optical potential for the statically deformed rare earth nuclei.

  20. Derivation of an optical potential for statically deformed rare-earth nuclei from a global spherical potential

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nobre, G. P. A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Palumbo, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Herman, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Brown, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hoblit, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Dietrich, F. S. [Walnut Creek, CA (United States)

    2015-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The coupled-channel theory is a natural way of treating nonelastic channels, in particular those arising from collective excitations characterized by nuclear deformations. A proper treatment of such excitations is often essential to the accurate description of experimental nuclear-reaction data and to the prediction of a wide variety of scattering observables. Stimulated by recent work substantiating the near validity of the adiabatic approximation in coupled-channel calculations for scattering on statically deformed nuclei, we explore the possibility of generalizing a global spherical optical model potential (OMP) to make it usable in coupled-channel calculations on this class of nuclei. To do this, we have deformed the Koning-Delaroche global spherical potential for neutrons, coupling a sufficient number of states of the ground state band to ensure convergence. We present an extensive study of the effects of collective couplings and nuclear deformations on integrated cross sections as well as on angular distributions for neutron-induced reactions on statically deformed nuclei in the rare-earth region. We choose isotopes of three rare-earth elements (Gd, Ho, W), which are known to be nearly perfect rotors, to exemplify the results of the proposed method. Predictions from our model for total, elastic and inelastic cross sections, as well as for elastic and inelastic angular distributions, are in reasonable agreement with measured experimental data. These results suggest that the deformed Koning-Delaroche potential provides a useful regional neutron optical potential for the statically deformed rare earth nuclei.

  1. Arctic ice export events and their potential impact on global climate during the late Pleistocene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Darby, Dennis

    Arctic ice export events and their potential impact on global climate during the late Pleistocene export events are identified from the Laurentide and the Innuitian ice sheets, between 14 and 34 ka, the Arctic export events appear to occur prior to Heinrich events. INDEX TERMS: 4207 Oceanography: General

  2. Institutionalizing Unsustainability: The Paradox of Global Climate Governance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevenson, Hayley

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    results in 4 C global warming, sea level rise, specieslevels of greenhouse gases are responsible for incremental global warming.levels as that of the developing countries, the world would not today have faced the threat of global warming.

  3. Decision-making in Electricity Generation Based on Global Warming Potential and Life-cycle Assessment for Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horvath, Arpad

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by hydroelectric power plants in California is 11.17% [CECCalifornia in 2003. Because the location of coal and natural gas power plantsCalifornia is diversified: 22.35% of the energy is imported, and 9.84% of the electricity is produced in coal fired power plants

  4. Global Warming* The Perfect Storm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    Hydrates Shale Oil Tar Sands ? ** #12;Caption if needed #12;"Free Will" Alternative 1. Phase Out Coal CO2 Oil Gas Coal GtC Reserve growth Proven reserves* Emissions (CDIAC) EIA IPCC CO2(ppmv) 600 400 200 100 300 0 500 *Oil & gas from EIA ** Unconventional oil & gas; uncertain, could be large Other Methane

  5. ARM - Lesson Plans: Global Warming

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDC documentationBarrow, Alaska Outreach HomeClimateExpansion

  6. ARM - What Causes Global Warming?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWP TWP Related Links Facilities and Instruments Outreach Home Room

  7. ARM - What Causes Global Warming?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWP TWP Related Links Facilities and Instruments Outreach Home

  8. ARM - What is Global Warming?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWP TWP Related Links Facilities and Instruments Outreach HomeWhat Willis

  9. ARM - What is Global Warming?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWP TWP Related Links Facilities and Instruments Outreach HomeWhat

  10. Warm absorbers in X-rays (WAX), a comprehensive high resolution grating spectral study of a sample of Seyfert galaxies: I. A global view and frequency of occurrence of warm absorbers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laha, Sibasish; Dewangan, Gulab C; Chakravorty, Susmita; Kembhavi, Ajit K

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present results from a homogeneous analysis of the broadband 0.3-10 keV CCD resolution as well as of soft X-ray high-resolution grating spectra of a hard X-ray flux-limited sample of 26 Seyfert galaxies observed with XMM-Newton. Our goal is to characterise the warm absorber (WA) properties along the line-of-sight to the active nucleus. We significantly detect WAs in $65\\%$ of the sample sources. Our results are consistent with WAs being present in at least half of the Seyfert galaxies in the nearby Universe, in agreement with previous estimates . We find a gap in the distribution of the ionisation parameter in the range $0.5<\\log\\xi<1.5$ which we interpret as a thermally unstable region for WA clouds. This may indicate that the warm absorber flow is probably constituted by a clumpy distribution of discrete clouds rather than a continuous medium. The distribution of the WA column densities for the sources with broad Fe K$\\alpha$ lines are similar to those sources which do not have broadened emission l...

  11. Warm absorbers in X-rays (WAX), a comprehensive high resolution grating spectral study of a sample of Seyfert galaxies: I. A global view and frequency of occurrence of warm absorbers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laha, Sibasish; Dewangan, Gulab C; Chakravorty, Susmita; Kembhavi, Ajit K

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present results from a homogeneous analysis of the broadband 0.3-10 keV CCD resolution as well as of soft X-ray high-resolution grating spectra of a hard X-ray flux-limited sample of 26 Seyfert galaxies observed with XMM-Newton. Our goal is to characterise the warm absorber (WA) properties along the line-of-sight to the active nucleus. We significantly detect WAs in $65\\%$ of the sample sources. Our results are consistent with WAs being present in at least half of the Seyfert galaxies in the nearby Universe, in agreement with previous estimates . We find a gap in the distribution of the ionisation parameter in the range $0.5warm absorber flow is probably constituted by a clumpy distribution of discrete clouds rather than a continuous medium. The distribution of the WA column densities for the sources with broad Fe K$\\alpha$ lines are similar to those sources which do not have broadened emission l...

  12. Global dynamics and asymptotics for monomial scalar field potentials and perfect fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alho, Artur; Uggla, Claes

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider a minimally coupled scalar field with a monomial potential and a perfect fluid in flat FLRW cosmology. We apply local and global dynamical systems techniques to a new three-dimensional dynamical systems reformulation of the field equations on a compact state space. This leads to a visual global description of the solution space and asymptotic behavior. At late times we employ averaging techniques to prove statements about how the relationship between the equation of state of the fluid and the monomial exponent of the scalar field affects asymptotic source dominance and asymptotic manifest self-similarity breaking. We also situate the `attractor' solution in the three-dimensional state space and show that it corresponds to the one-dimensional unstable center manifold of a de Sitter fixed point, located on an unphysical boundary associated with the dynamics at early times. By deriving a center manifold expansion we obtain approximate expressions for the attractor solution. We subsequently improve th...

  13. Global Economic Effects of USA Biofuel Policy and the Potential Contribution from Advanced Biofuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gbadebo Oladosu; Keith Kline; Paul Leiby; Rocio Uria-Martinez; Maggie Davis; Mark Downing; Laurence Eaton

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study evaluates the global economic effects of the USA renewable fuel standards (RFS2), and the potential contribution from advanced biofuels. Our simulation results imply that these mandates lead to an increase of 0.21 percent in the global gross domestic product (GDP) in 2022, including an increase of 0.8 percent in the USA and 0.02 percent in the rest of the world (ROW); relative to our baseline, no-RFS scenario. The incremental contributions to GDP from advanced biofuels in 2022 are estimated at 0.41 percent and 0.04 percent in the USA and ROW, respectively. Although production costs of advanced biofuels are higher than for conventional biofuels in our model, their economic benefits result from reductions in oil use, and their smaller impacts on food markets compared with conventional biofuels. Thus, the USA advanced biofuels targets are expected to have positive economic benefits.

  14. When Weather Warms, Water Wises Control No. #2281

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morrow, James A.

    . In the next century, the most important result of this global warming will be the melting of the polar ice caps and the associated rise in sea levels. We develop a model for global climate change, with both . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 7 Effect of global warming on the state of Florida 14 7.1 Previously conjectured effects

  15. Acting Globally: Potential Carbon Emissions Mitigation Impacts from an International Standards and Labelling Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNeil, Michael A; Letschert, Virginie E.; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Egan, Christine

    2009-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents an analysis of the potential impacts of an international initiative designed to support and promote the development and implementation of appliances standards and labelling programs throughout the world. As part of previous research efforts, LBNL developed the Bottom Up Energy Analysis System (BUENAS), an analysis framework that estimates impact potentials of energy efficiency policies on a global scale. In this paper, we apply this framework to an initiative that would result in the successful implementation of programs focused on high priority regions and product types, thus evaluating the potential impacts of such an initiative in terms of electricity savings and carbon mitigation in 2030. In order to model the likely parameters of such a program, we limit impacts to a five year period starting in 2009, but assume that the first 5 years of a program will result in implementation of 'best practice' minimum efficiency performance standards by 2014. The 'high priority' regions considered are: Brazil, China, the European Union,India, Mexico and the United States. The products considered are: refrigerators, air conditioners, lighting (both fluorescent and incandescent), standby power (for consumer electronics) and televisions in the residential sector, and air conditioning and lighting in commercial buildings. In 2020, these regions and enduses account for about 37percent of global residential electricity and 29percent of electricity in commercial buildings. We find that 850Mt of CO2 could be saved in buildings by 2030 compared to the baseline forecast.

  16. Impact of the Southern ocean winds on sea-ice - ocean interaction and its associated global ocean circulation in a warming world

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheon, Woo Geunn

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation discusses a linkage between the Southern Ocean (SO) winds and the global ocean circulation in the framework of a coarse-resolution global ocean general circulation model coupled to a sea-ice model. In addition to reexamination...

  17. activities relating global: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    assessment in Azerbaijan Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: , global warming, and global entrepreneurship. Discovery Park works syner- gistically with...

  18. assessing historical global: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    assessment in Azerbaijan Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: , global warming, and global entrepreneurship. Discovery Park works syner- gistically with...

  19. activation a global toggle: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    assessment in Azerbaijan Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: , global warming, and global entrepreneurship. Discovery Park works syner- gistically with...

  20. GHG Mitigation Potential, Costs and Benefits in Global Forests: ADynamic Partial Equilibrium Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sathaye, Jayant; Makundi, Willy; Dale, Larry; Chan, Peter; Andrasko, Kenneth

    2005-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on the global potential for carbonsequestration in forest plantations, and the reduction of carbonemissions from deforestation, in response to six carbon price scenariosfrom 2000 to 2100. These carbon price scenarios cover a range typicallyseen in global integrated assessment models. The world forest sector wasdisaggregated into tenregions, four largely temperate, developedregions: the European Union, Oceania, Russia, and the United States; andsix developing, mostly tropical, regions: Africa, Central America, China,India, Rest of Asia, and South America. Three mitigation options -- long-and short-rotation forestry, and the reduction of deforestation -- wereanalyzed using a global dynamic partial equilibrium model (GCOMAP). Keyfindings of this work are that cumulative carbon gain ranges from 50.9 to113.2 Gt C by 2100, higher carbon prices early lead to earlier carbongain and vice versa, and avoided deforestation accounts for 51 to 78percent of modeled carbon gains by 2100. The estimated present value ofcumulative welfare change in the sector ranges from a decline of $158billion to a gain of $81 billion by 2100. The decline is associated witha decrease in deforestation.

  1. Winter 2010 in Europe: A cold extreme in a warming climate J. Cattiaux,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Codron, Francis

    by a mean warm anomaly at global scale, especially over Greenland, Canada, North Africa and Middle East (see

  2. Rapid and extensive warming following cessation of1 solar radiation management2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Battisti, David

    , and sustained warming over land occurs17 that is well outside 20th century climate variability bounds. Global controlled by background GHG levels. Thus, a risk of22 abrupt and dangerous warming is inherent to the large aerosol34 layer could effectively curb global warming. In order to stabilize global climate near35 present

  3. Sensitivities of zonal mean atmospheric circulation to SST warming in an aquaplanet model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Gang

    ] What causes these circulation changes is not fully understood. Since global warming and El Niño, storm tracks, or the boundaries of Hadley cell circulations under global warming [e.g., Yin, 2005 and the latitude of surface westerlies in response to El Niño versus global warming [Lu et al., 2008; Chen et al

  4. Warming caused by cumulative carbon emissions towards the trillionth tonne

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischlin, Andreas

    to avoid poten- tially dangerous levels of global warming48 . Similar problems apply to the carbon cycle . But the eventual equilibrium global mean temperature associated with a given stabilization level of atmo- spheric atmospheric composition approaches a stabilization level consistent with a desired equilibrium warming

  5. Global Cooling: Effect of Urban Albedo on Global Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, Hashem; Menon, Surabi; Rosenfeld, Arthur

    2007-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    In many urban areas, pavements and roofs constitute over 60% of urban surfaces (roof 20-25%, pavements about 40%). The roof and the pavement albedo can be increased by about 0.25 and 0.10, respectively, resulting in a net albedo increase for urban areas of about 0.1. Many studies have demonstrated building cooling-energy savings in excess of 20% upon raising roof reflectivity from an existing 10-20% to about 60%. We estimate U.S. potential savings in excess of $1 billion (B) per year in net annual energy bills. Increasing albedo of urban surfaces can reduce the summertime urban temperature and improve the urban air quality. Increasing the urban albedo has the added benefit of reflecting more of the incoming global solar radiation and countering the effect of global warming. We estimate that increasing albedo of urban areas by 0.1 results in an increase of 3 x 10{sup -4} in Earth albedo. Using a simple global model, the change in air temperature in lowest 1.8 km of the atmosphere is estimated at 0.01K. Modelers predict a warming of about 3K in the next 60 years (0.05K/year). Change of 0.1 in urban albedo will result in 0.01K global cooling, a delay of {approx}0.2 years in global warming. This 0.2 years delay in global warming is equivalent to 10 Gt reduction in CO2 emissions.

  6. Tales from the climate-change crossroads Four books by prominent global-warming pundits illustrate that exhortation and authority are not

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), and for questionable behaviour revealed in e-mail disclosures the climate crisis". He provides a colourful overview of low-carbon technologies -- wind, solar, nuclear behavior and thinking". Again, he does not say how a new global consciousness is to be delivered. Instead

  7. Sardinia 2007, Eleventh International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium Potential for Reducing Global Methane Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    for Reducing Global Methane Emissions From Landfills, 2000-2030 E. MATTHEWS1 , N. J. THEMELIS2 1 NASA Goddard methane (CH4 )annually to the world's total CH4 emission of ~550 Tg/yr. Recycling and thermal treatment destined for landfills and to mitigating CH4 emission. Waste generation is estimated to more than double

  8. The Leo Archipelago: A System of Earth-Rings for Communications, Mass-Transport to Space, Solar Power, and Control of Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrew Meulenberg; Karthik Balaji

    2010-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A multi-purpose low-earth-orbit system of rings circling the earth - the "LEO ARCHIPELAGO" - is proposed as a means of solving or bypassing many major problems hindering man's quest to get into space. A fiber-optic ring about the earth would be an initial testing and developmental stage for the ring systems, while providing cash-flow through a LEO-based, high-band-width, world-wide communication system. A Low-Earth-Orbit-based space-elevator system, "Sling-on-a-Ring," is proposed as the crucial developmental stage of the LEO Archipelago. Being a LEO-based heavy-mass lifter, rather than earth- or GEO-based, it is much less massive and therefore less costly than other proposed space-elevators. With the advent of lower-cost, higher-mass transport to orbit, the options for further space development (e.g., communications, space solar power, radiation dampers, sun shades, and permanent LEO habitation) are greatly expanded. This paper provides an update of the Sling-on-a-Ring concept in terms of new materials, potential applications, and trade-offs associated with an earlier model. The impact of Colossal Carbon Tubes, CCT, a material with high tensile strength, extremely-low density, and other favorable properties and new technologies (e.g., solar-powered lasers, power beaming to near-space and earth, and thermal-control systems) on the development of associated LEO-Ring systems (e.g., "Solar-Shade Rings" and "Power Rings") is also explored. The material's effect on the timeline for the system development indicates the feasibility of near-term implementation of the system (possibly within the decade). The Sling-on-a-Ring can provide a less-expensive, environment-friendly, mode of access to space. This would pave the way (via eventual operation at >1000 tonnes per day by 2050) for large scale development of space-based technologies.

  9. americas warm water: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2012. Yale University and George Mason and Costs of Reducing Fossil Fuel Use and Global Warming 8 The Alarmed 9 The Concerned 10 The Cautious 11 Haller, Gary L. 2...

  10. The Climate Policy Narrative for a Dangerously Warming World

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanford, Todd [Union of Concerned Scientists] [Union of Concerned Scientists; Frumhoff, Peter [Union of Concerned Scientists] [Union of Concerned Scientists; Luers, Amy [Skoll Global Threats Fund] [Skoll Global Threats Fund; Gulledge, Jay [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is time to acknowledge that global average temperatures will likely rise above the 2 C policy target and consider how that deeply troubling prospect should affect priorities for communicating and managing the risks of a dangerously warming climate.

  11. Electric Vehicles Global Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sbester, Andrs

    Hot Topics Electric Vehicles Global Climate Change Green Building Hydraulic Fracturing Nuclear to global warming. The UKgovernment has just announced it is investing $1 billion in their development Green Living Industry Regulation Remediation Research and Technology Sustainability Waste Water Products

  12. On the global economic potentials and marginal costs of non-renewable resources and the price dynamics of energy commodities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mercure, Jean-Francois

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A model is presented in this work for simulating endogenously the evolution of the marginal costs of production of energy carriers from non-renewable resources, their consumption, depletion pathways and timescales. Such marginal costs can be used to simulate the long term average price formation of energy commodities. Drawing on previous work where a global database of energy resource economic potentials was constructed, this work uses cost distributions of non-renewable resources in order to evaluate global flows of energy commodities. A mathematical framework is given to calculate endogenous flows of energy resources given an exogenous commodity price path. This framework can be used in reverse in order to calculate an exogenous marginal cost of production of energy carriers given an exogenous carrier demand. Using rigid price inelastic assumptions independent of the economy, these two approaches generate limiting scenarios that depict extreme use of natural resources. This is useful to characterise the cur...

  13. analysis reveals global: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    541..553 Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: temperatures from global warming (ChamaillRESEARCH PAPER Global analysis of reptile elevational...

  14. Effect of the potential melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet on the Meridional Overturning Circulation and global climate in the future

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Weiqing

    Effect of the potential melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet on the Meridional Overturning February 2011 Keywords: Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation Sea level Greenland Ice Sheet Global of the Greenland Ice Sheet since the mid-1990s. This increased ice sheet mass loss might be an evidence of global

  15. WARMING TRENDS IN THE TAHOE HAPPY HOUR WITH ROBERT COATS, PH.D.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schladow, S. Geoffrey

    to the causes of global warming lie at the national and international level, addressing the consequencesWARMING TRENDS IN THE TAHOE BASIN HAPPY HOUR WITH ROBERT COATS, PH.D. (HYDROIKOS LTD.) Date scientists agree that the earth's atmosphere and oceans are warming and the consequences will fall somewhere

  16. SOME CHILLING CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT GLOBAL WARMING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    is about 100 years. The expected life of a new coal-fired power plant is 50 to 75 years. Actions taken costs. #12;Looking to the Future . . . #12;Prediction is difficult, especially about the future. Niels

  17. SOME CHILLING CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT GLOBAL WARMING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    envelope All SRES envelope including land-ice uncertainty Model average all SRES envelope All IS92 CO2 Temperaturechange(C) A1FI A1B A1T A2 B1 B2 IS92a Several models all SRES envelope Model ensemble all SRES envelope 2060 2080 2100 IPCC, 2001 Sea level rise includes only thermal expansion, not land-ice melt. #12;Weiss

  18. SOME CHILLING CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT GLOBAL WARMING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    C. D. Keeling Year CO2concentration(ppm) 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 800 1000 1200 Polar ice cores 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 Forcing,Wm -2 #12;INCREASES IN CO2 OVER THE INDUSTRIAL - Etheridge et al. Siple - Friedli et al. Mauna Loa - Keeling #12;ATMOSPHERIC CO2 EMISSIONS Time series 1700

  19. Combating global warming while the Senate fiddles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rokach, Joshua Z.

    2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    No action in Congress? A simpler, more effective solution would be to allow utilities to use existing economic dispatch but require cost to include a price of pollution. Dispatchers would use current pricing models to calibrate the costs of various plants, so that cheaper units equal cleaner units. Working within current rules avoids the complexity of EPA regulation and the disruption of enacting new dispatch rules. It offers a more comprehensive solution than state-by-state permit proceedings. (author)

  20. ARM - Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006Datastreamstwrcam40m DocumentationJanuary 9, 2009 [Events, FeatureListGeneral Changes inListGreenhouse Effect

  1. Carbon and nitrogen dynamics in bioenergy ecosystems: 2. Potential greenhouse gas emissions and global

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhuang, Qianlai

    Carbon and nitrogen dynamics in bioenergy ecosystems: 2. Potential greenhouse gas emissions) from bioenergy ecosystems with a biogeochemical model AgTEM, assuming maize (Zea mays L.), switchgrass ha?1 yr?1 . Among all three bioenergy crops, Miscanthus is the most biofuel productive and the least

  2. 20 LI B E R A L ED U C A T I O N SP R I N G 2008 HOW MUCH will global temperatures rise over

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bralower, Timothy J.

    ecosystems? Will global warming cause hurricanes more powerful than Andrew and Katrina? What triggers, and the realization that issues such as global warming require action on the part of individuals as well, the literal collapse of eco- systems, and of course, global warming--to name the obvious. Global warming

  3. abiotic-stress resistant warm: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Zeolite on the Decomposition Resistance of Organic Matter in Tropical Soils under Global Warming CiteSeer Summary: AbstractGlobal temperature had increased by about 0.5 o...

  4. Warm-VM Reboot Warm-VM Reboot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kourai, Kenichi

    Tos Warm-VM Reboot VMM OS Warm-VM Reboot VMM OS OS 1 Tvmm > Tos Tvmm Tos Warm-VM Reboot Tvmm Dw(n) Warm-VM Reboot VM n Dos OS OS rejuvenation VMM rejuvenation time (a) Tvmm > Tos VMM rejuvenation OS rejuvenation time (b) Tvmm Tos 1 Warm-VM Reboot Nw Tvmm OS Nw Tvmm-Dw(n) Tos Dw(n) + NwDos Aw = 1 - Dw(n) + Nw

  5. Monsoons in a warming and more populous world: the question of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in the 1990's 45% were in Asia 30% in US 10% in Europe Human impact 2 billion people affected 400. Global warming and climate change 3. Population increase and attendant problems 4. Societal and human if global warming were to occur? Monsoons Tropical cyclones Droughts Floods Dust Storms How can

  6. The warming climate could put food supplies at risk over the next decade or two.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Floeter, Sergio Ricardo

    change. The results suggest that with climate warming, the risk of losing 10% or more of the global wheat by 20 times, to a 1 in 10 chance. Environ. Res. Lett. 9, 074003 (2014) AGRICULTURE Global warming could, has a buried ocean that is saltier than many seas on Earth. Titan, with its thick atmosphere

  7. What causes the excessive response of clear-sky greenhouse effect to El Nin~o warming in Community Atmosphere Models?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Dezheng

    What causes the excessive response of clear-sky greenhouse effect to El Nin~o warming in Community.-Z. Sun (2008), What causes the excessive response of clear-sky greenhouse effect to El Nin~o warming for global warming because the latter may have a different spatial pattern of warming [e.g., Sun and Held

  8. Warm-Chaplygin inflationary universe model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sergio del Campo; Ramon Herrera

    2008-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Warm inflationary universe models in the context of a Chaplygin gas equation are studied. General conditions required for these models to be realizable are derived and discussed. By using a chaotic potential we develop models for a dissipation coefficient of the form $\\Gamma\\propto \\phi^n$, with $n=0$ or $n\

  9. Warm inflationary model in loop quantum cosmology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herrera, Ramon [Instituto de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Avenida Brasil 2950, Casilla 4059, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A warm inflationary universe model in loop quantum cosmology is studied. In general we discuss the condition of inflation in this framework. By using a chaotic potential, V({phi}){proportional_to}{phi}{sup 2}, we develop a model where the dissipation coefficient {Gamma}={Gamma}{sub 0}=constant. We use recent astronomical observations for constraining the parameters appearing in our model.

  10. Globalization and standards : the liberalization of trade and the potential for a regulatory race to the top

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cameron, Diane (Melissa Jessica Diane)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Globalization is changing the way in which the world is organized. The world trade regime is increasingly the dominant mode of organizing international relations. Within this context of globalization and liberalization of ...

  11. Estimated global ocean wind power potential from QuikSCAT observations, accounting for turbine characteristics and siting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Capps, Scott B; Zender, Charles S

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Evaluation of global wind power, J. Geophys. Res. , 110,2009), Global ocean wind power sensitivity to surface layerCO 2 reductions via offshore wind power matched to inherent

  12. air force global: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    stations are confined mainly to continental and island locations. The results indicate a global warming of about 0.5-0.7C in the past century, with warming of similar...

  13. anthropogenically enhanced global: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Proving anthropogenic global warming and disproving natural warming Physics Websites Summary: 1 Proving...

  14. Estimated global ocean wind power potential from QuikSCAT observations, accounting for turbine characteristics and siting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Capps, Scott B; Zender, Charles S

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wind Energy Association (2009), American Wind Energy Asso-ciation annual wind industry report: Year ending 2008,2005), Evaluation of global wind power, J. Geophys. Res. ,

  15. Global climate change and international security.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karas, Thomas H.

    2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report originates in a workshop held at Sandia National Laboratories, bringing together a variety of external experts with Sandia personnel to discuss 'The Implications of Global Climate Change for International Security.' Whatever the future of the current global warming trend, paleoclimatic history shows that climate change happens, sometimes abruptly. These changes can severely impact human water supplies, agriculture, migration patterns, infrastructure, financial flows, disease prevalence, and economic activity. Those impacts, in turn, can lead to national or international security problems stemming from aggravation of internal conflicts, increased poverty and inequality, exacerbation of existing international conflicts, diversion of national and international resources from international security programs (military or non-military), contribution to global economic decline or collapse, or international realignments based on climate change mitigation policies. After reviewing these potential problems, the report concludes with a brief listing of some research, technology, and policy measures that might mitigate them.

  16. The effects of potential changes in United States beef production on global grazing systems and greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Yaoqi

    and greenhouse gas emissions Jerome Dumortier1 , Dermot J Hayes2 , Miguel Carriquiry2 , Fengxia Dong3 , Xiaodong in the U.S. causes a net increase in GHG emissions on a global scale. We couple a global agricultural production in the United States. The effects on emissions from agricultural production (i.e., methane

  17. Expanding Global Network: Discovery to Delivery The United States ranks #1 in innovation. Purdue is preparing for the 21st century global

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    challenges global health, global competitiveness, global energy security, global warming, global and visibility that Purdue enjoys at all levels globally. Provide global experience for Purdue facultyExpanding Global Network: Discovery to Delivery The United States ranks #1 in innovation. Purdue

  18. The instrumental record goes back to about 1850. A few areas of the globe have not warmed in recent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allan, Richard P.

    the historical rise in temperatures. #12;Are there other indicators of the warming? Global sea level has risen of land and other factors. Global sea levels have risen about 20cm over the past 100 years a rateThe instrumental record goes back to about 1850. A few areas of the globe have not warmed in recent

  19. Natural warm inflation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Visinelli, Luca, E-mail: u0583682@utah.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, 115 South 1400 East 201, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112-0830 (United States)

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We derive the requirements that a generic axion-like field has to satisfy in order to play the role of the inflaton field in the warm inflation scenario. Compared to the parameter space in ordinary Natural Inflation models, we find that the parameter space in our model is enlarged. In particular, we avoid the problem of having an axion decay constant f that relates to the Planck scale, which is instead present in the ordinary Natural Inflation models; in fact, our model can easily accommodate values of the axion decay constant that lie well below the Planck scale.

  20. Warm-Intermediate inflationary universe model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sergio del Campo; Ramon Herrera

    2009-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Warm inflationary universe models in the context of intermediate expansion, between power law and exponential, are studied. General conditions required for these models to be realizable are derived and discussed. This study is done in the weak and strong dissipative regimes. The inflaton potentials considered in this study are negative-power-law and powers of logarithms, respectively. The parameters of our models are constrained from the WMAP three and five year data.

  1. 194 / JOURNAL OF WATER RESOURCES PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT / JULY/AUGUST 1999 INDICATORS OF IMPACTS OF GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE ON U.S.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vogel, Richard M.

    194 / JOURNAL OF WATER RESOURCES PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT / JULY/AUGUST 1999 INDICATORS OF IMPACTS of the indicators, regional reservoir storage vulnerability, is a particularly useful index summarizing (U.S.) to investigate the integrated impacts of potential global warming on water resources. Impacts

  2. awarded global energy: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    energy system model Optimisation Minimises the total cost under 14 Diet, Energy, and Global Warming CiteSeer Summary: ABSTRACT: The energy consumption of animal- and...

  3. Consistency of the tachyon warm inflationary universe models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Xiao-Min

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The consistency of the tachyon warm inflationary models is studied. We perform a linear stability analysis to give the slow-roll conditions characterized by the potential slow-roll (PSR) parameters for the existence of a tachyon warm inflationary attractor in the system. The PSR parameters in the tachyon warm inflationary models are new defined in our paper. The two cases of an exponential potential and an inverse power law potential are studied when the dissipative coefficient $\\Gamma=\\Gamma_0$ and $\\Gamma=\\Gamma(\\phi)$, respectively. A crucial condition for a workable tachyon warm inflationary model characterized by the Hubble slow-roll (HSR) parameter $\\epsilon_{_H}$ is obtained and extends to some other inflationary models. We can get a proper number of the e-folds in both cases of the tachyon warm inflation, contrary to some existing papers. We also point out that a constant dissipative coefficient $(\\Gamma=\\Gamma_0)$ is usually not a good assumption for a workable warm inflationary model.

  4. Consistency of the tachyon warm inflationary universe models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiao-Min Zhang; Jian-Yang Zhu

    2014-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This study concerns the consistency of the tachyon warm inflationary models. A linear stability analysis is performed to find the slow-roll conditions, characterized by the potential slow-roll (PSR) parameters, for the existence of a tachyon warm inflationary attractor in the system. The PSR parameters in the tachyon warm inflationary models are redefined. Two cases, an exponential potential and an inverse power-law potential, are studied, when the dissipative coefficient $\\Gamma=\\Gamma_0$ and $\\Gamma=\\Gamma(\\phi)$, respectively. A crucial condition is obtained for a tachyon warm inflationary model characterized by the Hubble slow-roll (HSR) parameter $\\epsilon_{_H}$, and the condition is extendable to some other inflationary models as well. A proper number of e-folds is obtained in both cases of the tachyon warm inflation, in contrast to existing works. It is also found that a constant dissipative coefficient $(\\Gamma=\\Gamma_0)$ is usually not a suitable assumption for a warm inflationary model.

  5. The warm inflationary universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arjun Berera

    2008-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    In the past decade, the importance of dissipation and fluctuation to inflationary dynamics has been realized and has led to a new picture of inflation called warm inflation. Although these phenomena are common to condensed matter systems, for inflation models their importance has only recently started to be appreciated. The article describes the motivation for these phenomenon during inflation and then examines their origins from first principles quantum field theory treatments of inflation models. Cosmology today is a data intensive field and this is driving theory to greater precision and predictability. This opens the possibility to consider tests for detecting observational signatures of dissipative processes, which will be discussed. In addition it will be discussed how particle physics and cosmology are now working in tandem to push the boundaries of our knowledge about fundamental physics.

  6. Climate change and hydropower production in the Swiss Alps:potential impacts and modelling uncertainties Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 11(3), 11911205, 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    climate change scenarios based on global-mean warming scenarios, the corresponding discharge model). Apart from the obvious economic interest in electricity production from water accumulated in reservoirsClimate change and hydropower production in the Swiss Alps:potential impacts and modelling

  7. Greenhouse gas emissions from Scottish arable agriculture and the potential for biochar to be used as an agricultural greenhouse gas mitigation option

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winning, Nicola Jane

    2015-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a powerful greenhouse gas (GHG) which has a global warming potential 296 times greater than that of carbon dioxide (CO2). Agriculture is a major source of N2O and in the UK approximately 71 % of ...

  8. Long-term experimental warming reduces soil nematode populations in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wall, Diana

    warming is expected to increase snow and glacial melt, resulting in higher stream discharge, rising lake levels, and an increase in areas of moist soil, but the potential influence of warming and associated changes in hydrology on the soil ecosystem is poorly understood. To examine the effects of soil warming

  9. Global impact of ionospheric outflows on the dynamics of the magnetosphere and cross-polar cap potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    potential R. M. Winglee, D. Chua, M. Brittnacher, and G. K. Parks Geophysics Program, University potential due to the mass loading it produces on the magnetosphere; i.e., the heavy ions provide a major sink for momentum that is transferred from the solar wind to the magnetosphere. The derived values

  10. Globalization and human cooperation Nancy R. Buchana,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , the overharvesting of natural resources and human-induced global warming. However, what does globalization imply and individual levels and ana- lyzing the relationship between globalization and individual co- operation of globalization increase, so too does individual cooperation at the global level vis-a`-vis the local level

  11. average daily global: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    14,000 1 31 61 91 121 151 181 211 241 271 301 331 361 Year Oregon, University of 14 What Global Warming Looks Like The July 2010 global map of surface temperature anomalies...

  12. average detecting global: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    arises in imple- menting the most basic command of a debugging system Garg, Vijay 13 What Global Warming Looks Like The July 2010 global map of surface temperature anomalies...

  13. Microalgae-derived HEFA jet fuel : environmental and economic impacts of scaled/integrated growth facilities and global production potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ames, Jacob L. (Jacob Lee)

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biofuels have the potential to mitigate the environmental impact of aviation and offer increased energy security through the displacement of conventional jet fuel. This study investigates strategies designed to reduce the ...

  14. Final Report, Wind Power Resource Assessment on the Warm Springs Reservation Tribal Lands, Report No. DOE/GO/12103

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jim Manion, Warm Springs Power & Water Enterprises; David McClain, McClain & Associates; HDR Engineering; Dr. Stel Walker, Oregon State University

    2007-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This report concludes a five-year assessment of wind energy potential on the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon lands.

  15. Producer-Focused Life Cycle Assessment of Thin-Film Silicon Photovoltaic Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Teresa Weirui

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Global warming potential of electricity produced and3.2, respectively. Global warming intensity of electricityIEA, while global warming intensity of electricity consumed

  16. From the warm magnetized atomic medium to molecular clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Hennebelle; R. Banerjee; E. Vazquez-Semadeni; R. Klessen; E. Audit

    2008-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    {It has recently been proposed that giant molecular complexes form at the sites where streams of diffuse warm atomic gas collide at transonic velocities.} {We study the global statistics of molecular clouds formed by large scale colliding flows of warm neutral atomic interstellar gas under ideal MHD conditions. The flows deliver material as well as kinetic energy and trigger thermal instability leading eventually to gravitational collapse.} {We perform adaptive mesh refinement MHD simulations which, for the first time in this context, treat self-consistently cooling and self-gravity.} {The clouds formed in the simulations develop a highly inhomogeneous density and temperature structure, with cold dense filaments and clumps condensing from converging flows of warm atomic gas. In the clouds, the column density probability density distribution (PDF) peaks at $\\sim 2 \\times 10^{21} \\psc$ and decays rapidly at higher values; the magnetic intensity correlates weakly with density from $n \\sim 0.1$ to $10^4 \\pcc$, and then varies roughly as $n^{1/2}$ for higher densities.} {The global statistical properties of such molecular clouds are reasonably consistent with observational determinations. Our numerical simulations suggest that molecular clouds formed by the moderately supersonic collision of warm atomic gas streams.}

  17. Role of AirSea Interaction in the Long Persistence of El Nin~oInduced North Indian Ocean Warming*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Shang-Ping

    Walker circulation adjustments, causing a sustained SST warming in the tropical southwest IO (SWIO) where in the equatorial Pacific with pro- found influences on the global climate. For example, El Nin~o causes sea surfaceRole of Air­Sea Interaction in the Long Persistence of El Nin~o­Induced North Indian Ocean Warming

  18. Acclimatization of soil respiration to warming in a tall grass prairie

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to climatic warming24 . The feedback mechanism is usually based on the assumption that observed sensitivity feedbacks into the climatic system. Climatic warming, on one hand, potentially stimulates nutrient) since 21 November 1999 to study respiratory sensitivity to climate change. We also used clipping

  19. Same Science, Differing Policies; The Saga of Global Climate Change Eugene B. Skolnikoff *

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , and the E.U. itself. The possibility of global warming that raises this fear of unacceptable levels of science. The global warming that it is feared may lead to climate change is not yet observable in everydaySame Science, Differing Policies; The Saga of Global Climate Change Eugene B. Skolnikoff

  20. Tachyon warm inflationary universe model in the weak dissipative regime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sergio del Campo; Ramon Herrera; Joel Saavedra

    2008-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Warm inflationary universe model in a tachyon field theory is studied in the weak dissipative regime. We develop our model for an exponential potential and the dissipation parameter $\\Gamma=\\Gamma_0$=constant. We describe scalar and tensor perturbations for this scenario.

  1. A review of global ocean temperature observations: Implications for ocean heat content estimates and climate change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    transports from ocean to land and global energy ?ows inof Earth energy imbal- ance, ocean warming, and thermostericthe ther- mal energy of the ocean, it remains a challenging

  2. 6, 48974927, 2006 A global emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    aerosol causes atmospheric warming through the direct aerosol effect, i.e. the trans- mission of absorbedACPD 6, 4897­4927, 2006 A global emission inventory of carbon aerosol for 1860­1997 C. Junker and C a Creative Commons License. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions A global emission inventory

  3. Global Statistics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crow, Ben D

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1996). Globalization in Question: International Economy andGlobalization; Justice; Poverty; Underground Economy; United

  4. Global Warming And Lifestyle Choices: A Discussion Paper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schuetzenmeister, Falk

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The case of electric and hybrid cars. Utilities Policy 16(The environmental effect of hybrid cars has been overrated (recycling, driving a hybrid-car). If sustainable behavior

  5. Gille-ESYS 10 1 EPA Global Warming: Position Papers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gille, Sarah T.

    . International Emissions Trading The Kyoto Protocol allows nations with emissions targets to trade greenhouse gas successful beyond expectations. Under an emissions trading regime, countries or companies can purchase less their targets with room to spare). Structured effectively, emissions trading can provide a powerful economic

  6. ATM S 111: Global Warming Review Sheet for Final Exam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frierson, Dargan

    is worse than oil, natural gas is the best of the 3 fossil fuels o The wedge additive in US but can be used in "flex fuel" vehicles to power entirely, corn

  7. Scientific American: "Tall Trees Sucked Dry by Global Warming...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    change research at Los Alamos Lab "PBS NEWSHOUR" covers new technique that may make solar panel production less expensive The New York Times covers "National Labs Race to...

  8. Adopt a Country Global Warming Project, Spring 2012. Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lachniet, Matthew S.

    . Unacceptable sources The world-wide web is not a source of scientific information, so do not rely on it. Any. Suggested Format and Headings The paper should be written in single spacing, normal Microsoft Word margins, 12-point Times New Roma font. The length of the paper should be between 4000 and 6000 words

  9. SUBTASK 7.2 GLOBAL WARMING AND GREEHOUSE GASES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaroslav Solc; Kurt Eylands; Jaroslav Solc Jr.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Evaluation of current climatic trends and reconstruction of paleoclimatic conditions for Devils Lake have been conducted based on diatom-inferred salinity for the last 2000 years. The 3-year cross-disciplinary research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) was carried out by the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) and St. Croix Watershed Research Station (SCWRS) at the Science Museum of Minnesota. The results indicate that frequent climatic fluctuations resulting in alternating periods of drought and wet conditions are typical for the northern Great Plains and suggest that the severity and length of extremes exceeded those on modern record. Devils Lake has experienced five fresh periods and two minor freshening periods in the last 2000 years. Transitions between fresh and saline periods have been relatively fast, representing lake level changes that have been similar to those observed in the last 150 years. From 0 to 1070 A.D., Devils Lake showed more variable behavior, with fresh phases centered at 200, 500, 700, and 1000 A.D. From 1070 A.D. to present, Devils Lake was generally saline, experiencing two minor freshening periods at 1305-1315 and 1800-1820 A.D and the major current freshening from 1960 A.D. to present.

  10. I. PROBLEM ADDRESSED In recent years, global warming, depleting conventional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramakrishnan, Naren

    , contains important correlations, trends, and patterns that can be exploited for optimizing operations if it is possible to transform the current operational state to another more efficient pattern. Domain knowledge knowledge derived from historical data to transform the system to a more sustainable operational state

  11. Global Warming And Lifestyle Choices: A Discussion Paper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schuetzenmeister, Falk

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    as a contribution to environmental conservation. Marketingtime. The value of environmental conservation to people withlifestyles. That environmental conservation has a high

  12. Global warming accelerates drought-induced forest death

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    McDowell, Nathan; Pockman, William

    2014-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Many southwestern forests in the United States will disappear or be heavily altered by 2050, according to a series of joint Los Alamos National Laboratory-University of New Mexico studies. Nathan McDowell, a Los Alamos plant physiologist, and William Pockman, a UNM biology professor, explain that their research, and more from scientists around the world, is forecasting that by 2100 most conifer forests should be heavily disturbed, if not gone, as air temperatures rise in combination with drought. "Everybody knows trees die when there's a drought, if there's bark beetles or fire, yet nobody in the world can predict it with much accuracy." McDowell said. "What's really changed is that the temperature is going up," thus the researchers are imposing artificial drought conditions on segments of wild forest in the Southwest and pushing forests to their limit to discover the exact processes of mortality and survival. The study is centered on drought experiments in woodlands at both Los Alamos and the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge in central New Mexico. Both sites are testing hypotheses about how forests die on mature, wild trees, rather than seedlings in a greenhouse, through the ecosystem-scale removal of 50 percent of yearly precipitation through large water-diversion trough systems.

  13. Good enough tools for global warming policy making

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    are decommissioned and replaced with non-fossil power plants (or with coal plants that capture and store CO2 to achieve stabilization. We can equate a one-wedge effort to a rate at which conventional coal plants). A typical 1 GW base-load coal plant operating today will emit about 2 million tons of carbon per year

  14. Global warming projections : sensitivity to deep ocean mixing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sokolov, Andrei P.; Stone, Peter H.

    The climatological impact of increases in greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere, despite being a subject of intensive study in recent years, is still very uncertain. One major uncertainty affecting possible climate ...

  15. Global warming accelerates drought-induced forest death

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDowell, Nathan; Pockman, William

    2013-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Many southwestern forests in the United States will disappear or be heavily altered by 2050, according to a series of joint Los Alamos National Laboratory-University of New Mexico studies. Nathan McDowell, a Los Alamos plant physiologist, and William Pockman, a UNM biology professor, explain that their research, and more from scientists around the world, is forecasting that by 2100 most conifer forests should be heavily disturbed, if not gone, as air temperatures rise in combination with drought. "Everybody knows trees die when there's a drought, if there's bark beetles or fire, yet nobody in the world can predict it with much accuracy." McDowell said. "What's really changed is that the temperature is going up," thus the researchers are imposing artificial drought conditions on segments of wild forest in the Southwest and pushing forests to their limit to discover the exact processes of mortality and survival. The study is centered on drought experiments in woodlands at both Los Alamos and the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge in central New Mexico. Both sites are testing hypotheses about how forests die on mature, wild trees, rather than seedlings in a greenhouse, through the ecosystem-scale removal of 50 percent of yearly precipitation through large water-diversion trough systems.

  16. Global Warming Solutions Inc previously Southern Investments Inc | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAddInformationEnergyEnergy

  17. THE ECONOMIC PAYOFF FOR GLOBAL WARMING EMISSIONS REDUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dr. Sam; V. Shelton; Laura A. Schaefer

    efficiency technology, such as residential electric heat pump water heaters, can cause carbon reduction to

  18. Energy and Global Warming Impacts of CFC Alternative Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Arthur D. Little, Inc. Sponsored by the Alternative Fluorocarbons Environmental Acceptability Study ...................... ......................... 1.7 1.5 Major Findings ................................................ 1.8 1.6 Application Specific2 Effect of Fluorocarbon Emissions ................ 3.4 3.4 CO2 Emissions from Fossil Fuels

  19. Press Pass - Press Release - Fermilab Hosts Global Warming Presentation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible forPortsmouth/Paducah ProjectPRE-AWARDenergy useNational Security0 April4 February

  20. Research & Development Roadmap: Next-Generation Low Global Warming

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic2 OPAM615_CostNSAR -Department ofEMSpent NuclearEnergy Appliances

  1. ARM - Possible Benefits of Global Warming on Agriculture

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP :ProductsVaisala CL51 ceilometer Comments? We would love toListPossible

  2. ARM - What Are the Effects of Global Warming?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWP TWP Related Links Facilities and Instruments

  3. ARM - What Are the Effects of Global Warming?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWP TWP Related Links Facilities and Instruments Outreach Home Room News

  4. ARM - What Will Happen as a Result of Global Warming?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWP TWP Related Links Facilities and Instruments Outreach HomeWhat Will

  5. Rising Sea Levels Due to Global Warming Are Unstoppable

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Scienceand Requirements RecentlyElectronicResources Resources About1 SignG.5 $ infeed-image

  6. North Florida Global Warming Study Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer PlantMunhall,Missouri: Energy Resources JumpOklahoma:NorthCastle,Eastham,Fairfield,North

  7. COLLOQUIUM: Extreme Global Warming: Examples from the Past | Princeton

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWPSuccess Stories Siteandscience,InstitutePlasmaPhysics LabPlasma

  8. Geoengineering: Plan B Remedy for Global Warming Andrew A. Lacis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8,Dist.Newof EnergyFundingGeneGenome EngineeringGeoSprings Hybrid

  9. NERSC Calculations Provide Independent Confirmation of Global Land Warming

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |IsLove Your1Allocations NERSC Allocations:

  10. The role of US agricultural and forest activities in global climate change mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, En

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2005 the highest global surface temperature ever was recorded. A virtual consensus exists today among scientists that global warming is underway and that human greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are a significant cause. Possible mitigation of climate...

  11. Climate Effects of Global Land Cover Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibbard, S G; Caldeira, K; Bala, G; Phillips, T; Wickett, M

    2005-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    There are two competing effects of global land cover change on climate: an albedo effect which leads to heating when changing from grass/croplands to forest, and an evapotranspiration effect which tends to produce cooling. It is not clear which effect would dominate in a global land cover change scenario. We have performed coupled land/ocean/atmosphere simulations of global land cover change using the NCAR CAM3 atmospheric general circulation model. We find that replacement of current vegetation by trees on a global basis would lead to a global annual mean warming of 1.6 C, nearly 75% of the warming produced under a doubled CO{sub 2} concentration, while global replacement by grasslands would result in a cooling of 0.4 C. These results suggest that more research is necessary before forest carbon storage should be deployed as a mitigation strategy for global warming. In particular, high latitude forests probably have a net warming effect on the Earth's climate.

  12. Persisting cold extremes under 21st-century warming scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kodra, Evan A [ORNL; Steinhaeuser, Karsten J K [ORNL; Ganguly, Auroop R [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Analyses of climate model simulations and observations reveal that extreme cold events are likely to persist across each land-continent even under 21st-century warming scenarios. The grid-based intensity, duration and frequency of cold extreme events are calculated annually through three indices: the coldest annual consecutive three-day average of daily maximum temperature, the annual maximum of consecutive frost days, and the total number of frost days. Nine global climate models forced with a moderate greenhouse-gas emissions scenario compares the indices over 2091 2100 versus 1991 2000. The credibility of model-simulated cold extremes is evaluated through both bias scores relative to reanalysis data in the past and multi-model agreement in the future. The number of times the value of each annual index in 2091 2100 exceeds the decadal average of the corresponding index in 1991 2000 is counted. The results indicate that intensity and duration of grid-based cold extremes, when viewed as a global total, will often be as severe as current typical conditions in many regions, but the corresponding frequency does not show this persistence. While the models agree on the projected persistence of cold extremes in terms of global counts, regionally, inter-model variability and disparity in model performance tends to dominate. Our findings suggest that, despite a general warming trend, regional preparedness for extreme cold events cannot be compromised even towards the end of the century.

  13. Towards a more inclusive and precautionary indicator of global sustainability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pezzey, Jack

    an environmentally pessimistic, physical constraint on global warming. Our methodology extends the World Bank growth; technical progress #12;2 1. Introduction Are current levels of global human well1 Towards a more inclusive and precautionary indicator of global sustainability John C.V. Pezzeya

  14. Tachyon warm inflationary universe models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Herrera; S. del Campo; C. Campuzano

    2006-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Warm inflationary universe models in a tachyon field theory are studied. General conditions required for these models to be realizable are derived and discussed. We describe scalar perturbations (in the longitudinal gauge) and tensor perturbations for these scenarios. We develop our models for a constant dissipation parameter $\\Gamma$ in one case and one dependent on $\\phi$ in the other case. We have been successful in describing such of inflationary universe models. We use recent astronomical observations for constraining the parameters appearing in our model. Also, our results are compared with their analogous found in the cool inflationary case.

  15. Nuclear stopping power in warm and hot dense matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faussurier, Gerald; Blancard, Christophe [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91 297 Arpajon (France); Gauthier, Maxence [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91 297 Arpajon (France); LULI, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, CEA, UPMC, Route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau (France)

    2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a method to estimate the nuclear component of the stopping power of ions propagating in dense matter. Three kinds of effective pair potentials are proposed. Results from the warm dense matter regime and the domain of high energy density physics are presented and discussed for proton and helium. The role of ionic temperature is examined. The nuclear stopping power can play a noticeable role in hot dense matter.

  16. Global Optimization of Plug-In Hybrid Vehicle Design and Allocation to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michalek, Jeremy J.

    electric vehicle, vehicle design, greenhouse gas emissions, global warming, transportation, life cycle45 miles of electric travel. Larger battery packs allow longer travel on electrical energy, but production for addressing global warming in the U.S. transportation sector [1,2]. PHEVs are similar to ordinary hybrid

  17. Is There Still Time to Avoid `Dangerous Anthropogenic Interference' with Global Climate?*#

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    curve', measuring both the pulse of Nature and a steadily rising human impact on atmospheric composition's temperature, with rapid global warming over the past 30 years, is now passing through the peak level infrastructure that may be built within a decade will make it impractical to keep further global warming under 1

  18. alters global downsizing: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and the impact palaeolatitude Torsvik, Trond Helge 19 As we face the near certainty of a warming global climate over the next century, the availability and quality of our nation's...

  19. alters colonic global: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    R; Schiminovich, D; Scoville, N 2009-01-01 7 As we face the near certainty of a warming global climate over the next century, the availability and quality of our nation's...

  20. September Arctic sea ice predicted to disappear near 2 warming above present

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischlin, Andreas

    September Arctic sea ice predicted to disappear near 2 C global warming above present Irina; published 24 March 2012. [1] The decline of Arctic sea ice is one of the most visible signs of climate change over the past several decades. Arctic sea ice area shows large interannual variability due

  1. WHY HASN'T THE EARTH CLIMATE WARMED AS MUCH AS EXPECTED?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    in greenhouse gas forcing. Countervailing natural cooling over the industrial period. Lag in reaching University, Stockholm, Sweden #12;HOW MUCH WARMING IS EXPECTED? Equilibrium change in global mean surface and natural variability. #12;Cloud-Climate Feedbacks Cloud feedback has been identified as a part

  2. Nuclear energy output slows as climate warms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kramer, David

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    New reports from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and the US government say the window is closing for actions to avert the worst effects of warming.

  3. Review of comparative LCAs of food waste management systems - Current status and potential improvements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernstad, A., E-mail: anna.bernstad@chemeng.lth.se [Water and Environmental Engineering at the Department of Chemical Engineering, Lund University, Chemical Centre, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Cour Jansen, J. la [Water and Environmental Engineering at the Department of Chemical Engineering, Lund University, Chemical Centre, 221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GHG-emissions from different treatment alternatives vary largely in 25 reviewed comparative LCAs of bio-waste management. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer System-boundary settings often vary largely in reviewed studies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Existing LCA guidelines give varying recommendations in relation to several key issues. - Abstract: Twenty-five comparative cycle assessments (LCAs) addressing food waste treatment were reviewed, including the treatment alternatives landfill, thermal treatment, compost (small and large scale) and anaerobic digestion. The global warming potential related to these treatment alternatives varies largely amongst the studies. Large differences in relation to setting of system boundaries, methodological choices and variations in used input data were seen between the studies. Also, a number of internal contradictions were identified, many times resulting in biased comparisons between alternatives. Thus, noticed differences in global warming potential are not found to be a result of actual differences in the environmental impacts from studied systems, but rather to differences in the performance of the study. A number of key issues with high impact on the overall global warming potential from different treatment alternatives for food waste were identified through the use of one-way sensitivity analyses in relation to a previously performed LCA of food waste management. Assumptions related to characteristics in treated waste, losses and emissions of carbon, nutrients and other compounds during the collection, storage and pretreatment, potential energy recovery through combustion, emissions from composting, emissions from storage and land use of bio-fertilizers and chemical fertilizers and eco-profiles of substituted goods were all identified as highly relevant for the outcomes of this type of comparisons. As the use of LCA in this area is likely to increase in coming years, it is highly relevant to establish more detailed guidelines within this field in order to increase both the general quality in assessments as well as the potentials for cross-study comparisons.

  4. Warm Anisotropic Inflationary Universe Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharif, M

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is devoted to study the warm inflation using vector fields in the background of locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi type I universe model. We formulate the field equations, slow-roll and perturbation parameters (scalar and tensor power spectra as well as their spectral indices) under slow-roll approximation. We evaluate all these parameters in terms of directional Hubble parameter during intermediate and logamediate inflationary regimes by taking the dissipation factor as a function of scalar field as well as a constant. In each case, we calculate the observational parameter of interest, i.e., tensor-scalar ratio in terms of inflation. The graphical behavior of these parameters shows that the anisotropic model is also compatible with WMAP7 and Planck observational data.

  5. Warm Anisotropic Inflationary Universe Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Sharif; Rabia Saleem

    2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is devoted to study the warm inflation using vector fields in the background of locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi type I universe model. We formulate the field equations, slow-roll and perturbation parameters (scalar and tensor power spectra as well as their spectral indices) under slow-roll approximation. We evaluate all these parameters in terms of directional Hubble parameter during intermediate and logamediate inflationary regimes by taking the dissipation factor as a function of scalar field as well as a constant. In each case, we calculate the observational parameter of interest, i.e., tensor-scalar ratio in terms of inflation. The graphical behavior of these parameters shows that the anisotropic model is also compatible with WMAP7 and Planck observational data.

  6. Jih Ki Jihong Kim Computer Architecture & Embedded Systems Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeom, Heon Young

    ;OutlineOutline Introduction to Global Warming Overview of Green Computing Overview of Low-Power Computingp.Kim/SNUJ.Kim/SNU #12; Global Warming PotentialGlobal Warming PotentialGlobal Warming PotentialGlobal Warming Potential FootprintCarbon Footprint pp K P l 5 4% d i b l 1990Kyoto Protocol: 5.4% reductions below 1990 levels

  7. Why hasn't earth warmed as much as expected?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, S.E.; Charlson, R.; Kahn, R.; Ogren, J.; Rodhe, H.

    2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The observed increase in global mean surface temperature (GMST) over the industrial era is less than 40% of that expected from observed increases in long-lived greenhouse gases together with the best-estimate equilibrium climate sensitivity given by the 2007 Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Possible reasons for this warming discrepancy are systematically examined here. The warming discrepancy is found to be due mainly to some combination of two factors: the IPCC best estimate of climate sensitivity being too high and/or the greenhouse gas forcing being partially offset by forcing by increased concentrations of atmospheric aerosols; the increase in global heat content due to thermal disequilibrium accounts for less than 25% of the discrepancy, and cooling by natural temperature variation can account for only about 15%. Current uncertainty in climate sensitivity is shown to preclude determining the amount of future fossil fuel CO2 emissions that would be compatible with any chosen maximum allowable increase in GMST; even the sign of such allowable future emissions is unconstrained. Resolving this situation by empirical determination of Earths climate sensitivity from the historical record over the industrial period or through use of climate models whose accuracy is evaluated by their performance over this period is shown to require substantial reduction in the uncertainty of aerosol forcing over this period.

  8. Surface electromagnetic wave equations in a warm magnetized quantum plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Chunhua; Yang, Weihong [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, 230026 Hefei (China); Wu, Zhengwei, E-mail: wuzw@ustc.edu.cn [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, 230026 Hefei (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Center of Low Temperature Plasma Application, Yunnan Aerospace Industry Company, Kunming, 650229 Yunnan (China); Chu, Paul K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on the single-fluid plasma model, a theoretical investigation of surface electromagnetic waves in a warm quantum magnetized inhomogeneous plasma is presented. The surface electromagnetic waves are assumed to propagate on the plane between a vacuum and a warm quantum magnetized plasma. The quantum magnetohydrodynamic model includes quantum diffraction effect (Bohm potential), and quantum statistical pressure is used to derive the new dispersion relation of surface electromagnetic waves. And the general dispersion relation is analyzed in some special cases of interest. It is shown that surface plasma oscillations can be propagated due to quantum effects, and the propagation velocity is enhanced. Furthermore, the external magnetic field has a significant effect on surface wave's dispersion equation. Our work should be of a useful tool for investigating the physical characteristic of surface waves and physical properties of the bounded quantum plasmas.

  9. Strengthening the nonproliferation regime : using case studies to determine the potential of multilateral arrangements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Youchak, Paul (Paul M.)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The resurgence of global interest in nuclear energy is fueled by growing energy demands, concerns of global warming, and the desire to diversify energy supply. In order for the nuclear renaissance to be safely realized, a ...

  10. May 2008 Global Gas Turbine News 3 By: Dr. Reza S. Abhari

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daraio, Chiara

    -influenced global warming, now being effectively over, has been replaced by a surge in a number of global political electricity and heat generation sector, at 40%, currently represents the largest annual global CO2 emissionsMay 2008 Global Gas Turbine News 3 By: Dr. Reza S. Abhari Alot has changed in the last 10 years

  11. Electronic Structure of Warm Dense Matter via Multicenter Green...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electronic Structure of Warm Dense Matter via Multicenter Green's Function Technique Research Personnel Modeling The proposed research addresses the Warm Dense Matter area...

  12. Roosevelt Warm Springs Institute for Rehab. Space Heating Low...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search Name Roosevelt Warm Springs Institute for Rehab. Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Roosevelt Warm Springs Institute for...

  13. Secretary Moniz Warms Up For Earth Day Pitch | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Warms Up For Earth Day Pitch Secretary Moniz Warms Up For Earth Day Pitch Addthis Speakers Secretary Ernest Moniz Duration :32...

  14. Effect of global ocean temperature change on deep ocean ventilation A. M. de Boer,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sigman, Daniel M.

    Effect of global ocean temperature change on deep ocean ventilation A. M. de Boer,1,2 D. M. Sigman suggest that the ocean's deep ventilation is stronger in warm climates than in cold climates. Here we use that a dynamically cold ocean is globally less ventilated than a dynamically warm ocean. With dynamic cooling

  15. Globalization Nationalized

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mazlish, Bruce

    Globalism and globalization have been seen as competitors to other allegiances, namely regionalism and nationalism. A look at recent efforts at reconceptualizing global history in China, Korea and the U.S., however, suggests ...

  16. Microclimatic Performance of a Free-Air Warming and CO2 Enrichment Experiment in Windy Wyoming, USA

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    LeCain, Daniel; Smith, David; Morgan, Jack; Kimball, Bruce A.; Pendall, Elise; Miglietta, Franco; Liang, Wenju

    2015-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to plan for global changing climate experiments are being conducted in many countries, but few have monitored the effects of the climate change treatments (warming, elevated CO2) on the experimental plot microclimate. During three years of an eight year study with year-round feedback-controlled infra-red heater warming (1.5/3.0C day/night) and growing season free-air CO2 enrichment (600 ppm) in the mixed-grass prairie of Wyoming, USA, we monitored soil, leaf, canopy-air, above-canopy-air temperatures and relative humidity of control and treated experimental plots and evaluated ecologically important temperature differentials. Leaves were warmed somewhat less than the target settings (1.1 & 1.5C day/night)morebut soil was warmed more creating an average that matched the target settings extremely well both during the day and night plus the summer and winter. The site typically has about 50% bare or litter covered soil, therefore soil heat transfer is more critical than in dense canopy ecosystems. The Wyoming site commonly has strong winds (5 ms-1 average) and significant daily and seasonal temperature fluctuations (as much as 30C daily) but the warming system was nearly always able to maintain the set temperatures regardless of abiotic variation. The within canopy-air was only slightly warmed and above canopy-air was not warmed by the system, therefore convective warming was minor. Elevated CO2 had no direct effect nor interaction with the warming treatment on microclimate. Relative humidity within the plant canopy was only slightly reduced by warming. Soil water content was reduced by warming but increased by elevated CO2. This study demonstrates the importance of monitoring the microclimate in manipulative field global change experiments so that critical physiological and ecological conclusions can be determined. Highly variable energy demand fluctuations showed that passive IR heater warming systems will not maintain desired warming for much of the time.less

  17. Warm inflation dynamics in the low temperature regime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bastero-Gil, Mar [Departamento de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada, Granada-18071 (Spain); Berera, Arjun [School of Physics, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom)

    2007-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Warm inflation scenarios are studied with the dissipative coefficient computed in the equilibrium approximation. Use is made of the analytical expressions available in the low temperature regime with focus on the possibility of achieving strong dissipation within this approximation. Two different types of models are examined: monomial or equivalently chaotic type potentials, and hybrid like models where the energy density during inflation is dominated by the false vacuum. In both cases dissipation is shown to typically increase during inflation and bring the system into the strong dissipative regime. Observational consequences are explored for the amplitude of the primordial spectrum and the spectral index, which translate into constraints on the number of fields mediating the dissipative mechanism, and the number of light degrees of freedom produced during inflation. This paper furthers the foundational development of warm inflation dynamics from first principles quantum field theory by calculating conservative lower bound estimates on dissipative effects during inflation using the well established thermal equilibrium approximation. This approximation does not completely represent the actual physical system and earlier work has shown relaxing both the equilibrium and low temperature constraints can substantially enlarge the warm inflation regime, but these improvements still need further theoretical development.

  18. Managing Warm-season Improved Pastures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stichler, Charles; Prostko, Eric P.; Livingston, Stephen

    1998-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    M anaging Warm-season Improved Pastures Charles Stichler, Eric Prostko, Steve Livingston* he quality and quantity of forage in pastures can vary greatly and are constantly changing throughout the year. The goal of forage management is to provide...

  19. Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Warm Dense Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a plasma. Therefore, to probe a warm dense state undergoing a nonreversible process, an ultrafast technique faster than the ALS pulse duration (70 ps) and a single-shot...

  20. Persistent Cold Air Outbreaks over North America in a Warming Climate

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gao, Yang; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Lu, Jian; Masato, Giacomo

    2015-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study examines future changes of cold air outbreaks (CAO) using a multi-model ensemble of global climate simulations from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 as well as regional high resolution climate simulations. In the future, while robust decrease of CAO duration dominates in most regions, the magnitude of decrease over northwestern U.S. is much smaller than the surrounding regions. We identified statistically significant increases in sea level pressure during CAO events centering over Yukon, Alaska, and Gulf of Alaska that advects continental cold air to northwestern U.S., leading to blocking and CAO events. Changes in large scale circulation contribute to about 50% of the enhanced sea level pressure anomaly conducive to CAO in northwestern U.S. in the future. High resolution regional simulations revealed potential contributions of increased existing snowpack to increased CAO in the near future over the Rocky Mountain, southwestern U.S., and Great Lakes areas through surface albedo effects, despite winter mean snow water equivalent decreases in the future. Overall, the multi-model projections emphasize that cold extremes do not completely disappear in a warming climate. Concomitant with the relatively smaller reduction in CAO events in northwestern U.S., the top 5 most extreme CAO events may still occur in the future, and wind chill warning will continue to have societal impacts in that region.

  1. Persistent Cold Air Outbreaks over North America in a Warming Climate

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gao, Yang; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Lu, Jian; Masato, Giacomo

    2015-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study examines future changes of cold air outbreaks (CAO) using a multi-model ensemble of global climate simulations from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 as well as regional high resolution climate simulations. In the future, while robust decrease of CAO duration dominates in most regions, the magnitude of decrease over northwestern U.S. is much smaller than the surrounding regions. We identified statistically significant increases in sea level pressure during CAO events centering over Yukon, Alaska, and Gulf of Alaska that advects continental cold air to northwestern U.S., leading to blocking and CAO events. Changes in large scale circulationmorecontribute to about 50% of the enhanced sea level pressure anomaly conducive to CAO in northwestern U.S. in the future. High resolution regional simulations revealed potential contributions of increased existing snowpack to increased CAO in the near future over the Rocky Mountain, southwestern U.S., and Great Lakes areas through surface albedo effects, despite winter mean snow water equivalent decreases in the future. Overall, the multi-model projections emphasize that cold extremes do not completely disappear in a warming climate. Concomitant with the relatively smaller reduction in CAO events in northwestern U.S., the top 5 most extreme CAO events may still occur in the future, and wind chill warning will continue to have societal impacts in that region.less

  2. MODELING THE GLOBAL PEAKS AND COOLING SY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    . In this study, the morphological analysis depicted to clarify different district areas from G.I.S. data heat island and global warming effects building simulation is outlined. INTRODUCTION Urban structures city scale and local scale. The main influence microclimate is the heat island caused by trapping

  3. 1 Global Change Research for Sustainable Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richner, Heinz

    , ecological zones are shifting, the seas are warming and ice caps are melting. Forced adaptation to climate several countries or regions of the world are affected. Most promi- nent among these processes is climate change, which is often perceived as today's most important global threat, affecting the environment

  4. Metrics for Sustainable Manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reich-Weiser, Corinne; Vijayaraghavan, Athulan; Dornfeld, David A.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    global warming potential) associated with a kWh of electricityGlobal Warming Potential (g CO2eq/kg) GHG Data: UNFCCC (2005), Electricity

  5. Warm-Intermediate inflationary universe model in braneworld cosmologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herrera, Ramon

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Warm-intermediate inflationary universe models in the context of braneworld cosmologies, are studied. This study is done in the weak and strong dissipative regimes. We find that, the scalar potentials and dissipation coefficients in terms of the scalar field, evolves as type-power-law and powers of logarithms, respectively. General conditions required for these models to be realizable are derived and discussed. We also study the scalar and tensor perturbations for each regime. We use recent astronomical observations to constraint the parameters appearing in the braneworld models.

  6. Warm-Intermediate inflationary universe model in braneworld cosmologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramon Herrera; Eugenio San Martin

    2011-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Warm-intermediate inflationary universe models in the context of braneworld cosmologies, are studied. This study is done in the weak and strong dissipative regimes. We find that, the scalar potentials and dissipation coefficients in terms of the scalar field, evolves as type-power-law and powers of logarithms, respectively. General conditions required for these models to be realizable are derived and discussed. We also study the scalar and tensor perturbations for each regime. We use recent astronomical observations to constraint the parameters appearing in the braneworld models.

  7. Exploiting simultaneous observational constraints on mass and absorption to estimate the global direct radiative forcing of black carbon and brown carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwarz, J. P.

    Atmospheric black carbon (BC) is a leading climate warming agent, yet uncertainties on the global direct radiative forcing (DRF) remain large. Here we expand a global model simulation (GEOS-Chem) of BC to include the ...

  8. Effects of experimental warming and clipping on metabolic change of microbial community in a US Great Plains tallgrass prairie

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, Jianping; Liu, Xinxing; Liu, Xueduan; Nostrand, Joy D. Van; Deng, Ye; Wu, Liyou; He, Zhili; Qiu, Guanzhou; Zhou, Jizhong

    2010-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    While more and more studies are being conducted on the effects of global warming, little is known regarding the response of metabolic change of whole soil microbial communities to this phenomenon. In this study, functional gene changes at the mRNA level were analyzed by our new developed GeoChip 3.0. Soil samples were taken from a long-term climate warming experiment site, which has been conducted for ~;;8 years at the Kessler Farm Field Laboratory, a 137.6-ha farm located in the Central Redbed Plains, in McClain County, Oklahoma. The experiment uses a paired factorial design with warming as the primary factor nested with clipping as a secondary factor. An infrared heater was used to simulate global warming, and clipping was used to mimic mowing hay. Twelve 2m x 2m plots were divided into six pairs of warmed and control plots. The heater generates a constant output of ~;;100 Watts m-2 to approximately 2 oC increase in soil temperature above the ambient plots, which is at the low range of the projected climate warming by IPCC. Soil whole microbial communities? mRNA was extracted, amplified, labeled and hybridized with our GeoChip 3.0, a functional gene array covering genes involved in N, C, P, and S cycling, metal resistance and contaminant degradation, to examine expressed genes. The results showed that a greater number and higher diversity of genes were expressed under warmed plots compared to control. Detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) of all detected genes showed that the soil microbial communities were clearly altered by warming, with or without clipping. The dissimilarity of the communities based on functional genes was tested and results showed that warming and control communities were significantly different (P<0.05), with or without clipping. Most genes involved in C, N, P and S cycling were expressed at higher levels in warming samples compared to control samples. All of the results demonstrated that the whole microbial communities increase functional gene expression under warming with or without clipping in order to adapt the changed out environment. More detail analysis is underway.

  9. Biogeophysical effects of CO2-fertilization on global climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bala, G; Caldeira, K; Mirin, A; Wickett, M; Delire, C; Phillips, T J

    2006-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    CO{sub 2}-fertilization affects plant growth, which modifies surface physical properties, altering the surface albedo, and fluxes of sensible and latent heat. We investigate how such CO{sub 2}-fertilization effects on vegetation and surface properties would affect the climate system. Using a global three-dimensional climate-carbon model that simulates vegetation dynamics, we compare two multi-century simulations: a ''Control'' simulation with no emissions, and a ''Physiol-noGHG'' simulation where physiological changes occur as a result of prescribed CO{sub 2} emissions, but where CO{sub 2}-induced greenhouse warming is not included. In our simulations, CO{sub 2}-fertilization produces warming; we obtain an annual- and global-mean warming of about 0.65 K (and land-only warming of 1.4 K) after 430 years. This century-scale warming is mostly due to a decreased surface albedo associated with the expansion of the Northern Hemisphere boreal forests. On decadal time scales, the CO{sub 2} uptake by afforestation should produce a cooling effect that exceeds this albedo-based warming; but if the forests remain in place, the CO{sub 2}-enhanced-greenhouse effect would diminish as the ocean equilibrates with the atmosphere, whereas the albedo effect would persist. Thus, on century time scales, there is the prospect for net warming from CO{sub 2}-fertilization of the land biosphere. Further study is needed to confirm and better quantify our results.

  10. Repeat photography is a useful tool for evaluating hypotheses for landscape changes caused by global

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Villiers, Marienne

    by global warming. Climate change scenarios for southern Africa suggest that it is the western part for the region's biota (Midgley and Thuiller 2007). A de- tailed study of mortality levels within populations

  11. Warm-Logamediate inflationary universe model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herrera, Ramon

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Warm inflationary universe models in the context of logamediate expansion are studied. General conditions required for these models to be realizable and discussed. This study is done in the weak and strong dissipative regimes. The parameters of our models are constrained from the observational data.

  12. Warm-Logamediate inflationary universe model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramon Herrera; Marco Olivares

    2012-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Warm inflationary universe models in the context of logamediate expansion are studied. General conditions required for these models to be realizable and discussed. This study is done in the weak and strong dissipative regimes. The parameters of our models are constrained from the observational data.

  13. Optimization of High-Volume Warm Forming for Lightweight Sheet...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Volume Warm Forming for Lightweight Sheet Alloys Optimization of High-Volume Warm Forming for Lightweight Sheet Alloys 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle...

  14. Accurate ab initio-based adiabatic global potential energy surface for the 2{sup 2}A? state of NH{sub 2} by extrapolation to the complete basis set limit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Y. Q.; Ma, F. C. [Department of Physics, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China)] [Department of Physics, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China); Sun, M. T. [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)] [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2013-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A full three-dimensional global potential energy surface is reported first time for the title system, which is important for the photodissociation processes. It is obtained using double many-body expansion theory and an extensive set of accurate ab initio energies extrapolated to the complete basis set limit. Such a work can be recommended for dynamics studies of the N({sup 2}D) + H{sub 2} reaction, a reliable theoretical treatment of the photodissociation dynamics and as building blocks for constructing the double many-body expansion potential energy surface of larger nitrogen/hydrogen containing systems. In turn, a preliminary theoretical study of the reaction N({sup 2}D)+H{sub 2}(X{sup 1}?{sub g}{sup +})(?=0,j=0)?NH(a{sup 1}?)+H({sup 2}S) has been carried out with the method of quasi-classical trajectory on the new potential energy surface. Integral cross sections and thermal rate constants have been calculated, providing perhaps the most reliable estimate of the integral cross sections and the rate constants known thus far for such a reaction.

  15. Long-term soil warming and Carbon Cycle Feedbacks to the Climate System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melillo, Jerry M.

    2014-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of the proposed research was to quantify and explain the effects of a sustained in situ 5oC soil temperature increase on net carbon (C) storage in a northeastern deciduous forest ecosystem. The research was done at an established soil warming experiment at the Harvard Forest in central Massachusetts Barre Woods site established in 2001. In the field, a series of plant and soil measurements were made to quantify changes in C storage in the ecosystem and to provide insights into the possible relationships between C-storage changes and nitrogen (N) cycling changes in the warmed plots. Field measurements included: 1) annual woody increment; 2) litterfall; 3) carbon dioxide (CO2) efflux from the soil surface; 4) root biomass and respiration; 5) microbial biomass; and 6) net N mineralization and net nitrification rates. This research was designed to increase our understanding of how global warming will affect the capacity of temperate forest ecosystems to store C. The work explored how soil warming changes the interactions between the C and N cycles, and how these changes affect land-atmosphere feedbacks. This core research question framed the project What are the effects of a sustained in situ 5oC soil temperature increase on net carbon (C) storage in a northeastern deciduous forest ecosystem? A second critical question was addressed in this research What are the effects of a sustained in situ 5{degrees}C soil temperature increase on nitrogen (N) cycling in a northeastern deciduous forest ecosystem?

  16. The Once and Future Warm Earth: A Paleoceanographic View

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sukop, Mike

    The Once and Future Warm Earth: A Paleoceanographic View Dr. Ted C. Moore, Jr., University of Michigan Predictions of climatic warming in the near future, if true, will approximate the very warm--and ended. In the early and mid Eocene the Arctic Ocean was ice-free and subtropical flora and fauna were

  17. Estimating present climate in a warming world: a model-based approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raeisaenen, J.; Ruokolainen, L. [University of Helsinki (Finland). Division of Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysics

    2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Weather services base their operational definitions of 'present' climate on past observations, using a 30-year normal period such as 1961-1990 or 1971-2000. In a world with ongoing global warming, however, past data give a biased estimate of the actual present-day climate. Here we propose to correct this bias with a 'delta change' method, in which model-simulated climate changes and observed global mean temperature changes are used to extrapolate past observations forward in time, to make them representative of present or future climate conditions. In a hindcast test for the years 1991-2002, the method works well for temperature, with a clear improvement in verification statistics compared to the case in which the hindcast is formed directly from the observations for 1961-1990. However, no improvement is found for precipitation, for which the signal-to-noise ratio between expected anthropogenic changes and interannual variability is much lower than for temperature. An application of the method to the present (around the year 2007) climate suggests that, as a geographical average over land areas excluding Antarctica, 8-9 months per year and 8-9 years per decade can be expected to be warmer than the median for 1971-2000. Along with the overall warming, a substantial increase in the frequency of warm extremes at the expense of cold extremes of monthly-to-annual temperature is expected.

  18. Life-cycle assessment of computational logic produced from 1995 through 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyd, Sarah; A. Horvath; Dornfeld, David

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cycle global warming potential (GWP) of electricity fromGlobal warming emissions per die have risen at each successive technology node (?gure 1). Use-phase electricity

  19. Assessing Vehicle Electricity Demand Impacts on California Electricity Supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan W.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    global warming potentials of 23 and 296, respectively. Marginal electricityelectricity sector. State policies relevant to this dissertation are summarized below: Global Warming

  20. Evaluating the relationship between use phase environmental impacts and manufacturing process precision

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Helu, Moneer; Vijayaraghavan, Athulan; Dornfeld, David

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    global warming potential (GWP) emissions to represent environmental impacts. This analysis focused on electricity

  1. RETHINKING MARXISM VOLUME 15 NUMBER 4 (OCTOBER 2003) ISSN 0893-5696 print/1475-8059 online/03/040479-18

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Newman, Stuart A.

    . Global warming, nuclear winter, and pandemic infectious disease have the potential of doing away with us

  2. Warm inflationary universe model with viscous pressure on the brane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Setare, M R

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the present work warm inflationary universe model with viscous pressure on the brane in high-dissipation regime is studied. We derive a condition which is required for this model to be realizable in slow-roll approximation. We also present analytic expressions for density perturbation and amplitude of tensor perturbation in longitudinal gauge. General expressions of tensor-to-scalar ratio, scalar spectral index and its running are obtained. We develop our model by using chaotic potential, the characteristics of this model are calculated for two specific cases: 1- Dissipative parameter $\\Gamma$ and bulk viscous parameter $\\zeta$ are constant parameters. 2- Dissipative parameter as a function of scalar field $\\phi$ and bulk viscous parameter as a function of radiation-matter mixture energy density $\\rho$. The parameters of the model are restricted by the nine-year Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe (WMAP9) and Planck observational data.

  3. Warm-polytropic inflationary universe model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Setare, M R; Kamali, V

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the present paper we study warm inflationary universe models in the context of a polytropic gas. We derive the characteristics of this model in slow-roll approximation and develop our model in two cases, 1- For a constant dissipative parameter $\\Gamma$. 2- $\\Gamma$ as a function of scalar field $\\phi$. In these cases we will obtain exact solution for the scalar field and Hubble parameter. We will also obtain explicit expressions for the tensor-scalar ratio $R$, scalar spectrum index $n_s$ and its running $\\alpha_s$, in slow-roll approximation.

  4. Warm-polytropic inflationary universe model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. R. Setare; M. J. S. Houndjo; V. Kamali

    2013-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    In the present paper we study warm inflationary universe models in the context of a polytropic gas. We derive the characteristics of this model in slow-roll approximation and develop our model in two cases, 1- For a constant dissipative parameter $\\Gamma$. 2- $\\Gamma$ as a function of scalar field $\\phi$. In these cases we will obtain exact solution for the scalar field and Hubble parameter. We will also obtain explicit expressions for the tensor-scalar ratio $R$, scalar spectrum index $n_s$ and its running $\\alpha_s$, in slow-roll approximation.

  5. Warm or Steaming Ground | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTown ofNationwide Permit webpageWalthallFacility | Open Energy InformationWarm

  6. Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Warm Dense Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin TransitionProgram |FrankUltrafast Spectroscopy of Warm Dense Matter

  7. Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Warm Dense Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin TransitionProgram |FrankUltrafast Spectroscopy of Warm Dense

  8. Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Warm Dense Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin TransitionProgram |FrankUltrafast Spectroscopy of Warm

  9. Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Warm Dense Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin TransitionProgram |FrankUltrafast Spectroscopy of WarmUltrafast

  10. GLOBAL CHANGE ECOLOGY Kim N. Mouritsen Daniel M. Tompkins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poulin, Robert

    conditions in general and global warming in particular (Harvell et al. 2002; Mouritsen and Poulin 2002a Communicated by Martin Attrill K. N. Mouritsen (&) Department of Marine Ecology, Institute of Biological impact on the general per- formance of individual organisms, the ecological conse- quences of climate

  11. Global Climate Change: Why Understanding the Scientific Enterprise Matters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howat, Ian M.

    Global Climate Change: Why Understanding the Scientific Enterprise Matters Ellen MosleyPolar/ByrdPolarhttp://bprc.osu.edu/ Understanding Climate Change Risks and Identifying Opportunities for Mitigation & Adaptation in Ohio Ohio State University, May 15, 2014 #12;Key Points Earth's climate is changing - the world is warming that debate

  12. Phase relation between global temperature and atmospheric carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stallinga, Peter

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary ingredient of Anthropogenic Global Warming hypothesis is the assumption that atmospheric carbon dioxide variations are the cause for temperature variations. In this paper we discuss this assumption and analyze it on basis of bi-centenary measurements and using a relaxation model which causes phase shifts and delays.

  13. Global ice sheet modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, T.J.; Fastook, J.L. [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States). Institute for Quaternary Studies

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The University of Maine conducted this study for Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of a global climate modeling task for site characterization of the potential nuclear waste respository site at Yucca Mountain, NV. The purpose of the study was to develop a global ice sheet dynamics model that will forecast the three-dimensional configuration of global ice sheets for specific climate change scenarios. The objective of the third (final) year of the work was to produce ice sheet data for glaciation scenarios covering the next 100,000 years. This was accomplished using both the map-plane and flowband solutions of our time-dependent, finite-element gridpoint model. The theory and equations used to develop the ice sheet models are presented. Three future scenarios were simulated by the model and results are discussed.

  14. Warm Water Oxidation Verification - Scoping and Stirred Reactor Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braley, Jenifer C.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Scoping tests to evaluate the effects of agitation and pH adjustment on simulant sludge agglomeration and uranium metal oxidation at {approx}95 C were performed under Test Instructions(a,b) and as per sections 5.1 and 5.2 of this Test Plan prepared by AREVA. (c) The thermal testing occurred during the week of October 4-9, 2010. The results are reported here. For this testing, two uranium-containing simulant sludge types were evaluated: (1) a full uranium-containing K West (KW) container sludge simulant consisting of nine predominant sludge components; (2) a 50:50 uranium-mole basis mixture of uraninite [U(IV)] and metaschoepite [U(VI)]. This scoping study was conducted in support of the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) Phase 2 technology evaluation for the treatment and packaging of K-Basin sludge. The STP is managed by CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) for the U.S. Department of Energy. Warm water ({approx}95 C) oxidation of sludge, followed by immobilization, has been proposed by AREVA and is one of the alternative flowsheets being considered to convert uranium metal to UO{sub 2} and eliminate H{sub 2} generation during final sludge disposition. Preliminary assessments of warm water oxidation have been conducted, and several issues have been identified that can best be evaluated through laboratory testing. The scoping evaluation documented here was specifically focused on the issue of the potential formation of high strength sludge agglomerates at the proposed 95 C process operating temperature. Prior hydrothermal tests conducted at 185 C produced significant physiochemical changes to genuine sludge, including the formation of monolithic concretions/agglomerates that exhibited shear strengths in excess of 100 kPa (Delegard et al. 2007).

  15. Infrared absorption strengths of potential gaseous diffusion plant coolants and related reaction products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trowbridge, L.D.; Angel, E.C.

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The DOE gaseous diffusion plant complex makes extensive use of CFC-114 as a primary coolant. As this material is scheduled for production curtailment within the next few years, a search for substitutes is underway, and apparently workable alternatives have been found and are under testing. The presently favored substitutes, FC-c3l8 and FC-3110, satisfy ozone depletion and operational chemical compatibility concerns, but will be long-lived greenhouse gases, and thus may be regulated on that basis in the future. A further search is therefore underway for compounds with shorter atmospheric lifetimes which could otherwise satisfy operational physical and chemical requirements. A number of such candidates are in the process of being screened for chemical compatibility in a fluorinating environment. This document presents infrared spectral data developed and used in that study for candidates recently examined, and also for many of their fluorination reaction products. The data include gas-phase infrared spectra, quantitative peak intensities as a function of partial pressure, and integrated absorbance strength in the IR-transparent atmospheric window of interest to global warming modeling. Combining this last property with literature or estimated atmospheric lifetimes, rough estimates of global warming potential for these compounds are also presented.

  16. Warm Springs Water District District Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water District District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Warm Springs Water District District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

  17. Warm Springs State Hospital Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    State Hospital Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Warm Springs State Hospital Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

  18. Progress toward Biomass and Coal-Derived Syngas Warm Cleanup...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Progress toward Biomass and Coal-Derived Syngas Warm Cleanup: Proof-of-Concept Process Demonstration of Multicontaminant Removal Progress toward Biomass and Coal-Derived Syngas...

  19. An investigation of carbon flows from forest soils, in relation to climatic warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cross, Andrew

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rises in anthropogenic CO2 emissions are now widely acknowledged to be responsible for changes in the global climate, with potentially disastrous consequences if these rises continue unchecked. Although knowledge of ecosystem ...

  20. f4: Facebook's Warm BLOB Storage System Subramanian Muralidhar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Govindan, Ramesh

    f4: Facebook's Warm BLOB Storage System Subramanian Muralidhar , Wyatt Lloyd , Sabyasachi Roy , Sanjeev Kumar Facebook Inc., University of Southern California, Princeton University Abstract Facebook, and datacenter failures; and provides sufficient throughput for warm BLOBs. 1. Introduction As Facebook has grown

  1. Global Health Research | 2 Global Health Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rambaut, Andrew

    Global Health Research | 2 Global Health Research Supporting researchers in low- and middle-income countries to carry out health- related research within their own countries. Gl bal Health #12;3 | Global Health Research #12;Global Health Research | 4 We are a global charitable foundation dedicated

  2. Implementation of global energy sustainability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grob, G.R. [CMDC, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The term energy sustainability emerged from the UN Conference on Environment and Development in Rio 1992, when Agenda 21 was formulated and the Global Energy Charter proclaimed. Emission reductions, total energy costing, improved energy efficiency, and sustainable energy systems are the four fundamental principles of the charter. These principles can be implemented in the proposed financial, legal, technical, and education framework. Much has been done in many countries toward the implementation of the Global Energy Charter, but progress has not been fast enough to ease the disastrous effects of the too many ill-conceived energy systems on the environment, climate, and health. Global warming is accelerating, and pollution is worsening, especially in developing countries with their hunger for energy to meet the needs of economic development. Asian cities are now beating all pollution records, and greenhouse gases are visibly changing the climate with rising sea levels, retracting glaciers, and record weather disasters. This article presents why and how energy investments and research money have to be rechanneled into sustainable energy, rather than into the business-as-usual of depleting, unsustainable energy concepts exceeding one trillion dollars per year. This largest of all investment sectors needs much more attention.

  3. Understanding Global Capitalism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robinson, William I.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    sociology; globalization; political economy; development;economy fueled through 700 billion dollars injected into globalizationGlobalization Studies, also called CGS. I would economy and

  4. How do elevated [CO2], warming, and reduced precipitation interact to affect soil moisture and LAI in an old field ecosystem?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dermody, Orla [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Weltzin, Jake [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Engel, Elizabeth C. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Allen, Phillip [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Norby, Richard J [ORNL

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Soil moisture content and leaf area index (LAI) are properties that will be particularly important in mediating whole system responses to the combined effects of elevated atmospheric [CO2], warming and altered precipitation. Warming and drying will likely reduce soil moisture, and this effect may be exacerbated when these factors are combined. However, elevated [CO2] may increase soil moisture contents and when combined with warming and drying may partially compensate for their effects. The response of LAI to elevated [CO2] and warming will be closely tied to soil moisture status and may mitigate or exacerbate the effects of global change on soil moisture. Using open-top chambers (4-m diameter), the interactive effects of elevated [CO2], warming, and differential irrigation on soil moisture availability were examined in the OCCAM (Old-Field Community Climate and Atmospheric Manipulation) experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in eastern Tennessee. Warming consistently reduced soil moisture contents and this effect was exacerbated by reduced irrigation. However, elevated [CO2] partially compensated for the effects of warming and drying on soil moisture. Changes in LAI were closely linked to soil moisture status. LAI was determined using an AccuPAR ceptometer and both the leaf area duration (LAD) and canopy size were increased by irrigation and elevated [CO2]. The climate of the southeastern United States is predicted to be warmer and drier in the future. This research suggests that although elevated [CO2] will partially ameliorate the effects of warming and drying, losses of soil moisture will increase from old field ecosystems in the future.

  5. Mr. Rogers and Darth Vader The captains of industry, perhaps more than anyone else, have the ability to solve the global

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    the ability to solve the global warming problem, so they deserve attention. But different strategies, but dangerous for everyone. One implication for electricity generation is crystal clear from basic fossil fuel

  6. Halo Formation in Warm Dark Matter Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paul Bode; Jeremiah P. Ostriker; Neil Turok

    2001-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Discrepancies have emerged between the predictions of standard cold dark matter (CDM) theory and observations of clustering on sub-galactic scales. Warm dark matter (WDM) is a simple modification of CDM in which the dark matter particles have initial velocities due either to their having decoupled as thermal relics, or having been formed via non-equilibrium decay. We investigate the nonlinear gravitational clustering of WDM with a high resolution N-body code, and identify a number of distinctive observational signatures. Relative to CDM, halo concentrations and core densities are lowered, core radii are increased, and large halos emerge with far fewer low mass satellites. The number of small halos is suppressed, and those present are formed by `top down' fragmentation of caustics, as part of a `cosmic web' connecting massive halos. Few small halos form outside this web. If we identify small halos with dwarf galaxies, their number, spatial distribution, and formation epoch appear in better agreement with the observations for WDM than they are for CDM.

  7. Academy for Global Engagement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Academy for Global Engagement 2013-2014 Global Fellows #12;Meredith Gore and Wildlife #12;Global Research Interests · risk percepHon and public support and Agricultural Engineering #12;Global Research Interests · catalyHc conversion of biomass

  8. First-Principles Calculation of Principal Hugoniot and K-Shell X-ray Absorption Spectra for Warm Dense KCl

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Shijun; Kang, Wei; Li, Zi; Zhang, Ping; He, Xian-Tu

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Principal Hugoniot and K-shell X-ray absorption spectra of warm dense KCl are calculated using the first-principles molecular dynamics method. Evolution of electronic structures as well as the influence of the approximate description of ionization on pressure (caused by the underestimation of the energy gap between conduction bands and valence bands) in the first-principles method are illustrated by the calculation. Pressure ionization and thermal smearing are shown as the major factors to prevent the deviation of pressure from global accumulation along the Hugoniot. In addition, cancellation between electronic kinetic pressure and virial pressure further reduces the deviation. The calculation of X-ray absorption spectra shows that the band gap of KCl persists after the pressure ionization of the $3p$ electrons of Cl and K taking place at lower energy, which provides a detailed understanding to the evolution of electronic structures of warm dense matter.

  9. St. Augustinegrass Warm-season turfgrass. Prefers full sun, but

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ishida, Yuko

    St. Augustinegrass Warm-season turfgrass. Prefers full sun, but has a high tolerance for shade-season grass. It does best in full sun and high temperatures. Goes dormant and turns brown in winter. Very

  10. Probing warm dense lithium by inelastic X-ray scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    of warm dense matter states has practical applications for controlled thermonuclear fusion, where, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, OX11 0QX, UK 4 Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics

  11. Plants reverse warming effect on ecosystem water balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zavaleta, Erika

    ; and Carnegie Institution of Washington, 260 Panama Street, Stanford, CA 94305 Edited by W. G. Ernst, Stanford. Since November 1998, we have exposed these plots to simulated warming (80 W m-2 of thermal radiation

  12. Are You Keeping Warm This Winter? | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    your heating options to warm your home while saving money. Last week, I turned on the weather forecast to find that the entire central United States was hovering somewhere between...

  13. The variability of warm absorbers in Active Galactic Nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gibson, Robert R. (Robert Ross)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents three studies of warm (photoionized) absorber variability in Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) using high-resolution X-ray spectra provided by the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating (HETG). The first ...

  14. A pulsed power hydrodynamics approach to exploring properties of warm dense matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reinovsky, Robert Emil [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pulsed Power Hydrodynamics, as an application of low-impedance, pulsed power, and high magnetic field technology developed over the last decade to study advanced hydrodynamic problems, instabilities, turbulence, and material properties, can potentially be applied to the study of the behavior and properties of warm dense matter (WDM) as well. Exploration of the properties, such as equation of state and conductivity, of warm dense matter is an emerging area of study focused on the behavior of matter at density near solid density (from 10% of solid density to a few times solid density) and modest temperatures ({approx}1-10 eV). Warm dense matter conditions can be achieved by laser or particle beam heating of very small quantities of matter on timescales short compared to the subsequent hydrodynamic expansion timescales (isochoric heating) and a vigorous community of researchers is applying these techniques using petawatt scale laser systems, but the microscopic size scale of the WDM produced in this way limits access to some physics phenomena. Pulsed power hydrodynamics techniques, either through high convergence liner compression of a large volume, modest density, low temperature plasma to densities approaching solid density or through the explosion and subsequent expansion of a conductor (wire) against a high pressure (density) gas background (isobaric expansion) techniques both offer the prospect for producing warm dense matter in macroscopic quantities. However, both techniques demand substantial energy, proper power conditioning and delivery, and an understanding of the hydrodynamic and instability processes that limit each technique. Similarly, liner compression of normal density material, perhaps using multiple reflected shocks can provide access to the challenging region above normal density -- again with the requirement of very large amounts of driving energy. In this paper we will provide an introduction to techniques that might be applied to explore this interesting new application of the energy-rich technology of pulse power and high magnetic fields.

  15. GUT Cosmic Magnetic Fields in a Warm Inflationary Universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arjun Berera; Thomas W. Kephart; Stuart D. Wick

    1998-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Sources of magnetic fields from grand unified theories are studied in the warm inflation regime. A ferromagnetic Savvidy vacuum scenario is presented that yields observationally interesting large scale magnetic fields. As an intermediate step, a general analysis is made of defect production at the onset of warm inflation and monopole constraints are obtained. Many features of this Savvidy vacuum scenario are applicable within a supercooled inflation regime and these points are discussed.

  16. Control optimization of the cryoplant warm compressor station for EAST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhuang, M.; Hu, L. B.; Zhou, Z. W.; Xia, G. H. [Cryogenic Engineering Division, Institute of Plasma Physics Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O.Box 1126,Shushanhu Road 350, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)

    2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The cryogenic control system for EAST (Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak) was designed based on DeltaV DCS of Emerson Corporation. The automatic control of the cryoplant warm compressors has been implemented. However, with ever-degrading performance of critical equipment, the cryoplant operation in the partial design conditions makes the control system fluctuate and unstable. In this paper, the warm compressor control system was optimized to eliminate the pressure oscillation based on the expert PID theory.

  17. Global Cooling: Policies to Cool the World and Offset Global Warming from CO2 Using Reflective Roofs and Pavements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akbari, Hashem

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    widely used building energy-efficiency standards, includingaddress cool roofs in building energy-efficiency standardsworldwide. Building energy-efficiency standards typically

  18. Global Cooling: Policies to Cool the World and Offset Global Warming from CO2 Using Reflective Roofs and Pavements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akbari, Hashem

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cooling load from cool roofs. While important, the annual CO2008. Evolution of cool roof standards in the United States.2005. Cool Colored Roofs to Save Energy and Improve Air

  19. Global Cooling: Policies to Cool the World and Offset Global Warming from CO2 Using Reflective Roofs and Pavements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akbari, Hashem

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ASHRAE 90.2, the International Energy Conservation Code, andThe 2003 International Energy Conservation Code allows

  20. FSC-Watch: FSC undermines paper recycling, contributes to global warming FSC undermines paper recycling, contributes to global

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the May/June 2008 Eco-Journal of the Manitoba Eco-Network, Canada, which we are happy to reproduce pile of collected paper, which can either be burned or landfilled, or shipped to more distant recycling

  1. Heterotrophic Soil Respiration in Warming Experiments: Using Microbial Indicators to Partition Contributions from Labile and Recalcitrant Soil Organic Carbon. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradford, M A; Melillo, J M; Reynolds, J F; Treseder, K K; Wallenstein, M D

    2010-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The central objective of the proposed work was to develop a genomic approach (nucleic acid-based) that elucidates the mechanistic basis for the observed impacts of experimental soil warming on forest soil respiration. The need to understand the mechanistic basis arises from the importance of such information for developing effective adaptation strategies for dealing with projected climate change. Specifically, robust predictions of future climate will permit the tailoring of the most effective adaptation efforts. And one of the greatest uncertainties in current global climate models is whether there will be a net loss of carbon from soils to the atmosphere as climate warms. Given that soils contain approximately 2.5 times as much carbon as the atmosphere, a net loss could lead to runaway climate warming. Indeed, most ecosystem models predict that climate warming will stimulate microbial decomposition of soil carbon, producing such a positive feedback to rising global temperatures. Yet the IPCC highlights the uncertainty regarding this projected feedback. The uncertainty arises because although warming-experiments document an initial increase in the loss of carbon from soils, the increase in respiration is short-lived, declining to control levels in a few years. This attenuation could result from changes in microbial physiology with temperature. We explored possible microbial responses to warming using experiments and modeling. Our work advances our understanding of how soil microbial communities and their activities are structured, generating insight into how soil carbon might respond to warming. We show the importance of resource partitioning in structuring microbial communities. Specifically, we quantified the relative abundance of fungal taxa that proliferated following the addition of organic substrates to soil. We added glycine, sucrose, cellulose, lignin, or tannin-protein to soils in conjunction with 3-bromo-deoxyuridine (BrdU), a nucleotide analog. Active microbes absorb BrdU from the soil solution; if they multiply in response to substrate additions, they incorporate the BrdU into their DNA. After allowing soils to incubate, we extracted BrdU-labeled DNA and sequenced the ITS regions of fungal rDNA. Fungal taxa that proliferated following substrate addition were likely using the substrate as a resource for growth. We found that the structure of active fungal communities varied significantly among substrates. The active fungal community under glycine was significantly different from those under other conditions, while the active communities under sucrose and cellulose were marginally different from each other and the control. These results indicate that the overall community structure of active fungi was altered by the addition of glycine, sucrose, and cellulose and implies that some fungal taxa respond to changes in resource availability. The community composition of active fungi is also altered by experimental warming. We found that glycine-users tended to increase under warming, while lignin-, tannin/protein-, and sucrose-users declined. The latter group of substrates requires extracellular enzymes for use, but glycine does not. It is possible that warming selects for fungal species that target, in particular, labile substrates. Linking these changes in microbial communities and resource partitioning to soil carbon dynamics, we find that substrate mineralization rates are, in general, significantly lower in soils exposed to long-term warming. This suggests that microbial use of organic substrates is impaired by warming. Yet effects are dependent on substrate identity. There are fundamental differences in the metabolic capabilities of the communities in the control and warmed soils. These differences might relate to the changes in microbial community composition, which appeared to be associated with groups specialized on different resources. We also find that functional responses indicate temperature acclimation of the microbial community. There are distinct seasonal patterns and to long-term soil warming, with

  2. Scalar perturbation in warm tachyon inflation in LQC in light of Plank and BICEP2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. R. Setare; V. Kamali

    2014-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We study warm-tachyon inflationary universe model in the context of the effective field theory of loop quantum cosmology. In slow-roll approximation the primordial perturbation spectrums for this model are calculated. We also obtain the general expressions of the tensor-to-scalar ratio, scalar spectral index. We develop this model by using exponential potential, the characteristics of this model is calculated in great details. The parameters of the model are restricted by recent observational data from Planck, WMAP9 and BICEP2.

  3. Large amplitude solitary waves in a warm magnetoplasma with kappa distributed electrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Tantawy, S. A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Port Said University, Port Said 42521 (Egypt); El-Bedwehy, N. A. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Damietta University, New Damietta 34517 (Egypt); Abd El-Razek, H. N. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Damietta University, New Damietta 34517 (Egypt); Mahmood, S. [Theoretical Plasma Physics Division, PINSTECH, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); National Centre for Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University Campus, Shahdra Valley Road, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)

    2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The large amplitude nonlinear ion acoustic solitary wave propagating obliquely to an external magnetic field in a magnetized plasma with kappa distributed electrons and warm ions is investigated through deriving energy-balance-like expression involving a Sagdeev potential. Analytical and numerical calculations of the values of Mach number reveal that both of subsonic and supersonic electrostatic solitary structures can exist in this system. The influence on the soliton characteristics of relevant physical parameters such as the Mach number, the superthermal parameter, the directional cosine, the ratio of ion-to-electron temperature, and the ion gyrofrequency has been investigated.

  4. B4WARMED: Boreal Forest Warming at an Ecotone in Danger Principal Investigator: Peter Reich (Regents Professor)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amin, S. Massoud

    composition by experimentallywarming forest plots (with infrared lamps and soil heating cables of warming treatment and Infrared lamps used in experiment (Bruce Kimball ARS,USDA) Our central hypothesis

  5. Global climate change and the mitigation challenge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank Princiotta [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division

    2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, especially carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), have led to increasing atmospheric concentrations, very likely the primary cause of the 0.8{sup o}C warming the Earth has experienced since the Industrial Revolution. With industrial activity and population expected to increase for the rest of the century, large increases in greenhouse gas emissions are projected, with substantial global additional warming predicted. This paper examines forces driving CO{sub 2} emissions, a concise sector-by-sector summary of mitigation options, and research and development (R&D) priorities. To constrain warming to below approximately 2.5{sup o}C in 2100, the recent annual 3% CO{sub 2} emission growth rate needs to transform rapidly to an annual decrease rate of from 1 to 3% for decades. Furthermore, the current generation of energy generation and end-use technologies are capable of achieving less than half of the emission reduction needed for such a major mitigation program. New technologies will have to be developed and deployed at a rapid rate, especially for the key power generation and transportation sectors. Current energy technology research, development, demonstration, and deployment (RDD&D) programs fall far short of what is required. 20 refs., 18 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Inelastic X-ray Scattering Measurements of Ionization in Warm, Dense Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, Paul

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    attention to hydrogens high-pressure properties has sinceal. , Thermophysical properties of warm dense hydrogen using

  7. Your Guide to the Global Leadership

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saidak, Filip

    GLP HANDBOOK Your Guide to the Global Leadership Program at 2011-2012 #12;GLP Handbook 2 From plan as one of five strategic directions for the next five years. UNCG's Global Leadership Program proven their potential for a leadership position and possess the knowledge and skills to function

  8. Electrostatic solitary structures in presence of non-thermal electrons and a warm electron beam on the auroral field lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, S. V. [Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, Navi Mumbai (India); School of Physics, University of Kwazulu-Natal, Durban (South Africa); Lakhina, G. S. [Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, Navi Mumbai (India); Bharuthram, R. [University of the Western Cape, Bellville (South Africa); Pillay, S. R. [School of Physics, University of Kwazulu-Natal, Durban (South Africa)

    2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrostatic solitary waves (ESWs) have been observed by satellites in the auroral region of the Earth's magnetosphere. These ESWs are found to be having both positive and negative electrostatic potentials. Using the Sagdeeev psuedo-potential technique, arbitrary amplitude electron-acoustic solitary waves/double layers are studied in an unmagnetized plasma consisting of non-thermally distributed hot electrons, fluid cold electrons, a warm electron beam, and ions. The inertia of the warm electrons, and not the beam speed, is essential for the existence of positive potential solitary structures. Existence domains for positive as well as negative potential electrostatic solitons/double layers are obtained. For the typical auroral region parameters, the electric field amplitude of the negative potential solitons is found to be in the range {approx}(3-30) mV/m and {approx}(5-80) mV/m for the positive potential solitons. For the negative potential solitons/double layers, the amplitudes are higher when their widths are smaller. On the other hand, the amplitude of the positive potential structures increase with their widths.

  9. Potential of electric propulsion systems to reduce petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S. light-duty vehicle fleet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khusid, Michael

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the summer of 2008, the United States of America experienced an oil shock, first of a kind since 1970s. The American public became sensitized to the concerns about foreign oil supply and climate change and global warming, ...

  10. Stratospheric ozone, global warming, and the principle of unintended consequences - an ongoing science and policy story

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    www.epa.gov/ozone/science/ods/index.html. U.S. Environmentaltook action in phasing out ODS, there has been increasingEPAs authority to regulate ODS is set out in Title VI of

  11. Tax policy to combat global warming : on designing a carbon tax

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poterba, James M.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper develops several points concerning the design and implementation of a carbon tax. First, if implemented without any offsetting changes in transfer programs, the carbon tax would be regressive. This regressivity ...

  12. Carbon nanofibers, precious commodities from sunlight & CO2 to ameliorate global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Licht, Stuart

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study introduces the high yield, electrolytic synthesis of carbon nanofibers, CNFs, directly from carbon dioxide. Production of a precious commodity such as CNFs from atmospheric carbon dioxide provides impetus to limit this greenhouse gas and mitigate the rate of climate change. CNFs are formed at high rate using inexpensive nickel and steel electrodes in molten electrolytes. The process is demonstrated as a scaled-up stand-alone electrolytic cell, and is also shown compatible with the STEP, solar thermal electrochemical process, using concentrated sunlight at high solar to electric efficiency to provide the heat and electrical energy to drive the CNF production.

  13. How California Came to Pass AB 32, the Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanemann, W. Michael

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    renewable electricity generation and biomass-based fuels,fuel transportation, and for accelerating the target of a 20% renewable portfolio in electricity generationelectricity generation as for SO2 emissions. To reduce SO2 emissions, electricity generators relied on two main strategies: fuel

  14. Stratospheric ozone, global warming, and the principle of unintended consequences - an ongoing science and policy story

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    as methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE), lubricating oil and itsthe environment. Use of the MTBE additive in gasoline wasof gasoline laced with MTBE into groundwater resulted in

  15. Stratospheric ozone, global warming, and the principle of unintended consequences - an ongoing science and policy story

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2008. Learning about ozone depletion. Climatic Change 89(1and Physics of Stratospheric Ozone. San Diego, CA: AcademicPhotochemical behavior of the ozone layer. Report Number

  16. Brussels, 07.10.2003 Position paper: Europe should lead the fight against global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    Europe's reliance on fossil fuels and, even sooner, its dependence on nuclear power. The necessary energy emissions reduction in 2020 as critical steps towards a complete withdrawal from fossil fuel in 2050 and social costs, in particular by the realisation of road pricing, connected with the possibility of cross-subsidies

  17. Declining global per capita agricultural production and warming oceans threaten food security

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Funk, Chris C.; Brown, Molly E.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the USAID Famine Early Warning System Network. His researchDevelopment Famine Early Warning System Network, the NASA

  18. Marine methane cycle simulations for the period of early global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elliott, S.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the fate of gas hydrates during transit through the oceanP.R. Vogt and A.N. Rozhkov, Gas hydrates that outcrop on theK.A. , and A. Grantz, Gas hydrates in the Arctic Ocean

  19. Increased Runoff from Melt from the Greenland Ice Sheet: A Response to Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huybrechts, Philippe

    conditions over the ablation zone of the ice sheet, which caused a record melt extent. The year 2006 mass balance changes of the GrIS. Airborne and satellite laser-altimetry data analyses were used

  20. Climate Protection and Green Economy Act, Global Warming Solutions Act (Massachusetts)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Act requires the Department of Natural Resources to monitor and regulate the emissions of greenhouse gases in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, to require emissions reporting and to establish...