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1

Nuclear conflict and ozone depletion Quick summary  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nuclear conflict and ozone depletion Quick summary o Regional nuclear war could cause global which traps pollutants o Nuclear weapons cause explosions, which then causes things around the vicinity to start burning, which in turn releases black carbon; it is not the nuclear material or fallout causing

Toohey, Darin W.

2

Ozone depletion and health  

SciTech Connect

This book presents the state of knowledge of the ozone layer and the greenhouse effect. Deleterious effects of ultra-violet radiation on humans, animals, and plants are discussed. Alternatives to chloro-fluoro-carbons and political responses to the scientific discoveries are also addressed.

Russell-Jones, R.; Wigley, T.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Ozone depletion, greenhouse gases, and climate change: Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

This symposium was primarily concerned with the linkages between ozone depletion and increasing greenhouse gases and with their combined effect in causing climate change to occur on a global scale. The presentations in these proceedings review the current state of knowledge about stratospheric ozone depletion, discuss the probable effect of predicted greenhouse gas increase on future ozone trends, summarize observational data on changing atmospheric chemistry and associated atmospheric temperatures, and describe the continuing effort to model and predict future scenarios of climatic change relative to ozone and greenhouse gases in both the stratosphere and the troposphere. Some of the questions and answers that followed the presentations have been included when they highlight noteworthy points that were not covered in the presentation itself. The request by the National Climate Program Office for a symposium on the above related issues is included. The symposium agenda and participants are given. As well as a glossary of special terms and abbreviations. In summary, the Joint Symposium on Ozone Depletion, Greenhouse Gases, and Climate Change reviewed the magnitude and causes of stratospheric ozone depletion and examined the connections that exist between this problem and the impending climate warming to increasing greenhouse gases. The presentations of these proceedings indicate that the connections are real and important, and that the stratospheric ozone depletion and tropospheric greenhouse warming problems must be studied as parts of an interactive global system rather than as more or less unconnected events.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Ozone-depleting-substance control and phase-out plan  

SciTech Connect

Title VI of the Federal Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 requires regulation of the use and disposal of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) (e.g., Halon, Freon). Several important federal regulations have been promulgated that affect the use of such substances at the Hanford Site. On April 23, 1993, Executive Order (EO) 12843, Procurement Requirements and Policies for Federal Agencies for Ozone-Depleting Substances (EPA 1993) was issued for Federal facilities to conform to the new US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations implementing the Clean Air Act of 1963 (CAA), Section 613, as amended. To implement the requirements of Title VI the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL), issued a directive to the Hanford Site contractors on May 25, 1994 (Wisness 1994). The directive assigns Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) the lead in coordinating the development of a sitewide comprehensive implementation plan to be drafted by July 29, 1994 and completed by September 30, 1994. The implementation plan will address several areas where immediate compliance action is required. It will identify all current uses of ODSs and inventories, document the remaining useful life of equipment that contains ODS chemicals, provide a phase-out schedule, and provide a strategy that will be implemented consistently by all the Hanford Site contractors. This plan also addresses the critical and required elements of Federal regulations, the EO, and US Department of Energy (DOE) guidance. This plan is intended to establish a sitewide management system to address the clean air requirements.

Nickels, J.M.; Brown, M.J.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Annual and Seasonal Global Variation in Total Ozone and Layer-Mean Ozone,  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Trace Gases » Ozone » Total Ozone and Layer-Mean Ozone Atmospheric Trace Gases » Ozone » Total Ozone and Layer-Mean Ozone Annual and Seasonal Global Variation in Total Ozone and Layer-Mean Ozone, 1958-1987 (1991) DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/atg.ndp023 data Data Investigators J. K. Angell, J. Korshover, and W. G. Planet Description For 1958 through 1987, this data base presents total ozone variations and layer mean ozone variations expressed as percent deviations from the 1958 to 1977 mean. The total ozone variations were derived from mean monthly ozone values published in Ozone Data for the World by the Atmospheric Environment Service in cooperation with the World Meteorological Organization. The layer mean ozone variations are derived from ozonesonde and Umkehr observations. The data records include year, seasonal and annual

6

Antarctic Ozone Transport and Depletion in Austral Spring 2002  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ozone budget in the Antarctic region during the stratospheric warming in 2002 is studied, using ozone analyses from the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI) ozone-transport and assimilation model called TM3DAM. The results show a ...

Peter Siegmund; Henk Eskes; Peter van Velthoven

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Separating the Dynamical Effects of Climate Change and Ozone Depletion. Part II: Southern Hemisphere Troposphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The separate effects of ozone depleting substances (ODSs) and greenhouse gases (GHGs) on forcing circulation changes in the Southern Hemisphere extratropical troposphere are investigated using a version of the Canadian Middle Atmosphere Model (...

Charles McLandress; Theodore G. Shepherd; John F. Scinocca; David A. Plummer; Michael Sigmond; Andreas I. Jonsson; M. Catherine Reader

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

A Comparison of Total Column Ozone Values Derived from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME), the Tiros Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS), and the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A comparison of total column ozone data retrieved from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME), the Tiros Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS), and the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) for the years 1996, 1997, 1998, and 1999 is ...

Gary K. Corlett; Paul S. Monks

2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Decadal Changes of Wind Stress over the Southern Ocean Associated with Antarctic Ozone Depletion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using 40-yr ECMWF Re-Analysis (ERA-40) data and in situ observations, the positive trend of Southern Ocean surface wind stress during two recent decades is detected, and its close linkage with spring Antarctic ozone depletion is established. The ...

Xiao-Yi Yang; Rui Xin Huang; Dong Xiao Wang

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Massive global ozone loss predicted following regional nuclear conflict  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Massive global ozone loss predicted following regional nuclear conflict Michael J. Mills* , Owen B a chemistry-climate model and new estimates of smoke produced by fires in contemporary cities to calculate the impact on stratospheric ozone of a regional nuclear war between developing nuclear states involving 100

11

Stratospheric Ozone Depletion: The Main Driver of Twentieth-Century Atmospheric Circulation Changes in the Southern Hemisphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The importance of stratospheric ozone depletion on the atmospheric circulation of the troposphere is studied with an atmospheric general circulation model, the Community Atmospheric Model, version 3 (CAM3), for the second half of the twentieth ...

Lorenzo M. Polvani; Darryn W. Waugh; Gustavo J. P. Correa; Seok-Woo Son

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

REVIEW ARTICLE Ozone depletion and increased UV-B radiation: is there a real threat to photosynthesis?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on photosynthetic competence or light-interception. It is concluded that O depletion and the concurrent rise This critical review of recent literature questions earl-3 in UV-B irradiance is not a direct threat to photosynier predictions that photosynthetic productivity of thetic productivity of crops and natural vegetation. higher plants is vulnerable to increased ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation as a result of stratospheric ozone (O) 3 Key words: Biomass, development, ozone depletion, depletion. Direct UV-B-induced inhibition of photosyn- photosynthesis, ultraviolet-B. thetic competence is observed only at high UV-B irradiances and primarily involves the loss of soluble Calvin

Damian J. Allen; Salvador Nogus; Neil R. Baker

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Ozone Depletion and Global Warming an Integrated Approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Time frame for decommissioning Weight equivalent for replacements Halon 1301 ODP 16 ... for future destruction. Time frame for decommissioning ...

2011-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

14

Global Ozone Observations from the UARS MLS: An Overview of Zonal-Mean Results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Global ozone observations from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) aboard the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) are presented, in both vertically resolved and column abundance formats. The authors review the zonal-mean ozone variations ...

Lucien Froidevaux; Joe W. Waters; William G. Read; Lee S. Elson; Dennis A. Flower; Robert F. Jarnot

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Relative Contribution of Greenhouse Gases and Ozone-Depleting Substances to Temperature Trends in the Stratosphere: A ChemistryClimate Model Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The temperature of the stratosphere has decreased over the past several decades. Two causes contribute to that decrease: well-mixed greenhouse gases (GHGs) and ozone-depleting substances (ODSs). This paper addresses the attribution of temperature ...

Richard S. Stolarski; Anne R. Douglass; Paul A. Newman; Steven Pawson; Mark R. Schoeberl

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Potential influence of iodine-containing compounds on the chemistry of the troposphere in the polar spring. I. Ozone depletion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Iodine in the atmosphere, identified largely by the presence of IO, is a ubiquitous component of the troposphere in coastal and oceanic areas. The role, if any, that iodine chemistry plays in the polar ozone depletion episodes is not known. These events are rationalized today largely in terms of Br2- and BrCl-initiated reactions. The potential for enhancement of ozone depletions through the presence of iodine-containing molecules (I{sub 2}, IBr, ICl, CH{sub 2}I{sub 2}, CH{sub 2}IBr, CH{sub 2}ICl, and CH{sub 3}I) is investigated in this study. Computer simulations of the homogeneous chemistry are made using a reasonably complete reaction mechanism for Br-, Cl- and I-containing species together with representative chemistry of trace gases in the clean troposphere. The extent of uncertain alternative pathways and efficiencies for OIO and I{sub 2}O{sub 2} photolyses are varied over a range of possible values to establish the sensitivity of the depletion events to these variables. The study shows that significant enhancements of the polar ozone depletion are expected when small amounts of iodine-containing compounds such as CH{sub 2}I{sub 2}, IBr, or ICl are present in a polar air mass containing representative Br{sub 2}-BrCl-trace gas mixtures. The synergistic effect of the iodine compounds results from additional halogen-atom formation from IO-IO, IO-BrO, and IO-ClO reactions. Measurements of IO and precursor iodine-containing compounds are encouraged for future polar spring studies, as well as currently acknowledged important trace species (O{sub 3}, CH{sub 2}O, BrO, Br{sub 2}, and BrCl).

Calvert, Jack G [ORNL; Lindberg, Steven Eric [ORNL

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Global Normal-Mode Rossby Waves Observed in Stratospheric Ozone Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Westward-propagating Rossby normal-mode planetary waves are documented in stratospheric ozone data using Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) satellite measurements. These modes are evidenced by enhanced spectral power and near-global coherence ...

William J. Randel

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

A two-dimensional model study of past trends in global ozone  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Emissions and atmospheric concentrations of several trace gases important to atmospheric chemistry are known to have increased substantially over recent decades. Solar flux variations and the atmospheric nuclear test series are also likely to have affected stratospheric ozone. In this study, the LLNL two-dimensional chemical-radiative-transport model of the troposphere and stratosphere has been applied to an analysis of the effects that these natural and anthropogenic influences may have had on global ozone concentrations over the last three decades. In general, model determined species distributions and the derived ozone trends agree well with published analyses of land-based and satellite-based observations. Also, the total ozone and ozone distribution trends derived from CFC and other trace gas effects have a different response with latitude than the derived trends from solar flux variations, thus providing a ''signature'' for anthropogenic effects on ozone. 24 refs., 5 figs.

Wuebbles, D.J.; Kinnison, D.E.

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Global Variation in Total Ozone and Layer-Mean Ozone: An Update Through 1981  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Total-ozone variations have been updated through 1981 for four regions in north temperate latitudes, the five climatic zones, both hemispheres, and the world. Also updated through 1981 are ozone values in height layers 3248 km, 2432 km, 1624 ...

J. K. Angell; J. Korshover

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Global Health and Economic Impacts of Future Ozone Pollution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We assess the human health and economic impacts of projected 2000-2050 changes in ozone pollution using the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis-Health Effects (EPPA-HE) model, in combination with results from the ...

Webster, Mort D.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "global ozone depletion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Technology-Based Handling of Science Misconceptions: The GeoDist Tool on the Distinction of Greenhouse Effect and Ozone Depletion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The didactic utilization of the conceptual obstacles constitutes an alternative approach for the design of learning situations in science education, in order to produce a conceptual change and overcome them. Adopting this positive perspective, a relative ... Keywords: conceptual obstacles, GeoDist (Greenhouse Effect and Ozone Depletion Dis-tinction), Science Misconceptions

Sofia J. Hadjileontiadou; Theoxaris Vasilakoglou

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

NRC symposium explores links between greenhouse gases, stratospheric ozone  

SciTech Connect

Two important climatic issues stratospheric ozone depletion and greenhouse gas increase and the apparent connection between them led to the holding in March 1988 of a Joint Symposium on Ozone Depletion, Greenhouse Gases and Climate Change. This symposium was primarily concerned with the linkages between ozone depletion and increasing greenhouse gases and with their combined effect in causing climate change to occur on a global scale. The presentations review the current state of knowledge about stratospheric ozone depletion, discuss the probable effect of predicted greenhouse gas increase on future ozone trends, summarize observational data on changing atmospheric chemistry and associated atmospheric temperatures, and describe the continuing effort to model and predict future scenarios of climatic change relative to ozone and greenhouse gases in both the stratosphere and the troposphere.

1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Ozone  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Umkehr observations (Angell et al.) The Forest Responses to Anthropogenic Stress (FORAST) (McLaughlin et al.) Ozone EnrichmentAspen FACE Experiment - Rhinelander, Wisconsin...

24

The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME): Mission Concept and First Scientific Results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) is a new instrument aboard the European Space Agencys (ESA) Second European Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS-2), which was launched in April 1995. The main scientific objective of the GOME mission is to ...

John P. Burrows; Mark Weber; Michael Buchwitz; Vladimir Rozanov; Annette Ladsttter-Weienmayer; Andreas Richter; Rdiger DeBeek; Ricarda Hoogen; Klaus Bramstedt; Kai-Uwe Eichmann; Michael Eisinger; Dieter Perner

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Global distributions of total ozone during January and February 1979 as determined from DMSP multichannel filter radiometer measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The multichannel filter radiometer instrument (MFR) was first flown on a Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Block 5D series satellite in 1977. Daily analyses of the global distribution of retrieved total ozone are presented for January and February 1979. The temporal and spatial averages and variability of ozone during this period are discussed. Retrieved total column ozone data derived from the MFR measurements for January 1979 are compared with preliminary SBUV measurements and with distributions of total ozone measured between 1958 and 1967.

Luther, F.M.; Ellis, J.S.; Lovill, J.E.; Sullivan, T.J.; Weichel, R.L.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Ozone  

SciTech Connect

The author discusses the debate over whether concern about a hole in the ozone layer in Antarctic is real or science fiction. There is a growing consensus that efforts must be taken to protect the ozone layer. The issue now is not whether chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) should be controlled and regulated but how much and how soon. The United States has urged that the production of dangerous CFCs, and any other chemicals that affect the ozone layer, be restricted immediately to current levels and that their use be reduced 95 percent over the next decade. The American position was too strong for many European nations and the Japanese. Negotiations at an international conference on the matter broke down. The breakdown is due in part to a more acute concern for environmental matters in the United States than exists in many countries. Meanwhile CFCs are linked to another environmental problem that equally threatens the world - the Greenhouse Effect. The earth is in a natural warming period, but man could be causing it to become even warmer. The Greenhouse Effect could have a catastrophic impact on mankind, although nothing has been proven yet.

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Constructing a coherent long-term global total ozone climatology from the BUV, MFR, and SBUV/TOMS data sets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The backscatter ultraviolet spectrometer (BUV) aboard the NIMBUS 4 satellite provided global ozone data until mid-1977. The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and Solar Backscattered Ultraviolet (SBUV) instrument aboard the NIMBUS 7 satellite began providing global ozone in November 1978. The only satellite derived global total ozone data available between the termination of the BUV data and the startup of the SBUV/TOMS data is that from the Multichannel Filter Radiometer (MFR) instrument aboard the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) series of satellites. The MFR and the SBUV/TOMS data are compared during the data overlap period in order to determine how well the MFR data might be used to represent the SBUV/TOMS and BUV data during the data gap period. 5 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Ellis, J.S.; Luther, F.M.

1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

RUNNING OUT OF AND INTO OIL: ANALYZING GLOBAL OIL DEPLETION AND TRANSITION THROUGH 2050  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

9 9 RUNNING OUT OF AND INTO OIL: ANALYZING GLOBAL OIL DEPLETION AND TRANSITION THROUGH 2050 October 2003 David L. Greene Corporate Fellow Janet L. Hopson Research Assistant Jia Li Senior Research Technician DOCUMENT AVAILABILITY Reports produced after January 1, 1996, are generally available free via the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Information Bridge: Web site: http://www.osti.gov/bridge Reports produced before January 1, 1996, may be purchased by members of the public from the following source: National Technical Information Service 5285 Port Royal Road Springfield, VA 22161 Telephone: 703-605-6000 (1-800-553-6847) TDD: 703-487-4639 Fax: 703-605-6900 E-mail: info@ntis.fedworld.gov Web site: http://www.ntis.gov/support/ordernowabout.htm

29

Running Out of and Into Oil: Analyzing Global Oil Depletion and Transition Through 2050  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

L. Greene, Janet L. Hopson, and Jia Li L. Greene, Janet L. Hopson, and Jia Li A risk analysis is presented of the peaking of world conventional oil pro- duction and the likely transition to unconventional oil resources such as oil sands, heavy oil, and shale oil. Estimates of world oil resources by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and C. J. Campbell provide alternative views of ultimate world oil resources. A global energy scenario created by the International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis and the World Energy Council provides the context for the risk analysis. A model of oil resource depletion and expansion for 12 world regions is combined with a market equilibrium model of conventional and unconventional oil sup- ply and demand. The model does not use Hubbert curves. Key variables

30

Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Derived Data, Global Earth Coverage (GEC) from NASA's Earth Probe Satellite  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

This is data from an external datastream processed through the ARM External Data Center (XDC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The XDC identifies sources and acquires data, called "external data", to augment the data being generated within the ARM program. The external data acquired are usually converted from native format to either netCDF or HDF formats. The GEC collection contains global data derived from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument on the Earth Probe satellite, consisting of daily values of aerosol index, ozone and reflectivity remapped into a regular 1x1.25 deg grid. Data are available from July 25, 1996 - December 31, 2005, but have been updated or replaced as of September 2007. See the explanation on the ARM web site at http://www.arm.gov/xds/static/toms.stm and the information at the NASA/TOMS web site: http://toms.gsfc.nasa.gov/ (Registration required)

31

An Update through 1985 of the Variations in Global Total Ozone and North Temperate Layer-Mean Ozone  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Total-ozone variations in five climatic zones and the world as a whole, as well as ozone variations in tropospheric and stratospheric layers of the north temperate zone, have been updated through 1985 by means of Dobson, ozonesonde and Umkehr ...

J. K. Angell

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Analytical Method for the Detection of Ozone Depleting Chemicals (ODC) in Commercial Products Using a Gas Chromatograph with an Electron Capture Detector (GC-ECD)  

SciTech Connect

This document describes an analytical procedure that was developed for the trace level detection of residual ozone depleting chemicals (ODC) associated with the manufacture of selected commercial products. To ensure the United States meets it obligation under the Montreal Protocol, Congress enacted legislation in 1989 to impose an excise tax on electronic goods imported into the United States that were produced with banned chemicals. This procedure was developed to technically determine if residual ODC chemicals could be detected on electronic circuit boards. The analytical method utilizes a purge and trap technique followed by gas chromatography with electron capture detection to capture and analyze the volatile chemicals associated with the matrix. The method describes the procedure, the hardware, operating conditions, calibration, and quality control measures in sufficient detail to allow the capability to be replicated. This document corresponds to internal Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) EFL-130A, Rev 4.

Lee, Richard N.; Dockendorff, Brian P.; Wright, Bob W.

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Running Out of and Into Oil: Analyzing Global Oil Depletion and Transition Through 2050  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents a risk analysis of world conventional oil resource production, depletion, expansion, and a possible transition to unconventional oil resources such as oil sands, heavy oil and shale oil over the period 2000 to 2050. Risk analysis uses Monte Carlo simulation methods to produce a probability distribution of outcomes rather than a single value. Probability distributions are produced for the year in which conventional oil production peaks for the world as a whole and the year of peak production from regions outside the Middle East. Recent estimates of world oil resources by the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), the World Energy Council (WEC) and Dr. C. Campbell provide alternative views of the extent of ultimate world oil resources. A model of oil resource depletion and expansion for twelve world regions is combined with a market equilibrium model of conventional and unconventional oil supply and demand to create a World Energy Scenarios Model (WESM). The model does not make use of Hubbert curves but instead relies on target reserve-to-production ratios to determine when regional output will begin to decline. The authors believe that their analysis has a bias toward optimism about oil resource availability because it does not attempt to incorporate political or environmental constraints on production, nor does it explicitly include geologic constraints on production rates. Global energy scenarios created by IIASA and WEC provide the context for the risk analysis. Key variables such as the quantity of undiscovered oil and rates of technological progress are treated as probability distributions, rather than constants. Analyses based on the USGS and IIASA resource assessments indicate that conventional oil production outside the Middle East is likely to peak sometime between 2010 and 2030. The most important determinants of the date are the quantity of undiscovered oil, the rate at which unconventional oil production can be expanded, and the rate of growth of reserves and enhanced recovery. Analysis based on data produced by Campbell indicates that the peak of non-Middle East production will occur before 2010. For total world conventional oil production, the results indicate a peak somewhere between 2020 and 2050. Key determinants of the peak in world oil production are the rate at which the Middle East region expands its output and the minimum reserves-to-production ratios producers will tolerate. Once world conventional oil production peaks, first oil sands and heavy oil from Canada, Venezuela and Russia, and later some other source such as shale oil from the United States must expand if total world oil consumption is to continue to increase. Alternative sources of liquid hydrocarbon fuels, such as coal or natural gas are also possible resources but not considered in this analysis nor is the possibility of transition to a hydrogen economy. These limitations were adopted to simplify the transition analysis. Inspection of the paths of conventional oil production indicates that even if world oil production does not peak before 2020, output of conventional oil is likely to increase at a substantially slower rate after that date. The implication is that there will have to be increased production of unconventional oil after that date if world petroleum consumption is to grow.

Greene, D.L.

2003-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

34

Predicting tropospheric ozone and hydroxyl radical in a global, three-dimensional, chemistry, transport, and deposition model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two of the most important chemically reactive tropospheric gases are ozone (O{sub 3}) and the hydroxyl radical (OH). Although ozone in the stratosphere is a necessary protector against the sun`s radiation, tropospheric ozone is actually a pollutant which damages materials and vegetation, acts as a respiratory irritant, and is a greenhouse gas. One of the two main sources of ozone in the troposphere is photochemical production. The photochemistry is initiated when hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide (CO) react with nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x} = NO + NO{sub 2}) in the presence of sunlight. Reaction with the hydroxyl radical, OH, is the main sink for many tropospheric gases. The hydroxyl radical is highly reactive and has a lifetime on the order of seconds. Its formation is initiated by the photolysis of tropospheric ozone. Tropospheric chemistry involves a complex, non-linear set of chemical reactions between atmospheric species that vary substantially in time and space. To model these and other species on a global scale requires the use of a global, three-dimensional chemistry, transport, and deposition (CTD) model. In this work, I developed two such three dimensional CTD models. The first model incorporated the chemistry necessary to model tropospheric ozone production from the reactions of nitrogen oxides with carbon monoxide (CO) and methane (CH{sub 4}). The second also included longer-lived alkane species and the biogenic hydrocarbon isoprene, which is emitted by growing plants and trees. The models` ability to predict a number of key variables (including the concentration of O{sub 3}, OH, and other species) were evaluated. Then, several scenarios were simulated to understand the change in the chemistry of the troposphere since preindustrial times and the role of anthropogenic NO{sub x} on present day conditions.

Atherton, C.S.

1995-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

35

Comparative Global Warming Impacts of Electric Vapor-Compression and Direct-fired Absorption Equipment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report compares the global warming impacts of electric vapor-compression and gas-fired absorption-cycle equipment for commercial cooling applications. Absorption chillers do not use ozone depleting refrigerants but substitution of alternative refrigerants in electrically driven vapor-compression cycle equipment also offers radically reduced or eliminated potential for stratospheric ozone depletion. Therefore, when comparing absorption-cycle and vapor-compression equipment, net global warming impacts...

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Predictability of Total Ozone Using a Global Three-Dimensional Chemical Transport Model Coupled with the MRI/JMA98 GCM  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A global three-dimensional chemical transport model is being developed for forecasting total ozone. The model includes detailed stratospheric chemistry and transport and couples with a dynamical module of the Meteorological Research Institute/...

T. T. Sekiyama; K. Shibata

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Ozone depletion, the Greenhouse effect, and climate change. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Environmental Pollution of the Committee on Environment and Public Works, United States Senate, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session, June 10 and 11, 1986  

SciTech Connect

Witnesses at a two-day hearing on the nature and magnitude of possible risks from the greenhouse effect and depletion of the ozone layer and the government's role in addressing these problems included representatives of universities, international environmental and resource institutes and organizations, manufacturers of fluorocarbons, historians, and government agencies. Prompting the hearings was a DOE report on the risks and need for intensive research and international cooperation in the area of environmental policy. Technical presentations were given by experts in atmospheric chemistry and oceanography. Additional material submitted for the record follows the testimony of the 16 witnesses.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Sensitivity study of global ozone to NO/sub x/ emission from aircraft  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There recently has been renewed interest in the development of faster and more efficient aircraft for intercontinental passenger flights. Such aircraft would probably spend a large fraction of their flight time in the stratosphere, perhaps as high as 35 km. As a natural progression from studies that were done in the early 1970s, this study reinvestigates the sensitivity of stratospheric ozone to NO/sub x/ emissions based on current understanding of atmospheric chemical and physical processes. The LLNL one-dimensional and new two-dimensional chemical-radiative-transport models of the troposphere and stratosphere are used in this investigation. The two-dimensional model provides latitudinal, altitudinal, and seasonal resolution; and the computationally faster one-dimensional model is used for sensitivity studies. Because of uncertainties in possible future emissions, it is necessary to examine the model sensitivity to a wide range in magnitude, altitude, and latitude of assumed NO/sub x/ emissions. As an initial study, the models are used in simulation of a typical scenario from the CIAP era, and results are compared with those of a published two-dimensional model, which includes some three- dimensional features. This investigation lays the groundwork for future studies, including different background amounts of ClX and for other aircraft emission scenarios. 12 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Kinnison, D.; Johnston, H.; Wuebbles, D.J.

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Quality of Total Ozone Measured by the Focused Sun Method Using a Brewer Spectrophotometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Strong ozone depletions and large natural variations in total ozone have been observed at high latitudes. Accurate measurements of total ozone are important so as not to misinterpret the involved processes and to track correctly the variations. ...

Weine Josefsson

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Depleted Uranium  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Depleted Uranium Depleted Uranium Depleted Uranium line line Uranium Enrichment Depleted Uranium Health Effects Depleted Uranium Depleted uranium is uranium that has had some of its U-235 content removed. Over the last four decades, large quantities of uranium were processed by gaseous diffusion to produce uranium having a higher concentration of uranium-235 than the 0.72% that occurs naturally (called "enriched" uranium) for use in U.S. national defense and civilian applications. "Depleted" uranium is also a product of the enrichment process. However, depleted uranium has been stripped of some of its natural uranium-235 content. Most of the Department of Energy's (DOE) depleted uranium inventory contains between 0.2 to 0.4 weight-percent uranium-235, well

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "global ozone depletion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Global warming impacts of ozone-safe refrigerants and refrigeration, heating, and air-conditioning technologies  

SciTech Connect

International agreements mandate the phase-out of many chlorine containing compounds that are used as the working fluid in refrigeration, air-conditioning, and heating equipment. Many of the chemical compounds that have been proposed, and are being used in place of the class of refrigerants eliminated by the Montreal Protocol are now being questioned because of their possible contributions to global warming. Natural refrigerants are put forth as inherently superior to manufactured refrigerants because they have very low or zero global warming potentials (GWPs). Questions are being raised about whether or not these manufactured refrigerants, primarily hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), should be regulated and perhaps phased out in much the same manner as CFCs and HCFCs. Several of the major applications of refrigerants are examined in this paper and the results of an analysis of their contributions to greenhouse warming are presented. Supermarket refrigeration is shown to be an application where alternative technologies have the potential to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) significantly with no clear advantage to either natural or HFC refrigerants. Mixed results are presented for automobile air conditioners with opportunities to reduce GHG emissions dependent on climate and comfort criteria. GHG emissions for hermetic and factory built systems (i.e. household refrigerators/freezers, unitary equipment, chillers) are shown to be dominated by energy use with much greater potential for reduction through efficiency improvements than by selection of refrigerant. The results for refrigerators also illustrate that hydrocarbon and carbon dioxide blown foam insulation have lower overall effects on GHG emissions than HFC blown foams at the cost of increased energy use.

Fischer, S.; Sand, J.; Baxter, V.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Past and Future Effects of Ozone on Net Primary Production and Carbon Sequestration Using a Global Biogeochemical Model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Exposure of plants to ozone inhibits photosynthesis and therefore reduces vegetation production and carbon sequestration. Simulations with the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM) for the historical period (1860-1995) show ...

Felzer, Benjamin Seth.

43

Indirect global warming effects of ozone and stratospheric water vapor induced by surface methane emission  

SciTech Connect

Methane has indirect effects on climate due to chemical interactions as well as direct radiative forcing effects as a greenhouse gas. We have calculated the indirect, time-varying tropospheric radiative forcing and GWP of O{sub 3} and stratospheric H{sub 2}O due to an impulse of CH{sub 4}. This impulse, applied to the lowest layer of the atmosphere, is the increase of the atmospheric mass of CH{sub 4} resulting from a 25 percent steady state increase in the current emissions as a function of latitude. The direct CH{sub 4} radiative forcing and GWP are also calculated. The LLNL 2-D radiative-chemistry-transport model is used to evaluate the resulting changes in the O{sub 3}, H{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} atmospheric profiles as a function of time. A correlated k-distribution radiative transfer model is used to calculate the radiative forcing at the tropopause of the globally-averaged atmosphere profiles. The O{sub 3} indirect GWPs vary from {approximately}27 after a 20 yr integration to {approximately}4 after 500 years, agreeing with the previous estimates to within about 10 percent. The H{sub 2}O indirect GWPs vary from {approximately}2 after a 20 yr integration to {approximately}0.3 after 500 years, and are in close agreement with other estimates. The CH{sub 4} GWPs vary from {approximately}53 at 20 yrs to {approximately}7 at 500 yrs. The 20 year CH{sub 4} GWP is {approximately}20% larger than previous estimates of the direct CH{sub 4} GWP due to a CH{sub 4} response time ({approximately}17 yrs) that is much longer than the overall lifetime (10 yrs). The increased CH{sub 4} response time results from changes in the OH abundances caused by the CH{sub 4} impulse. The CH{sub 4} radiative forcing results are consistent with IPCC values. Estimates are made of latitude effects in the radiative forcing calculations, and UV effects on the O{sub 3} radiative forcing calculations (10%).

Wuebbles, D.J.; Grossman, A.S.; Tamaresis, J.S.; Patten, K.O. Jr.; Jain, A.; Grant, K.A.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Delayed Southern Hemisphere climate change induced by stratospheric ozone recovery, as projected by the CMIP5 models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Stratospheric ozone is expected to recover by the end of this century due to the regulation of ozone depleting substances by the Montreal Protocol. Targeted modeling studies have suggested that the climate response to ozone recovery will greatly ...

Elizabeth A. Barnes; Nicholas W. Barnes; Lorenzo M. Polvani

45

FTT:Power : A global model of the power sector with induced technological change and natural resource depletion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. The decarbonisation of the global power system depends first and foremost on the rate at which highly emitting technologies based on fossil fuels can be substituted for cleaner ones. While fossil fueled electricity generation technologies are mature and well... determine the 90% confidence level, and the blue curve corresponds to the most probable set of values. Uncertainty in the determination of natural resource avail- ability is notable in the case of fossil fuel reserves and re- sources. Rogner (1997) paints a...

Mercure, Jean-Francois

2011-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

46

The greenhouse effect: Chicken Little and our response to global warming  

SciTech Connect

In this article the author suggests that global warming studies are ambiguous and have generated a chicken little response in the public and in policymakers. Uncertainties in studies of ocean warming and ozone depletion are discussed as well as the role of other trace gases such as methane, chlorofluorocarbons and nitrogen oxides.

Michaels, P.J.

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Process Modeling of Global Soil Nitrous Oxide Emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nitrous oxide is an important greenhouse gas and is a major ozone-depleting substance. To understand and

Saikawa, E.

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Ozone, skin cancer, and the SST  

SciTech Connect

In 1971, the U.S. Congress cut off funding for development of supersonic transport aircraft prototypes when it was argued that the pollution created by SSTs could reduce the stratospheric ozone content and increase the incidence of skin cancer. At present, the theory of ozone depletion is in a rather uncertain state. Two examples of this are cited. First, ozone depletion may depend more on the availability of surfaces of aerosols and particles than on the content of chlorine. Second, it has been discovered that NO(x) can tie up active chlorine and thus reduce depletion from that source. We are therefore left with the paradoxical result that under certain circumstances SSTs flying in the lower stratospheric can actually counteract, at least partially, any ozone-depleting effects of CFCs. A recent study by scientists at the Brookhaven National Laboratory showed that melanoma rates would not be affected by changes in the ozone layer. If these results are confirmed, then much of the fear associated with ozone depletion disappears. It is difficult to tell how all this will affect a future supersonic transport program, since it is not clear whether a fleet of SSTs will increase or offset ozone depletion.

Singer, S.F.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Mario Molina, Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and Ozone Depletion  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

in aerosol sprays went into effect first in the United States in 1978, and later in Canada, Norway, and Sweden. ... Over the years evidence mounted in support of Molina's...

50

Y-12 Plant Stratospheric Ozone Protection plan  

SciTech Connect

The Y-12 Plant staff is required by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (Energy Systems) (formerly Martin Marietta Energy Systems) standard ESS-EP-129 to develop and implement a Stratospheric Ozone Protection Program which will minimize emissions of ozone-depleting substances to the environment and maximize the use of ozone-safe alternatives in order to comply with Title VI of the 1990 Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments and the implementing regulations promulgated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This plan describes the requirements, initiatives, and accomplishments of the Y-12 Plant Stratospheric Ozone Protection Program.

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Global Economic Effects of Changes in Crops, Pasture, and Forests due to Changing Climate, Carbon Dioxide, and Ozone  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Multiple environmental changes will have consequences for global vegetation. To the extent that crop yields and pasture and forest productivity are affected there can be important economic consequences. We examine the ...

Reilly, John M.

52

Charge Depleting:  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

0.5 seconds 0.5 seconds Acceleration 1/4 Mile Time: 18.6 seconds Maximum Speed: 83.2 MPH Acceleration 1 Mile Maximum Speed: 100.6 MPH Charge Sustaining: Acceleration 0-60 MPH Time: 10.6 seconds Acceleration 1/4 Mile Time: 18.6 seconds Maximum Speed: 82.8 MPH Acceleration 1 Mile Maximum Speed: 101.9 MPH Brake Test @ 60 MPH Distance Required: 145.1 ft UDDS Fuel Economy 6 HWFET Fuel Economy 6,10 Distance (miles) Fuel Economy (mpg) AC Energy Consumed (kWh) 7 Distance (miles) Fuel Economy (mpg) AC Energy Consumed (kWh) 7 10 118.5 2.85 10 53.0 1.80 20 116.8 5.49 20 56.6 3.37 40 116.0 10.50 40 58.0 6.38 60 90.7 11.34 60 55.3 9.48 80 76.6 11.34 80 51.4 11.11 100 68.0 11.34 100 47.2 11.13 200 50.9 11.34 200 38.7 11.13 Fuel Economy with A/C Off 1 Cold Start Charge Depleting 2 : Fuel Economy: 119.7 MPG AC kWh Consumed 7 : 0.282 kWh/mi Charge Depleting

53

Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II CD-ROM Atlas of Global Monthly Aerosols, Ozone, NO2, Water, Vapor, and Relative Humitidy (19851993)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Individual profile measurements from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II) instrument aboard the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite have been used to create latitude-longitude maps of monthly mean aerosols, ozone, water vapor, ...

D. Rind; X. Liao

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

OFFICE OF DEPLETED URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE MANAGEMENT Issuance Of Final Report On Preconceptual Designs For Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Plants The Department of Energy...

55

Depleted Uranium Health Effects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Depleted Uranium Health Effects Depleted Uranium Health Effects Depleted Uranium line line Uranium Enrichment Depleted Uranium Health Effects Depleted Uranium Health Effects Discussion of health effects of external exposure, ingestion, and inhalation of depleted uranium. Depleted uranium is not a significant health hazard unless it is taken into the body. External exposure to radiation from depleted uranium is generally not a major concern because the alpha particles emitted by its isotopes travel only a few centimeters in air or can be stopped by a sheet of paper. Also, the uranium-235 that remains in depleted uranium emits only a small amount of low-energy gamma radiation. However, if allowed to enter the body, depleted uranium, like natural uranium, has the potential for both chemical and radiological toxicity with the two important target organs

56

Isolation of the Ozone QBO in SAGE II Data by Singular-Value Decomposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Detailed structure of the global quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) in ozone is analyzed using Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II ozone and nitrogen dioxide data. Emphasis is placed on the midlatitude QBO, in particular its vertical ...

William J. Randel; Fei Wu

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Reconstruction and Simulation of Stratospheric Ozone Distributions during the 2002 Austral Winter  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Satellite-based solar occultation measurements during the 2002 austral winter have been used to reconstruct global, three-dimensional ozone distributions. The reconstruction method uses correlations between potential vorticity and ozone to derive ...

C. E. Randall; G. L. Manney; D. R. Allen; R. M. Bevilacqua; J. Hornstein; C. Trepte; W. Lahoz; J. Ajtic; G. Bodeker

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

FAQ 23-How much depleted uranium -- including depleted uranium...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

is stored in the United States? How much depleted uranium -- including depleted uranium hexafluoride -- is stored in the United States? In addition to the depleted uranium stored...

59

An Analysis of Tropopause Pressure and Total Ozone Correlations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The relationship between total ozone and tropopause pressure is analyzed using 4 years (197982) of Nimbus-7 total ozone data and NMC global analyses of tropopause on a 5 by 5 grid. The fields are separated into medium (synoptic) and large ...

Siegfried D. Schubert; Marie-Jeanne Munteanu

1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Total Ozone Determination from the Backscattered Ultraviolet (BUV) Experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The algorithm used to derive total ozone from the Nimbus 4 Backscattered Ultraviolet (BUV) experiment is described. A seven-year global data set with more than one million retrievals has been produced and archived using this algorithm. The ...

K. F. Klenk; P. K. Bhartia; V. G. Kaveeshwar; R. D. McPeters; P. M. Smith; A. J. Fleig

1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "global ozone depletion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Battery depletion monitor  

SciTech Connect

A cmos inverter is used to compare pacemaker battery voltage to a referenced voltage. When the reference voltage exceeds the measured battery voltage, the inverter changes state to indicate battery depletion.

Lee, Y.S.

1982-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

62

Depleted uranium valuation  

SciTech Connect

The following uses for depleted uranium were examined to determine its value: a substitute for lead in shielding applications, feed material in gaseous diffusion enrichment facilities, feed material for an advanced enrichment concept, Mixed Oxide (MOx) diluent and blanket material in LMFBRs, and fertile material in LMFBR systems. A range of depleted uranium values was calculated for each of these applications. The sensitivity of these values to analysis assumptions is discussed. 9 tables.

Lewallen, M.A.; White, M.K.; Jenquin, U.P.

1979-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Replacement of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) at the DOE gaseous diffusion plants: An assessment of global impacts  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) formerly operated two gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) for enriching uranium and maintained a third shutdown GDP. These plants maintain a large inventory of dichlorotetrafluorethane (CFC-114), a cholorofluorocarbon (CFC), as a coolant. The paper evaluates the global impacts of four alternatives to modify GDP coolant system operations for a three-year period beginning in 1996. Interim modification of GDP coolant system operations has the potential to reduce stratospheric ozone depletion from GDP coolant releases while a permanent solution is studied.

Socolof, M.L.; Saylor, R.E.; McCold, L.N.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Ozone Destruction in Continental Stratus Clouds: An Aircraft Case Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Apparent depletion of ozone in a cold (0C), continental stratus cloud system was observed during in situ data collection on 30 April 1994 at the Department of Energy Clouds and Radiation Test Bed site in northern Oklahoma. Analyses of the ...

Zhien Wang; Kenneth Sassen

2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Ozone in the Troposphere and Stratosphere, part 1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This is the first part of a 2-part Conference Publication. This document contains papers presented at the 1992 Quadrennial Ozone Symposium held at the Charlottesville, Virginia, from June 4-13, 1992. The papers cover topics in both Tropospheric and Stratospheric research. These topics include ozone trends and climatology, ground based, aircraft, balloon, rocket and satellite measurements, Arctic and Antarctic research, global and regional modeling, and volcanic effects. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles from this report.

Hudson, R.D.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Ozone in the troposphere and stratosphere, part 2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This is the second of a 2-part Conference Publication. This document contains papers presented at the 1992 Quadrennial Ozone Symposium held at Charlottesville, Virginia, from June 4-13, 1992. The papers cover topics in both Tropospheric and Stratospheric research. These topics include ozone trends and climatology, ground based, aircraft, balloon, rocket and satellite measurements, Arctic and Antarctic research, global and regional modeling, and volcanic effects. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles from this report.

Hudson, R.D.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Depleted uranium management alternatives  

SciTech Connect

This report evaluates two management alternatives for Department of Energy depleted uranium: continued storage as uranium hexafluoride, and conversion to uranium metal and fabrication to shielding for spent nuclear fuel containers. The results will be used to compare the costs with other alternatives, such as disposal. Cost estimates for the continued storage alternative are based on a life-cycle of 27 years through the year 2020. Cost estimates for the recycle alternative are based on existing conversion process costs and Capital costs for fabricating the containers. Additionally, the recycle alternative accounts for costs associated with intermediate product resale and secondary waste disposal for materials generated during the conversion process.

Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Video: The Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Story  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Depleted UF6 Story The Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Story An overview of Uranium, its isotopes, the need and history of diffusive separation, the handling of the Depleted Uranium...

69

Polyethylene Encapsulated Depleted Uranium  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Poly DU Poly DU Polyethylene Encapsulated Depleted Uranium Technology Description: Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has completed preliminary work to investigate the feasibility of encapsulating DU in low density polyethylene to form a stable, dense product. DU loadings as high as 90 wt% were achieved. A maximum product density of 4.2 g/cm3 was achieved using UO3, but increased product density using UO2 is estimated at 6.1 g/cm3. Additional product density improvements up to about 7.2 g/cm3 were projected using DU aggregate in a hybrid technique known as micro/macroencapsulation.[1] A U.S. patent for this process has been received.[2] Figure 1 Figure 1: DU Encapsulated in polyethylene samples produced at BNL containing 80 wt % depleted UO3 A recent DU market study by Kapline Enterprises, Inc. for DOE thoroughly identified and rated potential applications and markets for DU metal and oxide materials.[3] Because of its workability and high DU loading capability, the polyethylene encapsulated DU could readily be fabricated as counterweights/ballast (for use in airplanes, helicopters, ships and missiles), flywheels, armor, and projectiles. Also, polyethylene encapsulated DU is an effective shielding material for both gamma and neutron radiation, with potential application for shielding high activity waste (e.g., ion exchange resins, glass gems), spent fuel dry storage casks, and high energy experimental facilities (e.g., accelerator targets) to reduce radiation exposures to workers and the public.

70

Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

for for DUF 6 Conversion Project Environmental Impact Statement Scoping Meetings November/December 2001 Overview Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF 6 ) Management Program DUF 6 EIS Scoping Briefing 2 DUF 6 Management Program Organizational Chart DUF 6 Management Program Organizational Chart EM-10 Policy EM-40 Project Completion EM-20 Integration EM-50 Science and Technology EM-31 Ohio DUF6 Management Program EM-32 Oak Ridge EM-33 Rocky Flats EM-34 Small Sites EM-30 Office of Site Closure Office of Environmental Management EM-1 DUF 6 EIS Scoping Briefing 3 DUF 6 Management Program DUF 6 Management Program * Mission: Safely and efficiently manage the DOE inventory of DUF 6 in a way that protects the health and safety of workers and the public, and protects the environment DUF 6 EIS Scoping Briefing 4 DUF 6 Inventory Distribution

71

An Improved Quality Control for AIRS Total Column Ozone Observations within and around Hurricanes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) provides twice-daily global observations from which total column ozone data can be retrieved. However, 20% ~ 30% of AIRS ozone data are flagged to be of bad quality. Most of the flagged data were identified to ...

H. Wang; X. Zou; G. Li

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

A Statistical Analysis of Total Ozone Data from the Nimbus-4 BUV Satellite Experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Total ozone data from the Nimbus-4 BUV satellite experiment for the period April 1970April 1977 is analyzed to: 1) provide a better appreciation and-understanding of the global distribution and behavior of total ozone, with emphasis on any ...

G. Reinsel; G. C. Tiao; R. Lewis

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Ozone in Michigan's Environment 18761880  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric ozone was monitored in Michigan during the late 1880's using Schoenbein's test paper. A conversion chart was constructed to relate the Schoenbein ozone scale at various relative humidifies to ozone levels indicated by a Dasibi ozone ...

Dale E. Linvill; W. J. Hooker; Brian Olson

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Depleted UF6 Overview Presentation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Information network Web Site. The presentation covers the following topics: The uranium mining and enrichment processes - how depleted UF6 is created, How and where...

75

Radiation and Ozone  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radiation is the driving force for the general circulation of the atmosphere and controls the Earth's climate. Ozone is responsible for the warm stratosphere and protects life on Earth from harmful solar ultraviolet radiation. In July 1959, the ...

G. Ohring; R. D. Bojkov; H-J. Bolle; R. D. Hudson; H. Volkert

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Stratospheric Ozone Decrease Due to Chlorofluoromethane Photolysis: Predictions of Latitude Dependence  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A two-dimensional model is used to predict the 1990 reduction in ozone due to the chlorine compounds formed by chlorofluoromethane (CFM) photolysis when the CFM release rate is held constant at the 1975 value. The predicted globally averaged ...

W. J. Borucki; R. C. Whitten; H. T. Woodward; L. A. Capone; C. A. Riegel; S. Gaines

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Optimal estimation of the surface fluxes of chloromethanes using a 3-D global atmospheric chemical transport  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The four chloromethanes - methyl chloride (CH3Cl), dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), chloroform (CHCl3), and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), are chlorine-containing gases contributing significantly to stratospheric ozone depletion ...

Xiao, Xue, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Ozone Modeling Using Neural Networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ozone models for the city of Tulsa were developed using neural network modeling techniques. The neural models were developed using meteorological data from the Oklahoma Mesonet and ozone, nitric oxide, and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) data from ...

Ramesh Narasimhan; Joleen Keller; Ganesh Subramaniam; Eric Raasch; Brandon Croley; Kathleen Duncan; William T. Potter

2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

News Media Exits for Depleted Uranium and Depleted UF6 Articles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

line line Archived News and Events News Media Links News Media Exits for Depleted Uranium and Depleted UF6 Articles Online editions of newspapers that cover Depleted Uranium...

80

Observations of Transport Processes for Ozone and Ozone Precursors during the 1991 Lake Michigan Ozone Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Lake Michigan Air Quality Region (LMAQR) continues to experience ozone concentrations in urban and rural areas above the federal standard of 125 ppb. During the summer of 1991, the LMAQR states sponsored the Lake Michigan Ozone Study, which ...

Timothy S. Dye; Paul T. Roberts; Marcelo E. Korc

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "global ozone depletion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Depleted Uranium (DU) Dioxide Fill  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fill Depleted Uranium (DU) Dioxide Fill DU dioxide in the form of sand may be used to fill the void spaces in the waste package after the package is loaded with SNF. This...

82

Depleted UF6 Health Risks  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

(depleted UF6) is released to the atmosphere, the uranium compounds and hydrogen fluoride (HF) gas that are formed by reaction with moisture in the air can be chemically...

83

Depleted UF6 Internet Resources  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DUF6 Guide DU Uses DUF6 Management and Uses DUF6 Conversion EIS Documents News FAQs Internet Resources Glossary Home Internet Resources Depleted UF6 Internet Resources Links...

84

On the Relation between Atmospheric Ozone and Sunspot Number  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on data from the Dobson network, between 1960 and 1987 there has been a zero-lag correlation of 0.48 between the 112 unsmoothed seasonal values of sunspot number and global total ozone, significant at the 1% level taking into account the ...

J. K. Angell

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

FAQ 6-What is depleted uranium?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

depleted uranium? What is depleted uranium? Depleted uranium is created during the processing that is done to make natural uranium suitable for use as fuel in nuclear power plants...

86

Environmental Risks of Depleted UF6 Disposal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Depleted UF6 Environmental Risks line line Storage Conversion Manufacturing Disposal Environmental Risks of Depleted UF6 Disposal A discussion of the environmental impacts...

87

Pennsylvania Natural Gas Underground Storage Depleted Fields...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Underground Storage Depleted Fields Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Natural Gas Underground Storage Depleted Fields Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1...

88

Ozone decomposing filter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In an improved ozone decomposing air filter carbon fibers are held together with a carbonized binder in a perforated structure. The structure is made by combining rayon fibers with gelatin, forming the mixture in a mold, freeze-drying, and vacuum baking.

Simandl, Ronald F. (Farragut, TN); Brown, John D. (Harriman, TN); Whinnery, Jr., LeRoy L. (Dublin, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

FAQ 26-Are there any uses for depleted uranium?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

uses for depleted uranium? Are there any uses for depleted uranium? Several current and potential uses exist for depleted uranium. Depleted uranium could be mixed with highly...

90

Optimal estimation of the surface fluxes of methyl chloride using a 3-D global chemical transport model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Methyl chloride (CH3Cl) [CH subscript 3 Cl] is a chlorine-containing trace gas in the atmosphere contributing significantly to stratospheric ozone depletion. Large uncertainties in estimates of its source and sink magnitudes ...

Xiao, Xue

91

Depleted UF6 Management Program Overview Presentation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Depleted UF6 Management Program Overview Presentation Cylinders Photo Next Screen A Legacy of Uranium Enrichment...

92

Instrument Characterization for the Detection of Long-term Changes in Stratospheric Ozone: An Analysis of the SBUY/2 Radiometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The scientific objective of unambiguously detecting subtle global trends in upper stratospheric ozone requires that one maintain a thorough understanding of the satellite-based remote sensors intended for this task. The instrument now in use for ...

S. E. Frederick; R. P. Cebula; D. F. Heath

1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Resource Depletion - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Long Term World Oil Supply ... It may also vary as global oil demand varies. ... ratio observed in the United States since oil production peaked in 1970.

94

Potential Uses of Depleted Uranium  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

POTENTIAL USES OF DEPLETED URANIUM POTENTIAL USES OF DEPLETED URANIUM Robert R. Price U.S. Department of Energy Germantown, Maryland 20874 M. Jonathan Haire and Allen G. Croff Chemical Technology Division Oak Ridge National Laboratory * Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6180 June 2000 For American Nuclear Society 2000 International Winter and Embedded Topical Meetings Washington, D.C. November 12B16, 2000 The submitted manuscript has been authored by a contractor of the U.S. Government under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725. Accordingly, the U.S. Government retains a nonexclusive, royalty-free license to publish or reproduce the published form of this contribution, or allow others to do so, for U.S. Government purposes. _________________________

95

Integrating chemistry into 3D climate models: Detailed kinetics in the troposphere and stratosphere of a global climate model  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The motivation for the project is to create the first complete, three-dimensional climate model that enfolds atmospheric photochemistry. The LANL chemical global climate model (GCM) not only distributes the trace greenhouse gases and modifies their concentrations within the detailed photochemical web, but also permits them to influence the radiation field and so force their own transport. Both atmospheric chemistry and fluid dynamics are nonlinear and zonally asymmetric phenomena. They can only be adequately modeled in three dimensions on the global grid. The kinetics-augmented GCM is the only program within the atmospheric community capable of investigating interaction involving chemistry and transport. The authors have conducted case studies of timely three-dimensional chemistry issues. Examples include ozone production from biomass burning plumes, kinetic feedbacks in zonally asymmetric transport phenomena with month- to year-long time scales, and volcano sulfate aerosols with respect to their potential effects on tropospheric ozone depletion.

Kao, C.Y.J.; Elliott, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Earth and Environmental Sciences Div.; Turco, R.P.; Zhao, X. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Depleted Uranium Uses Research and Development  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DU Uses DU Uses Depleted Uranium Uses Research & Development A Depleted Uranium Uses Research and Development Program was initiated to explore beneficial uses of depleted uranium (DU) and other materials resulting from conversion of depleted UF6. A Depleted Uranium Uses Research and Development Program was initiated to explore the safe, beneficial use of depleted uranium and other materials resulting from conversion of depleted UF6 (e.g., fluorine and empty carbon steel cylinders) for the purposes of resource conservation and cost savings compared with disposal. This program explored the risks and benefits of several depleted uranium uses, including uses as a radiation shielding material, a catalyst, and a semi-conductor material in electronic devices.

97

Hole in the ozone layer?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hole in the ozone layer? Hole in the ozone layer? Name: Kelley Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: Is there really a hole in the ozone layer? Replies: That depends on what one means by a "hole". There is a thinning of the layer that is particularly severe during certain seasons at the poles. But the ozone layer is thinning most everywhere. The thinning around the south pole of earth is particularly stunning, and has been referred to as a hole even though some ozone still exists there, it is much less concentrated. As you may know, this ozone destruction is probably due to human release of pollutants such as clorofluorocarbons (CFCs) an due to natural sources such as chemicals from volcanic eruptions. CFCs are used is cooling systems such as refrigerators and air conditioning. There is an international agreement to phase out the use of these destructive chemicals but they won't be banned entirely for years for fears of losing money. Meanwhile the ozone layer thins and we are exposed to increasingly higher doses of cancer causing radiation

98

Energy and Global Warming Impacts of CFC Alternative Technologies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

FONCTIONNANT AVEC DES MELANGES ALTERNATIFS ZEOTROPES DE FLUIDES FRIGORIGENES............................... 77 (différence moyenne de température) ODP Ozone Depletion Potential (PAOS) ORC Organic Rankine Cycle PAC Pompe à compression mécanique de vapeur (CMV), cycles de Rankine organiques (ORC) ou à basse pression de vapeur d

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

99

Influence of Long-Period Variations of Total Ozone Content on Climate  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Influence of Long-Period Variations of Total Ozone Content on Climate Influence of Long-Period Variations of Total Ozone Content on Climate Change in Twentieth Century Zuev, V Institute of Atmospheric Optics Zueva, N. Institute of Atmospheric Optics Bondarenko, S Institute of Atmospheric Optics Category: Atmospheric State and Surface It is shown that during long-term total ozone decrease everywhere at middle and high latitudes there takes place the destruction of balance in global carbon cycle first of all due to reduction of photosynthetical СО2 sink in consequence of UV-B radiation stress of vegetable biota. As a result, СО2 concentrations in the atmosphere considerably increase, enhancing the "greenhouse effect." Based on reconstruction of behavior of stratospheric ozone between 1600 and 2000 from dendrochronologic data, it is shown that

100

Trends in ozone and temperature structure: comparison of theory and measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Comparison of model calculated trends in ozone and temperature due to inferred variations in trace gas concentrations and solar flux, is made with available analyses of observations. In general, the calculated trends in total ozone and the vertical ozone distribution agree well with the measured trends. However, there are too many remaining theoretical and sampling uncertainties to establish causality. Although qualitatively in agreement, the observed temperature decrease in the upper stratosphere is significantly larger than that calculated. Theoretical results suggest a significant influence on stratospheric ozone from solar flux variations, but observational evidence is at best inconclusive. Overall, the trend comparisons tend to be consistent with the hypothesis that several different anthropogenic influences are affecting the present global atmosphere. 7 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

Wuebbles, D.J.

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

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101

Depleted uranium disposal options evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, has chartered a study to evaluate alternative management strategies for depleted uranium (DU) currently stored throughout the DOE complex. Historically, DU has been maintained as a strategic resource because of uses for DU metal and potential uses for further enrichment or for uranium oxide as breeder reactor blanket fuel. This study has focused on evaluating the disposal options for DU if it were considered a waste. This report is in no way declaring these DU reserves a ``waste,`` but is intended to provide baseline data for comparison with other management options for use of DU. To PICS considered in this report include: Retrievable disposal; permanent disposal; health hazards; radiation toxicity and chemical toxicity.

Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.; Otis, M.D. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Waste Management Technology Div.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Depleted Argon from Underground Sources  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Argon is a strong scintillator and an ideal target for Dark Matter detection; however {sup 39}Ar contamination in atmospheric argon from cosmic ray interactions limits the size of liquid argon dark matter detectors due to pile-up. Argon from deep underground is depleted in {sup 39}Ar due to the cosmic ray shielding of the earth. In Cortez, Colorado, a CO{sub 2} well has been discovered to contain approximately 600 ppm of argon as a contamination in the CO{sub 2}. We first concentrate the argon locally to 3% in an Ar, N{sub 2}, and He mixture, from the CO{sub 2} through chromatographic gas separation, and then the N{sub 2} and He will be removed by continuous distillation to purify the argon. We have collected 26 kg of argon from the CO{sub 2} facility and a cryogenic distillation column is under construction at Fermilab to further purify the argon.

Back, H. O.; Galbiati, C.; Goretti, A.; Loer, B.; Montanari, D.; Mosteiro, P. [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Jadwin Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Alexander, T.; Alton, A.; Rogers, H. [Augustana College, Physics Department, 2001 South Summit Ave., Sioux Fall, SD 57197 (United States); Kendziora, C.; Pordes, S. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States)

2011-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

103

High-voltage-compatible, fully depleted CCDs  

SciTech Connect

We describe charge-coupled device (CCD) developmentactivities at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL).Back-illuminated CCDs fabricated on 200-300 mu m thick, fully depleted,high-resistivity silicon substrates are produced in partnership with acommercial CCD foundry.The CCDs are fully depleted by the application ofa substrate bias voltage. Spatial resolution considerations requireoperation of thick, fully depleted CCDs at high substrate bias voltages.We have developed CCDs that are compatible with substrate bias voltagesof at least 200V. This improves spatial resolution for a given thickness,and allows for full depletion of thicker CCDs than previously considered.We have demonstrated full depletion of 650-675 mu m thick CCDs, withpotential applications in direct x-ray detection. In this work we discussthe issues related to high-voltage operation of fully depleted CCDs, aswell as experimental results on high-voltage-compatible CCDs.

Holland, Stephen E.; Bebek, Chris J.; Dawson, Kyle S.; Emes, JohnE.; Fabricius, Max H.; Fairfield, Jessaym A.; Groom, Don E.; Karcher, A.; Kolbe, William F.; Palaio, Nick P.; Roe, Natalie A.; Wang, Guobin

2006-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

104

,"Natural Gas Depleted Fields Storage Capacity "  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Depleted Fields Storage Capacity " ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Natural...

105

Frequently Asked Global Change Questions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Asked Global Change Questions Asked Global Change Questions This page lists global change questions that have been received at CDIAC and the answers that were provided to a diverse audience. If you have a question relating to carbon dioxide and global change and cannot find the answer you need here, you can "Ask Us a Question", and we will be glad to try to help you. Questions Should we grow trees to remove carbon in the atmosphere? What are the present tropospheric concentrations, global warming potentials (100 year time horizon), and atmospheric lifetimes of CO2, CH4, N2O, CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, CCl4, methyl chloroform, HCFC-22, sulphur hexafluoride, trifluoromethyl sulphur pentafluoride, perfluoroethane, and surface ozone? Where can I find information on the naming of halocarbons?

106

Human effects on the global atmosphere  

SciTech Connect

This review considers whether human activities can significantly change important functions of the global atmosphere by altering the amount or distribution of certain trace species. It deals with three specific topics: stratopheric ozone, the role of species other than carbon dioxide on the greenhouse effect, and certain recently recognized atmospheric consequences of a large scale nuclear war. 64 references, 10 figures, 2 tables.

Johnston, H.S.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Depleted Uranium De-conversion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This Environmental Report (ER) constitutes one portion of an application being submitted by International Isotopes Fluorine Products (IIFP) to construct and operate a facility that will utilize depleted DUF6 to produce high purity inorganic fluorides, uranium oxides, and anhydrous hydrofluoric acid. The proposed IIFP facility will be located near Hobbs, New Mexico. IIFP has prepared the ER to meet the requirements specified in 10 CFR 51, Subpart A, particularly those requirements set forth in 10 CFR 51.45(b)-(e). The organization of this ER is generally consistent with NUREG-1748, Environmental Review Guidance for Licensing Actions Associated with NMSS Programs, Final Report. The Environmental Report for this proposed facility provides information that is specifically required by the NRC to assist it in meeting its obligations under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 and the agencys NEPA-implementing regulations. This ER demonstrates that the environmental protection measures proposed by IIFP are adequate to protect both the environment and the health and safety of the public. This Environmental Report evaluates the potential environmental impacts of the Proposed Action and its reasonable alternatives. This ER also describes the environment potentially affected by IIEFs proposal,

Fluorine Extraction Process

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Depleted argon from underground sources  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Argon is a powerful scintillator and an excellent medium for detection of ionization. Its high discrimination power against minimum ionization tracks, in favor of selection of nuclear recoils, makes it an attractive medium for direct detection of WIMP dark matter. However, cosmogenic {sup 39}Ar contamination in atmospheric argon limits the size of liquid argon dark matter detectors due to pile-up. The cosmic ray shielding by the earth means that Argon from deep underground is depleted in {sup 39}Ar. In Cortez Colorado a CO{sub 2} well has been discovered to contain approximately 500ppm of argon as a contamination in the CO{sub 2}. In order to produce argon for dark matter detectors we first concentrate the argon locally to 3-5% in an Ar, N{sub 2}, and He mixture, from the CO{sub 2} through chromatographic gas separation. The N{sub 2} and He will be removed by continuous cryogenic distillation in the Cryogenic Distillation Column recently built at Fermilab. In this talk we will discuss the entire extraction and purification process; with emphasis on the recent commissioning and initial performance of the cryogenic distillation column purification.

Back, H.O.; /Princeton U.; Alton, A.; /Augustana U. Coll.; Calaprice, F.; Galbiati, C.; Goretti, A.; /Princeton U.; Kendziora, C.; /Fermilab; Loer, B.; /Princeton U.; Montanari, D.; /Fermilab; Mosteiro, P.; /Princeton U.; Pordes, S.; /Fermilab

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

FAQ 7-How is depleted uranium produced?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

How is depleted uranium produced? How is depleted uranium produced? How is depleted uranium produced? Depleted uranium is produced during the uranium enrichment process. In the United States, uranium is enriched through the gaseous diffusion process in which the compound uranium hexafluoride (UF6) is heated and converted from a solid to a gas. The gas is then forced through a series of compressors and converters that contain porous barriers. Because uranium-235 has a slightly lighter isotopic mass than uranium-238, UF6 molecules made with uranium-235 diffuse through the barriers at a slightly higher rate than the molecules containing uranium-238. At the end of the process, there are two UF6 streams, with one stream having a higher concentration of uranium-235 than the other. The stream having the greater uranium-235 concentration is referred to as enriched UF6, while the stream that is reduced in its concentration of uranium-235 is referred to as depleted UF6. The depleted UF6 can be converted to other chemical forms, such as depleted uranium oxide or depleted uranium metal.

110

THE RIMINI PROTOCOL Oil Depletion Protocol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Soaring oil prices have drawn attention to the issue of the relative supply and demand for crude oil. This fact alone tells us that oil is a finite resource, which in turn means that it is subject to depletion1 THE RIMINI PROTOCOL an Oil Depletion Protocol ~ Heading Off Economic Chaos and Political Conflict

Keeling, Stephen L.

111

Ozone Conference II: Abstract Proceedings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ozone Conference II: Pre- and Post-Harvest Applications Two Years After Gras, was held September 27-28, 1999 in Tulare, California. This conference, sponsored by EPRI's Agricultural Technology Alliance and Southern California Edison's AgTAC facility, was coordinated and organized by the on-site ATA-AgTAC Regional Center. Approximately 175 people attended the day-and-a-half conference at AgTAC. During the Conference twenty-two presentations were given on ozone food processing and agricultural applications...

1999-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

112

A Preliminary Synthesis of Modeled Climate Change Impacts on U.S. Regional Ozone Concentrations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper provides a synthesis of results that have emerged from recent modeling studies of the potential sensitivity of U.S. regional ozone (O3) concentrations to global climate change (ca. 2050). This research has been carried out under the ...

C. P. Weaver; E. Cooter; R. Gilliam; A. Gilliland; A. Grambsch; D. Grano; B. Hemming; S. W. Hunt; C. Nolte; D. A. Winner; X-Z. Liang; J. Zhu; M. Caughey; K. Kunkel; J-T. Lin; Z. Tao; A. Williams; D. J. Wuebbles; P. J. Adams; J. P. Dawson; P. Amar; S. He; J. Avise; J. Chen; R. C. Cohen; A. H. Goldstein; R. A. Harley; A. L. Steiner; S. Tonse; A. Guenther; J-F. Lamarque; C. Wiedinmyer; W. I. Gustafson; L. R. Leung; C. Hogrefe; H-C. Huang; D. J. Jacob; L. J. Mickley; S. Wu; P. L. Kinney; B. Lamb; N. K. Larkin; D. McKenzie; K-J. Liao; K. Manomaiphiboon; A. G. Russell; E. Tagaris; B. H. Lynn; C. Mass; E. Salath; S. M. O'neill; S. N. Pandis; P. N. Racherla; C. Rosenzweig; J-H. Woo

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Ozone Reductions Using Residential Building Envelopes  

SciTech Connect

Ozone is an air pollutant with that can have significant health effects and a significant source of ozone in some regions of California is outdoor air. Because people spend the vast majority of their time indoors, reduction in indoor levels of ozone could lead to improved health for many California residents. Ozone is removed from indoor air by surface reactions and can also be filtered by building envelopes. The magnitude of the envelope impact depends on the specific building materials that the air flows over and the geometry of the air flow paths through the envelope that can be changes by mechanical ventilation operation. The 2008 Residential Building Standards in California include minimum requirements for mechanical ventilation by referencing ASHRAE Standard 62.2. This study examines the changes in indoor ozone depending on the mechanical ventilation system selected to meet these requirements. This study used detailed simulations of ventilation in a house to examine the impacts of different ventilation systems on indoor ozone concentrations. The simulation results showed that staying indoors reduces exposure to ozone by 80percent to 90percent, that exhaust ventilation systems lead to lower indoor ozone concentrations, that opening of windows should be avoided at times of high outdoor ozone, and that changing the time at which mechanical ventilation occurs has the ability to halve exposure to ozone. Future work should focus on the products of ozone reactions in the building envelope and the fate of these products with respect to indoor exposures.

Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max; Nazaroff, William W.

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Theoretical and experimental studies of heterogeneous chemical processes leading to stratospheric ozone depletion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The microscopic chemical mechanisms of heterogeneous reactions involving HC on crystalline ice and nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) are of fundamental interest to physical chemists, because such reactions yield "active" chlorine ...

Mantz, Yves Andr, 1974-

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

The Antarctic Atmospheric Energy Budget. Part II: The Effect of Ozone Depletion and its Projected Recovery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study we continue our investigation of the atmospheric energy budget of the Antarctic polar cap (the region poleward of 70S) using integrations of the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model from the year 1960 to 2065. In agreement with ...

Karen L. Smith; Michael Previdi; Lorenzo M. Polvani

116

Impact of Climate Change on the Future Chemical Composition of the Global Troposphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A global chemical transport model of the atmosphere [the Model for Ozone and Related Tracers, version 2 (MOZART-2)] driven by prescribed surface emissions and by meteorological fields provided by the ECHAM5/Max Planck Institute Ocean Model (MPI-...

Guy P. Brasseur; Martin Schultz; Claire Granier; Marielle Saunois; Thomas Diehl; Michael Botzet; Erich Roeckner; Stacy Walters

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

What do people know about global climate change 1. Mental models  

SciTech Connect

A set of exploratory studies and mental model interviews was conducted in order to characterize public understanding of climate change. In general, respondents regarded global warming as both bad and highly likely. Many believed that warming has already occurred. They tended to confuse stratospheric ozone depletion with the greenhouse effect and weather with climate. Automobile use, heat and emissions from industrial processes, aerosol spray cans, and pollution in general were frequently perceived as primary causes of global warming. Additionally, the [open quotes]greenhouse effect[close quotes] was often interpreted literally as the cause of a hot and steamy climate. The effects attributed to climate change often included increased skin cancer and changed agricultural yields. The mitigation and control strategies proposed by interviewees typically focused on general pollution control, with few specific links to carbon dioxide and energy use. Respondents appeared to be relatively unfamiliar with such regulatory developments as the ban on CFCs for nonessential uses. These beliefs must be considered by those designing risk communications or presenting climate-related policies to the public. 20 refs., 4 tabs.

Bostrom, A. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)); Morgan, M.G.; Fischhoff, B.; Read, D. (Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States))

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Depleted uranium: A DOE management guide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a management challenge and financial liability in the form of 50,000 cylinders containing 555,000 metric tons of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) that are stored at the gaseous diffusion plants. The annual storage and maintenance cost is approximately $10 million. This report summarizes several studies undertaken by the DOE Office of Technology Development (OTD) to evaluate options for long-term depleted uranium management. Based on studies conducted to date, the most likely use of the depleted uranium is for shielding of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) or vitrified high-level waste (HLW) containers. The alternative to finding a use for the depleted uranium is disposal as a radioactive waste. Estimated disposal costs, utilizing existing technologies, range between $3.8 and $11.3 billion, depending on factors such as applicability of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the location of the disposal site. The cost of recycling the depleted uranium in a concrete based shielding in SNF/HLW containers, although substantial, is comparable to or less than the cost of disposal. Consequently, the case can be made that if DOE invests in developing depleted uranium shielded containers instead of disposal, a long-term solution to the UF{sub 6} problem is attained at comparable or lower cost than disposal as a waste. Two concepts for depleted uranium storage casks were considered in these studies. The first is based on standard fabrication concepts previously developed for depleted uranium metal. The second converts the UF{sub 6} to an oxide aggregate that is used in concrete to make dry storage casks.

NONE

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Audit Report on "Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion," DOE...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Marketing Administration Other Agencies You are here Home Audit Report on "Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion," DOEIG-0642 Audit Report on "Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride...

120

Follow-up of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion, IG-0751...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Marketing Administration Other Agencies You are here Home Follow-up of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion, IG-0751 Follow-up of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "global ozone depletion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Depleted Uranium Operations at the Y-12 National Security Complex...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Sites Power Marketing Administration Other Agencies You are here Home Depleted Uranium Operations at the Y-12 National Security Complex, G-0570 Depleted Uranium Operations...

122

Depleted UF6 Production and Handling Slide Presentation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Production and Handling Depleted UF6 Production and Handling Slide Presentation An online slide presentation about production and handling of depleted UF6, from mining of uranium...

123

FAQ 14-What does a depleted uranium hexafluoride cylinder look...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

depleted uranium hexafluoride cylinder look like? What does a depleted uranium hexafluoride cylinder look like? A picture is worth a thousand words The pictures below show typical...

124

California Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Depleted Fields...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Natural Gas Underground Storage Depleted Fields Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) California Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Depleted Fields Capacity (Million Cubic...

125

EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Depleted Reservoir Storage...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Depleted Reservoir Storage Configuration About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 20072008 with selected updates Depleted Production...

126

Production and Handling Slide 42: Typical Depleted Cylinder Storage...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Typical Depleted Cylinder Storage Yard Skip Presentation Navigation First Slide Previous Slide Next Slide Last Presentation Table of Contents Typical Depleted Cylinder Storage Yard...

127

Maryland Natural Gas Underground Storage Depleted Fields Capacity...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Underground Storage Depleted Fields Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Maryland Natural Gas Underground Storage Depleted Fields Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

128

Tennessee Natural Gas Underground Storage Depleted Fields Capacity...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Underground Storage Depleted Fields Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Tennessee Natural Gas Underground Storage Depleted Fields Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1...

129

Nebraska Natural Gas Underground Storage Depleted Fields Capacity...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Underground Storage Depleted Fields Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Nebraska Natural Gas Underground Storage Depleted Fields Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

130

Arkansas Natural Gas Underground Storage Depleted Fields Capacity...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Underground Storage Depleted Fields Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Arkansas Natural Gas Underground Storage Depleted Fields Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

131

Colorado Natural Gas Underground Storage Depleted Fields Capacity...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Underground Storage Depleted Fields Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Colorado Natural Gas Underground Storage Depleted Fields Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

132

Oklahoma Natural Gas Underground Storage Depleted Fields Capacity...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Underground Storage Depleted Fields Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Oklahoma Natural Gas Underground Storage Depleted Fields Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

133

Oregon Natural Gas Underground Storage Depleted Fields Capacity...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Underground Storage Depleted Fields Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Oregon Natural Gas Underground Storage Depleted Fields Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

134

Ohio Natural Gas Underground Storage Depleted Fields Capacity...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Underground Storage Depleted Fields Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Ohio Natural Gas Underground Storage Depleted Fields Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

135

Montana Natural Gas Underground Storage Depleted Fields Capacity...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Underground Storage Depleted Fields Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Montana Natural Gas Underground Storage Depleted Fields Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

136

New Mexico Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Depleted Fields...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Natural Gas Underground Storage Depleted Fields Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) New Mexico Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Depleted Fields Capacity (Million Cubic Feet)...

137

Energy and global warming impacts of HFC refrigerants and emerging technologies: TEWI-III  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of hydrofluorocarbons (BFCs) which were developed as alternative refrigerants and insulating foam blowing agents to replace chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) is now being affected by scientific investigations of greenhouse warming and questions about the effects of refrigerants and blowing agents on global warming. A Total Equivalent Warming Impact (TEWI) assessment analyzes the environmental affects of these halogenated working fluids in energy consuming applications by combining a direct effect resulting from the inadvertent release of HFCs to the atmosphere with an indirect effect resulting from the combustion of fossil fuels needed to provide the energy to operate equipment using these compounds as working fluids. TEWI is a more balanced measure of environmental impact because it is not based solely on the global warming potential (GWP) of the working fluid. It also shows the environmental benefit of efficient technologies that result in less CO{sub 2} generation and eventual emission to the earth`s atmosphere. The goal of TEWI is to assess total global warming impact of all the gases released to the atmosphere, including CO{sub 2} emissions from energy conversion. Alternative chemicals and technologies have been proposed as substitutes for HFCs in the vapor-compression cycle for refrigeration and air conditioning and for polymer foams in appliance and building insulations which claim substantial environmental benefits. Among these alternatives are: (1) Hydrocarbon (HC) refrigerants and blowing agents which have zero ozone depleting potential and a negligible global warming potential, (2) CO{sub 2} as a refrigerant and blowing agent, (3) Ammonia (NH{sub 3}) vapor compression systems, (4) Absorption chiller and heat pumping cycles using ammonia/water or lithium bromide/water, and (5) Evacuated panel insulations. This paper summarizes major results and conclusions of the detailed final report on the TEWI-111 study.

Sand, J.R.; Fischer, S.K.; Baxter, V.D.

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Laboratory measurement of secondary pollutant yields from ozone...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Laboratory measurement of secondary pollutant yields from ozone reaction with HVAC filters. Title Laboratory measurement of secondary pollutant yields from ozone reaction with HVAC...

139

Carbon Monoxide, Ozone, Hydrocarbon Air Quality Standards, and...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Carbon Monoxide, Ozone, Hydrocarbon Air Quality Standards, and Related Emission Requirements (Ohio) Carbon Monoxide, Ozone, Hydrocarbon Air Quality Standards, and Related Emission...

140

Calibration of the Ogawa ozone passive sampler for aircraft cabins...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Calibration of the Ogawa ozone passive sampler for aircraft cabins. Title Calibration of the Ogawa ozone passive sampler for aircraft cabins. Publication Type Journal Article Year...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "global ozone depletion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Iron catalysis in oxidation by ozone - Energy Innovation Portal  

Bookmark Iron catalysis in oxidation by ozone - Energy Innovation Portal on Google; Bookmark Iron catalysis in oxidation by ozone - Energy Innovation ...

142

The New MCNP6 Depletion Capability  

SciTech Connect

The first MCNP based inline Monte Carlo depletion capability was officially released from the Radiation Safety Information and Computational Center as MCNPX 2.6.0. Both the MCNP5 and MCNPX codes have historically provided a successful combinatorial geometry based, continuous energy, Monte Carlo radiation transport solution for advanced reactor modeling and simulation. However, due to separate development pathways, useful simulation capabilities were dispersed between both codes and not unified in a single technology. MCNP6, the next evolution in the MCNP suite of codes, now combines the capability of both simulation tools, as well as providing new advanced technology, in a single radiation transport code. We describe here the new capabilities of the MCNP6 depletion code dating from the official RSICC release MCNPX 2.6.0, reported previously, to the now current state of MCNP6. NEA/OECD benchmark results are also reported. The MCNP6 depletion capability enhancements beyond MCNPX 2.6.0 reported here include: (1) new performance enhancing parallel architecture that implements both shared and distributed memory constructs; (2) enhanced memory management that maximizes calculation fidelity; and (3) improved burnup physics for better nuclide prediction. MCNP6 depletion enables complete, relatively easy-to-use depletion calculations in a single Monte Carlo code. The enhancements described here help provide a powerful capability as well as dictate a path forward for future development to improve the usefulness of the technology.

Fensin, Michael Lorne [Los Alamos National Laboratory; James, Michael R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hendricks, John S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Goorley, John T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

143

Global emissions inventories  

SciTech Connect

Atmospheric chemistry determines the concentrations of most of the important greenhouse gases except for carbon dioxide. The rate of removal of the greenhouse gases from the atmosphere is also controlled by atmospheric chemistry. The indirect effects of chemical forcing resulting from the chemical interactions of other species can also affect the concentrations of radiatively important gases such as ozone. In order to establish the contribution of any possible climatic change attributable to individual greenhouse gases, spatially and temporally resolved estimates of their emissions need to be established. Unfortunately, for most of the radiatively important species the global magnitudes of their individual fluxes are not known to better than a factor of two and their spatial distributions are even more poorly characterized. Efforts to estimate future projections of potential impacts and to monitor international agreements will require continued research to narrow the uncertainties of magnitude and geographical distribution of emissions.

Dignon, J.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Global Security  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Global Security Global Security LANL's mission is to develop and apply science and technology to ensure the safety, security, and effectiveness of the U.S. nuclear deterrent;...

145

Stratospheric ozone protection: The Montreal Protocol and Title VI of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The stratospheric ozone layer protects the surface of the Earth from harmful ultraviolet (UV-B) radiation, which has been causally linked to skin cancer and cataracts, suppression of the human immune system, damage to crops and aquatic organisms, the formation of ground-level zone and the rapid weathering of outdoor plastics. In recent years, scientists have observed a significant deterioration of the ozone layer, particularly over the poles, but increasingly over populated regions as well. This deterioration has been attributed to the atmospheric release of certain man-made halocarbons, including chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halons, methyl chloroform and carbon tetrachloride. Once used extensively as propellants for aerosol sprays (but generally banned for such purposes since 1978), CFCs are widely used today as refrigerants, foams and solvents. All of these chlorinated (CFC, methyl chloroform and carbon tetrachloride) and brominated (halon) compounds are classified for regulatory purposes as Class I substances because of their significant ozone-depleting potential. Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), developed as alternatives to CFCs and halons for many different applications, have been classified for regulatory purposes as Class II substances because of their relatively less destructive impact on stratospheric ozone. This paper describes the following regulations to reduce destruction of the ozone layer: the Montreal Protocol; Title VI of the Clean air Act Amendments of 1990; Accelerated Phase-out schedules developed by the countries which signed the Montreal Protocol; Use restrictions; Recycling and Emission reduction requirements; Servicing of motor vehicle air conditions; ban on nonessential products; labeling requirements; safe alternatives. 6 refs.

Babst, C.R. III

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Depleted Uranium (DU) Cermet Waste Package  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Package Package Depleted Uranium (DU) Cermet Waste Package The steel components of the waste package could be replaced with a uranium cermet. The cermet contains uranium dioxide particulates, which are embedded in steel. Cermets are made with outer layers of clean steel; thus, there is no radiation-contamination hazard in handling the waste packages. Because cermets are made of the same materials that would normally be found in the YM repository (uranium dioxide and steel), there are no chemical compatibility issues. From half to all of the DU inventory in the United States could be used for this application. Depleted Uranium Dioxide Steel Cermet Cross Section of a Depleted Uranium Dioxide Steel Cermet Follow the link below for more information on Cermets:

147

Future aircraft and potential effects on stratospheric ozone and climate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this study is to extend the recent research examining the global environmental effects from potential fleets of subsonic and supersonic commercial aircraft. Initial studies with LLNL models of global atmospheric chemical, radiative, and transport processes have indicated that substantial decreases in stratospheric ozone concentrations could result from emissions of NO{sub x} from aircraft flying in the stratosphere, depending on fleet size and magnitude of the engine emissions. These studies used homogeneous chemical reaction rates (e.g. gas-phase chemistry). Recent evidence indicates that reactions on particles in the stratosphere may be important. Heterogeneous chemical reactions, for instance, N{sub 2}O{sub 5}and ClONO{sub 2} on background sulfuric acid aerosols, convert NO{sub x}(NO and NO{sub 2}) molecules to HNO{sub 3}. This decreases the odd oxygen loss from the NO{sub x} catalytic cycle and increases the odd oxygen loss from the Cl{sub x} catalytic cycle. By including these heterogeneous reactions in the LLNL model, the relative partitioning of odd oxygen loss between these two families changes, with the result that emissions of NO{sub x} from proposed aircraft fleets flying in the stratosphere now increase zone. Having these heterogeneous processes present also increases ozone concentration in the troposphere relative to gas-phase only chemistry calculations for emissions of NO{sub x} from subsonic aircraft. 26 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Kinnison, D.E.; Wuebbles, D.J.

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Optimal statistical model for forecasting ozone  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this paper is to apply time series analysis and multiple regression method to ozone data in order to obtain the optimal statistical model for forecasting next day ozone level. The best estimated model is then used to produce one-step ... Keywords: ARMA (p, q), Durbin-Watson Statistic, MAPE, R-square, multiple regression

M. Abdollahian; R. Foroughi; N. Debnath

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Laboratory measurement of secondary pollutant yields from ozone reaction with HVAC filters.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from Ozone Reaction with HVAC Filters Hugo Destaillats,from Ozone Reaction with HVAC Filters Hugo Destaillatsfrom Ozone Reaction with HVAC Filters Hugo Destaillats

Destaillats, Hugo

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Depleted Uranium Uses: Regulatory Requirements and Issues  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 Depleted Uranium Uses Depleted Uranium Uses Regulatory Requirements Regulatory Requirements and Issues and Issues Nancy L. Ranek Nancy L. Ranek Argonne National Laboratory Argonne National Laboratory August 5, 1998 August 5, 1998 Beneficial Reuse '98 Beneficial Reuse '98 Knoxville, TN Knoxville, TN NOTES Work Performed for: Office of Facilities (NE-40) Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology U.S. Department of Energy Work Performed by: Environmental Assessment Division Argonne National Laboratory 955 L'Enfant Plaza North, S.W. Washington, D.C. 20024 Phone: 202/488-2417 E-mail: ranekn@smtplink.dis.anl.gov 2 2 2 Programmatic Environmental Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) Impact Statement (PEIS) Draft PEIS Published 12/97 * Preferred Alternative = 100% Use

151

Depleted UF6 Conversion facility EIS Topics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Topics Topics Depleted UF6 Conversion Facility EIS Topics A listing of topics included in the Depleted UF6 Conversion Facility EISs. DOE addressed the following environmental issues when assessing the potential environmental impacts of the alternatives in the two site-specific EISs. DOE solicited comment from the Federal agencies, Native American tribes, state and local governments, and the general public on these and any other issues as part of the public scoping process: Potential impacts on health from DUF6 conversion activities, including potential impacts to workers and the public from exposure to radiation and chemicals during routine and accident conditions for the construction, operation, maintenance, and decontamination and decommissioning of DUF6 conversion facilities.

152

Assessment of Preferred Depleted Uranium Disposal Forms  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of converting about 700,000 metric tons (MT) of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6) containing 475,000 MT of depleted uranium (DU) to a stable form more suitable for long-term storage or disposal. Potential conversion forms include the tetrafluoride (DUF4), oxide (DUO2 or DU3O8), or metal. If worthwhile beneficial uses cannot be found for the DU product form, it will be sent to an appropriate site for disposal. The DU products are considered to be low-level waste (LLW) under both DOE orders and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. The objective of this study was to assess the acceptability of the potential DU conversion products at potential LLW disposal sites to provide a basis for DOE decisions on the preferred DU product form and a path forward that will ensure reliable and efficient disposal.

Croff, A.G.; Hightower, J.R.; Lee, D.W.; Michaels, G.E.; Ranek, N.L.; Trabalka, J.R.

2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Depleted uranium plasma reduction system study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A system life-cycle cost study was conducted of a preliminary design concept for a plasma reduction process for converting depleted uranium to uranium metal and anhydrous HF. The plasma-based process is expected to offer significant economic and environmental advantages over present technology. Depleted Uranium is currently stored in the form of solid UF{sub 6}, of which approximately 575,000 metric tons is stored at three locations in the U.S. The proposed system is preconceptual in nature, but includes all necessary processing equipment and facilities to perform the process. The study has identified total processing cost of approximately $3.00/kg of UF{sub 6} processed. Based on the results of this study, the development of a laboratory-scale system (1 kg/h throughput of UF6) is warranted. Further scaling of the process to pilot scale will be determined after laboratory testing is complete.

Rekemeyer, P.; Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.; Brown, B.W.

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Uranio impoverito: perch? (Depleted uranium: why?)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we develop a simple model of the penetration process of a long rod through an uniform target. Applying the momentum and energy conservation laws, we derive an analytical relation which shows how the penetration depth depends upon the density of the rod, given a fixed kinetic energy. This work was sparked off by the necessity of understanding the effectiveness of high density penetrators (e.g. depleted uranium penetrators) as anti-tank weapons.

Germano D'Abramo

2003-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

155

Depletion modeling of liquid dominated geothermal reservoirs  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Depletion models for liquid-dominated geothermal reservoirs are derived and presented. The depletion models are divided into two categories: confined and unconfined. For both cases depletion models with no recharge (or influx), and depletion models including recharge, are used to match field data from the Svartsengi high temperature geothermal field in Iceland. The influx models included with the mass and energy balances are adopted from the petroleum engineering literature. The match to production data from Svartsengi is improved when influx was included. The Schilthuis steady-state influx gives a satisfactory match. The finite aquifer method of Fetkovitch, and the unsteady state method of Hurst gave reasonable answers, but not as good. The best match is obtained using Hurst simplified solution when lambda = 1.3 x 10{sup -4} m{sup -1}. From the match the cross-sectional area of the aquifer was calculated as 3.6 km{sup 2}. The drawdown was predicted using the Hurst simplified method, and compared with predicted drawdown from a boiling model and an empirical log-log model. A large difference between the models was obtained. The predicted drawdown using the Hurst simplified method falls between the other two. Injection has been considered by defining the net rate as being the production rate minus the injection rate. No thermal of transient effects were taken into account. Prediction using three different net rates shows that the pressure can be maintained using the Hurst simplified method if there is significant fluid reinjection. 32 refs., 44 figs., 2 tabs.

Olsen, G.

1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

The ultimate disposition of depleted uranium  

SciTech Connect

Significant amounts of the depleted uranium (DU) created by past uranium enrichment activities have been sold, disposed of commercially, or utilized by defense programs. In recent years, however, the demand for DU has become quite small compared to quantities available, and within the US Department of Energy (DOE) there is concern for any risks and/or cost liabilities that might be associated with the ever-growing inventory of this material. As a result, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), was asked to review options and to develop a comprehensive plan for inventory management and the ultimate disposition of DU accumulated at the gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs). An Energy Systems task team, under the chairmanship of T. R. Lemons, was formed in late 1989 to provide advice and guidance for this task. This report reviews options and recommends actions and objectives in the management of working inventories of partially depleted feed (PDF) materials and for the ultimate disposition of fully depleted uranium (FDU). Actions that should be considered are as follows. (1) Inspect UF{sub 6} cylinders on a semiannual basis. (2) Upgrade cylinder maintenance and storage yards. (3) Convert FDU to U{sub 3}O{sub 8} for long-term storage or disposal. This will include provisions for partial recovery of costs to offset those associated with DU inventory management and the ultimate disposal of FDU. Another recommendation is to drop the term tails'' in favor of depleted uranium'' or DU'' because the tails'' label implies that it is waste.'' 13 refs.

Not Available

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

FAQ 24-Who is responsible for managing depleted uranium?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Who is responsible for managing depleted uranium? Who is responsible for managing depleted uranium? In the United States, the U.S. Department of Energy is responsible for managing...

158

Unsubscribe from the Depleted UF6 E-mail List  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Services Unsubscribe Unsubscribe from the Depleted UF6 E-mail List This form allows you to remove yourself from the Depleted UF6 e-mail list. Type your e-mail address here:...

159

U.S. Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Depleted Fields...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Depleted Fields Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) U.S. Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Depleted Fields Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

160

New Mexico Natural Gas Number of Underground Storage Depleted...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Depleted Fields Capacity (Number of Elements) New Mexico Natural Gas Number of Underground Storage Depleted Fields Capacity (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "global ozone depletion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

New Mexico Natural Gas Underground Storage Depleted Fields Capacity...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Depleted Fields Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) New Mexico Natural Gas Underground Storage Depleted Fields Capacity (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

162

Baseline Ozone Results from 1923 to 1955  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Baseline total atmospheric ozone values have been derived, using the Chappuis band, from historical data for 11 Smithsonian sites, including both Northern and Southern Hemispheres. The main baselines consist of 1194 and 970 days respectively for ...

Ronald J. Angione; Robert G. Roosen

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Climatological effects of atmospheric ozone: A review  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper presents some results of model estimates of ozone (O/sub 3/) climatological effects. Specific issues involved in O/sub 3/ climate study and future research needs are discussed. (ACR)

Wang, W.C.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Tropospheric Ozone in Louisiana and Synoptic Circulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tropospheric ozone (O3) is a pollutant of increasing concern in many urban areas in the United States. There is an increasing need to understand the geographical and meteorological properties associated with O3, particularly because of the ...

Robert V. Rohli; Michelle M. Russo; Anthony J. Vega; John B. Cole

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Energy Department Selects Global Laser Enrichment for Future Operations at  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Energy Department Selects Global Laser Enrichment for Future Energy Department Selects Global Laser Enrichment for Future Operations at Paducah Site Energy Department Selects Global Laser Enrichment for Future Operations at Paducah Site November 27, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis Workers inspect cylinders containing depleted uranium hexafluoride. Workers inspect cylinders containing depleted uranium hexafluoride. Media Contact (202) 586-4940 Washington, D.C. - The U.S. Department of Energy announced today that it will open negotiations with Global Laser Enrichment (GLE) for the sale of the depleted uranium hexafluoride inventory. The Department determined that GLE offered the greatest benefit to the government among those who responded to a Request for Offers (RFO) released earlier this year. Through the RFO review process, the Department also decided to enter into

166

Aspects of CFC relative ozone destruction efficiencies determined in the LLNL 2-D model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have investigated the efficiency of surface emission of several individual chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrogen-containing chlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) for reducing the calculated steady state total ozone column in both one- and two-dimensional models, relative to the effects of CFC-11 (CFCl/sub 3/) emission. We find that CFC and HCFC relative efficiencies can vary over two orders of magnitude, mostly as a result of atmospheric lifetimes. For CFCs and HCFCs with long stratospheric lifetimes the calculated efficiency is also reduced by the effects of lower and mid stratospheric photochemistry. Ozone in this region changes according to the net effect of changing rates of oxygen photolysis, direct chlorine-catalyzed ozone loss and interference by active chlorine species in the nitrogen oxide-catalyzed ozone loss process. In these cases, the relative efficiencies show a marked latitudinal dependence, being larger at high latitudes and smaller at lower latitudes. Additionally in these cases, the one-dimensional model appears to overestimate the globally and annually averaged result that is obtained from the two-dimensional model. These considerations should be taken into account when quantities similar to the relative efficiency defined here are applied to CFC production and emission decisions. 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Connell, P.; Grant, K.; Wuebbles, D.

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

A modern depleted uranium manufacturing facility  

SciTech Connect

The Specific Manufacturing Capabilities (SMC) Project located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and operated by Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co. (LMIT) for the Department of Energy (DOE) manufactures depleted uranium for use in the U.S. Army MIA2 Abrams Heavy Tank Armor Program. Since 1986, SMC has fabricated more than 12 million pounds of depleted uranium (DU) products in a multitude of shapes and sizes with varying metallurgical properties while maintaining security, environmental, health and safety requirements. During initial facility design in the early 1980`s, emphasis on employee safety, radiation control and environmental consciousness was gaining momentum throughout the DOE complex. This fact coupled with security and production requirements forced design efforts to focus on incorporating automation, local containment and computerized material accountability at all work stations. The result was a fully automated production facility engineered to manufacture DU armor packages with virtually no human contact while maintaining security, traceability and quality requirements. This hands off approach to handling depleted uranium resulted in minimal radiation exposures and employee injuries. Construction of the manufacturing facility was complete in early 1986 with the first armor package certified in October 1986. Rolling facility construction was completed in 1987 with the first certified plate produced in the fall of 1988. Since 1988 the rolling and manufacturing facilities have delivered more than 2600 armor packages on schedule with 100% final product quality acceptance. During this period there was an annual average of only 2.2 lost time incidents and a single individual maximum radiation exposure of 150 mrem. SMC is an example of designing and operating a facility that meets regulatory requirements with respect to national security, radiation control and personnel safety while achieving production schedules and product quality.

Zagula, T.A.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Depletion effects of silicon deposition from methyltrichlorosilane  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The deposition rate of SiC on carbon-coated Nicalon fibers from methyltrichlorosilane in hydrogen was measured as a function of temperature, pressure, total flow rate, and simulated reactant depletion. The results, which are included in this paper together with kinetic information on the stability of methyltrichlorosilane, led to two conclusions: two different mechanisms of deposition can occur depending on whether the methyltrichlorosilane has an opportunity to dissociate into separate silicon- and carbon-containing precursors, and the deposition rate is strongly reduced by the generation of byproduct HCl. The data were fitted to a simple etch model to obtain a kinetic expression that accounts for the significant effect of HCl.

Besmann, T.M.; Sheldon, B.W.; Moss, T.S. III; Kaster, M.D. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

FAQ 25-What are the options for managing depleted uranium in...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

options for managing depleted uranium in the future? What are the options for managing depleted uranium in the future? The options for managing depleted uranium were evaluated in...

170

Penetration of hydrogen-based energy system and its potential for causing global environmental change: Scoping risk analysis based on life cycle thinking  

SciTech Connect

A hydrogen-based economy seems superficially to be environmentally friendly, and many people have worked toward its realization. Today hydrogen is mainly produced by decarbonizing fossil fuels (e.g. natural gas), and in the future decarbonization of both fossil fuels and biomass will play a leading role in the production of hydrogen. The main purpose of this paper is to suggest the identification of potential environmental risks in terms of 'life cycle thinking' (which considers all aspects from production to utilization) with regard to the hydrogen-based economy to come. Hydrogen production by decarbonization results in CO{sub 2} emissions. The final destination of the recovered CO{sub 2} is uncertain. Furthermore, there is a possibility that hydrogen molecules will escape to the atmosphere, posing risks that could occasion global environmental changes such as depletion of stratospheric ozone, temperature change in the stratosphere and change of the hydrides cycle through global vaporization. Based on the results of simulation, requirements regarding the following items are proposed to minimize potential risks: hydrogen source, production and storage loss.

Kikuchi, Ryunosuke [Department of Basic Science and Environment (CERNAS), ESAC, Polytechnic Institute of Coimbra, Bencanta, 3040-316 Coimbra (Portugal)]. E-mail: kikuchi@mail.esac.pt

2006-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

171

Effects of Ozone Heating on Forced Equatorial Kelvin Waves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An equatorial beta-plane model of the stratosphere is used to examine the effects of longwave radiational cooling, ozone photochemistry, and ozone advection on the linear spatial modulation of forced equatorial Kelvin waves. The model atmosphere ...

Robert S. Echols; Terrence R. Nathan

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Relations between Meteorology and Ozone in the Lake Michigan Region  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The field program phase of the Lake Michigan Ozone Study (LMOS) took place during the summer of 1991. Observed ozone concentrations and weather variables have been analyzed for the Lake Michigan region and the eastern United States for four 1991 ...

Steven R. Hanna; Joseph C. Chang

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Determination of Total Ozone Amount from TIROS Radiance Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Total ozone amounts are determined from atmospheric radiances measured by the TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS). The retrieval procedure is one of linear regression where total ozone amounts derived from Dobson spectrophotometer ...

Walter G. Planet; David S. Crosby; James H. Lienesch; Michael L. Hill

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Vertical Structure of the Anomalous 2002 Antarctic Ozone Hole  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ozone estimates from observations by the NOAA-16 Solar Backscattered Ultraviolet (SBUV/2) instrument and Television Infrared Observation Satellite (TIROS-N) Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) are used to describe the vertical structure of ozone ...

S. Kondragunta; L. E. Flynn; A. Neuendorffer; A. J. Miller; C. Long; R. Nagatani; S. Zhou; T. Beck; E. Beach; R. McPeters; R. Stolarski; P. K. Bhartia; M. T. DeLand; L.-K. Huang

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Surface Ozone During the Second Half of the Nineteenth Century  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the last few years, increases in tropospheric ozone concentration have been detected and the need for more study has been recognized. There is very little knowledge about surface ozone background concentrations prior to the advent of ...

Rumen D. Bojkov

1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Space and Time Scales in Ambient Ozone Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes the characteristic space and time scales in time series of ambient ozone data. The authors discuss the need and a methodology for cleanly separating the various scales of motion embedded in ozone time series data, namely, ...

S. T. Rao; I. G. Zurbenko; R. Neagu; P. S. Porter; J. Y. Ku; R. F. Henry

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Iron Catalysis in Oxidations by Ozone - Energy Innovation Portal  

Wind Energy; Partners (27) Visual Patent Search; Success Stories; News; Events; Industrial Technologies Iron Catalysis in Oxidations by Ozone Ames ...

178

OZONE PRODUCTION IN URBAN PLUMES.  

SciTech Connect

Ozone levels observed during a field campaign in Houston were significantly higher than that observed in Phoenix or Philadelphia. An examination of the slope of O{sub x} versus NO{sub z} in the urban plumes shows that NO{sub x} is used 2 to 3 times more efficiently in Houston as compared with Phoenix and Philadelphia. Representative values of OPEx are 7-12, 3, and 4, in Houston, Phoenix, and Philadelphia. Aircraft observations have been used to calculate P(O{sub 3})/P(NO{sub z}). Values in Houston are significantly higher than in Phoenix and Philadelphia. We show that P(O{sub 3})/P(NO{sub z}) is proportional to a VOC/NO{sub 2}-OH reactivity ratio. High values of P(O{sub 3})/P(NO{sub z}) in Houston are due to emissions of reactive olefins from the ship channel region. It is significant that high values of P(O{sub 3})/P(NO{sub z}) occur at NO{sub x} levels up to several 10's of ppb. Not only is the chemistry efficient but it will be long lasting. The occurrence of high NO{sub x} and high OPEx is fostered by the co-location of VOC and NO{sub x} sources in the Houston industrial areas.

KLEINMAN,L.

2001-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

179

Ozonization of humic acids in brown coal oxidized in situ  

SciTech Connect

The effect of the ozonization of humic acids in chloroform and glacial acetic acid media on the yield and component composition of the resulting products was studied. The high efficiency of ozonization in acetic acid was found. Water-soluble low-molecular-weight substances were predominant among the ozonization products.

S.A. Semenova; Yu.F. Patrakov; M.V. Batina [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kemerovo (Russia). Institute of Coal and Coal Chemistry

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

180

Liquid-phase ozonation of fusainized components of SS coal  

SciTech Connect

Stepwise ozonation of leaning fusainized components of fossil coal of SS grade in acetic acid was studied. The dynamics of accumulation of oxygen-containing groups in the course of ozonation was examined, and the main pathways of the reaction of ozone with structural fragments of the coal substance were revealed.

Semenova, S.A.; Patrakov, Y.F. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kemerovo (Russian Federation)

2007-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "global ozone depletion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Overview of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DOE's DUF DOE's DUF 6 Cylinder Inventory a Location Number of Cylinders DUF 6 (MT) b Paducah, Kentucky 36,910 450,000 Portsmouth, Ohio 16,041 198,000 Oak Ridge (ETTP), Tennessee 4,683 56,000 Total 57,634 704,000 a The DOE inventory includes DUF 6 generated by the government, as well as DUF 6 transferred from U.S. Enrichment Corporation pursuant to two memoranda of agreement. b A metric ton (MT) is equal to 1,000 kilograms, or 2,200 pounds. Overview of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program Over the last four decades, large quantities of uranium were processed by gaseous diffusion to produce enriched uranium for U.S. national defense and civilian purposes. The gaseous diffusion process uses uranium in the form of uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ), primarily because UF 6 can conveniently be used in

182

Regulation of New Depleted Uranium Uses  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2-5 2-5 Regulation of New Depleted Uranium Uses Environmental Assessment Division Argonne National Laboratory Operated by The University of Chicago, under Contract W-31-109-Eng-38, for the United States Department of Energy DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor The University of Chicago, nor any of their employees or officers, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark,

183

Lithium Depletion of Nearby Young Stellar Associations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We estimate cluster ages from lithium depletion in five pre-main-sequence groups found within 100 pc of the Sun: TW Hydrae Association, Eta Chamaeleontis Cluster, Beta Pictoris Moving Group, Tucanae-Horologium Association and AB Doradus Moving Group. We determine surface gravities, effective temperatures and lithium abundances for over 900 spectra through least squares fitting to model-atmosphere spectra. For each group, we compare the dependence of lithium abundance on temperature with isochrones from pre-main-sequence evolutionary tracks to obtain model dependent ages. We find that the Eta Chamaelontis Cluster and the TW Hydrae Association are the youngest, with ages of 12+/-6 Myr and 12+/-8 Myr, respectively, followed by the Beta Pictoris Moving Group at 21+/-9 Myr, the Tucanae-Horologium Association at 27+/-11 Myr, and the AB Doradus Moving Group at an age of at least 45 Myr (where we can only set a lower limit since the models -- unlike real stars -- do not show much lithium depletion beyond this age). Here, the ordering is robust, but the precise ages depend on our choice of both atmospheric and evolutionary models. As a result, while our ages are consistent with estimates based on Hertzsprung-Russell isochrone fitting and dynamical expansion, they are not yet more precise. Our observations do show that with improved models, much stronger constraints should be feasible: the intrinsic uncertainties, as measured from the scatter between measurements from different spectra of the same star, are very low: around 10 K in effective temperature, 0.05 dex in surface gravity, and 0.03 dex in lithium abundance.

Erin Mentuch; Alexis Brandeker; Marten H. van Kerkwijk; Ray Jayawardhana; Peter H. Hauschildt

2008-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

184

Effect of Ventilation Strategies on Residential Ozone Levels  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Effect of Ventilation Strategies on Residential Ozone Levels Effect of Ventilation Strategies on Residential Ozone Levels Title Effect of Ventilation Strategies on Residential Ozone Levels Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-5889E Year of Publication 2012 Authors Walker, Iain S., and Max H. Sherman Journal Building and Environment Volume 59 Start Page 456 Pagination 456-465 Date Published 01/2013 Keywords ashrae standard 62,2, filtration, infiltration, mechanical ventilation, ozone, simulation Abstract Elevated outdoor ozone levels are associated with adverse health effects. Because people spend the vast majority of their time indoors, reduction in indoor levels of ozone of outdoor origin would lower population exposures and might also lead to a reduction in ozone---associated adverse health effects. In most buildings, indoor ozone levels are diminished with respect to outdoor levels to an extent that depends on surface reactions and on the degree to which ozone penetrates the building envelope. Ozone enters buildings from outdoors together with the airflows that are driven by natural and mechanical means, including deliberate ventilation used to reduce concentrations of indoor---generated pollutants. When assessing the effect of deliberate ventilation on occupant health one should consider not only the positive effects on removing pollutants of indoor origin but also the possibility that enhanced ventilation might increase indoor levels of pollutants originating outdoors. This study considers how changes in residential ventilation that are designed to comply with ASHRAE Standard 62.2 might influence indoor levels of ozone. Simulation results show that the building envelope can contribute significantly to filtration of ozone. Consequently, the use of exhaust ventilation systems is predicted to produce lower indoor ozone concentrations than would occur with balanced ventilation systems operating at the same air---exchange rate. We also investigated a strategy for reducing exposure to ozone that would deliberately reduce ventilation rates during times of high outdoor ozone concentration while still meeting daily average ventilation requirements.

185

Press Release: DOE Seeks Public Input for Depleted Uranium Hexafluorid...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Perry, (865) 576-0885 September 24, 2001 www.oakridge.doe.gov DOE SEEKS PUBLIC INPUT FOR DEPLETED URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT Public Meetings Planned in...

186

Numerical study of error propagation in Monte Carlo depletion simulations.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Improving computer technology and the desire to more accurately model the heterogeneity of the nuclear reactor environment have made the use of Monte Carlo depletion (more)

Wyant, Timothy Joseph

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

DOE Selects Contractor for Depleted Hexafluoride Conversion Project...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

in Paducah, Kentucky and Portsmouth, Ohio. For several decades DOE was responsible for uranium enrichment, the uranium hexafluoride depleted in the 235U isotope (typically down...

188

Environmental Risks of Depleted UF6-related Manufacturing Activities  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and operation of a facility to fabricate representative products containing depleted uranium. Impacts Analyzed in the PEIS The PEIS evaluated the general environmental impacts...

189

Health Risks Associated with Disposal of Depleted Uranium  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Disposal DUF6 Health Risks line line Accidents Storage Conversion Manufacturing Disposal Transportation Disposal of Depleted Uranium A discussion of risks associated with disposal...

190

Environmental Impacts of Options for Disposal of Depleted Uranium...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

study by Oak Ridge National Laboratory evaluated the acceptability of several depleted uranium conversion products at potential LLW disposal sites to provide a basis for DOE...

191

Application of thermal depletion model to geothermal reservoirs...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

of thermal depletion model to geothermal reservoirs with fracture and pore permeability Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Proceedings:...

192

Depleted UF6 Management Information Network - A resource for...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

is an online repository of information about the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) inventory of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6), a product of the uranium enrichment...

193

Surface Ozone Pattern in Hong Kong  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Surface ozone (O3) and its precursors in rural and urban areas of Hong Kong are analyzed through the seasonal, temporal, and spatial variation patterns. The seasonal O3 shows a unique pattern with a major peak in autumn and a trough in summer. ...

L. Y. Chan; C. Y. Chan; Y. Qin

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Ozone Conservation and Entrainment in Cumulus Congestus  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study demonstrates that ozone mixing ratio (O3) is conserved during moist convection and can be used as a tracer for cloud entrainment studies. The approach used is to apply mixing line analysis to pairs of liquid water potential temperature ...

R. Pearson Jr.; C. J. Weaver

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Analysis of Hydrogen Depletion Using a Scaled Passive Autocatalytic Recombiner  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrogen depletion tests of a scaled passive autocatalytic recombine (pAR) were performed in the Surtsey test vessel at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The experiments were used to determine the hydrogen depletion rate of a PAR in the presence of steam and also to evaluate the effect of scale (number of cartridges) on the PAR performance at both low and high hydrogen concentrations.

Blanchat, T.K.; Malliakos, A.

1998-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

196

Trends in Southern Hemisphere Circulation in IPCC AR4 Models over 195099: Ozone Depletion versus Greenhouse Forcing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Simulations by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) models on the Southern Hemisphere (SH) circulation are assessed over the period 195099, focusing on the seasonality of the trend and the level of ...

Wenju Cai; Tim Cowan

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Disposition of DOE Excess Depleted Uranium, Natural Uranium, and  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Disposition of DOE Excess Depleted Uranium, Natural Uranium, and Disposition of DOE Excess Depleted Uranium, Natural Uranium, and Low-Enriched Uranium Disposition of DOE Excess Depleted Uranium, Natural Uranium, and Low-Enriched Uranium The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) owns and manages an inventory of depleted uranium (DU), natural uranium (NU), and low-enriched uranium (LEU) that is currently stored in large cylinders as depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6), natural uranium hexafluoride (NUF6), and low-enriched uranium hexafluoride (LEUF6) at the DOE Paducah site in western Kentucky (DOE Paducah) and the DOE Portsmouth site near Piketon in south-central Ohio (DOE Portsmouth)1. This inventory exceeds DOE's current and projected energy and defense program needs. On March 11, 2008, the Secretary of Energy issued a policy statement (the

198

Regulation of new depleted uranium uses.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report evaluates how the existing U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulatory structure and pending modifications would affect full deployment into radiologically uncontrolled areas of certain new depleted uranium (DU) uses being studied as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's DU uses research and development program. Such new DU uses include as catalysts (for destroying volatile organic compounds in off-gases from industrial processes and for hydrodesulfurization [HDS] of petroleum fuels), semiconductors (for fabricating integrated circuits, solar cells, or thermoelectric devices, especially if such articles are expected to have service in hostile environments), and electrodes (for service in solid oxide fuel cells, in photoelectrochemical cells used to produce hydrogen, and in batteries). The report describes each new DU use and provides a detailed analysis of whether any existing NRC licensing exemption or general license would be available to users of products and devices manufactured to deploy the new use. Although one existing licensing exemption was found to be possibly available for catalysts used for HDS of petroleum fuels and one general license was found to be possibly available for catalysts, semiconductors, and electrodes used in hydrogen production or batteries, existing regulations would require most users of products and devices deploying new DU uses to obtain specific source material licenses from the NRC or an Agreement State. This situation would not be improved by pending regulatory modifications. Thus, deployment of new DU uses may be limited because persons having no previous experience with NRC or Agreement State regulations may be hesitant to incur the costs and inconvenience of regulatory compliance, unless using a DU-containing product or device offers a substantial economic benefit over nonradioactive alternatives. Accordingly, estimating the risk of deploying new DU-containing products and devices in certain radiologically uncontrolled areas is recommended. If the estimated risks of such deployment are found to be acceptable, then it may be possible to justify adding new exemptions or general licenses to the NRC regulations.

Ranek, N. L.

2003-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

199

Interannual Variability and Trends of Extratropical Ozone. Part I: Northern Hemisphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors apply principal component analysis (PCA) to the extratropical total column ozone from the combined merged ozone data product and the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts assimilated ozone from January 1979 to August ...

Xun Jiang; Steven Pawson; Charles D. Camp; J. Eric Nielsen; Run-Lie Shia; Ting Liao; Varavut Limpasuvan; Yuk L. Yung

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Challenges dealing with depleted uranium in Germany - Reuse or disposal  

SciTech Connect

During enrichment large amounts of depleted Uranium are produced. In Germany every year 2.800 tons of depleted uranium are generated. In Germany depleted uranium is not classified as radioactive waste but a resource for further enrichment. Therefore since 1996 depleted Uranium is sent to ROSATOM in Russia. However it still has to be dealt with the second generation of depleted Uranium. To evaluate the alternative actions in case a solution has to be found in Germany, several studies have been initiated by the Federal Ministry of the Environment. The work that has been carried out evaluated various possibilities to deal with depleted uranium. The international studies on this field and the situation in Germany have been analyzed. In case no further enrichment is planned the depleted uranium has to be stored. In the enrichment process UF{sub 6} is generated. It is an international consensus that for storage it should be converted to U{sub 3}O{sub 8}. The necessary technique is well established. If the depleted Uranium would have to be characterized as radioactive waste, a final disposal would become necessary. For the planned Konrad repository - a repository for non heat generating radioactive waste - the amount of Uranium is limited by the licensing authority. The existing license would not allow the final disposal of large amounts of depleted Uranium in the Konrad repository. The potential effect on the safety case has not been roughly analyzed. As a result it may be necessary to think about alternatives. Several possibilities for the use of depleted uranium in the industry have been identified. Studies indicate that the properties of Uranium would make it useful in some industrial fields. Nevertheless many practical and legal questions are open. One further option may be the use as shielding e.g. in casks for transport or disposal. Possible techniques for using depleted Uranium as shielding are the use of the metallic Uranium as well as the inclusion in concrete. Another possibility could be the use of depleted uranium for the blending of High enriched Uranium (HEU) or with Plutonium to MOX-elements. (authors)

Moeller, Kai D. [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz - BFS, Postfach 10 01 49, D-38201 Salzgitter (Germany)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "global ozone depletion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Increases in CO/sub 2/ and chlorofluoromethanes: coupled effects on stratospheric ozone  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The magnitude of the chlorofluoromethane (CFM) induced depletion of the ozone layer is considered a key problem in atmospheric research. The historical rise in the atmospheric concentrations of CFCl/sub 3/, and CF/sub 2/Cl/sub 2/, the major CFM species, is well documented. Atmospheric CO/sub 2/ has also been increasing. Instead of depleting O/sub 3/, the expected effect of CO/sub 2/ is to increase its concentration. The simultaneous effects of these perturbations were studied. Results indicate that increases in CO/sub 2/ can significantly alter the predicted ozone trend. This will complicate efforts to detect the trend in O/sub 3/ caused by increases in CFM's. Since the calculated effects of these perturbations are largest at high altitudes, one might expect to detect changes in high altitude O/sub 3/ sooner than those in total O/sub 3/. Therefore a comparison was made between the calculated change in O/sub 3/ at high altitude and statistical detection limits for abnormal change as developed from Umkehr data from Arosa, Switzerland. Its significance for trend detection is discussed. Finally, since CO/sub 2/ effects will be important in the next 50 to 100 years, the effects of temperature changes from CO/sub 2/ increase on O/sub 3/ loss rates from different families were examined. Significant changes in the NO/sub x/-catalyzed ozone loss rates that have not previously been discussed were found. It is concluded that the O/sub 3/ decrease at steady state from the coupled CFM and CO/sub 2/ perturbation is larger than the decrease calculated by summing the separate effects of these perturbations. The expected increase in CO/sub 2/ can significantly affect predicted O/sub 3/ trends in the next 50 to 100 years. O/sub 3/ changes in Umkehr level 7 are more detectible, in a statistical sense, than those at higher levels. The temperature effect of CO/sub 2/ on the NO/sub x-catalyzed O/sub 3/ destruction rate was found to be as large or larger than the effect of temperature on the pure oxygen loss rate.

Penner, J.E.

1980-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

202

Satellite Instrument Calibration for Measuring Global Climate Change: Report of a Workshop  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measuring the small changes associated with long-term global climate change from space is a daunting task. The satellite instruments must be capable of observing atmospheric and surface temperature trends as small as 0.1C decade?1, ozone changes ...

George Ohring; Bruce Wielicki; Roy Spencer; Bill Emery; Raju Datla

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

In-Situ Electrical Studies on Ozone Functionalization of Graphene  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is found that the ozone molecules at 300 K are reversibly physisorbed on the surface of graphene and the physisorption bonding is removed immediately after ...

204

The Cost of Crop Damage Caused by Ozone Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

L. (1982). Assessment of crop loss from ozone. Journal of1984). Assessing impacts of ozone on agricultural crops: II.crop yield functions and alternative exposure statistics.

Murphy, James; Delucchi, Mark; McCubbin, Donald; Kim, H.J.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Ozone, Air Pollution, and Respiratory Health  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Of the outdoor air pollutants regulated by the Clean Air Act of 1970 (and recently revised in 1990), ozone has been the one pollutant most difficult to control within the federal standards. The known human health effects are all on the respiratory system. At concentrations of ozone which occur during summer air-pollution episodes in many urban metropolitan areas of the United States, a portion of the healthy population is likely to experience symptoms and reversible effects on lung function, particularly if exercising heavily outdoors. More prolonged increase in airway responsiveness and the presence of inflammatory cells and mediators in the airway lining fluid may also result from these naturally occurring exposures. Serial exposures to peak levels of ozone on several consecutive days are more characteristic of pollution episodes in the Northeast United States and may be associated with recurrent symptoms. No "high-risk " or more sensitive group has been found, in contrast to the case of sulfur dioxide, to which asthmatics are more susceptible than normals. The occurrence of multiple exposure episodes within a single year over many years in some areas of California has led to studies looking for chronic effects of ozone exposure on the lung. To date, no conclusive studies have been reported, although further work is under way. Much of what we know about the effects of this gas on the lung are based on controlled exposures to pure gas within an environmental exposure laboratory. Interactions between substances which commonly co-occur in air-pollution episodes are also under investigation.

William S

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Ozone and UV for Grain Milling Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recognizing the current concerns with food safety, First Energy Services and EPRI collaborated in a project to investigate the feasibility of using ozone as a substitute for chlorinated water to control bacteria and mold at the Harvest States Amber Milling facility in Huron, Ohio. Traditionally, chlorinated water is used to control bacteria and mold in grain processing. Since chlorine usage can be costly and because chlorine presents problems in storage and safe handling of chlorine gas, the project part...

2000-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

207

An Assessment of Tropospheric Ozone Pollution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This assessment was prepared as an initiative of the North American Research Strategy for Tropospheric Ozone (NARSTO). The NARSTO partnership is a non-binding, tri-national public/private alliance, open to science agencies, regulatory agencies, regulated industries, academic institutions, environmentalists, and public interests groups in Canada, Mexico, and the United States. The NARSTO mission is to plan, coordinate, and facilitate comprehensive, long-term, policy-relevant scientific research and assess...

2000-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

208

Stratospheric ozone in the planetary boundary layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The impact of stratospheric ozone associated with rapid transport processes at remote Whiteface Mountain, New York was studied using /sup 7/Be as a stratospheric tracer. The seasonal variation of /sup 7/Be concentration suggests that the greatest impact of stratospheric ozone at Whiteface Mountain occurs during late spring and early summer consistent with the time when the impact of tropopause folding should be maximum. This is also the time when tropospheric photochemical ozone production is likely to be maximum. The analysis of 33 cases with peak /sup 7/Be > 175 fCi/m/sup 3/ shows strong correlation between averaged O/sub 3/ and /sup 7/Be concentration. Assuming peak /sup 7/Be is associated with rapid transport we estimate 12 ppbv as the 24th average increased O/sub 3/ due to tropopause folding events. Also the average SO/sub 4/2/sup -/ concentration peaked a day after /sup 7/Be suggesting the backside of the weather system responsible for rapid subsidence also favors transport to this site from distant urban-industrial centers. Thus, photochemical pollution episodes may be intensified by stratospheric subsidence.

Dutkiewicz, V.A.; Husain, L.; Rusheed, A.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Assessment of the global impact of aerosols on tropospheric oxidants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

[1] We present here a fully coupled global aerosol and chemistry model for the troposphere. The model is used to assess the interactions between aerosols and chemical oxidants in the troposphere, including (1) the conversion from gas-phase oxidants into the condensed phase during the formation of aerosols, (2) the heterogeneous reactions occurring on the surface of aerosols, and (3) the effect of aerosols on ultraviolet radiation and photolysis rates. The present study uses the global three-dimensional chemical/ transport model, Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers, version 2 (MOZART-2), in which aerosols are coupled with the model. The model accounts for the presence of

Xuexi Tie; Sasha Madronich; Stacy Walters; David P. Edwards; Paul Ginoux; Natalie Mahowald; Renyi Zhang; Chao Lou; Guy Brasseur

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Depleted Uranium Dioxide as SNF Waste Package Fill: A Disposal...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DEPLETED URANIUM DIOXIDE AS SNF WASTE PACKAGE FILL: A DISPOSAL OPTION Charles W. Forsberg Oak Ridge National Laboratory * P.O. Box 2008 Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6179 Tel: (865)...

211

DOE Selects Contractor for Depleted Hexafluoride Conversion Project Support  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DOE Selects Contractor for Depleted Hexafluoride Conversion Project DOE Selects Contractor for Depleted Hexafluoride Conversion Project Support DOE Selects Contractor for Depleted Hexafluoride Conversion Project Support March 25, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis Media Contact Bill Taylor, 803-952-8564 Bill.Taylor@srs.gov Cincinnati - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today awarded a competitive small business task order to Navarro Research and Engineering Inc. of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The award is a $22 million, time and materials task order with a three-year performance period and two one-year extension options. Navarro Research and Engineering Inc. will provide engineering and operations technical support services to the DOE Portsmouth Paducah Project Office (PPPO) in Lexington, Kentucky and the Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Conversion Project in Paducah, Kentucky and Portsmouth, Ohio.

212

DOE Issues Request for Quotations for Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Issues Request for Quotations for Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Issues Request for Quotations for Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Technical Services DOE Issues Request for Quotations for Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Technical Services December 12, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Media Contact Bill Taylor, 803-952-8564 bill.taylor@srs.gov Cincinnati - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today issued a Request for Quotation (RFQ) for engineering and operations technical services to support the Portsmouth Paducah Project Office and the oversight of operations of the Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Conversion Project located in Paducah KY, and Portsmouth OH. The RFQ is for a Time-and-Materials Task Order for three years with two one-year option periods. The estimated contract value is approximately $15 - 20 million.

213

DOE Issues Request for Quotations for Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Issues Request for Quotations for Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Issues Request for Quotations for Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Technical Services DOE Issues Request for Quotations for Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Technical Services December 12, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Media Contact Bill Taylor, 803-952-8564 bill.taylor@srs.gov Cincinnati - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today issued a Request for Quotation (RFQ) for engineering and operations technical services to support the Portsmouth Paducah Project Office and the oversight of operations of the Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Conversion Project located in Paducah KY, and Portsmouth OH. The RFQ is for a Time-and-Materials Task Order for three years with two one-year option periods. The estimated contract value is approximately $15 - 20 million.

214

DOE Selects Contractor for Depleted Hexafluoride Conversion Project Support  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Contractor for Depleted Hexafluoride Conversion Project Contractor for Depleted Hexafluoride Conversion Project Support DOE Selects Contractor for Depleted Hexafluoride Conversion Project Support March 25, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis Media Contact Bill Taylor, 803-952-8564 Bill.Taylor@srs.gov Cincinnati - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today awarded a competitive small business task order to Navarro Research and Engineering Inc. of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The award is a $22 million, time and materials task order with a three-year performance period and two one-year extension options. Navarro Research and Engineering Inc. will provide engineering and operations technical support services to the DOE Portsmouth Paducah Project Office (PPPO) in Lexington, Kentucky and the Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Conversion Project in Paducah, Kentucky and Portsmouth, Ohio.

215

Health Risks Associated with Conversion of Depleted UF6  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Conversion Conversion DUF6 Health Risks line line Accidents Storage Conversion Manufacturing Disposal Transportation Conversion A discussion of health risks associated with conversion of depleted UF6 to another chemical form. General Health Risks of Conversion The potential environmental impacts, including potential health risks, associated with conversion activities will be evaluated in detail as part of the Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride management program after a contract is awarded for conversion services. This section discusses in general the types of health risks associated with the conversion process. The conversion of depleted UF6 to another chemical form will be done in an industrial facility dedicated to the conversion process. Conversion will involve the handling of depleted UF6 cylinders. Hazardous chemicals, such

216

Production and Handling Slide 38: 48G Depleted UF6 Storage Cylinder  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

48G Depleted UF6 Storage Cylinder Refer to caption below for image description After enrichment, depleted uranium hexafluoride is placed in large steel cylinders for storage....

217

Implementation of global energy sustainability  

SciTech Connect

The term energy sustainability emerged from the UN Conference on Environment and Development in Rio 1992, when Agenda 21 was formulated and the Global Energy Charter proclaimed. Emission reductions, total energy costing, improved energy efficiency, and sustainable energy systems are the four fundamental principles of the charter. These principles can be implemented in the proposed financial, legal, technical, and education framework. Much has been done in many countries toward the implementation of the Global Energy Charter, but progress has not been fast enough to ease the disastrous effects of the too many ill-conceived energy systems on the environment, climate, and health. Global warming is accelerating, and pollution is worsening, especially in developing countries with their hunger for energy to meet the needs of economic development. Asian cities are now beating all pollution records, and greenhouse gases are visibly changing the climate with rising sea levels, retracting glaciers, and record weather disasters. This article presents why and how energy investments and research money have to be rechanneled into sustainable energy, rather than into the business-as-usual of depleting, unsustainable energy concepts exceeding one trillion dollars per year. This largest of all investment sectors needs much more attention.

Grob, G.R. [CMDC, Zurich (Switzerland)

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Atmospheric Environment 41 (2007) 31513160 Ozone removal by HVAC filters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Atmospheric Environment 41 (2007) 3151­3160 Ozone removal by HVAC filters P. Zhao, J.A. Siegel?, R May 2006; accepted 14 June 2006 Abstract Residential and commercial HVAC filters that have been loaded of the relative importance of HVAC filters as a removal mechanism for ozone in residential and commercial

Siegel, Jeffrey

219

Proceedings: Indoor Air 2005 OZONE REMOVAL BY RESIDENTIAL HVAC FILTERS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Proceedings: Indoor Air 2005 2366 OZONE REMOVAL BY RESIDENTIAL HVAC FILTERS P Zhao1,2 , JA Siegel1, Austin, Texas 78758, USA ABSTRACT HVAC filters have a significant influence on indoor air quality% for Filter #2 at a face velocity of 0.81 cm/s. The potential for HVAC filters to affect ozone concentrations

Siegel, Jeffrey

220

The 1983 and 1985 Anomalies in Ozone Distribution in Perspective  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Studies of the amount of total ozone at many observatories show that the negative 1983 deviation from the long-term average exceeded 2?, and was the greatest in magnitude for an annual deviation in their entire record., the total ozone in ...

Rumen D. Bojkov

1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "global ozone depletion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Ozonated Laundry: An Analysis of Its Applications and Market Potential  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electric utilities can create value for their customers and revenues for themselves by promoting new energy-intensive technologies. This report focuses on one such electrotechnology, ozonated laundry. It describes the current state of the technology and its economic prospects and explores how utilities can benefit from increased marketplace acceptance of ozonated laundry.

1998-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

222

Autoregressive forecast of monthly total ozone concentration: A neurocomputing approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present study endeavors to generate autoregressive neural network (AR-NN) models to forecast the monthly total ozone concentration over Kolkata (22^o34', 88^o22'), India. The issues associated with the applicability of neural network to geophysical ... Keywords: Autoregressive moving average, Autoregressive neural network, Monthly total ozone, Predictive model

Goutami Chattopadhyay; Surajit Chattopadhyay

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Depleted uranium as a backfill for nuclear fuel waste package  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for packaging spent nuclear fuel for long-term disposal in a geological repository. At least one spent nuclear fuel assembly is first placed in an unsealed waste package and a depleted uranium fill material is added to the waste package. The depleted uranium fill material comprises flowable particles having a size sufficient to substantially fill any voids in and around the assembly and contains isotopically-depleted uranium in the +4 valence state in an amount sufficient to inhibit dissolution of the spent nuclear fuel from the assembly into a surrounding medium and to lessen the potential for nuclear criticality inside the repository in the event of failure of the waste package. Last, the waste package is sealed, thereby substantially reducing the release of radionuclides into the surrounding medium, while simultaneously providing radiation shielding and increased structural integrity of the waste package. 6 figs.

Forsberg, C.W.

1998-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

224

Environmental Risks Associated with Conversion of Depleted UF6  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Conversion Conversion Depleted UF6 Environmental Risks line line Storage Conversion Manufacturing Disposal Conversion A general discussion of the potential environmental impacts associated with depleted UF6 conversion activities. Impacts Analyzed in the PEIS The potential environmental impacts associated with conversion activities will be evaluated in detail as part of the Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride management program after a contract is awarded for conversion services. This page discusses in general the types of impacts that might be associated with the conversion process based on the PEIS analysis. The PEIS evaluated the potential environmental impacts for representative conversion facilities. Conversion to uranium oxide and uranium metal were considered. Potential impacts were evaluated for a representative site, and

225

Effect of Shim Arm Depletion in the NBSR  

SciTech Connect

The cadmium shim arms in the NBSR undergo burnup during reactor operation and hence, require periodic replacement. Presently, the shim arms are replaced after every 25 cycles to guarantee they can maintain sufficient shutdown margin. Two prior reports document the expected change in the 113Cd distribution because of the shim arm depletion. One set of calculations was for the present high-enriched uranium fuel and the other for the low-enriched uranium fuel when it was in the COMP7 configuration (7 inch fuel length vs. the present 11 inch length). The depleted 113Cd distributions calculated for these cores were applied to the current design for an equilibrium low-enriched uranium core. This report details the predicted effects, if any, of shim arm depletion on the shim arm worth, the shutdown margin, power distributions and kinetics parameters.

Hanson A. H.; Brown N.; Diamond, D.J.

2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

226

Depleted uranium as a backfill for nuclear fuel waste package  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for packaging spent nuclear fuel for long-term disposal in a geological repository. At least one spent nuclear fuel assembly is first placed in an unsealed waste package and a depleted uranium fill material is added to the waste package. The depleted uranium fill material comprises flowable particles having a size sufficient to substantially fill any voids in and around the assembly and contains isotonically-depleted uranium in the +4 valence state in an amount sufficient to inhibit dissolution of the spent nuclear fuel from the assembly into a surrounding medium and to lessen the potential for nuclear criticality inside the repository in the event of failure of the waste package. Last, the waste package is sealed, thereby substantially reducing the release of radionuclides into the surrounding medium, while simultaneously providing radiation shielding and increased structural integrity of the waste package.

Forsberg, Charles W.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Depleted uranium as a backfill for nuclear fuel waste package  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for packaging spent nuclear fuel for long-term disposal in a geological repository. At least one spent nuclear fuel assembly is first placed in an unsealed waste package and a depleted uranium fill material is added to the waste package. The depleted uranium fill material comprises flowable particles having a size sufficient to substantially fill any voids in and around the assembly and contains isotopically-depleted uranium in the +4 valence state in an amount sufficient to inhibit dissolution of the spent nuclear fuel from the assembly into a surrounding medium and to lessen the potential for nuclear criticality inside the repository in the event of failure of the waste package. Last, the waste package is sealed, thereby substantially reducing the release of radionuclides into the surrounding medium, while simultaneously providing radiation shielding and increased structural integrity of the waste package.

Forsberg, Charles W. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Application of thermal depletion model to geothermal reservoirs with  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

thermal depletion model to geothermal reservoirs with thermal depletion model to geothermal reservoirs with fracture and pore permeability Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Proceedings: Application of thermal depletion model to geothermal reservoirs with fracture and pore permeability Details Activities (2) Areas (2) Regions (0) Abstract: If reinjection and production wells intersect connected fractures, it is expected that reinjected fluid would cool the production well much sooner than would be predicted from calculations of flow in a porous medium. A method for calculating how much sooner that cooling will occur was developed. Basic assumptions of the method are presented, and possible application to the Salton Sea Geothermal Field, the Raft River System, and to reinjection of supersaturated fluids is discussed.

229

Status Report and Proposal Concerning the Supply of Depleted Uranium Metal Bands for a Particle Detector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Status Report and Proposal Concerning the Supply of Depleted Uranium Metal Bands for a Particle Detector

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Laboratory Measurement of Secondary Pollutant Yields from Ozone Reaction  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Laboratory Measurement of Secondary Pollutant Yields from Ozone Reaction Laboratory Measurement of Secondary Pollutant Yields from Ozone Reaction with HVAC Filters Title Laboratory Measurement of Secondary Pollutant Yields from Ozone Reaction with HVAC Filters Publication Type Conference Proceedings Year of Publication 2009 Authors Destaillats, Hugo, Wenhao Chen, Michael G. Apte, Nuan Li, Michael Spears, Jérémie Almosni, Jianshun Zheng, and William J. Fisk Conference Name Proceedings of the Healthy Buildings 2009 Conference Conference Location Syracuse, NY Keywords building-related symptoms, hvac filter, ozone, ptr-ms, secondary pollutants Abstract We used Proton Transfer Reaction - Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) and conventional sampling methods to monitor and identify trace level organic pollutants formed in heterogeneous reactions between ozone and HVAC filters in real time. Experiments were carried out using a bench-scale flow tube reactor operating with dry air and humidified air (50% RH), at realistically high ozone concentrations (150 ppbv). We explored different filter media (i.e., fiberglass and cotton/polyester blends) and different particle loadings (i.e., clean filter and filters loaded with particles for 3 months at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the Port of Oakland, CA). Detailed emission dynamics of very low levels of certain organic pollutants from filter media upon ozone exposure in the presence of moisture have been obtained and analyzed.

231

Determination of total ozone from DMSP multichannel filter radiometer measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The multichannel filter radiometer (MFR) infrared sensor was first flown in 1977 on a Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Block 5D series satellite operated by the US Air Force. The first four satellites in this series carried MFR sensors from which total atmospheric column ozone amounts may be derived. The last MFR sensor ceased operating on February 16, 1980. The series of four sensors spans a data period of nearly three years. The MFR sensor measures infrared radiances for 16 channels. Total ozone amounts are determined from sets of radiance measurements using an empirical relationship that is developed using linear regression analysis. Total ozone is modeled as a linear combination of terms involving functions of the MFR radiances for four channels (1, 3, 7 and 16) and the secant of the zenith angle. The ozone retrieval methodology is described schematically. The ozone retrieval model is developed through regression analysis using sets of simulated MFR radiances derived from detailed radiative transfer calculations. The MFR total ozone data are compared with independent ground-based Dobson measurements in order to evaluate the ozone retrieval methodology. Many Dobson observatories have been providing their daily measurements of total ozone which are taken close in time to DMSP overpass times. MFR total ozone data are compared with Dobson measurements taken between January 1 and February 15, 1979, and the results are summarized. Comparisons were made where the MFR and Dobson measurements are within 300 km and 300 minutes of each other. Percentages are computed with respect to the Dobson values. The MFR data were processed using a preliminary methodology, and the data will be reprocessed in the near future.

Luther, F.M.; Weichel, R.L.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Sensitivity Analysis of Ozone Formation and Transport for a Central  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sensitivity Analysis of Ozone Formation and Transport for a Central Sensitivity Analysis of Ozone Formation and Transport for a Central California Air Pollution Episode Title Sensitivity Analysis of Ozone Formation and Transport for a Central California Air Pollution Episode Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2008 Authors Jin, Ling, Shaheen R. Tonse, Daniel S. Cohan, Xianglei Mao, Robert A. Harley, and Nancy J. Brown Journal Environmental Science & Technology Volume 42 Start Page 3683 Issue 10 Pagination 3683-3689 Date Published 05/2008 Abstract We developed a first- and second-order sensitivity analysis approach with the decoupled direct method to examine spatial and temporal variations of ozone-limiting reagents and the importance of local vs upwind emission sources in the San Joaquin Valley of central California for a 5 day ozone episode (Jul 29th to Aug 3rd, 2000). Despite considerable spatial variations, nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission reductions are overall more effective than volatile organic compound (VOC) control for attaining the 8 h ozone standard in this region for this episode, in contrast to the VOC control that works better for attaining the prior 1 h ozone standard. Interbasin source contributions of NOx emissions are limited to the northern part of the SJV, while anthropogenic VOC (AVOC) emissions, especially those emitted at night, influence ozone formation in the SJV further downwind. Among model input parameters studied here, uncertainties in emissions of NOx and AVOC, and the rate coefficient of the OH + NO2 termination reaction, have the greatest effect on first-order ozone responses to changes in NOx emissions. Uncertainties in biogenic VOC emissions only have a modest effect because they are generally not collocated with anthropogenic sources in this region.

233

Carbon Monoxide, Ozone, Hydrocarbon Air Quality Standards, and Related  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Monoxide, Ozone, Hydrocarbon Air Quality Standards, and Monoxide, Ozone, Hydrocarbon Air Quality Standards, and Related Emission Requirements (Ohio) Carbon Monoxide, Ozone, Hydrocarbon Air Quality Standards, and Related Emission Requirements (Ohio) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fuel Distributor Industrial Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Municipal/Public Utility Rural Electric Cooperative State/Provincial Govt Transportation Tribal Government Utility Savings Category Buying & Making Electricity Program Info State Ohio Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Ohio Environmental Protection Agency This chapter defining the roles of the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency gives specific detail on the regulation point-source air pollution for a variety of industries and pollutants.

234

Effect of ozone on growth and assimilate partitioning in parsley  

SciTech Connect

Parsley (Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Nym. cv. Banquet) incurred leaf injury, reduced growth, and altered assimilate partitioning after exposures to 20 pphm ozone. Total plant dry weight and root dry weight were decreased 23% and 43% respectively, with little effect on leaves. The relative growth rate of fumigated plants was reduced after the initial ozone exposure but leveled off at a steady state above that of the control plants when plant dry weights reached about 4.5 g. Ozone appeared to have its greatest effect on growth during initial exposures. 15 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

Oshima, R.J.; Bennett, J.P.; Braegelmann, P.K.

1978-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Exposure-Relevant Ozone Chemistry in Occupied Spaces  

SciTech Connect

Ozone, an ambient pollutant, is transformed into other airborne pollutants in the indoor environment. In this dissertation, the type and amount of byproducts that result from ozone reactions with common indoor surfaces, surface residues, and vapors were determined, pollutant concentrations were related to occupant exposure, and frameworks were developed to predict byproduct concentrations under various indoor conditions. In Chapter 2, an analysis is presented of secondary organic aerosol formation from the reaction of ozone with gas-phase, terpene-containing consumer products in small chamber experiments under conditions relevant for residential and commercial buildings. The full particle size distribution was continuously monitored, and ultrafine and fine particle concentrations were in the range of 10 to>300 mu g m-3. Particle nucleation and growth dynamics were characterized.Chapter 3 presents an investigation of ozone reactions with aircraft cabin surfaces including carpet, seat fabric, plastics, and laundered and worn clothing fabric. Small chamber experiments were used to determine ozone deposition velocities, ozone reaction probabilities, byproduct emission rates, and byproduct yields for each surface category. The most commonly detected byproducts included C1?C10 saturated aldehydes and skin oil oxidation products. For all materials, emission rates were higher with ozone than without. Experimental results were used to predict byproduct exposure in the cabin and compare to other environments. Byproduct levels are predicted to be similar to ozone levels in the cabin, which have been found to be tens to low hundreds of ppb in the absence of an ozone converter. In Chapter 4, a model is presented that predicts ozone uptake by and byproduct emission from residual chemicals on surfaces. The effects of input parameters (residue surface concentration, ozone concentration, reactivity of the residue and the surface, near-surface airflow conditions, and byproduct yield) were explored. In Chapter 5, the reaction of ozone with permethrin, a residual insecticide used in aircraft cabins, to form phosgene is investigated. A derivatization technique was developed to detect phosgene at low levels, and chamber experiments were conducted with permethrin-coated cabin materials. It was determined that phosgene formation, if it occurs in the aircraft cabin, is not likely to exceed the relevant, health-based phosgene exposure guidelines.

Coleman, Beverly Kaye

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Ozone generation by rock fracture: Earthquake early warning?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report the production of up to 10 ppm ozone during crushing and grinding of typical terrestrial crust rocks in air, O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} at atmospheric pressure, but not in helium or nitrogen. Ozone is formed by exoelectrons emitted by high electric fields, resulting from charge separation during fracture. The results suggest that ground level ozone produced by rock fracture, besides its potential health hazard, can be used for early warning in earthquakes and other catastrophes, such as landslides or land shifts in excavation tunnels and underground mines.

Baragiola, Raul A.; Dukes, Catherine A.; Hedges, Dawn [Engineering Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States)

2011-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

237

A Study on the Planetary Wave Transport of Ozone during the Late February 1979 Stratospheric Warming Using the SAGE Ozone Observation and Meteorological Information  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ozone data from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) have been used in conjunction with meteorological information to study the ozone transport near 55N due to planetary waves during the late February 1979 stratospheric warming. ...

Pi-Huan Wang; M. P. McCormick; W. P. Chu

1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Lithium depletion and the rotational history of exoplanet host stars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Israelian et al. (2004) reported that exoplanet host stars are lithium depleted compared to solar-type stars without detected massive planets, a result recently confirmed by Gonzalez (2008). We investigate whether enhanced lithium depletion in exoplanet host stars may result from their rotational history. We have developed rotational evolution models for slow and fast solar-type rotators from the pre-main sequence (PMS) to the age of the Sun and compare them to the distribution of rotational periods observed for solar-type stars between 1 Myr and 5 Gyr. We show that slow rotators develop a high degree of differential rotation between the radiative core and the convective envelope, while fast rotators evolve with little core-envelope decoupling. We suggest that strong differential rotation at the base of the convective envelope is responsible for enhanced lithium depletion in slow rotators. We conclude that lithium-depleted exoplanet host stars were slow rotators on the zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) and argue that slow rotation results from a long lasting star-disk interaction during the PMS. Altogether, this suggests that long-lived disks (> 5 Myr) may be a necessary condition for massive planet formation/migration.

Jerome Bouvier

2008-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

239

The depleted hydrogen atoms in chemical graph theory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new algorithm which explicitly describes the depleted hydrogen atoms is proposed for chemical graph computations, and especially for molecular connectivity model studies. The new algorithm continues to be centred on the concepts of complete graphs ... Keywords: General chemical graphs, complete graphs, hydrogen perturbation, molecular connectivity computations

Lionello Pogliani

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Sensitivity of Surface Ozone Simulation to Cumulus Parameterization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Different cumulus schemes cause significant discrepancies in simulated precipitation, cloud cover, and temperature, which in turn lead to remarkable differences in simulated biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions and surface ozone ...

Zhining Tao; Allen Williams; Ho-Chun Huang; Michael Caughey; Xin-Zhong Liang

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "global ozone depletion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Isentropic Cross-Tropopause Ozone Transport in the Northern Hemisphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper investigates isentropic ozone exchange between the extratropical lower stratosphere and the subtropical upper troposphere in the Northern Hemisphere. The quantification method is based on the potential vorticity (PV) mapping of ...

P. Jing; D. M. Cunnold; H. J. Wang; E-S. Yang

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Indoor Surface Chemistry: Ozone Reaction with Nicotine Sorbed...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Indoor Surface Chemistry: Ozone Reaction with Nicotine Sorbed to Model Materials Speaker(s): Hugo Destaillats Date: May 19, 2005 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 During this seminar,...

243

Mesoscale Meteorology and High Ozone in the Northeast United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study examines the relationship between mesoscale meteorological conditions and high-ozone days in the northeastern United States. It is proposed that the leeside trough and the sea-breeze front are two mesoscale features that can be ...

Robert S. Gaza

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

The Ozone Dilemma: a reference handbook (Contemporary World Issues Series)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dilemma: a reference handbook By David E. Newton Reviewed byDilemma: a reference handbook (Contemporary World IssuesThe Ozone Dilemma: a reference handbook is targeted at both

Li, Haipeng

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

An Intercomparison of Ground-Based Total Ozone Instruments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Five ground-based total ozone spectrophotometers were intercompared at Wallops Island, Virginia between October 1979 and January 1981. The tests were conducted to evaluate the stability and accuracy of each instrument over an extended time ...

C. L. Parsons; J. C. Gerlach; M. E. Williams

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Ozone-initiated chemistry in an occupied simulated aircraft cabin  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

nonanal, decanal, 4-oxopentanal (4-OPA), 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (6-MHO), formic acid and acetic acid, with 0.25 to 0.30 moles of quantified product volatilized per mole of ozone...

247

Biofouling Control With Ozone at the Bergen Generating Station  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tests were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of ozone as an alternative to chlorine for condenser biofouling control in a once-through cooling system. A pilot-scale test facility with three model condensors simulated condenser operation and conditions at the Bergen station. Both ozone and chlorine were tested. The minimum effective level of each was determined by daily measurements of heat transfer coefficients across model condenser tubes and/or water-side pressure drop. Final evaluation was based...

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Probabilistic aspects of meteorological and ozone regional ensemble forecasts  

SciTech Connect

This study investigates whether probabilistic ozone forecasts from an ensemble can be made with skill; i.e., high verification resolution and reliability. Twenty-eight ozone forecasts were generated over the Lower Fraser Valley, British Columbia, Canada, for the 5-day period 11-15 August 2004, and compared with 1-hour averaged measurements of ozone concentrations at five stations. The forecasts were obtained by driving the CMAQ model with four meteorological forecasts and seven emission scenarios: a control run, {+-} 50% NO{sub x}, {+-} 50% VOC, and {+-} 50% NO{sub x} combined with VOC. Probabilistic forecast quality is verified using relative operating characteristic curves, Talagrand diagrams, and a new reliability index. Results show that both meteorology and emission perturbations are needed to have a skillful probabilistic forecast system--the meteorology perturbation is important to capture the ozone temporal and spatial distribution, and the emission perturbation is needed to span the range of ozone-concentration magnitudes. Emission perturbations are more important than meteorology perturbations for capturing the likelihood of high ozone concentrations. Perturbations involving NO{sub x} resulted in a more skillful probabilistic forecast for the episode analyzed, and therefore the 50% perturbation values appears to span much of the emission uncertainty for this case. All of the ensembles analyzed show a high ozone concentration bias in the Talagrand diagrams, even when the biases from the unperturbed emissions forecasts are removed from all ensemble members. This result indicates nonlinearity in the ensemble, which arises from both ozone chemistry and its interaction with input from particular meteorological models.

Monache, L D; Hacker, J; Zhou, Y; Deng, X; Stull, R

2006-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

249

Interannual Variability of the Antarctic Ozone Hole in a GCM. Part I: The Influence of Tropospheric Wave Variability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To study the interannual variability of the Antarctic ozone hole, a physically realistic parameterization of the chemistry responsible for severe polar ozone loss has been included in the GISS GCM. The ensuing ozone hole agrees well with ...

Drew T. Shindell; Sun Wong; David Rind

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

CRDIAC: Coupled Reactor Depletion Instrument with Automated Control  

SciTech Connect

When modeling the behavior of a nuclear reactor over time, it is important to understand how the isotopes in the reactor will change, or transmute, over that time. This is especially important in the reactor fuel itself. Many nuclear physics modeling codes model how particles interact in the system, but do not model this over time. Thus, another code is used in conjunction with the nuclear physics code to accomplish this. In our code, Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) codes and the Multi Reactor Transmutation Analysis Utility (MRTAU) were chosen as the codes to use. In this way, MCNP would produce the reaction rates in the different isotopes present and MRTAU would use cross sections generated from these reaction rates to determine how the mass of each isotope is lost or gained. Between these two codes, the information must be altered and edited for use. For this, a Python 2.7 script was developed to aid the user in getting the information in the correct forms. This newly developed methodology was called the Coupled Reactor Depletion Instrument with Automated Controls (CRDIAC). As is the case in any newly developed methodology for modeling of physical phenomena, CRDIAC needed to be verified against similar methodology and validated against data taken from an experiment, in our case AFIP-3. AFIP-3 was a reduced enrichment plate type fuel tested in the ATR. We verified our methodology against the MCNP Coupled with ORIGEN2 (MCWO) method and validated our work against the Post Irradiation Examination (PIE) data. When compared to MCWO, the difference in concentration of U-235 throughout Cycle 144A was about 1%. When compared to the PIE data, the average bias for end of life U-235 concentration was about 2%. These results from CRDIAC therefore agree with the MCWO and PIE data, validating and verifying CRDIAC. CRDIAC provides an alternative to using ORIGEN-based methodology, which is useful because CRDIAC's depletion code, MRTAU, uses every available isotope in its depletion, unlike ORIGEN, which only depletes the isotopes specified by the user. This means that depletions done by MRTAU more accurately reflect reality. MRTAU also allows the user to build new isotope data sets, which means any isotope with nuclear data could be depleted, something that would help predict the outcomes of nuclear reaction testing in materials other than fuel, like beryllium or gold.

Steven K. Logan

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Cosmic global strings  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the following topics: Global Strings; The Gravitational field of a straight global string; How do global strings behave The axion cosmological energy density; Computer simulations of the motion and decay of global strings; and Electromagnetic radiation from the conversion of Nambu-Goldstone bosons in astrophysical magnetic fields.

Sikivie, P. (Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (USA). Dept. of Physics)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Shock induced multi-mode damage in depleted uranium  

SciTech Connect

Recent dynamic damage studies on depleted uranium samples have revealed mixed mode failure mechanisms leading to incipient cracking as well as ductile failure processes. Results show that delamination of inclusions upon compression may provide nucleation sites for damage initiation in the form of crack tip production. However, under tension the material propagates cracks in a mixed shear localization and mode-I ductile tearing and cracking. Cracks tips appear to link up through regions of severe, shear dominated plastic flow. Shock recovery experiments were conducted on a 50 mm single stage light gas gun. Serial metallographic sectioning was conducted on the recovered samples to characterize the bulk response of the sample. Experiments show delaminated inclusions due to uniaxial compression without damage propagation. Further results show the propagation of the damage through tensile loading to the incipient state, illustrating ductile processes coupled with mixed mode-I tensile ductile tearing, shear localization, and mode-I cracking in depleted uranium.

Koller, Darcie D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cerreta, Ellen K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gray, Ill, George T [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Cermet Waste Packages Using Depleted Uranium Dioxide and Steel  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CERMET WASTE PACKAGES USING DEPLETED URANIUM DIOXIDE AND STEEL CERMET WASTE PACKAGES USING DEPLETED URANIUM DIOXIDE AND STEEL Charles W. Forsberg Oak Ridge National Laboratory * P.O. Box 2008 Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6180 Tel: (865) 574-6783 Fax: (865) 574-9512 Email: forsbergcw@ornl.gov Manuscript Number: 078 File Name: DuCermet.HLWcon01.article.final Article Prepared for 2001 International High-Level Radioactive Waste Management Conference American Nuclear Society Las Vegas, Nevada April 29-May 3, 2001 Limits: 1500 words; 3 figures Actual: 1450 words; 3 figures Session: 3.6 Disposal Container Materials and Designs The submitted manuscript has been authored by a contractor of the U.S. Government under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725. Accordingly, the U.S. Government retains a nonexclusive, royalty-free license to publish or reproduce the published form of this contribution,

254

depleted underground oil shale for the permanent storage of carbon  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

depleted underground oil shale for the permanent storage of carbon depleted underground oil shale for the permanent storage of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) generated during the oil shale extraction process. AMSO, which holds a research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) lease from the U.S. Bureau of Land Management for a 160-acre parcel of Federal land in northwest Colorado's oil-shale rich Piceance Basin, will provide technical assistance and oil shale core samples. If AMSO can demonstrate an economically viable and environmentally acceptable extraction process, it retains the right to acquire a 5,120-acre commercial lease. When subject to high temperatures and high pressures, oil shale (a sedimentary rock that is rich in hydrocarbons) can be converted into oil. Through mineralization, the CO 2 could be stored in the shale

255

Uranio impoverito: perch'e? (Depleted uranium: why?)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we develop a simple model of the penetration process of a long rod through an uniform target. Applying the momentum and energy conservation laws, we derive an analytical relation which shows how the penetration depth depends upon the density of the rod, given a fixed kinetic energy. This work was sparked off by the necessity of the author of understanding the reasons of the effectiveness of high density penetrators (e.g. depleted uranium penetrators) as anti-tank weapons.

D'Abramo, G

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Depletion-induced structure and dynamics in bimodal colloidal suspensions.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Combined small angle x-ray scattering and x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy studies of moderately concentrated bimodal hard-sphere colloidal suspensions in the fluid phase show that depletion-induced demixing introduces spatially heterogeneous dynamics with two distinct time scales. The adhesive nature, as well as the mobility, of the large particles is determined by the level of interaction within the monomodal domains. This interaction is driven by osmotic forces, which are governed by the relative concentration of the constituents.

Sikorski, M.; Sandy, A. R.; Narayanan, S. (X-Ray Science Division)

2011-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

257

ADVANCED OXIDATION: OXALATE DECOMPOSITION TESTING WITH OZONE  

SciTech Connect

At the Savannah River Site (SRS), oxalic acid is currently considered the preferred agent for chemically cleaning the large underground Liquid Radioactive Waste Tanks. It is applied only in the final stages of emptying a tank when generally less than 5,000 kg of waste solids remain, and slurrying based removal methods are no-longer effective. The use of oxalic acid is preferred because of its combined dissolution and chelating properties, as well as the fact that corrosion to the carbon steel tank walls can be controlled. Although oxalic acid is the preferred agent, there are significant potential downstream impacts. Impacts include: (1) Degraded evaporator operation; (2) Resultant oxalate precipitates taking away critically needed operating volume; and (3) Eventual creation of significant volumes of additional feed to salt processing. As an alternative to dealing with the downstream impacts, oxalate decomposition using variations of ozone based Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) were investigated. In general AOPs use ozone or peroxide and a catalyst to create hydroxyl radicals. Hydroxyl radicals have among the highest oxidation potentials, and are commonly used to decompose organics. Although oxalate is considered among the most difficult organic to decompose, the ability of hydroxyl radicals to decompose oxalate is considered to be well demonstrated. In addition, as AOPs are considered to be 'green' their use enables any net chemical additions to the waste to be minimized. In order to test the ability to decompose the oxalate and determine the decomposition rates, a test rig was designed, where 10 vol% ozone would be educted into a spent oxalic acid decomposition loop, with the loop maintained at 70 C and recirculated at 40L/min. Each of the spent oxalic acid streams would be created from three oxalic acid strikes of an F-area simulant (i.e., Purex = high Fe/Al concentration) and H-area simulant (i.e., H area modified Purex = high Al/Fe concentration) after nearing dissolution equilibrium, and then decomposed to {le} 100 Parts per Million (ppm) oxalate. Since AOP technology largely originated on using ultraviolet (UV) light as a primary catalyst, decomposition of the spent oxalic acid, well exposed to a medium pressure mercury vapor light was considered the benchmark. However, with multi-valent metals already contained in the feed, and maintenance of the UV light a concern; testing was conducted to evaluate the impact from removing the UV light. Using current AOP terminology, the test without the UV light would likely be considered an ozone based, dark, ferrioxalate type, decomposition process. Specifically, as part of the testing, the impacts from the following were investigated: (1) Importance of the UV light on the decomposition rates when decomposing 1 wt% spent oxalic acid; (2) Impact of increasing the oxalic acid strength from 1 to 2.5 wt% on the decomposition rates; and (3) For F-area testing, the advantage of increasing the spent oxalic acid flowrate from 40 L/min (liters/minute) to 50 L/min during decomposition of the 2.5 wt% spent oxalic acid. The results showed that removal of the UV light (from 1 wt% testing) slowed the decomposition rates in both the F & H testing. Specifically, for F-Area Strike 1, the time increased from about 6 hours to 8 hours. In H-Area, the impact was not as significant, with the time required for Strike 1 to be decomposed to less than 100 ppm increasing slightly, from 5.4 to 6.4 hours. For the spent 2.5 wt% oxalic acid decomposition tests (all) without the UV light, the F-area decompositions required approx. 10 to 13 hours, while the corresponding required H-Area decompositions times ranged from 10 to 21 hours. For the 2.5 wt% F-Area sludge, the increased availability of iron likely caused the increased decomposition rates compared to the 1 wt% oxalic acid based tests. In addition, for the F-testing, increasing the recirculation flow rates from 40 liter/minute to 50 liter/minute resulted in an increased decomposition rate, suggesting a better use of ozone.

Ketusky, E.; Subramanian, K.

2012-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

258

Accounting for Depletion of Oil and Gas Resources in Malaysia  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Since oil and gas are non-renewable resources, it is important to identify the extent to which they have been depleted. Such information will contribute to the formulation and evaluation of appropriate sustainable development policies. This paper provides an assessment of the changes in the availability of oil and gas resources in Malaysia by first compiling the physical balance sheet for the period 2000-2007, and then assessing the monetary balance sheets for the said resource by using the Net Present Value method. Our findings show serious reduction in the value of oil reserves from 2001 to 2005, due to changes in crude oil prices, and thereafter the depletion rates decreased. In the context of sustainable development planning, albeit in the weak sustainability sense, it will be important to ascertain if sufficient reinvestments of the estimated resource rents in related or alternative capitals are being attempted by Malaysia. For the study period, the cumulative resource rents were to the tune of RM61 billion. Through a depletion or resource rents policy, the estimated quantum may guide the identification of a reinvestment threshold (after considering needed capital investment for future development of the industry) in light of ensuring the future productive capacity of the economy at the time when the resource is exhausted.

Othman, Jamal, E-mail: jortman@ukm.my; Jafari, Yaghoob, E-mail: yaghoob.jafari@gmail.com [Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Faculty of Economics and Management (Malaysia)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

259

CO depletion --- An evolutionary tracer for molecular clouds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Planck cold clumps are among the most promising objects to investigate the initial conditions of the evolution of molecular clouds. In this work, by combing the dust emission data from the survey of Planck satellite with the molecular data of $^{12}$CO/$^{13}$CO (1-0) lines from observations with the Purple Mountain Observatory (PMO) 14 m telescope, we investigate the CO abundance, CO depletion and CO-to-H$_{2}$ conversion factor of 674 clumps in the early cold cores (ECC) sample. The median and mean values of the CO abundance are 6.2$\\times10^{-5}$ and 9.1$\\times10^{-5}$, respectively. The mean and median of CO depletion factor are 2.8 and 1.4, respectively. The median value of $X_{CO-to-H_{2}}$ for the whole sample is $3.3\\times10^{20}$ cm$^{-2}$K$^{-1}$km$^{-1}$ s. The CO abundance, CO depletion factor and CO-to-H$_{2}$ conversion factor seems to be strongly correlated to other physical parameters (e.g. dust temperature, dust emissivity spectra index and column density). CO gas severely freeze out in colde...

Liu, Tie; Zhang, Huawei

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

FAQ 16-How much depleted uranium hexafluoride is stored in the United  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

How much depleted uranium hexafluoride is stored in the United States? How much depleted uranium hexafluoride is stored in the United States? How much depleted uranium hexafluoride is stored in the United States? U.S. DOE's inventory of depleted UF6 consists of approximately 700,000 metric tons of depleted UF6, containing about 470,000 metric tons of uranium, currently stored at the Paducah Site in Kentucky, the Portsmouth Site in Ohio, and the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) in Tennessee (formerly known as the K-25 Site). This inventory of depleted UF6 is stored in about 57,000 steel cylinders. The inventory is listed in the table below. DOE Inventory of Depleted UF6 Location Total Cylinders Total Depleted UF6 (metric tons) Paducah, Kentucky 36,191 436,400 Portsmouth, Ohio 16,109 195,800 Oak Ridge, Tennessee 4,822 54,300

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "global ozone depletion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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261

FAQ 35-What are the potential health risks from disposal of depleted...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

health risks from disposal of depleted uranium as an oxide? Once depleted uranium has been converted from UF6 to the oxide form, the risk associated with handling at a disposal...

262

FAQ 33-What are the potential health risks from storage of depleted...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

health risks from storage of depleted uranium as an oxide? Once depleted uranium has been converted from UF6 to the oxide form, the risk associated with storage and handling is...

263

Impact of Surfaces on Ozone-Terpene Conversion Rates in Buildings  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Impact of Surfaces on Ozone-Terpene Conversion Rates in Buildings Speaker(s): Glenn Morrison Date: March 5, 2007 - 4:00pm Location: 90-3122 Indoor surface reactions of ozone with...

264

Transport, Radiative, and Dynamical Effects of the Antarctic Ozone Hole: A GFDL SKYHI Model Experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The GFDL SKYHI general circulation model has been used to simulate the effect of the Antarctic ozone hole phenomenon on the radiative and dynamical environment of the lower stratosphere. Both the polar ozone destruction and photochemical ...

J. D. Mahlman; L. J. Umscheid; J. P. Pinto

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Climate Change and the Middle Atmosphere. Part IV: Ozone Response to Doubled CO2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Parameterized stratospheric ozone photochemistry has been included in the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) GCM to investigate the coupling between chemistry and climate change for the doubled CO2 climate. The chemical ozone response is ...

Drew T. Shindell; David Rind; Patrick Lonergan

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

On the Role of Ozone in the Stability of Rossby Normal Modes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The role of ozone in the linear stability of Rossby normal modes is examined in a continuously stratified, extratropical baroclinic atmosphere. The flow is described by coupled equations for the quasi-geostrophic potential vorticity and ozone ...

Terrence R. Nathan

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

A Process-Analysis Based Study of the Ozone Weekend Effect  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A Process-Analysis Based Study of the Ozone Weekend Effect Title A Process-Analysis Based Study of the Ozone Weekend Effect Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication...

268

Predicting Total Ozone Based on GTS Data: Applications for South American High-Latitude Populations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A regular occurrence during the 1990s has been the excursion of the edge of the springtime Antarctic ozone hole over the southernmost region of the South American continent. Given the essential role of atmospheric ozone in absorbing incoming ...

Anna E. Jones; Tanya Bowden; John Turner

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Stratospheric Temperature and Radiative Forcing Response to 11-Year Solar Cycle Changes in Irradiance and Ozone  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The 11-yr solar cycle temperature response to spectrally resolved solar irradiance changes and associated ozone changes is calculated using a fixed dynamical heating (FDH) model. Imposed ozone changes are from satellite observations, in contrast ...

L. J. Gray; S. T. Rumbold; K. P. Shine

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Tobacco smoke aging in the presence of ozone: a room-sized chamber...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tobacco smoke aging in the presence of ozone: a room-sized chamber study Title Tobacco smoke aging in the presence of ozone: a room-sized chamber study Publication Type Journal...

271

Comparison of three vertically resolved ozone data sets: climatology, trends and radiative forcings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Climate models that do not simulate changes in stratospheric ozone concentrations require the prescription of ozone fields to accurately calculate UV fluxes and stratospheric heating rates. In this study, three different ...

Hassler, B.

272

Association of the Laminated Vertical Ozone Structure with the Lower-Stratospheric Circulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study the examination of the role of the atmospheric circulation in the lower stratosphere in relation to the laminated structure of ozone in the subtropical atmosphere is attempted. This analysis is based on the vertical ozone profile ...

C. Varotsos; P. Kalabokas; G. Chronopoulos

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Total Ozone Variations 1970-74 Using Backscattered Ultraviolet (BUV) and Ground-Based Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The most long-lived satellite set of ozone observations, to date, is that derived from the Backscatter Ultraviolet (BUV) ozone sensor on Nimbus 4 and extends from April 1970 through 1976. Unfortunately, this experiment suffered spacecraft power ...

A. J. Miller; R. M. Nagatani; T. G. Rogers; A. J. Fleig; D. F. Heath

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Wintertime Ozone Fluxes and Profiles above a Subalpine SpruceFir Forest  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High rural concentrations of ozone (O3) are thought to be stratospheric in origin, advected from upwind urban sources, or photochemically generated locally by natural trace gas emissions. Ozone is known to be transported vertically downward from ...

Karl Zeller

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

The Role of Vertical Mixing in the Temporal Evolution of Ground-Level Ozone Concentrations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aircraft measurements taken during the North American Research Strategy for Tropospheric Ozone-Northeast field study reveal the presence of ozone concentration levels in excess of 80 ppb on a regional scale in the nocturnal residual layer during ...

Jian Zhang; S. Trivikrama Rao

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

IMPROVING ANTARCTIC TOTAL OZONE PROJECTIONS BY A PROCESS-ORIENTED MULTIPLE DIAGNOSTIC ENSEMBLE REGRESSION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accurate projections of stratospheric ozone are required, because ozone changes impact on exposures to ultraviolet radiation and on tropospheric climate. Unweighted multi-model ensemble mean (uMMM) projections from chemistry-climate models (CCMs) ...

Alexey Yu. Karpechko; Douglas Maraun; Veronika Eyring

277

Interannual Variations of Total Ozone at Northern Midlatitudes Correlated with Stratospheric EP Flux and Potential Vorticity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

At northern midlatitudes over the 19792002 time period, column ozone trends are observed to have maximum negative amplitudes in February and March. Here, the portion of the observed ozone interannual variability and trends during these months ...

L. L. Hood; B. E. Soukharev

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Ozone reduces crop yields and alters competition with weeds such as yellow nutsedge  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DT (eds. ). Assessment of Crop Loss from Air Pollutants:Ambient ozone and adverse crop re- sponse: An evaluation ofthe effects of ozone on crops and trees. In: Lefohn AS (

Grantz, David A.; Shrestha, Anil

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Longitude-Dependent Decadal Changes of Total Ozone in Boreal Winter Months during 197992  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A statistical analysis shows that the decadal change of zonally asymmetric total ozone (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer data) has a distinct spatial similarity with the decadal change of the 300-hPa geopotential patterns during DecemberFebruary ...

Dieter Peters; Gnter Entzian

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Depletion Reactivity Benchmark for the International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI-) sponsored depletion reactivity benchmarks documented in reports 1022909, Benchmarks for Quantifying Fuel Reactivity Depletion Uncertainty, and 1025203, Utilization of the EPRI Depletion Benchmarks for Burnup Credit Validation, have been translated to an evaluated benchmark for incorporation in the International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments (IRPhE), published by the Organisation for Economic ...

2013-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "global ozone depletion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

The Use of Ozone as an Antimicrobial Agent: Agricultural and Food Processing Technical Assessment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ozone treatment, a highly effective disinfectant long used in Europe, deactivates even the most stubborn organisms. Food processors can use ozone to disinfect raw fruits and vegetables during processing or to disinfect water used for washing foods and food plant equipment. Food researchers and regulators have confirmed ozone as safe. In 1997, EPRI convened an expert panel that submitted a Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) affirmation of ozone in food applications to the U.S. Food and Drug Administratio...

2001-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

282

Demonstration of an Ozone System at a Hospital Laundry Facility: Long Beach Medical Center  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In its role as a powerful oxidant and biocide, ozone works in the context of laundry facilities to boost the cleaning activity of the various chemicals and chemical compounds. To be used in laundry operations, ozone must be introduced into the wash water via one of the ozone laundry systems available on the market today. This report highlights and quantifies the benefits of an ozone laundry system at the 134-bed Long Beach Medical Center (LBMC) in Long Beach, New York.

2007-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

283

Development of an ozone climatology for Harris County, Texas  

SciTech Connect

The Houston Regional Monitoring Corporation (HRM) has performed continuous ambient air quality and meteorological monitoring in the Ship Channel area of east Harris County since August 1981. The HRM monitoring network is one of the largest Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) approved Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) monitoring network in the United States operated by an industrial group. As an adjunct to its monitoring. HRM has funded extensive meteorological and statistical analyses of ozone monitoring data in Harris County. One of the goals of these studies was to determine those meteorological conditions responsible for the formation of elevated ozone concentrations in Harris County. The analyses performed included the use of principal component analysis and cluster analysis. These analysis techniques have individually been applied to ozone and air quality research problems. The combined use of these techniques in this analysis, however, is a unique application of these statistical tools to an ozone air quality analysis. As a result of these analyses, a climatology of those episodes conducive to elevated ozone formation in Harris County was developed.

Balentine, H.W.; Carter, J.C. (Radian Corp., Austin, TX (USA)); Preston, J. (Tenneco Polymers, Houston, TX (US))

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Operations Evaluation Report -- Pressurized Ozonation System, North Mississippi Medical Center Laundry Operations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes ozone and its benefits in healthcare laundry operations. In particular, case studies of two ozone applications -- one in a 650-bed regional medical center and another in a 131-bed skilled nursing and rehabilitation facility -- highlight and quantify ozone's benefits.

2005-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

285

Selection of a management strategy for depleted uranium hexafluoride  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A consequence of the uranium enrichment process used in the United States (US) is the accumulation of a significant amount of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}). Currently, approximately 560,000 metric tons of the material are stored at three different sites. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has recently initiated a program to consider alternative strategies for the cost-effective and environmentally safe long-term management of this inventory of depleted UF{sub 6}. The program involves a technology and engineering assessment of proposed management options (use/reuse, conversion, storage, or disposal) and an analysis of the potential environmental impacts and life-cycle costs of alternative management strategies. The information obtained from the studies will be used by the DOE to select a preferred long-term management strategy. The selection and implementation of a management strategy will involve consideration of a number of important issues such as environmental, health, and safety effects; the balancing of risks versus costs in a context of reduced government spending; socioeconomic implications, including effects on the domestic and international uranium industry; the technical status of proposed uses or technologies; and public involvement in the decision making process. Because of its provisions for considering a wide range of relevant issues and involving the public, this program has become a model for future DOE materials disposition programs. This paper presents an overview of the Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program. Technical findings of the program to date are presented, and major issues involved in selecting and implementing a management strategy are discussed.

Patton, S.E.; Hanrahan, E.J.; Bradley, C.E.

1995-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

286

Engineering Analysis for Disposal of Depleted Uranium Tetrafluoride (UF4)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

6 6 Engineering Analysis for Disposal of Depleted Uranium Tetrafluoride (UF 4 ) Environmental Assessment Division Argonne National Laboratory Operated by The University of Chicago, under Contract W-31-109-Eng-38, for the United States Department of Energy Argonne National Laboratory Argonne National Laboratory, with facilities in the states of Illinois and Idaho, is owned by the United States Government and operated by The University of Chicago under the provisions of a contract with the Department of Energy. This technical memorandum is a product of Argonne's Environmental Assessment Division (EAD). For information on the division's scientific and engineering activities, contact: Director, Environmental Assessment Division Argonne National Laboratory Argonne, Illinois 60439-4832

287

Depleted uranium storage and disposal trade study: Summary report  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this study were to: identify the most desirable forms for conversion of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6) for extended storage, identify the most desirable forms for conversion of DUF6 for disposal, evaluate the comparative costs for extended storage or disposal of the various forms, review benefits of the proposed plasma conversion process, estimate simplified life-cycle costs (LCCs) for five scenarios that entail either disposal or beneficial reuse, and determine whether an overall optimal form for conversion of DUF6 can be selected given current uncertainty about the endpoints (specific disposal site/technology or reuse options).

Hightower, J.R.; Trabalka, J.R.

2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Background Fact Sheet Transfer of Depleted Uranium and Subsequent Transactions  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Background Fact Sheet Background Fact Sheet Transfer of Depleted Uranium and Subsequent Transactions At the direction of Energy Secretary Steven Chu, over many months, the Energy Department (DOE) has been working closely with Energy Northwest (ENW), the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), and USEC Inc. (USEC) to develop a plan to address the challenges at USEC's Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (GDP) that advances America's national security interests, protects taxpayers, and provides benefits for TVA and the Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA's) electric ratepayers and business operations. BPA is ENW's sole customer, purchasing 100 percent of ENW's Columbia Generating Station's electric power as part of BPA's overall

289

Review: Globalization of Water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Review: Globalization of Water: Sharing the PlanetsAshok K. Globalization of Water: Sharing the Planets140) liters of virtual water (p. 15). This is one of the

Tennant, Matthew Aaron

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Secondary pollutants from ozone reactions with ventilation filters and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Secondary pollutants from ozone reactions with ventilation filters and Secondary pollutants from ozone reactions with ventilation filters and degradation of filter media additives Title Secondary pollutants from ozone reactions with ventilation filters and degradation of filter media additives Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2011 Authors Destaillats, Hugo, Wenhao Chen, Michael G. Apte, Nuan Li, Michael Spears, Jérémie Almosni, Gregory Brunner, Jianshun(Jensen) Zhang, and William J. Fisk Journal Atmospheric Environment Volume 45 Start Page 3561 Issue 21 Pagination 3561-3568 Keywords commercial building ventilation & indoor environmental quality group, commercial building ventilation and indoor environmental quality group, energy analysis and environmental impacts department, indoor environment department, indoor environment group

291

Global Energy Perspectives  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Global Energy Perspectives: Supply Security, Economic Development and Sustainability The Annual Energy Policy Conference of the National Capital Area ...

292

Global Security 2009  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Security *Intelligence *Hyper Innovation Global Security Weapons & Complex Integration NIF Office of Strategic Outcomes Operations & Business Lawrence Livermore National...

293

Investigation of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde sampling rate and ozone  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Investigation of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde sampling rate and ozone Investigation of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde sampling rate and ozone interference for passive deployment of Waters Sep-Pak XPoSure samplers Title Investigation of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde sampling rate and ozone interference for passive deployment of Waters Sep-Pak XPoSure samplers Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2013 Authors Mullen, Nasim A., Marion L. Russell, Melissa M. Lunden, and Brett C. Singer Journal Atmospheric Environment Volume 80 Pagination 184-189 Date Published 12/2013 Keywords aldehyde; exposure; indoor air quality; passive sampler; residential Abstract This study investigated formaldehyde and acetaldehyde passive sampling rates and ozone interference for the DNPH-based Waters Sep-Pak XPoSure sampler. Previous studies have shown that ozone interferes with active sampling by this cartridge. Our study included one laboratory and six field experiments conducted in Northern California homes. Passive sampling rates of 1.10 ± 0.09 and 0.86 ± 0.10 mL/min determined for formaldehyde and acetaldehyde are lower than previously reported. In a controlled laboratory experiment there were small, statistically insignificant impacts of subsequent ozone exposure on formaldehyde and acetaldehyde mass passively collected on the samplers. This sampler is inexpensive, easy to deploy and to transport by mail, and has a high sampling capacity when used passively; it is suitable for a wide-range of monitoring applications. However, the passive sampling rate remains in question given the internally consistent, but different results obtained in our study and the previous study.

294

How does the hole in the ozone layer affect global warming? - FAQ ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Other FAQs about Environment. Does EIA have projections for energy production, consumption, and prices for individual states? Does EIA report water vapor emissions data?

295

Record of Decision for Long-term Management and Use of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Record of Decision for Long-Term Management and Use of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride AGENCY: Department of Energy ACTION: Record of Decision SUMMARY: The Department of Energy ("DOE" or "the Department") issued the Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Alternative Strategies for the Long-Term Management and Use of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (Final PEIS) on April 23, 1999. DOE has considered the environmental impacts, benefits, costs, and institutional and programmatic needs associated with the management and use of its approximately 700,000 metric tons of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF 6 ). DOE has decided to promptly convert the depleted UF 6 inventory to depleted uranium oxide, depleted uranium metal, or a combination of both. The depleted uranium oxide will be

296

Analysis, anaerobic treatment and ozonation of wool scouring wastewater  

SciTech Connect

Wool scouring effluents (WSE) were analyzed by high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HRGC-MS), and then exposed to anaerobic biological treatment using laboratory scale fixed-bed filters. This resulted in a nearly 50% reduction in chemical oxygen demand (COD). Ozonation of the effluent from the biological step led to an even further decrease in total organic carbon (TOC). The fatty acid content of the WSE was affected by both biological treatment and ozonation. Finally, steroids in the WSE underwent reduction reactions when exposed to the anaerobic biological treatment.

Monteverdi, A.; Rindone, B.; Sorlini, C. (Univ. di Milano (Italy)); Andreoni, V. (Univ. di Torino (Italy)); Rozzi, A. (Inst. di Ingegneria Sanitaria del Politechnico di Milano (Italy))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Scale-up and Demonstration of Fly Ash Ozonation Technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project is the first large pilot scale test of a new process to passivate the carbon in ash so that it can be used in concrete without physically removing the carbon from the ash. The tests were conducted at PPL's Montour SES, sponsored by DOE and supported by EPRI. Near full-scale industrial equipment was used to expose fly ash, carbon mixtures to ozone to see if ozone would passivate the surface of carbon so that it would not react with air entraining agents that are used by concrete manufacturers...

2005-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

298

Attainable Burnup in a LIFE Engine Loaded with Depleted Uranium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Laser Inertial Fusion-based Energy (LIFE) system uses a laser-based fusion source for electricity production. The (D,T) reaction, beside a pure fusion system, allows the option to drive a sub-critical fission blanket in order to increase the total energy gain. In a typical fusion-fission LIFE engine the fission blanket is a spherical shell around the fusion source, preceded by a beryllium shell for neutron multiplications by means of (n,2n) reactions. The fuel is in the form of TRISO particles dispersed in carbon pebbles, cooled by flibe. The optimal design features 80 cm thick blanket, 16 cm multiplier, and 20% TRISO packing factor. A blanket loaded with depleted uranium and depleted in a single batch with continuous mixing can achieve burnup as high as {approx}85% FIMA while generating 2,000 MW of total thermal power and producing enough tritium to be used for fusion. A multi-segment blanket with a central promotion shuffling scheme enhances burnup to {approx}90% FIMA, whereas a blanket that is operated with continuous refueling achieves only 82% FIMA under the same constraints of thermal power and tritium self-sufficiency. Both, multi-segment and continuous refueling eliminate the need for a fissile breeding phase.

Fratoni, M; Kramer, K J; Latkowski, J F

2009-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

299

Calculating Capstone Depleted Uranium Aerosol Concentrations from Beta Activity Measurements  

SciTech Connect

Beta activity measurements were used as surrogate measurements of uranium mass in aerosol samples collected during the field testing phase of the Capstone Depleted Uranium (DU) Aerosol Study. These aerosol samples generated by the perforation of armored combat vehicles were used to characterize the depleted uranium (DU) source term for the subsequent human health risk assessment (HHRA) of Capstone aerosols. Establishing a calibration curve between beta activity measurements and uranium mass measurements is straightforward if the uranium isotopes are in equilibrium with their immediate short-lived, beta-emitting progeny. For DU samples collected during the Capstone study, it was determined that the equilibrium between the uranium isotopes and their immediate short lived, beta-emitting progeny had been disrupted when penetrators had perforated target vehicles. Adjustments were made to account for the disrupted equilibrium and for wall losses in the aerosol samplers. Correction factors for the disrupted equilibrium ranged from 0.16 to 1, and the wall loss correction factors ranged from 1 to 1.92.

Szrom, Fran; Falo, Gerald A.; Parkhurst, MaryAnn; Whicker, Jeffrey J.; Alberth, David P.

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

The scale analysis sequence for LWR fuel depletion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The SCALE (Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation) code system is used extensively to perform away-from-reactor safety analysis (particularly criticality safety, shielding, heat transfer analyses) for spent light water reactor (LWR) fuel. Spent fuel characteristics such as radiation sources, heat generation sources, and isotopic concentrations can be computed within SCALE using the SAS2 control module. A significantly enhanced version of the SAS2 control module, which is denoted as SAS2H, has been made available with the release of SCALE-4. For each time-dependent fuel composition, SAS2H performs one-dimensional (1-D) neutron transport analyses (via XSDRNPM-S) of the reactor fuel assembly using a two-part procedure with two separate unit-cell-lattice models. The cross sections derived from a transport analysis at each time step are used in a point-depletion computation (via ORIGEN-S) that produces the burnup-dependent fuel composition to be used in the next spectral calculation. A final ORIGEN-S case is used to perform the complete depletion/decay analysis using the burnup-dependent cross sections. The techniques used by SAS2H and two recent applications of the code are reviewed in this paper. 17 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

Hermann, O.W.; Parks, C.V.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "global ozone depletion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Numerical study of error propagation in Monte Carlo depletion simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Improving computer technology and the desire to more accurately model the heterogeneity of the nuclear reactor environment have made the use of Monte Carlo depletion codes more attractive in recent years, and feasible (if not practical) even for 3-D depletion simulation. However, in this case statistical uncertainty is combined with error propagating through the calculation from previous steps. In an effort to understand this error propagation, a numerical study was undertaken to model and track individual fuel pins in four 17 x 17 PWR fuel assemblies. By changing the code's initial random number seed, the data produced by a series of 19 replica runs was used to investigate the true and apparent variance in k{sub eff}, pin powers, and number densities of several isotopes. While this study does not intend to develop a predictive model for error propagation, it is hoped that its results can help to identify some common regularities in the behavior of uncertainty in several key parameters. (authors)

Wyant, T.; Petrovic, B. [Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, Georgia Inst. of Technology, 770 State Street, Atlanta, GA 30332-0745 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Sampling Plan for Assaying Plates Containing Depleted or Normal Uranium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes the rationale behind the proposed method for selecting a 'representative' sample of uranium metal plates, portions of which will be destructively assayed at the Y-12 Security Complex. The total inventory of plates is segregated into two populations, one for Material Type 10 (depleted uranium (DU)) and one for Material Type 81 (normal [or natural] uranium (NU)). The plates within each population are further stratified by common dimensions. A spreadsheet gives the collective mass of uranium element (and isotope for DU) and the piece count of all plates within each stratum. These data are summarized in Table 1. All plates are 100% uranium metal, and all but approximately 60% of the NU plates have Kel-F{reg_sign} coating. The book inventory gives an overall U-235 isotopic percentage of 0.22% for the DU plates, ranging from 0.19% to 0.22%. The U-235 ratio of the NU plates is assumed to be 0.71%. As shown in Table 1, the vast majority of the plates are comprised of depleted uranium, so most of the plates will be sampled from the DU population.

Ivan R. Thomas

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Including environmental concerns in management strategies for depleted uranium hexafluoride  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of the major programs within the Office of Nuclear Energy, Science, and Technology of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is the depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF{sub 6}) management program. The program is intended to find a long-term management strategy for the DUF{sub 6} that is currently stored in approximately 46,400 cylinders at Paducah, KY; Portsmouth, OH; and Oak Ridge, TN, USA. The program has four major components: technology assessment, engineering analysis, cost analysis, and the environmental impact statement (EIS). From the beginning of the program, the DOE has incorporated the environmental considerations into the process of strategy selection. Currently, the DOE has no preferred alternative. The results of the environmental impacts assessment from the EIS, as well as the results from the other components of the program, will be factored into the strategy selection process. In addition to the DOE`s current management plan, other alternatives continued storage, reuse, or disposal of depleted uranium, will be considered in the EIS. The EIS is expected to be completed and issued in its final form in the fall of 1997.

Goldberg, M. [Argonne National Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States); Avci, H.I. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Bradley, C.E. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

304

On the Presence of Depleted Zones in Platinum  

SciTech Connect

In the bombardment of materials with heavy particles a large amount of energy can be deposited in a very small region by a primary knock-on atom and the local atomic arrangement can be thereby drastically disrupted. Various measurements of physical properties of such irradiated materials indicate the presence of distributions of defects which are removed in a step-like manner by annealing. One of the more interesting physical property changes accompanying fast particle irradiation is the attendant change in mechanical properties of irradiated crystals. The defect which is responsible for the mechanical property changes of irradiated crystals is only removed at high temperatures, temperatures coresponding to self diffusion. This observation, as well as others, has led to the model of a depleted zone as being responsible for the changes of mechanical properties of irradiated crystals. A depleted zone is envisioned as a region of crystal where a high local concentration of point defects exists - a belt of interstitials surrounding a multiply connected complex of vacancy clusters. We would like to present here some evidence which lends support to the existence of such defects.

Attardo, M J; Galligan, J M

1966-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

305

Ozone removal capability of a welding fume respirator containing activated charcoal  

SciTech Connect

Development of air purifying respirators for protection against ozone has been slowed by concerns about oxidation of charcoal and other available sorbents. The suitability of a charcoal sorbent for low concentrations of ozone was evaluated as a part of the development of a half-mask air purifying respirator designed for welding fumes and ozone. Testing of the respirator confirmed that charcoal can be a suitable sorbent for low levels of ozone. Where the respirator is properly selected, fit tested, and worn, respirator use against welding fumes and ozone at concentrations not exceeding 10 times the permissible exposure limit had been recommended.

Johnston, A.R.; Dyrud, J.F.; Shih, Y.T. (Occupational Health and Environmental Safety Division, St. Paul, MN (USA))

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Meteorology-induced variations in the spatial behavior of summer ozone pollution in Central California  

SciTech Connect

Cluster analysis was applied to daily 8 h ozone maxima modeled for a summer season to characterize meteorology-induced variations in the spatial distribution of ozone. Principal component analysis is employed to form a reduced dimension set to describe and interpret ozone spatial patterns. The first three principal components (PCs) capture {approx}85% of total variance, with PC1 describing a general spatial trend, and PC2 and PC3 each describing a spatial contrast. Six clusters were identified for California's San Joaquin Valley (SJV) with two low, three moderate, and one high-ozone cluster. The moderate ozone clusters are distinguished by elevated ozone levels in different parts of the valley: northern, western, and eastern, respectively. The SJV ozone clusters have stronger coupling with the San Francisco Bay area (SFB) than with the Sacramento Valley (SV). Variations in ozone spatial distributions induced by anthropogenic emission changes are small relative to the overall variations in ozone amomalies observed for the whole summer. Ozone regimes identified here are mostly determined by the direct and indirect meteorological effects. Existing measurement sites are sufficiently representative to capture ozone spatial patterns in the SFB and SV, but the western side of the SJV is under-sampled.

Jin, Ling; Harley, Robert A.; Brown, Nancy J.

2010-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

307

Global Climate Change Links  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Global Climate Change Links Global Climate Change Links This page provides links to web pages that we at CDIAC feel do a responsible job of presenting information and discussion pertinent to the science behind the global climate change ("global warming") debate. These sites include those on both sides of the debate; some asserting that global warming is a clear and present danger, and others that might be labeled global warming "skeptics." Some of these sites don't take a position per se; they exist to offer the public objective scientific information and results on our present understanding of the climate system. The list is not intended to be comprehensive, by any means. We hope it will be especially helpful for those who may be just beginning their research into global

308

An Analysis of the Power Spectra of Total Ozone Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An analysis is made of the power spectrum of total ozone data using the window closing procedure of Jenkins and Watts (1968). It is concluded that it is presently difficult to distinguish statistically between true periodicities in the data and a ...

Paul V. Rigterink

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Lake Michigan Membrane/Ozone Research and Demonstration Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Drinking water standards in the United States have become increasingly stringent. The recently-promulgated Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (ESWTR) requires controlling for Cryptosporidium, a pathogen that is resistant to chlorine. This report evaluates the effectiveness of membrane and ozone technologies for reducing Cryptosporidium risks.

1999-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

310

Photochemical Modeling of Two 1984 SCCCAMP Ozone Episodes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Data collected during the 1984 SCCCAMP Exploratory Study were used to develop two multiple-day ozone modeling episodes for the Urban Airshed Model (UAM). An operational model performance evaluation was performed for the 57 and 1617 September ...

T. W. Tesche; Dennis E. McNally

1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Ozone injury to tobacco plants in South Dakota  

SciTech Connect

Ozone injury symptoms appeared on tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) Turkish in the greenhouse and on Wisconsin 38 in field plots at Brookings, South Dakota in 1970. In 1971, ozone injury appeared on greenhouse and field-grown plants of Bel-W3, Bel-C, and Turkish. Ozone fleck was most severe in southeast and east-central South Dakota. A decreasing amount of injury was observed in northeast, central, west-central and southwest South Dakota. Bel-W3 showed injury at eight locations while Turkish, Bel-C and Bel-B were injured only in the eastern parts of the State. Bel-W3 was a reliable monitor of air pollution episodes when plants were continuously produced and observed in the greenhouse at Brookings. New injury appeared on newly matured leaves and older leaves as dark gray to black flecks that turned brown to tan to white with age. Periodic ozone occurrences were recorded by new flecks appearing generally on tissue of younger age. Plant indicators for the pollutants peroxyacetyl-nitrate, fluoride and sulfur dioxide showed no injury in South Dakota. 21 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

Gardner, W.S.

1973-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Repository Applications: Potential Benefits of Using Depleted Uranium (DU)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Repository Applications Repository Applications Repository Applications: Potential Benefits of Using Depleted Uranium (DU) in a Geological Repository The United States is investigating the Yucca Mountain (YM) site in Nevada for the disposal of radioactive spent nuclear fuel (SNF)—the primary waste from nuclear power plants. The SNF would be packaged and then emplaced 200 to 300 m underground in parallel disposal tunnels. The repository isolates the SNF from the biosphere until the radionuclides decay to safe levels. DU may improve the performance of geological repositories for disposal of SNF via three mechanisms: Radiation shielding for waste packages to protect workers Lowering the potential for long-term nuclear criticality in the repository Reducing the potential for releases of radionuclides from the SNF

313

Military use of depleted uranium assessment of prolonged population exposure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This work is an exposure assessment for a population living in an area contaminated by use of depleted uranium (DU) weapons. RESRAD 5.91 code is used to evaluate the average effective dose delivered from 1, 10, 20 cm depths of contaminated soil, in a residential farmer scenario. Critical pathway and group are identified in soil inhalation or ingestion and children playing with the soil, respectively. From available information on DU released on targeted sites, both critical and average exposure can leave to toxicological hazards; annual dose limit for population can be exceeded on short-term period (years) for soil inhalation. As a consequence, in targeted sites cleaning up must be planned on the basis of measured concentration, when available, while special cautions have to be adopted altogether to reduce unaware exposures, taking into account the amount of the avertable dose.

Giannardi, C

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Video: The Inside Story (of a Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Cylinder)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Inside Story Inside Story The Inside Story The Inside Story (of a Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Cylinder) Probes are used to look at the inside of a Uranium Hexafluoride cylinder. The distribution and structure of the contents are discussed. View this Video in Real Player format Download free RealPlayer SP Highlights of the Video: Video 00:42 10 ton 48Xcylinder of UF6 Video 01:19 Liquid UF6 filling 95% of cylinder volume Video 02:15 Liquid UF6 Video 02:23 Beginning of UF6 phase change from liquid to solid Video 02:32 Solid UF6 Video 03:00 Probe and instrument to investigate inside cylinder Video 04:09 Workers preparing to insert TV camera probe into 48X cylinder containing 10 tons of solid UF6 Video 04:28 Inner surface of head of cylinder showing no corrosion

315

Investigation of breached depleted UF{sub 6} cylinders  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In June 1990, during a three-site inspection of cylinders being used for long-term storage of solid depleted UF{sub 6}, two 14-ton steel cylinders at Portsmouth, Ohio, were discovered with holes in the barrel section of the cylinders. Both holes, concealed by UF{sub 4} reaction products identical in color to the cylinder coating, were similarly located near the front stiffening ring. The UF{sub 4} appeared to have self-sealed the holes, thus containing nearly all of the uranium contents. Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Vice President K.W. Sommerfeld immediately formed an investigation team to: (1) identify the most likely cause of failure for the two breached cylinders, (2) determine the impact of these incidents on the three-site inventory, and (3) provide recommendations and preventive measures. This document discusses the results of this investigation.

Barber, E.J.; Butler, T.R.; DeVan, J.H.; Googin, J.M.; Taylor, M.S.; Dyer, R.H.; Russell, J.R.

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Investigation of breached depleted UF sub 6 cylinders  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In June 1990, during a three-site inspection of cylinders being used for long-term storage of solid depleted UF{sub 6}, two 14-ton steel cylinders at Portsmouth, Ohio, were discovered with holes in the barrel section of the cylinders. Both holes, concealed by UF{sub 4} reaction products identical in color to the cylinder coating, were similarly located near the front stiffening ring. The UF{sub 4} appeared to have self-sealed the holes, thus containing nearly all of the uranium contents. Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Vice President K.W. Sommerfeld immediately formed an investigation team to: (1) identify the most likely cause of failure for the two breached cylinders, (2) determine the impact of these incidents on the three-site inventory, and (3) provide recommendations and preventive measures. This document discusses the results of this investigation.

Barber, E.J.; Butler, T.R.; DeVan, J.H.; Googin, J.M.; Taylor, M.S.; Dyer, R.H.; Russell, J.R.

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Ozone effects on inhibitors of human neutrophil proteinases  

SciTech Connect

The effects of ozone on human alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor (A-1-PI), alpha 1-antichymotrypsin (A-1-Achy), bronchial leukocyte proteinase inhibitor (BLPI), and Eglin C were studied using in vitro exposures in phosphate-buffered solutions. Following ozone exposure, inhibitory activities against human neutrophil elastase (HNE) and/or cathepsin G (Cat G) were measured. Exposure of A-1-PI to 50 mol O3/mol protein resulted in a complete loss of HNE inhibitory activity, whereas A-1-Achy lost only 50% of its Cat G inhibitory activity and remained half active even after exposure to 250 mol of O3. At 40 mol O3/mol protein, BLPI lost 79% of its activity against HNE and 87% of its Cat G inhibitory activity. Eglin C, a leech-derived inhibitor, lost 81% of its HNE inhibitory activity and 92% of its ability to inhibit Cat G when exposed to 40 mol O3/mol. Amino acid analyses of ozone-exposed inhibitors showed destruction of Trp, Met, Tyr, and His with as little as 10 mol O3/mol protein, and higher levels of O3 resulted in more extensive oxidation of susceptible residues. The variable ozone susceptibility of the different amino acid residues in the four proteins indicated that oxidation was a function of protein structure, as well as the inherent susceptibility of particular amino acids. Exposure of A-1-PI and BLPI in the presence of the antioxidants, Trolox C (water soluble vitamin E) and ascorbic acid (vitamin C), showed that antioxidant vitamins may protect proteins from oxidative inactivation by ozone. Methionine-specific modification of BLPI reduced its HNE and Cat G inhibitory activities. Two moles of N-chlorosuccinimide per mole of BLPI methionine caused an 80% reduction in activity against Cat G, but only a 40% reduction in HNE inhibitory activity.

Smith, C.E.; Stack, M.S.; Johnson, D.A.

1987-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

318

2013 Global Carbon Project  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2013 Global Carbon Project 2013 Global Carbon Project DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/GCP_2013_V1.1 image 2013 Budget v1.1 (November 2013) image 2013 Budget v1.3 (December 2013, contains typographical corrections to 2011 Australia emissions from v1.1 and corrections to the 2011 Australia transfer and consumption emissions from v1.2) image image image image Global Carbon Dioxide Emissions to Reach 36 Billion Tonnes in 2013 Global emissions of carbon dioxide from the combustion of fossil fuels will reach 36 billion tonnes for the year 2013. "This is a level unprecedented in human history," says CSIRO's Dr Pep Canadell, Executive-Director of the Global Carbon Project (GCP) and co-author of a new report. Global emissions due to fossil fuel alone are set to grow this year at a slightly lower pace of 2.1% than the average 3.1% since 2000, reaching 36

319

Development of inexpensive continuous emission monitors for feedback control of combustion devices that minimize greenhouse gases, toxic emissions, and ozone damaging products  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Combustion is the major cause of poor urban air quality, of depletion of the ozone layer, and a major source of the greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide. Careful control of combustor conditions is important for minimizing the effects of combustion on the environment. The authors have developed sensitive, inexpensive continuous emission monitors that will assist in direct feedback of turbine power systems and provide assurance to the public and the operators of the facilities that their facility emissions lie within the accepted bounds. These include a robust solid-state Fourier transform spectrometer for rapid gas analysis, based on the use of ferroelectric liquid crystal technology, and an infrared helium-neon probe for real time measurement of combustor air-to-fuel ratios.

Funk, D.J.; Moore, D.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (US); Mongia, R.K.; Tomita, E.; Hsu, F.K.; Talbot, L.; Dibble, R.W. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (US); Lovett, J. [Pratt and Whitney (US); Yamazaki, Akira [Tsukuba Univ. (Japan)

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Draft Supplement Analysis for Location(s) to Dispose of Depleted Uranium Oxide Conversion Product Generated from DOE'S Inventory of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DRAFT SUPPLEMENT ANALYSIS FOR LOCATION(S) TO DISPOSE OF DEPLETED DRAFT SUPPLEMENT ANALYSIS FOR LOCATION(S) TO DISPOSE OF DEPLETED URANIUM OXIDE CONVERSION PRODUCT GENERATED FROM DOE'S INVENTORY OF DEPLETED URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE (DOE/EIS-0359-SA1 AND DOE/EIS-0360-SA1) March 2007 March 2007 i CONTENTS NOTATION........................................................................................................................... iv 1 INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND ................................................................. 1 1.1 Why DOE Has Prepared This Draft Supplement Analysis .............................. 1 1.2 Background ....................................................................................................... 3 1.3 Proposed Actions Considered in this Draft Supplement Analysis.................... 4

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321

Global Oil Geopolitics  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Iran-Iraq War . Iranian revolution . Arab Oil Embargo . Asian financial crisis . capacity exhausted . Global financial collapse . 9-11 attacks . OPEC cuts targets 1.7 ...

322

Cleantech Professional Resource Global Limited CPR Global | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Professional Resource Global Limited CPR Global Professional Resource Global Limited CPR Global Jump to: navigation, search Name Cleantech Professional Resource Global Limited (CPR Global) Place London, United Kingdom Zip EC4M 9DN Product Cleantech Professional Resource is a resource management consultancy focusing on the cleantech sector in the UK and Europe. References Cleantech Professional Resource Global Limited (CPR Global)[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Cleantech Professional Resource Global Limited (CPR Global) is a company located in London, United Kingdom . References ↑ "Cleantech Professional Resource Global Limited (CPR Global)" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Cleantech_Professional_Resource_Global_Limited_CPR_Global&oldid=343687

323

Observed and WRF-Simulated Low-Level Winds in a High-Ozone Episode during the Central California Ozone Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A case study is carried out for the 29 July3 August 2000 episode of the Central California Ozone Study (CCOS), a typical summertime high-ozone event in the Central Valley of California. The focus of the study is on the low-level winds that ...

J-W. Bao; S. A. Michelson; P. O. G. Persson; I. V. Djalalova; J. M. Wilczak

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Zevenhoven & Kilpinen Greenhouse Gases, Ozone-Depleting Gases 19.6.2001 9-1 Figure 9.1 Increasing world population  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the atmosphere", Max Plank Institute, Mainz (Germany) http://www.eurekalert.org/releases/mpg-anp072700.html CCT

Zevenhoven, Ron

325

Ozone (o3) efficacy on reduction of phytophthora capsici in recirculated horticultural irrigation water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Microorganisms that cause plant disease have been isolated in recirculated irrigation water and increase the risks of disease incidence in horticultural operations. Ozone is an effective oxidizer used to disinfect drinking water supplies and treat industrial wastewater. The objective of this research was to investigate using ozone gas as part of a strategy to reduce the incidence of Phytophthora deBary in recirculated irrigation water. An isolate of Phytophthora capsici Leonian was cultured to induce sporulation. Spore dilutions were placed in aliquots of reverse osmosis water and bubbled with ozone gas (O3) to concentrations of 0 to 1.5 mgL-1. Ozonated samples were plated and observed for colony forming units. Increasing ozone concentrations reduced the number of colony forming units to 0 at 1.5 mg L-1 03. Turbidity effects on efficacy on Phytophthora capsici were tested using bentonite clay at 0 to 2.0 nephelometric turbidity units and ozone concentrations of 0 to 1.5 mg L-1. Increasing bentonite did not affect the efficacy of increasing ozone concentrations on reducing colony formation to 0 at 1.5 mgL-1 O3. Bioassays using Phytophthora capsici on Capsicum annuum L. seedlings confirmed apparent pathogenicity. Reverse osmosis water, containing a soluble fertilizer at 0 to 300 mg L-1 N, was ozonated to concentrations of 0 to 1.5 mgL-1 O3 and used to irrigate Chrysanthemum x morifolium T. de Romatuelle. Increasing ozone concentrations did not interact with increasing fertilizer levels to affect the final growth parameters. Chrysanthemum exposed to ozone gas concentrations of 0.5 to 1.5 mgL-1 showed symptomatic ozone damage. Complete soluble fertilizer solutions with micronutrients were ozonated from 0 to 1.5 mgL-1 O3 and analysed for nutrient content. Increasing ozone levels did not interact with fertilizers to affect macronutrients. Increasing ozone interacted with iron at a high fertilizer level. Ozone did not affect the efficacy of paclobutralzol in controlling growth in Viola x wittrockiana. Ozone was effective in controlling Phytophthora capsici in recirculated irrigation water with minimum impact on plant growth. Adjustments in fertility regiemes may be needed to counteract the oxidizing affect of ozone on micronutrients.

McDonald, Garry Vernon

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Depleted-Uranium Weapons the Whys and Wherefores  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The only military application in which present-day depleted-uranium (DU) alloys out-perform tungsten alloys is long-rod penetration into a main battle-tank's armor. However, this advantage is only on the order of 10% and disappearing when the comparison is made in terms of actual lethality of complete anti-tank systems instead of laboratory-type steel penetration capability. Therefore, new micro- and nano-engineered tungsten alloys may soon out-perform existing DU alloys, enabling the production of tungsten munition which will be better than uranium munition, and whose overall life-cycle cost will be less due to the absence of the problems related to the radioactivity of uranium. The reasons why DU weapons have been introduced and used are analysed from the perspective that their radioactivity must have played an important role in the decision making process. It is found that DU weapons belong to the diffuse category of low-radiological-impact nuclear weapons to which emerging types of low-yield, i.e., fourth...

Gsponer, A

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Kr Ion Irradiation Study of the Depleted-Uranium Alloys  

SciTech Connect

Fuel development for the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor program is tasked with the development of new low-enriched uranium nuclear fuels that can be employed to replace existing highly enriched uranium fuels currently used in some research reactors throughout the world. For dispersion-type fuels, radiation stability of the fuel/cladding interaction product has a strong impact on fuel performance. Three depleted uranium alloys are cast for the radiation stability studies of the fuel/cladding interaction product using Kr ion irradiation to investigate radiation damage from fission products. SEM analysis indicates the presence of the phases of interest: U(Si, Al)3, (U, Mo)(Si, Al)3, UMo2Al20, U6Mo4Al43, and UAl4. Irradiations of TEM disc samples were conducted with 500 keV Kr ions at 200C to ion doses up to 2.5 1015 ions/cm2 (~ 10 dpa) with an Kr ion flux of 1012 ions/cm2-sec (~ 4.0 10-3 dpa/sec). Microstructural evolution of the phases relevant to fuel-cladding interaction products was investigated using transmission electron microscopy.

J. Gan; D. Keiser; B. Miller; M. Kirk; J. Rest; T. Allen; D. Wachs

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Transpassive electrodissolution of depleted uranium in alkaline electrolytes  

SciTech Connect

To aid in removal of oralloy from the nuclear weapons stockpile, scientists at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility are decontaminating oralloy parts by electrodissolution in neutral to alkaline electrolytes composed of sodium nitrate and sodium sulfate. To improve the process, electrodissolution experiments were performed with depleted uranium to understand the effects of various operating parameters. Sufficient precipitate was also produced to evaluate the feasibility of using ultrafiltration to separate the uranium oxide precipitates from the electrolyte before it enters the decontamination fixture. In preparation for the experiments, a potential-pH diagram for uranium was constructed from thermodynamic data for fully hydrated species. Electrodissolution in unstirred solutions showed that uranium dissolution forms two layers, an acidic bottom layer rich in uranium and an alkaline upper layer. Under stirred conditions results are consistent with the formation of a yellow precipitate of composition UO{sub 3}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O, a six electron process. Amperometric experiments showed that current efficiency remained near 100% over a wide range of electrolytes, electrolyte concentrations, pH, and stirring conditions.

Weisbrod, K.R.; Schake, A.R.; Morgan, A.N.; Purdy, G.M.; Martinez, H.E.; Nelson, T.O.

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Kr ion irradiation study of the depleted-uranium alloys.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fuel development for the reduced enrichment research and test reactor (RERTR) program is tasked with the development of new low enrichment uranium nuclear fuels that can be employed to replace existing high enrichment uranium fuels currently used in some research reactors throughout the world. For dispersion type fuels, radiation stability of the fuel-cladding interaction product has a strong impact on fuel performance. Three depleted-uranium alloys are cast for the radiation stability studies of the fuel-cladding interaction product using Kr ion irradiation to investigate radiation damage from fission products. SEM analysis indicates the presence of the phases of interest: U(Al, Si){sub 3}, (U, Mo)(Al, Si){sub 3}, UMo{sub 2}Al{sub 20}, U{sub 6}Mo{sub 4}Al{sub 43} and UAl{sub 4}. Irradiations of TEM disc samples were conducted with 500 keV Kr ions at 200 C to ion doses up to 2.5 x 10{sup 19} ions/m{sup 2} ({approx}10 dpa) with an Kr ion flux of 10{sup 16} ions/m{sup 2}/s ({approx}4.0 x 10{sup -3} dpa/s). Microstructural evolution of the phases relevant to fuel-cladding interaction products was investigated using transmission electron microscopy.

Gan, J.; Keiser, D. D.; Miller, B. D.; Kirk, M. A.; Rest, J.; Allen, T. R.; Wachs, D. M. (Materials Science Division); (INL); (Univ. of Wisconsin)

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Investigation of breached depleted UF sub 6 cylinders  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In June 1990, during a three-site inspection of cylinders being used for long-term storage of solid depleted UF{sub 6}, two 14-ton cylinders at Portsmouth, Ohio, were discovered with holes in the barrel section of the cylinders. An investigation team was immediately formed to determine the cause of the failures and their impact on future storage procedures and to recommend corrective actions. Subsequent investigation showed that the failures most probably resulted from mechanical damage that occurred at the time that the cylinders had been placed in the storage yard. In both cylinders evidence pointed to the impact of a lifting lug of an adjacent cylinder near the front stiffening ring, where deflection of cylinder could occur only by tearing the cylinder. The impacts appear to have punctured the cylinders and thereby set up corrosion processes that greatly extended the openings in the wall and obliterated the original crack. Fortunately, the reaction products formed by this process were relatively protective and prevented any large-scale loss of uranium. The main factors that precipitated the failures were inadequate spacing between cylinders and deviations in the orientations of lifting lugs from their intended horizontal position. After reviewing the causes and effects of the failures, the team's principal recommendation for remedial action concerned improved cylinder handling and inspection procedures. Design modifications and supplementary mechanical tests were also recommended to improve the cylinder containment integrity during the stacking operation. 4 refs., 2 figs.

DeVan, J.H.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

A pilot study of energy efficient air cleaning for ozone  

SciTech Connect

A laboratory pilot study has been undertaken with the material that showed the most promise (high capacity and low pressure drop) based on the literature review and associated calculations. The best-performing air cleaner was a commercially available pleated filter that contained a thin layer of small activated carbon particles between two sheets of non-woven fibrous webbing. We will refer to this unit as the ''ozone filter'' although it is marketed for removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from automobile passenger compartments. This pilot study strongly suggests that ozone air cleaning can be practical in commercial air handling systems; however, further tests are needed to assess air cleaner performance under a wider range of conditions.

Gundel, Lara A.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Katsapov, Gregory Y.; Fisk, William J.

2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Scale-Up and Demonstration of Fly Ash Ozonation Technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The disposal of fly ash from the combustion of coal has become increasingly important. When the fly ash does not meet the required specification for the product or market intended, it is necessary to beneficiate it to achieve the desired quality. This project, conducted at PPL's Montour SES, is the first near full-scale ({approx}10 ton/day), demonstration of ash ozonation technology. Bituminous and sub bituminous ashes, including two ash samples that contained activated carbon, were treated during the project. Results from the tests were very promising. The ashes were successfully treated with ozone, yielding concrete-suitable ash quality. Preliminary process cost estimates indicate that capital and operating costs to treat unburned carbon are competitive with other commercial ash beneficiation technologies at a fraction of the cost of lost sales and/or ash disposal costs. This is the final technical report under DOE Cooperative Agreement No.: DE-FC26-03NT41730.

Rui Afonso; R. Hurt; I. Kulaots

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

CF[sub 3] chemistry: Potential implications for stratospheric ozone  

SciTech Connect

The authors address questions about the chemistry of CF[sub 3] bearing compounds in the atmosphere, and the impact that the existence of and reaction rate constants for such species may have on stratospheric ozone. Species considered include CF[sub 3], CF[sub 3]O, CF[sub 3]O[sub 2], CF[sub 3]OH, CF[sub 3]OOH, CF[sub 3]ONO[sub 2], CF[sub 3]O[sub 2]NO[sub 2], and CF[sub 3]OOCl. Based on their calculational results, the authors suggest a number of experimental measurements which should substantially decrease uncertainties associated with the role of CF[sub 3] species in atmospheric chemistry related to ozone.

Ko, M.K.W.; Sze, N.D.; Rodriguez, J.M.; Weistenstein, D.K.; Heisey, C.W. (Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)); Wayne, R.P.; Biggs, P.; Canosa-Mas, C.E. (Univ. of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom)); Sidebottom, H.W.; Treacy, J. (Univ. College, Dublin (Ireland))

1994-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

334

Ozone Alternative Disinfection Study for a Large-Scale Wastewater Treatment Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes a feasibility study for the use of an ozonation disinfection system for the treatment of wastewater in the Passaic Valley.

1999-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

335

The Cost of Crop Damage Caused by Ozone Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

D. T. Tingey, Assessment of Crop Loss From Air Pollutants,,Assessing Impacts of Ozone on Agricultural Crops: II.Crop Yield Functions and Alternative Exposure Statistics",

Delucchi, Mark A.; Murphy, James; Kim, Jin; McCubbin, Donald R.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Secondary organic aerosol from ozone-initiated reactions with terpene-rich household products  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

analysis of competition between aerosol particle removal andof secondary organic aerosol. Part I: ?-pinene/ozone system.data when measuring ambient aerosol. Aerosol Science and

Coleman, Beverly K.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

EIS-0360: Depleted Uranium Oxide Conversion Product at the Portsmouth, Ohio  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

60: Depleted Uranium Oxide Conversion Product at the 60: Depleted Uranium Oxide Conversion Product at the Portsmouth, Ohio Site EIS-0360: Depleted Uranium Oxide Conversion Product at the Portsmouth, Ohio Site Summary This site-specific EIS analyzes the construction, operation, maintenance, and decontamination and decommissioning of the proposed depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6) conversion facility at three alternative locations within the Portsmouth site; transportation of all cylinders (DUF6, enriched, and empty) currently stored at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) near Oak Ridge, Tennessee, to Portsmouth; construction of a new cylinder storage yard at Portsmouth (if required) for ETTP cylinders; transportation of depleted uranium conversion products and waste materials to a disposal facility; transportation and sale of the hydrogen fluoride

338

Benefits of the delta K of depletion benchmarks for burnup credit validation  

SciTech Connect

Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) burnup credit validation is demonstrated using the benchmarks for quantifying fuel reactivity decrements, published as 'Benchmarks for Quantifying Fuel Reactivity Depletion Uncertainty,' EPRI Report 1022909 (August 2011). This demonstration uses the depletion module TRITON available in the SCALE 6.1 code system followed by criticality calculations using KENO-Va. The difference between the predicted depletion reactivity and the benchmark's depletion reactivity is a bias for the criticality calculations. The uncertainty in the benchmarks is the depletion reactivity uncertainty. This depletion bias and uncertainty is used with the bias and uncertainty from fresh UO{sub 2} critical experiments to determine the criticality safety limits on the neutron multiplication factor, k{sub eff}. The analysis shows that SCALE 6.1 with the ENDF/B-VII 238-group cross section library supports the use of a depletion bias of only 0.0015 in delta k if cooling is ignored and 0.0025 if cooling is credited. The uncertainty in the depletion bias is 0.0064. Reliance on the ENDF/B V cross section library produces much larger disagreement with the benchmarks. The analysis covers numerous combinations of depletion and criticality options. In all cases, the historical uncertainty of 5% of the delta k of depletion ('Kopp memo') was shown to be conservative for fuel with more than 30 GWD/MTU burnup. Since this historically assumed burnup uncertainty is not a function of burnup, the Kopp memo's recommended bias and uncertainty may be exceeded at low burnups, but its absolute magnitude is small. (authors)

Lancaster, D. [NuclearConsultants.com, 187 Faith Circle, Boalsburg, PA 16827 (United States); Machiels, A. [Electric Power Research Inst., Inc., 3420 Hillview Avenue, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Global Renewable Power International Global RPI | Open Energy...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

RPI) Place Spain Sector Wind energy Product Spain-based developer of wind projects in Poland, Croatia and Chile. References Global Renewable Power International (Global RPI)1...

340

Regional and Global Data  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Products > Regional/Global Products > Regional/Global Regional and Global Data Biogeochemical Dynamics Data Regional and global biogeochemical dynamics data can be used to improve our understanding of the structure and function of various ecosystems; to enable prediction across spatial and temporal scales; and to parameterize and validate terrestrial ecosystem models. The ORNL DAAC compiles, archives, and distributes more than 150 products from the following projects: Climate Collections Hydroclimatology Collections ISLSCP II Project Net Primary Productivity (NPP) River Discharge (RIVDIS) Russian Land Cover (RLC) Soil Collections Vegetation Collections Vegetation-Ecosystem Modeling (VEMAP) Climate Collections Climate collections include measured and modeled values for variables such as temperature, precipitation, humidity, radiation, wind velocity, and

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "global ozone depletion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Pax Global, Inc.,  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Pax Global, Inc., Pax Global, Inc., (freezers) Issued: April 2, 2013 BEFORE THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Washington, D.C. 20585 ) ) ) ) ) Case Number: 2013-SE-L413 NOTICE OF NONCOMPLIANCE DETERMINATION Manufacturers and private labelers are prohibited from distributing covered products in the United States that do not comply with applicable federal energy conservation standards. 10 C.F.R. § 429.102; 42 U.S.C. § 6302. Pax Global, Inc. ("Pax Global") is a private labeler and uses the "Crosley" and "Daewoo" brands to distribute freezers in the United States. TESTING l. The U.S. Department of Energy ("DOE") tested four privately labeled units o basic model numbe , manufactured , 1 that had been distributed in the United States by a third-pa1iy private labeler.

342

The Global Grid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper puts forward the vision that a natural future stage of the electricity network could be a grid spanning the whole planet and connecting most of the large power plants in the world: this is the "Global Grid". The main driving force behind the Global Grid will be the harvesting of remote renewable sources, and its key infrastructure element will be the high capacity long transmission lines. Wind farms and solar power plants will supply load centers with green power over long distances. This paper focusses on the introduction of the concept, showing that a globally interconnected network can be technologically feasible and economically competitive. We further highlight the multiple opportunities emerging from a global electricity network such as smoothing the renewable energy supply and electricity demand, reducing the need for bulk storage, and reducing the volatility of the energy prices. We also discuss possible investment mechanisms and operating schemes. Among others, we envision in such a system...

Chatzivasileiadis, Spyros; Andersson, Gran

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Estimated Global Hydrographic Variability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An estimate is made of the three-dimensional global oceanic temperature and salinity variability, omitting the seasonal cycle, both as a major descriptive element of the ocean circulation and for use in the error estimates of state estimation. ...

Gal Forget; Carl Wunsch

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

KRFTWRK Global Human Electricity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Power Network 2.1.1 Virtual Power Plants The Global Powernetwork, based on "Virtual Power Plants", called "VPP". A "participant runs a virtual human power plant. Per every "

Prohaska, Rainer

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Global Ocean Meridional Overturning  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A decade-mean global ocean circulation is estimated using inverse techniques, incorporating airsea fluxes of heat and freshwater, recent hydrographic sections, and direct current measurements. This information is used to determine mass, heat, ...

Rick Lumpkin; Kevin Speer

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Global Warming, Soot, Ice  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Global Warming, Soot, Ice Speaker(s): James Hansen Date: November 7, 2003 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Irreversible "dangerous anthropogenic interference" with the climate system...

347

Earth's Global Energy Budget  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An update is provided on the Earth's global annual mean energy budget in the light of new observations and analyses. In 1997, Kiehl and Trenberth provided a review of past estimates and performed a number of radiative computations to better ...

Kevin E. Trenberth; John T. Fasullo; Jeffrey Kiehl

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Global Climate Change  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

When President Bush announced his Global Climate Change Initiative in February 2002, he committed the United States to a new strategy to cut greenhouse gas emissions over the next...

349

China's Global Oil Strategy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

21, 2008. Ying, Wang. China, Venezuela firms to co-developoilfields. China Daily (27 August 2005) http://David and Bi Jianhai. Chinas Global Hunt for Energy.

Thomas, Bryan G

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

China's Global Oil Strategy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

nations began to seek out oil reserves around the world. 3on the limited global oil reserves and spiking prices. Manyto the largest proven oil reserves, making up 61 percent of

Thomas, Bryan G

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Radiological Risk Assessment of Capstone Depleted Uranium Aerosols  

SciTech Connect

Assessment of the health risk from exposure to aerosols of depleted uranium (DU) is an important outcome of the Capstone aerosol studies that established exposure ranges to personnel in armored combat vehicles perforated by DU munitions. Although the radiation exposure from DU is low, there is concern that DU deposited in the body may increase cancer rates. Radiation doses to various organs of the body resulting from the inhalation of DU aerosols measured in the Capstone studies were calculated using International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) models. Organs and tissues with the highest calculated committed equivalent 50-yr doses were lung and extrathoracic tissues (nose and nasal passages, pharynx, larynx, mouth and thoracic lymph nodes). Doses to the bone surface and kidney were about 5 to 10% of the doses to the extrathoracic tissues. The methodologies of the ICRP International Steering Committee on Radiation Standards (ISCORS) were used for determining the whole body cancer risk. Organ-specific risks were estimated using ICRP and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methodologies. Risks for crewmembers and first responders were determined for selected scenarios based on the time interval of exposure and for vehicle and armor type. The lung was the organ with the highest cancer mortality risk, accounting for about 97% of the risks summed from all organs. The highest mean lifetime risk for lung cancer for the scenario with the longest exposure time interval (2 h) was 0.42%. This risk is low compared with the natural or background risk of 7.35%. These risks can be significantly reduced by using an existing ventilation system (if operable) and by reducing personnel time in the vehicle immediately after perforation.

Hahn, Fletcher; Roszell, Laurie E.; Daxon, Eric G.; Guilmette, Ray A.; Parkhurst, MaryAnn

2009-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

353

Capstone Depleted Uranium Aerosol Biokinetics, Concentrations, and Doses  

SciTech Connect

One of the principal goals of the Capstone Depleted Uranium (DU) Aerosol Study was to quantify and characterize DU aerosols generated inside armored vehicles by perforation with a DU penetrator. This study consequently produced a database in which the DU aerosol source terms were specified both physically and chemically for a variety of penetrator-impact geometries and conditions. These source terms were used to calculate radiation doses and uranium concentrations for various scenarios as part of the Capstone DU Human Health Risk Assessment (HHRA). This paper describes the scenario-related biokinetics of uranium, and summarizes intakes, chemical concentrations to the organs, and E(50) and HT(50) for organs and tissues based on exposure scenarios for personnel in vehicles at the time of perforation as well as for first responders. For a given exposure scenario (duration time and breathing rates), the range of DU intakes among the target vehicles and shots was not large, about a factor of 10, with the lowest being from a ventilated operational Abrams tank and the highest being for an unventilated Abrams with DU penetrator perforating DU armor. The ranges of committed effective doses were more scenario-dependent than were intakes. For example, the largest range, a factor of 20, was shown for scenario A, a 1-min exposure, whereas, the range was only a factor of two for the first-responder scenario (E). In general, the committed effective doses were found to be in the tens of mSv. The risks ascribed to these doses are discussed separately.

Guilmette, Raymond A.; Miller, Guthrie; Parkhurst, MaryAnn

2009-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

354

Characterization of Thermal Properties of Depleted Uranium Metal Microspheres  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nuclear fuel comes in many forms; oxide fuel is the most commonly used in current reactor systems while metal fuel is a promising fuel type for future reactors due to neutronic performance and increased thermal conductivity. As a key heat transfer parameter, thermal conductivity describes the heat transport properties of a material based upon the density, specific heat, and thermal diffusivity. A materials ability to transport thermal energy through its structure is a measurable property known as thermal diffusivity; the units for thermal diffusivity are given in area per unit time (e.g., m2/s). Current measurement methods for thermal diffusivity include LASER (or light) Flash Analysis and the hot-wire method. This study examines an approach that combines these previous two methods to characterize the diffusivity of a packed bed of microspheres of depleted uranium (DU) metal, which have a nominal diameter of 250 micrometers. The new apparatus is designated as the Crucible Heater Test Assembly (CHTA), and it induces a radial transient across a packed sample of microspheres then monitors the temperature profile using an array of thermocouples located at different distances from the source of the thermal transient. From the thermocouple data and an accurate time log, the thermal diffusivity of the sample may be calculated. Results indicate that DU microspheres have very low thermal conductivity, relative to solid uranium metal, and rapidly form an oxidation layer. At 500C, the thermal conductivity of the DU microspheres was 0.431 13% W/m-K compared to approximately 32 W/m-K for solid uranium metal. Characterization of the developed apparatus revealed a method that may be useful for measuring the thermal diffusivity of powders and liquids.

Humrickhouse, Carissa Joy

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

A Large Annual Cycle in Ozone above the Tropical Tropopause Linked to the BrewerDobson Circulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Near-equatorial ozone observations from balloon and satellite measurements reveal a large annual cycle in ozone above the tropical tropopause. The relative amplitude of the annual cycle is large in a narrow vertical layer between 16 and 19 km, ...

William J. Randel; Mijeong Park; Fei Wu; Nathaniel Livesey

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Ozone Profile Retrieval from an Advanced Infrared Sounder: Experiments with Tropopause-Based Climatology and Optimal Estimation Approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Motivated by a significant potential for retrieving atmospheric ozone profile information from advanced satellite infrared sounders, this study investigates various methods to optimize ozone retrievals. A set of retrieval experiments has been ...

Jennifer C. Wei; Laura L. Pan; Eric Maddy; Jasna V. Pittman; Murty Divarkarla; Xiaozhen Xiong; Chris Barnet

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Terannual Wave in the Ozone and Temperature in the StratoMesosphere as Deduced from Satellite Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two recent reference atmosphere models for ozone and temperature, which are deduced from satellite data, are employed to detect the existence and the behavior of a terannual wave both in ozone and temperature.

C. Varotsos; N. Dris; D. Asimakopoulos

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Energy and global warming impacts of CFC alternative technologies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are used in a number of applications and volumes of CFCs used grew at a tremendous pace during the 1960s and 1970s. However, in the mid-1980s, it was confirmed that these extremely useful chemicals contribute to the destruction of stratospheric ozone. These chemicals are being phased out of use rapidly to protect the ozone layer and it is very important that the replacements for CFCs do not result in a net increase in global warming by introducing less efficient processes that lead to higher energy use and increased carbon dioxide emissions. A study was conducted to identify those alternative chemicals and technologies that could replace CFCs in energy related applications before the year 2000, and to assess the total potential impact of these alternatives on global warming. The analysis for this project included an estimate of the direct effects from the release of blowing agents, refrigerants, and solvents into the atmosphere and the indirect effects in the form of carbon dioxide emissions resulting from energy use for commercial and residential heating and cooling, household and commercial refrigeration, building and automobile air-conditioning, and general metal and electronics solvent cleaning. The discussion in this paper focuses on those aspects of the study relevant to refrigeration and air-conditioning. In general the use of hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) and hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) alternatives for CFCs lead to large and sometimes dramatic reductions in total equivalent warming impact (TEWI), lifetime equivalent CO{sub 2} emissions. Most of the reductions result from decreased direct effects without significant changes in energy use.

Fischer, S.K.; Fairchild, P.D.; Hughes, P.J.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Energy and global warming impacts of CFC alternative technologies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are used in a number of applications and volumes of CFCs used grew at a tremendous pace during the 1960s and 1970s. However, in the mid-1980s, it was confirmed that these extremely useful chemicals contribute to the destruction of stratospheric ozone. These chemicals are being phased out of use rapidly to protect the ozone layer and it is very important that the replacements for CFCs do not result in a net increase in global warming by introducing less efficient processes that lead to higher energy use and increased carbon dioxide emissions. A study was conducted to identify those alternative chemicals and technologies that could replace CFCs in energy related applications before the year 2000, and to assess the total potential impact of these alternatives on global warming. The analysis for this project included an estimate of the direct effects from the release of blowing agents, refrigerants, and solvents into the atmosphere and the indirect effects in the form of carbon dioxide emissions resulting from energy use for commercial and residential heating and cooling, household and commercial refrigeration, building and automobile air-conditioning, and general metal and electronics solvent cleaning. The discussion in this paper focuses on those aspects of the study relevant to refrigeration and air-conditioning. In general the use of hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) and hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) alternatives for CFCs lead to large and sometimes dramatic reductions in total equivalent warming impact (TEWI), lifetime equivalent CO{sub 2} emissions. Most of the reductions result from decreased direct effects without significant changes in energy use.

Fischer, S.K.; Fairchild, P.D.; Hughes, P.J.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Ozone-surface interactions: Investigations of mechanisms, kinetics, mass transport, and implications for indoor air quality  

SciTech Connect

In this dissertation, results are presented of laboratory investigations and mathematical modeling efforts designed to better understand the interactions of ozone with surfaces. In the laboratory, carpet and duct materials were exposed to ozone and measured ozone uptake kinetics and the ozone induced emissions of volatile organic compounds. To understand the results of the experiments, mathematical methods were developed to describe dynamic indoor aldehyde concentrations, mass transport of reactive species to smooth surfaces, the equivalent reaction probability of whole carpet due to the surface reactivity of fibers and carpet backing, and ozone aging of surfaces. Carpets, separated carpet fibers, and separated carpet backing all tended to release aldehydes when exposed to ozone. Secondary emissions were mostly n-nonanal and several other smaller aldehydes. The pattern of emissions suggested that vegetable oils may be precursors for these oxidized emissions. Several possible precursors and experiments in which linseed and tung oils were tested for their secondary emission potential were discussed. Dynamic emission rates of 2-nonenal from a residential carpet may indicate that intermediate species in the oxidation of conjugated olefins can significantly delay aldehyde emissions and act as reservoir for these compounds. The ozone induced emission rate of 2-nonenal, a very odorous compound, can result in odorous indoor concentrations for several years. Surface ozone reactivity is a key parameter in determining the flux of ozone to a surface, is parameterized by the reaction probability, which is simply the probability that an ozone molecule will be irreversibly consumed when it strikes a surface. In laboratory studies of two residential and two commercial carpets, the ozone reaction probability for carpet fibers, carpet backing and the equivalent reaction probability for whole carpet were determined. Typically reaction probability values for these materials were 10{sup {minus}7}, 10{sup {minus}5}, and 10{sup {minus}5} respectively. To understand how internal surface area influences the equivalent reaction probability of whole carpet, a model of ozone diffusion into and reaction with internal carpet components was developed. This was then used to predict apparent reaction probabilities for carpet. He combines this with a modified model of turbulent mass transfer developed by Liu, et al. to predict deposition rates and indoor ozone concentrations. The model predicts that carpet should have an equivalent reaction probability of about 10{sup {minus}5}, matching laboratory measurements of the reaction probability. For both carpet and duct materials, surfaces become progressively quenched (aging), losing the ability to react or otherwise take up ozone. He evaluated the functional form of aging and find that the reaction probability follows a power function with respect to the cumulative uptake of ozone. To understand ozone aging of surfaces, he developed several mathematical descriptions of aging based on two different mechanisms. The observed functional form of aging is mimicked by a model which describes ozone diffusion with internal reaction in a solid. He shows that the fleecy nature of carpet materials in combination with the model of ozone diffusion below a fiber surface and internal reaction may explain the functional form and the magnitude of power function parameters observed due to ozone interactions with carpet. The ozone induced aldehyde emissions, measured from duct materials, were combined with an indoor air quality model to show that concentrations of aldehydes indoors may approach odorous levels. He shows that ducts are unlikely to be a significant sink for ozone due to the low reaction probability in combination with the short residence time of air in ducts.

Morrison, Glenn C.

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "global ozone depletion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. ???, XXXX, DOI:10.1029/, Ozone Ensemble Forecast with Machine Learning Algorithms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. ???, XXXX, DOI:10.1029/, Ozone Ensemble Forecast with Machine learning algorithms to perform sequential aggregation of ozone forecasts. The latter rely on a multimodel ensemble built for ozone forecasting with the modeling system Polyphemus. The ensemble simulations

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

362

,"U.S. Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Depleted Fields Capacity (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Depleted Fields Capacity (MMcf)" Depleted Fields Capacity (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Depleted Fields Capacity (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","nga_epg0_sacwd_nus_mmcfa.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/nga_epg0_sacwd_nus_mmcfa.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov"

363

Dupoly process for treatment of depleted uranium and production of beneficial end products  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides a process of encapsulating depleted uranium by forming a homogenous mixture of depleted uranium and molten virgin or recycled thermoplastic polymer into desired shapes. Separate streams of depleted uranium and virgin or recycled thermoplastic polymer are simultaneously subjected to heating and mixing conditions. The heating and mixing conditions are provided by a thermokinetic mixer, continuous mixer or an extruder and preferably by a thermokinetic mixer or continuous mixer followed by an extruder. The resulting DUPoly shapes can be molded into radiation shielding material or can be used as counter weights for use in airplanes, helicopters, ships, missiles, armor or projectiles.

Kalb, Paul D. (Wading River, NY); Adams, Jay W. (Stony Brook, NY); Lageraaen, Paul R. (Seaford, NY); Cooley, Carl R. (Gaithersburg, MD)

2000-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

364

Chiller Selection: CFC Update  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This CFC Update examines the decision factors used in selecting the most cost-effective chiller. The growing concern with emissions contributing to ozone depletion, global warming, and air pollution must be considered. Recent chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) phaseout schedules are causing some building owners to consider gas-fired chillers in place of electric chillers. The gas-fired chillers provide cooling without using ozone-depleting refrigerants, and also reduce electric d...

1997-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

365

Ozone levels in passenger cabins of commercial aircraft on North American  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ozone levels in passenger cabins of commercial aircraft on North American Ozone levels in passenger cabins of commercial aircraft on North American and transoceanic routes Title Ozone levels in passenger cabins of commercial aircraft on North American and transoceanic routes Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2008 Authors Bhangar, Seema, Shannon Cowlin, Brett C. Singer, Richard G. Sextro, and William W. Nazaroff Journal Environmental Science and Technology Volume 42 Issue 11 Pagination 3938-43 Abstract Ozone levels in airplane cabins, and factors that influence them, were studied on northern hemisphere commercial passenger flights on domestic U.S., transatlantic, and transpacific routes. Real-time data from 76 flights were collected in 2006-2007 with a battery-powered UV photometric monitor. Sample mean ozone level, peak-hour ozone level, and flight-integrated ozone exposures were highly variable across domestic segments (N = 68), with ranges of 100 ppbv) ozone levels on domestic flights were associated with winter-spring storms that are linked to enhanced exchange between the lower stratosphere and the upper troposphere.

366

Characterization of Ambient Ozone Levels in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ambient ozone data collected at two sites in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP) are summarized and compared with data from an urban and a low-elevation rural site. The ozone climatology in the park is found to be similar to that of ...

Stephen F. Mueller

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Effects of the Water Quality Maintained by Ozonation Enhanced Ecosystem in the Landscape of Reclaimed Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

the landscape of reclaimed water always broke out water bloom because of containing high concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus. The TP and TN of the landscape decreased to 0.04mg/L and 2.27mg/L respectively with recycling ozonation at the end of ... Keywords: ozonation, algae, nutrient removal, ecosystem, landscape of reclaimed water

Yu Demiao; Ma Jun; Bai Yu; Gan Yiping

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

New Ozone Measurement Systems for Autonomous Operation on Ocean Buoys and Towers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two autonomous ozone measurement systems for use on ocean buoys and towers have been built and are discussed herein. They are based on low-power atmospheric ozone sensors from Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) and 2B Technologies. The PSI sensor ...

E. J. Hintsa; G. P. Allsup; C. F. Eck; D. S. Hosom; M. J. Purcell; A. A. Roberts; D. R. Scott; E. R. Sholkovitz; W. T. Rawlins; P. A. Mulhall; K. Lightner; W. W. McMillan; J. Song; M. J. Newchurch

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Seasonal Differences in the Trend of Total Ozone and Contributions from Tropospheric and Stratospheric Layers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on an average of the total-ozone changes determined by means of linear regression at individual Dobson stations within climatic zones, trends of total ozone for each of the four seasons have been evaluated for five climatic zones, and the ...

J. K. Angell

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Estimating long term urban exposure to particulate matter and ozone in Europe  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

OFIS is a robust and efficient model for simulating the formation of photochemical pollutants in an urban plume. In this paper we present applications of the recent further development of OFIS for calculating both particulate matter and ozone concentrations. ... Keywords: Air quality model, Ozone exposure, PM exposure, Urban air pollution

Athanasios Arvanitis; Nicolas Moussiopoulos

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Ozone Forecasts of the Stratospheric Polar VortexSplitting Event in September 2002  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Southern Hemisphere major warming event in September 2002 has led to a breakup of the vortex in the middle and higher stratosphere and to a corresponding splitting of the ozone hole. Daily 3D ozone forecasts, produced at the Royal Netherlands ...

Henk Eskes; Arjo Segers; Peter van Velthoven

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

The Ozone Weekend Effect in California: Evidence Supporting NOx Emission Reductions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ozone is typically higher on weekends (WE) than on weekdays (WD) at many of Californias air-monitoring stations. Sometimes called the ozone WE effect, this phenomenon occurs despite substantially lower estimates of WE emissions for the major ozone precursors volatile organic compounds (VOC) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Compared to WD emissions, WE emissions of NOx decrease more (proportionally) than do the WE emissions of VOC. Because the WE increases in ozone coincide with the relatively large WE reductions in NOx, some conclude that regulations that would reduce NOx emissions on all days would undermine ozone attainment efforts by causing ozone to decrease more slowly (or even to increase). At this time, public discussion of the ozone WE effect has mostly reflected the viewpoint that NOx emission reductions would not help reduce ambient ozone levels. A large body of published research from this perspective has accumulated over the last 10 to 20 years. Nevertheless, the presently available scientific evidence can also lead to the conclusion that NOx emission reductions may be needed to maintain or even to expedite progress toward attainment

Lawrence C. Larsen

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Preparation of oxygen-containing organic products from bed-oxidized brown coal by ozonation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The possibility of modifying the functional composition of humic acids by gas-phase ozonation of bed-oxidized brown coal was examined. About 90% of the organic matter of brown coal was converted to low-molecular weight soluble oxygen-containing products by stepwise liquid-phase ozonation (in chloroform and acetic acid).

Semenova, S.A.; Patrakov, Y.F.; Batina, M.V. [National Academy of Science Belarus, Minsk (Byelarus)

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

374

Comparison between the TOPAZ Airborne Ozone Lidar and In Situ Measurements during TexAQS 2006  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The NOAA airborne ozone lidar system [Tunable Optical Profiler for Aerosol and Ozone (TOPAZ)] is compared with the fast-response chemiluminescence sensor flown aboard the NOAA WP-3D during the 2006 Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS). TOPAZ ...

A. O. Langford; C. J. Senff; R. J. Alvarez II; R. M. Banta; R. M. Hardesty; D. D. Parrish; T. B. Ryerson

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

NETL: Global Environmental Benefits  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Global Environmental Benefits Global Environmental Benefits Gasification Systems Global Environmental Benefits Environmental performance for future energy production systems is a much greater factor as emission standards tighten in the United States and worldwide. The outstanding environmental performance of gasification systems makes it an excellent technology for the clean production of electricity and other products. In addition, the reduction of CO2 emissions is one of the major challenges facing industry in response to global climate change. Other countries with coal reserves might potentially import technologies developed in the United States to enable low-cost gasification with carbon capture and EOR or sequestration. Not only will this benefit the U.S. gasification technology industry, but it will also result in a global environmental benefit through more affordable control of greenhouse gases (GHGs). See the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) link below for a summary of the impact of fossil fuels without carbon capture on CO2 emissions, on the GHG contributions of different countries, and of the projected impact of developing countries to 2030:

376

Proposal concerning the participation of CERN in the procurement of depleted-uranium sheets for the UA1 calorimeter upgrading  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Proposal concerning the participation of CERN in the procurement of depleted-uranium sheets for the UA1 calorimeter upgrading

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Elevated Ozone Layers over the Seoul Metropolitan Region in Korea: Evidence for Long-Range Ozone Transport from Eastern China and Its Contribution to Surface Concentrations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Elevated layers of high ozone concentration were observed over the Seoul metropolitan region (SMR) in Korea by ozonesonde measurements during 69 June 2003. An analysis of the synoptic-scale meteorological features and backward trajectories ...

In-Bo Oh; Yoo-Keun Kim; Mi-Kyung Hwang; Cheol-Hee Kim; Soontae Kim; Sang-Keun Song

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Tropospheric and Lower Stratospheric Ozone Profiles From AERI-X Emission Spectra  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tropospheric and Lower Stratospheric Ozone Profiles Tropospheric and Lower Stratospheric Ozone Profiles From AERI-X Emission Spectra P. F. Fogal and F. J. Murcray Department of Physics and Astronomy University of Denver Denver, Colorado Introduction The University of Denver Atmospheric Emission Radiometric Interferometer-Extended (AERI-X) has been in regular operation at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) Program site, conditions permitting, since the mid-1990s. We present here the analysis of several spectra from May 10, 1999, and demonstrate the ability to retrieve the tropospheric ozone profile at the ARM site. While the presence of ozone in the stratosphere is of vital importance for several reasons, in the troposphere, ozone is a pollutant and a powerful oxidizer. For these reasons, it is

379

global | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

global global Dataset Summary Description GIS data for offshore wind speed (meters/second). Specified to Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ).Wind resource based on NOAA blended sea winds and monthly wind speed at 30km resolution, using a 0.11 wind sheer to extrapolate 10m - 90m. Annual average >= 10 months of data, no nulls. Source National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Date Released Unknown Date Updated Unknown Keywords GIS global NOAA NREL offshore wind wind speed Data application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 18.5 MiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Time Period License License Other or unspecified, see optional comment below Comment Please cite NREL and NOAA Rate this dataset Usefulness of the metadata

380

Global ice sheet modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The University of Maine conducted this study for Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of a global climate modeling task for site characterization of the potential nuclear waste respository site at Yucca Mountain, NV. The purpose of the study was to develop a global ice sheet dynamics model that will forecast the three-dimensional configuration of global ice sheets for specific climate change scenarios. The objective of the third (final) year of the work was to produce ice sheet data for glaciation scenarios covering the next 100,000 years. This was accomplished using both the map-plane and flowband solutions of our time-dependent, finite-element gridpoint model. The theory and equations used to develop the ice sheet models are presented. Three future scenarios were simulated by the model and results are discussed.

Hughes, T.J.; Fastook, J.L. [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States). Institute for Quaternary Studies

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "global ozone depletion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Principal Associate Director - Global Security  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Principal Associate Director - Global Security Principal Associate Director - Global Security As Principal Associate Director for Global Security, Wallace leads Laboratory programs with special focus on developing and applying the scientific and engineering capabilities to address complex national and global security threats. Contact Operator Los Alamos National Laboratory (505 667-5061 Wallace's expertise is forensic seismology, a highly specialized discipline focusing on detection and quantification of nuclear tests. Terry C. Wallace, Jr. Principal Associate Director for Global Security Terry C. Wallace, Jr., Principal Associate Director for Global Security As Principal Associate Director for Global Security, Wallace leads Laboratory programs with a focus on applying scientific and engineering capabilities

382

Variables effecting ozone treatment of physical-chemical effluent  

SciTech Connect

The treatment of raw sewage from an on-site apartment area was investigated in a series of laboratory experiments in which changes in turbidity, pH, total organic carbon, chemical oxygen demand, and, in some cases, biochemical oxygen demands were determined. Raw sewage, but mainly the effluent following physical-chemical treatment, was examined for improvement in discharge quality by ozone treatment in combination with oxygen sparging, ionizing gamma radiation from /sup 60/Co heating, acidifying, and several other variables. The average composition of the raw sewage was a TOC of 125 ppM (range from 65 to 240), COD of 190 ppM (range from 85 to 475), turbidity of 145 J. U. (range from 60 to 350), and pH of 7.3 (range from 6.5 to 8.4). Physical chemical treatment usually consisted of the addition of CaO (to pH 11) and FeCl/sub 3/ as a coagulant aid in an inclined tube followed by course filtration; typical treatment time was 15 minutes giving an average reduction in TOC and COD of 40 to 60%. Subsequent treatment was usually performed with 200 cm/sup 3/ samples of the effluent in fine and course fritted bubblers. The combination of radiation plus ozone gave the largest reduction of TOC and COD. In one experiment, 15 minutes of treatment followed by 30 minutes of irradiation and ozonation reduced the raw sewage TOC from 95 to 14 ppM carbon and COD from 150 to 6 ppM oxygen. (auth)

Dietz, R.N.; Pruzansky, J.; Steinberg, M.

1973-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Depleted Uraniuim Dioxide as a Spent-Nuclear-Fuel-Waste Package...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

15 DEPLETED URANIUM DIOXIDE AS A SPENT-NUCLEAR-FUEL WASTE-PACKAGE PARTICULATE FILL: FILL BEHAVIOR Charles W. Forsberg Oak Ridge National Laboratory * P.O. Box 2008 Oak Ridge,...

384

Sequestration of CO2 in a Depleted Oil Reservoir: An Overview  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

in a Depleted Oil Reservoir: An Overview H. Westrich (hrwestr@sandia.gov; 505-844-9092) J. Lorenz (jcloren@sandia.gov; 505-3695) S. Cooper (spcoope@sandia.gov; 505-844-3977) C....

385

FAQ 15-What are the dimensions of a depleted uranium hexafluoride cylinder?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

are the dimensions of a depleted uranium hexafluoride cylinder? are the dimensions of a depleted uranium hexafluoride cylinder? What are the dimensions of a depleted uranium hexafluoride cylinder? Several different cylinder types are in use, although the vast majority of cylinders are designed to contain 14-tons (12-metric tons) of depleted UF6. The 14-ton-capacity cylinders are 12 ft (3.7 m) long by 4 ft (1.2 m) in diameter, with most having an initial wall thickness of 5/16 in. (0.79 cm) of steel. The cylinders have external stiffening rings that provide support. Lifting lugs for handling are attached to the stiffening rings. A small percentage of the cylinders have skirted ends (extensions of the cylinder walls past the rounded ends of the cylinder). Each cylinder has a single valve for filling and emptying located on one end at the 12 o'clock position. Similar, but slightly smaller, cylinders designed to contain 10 tons (9 metric tons) of depleted UF6 are also in use. Cylinders are manufactured in accordance with an American National Standards Institute standard (ANSI N14.1, American National Standard for Nuclear Materials - Uranium Hexafluoride - Packaging for Transport) as specified in 49 CFR 173.420, the federal regulations governing transport of depleted UF6.

386

Effect of twinning on texture evolution of depleted uranium using a viscoplastic self-consistent model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ductility and fracture toughness is a major stumbling block in using depleted uranium as a structural material. The ability to correctly model deformation of uranium can be used to create process path methods to improve its structural design ability. The textural evolution of depleted uranium was simulated using a visco-plastic self consistent model and analyzed by comparing pole figures of the simulations and experimental samples. Depleted uranium has the same structure as alpha uranium, which is an orthorhombic phase of uranium. Both deformation slip and twin systems were compared. The VPSC model was chosen to simulate this material because the model encompasses both low-symmetry materials as well as twinning in materials. This is of particular interest since depleted uranium has a high propensity for twinning, which dominates deformation and texture evolution. Simulated results were compared to experimental results to measure the validity of the model. One specific twin system, the {l_brace}176{r_brace}[512] twin, was of specific notice. The VPSC model was used to simulate the influence of this twin on depleted uranium and was compared with a mechanically shocked depleted uranium sample. Under high strain rate shock deformation conditions, the {l_brace}176{r_brace}[512] twin system appears to be a dominant deformation system. By simulating a compression process using the VPSC model with the {l_brace}176{r_brace}[512] twin as the dominant deformation mode, a favorable comparison could be made between the experimental and simulated textures. (authors)

Ho, J.; Garmestani, H. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0245 (United States); Burrell, R.; Belvin, A. [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Li, D. [Fundamental and Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); McDowell, D. [Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Atlanta, GA 30332-0245 (United States); Rollett, A. [Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Global Hunger Index  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of halving the proportion of hungry people between 1990 and 2015, we are nowhere near meeting that target. The percentage of undernourished people fell from 20 percent in 199092 to 16 percent in 200406. In recent years, however, the number of hungry people has actually been increasing. In 2009, on the heels of a global food price

Heidi Fritschel; Yisehac Yohannes

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Isolation and characterization of five ozone-inductible cDNA clones from Atriplax canescens (saltbush)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Prolonged exposure of plants to ozone inhibits growth and development and produces visible signs of damage. Within a few hours of exposure, certain biochemical alterations have been observed with the induction of several stress-related proteins. accumulation of several polya RNAS. CDNA clones derived from five different polya RNAs which accumulate in ozone-stressed shrub leaves were isolated by differential screening methods. Alteration in gene expression which occurs with ozone, sulfur dioxide and water deficit were examined, and those cDNAs were sequenced. Clone 012-1, hybridized with three RNA species, is initially induced in response to both ozone and water deficit stress, but is repressed to prolonged ozone and sulfur dioxide exposure. Clone 012-1 has strong homology with small subunit RRNA. Northern blots suggest that transcripts hybridized to 012-1 are a naked species (about 1.45 kb) and are subfragments (1.0 and 0.45 kb) of 1.4 kb species. 0112A-3 showed an increase in response to two pollutants, but not to water deficit. 0112A-3 encodes a polypeptide which has homology with wound-inducible protein inhibitors. MRNA species corresponding to 018-3 are transiently induced in response to sulfur dioxide and water deficit stress, and are late-induced by ozone stress. The 018-3 protein is Ozone fumigation to Atriplex canescens (saltbush) caused the homologous to thiol proteases. Clone OID2-2 and OIS14-3 show similar patterns in gene expression Transcript levels of the two genes rise rapidly and remain at a high level by seven days after ozone fumigation, and rise steadily in response to water deficit and sulfur dioxide stress. The deduced amino acids of both clones are glycine-rich proteins, and they have repeated motifs, (G-G-G-Y-G-H)n, and putative cell wall-targeting signal peptides. Northern analyses indicate that plant cells respond to ozone stress by increasing transcription of several genes. Furthermore, the expression of ozone-inducible genes varies with respect to the time course of induction and different stresses such as water-deficit and sulfur dioxide stress. The encoded proteins suggest that: first, ozone stress may generate wounding damage to increase the expression of the proteinase inhibitor (0112A-3) and the protease (018-3); second, ozone stress may change the cell wall components by increasing the amount of glycine-rich proteins (OID2-2 and OIS14-3); and third, ozone stress may change the cell wall structure with tyrosine-mediated cross-linking, which may use oxyradical-scavenging effects to relieve cellular stress.

No, Eun-Gyu

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Imaging Spectrometry of Tropospheric Ozone and Water Vapor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Imaging spectrometry has the potential of remotely detecting atmospheric trace gases on the basis of their absorption of radiation. Ozone absorbs particulary in the ultraviolet and visible range of the spectrum, whereas water vapor has strong absorption features in the near infrared. Hence, spectrometry is expected to be a promising tool to extract these trace gas contents in a given air column by using the correlation between cumulative trace gas amount and absorption strength in the sensor channels located in the absorption bands. New mathematical methods of channel selection and method evaluation for measuring atmospheric trace gases are presented. Three already known and four new differential absorption techniques are evaluated by using MODTRAN2 simulations of the radiance spectrum at the sensor level and an analytical error propagation analysis. Finally, the best methods and channel combinations are selected and applied to AVIRIS data of Central Switzerland. The spatial ozone distribution could be estimated over water in a qualitative manner, whereas the total column water vapor content could be quantified over land with an accuracy of about 6%.

Daniel Schlpfer; Klaus I. Itten; Johannes Keller

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Sensitivity analysis of ozone formation and transport for a Central California air pollution episode  

SciTech Connect

CMAQ-HDDM is used to determine spatial and temporal variations in ozone limiting reagents and local vs upwind source contributions for an air pollution episode in Central California. We developed a first- and second- order sensitivity analysis approach with the Decoupled Direct Method to examine spatial and temporal variations of ozone-limiting reagents and the importance of local vs upwind emission sources in the San Joaquin Valley of central California for a five-day ozone episode (29th July-3rd Aug, 2000). Despite considerable spatial variations, nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emission reductions are overall more effective than volatile organic compound (VOC) control for attaining the 8-hr ozone standard in this region for this episode, in contrast to the VOC control that works better for attaining the prior 1-hr ozone standard. Inter-basin source contributions of NO{sub x} emissions are limited to the northern part of the SJV, while anthropogenic VOC (AVOC) emissions, especially those emitted at night, influence ozone formation in the SJV further downwind. Among model input parameters studied here, uncertainties in emissions of NO{sub x} and AVOC, and the rate coefficient of the OH + NO{sub 2} termination reaction, have the greatest effect on first-order ozone responses to changes in NO{sub x} emissions. Uncertainties in biogenic VOC emissions only have a modest effect because they are generally not collocated with anthropogenic sources in this region.

Jin, Ling; Tonse, Shaheen; Cohan, Daniel S.; Mao, Xiaoling; Harley, Robert A.; Brown, Nancy J.

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

391

Joint Variability of Global Runoff and Global Sea Surface Temperatures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Global land surface runoff and sea surface temperatures (SST) are analyzed to identify the primary modes of variability of these hydroclimatic data for the period 19052002. A monthly water-balance model first is used with global monthly ...

Gregory J. McCabe; David M. Wolock

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Global Climate Data  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Data Data The climate data at the ORNL DAAC are used primarily as driving variables in terrestrial biogeochemistry models. These models typically use data on temperature (min,max), precipitation, humidity (relative humidity, vapor pressure deficit, dew point), radiation (PFD in PAR, shortwave, direct/diffuse, and UV radiation, daylength), and wind velocity. Climate / meteorology data are required at hourly to monthly time scales, either point or gridded, at spatial scales ranging from regional to continental to global. The ORNL DAAC currently distributes climate data from several related projects: VEMAP-1 Hydroclimatology, and Global Historical Climatology Network. We are also now distributing climate data developed at the East Anglia Climate Research Unit and the Potsdam Institute for Climate Research.

393

Global Insight Energy Group  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Outlook Outlook Mary Novak Managing Director IHS Global Insight Copyright © 2010 IHS Global Insight, Inc. Overview: Energy Sector Transformation Underway * The recession has hit energy demand hard, and aggregate energy demand is not expected to return to 2007 levels until 2018. * Oil and natural gas prices will both rise over the long-term, but the price trends will diverge with natural gas prices rising slowly due to the development of shale gas. * This forecast does not include a GHG cap-and-trade program. However, it is assumed that there will be continued improvement in equipment, appliance and building efficiencies that will reduce carbon emissions relative to past projections. * The forecast also includes the more than 30 state- level programs to increase efficiency and reduce

394

Global Climate & Energy ProjectGlobal & Energy Project STANFORD UNIVERSITY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from plants and animals to energy, and to determine the best conditions for doing so (see below). #12, and processes may have an enormous impact on the world's future energy consumption and environment. In orderGlobal Climate & Energy ProjectGlobal & Energy Project STANFORD UNIVERSITY Global Energy Climate

Nur, Amos

395

Global hydrological cycle response to rapid and slow global warming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We analyze the response of global water vapor to global warming in a series of fully coupled climate model simulations. We find that a roughly 7% per Kelvin rate of increase of water vapor with global surface temperature is robust only for rapid ...

Larissa Back; Karen Russ; Zhengyu Liu; Kuniaki Inoue; Jiaxu Zhang; Bette Otto-Bliesner

396

The Nimbus-7 Global Cloud Climatology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A total of six years (April 1979 to March 1985) of continuous measurements from the Temperature Humidity Infrared Radiometer (THIR) and the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), both on the Nimbus-7 satellite, have been processed to form the ...

Paul H. Hwang; H. Lee Kyle; Larry L. Stowe; H. Y. Michael Yeh

1988-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Global climate feedbacks  

SciTech Connect

The important physical, chemical, and biological events that affect global climate change occur on a mesoscale -- requiring high spatial resolution for their analysis. The Department of Energy has formulated two major initiatives under the US Global Change Program: ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurements), and CHAMMP (Computer Hardware Advanced Mathematics and Model Physics). ARM is designed to use ground and air-craft based observations to document profiles of atmospheric composition, clouds, and radiative fluxes. With research and models of important physical processes, ARM will delineate the relationships between trace gases, aerosol and cloud structure, and radiative transfer in the atmosphere, and will improve the parameterization of global circulation models. The present GCMs do not model important feedbacks, including those from clouds, oceans, and land processes. The purpose of this workshop is to identify such potential feedbacks, to evaluate the uncertainties in the feedback processes (and, if possible, to parameterize the feedback processes so that they can be treated in a GCM), and to recommend research programs that will reduce the uncertainties in important feedback processes. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases.

Manowitz, B.

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Global residential appliance standards  

SciTech Connect

In most countries, residential electricity consumption typically ranges from 20% to 40% of total electricity consumption. This energy is used for heating, cooling, refrigeration and other end-uses. Significant energy savings are possible if new appliance purchases are for models with higher efficiency than that of existing models. There are several ways to ensure or encourage such an outcome, for example, appliance rebates, innovative procurement, and minimum efficiency standards. This paper focuses on the latter approach. At the present time, the US is the only country with comprehensive appliance energy efficiency standards. However, many other countries, such as Australia, Canada, the European Community (EC), Japan and Korea, are considering enacting standards. The greatest potential impact of minimum efficiency standards for appliances is in the developing countries (e.g., China and India), where saturations of household appliances are relatively low but growing rapidly. This paper discusses the potential savings that could be achieved from global appliance efficiency standards for refrigerators and freezers. It also could be achieved from global appliance efficiency standards for refrigerators and freezers. It also discusses the impediments to establishing common standards for certain appliance types, such as differing test procedures, characteristics, and fuel prices. A methodology for establishing global efficiency standards for refrigerators and freezers is described.

Turiel, I.; McMahon, J.E. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (US); Lebot, B. [Agence Francaise pour la Maitrise de l`Energie, Valbonne (FR)

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

GoGlobal Fall 2006  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Policy and Social Welfare at the UCLA School of Public Affairs, and Visiting Professor of Global & International

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

The oceanic cycle and global atmospheric budget of carbonyl sulfide  

SciTech Connect

A significant portion of stratospheric air chemistry is influenced by the existence of carbonyl sulfide (COS). This ubiquitous sulfur gas represents a major source of sulfur to the stratosphere where it is converted to sulfuric acid aerosol particles. Stratospheric aerosols are climatically important because they scatter incoming solar radiation back to space and are able to increase the catalytic destruction of ozone through gas phase reactions on particle surfaces. COS is primarily formed at the surface of the earth, in both marine and terrestrial environments, and is strongly linked to natural biological processes. However, many gaps in the understanding of the global COS cycle still exist, which has led to a global atmospheric budget that is out of balance by a factor of two or more, and a lack of understanding of how human activity has affected the cycling of this gas. The goal of this study was to focus on COS in the marine environment by investigating production/destruction mechanisms and recalculating the ocean-atmosphere flux.

Weiss, P.S.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "global ozone depletion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

FAQ 37-What are the potential health risks from transportation of depleted  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

depleted uranium metal or oxide? depleted uranium metal or oxide? What are the potential health risks from transportation of depleted uranium metal or oxide? In the PEIS, risks associated with transportation of depleted uranium oxide and metal were estimated for transport by either rail or truck. Normal transport of oxide or metal would result in low-level external exposure to radiation for persons in the vicinity of a shipment. Based on estimates in the PEIS, the levels of exposure would result in negligible increased cancer risks. Risks from material released in an accident were also estimated. For a hypothetical railcar accident involving powder U3O8 that was assumed to occur in a highly-populated urban area under stable (nighttime) weather conditions, it was estimated that up to 20 people might experience irreversible adverse effects from chemical toxicity, with no fatalities expected. Approximately 2 potential latent cancer fatalities from radiological hazards are estimated for an accident under the same conditions. The probability of such an accident occurring is very low. The consequences from a truck accident would be lower, because trucks have a smaller shipment capacity. The consequences of transportation accidents involving depleted uranium metal would be much smaller than those involving uranium oxide because uranium metal would be in the form of solid blocks and would not be easily dispersed in an accident.

402

Source Contributions to VOC's to Ozone Formation in Southeast Texas Using a Source-oriented Air Quality Model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Houston-Galveston-Brazoria area is in severe non-attainment status for ozone compliance. Source-oriented mechanistic modeling was used to determine the major sources of VOCs that contributes to ozone formation during the Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS) from August 16, 2000 to September 7, 2000. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)?s Community Scale Air Quality Model (CMAQ) version 4.6 was used as a host model to include a revised Statewide Air Pollution Research Center (SAPRC99) photochemical mechanism with source-oriented extensions to track the contributions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) emissions from diesel engines, biogenic sources, highway gasoline vehicles, fuel combustion, off-highway gasoline engines, solvent utilization and petrochemical industries to ozone formation in the atmosphere. Source-oriented emissions needed to drive the model were generated using a revised Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE) model version 2.4. VOC/NOx ratios are found to be a critical factor in the formation of ozone. Highest ozone formation rates were observed for ratios from 5-15. The contributions of VOC to ozone formation were estimated based on the linear relationship between the rate of NO to NO2 conversion due to radicals generated from VOC oxidation and the rate of net ozone formation. Petroleum and other industrial sources are the largest anthropogenic sources in the urban Houston region and contribute to 45% of the ozone formation in the HGB area. Highway gasoline vehicles make contributions of approximately 28% to ozone formation. Wildfires contribute to as much 11% of ozone formation on days of high wildfire activity. The model results show that biogenic emissions account for a significant amount of ozone formation in the rural areas. Both highway and off-highway vehicles contribute significantly to ozone formation especially in the downwind region. Diesel vehicles do not contribute significantly to ozone formation due to their low VOC emissions.

Krishnan, Anupama

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Upper-Level Atmospheric Circulation Patterns and Ground-Level Ozone in the Atlanta Metropolitan Area  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this paper is to identify middle-troposphere circulation patterns associated with high ozone concentrations during JuneAugust of 200007 in the Atlanta, Georgia, metropolitan statistical area (MSA), which is located in the ...

Jeremy E. Diem; Melissa A. Hursey; Imani R. Morris; Amanda C. Murray; Ricardo A. Rodriguez

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

An Estimation of the Climatic Effects of Stratospheric Ozone Losses during the 1980s  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to study the potential climatic effects of the ozone hole more directly and to assess the validity of previous lower resolution model results, the latest high spatial resolution version of the Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc.,...

Robert M. MacKay; Malcolm K. W. Ko; Run-Lie Shia; Yajaing Yang; Shuntai Zhou; Gyula Molnar

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

UV Sensitivity to Changes in Ozone, Aerosols and Clouds in Seoul, Korea  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The total ozone (O3) and aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 320 nm have been observed from the ultraviolet (UV) measurements made at Yonsei University in Seoul, Korea with Dobson and Brewer spectrophotometers, respectively, during 2004-2010. The daily ...

Woogyung Kim; Jhoon Kim; Sang Seo Park; Hi-Ku Cho

406

A Two-Dimensional Model of the Quasi-biennial Oscillation of Ozone  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The stratospheric quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) in zonal wind, temperature and column ozone has been successfully modeled in a two-dimensional dynamical/chemical model by the introduction of a parameterization scheme to model the transfer of ...

L. J. Gray; J. A. Pyle

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Greenhouse gases and future long-term changes in the stratospheric temperature and the ozone layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A numerical two-dimensional (2D) interactive dynamical-radiative-photochemical model including aerosol physics is used to examine the expected long-term changes in stratospheric temperature and the Earth's ozone layer due to anthropogenic pollution of ...

I. G. Dyominov; A. M. Zadorozhny

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Calculated Influence of Temperature-Related Factors on Ozone Formation Rates in the Lower Troposphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using an atmospheric chemical reaction mechanism applied to air parcels near the earth's surface, the sensitivities ozone (O3) formation rates are quantified for changes in four meteorologically controlled parameters: temperature, sunlight ...

Chris J. Walcek; Hong-H. Yuan

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Application of gaseous disinfectants ozone and chlorine dioxide for inactivation of Bacillus subtilis spores  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An assessment of ozone and chlorine dioxide for treatment ofAston, R. ; Synan, J. , Chlorine dioxide as a bactericide62, 80. 14. Keane, T. , Chlorine dioxide why all the

Aydogan, Ahmet

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Interannual Variations of Total Ozone and Their Relationship to Variations of Planetary Wave Activity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Interannual variations of total ozone at midlatitudes of the Northern Hemisphere are shown to operate coherently with variations of upwelling planetary wave activity from the troposphere. Variations of upwelling wave activity, which modulate ...

Andrew C. Fusco; Murry L. Salby

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Reductions in ozone concentrations due to controls on variability in industrial flare emissions in Houston, Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High concentrations of ozone in the Houston/Galveston area are associated with industrial plumes of highly reactive hydrocarbons, mixed with NOx. The emissions leading to these plumes can have significant temporal variability, ...

Nam, Junsang

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

An Automated Classification Scheme Designed to Better Elucidate the Dependence of Ozone on Meteorology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper utilizes a two-stage (average linkage then convergent k means) clustering approach as part of an automated meteorological classification scheme designed to better elucidate the dependence of ozone on meteorology. When applied to 10 ...

Brian K. Eder; Jerry M. Davis; Peter Bloomfield

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Short-Range Prediction of Tropospheric Ozone Concentrations and Exceedances for Baton Rouge, Louisiana  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Previous research has been focused on improving forecasts of the daily maximum 1-h concentration of tropospheric ozone, which was based on criteria used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). However, in 2001, EPA began implementing ...

Robert V. Rohli; S. A. Hsu; Brian W. Blanchard; R. L. Fontenot

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Mesoscale Meteorological Structure of a High-Ozone Episode during the 1995 NARSTO-Northeast Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Observations and numerical model fields were analyzed to study the meteorological structures contributing to high concentrations of lower-tropospheric ozone over the northeastern United States on 1415 July 1995. It was found that the episode is ...

Nelson L. Seaman; Sara A. Michelson

2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Trends in Stratospheric Ozone: Lessons Learned from a 3D Chemical Transport Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Stratospheric ozone is affected by external factors such as chlorofluorcarbons (CFCs), volcanoes, and the 11-yr solar cycle variation of ultraviolet radiation. Dynamical variability due to the quasi-biennial oscillation and other factors also ...

Richard S. Stolarski; Anne R. Douglass; Stephen Steenrod; Steven Pawson

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

The effect of variability in industrial emissions on ozone formation in Houston, Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ambient observations have indicated that high concentrations of ozone observed in the Houston/Galveston area are associated with plumes of highly reactive hydrocarbons, mixed with NOx, from industrial facilities. Ambient ...

Webster, Mort David

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Missing Stratospheric Ozone Decrease at Southern Hemisphere Middle Latitudes after Mt. Pinatubo: A Dynamical Perspective  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Although large total ozone decreases occurred in the Northern Hemisphere extratropics in the years after the volcanic eruption of Mt. Pinatubo that are generally attributed to the eruption, comparable decreases did not emerge in the Southern ...

C. Schnadt Poberaj; J. Staehelin; D. Brunner

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Modeling Ozone Formation and Transport in the Cascadia Region of the Pacific Northwest  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The rapidly growing Cascadia region of the Pacific Northwest, consisting of western Washington, Oregon, and southwestern British Columbia, has experienced surface ozone concentrations that exceed federally mandated standards. A modeling system ...

Mike Barna; Brian Lamb; Susan ONeill; Hal Westberg; Cris Figueroa-Kaminsky; Sally Otterson; Clint Bowman; Jennifer DeMay

2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Estimating changes in urban ozone concentrations due to life cycle emissions from hydrogen transportation systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

criteria.htmlS. Accessed on NRC, 1991. Rethinking the OzonePress, Washington, DC. NRC, 2004. The Hydrogen Economy:hours of the summer months (NRC, 1991). In summary the

Wang, Guihua; Ogden, Joan M; Chang, Daniel P.Y.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Modeling the Effect of Chlorine Emissions on Ozone Levels over the Eastern United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents model estimates of the effect of chlorine emissions on atmospheric ozone concentrations in the eastern United States. The model included anthropogenic molecular chlorine emissions, anthropogenic hypochlorous acid emissions ...

Golam Sarwar; Prakash V. Bhave

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "global ozone depletion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Climatology and trends in the forcing of the stratospheric ozone transport  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A thorough analysis of the ozone transport was carried out using the Transformed-Mean Eulerian (TEM) tracer continuity equation and the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-Analysis (ERA-40). In ...

Monier, Erwan

422

Climatology and Trends in the Forcing of the Stratospheric Ozone Transport  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A thorough analysis of the ozone transport was carried out using the Transformed-Mean Eulerian (TEM) tracer transport equation and the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re- Analysis (ERA-40). In ...

Monier, Erwan

423

The Characterization of an Air Pollution Episode Using Satellite Total Ozone Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A case study is presented which demonstrates that measurements of total ozone from a space platform can be used to study a widespread air pollution episode over the southeastern United States. In particular the synoptic-scale distribution of ...

Jack Fishman; Fred M. Vukovich; Donald R. Cahoon; Mark C. Shipham

1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Characterization of the Nimbus-7 SBUV Radiometer for the Long-Term Monitoring of Stratospheric Ozone  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Precise knowledge of in-orbit sensitivity change is critical for the successful monitoring of stratosphere ozone by satellite-based remote sensors. This paper evaluates those aspects of the in-flight operation that influence the long-term ...

R. P. Cebula; H. Park; D. F. Heath

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

The Long-Term Coupling between Column Ozone and Tropopause Properties  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The observational data of the vertical temperature distribution and column ozone, obtained from 10 main stations in the Northern Hemisphere, are analyzed in order to explore the tropopause variations in conjunction with the dynamical variability ...

Costas Varotsos; Costas Cartalis; Andrew Vlamakis; Chris Tzanis; Iphigenia Keramitsoglou

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Ground-level ozone in eastern North America : its formation and transport  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ozone (Os), a natural component of the troposphere, is augmented by photochemical processes involving manmade emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Sufficiently high concentrations of ...

Zemba, Stephen G.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

A Novel Lightweight Low-Power Dual-Beam Ozone Photometer Utilizing Solid-State Optoelectronics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent advances in semiconductor materials and fabrication techniques have allowed the development of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with wavelengths extending down into the UV-C region (? < 280 nm). A new ozone photometer has been developed ...

Lars E. Kalnajs; Linnea M. Avallone

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

An Approach to the Detection of Long-Term Trends in Upper Stratospheric Ozone from Space  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A central problem in the detection of long-term trends in upper stratospheric ozone from orbiting remote sensors involves the separation of instrument drifts from true geophysical changes. Periodic flights of a Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet ...

John E. Frederick; Xufeng Niu; Ernest Hilsenrath

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Ozone Cycles in the Western Mediterranean Basin: Interpretation of Monitoring Data in Complex Coastal Terrain  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In summer, the complex layout of the coasts and mountains surrounding the western Mediterranean basin favors the development of mesoscale atmospheric recirculations and the formation of ozone reservoir layers above the coastal areas and the sea. ...

Milln M. Milln; Enrique Mantilla; Rosa Salvador; Adoracin Carratal; Maria Jos Sanz; Lucio Alonso; Gotzon Gangoiti; Marino Navazo

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Evaluation of an Improved Set of Predictors for Derivation of Total Ozone from TOVS Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three improvements to the operational regression procedures used at NOAA/NESDIS to derive total ozone from the TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) measurements are evaluated. An additional predictor, derived from the TOVS measurements, is ...

James H. Lienesch

1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Dynamical Response of the Tropical Total Ozone to Sea Surface Temperature Changes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Interannual variations of total ozone in the equatorial region are discussed in terms of the lower-stratospheric dynamical processes associated with sea surface temperature (SST) changes on an EJ Nio-Southern Oscillation time scale. Tropospheric ...

Fumio Hasebe

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Interannual Variability and Trends of Extratropical Ozone. Part II: Southern Hemisphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A principal component analysis (PCA) is applied to the Southern Hemisphere (SH) total column ozone following the method established for analyzing the data in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) in a companion paper. The interannual variability (IAV) of ...

Xun Jiang; Steven Pawson; Charles D. Camp; J. Eric Nielsen; Run-Lie Shia; Ting Liao; Varavut Limpasuvan; Yuk L. Yung

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

The Ozone Hole Breakup in September 2002 as Seen by SCIAMACHY on ENVISAT  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An unprecedented stratospheric warming in the Southern Hemisphere in September 2002 led to the breakup of the Antarctic ozone hole into two parts. The Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY) on the ...

C. von Savigny; A. Rozanov; H. Bovensmann; K.-U. Eichmann; S. Nol; V. Rozanov; B.-M. Sinnhuber; M. Weber; J. P. Burrows; J. W. Kaiser

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Stratospheric Sensitivity to Perturbations in Ozone and Carbon Dioxide: Radiative and Dynamical Response  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have attempted to assess the stratospheric effects of two different perturbations: 1) a uniform 50% reduction in ozone; and 2) a uniform doubling of carbon dioxide. The primary studies employ an annual mean insulation version of the recently ...

S. B. Fels; J. D. Mahlman; M. D. Schwarzkopf; R. W. Sinclair

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Remote Sensing Measurements of Tropospheric Ozone by Ground-Based Thermal Emission Spectroscopy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Remote sensing measurements of the troposphere were obtained by a new technique in which spectra of the downward thermal radiation from tropospheric ozone were measured with a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The measurements were ...

W. F. J. Evans; E. Puckrin

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

A Chemiluminescent Analyzer for Stratospheric Measurements of the Ozone Concentration (FOZAN)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Within the framework of the Airborne Polar Experiment, a new ozone analyzer based on chemiluminescent technology has been developed for high-altitude measurements. The instrument was tested on board the M-55 Geophysica aircraft during some ...

V. Yushkov; A. Oulanovsky; N. Lechenuk; I. Roudakov; K. Arshinov; F. Tikhonov; L. Stefanutti; F. Ravegnani; U. Bonaf; T. Georgiadis

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Ozone Loss and Recovery and the Preconditioning of Upward Propagating Planetary Wave Activity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A mechanistic chemistry-dynamical model is used to evaluate the relative importance of radiative, photochemical, and dynamical feedbacks in communicating changes in lower stratospheric ozone to the circulation of the stratosphere and lower ...

John R. Albers; Terrence R. Nathan

438

HIGH-DENSITY CONCRETE WITH CERAMIC AGGREGATE BASED ON DEPLETED URANIUM DIOXIDE  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DENSITY CONCRETE WITH CERAMIC AGGREGATE BASED ON DEPLETED URANIUM DENSITY CONCRETE WITH CERAMIC AGGREGATE BASED ON DEPLETED URANIUM DIOXIDE S.G. Ermichev, V.I. Shapovalov, N.V.Sviridov (RFNC-VNIIEF, Sarov, Russia) V.K. Orlov, V.M. Sergeev, A. G. Semyenov, A.M. Visik, A.A. Maslov, A. V. Demin, D.D. Petrov, V.V. Noskov, V. I. Sorokin, O. I. Uferov (VNIINM, Moscow, Russia) L. Dole (ORNL, Oak Ridge, USA) Abstract - Russia is researching the production and testing of concretes with ceramic aggregate based on depleted uranium dioxide (UO 2 ). These DU concretes are to be used as structural and radiation-shielded material for casks for A-plant spent nuclear fuel transportation and storage. This paper presents the results of studies aimed at selection of ceramics and concrete composition, justification of their production technology, investigation of mechanical properties, and chemical stability.

439

,"U.S. Natural Gas Number of Underground Storage Depleted Fields Capacity (Count)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Depleted Fields Capacity (Count)" Depleted Fields Capacity (Count)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Natural Gas Number of Underground Storage Depleted Fields Capacity (Count)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1391_nus_8a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1391_nus_8a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 5:43:06 PM"

440

,"U.S. Natural Gas Underground Storage Depleted Fields Capacity (MMcf)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Depleted Fields Capacity (MMcf)" Depleted Fields Capacity (MMcf)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Natural Gas Underground Storage Depleted Fields Capacity (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release Date:","12/12/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","1/7/2014" ,"Excel File Name:","na1391_nus_2a.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/na1391_nus_2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.doe.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"12/12/2013 5:43:05 PM"

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "global ozone depletion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

DANDE: a linked code system for core neutronics/depletion analysis  

SciTech Connect

This report describes DANDE - a modular neutronics, depletion code system for reactor analysis. It consists of nuclear data processing, core physics, and fuel depletion modules, and allows one to use diffusion and transport methods interchangeably in core neutronics calculations. This latter capability is especially important in the design of small modular cores. Additional unique features include the capability of updating the nuclear data file during a calculation; a detailed treatment of depletion, burnable poisons as well as fuel; and the ability to make geometric changes such as control rod repositioning and fuel relocation in the course of a calculation. The detailed treatment of reactor fuel burnup, fission-product creation and decay, as well as inventories of higher-order actinides is a necessity when predicting the behavior of reactor fuel under increased burn conditions. The operation of the code system is made clear in this report by following a sample problem.

LaBauve, R.J.; England, T.R.; George, D.C.; MacFarlane, R.E.; Wilson, W.B.

1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Transient effects and pump depletion in stimulated Raman scattering. [Para-hydrogen  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Stimulated rotational Raman scattering in a 300-K multipass cell filled with para-H/sub 2/ with a single-mode CO/sub 2/-pumped laser is studied using a frequency-narrowed optical parametric oscillator (OPO) as a probe laser at the Stokes frequency for the S/sub 0/(O) transition. Amplification and pump depletion are examined as a function of incident pump energy. The pump depletion shows clear evidence of transient behavior. A theoretical treatment of transient stimulated Raman scattering, including effects of both pump depletion and medium saturation is presented. In a first approximation, diffraction effects are neglected, and only plane-wave interactions are considered. The theoretical results are compared to the experimental pulse shapes.

Carlsten, J.L.; Wenzel, R.G.; Druehl, K.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Summary of the engineering analysis report for the long-term management of depleted uranium hexafluoride  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) is reviewing ideas for the long-term management and use of its depleted uranium hexafluoride. DOE owns about 560,000 metric tons (over a billion pounds) of depleted uranium hexafluoride. This material is contained in steel cylinders located in storage yards near Paducah, Kentucky; Portsmouth, Ohio; and at the East Tennessee Technology Park (formerly the K-25 Site) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. On November 10, 1994, DOE announced its new Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program by issuing a Request for Recommendations and an Advance Notice of Intent in the Federal Register (59 FR 56324 and 56325). The first part of this program consists of engineering, costs and environmental impact studies. Part one will conclude with the selection of a long-term management plan or strategy. Part two will carry out the selected strategy.

Dubrin, J.W., Rahm-Crites, L.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Global Fossil Fuel Carbon Emissions - Graphics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions Global Graphics Global Fossil-Fuel Carbon Emissions - Graphics Carbon Emission Estimates image image Global Per Capita Carbon Emission Estimates...

445

Arrhenius and global warming  

SciTech Connect

Although concern about global atmospheric warming has intensified in recent decades, research into the greenhouse effect actually began in the 19th century. Fourier and other scientists appreciated that without heat-absorbing gases in the atmosphere, the temperature on the ground would be considerably lower, making life as we know it impossible. In 1896, the Swedish scientist Svante Arrhenius was the first to make a quantitative link between changes in carbon dioxide concentration and climate. Publication of his paper was celebrated at a recent Swedish workshop. 13 refs., 1 fig.

Uppenbrink, J.

1996-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

446

Global Laser Enrichment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

APPLICATION PUBLIC RESPONSES GE-Hitachi Global Laser Enrichment LLC (GLE) hereby submits the additional information requested in the November 19, 2009 letter. Enclosure 1 of this letter contains the responses the questions. A separate letter has been submitted that contains a non-public version of these responses, which contains Export-Controlled and Security-Related Information. If there are any questions regarding this letter and its contents, please do not hesitate to contact myself, or Julie Olivier of my staff at 910-819-4799 or at Julie.Olivier@ge.com.

Uranium Enrichment Branch; Albert E. Kennedy; Albert E. Kennedy; Tammy Orr (gle

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Global Laser Enrichment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PUBLIC VERSION GE-Hitachi Global Laser Enrichment LLC (GLE) hereby submits revision 2 of the GLE License Application. Enclosure 1 contains revised Request for Additional Information responses. Enclosure 2 contains revised chapters 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, and 11 of the GLE License Application. Enclosure 3 contains the revised pubic version of the Decommissioning Funding Plan. Non-Public versions of the revised License Application and the Decommissioning Funding Plan have been prepared and will be submitted under separate enclosure. If there are any questions regarding this letter and its contents, please do not hesitate to contact me at 910-819-4799 or at

Julie Olivier; Brian Smith Chief; Uranium Enrichment Branch; Julie Olivier; Tim Johnson (nrc; Tammy Orr (gle; Lori Butler (geh; Jerry Head (geh; Patricia Campbell (geh; Bob Crate (gle; Ken Givens (gle; Tom Owens (gle

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

The Global Energy Challenge  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The expected doubling of global energy demand by 2050 challenges our traditional patterns of energy production, distribution and use. The continued use of fossil fuels raises concerns about supply, security, environment and climate. New routes are needed for the efficient conversion of energy from chemical fuel, sunlight, and heat to electricity or hydrogen as an energy carrier and finally to end uses like transportation, lighting, and heating. Opportunities for efficient new energy conversion routes based on nanoscale materials will be presented, with emphasis on the sustainable energy technologies they enable.

Crabtree, George (ANL)

2007-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

449

Sources of ozone and sulfate in northeastern United States. Annual progress report  

SciTech Connect

Ozone observed at Whiteface Mountain, NY, may be derived from the stratosphere, photochemical production from pollutant NO/sub x/ and hydrocarbons emitted in urban/industrial areas, with subsequent transport of O/sub 3/ to Whiteface Mountain, and/or photochemical production from NO/sub x/ and hyodrocarbons including terpenes, etc., emitted from vegetation in the vicinity of Whiteface Mountain. The principal objective of this work was to assess /sup 7/Be and /sup 32/P as stratospheric tracers and, if possible, use them to quantify stratospheric O/sub 3/. Other objectives of this program were: to study the relationship between O/sub 3/ and SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/, use SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ as an indicator of photochemical production originating in urban areas, to study the long-range transport of pollutants and try to identify emission sources and establish daily, monthly, and seasonal variations of SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ and trace elements thus generating a data base to study long-term trends. The salient features of this study were the first determinations of /sup 7/Be/O/sub 3/ ratios in the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere and gathering continuous data of radionuclides /sup 7/Be, /sup 32/P, and /sup 33/P along with O/sub 3/, SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/, and several trace elements. Some of the significant accomplishments of this study are: a quantitative relationships between /sup 7/Be and O/sub 3/ in the stratosphere was established, and it is applied to estimate stratospheric O/sub 3/ on a global and episodic basis; global /sup 7/Be measurements suggest that the stratospheric influx in the northern hemisphere is twice that in the southern; and, the /sup 7/Be//sup 32/P ratios yield an average transport time of approx. 7 days during spring and summer for stratospheric air from tropopause to Whiteface Mountain, supporting tropopause folding as the predominant mechanism of stratospheric-tropospheric exchange during spring and summer. (JGB)

Husain, L.

1980-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

450

Study Climate and Global Change  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

What We Study How We Study Prepare The Nation For Change Assess the U.S. Climate Make Our Science Accessible Link Climate Change & Health Provide Data and Tools Coordinate Internationally Study Climate and Global Change Print E-mail Deforestation What is global change? "Global change" refers to changes in the global environment that may alter the capacity of the Earth to sustain life. This includes alterations in: Climate Land productivity Oceans or other water resources Atmospheric chemistry Ecological systems Demographic and socioeconomic trends What is global change research? According to the Global Change Research Act of 1990, "Global change research" refers to the study, monitoring, assessment, prediction, and information management activities used to describe and understand the:

451

Global Scratch Upgrade in Progress  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Global Scratch Gets Global Scratch Gets an Upgrade Global Scratch Gets an Upgrade Improvements Will Include Higher Data Output Rates, Connection to PDSF October 29, 2013 The most used file system at the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC)-global scratch-just got an upgrade. As a result, some users may see their data output to global scratch reach up to 80 gigabytes per second. Although users will probably not see their 20-terabyte storage quotas increase, the upgrade ensures that global scratch remains flexible and paves the way for PDSF to eventually use the file system Because of the upgrade, users will also be able to better access their temporary data files or "scratch data" from any NERSC system, not just the one that generated it. Prior to the upgrade, Global scratch typically

452

Global warming and end-use efficiency implications of replacing CFCs  

SciTech Connect

The direct contribution of CFCs to calculated global warming has been recognized for some time. As a result of the international agreement to phase out CFCs due to stratospheric ozone and the ensuing search for suitable alternatives, there has recently been increased attention on the DIRECT global warming potential (GWP) of the fluorocarbon alternatives as greenhouse gases. However, to date there has been little focus on the INDIRECT global warming effect arising from end-use efficiency changes and associated CO{sub 2} emissions. A study being conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) addresses this combined or total global warming impact of viable options to replace CFCs in their major energy-related applications. This paper reviews selected results for air-conditioning, refrigeration, and heat pump applications. The analysis indicates that the CFC user industries have made substantial progress in approaching near-equal energy efficiency with the HCFC/HFC alternative refrigerants. The findings also bring into question the relative importance of the DIRECT (chemical-related) effect in many applications. Replacing CFCs is an important step in reducing the total global warming impact, and at present the HCFC and HFCS appear to offer the best efficiency and lowest total impact of options available in the relatively short time period required for the transition away from CFCs.

Fairchild, P.D.; Fischer, S.K.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

453

Structure and Depletion at Fluoro- and Hydro-carbon/Water Liquid/Liquid Interfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The results of x-ray reflectivity studies of two oil/water (liquid/liquid) interfaces are inconsistent with recent predictions of the presence of a vapor-like depletion region at hydrophobic/aqueous interfaces. One of the oils, perfluorohexane, is a fluorocarbon whose super-hydrophobic interface with water provides a stringent test for the presence of a depletion layer. The other oil, heptane, is a hydrocarbon and, therefore, is more relevant to the study of biomolecular hydrophobicity. These results are consistent with the sub-angstrom proximity of water to soft hydrophobic materials.

Kaoru Kashimoto; Jaesung Yoon; Binyang Hou; Chiu-hao Chen; Binhua Lin; Makoto Aratono; Takanori Takiue; Mark L. Schlossman

2008-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

454

Development of a Reliable Fuel Depletion Methodology for the HTR-10 Spent Fuel Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A technical working group formed in 2007 between NNSA and CAEA to develop a reliable fuel depletion method for HTR-10 based on MCNPX and to analyze the isotopic inventory and radiation source terms of the HTR-10 spent fuel. Conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Established a fuel depletion methodology and demonstrated its safeguards application; (2) Proliferation resistant at high discharge burnup ({approx}80 GWD/MtHM) - Unfavorable isotopics, high number of pebbles needed, harder to reprocess pebbles; (3) SF should remain under safeguards comparable to that of LWR; and (4) Diversion scenarios not considered, but can be performed.

Chung, Kiwhan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Beddingfield, David H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Geist, William H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lee, Sang-Yoon [unaffiliated

2012-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

455

Long-term global nuclear energy and fuel cycle strategies  

SciTech Connect

The Global Nuclear Vision Project is examining, using scenario building techniques, a range of long-term nuclear energy futures. The exploration and assessment of optimal nuclear fuel-cycle and material strategies is an essential element of the study. To this end, an established global E{sup 3} (energy/economics/environmental) model has been adopted and modified with a simplified, but comprehensive and multi-regional, nuclear energy module. Consistent nuclear energy scenarios are constructed using this multi-regional E{sup 3} model, wherein future demands for nuclear power are projected in price competition with other energy sources under a wide range of long-term demographic (population, workforce size and productivity), economic (price-, population-, and income-determined demand for energy services, price- and population-modified GNP, resource depletion, world-market fossil energy prices), policy (taxes, tariffs, sanctions), and top-level technological (energy intensity and end-use efficiency improvements) drivers. Using the framework provided by the global E{sup 3} model, the impacts of both external and internal drivers are investigated. The ability to connect external and internal drivers through this modeling framework allows the study of impacts and tradeoffs between fossil- versus nuclear-fuel burning, that includes interactions between cost, environmental, proliferation, resource, and policy issues.

Krakowski, R.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Technology and Safety Assessment Div.

1997-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

456

BBSLA Kazakhstan (032610) Kazakh (Global Version ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

BBSLA Kazakhstan (032610) Kazakh (Global Version 031010) 1 BLACKBERRY SOLUTION ??????????? ???????? ????????????? ...

457

BBSLA - Kazakhstan (032610) Russian (Global Version ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

BBSLA - Kazakhstan (032610) Russian (Global Version 031010) 1 ???????????? ?????????? ?? ????????????? ??????? ...

458

Global Threat Reduction Initiative  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Nonproliferation Nonproliferation U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 1 The Current Status of Gap and U.S.-Origin Nuclear Fuel Removals 2011 Jeff Galan, Deputy Project Manager U.S.-Origin Nuclear Remove Program National Nuclear Security Administration Global Threat Reduction Initiative Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 2 GTRI Mission and Goals GTRI is: A part of President Obama's comprehensive strategy to prevent nuclear terrorism; and The key organization responsible for implementing the U.S. HEU minimization policy. GTRI MISSION Reduce and protect vulnerable nuclear and radiological material located at civilian sites worldwide. DOE STRATEGIC GOAL 2.2 Prevent the acquisition of nuclear and radiological materials for use in weapons of mass destruction and other

459

Global Energy Management System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Exxon Mobil Corporation has undertaken voluntary actions to continuously improve energy efficiency in our operations for many years. From 1973 to 1999, we improved the energy efficiency of our refineries and chemical plants by over 35 percent - saving the cumulative equivalent of 1.8 billion barrels of oil and reducing carbon dioxide emissions by over 200 million tonnes. In 2000, we redoubled our efforts with deployment of our Global Energy Management System (GEMS), which utilizes international best practices and benchmarking to identify energy efficiencies at each of our refineries and chemical plants. Thus far, we have identified opportunities to improve the energy efficiency of these facilities by an additional 15 to 20 percent. At full implementation, savings are expected to total $500 million to $1 billion per year, with an associated reduction in carbon dioxide emissions of about 10 million tonnes per year - roughly equivalent to removing 1.5 million cars from the world's roads.

Eidt, B. D.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Verification of a Depletion Method in SCALE for the Advanced High Temperature Reactor  

SciTech Connect

This study describes a new method utilizing the Dancoff factor to model a non-standard TRISO fuel form characteristic of the AHTR reactor design concept for depletion analysis using the TRITON sequence of SCALE and the validation of this method by code-to-code comparisons. The fuel used in AHTR has the TRISO particles concentrated along the edges of a slab fuel element. This particular geometry prevented the use of a standard DOUBLEHET treatment, previously developed in SCALE to handle NGNP-designed fuel. The new method permits fuel depletion on complicated geometries that traditionally can be handled only by continuous energy based depletion code systems. The method was initially tested on a fuel design typical of the NGNP, where the DOUBLEHET treatment is available. A more comprehensive study was performed using the VESTA code that uses the continuous energy MCNP5 code as a transport solver and ORIGEN2.2 code for depletion calculations. Comparisons of the results indicate good agreement of whole core characteristics, such as the multiplication factor, and the isotopics, including their spatial distribution. Key isotopes analyzed included 235U, 239Pu, 240Pu and 241Pu. The results from this study indicate that the Dancoff factor method can generate estimates of core characteristics with reasonable precision for scoping studies of configurations where the DOUBLEHET treatment is unavailable.

KELLY, RYAN [Texas A& M University; Ilas, Dan [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "global ozone depletion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Peak production in an oil depletion model with triangular field profiles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Peak production in an oil depletion model with triangular field profiles Dudley Stark School;1 Introduction M. King Hubbert [5] used curve fitting to predict that the peak of oil produc- tion in the U.S.A. would occur between 1965 and 1970. Oil production in the U.S.A. actually peaked in 1970 and has been

Stark, Dudley

462

Depleted uranium oxides as spent-nuclear-fuel waste-package fill materials  

SciTech Connect

Depleted uranium dioxide fill inside the waste package creates the potential for significant improvements in package performance based on uranium geochemistry, reduces the potential for criticality in a repository, and consumes DU inventory. As a new concept, significant uncertainties exist: fill properties, impacts on package design, post- closure performance.

Forsberg, C.W.

1997-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

463

Global Natural Gas Market Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report examines the characteristics of global gas markets. These markets have entered a period of supplier strength and high prices as global demand growth has outpaced supply growth. The report systematically evaluates developments in global liquefaction andfor the principal consuming nationsin domestic production, market growth, pipelines, and regasification. While containing a great deal of detail, the report probes myriad announcements of commercial activities to help interpret the evolving comp...

2008-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

464

Synthetic liquid fuels development: assessment of critical factors. Volume III. Coal resource depletion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

While US coal resources are known to be vast, their rate of depletion in a future based predominantly on coal has not been examined analytically heretofore. The Coal Depletion Model inventories the coal resource on a regional basis and calculates the cost of coal extraction by three technologies - strip and underground mining and in-situ combustion. A plausible coal demand scenario extending from 1975 to the year 2050 is used as a basis in applying the model. In the year 2050, plants in operation include 285 syncrude plants, each producing 100,000 B/D; 312 SNG plants, each producing 250 million SCF/D and 722 coal-fired electric power plants, each of 1000 MW capacity. In addition, there is 890 million tons per year of industrial coal consumption. Such a high level of coal use would deplete US coal resources much more rapidly than most people appreciate. Of course, the actual amount of US coal is unknown, and if the coal in the hypothetical reliability category is included, depletion is delayed. Coal in this category, however, has not been mapped; it is only presumed to exist on the basis of geological theory. The coal resource depletion model shows that unilateral imposition of a severance tax by a state tends to shift production to other coal producing regions. Boom and bust cycles are both delayed and reduced in their magnitude. When several states simultaneously impose severance taxes, the effect of each is weakened.Key policy issues that emerge from this analysis concern the need to reduce the uncertainty of the magnitude and geographic distribution of the US coal resource and the need to stimulate interaction among the parties at interest to work out equitable and acceptable coal conversion plant location strategies capable of coping with the challenges of a high-coal future.

Dickson, E.M.; Yabroff, I.W.; Kroll, C.A.; White, R.K.; Walton, B.L.; Ivory, M.E.; Fullen, R.E.; Weisbecker, L.W.; Hays, R.L.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

NIST Global Standards Information Staff  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Ileana Martinez. Global standards & trade, Europe, Americas, e-Accessibility, biofuels, accreditation. ileana.martinez@nist.gov 301-975-2766. ...

466

Machine Learning for Global Optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

approach for global optimization in which machine learning is used to predict ..... In Figure 1 we show the level curves of the 2dimensional Rastrigin function.

467

A Kalman-filter bias correction of ozone deterministic, ensemble-averaged, and probabilistic forecasts  

SciTech Connect

Kalman filtering (KF) is used to postprocess numerical-model output to estimate systematic errors in surface ozone forecasts. It is implemented with a recursive algorithm that updates its estimate of future ozone-concentration bias by using past forecasts and observations. KF performance is tested for three types of ozone forecasts: deterministic, ensemble-averaged, and probabilistic forecasts. Eight photochemical models were run for 56 days during summer 2004 over northeastern USA and southern Canada as part of the International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation New England Air Quality (AQ) Study. The raw and KF-corrected predictions are compared with ozone measurements from the Aerometric Information Retrieval Now data set, which includes roughly 360 surface stations. The completeness of the data set allowed a thorough sensitivity test of key KF parameters. It is found that the KF improves forecasts of ozone-concentration magnitude and the ability to predict rare events, both for deterministic and ensemble-averaged forecasts. It also improves the ability to predict the daily maximum ozone concentration, and reduces the time lag between the forecast and observed maxima. For this case study, KF considerably improves the predictive skill of probabilistic forecasts of ozone concentration greater than thresholds of 10 to 50 ppbv, but it degrades it for thresholds of 70 to 90 ppbv. Moreover, KF considerably reduces probabilistic forecast bias. The significance of KF postprocessing and ensemble-averaging is that they are both effective for real-time AQ forecasting. KF reduces systematic errors, whereas ensemble-averaging reduces random errors. When combined they produce the best overall forecast.

Monache, L D; Grell, G A; McKeen, S; Wilczak, J; Pagowski, M O; Peckham, S; Stull, R; McHenry, J; McQueen, J

2006-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

468

Modeling the Effect of Chlorine Emissions on Ozone Levels over the Eastern United States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents model estimates of the effect of chlorine emissions on atmospheric ozone concentrations in the eastern United States. The model included anthropogenic molecular chlorine emissions, anthropogenic hypochlorous acid emissions from cooling towers and swimming pools, and chlorine released from sea-salt aerosols. The release of chlorine emissions from sea-salt aerosols was modeled using heterogeneous reactions involving chloride ions in aerosols and three gas-phase species. The gas-phase chlorine chemistry was combined with the Carbon Bond Mechanism and incorporated into the Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system. Air quality model simulations were performed for July 2001 and the results obtained with and without chlorine emissions were analyzed. When chlorine emissions were included in the model, ozone concentrations increased in the Houston, Texas, and New YorkNew Jersey areas. The daily maximum 1-h ozone concentrations increased by up to 12 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) in the Houston area and 6 ppbv in the New YorkNew Jersey area. The daily maximum 8-h ozone concentrations increased by up to 8 ppbv in the Houston area and 4 ppbv in the New YorkNew Jersey area. The monthly average daily maximum 1-h ozone concentration increased by up to 3 ppbv in the Houston area, but the increases in the monthly average daily maximum 1-h ozone concentration in the New YorkNew Jersey area were small. Chlorine emissions and chemistry enhanced the volatile organic compound oxidation rates and, thereby, increased the ozone production rate. 1.

Golam Sarwar; Prakash; V. Bhave

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Global warming and global dioxide emission: An empirical study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, the dynamic relationship between global surface temperature (global warming) and global carbon dioxide emission (CO{sub 2}) is modelled and analyzed by causality and spectral analysis in the time domain and frequency domain, respectively. Historical data of global CO{sub 2} emission and global surface temperature anomalies over 129 years from 1860-1988 are used in this study. The causal relationship between the two phenomena is first examined using the Sim and Granger causality test in the time domain after the data series are filtered by ARIMA models. The Granger causal relationship is further scrutinized and confirmed by cross-spectral and multichannel spectral analysis in the frequency domain. The evidence found from both analyses proves that there is a positive causal relationship between the two variables. The time domain analysis suggests that Granger causality exists between global surface temperature and global CO{sub 2} emission. Further, CO{sub 2} emission causes the change in temperature. The conclusions are further confirmed by the frequency domain analysis, which indicates that the increase in CO{sub 2} emission causes climate warming because a high coherence exists between the two variables. Furthermore, it is proved that climate changes happen after an increase in CO{sub 2} emission, which confirms that the increase in CO{sub 2} emission does cause global warming. 27 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

Linyan Sun [Xian Jiaotong Univ., Shaanxi (China); Wang, M. [Saint Mary`s Univ., Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Chinese demand drives global deforestation Chinese demand drives global deforestation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chinese demand drives global deforestation Chinese demand drives global deforestation By Tansa Musa zones and do not respect size limits in their quest for maximum financial returns. "I lack words economy. China's demand for hardwood drives illegal logging says "Both illegal and authorized

471

K. Toyota et al.: 3-D modeling of boundary-layer bromine and ozone in the Arctic (Supplement) 1 Supplement to "Analysis of reactive bromine production and ozone  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

K. Toyota et al.: 3-D modeling of boundary-layer bromine and ozone in the Arctic (Supplement) 1 3-D simulations with GEM-AQ: Inference from synoptic-scale patterns" K. Toyota1,2 , J. C. McConnell1. Toyota (kenjiro.toyota@ec.gc.ca) scale forcing resolved well at the grid resolution used in the present

Meskhidze, Nicholas

472

Incorporating TOMS Ozone Measurements into the Prediction of the Washington, D.C., Winter Storm during 2425 January 2000  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, a methodology is proposed for incorporating total column ozone data from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) into the initial conditions of a mesoscale prediction model. Based on the strong correlation between vertical mean ...

Kun-Il Jang; X. Zou; M. S. F. V. De Pondeca; M. Shapiro; C. Davis; A. Krueger

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Applications of the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) to Provide Input to Photochemical Grid Models for the Lake Michigan Ozone Study (LMOS)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In spite of ongoing control measures, episodes of elevated boundary layer ozone in violation of national ambient air quality standards continue to occur in the Lake Michigan region. The Lake Michigan Ozone Study is a multiyear effort that ...

Walter A. Lyons; Craig J. Tremback; Roger A. Pielke

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Observation-Based Assessment of the Impact of Nitrogen Oxides Emissions Reductions on Ozone Air Quality over the Eastern United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ozone is produced by chemical interactions involving nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds in the presence of sunlight. At high concentrations, ground-level ozone has been shown to be harmful to human health and to the environment. ...

Edith Ggo; P. Steven Porter; Alice Gilliland; S. Trivikrama Rao

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Charge Depleting:  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 seconds 3 seconds Acceleration 1/4 Mile Time: 20.3 seconds Maximum Speed: 74.3 MPH Acceleration 1 Mile Maximum Speed: 103.4 MPH Charge Sustaining: Acceleration 0-60 MPH Time: 13.4 seconds Acceleration 1/4 Mile Time: 20.4 seconds Maximum Speed: 74.8 MPH Acceleration 1 Mile Maximum Speed: 104.0 MPH Brake Test @ 60 MPH Distance Required: 153.0 ft UDDS Fuel Economy 6 HWFET Fuel Economy 6 Distance (miles)

476

Charge Depleting:  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

0 seconds 0 seconds Acceleration 1/4 Mile Time: 20.1 seconds Maximum Speed: 75.7 MPH Acceleration 1 Mile Maximum Speed: 104.9 MPH Charge Sustaining: Acceleration 0-60 MPH Time: 12.8 seconds Acceleration 1/4 Mile Time: 20.0 seconds Maximum Speed: 75.7 MPH Acceleration 1 Mile Maximum Speed: 105.0 MPH Brake Test @ 60 MPH Distance Required: 126.8 ft UDDS Fuel Economy 6 HWFET Fuel Economy 6 Distance (miles)

477

Charge Depleting:  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

(mpg) Fuel Economy (mpg) Fuel Economy AC Energy Consumed AC Energy Consumed AC Energy (kWh) 7 Distance (miles) Fuel Economy (mpg) Fuel Economy (mpg) Fuel Economy AC Energy...

478

Essays on the Impact of Climate Change and Building Codes on Energy Consumption and the Impact of Ozone on Crop Yield  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

15.2 Crop yield14 Impact of ozone on crop yield 15 Data 15.1 Ozonecrop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Aroonruengsawat, Anin

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Statistical global metabolic control analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work introduces the concept of global sensitivity based on simultaneous variation of a complete set of enzymes, metabolite concentrations, and cofactors in finite ranges of concentrations. Perturbations are defined by finite ranges of concentrations ... Keywords: MCA metabolic control analysis, flux control coefficients, global sensitivity, homeostasis

Zelimir Kurtanjek

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Global and Regional Solutions Directorate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

at Pacific NW National Lab (PNNL) ­ Founding Director Joint Global Change Research Institute (PNNL/UMd) ­ ALD (PNNL) ­ Environmental and Health Sciences Directorate; Emerging Technologies ­ Chief Scientist ­ Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program ­ Director ­ PNNL Global Studies Program ­ Other (PNNL): Center

Homes, Christopher C.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "global ozone depletion" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

GLOBAL IMPACT FROM THE HEART  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

GLOBAL IMPACT FROM THE HEART OF NORTHERN IRELAND #12;#12;CHANCELLOR'S WELCOME 4 VICE: INNOVATIVE AND WORLD-CLASS 18 CONTACT 26 CONTENTS 3GLOBAL IMPACT FROM THE HEART OF NORTHERN IRELAND #12;Queen THE HEART OF NORTHERN IRELANDGLOBAL IMPACT FROM THE HEART OF NORTHERN IRELAND CHANCELLOR'S WELCOME

Müller, Jens-Dominik

482

EFFICIENCY OF OZONE PRODUCTION IN THE HOUSTON PLUME.  

SciTech Connect

Ozone levels observed during a field campaign in Houston were significantly higher than that observed in Phoenix or Philadelphia. An examination of the slope of O{sub x} versus NO{sub z} in the urban plumes shows that NO{sub x} is used 2 to 3 times more efficiently in Houston as compared with Phoenix and Philadelphia. Representative values of OPEx are 7-12, 3, and 4, in Houston, Phoenix, and Philadelphia. Aircraft observations have been used to calculate P(O{sub 3})/P(NO{sub z}). Values in Houston are significantly higher than in Phoenix and Philadelphia. We show that P(O{sub 3})/P(NO{sub z}) is proportional to a VOC/NO{sub 2}-OH reactivity ratio. High values of P(O{sub 3})/P(NO{sub z}) in Houston are due to emissions of reactive olefins from the ship channel region. It is significant that high values of P(O{sub 3})/P(NO{sub z}) occur at NO{sub x} levels up to several 10's of ppb. Not only is the chemistry efficient but it will be long lasting. The occurrence of high NO{sub x} and high OPEx is fostered by the co-location of VOC and NO{sub x} sources in the Houston industrial areas.

KLEINMAN,L.I.; DAUM,P.H.; BRECHTEL,F.; LEE,Y.N.; NUNNERMACKER,L.J.; SPRINGSTON,S.R.; WEINSTEIN-LLOYD,J.

2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Application of dynamic linear regression to improve the skill of ensemble-based deterministic ozone forecasts  

SciTech Connect

Forecasts from seven air quality models and surface ozone data collected over the eastern USA and southern Canada during July and August 2004 provide a unique opportunity to assess benefits of ensemble-based ozone forecasting and devise methods to improve ozone forecasts. In this investigation, past forecasts from the ensemble of models and hourly surface ozone measurements at over 350 sites are used to issue deterministic 24-h forecasts using a method based on dynamic linear regression. Forecasts of hourly ozone concentrations as well as maximum daily 8-h and 1-h averaged concentrations are considered. It is shown that the forecasts issued with the application of this method have reduced bias and root mean square error and better overall performance scores than any of the ensemble members and the ensemble average. Performance of the method is similar to another method based on linear regression described previously by Pagowski et al., but unlike the latter, the current method does not require measurements from multiple monitors since it operates on individual time series. Improvement in the forecasts can be easily implemented and requires minimal computational cost.

Pagowski, M O; Grell, G A; Devenyi, D; Peckham, S E; McKeen, S A; Gong, W; Monache, L D; McHenry, J N; McQueen, J; Lee, P

2006-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

484

TSD- aa Trends in Measured 1-h Ozone Concentrations over the OTR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Trends in raw and meteorologically adjusted 1-hour ozone were calculated at several AQS monitoring sites in the Northeast. A summary of the analysis is provided below, and a detailed description of the met-adjustment procedure is outlined in Milanchus et al. (1998) and references contained including those related to the Kolmogorov-Zurbenko (KZ) method used in this analysis to estimate trends. Data Ozone time series were obtained at many monitoring sites in the Northeastern United States. From these data, log of daily maximum one hour ozone were calculated. In addition, several meteorological variables were obtained from National Weather service stations in the Northeast. These included surface temperature, dew point and specific humidity with dew point depression being calculated. Daily maximum values were calculated for each of the meteorological variable times series. The time span of data considered for both ozone and meteorological variables was from 1985 to 2005. In addition, this analysis focused on the ozone season (April 15 through October 15) of each year.

Modeling Domain

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Educational Global Climate Change Links  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Educational Global Climate Change Links Educational Global Climate Change Links Evidence of the importance of global climate change to the future generation is reflected in the increasing number of queries CDIAC receives from students and educators, from a range of educational levels. We have compiled a listing of some sites that we hope will be of interest and of use to those looking for information, fun, ideas, and ways that they can make a difference. These links were chosen because we have found them useful in responding to those with inquiring minds. These links will take the user outside of CDIAC, and are by no means comprehensive. We are not responsible for the content or intent of these outside links. Tools you can use! NOAA's Global Climate Dashboard - The Global Climate Dashboard is

486

Variational Assimilation of GOME Total-Column Ozone Satellite Data in a 2D LatitudeLongitude Tracer-Transport Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A four-dimensional data-assimilation method is described to derive synoptic ozone fields from total-column ozone satellite measurements. The ozone columns are advected by a 2D tracer-transport model, using ECMWF wind fields at a single pressure ...

H. J. Eskes; A. J. M. Piters; P. F. Levelt; M. A. F. Allaart; H. M. Kelder

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Analysis of an Ozone Episode during the San Diego Air Quality Study: The Significance of Transport Aloft  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

San Diego is subject to transport of ozone and precursors from the Los Angeles area, 170 km to the northwest, as well as to high ozone concentrations from local emissions. The San Diego Air Quality Study was conducted during the summer of 1989. ...

Virginia Bigler-Engler; Hal W. Brown

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Repeatability of the Seasonal Variations of Ozone near the Mesopause from Observations of the 11.072-GHz Line  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ground-based observations of the 11.072-GHz line of ozone were made from January 2008 through the middle of September 2011 to estimate the maximum in the nighttime ozone in the upper mesosphere at an altitude of about 95 km for a region centered ...

A. E. E. Rogers; P. Erickson; V. L. Fish; J. Kittredge; S. Danford; J. M. Marr; M. B. Arndt; J. Sarabia; D. Costa; S. K. May

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Uncertainties in Predicted Ozone Concentrations Due to Input Uncertainties for the UAM-V Photochemical Grid Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on studies of ozone episodes in the eastern United States using the photochemical grid model, UAM-V, regulatory agencies have made decisions concerning emissions controls. This project analyzes effects of uncertainties in UAM-V input variables (emissions, initial and boundary conditions, meteorological variables, and chemical reactions) on uncertainties in UAM-V ozone predictions for the July 1995 episode.

2000-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

490

Seasonal and Diurnal Variations of Ozone near the Mesopause from Observations of the 11.072-GHz Line  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ground-based observations of the 11.072-GHz line of ozone were made from January 2008 through January 2009. These observations provide an estimate of the diurnal and seasonal variations of ozone in the mesopause region. The 11-GHz line is more ...

A. E. E. Rogers; M. Lekberg; P. Pratap

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

Global production through 2005  

SciTech Connect

Two companion studies released recently should provide great food for thought among geo-political strategists and various national governments. If predictions contained in these Petroconsultants studies of oil and gas production trends for the next 10 years are realized, there will be great repercussions for net exporters and importers, alike. After analyzing and predicting trends within each of the world`s significant producing nations for the 1996--2005 period, the crude oil and condensate report concludes tat global production will jump nearly 24%. By contrast, worldwide gas output will leap 40%. The cast of characters among producers and exporters that will benefit from these increases varies considerably for each fuel. On the oil side, Russia and the OPEC members, particularly the Persian Gulf nations, will be back in the driver`s seat in terms of affecting export and pricing patterns. On the gas side, the leading producers will be an interesting mix of mostly non-OPEC countries. The reemergence of Persian Gulf oil producers, coupled with an anticipated long-term decline among top non-OPEC producing nations should present a sobering picture to government planners within large net importers, such as the US. They are likely to find themselves in much the same supply trap as was experienced in the 1970s, only this time the dependence on foreign oil supplies will be much worse. Gas supplies will not be similarly constrained, and some substitution for oil is probable. Here, two articles, ``World oil industry is set for transition`` and ``Worldwide gas surges forward in next decade,`` present a summary of the findings detailed in Petroconsultants` recent studies.

Foreman, N.E. [Petroconsultants, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

Design of Transport Casks with Depleted Uranium Gamma Shield and Advanced Safety  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Transport Casks with Depleted Uranium Gamma Shield and Advanced Safety Transport Casks with Depleted Uranium Gamma Shield and Advanced Safety Matveev V.Z., Morenko A.I., Shapovalov V.I. Russian Federal Nuclear Center - All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF) 37 Mira Prospect, Sarov, Russia, 607190, matveev@vniief.ru Maslov A.A., Orlov V.K., Semenov A.G., Sergeev V.M., Yuferov O.I., Visik A.M. Bochvar Institute of Inorganic Materials (VNIINM) 5-A Rogova street, p.b. 369, Moscow, Russia, 123060, majul2000@mail.ru Abstract - The report is dedicated to a problem of creation of a new generation of dual-purpose transport packing complete sets (TPCS) 1 with advanced safety. These sets are intended for transportation and storage of spent nuclear fuel assemblies (SNFA) 2 of VVER reactors and spent spark elements (SSE)

493

Methods Used to Calculate Doses Resulting from Inhalation of Capstone Depleted Uranium Aerosols  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The methods used to calculate radiological and toxicological doses to hypothetical persons inside either a United States Army Abrams tank or Bradley Fighting Vehicle that has been perforated by depleted uranium munitions is described. Data from time- and particle-size-resolved measurements of depleted uranium aerosol as well as particle-size resolved measurements of aerosol solubility in lung fluids for aerosol produced in the breathing zones of the hypothetical occupants were used. The aerosol was approximated as a mixture of nine monodisperse (single particle size) components corresponding to particle size increments measured by the eight stages plus backup filter of the cascade impactors used. A Markov Chain Monte Carlo Bayesian analysis technique was employed, which straightforwardly calculates the uncertainties in doses. Extensive quality control checking of the various computer codes used is described.

Miller, Guthrie; Cheng, Yung-Sung; Traub, Richard J.; Little, Thomas T.; Guilmette, Ray A.

2009-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

494

Summary of the Preliminary Analysis of Savannah River Depleted Uranium Trioxide  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes a preliminary special analysis of the Savannah River Depleted Uranium Trioxide waste stream (SVRSURANIUM03, Revision 2). The analysis is considered preliminary because a final waste profile has not been submitted for review. The special analysis is performed to determine the acceptability of the waste stream for shallow land burial at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The Savannah River Depleted Uranium Trioxide waste stream requires a special analysis because the waste streams sum of fractions exceeds one. The 99Tc activity concentration is 98 percent of the NNSS Waste Acceptance Criteria and the largest single contributor to the sum of fractions.

NSTec Environmental Management

2010-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

495

Assessing the risk from the depleted uranium weapons used in Operation Allied Force.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The conflict in Yugoslavia has been a source of great concern for the neighboring countries, about the radiological and toxic hazard posed by the alleged presence of depleted uranium in NATO weapons. In the present study a worst-case scenario is assumed mainly to assess the risk for Greece and other neighboring countries of Yugoslavia at similar distances. The risk of the weapons currently in use is proved to be negligible at distances greater than 100 Km. For shorter distances classified data of weapons composition are needed to obtain a reliable assessment. Operation Allied Force (OAF) has been going on for weeks in Yugoslavia with grave environmental consequences in the neighboring countries. Unfortunately, the sophisticated weapons that are being used carry the spectrum of radiological contamination. Over the past decades there has been a tremendous effort in weapons laboratories to use depleted uranium

unknown authors

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

Melted and Granulated Depleted Uranium Dioxide for Use in Containers for Spent Nuclear Fuel  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Melted and Granulated Depleted Uranium Dioxide for Use in Containers for Spent Nuclear Fuel Melted and Granulated Depleted Uranium Dioxide for Use in Containers for Spent Nuclear Fuel Vitaly T. Gotovchikov a , Victor A. Seredenko a , Valentin V. Shatalov a , Vladimir N. Kaplenkov a , Alexander S. Shulgin a , Vladimir K. Saranchin a , Michail A. Borik a∗ , Charles W. Forsberg b , All-Russian Research Institute of Chemical Technology (ARRICT) 33, Kashirskoe ave., Moscow, Russia, 115409, E-mail: chem.conv@ru.ne