National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for global direct diffuse

  1. Year Global Normal Irradiance Direct Normal Irradiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Year Global Normal Irradiance Direct Normal Irradiance (TMY3 = 6.7) Global Horizontal Irradiance** (TMY3 = 5.43) Latitude Tilt Irradiance** Diffuse Horizontal Irradiance (TMY3 = 1.46) Peak GNI (1-hr avg) Peak DNI (1-hr avg) Peak GHI (1-hr avg) Peak Lat.Tilt (1-hr avg) TMY2 8.8 6.7 5.6 6.4 1.6 - - - - 2015 8.26 6.58 5.29 6.07 1.34 1167 1067 1090 1208 2014 8.85 7.10 5.54 6.40 1.28 1176 1083 1098 1196 2013 8.82 7.23 5.59 6.63 1.24 1192 1076 1093 1182 2012 9.17 7.41 5.69 6.65 1.21 1177 1080 1091

  2. Direct Global Power Inc DGP | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Inc (DGP) Place: Claverack, New York Zip: 12513 Product: Direct Global Power is a photovoltaic market development and technology commercialization company. Coordinates:...

  3. Impact of mesophyll diffusion on estimated global land CO2 fertilization

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Impact of mesophyll diffusion on estimated global land CO2 fertilization Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Impact of mesophyll diffusion on estimated global land CO2 fertilization In C3 plants, CO2 concentrations drop considerably along mesophyll diffusion pathways from substomatal cavities to chloroplasts where CO2 assimilation occurs. Global carbon cycle models have not explicitly represented this internal drawdown and so overestimate CO2

  4. Impact of mesophyll diffusion on estimated global land CO2 fertilizati...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Impact of mesophyll diffusion on estimated global land CO2 fertilization In C3 plants, CO2 concentrations drop considerably along ...

  5. Global electronic structure of semiconductor alloys through direct...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Global electronic structure of semiconductor alloys through direct large-scale computations for III-V alloys Ga x In 1 - x P Authors: Zhang, Yong ; Wang, Lin-Wang ...

  6. Global limits and interference patterns in dark matter direct detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Catena, Riccardo; Gondolo, Paolo

    2015-08-13

    We compare the general effective theory of one-body dark matter nucleon interactions to current direct detection experiments in a global multidimensional statistical analysis. We derive exclusion limits on the 28 isoscalar and isovector coupling constants of the theory, and show that current data place interesting constraints on dark matter-nucleon interaction operators usually neglected in this context. We characterize the interference patterns that can arise in dark matter direct detection from pairs of dark matter-nucleon interaction operators, or from isoscalar and isovector components of the same operator. We find that commonly neglected destructive interference effects weaken standard direct detection exclusion limits by up to one order of magnitude in the coupling constants.

  7. Impact of mesophyll diffusion on estimated global land CO2 fertilization

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sun, Ying; Gu, Lianhong; Dickinson, Robert E.; Norby, Richard J.; Pallardy, Stephen G.; Hoffman, Forrest M.

    2014-10-13

    In C3 plants, CO2 concentrations drop considerably along mesophyll diffusion pathways from substomatal cavities to chloroplasts where CO2 assimilation occurs. Global carbon cycle models have not explicitly represented this internal drawdown and so overestimate CO2 available for carboxylation and underestimate photosynthetic responsiveness to atmospheric CO2. An explicit consideration of mesophyll diffusion increases the modeled cumulative CO2 fertilization effect (CFE) for global gross primary production (GPP) from 915 PgC to 1057 PgC for the period of 1901 to 2010. This increase represents a 16% correction, large enough to explain the persistent overestimation of growth rates of historical atmospheric CO2 by Earthmore » System Models. Without this correction, the CFE for global GPP is underestimated by 0.05 PgC yr-1ppm-1. This finding implies that the contemporary terrestrial biosphere is more CO2-limited than previously thought.« less

  8. Long-range global warming impact of gaseous diffusion plant operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trowbridge, L.D.

    1992-09-01

    The DOE gaseous diffusion plant complex makes extensive use of CFC-114 as a primary coolant. As this material is on the Montreal Protocol list of materials scheduled for production curtailment, a substitute must be found. In addition to physical cooling properties, the gaseous diffusion application imposes the unique requirement of chemical inertness to fluorinating agents. This has narrowed the selection of a near-term substitute to two fully fluorinated material, FC-318 and FC-3110, which are likely to be strong, long-lived greenhouse gases. In this document, calculations are presented showing, for a number of plausible scenarios of diffusion plant operation and coolant replacement strategy, the future course of coolant use, greenhouse gas emissions (including coolant and power-related indirect CO{sub 2} emissions), and the consequent global temperature impacts of these scenarios.

  9. Replacement of chlorofluorocarbons at the DOE gaseous diffusion plants: An assessment of global impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Socolof, M.L.; McCold, L.N.; Saylor, R.E.

    1997-01-01

    Three gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) for enriching uranium maintain a large inventory of chlorofluorocarbon-114 (CFC-114) as a coolant. To address the continued use of CFC-114, an ozone-depleting substance, the US Department of Energy (DOE) considered introducing perfluorocarbons (PFCs) by the end of 1995. These PFCs would not contribute to stratospheric ozone depletion but would be larger contributors to global warming than would CFC-114. The paper reports the results of an assessment of the global impacts of four alternatives for modifying GDP coolant system operations over a three-year period beginning in 1996. The overall contribution of GDP coolant releases to impacts on ozone depletion and global warming were quantified by parameters referred to as ozone-depletion impact and global-warming impact. The analysis showed that these parameters could be used as surrogates for predicting global impacts to all resources and could provide a framework for assessing environmental impacts of a permanent coolant replacement, eliminating the need for subsequent resource-specific analyses.

  10. Replacement of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) at the DOE gaseous diffusion plants: An assessment of global impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Socolof, M.L.; Saylor, R.E.; McCold, L.N.

    1994-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) formerly operated two gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) for enriching uranium and maintained a third shutdown GDP. These plants maintain a large inventory of dichlorotetrafluorethane (CFC-114), a cholorofluorocarbon (CFC), as a coolant. The paper evaluates the global impacts of four alternatives to modify GDP coolant system operations for a three-year period beginning in 1996. Interim modification of GDP coolant system operations has the potential to reduce stratospheric ozone depletion from GDP coolant releases while a permanent solution is studied.

  11. Relative Accuracy of 1-Minute and Daily Total Solar Radiation Data for 12 Global and 4 Direct Beam Solar Radiometers: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, D. R.; Wilcox, S. M.

    2009-03-01

    This report evaluates the relative performance of 12 global and four direct beam solar radiometers deployed at a single site over a 12-month period. Test radiometer irradiances were compared with a reference irradiance consisting of either an absolute cavity radiometer (during calibrations) or a low uncertainty thermopile pyrheliometer (during the evaluation period) for pyrheliometers; and for pyranometers a reference global irradiance computed from the reference pyrheliometer and diffuse irradiance from a shaded pyranometer.

  12. Current status and direction of US global warming policy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardiner, D.

    1997-12-31

    The pace and intensity of U.S. global warming efforts have been increasing over the past few years for three main reasons: (1) steady improvement in the underlying science that is in turn strengthening public support for action; (2) the likelihood that the United States will fall short of our national goal of stabilizing greenhouse gas emissions at 1990 levels by the year 2000; and (3) U.S. participation in international negotiations to address global climate change. The expansion of U.S. global warming activities can be seen at the state, federal, and international levels. At the state level, for example, a majority of states have completed greenhouse gas emissions inventories, several have undertaken analyses of mitigation options, and some are already beginning to take action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. At the federal level, all federal agencies with an interest in global warming are working together to define the likely consequences of continued increases in greenhouse gas emissions, inform the public about Such consequences, and assess the costs and benefits of different response options. Among the response options being assessed are actions to expand the use of energy efficient technologies; new controls on greenhouse gas emissions through -- for example - government standards, regulations, or emissions trading programs; and increased research and development of technologies less dependent on fossil fuels. Finally, at the international level, the United States is continuing to develop the position it will take to the climate change negotiations to be held in Japan this December. Among, other things, we have proposed enforceable emissions targets for developed countries, a strong program of reporting and compliance, new efforts by developing countries to prepare emissions inventories and mitigate emissions, and an international emissions trading program.

  13. Direct health effects of global warming in Japan and China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ando, M.; Yamamoto, S.; Tamura, K.

    1997-12-31

    Combustion of fossil fuels and industrial and agricultural activities are resulting in greater emissions of some greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane into the atmosphere, therefore contributing to global warming. Using general circulation models, it is estimated that surface temperatures in temperate regions will rise 1 to 3 degrees C during the next 100 years. Because global warming may increase the frequency and length of high temperatures during hot summer months, various health risks caused by heat stress have been studied. According to our epidemiological survey, the incidence of heat-related illness was significantly correlated to hot environments in Tokyo, Japan and in Nanjing and Wuhan, China. The epidemiological results also showed that the incidence of heat-related morbidity and mortality in the elderly increased very rapidly in summer. The regression analysis on these data showed that the number of heat stroke patients increased exponentially when the mean daily temperature and maximum daily temperature exceeded 27C and 32C in Tokyo and 31C and 36C in Wuhan and Nanjing, respectively. Since the incidence of heat-related morbidity and mortality has been shown to increase as a result of exposure to long periods of hot summer temperatures, it is important to determine to what extent the incidence of heat stress-related morbidity and mortality will be affected as a result of global warming.

  14. Relative Accuracy of 1-Minute and Daily Total Solar Radiation Data for 12 Global and 4 Direct Beam Solar Radiometers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, D.; Wilcox, S. M.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the relative performance of 12 global and four direct beam solar radiometers deployed at a single site over a 12-month period. Test radiometer irradiances were compared with a reference irradiance consisting of either an absolute cavity radiometer (during calibrations) or a low uncertainty thermopile pyrheliometer (during the evaluation period) for pyrheliometers; and for pyranometers a reference global irradiance computed from the reference pyrheliometer and diffuse irradiance from a shaded pyranometer. One minute averages of 3-second data for 12 months from the test instrument measurements were compared with the computed reference data set. Combined uncertainty in the computed reference irradiance is 1.8% {+-} 0.5%. Total uncertainty in the pyranometer comparisons is {+-}2.5%. We show mean percent difference between reference global irradiance and test pyranometer 1 minute data as a function of zenith angle, and percent differences between daily totals for the reference and test irradiances as a function of day number. We offer no explicit conclusion about the performance of instrument models, as a general array of applications with a wide range of instrumentation and accuracy requirements could be addressed with any of the radiometers.

  15. Replacement of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) at the DOE Gaseous Diffusion Plants: An assessment of global impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Socolof, M.L.; Saylor, R.E.; McCold, L.N.

    1994-12-31

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) operates two uranium enrichment plants. Together, the two plants maintain an inventory of approximately 14 million pounds of a chlorofluorocarbon (CFC), dichlorote-trafluoroethane (CFC-114) as a coolant. Annual operational CFC-114 losses total over 500,000 pounds. In February, 1992, President Bush announced that the US would terminate manufacture and importation of Class 1 ozone depleting substances (including CFC-114) by the end of 1995. To comply with this requirement DOE has considered introducing a replacement coolant by the end of 1995. Two perfluorocarbons (PFCs) - namely, octofluoro-cyclobutane and decafluorobutane - are presently the only known coolants that could meet safety requirements. They would not contribute to stratospheric ozone depletion but contribute to global warming. The paper describes an analysis of the potential global impacts of the proposed replacement of CFC-114 with a PFC. A problem with analyses of global warming and ozone depletion impacts is that even large sources of compounds that contribute to these effects contribute only very small fractions of the total effect. The authors take the position that significant effects to global warming and ozone depletion have already occurred, and that any additional contribution to these effects are contributions to cumulatively significant adverse effects on the environment. The paper describes four alternatives and the extent to which each would contribute to global warming and ozone depletion.

  16. Bent paths of a positive streamer and a cathode-directed spark leader in diffuse discharges preionized by runaway electrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Cheng; Shao, Tao Wang, Ruixue; Yan, Ping; Tarasenko, Viktor F.; Beloplotov, Dmitry V.; Lomaev, Mikhail I.; Sorokin, Dmitry A.

    2015-03-15

    Diffuse discharges preionized by runaway electrons can produce large-area homogeneous discharges at elevated pressures, which is an intriguing phenomenon in the physics of pulsed discharges. In this paper, runaway-electron-preionized diffuse discharge (REP DD) was obtained in a wide pressure range (0.05–0.25 MPa), and under certain conditions a positive streamer and a cathode-directed spark leader could be observed to propagate at some angles to the applied (background) electric field lines. For a 16-mm gap at an air pressure of 0.08–0.1 MPa, the percentage of pulses in which such propagation is observed is about 5%–50% of their total number, and in the other pulses such bent paths could not be observed because there is even no streamer or cathode-directed spark leader in diffuse discharges. In our opinion, such propagation of the positive streamer and the cathode-directed spark leader at some angle to the background electric field lines owes to different increase rates of the electron density in different regions of the discharge volume under REP DD conditions. Therefore, during the formation of a REP DD, the increase of the electron density is inhomogeneous and nonsimultaneous, resulting in an electron density gradient at the ionization wave front.

  17. Impact of multi-component diffusion in turbulent combustion using direct numerical simulations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bruno, Claudio; Sankaran, Vaidyanathan; Kolla, Hemanth; Chen, Jacqueline H.

    2015-08-28

    This study presents the results of DNS of a partially premixed turbulent syngas/air flame at atmospheric pressure. The objective was to assess the importance and possible effects of molecular transport on flame behavior and structure. To this purpose DNS were performed at with two proprietary DNS codes and with three different molecular diffusion transport models: fully multi-component, mixture averaged, and imposing the Lewis number of all species to be unity.

  18. Direct molecular diffusion and micro-mixing for rapid dewatering of LiBr solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bigham, S; Isfahani, RN; Moghaddam, S

    2014-03-01

    A slow molecular diffusion rate often limits the desorption process of an absorbate molecule from a liquid absorbent. To enhance the desorption rate, the absorbent is often boiled to increase the liquid vapor interfacial area. However, the growth of bubbles generated during the nucleate boiling process still remains mass-diffusion limited. Here, it is shown that a desorption rate higher than that of boiling can be achieved, if the vapor absorbent interface is continuously replenished with the absorbate-rich solution to limit the concentration boundary layer growth. The study is conducted in a LiBr-water-solution, in which the water molecules' diffusion rate is quite slow. The manipulation of the vapor solution interface concentration distribution is enabled by the mechanical confinement of the solution flow within microchannels, using a hydrophobic vapor-venting membrane and the implementation of microstructures on the flow channel's bottom wall. The microstructures stretch and fold the laminar streamlines within the solution film and produce vortices. The vortices continuously replace the concentrated solution at the vapor solution interface with the water-rich solution brought from the bottom and middle of the flow channel. The physics of the process is described using a combination of experimental and numerical studies. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. A Cross-model Comparison of Global Long-term Technology Diffusion under a 2?C Climate Change Control Target

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van der Zwaan, Bob; Rosler, Hilke; Kober, Tom; Aboumahboub, Tino; Calvin, Katherine V.; Gernaat, David; Marangoni, Giacomo; McCollum, David

    2013-11-01

    We investigate the long-term global energy technology diffusion patterns required to reach a stringent climate change target with a maximum average atmospheric temperature increase of 2C. If the anthropogenic temperature increase is to be limited to 2C, total CO2 emissions have to be reduced massively, so as to reach substantial negative values during the second half of the century. Particularly power sector CO2 emissions should become negative from around 2050 onwards according to most models used for this analysis in order to compensate for GHG emissions in other sectors where abatement is more costly. The annual additional capacity deployment intensity (expressed in GW/yr) for solar and wind energy until 2030 needs to be around that recently observed for coal-based power plants, and will have to be several times higher in the period 20302050. Relatively high agreement exists across models in terms of the aggregated low-carbon energy system cost requirements on the supply side until 2050, which amount to about 50 trillion US$.

  20. Global

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Permalink EC, DHS's S&T Directorate, Federal Emergency Management Agency: SUMMIT Analysis, Capabilities, Facilities, Global, Infrastructure Security, Modeling, Modeling & Analysis, NISAC, Partnership, Research & Capabilities EC, DHS's S&T Directorate, Federal Emergency Management Agency: SUMMIT Natural disasters create emergency situations that must be dealt with quickly and effectively in order to minimize injury and loss of life. Simulating such events before they occur can

  1. Global

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Global axisymmetric simulations of two-fluid reconnection in an experimentally relevant geometry N. A. Murphy 1,2,a͒ and C. R. Sovinec 2,3 1 Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA 2 Center for Magnetic Self-Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA 3 Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA ͑Received 18 January 2008; accepted 12 March

  2. Directions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Directions Directions to HAZMAT Challenge LANL's HAZMAT Reesponse Ready Room and Training Facility are ready to welcome this year's Challengers Technical Area 64 - HAZMAT Response...

  3. Towards Direct Simulation of Future Tropical Cyclone Statistics in a High-Resolution Global Atmospheric Model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wehner, Michael F.; Bala, G.; Duffy, Phillip; Mirin, Arthur A.; Romano, Raquel

    2010-01-01

    We present a set of high-resolution global atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) simulations focusing on the model's ability to represent tropical storms and their statistics. We find that the model produces storms of hurricane strength with realistic dynamical features. We also find that tropical storm statistics are reasonable, both globally and in the north Atlantic, when compared to recent observations. The sensitivity of simulated tropical storm statistics to increases in sea surface temperature (SST) is also investigated, revealing that a credible late 21st century SST increase produced increases in simulated tropical storm numbers and intensities in all ocean basins. Whilemore » this paper supports previous high-resolution model and theoretical findings that the frequency of very intense storms will increase in a warmer climate, it differs notably from previous medium and high-resolution model studies that show a global reduction in total tropical storm frequency. However, we are quick to point out that this particular model finding remains speculative due to a lack of radiative forcing changes in our time-slice experiments as well as a focus on the Northern hemisphere tropical storm seasons.« less

  4. Direct

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and the pollutant emission is hence directly proportional to the bulk neutral density. Simultaneously monitoring the total emission at 1040 nm and the neutral contaminant...

  5. Diagnosing isopycnal diffusivity in an eddying, idealized midlatitude ocean basin via Lagrangian, in Situ, Global, High-Performance Particle Tracking (LIGHT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolfram, Phillip J.; Ringler, Todd D.; Maltrud, Mathew E.; Jacobsen, Douglas W.; Petersen, Mark R.

    2015-08-01

    Isopycnal diffusivity due to stirring by mesoscale eddies in an idealized, wind-forced, eddying, midlatitude ocean basin is computed using Lagrangian, in Situ, Global, High-Performance Particle Tracking (LIGHT). Simulation is performed via LIGHT within the Model for Prediction across Scales Ocean (MPAS-O). Simulations are performed at 4-, 8-, 16-, and 32-km resolution, where the first Rossby radius of deformation (RRD) is approximately 30 km. Scalar and tensor diffusivities are estimated at each resolution based on 30 ensemble members using particle cluster statistics. Each ensemble member is composed of 303 665 particles distributed across five potential density surfaces. Diffusivity dependence upon model resolution, velocity spatial scale, and buoyancy surface is quantified and compared with mixing length theory. The spatial structure of diffusivity ranges over approximately two orders of magnitude with values of O(105) m2 s–1 in the region of western boundary current separation to O(103) m2 s–1 in the eastern region of the basin. Dominant mixing occurs at scales twice the size of the first RRD. Model resolution at scales finer than the RRD is necessary to obtain sufficient model fidelity at scales between one and four RRD to accurately represent mixing. Mixing length scaling with eddy kinetic energy and the Lagrangian time scale yield mixing efficiencies that typically range between 0.4 and 0.8. In conclusion, a reduced mixing length in the eastern region of the domain relative to the west suggests there are different mixing regimes outside the baroclinic jet region.

  6. Diagnosing isopycnal diffusivity in an eddying, idealized midlatitude ocean basin via Lagrangian, in Situ, Global, High-Performance Particle Tracking (LIGHT)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wolfram, Phillip J.; Ringler, Todd D.; Maltrud, Mathew E.; Jacobsen, Douglas W.; Petersen, Mark R.

    2015-08-01

    Isopycnal diffusivity due to stirring by mesoscale eddies in an idealized, wind-forced, eddying, midlatitude ocean basin is computed using Lagrangian, in Situ, Global, High-Performance Particle Tracking (LIGHT). Simulation is performed via LIGHT within the Model for Prediction across Scales Ocean (MPAS-O). Simulations are performed at 4-, 8-, 16-, and 32-km resolution, where the first Rossby radius of deformation (RRD) is approximately 30 km. Scalar and tensor diffusivities are estimated at each resolution based on 30 ensemble members using particle cluster statistics. Each ensemble member is composed of 303 665 particles distributed across five potential density surfaces. Diffusivity dependence upon modelmore » resolution, velocity spatial scale, and buoyancy surface is quantified and compared with mixing length theory. The spatial structure of diffusivity ranges over approximately two orders of magnitude with values of O(105) m2 s–1 in the region of western boundary current separation to O(103) m2 s–1 in the eastern region of the basin. Dominant mixing occurs at scales twice the size of the first RRD. Model resolution at scales finer than the RRD is necessary to obtain sufficient model fidelity at scales between one and four RRD to accurately represent mixing. Mixing length scaling with eddy kinetic energy and the Lagrangian time scale yield mixing efficiencies that typically range between 0.4 and 0.8. In conclusion, a reduced mixing length in the eastern region of the domain relative to the west suggests there are different mixing regimes outside the baroclinic jet region.« less

  7. Directions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hilton Santa Fe Buffalo Thunder at (505) 455-5555 for shuttle information from the airport and downtown Santa Fe. Driving Directions to Hilton Santa Fe Buffalo Thunder Hilton...

  8. Hierarchical diffusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bachas, C.P.

    1988-02-01

    We review the solution and properties of the diffusion equation in a hierarchical or ultrametric space. 11 refs.

  9. Optimization of the Direct Discrete Method Using the Solution of the Adjoint Equation and its Application in the Multi-Group Neutron Diffusion Equation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ayyoubzadeh, Seyed Mohsen; Vosoughi, Naser

    2011-09-14

    Obtaining the set of algebraic equations that directly correspond to a physical phenomenon has been viable in the recent direct discrete method (DDM). Although this method may find its roots in physical and geometrical considerations, there are still some degrees of freedom that one may suspect optimize-able. Here we have used the information embedded in the corresponding adjoint equation to form a local functional, which in turn by its minimization, yield suitable dual mesh positioning.

  10. Light diffusing fiber optic chamber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maitland, Duncan J.

    2002-01-01

    A light diffusion system for transmitting light to a target area. The light is transmitted in a direction from a proximal end to a distal end by an optical fiber. A diffusing chamber is operatively connected to the optical fiber for transmitting the light from the proximal end to the distal end and transmitting said light to said target area. A plug is operatively connected to the diffusing chamber for increasing the light that is transmitted to the target area.

  11. Global Structure of a Three-Way Junction in a Phi29 Packaging RNA Dimer Determined Using Site-Directed Spin Labeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Xiaojun; Tung, Chang-Shung; Sowa, Glenna; Hatmal, Ma'mon M.; Haworth, Ian S.; Qin, Peter Z.

    2012-02-08

    The condensation of bacteriophage phi29 genomic DNA into its preformed procapsid requires the DNA packaging motor, which is the strongest known biological motor. The packaging motor is an intricate ring-shaped protein/RNA complex, and its function requires an RNA component called packaging RNA (pRNA). Current structural information on pRNA is limited, which hinders studies of motor function. Here, we used site-directed spin labeling to map the conformation of a pRNA three-way junction that bridges binding sites for the motor ATPase and the procapsid. The studies were carried out on a pRNA dimer, which is the simplest ring-shaped pRNA complex and serves as a functional intermediate during motor assembly. Using a nucleotide-independent labeling scheme, stable nitroxide radicals were attached to eight specific pRNA sites without perturbing RNA folding and dimer formation, and a total of 17 internitroxide distances spanning the three-way junction were measured using Double Electron-Electron Resonance spectroscopy. The measured distances, together with steric chemical constraints, were used to select 3662 viable three-way junction models from a pool of 65 billion. The results reveal a similar conformation among the viable models, with two of the helices (HT and HL) adopting an acute bend. This is in contrast to a recently reported pRNA tetramer crystal structure, in which HT and HL stack onto each other linearly. The studies establish a new method for mapping global structures of complex RNA molecules, and provide information on pRNA conformation that aids investigations of phi29 packaging motor and developments of pRNA-based nanomedicine and nanomaterial.

  12. Diffuse Irradiance Study Planned for October

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and radiometers installed at the SGP CART site near Lamont, Oklahoma. The instruments measuring diffuse solar radiation have black sphere-shaped shades to keep direct sunlight from...

  13. Diffusion bonding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Robert C.

    1976-06-22

    1. A method for joining beryllium to beryllium by diffusion bonding, comprising the steps of coating at least one surface portion of at least two beryllium pieces with nickel, positioning a coated surface portion in a contiguous relationship with an other surface portion, subjecting the contiguously disposed surface portions to an environment having an atmosphere at a pressure lower than ambient pressure, applying a force upon the beryllium pieces for causing the contiguous surface portions to abut against each other, heating the contiguous surface portions to a maximum temperature less than the melting temperature of the beryllium, substantially uniformly decreasing the applied force while increasing the temperature after attaining a temperature substantially above room temperature, and maintaining a portion of the applied force at a temperature corresponding to about maximum temperature for a duration sufficient to effect the diffusion bond between the contiguous surface portions.

  14. Microsoft Word - DirectPayPermit.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    THIS DIRECT PAY PERMIT APPLIES ONLY TO PURCHASES MADE BY GE GLOBAL RESEARCH

  15. Global Arrays

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-02-23

    The Global Arrays (GA) toolkit provides an efficient and portable “shared-memory” programming interface for distributed-memory computers. Each process in a MIMD parallel program can asynchronously access logical blocks of physically distributed dense multi-dimensional arrays, without need for explicit cooperation by other processes. Unlike other shared-memory environments, the GA model exposes to the programmer the non-uniform memory access (NUMA) characteristics of the high performance computers and acknowledges that access to a remote portion of the sharedmore » data is slower than to the local portion. The locality information for the shared data is available, and a direct access to the local portions of shared data is provided. Global Arrays have been designed to complement rather than substitute for the message-passing programming model. The programmer is free to use both the shared-memory and message-passing paradigms in the same program, and to take advantage of existing message-passing software libraries. Global Arrays are compatible with the Message Passing Interface (MPI).« less

  16. Global patterns and controls of soil organic carbon dynamics as simulated by multiple terrestrial biosphere models: Current status and future directions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tian, Hanqin; Lu, Chaoqun; Yang, Jia; Banger, Kamaljit; Huntzinger, Deborah N.; Schwalm, Christopher R.; Michalak, Anna M.; Cook, Robert; Ciais, Philippe; Hayes, Daniel; et al

    2015-06-05

    Soil is the largest organic carbon (C) pool of terrestrial ecosystems, and C loss from soil accounts for a large proportion of land-atmosphere C exchange. Therefore, a small change in soil organic C (SOC) can affect atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO₂) concentration and climate change. In the past decades, a wide variety of studies have been conducted to quantify global SOC stocks and soil C exchange with the atmosphere through site measurements, inventories, and empirical/process-based modeling. However, these estimates are highly uncertain, and identifying major driving forces controlling soil C dynamics remains a key research challenge. This study has compiled century-longmore » (1901–2010) estimates of SOC storage and heterotrophic respiration (Rh) from 10 terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) in the Multi-scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project and two observation-based data sets. The 10 TBM ensemble shows that global SOC estimate ranges from 425 to 2111 Pg C (1 Pg = 10¹⁵ g) with a median value of 1158 Pg C in 2010. The models estimate a broad range of Rh from 35 to 69 Pg C yr⁻¹ with a median value of 51 Pg C yr⁻¹ during 2001–2010. The largest uncertainty in SOC stocks exists in the 40–65°N latitude whereas the largest cross-model divergence in Rh are in the tropics. The modeled SOC change during 1901–2010 ranges from –70 Pg C to 86 Pg C, but in some models the SOC change has a different sign from the change of total C stock, implying very different contribution of vegetation and soil pools in determining the terrestrial C budget among models. The model ensemble-estimated mean residence time of SOC shows a reduction of 3.4 years over the past century, which accelerate C cycling through the land biosphere. All the models agreed that climate and land use changes decreased SOC stocks, while elevated atmospheric CO₂ and nitrogen deposition over intact ecosystems increased SOC stocks—even though the responses varied significantly among models. Model representations of temperature and moisture sensitivity, nutrient limitation, and land use partially explain the divergent estimates of global SOC stocks and soil C fluxes in this study. In addition, a major source of systematic error in model estimations relates to nonmodeled SOC storage in wetlands and peatlands, as well as to old C storage in deep soil layers.« less

  17. Global patterns and controls of soil organic carbon dynamics as simulated by multiple terrestrial biosphere models: Current status and future directions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tian, Hanqin; Lu, Chaoqun; Yang, Jia; Banger, Kamaljit; Huntzinger, Deborah N.; Schwalm, Christopher R.; Michalak, Anna M.; Cook, Robert; Ciais, Philippe; Hayes, Daniel; Huang, Maoyi; Ito, Akihiko; Jain, Atul K.; Lei, Huimin; Mao, Jiafu; Pan, Shufen; Post, Wilfred M.; Peng, Shushi; Poulter, Benjamin; Ren, Wei; Ricciuto, Daniel; Schaefer, Kevin; Shi, Xiaoying; Tao, Bo; Wang, Weile; Wei, Yaxing; Yang, Qichun; Zhang, Bowen; Zeng, Ning

    2015-06-05

    Soil is the largest organic carbon (C) pool of terrestrial ecosystems, and C loss from soil accounts for a large proportion of land-atmosphere C exchange. Therefore, a small change in soil organic C (SOC) can affect atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO₂) concentration and climate change. In the past decades, a wide variety of studies have been conducted to quantify global SOC stocks and soil C exchange with the atmosphere through site measurements, inventories, and empirical/process-based modeling. However, these estimates are highly uncertain, and identifying major driving forces controlling soil C dynamics remains a key research challenge. This study has compiled century-long (1901–2010) estimates of SOC storage and heterotrophic respiration (Rh) from 10 terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) in the Multi-scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project and two observation-based data sets. The 10 TBM ensemble shows that global SOC estimate ranges from 425 to 2111 Pg C (1 Pg = 10¹⁵ g) with a median value of 1158 Pg C in 2010. The models estimate a broad range of Rh from 35 to 69 Pg C yr⁻¹ with a median value of 51 Pg C yr⁻¹ during 2001–2010. The largest uncertainty in SOC stocks exists in the 40–65°N latitude whereas the largest cross-model divergence in Rh are in the tropics. The modeled SOC change during 1901–2010 ranges from –70 Pg C to 86 Pg C, but in some models the SOC change has a different sign from the change of total C stock, implying very different contribution of vegetation and soil pools in determining the terrestrial C budget among models. The model ensemble-estimated mean residence time of SOC shows a reduction of 3.4 years over the past century, which accelerate C cycling through the land biosphere. All the models agreed that climate and land use changes decreased SOC stocks, while elevated atmospheric CO₂ and nitrogen deposition over intact ecosystems increased SOC stocks—even though the responses varied significantly among models. Model representations of temperature and moisture sensitivity, nutrient limitation, and land use partially explain the divergent estimates of global SOC stocks and soil C fluxes in this study. In addition, a major source of systematic error in model estimations relates to nonmodeled SOC storage in wetlands and peatlands, as well as to old C storage in deep soil layers.

  18. Finite-difference schemes for anisotropic diffusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Es, Bram van; Koren, Barry; Blank, Hugo J. de

    2014-09-01

    In fusion plasmas diffusion tensors are extremely anisotropic due to the high temperature and large magnetic field strength. This causes diffusion, heat conduction, and viscous momentum loss, to effectively be aligned with the magnetic field lines. This alignment leads to different values for the respective diffusive coefficients in the magnetic field direction and in the perpendicular direction, to the extent that heat diffusion coefficients can be up to 10{sup 12} times larger in the parallel direction than in the perpendicular direction. This anisotropy puts stringent requirements on the numerical methods used to approximate the MHD-equations since any misalignment of the grid may cause the perpendicular diffusion to be polluted by the numerical error in approximating the parallel diffusion. Currently the common approach is to apply magnetic field-aligned coordinates, an approach that automatically takes care of the directionality of the diffusive coefficients. This approach runs into problems at x-points and at points where there is magnetic re-connection, since this causes local non-alignment. It is therefore useful to consider numerical schemes that are tolerant to the misalignment of the grid with the magnetic field lines, both to improve existing methods and to help open the possibility of applying regular non-aligned grids. To investigate this, in this paper several discretization schemes are developed and applied to the anisotropic heat diffusion equation on a non-aligned grid.

  19. An asixymmetric diffusion experiment for the determination of diffusion and sorption coefficients of rock samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takeda, M.; Hiratsuka, T.; Ito, K.; Finsterle, S.

    2011-02-01

    Diffusion anisotropy is a critical property in predicting migration of substances in sedimentary formations with very low permeability. The diffusion anisotropy of sedimentary rocks has been evaluated mainly from laboratory diffusion experiments, in which the directional diffusivities are separately estimated by through-diffusion experiments using different rock samples, or concurrently by in-diffusion experiments in which only the tracer profile in a rock block is measured. To estimate the diffusion anisotropy from a single rock sample, this study proposes an axisymmetric diffusion test, in which tracer diffuses between a cylindrical rock sample and a surrounding solution reservoir. The tracer diffusion between the sample and reservoir can be monitored from the reservoir tracer concentrations, and the tracer profile could also be obtained after dismantling the sample. Semi-analytical solutions are derived for tracer concentrations in both the reservoir and sample, accounting for an anisotropic diffusion tensor of rank two as well as the dilution effects from sampling and replacement of reservoir solution. The transient and steady-state analyses were examined experimentally and numerically for different experimental configurations, but without the need for tracer profiling. These experimental configurations are tested for in- and out-diffusion experiments using Koetoi and Wakkanai mudstones and Shirahama sandstone, and are scrutinized by a numerical approach to identify favorable conditions for parameter estimation. The analysis reveals the difficulty in estimating diffusion anisotropy; test configurations are proposed for enhanced identifiability of diffusion anisotropy. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the axisymmetric diffusion test is efficient in obtaining the sorption parameter from both steady-state and transient data, and in determining the effective diffusion coefficient if isotropic diffusion is assumed. Moreover, measuring reservoir concentrations in an axisymmetric diffusion experiment coupled with tracer profiling may be a promising approach to estimate of diffusion anisotropy of sedimentary rocks.

  20. Parallel flow diffusion battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeh, Hsu-Chi; Cheng, Yung-Sung

    1984-08-07

    A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

  1. Parallel flow diffusion battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeh, H.C.; Cheng, Y.S.

    1984-01-01

    A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

  2. UNDERSTANDING SDO/AIA OBSERVATIONS OF THE 2010 JUNE 13 EUV WAVE EVENT: DIRECT INSIGHT FROM A GLOBAL THERMODYNAMIC MHD SIMULATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Downs, Cooper; Roussev, Ilia I.; Lugaz, Noe; Van der Holst, Bart; Sokolov, Igor V.

    2012-05-10

    In this work, we present a comprehensive observation and modeling analysis of the 2010 June 13 extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) wave observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). Due to extreme advances in cadence, resolution, and bandpass coverage in the EUV regime, the AIA instrument offers an unprecedented ability to observe the dynamics of large-scale coronal wave-like transients known as EUV waves. To provide a physical analysis and further complement observational insight, we conduct a three-dimensional, time-dependent thermodynamic MHD simulation of the eruption and associated EUV wave, and employ forward modeling of EUV observables to compare the results directly observations. We focus on two main aspects: (1) the interpretation of the stark thermodynamic signatures in the multi-filter AIA data within the propagating EUV wave front, and (2) an in-depth analysis of the simulation results and their implication with respect to EUV wave theories. Multiple aspects, including the relative phases of perturbed variables, suggest that the outer, propagating component of the EUV transient exhibits the behavior of a fast-mode wave. We also find that this component becomes decoupled from the evolving structures associated with the coronal mass ejection that are also visible, providing a clear distinction between wave and non-wave mechanisms at play.

  3. Microfabricated diffusion source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oborny, Michael C.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.; Manginell, Ronald P.

    2008-07-15

    A microfabricated diffusion source to provide for a controlled diffusion rate of a vapor comprises a porous reservoir formed in a substrate that can be filled with a liquid, a headspace cavity for evaporation of the vapor therein, a diffusion channel to provide a controlled diffusion of the vapor, and an outlet to release the vapor into a gas stream. The microfabricated diffusion source can provide a calibration standard for a microanalytical system. The microanalytical system with an integral diffusion source can be fabricated with microelectromechanical systems technologies.

  4. Solves the Multigroup Neutron Diffusion Equation

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1995-06-23

    GNOMER is a program which solves the multigroup neutron diffusion equation in 1D, 2D and 3D cartesian geometry. The program is designed to calculate the global core power distributions (with thermohydraulic feedbacks), as well as power distribution and homogenized cross sections over a fuel assembly.

  5. Directives Tools

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    Useful links and resources for Directives Writers, Directives Point of Contact (DPCs), Subject Matter Experts (SMEs), and Draft Directive Reviewers.

  6. A method for estimating direct normal solar irradiation from satellite data for a tropical environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janjai, Serm

    2010-09-15

    In order to investigate a potential use of concentrating solar power technologies and select an optimum site for these technologies, it is necessary to obtain information on the geographical distribution of direct normal solar irradiation over an area of interest. In this work, we have developed a method for estimating direct normal irradiation from satellite data for a tropical environment. The method starts with the estimation of global irradiation on a horizontal surface from MTSAT-1R satellite data and other ground-based ancillary data. Then a satellite-based diffuse fraction model was developed and used to estimate the diffuse component of the satellite-derived global irradiation. Based on this estimated global and diffuse irradiation and the solar radiation incident angle, the direct normal irradiation was finally calculated. To evaluate its performance, the method was used to estimate the monthly average hourly direct normal irradiation at seven pyrheliometer stations in Thailand. It was found that values of monthly average hourly direct normal irradiation from the measurements and those estimated from the proposed method are in reasonable agreement, with a root mean square difference of 16% and a mean bias of -1.6%, with respect to mean measured values. After the validation, this method was used to estimate the monthly average hourly direct normal irradiation over Thailand by using MTSAT-1R satellite data for the period from June 2005 to December 2008. Results from the calculation were displayed as hourly and yearly irradiation maps. These maps reveal that the direct normal irradiation in Thailand was strongly affected by the tropical monsoons and local topography of the country. (author)

  7. Quantifying Aerosol Direct Effects from Broadband Irradiance and Spectral Aerosol Optical Depth Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Creekmore, Torreon N.; Joseph, Everette; Long, Charles N.; Li, Siwei

    2014-05-16

    We outline a methodology using broadband and spectral irradiances to quantify aerosol direct effects on the surface diffuse shortwave (SW) irradiance. Best Estimate Flux data span a 13 year timeframe at the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program’s Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. Screened clear-sky irradiances and aerosol optical depth (AOD), for solar zenith angles ≤ 65°, are used to estimate clear-sky diffuse irradiances. We validate against detected clear-sky observations from SGP’s Basic Radiation System (BRS). BRS diffuse irradiances were in accordance with estimates, producing a root-mean-square error and mean bias errors of 4.0 W/m2 and -1.4 W/m2, respectively. Absolute differences show 99% of estimates within ±10 W/m2 (10%) of the mean BRS observations. Clear-sky diffuse estimates are used to derive quantitative estimates of aerosol radiative effects, represented as the aerosol diffuse irradiance (ADI). ADI is the contribution of diffuse SW to global SW, attributable to scattering of atmospheric transmission by natural plus anthropogenic aerosols. Estimated slope for the ADI as a function of AOD indicates an increase of ~22 W/m2 in diffuse SW for every 0.1 increase in AOD. Such significant increases in the diffuse fraction could possibly increase photosynthesis. Annual mean ADI is 28.2 W/m2, and heavy aerosol loading at SGP provides up to a maximum increase of 120 W/m2 in diffuse SW over background conditions. With regard to seasonal variation, the mean diffuse forcings are 17.2, 33.3, 39.0, and 23.6 W/m2 for winter, spring, summer, and fall, respectively.

  8. Cosmology with matter diffusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calogero, Simone; Velten, Hermano E-mail: velten@cce.ufes.br

    2013-11-01

    We construct a viable cosmological model based on velocity diffusion of matter particles. In order to ensure the conservation of the total energy-momentum tensor in the presence of diffusion, we include a cosmological scalar field ? which we identify with the dark energy component of the universe. The model is characterized by only one new degree of freedom, the diffusion parameter ?. The standard ?CDM model can be recovered by setting ? = 0. If diffusion takes place (? > 0) the dynamics of the matter and of the dark energy fields are coupled. We argue that the existence of a diffusion mechanism in the universe may serve as a theoretical motivation for interacting models. We constrain the background dynamics of the diffusion model with Supernovae, H(z) and BAO data. We also perform a perturbative analysis of this model in order to understand structure formation in the universe. We calculate the impact of diffusion both on the CMB spectrum, with particular attention to the integrated Sachs-Wolfe signal, and on the matter power spectrum P(k). The latter analysis places strong constraints on the magnitude of the diffusion mechanism but does not rule out the model.

  9. Global Warming

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Optimizing the GTC Code for Blue Gene/Q): ALCF-2 Early Science Program Technical Report (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Global Simulation of Plasma Microturbulence at the Petascale & Beyond (Optimizing the GTC Code for Blue Gene/Q): ALCF-2 Early Science Program Technical Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Global Simulation of Plasma Microturbulence at the Petascale & Beyond (Optimizing the GTC Code for Blue Gene/Q): ALCF-2 Early Science Program Technical Report

  10. Resolving and measuring diffusion in complex interfaces: Exploring new capabilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alam, Todd M.

    2015-09-01

    This exploratory LDRD targeted the use of a new high resolution spectroscopic diffusion capabilities developed at Sandia to resolve transport processes at interfaces in heterogeneous polymer materials. In particular, the combination of high resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy with pulsed field gradient (PFG) diffusion experiments were used to directly explore interface diffusion within heterogeneous polymer composites, including measuring diffusion for individual chemical species in multi-component mixtures. Several different types of heterogeneous polymer systems were studied using these HRMAS NMR diffusion capabilities to probe the resolution limitations, determine the spatial length scales involved, and explore the general applicability to specific heterogeneous systems. The investigations pursued included a) the direct measurement of the diffusion for poly(dimethyl siloxane) polymer (PDMS) on nano-porous materials, b) measurement of penetrant diffusion in additive manufactures (3D printed) processed PDMS composites, and c) the measurement of diffusion in swollen polymers/penetrant mixtures within nano-confined aluminum oxide membranes. The NMR diffusion results obtained were encouraging and allowed for an improved understanding of diffusion and transport processes at the molecular level, while at the same time demonstrating that the spatial heterogeneity that can be resolved using HRMAS NMR PFG diffusion experiment must be larger than ~μm length scales, expect for polymer transport within nanoporous carbons where additional chemical resolution improves the resolvable heterogeneous length scale to hundreds of nm.

  11. Global warming, global research, and global governing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Preining, O.

    1997-12-31

    The anticipated dangers of Global Warming can be mitigated by reducing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations, especially CO{sub 2}. To reach acceptable, constant levels within the next couple of centuries it might be necessary to accept stabilization levels higher than present ones, The annual CO{sub 2} emissions must be reduced far below today`s values. This is a very important result of the models discussed in the 1995 IPCC report. However, any even very modest scenario for the future must take into account a substantial increase in the world population which might double during the 21st century, There is a considerable emission reduction potential of the industrialized world due to efficiency increase, However, the demand for energy services by the growing world population will, inspite of the availability of alternative energy resources, possibly lead to a net increase in fossil fuel consumption. If the climate models are right, and the science community believes they are, we will experience a global warming of the order of a couple of degrees over the next century; we have to live with it. To be prepared for the future it is essential for us to use new research techniques embracing not only the familiar fields of hard sciences but also social, educational, ethical and economic aspects, We must find a way to build up the essential intellectual capacities needed to deal with these kinds of general problems within all nations and all societies. But this is not Although, we also have to find the necessary dynamical and highly flexible structures for a global governing using tools such as the environmental regime. The first step was the Framework Convention On Climate Change, UN 1992; for resolution of questions regarding implementations the Conference of the Parties was established.

  12. Diffusion Databases for ICME | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon lm036_warren_2011_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Diffusion Databases for Mg-ICME Vehicle Technologies Office: 2010 Lightweight Materials R&D Annual Progress Report Low-Cost Direct Bonded Aluminum (DBA) Substrates

  13. Nodal Diffusion & Transport Theory

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-02-19

    DIF3D solves multigroup diffusion theory eigenvalue, adjoint, fixed source, and criticality (concentration, buckling, and dimension search) problems in 1, 2, and 3-space dimensions for orthogonal (rectangular or cylindrical), triangular, and hexagonal geometries. Anisotropic diffusion theory coefficients are permitted. Flux and power density maps by mesh cell and regionwise balance integrals are provided. Although primarily designed for fast reactor problems, upscattering and internal black boundary conditions are also treated.

  14. Program Direction At-A-Glance

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Direction enables EERE to maintain and support a world-class ... to address global climate change and supports a number of ... Human Resource Information System, payroll processing, and ...

  15. Apparatus for diffusion separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nierenberg, William A.; Pontius, Rex B.

    1976-08-10

    1. The method of testing the separation efficiency of porous permeable membranes which comprises causing a stream of a gaseous mixture to flow into contact with one face of a finely porous permeable membrane under such conditions that a major fraction of the mixture diffuses through the membrane, maintaining a rectangular cross section of the gaseous stream so flowing past said membrane, continuously recirculating the gas that diffuses through said membrane and continuously withdrawing the gas that does not diffuse through said membrane and maintaining the volume of said recirculating gas constant by continuously introducing into said continuously recirculating gas stream a mass of gas equivalent to that which is continuously withdrawn from said gas stream and comparing the concentrations of the light component in the entering gas, the withdrawn gas and the recirculated gas in order to determine the efficiency of said membrane.

  16. Narrow groove welding gas diffuser assembly and welding torch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rooney, Stephen J.

    2001-01-01

    A diffuser assembly is provided for narrow groove welding using an automatic gas tungsten arc welding torch. The diffuser assembly includes a manifold adapted for adjustable mounting on the welding torch which is received in a central opening in the manifold. Laterally extending manifold sections communicate with a shield gas inlet such that shield gas supplied to the inlet passes to gas passages of the manifold sections. First and second tapered diffusers are respectively connected to the manifold sections in fluid communication with the gas passages thereof. The diffusers extend downwardly along the torch electrode on opposite sides thereof so as to release shield gas along the length of the electrode and at the distal tip of the electrode. The diffusers are of a transverse width which is on the order of the thickness of the electrode so that the diffusers can, in use, be inserted into a narrow welding groove before and after the electrode in the direction of the weld operation.

  17. Evaluation of global horizontal irradiance to plane-of-array irradiance models at locations across the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lave, Matthew; Hayes, William; Pohl, Andrew; Hansen, Clifford W.

    2015-02-02

    We report an evaluation of the accuracy of combinations of models that estimate plane-of-array (POA) irradiance from measured global horizontal irradiance (GHI). This estimation involves two steps: 1) decomposition of GHI into direct and diffuse horizontal components and 2) transposition of direct and diffuse horizontal irradiance (DHI) to POA irradiance. Measured GHI and coincident measured POA irradiance from a variety of climates within the United States were used to evaluate combinations of decomposition and transposition models. A few locations also had DHI measurements, allowing for decoupled analysis of either the decomposition or the transposition models alone. Results suggest that decomposition models had mean bias differences (modeled versus measured) that vary with climate. Transposition model mean bias differences depended more on the model than the location. Lastly, when only GHI measurements were available and combinations of decomposition and transposition models were considered, the smallest mean bias differences were typically found for combinations which included the Hay/Davies transposition model.

  18. Diffusion Bonding Characterization

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Diffusion Bonding Characterization - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management

  19. Glass diffusion source for constraining BSF region of a solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lesk, I.A.; Pryor, R.A.; Coleman, M.G.

    1982-08-27

    The present invention is directed to a method of fabricating a solar cell comprising simultaneous diffusion of the p and n dopant materials into the solar cell substrate. The simultaneous diffusion process is preceded by deposition of a capping layer impervious to doping by thermal diffusion processes.

  20. Lean direct injection diffusion tip and related method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Varatharajan, Balachandar; Ziminsky, Willy S.; Lipinski, John; Kraemer, Gilbert O.; Yilmaz, Ertan; Lacy, Benjamin

    2012-08-14

    A nozzle for a gas turbine combustor includes a first radially outer tube defining a first passage having an inlet and an outlet, the inlet adapted to supply air to a reaction zone of the combustor. A center body is located within the first radially outer tube, the center body including a second radially intermediate tube for supplying fuel to the reaction zone and a third radially inner tube for supplying air to the reaction zone. The second intermediate tube has a first outlet end closed by a first end wall that is formed with a plurality of substantially parallel, axially-oriented air outlet passages for the additional air in the third radially inner tube, each air outlet passage having a respective plurality of associated fuel outlet passages in the first end wall for the fuel in the second radially intermediate tube. The respective plurality of associated fuel outlet passages have non-parallel center axes that intersect a center axis of the respective air outlet passage to locally mix fuel and air exiting said center body.

  1. Directives System

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1998-01-30

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Directives System is the means by which DOE policies, requirements, and responsibilities are developed and communicated throughout the Department. Directives are used to inform, direct, and guide employees in the performance of their jobs, and to enable employees to work effectively within the Department and with agencies, contractors, and the public. Cancels: DOE O 251.1, DOE M 251.1-1

  2. Self- and zinc diffusion in gallium antimonide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nicols, Samuel Piers

    2002-03-26

    The technological age has in large part been driven by the applications of semiconductors, and most notably by silicon. Our lives have been thoroughly changed by devices using the broad range of semiconductor technology developed over the past forty years. Much of the technological development has its foundation in research carried out on the different semiconductors whose properties can be exploited to make transistors, lasers, and many other devices. While the technological focus has largely been on silicon, many other semiconductor systems have applications in industry and offer formidable academic challenges. Diffusion studies belong to the most basic studies in semiconductors, important from both an application as well as research standpoint. Diffusion processes govern the junctions formed for device applications. As the device dimensions are decreased and the dopant concentrations increased, keeping pace with Moore's Law, a deeper understanding of diffusion is necessary to establish and maintain the sharp dopant profiles engineered for optimal device performance. From an academic viewpoint, diffusion in semiconductors allows for the study of point defects. Very few techniques exist which allow for the extraction of as much information of their properties. This study focuses on diffusion in the semiconductor gallium antimonide (GaSb). As will become clear, this compound semiconductor proves to be a powerful one for investigating both self- and foreign atom diffusion. While the results have direct applications for work on GaSb devices, the results should also be taken in the broader context of III-V semiconductors. Results here can be compared and contrasted to results in systems such as GaAs and even GaN, indicating trends within this common group of semiconductors. The results also have direct importance for ternary and quaternary semiconductor systems used in devices such as high speed InP/GaAsSb/InP double heterojunction bipolar transistors (DHBT) [Dvorak, (2001)]. Many of the findings which will be reported here were previously published in three journal articles. Hartmut Bracht was the lead author on two articles on self-diffusion studies in GaSb [Bracht, (2001), (2000)], while this report's author was the lead author on Zn diffusion results [Nicols, (2001)]. Much of the information contained herein can be found in those articles, but a more detailed treatment is presented here.

  3. Strategic Direction

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Volume One Film Collection Volume Two 75th Anniversary Hydropower in the Northwest Woody Guthrie Videos Strategic Direction Branding & Logos Power of the River History Book...

  4. DRIVING DIRECTIONS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    South Alamo Street San Antonio, Texas 78205 (210) 222-1400 San Antonio International Airport DIRECTIONS Take Interstate 281 south to Commerce Street. Continue west on Commerce...

  5. On the Stochastic Maximum Principle in Optimal Control of Degenerate Diffusions with Lipschitz Coefficients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bahlali, Khaled Djehiche, Boualem Mezerdi, Brahim

    2007-12-15

    We establish a stochastic maximum principle in optimal control of a general class of degenerate diffusion processes with global Lipschitz coefficients, generalizing the existing results on stochastic control of diffusion processes. We use distributional derivatives of the coefficients and the Bouleau Hirsh flow property, in order to define the adjoint process on an extension of the initial probability space.

  6. Laser activated diffuse discharge switch (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Laser activated diffuse discharge switch Title: Laser activated diffuse discharge switch The invention is a gas mixture for a diffuse discharge switch which is capable of changing ...

  7. Directives Help

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    All DOE directives are available through this site. While it may seem overwhelming, given the number of documents, we have provided a number of ways in which you may get to the information you need.

  8. Direct Frisk

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Federal Financial Interventions and Subsidies in Energy in Fiscal Year 2013 March 2015 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Direct Federal Financial Interventions and Subsidies in Energy in Fiscal Year 2013 i This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses,

  9. Diffusion in silicon isotope heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silvestri, Hughes Howland

    2004-05-14

    The simultaneous diffusion of Si and the dopants B, P, and As has been studied by the use of a multilayer structure of isotopically enriched Si. This structure, consisting of 5 pairs of 120 nm thick natural Si and {sup 28}Si enriched layers, enables the observation of {sup 30}Si self-diffusion from the natural layers into the {sup 28}Si enriched layers, as well as dopant diffusion from an implanted source in an amorphous Si cap layer, via Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). The dopant diffusion created regions of the multilayer structure that were extrinsic at the diffusion temperatures. In these regions, the Fermi level shift due to the extrinsic condition altered the concentration and charge state of the native defects involved in the diffusion process, which affected the dopant and self-diffusion. The simultaneously recorded diffusion profiles enabled the modeling of the coupled dopant and self-diffusion. From the modeling of the simultaneous diffusion, the dopant diffusion mechanisms, the native defect charge states, and the self- and dopant diffusion coefficients can be determined. This information is necessary to enhance the physical modeling of dopant diffusion in Si. It is of particular interest to the modeling of future electronic Si devices, where the nanometer-scale features have created the need for precise physical models of atomic diffusion in Si. The modeling of the experimental profiles of simultaneous diffusion of B and Si under p-type extrinsic conditions revealed that both species are mediated by neutral and singly, positively charged Si self-interstitials. The diffusion of As and Si under extrinsic n-type conditions yielded a model consisting of the interstitialcy and vacancy mechanisms of diffusion via singly negatively charged self-interstitials and neutral vacancies. The simultaneous diffusion of P and Si has been modeled on the basis of neutral and singly negatively charged self-interstitials and neutral and singly positively charged P species. Additionally, the temperature dependence of the diffusion coefficient of Si in Ge was measured over the temperature range of 550 C to 900 C using a buried Si layer in an epitaxially grown Ge layer.

  10. On Correction of Diffuse Radiation Measured by MFRSR

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    On Correction of Diffuse Radiation Measured by MFRSR T. B. Zhuravleva Institute of Atmospheric Optics, SB RAS Tomsk, Russia M. A. Sviridenkov and P. P. Anikin A. M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics, RAS Moscow, Russia Introduction The multi-filter rotated shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) provides spectral direct, diffuse, and total horizontal solar irradiance measurements. Because the MFRSR's receiver has a non-Lambertian response, for a correct interpretation of measured radiation an

  11. Diffusion on (110) Surface of Molecular Crystal Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, J; Golfinopoulos, T; Gee, R H; Huang, H

    2007-01-25

    Using classical molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate the diffusion mechanisms of admolecules on the (110) surface of molecular crystal pentaerythritol tetranitrate. Our results show that (1) admolecules are stable at off lattice sites, (2) admolecules diffuse along close-packed [1{bar 1}1] and [{bar 1}11] directions, and (3) admolecules detach from the surface at 350K and above. Based on the number of diffusion jumps as a function of temperature, we estimate the jump frequency to be v=1.14 x 10{sup 12} e{sup -0.08eV/kT} per second.

  12. Apparatus for diffusion separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nierenberg, William A.

    1976-08-10

    1. A diffuser separator apparatus which comprises a plurality of flow channels in a single stage, each of said channels having an inlet port and an outlet port and a constant cross sectional area between said ports, at least a portion of the defining surface of each of said channels being a diffusion separation membrane, and each of said channels having a different cross sectional area, means for connecting said channels in series so that each successive channel of said series has a smaller cross sectional area than the previous channel of said series, a source of gaseous mixture, individual means for flowing said gaseous mixture to the inlet port of each of said channels, gas receiving and analyzing means, individual means for flowing gas passing from each of said outlet ports and means for flowing gas passing through said membranes to said receiving and analyzing means, and individual means for connecting the outlet port of each channel with the inlet port of the channel having the next smaller cross sectional area.

  13. Light diffusing fiber optic chamber (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: light; diffusing; fiber; optic; chamber; light; diffusion; transmitting; light; target; light; transmitted; ...

  14. Interactive Volume Rendering of Diffusion Tensor Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hlawitschka, Mario; Weber, Gunther; Anwander, Alfred; Carmichael, Owen; Hamann, Bernd; Scheuermann, Gerik

    2007-03-30

    As 3D volumetric images of the human body become an increasingly crucial source of information for the diagnosis and treatment of a broad variety of medical conditions, advanced techniques that allow clinicians to efficiently and clearly visualize volumetric images become increasingly important. Interaction has proven to be a key concept in analysis of medical images because static images of 3D data are prone to artifacts and misunderstanding of depth. Furthermore, fading out clinically irrelevant aspects of the image while preserving contextual anatomical landmarks helps medical doctors to focus on important parts of the images without becoming disoriented. Our goal was to develop a tool that unifies interactive manipulation and context preserving visualization of medical images with a special focus on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data. At each image voxel, DTI provides a 3 x 3 tensor whose entries represent the 3D statistical properties of water diffusion locally. Water motion that is preferential to specific spatial directions suggests structural organization of the underlying biological tissue; in particular, in the human brain, the naturally occuring diffusion of water in the axon portion of neurons is predominantly anisotropic along the longitudinal direction of the elongated, fiber-like axons [MMM+02]. This property has made DTI an emerging source of information about the structural integrity of axons and axonal connectivity between brain regions, both of which are thought to be disrupted in a broad range of medical disorders including multiple sclerosis, cerebrovascular disease, and autism [Mos02, FCI+01, JLH+99, BGKM+04, BJB+03].

  15. Uranium and cesium diffusion in fuel cladding of electrogenerating channel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasilev, I. V. Ivanov, A. S.; Churin, V. A.

    2014-12-15

    The results of reactor tests of a carbonitride fuel in a single-crystal cladding from a molybdenum-based alloy can be used in substantiating the operational reliability of fuels in developing a project of a megawatt space nuclear power plant. The results of experimental studies of uranium and cesium penetration into the single-crystal cladding of fuel elements with a carbonitride fuel are interpreted. Those fuel elements passed nuclear power tests in the Ya-82 pilot plant for 8300 h at a temperature of about 1500C. It is shown that the diffusion coefficients for uranium diffusion into the cladding are virtually coincident with the diffusion coefficients measured earlier for uranium diffusion into polycrystalline molybdenum. It is found that the penetration of uranium into the cladding is likely to occur only in the case of a direct contact between the cladding and fuel. The experimentally observed nonmonotonic uranium-concentration profiles are explained in terms of predominant uranium diffusion along grain boundaries. It is shown that a substantially nonmonotonic behavior observed in our experiment for the uranium-concentration profile may be explained by the presence of a polycrystalline structure of the cladding in the surface region from its inner side. The diffusion coefficient is estimated for the grain-boundary diffusion of uranium. The diffusion coefficients for cesium are estimated on the basis of experimental data obtained in the present study.

  16. Adsorption and diffusion of Ru adatoms on Ru(0001)-supported graphene: Large-scale first-principles calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Yong; Evans, James W.

    2015-10-27

    Large-scale first-principles density functional theory calculations are performed to investigate the adsorption and diffusion of Ru adatoms on monolayer graphene (G) supported on Ru(0001). The G sheet exhibits a periodic moiré-cell superstructure due to lattice mismatch. Within a moiré cell, there are three distinct regions: fcc, hcp, and mound, in which the C6-ring center is above a fcc site, a hcp site, and a surface Ru atom of Ru(0001), respectively. The adsorption energy of a Ru adatom is evaluated at specific sites in these distinct regions. We find the strongest binding at an adsorption site above a C atom in the fcc region, next strongest in the hcp region, then the fcc-hcp boundary (ridge) between these regions, and the weakest binding in the mound region. Behavior is similar to that observed from small-unit-cell calculations of Habenicht et al. [Top. Catal. 57, 69 (2014)], which differ from previous large-scale calculations. We determine the minimum-energy path for local diffusion near the center of the fcc region and obtain a local diffusion barrier of ~0.48 eV. We also estimate a significantly lower local diffusion barrier in the ridge region. These barriers and information on the adsorption energy variation facilitate development of a realistic model for the global potential energy surface for Ru adatoms. Furthermore, this in turn enables simulation studies elucidating diffusion-mediated directed-assembly of Ru nanoclusters during deposition of Ru on G/Ru(0001).

  17. Adsorption and diffusion of Ru adatoms on Ru(0001)-supported graphene: Large-scale first-principles calculations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Han, Yong; Evans, James W.

    2015-10-27

    Large-scale first-principles density functional theory calculations are performed to investigate the adsorption and diffusion of Ru adatoms on monolayer graphene (G) supported on Ru(0001). The G sheet exhibits a periodic moiré-cell superstructure due to lattice mismatch. Within a moiré cell, there are three distinct regions: fcc, hcp, and mound, in which the C6-ring center is above a fcc site, a hcp site, and a surface Ru atom of Ru(0001), respectively. The adsorption energy of a Ru adatom is evaluated at specific sites in these distinct regions. We find the strongest binding at an adsorption site above a C atom inmore » the fcc region, next strongest in the hcp region, then the fcc-hcp boundary (ridge) between these regions, and the weakest binding in the mound region. Behavior is similar to that observed from small-unit-cell calculations of Habenicht et al. [Top. Catal. 57, 69 (2014)], which differ from previous large-scale calculations. We determine the minimum-energy path for local diffusion near the center of the fcc region and obtain a local diffusion barrier of ~0.48 eV. We also estimate a significantly lower local diffusion barrier in the ridge region. These barriers and information on the adsorption energy variation facilitate development of a realistic model for the global potential energy surface for Ru adatoms. Furthermore, this in turn enables simulation studies elucidating diffusion-mediated directed-assembly of Ru nanoclusters during deposition of Ru on G/Ru(0001).« less

  18. Global Home Filesystem

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Global Home Global Home Filesystem Overview Global home directories (or "global homes") provide a convenient means for a user to have access to dotfiles, source files, input files, configuration files, etc., regardless of the platform the user is logged in to. Quotas, Performance, and Usage Default global home quotas are 40 GB and 1,000,000 inodes. Quota increases in global homes are approved only in extremely unusual circumstances; users are encouraged to use the various scratch,

  19. Global Climate & Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SunShot Grand Challenge: Regional Test Centers Global Climate & Energy HomeTag:Global Climate & Energy Electricity use by water service sector and county. Shown are electricity ...

  20. Sandia Energy - Global

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Global Home Analysis Permalink Gallery Results from the Human Resilience Index and Modeling project were reported recently in the National Intelligence Council's Global Trends 2030...

  1. Cleantech Professional Resource Global Limited CPR Global | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Professional Resource Global Limited CPR Global Jump to: navigation, search Name: Cleantech Professional Resource Global Limited (CPR Global) Place: London, United Kingdom Zip:...

  2. Directives Tools - DOE Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Guides (Text version available here) Cancelling a Directive New Canceling a Directive The process for canceling directives (Text version available here) Directives Templates...

  3. DIRECTIONAL COUPLERS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nigg, D.J.

    1961-12-01

    A directional coupler of small size is designed. Stripline conductors of non-rectilinear configuration, and separated from each other by a thin dielectric spacer. cross each other at least at two locations at right angles, thus providing practically pure capacitive coupling which substantially eliminates undesirable inductive coupling. The conductors are sandwiched between a pair of ground planes. The coupling factor is dependent only on the thickness and dielectric constant of the dielectric spacer at the point of conductor crossover. (AEC)

  4. DIRECTIONAL ANTENNA

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bittner, B.J.

    1958-05-20

    A high-frequency directional antenna of the 360 d scaring type is described. The antenna has for its desirable features the reduction in both size and complexity of the mechanism for rotating the antenna through its scanning movement. These advantages result from the rotation of only the driven element, the reflector remaining stationary. The particular antenna structure comprises a refiector formed by a plurality of metallic slats arranged in the configuration of an annular cage having the shape of a zone of revolution. The slats are parallel to each other and are disposed at an angle of 45 d to the axis of the cage. A directional radiator is disposed inside the cage at an angle of 45 d to the axis of the cage in the same direction as the reflecting slats which it faces. As the radiator is rotated, the electromagnetic wave is reflected from the slats facing the radiator and thereafter passes through the cage on the opposite side, since these slats are not parallel with the E vector of the wave.

  5. Commercial Building Partnerships Replication and Diffusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antonopoulos, Chrissi A.; Dillon, Heather E.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2013-09-16

    This study presents findings from survey and interview data investigating replication efforts of Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) partners that worked directly with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL partnered directly with 12 organizations on new and retrofit construction projects, which represented approximately 28 percent of the entire U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CBP program. Through a feedback survey mechanism, along with personal interviews, PNNL gathered quantitative and qualitative data relating to replication efforts by each organization. These data were analyzed to provide insight into two primary research areas: 1) CBP partners’ replication efforts of technologies and approaches used in the CBP project to the rest of the organization’s building portfolio (including replication verification), and, 2) the market potential for technology diffusion into the total U.S. commercial building stock, as a direct result of the CBP program. The first area of this research focused specifically on replication efforts underway or planned by each CBP program participant. Factors that impact replication include motivation, organizational structure and objectives firms have for implementation of energy efficient technologies. Comparing these factors between different CBP partners revealed patterns in motivation for constructing energy efficient buildings, along with better insight into market trends for green building practices. The second area of this research develops a diffusion of innovations model to analyze potential broad market impacts of the CBP program on the commercial building industry in the United States.

  6. Direct numerical simulation of turbulent reacting flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, J.H.

    1993-12-01

    The development of turbulent combustion models that reflect some of the most important characteristics of turbulent reacting flows requires knowledge about the behavior of key quantities in well defined combustion regimes. In turbulent flames, the coupling between the turbulence and the chemistry is so strong in certain regimes that is is very difficult to isolate the role played by one individual phenomenon. Direct numerical simulation (DNS) is an extremely useful tool to study in detail the turbulence-chemistry interactions in certain well defined regimes. Globally, non-premixed flames are controlled by two limiting cases: the fast chemistry limit, where the turbulent fluctuations. In between these two limits, finite-rate chemical effects are important and the turbulence interacts strongly with the chemical processes. This regime is important because industrial burners operate in regimes in which, locally the flame undergoes extinction, or is at least in some nonequilibrium condition. Furthermore, these nonequilibrium conditions strongly influence the production of pollutants. To quantify the finite-rate chemistry effect, direct numerical simulations are performed to study the interaction between an initially laminar non-premixed flame and a three-dimensional field of homogeneous isotropic decaying turbulence. Emphasis is placed on the dynamics of extinction and on transient effects on the fine scale mixing process. Differential molecular diffusion among species is also examined with this approach, both for nonreacting and reacting situations. To address the problem of large-scale mixing and to examine the effects of mean shear, efforts are underway to perform large eddy simulations of round three-dimensional jets.

  7. Fractional diffusion on bounded domains

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Defterli, Ozlem; D'Elia, Marta; Du, Qiang; Gunzburger, Max Donald; Lehoucq, Richard B.; Meerschaert, Mark M.

    2015-03-13

    We found that the mathematically correct specification of a fractional differential equation on a bounded domain requires specification of appropriate boundary conditions, or their fractional analogue. In this paper we discuss the application of nonlocal diffusion theory to specify well-posed fractional diffusion equations on bounded domains.

  8. Enthalpy Diffusion in Multicomponent Flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, A W

    2008-11-12

    The enthalpy diffusion flux in the multicomponent energy equation is a well known yet frequently neglected term. It accounts for energy changes, associated with compositional changes, resulting from species diffusion. Enthalpy diffusion is important in flows where significant mixing occurs between species of dissimilar molecular weight. The term plays a critical role in preventing local violations of the entropy condition. In simulations of nonpremixed combustion, omission of the enthalpy flux can lead to anomalous temperature gradients, which may cause mixing regions to exceed ignition conditions. The term can also play a role in generating acoustic noise in turbulent mixing layers. Euler solvers that rely on numerical diffusion to mix fluids cannot accurately predict the temperature in mixed regions. On the other hand, Navier-Stokes solvers that incorporate enthalpy diffusion can provide much more accurate results.

  9. Portable vapor diffusion coefficient meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ho, Clifford K.

    2007-06-12

    An apparatus for measuring the effective vapor diffusion coefficient of a test vapor diffusing through a sample of porous media contained within a test chamber. A chemical sensor measures the time-varying concentration of vapor that has diffused a known distance through the porous media. A data processor contained within the apparatus compares the measured sensor data with analytical predictions of the response curve based on the transient diffusion equation using Fick's Law, iterating on the choice of an effective vapor diffusion coefficient until the difference between the predicted and measured curves is minimized. Optionally, a purge fluid can forced through the porous media, permitting the apparatus to also measure a gas-phase permeability. The apparatus can be made lightweight, self-powered, and portable for use in the field.

  10. Dynamics and diffusion mechanism of low-density liquid silicon

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shen, B.; Wang, Z. Y.; Dong, F.; Guo, Y. R.; Zhang, R. J.; Zheng, Y. X.; Wang, S. Y.; Wang, C. Z.; Ho, K. M.; Chen, L. Y.

    2015-11-05

    A first-order phase transition from a high-density liquid to a low-density liquid has been proposed to explain the various thermodynamic anomies of water. It also has been proposed that such liquid–liquid phase transition would exist in supercooled silicon. Computer simulation studies show that, across the transition, the diffusivity drops roughly 2 orders of magnitude, and the structures exhibit considerable tetrahedral ordering. The resulting phase is a highly viscous, low-density liquid silicon. Investigations on the atomic diffusion of such a novel form of liquid silicon are of high interest. Here we report such diffusion results from molecular dynamics simulations using themore » classical Stillinger–Weber (SW) potential of silicon. We show that the atomic diffusion of the low-density liquid is highly correlated with local tetrahedral geometries. We also show that atoms diffuse through hopping processes within short ranges, which gradually accumulate to an overall random motion for long ranges as in normal liquids. There is a close relationship between dynamical heterogeneity and hopping process. We point out that the above diffusion mechanism is closely related to the strong directional bonding nature of the distorted tetrahedral network. Here, our work offers new insights into the complex behavior of the highly viscous low density liquid silicon, suggesting similar diffusion behaviors in other tetrahedral coordinated liquids that exhibit liquid–liquid phase transition such as carbon and germanium.« less

  11. Dynamics and diffusion mechanism of low-density liquid silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, B.; Wang, Z. Y.; Dong, F.; Guo, Y. R.; Zhang, R. J.; Zheng, Y. X.; Wang, S. Y.; Wang, C. Z.; Ho, K. M.; Chen, L. Y.

    2015-11-05

    A first-order phase transition from a high-density liquid to a low-density liquid has been proposed to explain the various thermodynamic anomies of water. It also has been proposed that such liquid–liquid phase transition would exist in supercooled silicon. Computer simulation studies show that, across the transition, the diffusivity drops roughly 2 orders of magnitude, and the structures exhibit considerable tetrahedral ordering. The resulting phase is a highly viscous, low-density liquid silicon. Investigations on the atomic diffusion of such a novel form of liquid silicon are of high interest. Here we report such diffusion results from molecular dynamics simulations using the classical Stillinger–Weber (SW) potential of silicon. We show that the atomic diffusion of the low-density liquid is highly correlated with local tetrahedral geometries. We also show that atoms diffuse through hopping processes within short ranges, which gradually accumulate to an overall random motion for long ranges as in normal liquids. There is a close relationship between dynamical heterogeneity and hopping process. We point out that the above diffusion mechanism is closely related to the strong directional bonding nature of the distorted tetrahedral network. Here, our work offers new insights into the complex behavior of the highly viscous low density liquid silicon, suggesting similar diffusion behaviors in other tetrahedral coordinated liquids that exhibit liquid–liquid phase transition such as carbon and germanium.

  12. Josephson phase diffusion in the superconducting quantum interference device ratchet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spiechowicz, Jakub; Łuczka, Jerzy

    2015-05-15

    We study diffusion of the Josephson phase in the asymmetric superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) subjected to a time-periodic current and pierced by an external magnetic flux. We analyze a relation between phase diffusion and quality of transport characterized by the dc voltage across the SQUID and efficiency of the device. In doing so, we concentrate on the previously reported regime [J. Spiechowicz and J. Łuczka, New J. Phys. 17, 023054 (2015)] for which efficiency of the SQUID attains a global maximum. For long times, the mean-square displacement of the phase is a linear function of time, meaning that diffusion is normal. Its coefficient is small indicating rather regular phase evolution. However, it can be magnified several times by tailoring experimentally accessible parameters like amplitudes of the ac current or external magnetic flux. Finally, we prove that in the deterministic limit this regime is essentially non-chaotic and possesses an unexpected simplicity of attractors.

  13. New Global Research Website | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    I Want to See... the New Global Research Website Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) I Want to See... the New Global Research Website GE Global Research 2014.03.17 Today, we are excited to unveil the brand new GE Global Research website. You can find this new web destination at geglobalresearch.com. The new

  14. Global Warming and Human Health

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    American Geophysical Union Global Warming and Human Health WHEN: Jul 27, 2015 5:30 PM - 6:30 PM WHERE: Eldorado Hotel 309 W San Francisco Street, Santa Fe SPEAKER: Robert Davis, University of Virginia CONTACT: Shermonta Grant (202) 777-7329 CATEGORY: Community Science TYPE: Lecture INTERNAL: Calendar Login Event Description The main reason we are concerned about human-induced climate change is that climate shifts might impact the health of Earth's populace. These impacts can be direct, such as

  15. Enabling Green Energy and Propulsion Systems via Direct Noise...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    GE propulsion systems Enabling Green Energy and Propulsion Systems via Direct Noise Computation PI Name: Umesh Paliath PI Email: paliath@ge.com Institution: GE Global Research...

  16. Improved diffuser for augmenting a wind turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foreman, K.M.; Gilbert, B.L.

    A diffuser for augmenting a wind turbine having means for energizing the boundary layer at several locations along the diffuser walls is improved by the addition of a short collar extending radially outward from the outlet of the diffuser.

  17. Diffuser for augmenting a wind turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foreman, Kenneth M.; Gilbert, Barry L.

    1984-01-01

    A diffuser for augmenting a wind turbine having means for energizing the boundary layer at several locations along the diffuser walls is improved by the addition of a short collar extending radially outward from the outlet of the diffuser.

  18. Global carbon budget 2014

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Peters, G. P.; Ciais, P.; Friedlingstein, P.; Jones, S. D.; Sitch, S.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; et al

    2015-05-08

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates, consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissionsmore » from fossil fuel combustion and cement production (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover-change (some including nitrogen–carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ;, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2004–2013), EFF was 8.9 ± 0.4 GtC yr⁻¹,ELUC 0.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr⁻¹, GATM 4.3 ± 0.1 GtC yr⁻¹, SOCEAN 2.6 ± 0.5 GtC yr⁻¹, and SLAND 2.9 ± 0.8 GtC yr⁻¹. For year 2013 alone, EFF grew to 9.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr⁻¹, 2.3% above 2012, continuing the growth trend in these emissions, ELUC was 0.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr⁻¹, GATM was 5.4 ± 0.2 GtC yr⁻¹, SOCEAN was 2.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr⁻¹, and SLAND was 2.5 ± 0.9 GtC yr⁻¹. GATM was high in 2013, reflecting a steady increase in EFF and smaller and opposite changes between SOCEAN and SLAND compared to the past decade (2004–2013). The global atmospheric CO2 concentration reached 395.31 ± 0.10 ppm averaged over 2013. We estimate that EFF will increase by 2.5% (1.3–3.5%) to 10.1 ± 0.6 GtC in 2014 (37.0 ± 2.2 GtCO2 yr⁻¹), 65% above emissions in 1990, based on projections of world gross domestic product and recent changes in the carbon intensity of the global economy. From this projection of EFF and assumed constant ELUC for 2014, cumulative emissions of CO2 will reach about 545 ± 55 GtC (2000 ± 200 GtCO2) for 1870–2014, about 75% from EFF and 25% from ELUC. This paper documents changes in the methods and data sets used in this new carbon budget compared with previous publications of this living data set (Le Quéré et al., 2013, 2014). All observations presented here can be downloaded from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (doi:10.3334/CDIAC/GCP_2014).« less

  19. Global carbon budget 2014

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Peters, G. P.; Ciais, P.; Friedlingstein, P.; Jones, S. D.; Sitch, S.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Boden, T. A.; Bopp, L.; Bozec, Y.; Canadell, J. G.; Chini, L. P.; Chevallier, F.; Cosca, C. E.; Harris, I.; Hoppema, M.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Jain, A. K.; Johannessen, T.; Kato, E.; Keeling, R. F.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Koven, C.; Landa, C. S.; Landschützer, P.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I. D.; Marland, G.; Mathis, J. T.; Metzl, N.; Nojiri, Y.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Peng, S.; Peters, W.; Pfeil, B.; Poulter, B.; Raupach, M. R.; Regnier, P.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Salisbury, J. E.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Segschneider, J.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B. D.; Sutton, A. J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van der Werf, G. R.; Viovy, N.; Wang, Y.-P.; Wanninkhof, R.; Wiltshire, A.; Zeng, N.

    2015-05-08

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates, consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover-change (some including nitrogen–carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ;, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2004–2013), EFF was 8.9 ± 0.4 GtC yr⁻¹,ELUC 0.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr⁻¹, GATM 4.3 ± 0.1 GtC yr⁻¹, SOCEAN 2.6 ± 0.5 GtC yr⁻¹, and SLAND 2.9 ± 0.8 GtC yr⁻¹. For year 2013 alone, EFF grew to 9.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr⁻¹, 2.3% above 2012, continuing the growth trend in these emissions, ELUC was 0.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr⁻¹, GATM was 5.4 ± 0.2 GtC yr⁻¹, SOCEAN was 2.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr⁻¹, and SLAND was 2.5 ± 0.9 GtC yr⁻¹. GATM was high in 2013, reflecting a steady increase in EFF and smaller and opposite changes between SOCEAN and SLAND compared to the past decade (2004–2013). The global atmospheric CO2 concentration reached 395.31 ± 0.10 ppm averaged over 2013. We estimate that EFF will increase by 2.5% (1.3–3.5%) to 10.1 ± 0.6 GtC in 2014 (37.0 ± 2.2 GtCO2 yr⁻¹), 65% above emissions in 1990, based on projections of world gross domestic product and recent changes in the carbon intensity of the global economy. From this projection of EFF and assumed constant ELUC for 2014, cumulative emissions of CO2 will reach about 545 ± 55 GtC (2000 ± 200 GtCO2) for 1870–2014, about 75% from EFF and 25% from ELUC. This paper documents changes in the methods and data sets used in this new carbon budget compared with previous publications of this living data set (Le Quéré et al., 2013, 2014). All observations presented here can be downloaded from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (doi:10.3334/CDIAC/GCP_2014).

  20. Luminescent Concentration of Diffuse Light

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Luminescent Concentration of Diffuse Light Achieving 30X Concentration Work w as p erformed a t L BL a nd U IUC Bronstein, N .D.; Y ao, Y .; X u, L .; O 'Brien, E .; P owers, A...

  1. Boron diffusion in silicon devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohatgi, Ajeet; Kim, Dong Seop; Nakayashiki, Kenta; Rounsaville, Brian

    2010-09-07

    Disclosed are various embodiments that include a process, an arrangement, and an apparatus for boron diffusion in a wafer. In one representative embodiment, a process is provided in which a boric oxide solution is applied to a surface of the wafer. Thereafter, the wafer is subjected to a fast heat ramp-up associated with a first heating cycle that results in a release of an amount of boron for diffusion into the wafer.

  2. GE Global Research Contact | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1800 Cai Lun Road, Zhangjiang High-Tech Park, Pudong, Shanghai, 201203, China Joey Yang +86 21 38773407 joey.yang@ge.com Communications and Public Relations GE Global...

  3. GE Global Research Locations | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Inventio Always Open At GE Global Research, we work around the clock and across the globe to build, power, move and cure the world. Continue to the experience En Bp China...

  4. Global electronic structure of semiconductor alloys through direct...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Date: 2011-04-01 OSTI Identifier: 1100327 Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Physical Review B Additional Journal Information: Journal Volume: 83; Journal...

  5. About Additive Manufacturing | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Introducing Additive Manufacturing at GE Global Research Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) Introducing Additive Manufacturing at GE Global Research Prabhjot Singh, manager of the Additive Manufacturing Lab at GE Global Research, describes the technology used in his lab. You Might Also Like DirectWrite_V

  6. Venture Global Calcasieu Pass, LLC - (Formerly Venture Global...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Venture Global Calcasieu Pass, LLC - (Formerly Venture Global LNG, LLC) - 14-88-LNG Venture Global Calcasieu Pass, LLC - (Formerly Venture Global LNG, LLC) - 14-88-LNG The Office ...

  7. Diffusive mixing and Tsallis entropy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    O'Malley, Daniel; Vesselinov, Velimir V.; Cushman, John H.

    2015-04-29

    Brownian motion, the classical diffusive process, maximizes the Boltzmann-Gibbs entropy. The Tsallis q-entropy, which is non-additive, was developed as an alternative to the classical entropy for systems which are non-ergodic. A generalization of Brownian motion is provided that maximizes the Tsallis entropy rather than the Boltzmann-Gibbs entropy. This process is driven by a Brownian measure with a random diffusion coefficient. In addition, the distribution of this coefficient is derived as a function of q for 1 < q < 3. Applications to transport in porous media are considered.

  8. Diffusion In Confinement: Kinetic Simulations of Self- andCollective...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Diffusion In Confinement: Kinetic Simulations of Self- and Collective-Diffusion Behavior of Adsorbed Gases...

  9. Before House Subcommittee on Africa, Global Health, Global Human Rights,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and International Organizations, Committee on Foreign Affairs | Department of Energy Subcommittee on Africa, Global Health, Global Human Rights, and International Organizations, Committee on Foreign Affairs Before House Subcommittee on Africa, Global Health, Global Human Rights, and International Organizations, Committee on Foreign Affairs Testimony of Jonathan Elkind, Acting Assistant Secretary, Office of International Affairs Before House Subcommittee on Africa, Global Health, Global Human

  10. Molecular dynamics simulation of diffusion and electrical conductivity in montmorillonite interlayers

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Greathouse, Jeffery A.; Cygan, Randall T.; Fredrich, Joanne T.; Jerauld, Gary R.

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the diffusion of water and ions in the interlayer region of smectite clay minerals represents a direct probe of the type and strength of clay–fluid interactions. Interlayer diffusion also represents an important link between molecular simulation and macroscopic experiments. Here we use molecular dynamics simulation to investigate trends in cation and water diffusion in montmorillonite interlayers, looking specifically at the effects of layer charge, interlayer cation and cation charge (sodium or calcium), water content, and temperature. For Na-montmorillonite, the largest increase in ion and water diffusion coefficients occurs between the one-layer and two-layer hydrates, corresponding to themore » transition from inner-sphere to outer-sphere surface complexes. Calculated activation energies for ion and water diffusion in Na-montmorillonite are similar to each other and to the water hydrogen bond energy, suggesting the breaking of water–water and water–clay hydrogen bonds as a likely mechanism for interlayer diffusion. A comparison of interlayer diffusion with that of bulk electrolyte solutions reveals a clear trend of decreasing diffusion coefficient with increasing electrolyte concentration, and in most cases the interlayer diffusion results are nearly coincident with the corresponding bulk solutions. Trends in electrical conductivities computed from the ion diffusion coefficients are also compared.« less

  11. Global Threat Reduction Initiative

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy Minimize Nuclear Waste Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Fact Sheet - Minimize Nuclear Waste GNEP will increase the efficiency in the management of used nuclear fuel, also known as spent fuel, and defer the need for additional geologic nuclear waste repositories until the next century. PDF icon Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Fact Sheet - Minimize Nuclear Waste More Documents & Publications GNEP Element:Develop Enhanced Nuclear Safeguards Global Nuclear Energy

  12. Microstructural Characteristics of HIP-bonded Monolithic Nuclear Fuels with a Diffusion Barrier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jan-Fong Jue; Dennis D. Keiser, Jr.; Cynthia R. Breckenridge; Glenn A. Moore; Mitchell K. Meyer

    2014-05-01

    Due to the limitation of maximum uranium load achievable by dispersion fuel type, the Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) is developing an advanced monolithic fuel to convert US high performance research reactors to low-enriched uranium. Hot-isostatic-press bonding was the single process down-selected to bond monolithic U-Mo fuel meat to aluminum alloy cladding. A diffusion barrier was applied to the U–Mo fuel meat by roll-bonding process to prevent extensive interaction between fuel meat and aluminum-alloy cladding. Microstructural characterization was performed on fresh fuel plates fabricated at Idaho National Laboratory. Interfaces between fuel meat, cladding, and diffusion barrier, as well as U–10Mo fuel meat and Al–6061 cladding were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Preliminary results indicate that the interfaces contain many different phases while decomposition, second phases, and chemical banding were also observed in the fuel meat. The important attributes of the HIP-bonded monolithic fuel are • A typical Zr diffusion barrier of thickness 25 µm • Transverse cross section that exhibits relatively equiaxed grains with an average grain diameter of 10 µm • Chemical banding, in some areas more than 100 µm in length, that is very pronounced in longitudinal (i.e., rolling) direction with Mo concentration varying from 7–13 wt% • Decomposed areas containing plate-shaped low-Mo phase • A typical Zr/cladding interaction layer of thickness 1-2 µm • A visible UZr2 bearing layer of thickness 1-2 µm • Mo-rich precipitates (mainly Mo2Zr, forming a layer in some areas) followed by a Mo-depleted sub-layer between the visible UZr2-bearing layer and the U–Mo matrix • No excessive interaction between cladding and the uncoated fuel edge • Cladding-to-cladding bonding that exhibits no cracks or porosity with second phases high in Mg, Si, and O decorating the bond line. • Some of these attributes might be critical to the irradiation performance of monolithic U-10Mo nuclear fuel. There are several issues or concerns that warrant more detailed study, such as precipitation along cladding-to-cladding bond line, chemical banding, uncovered fuel-zone edge, and interaction layer between U–Mo fuel meat and zirconium. Future post-irradiation examination results will focus, among other things, on identifying in-reactor failure mechanisms and, eventually, directing further fresh fuel characterization efforts.

  13. Diffuse Shortwave Intensive Observation Period

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to the SuomiNet project. SuomiNet is a university-based, real-time national global positioning system (GPS) network for atmospheric research and education. (See June 2000 issue...

  14. Building | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Read More Ceramic Matrix Composites Improve Engine Efficiency Ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) are a breakthrough materials technology for jet engines that started at our Global ...

  15. ARM - Global Warming

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox ...

  16. ARM - Global Experts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox ...

  17. ARM - Global Thinkers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox ...

  18. ARM - Global Beginners

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox ...

  19. Global Climate Models

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable ... Climate & Earth Systems Climate Measurement & Modeling Arctic Climate Measurements Global ...

  20. Global Climate & Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Participated in the 2013 Domenici Public Policy Conference Carbon Capture & Storage, Carbon Storage, Climate, Earth Sciences Research Center, Energy, Global Climate & Energy, ...

  1. Global Climate & Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Team Attends World Water Week in Stockholm Climate, Energy, Global Climate & Energy, Modeling, Modeling & Analysis, News, News & Events, Water Security Sandia Team Attends World ...

  2. Curing | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Curing We're pioneering medical developments, from robotic healthcare assistants to diagnostic tools and specialized, globally deployed gear. Home > Impact > Curing Invention...

  3. Curing | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Curing We're pioneering medical developments, from robotic healthcare assistants to diagnostic tools and specialized, globally deployed gear. Home > Impact > Curing Crowdsourcing...

  4. Directives Tools - DOE Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Directives Tools by Website Administrator Title Author Type Modified Processing a Policy or Notice Website Administrator Page Feb 26, 2014 09:17 AM Types of Directives Website Administrator Page Jan 10, 2014 10:16 AM Crosswalk of Directives Numbering System Website Administrator File Mar 26, 2014 01:41 PM Directives Templates Website Administrator Page Feb 24, 2016 02:47 PM Implementation Plan Template Website Administrator File Jan 10, 2014 01:20 PM Directives Certification Letter Website

  5. Pipe diffusion at dislocations in UO2

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of pipe diffusion to the overall O 2 and U 4+ diffusion is also discussed. 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction During its lifetime in-pile nuclear fuel...

  6. A global warning for global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paepe, R.

    1996-12-31

    The problem of global warming is a complex one not only because it is affecting desert areas such as the Sahel leading to famine disasters of poor rural societies, but because it is an even greater threat to modern well established industrial societies. Global warming is a complex problem of geographical, economical and societal factors together which definitely are biased by local environmental parameters. There is an absolute need to increase the knowledge of such parameters, especially to understand their limits of variance. The greenhouse effect is a global mechanism which means that in changing conditions at one point of the Earth, it will affect all other regions of the globe. Industrial pollution and devastation of the forest are quoted as similar polluting anthropogenic activities in far apart regions of the world with totally different societies and industrial compounds. The other important factor is climatic cyclicity which means that droughts are bound to natural cycles. These natural cycles are numerous as is reflected in the study of geo-proxydata from several sequential geological series on land, ice and deepsea. Each of these cycles reveals a drought cycle which occasionally interfere at the same time. It is believed that the present drought might well be a point of interference between the natural cycles of 2,500 and 1,000 years and the man induced cycle of the last century`s warming up. If the latter is the only cycle involved, man will be able to remediate. If not, global warming will become even more disastrous beyond the 21st century.

  7. GE Global Research News | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Newsroom Our technologies transform GE's businesses and the world. Learn about them, meet our experts and read news coverage about our work. Home > Newsroom Meet Our Experts Our scientists are global leaders in their fields. They welcome media inquiries. Find an Expert » Media Contacts A photograph of Natalia Albuquerque Rio de Janeiro Natalia Albuquerque +55 21 3548-6193 A photograph of Todd Alhart Niskayuna, Oklahoma City, Munich Todd Alhart +1.518.387.7914 A photograph of Tenzin Dechen

  8. Departmental Directives Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2006-08-16

    The Order is the primary directive for administering the Department's directives Program. Cancels: DOE O 251.1A

  9. Photonics | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Home > Impact > The Photonics Lab at GE Global Research Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) The Photonics Lab at GE Global Research Loucas Tsakalakos, the Photonics lab manager at GE Global Research, introduces photonics and shares the lab's work on innovative ways to use light. You Might Also Like

  10. Evaluation of global horizontal irradiance to plane-of-array irradiance models at locations across the United States

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lave, Matthew; Hayes, William; Pohl, Andrew; Hansen, Clifford W.

    2015-02-02

    We report an evaluation of the accuracy of combinations of models that estimate plane-of-array (POA) irradiance from measured global horizontal irradiance (GHI). This estimation involves two steps: 1) decomposition of GHI into direct and diffuse horizontal components and 2) transposition of direct and diffuse horizontal irradiance (DHI) to POA irradiance. Measured GHI and coincident measured POA irradiance from a variety of climates within the United States were used to evaluate combinations of decomposition and transposition models. A few locations also had DHI measurements, allowing for decoupled analysis of either the decomposition or the transposition models alone. Results suggest that decompositionmore » models had mean bias differences (modeled versus measured) that vary with climate. Transposition model mean bias differences depended more on the model than the location. Lastly, when only GHI measurements were available and combinations of decomposition and transposition models were considered, the smallest mean bias differences were typically found for combinations which included the Hay/Davies transposition model.« less

  11. Directives Certification Letter - DOE Directives, Delegations, and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Directives & Documents Directives & Documents Directives & Documents Policy & Guidance Policy & Guidance contains Project Management related orders, guides, handbooks, templates, standard operating procedures, and industry standards that allow Federal Project Directors and project teams to comply with applicable laws and regulations while putting in place most effective project managemetn practices that increase probability of project success. Proceed to Policy & Guidance

  12. Global Cool Cities Alliance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is currently supporting the Global Cool Cities Alliance (GCCA), a non-profit organization that works with cities, regions, and national governments to speed the...

  13. Building | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Read More Electric Submersible Pumps (ESPs) Surface More Oil and Gas A technology used in 60% of global oil production today, ESPs extract oil by pumping it to the surface. In ...

  14. Invention | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Invention Our people drive every scientific advance we make, every day. Find out who they are and what they're thinking right now. Home > Invention Inventors GE Global Research...

  15. Building | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    how we work across supply chains. By... Read More What is the GE store? Mark Little, CTO & Head of Global Research at GE, describes what the GE Store means and why it's...

  16. Fast Global File Status

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2013-01-01

    Fast Global File Status (FGFS) is a system software package that implimints a scalable mechanism to retrieve file information, such as its degree of distribution or replication and consistency.

  17. Global Renewable Power International Global RPI | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search Name: Global Renewable Power International (Global RPI) Place: Spain Sector: Wind energy Product: Spain-based developer of wind projects in Poland, Croatia...

  18. Before House Subcommittee on Africa, Global Health, Global Human...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Before House Subcommittee on Africa, Global Health, Global Human Rights, and International Organizations, Committee on Foreign Affairs Testimony of Jonathan Elkind, Acting ...

  19. Detachment of Liquid-Water Droplets from Gas-Diffusion Layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Prodip K.; Grippin, Adam; Weber, Adam Z.

    2011-07-01

    A critical issue for optimal water management in proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells at lower temperatures is the removal of liquid water from the cell. This pathway is intimately linked with the phenomena of liquid-water droplet removal from surface of the gas-diffusion layer and into the flow channel. Thus, a good understanding of liquid-water transport and droplet growth and detachment from the gas-diffusion layer is critical. In this study, liquid-water droplet growth and detachment on the gas-diffusion layer surfaces are investigated experimentally to improve the understating of water transport through and removal from gas-diffusion layers. An experiment using a sliding-angle measurement is designed and used to quantify and directly measure the adhesion force for liquid-water droplets, and to understand the droplets? growth and detachment from the gas-diffusion layers.

  20. MODEL OF DIFFUSERS / PERMEATORS FOR HYDROGEN PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hang, T; William Jacobs, W

    2007-08-27

    Palladium-silver (Pd-Ag) diffusers are mainstays of hydrogen processing. Diffusers separate hydrogen from inert species such as nitrogen, argon or helium. The tubing becomes permeable to hydrogen when heated to more than 250 C and a differential pressure is created across the membrane. The hydrogen diffuses better at higher temperatures. Experimental or experiential results have been the basis for determining or predicting a diffuser's performance. However, the process can be mathematically modeled, and comparison to experimental or other operating data can be utilized to improve the fit of the model. A reliable model-based diffuser system design is the goal which will have impacts on tritium and hydrogen processing. A computer model has been developed to solve the differential equations for diffusion given the operating boundary conditions. The model was compared to operating data for a low pressure diffuser system. The modeling approach and the results are presented in this paper.

  1. Laser activated diffuse discharge switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christophorou, Loucas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hunter, Scott R. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1988-01-01

    The invention is a gas mixture for a diffuse discharge switch which is capable of changing from a conducting state to an insulating state in the presence of electrons upon the introduction of laser light. The mixture is composed of a buffer gas such as nitrogen or argon and an electron attaching gas such as C.sub.6 H.sub.5 SH, C.sub.6 H.sub.5 SCH.sub.3, CH.sub.3 CHO and CF.sub.3 CHO wherein the electron attachment is brought on by indirect excitation of molecules to long-lived states by exposure to laser light.

  2. Perihelion Global | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Perihelion Global Jump to: navigation, search Name: Perihelion Global Place: Port Jefferson, New York Zip: 11776 Product: A company focused on the acquisition, development and...

  3. ARM - Lesson Plans: Global Warming

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Global Warming Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global ...

  4. Travelling fronts of the CO oxidation on Pd(111) with coverage-dependent diffusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cisternas, Jaime, E-mail: jecisternas@miuandes.cl [Facultad de Ingeniera y Ciencias Aplicadas, Universidad de los Andes, Monseor Alvaro del Portillo 12455, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Karpitschka, Stefan [Physics of Fluids, University of Twente, Drienerlolaan 5, 7522 NB Enschede (Netherlands); Wehner, Stefan [Institut fr Integrierte Naturwissenschaften - Physik, Universitt Koblenz-Landau, 56070 Koblenz (Germany)

    2014-10-28

    In this work, we study a surface reaction on Pd(111) crystals under ultra-high-vacuum conditions that can be modeled by two coupled reaction-diffusion equations. In the bistable regime, the reaction exhibits travelling fronts that can be observed experimentally using photo electron emission microscopy. The spatial profile of the fronts reveals a coverage-dependent diffusivity for one of the species. We propose a method to solve the nonlinear eigenvalue problem and compute the direction and the speed of the fronts based on a geometrical construction in phase-space. This method successfully captures the dependence of the speed on control parameters and diffusivities.

  5. Enabling Green Energy and Propulsion Systems via Direct Noise Computation |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne Leadership Computing Facility High-fidelity simulation of exhaust nozzle under installed configuration Umesh Paliath, GE Global Research; Joe Insley, Argonne National Laboratory Enabling Green Energy and Propulsion Systems via Direct Noise Computation PI Name: Umesh Paliath PI Email: paliath@ge.com Institution: GE Global Research Allocation Program: INCITE Allocation Hours at ALCF: 105 Million Year: 2013 Research Domain: Engineering GE Global Research is using the Argonne Leadership

  6. DOE Releases Request for Information for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Information for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Deactivation & Remediation Services DOE Releases Request for Information for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Deactivation &...

  7. Diffusion releases through one and two finite planar zones from...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    WASTES; UNDERGROUND DISPOSAL; TUFF; DIFFUSION BARRIERS; GROUND WATER; RADIONUCLIDE MIGRATION; CONTAINERS; DIFFUSION; NUMERICAL ANALYSIS; CONCENTRATION RATIO; Yucca Mountain ...

  8. Diffusion releases through one and two finite planar zones from...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... WASTES; UNDERGROUND DISPOSAL; TUFF; DIFFUSION BARRIERS; GROUND WATER; RADIONUCLIDE MIGRATION; CONTAINERS; DIFFUSION; NUMERICAL ANALYSIS; CONCENTRATION RATIO; Yucca Mountain ...

  9. Recently Canceled Directives - DOE Directives, Delegations, and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Requirements Recently Canceled Directives Directives and other requirements documents canceled in the last 90 days. All Recently Issued/Updated Recently Canceled Directives Recently Rescinded Delegations by Website Administrator More filters Less filters Filters applied Δ Hide filters ∇ Show filters (0) [X] Remove all Document Type Certification Memo Delegation Designation Guide HQ Order Invoked Technical Standards Justification Memorandum Manual Notice Order Organizations' Assignment of

  10. Directives Templates - DOE Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Templates by Website Administrator Directives Program document content and format Directives Templates Justification Memoranda Per Secretarial Memo, Enterprise Risk Management (ERM) Framework for Directives, dated July 9, 2012, by September 1, 2012, all Justification Memoranda (JM) must be accompanied by a document reflecting an analysis using the ERM framework. Until this is incorporated into the JM it is recommended that all writers include the risk assessment tool below as an attachment for

  11. SNOW LINES AS PROBES OF TURBULENT DIFFUSION IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Owen, James E. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St George Street, Toronto, M5S 3H8, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-20

    Sharp chemical discontinuities can occur in protoplanetary disks, particularly at ''snow lines'' where a gas-phase species freezes out to form ice grains. Such sharp discontinuities will diffuse out due to the turbulence suspected to drive angular momentum transport in accretion disks. We demonstrate that the concentration gradientin the vicinity of the snow lineof a species present outside a snow line but destroyed inside is strongly sensitive to the level of turbulent diffusion (provided the chemical and transport timescales are decoupled) and provides a direct measurement of the radial ''Schmidt number'' (the ratio of the angular momentum transport to radial turbulent diffusion). Taking as an example the tracer species N{sub 2}H{sup +}, which is expected to be destroyed inside the CO snow line (as recently observed in TW Hya) we show that ALMA observations possess significant angular resolution to constrain the Schmidt number. Since different turbulent driving mechanisms predict different Schmidt numbers, a direct measurement of the Schmidt number in accretion disks would allow inferences to be made about the nature of the turbulence.

  12. Laboratory Directed Research and Development - DOE Directives...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2C, Laboratory Directed Research and Development by Russell Ames Functional areas: Energy Research & Technology To establish Department of Energy (DOE) requirements for laboratory...

  13. Directives Requiring Additional Documentation - DOE Directives,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Delegations, and Requirements Requiring Additional Documentation by Website Administrator PDF document icon DirectivesRequiringAdditionalDocumentation (1).pdf - PDF document, 35 KB (36219

  14. Directives Quarterly Updates

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    Listings of new Justification Memoranda and new or revised Directives that have been posted to the DOE Directives, Delegations, and Requirements Portal. Updated quarterly.

  15. Timeline | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Global Research Over Time From our earliest days, we've been changing the landscape in commercial science and technology. Explore our inventions' evolution. Home > Global Research Over Time Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) Warning: You must have JavaScript enabled in your browser in order to use this

  16. Global Insight Energy Group

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Outlook Mary Novak Managing Director IHS Global Insight Copyright © 2010 IHS Global Insight, Inc. Overview: Energy Sector Transformation Underway * The recession has hit energy demand hard, and aggregate energy demand is not expected to return to 2007 levels until 2018. * Oil and natural gas prices will both rise over the long-term, but the price trends will diverge with natural gas prices rising slowly due to the development of shale gas. * This forecast does not include a GHG cap-and-trade

  17. Experience with Palladium Diffusers in Tritium Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Motyka, T.; Clark, E.A.; Dauchess, D.A.; Heung, L.K.; Rabum, R.L.

    1995-01-27

    Hydrogen isotopes are separated from other gases by permeation through palladium and palladium-silver alloy diffusers in the Tritium Facilities at the US Department of Energy Savannah River Site (SRS). Diffusers have provided effective service for almost forty years. This paper is an overview of the operational experience with the various diffuser types that have been employed at SRS. Alternative technologies being developed at SRS for purifying hydrogen isotopes are also discussed.

  18. Independent Oversight Review, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Plant - November 2013 Independent Oversight Review, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant - November 2013 November 5, 2013 Review of Preparedness for Severe Natural Phenomena Events...

  19. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Final Environmental Assessment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Point of contact for more information: Robert Smith, Department of Energy-Paducah PDF icon Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Final Environmental Assessment for Potential Land and ...

  20. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave narrowband diffuse downwelling...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Measurement : Shortwave narrowband diffuse downwelling irradiance The rate at which radiant energy in narrow bands of wavelengths shorter than approximately 4 mum, that has been ...

  1. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave spectral diffuse downwelling irradiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Measurement : Shortwave spectral diffuse downwelling irradiance The rate at which spectrally resolved radiant energy at wavelengths shorter than approximately 4 mum, that has ...

  2. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave narrowband diffuse upwelling irradiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Send Measurement : Shortwave narrowband diffuse upwelling irradiance The rate at which radiant energy in narrow bands of wavelengths shorter than approximately 4 mum, that has ...

  3. 2-D Multi-Group Diffusion Program

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-07-21

    The multigroup, two-dimensional neutron diffusion equations are solved in x-y, r-z, or r-theta geometry.

  4. Independent Oversight Review, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) contractor, Fluor-Babcock & Wilcox Portsmouth (FBP). ... 2013 Preliminary Notice of Violation, Fluor-B&W Portsmouth, LLC - July 8, 2014 ...

  5. Laboratory Directed Research & Development (LDRD) Tri-Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Nuclear Security AdministrationLaboratory Directed Research and Development Securing the future of our nation through cutting-edge science and technology Laboratory Directed Research and Development Laboratory Directed Research and Development Menu Performance Metrics Annual Reports Nuclear Security Global Security Scientific Security Energy Security Innovation for our nation The Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program was authorized by Congress in 1991 to fund

  6. Global Scratch Gets an Upgrade

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Global Scratch Gets an Upgrade Global Scratch Gets an Upgrade Improvements Will Include Higher Data Output Rates, Connection to PDSF October 29, 2013 The most used file system at the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC)-global scratch-just got an upgrade. As a result, some users may see their data output to global scratch reach up to 80 gigabytes per second. Although users will probably not see their 20-terabyte storage quotas increase, the upgrade ensures that global

  7. Global decarbonization strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Messner, S.

    1996-12-31

    The presentation covers a brief summary of the research activities of the Environmentally Compatible Energy Strategies Project (ECS) at IIASA. The overall research focuses on long-term global energy development and emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG). The ultimate goal is to analyze strategies that achieve decarbonization of global energy systems during the next century. The specific activities range from mitigation of GHG emissions to an integrated assessment of climate change. One focal point is the GHG mitigation technology inventory CO{sub 2}DB, which presently covers approximately 1,400 technologies related to energy and the greenhouse effect. Another integral part is the development of global energy and emissions scenarios, an effort involving a number of formal models to assess the implications. A large number of global scenarios for the next century has been developed, that could be grouped into three families. All of them include energy efficiency improvements and some degree of decarbonization in the world. They are based on different economic and technological development trajectories, and their emissions range from very high to a stabilization of atmospheric carbon dioxide emissions. The presentation will outline the salient characteristics of the three scenario families and provide some regional implications of these alternative futures.

  8. Buckman Direct Diversion Project

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Buckman Direct Diversion Project Buckman Direct Diversion Project This project takes surface water from the Rio Grande, and then treats and distributes these waters to the city and county of Santa Fe through their drinking water distribution systems. August 1, 2013 Water flumes at Buckman Direct Diversion Project Water flumes at Buckman Direct Diversion Project The City of Santa Fe and Santa Fe County completed the construction of the Buckman Direct Diversion (BDD) Project in December 2010. The

  9. direct_deposit_111609

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PROTECT YOUR BANKING INFORMATION: DO NOT complete this form until you are ready to submit it to the Payroll Department. DIRECT DEPOSIT REQUEST Directions: 1. Provide required information neatly, legibly; 2. If Checking Account Direct Deposit, include a voided check. a. DO NOT submit a deposit slip! 3. If Savings Account Direct Deposit, include a copy of savings card. 4. Sign this form; 5. Inter-office mail it to Craft Payroll at "P238." DIRECT DEPOSITION AUTHORIZATION I hereby

  10. Departmental Directives Program Manual - DOE Directives, Delegations...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    M 251.1-1B, Departmental Directives Program Manual by Website Administrator Functional areas: Information Technology, The Manual supplements DOE O 251.1B. Cancels DOE M 251.1-1A....

  11. Solid-state diffusion in amorphous zirconolite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, C.; Dove, M. T.; Trachenko, K.; Zarkadoula, E.; Todorov, I. T.; Geisler, T.; Brazhkin, V. V.

    2014-11-14

    We discuss how structural disorder and amorphization affect solid-state diffusion, and consider zirconolite as a currently important case study. By performing extensive molecular dynamics simulations, we disentangle the effects of amorphization and density, and show that a profound increase of solid-state diffusion takes place as a result of amorphization. Importantly, this can take place at the same density as in the crystal, representing an interesting general insight regarding solid-state diffusion. We find that decreasing the density in the amorphous system increases pre-factors of diffusion constants, but does not change the activation energy in the density range considered. We also find that atomic species in zirconolite are affected differently by amorphization and density change. Our microscopic insights are relevant for understanding how solid-state diffusion changes due to disorder and for building predictive models of operation of materials to be used to encapsulate nuclear waste.

  12. Gas turbine engine with radial diffuser and shortened mid section

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Charron, Richard C.; Montgomery, Matthew D.

    2015-09-08

    An industrial gas turbine engine (10), including: a can annular combustion assembly (80), having a plurality of discrete flow ducts configured to receive combustion gas from respective combustors (82) and deliver the combustion gas along a straight flow path at a speed and orientation appropriate for delivery directly onto the first row (56) of turbine blades (62); and a compressor diffuser (32) having a redirecting surface (130, 140) configured to receive an axial flow of compressed air and redirect the axial flow of compressed air radially outward.

  13. Diffusion of low-carbon technologies and the feasibility of long-term climate targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iyer, Gokul C.; Hultman, Nathan; Eom, Jiyong; McJeon, Haewon C.; Patel, Pralit L.; Clarke, Leon E.

    2015-01-01

    Stabilizing the global climate will require large-scale global deployment of low-carbon technologies. Even in the presence of aggressive climate policies, however, the diffusion of such technologies may be limited by several, institutional, behavioral, and social factors. In this paper, we review the literature on the sources of such diffusion constraints, and explore the potential implications of such non-economic constraints based on the GCAM integrated assessment model. Our analysis highlights that non-economic factors that limit technology deployment may have sizeable impacts on the feasibility and mitigation costs of achieving stringent stabilization targets. And such impacts are greatly amplified with major delays in serious climate policies. The results generally indicate that constraints on the expansions of CCS and renewables are more costly than those on nuclear or bioenergy, and jointly constraining these technologies leaves some scenarios infeasible.

  14. Moving | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Moving We're always working on planes, trains and automobiles-and specialized ways to move people and products efficiently and sustainably. Home > Impact > Moving Green Skies of Brazil Improves Airspace Efficiency It's not uncommon for planes approaching some of Brazil's busiest airports to travel miles out of the way while pilots wait... Read More » Reducing Emissions in the New Tier 4 Locomotive GE Global Research Internal Combustion lab manager Omowoleola "Wole" Akinyemi

  15. Global Bioenergy Partnership Meetings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office Sustainability Technology Manager Kristen Johnson represented the Office at the Global Bioenergy Partnership (GBEP) Meetings in Rome, Italy. The event included three meetings, the 7th annual GBEP Working Group on Capacity Building, the 13th annual Task Force on Sustainability to discuss the experiences with the GBEP Sustainability Indicators for Bioenergy, and the 18th annual GBEP Steering Committee to discuss strategies for sustainable bioenergy development and deployment.

  16. Global Climate & Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia, DOE Energy Storage Program, GeneSiC Semiconductor, U.S. Army ARDEC: Ultra-High-Voltage Silicon Carbide Thyristors Capabilities, Distribution Grid Integration, Energy, Energy Efficiency, Energy Storage Systems, Global Climate & Energy, Grid Integration, Infrastructure Security, Materials Science, Partnership, Research & Capabilities, SMART Grid, Systems Engineering, Transmission Grid Integration Sandia, DOE Energy Storage Program, GeneSiC Semiconductor, U.S. Army ARDEC:

  17. Global Climate & Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandians Published in American Chemical Society's Environmental Science & Technology Analysis, Climate, Energy, Global Climate & Energy, Modeling, Modeling & Analysis, News, News & Events, Systems Analysis, Water Security Sandians Published in American Chemical Society's Environmental Science & Technology Electricity use by water service sector and county. Shown are electricity use by (a) large-scale conveyance, (b) groundwater irrigation pumping, (c) surface water irrigation

  18. Curing | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Curing We're pioneering medical developments, from robotic healthcare assistants to diagnostic tools and specialized, globally deployed gear. Home > Impact > Curing Hospital Management Is Evolving to Reduce Wait Times With hospitals busier than ever and not enough staff to meet the higher demand, going to the hospital can be a series of waiting... Read More » Making High-Value Imaging More Accessible Around the World Advancements in healthcare are creating a paradigm shift in how we

  19. Global climate feedbacks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manowitz, B.

    1990-10-01

    The important physical, chemical, and biological events that affect global climate change occur on a mesoscale -- requiring high spatial resolution for their analysis. The Department of Energy has formulated two major initiatives under the US Global Change Program: ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurements), and CHAMMP (Computer Hardware Advanced Mathematics and Model Physics). ARM is designed to use ground and air-craft based observations to document profiles of atmospheric composition, clouds, and radiative fluxes. With research and models of important physical processes, ARM will delineate the relationships between trace gases, aerosol and cloud structure, and radiative transfer in the atmosphere, and will improve the parameterization of global circulation models. The present GCMs do not model important feedbacks, including those from clouds, oceans, and land processes. The purpose of this workshop is to identify such potential feedbacks, to evaluate the uncertainties in the feedback processes (and, if possible, to parameterize the feedback processes so that they can be treated in a GCM), and to recommend research programs that will reduce the uncertainties in important feedback processes. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases.

  20. Global Energy Futures Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-01-01

    The Global Energy Futures Model (GEFM) is a demand-based, gross domestic product (GDP)-driven, dynamic simulation tool that provides an integrated framework to model key aspects of energy, nuclear-materials storage and disposition, environmental effluents from fossil and non fossil energy and global nuclear-materials management. Based entirely on public source data, it links oil, natural gas, coal, nuclear and renewable energy dynamically to greenhouse-gas emissions and 13 other measures of environmental impact. It includes historical data frommore » 1990 to 2000, is benchmarked to the DOE/EIA/IEO 2002 [5] Reference Case for 2000 to 2020, and extrapolates energy demand through the year 2050. The GEFM is globally integrated, and breaks out five regions of the world: United States of America (USA), the Peoples Republic of China (China), the former Soviet Union (FSU), the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) nations excluding the USA (other industrialized countries), and the rest of the world (ROW) (essentially the developing world). The GEFM allows the user to examine a very wide range of what ir scenarios through 2050 and to view the potential effects across widely dispersed, but interrelated areas. The authors believe that this high-level learning tool will help to stimulate public policy debate on energy, environment, economic and national security issues.« less

  1. Directional recoil rates for WIMP direct detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alenazi, Moqbil S.; Gondolo, Paolo [Department of Physics, University of Utah, 115 S 1400 E Rm 201, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112-0830 (United States)

    2008-02-15

    New techniques for the laboratory direct detection of dark matter weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) are sensitive to the recoil direction of the struck nuclei. We compute and compare the directional recoil rates dR/dcos{theta} (where {theta} is the angle measured from a reference direction in the sky) for several WIMP velocity distributions including the standard dark halo and anisotropic models such as Sikivie's late-infall halo model and logarithmic-ellipsoidal models. Since some detectors may be unable to distinguish the beginning of the recoil track from its end (lack of head-tail discrimination), we introduce a folded directional recoil rate dR/d|cos{theta}|, where |cos{theta}| does not distinguish the head from the tail of the track. We compute the CS{sub 2} and CF{sub 4} exposures required to distinguish a signal from an isotropic background noise, and find that dR/d|cos{theta}| is effective for the standard dark halo and some but not all anisotropic models.

  2. Global interrupt and barrier networks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blumrich, Matthias A. (Ridgefield, CT); Chen, Dong (Croton-On-Hudson, NY); Coteus, Paul W. (Yorktown Heights, NY); Gara, Alan G. (Mount Kisco, NY); Giampapa, Mark E (Irvington, NY); Heidelberger, Philip (Cortlandt Manor, NY); Kopcsay, Gerard V. (Yorktown Heights, NY); Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D. (Mount Kisco, NY); Takken, Todd E. (Mount Kisco, NY)

    2008-10-28

    A system and method for generating global asynchronous signals in a computing structure. Particularly, a global interrupt and barrier network is implemented that implements logic for generating global interrupt and barrier signals for controlling global asynchronous operations performed by processing elements at selected processing nodes of a computing structure in accordance with a processing algorithm; and includes the physical interconnecting of the processing nodes for communicating the global interrupt and barrier signals to the elements via low-latency paths. The global asynchronous signals respectively initiate interrupt and barrier operations at the processing nodes at times selected for optimizing performance of the processing algorithms. In one embodiment, the global interrupt and barrier network is implemented in a scalable, massively parallel supercomputing device structure comprising a plurality of processing nodes interconnected by multiple independent networks, with each node including one or more processing elements for performing computation or communication activity as required when performing parallel algorithm operations. One multiple independent network includes a global tree network for enabling high-speed global tree communications among global tree network nodes or sub-trees thereof. The global interrupt and barrier network may operate in parallel with the global tree network for providing global asynchronous sideband signals.

  3. IUTAM symposium on hydrodynamic diffusion of suspended particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, R.H.

    1995-12-31

    Hydrodynamic diffusion refers to the fluctuating motion of nonBrownian particles (or droplets or bubbles) which occurs in a dispersion due to multiparticle interactions. For example, in a concentrated sheared suspension, particles do not move along streamlines but instead exhibit fluctuating motions as they tumble around each other. This leads to a net migration of particles down gradients in particle concentration and in shear rate, due to the higher frequency of encounters of a test particle with other particles on the side of the test particle which has higher concentration or shear rate. As another example, suspended particles subject to sedimentation, centrifugation, or fluidization, do not generally move relative to the fluid with a constant velocity, but instead experience diffusion-like fluctuations in velocity due to interactions with neighboring particles and the resulting variation in the microstructure or configuration of the suspended particles. In flowing granular materials, the particles interact through direct collisions or contacts (rather than through the surrounding fluid); these collisions also cause the particles to undergo fluctuating motions characteristic of diffusion processes. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  4. Direct/Indirect Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter provides recommended categories for direct and indirect elements developed by the Committee for Cost Methods Development (CCMD) and describes various estimating techniques for direct and indirect costs.

  5. Directions - 88-Inch Cyclotron

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Directions The Laboratory is on the hillside directly above the campus of the University of California at Berkeley. Our address is 1 Cyclotron Rd. Bldg. 88, Berkeley, CA 94720. To...

  6. Directives System Manual

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1998-01-30

    This Manual provides detailed requirements to supplement DOE O 251.1A, Directives System, dated 1-30-98.

  7. Directives Quarterly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    https://www.directives.doe.gov/directives/directives July 2013 DOE O 243.1B Admin Chg 1, Records Management Program - The order sets forth requirements and responsibilities for creating and preserving records of DOE organization, functions, policies, decisions, procedures, and essential transactions and information necessary to protect the legal and financial rights of the Government and persons directly affected by DOE activities. Cancels DOE O 243.1A and DOE O 243.2. Admin Chg 1, dated

  8. Direct process for explosives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Akst, I.B.; Stinecipher, M.M.

    1982-10-12

    A direct process of making ethylenediamine dinitrate through the reaction of ethylenediamine and ammonium nitrate is described.

  9. About Direct Current

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Learn about Direct Current -- a podcast about the energy that lights our homes, powers our lives and shapes our world.

  10. Directives Quarterly Updates - DOE Directives, Delegations, and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Requirements Quarterly Updates by Diane Johnson Listings of new Justification Memoranda and new or revised Directives that have been posted to the DOE Directives, Delegations, and Requirements Portal. Updated quarterly. FY2016 FY 16, Q2 - January through March 2016 FY2015 FY15, Q1 - October through December 2014 FY15, Q3 - April through June 2015 FY15, Q4 - July through September 2015 FY 2014 FY14, Q1 - October through December 2013 FY14, Q2 - January through March 2014 FY14, Q3 - April

  11. Endeavor Global | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    :"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":"" Hide Map References: Endeavor Global Web Site1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Endeavor Global is...

  12. Laser Manufacturing | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laser Manufacturing at GE Global Research Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new ... Laser Manufacturing at GE Global Research Learn how laser sintering, an additive laser ...

  13. Foreign Direct Investment in U.S. Energy

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the role of direct foreign ownership of U.S. energy enterprises with respect to their energy operations, capital investments, and net foreign investment flows (including net loans). In addition, since energy investments are made in a global context, the report examines patterns of direct investment in foreign energy enterprises by U.S.-based companies.

  14. ARM - What Causes Global Warming?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ThinkersWhat Causes Global Warming? Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans What Causes Global Warming? What is the basis for the predictions concerning global warming? There are several gases in the air, collectively called greenhouse gases, that trap the infrared radiation emitted

  15. Turbine exhaust diffuser with region of reduced flow area and outer boundary gas flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Orosa, John

    2014-03-11

    An exhaust diffuser system and method for a turbine engine. The outer boundary may include a region in which the outer boundary extends radially inwardly toward the hub structure and may direct at least a portion of an exhaust flow in the diffuser toward the hub structure. At least one gas jet is provided including a jet exit located on the outer boundary. The jet exit may discharge a flow of gas downstream substantially parallel to an inner surface of the outer boundary to direct a portion of the exhaust flow in the diffuser toward the outer boundary to effect a radially outward flow of at least a portion of the exhaust gas flow toward the outer boundary to balance an aerodynamic load between the outer and inner boundaries.

  16. Turbine exhaust diffuser with a gas jet producing a coanda effect flow control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Orosa, John; Montgomery, Matthew

    2014-02-11

    An exhaust diffuser system and method for a turbine engine includes an inner boundary and an outer boundary with a flow path defined therebetween. The inner boundary is defined at least in part by a hub structure that has an upstream end and a downstream end. The outer boundary may include a region in which the outer boundary extends radially inward toward the hub structure and may direct at least a portion of an exhaust flow in the diffuser toward the hub structure. The hub structure includes at least one jet exit located on the hub structure adjacent to the upstream end of the tail cone. The jet exit discharges a flow of gas substantially tangential to an outer surface of the tail cone to produce a Coanda effect and direct a portion of the exhaust flow in the diffuser toward the inner boundary.

  17. Diffusion and transport coefficients in synthetic opals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sofo, J. O.; Mahan, G. D.; Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996-1200

    2000-07-15

    Opals are structures composed of close-packed spheres in the size range of nano to micrometers. They are sintered to create small necks at the points of contact. We have solved the diffusion problem in such structures. The relation between the diffusion coefficient and the thermal and electrical conductivity is used to estimate the transport coefficients of opal structures as a function of the neck size and the mean free path of the carriers. The theory presented is also applicable to the diffusion problem in other periodic structures. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  18. The AN neutron transport by nodal diffusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbarino, A.; Tomatis, D.

    2013-07-01

    The two group diffusion model combined to a nodal approach in space is the preferred scheme for the industrial simulation of nuclear water reactors. The main selling point is the speed of computation, allowing a large number of parametric studies. Anyway, the drawbacks of the underlying diffusion equation may arise with highly heterogeneous interfaces, often encountered in modern UO{sub 2} and MO{sub x} fuel loading patterns, and boron less controlled systems. This paper aims at showing how the simplified AN transport model, equivalent to the well known SPN, can be implemented in standard diffusion codes with minor modifications. Some numerical results are illustrated. (authors)

  19. Global temperature deviations as a random walk

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karner, O.

    1996-12-31

    Surface air temperature is the main parameter to represent the earth`s contemporary climate. Several historical temperature records on a global/monthly basis are available. Time-series analysis shows that they can be modelled via autoregressive moving average models closely connected to the classical random walk model. Fitted models emphasize a nonstationary character of the global/monthly temperature deviation from a certain level. The nonstationarity explains all trends and periods, found in the last century`s variability of global mean temperature. This means that the short-term temperature trends are inevitable and may have little in common with a currently increasing carbon dioxide amount. The calculations show that a reasonable understanding of the contemporary global mean climate is attainable, assuming random forcing to the climate system and treating temperature deviation as a response to it. The forcings occur due to volcanic eruptions, redistribution of cloudiness, variations in snow and ice covered areas, changes in solar output, etc. Their impact can not be directly estimated from changes of the earth`s radiation budget at the top of the atmosphere, because actual measurements represent mixture of the forcings and responses. Thus, it is impossible empirically to separate the impact of one particular forcing (e.g., that due to increase of CO{sub 2} amount) from the sequence of all existing forcings in the earth climate system. More accurate modelling involving main feedback loops is necessary to ease such a separation.

  20. The Global Energy Challenge

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Crabtree, George

    2010-01-08

    The expected doubling of global energy demand by 2050 challenges our traditional patterns of energy production, distribution and use.   The continued use of fossil fuels raises concerns about supply, security, environment and climate.  New routes are needed for the efficient conversion of energy from chemical fuel, sunlight, and heat to electricity or hydrogen as an energy carrier and finally to end uses like transportation, lighting, and heating. Opportunities for efficient new energy conversion routes based on nanoscale materials will be presented, with emphasis on the sustainable energy technologies they enable.

  1. Global warming from HFC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, E.

    1998-11-01

    Using a variety of public sources, a computer model of hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerant emissions in the UK has been developed. This model has been used to estimate and project emissions in 2010 under three types of scenarios: (1) business as usual; (2) voluntary agreements to reduce refrigerant leakage; and (3) comprehensive regulations to reduce refrigerant leakage. This resulting forecast is that UK emissions of HFC refrigerants in 2010 will account for 2% to 4% of the UK`s 1990 baseline global warming contribution.

  2. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Annual Site Environmental Report for 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The purpose of this document is to summarize effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance results and compliance with environmental laws, regulations, and orders at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). Environmental monitoring at PGDP consists of two major activities: effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. Effluent monitoring is direct measurement or the collection and analysis of samples of liquid and gaseous discharges to the environment. Environmental surveillance is direct measurement or the collection and analysis of samples of air, water, soil, foodstuff, biota, and other media. Environmental monitoring is performed to characterize and quantify contaminants, assess radiation exposures of members of the public, demonstrate compliance with applicable standards and permit requirements, and detect and assess the effects (if any) on the local environment. Multiple samples are collected throughout the year and are analyzed for radioactivity, chemical content, and various physical attributes.

  3. Ternary gas mixture for diffuse discharge switch (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ternary gas mixture for diffuse discharge switch Title: Ternary gas mixture for diffuse discharge switch A new diffuse discharge gas switch wherein a mixture of gases is used to ...

  4. Review of enhanced vapor diffusion in porous media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webb, S.W.; Ho, C.K.

    1998-08-01

    Vapor diffusion in porous media in the presence of its own liquid has often been treated similar to gas diffusion. The gas diffusion rate in porous media is much lower than in free space due to the presence of the porous medium and any liquid present. However, enhanced vapor diffusion has also been postulated such that the diffusion rate may approach free-space values. Existing data and models for enhanced vapor diffusion, including those in TOUGH2, are reviewed in this paper.

  5. Producing microchannels using graduated diffusion bonding of...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of precision machined foils or sheets (laminates) to make a micro-channel reactor A novel multi-step process for the diffusion bonding of laminates National Energy Technology...

  6. Solar Energy Evolution and Diffusion Studies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Through the Solar Energy Evolution and Diffusion Studies, or SEEDS, program, seven projects are investigating strategies to accelerate the pace of change for solar energy technologies as they are...

  7. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave broadband diffuse downwelling irradiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave broadband diffuse downwelling irradiance All of the solar radiation, across the wavelength range of ...

  8. Cancellation of Directives

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2009-08-26

    Effective immediately SEN-17-90, Coordination of Global Climate Change Activities, dated 2-20-90; and SEN-19A-92, Department of Energy Executive Committee, dated 7-7-92 are canceled. Cancels SEN-17-90, SEN-19A-92.

  9. Directives Quarterly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Management's home page for Directives at https://www.directives.doe.gov/directives APRIL 2015 DOE O 325.2, Position Management and Classification The order establishes departmental requirements and responsibilities for classifying positions using general schedule (GS) and federal wage system (FWS) standards and for developing and administering a sound position management and classification program within the Department. Cancels Chapter VII of DOE O 320.1. DOE G 444.1-1, Guide on Preventing and

  10. Directives Quarterly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    https://www.directives.doe.gov/directives/directives October 2013 DOE O 472.2 Admin Chg 1, Personnel Security - The order establishes requirements that will enable DOE to operate a successful, efficient, cost-effective personnel security program that will ensure accurate, timely and equitable determinations of individuals' eligibility for access to classified information and Special Nuclear Material (SNM). Admin Chg 1, 10-8-13 clarifies ambiguities and updates reference citations. November 2013

  11. Departmental Directives Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2007-09-10

    To define requirements and responsibilities for implementing the Department of Energy (DOE) Directives Program in support of the Secretary's memorandum of September 10, 2007, Principles Governing Departmental Directives. See also the current list of Directives Requiring Further Documentation, as required by Appendix D of this Order. Supersedes DOE P 251.1A, DOE O 251.1B, DOE M 251.1-1B.

  12. Oxygen Diffusion (OD) Dramatically Improves Wear-Resistance of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oxygen Diffusion (OD) Dramatically Improves Wear-Resistance of Titanium Oxygen Diffusion (OD) Dramatically Improves Wear-Resistance of Titanium 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & ...

  13. K-25 Gaseous Diffusion Process Building | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    other two being electromagnetic separation and liquid thermal diffusion. The S-50 liquid thermal diffusion plant, using convection to separate the isotopes in thousands of tall...

  14. EA-1927: Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Potential Land and Facilities...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Gaseous Diffusion Plant Potential Land and Facilities Transfers; McCracken County, Kentucky EA-1927: Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Potential Land and Facilities Transfers; ...

  15. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant - TN 02 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (TN.02 ) Designated Name: Alternate Name: Location: Evaluation Year: Site...

  16. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Paducah Gaseous Diffusion...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant - KY 01 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (KY.01 ) Designated Name: Alternate Name: Location: Evaluation Year: Site...

  17. Departmental Directives Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2014-10-16

    To establish directives as the primary means to set, communicate, and institutionalize policies, requirements, responsibilities, and procedures for Departmental elements and contractors.

  18. Cancellation of Directives

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2015-01-26

    Effective immediately the following Department of Energy directive is canceled. DOE M 452.2-2, Nuclear Explosive Safety Evaluation Processes, dated 04-14-2009.

  19. Directives Quarterly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The following new and revised Directives are available over the Internet on the Office of Management's home page for Directives at: https://www.directives.doe.gov/directives-browse#c8- operator=or&c10=&c12=&b_start=0 April 2014 DOE O 205.1B Chg 3, Department of Energy Cyber Security Program - The order sets forth requirements and responsibilities for a Departmental Cyber Security Program (CSP) that protects information and information systems for the Department of Energy (DOE). DOE

  20. Cancellation of Directives

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2016-05-26

    Effective immediately the following Department of Energy directive is canceled: DOE P 111.1, Departmental Organization Management System, dated 08-27-96.

  1. Direct-fired biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The direct-fired biomass section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes the technical and economic status of this emerging renewable energy option for electricity supply.

  2. Directives System Manual

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1995-10-16

    This Manual provides detailed requirements to supplement DOE O 251.1, which establishes requirements for the development, coordination, and sunset review of DOE directives.

  3. Global tree network for computing structures enabling global processing operations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blumrich; Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Coteus, Paul W.; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Hoenicke, Dirk; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D.; Takken, Todd E.; Vranas, Pavlos M.

    2010-01-19

    A system and method for enabling high-speed, low-latency global tree network communications among processing nodes interconnected according to a tree network structure. The global tree network enables collective reduction operations to be performed during parallel algorithm operations executing in a computer structure having a plurality of the interconnected processing nodes. Router devices are included that interconnect the nodes of the tree via links to facilitate performance of low-latency global processing operations at nodes of the virtual tree and sub-tree structures. The global operations performed include one or more of: broadcast operations downstream from a root node to leaf nodes of a virtual tree, reduction operations upstream from leaf nodes to the root node in the virtual tree, and point-to-point message passing from any node to the root node. The global tree network is configurable to provide global barrier and interrupt functionality in asynchronous or synchronized manner, and, is physically and logically partitionable.

  4. Global Research on On The Verge | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Department of Energy Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Triples in Size to 16 Members Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Triples in Size to 16 Members September 16, 2007 - 2:33pm Addthis Nations Sign On to International Cooperation for Safe Expansion of Nuclear Energy Worldwide VIENNA, AUSTRIA - U.S. Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman and senior international officials from 16 nations today agreed to increase international nuclear energy cooperation through the Global Nuclear Energy

  5. Detailed numerical investigation of the Bohm limit in cosmic ray diffusion theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussein, M.; Shalchi, A. E-mail: andreasm4@yahoo.com

    2014-04-10

    A standard model in cosmic ray diffusion theory is the so-called Bohm limit in which the particle mean free path is assumed to be equal to the Larmor radius. This type of diffusion is often employed to model the propagation and acceleration of energetic particles. However, recent analytical and numerical work has shown that standard Bohm diffusion is not realistic. In the present paper, we perform test-particle simulations to explore particle diffusion in the strong turbulence limit in which the wave field is much stronger than the mean magnetic field. We show that there is indeed a lower limit of the particle mean free path along the mean field. In this limit, the mean free path is directly proportional to the unperturbed Larmor radius like in the traditional Bohm limit, but it is reduced by the factor ?B/B {sub 0} where B {sub 0} is the mean field and ?B the turbulent field. Although we focus on parallel diffusion, we also explore diffusion across the mean field in the strong turbulence limit.

  6. Departmental Directives System

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1983-04-07

    The order establishes the directives system to be used for publishing permanent and temporary directives issued by DOE Headquarters and addressed to Headquarters and/or field elements. Chg 1 dated 3-14-85. Cancels DOE 1321.1A.

  7. Geoscience Australia Continuous Global Positioning System (GPS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    System Darwin, Australia, ARM site Geoscience Australia Global Navigation Satellite System Global Positioning System Receiver Independent Exchange Format South Pacific ...

  8. Principal Associate Director - Global Security

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Principal Associate Director - Global Security As Principal Associate Director for Global Security, Terry Wallace leads Laboratory programs with special focus on developing and applying the scientific and engineering capabilities to address complex national and global security threats. Contact Operator Los Alamos National Laboratory (505) 667-5061 Wallace's expertise is forensic seismology, a highly specialized discipline focusing on detection and quantification of nuclear tests. Terry C.

  9. ARM - What Causes Global Warming?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    BeginnersWhat Causes Global Warming? Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans What Causes Global Warming? On earth we get energy from the sun's light. As you know, it gets hot outside if the sun is shining brightly on a summer day. The reason it warms up is because the earth is

  10. ARM - What is Global Warming?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is Global Warming? Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans What is Global Warming? Our earth's average temperature stays pretty much the same from year to year. Sometimes it gets very cold in the winter and very hot in the summer where you live. And some years may be a little hotter

  11. ARM - What is Global Warming?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is Global Warming? Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans What is Global Warming? The surface temperature of each of the planets in our solar system depends on a process called the heat budget. This budget, like any other type of budget, remains balanced if the amount (of energy)

  12. Going Global: Tight Oil Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Thin target zone Disconnected target zones Controlled fractures GOING GLOBAL: TIGHT OIL PRODUCTION Tight Oil has Significant Energy Security Impacts Tight oil production growth ...

  13. Aviation Technology | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Read More GE Scientists Demonstrate Promising Anti-icing Nano Surfaces GE Global Research today presented new research findings on its nanotextured anti-icing surfaces. In ...

  14. Enlighten Your Research Global Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enlighten Your Research Global Program Science Engagement Move your data Programs & Workshops CrossConnects Workshop Series Operating Innovative Networks Workshop Series Enlighten...

  15. Aviation Technology | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Read More Ceramic Matrix Composites Improve Engine Efficiency Ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) are a breakthrough materials technology for jet engines that started at our Global ...

  16. Office of Global Material Security

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    at Wilton Park, United Kingdom, on the growing challenge of securing the global maritime supply chain. In total, 55 participants from 15 countries and 9 international...

  17. Solvable Examples of Drift and Diffusion of Ions in Non-uniform Electric Fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cahn, Robert; Cahn, Robert N.; Jackson, John David

    2008-05-30

    The drift and diffusion of a cloud of ions in a fluid are distorted by an inhomogeneous electric field. If the electric field carries the center of the distribution in a straight line and the field configuration is suitably symmetric, the distortion can be calculated analytically. We examine the specific examples of fields with cylindrical and spherical symmetry in detail assuming the ion distributions to be of a generally Gaussian form. The effects of differing diffusion coefficients in the transverse and longitudinal directions are included.

  18. Directives Quarterly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    https://www.directives.doe.gov/directives-browse#c8- operator=or&c10=&c12=&b_start=0 January 2014 DOE O 343.1, Federal Substance Abuse Testing Program - The Order establishes the requirements and responsibilities for the DOE Federal Substance Abuse Testing Program which covers drug and alcohol testing. Cancels DOE O 3792.3 Chg 1 February 2014 There were no directives approved during this month. March 2014 DOE O 232.2 Admin Chg 1, Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations

  19. Directives Quarterly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    home page for Directives at: https://www.directives.doe.gov/directives- browse#c8-operator=or&c10=&c12=&b_start=0 October 2014 DOE O 475.2B, Identifying Classified Information - To establish the program to identify information classified under the Atomic Energy Act [Restricted Data (RD), Formerly Restricted Data (FRD), and Transclassified Foreign Nuclear Information (TFNI)] or Executive Order (E.O.) 13526 [National Security Information (NSI)], so that it can be protected against

  20. Independent Oversight Review, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant- January 2013

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Review of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Work Planning and Control Activities Prior to Work Execution

  1. Independent Oversight Review, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant – November 2013

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Review of Preparedness for Severe Natural Phenomena Events at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant.

  2. AISI direct steelmaking program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aukrust, E.

    1991-01-09

    AISI with co-funding from DOE has initiated a research and development program aimed at the development of a new process for direct steelmaking, and the program is discussed in this document. The project is expected to cost about $30 million over a three-year period, with the government providing approximately 77 percent of the funds and AISI the balance. In contrast to current steelmaking processes which are largely open and batch, the direct steelmaking process would be closed and continuous. Further, it would use coal directly, thereby avoiding the need for coke ovens. The second year of the Direct Steelmaking Program (November 29, 1989, through November 28, 1990) was a year of significant accomplishment. The various research programs proceeded essentially on schedule and the pilot plant, the centerpiece of the program, was completed about three months behind schedule but began operation in almost a picture-perfect manner. This report presents the last years accomplishments.

  3. Departmental Directives Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2015-08-13

    The order establishes directives as the primary means to set, communicate, and institutionalize policies, requirements, responsibilities, and procedures for Departmental elements and contractors. The second draft is being submitted for review owing to extensive revisions to the first draft.

  4. Direct nuclear pumped laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miley, George H.; Wells, William E.; DeYoung, Russell J.

    1978-01-01

    There is provided a direct nuclear pumped gas laser in which the lasing mechanism is collisional radiated recombination of ions. The gas laser active medium is a mixture of the gases, with one example being neon and nitrogen.

  5. (Managing the global environment)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rayner, S.F.

    1989-10-03

    The conference was stimulated by concern that policy makers increasingly have to make environmental management decisions in the absence of solidly established scientific consensus about ecological processes and the consequences of human actions. Often, as in the case of climate change, some decisions may have to be made in the absence of information that is desirable but may not be available for years to come, if ever. Six topics were identified as running throughout the Congress. These were: the epistemology and history of the sciences or disciplines concerned with the environment, including the scientific basis of rationality and modes of dealing with uncertainty and complexity; the social, economic, and institutional conditions for the production of knowledge bearing on the environment, including the politics of research and the improvement of scientific data; the structuring and institutionalization of expert assessments on national and international levels, including the global distribution of expertise; the means of establishing scientific information, the role of the media in transmitting and processing knowledge about the environment, and the organization of public environmental debate; and decision making and management under conditions of uncertainty; and, finally the relationship between science and ethics. 13 refs.

  6. Refrigerant directly cooled capacitors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S.; Seiber, Larry E.; Marlino, Laura D.; Ayers, Curtis W.

    2007-09-11

    The invention is a direct contact refrigerant cooling system using a refrigerant floating loop having a refrigerant and refrigeration devices. The cooling system has at least one hermetic container disposed in the refrigerant floating loop. The hermetic container has at least one electronic component selected from the group consisting of capacitors, power electronic switches and gating signal module. The refrigerant is in direct contact with the electronic component.

  7. Directions & Maps

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Directional Antineutrino Detection Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Directional Antineutrino Detection Authors: Safdi, Benjamin R. ; Suerfu, Burkhant Publication Date: 2015-02-20 OSTI Identifier: 1181344 Grant/Contract Number: ER-41850; SC00012567 Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Physical Review Letters Additional Journal Information: Journal Volume: 114; Journal Issue: 7; Journal ID: ISSN 0031-9007 Publisher: American Physical Society Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country

  8. Global-Address Space Networking (GASNet) Library

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2011-04-06

    GASNet (Global-Address Space Networking) is a language-independent, low-level networking layer that provides network-independent, high-performance communication primitives tailored for implementing parallel global address space SPMD languages such as UPC and Titanium. The interface is primarily intended as a compilation target and for use by runtime library writers (as opposed to end users), and the primary goals are high performance, interface portability, and expressiveness. GASNet is designed specifically to support high-performance, portable implementations of global address spacemore » languages on modern high-end communication networks. The interface provides the flexibility and extensibility required to express a wide variety of communication patterns without sacrificing performance by imposing large computational overheads in the interface. The design of the GASNet interface is partitioned into two layers to maximize porting ease without sacrificing performance: the lower level is a narrow but very general interface called the GASNet core API - the design is basedheavily on Active Messages, and is implemented directly on top of each individual network architecture. The upper level is a wider and more expressive interface called GASNet extended API, which provides high-level operations such as remote memory access and various collective operations. This release implements GASNet over MPI, the Quadrics "elan" API, the Myrinet "GM" API and the "LAPI" interface to the IBM SP switch. A template is provided for adding support for additional network interfaces.« less

  9. K-25 Gaseous Diffusion Process Building | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    » Signature Facilities » K-25 Gaseous Diffusion Process Building K-25 Gaseous Diffusion Process Building K-25 Gaseous Diffusion Process Building New! K-25 Virtual Museum The K-25 plant, located on the southwestern end of the Oak Ridge reservation, used the gaseous diffusion method to separate uranium-235 from uranium-238. Based on the well-known principle that molecules of a lighter isotope would pass through a porous barrier more readily than molecules of a heavier one, gaseous diffusion

  10. Analytical solutions to matrix diffusion problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keklinen, Pekka

    2014-10-06

    We report an analytical method to solve in a few cases of practical interest the equations which have traditionally been proposed for the matrix diffusion problem. In matrix diffusion, elements dissolved in ground water can penetrate the porous rock surronuding the advective flow paths. In the context of radioactive waste repositories this phenomenon provides a mechanism by which the area of rock surface in contact with advecting elements is greatly enhanced, and can thus be an important delay mechanism. The cases solved are relevant for laboratory as well for in situ experiments. Solutions are given as integral representations well suited for easy numerical solution.

  11. Crystal defect studies using x-ray diffuse scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larson, B.C.

    1980-01-01

    Microscopic lattice defects such as point (single atom) defects, dislocation loops, and solute precipitates are characterized by local electronic density changes at the defect sites and by distortions of the lattice structure surrounding the defects. The effect of these interruptions of the crystal lattice on the scattering of x-rays is considered in this paper, and examples are presented of the use of the diffuse scattering to study the defects. X-ray studies of self-interstitials in electron irradiated aluminum and copper are discussed in terms of the identification of the interstitial configuration. Methods for detecting the onset of point defect aggregation into dislocation loops are considered and new techniques for the determination of separate size distributions for vacancy loops and interstitial loops are presented. Direct comparisons of dislocation loop measurements by x-rays with existing electron microscopy studies of dislocation loops indicate agreement for larger size loops, but x-ray measurements report higher concentrations in the smaller loop range. Methods for distinguishing between loops and three-dimensional precipitates are discussed and possibilities for detailed studies considered. A comparison of dislocation loop size distributions obtained from integral diffuse scattering measurements with those from TEM show a discrepancy in the smaller sizes similar to that described above.

  12. Global production through 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foreman, N.E.

    1996-12-01

    Two companion studies released recently should provide great food for thought among geo-political strategists and various national governments. If predictions contained in these Petroconsultants studies of oil and gas production trends for the next 10 years are realized, there will be great repercussions for net exporters and importers, alike. After analyzing and predicting trends within each of the world`s significant producing nations for the 1996--2005 period, the crude oil and condensate report concludes tat global production will jump nearly 24%. By contrast, worldwide gas output will leap 40%. The cast of characters among producers and exporters that will benefit from these increases varies considerably for each fuel. On the oil side, Russia and the OPEC members, particularly the Persian Gulf nations, will be back in the driver`s seat in terms of affecting export and pricing patterns. On the gas side, the leading producers will be an interesting mix of mostly non-OPEC countries. The reemergence of Persian Gulf oil producers, coupled with an anticipated long-term decline among top non-OPEC producing nations should present a sobering picture to government planners within large net importers, such as the US. They are likely to find themselves in much the same supply trap as was experienced in the 1970s, only this time the dependence on foreign oil supplies will be much worse. Gas supplies will not be similarly constrained, and some substitution for oil is probable. Here, two articles, ``World oil industry is set for transition`` and ``Worldwide gas surges forward in next decade,`` present a summary of the findings detailed in Petroconsultants` recent studies.

  13. Turbine exhaust diffuser flow path with region of reduced total flow area

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Orosa, John A.

    2012-12-25

    An exhaust diffuser system and method for a turbine engine includes an inner boundary and an outer boundary with a flow path defined therebetween. The inner boundary is defined at least in part by a hub that has an upstream end and a downstream end. The outer boundary has a region in which the outer boundary extends radially inward toward the hub. The region can begin at a point that is substantially aligned with the downstream end of the hub or, alternatively, at a point that is proximately upstream of the downstream end of the hub. The region directs at least a portion of an exhaust flow in the diffuser toward the hub. As a result, the exhaust diffuser system and method can achieve the performance of a long hub system while enjoying the costs of a short hub system.

  14. Understanding differences in the diffusion of environmentally beneficial technology. Final project report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blackman, A.; Boyd, J.; Simpson, R.D.; Toman, M.

    1996-12-31

    The factors affecting the diffusion of technical discoveries among firms and nations remain one of the most interesting and important but least understood elements of economic behavior. Recently, interest in technology diffusion has been heightened by a recognition that the spread of technologies could have important implications for environmental quality as well as for market goods and services. A specific motivation for this study was the question of how rapidly technologies that reduce greenhouse gas emissions might diffuse. Technologies in this category include technologies that improve the efficiency of fossil energy use or promote substitution of renewable energy resources. The speed with which these technologies spread could have a significant effect on the rate of accumulation of carbon in the atmosphere. From a modeling perspective, the rate of innovation and diffusion of carbon-reducing technology is known to be a crucial parameter in integrated assessments of climate change risks and policy responses. Thus, a better understanding of factors that might influence the spread of carbon-reducing technologies could be valuable in studies on long-term global change and policy assessment.

  15. Highly directional thermal emitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ribaudo, Troy; Shaner, Eric A; Davids, Paul; Peters, David W

    2015-03-24

    A highly directional thermal emitter device comprises a two-dimensional periodic array of heavily doped semiconductor structures on a surface of a substrate. The array provides a highly directional thermal emission at a peak wavelength between 3 and 15 microns when the array is heated. For example, highly doped silicon (HDSi) with a plasma frequency in the mid-wave infrared was used to fabricate nearly perfect absorbing two-dimensional gratings structures that function as highly directional thermal radiators. The absorption and emission characteristics of the HDSi devices possessed a high degree of angular dependence for infrared absorption in the 10-12 micron range, while maintaining high reflectivity of solar radiation (.about.64%) at large incidence angles.

  16. Direct conversion technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Massier, P.F.; Back, L.H.; Ryan, M.A.; Fabris, G.

    1992-01-07

    The overall objective of the Direct Conversion Technology task is to develop an experimentally verified technology base for promising direct conversion systems that have potential application for energy conservation in the end-use sectors. This report contains progress of research on the Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC) and on the Two-Phase Liquid-Metal MHD Electrical Generator (LMMHD) for the period January 1, 1991 through December 31, 1991. Research on AMTEC and on LMMHD was initiated during October 1987. Reports prepared on previous occasions (Refs. 1--5) contain descriptive and performance discussions of the following direct conversion concepts: thermoelectric, pyroelectric, thermionic, thermophotovoltaic, thermoacoustic, thermomagnetic, thermoelastic (Nitionol heat engine); and also, more complete descriptive discussions of AMTEC and LMMHD systems.

  17. Directives Quarterly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    https://www.directives.doe.gov/directives-browse#c8- operator=or&c10=&c12=&b_start=0. July 2014 DOE G 415.1-1, Information Technology Project Execution Model Guide - The guide was developed in support of DOE O 415.1 to assist IT Program and Project Managers in effectively managing and applying sound project management to IT. DOE O 472.2 Chg 1, Personnel Security - The order establishes requirements that will enable DOE to operate a successful, efficient, cost-effective personnel

  18. Direct Conversion Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Back, L.H.; Fabris, G.; Ryan, M.A.

    1992-07-01

    The overall objective of the Direct Conversion Technology task is to develop an experimentally verified technology base for promising direct conversion systems that have potential application for energy conservation in the end-use sectors. Initially, two systems were selected for exploratory research and advanced development. These are Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC) and Two-Phase Liquid Metal MD Generator (LMMHD). This report describes progress that has been made during the first six months of 1992 on research activities associated with these two systems. (GHH)

  19. Directed Quantum Chaos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Efetov, K.B. [Max-Planck Institut fuer Physik komplexer Systeme, Heisenbergstrasse 1, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)] [Max-Planck Institut fuer Physik komplexer Systeme, Heisenbergstrasse 1, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); [L.D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Moscow (Russia)

    1997-07-01

    Quantum disordered problems with a direction (imaginary vector potential) are discussed and mapped onto a supermatrix {sigma} model. It is argued that the 0D version of the {sigma} model may describe a broad class of phenomena that can be called directed quantum chaos. It is demonstrated by explicit calculations that these problems are equivalent to those of random asymmetric or non-Hermitian matrices. A joint probability of complex eigenvalues is obtained. The fraction of states with real eigenvalues proves to be always finite for time reversal invariant systems. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  20. Directions | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Directions Important Note: Effective Feb. 15, 2016, Jefferson Lab's main entrance is closed to all traffic. Excavation work is underway at the main entrance - at the intersection of Jefferson Ave. and Lawrence Drive. Please follow the directions below to access Jefferson Lab, including access to the main parking lot of CEBAF Center. From Washington, D.C. - take I-95 south toward Richmond - near Richmond take I-295 south to I-64 east - take I-64 east to Newport News - take exit 255 (toward

  1. A Bloch-Torrey Equation for Diffusion in a Deforming Media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohmer, Damien; Gullberg, Grant T.

    2006-12-29

    Diffusion Tensor Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DTMRI)technique enables the measurement of diffusion parameters and therefore,informs on the structure of the biological tissue. This technique isapplied with success to the static organs such as brain. However, thediffusion measurement on the dynamically deformable organs such as thein-vivo heart is a complex problem that has however a great potential inthe measurement of cardiac health. In order to understand the behavior ofthe Magnetic Resonance (MR)signal in a deforming media, the Bloch-Torreyequation that leads the MR behavior is expressed in general curvilinearcoordinates. These coordinates enable to follow the heart geometry anddeformations through time. The equation is finally discretized andpresented in a numerical formulation using implicit methods, in order toget a stable scheme that can be applied to any smooth deformations.Diffusion process enables the link between the macroscopic behavior ofmolecules and themicroscopic structure in which they evolve. Themeasurement of diffusion in biological tissues is therefore of majorimportance in understanding the complex underlying structure that cannotbe studied directly. The Diffusion Tensor Magnetic ResonanceImaging(DTMRI) technique enables the measurement of diffusion parametersand therefore provides information on the structure of the biologicaltissue. This technique has been applied with success to static organssuch as the brain. However, diffusion measurement of dynamicallydeformable organs such as the in-vivo heart remains a complex problem,which holds great potential in determining cardiac health. In order tounderstand the behavior of the magnetic resonance (MR) signal in adeforming media, the Bloch-Torrey equation that defines the MR behavioris expressed in general curvilinear coordinates. These coordinates enableus to follow the heart geometry and deformations through time. Theequation is finally discretized and presented in a numerical formulationusing implicit methods in order to derive a stable scheme that can beapplied to any smooth deformations.

  2. Field-Scale Effective Matrix Diffusion Coefficient for FracturedRock: Results From Literature Survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Quanlin; Liu, Hui Hai; Molz, Fred J.; Zhang, Yingqi; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.

    2005-03-28

    Matrix diffusion is an important mechanism for solutetransport in fractured rock. We recently conducted a literature survey onthe effective matrix diffusion coefficient, Dem, a key parameter fordescribing matrix diffusion processes at the field scale. Forty fieldtracer tests at 15 fractured geologic sites were surveyed and selectedfor study, based on data availability and quality. Field-scale Dem valueswere calculated, either directly using data reported in the literature orby reanalyzing the corresponding field tracer tests. Surveyed dataindicate that the effective-matrix-diffusion-coefficient factor FD(defined as the ratio of Dem to the lab-scale matrix diffusioncoefficient [Dem]of the same tracer) is generally larger than one,indicating that the effective matrix diffusion coefficient in the fieldis comparatively larger than the matrix diffusion coefficient at therock-core scale. This larger value could be attributed to the manymass-transfer processes at different scales in naturally heterogeneous,fractured rock systems. Furthermore, we observed a moderate trend towardsystematic increase in the emDFmDDF value with observation scale,indicating that the effective matrix diffusion coefficient is likely tobe statistically scale dependent. The FD value ranges from 1 to 10,000for observation scales from 5 to 2,000 m. At a given scale, the FD valuevaries by two orders of magnitude, reflecting the influence of differingdegrees of fractured rock heterogeneity at different sites. In addition,the surveyed data indicate that field-scale longitudinal dispersivitygenerally increases with observation scale, which is consistent withprevious studies. The scale-dependent field-scale matrix diffusioncoefficient (and dispersivity) may have significant implications forassessing long-term, large-scale radionuclide and contaminant transportevents in fractured rock, both for nuclear waste disposal and contaminantremediation.

  3. Working at GE Global Research | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    products and working on lots of different things, and I was convinced that this ideal job didn't exist. I came to find out about the Sensor & Signal Analytics Lab at GE Global...

  4. Technical Education | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technical Education at GE Global Research Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) Technical Education at GE Global Research Mark Vermilyea describes the Edison Engineering Development Program (EEDP) and its "A Course," which features lectures on Global Research work in GE's major business units,

  5. Direct fired heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY); Root, Richard A. (Spokane, WA)

    1986-01-01

    A gas-to-liquid heat exchanger system which transfers heat from a gas, generally the combustion gas of a direct-fired generator of an absorption machine, to a liquid, generally an absorbent solution. The heat exchanger system is in a counterflow fluid arrangement which creates a more efficient heat transfer.

  6. Directional gamma detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    LeVert, Francis E.; Cox, Samson A.

    1981-01-01

    An improved directional gamma radiation detector has a collector sandwiched etween two layers of insulation of varying thicknesses. The collector and insulation layers are contained within an evacuated casing, or emitter, which releases electrons upon exposure to gamma radiation. Delayed electrons and electrons entering the collector at oblique angles are attenuated as they pass through the insulation layers on route to the collector.

  7. Extension of DOE Directives

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2004-02-12

    The following directives are extended until 8-12-04. DOE N 205.2, Foreign National Access to DOE Cyber Systems, dated 11/1/99. DOE N 205.3, Password Generation, Protection, and Use, dated 11/23/99.

  8. Extension of DOE Directives

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2003-02-24

    This Notice extends the following directives until 2/16/04: DOE N 205.2, Foreign National Access to DOE Cyber Systems, and DOE N 205.3, Password Generation, Protection, and Use, dated 11/23/99-7/1/00.

  9. Extension of DOE Directives

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2004-08-12

    The following directives are extended until 8-12-05: DOE N 205.2, Foreign National Access to DOE Cyber Security Systems, dated 11-1-99 and DOE N 205.3, Password Generation, Protection, and Use, dated 11-23-99. No cancellations.

  10. Derivation of effective fission gas diffusivities in UO2 from lower length scale simulations and implementation of fission gas diffusion models in BISON

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andersson, Anders David Ragnar; Pastore, Giovanni; Liu, Xiang-Yang; Perriot, Romain Thibault; Tonks, Michael; Stanek, Christopher Richard

    2014-11-07

    This report summarizes the development of new fission gas diffusion models from lower length scale simulations and assessment of these models in terms of annealing experiments and fission gas release simulations using the BISON fuel performance code. Based on the mechanisms established from density functional theory (DFT) and empirical potential calculations, continuum models for diffusion of xenon (Xe) in UO2 were derived for both intrinsic conditions and under irradiation. The importance of the large XeU3O cluster (a Xe atom in a uranium + oxygen vacancy trap site with two bound uranium vacancies) is emphasized, which is a consequence of its high mobility and stability. These models were implemented in the MARMOT phase field code, which is used to calculate effective Xe diffusivities for various irradiation conditions. The effective diffusivities were used in BISON to calculate fission gas release for a number of test cases. The results are assessed against experimental data and future directions for research are outlined based on the conclusions.

  11. Molecular Modeling of Diffusion on a Crystalline PETN Surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, P; Khare, R; Gee, R H; Weeks, B L

    2007-07-13

    Surface diffusion on a PETN crystal was investigated by treating the surface diffusion as an activated process in the formalism of transition state theory. In particular, surface diffusion on the (110) and (101) facets, as well as diffusion between these facets, were considered. We successfully obtained the potential energy barriers required for PETN surface diffusion. Our results show that the (110) surface is more thermally active than the (101) surface and PETN molecules mainly diffuses from the (110) to (101) facet. These results are in good agreement with experimental observations and previous simulations.

  12. Correlation between the electronic structures and diffusion paths of interstitial defects in semiconductors: The case in CdTe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Jie; Yang, Jihui; Da Silva, J. L.F.; Wei, Su-Huai

    2014-10-30

    Using first-principles calculations, we study the diffusions of interstitial defects Cd, Cu, Te, and Cl in CdTe. We find that the diffusion behavior is strongly correlated with the electronic structure of the interstitial diffuser. For Cd and Cu, because the defect state is the non-degenerated slike state under Td symmetry, the diffusions are almost along the [111] directions between the tetrahedral sites, although the diffusion of Cu shows some deviation due to the s - d coupling. The diffusions of the neutral and charged Cd and Cu follow similar paths. However, for Te and Cl atoms, because the defect state is the degenerated p-like state under Td symmetry, large distortions occur. Therefore, the diffusion paths are very different from those of Cd and Cu interstitials, and depend strongly on the charge states of the interstitial atoms. For Te, we find that the distortion is mostly stabilized by the crystal-field splitting, but for Cl, the exchange splitting plays a more important role.

  13. Correlation between the electronic structures and diffusion paths of interstitial defects in semiconductors: The case in CdTe

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ma, Jie; Yang, Jihui; Da Silva, J. L.F.; Wei, Su-Huai

    2014-10-30

    Using first-principles calculations, we study the diffusions of interstitial defects Cd, Cu, Te, and Cl in CdTe. We find that the diffusion behavior is strongly correlated with the electronic structure of the interstitial diffuser. For Cd and Cu, because the defect state is the non-degenerated slike state under Td symmetry, the diffusions are almost along the [111] directions between the tetrahedral sites, although the diffusion of Cu shows some deviation due to the s - d coupling. The diffusions of the neutral and charged Cd and Cu follow similar paths. However, for Te and Cl atoms, because the defect statemore » is the degenerated p-like state under Td symmetry, large distortions occur. Therefore, the diffusion paths are very different from those of Cd and Cu interstitials, and depend strongly on the charge states of the interstitial atoms. For Te, we find that the distortion is mostly stabilized by the crystal-field splitting, but for Cl, the exchange splitting plays a more important role.« less

  14. Solar Global | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Republic Zip: 10100 Product: Czech PV developer and investor seeking partnership for its 200MW PV porfolio in the Czech Republic. References: Solar Global1 This article is a...

  15. Fractionation of soil gases by diffusion of water vapor, gravitational settling, and thermal diffusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Severinghaus, J.P.; Bender, M.L. [Univ. of Rhode Island, RI (United States)] [Univ. of Rhode Island, RI (United States); Keeling, R.F. [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, LaJolla, CA (United States)] [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, LaJolla, CA (United States); Broecker, W.S. [Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Palisades, NY (United States)] [Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Palisades, NY (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Air sampled from the moist unsaturated zone in a sand dune exhibits depletion in the heavy isotopes of N{sub 2} and O{sub 2}. We propose that the depletion is caused by a diffusive flux of water vapor out of the dune, which sweeps out the other gases, forcing them to diffuse back into the dune. The heavy isotopes of N{sub 2} and O{sub 2} diffuse back more slowly, resulting in a steady-state depletion of the heavy isotopesin the dune interior. We predict the effect`s magnitude with molecular diffusion theory and reproduce it in a laboratory simulation, finding good agreement between field, theory, and lab. The magnitude of the effect is governed by the ratio of the binary diffusivities against water vapor of a pair of gases, and increases {approximately} linearly with the difference between the water vapor mole fraction of the site and the advectively mixed reservoir with which it is in diffusive contact (in most cases the atmosphere). 32 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  16. Ignoring mesophyll diffusion causes carbon cycle models to underestimate terrestrial CO2 assimilation since the Industrial Revolution

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Impact of mesophyll diffusion on estimated global land CO2 fertilization 1 o * i * o 2 Ying Sun , Lianhong Gu ' , Robert E. Dickinson ' , Richard J. Norby , Stephen G. 3 Pallardy3, Forrest M. Hoffman4 4 department of Geological Sciences, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station 5 #C9000, Austin, TX 78712, USA. 6 Environmental Sciences Division and Climate Change Science Institute, Oak Ridge 7 National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831, USA. 8 department of Forestry, University of

  17. GS Global Biodiesel JV | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Biodiesel JV Jump to: navigation, search Name: GS Global Biodiesel JV Place: Iowa Product: JV between GS AgriFuels and Global Ethanol set-up to develop a plant that will...

  18. Direct drive wind turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bywaters, Garrett Lee; Danforth, William; Bevington, Christopher; Stowell, Jesse; Costin, Daniel

    2006-09-19

    A wind turbine is provided that minimizes the size of the drive train and nacelle while maintaining the power electronics and transformer at the top of the tower. The turbine includes a direct drive generator having an integrated disk brake positioned radially inside the stator while minimizing the potential for contamination. The turbine further includes a means for mounting a transformer below the nacelle within the tower.

  19. Direct drive wind turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bywaters, Garrett; Danforth, William; Bevington, Christopher; Jesse, Stowell; Costin, Daniel

    2007-02-27

    A wind turbine is provided that minimizes the size of the drive train and nacelle while maintaining the power electronics and transformer at the top of the tower. The turbine includes a direct drive generator having an integrated disk brake positioned radially inside the stator while minimizing the potential for contamination. The turbine further includes a means for mounting a transformer below the nacelle within the tower.

  20. Direct drive wind turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bywaters, Garrett; Danforth, William; Bevington, Christopher; Jesse, Stowell; Costin, Daniel

    2006-10-10

    A wind turbine is provided that minimizes the size of the drive train and nacelle while maintaining the power electronics and transformer at the top of the tower. The turbine includes a direct drive generator having an integrated disk brake positioned radially inside the stator while minimizing the potential for contamination. The turbine further includes a means for mounting a transformer below the nacelle within the tower.

  1. Direct drive wind turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bywaters, Garrett; Danforth, William; Bevington, Christopher; Stowell, Jesse; Costin, Daniel

    2006-07-11

    A wind turbine is provided that minimizes the size of the drive train and nacelle while maintaining the power electronics and transformer at the top of the tower. The turbine includes a direct drive generator having an integrated disk brake positioned radially inside the stator while minimizing the potential for contamination. The turbine further includes a means for mounting a transformer below the nacelle within the tower.

  2. Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang

    2010-05-04

    The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

  3. Letter: Direction and Guidance for Implementing Direct DOE Relationship &

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Funding for EMSSABs | Department of Energy Direction and Guidance for Implementing Direct DOE Relationship & Funding for EMSSABs Letter: Direction and Guidance for Implementing Direct DOE Relationship & Funding for EMSSABs From: Assistant Secretary, Jessie Hill Roberson (EM-11) To: Mr. Monte Wilson, Chair, INEEL Citizens Advisory Board This letter is in response to a November 21, 2003 letter regarding direction and guidance for implementing direct DOE relationship and funding for

  4. Diffusion barriers in modified air brazes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weil, Kenneth Scott; Hardy, John S.; Kim, Jin Yong; Choi, Jung-Pyung

    2010-04-06

    A method for joining two ceramic parts, or a ceramic part and a metal part, and the joint formed thereby. The method provides two or more parts, a braze consisting of a mixture of copper oxide and silver, a diffusion barrier, and then heats the braze for a time and at a temperature sufficient to form the braze into a bond holding the two or more parts together. The diffusion barrier is an oxidizable metal that forms either a homogeneous component of the braze, a heterogeneous component of the braze, a separate layer bordering the braze, or combinations thereof. The oxidizable metal is selected from the group Al, Mg, Cr, Si, Ni, Co, Mn, Ti, Zr, Hf, Pt, Pd, Au, lanthanides, and combinations thereof.

  5. Diffusion barriers in modified air brazes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weil, Kenneth Scott; Hardy, John S; Kim, Jin Yong; Choi, Jung-Pyung

    2013-04-23

    A method for joining two ceramic parts, or a ceramic part and a metal part, and the joint formed thereby. The method provides two or more parts, a braze consisting of a mixture of copper oxide and silver, a diffusion barrier, and then heats the braze for a time and at a temperature sufficient to form the braze into a bond holding the two or more parts together. The diffusion barrier is an oxidizable metal that forms either a homogeneous component of the braze, a heterogeneous component of the braze, a separate layer bordering the braze, or combinations thereof. The oxidizable metal is selected from the group Al, Mg, Cr, Si, Ni, Co, Mn, Ti, Zr, Hf, Pt, Pd, Au, lanthanides, and combinations thereof.

  6. Methodology and apparatus for diffuse photon mimaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feng, Shechao C.; Zeng, Fanan; Zhao, Hui-Lin

    1997-12-09

    Non-invasive near infrared optical medical imaging devices for both hematoma detection in the brain and early tumor detection in the breast is achieved using image reconstruction which allows a mapping of the position dependent contrast diffusive propagation constants, which are related to the optical absorption coefficient and scattering coefficient in the tissue, at near infrared wavelengths. Spatial resolutions in the range of 5 mm for adult brain sizes and breast sizes can be achieved. The image reconstruction utilizes WKB approximation on most probable diffusion paths which has as lowest order approximation the straight line-of-sight between the plurality of sources and the plurality of detectors. The WKB approximation yields a set of linear equations in which the contrast optical absorption coefficients are the unknowns and for which signals can be generated to produce a pixel map of the contrast optical resolution of the scanned tissue.

  7. State protection under collective damping and diffusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ponte, M. A. de [Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 369, 13560-590 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Regional do Cariri, 63010-970 Juazeiro do Norte, CE (Brazil); Mizrahi, S. S. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Moussa, M. H. Y. [Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 369, 13560-590 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-15

    In this paper we provide a recipe for state protection in a network of oscillators under collective damping and diffusion. Our strategy is to manipulate the network topology, i.e., the way the oscillators are coupled together, the strength of their couplings, and their natural frequencies, in order to create a relaxation-diffusion-free channel. This protected channel defines a decoherence-free subspace (DFS) for nonzero-temperature reservoirs. Our development also furnishes an alternative approach to build up DFSs that offers two advantages over the conventional method: it enables the derivation of all the network-protected states at once, and also reveals, through the network normal modes, the mechanism behind the emergence of these protected domains.

  8. Methodology and apparatus for diffuse photon imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feng, S.C.; Zeng, F.; Zhao, H.L.

    1997-12-09

    Non-invasive near infrared optical medical imaging devices for both hematoma detection in the brain and early tumor detection in the breast is achieved using image reconstruction which allows a mapping of the position dependent contrast diffusive propagation constants, which are related to the optical absorption coefficient and scattering coefficient in the tissue, at near infrared wavelengths. Spatial resolutions in the range of 5 mm for adult brain sizes and breast sizes can be achieved. The image reconstruction utilizes WKB approximation on most probable diffusion paths which has as lowest order approximation the straight line-of-sight between the plurality of sources and the plurality of detectors. The WKB approximation yields a set of linear equations in which the contrast optical absorption coefficients are the unknowns and for which signals can be generated to produce a pixel map of the contrast optical resolution of the scanned tissue. 58 figs.

  9. Gas mixture for diffuse-discharge switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christophorou, L.G.; Carter, J.G.; Hunter, S.R.

    1982-08-31

    Gaseous medium in a diffuse-discharge switch of a high-energy pulse generator is formed of argon combined with a compound selected from the group consisting of CF/sub 4/, C/sub 2/F/sub 6/, C/sub 3/F/sub 8/, n-C/sub 4/F/sub 10/, WF/sub 6/, (CF/sub 3/)/sub 2/S and (CF/sub 3/)/sub 2/O.

  10. Gas mixture for diffuse-discharge switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christophorou, Loucas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Carter, James G. (Knoxville, TN); Hunter, Scott R. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1984-01-01

    Gaseous medium in a diffuse-discharge switch of a high-energy pulse generator is formed of argon combined with a compound selected from the group consisting of CF.sub.4, C.sub.2 F.sub.6, C.sub.3 F.sub.8, n-C.sub.4 F.sub.10, WF.sub.6, (CF.sub.3).sub.2 S and (CF.sub.3).sub.2 O.

  11. Glass Membrane For Controlled Diffusion Of Gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shelby, James E.; Kenyon, Brian E.

    2001-05-15

    A glass structure for controlled permeability of gases includes a glass vessel. The glass vessel has walls and a hollow center for receiving a gas. The glass vessel contains a metal oxide dopant formed with at least one metal selected from the group consisting of transition metals and rare earth metals for controlling diffusion of the gas through the walls of the glass vessel. The vessel releases the gas through its walls upon exposure to a radiation source.

  12. The Digital Road to Scientific Knowledge Diffusion

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Digital Road to Scientific Knowledge Diffusion A Faster, Better Way to Scientific Progress? By David E. Wojick, Walter L. Warnick, Bonnie C. Carroll, and June Crowe Introduction With the United States federal government spending over $130 billion annually for research and development, ways to increase the productivity of that research can have a significant return on investment. It is well known that all scientific advancement is based on work that has come before. Isaac Newton expressed this

  13. Diffusion method of seperating gaseous mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pontius, Rex B.

    1976-01-01

    A method of effecting a relatively large change in the relative concentrations of the components of a gaseous mixture by diffusion which comprises separating the mixture into heavier and lighter portions according to major fraction mass recycle procedure, further separating the heavier portions into still heavier subportions according to a major fraction mass recycle procedure, and further separating the lighter portions into still lighter subportions according to a major fraction equilibrium recycle procedure.

  14. Diffuse-dynamic multiparameter diffractometry: A review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Molodkin, V. B. Shpak, A. P.; Kovalchuk, M. V.; Nosik, V. L.; Machulin, V. F.

    2010-12-15

    The results reported at the Conference on Application of X-Rays, Synchrotron Radiation, Neutrons, and Electrons in Nano-, Bio-, Information-, and Cognitive Technologies (RSNE-NBIC 2009) are briefly reviewed. This review is based on a cycle of studies [1-6] where a new method for studying the structure of real crystals-diffuse-dynamic multiparameter diffractometry (DDMD)-was proposed and substantiated.

  15. Distributed Energy Resources Market Diffusion Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maribu, Karl Magnus; Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris; Siddiqui,Afzal S.

    2006-06-16

    Distributed generation (DG) technologies, such as gas-fired reciprocating engines and microturbines, have been found to be economically beneficial in meeting commercial-sector electrical, heating, and cooling loads. Even though the electric-only efficiency of DG is lower than that offered by traditional central stations, combined heat and power (CHP) applications using recovered heat can make the overall system energy efficiency of distributed energy resources (DER) greater. From a policy perspective, however, it would be useful to have good estimates of penetration rates of DER under various economic and regulatory scenarios. In order to examine the extent to which DER systems may be adopted at a national level, we model the diffusion of DER in the US commercial building sector under different technical research and technology outreach scenarios. In this context, technology market diffusion is assumed to depend on the system's economic attractiveness and the developer's knowledge about the technology. The latter can be spread both by word-of-mouth and by public outreach programs. To account for regional differences in energy markets and climates, as well as the economic potential for different building types, optimal DER systems are found for several building types and regions. Technology diffusion is then predicted via two scenarios: a baseline scenario and a program scenario, in which more research improves DER performance and stronger technology outreach programs increase DER knowledge. The results depict a large and diverse market where both optimal installed capacity and profitability vary significantly across regions and building types. According to the technology diffusion model, the West region will take the lead in DER installations mainly due to high electricity prices, followed by a later adoption in the Northeast and Midwest regions. Since the DER market is in an early stage, both technology research and outreach programs have the potential to increase DER adoption, and thus, shift building energy consumption to a more efficient alternative.

  16. Diffusion Processes Satisfying a Conservation Law Constraint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bakosi, J.; Ristorcelli, J. R.

    2014-03-04

    We investigate coupled stochastic differential equations governing N non-negative continuous random variables that satisfy a conservation principle. In various fields a conservation law requires that a set of fluctuating variables be non-negative and (if appropriately normalized) sum to one. As a result, any stochastic differential equation model to be realizable must not produce events outside of the allowed sample space. We develop a set of constraints on the drift and diffusion terms of such stochastic models to ensure that both the non-negativity and the unit-sum conservation law constraint are satisfied as the variables evolve in time. We investigate the consequences of the developed constraints on the Fokker-Planck equation, the associated system of stochastic differential equations, and the evolution equations of the first four moments of the probability density function. We show that random variables, satisfying a conservation law constraint, represented by stochastic diffusion processes, must have diffusion terms that are coupled and nonlinear. The set of constraints developed enables the development of statistical representations of fluctuating variables satisfying a conservation law. We exemplify the results with the bivariate beta process and the multivariate Wright-Fisher, Dirichlet, and Lochner’s generalized Dirichlet processes.

  17. Diffusion Processes Satisfying a Conservation Law Constraint

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bakosi, J.; Ristorcelli, J. R.

    2014-03-04

    We investigate coupled stochastic differential equations governing N non-negative continuous random variables that satisfy a conservation principle. In various fields a conservation law requires that a set of fluctuating variables be non-negative and (if appropriately normalized) sum to one. As a result, any stochastic differential equation model to be realizable must not produce events outside of the allowed sample space. We develop a set of constraints on the drift and diffusion terms of such stochastic models to ensure that both the non-negativity and the unit-sum conservation law constraint are satisfied as the variables evolve in time. We investigate the consequencesmore » of the developed constraints on the Fokker-Planck equation, the associated system of stochastic differential equations, and the evolution equations of the first four moments of the probability density function. We show that random variables, satisfying a conservation law constraint, represented by stochastic diffusion processes, must have diffusion terms that are coupled and nonlinear. The set of constraints developed enables the development of statistical representations of fluctuating variables satisfying a conservation law. We exemplify the results with the bivariate beta process and the multivariate Wright-Fisher, Dirichlet, and Lochner’s generalized Dirichlet processes.« less

  18. Global Celsius SL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Global Celsius SL Place: Madrid, Spain Sector: Wind energy Product: Spanish wind project developer. References: Global Celsius SL1 This article is a stub. You...

  19. Global Security | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    sector. Global Security Cooley joins Y-12's Global Security and Strategic Partnerships Manufacturing and Technical Services Nuclear Material Recovery Nuclear Detection and...

  20. Digilog Global Environmental LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Digilog Global Environmental LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Digilog Global Environmental LLC Place: Chicago, Illinois Zip: 60606 Product: TradeLink is registered as a...

  1. Global Alternative Fuels | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Alternative Fuels Jump to: navigation, search Name: Global Alternative Fuels Place: El Paso, Texas Zip: 79922 Product: Global Alternative Fuels processes virgin oils (palm,...

  2. NERSC Calculations Provide Independent Confirmation of Global...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Calculations Provide Independent Confirmation of Global Land Warming Since 1901 NERSC Calculations Provide Independent Confirmation of Global Land Warming Since 1901 September 9, ...

  3. Global Power Solutions LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Power Solutions LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Global Power Solutions LLC Place: Colorado Zip: CO 80401 Sector: Geothermal energy Product: String representation...

  4. Global Solar Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Jump to: navigation, search Name: Global Solar Energy Place: Tucson, AZ Website: www.globalsolarenergy.com References: Global Solar Energy1 Information About Partnership...

  5. Sunrise Global Solar Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Solar Energy Jump to: navigation, search Name: Sunrise Global Solar Energy Place: Taoyuan County, Taiwan Zip: 330 Sector: Solar Product: Engaged in solar monocrystalline...

  6. Sky Solar Global SA | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global SA Jump to: navigation, search Name: Sky Solar Global SA Place: Madrid, Spain Zip: 28046 Product: Project developer, and distributor of Chinese PV modules to Spain and...

  7. Global Climate Change Institute | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Change Institute Jump to: navigation, search Name: Global Climate Change Institute Place: Tsinghua University, Beijing Municipality, China Zip: 100084 Product: Global Climate...

  8. Brazil Interministerial Commission on Global Climate Change ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Interministerial Commission on Global Climate Change Jump to: navigation, search Name: Brazil Interministerial Commission on Global Climate Change Place: Distrito Federal...

  9. Eco Fuel Global | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fuel Global Jump to: navigation, search Name: Eco-Fuel Global Place: California, California Zip: 94596 Sector: Services Product: California-based environmental engineering and...

  10. Carbon Markets Global Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Markets Global Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon Markets Global Ltd Place: London, United Kingdom Zip: NW4 2HT Product: Assist project originators develop and finance...

  11. The Global Carbon Bank | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Carbon Bank Jump to: navigation, search Name: The Global Carbon Bank Place: Houston, Texas Zip: 77025 Sector: Carbon, Services Product: Houston-based provider of advisory...

  12. Sustainable Solutions to Global Energy Challenges | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solutions to Global Energy Challenges Sustainable Solutions to Global Energy Challenges ... Deployment Carl Wolf, Business Development Manager, LanzaTech PDF icon ...

  13. FIELD-SCALE EFFECTIVE MATRIX DIFFUSION COEFFICIENT FOR FRACTURED ROCK:RESULTS FROM LITERATURE SURVEY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Q. Zhou; Hui-Hai Liu; F.J. Molz; Y. Zhang; G.S. Bodvarsson

    2005-04-08

    Matrix diffusion is an important mechanism for solute transport in fractured rock. We recently conducted a literature survey on the effective matrix diffusion coefficient, D{sub m}{sup e}, a key parameter for describing matrix diffusion processes at the field scale. Forty field tracer tests at 15 fractured geologic sites were surveyed and selected for the study, based on data availability and quality. Field-scale D{sub m}{sup e} values were calculated, either directly using data reported in the literature or by reanalyzing the corresponding field tracer tests. Surveyed data indicate that the effective-matrix-diffusion-coefficient factor F{sub D} (defined as the ratio of D{sub m}{sup e} to the lab-scale matrix diffusion coefficient [D{sub m}] of the same tracer) is generally larger than one, indicating that the effective matrix diffusion coefficient in the field is comparatively larger than the matrix diffusion coefficient at the rock-core scale. This larger value can be attributed to the many mass-transfer processes at different scales in naturally heterogeneous, fractured rock systems. Furthermore, we observed a moderate trend toward systematic increase in the F{sub D} value with observation scale, indicating that the effective matrix diffusion coefficient is likely to be statistically scale dependent. The F{sub D} value ranges from 1 to 10,000 for observation scales from 5 to 2,000 m. At a given scale, the F{sub D} value varies by two orders of magnitude, reflecting the influence of differing degrees of fractured rock heterogeneity at different sites. In addition, the surveyed data indicate that field-scale longitudinal dispersivity generally increases with observation scale, which is consistent with previous studies. The scale-dependent field-scale matrix diffusion coefficient (and dispersivity) may have significant implications for assessing long-term, large-scale radionuclide and contaminant transport events in fractured rock, both for nuclear waste disposal and contaminant remediation.

  14. Vapor Barriers or Vapor Diffusion Retarders | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Weatherize » Moisture Control » Vapor Barriers or Vapor Diffusion Retarders Vapor Barriers or Vapor Diffusion Retarders Vapor diffusion retarders installed in a crawlspace can be part of an overall moisture control strategy for your home. | Photo courtesy of Dennis Schroeder, NREL. Vapor diffusion retarders installed in a crawlspace can be part of an overall moisture control strategy for your home. | Photo courtesy of Dennis Schroeder, NREL. In most U.S. climates, vapor barriers, or -- more

  15. Anti-diffusion metal coated O-rings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Biallas, George Herman; Boyce, James Reid

    2016-03-22

    A method for inhibiting diffusion of gases and/or transmission of photons through elastomeric seals and a diffusion inhibiting elastomeric seal wherein at least a portion of the surface of a diffusion inhibiting elastomeric seal is coated with a compatibly-deformable, malleable metal coating.

  16. Global Cooling: Effect of Urban Albedo on Global Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, Hashem; Menon, Surabi; Rosenfeld, Arthur

    2007-05-22

    In many urban areas, pavements and roofs constitute over 60% of urban surfaces (roof 20-25%, pavements about 40%). The roof and the pavement albedo can be increased by about 0.25 and 0.10, respectively, resulting in a net albedo increase for urban areas of about 0.1. Many studies have demonstrated building cooling-energy savings in excess of 20% upon raising roof reflectivity from an existing 10-20% to about 60%. We estimate U.S. potential savings in excess of $1 billion (B) per year in net annual energy bills. Increasing albedo of urban surfaces can reduce the summertime urban temperature and improve the urban air quality. Increasing the urban albedo has the added benefit of reflecting more of the incoming global solar radiation and countering the effect of global warming. We estimate that increasing albedo of urban areas by 0.1 results in an increase of 3 x 10{sup -4} in Earth albedo. Using a simple global model, the change in air temperature in lowest 1.8 km of the atmosphere is estimated at 0.01K. Modelers predict a warming of about 3K in the next 60 years (0.05K/year). Change of 0.1 in urban albedo will result in 0.01K global cooling, a delay of {approx}0.2 years in global warming. This 0.2 years delay in global warming is equivalent to 10 Gt reduction in CO2 emissions.

  17. FY 2011 Third Quarter Report Estimate of Historical Aerosol Direct and Indirect Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koch, D

    2011-06-22

    The global and annual mean aerosol direct and indirect effects estimated from Community Earth System Model (CESM) simulations are -0.06 W m-2 and -1.39 W m-2, respectively.

  18. Omni-directional railguns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shahinpoor, M.

    1995-07-25

    A device is disclosed for electromagnetically accelerating projectiles. The invention features two parallel conducting circular plates, a plurality of electrode connections to both upper and lower plates, a support base, and a projectile magazine. A projectile is spring-loaded into a firing position concentrically located between the parallel plates. A voltage source is applied to the plates to cause current to flow in directions defined by selectable, discrete electrode connections on both upper and lower plates. Repulsive Lorentz forces are generated to eject the projectile in a 360 degree range of fire. 4 figs.

  19. Omni-directional railguns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shahinpoor, Mohsen

    1995-01-01

    A device for electromagnetically accelerating projectiles. The invention features two parallel conducting circular plates, a plurality of electrode connections to both upper and lower plates, a support base, and a projectile magazine. A projectile is spring-loaded into a firing position concentrically located between the parallel plates. A voltage source is applied to the plates to cause current to flow in directions defined by selectable, discrete electrode connections on both upper and lower plates. Repulsive Lorentz forces are generated to eject the projectile in a 360 degree range of fire.

  20. Extension of DOE Directives

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2005-03-18

    The following directives are extended until 3-18-06: DOE N 205.8, Cyber Security Requirements for Wireless Devices and Information Systems, dated 2-11-04; DOE N 205.9, Certification and Accreditation Process for Information Systems Including National Security Systems, dated 02-19-04; DOE N 205.10, Cyber Security Requirements for Risk Management, dated 02-19-04; DOE N 205.11, Security Requirements for Remote Access to DOE and Applicable Contractor Information Technology Systems, dated 2-19-04. DOE N 205.12, Clearing, Sanitizing, and Destroying Information System Storage Media, Memory Devices, and Other Related Hardware, dated 2-19-04.

  1. Recent DOE Directives Changes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On September 1, 2009, the Department of Energy (DOE) manuals were revised and issued to correspond with the following recent Contractor Requirements Documents (CRDs) changes to the following Directives: DOE M 205.1-8 Administrative Change 1—Cyber Security Incident Management Manual; DOE M 205.1-7 Administrative Change 1—Security Controls for Unclassified Information Systems Manual; DOE M 205.1-6 Administrative Change 1—Media Sanitization Manual; DOE M 205.1-5 Administrative Change 1—Cyber Security Process Requirements Manual

  2. Unsteady behavior of locally strained diffusion flames affected by curvature and preferential diffusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshida, Kenji; Takagi, Toshimi

    1999-07-01

    Experimental and numerical studies are made of transient H{sub 2}/N{sub 2}--air counterflow diffusion flames unsteadily strained by an impinging micro jet. Two-dimensional temperature measurements by laser Rayleigh scattering method and numerical computations taking into account detailed chemical kinetics are conducted paying attention to transient local extinction and reignition in relation to the unsteadiness, flame curvature and preferential diffusion effects. The results are as follows. (1) Transient local flame extinction is observed where the micro jet impinges. But, the transient flame can survive instantaneously in spite of quite high stretch rate where the steady flame cannot exist. (2) Reignition is observed after the local extinction due to the micro air jet impingement. The temperature after reignition becomes significantly higher than that of the original flame. This high temperature is induced by the concentration of H{sub 2} species due to the preferential diffusion in relation to the concave curvature. The predicted behaviors of the local transient extinction and reignition are well confirmed by the experiments. (3) The reignition is induced after the formation of combustible premixed gas mixture and the consequent flame propagation. (4) The reignition is hardly observed after the extinction by micro fuel jet impingement. This is due to the dilution of H{sub 2} species induced by the preferential diffusion in relation to the convex curvature. (5) The maximum flame temperature cannot be rationalized by the stretch rate but changes widely depending on the unsteadiness and the flame curvature in relation with preferential diffusion.

  3. Direct Aerosol Forcing Uncertainty

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mccomiskey, Allison

    2008-01-15

    Understanding sources of uncertainty in aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF), the difference in a given radiative flux component with and without aerosol, is essential to quantifying changes in Earth's radiation budget. We examine the uncertainty in DRF due to measurement uncertainty in the quantities on which it depends: aerosol optical depth, single scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, solar geometry, and surface albedo. Direct radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface as well as sensitivities, the changes in DRF in response to unit changes in individual aerosol or surface properties, are calculated at three locations representing distinct aerosol types and radiative environments. The uncertainty in DRF associated with a given property is computed as the product of the sensitivity and typical measurement uncertainty in the respective aerosol or surface property. Sensitivity and uncertainty values permit estimation of total uncertainty in calculated DRF and identification of properties that most limit accuracy in estimating forcing. Total uncertainties in modeled local diurnally averaged forcing range from 0.2 to 1.3 W m-2 (42 to 20%) depending on location (from tropical to polar sites), solar zenith angle, surface reflectance, aerosol type, and aerosol optical depth. The largest contributor to total uncertainty in DRF is usually single scattering albedo; however decreasing measurement uncertainties for any property would increase accuracy in DRF. Comparison of two radiative transfer models suggests the contribution of modeling error is small compared to the total uncertainty although comparable to uncertainty arising from some individual properties.

  4. Remote direct memory access

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.

    2012-12-11

    Methods, parallel computers, and computer program products are disclosed for remote direct memory access. Embodiments include transmitting, from an origin DMA engine on an origin compute node to a plurality target DMA engines on target compute nodes, a request to send message, the request to send message specifying a data to be transferred from the origin DMA engine to data storage on each target compute node; receiving, by each target DMA engine on each target compute node, the request to send message; preparing, by each target DMA engine, to store data according to the data storage reference and the data length, including assigning a base storage address for the data storage reference; sending, by one or more of the target DMA engines, an acknowledgment message acknowledging that all the target DMA engines are prepared to receive a data transmission from the origin DMA engine; receiving, by the origin DMA engine, the acknowledgement message from the one or more of the target DMA engines; and transferring, by the origin DMA engine, data to data storage on each of the target compute nodes according to the data storage reference using a single direct put operation.

  5. On Perturbation Components Correspondence between Diffusion and Transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Palmiotti

    2012-11-01

    We have established a correspondence between perturbation components in diffusion and transport theory. In particular we have established the correspondence between the leakage perturbation component of the diffusion theory to that of the group self scattering in transport theory. This has been confirmed by practical applications on sodium void reactivity calculations of fast reactors. Why this is important for current investigations? Recently, there has been a renewed interest in designing fast reactors where the sodium void reactivity coefficient is minimized. In particular the ASTRID8,9 reactor concept has been optimized with this goal in mind. The correspondence on the leakage term that has been established here has a twofold implication for the design of this kind of reactors. First, this type of reactor has a radial reflector; therefore, as shown before, the sodium void reactivity coefficient calculation requires the use of transport theory. The minimization of the sodium reactivity coefficient is normally done by increasing the leakage component that has a negative sign. The correspondence established in this paper allows to directly look at this component in transport theory. The second implication is related to the uncertainty evaluation on sodium void reactivity. As it has shown before, the total sodium void reactivity effect is the result of a large compensation (opposite sign) between the scattering (called often spectral) component and the leakage one. Consequently, one has to evaluate separately the uncertainty on each separate component and then combine them statistically. If one wants to compute the cross section sensitivity coefficients of the two different components, the formulation established in this paper allows to achieve this goal by playing on the contribution to the sodium void reactivity coming from the group self scattering of the sodium cross section.

  6. Global Climate Change and Agriculture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Izaurralde, Roberto C.

    2009-01-01

    The Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change released in 2007 significantly increased our confidence about the role that humans play in forcing climate change. There is now a high degree of confidence that the (a) current atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) far exceed those of the pre-industrial era, (b) global increases in CO2 arise mainly from fossil fuel use and land use change while those of CH4 and N2O originate primarily from agricultural activities, and (c) the net effect of human activities since 1750 has led to a warming of the lower layers of the atmosphere, with an increased radiative forcing of 1.6 W m-2. Depending on the scenario of human population growth and global development, mean global temperatures could rise between 1.8 and 4.0 C by the end of the 21st century.

  7. Improved Flow-Field Structures for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gurau, Bogdan

    2013-05-31

    The direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is ideal if high energy-density liquid fuels are required. Liquid fuels have advantages over compressed hydrogen including higher energy density and ease of handling. Although state-of-the-art DMFCs exhibit manageable degradation rates, excessive fuel crossover diminishes system energy and power density. Although use of dilute methanol mitigates crossover, the concomitant lowering of the gross fuel energy density (GFED) demands a complex balance-of-plant (BOP) that includes higher flow rates, external exhaust recirculation, etc. An alternative approach is redesign of the fuel delivery system to accommodate concentrated methanol. NuVant Systems Inc. (NuVant) will maximize the GFED by design and assembly of a DMFC that uses near neat methanol. The approach is to tune the diffusion of highly concentrated methanol (to the anode catalytic layer) to the back-diffusion of water formed at the cathode (i.e. in situ generation of dilute methanol at the anode layer). Crossover will be minimized without compromising the GFED by innovative integration of the anode flow-field and the diffusion layer. The integrated flow-field-diffusion-layers (IFDLs) will widen the current and potential DMFC operating ranges and enable the use of cathodes optimized for hydrogen-air fuel cells.

  8. Oxygen diffusion of anodic surface oxide film on titanium studied by Auger electron spectroscopy. [Oxygen diffusivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, P.S.; Wittberg, T.N.; Keil, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    TiO/sub 2/ films of about 1000 A were grown onto titanium foils anodically under galvanostatic conditions at 20 mA/cm/sup 2/ in saturated aqueous solutions of ammonium tetraborate. The samples were then aged at 450, 500, and 550/sup 0/C, and oxygen diffusion was observed by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) profilings. The oxygen diffusivities were calculated by Fick's Second Law, using the Boltzmann-Matano solution, to be 9.4 x 10/sup -17/, 2.6 x 10/sup -16/, and 1.2 x 10/sup -15/ cm/sup 2//sec at 450, 500, and 550/sup 0/C, respectively. The diffusivities obtained by this method were also compared with those obtained using an exact solution to Fick's Second Law. The activation energy was calculated to be 30 kcal/mole.

  9. Global change: Acronyms and abbreviations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodard, C.T.; Stoss, F.W.

    1995-05-01

    This list of acronyms and abbreviations is compiled to provide the user with a ready reference to dicipher the linguistic initialisms and abridgements for the study of global change. The terms included in this first edition were selected from a wide variety of sources: technical reports, policy documents, global change program announcements, newsletters, and other periodicals. The disciplinary interests covered by this document include agriculture, atmospheric science, ecology, environmental science, oceanography, policy science, and other fields. In addition to its availability in hard copy, the list of acronyms and abbreviations is available in DOS-formatted diskettes and through CDIAC`s anonymous File Transfer Protocol (FTP) area on the Internet.

  10. Global warming: A Northwest perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, M.J.; Counts, C.A.

    1990-02-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council convened a symposium in Olympia, Washington, on the subject of global climate change ( the greenhouse effect'') and its potential for affecting the Pacific Northwest. The symposium was organized in response to a need by the Power Council to understand global climate change and its potential impacts on resource planning and fish and wildlife planning for the region, as well as a need to understand national policy developing toward climate change and the Pacific Northwest's role in it. 40 figs., 15 tabs.

  11. Global Threat Reduction Initiative | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    An overview of the Global Threat Reduction Initiative, U.S.-Origin Nuclear Fuel Removals.

  12. Directed light fabrication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, G.K.; Nemec, R.; Milewski, J.; Thoma, D.J.; Cremers, D.; Barbe, M.

    1994-09-01

    Directed Light Fabrication (DLF) is a rapid prototyping process being developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory to fabricate metal components. This is done by fusing gas delivered metal powder particles in the focal zone of a laser beam that is, programmed to move along or across the part cross section. Fully dense metal is built up a layer at a time to form the desired part represented by a 3 dimensional solid model from CAD software. Machine ``tool paths`` are created from the solid model that command the movement and processing parameters specific to the DLF process so that the part can be built one layer at a time. The result is a fully dense, near net shape metal part that solidifies under rapid solidification conditions.

  13. DIRECT CURRENT ELECTROMAGNETIC PUMP

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barnes, A.H.

    1957-11-01

    An improved d-c electromagnetic pump is presented in which the poles, and consequently the magetic gap at the poles, are tapered to be wider at the upstream end. In addition, the cross section of the tube carryiQ the liquid metal is tapered so that the velocity of the pumped liquid increases in the downstream direction at a rate such that the counter-induced voltage in the liquid metal remains constant as it traverses the region between the poles. This configuration compensates for the distortion of the magnetic field caused by the induced voltage that would otherwise result in the lowering of the pumping capacity. This improved electromagnetic pump as practical application in the pumping of liquid metal coolants for nuclear reactors where conventional positive displacement pumps have proved unsatisfactory due to the high temperatures and the corrosive properties of the liquid metals involved.

  14. Site directed recombination

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jurka, Jerzy W.

    1997-01-01

    Enhanced homologous recombination is obtained by employing a consensus sequence which has been found to be associated with integration of repeat sequences, such as Alu and ID. The consensus sequence or sequence having a single transition mutation determines one site of a double break which allows for high efficiency of integration at the site. By introducing single or double stranded DNA having the consensus sequence flanking region joined to a sequence of interest, one can reproducibly direct integration of the sequence of interest at one or a limited number of sites. In this way, specific sites can be identified and homologous recombination achieved at the site by employing a second flanking sequence associated with a sequence proximal to the 3'-nick.

  15. Fighting Fire with Fire: Superlattice Cooling of Silicon Hotspots to Reduce Global Cooling Requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biswas, S; Tiwari, M; Sherwood, T; Theogarajan, L; Chong, F T

    2010-10-05

    The running costs of data centers are dominated by the need to dissipate heat generated by thousands of server machines. Higher temperatures are undesirable as they lead to premature silicon wear-out; in fact, mean time to failure has been shown to decrease exponentially with temperature (Black's law). Although other server components also generate heat, microprocessors still dominate in most server configurations and are also the most vulnerable to wearout as the feature sizes shrink. Even as processor complexity and technology scaling have increased the average energy density inside a processor to maximally tolerable levels, modern microprocessors make extensive use of hardware structures such as the load-store queue and other CAM-based units, and the peak temperatures on chip can be much worse than even the average temperature of the chip. In recent studies, it has been shown that hot-spots inside a processor can generate {approx} 800W/cm{sup 2} heat flux whereas the average heat flux is only 10-50W/cm{sup 2}, and due to this disparity in heat generation, the temperature in hot spots may be up to 30 C more than average chip temperature. The key problem processor hot-spots create is that in order to prevent some critical hardware structures from wearing out faster, the air conditioners in a data center have to be provisioned for worst case requirements. Worse yet, air conditioner efficiencies decrease exponentially as the desired ambient temperature decreases relative to the air outside. As a result, the global cooling costs in data centers, which nearly equals the IT equipment power consumption, are directly correlated with the maximum hot spot temperatures of processors, and there is a distinct requirement for a cooling technique to mitigate hot-spots selectively so that the global air conditioners can operate at higher, more efficient, temperatures. We observe that localized cooling via superlattice microrefrigeration presents exactly this opportunity whereby hot-spots can be cooled selectively and allow global coolers to operate at much more efficient temperatures. Recent advances in processor cooling technologies have demonstrated that thermoelectric coolers (TEC), which use a Peltier effect to form heat pumps, can be used to reduce the temperature of hot spots. By applying a thermoelectric cooler between the heat spreader and the processor die and applying current selectively at the hot spots, heat from the hot-spots can be spread much more efficiently. The ability to implement such thermoelectric coolers on a real silicon device has been demonstrated recently, albeit for small prototype chips. The key question then, that needs to be answered before such thermoelectric coolers can be integrated in commodity server processors, is 'What is the potential for superlattice microrefrigeration to reduce global cooling costs in data centers?'. In order to answer this question, we present a comprehensive analysis of the impact of thermoelectric coolers on global cooling costs. Our thermal analysis covers all aspects of cooling a server in a data center, and integrates on-chip dynamic and leakage power sources with a detailed heat diffusion model of a processor (that models the silicon to the thermoelectric cooler to the heat spreader and the heat sink) and finally the computer room air conditioner (CRAC) efficiency, as shown in Figure 1. In Section II, we present the components of the system model.

  16. A Local Incident Flux Response Expansion Transport Method for Coupling to the Diffusion Method in Cylindrical Geometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dingkang Zhang; Farzad Rahnema; Abderrafi M. Ougouag

    2013-09-01

    A local incident flux response expansion transport method is developed to generate transport solutions for coupling to diffusion theory codes regardless of their solution method (e.g., fine mesh, nodal, response based, finite element, etc.) for reactor core calculations in both two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) cylindrical geometries. In this approach, a Monte Carlo method is first used to precompute the local transport solution (i.e., response function library) for each unique transport coarse node, in which diffusion theory is not valid due to strong transport effects. The response function library is then used to iteratively determine the albedo coefficients on the diffusion-transport interfaces, which are then used as the coupling parameters within the diffusion code. This interface coupling technique allows a seamless integration of the transport and diffusion methods. The new method retains the detailed heterogeneity of the transport nodes and naturally constructs any local solution within them by a simple superposition of local responses to all incoming fluxes from the contiguous coarse nodes. A new technique is also developed for coupling to fine-mesh diffusion methods/codes. The local transport method/module is tested in 2-D and 3-D pebble-bed reactor benchmark problems consisting of an inner reflector, an annular fuel region, and a controlled outer reflector. It is found that the results predicted by the transport module agree very well with the reference fluxes calculated directly by MCNP in both benchmark problems.

  17. Effects of Coaxial Air on Nitrogen-Diluted Hydrogen Jet Diffusion Flame Length and NOx Emission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiland, N.T.; Chen, R.-H.; Strakey, P.A.

    2007-10-01

    Turbulent nitrogen-diluted hydrogen jet diffusion flames with high velocity coaxial air flows are investigated for their NOx emission levels. This study is motivated by the DOE turbine programs goal of achieving 2 ppm dry low NOx from turbine combustors running on nitrogen-diluted high-hydrogen fuels. In this study, effects of coaxial air velocity and momentum are varied while maintaining low overall equivalence ratios to eliminate the effects of recirculation of combustion products on flame lengths, flame temperatures, and resulting NOx emission levels. The nature of flame length and NOx emission scaling relationships are found to vary, depending on whether the combined fuel and coaxial air jet is fuel-rich or fuel-lean. In the absence of differential diffusion effects, flame lengths agree well with predicted trends, and NOx emissions levels are shown to decrease with increasing coaxial air velocity, as expected. Normalizing the NOx emission index with a flame residence time reveals some interesting trends, and indicates that a global flame strain based on the difference between the fuel and coaxial air velocities, as is traditionally used, is not a viable parameter for scaling the normalized NOx emissions of coaxial air jet diffusion flames.

  18. Fermi Large Area Telescope Measurements of the Diffuse Gamma-Ray Emission at Intermediate Galactic Latitudes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdo, A.A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Anderson, B.; Atwood, W.B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Baughman, B.M.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R.D.; Bloom, E.D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A.W.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; /more authors..

    2012-04-11

    The diffuse galactic {gamma}-ray emission is produced by cosmic rays (CRs) interacting with the interstellar gas and radiation field. Measurements by the Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) instrument on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory indicated excess {gamma}-ray emission {ge}1 GeV relative to diffuse galactic {gamma}-ray emission models consistent with directly measured CR spectra (the so-called 'EGRET GeV excess'). The Large Area Telescope (LAT) instrument on the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope has measured the diffuse {gamma}-ray emission with improved sensitivity and resolution compared to EGRET. We report on LAT measurements for energies 100 MeV to 10 GeV and galactic latitudes 10{sup o} {le} |b| {le} 20{sup o}. The LAT spectrum for this region of the sky is well reproduced by a diffuse galactic {gamma}-ray emission model that is consistent with local CR spectra and inconsistent with the EGRET GeV excess.

  19. High Speed, Low Cost Fabrication of Gas Diffusion Electrodes for Membrane Electrode Assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeCastro, Emory S.; Tsou, Yu-Min; Liu, Zhenyu

    2013-09-20

    Fabrication of membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) depends on creating inks or pastes of catalyst and binder, and applying this suspension to either the membrane (catalyst coated membrane) or gas diffusion media (gas diffusion electrode) and respectively laminating either gas diffusion media or gas diffusion electrodes (GDEs) to the membrane. One barrier to cost effective fabrication for either of these approaches is the development of stable and consistent suspensions. This program investigated the fundamental forces that destabilize the suspensions and developed innovative approaches to create new, highly stable formulations. These more concentrated formulations needed fewer application passes, could be coated over longer and wider substrates, and resulted in significantly lower coating defects. In March of 2012 BASF Fuel Cell released a new high temperature product based on these advances, whereby our customers received higher performing, more uniform MEAs resulting in higher stack build yields. Furthermore, these new materials resulted in an instant increase in capacity due to higher product yields and material throughput. Although not part of the original scope of this program, these new formulations have also led us to materials that demonstrate equivalent performance with 30% less precious metal in the anode. This program has achieved two key milestones in DOEs Manufacturing R&D program: demonstration of processes for direct coating of electrodes and continuous in-line measurement for component fabrication.

  20. Global strategies for environmental issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This is the 19th Annual NAEP conference proceedings, containing abstracts of oral presentations and poster sessions. Broad areas covered include the following: Environmental Management; Biodiversity/sustainable development; Gulf Regional Issues; Environmental ethics/equity; NEPA workshop and symposium; International environmental issues; global Environmental Effects; Risk Assessment; and Environmental effects of nuclear waste management.

  1. Reaction and diffusion in turbulent combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pope, S.B.

    1993-12-01

    The motivation for this project is the need to obtain a better quantitative understanding of the technologically-important phenomenon of turbulent combustion. In nearly all applications in which fuel is burned-for example, fossil-fuel power plants, furnaces, gas-turbines and internal-combustion engines-the combustion takes place in a turbulent flow. Designers continually demand more quantitative information about this phenomenon-in the form of turbulent combustion models-so that they can design equipment with increased efficiency and decreased environmental impact. For some time the PI has been developing a class of turbulent combustion models known as PDF methods. These methods have the important virtue that both convection and reaction can be treated without turbulence-modelling assumptions. However, a mixing model is required to account for the effects of molecular diffusion. Currently, the available mixing models are known to have some significant defects. The major motivation of the project is to seek a better understanding of molecular diffusion in turbulent reactive flows, and hence to develop a better mixing model.

  2. Distributed Wind Diffusion Model Overview (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Preus, R.; Drury, E.; Sigrin, B.; Gleason, M.

    2014-07-01

    Distributed wind market demand is driven by current and future wind price and performance, along with several non-price market factors like financing terms, retail electricity rates and rate structures, future wind incentives, and others. We developed a new distributed wind technology diffusion model for the contiguous United States that combines hourly wind speed data at 200m resolution with high resolution electricity load data for various consumer segments (e.g., residential, commercial, industrial), electricity rates and rate structures for utility service territories, incentive data, and high resolution tree cover. The model first calculates the economics of distributed wind at high spatial resolution for each market segment, and then uses a Bass diffusion framework to estimate the evolution of market demand over time. The model provides a fundamental new tool for characterizing how distributed wind market potential could be impacted by a range of future conditions, such as electricity price escalations, improvements in wind generator performance and installed cost, and new financing structures. This paper describes model methodology and presents sample results for distributed wind market potential in the contiguous U.S. through 2050.

  3. BandelierDirections2011

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a r k i n g M E R G E T o T o w n s it e D ia m o n d D ri v e To Sa n ta Fe T o J e m e z M ts . Co mm ut er Bu s Dr op Of f P a r k i n g M E R G E M E R G E T o T o w n s i t e D i a m o n d D r i v e T o J e m e z M t s . C o m m u t e r B u s D r o p O ff 4 To Valles Caldera National Preserve (12 miles), Jemez Springs (33 miles), and Albuquerque (88 miles) To Bandelier National Monument and White Rock DIRECTIONS TO BANDELIER 502 To Pajarito Ski Hill E A S T J E M E Z R O A D ( A L T E R N A

  4. Multiple direction vibration fixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cericola, Fred; Doggett, James W.; Ernest, Terry L.; Priddy, Tommy G.

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus for simulating a rocket launch environment on a test item undergoing centrifuge testing by subjecting the item simultaneously or separately to vibration along an axis of centripetal force and along an axis perpendicular to the centripetal force axis. The apparatus includes a shaker motor supported by centrifuge arms and a right angle fixture pivotally connected to one of the shaker motor mounts. When the shaker motor vibrates along the centripetal force axis, the vibrations are imparted to a first side of the right angle fixture. The vibrations are transmitted 90 degrees around the pivot and are directed to a second side of the right angle fixture which imparts vibrations perpendicular to the centripetal force axis. The test item is in contact with a third side of the right angle fixture and receives both centripetal-force-axis vibrations and perpendicular axis vibrations simultaneously. A test item can be attached to the third side near the flexible coupling or near the air bag to obtain vibrations along the centripetal force axis or transverse to the centripetal force axis.

  5. Direct Observation of the Transition from Indirect to Direct...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Direct Observation of the Transition from Indirect to Direct Bandgap in Atomically Thin Epitaxial MoSe2 Authors: Zhang, Yi ; Chang, Tay-Rong ; Zhou, Bo ; Cui, Yong-Tao ; ...

  6. MAGNETIC FIELD STRUCTURE OF THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD FROM FARADAY ROTATION MEASURES OF DIFFUSE POLARIZED EMISSION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mao, S. A.; McClure-Griffiths, N. M.; McConnell, D.; Gaensler, B. M.; Haverkorn, M.; Beck, R.; Wolleben, M.; Stanimirovic, S.; Dickey, J. M.; Staveley-Smith, L.

    2012-11-01

    We present a study of the magnetic field of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), carried out using diffuse polarized synchrotron emission data at 1.4 GHz acquired at the Parkes Radio Telescope and the Australia Telescope Compact Array. The observed diffuse polarized emission is likely to originate above the LMC disk on the near side of the galaxy. Consistent negative rotation measures (RMs) derived from the diffuse emission indicate that the line-of-sight magnetic field in the LMC's near-side halo is directed coherently away from us. In combination with RMs of extragalactic sources that lie behind the galaxy, we show that the LMC's large-scale magnetic field is likely to be of quadrupolar geometry, consistent with the prediction of dynamo theory. On smaller scales, we identify two brightly polarized filaments southeast of the LMC, associated with neutral hydrogen arms. The filaments' magnetic field potentially aligns with the direction toward the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). We suggest that tidal interactions between the SMC and the LMC in the past 10{sup 9} years are likely to have shaped the magnetic field in these filaments.

  7. Global

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia Co-Hosts "Climate Risk Forum: Bridging Climate Science and Actuarial Practice" This Fall event was a follow-up to a Climate and Environment Program Area meeting with the California governor's office in July. There, the California Insurance Commissioner, Dave Jones, recognized the value of Sandia's climate-impact modeling and analysis work, led by Stephen Conrad (manager of Sandia's Resilience and Regulatory Effects Dept.), and wanted to connect that [...] By

  8. Developing A Laser Shockwave Model For Characterizing Diffusion Bonded Interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James A. Smith; Jeffrey M. Lacy; Barry H. Rabin

    2014-07-01

    12. Other advances in QNDE and related topics: Preferred Session Laser-ultrasonics Developing A Laser Shockwave Model For Characterizing Diffusion Bonded Interfaces 41st Annual Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation Conference QNDE Conference July 20-25, 2014 Boise Centre 850 West Front Street Boise, Idaho 83702 James A. Smith, Jeffrey M. Lacy, Barry H. Rabin, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID ABSTRACT: The US National Nuclear Security Agency has a Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) which is assigned with reducing the worldwide use of high-enriched uranium (HEU). A salient component of that initiative is the conversion of research reactors from HEU to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuels. An innovative fuel is being developed to replace HEU. The new LEU fuel is based on a monolithic fuel made from a U-Mo alloy foil encapsulated in Al-6061 cladding. In order to complete the fuel qualification process, the laser shock technique is being developed to characterize the clad-clad and fuel-clad interface strengths in fresh and irradiated fuel plates. The Laser Shockwave Technique (LST) is being investigated to characterize interface strength in fuel plates. LST is a non-contact method that uses lasers for the generation and detection of large amplitude acoustic waves to characterize interfaces in nuclear fuel plates. However the deposition of laser energy into the containment layer on specimen’s surface is intractably complex. The shock wave energy is inferred from the velocity on the backside and the depth of the impression left on the surface from the high pressure plasma pulse created by the shock laser. To help quantify the stresses and strengths at the interface, a finite element model is being developed and validated by comparing numerical and experimental results for back face velocities and front face depressions with experimental results. This paper will report on initial efforts to develop a finite element model for laser shock.

  9. Overview of SIMS-Based Experimental Studies of Tracer Diffusion in Solids and Application to Mg Self-Diffusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulkarni, Nagraj S.; Bruce Warmack, Robert J.; Radhakrishnan, Bala; Hunter, Jerry L.; Sohn, Yongho; Coffey, Kevin R.; Murch, Graeme E.; Belova, Irina V.

    2014-09-23

    Tracer diffusivities provide the most fundamental information on diffusion in materials and are the foundation of robust diffusion databases. Compared to traditional radiotracer techniques that utilize radioactive isotopes, the secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) based thin-film technique for tracer diffusion is based on the use of enriched stable isotopes that can be accurately profiled using SIMS. Experimental procedures & techniques that are utilized for the measurement of tracer diffusion coefficients are presented for pure magnesium, which presents some unique challenges due to the ease of oxidation. The development of a modified Shewmon-Rhines diffusion capsule for annealing Mg and an ultra-high vacuum (UHV) system for sputter deposition of Mg isotopes are discussed. Optimized conditions for accurate SIMS depth profiling in polycrystalline Mg are provided. An automated procedure for the correction of heat-up and cool-down times during tracer diffusion annealing is discussed. The non-linear fitting of a SIMS depth profile data using the thin film Gaussian solution to obtain the tracer diffusivity along with the background tracer concentration and tracer film thickness is discussed. An Arrhenius fit of the Mg self-diffusion data obtained using the low-temperature SIMS measurements from this study and the high-temperature radiotracer measurements of Shewmon and Rhines (1954) was found to be a good representation of both types of diffusion data that cover a broad range of temperatures between 250 - 627° C (523 900 K).

  10. Overview of SIMS-Based Experimental Studies of Tracer Diffusion in Solids and Application to Mg Self-Diffusion

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kulkarni, Nagraj S.; Bruce Warmack, Robert J.; Radhakrishnan, Bala; Hunter, Jerry L.; Sohn, Yongho; Coffey, Kevin R.; Murch, Graeme E.; Belova, Irina V.

    2014-09-23

    Tracer diffusivities provide the most fundamental information on diffusion in materials and are the foundation of robust diffusion databases. Compared to traditional radiotracer techniques that utilize radioactive isotopes, the secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) based thin-film technique for tracer diffusion is based on the use of enriched stable isotopes that can be accurately profiled using SIMS. Experimental procedures & techniques that are utilized for the measurement of tracer diffusion coefficients are presented for pure magnesium, which presents some unique challenges due to the ease of oxidation. The development of a modified Shewmon-Rhines diffusion capsule for annealing Mg and an ultra-highmore » vacuum (UHV) system for sputter deposition of Mg isotopes are discussed. Optimized conditions for accurate SIMS depth profiling in polycrystalline Mg are provided. An automated procedure for the correction of heat-up and cool-down times during tracer diffusion annealing is discussed. The non-linear fitting of a SIMS depth profile data using the thin film Gaussian solution to obtain the tracer diffusivity along with the background tracer concentration and tracer film thickness is discussed. An Arrhenius fit of the Mg self-diffusion data obtained using the low-temperature SIMS measurements from this study and the high-temperature radiotracer measurements of Shewmon and Rhines (1954) was found to be a good representation of both types of diffusion data that cover a broad range of temperatures between 250 - 627° C (523 900 K).« less

  11. Fracture-Flow-Enhanced Solute Diffusion into Fractured Rock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Yu-Shu; Ye, Ming; Sudicky, E.A.

    2007-12-15

    We propose a new conceptual model of fracture-flow-enhanced matrix diffusion, which correlates with fracture-flow velocity, i.e., matrix diffusion enhancement induced by rapid fluid flow within fractures. According to the boundary-layer or film theory, fracture flow enhanced matrix diffusion may dominate mass-transfer processes at fracture-matrix interfaces, because rapid flow along fractures results in large velocity and concentration gradients at and near fracture-matrix interfaces, enhancing matrix diffusion at matrix surfaces. In this paper, we present a new formulation of the conceptual model for enhanced fracture-matrix diffusion, and its implementation is discussed using existing analytical solutions and numerical models. In addition, we use the enhanced matrix diffusion concept to analyze laboratory experimental results from nonreactive and reactive tracer breakthrough tests, in an effort to validate the new conceptual model.

  12. Diffusion of n-type dopants in germanium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chroneos, A.; Bracht, H.

    2014-03-15

    Germanium is being actively considered by the semiconductor community as a mainstream material for nanoelectronic applications. Germanium has advantageous materials properties; however, its dopant-defect interactions are less understood as compared to the mainstream material, silicon. The understanding of self- and dopant diffusion is essential to form well defined doped regions. Although p-type dopants such as boron exhibit limited diffusion, n-type dopants such as phosphorous, arsenic, and antimony diffuse quickly via vacancy-mediated diffusion mechanisms. In the present review, we mainly focus on the impact of intrinsic defects on the diffusion mechanisms of donor atoms and point defect engineering strategies to restrain donor atom diffusion and to enhance their electrical activation.

  13. Intrauterine device for laser light diffusion and method of using the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tadir, Yona; Berns, Michael W.; Svaasand, Lars O.; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    1995-01-01

    An improved device for delivery of photoenergy from a light source, such as a laser, into a uterine cavity for photodynamic therapy is comprised of a plurality of optic fibers, which are bundled together and inserted into the uterine cavity by means of a uterine cannula. The cannula is positioned within the uterine cavity at a preferred location and then withdrawn thereby allowing the plurality of optic fibers to splay or diverge one from the other within the cavity. Different portions of the distal tip of the optic fiber is provided with a light diffusing tip, the remainder being provided with a nondiffusing tip portion. The fiber optic shape, as well as the segment which is permitted to actively diffuse light through the tip, is selected in order to provide a more uniform exposure intensity of the photo energy or at least sufficient radiation directed to each segment of the uterine walls.

  14. Intrauterine device for laser light diffusion and method of using the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tadir, Y.; Berns, M.W.; Svaasand, L.O.; Tromberg, B.J.

    1995-12-26

    An improved device for delivery of photoenergy from a light source, such as a laser, into a uterine cavity for photodynamic therapy is comprised of a plurality of optic fibers, which are bundled together and inserted into the uterine cavity by means of a uterine cannula. The cannula is positioned within the uterine cavity at a preferred location and then withdrawn thereby allowing the plurality of optic fibers to splay or diverge one from the other within the cavity. Different portions of the distal tip of the optic fiber is provided with a light diffusing tip, the remainder being provided with a nondiffusing tip portion. The fiber optic shape, as well as the segment which is permitted to actively diffuse light through the tip, is selected in order to provide a more uniform exposure intensity of the photo energy or at least sufficient radiation directed to each segment of the uterine walls. 5 figs.

  15. TURBULENT DIFFUSION IN THE PHOTOSPHERE AS DERIVED FROM PHOTOSPHERIC BRIGHT POINT MOTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abramenko, V. I.; Yurchyshyn, V.; Goode, P. R.; Carbone, V.; Lepreti, F.; Capparelli, V.; Vecchio, A.; Stein, R. F.

    2011-12-20

    On the basis of observations of solar granulation obtained with the New Solar Telescope of Big Bear Solar Observatory, we explored proper motion of bright points (BPs) in a quiet-sun area, a coronal hole, and an active region plage. We automatically detected and traced BPs and derived their mean-squared displacements as a function of time (starting from the appearance of each BP) for all available time intervals. In all three magnetic environments, we found the presence of a super-diffusion regime, which is the most pronounced inside the time interval of 10-300 s. Super-diffusion, measured via the spectral index, {gamma}, which is the slope of the mean-squared displacement spectrum, increases from the plage area ({gamma} = 1.48) to the quiet-sun area ({gamma} = 1.53) to the coronal hole ({gamma} = 1.67). We also found that the coefficient of turbulent diffusion changes in direct proportion to both temporal and spatial scales. For the minimum spatial scale (22 km) and minimum time scale (10 s), it is 22 and 19 km{sup 2} s{sup -1} for the coronal hole and the quiet-sun area, respectively, whereas for the plage area it is about 12 km{sup 2} s{sup -1} for the minimum time scale of 15 s. We applied our BP tracking code to three-dimensional MHD model data of solar convection and found the super-diffusion with {gamma} = 1.45. An expression for the turbulent diffusion coefficient as a function of scales and {gamma} is obtained.

  16. Global Pathways Analysis Tool (GPAT)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Global Pathways Analysis Tool (GPAT) (Sandia National Laboratories) Objectives Calculate least-cost pathways for hydrogen supply for eight participating countries: France, Germany, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Denmark, Japan, and the United States (U.S. further divided into eight regions to allow for additional regional analysis; additional countries could be added as data becomes available). The objective is to match country level demands for hydrogen with lowest cost supply options for each country.

  17. Estimating emissions of 20 VOCs. 2: Diffused aeration (Journal Article) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Estimating emissions of 20 VOCs. 2: Diffused aeration Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Estimating emissions of 20 VOCs. 2: Diffused aeration A relationship developed in a companion paper to estimate emissions from surface-aerated reactors that accounts for both gas- and liquid-phase mass-transfer resistances is extended to reactors with diffused-aeration systems. The method accurately predicts the observed stripping rate of 20 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with

  18. Model-Independent Characterization of Charge Diffusion in Thick Fully

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Depleted CCDs (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Model-Independent Characterization of Charge Diffusion in Thick Fully Depleted CCDs Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Model-Independent Characterization of Charge Diffusion in Thick Fully Depleted CCDs We present a new method to measure charge diffusion in charge-coupled devices (CCDs). The method is based on a statistical characterization of the shapes of charge clouds produced by low-energy X-rays using known properties of the

  19. Control of light diffusion in a disordered photonic waveguide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarma, Raktim; Cao, Hui; Golubev, Timofey; Yamilov, Alexey

    2014-07-28

    We control the diffusion of light in a disordered photonic waveguide by modulating the waveguide geometry. In a single waveguide of varying cross-section, the diffusion coefficient changes spatially in two dimensions due to localization effects. The intensity distribution inside the waveguide agrees with the prediction of the self-consistent theory of localization. Our work shows that wave diffusion can be efficiently manipulated without modifying the structural disorder.

  20. Spectral Components Analysis of Diffuse Emission Processes (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Spectral Components Analysis of Diffuse Emission Processes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Spectral Components Analysis of Diffuse Emission Processes We develop a novel method to separate the components of a diffuse emission process based on an association with the energy spectra. Most of the existing methods use some information about the spatial distribution of components, e.g., closeness to an external template, independence of

  1. DOE Issues Final Request for Proposal for Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Plant Support Services | Department of Energy Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Support Services DOE Issues Final Request for Proposal for Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Support Services December 9, 2014 - 3:37pm Addthis Media Contact Lynette Chafin, 513-246-0461, Lynette.Chafin@emcbc.doe.gov Cincinnati -- The U.S. Department of Energy today issued a Final Request for Proposal (RFP), for the continued performance of infrastructure support services at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion

  2. DOE Seeks Deactivation Contractor for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Deactivation Contractor for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant DOE Seeks Deactivation Contractor for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant August 9, 2013 - 5:30pm Addthis Media Contact Bill Taylor, 803-952-8564 bill.taylor@srs.gov Cincinnati - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today issued a Request for Task Proposal (RTP) for deactivation activities at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (GDP) in Paducah, Kentucky. These services are required so that DOE can address the return

  3. DOE Seeks Proposals for Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Technical

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Services Contract | Department of Energy Proposals for Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Technical Services Contract DOE Seeks Proposals for Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant Technical Services Contract June 19, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Media Contact Bill Taylor bill.taylor@srs.gov 803-952-8564 Cincinnati - The Department of Energy today issued a Draft Request for Proposals (RFP) for an Environmental Technical Services acquisition at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant near Piketon, Ohio.

  4. FUNDING OPPORTUNITY ANNOUNCEMENT: SOLAR ENERGY EVOLUTION AND DIFFUSION

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    STUDIES II - STATE ENERGY STRATEGIES (SEEDSII-SES) | Department of Energy FUNDING OPPORTUNITY ANNOUNCEMENT: SOLAR ENERGY EVOLUTION AND DIFFUSION STUDIES II - STATE ENERGY STRATEGIES (SEEDSII-SES) FUNDING OPPORTUNITY ANNOUNCEMENT: SOLAR ENERGY EVOLUTION AND DIFFUSION STUDIES II - STATE ENERGY STRATEGIES (SEEDSII-SES) FUNDING OPPORTUNITY ANNOUNCEMENT: SOLAR ENERGY EVOLUTION AND DIFFUSION STUDIES II - STATE ENERGY STRATEGIES (SEEDSII-SES) FUNDING OPPORTUNITY ANNOUNCEMENT: SOLAR ENERGY EVOLUTION

  5. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Transition | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Gaseous Diffusion Plant Transition Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Transition GDP Shutdown Paducah site_map-USEC_lease.jpg The Energy Policy Act of 1992 transferred operational responsibility for the site's uranium enrichment operations to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC), originally a government corporation that became a publicly held company in 1998. USEC assumed responsibility for enrichment operations at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (GDP) and leased property from DOE.

  6. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant -

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    026 Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant - 026 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (026 ) Designated Name: Alternate Name: Location: Evaluation Year: Site Operations: Site Disposition: Radioactive Materials Handled: Primary Radioactive Materials Handled: Radiological Survey(s): Site Status: The Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) is located in south central Ohio, approximately 20 miles north of Portsmouth, Ohio and 70 miles south of Columbus, Ohio.

  7. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant - GW OU Northwest Plume | Department of

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Energy Gaseous Diffusion Plant - GW OU Northwest Plume Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant - GW OU Northwest Plume January 1, 2014 - 12:00pm Addthis US Department of Energy Groundwater Database Groundwater Master Report InstallationName, State: Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, KY Responsible DOE Office: Office of Environmental Management Plume Name: GW OU Northwest Plume Remediation Contractor: LATA Environmental Services of Kentucky, LLC PBS Number: PA-0040 Report Last Updated: 2014

  8. Transport diffusion of liquid water and methanol through membranes (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Transport diffusion of liquid water and methanol through membranes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Transport diffusion of liquid water and methanol through membranes The authors carried out dual-control-volume grand canonical molecular dynamics simulations of the transport diffusion of liquid water and methanol to vacuum under a fixed chemical potential gradient through a slit pore consisting of Au(111) surfaces covered by -CH{sub 3} and -OH terminated

  9. Implementation of global energy sustainability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grob, G.R.

    1998-02-01

    The term energy sustainability emerged from the UN Conference on Environment and Development in Rio 1992, when Agenda 21 was formulated and the Global Energy Charter proclaimed. Emission reductions, total energy costing, improved energy efficiency, and sustainable energy systems are the four fundamental principles of the charter. These principles can be implemented in the proposed financial, legal, technical, and education framework. Much has been done in many countries toward the implementation of the Global Energy Charter, but progress has not been fast enough to ease the disastrous effects of the too many ill-conceived energy systems on the environment, climate, and health. Global warming is accelerating, and pollution is worsening, especially in developing countries with their hunger for energy to meet the needs of economic development. Asian cities are now beating all pollution records, and greenhouse gases are visibly changing the climate with rising sea levels, retracting glaciers, and record weather disasters. This article presents why and how energy investments and research money have to be rechanneled into sustainable energy, rather than into the business-as-usual of depleting, unsustainable energy concepts exceeding one trillion dollars per year. This largest of all investment sectors needs much more attention.

  10. DOE Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Site map An overview of the available content on this site. Keep the pointer still over an item for a few seconds to get its description. Directives Delegations Other Requirements Top 10 Directives Help Directives Tools RevCom Redirect for Departmental Element list

  11. Adsorption and diffusion in zeolites: the pitfall of isotypic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Adsorption and diffusion in zeolites: the pitfall of isotypic crystal structures Previous Next List Nils E.R. Zimmermann, Maciej Haranczyk, Manju Sharma, Bei Liu, Berend Smit &...

  12. Adsorption and diffusion of Ru adatoms on Ru(0001)-supported...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Accepted Manuscript: Adsorption and diffusion of Ru adatoms on Ru(0001)-supported graphene: Large-scale first-principles calculations This content will become publicly available on...

  13. Intensity Pattern of Diffuse X-Ray Scattering From Thermally...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Intensity Pattern of Diffuse X-Ray Scattering From Thermally Populated Phonons in Fcc ... Sponsoring Org: DOE - BASIC ENERGY SCIENCESUNIVERSITY Country of Publication: United ...

  14. Manhattan Project: The Navy and Thermal Diffusion, 1944

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Diffusion columns, S-50 Thermal Diffusion Plant, Oak Ridge, 1945. THE NAVY AND THERMAL DIFFUSION (Oak Ridge: Clinton, 1944) Events > The Uranium Path to the Bomb, 1942-1944 Y-12: Design, 1942-1943 Y-12: Construction, 1943 Y-12: Operation, 1943-1944 Working K-25 into the Mix, 1943-1944 The Navy and Thermal Diffusion, 1944 As problems with both Y-12 and K-25 reached crisis proportions in spring and summer 1944, the Manhattan Project received help from an unexpected source: the United States

  15. Low cost fuel cell diffusion layer configured for optimized anode...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for optimized anode water management Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Low cost fuel cell diffusion layer configured for optimized anode water management A fuel cell ...

  16. Uranium and Strontium Batch Sorption and Diffusion Kinetics into...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Uranium and Strontium Batch Sorption and Diffusion Kinetics into Mesoporous Silica Friday, February 27, 2015 Figure 1 Figure 1. Transmission electron microscopy images of (A)...

  17. The Digital Road to Scientific Knowledge Diffusion; A Faster...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: The Digital Road to Scientific Knowledge Diffusion; A Faster, Better Way to Scientific Progress? Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Digital Road to ...

  18. Lithium Ion Solvation and Diffusion in Bulk Organic Electrolytes...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in Bulk Organic Electrolytes from First Principles Molecular Dynamics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Lithium Ion Solvation and Diffusion in Bulk Organic ...

  19. FLAMMABLE GAS DIFFUSION THROUGH SINGLE SHELL TANK (SST) DOMES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MEACHAM, J.E.

    2003-11-10

    This report quantified potential hydrogen diffusion through Hanford Site Single-Shell tank (SST) domes if the SSTs were hypothetically sealed airtight. Results showed that diffusion would keep headspace flammable gas concentrations below the lower flammability limit in the 241-AX and 241-SX SST. The purpose of this document is to quantify the amount of hydrogen that could diffuse through the domes of the SSTs if they were hypothetically sealed airtight. Diffusion is assumed to be the only mechanism available to reduce flammable gas concentrations. The scope of this report is limited to the 149 SSTs.

  20. Experiments on a ceramic electrolysis cell and a palladium diffuser...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    on a ceramic electrolysis cell and a palladium diffuser at the tritium systems test assembly Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Experiments on a ceramic...

  1. Diffusion in confinement: kinetic simulations of self- and collective...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    confinement: kinetic simulations of self- and collective diffusion behavior of adsorbed gases Previous Next List M. K. F. Abouelnasr and B. Smit, PCCP 14 (33), 11600 (2012) DOI:...

  2. Vapor Barriers or Vapor Diffusion Retarders | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    called "structural" vapor diffusion retarders. Materials such as rigid foam insulation, reinforced plastics, aluminum, and stainless steel are relatively resistant to...

  3. Extracting the diffusion tensor from molecular dynamics simulation with Milestoning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mugnai, Mauro L.; Elber, Ron

    2015-01-07

    We propose an algorithm to extract the diffusion tensor from Molecular Dynamics simulations with Milestoning. A Kramers-Moyal expansion of a discrete master equation, which is the Markovian limit of the Milestoning theory, determines the diffusion tensor. To test the algorithm, we analyze overdamped Langevin trajectories and recover a multidimensional Fokker-Planck equation. The recovery process determines the flux through a mesh and estimates local kinetic parameters. Rate coefficients are converted to the derivatives of the potential of mean force and to coordinate dependent diffusion tensor. We illustrate the computation on simple models and on an atomically detailed system—the diffusion along the backbone torsions of a solvated alanine dipeptide.

  4. Continuous Flow Diffusion Chamber Measurements of IN Concentration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Flow Diffusion Chamber (CFDC) Measurements of IN Concentration Concentrations of Ice-Nucleating Aerosol (IN) as a function of Temperature and %Supersaturation Sarah Brooks and...

  5. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant - GW OU Northeast Plume | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant - GW OU Northeast Plume January 1, 2014 - 12:00pm Addthis US Department of Energy Groundwater Database Groundwater Master Report InstallationName, ...

  6. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Draft Paducah Environmental Assessment...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Draft Environmental Assessment (EA) for Potential Land and Facilities Transfers at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant in McCracken County, Kentucky. DOE is inviting comments on...

  7. Binary and ternary gas mixtures with temperature enhanced diffuse...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Binary and ternary gas mixtures with temperature enhanced diffuse glow discharge characteristics for use in closing switches Title: Binary and ternary gas mixtures with temperature ...

  8. Diffusion coefficient of three-dimensional Yukawa liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dzhumagulova, K. N.; Ramazanov, T. S.; Masheeva, R. U.

    2013-11-15

    The purpose of this work is an investigation of the diffusion coefficient of the dust component in complex plasma. The computer simulation of the Yukawa liquids was made on the basis of the Langevin equation, which takes into account the influence of buffer plasma on the dust particles dynamics. The GreenKubo relation was used to calculate the diffusion coefficient. Calculations of the diffusion coefficient for a wide range of the system parameters were performed. Using obtained numerical data, we constructed the interpolation formula for the diffusion coefficient. We also show that the interpolation formula correctly describes experimental data obtained under microgravity conditions.

  9. Covariant functional diffusion equation for Polyakov's bosonic string

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Botelho, L. C. L.

    1989-07-15

    I write a covariant functional diffusion equation for Polyakov's bosonic string with the string's world-sheet area playing the role of proper time.

  10. Lithium Ion Solvation and Diffusion in Bulk Organic Electrolytes...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Lithium Ion Solvation and Diffusion in Bulk Organic Electrolytes from First Principles and ... Resource Relation: Journal Name: Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. ...

  11. Optical processing furnace with quartz muffle and diffuser plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    1995-01-01

    An optical furnace for annealing a process wafer comprising a source of optical energy, a quartz muffle having a door to hold the wafer for processing, and a quartz diffuser plate to diffuse the light impinging on the quartz muffle; a feedback system with a light sensor located in the door or wall of the muffle is also provided for controlling the source of optical energy. The quartz for the diffuser plate is surface etched (to give the quartz diffusive qualities) in the furnace during a high intensity burn-in process.

  12. Modeling heat conduction and radiation transport with the diffusion...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    heat conduction and radiation transport with the diffusion equation in NIF ALE-AMR This ... Home Search Collections Journals About Contact us My IOPscience Modeling Heat Conduction ...

  13. Strain effect on the adsorption, diffusion, and molecular dissociation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Strain effect on the adsorption, diffusion, and molecular dissociation of hydrogen on Mg (0001) surface Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Strain effect on the adsorption,...

  14. HILO: Quasi Diffusion Accelerated Monte Carlo on Hybrid Architectures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    fidelity simulation of a diverse range of kinetic systems. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email HILO: Quasi Diffusion Accelerated Monte Carlo on Hybrid...

  15. A coupling strategy for nonlocal and local diffusion models with...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: 97 MATHEMATICS AND COMPUTING nonlocal models; coupling method; optimization; nonlocal vector calculus; mixed boundary conditions; nonlocal diffusion Word Cloud More Like ...

  16. Airline Efficiency | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    reduce their operating costs and environmental footprint. You Might Also Like IMG0475 Innovation 247: We're Always Open direct write2square The GE Store for Technology is...

  17. Low cost fuel cell diffusion layer configured for optimized anode water management

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Owejan, Jon P; Nicotera, Paul D; Mench, Matthew M; Evans, Robert E

    2013-08-27

    A fuel cell comprises a cathode gas diffusion layer, a cathode catalyst layer, an anode gas diffusion layer, an anode catalyst layer and an electrolyte. The diffusion resistance of the anode gas diffusion layer when operated with anode fuel is higher than the diffusion resistance of the cathode gas diffusion layer. The anode gas diffusion layer may comprise filler particles having in-plane platelet geometries and be made of lower cost materials and manufacturing processes than currently available commercial carbon fiber substrates. The diffusion resistance difference between the anode gas diffusion layer and the cathode gas diffusion layer may allow for passive water balance control.

  18. The Global Innovation Commons | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Virginia. References "The Global Innovation Commons" Global Innovation Commons (G.I.C.) A patent is a contract between an inventor and the public. In order to promote and...

  19. Oil & Gas Technology Center | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Global Research Oil & Gas Technology Center Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new ... GE Global Research Oil & Gas Technology Center Mark Little, SVP and chief technology ...

  20. Global Energy Network Institute | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":"" Hide Map References: Global Energy Network Institute Web Site1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Global Energy...

  1. Contour Global L P | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global L P Jump to: navigation, search Name: Contour Global L.P. Place: New York, New York Zip: 10022 Sector: Renewable Energy Product: New York-based energy development company,...

  2. T Solar Global SA | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Global SA Jump to: navigation, search Name: T-Solar Global SA Place: Madrid, Spain Zip: 28042 Product: Spain-based thin-film silicon PV cell and module maker, using Applied...

  3. Global Atlas | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Atlas Home Graham7781's picture Submitted by Graham7781(2017) Super contributor 11 February, 2013 - 15:18 IRENA launches global atlas of renewable energy potential data...

  4. Ardour Global Indexes LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: Ardour Global Indexes LLC Place: New York City, New York Zip: 10016 Product: New-York based company that manages the Ardour Global Indexes, a set of alternative energy...

  5. Crest Global Green Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Green Energy Jump to: navigation, search Name: Crest Global Green Energy Place: County Durham, England, United Kingdom Zip: SR7 7EU Product: UK-based biofuel company with...

  6. Think Green Global Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Green Global Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Think Green Global, Inc. Place: New York, New York Zip: 10010 Sector: Renewable Energy Product: New York-based investment bank...

  7. Mandarin Global Carbon Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mandarin Global Carbon Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Mandarin Global Carbon Ltd Place: Londaon, Greater London, United Kingdom Zip: W1S 1TD Sector: Carbon, Hydro Product:...

  8. Global Wind Energy Council | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Council Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Global Wind Energy Council Name: Global Wind Energy Council Address: Wind Power House Rue d'Arlon 80 Place: Brussels, Belgium Phone...

  9. Direct Research & Development Transactions | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Direct Research & Development Transactions Direct Research & Development Transactions DOE direct research and development transactions include contracts, grants, and cooperative ...

  10. ARM - Will There be Increased Global Precipitation?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Will There be Increased Global Precipitation? Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Will There be Increased Global Precipitation? Very probable. Along with an increase in air temperature might be an increase in evaporation, which could lead to greater global precipitation. The

  11. Promoting Sustainability on a Global Scale

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Promoting Sustainability on a Global Scale Martina Otto, Head of the Policy Unit, United Nations Environment Programme

  12. GE Capital Partnership | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Global Research and GE Capital: Middle Market Collaboration Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) Global Research and GE Capital: Middle Market Collaboration In 2013, a partnering initiative between Global Research and GE Capital resulted in dozens of middle market companies collaborating with Global Research

  13. Diffusion Welding of Alloys for Molten Salt Service - Status Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denis Clark; Ronald Mizia; Piyush Sabharwall

    2012-09-01

    The present work is concerned with heat exchanger development for molten salt service, including the proposed molten salt reactor (MSR), a homogeneous reactor in which the fuel is dissolved in a circulating fluid of molten salt. It is an outgrowth of recent work done under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) program; what the two reactor systems have in common is an inherently safe nuclear plant with a high outlet temperature that is useful for process heat as well as more conventional generation The NGNP program was tasked with investigating the application of a new generation of nuclear power plants to a variety of energy needs. One baseline reactor design for this program is a high temperature, gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), which provides many options for energy use. These might include the conventional Rankine cycle (steam turbine) generation of electricity, but also other methods: for example, Brayton cycle (gas turbine) electrical generation, and the direct use of the high temperatures characteristic of HTGR output for process heat in the chemical industry. Such process heat is currently generated by burning fossil fuels, and is a major contributor to the carbon footprint of the chemical and petrochemical industries. The HTGR, based on graphite fuel elements, can produce very high output temperatures; ideally, temperatures of 900 °C or even greater, which has significant energy advantages. Such temperatures are, of course, at the frontiers of materials limitations, at the upper end of the performance envelope of the metallic materials for which robust construction codes exist, and within the realm of ceramic materials, the fabrication and joining of which, on the scale of large energy systems, are at an earlier stage of development. A considerable amount of work was done in the diffusion welding of materials of interest for HTGR service with alloys such as 617 and 800H. The MSR output temperature is also materials limited, and is projected at about 700 °C. (RR E) A different set of alloys, such as Alloy N and 242, are needed to handle molten salts at this temperature. The diffusion welding development work described here builds on techniques developed during the NGNP work, as applied to these alloys. There is also the matter of dissimilar metal welding, since alloys suitable for salt service are generally not suited for service in gaseous oxidizing environments, and vice versa, and welding is required for the Class I boundaries in these systems, as identified in the relevant ASME codes.

  14. Diffusion Welding of Alloys for Molten Salt Service - Status Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denis Clark; Ronald Mizia

    2012-05-01

    The present work is concerned with heat exchanger development for molten salt service, including the proposed molten salt reactor (MSR), a homogeneous reactor in which the fuel is dissolved in a circulating fluid of molten salt. It is an outgrowth of recent work done under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) program; what the two reactor systems have in common is an inherently safe nuclear plant with a high outlet temperature that is useful for process heat as well as more conventional generation The NGNP program was tasked with investigating the application of a new generation of nuclear power plants to a variety of energy needs. One baseline reactor design for this program is a high temperature, gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), which provides many options for energy use. These might include the conventional Rankine cycle (steam turbine) generation of electricity, but also other methods: for example, Brayton cycle (gas turbine) electrical generation, and the direct use of the high temperatures characteristic of HTGR output for process heat in the chemical industry. Such process heat is currently generated by burning fossil fuels, and is a major contributor to the carbon footprint of the chemical and petrochemical industries. The HTGR, based on graphite fuel elements, can produce very high output temperatures; ideally, temperatures of 900 C or even greater, which has significant energy advantages. Such temperatures are, of course, at the frontiers of materials limitations, at the upper end of the performance envelope of the metallic materials for which robust construction codes exist, and within the realm of ceramic materials, the fabrication and joining of which, on the scale of large energy systems, are at an earlier stage of development. A considerable amount of work was done in the diffusion welding of materials of interest for HTGR service with alloys such as 617 and 800H. The MSR output temperature is also materials limited, and is projected at about 700 C. (RR E) A different set of alloys, such as Alloy N and 242, are needed to handle molten salts at this temperature. The diffusion welding development work described here builds on techniques developed during the NGNP work, as applied to these alloys. There is also the matter of dissimilar metal welding, since alloys suitable for salt service are generally not suited for service in gaseous oxidizing environments, and vice versa, and welding is required for the Class I boundaries in these systems, as identified in the relevant ASME codes.

  15. Text Canceling a Directive - DOE Directives, Delegations, and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Requirements Canceling a Directive Processing a Policy or Notice Processing an Order or Guide Canceling a Directive by Website Administrator Process from justification memorandum through review to publication Justification Memorandum Office of Primary Interest (OPI) Creates a cancellation justification memorandum for non-NNSA element or cancellation justification memorandum for NNSA element to cancel a directive. Obtains the signature of the Secretarial Officer (SO) or designee on

  16. Crosswalk of Directives Numbering System - DOE Directives, Delegations,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Requirements Crosswalk of Directives Numbering System by Website Administrator PDF document icon CROSWLK-3-27-2014.pdf - PDF document, 132 KB (135996 bytes

  17. Directives for Review FY 2015 - DOE Directives, Delegations, and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Requirements FY 2015 by Diane Johnson Excel spreadsheet icon DirectivesUpForReview-EOFY2015.xls - Excel spreadsheet, 64 KB (66048

  18. The NERSC Global File System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NERSC Global File System (NGF) Jason Hick jhick@lbl.gov Storage Systems Group Lead http://www.nersc.gov/nusers/systems/NGF/ CAS2K11 September 11-14, 2011 * Operated by University of California for the US Department of Energy * NERSC serves a large population - Approximately 4000 users, 400 projects, 500 codes - Focus on "unique" resources * High-end computing systems * High-end storage systems - Large shared GPFS (a.k.a. NGF) - Large archive (a.k.a. HPSS) * Interface to high speed

  19. Are we seeing global warming?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hasselmann, K.

    1997-05-09

    Despite considerable progress, the question of whether the observed gradual increase in global mean temperature over the last century is indeed caused by human activities or is simply an expression of natural climate variation on a larger spatial and temporal scales remains a controversial issue. To answer this question three things are needed: prediction of the anthropogenic climate change signal; determination of the natural climate variability noise; and computation of the signal-to-noise ratio and test of whether the ratio exceeds some predefined statistical detection threshold. This article discusses all these issues and the uncertainties involved in getting definitive answers. 12 refs., 1 fig.

  20. Optical processing furnace with quartz muffle and diffuser plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    1996-01-01

    An optical furnace for annealing a process wafer comprising a source of optical energy, a quartz muffle having a door to hold the wafer for processing, and a quartz diffuser plate to diffuse the light impinging on the quartz muffle; a feedback system with a light sensor located in the wall of the muffle is also provided for controlling the source of optical energy.

  1. Economic Globalization and a Nuclear Renaissance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, Thomas W.; Johnson, Wayne L.; Parker, Brian M.

    2001-10-22

    The phenomenon of globalization has become increasingly well recognized, documented, and analyzed in the last several years. Globalization, the integration of markets and intra-firm competition on a worldwide basis, involves complex behavioral and mindset changes within a firm that facilitate global competition. The changes revolve around efficient information flow and rapid deployment of technology. The objective of this report is to examine the probable characteristics of a global nuclear renaissance and its broad implications for industry structure and export control relative to nuclear technology. The question of how a modern renaissance would affect the trend toward globalization of the nuclear industry is addressed.

  2. DOE Directives | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOE Directives DOE Directives DOE Directives Initiated by the IG DOE O 221.3A, Establishment of Management Decisions on Office of Inspector General Reports - April 19, 2008 DOE O 221.1A, Reporting Fraud, Waste and Abuse to the Office of Inspector General - April 19, 2008 DOE O 221.2A, Cooperation with the Office of Inspector General - February 25, 2008 DOE O 224.2A, Auditing of Programs and Operations - November 9, 2007

  3. SRS history and experience with palladium diffusers. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, E.A.; Dauchess, D.A.; Heung, L.K.; Rabun, R.L.; Motyka, T.

    1995-08-11

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has processed tritium in support of national defense programs since 1955. Palladium diffusers have been used extensively for separating hydrogen isotopes from inert gases (such as argon, helium, and nitrogen). In almost forty years of service, the design of the diffuser has been steadily improving. Several diffuser designs from different manufacturers have been evaluated at SRS. The operating experience gained from these designs together with failure analyses performed on failed units have led to several recommendations for improved diffuser designs and operating methods. This experience gained at SRS and the following recommendations form the basis of this report. Even though palladium diffuser technology has proven to be reliable, SRS has examined several alternative technologies over the past several years. This report will also review some of these promising alternatives.

  4. Grain boundary and triple junction diffusion in nanocrystalline copper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wegner, M. Leuthold, J.; Peterlechner, M.; Divinski, S. V.; Song, X.; Wilde, G.

    2014-09-07

    Grain boundary and triple junction diffusion in nanocrystalline Cu samples with grain sizes, ?d?, of ?35 and ?44?nm produced by spark plasma sintering were investigated by the radiotracer method using the {sup 63}Ni isotope. The measured diffusivities, D{sub eff}, are comparable with those determined previously for Ni grain boundary diffusion in well-annealed, high purity, coarse grained, polycrystalline copper, substantiating the absence of a grain size effect on the kinetic properties of grain boundaries in a nanocrystalline material at grain sizes d???35?nm. Simultaneously, the analysis predicts that if triple junction diffusion of Ni in Cu is enhanced with respect to the corresponding grain boundary diffusion rate, it is still less than 500?D{sub gb} within the temperature interval from 420?K to 470?K.

  5. Radon diffusion through multilayer earthen covers: models and simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayer, D.W.; Oster, C.A.; Nelson, R.W.; Gee, G.W.

    1981-09-01

    A capability to model and analyze the fundamental interactions that influence the diffusion of radon gas through uranium mill tailings and cover systems has been investigated. The purpose of this study is to develop the theoretical basis for modeling radon diffusion and to develop an understanding of the fundamental interactions that influence radon diffusion. This study develops the theoretical basis for modeling radon diffusion in one, two and three dimensions. The theory has been incorporated into three computer models that are used to analyze several tailings and cover configurations. This report contains a discussion of the theoretical basis for modeling radon diffusion, a discussion of the computer models used to analyze uranium mill tailings and multilayered cover systems, and presents the results that have been obtained.

  6. Mechanisms of Stochastic Diffusion of Energetic Ions in Spherical Tori

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ya.I. Kolesnichenko; R.B. White; Yu.V. Yakovenko

    2001-01-18

    Stochastic diffusion of the energetic ions in spherical tori is considered. The following issues are addressed: (I) Goldston-White-Boozer diffusion in a rippled field; (ii) cyclotron-resonance-induced diffusion caused by the ripple; (iii) effects of non-conservation of the magnetic moment in an axisymmetric field. It is found that the stochastic diffusion in spherical tori with a weak magnetic field has a number of peculiarities in comparison with conventional tokamaks; in particular, it is characterized by an increased role of mechanisms associated with non-conservation of the particle magnetic moment. It is concluded that in current experiments on National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX) the stochastic diffusion does not have a considerable influence on the confinement of energetic ions.

  7. Linear study of Rayleigh-Taylor instability in a diffusive quantum plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Momeni, Mahdi

    2013-08-15

    The linear Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability in an incompressible quantum plasma is investigated on the basis of quantum magnetohydrodynamic model. It is shown that the occurrence of RT instability depends on density-temperature inhomogeneity (characteristic lengths) on one hand, and the system layer size on the other. It is also observed that the combined effects of external magnetic field, diffusivity, and quantum pressure significantly modify the dispersion properties of system in both the parallel and perpendicular directions. For any case, the imaginary and real parts of dispersion relation are presented and the possibility and conditions for the instability growth rate are discussed.

  8. Irreversible reactions and diffusive escape: Stationary properties

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Krapivsky, Paul L.; Ben-Naim, Eli

    2015-05-01

    We study three basic diffusion-controlled reaction processes—annihilation, coalescence, and aggregation. We examine the evolution starting with the most natural inhomogeneous initial configuration where a half-line is uniformly filled by particles, while the complementary half-line is empty. We show that the total number of particles that infiltrate the initially empty half-line is finite and has a stationary distribution. We determine the evolution of the average density from which we derive the average total number N of particles in the initially empty half-line; e.g. for annihilationmore » $$\\langle N\\rangle = \\frac{3}{16}+\\frac{1}{4\\π}$$ . For the coalescence process, we devise a procedure that in principle allows one to compute P(N), the probability to find exactly N particles in the initially empty half-line; we complete the calculations in the first non-trivial case (N = 1). As a by-product we derive the distance distribution between the two leading particles.« less

  9. Thick diffusion limit boundary layer test problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, T. S.; Warsa, J. S.; Chang, J. H.; Adams, M. L.

    2013-07-01

    We develop two simple test problems that quantify the behavior of computational transport solutions in the presence of boundary layers that are not resolved by the spatial grid. In particular we study the quantitative effects of 'contamination' terms that, according to previous asymptotic analyses, may have a detrimental effect on the solutions obtained by both discontinuous finite element (DFEM) and characteristic-method (CM) spatial discretizations, at least for boundary layers caused by azimuthally asymmetric incident intensities. Few numerical results have illustrated the effects of this contamination, and none have quantified it to our knowledge. Our test problems use leading-order analytic solutions that should be equal to zero in the problem interior, which means the observed interior solution is the error introduced by the contamination terms. Results from DFEM solutions demonstrate that the contamination terms can cause error propagation into the problem interior for both orthogonal and non-orthogonal grids, and that this error is much worse for non-orthogonal grids. This behavior is consistent with the predictions of previous analyses. We conclude that these boundary layer test problems and their variants are useful tools for the study of errors that are introduced by unresolved boundary layers in diffusive transport problems. (authors)

  10. DIFFUSIVE SHOCK ACCELERATION SIMULATIONS OF RADIO RELICS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, Hyesung; Ryu, Dongsu; Jones, T. W. E-mail: ryu@canopus.cnu.ac.kr

    2012-09-01

    Recent radio observations have identified a class of structures, so-called radio relics, in clusters of galaxies. The radio emission from these sources is interpreted as synchrotron radiation from GeV electrons gyrating in {mu}G-level magnetic fields. Radio relics, located mostly in the outskirts of clusters, seem to associate with shock waves, especially those developed during mergers. In fact, they seem to be good structures to identify and probe such shocks in intracluster media (ICMs), provided we understand the electron acceleration and re-acceleration at those shocks. In this paper, we describe time-dependent simulations for diffusive shock acceleration at weak shocks that are expected to be found in ICMs. Freshly injected as well as pre-existing populations of cosmic-ray (CR) electrons are considered, and energy losses via synchrotron and inverse Compton are included. We then compare the synchrotron flux and spectral distributions estimated from the simulations with those in two well-observed radio relics in CIZA J2242.8+5301 and ZwCl0008.8+5215. Considering that CR electron injection is expected to be rather inefficient at weak shocks with Mach number M {approx}< a few, the existence of radio relics could indicate the pre-existing population of low-energy CR electrons in ICMs. The implication of our results on the merger shock scenario of radio relics is discussed.

  11. Cell Simulation Package for Reactions and Diffusion

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-04-01

    ChemCell is a simulation package designed for modeling signalling, regulatory, and metabolic pathways in biological cells. It reads input flies that describe the geomeby of the cell and positions of particles that represent proteins, protein complexes, and other bio-molecules. It also reads in lists of reactions and associated rates and other boundary condition information. ChemCell then models the reaction and diffusion of these particles within the cellular geometry as they interact overtime. It produces statisticalmore » information about the state of the cell, as well as snapshots of the reaction network. We anticipate ChemCell will be useful to researchers who wish to perform spatio-temporal modeling of cellular processes and who wish to develop new models or algorithms to add to the code. Thus ChemCell is also designed to be easy to modify and extend. The ChemCell package includes auxiliary codes for setting up problems and analyzing output.« less

  12. Direct cooled power electronics substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiles, Randy H [Powell, TN; Wereszczak, Andrew A [Oak Ridge, TN; Ayers, Curtis W. [Kingston, TN; Lowe, Kirk T. [Knoxville, TN

    2010-09-14

    The disclosure describes directly cooling a three-dimensional, direct metallization (DM) layer in a power electronics device. To enable sufficient cooling, coolant flow channels are formed within the ceramic substrate. The direct metallization layer (typically copper) may be bonded to the ceramic substrate, and semiconductor chips (such as IGBT and diodes) may be soldered or sintered onto the direct metallization layer to form a power electronics module. Multiple modules may be attached to cooling headers that provide in-flow and out-flow of coolant through the channels in the ceramic substrate. The modules and cooling header assembly are preferably sized to fit inside the core of a toroidal shaped capacitor.

  13. Laboratory Directed Research and Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Phone Book Jobs Laboratory Directorate - Strategic Planning Office Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) LBNL LDRD Program Guidelines LDRD FY 2017 Call for...

  14. DOE Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    News Item Packaging and Transportation for Offsite Shipment of Materials of National Security Interest https:www.directives.doe.govinformational-purposes-only...

  15. Laboratory Directed Research and Development

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    To establish Department of Energy (DOE) requirements for laboratory directed research and development (LDRD) while providing the laboratory director broad flexibility for program implementation.

  16. Laboratory Directed Research and Development

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2015-04-30

    To establish Department of Energy (DOE) requirements for laboratory directed research and development (LDRD) while providing the laboratory director broad flexibility for program implementation

  17. Laboratory Directed Research & Development (LDRD)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory Directed Research & Development National security depends on science and technology. The United States relies on Los Alamos National Laboratory for the best of...

  18. Sunlight Direct | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sector: Solar Product: Developed a system that tracks and concentrates solar energy for distributed power generation Website: www.sunlight-direct.com Coordinates: 33.0013938,...

  19. White House Conference on Global Climate Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    President Clinton has directed the White House office on Environmental Policy to coordinate an interagency process to develop a plan to fulfill the commitment he made in his Earth Day address on April 21, 1993. This plan will become the cornerstone of the Climate Change Plan that will be completed shortly after the Rio Accord enters into force. The Office on Environmental Policy established the Interagency Climate Change Mitigation Group to draw on the expertise of federal agencies including the National Economic Council; the Council of Economic Advisors; the Office of Science and Technology Policy; the Office of Management and Budget; the National Security Council; the Domestic Policy Council; the Environmental Protection Agency; and the Departments of Energy, Transportation, Agriculture, Interior, Treasury, Commerce, and State. Working groups have been established to examine six key policy areas: energy demand, energy supply, joint implementation, methane and other gases, sinks, and transportation. The purpose of the White House Conference on Global Climate Change was to ``tap the real-world experiences`` of diverse participants and seek ideas and information for meeting the President`s goals. During the opening session, senior administration officials defined the challenge ahead and encouraged open and frank conversation about the best possible ways to meet it.

  20. Engineering change in global climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, S.H.

    1996-12-31

    {open_quotes}With increased public focus on global warming and in the wake of the intense heat waves, drought, fires, and super-hurricanes that occurred in 1988 and 1989, interest in geoengineering has surged,{close_quotes} says Stephen H. Schneider, professor of biological science at Stanford University in Stanford, California. One scheme set forth in a National Research Council report proposes using 16-inch naval guns to fire aerosol shells into the stratosphere in hopes of offsetting {open_quotes}the radiative effects of increasing carbon dioxide,{close_quotes} Schneider says. Schneider, however, would prefer that we {open_quotes}seek measures that can cure our global {open_quote}addiction{close_quote} to polluting practices.{close_quotes} Rather than playing God, he says we should {open_quotes}stick to being human and pursue problem - solving methods currently within our grasp.{close_quotes} Such strategies include efforts to promote energy efficiency and reduce our reliance on automobiles.

  1. The Energy Efficiency Potential of Global Transport to 2050 ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Energy Efficiency Potential of Global Transport to 2050 The Energy Efficiency Potential of Global Transport to 2050 Broad view of sustainability of global transportation PDF ...

  2. Wanted: Global Clean Energy Partners | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Super contributor 24 February, 2010 - 13:51 imported OpenEI Global climate change. Global sustainability. Global economic development. There's no doubt about it-if the...

  3. CO2 Global Solutions International | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Solutions International Jump to: navigation, search Name: CO2 Global Solutions International Place: Madrid, Spain Zip: 28001 Sector: Carbon Product: CO2 Global Solutions is...

  4. Regional forecasting with global atmospheric models; Third year report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crowley, T.J.; North, G.R.; Smith, N.R.

    1994-05-01

    This report was prepared by the Applied Research Corporation (ARC), College Station, Texas, under subcontract to Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of a global climate studies task. The task supports site characterization work required for the selection of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository and is part of the Performance Assessment Scientific Support (PASS) Program at PNL. The work is under the overall direction of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), US Department of Energy Headquarters, Washington, DC. The scope of the report is to present the results of the third year`s work on the atmospheric modeling part of the global climate studies task. The development testing of computer models and initial results are discussed. The appendices contain several studies that provide supporting information and guidance to the modeling work and further details on computer model development. Complete documentation of the models, including user information, will be prepared under separate reports and manuals.

  5. GIS applications to evaluate public health effects of global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Regens, J.L.; Hodges, D.G.

    1996-12-31

    Modeling projections of future climatic conditions suggest changes in temperature and precipitation patterns that might induce direct adverse effects on human health by altering the extent and severity of infectious and vector-borne diseases. The incidence of mosquito-borne diseases, for example, could increase substantially in areas where temperature and relative humidity rise. The application of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) offers new methodologies to evaluate the impact of global warming on changes in the incidence of infectious and vector-borne diseases. This research illustrates the potential analytical and communication uses of GIS for monitoring historical patterns of climate and human health variables and for projecting changes in these health variables with global warming.

  6. Efficient Placement of Directional Antennas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Feng; Kasiviswanathan, Shiva

    2010-09-20

    Directional antenna is an technology for the proliferation of wireless networks. In centralized wireless network, wireless devices communicate through base stations. Directed antennas are placed on base stations and form a backbone of communication. The communication between base stations and wireless devices can be interfered due to a large number of wireless device. Methodically positioning and orienting directed antennas can help to reduce the interference while saving energy. An integer linear programming is developed for siting and directing antennas on multiple base stations, and this formulation can be extended to model non-overlapping channels. Through the integer programming formulation, optimal antenna positions can be used to analyze the performance of directed antennas with different parameters like the number base stations and the number of non-overlapping channels.

  7. Subgrid models for mass and thermal diffusion in turbulent mixing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharp, David H; Lim, Hyunkyung; Li, Xiao - Lin; Gilmm, James G

    2008-01-01

    We are concerned with the chaotic flow fields of turbulent mixing. Chaotic flow is found in an extreme form in multiply shocked Richtmyer-Meshkov unstable flows. The goal of a converged simulation for this problem is twofold: to obtain converged solutions for macro solution features, such as the trajectories of the principal shock waves, mixing zone edges, and mean densities and velocities within each phase, and also for such micro solution features as the joint probability distributions of the temperature and species concentration. We introduce parameterized subgrid models of mass and thermal diffusion, to define large eddy simulations (LES) that replicate the micro features observed in the direct numerical simulation (DNS). The Schmidt numbers and Prandtl numbers are chosen to represent typical liquid, gas and plasma parameter values. Our main result is to explore the variation of the Schmidt, Prandtl and Reynolds numbers by three orders of magnitude, and the mesh by a factor of 8 per linear dimension (up to 3200 cells per dimension), to allow exploration of both DNS and LES regimes and verification of the simulations for both macro and micro observables. We find mesh convergence for key properties describing the molecular level of mixing, including chemical reaction rates between the distinct fluid species. We find results nearly independent of Reynolds number for Re 300, 6000, 600K . Methodologically, the results are also new. In common with the shock capturing community, we allow and maintain sharp solution gradients, and we enhance these gradients through use of front tracking. In common with the turbulence modeling community, we include subgrid scale models with no adjustable parameters for LES. To the authors' knowledge, these two methodologies have not been previously combined. In contrast to both of these methodologies, our use of Front Tracking, with DNS or LES resolution of the momentum equation at or near the Kolmogorov scale, but without resolving the Batchelor scale, allows a feasible approach to the modeling of high Schmidt number flows.

  8. Coal mine methane global review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-07-01

    This is the second edition of the Coal Mine Methane Global Overview, updated in the summer of 2008. This document contains individual, comprehensive profiles that characterize the coal and coal mine methane sectors of 33 countries - 22 methane to market partners and an additional 11 coal-producing nations. The executive summary provides summary tables that include statistics on coal reserves, coal production, methane emissions, and CMM projects activity. An International Coal Mine Methane Projects Database accompanies this overview. It contains more detailed and comprehensive information on over two hundred CMM recovery and utilization projects around the world. Project information in the database is updated regularly. This document will be updated annually. Suggestions for updates and revisions can be submitted to the Administrative Support Group and will be incorporate into the document as appropriate.

  9. Energy in Today's Global Society

    K-12 Energy Lesson Plans and Activities Web site (EERE)

    Energy is an abstract concept that is very familiar to students from personal experiences with household appliances, transportation, and their own bodies. However, the nature of energy, energy transformations, and energy conservation are poorly understood, even by most adults. The geopolitical and environmental issues associated with energy and its consumption in today’s global society are important for every citizen to appreciate in order to make informed decisions about the future. Without a deep understanding that energy is finite and that energy transformations are what give modern society its high standard of living, students today will not be prepared to make the tough personal and political decisions that await us as fossil fuel resources dwindle.

  10. Cosmic Rays and Global Warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sloan, T.; Wolfendale, A. W.

    2008-01-24

    Some workers have claimed that the observed temporal correlations of (low level) terrestrial cloud cover with the cosmic ray intensity changes, due to solar modulation, are causal. The possibility arises, therefore, of a connection between cosmic rays and Global Warming. If true, the implications would be very great. We have examined this claim in some detail. So far, we have not found any evidence in support and so our conclusions are to doubt it. From the absence of corroborative evidence we estimate that less than 15% at the 95% confidence level, of the 11-year cycle warming variations are due to cosmic rays and less than 2% of the warming over the last 43 years is due to this cause. The origin of the correlation itself is probably the cycle of solar irradiance although there is, as yet, no certainty.

  11. Global change monitoring with lichens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Insarov, G.

    1997-12-31

    Environmental monitoring involves observations and assessment of changes in ecosystems and their components caused by anthropogenetic influence. An ideal monitoring system enables quantification of the contemporary state of the environment and detect changes in it. An important function of monitoring is to assess environment quality of areas that are not affected by local anthropogenic impacts, i.e. background areas. In background areas terrestrial ecosystems are mainly affected by such anthropogenic factors as lowered air pollution and global climate change. Assessment of biotic responses to altered climatic and atmospheric conditions provides an important basis for ecosystem management and environmental decision making. Without the ability to make such assessment, sustainability of ecosystems as a support system for humans remains uncertain.

  12. Diffusion and Adsorption of Uranyl Carbonate Species in Nanosized Mineral Fractures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Liu, Chongxuan

    2012-02-07

    Atomistic simulations were performed to study the diffusion and adsorption of Ca{sub 2}UO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3} and of some of its constituent species, i.e., UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, and UO{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, in feldspar nano-sized fractures. Feldspar is important to uranium remediation efforts at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford site as it has been found in recent studies to host contaminants within its intragrain fractures. In addition, uranyl carbonate species are known to dominate U(VI) speciation in conditions relevant to the Hanford site. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations showed that the presence of the feldspar surface diminishes the diffusion coefficients of all the species considered in this work and that the diffusion coefficients do not reach their bulk aqueous solution values in the center of a 2.5 nm fracture. Moreover, the MD simulations showed that the rate of decrease in the diffusion coefficients with decreasing distance from the surface is greater for larger adsorbing species. Free energy profiles of the same species adsorbing on the feldspar surface revealed a large exothermic free energy of adsorption for UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} and UO{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, which are able to adsorb to the surface with their uranium atom directly bonded to a surface hydroxyl oxygen, whereas adsorption of CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} and Ca{sub 2}UO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3}, which attach to the surface via hydrogen bonding from a surface hydroxyl group to a carbonate oxygen, was calculated to be either only slightly exothermic or endothermic.

  13. Low temperature diffusion process using rare earth-Cu eutectic alloys for hot-deformed Nd-Fe-B bulk magnets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akiya, T. Sepehri-Amin, H.; Ohkubo, T.; Liu, J.; Hono, K.; Hioki, K.; Hattori, A.

    2014-05-07

    The low temperature grain boundary diffusion process using RE{sub 70}Cu{sub 30} (RE = Pr, Nd) eutectic alloy powders was applied to sintered and hot-deformed Nd-Fe-B bulk magnets. Although only marginal coercivity increase was observed in sintered magnets, a substantial enhancement in coercivity was observed when the process was applied to hot-deformed anisotropic bulk magnets. Using Pr{sub 70}Cu{sub 30} eutectic alloy as a diffusion source, the coercivity was enhanced from 1.65 T to 2.56 T. The hot-deformed sample expanded along c-axis direction only after the diffusion process as RE rich intergranular layers parallel to the broad surface of the Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B are thickened in the c-axis direction.

  14. Browse Draft Directives - DOE Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Browse Draft Directives Current Draft Archives by Website Administrator More filters Less filters Directive Type Order Guide Manual Policy Notice HQ Order Sec of Energy Notice Justification Memorandum Certification Memo 0 Series Series All 0000 Subject Classification 100 Leadership/Management Planning 200 Information and Analysis 300 Human Resources 400 Work Processes 500 Business and Support Services 1100 Org. Authorities, Functions and Internal Relationships 1200 External Relationships 1300

  15. EA-381 E-T Global Energy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EA-381 E-T Global Energy Order authorizing E-T Global Energy to export electric energy to Mexico. File EA-381 ET Global MX.docx More Documents & Publications EA-381 E-T Global ...

  16. Experimental Investigation of Radio-Turbulence Induced Diffusion -- Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spitz, H. B.; Usman, S.

    2005-07-07

    The outcome of this research project suggests that the transport of radon in water is significantly greater than that predicted solely by molecular diffusion. The original study was related to the long term storage of {sup 226}Ra-bearing sand at the DOE Fernald site and determining whether a barrier of water covering the sand would be effective in reducing the emanation of {sup 222}Rn from the sand. Initial observations before this study found the transport of radon in water to be greater than that predicted solely by molecular diffusion. Fick's law on diffusion was used to model the transport of radon in water including the impact associated with radioactive decay. Initial measurements suggested that the deposition of energy in water associated with the radioactive decay process influences diffusion and enhances transport of radon. A multi-region, one-dimensional, steady-state transport model was used to analyze the movement of radon through a sequential column of air, water and air. An effective diffusion coefficient was determined by varying the thickness of the water column and measuring the time for transport of {sup 222}Rn through of the water barrier. A one-region, one-dimensional transient diffusion equation was developed to investigate the build up of radon at the end of the water column to the time when a steady-state, equilibrium condition was achieved. This build up with time is characteristic of the transport rate of radon in water and established the basis for estimating the effective diffusion coefficient for {sup 222}Rn in water. Several experiments were conducted using different types and physical arrangements of water barriers to examine how radon transport is influenced by the water barrier. Results of our measurements confirm our theoretical analyses which suggest that convective forces other than pure molecular diffusion impact the transport of {sup 222}Rn through the water barrier. An effective diffusion coefficient is defined that includes effects of molecular diffusion and convection to describe the transport of radon in water. The effective diffusion coefficients measured in these experiments are 6.8 x 10{sup -4} {+-} 28% and 3.5 x 10{sup -4} {+-} 34% cm{sup 2} sec{sup -1} for the steady-state and transient diffusion conditions, respectively. Water barriers ranging in thickness from 30-50 cm reduce the amount of radon released from the radium-bearing source material by a factor of 0.3-0.1, respectively.

  17. DOE Announces Public Tours of Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant site |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy DOE Announces Public Tours of Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant site DOE Announces Public Tours of Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant site March 31, 2016 - 5:00pm Addthis PADUCAH, KY - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has announced the opportunity for members of the community to participate in public tours of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant site starting monthly in April 2016. This will be the first time tours of the DOE site will be available to the public in its more

  18. Kinetic Isotopic Fractionation During Diffusion of Ionic Speciesin Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richter, Frank M.; Mendybaev, Ruslan A.; Christensen, John; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Williams, Ross W.; Sturchio, Neil C.; Beloso Jr.,Abelardo D.

    2005-06-09

    Experiments specifically designed to measure the ratio of the diffusivities of ions dissolved in water were used to determine D{sub Li}/D{sub K}, D{sub 7{sub Li}}/D{sub 6{sub Li}}, D{sub 25{sub Mg}}/D{sub 24{sub Mg}}, D{sub 26{sub Mg}}/D{sub 25{sub Mg}}, and D{sub 37{sub Cl}}/D{sub 35{sub Cl}}. The measured ratio of the diffusion coefficients for Li and K in water (D{sub Li}/D{sub K} = 0.6) is in good agreement with published data, providing evidence that the experimental design being used resolves the relative mobility of ions with adequate precision to also be used for determining the fractionation of isotopes by diffusion in water. In the case of Li we found measurable isotopic fractionation associated with the diffusion of dissolved LiCl (D{sub 7{sub Li}}/D{sub 6{sub Li}} = 0.99772 {+-} 0.00026). This difference in the diffusion coefficient of {sup 7}Li compared to {sup 6}Li is significantly less than reported in an earlier study, a difference we attribute to the fact that in the earlier study Li diffused through a membrane separating the water reservoirs. Our experiments involving Mg diffusing in water found no measurable isotopic fractionation (D{sub 25{sub Mg}}/D{sub 24{sub Mg}} = 1.00003 {+-} 0.00006). Cl isotopes were fractionated during diffusion in water (D{sub 37{sub Cl}}/D{sub 35{sub Cl}} = 0.99857 {+-} 0.00080) whether or not the co-diffuser (Li or Mg) was isotopically fractionated. The isotopic fractionation associated with the diffusion of ions in water is much smaller than values we found previously for the isotopic fractionation of Li and Ca isotopes by diffusion in molten silicate liquids. A major distinction between water and silicate liquids is that water, being a polar liquid, surrounds dissolved ions with hydration shells, which very likely play an important but still poorly understood role in reducing isotopic fractionation associated with diffusion.

  19. Effects of multi-component diffusion and heat release on laminar diffusion flame liftoff

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Zhiliang; Chen, Ruey-Hung [Department of Mechanical, Materials and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816-2450 (United States); Phuoc, Tran X. [National Energy Technology Laboratory, Department of Energy, P.O. Box 10940, MS 84-340, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Numerical simulations were conducted of the liftoff and stabilization phenomena of laminar jet diffusion flames of inert-diluted C{sub 3}H{sub 8} and CH{sub 4} fuels. Both non-reacting and reacting jets were investigated, including multi-component diffusivities and heat release effects (buoyancy and gas expansion). The role of Schmidt number for non-reacting jets was investigated, with no conclusive Schmidt number criterion for liftoff previously arrived at in similarity solutions. The cold-flow simulation for He-diluted CH{sub 4} fuel does not predict flame liftoff; however, adding heat release reaction lead to the prediction of liftoff, which is consistent with experimental observations. Including reaction was also found to improve liftoff height prediction for C{sub 3}H{sub 8} flames, with the flame base location differing from that in the similarity solution - the intersection of the stoichiometric and iso-velocity (equal to 1-D flame speed) is not necessary for flame stabilization (and thus liftoff). Possible mechanisms other than that proposed for similarity solution may better help to explain the stabilization and liftoff phenomena. (author)

  20. Global warming, insurance losses and financial industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Low, N.C.

    1996-12-31

    Global warming causes extremely bad weather in the near term. They have already caught the attention of the insurance industry, as they suffered massive losses in the last decade. Twenty-one out of the 25 largest catastrophes in the US, mainly in the form of hurricanes have occurred in the last decade. The insurance industry has reacted by taking the risk of global warming in decisions as to pricing and underwriting decisions. But they have yet to take a more active role in regulating the factors that contributes to global warming. How global warming can impact the financial industry and the modern economy is explored. Insurance and modern financial derivatives are key to the efficient functioning of the modern economy, without which the global economy can still function but will take a giant step backward. Any risk as global warming that causes economic surprises will hamper the efficient working of the financial market and the modern economy.

  1. Directional fast-neutron detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Byrd, Roger C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1994-01-01

    A plurality of omnidirectional radiation detectors are arranged in a close packed symmetrical pattern to form a segmented detector. The output radiation counts from these detectors are arithmetically combined to provide the direction of a source of incident radiation. Directionality is achieved without the use of shielding to provide collimation and background reduction effects. Indeed, output counts from paired detectors are simply subtracted to yield a vector direction toward the radiation source. The counts from all of the detectors can be combined to yield an output signal functionally related to the radiation source strength.

  2. Sustainability for the Global Biofuels Industry Minimizing Risks...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Industry Minimizing Risks and Maximizing Opportunities Sustainability for the Global ... More Documents & Publications Sustainability for the Global Biofuels Industry: ...

  3. Global Threat Reduction Initiative | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Past Projects » Global Superior Energy Performance Partnership Global Superior Energy Performance Partnership Graphic of Global Superior Energy Performance working groups, including energy management led by the United States, power led by Japan, combined heat and power led by Finland, steel led by Japan, cool roofs led by the United states, and cement led by Japan. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has supported the Superior Energy Performance (SEP) program, which provides industrial

  4. Global change research: Science and policy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rayner, S.

    1993-05-01

    This report characterizes certain aspects of the Global Change Research Program of the US Government, and its relevance to the short and medium term needs of policy makers in the public and private sectors. It addresses some of the difficulties inherent in the science and policy interface on the issues of global change. Finally, this report offers some proposals for improving the science for policy process in the context of global environmental change.

  5. Global Security Sciences | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Global Security Sciences Advancing world-class science and engineering to protect, mitigate, respond to and recover from threats The Global Security Sciences (GSS) division delivers actionable, defensible and powerful information and technologies to decision makers who impact and shape our global security. Innovative decision support tools (including simulation models), databases and analytical methodologies are developed and used to provide quantitative information to decision makers in the

  6. Global Scratch (/global/scratch2 aka $GSCRATCH) will be retired on October

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    14 at 12:00 PDT Global Scratch (/global/scratch2 aka $GSCRATCH) will be retired on October 14 at 12:00 PDT Global Scratch (/global/scratch2 aka $GSCRATCH) will be retired on October 14 at 12:00 PDT October 9, 2015 by Richard Gerber This is a reminder that the Global Scratch (/global/scratch2 aka $GSCRATCH) file system will be retired on next Wednesday, October 14 at 12:00 (noon) PDT. The file system will be decommissioned and not be accessible after its retirement. Please make sure to back

  7. Pax Global: Compromise Agreement (2013-SE-1413)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE and Pax Global, Inc., entered into a Compromise Agreement to resolve a case involving the distribution in commerce of noncompliant freezers.

  8. Ener t Global SA | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search Name: Ener-t Global SA Place: Valencia, Spain Zip: 46870 Product: Spanish developer of parabolic trough thermal plants on a turnkey basis. Coordinates:...

  9. New Energy Technologies | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Read More GE Scientists Demonstrate Promising Anti-icing Nano Surfaces GE Global Research today presented new research findings on its nanotextured anti-icing surfaces. In ...

  10. Global Change Associates | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Change Associates Jump to: navigation, search Name: Global Change Associates Place: New York City, New York Zip: 10025-5657 Product: Consulting firm focusing on the convergence...

  11. Global Flex Group Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Global-Flex Group Inc. Place: Temple, Texas Zip: 76501 Product: Texas based trade and financial solutions company consisting of three operating divisions....

  12. Global Electric Motorcars | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Product: Global Electric Motorcars (GEM), a Chrysler Company, develops and manufactures electric vehicles. Coordinates: 36.37617, -99.622804 Show Map Loading map......

  13. United Nations Environment Programme: Global Environment Outlook...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    more than 500 different variables, as national, subregional, regional and global statistics or as geospatial data sets (maps), covering themes like Freshwater, Population,...

  14. Ceramic Matrix Composites | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ceramic Matrix Composites Improve Engine Efficiency Ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) are a breakthrough materials technology for jet engines that started at our Global Research Center ...

  15. Global Environment Fund GEF | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Invests in companies that make positive contributions to environmental quality, human health and sustainable management of resources. References: Global Environment Fund...

  16. Global Warming Solutions Inc previously Southern Investments...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solutions Inc previously Southern Investments Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Global Warming Solutions Inc (previously Southern Investments Inc) Place: Houston, Texas...

  17. Global Electric Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    company in the development and marketing of electric vehicles, garden equipment and Lithium powered products. References: Global Electric Corporation1 This article is a stub....

  18. ARM - Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ListGreenhouse Effect and Global Warming Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students ...

  19. Engine Combustion Network (ECN): Global sensitivity analysis...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    10 Date Published June 2015 Keywords diesel, Engine Combustion Network, global sensitivity ... The uncertainty in the fuel temperature was found to have a profound influence on the ...

  20. Enerwise Global Technologies Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to identify, quantify, and capitalize on economic opportunities related to the procurement and use of energy. References: Enerwise Global Technologies Inc1 This article is...

  1. GE Global Research in Oklahoma City

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oklahoma City, USA Oklahoma City, USA GE's first sector-specific global research center is dedicated to developing and accelerating innovative oil and gas technologies. Click to ...

  2. Hexagon Global Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search Name: Hexagon Global Energy Place: Istanbul, Turkey Sector: Solar, Wind energy Product: Istanbul-based project developer with a focus on wind, solar and solid...

  3. Global Green Growth Institute | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Growth Institute Redirect page Jump to: navigation, search REDIRECT Green Growth Strategy Support Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleGlobalGreenGrowthIn...

  4. Pioneer Global Renewables | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Renewables Jump to: navigation, search Name: Pioneer Global Renewables Place: San Rafael, California Zip: 94901 Sector: Renewable Energy Product: Pioneer develops, finances...

  5. GE Global Research in Niskayuna, NY

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Niskayuna, USA Niskayuna, USA GE Global Research headquarters is the nerve center for innovative work across technologies and collaboration across GE businesses. Click to email...

  6. Susan Murabana - Astronomer, Global Hands On Universe

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Murabana, Susan

    2013-05-29

    Susan Murabana is working to bring astronomy education to Africa through Global Hands-On Universe, a program founded by Berkeley Lab astronomer Carl Pennypacker.

  7. 3D Printed Toy | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scientists at GE Global Research get into the holiday spirit by bringing high-tech additive manufacturing techniques to Christmas tree ornaments. You Might Also Like...

  8. Global Energias Renovables SL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energias Renovables SL Jump to: navigation, search Name: Global Energias Renovables SL Place: Madrid, Spain Sector: Wind energy Product: Spanish wind power developer. References:...

  9. Disclosures, Disclaimers and Policies | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to PHS-funded research Equal Employment Opportunity Plans Persons wishing to review GE Global Reasearch's EEOP should contact the GEGR Recruiting Manager: Megan Magee, GRC...

  10. Global Capital Finance | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Finance Jump to: navigation, search Name: Global Capital Finance Place: Purchase, New York Zip: 10577 Sector: Renewable Energy, Services Product: New York-based international...

  11. Global Green Partners | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Partners Jump to: navigation, search Name: Global Green Partners Place: Los Altos, California Zip: 94024 Sector: Carbon Product: California-based investment fund prioritizing trade...

  12. Global Renewable Energy Database | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    LAUNCH TOOL Name: Global Renewable Energy Database AgencyCompany Organization: German Aerospace Center (DLR) Sector: Energy Focus Area: Renewable Energy, Solar, Wind...

  13. Stump the Scientist | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    > Stump the Scientist Behind the Scenes with Chief Scientist Jim Bray Watch the Video Happy Pi Day from GE Global Research Watch the Video Ready to Stump the...

  14. Joseph Salvo | Inventors | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Salvo A global perspective colors Joe's approach to life and work. He appreciates the Internet of Things. And Chinese language and culture. The economics of innovation. And...

  15. A Global Effort to Phase Down Hydrofluorocarbons

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department is part of the global effort to scale back the use of refrigerants thousands of times more potent than CO2.

  16. Global Energy Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Energy Inc Place: Cincinnati, Ohio Zip: 45202-4048 Sector: Hydro, Hydrogen Product: Gasification technology and engineering firm, with activities in hydrogen production and...

  17. Global Industry Analysts | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Global Industry Analysts Address: 6150 Hellyer Avenue Place: San Jose, California Zip: 95138 Region: Bay Area Product: Market research services Year Founded:...

  18. DOE Directives | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Directives are the Department of Energy's primary means to communicate and ... DOE G 413.3-9 - U.S. Department of Energy Project Review Guide for Capital Asset ...

  19. Nonimaging radiant energy direction device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winston, Roland

    1980-01-01

    A raidant energy nonimaging light direction device is provided. The device includes an energy transducer and a reflective wall whose contour is particularly determined with respect to the geometrical vector flux of a field associated with the transducer.

  20. DRIFT COMPENSATED DIRECT COUPLED AMPLIFIER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Windsor, A.A.

    1959-05-01

    An improved direct-coupled amplifier having zerolevel drift correction is described. The need for an auxiliary corrective-potential amplifier is eliminated thereby giving protection against overload saturation of the zero- level drift correcting circuit. (T.R.H.)