National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for global change carbon

  1. Global Change Biology (2000) 6, 317328 Soil Carbon Sequestration and Land-Use Change: Processes and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2000-01-01

    Global Change Biology (2000) 6, 317­328 Soil Carbon Sequestration and Land-Use Change: Processes in enhanced soil carbon sequestration with changes in land-use and soil management. We review literature, and indicates the relative importance of some factors that influence the rates of organic carbon sequestration

  2. Revision of the global carbon budget due to changing air-sea oxygen fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stocker, Thomas

    -derived relationship between changes in atmospheric O2/N2 due to oceanic outgassing and heat fluxes to estimate ocean O2 outgassing. The inferred terrestrial carbon sink for the 1990s is reduced by a factor of two: global carbon budget, changes in ocean heat content, oceanic oxygen outgassing, ocean and land sinks

  3. Global Change Biology (1996)2,169-182 Measurements of carbon sequestration by long-term

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, Michael R.

    1996-01-01

    Global Change Biology (1996)2,169-182 Measurements of carbon sequestration by long-term eddy. The integrated carbon sequestration in 1994 was 2.1 t C ha-l y-l with a 90% confidence interval due to sampling an overall uncertainty on the annual carbon sequestration in 1994 of --0.3to +0.8 t C ha-l y-l. Keywords

  4. Carbon dioxide and global climate change: The birth and arrested development of an idea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mudge, F.B.

    1996-12-31

    G.S. Callendar (1897--1964) is regarded the originator of the modern theory of carbon dioxide and global climate change. However, this paper shows that the theory was developed and became well accepted during the nineteenth century. Carbon dioxide was discovered by Black in 1752. From 1820 to 1890 a steadily growing number of measurements of its atmospheric concentration were made using steadily improving techniques; the average results fell from around 500 ppm in 1820 to about 300 ppm in 1890. By the end of the following decade the greenhouse theory of global climate change seemed widely accepted. However in 1900 and 1901 Aangstroem appeared to demolish the theory when he reported that changes in the carbon dioxide level can have little effect because of the overlap of the water and carbon dioxide spectral bands. At a stroke, all interest in the measurement of atmospheric carbon dioxide levels seemed to disappear, although during the 1920s and 1930s a few workers resumed the work but for reasons unconnected to climate change. Over the next thirty years the writers of authoritative textbooks dismissed the theory of carbon dioxide and climate change as an example of misguided speculation. Then in 1938 Callendar`s first paper appeared, reviving the theory which had lain forgotten for nearly forty years.

  5. Multi-century Changes to Global Climate and Carbon Cycle: Results from a Coupled Climate and Carbon Cycle Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bala, G; Caldeira, K; Mirin, A; Wickett, M; Delire, C

    2005-02-17

    In this paper, we use a coupled climate and carbon cycle model to investigate the global climate and carbon cycle changes out to year 2300 that would occur if CO{sub 2} emissions from all the currently estimated fossil fuel resources were released to the atmosphere. By year 2300, the global climate warms by about 8 K and atmospheric CO{sub 2} reaches 1423 ppmv. The warming is higher than anticipated because the sensitivity to radiative forcing increases as the simulation progresses. In our simulation, the rate of emissions peak at over 30 PgC yr{sup -1} early in the 22nd century. Even at year 2300, nearly 50% of cumulative emissions remain in the atmosphere. In our simulations both soils and living biomass are net carbon sinks throughout the simulation. Despite having relatively low climate sensitivity and strong carbon uptake by the land biosphere, our model projections suggest severe long-term consequences for global climate if all the fossil-fuel carbon is ultimately released to the atmosphere.

  6. WHAT TO DO ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE? Slowing the rate of carbon burning won't stop global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baez, John

    WHAT TO DO ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE? #12;Slowing the rate of carbon burning won't stop global warming: most CO2 stays in the air over a century, though individual molecules come and go. Global warming. But we need to research it -- starting now. If global warming gets bad, public opinion may suddently flip

  7. Global Change at Edinburgh

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenaway, Alan

    at Edinburgh | 2 The Global Change Group Human impacts on our planet are changing the atmosphere, climate, ice and to the CarboEurope programme. Cryosphere: field & remote observations & experiments on glacial erosion Biodiversity and the carbon cycle in Peru 10 Radiation penetration in forest stands 12 Genetics and Past

  8. Review: Global Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    introduction to global climate change, the greenhouseReview: Global Climate Change: A Primer By Orrin H PilkeyPilkey, Keith C. Global Climate Change: a primer. Durham,

  9. Carbon Dioxide & Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miami, University of

    Carbon Dioxide & Global Warming University of MiaMi rosenstiel sChool of Marine anD atMospheriC s , organic carbon, and other chemicals that contribute to global warming in a variety of studies. DownCienCe 4600 rickenbacker Causeway Miami, florida 33149 http://www.rsmas.miami.edu the Chemistry of Global

  10. Global carbon budget 2014

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Peters, G. P.; Ciais, P.; Friedlingstein, P.; Jones, S. D.; Sitch, S.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; et al

    2015-05-08

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates, consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissionsmore »from fossil fuel combustion and cement production (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover-change (some including nitrogen–carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1?;, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2004–2013), EFF was 8.9 ± 0.4 GtC yr?¹,ELUC 0.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr?¹, GATM 4.3 ± 0.1 GtC yr?¹, SOCEAN 2.6 ± 0.5 GtC yr?¹, and SLAND 2.9 ± 0.8 GtC yr?¹. For year 2013 alone, EFF grew to 9.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr?¹, 2.3% above 2012, continuing the growth trend in these emissions, ELUC was 0.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr?¹, GATM was 5.4 ± 0.2 GtC yr?¹, SOCEAN was 2.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr?¹, and SLAND was 2.5 ± 0.9 GtC yr?¹. GATM was high in 2013, reflecting a steady increase in EFF and smaller and opposite changes between SOCEAN and SLAND compared to the past decade (2004–2013). The global atmospheric CO2 concentration reached 395.31 ± 0.10 ppm averaged over 2013. We estimate that EFF will increase by 2.5% (1.3–3.5%) to 10.1 ± 0.6 GtC in 2014 (37.0 ± 2.2 GtCO2 yr?¹), 65% above emissions in 1990, based on projections of world gross domestic product and recent changes in the carbon intensity of the global economy. From this projection of EFF and assumed constant ELUC for 2014, cumulative emissions of CO2 will reach about 545 ± 55 GtC (2000 ± 200 GtCO2) for 1870–2014, about 75% from EFF and 25% from ELUC. This paper documents changes in the methods and data sets used in this new carbon budget compared with previous publications of this living data set (Le Quéré et al., 2013, 2014). All observations presented here can be downloaded from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (doi:10.3334/CDIAC/GCP_2014).« less

  11. Global Economic Effects of Changes in Crops, Pasture, and Forests due to Changing Climate, Carbon Dioxide, and Ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reilly, John M.

    Multiple environmental changes will have consequences for global vegetation. To the extent that crop yields and pasture and forest productivity are affected there can be important economic consequences. We examine the ...

  12. Numerical evaluation of mechanisms driving Early Jurassic changes in global carbon cycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beerling, D.J.; Brentnall, S.J.

    2007-03-15

    The Early Jurassic (early Toarcian, ca. 183 Ma) carbon cycle perturbation is characterized by aabout -5 parts per thousand {delta} {sup 13}C excursion in the exogenic carbon reservoirs, a 1000 ppm rise in atmospheric CO{sub 2}, and a 6-7 degrees warming. Two proposed explanations for this presumed global carbon cycle perturbation are the liberation of massive amounts of isotopically light CH4 from (1) Gondwanan coals by heating during the intrusive eruption of the Karoo-Ferrar large igneous province (LIP) or (2) the thermal dissociation of gas hydrates. Carbon cycle modeling indicates that the release of CH4 from Gondwanan coals synchronous with the eruption of the Karoo-Ferrar LIP fails to reproduce the magnitude or timing of the CO{sub 2} and {delta} {sup 13}C excursions. However, sensitivity analyses constrained by a marine cyclostratigraphically dated {delta}{sup 13}C record indicate that both features of geologic record can be explained with the huge input of about 15,340-24,750 Gt C over about 220 k.y., a result possibly pointing to the involvement of hydrothermal vent complexes in the Karoo Basin. The simulated release of > 6000 Gt C from gas hydrates also reproduces aspects of the early Toarcian rock record, but the large mass involved raises fundamental questions about its formation, storage, and release.

  13. Global Change Sustainability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tipple, Brett

    Global Change and Sustainability Center The GCSC is an inclusionary and interdisciplinary hub that promotes, coordinates, and conducts local to global environmental- and sustainability-related research to complex environmental and sustainability issues and challenges. 2012 Annual Report #12;1GCSC 2012 ANNUAL

  14. Global Climate Change and Agriculture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Izaurralde, Roberto C.

    2009-01-01

    The Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change released in 2007 significantly increased our confidence about the role that humans play in forcing climate change. There is now a high degree of confidence that the (a) current atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) far exceed those of the pre-industrial era, (b) global increases in CO2 arise mainly from fossil fuel use and land use change while those of CH4 and N2O originate primarily from agricultural activities, and (c) the net effect of human activities since 1750 has led to a warming of the lower layers of the atmosphere, with an increased radiative forcing of 1.6 W m-2. Depending on the scenario of human population growth and global development, mean global temperatures could rise between 1.8 and 4.0 °C by the end of the 21st century.

  15. WHAT TO DO ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE? Slowing the rate of carbon burning won't stop global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baez, John

    : most CO2 stays in the air over a century, though individual molecules come and go. Global warming. In 2004, Pacala and Socolow said merely holding worldwide carbon emissions constant for 50 years would. Starting now, double existing nuclear power. Replace 1400 gigawatts of coal-burning power plants with gas

  16. Sensitivity of global-scale climate change attribution results to inclusion of fossil fuel black carbon aerosol - article no. L14701

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, G.S.; Jones, A.; Roberts, D.L.; Stott, P.A.; Williams, K.D.

    2005-07-16

    It is likely that greenhouse gas emissions caused most of the global mean warming observed during the 20th century, and that sulphate aerosols counteracted this warming to some extent, by reflecting solar radiation to space and thereby cooling the planet. However, the importance of another aerosol, namely black carbon, could be underestimated. Here we include fossil fuel black carbon aerosol in a detection and attribution analysis with greenhouse gas and sulphate aerosols. We find that most of the warming of the 20th Century is attributable to changes in greenhouse gases offset by net aerosol cooling. However the pattern of temperature change due to black carbon is currently indistinguishable from the sulphate aerosol pattern of temperature change. The attribution of temperature change due to greenhouse gases is not sensitive to the inclusion of black carbon. We can be confident about the overall attribution of total aerosols, but less so about the contributions of black carbon emissions to 20th century climate change. This work presents no evidence that black carbon aerosol forcing outweighed the cooling due to sulphate aerosol.

  17. Global Warming and Marine Carbon Cycle Feedbacks on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stocker, Thomas

    Global Warming and Marine Carbon Cycle Feedbacks on Future Atmospheric CO2 Fortunat Joos,* Gian-biogeochemical climate model was used to project at- mospheric carbon dioxide and global warming for scenarios developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The North Atlantic thermohaline circulation weakens in all global warming

  18. Migration and Global Environmental Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Migration and Global Environmental Change Future Challenges and Opportunities FINAL PROJECT REPORT and adaptation, and also developmental and humanitarian agendas. Migration and Global Environmental Change Future Environmental Change (2011) Final Project Report The Government Office for Science, London #12;3 A range

  19. Conservation and Global Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landweber, Laura

    V.6 Conservation and Global Climate Change Diane M. Debinski and Molly S. Cross OUTLINE 1. Introduction 2. How climate is changing 3. Environmental responses to climate change 4. Consequences of climate the coming decades will be preserving biodiversity in the face of climate change. It has become increasingly

  20. Global Climate Change,Global Climate Change, Land Cover Change, andLand Cover Change, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Global Climate Change,Global Climate Change, Land Cover Change, andLand Cover Change, and HydrologyHydrology Steven Fassnacht Watershed Science Colorado State University The Importance of Climate · Climate affects the environment and us ­ Ecology: vegetation and animals ­ Water Systems ­ People

  1. Climate Effects of Global Land Cover Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibbard, S G; Caldeira, K; Bala, G; Phillips, T; Wickett, M

    2005-08-24

    There are two competing effects of global land cover change on climate: an albedo effect which leads to heating when changing from grass/croplands to forest, and an evapotranspiration effect which tends to produce cooling. It is not clear which effect would dominate in a global land cover change scenario. We have performed coupled land/ocean/atmosphere simulations of global land cover change using the NCAR CAM3 atmospheric general circulation model. We find that replacement of current vegetation by trees on a global basis would lead to a global annual mean warming of 1.6 C, nearly 75% of the warming produced under a doubled CO{sub 2} concentration, while global replacement by grasslands would result in a cooling of 0.4 C. These results suggest that more research is necessary before forest carbon storage should be deployed as a mitigation strategy for global warming. In particular, high latitude forests probably have a net warming effect on the Earth's climate.

  2. Stratigraphy and geochronology of the Tambien Group, Ethiopia: Evidence for globally synchronous carbon isotope change in the Neoproterozoic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    doi:10.1130/G36347.1 Stratigraphy and geochronology of theA.D. , and Haileab, B. Stratigraphy and geochronology of theNeoproterozoic carbonate stratigraphy prior to the ca. 717–

  3. Atmospheric carbon dioxide and the global carbon cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trabalka, J R [ed.

    1985-12-01

    This state-of-the-art volume presents discussions on the global cycle of carbon, the dynamic balance among global atmospheric CO2 sources and sinks. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual papers. (ACR)

  4. Seasonal patterns of forest canopy and their relevance for the global carbon cycle 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mizunuma, Toshie

    2015-06-30

    In the terrestrial biosphere forests have a significant role as a carbon sink. Under recent climate change, it is increasingly important to detect seasonal change or ‘phenology’ that can influence the global carbon cycle. ...

  5. Global warming and changes in ocean circulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffy, P.B.; Caldeira, K.C.

    1998-02-01

    This final report provides an overview of the goals and accomplishments of this project. Modeling and observational work has raised the possibility that global warming may cause changes in the circulation of the ocean. If such changes would occur they could have important climatic consequences. The first technical goal of this project was to investigate some of these possible changes in ocean circulation in a quantitative way, using a state-of -the-art numerical model of the ocean. Another goal was to develop our ocean model, a detailed three-dimensional numerical model of the ocean circulation and ocean carbon cycles. A major non-technical goal was to establish LLNL as a center of excellence in modelling the ocean circulation and carbon cycle.

  6. Cumulative Carbon and Just Allocation of the Global Carbon Commons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    goal for a theory of justice: first to reduce the growth rate of global carbon dioxide emissions such activitiespersist.In thispaper the conceptis usedto addressthe question offair allocation of carbon emissions nations could continue emissions for much longer before exhausting theirfair share of the Carbon Commons

  7. Global change: Acronyms and abbreviations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodard, C.T.; Stoss, F.W.

    1995-05-01

    This list of acronyms and abbreviations is compiled to provide the user with a ready reference to dicipher the linguistic initialisms and abridgements for the study of global change. The terms included in this first edition were selected from a wide variety of sources: technical reports, policy documents, global change program announcements, newsletters, and other periodicals. The disciplinary interests covered by this document include agriculture, atmospheric science, ecology, environmental science, oceanography, policy science, and other fields. In addition to its availability in hard copy, the list of acronyms and abbreviations is available in DOS-formatted diskettes and through CDIAC`s anonymous File Transfer Protocol (FTP) area on the Internet.

  8. Global Environmental Change and Human Security

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kunnas, Jan

    2011-01-01

    impacts and responses to environmental change making it anhuman security or environmental change if the lecturer isReview: Global Environmental Change and Human Security By

  9. Black carbon contribution to global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chylek, P.; Johnson, B.; Kou, L.; Wong, J.

    1996-12-31

    Before the onset of industrial revolution the only important source of black carbon in the atmosphere was biomass burning. Today, black carbon production is divided between the biomass and fossil fuel burning. Black carbon is a major agent responsible for absorption of solar radiation by atmospheric aerosols. Thus black carbon makes other aerosols less efficient in their role of reflecting solar radiation and cooling the earth-atmosphere system. Black carbon also contributes to the absorption of solar radiation by clouds and snow cover. The authors present the results of black carbon concentrations measurements in the atmosphere, in cloud water, in rain and snow melt water collected during the 1992--1996 time period over the southern Nova Scotia. Their results are put into the global and historical perspective by comparing them with the compilation of past measurements at diverse locations and with their measurements of black carbon concentrations in the Greenland and Antarctic ice cores. Black carbon contribution to the global warming is estimated, and compared to the carbon dioxide warming, using the radiative forcing caused by the black carbon at the top of the atmosphere.

  10. Comment on "Global Genetic Change Tracks Global Climate Warming in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodríguez, Miguel Ángel

    Comment on "Global Genetic Change Tracks Global Climate Warming in Drosophila subobscura" Francisco in response to global warming. However, that conclusion is not adequately buttressed by their data, because that chromosomal inversion polymorphisms of Drosophila subobscura are evolving in response to global warming. (2

  11. Global change monitoring with lichens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Insarov, G.

    1997-12-31

    Environmental monitoring involves observations and assessment of changes in ecosystems and their components caused by anthropogenetic influence. An ideal monitoring system enables quantification of the contemporary state of the environment and detect changes in it. An important function of monitoring is to assess environment quality of areas that are not affected by local anthropogenic impacts, i.e. background areas. In background areas terrestrial ecosystems are mainly affected by such anthropogenic factors as lowered air pollution and global climate change. Assessment of biotic responses to altered climatic and atmospheric conditions provides an important basis for ecosystem management and environmental decision making. Without the ability to make such assessment, sustainability of ecosystems as a support system for humans remains uncertain.

  12. Engineering change in global climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, S.H.

    1996-12-31

    {open_quotes}With increased public focus on global warming and in the wake of the intense heat waves, drought, fires, and super-hurricanes that occurred in 1988 and 1989, interest in geoengineering has surged,{close_quotes} says Stephen H. Schneider, professor of biological science at Stanford University in Stanford, California. One scheme set forth in a National Research Council report proposes using 16-inch naval guns to fire aerosol shells into the stratosphere in hopes of offsetting {open_quotes}the radiative effects of increasing carbon dioxide,{close_quotes} Schneider says. Schneider, however, would prefer that we {open_quotes}seek measures that can cure our global {open_quote}addiction{close_quote} to polluting practices.{close_quotes} Rather than playing God, he says we should {open_quotes}stick to being human and pursue problem - solving methods currently within our grasp.{close_quotes} Such strategies include efforts to promote energy efficiency and reduce our reliance on automobiles.

  13. Nitrogen Deposition: A Component of Global Change Analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norby, Richard J.

    1997-12-31

    The global cycles of carbon and nitrogen are being perturbed by human activities that increase the transfer from large pools of nonreactive forms of the elements to reactive forms that are essential to the functioning of the terrestrial biosphere. The cycles are closely linked at all scales, and global change analyses must consider carbon and nitrogen cycles together. The increasing amount of nitrogen originating from fossil fuel combustion and deposited to terrestrial ecosystems as nitrogen oxides could increase the capacity of ecosystems to sequester carbon thereby removing some of the excess carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and slowing the development of greenhouse warming. Several global and ecosystem models have calculated the amount of carbon sequestration that can be attributed to nitrogen deposition based on assumptions about the allocation of nitrogen among ecosystem components with different carbon-nitrogen ratios. They support the premise that nitrogen deposition is responsible for a an increasing terrestrial carbon sink since industrialization began, but there are large uncertainties related to the continued capacity of ecosystems to retain exogenous nitrogen. Whether terrestrial ecosystems continue to sequester additional carbon will depend in part on their response to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, which is widely thought to be constrained by limited nitrogen availability. Ecosystem models generally support the conclusion that the responses of ecosystems to increasing concentrations of carbon dioxide will be larger, and the range of possible responses will be wider, in ecosystems with increased nitrogen inputs originating as atmospheric deposition.

  14. ``Climate Modelling & Global Change'' scientific report ``Climate Modelling & Global Change'' Team

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ``Climate Modelling & Global Change'' scientific report ``Climate Modelling & Global Change'' Team : 1995/1996 Scientific Report February 1997 CERFACS ACTIVITY REPORT 1 #12; Contents 1 Climate Modelling) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 6 2.2 Anthropogenic climate change studies: scenario experiments (96) : : : : : : : : : 7 2

  15. Global Carbon Budget from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Global Carbon Project (GCP) was established in 2001 in recognition of the scientific challenge and critical importance of the carbon cycle for Earth's sustainability. The growing realization that anthropogenic climate change is a reality has focused the attention of the scientific community, policymakers and the general public on the rising concentration of greenhouse gases, especially carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere, and on the carbon cycle in general. Initial attempts, through the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and its Kyoto Protocol, are underway to slow the rate of increase of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. These societal actions require a scientific understanding of the carbon cycle, and are placing increasing demands on the international science community to establish a common, mutually agreed knowledge base to support policy debate and action. The Global Carbon Project is responding to this challenge through a shared partnership between the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP), the International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change (IHDP), the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) and Diversitas. This partnership constitutes the Earth Systems Science Partnership (ESSP). This CDIAC collection includes datasets, images, videos, presentations, and archived data from previous years.

  16. Global change research: Science and policy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rayner, S.

    1993-05-01

    This report characterizes certain aspects of the Global Change Research Program of the US Government, and its relevance to the short and medium term needs of policy makers in the public and private sectors. It addresses some of the difficulties inherent in the science and policy interface on the issues of global change. Finally, this report offers some proposals for improving the science for policy process in the context of global environmental change.

  17. Mycorrhizal fungi mediation of terrestrial ecosystem responses to global change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohan, Jacqueline E.

    . Plants often shift carbon allocation belowground and the activities of mycorrhizal associates responding to global change is not well understood. We emphasize the need for more research in this emerging scientific disciplines and society. ª 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The British Mycological Society. * Corresponding

  18. MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ford, Andrew

    indicate that carbon sequestration by terrestrial ecosystems in a world with an atmosphere richer in carbonMIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change Consequences of Considering Carbon/Nitrogen Interactions on the Feedbacks between Climate and the Terrestrial Carbon Cycle Andrei P. Sokolov, David W

  19. Atmospheric chemistry and global change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prather, MJ

    1999-01-01

    and particles. Thus Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Changethe future of atmospheric chemistry. BROWSINGS Tornadothe complexity of atmospheric chemistry well, but trips a

  20. Can reducing black carbon emissions counteract global warming?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tami C. Bond; Haolin Sun

    2005-08-15

    Field measurements and model results have recently shown that aerosols may have important climatic impacts. One line of inquiry has investigated whether reducing climate-warming soot or black carbon aerosol emissions can form a viable component of mitigating global warming. Black carbon is produced by poor combustion, from our example hard coal cooking fires for and industrial pulverized coal boilers. The authors review and acknowledge scientific arguments against considering aerosols and greenhouse gases in a common framework, including the differences in the physical mechanisms of climate change and relevant time scales. It is argued that such a joint consideration is consistent with the language of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Results from published climate-modeling studies are synthesized to obtain a global warming potential for black carbon relative to that of CO{sub 2} (680 on a 100 year basis). This calculation enables a discussion of cost-effectiveness for mitigating the largest sources of black carbon. It is found that many emission reductions are either expensive or difficult to enact when compared with greenhouse gases, particularly in Annex I countries. Finally, a role for black carbon in climate mitigation strategies is proposed that is consistent with the apparently conflicting arguments raised during the discussion. Addressing these emissions is a promising way to reduce climatic interference primarily for nations that have not yet agreed to address greenhouse gas emissions and provides the potential for a parallel climate agreement. 31 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Global Climate Change and Demand for Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Venkat

    1 Global Climate Change and Demand for Energy Tyson Research Center and International Center et al. Climate Variability and Climate Change: The New Climate Dice http://data, 2012 Tyson Research Center International Center for Advanced Research and Sustainability (I

  2. ``Climate Modelling & Global Change'' scientific report 1 ``Climate Modelling & Global Change'' Team

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ``Climate Modelling & Global Change'' scientific report 1 ``Climate Modelling & Global Change of the tropical climate : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 6 2.2 Short­term variability studies : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 8 2.3 Climate drift sensitivity studies

  3. WHAT'S IN A NAME? GLOBAL WARMING VERSUS CLIMATE CHANGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haller, Gary L.

    WHAT'S IN A NAME? GLOBAL WARMING VERSUS CLIMATE CHANGE May 2014 #12;What's In A Name? Global Warming vs. Climate Change 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS PREFACE NATIONAL SURVEY STUDY 2: GLOBAL WARMING VS. CLIMATE CHANGE............................ 10 Is global

  4. Malaria and global change: Insights, uncertainties and possible surprises

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, P.H.; Steel, A.

    1996-12-31

    Malaria may change with global change. Indeed, global change may affect malaria risk and malaria epidemiology. Malaria risk may change in response to a greenhouse warming; malaria epidemiology, in response to the social, economic, and political developments which a greenhouse warming may trigger. To date, malaria receptivity and epidemiology futures have been explored within the context of equilibrium studies. Equilibrium studies of climate change postulate an equilibrium present climate (the starting point) and a doubled-carbon dioxide climate (the end point), simulate conditions in both instances, and compare the two. What happens while climate changes, i.e., between the starting point and the end point, is ignored. The present paper focuses on malaria receptivity and addresses what equilibrium studies miss, namely transient malaria dynamics.

  5. Global Climate Change Alliance Training Workshops on Mainstreaming...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Climate Change Alliance Training Workshops on Mainstreaming Climate Change Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Global Climate Change Alliance Training...

  6. Global assessment of ocean carbon export by combining satellite observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegel, David A.

    Global assessment of ocean carbon export by combining satellite observations and food-web models D Studies, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia Abstract The export of organic carbon from cycle. Here we introduce a mechanistic assessment of the global ocean carbon export using satellite

  7. Carbon Dioxide, Global Warming, and Michael Crichton's "State of Fear"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rust, Bert W.

    Carbon Dioxide, Global Warming, and Michael Crichton's "State of Fear" Bert W. Rust Mathematical- tioned the connection between global warming and increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide by pointing out of these plots to global warming have spilled over to the real world, inviting both praise [4, 17] and scorn [15

  8. Frontiers in Global Change Seminar Series

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    's research group. The seminar will present the development of our U.S. monitoring and forecasting systemFrontiers in Global Change Seminar Series Towards a global drought monitoring, forecasting, activities under the Group of Earth Observations (GEO) and the World Climate Research Programme have

  9. Global environmental change: Its nature and impact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hidore, J.J.

    1996-12-31

    This book is intended as an entry-level textbook on environmental science for nonscience majors. Twenty chapters address topics from historical geology and climatic change to population dynamics, land-use, water pollution, ozone depletion and biodiversity, global warming.

  10. Strategic Analysis of the Global Status of Carbon Capture and...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Strategic Analysis of the Global Status of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS): Country Studies, United Arab Emirates Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name:...

  11. Global Biogeochemistry Models and Global Carbon Cycle Research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Covey, C; Caldeira, K; Guilderson, T; Cameron-Smith, P; Govindasamy, B; Swanston, C; Wickett, M; Mirin, A; Bader, D

    2005-05-27

    The climate modeling community has long envisioned an evolution from physical climate models to ''earth system'' models that include the effects of biology and chemistry, particularly those processes related to the global carbon cycle. The widely reproduced Box 3, Figure 1 from the 2001 IPCC Scientific Assessment schematically describes that evolution. The community generally accepts the premise that understanding and predicting global and regional climate change requires the inclusion of carbon cycle processes in models to fully simulate the feedbacks between the climate system and the carbon cycle. Moreover, models will ultimately be employed to predict atmospheric concentrations of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases as a function of anthropogenic and natural processes, such as industrial emissions, terrestrial carbon fixation, sequestration, land use patterns, etc. Nevertheless, the development of coupled climate-carbon models with demonstrable quantitative skill will require a significant amount of effort and time to understand and validate their behavior at both the process level and as integrated systems. It is important to consider objectively whether the currently proposed strategies to develop and validate earth system models are optimal, or even sufficient, and whether alternative strategies should be pursued. Carbon-climate models are going to be complex, with the carbon cycle strongly interacting with many other components. Off-line process validation will be insufficient. As was found in coupled atmosphere-ocean GCMs, feedbacks between model components can amplify small errors and uncertainties in one process to produce large biases in the simulated climate. The persistent tropical western Pacific Ocean ''double ITCZ'' and upper troposphere ''cold pole'' problems are examples. Finding and fixing similar types of problems in coupled carbon-climate models especially will be difficult, given the lack of observations required for diagnosis and validation of biogeochemical processes.

  12. Electric Vehicles Global Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sóbester, András

    . This applies both to gas extracted bythe petrochemical industries and to the methane which is naturallyreleased, and methane naturallyleaking from the seabed, could in future be detected using changes in acoustic signals from the seabed." Natural leaks of methane gas can be damaging to the environment because

  13. Global climate change and international security.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karas, Thomas H.

    2003-11-01

    This report originates in a workshop held at Sandia National Laboratories, bringing together a variety of external experts with Sandia personnel to discuss 'The Implications of Global Climate Change for International Security.' Whatever the future of the current global warming trend, paleoclimatic history shows that climate change happens, sometimes abruptly. These changes can severely impact human water supplies, agriculture, migration patterns, infrastructure, financial flows, disease prevalence, and economic activity. Those impacts, in turn, can lead to national or international security problems stemming from aggravation of internal conflicts, increased poverty and inequality, exacerbation of existing international conflicts, diversion of national and international resources from international security programs (military or non-military), contribution to global economic decline or collapse, or international realignments based on climate change mitigation policies. After reviewing these potential problems, the report concludes with a brief listing of some research, technology, and policy measures that might mitigate them.

  14. ORAU Science Education Program (SEP) Global Change Education...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ORAU Science Education Program (SEP) Global Change Education Program (GCEP) PIA, Office of Information Resources ORAU Science Education Program (SEP) Global Change Education...

  15. Global climate change and international security

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, M.

    1991-01-01

    On May 8--10, 1991, the Midwest Consortium of International Security Studies (MCISS) and Argonne National Laboratory cosponsored a conference on Global Climate Change and International Security. The aim was to bring together natural and social scientists to examine the economic, sociopolitical, and security implications of the climate changes predicted by the general circulation models developed by natural scientists. Five themes emerged from the papers and discussions: (1) general circulation models and predicted climate change; (2) the effects of climate change on agriculture, especially in the Third World; (3) economic implications of policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions; (4) the sociopolitical consequences of climate change; and (5) the effect of climate change on global security.

  16. Frontiers in Global Change Seminar Series

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frontiers in Global Change Seminar Series Short-lived Climate Pollutants: A Second Front in Climate, is not sufficient to ward off this near-term risk. Mitigation of four short-term climate warming pollutants has the Climate and Clean Air Coalition. The seminar will describe the recent scientific developments that led

  17. Financing Innovation to Address Global Climate Change

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Loan Programs Office (LPO) is helping address the global challenge of climate change by providing critical financing needed to deploy some of the world’s largest and most innovative clean energy and advanced technology vehicles manufacturing projects, preventing more than 25 million metric tons of CO2 emissions to date.

  18. Carbon Sequestration and Its Role in the Global Carbon Cycle Geophysical Monograph Series 183

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    73 Carbon Sequestration and Its Role in the Global Carbon Cycle Geophysical Monograph Series 183. Blaine Metting2 The purpose of this chapter is to review terrestrial biological carbon sequestration Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington, USA. #12;74 TERRESTRIAL BIOLOGICAL CARBON SEqUESTRATION

  19. Investigations into Wetland Carbon Sequestration as Remediation for Global Warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thom, Ronald M.; Blanton, Susan L.; Borde, Amy B.; Williams, Greg D.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Huesemann, Michael H.; KW Nehring and SE Brauning

    2002-01-01

    Wetlands can potentially sequester vast amounts of carbon. However, over 50% of wetlands globally have been degraded or lost. Restoration of wetland systems may therefore result in increased sequestration of carbon. Preliminary results of our investigations into atmospheric carbon sequestration by restored coastal wetlands indicate that carbon can be sequestered in substantial quantities in the first 2-50 years after restoration of natural hydrology and sediment accretion processes.

  20. Aspen Global Change Institute Summer Science Sessions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katzenberger, John; Kaye, Jack A

    2006-10-01

    The Aspen Global Change Institute (AGCI) successfully organized and convened six interdisciplinary meetings over the course of award NNG04GA21G. The topics of the meetings were consistent with a range of issues, goals and objectives as described within the NASA Earth Science Enterprise Strategic Plan and more broadly by the US Global Change Research Program/Our Changing Planet, the more recent Climate Change Program Strategic Plan and the NSF Pathways report. The meetings were chaired by two or more leaders from within the disciplinary focus of each session. 222 scholars for a total of 1097 participants-days were convened under the auspices of this award. The overall goal of each AGCI session is to further the understanding of Earth system science and global environmental change through interdisciplinary dialog. The format and structure of the meetings allows for presentation by each participant, in-depth discussion by the whole group, and smaller working group and synthesis activities. The size of the group is important in terms of the group dynamics and interaction, and the ability for each participant's work to be adequately presented and discussed within the duration of the meeting, while still allowing time for synthesis

  1. Global Climate Change Impacts:Global Climate Change Impacts: Implications for Climate EngineeringImplications for Climate Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polz, Martin

    Global Climate Change Impacts:Global Climate Change Impacts: Implications for Climate EngineeringImplications for Climate Engineering Thomas R. Karl Lead, NOAA climate services Director, NOAA National Climatic Data Center Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States October 29, 2009 #12;2Global Climate Change

  2. Carbon sequestration in peatland: patterns and mechanisms of response to climate change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon sequestration in peatland: patterns and mechanisms of response to climate change L I S A R., 2000; Turunen et al., 2002; Kremenetski et al., 2003). Rates of carbon (C) sequestration (i.e., uptake in the climatic water budget is crucial to predicting potential feedbacks on the global carbon (C) cycle. To gain

  3. Building a Global Low-Carbon Technology Pathway | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    on the sidelines to collaborate on what more can be done now to achieve a global low-carbon economy. The U.S. Department of Energy is not directly involved in international...

  4. Geologic carbon sequestration as a global strategy to mitigate CO2 emissions: Sustainability and environmental risk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, C.M.

    2012-01-01

    from geologic carbon sequestration sites: unsaturated zone2 from geologic carbon sequestration sites: CO 2 migrationGeologic Carbon Sequestration as a Global Strategy to

  5. National Institute for Global Environmental Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Werth, G.C.

    1992-04-01

    This document is the Semi-Annual Report of the National Institute for Global Environmental Change for the reporting period July 1 to December 31, 1991. The report is in two parts. Part I presents the mission of the Institute, examples of progress toward that mission, a brief description of the revised management plan, and the financial report. Part II presents the statements of the Regional Center Directors along with progress reports of the projects written by the researchers themselves.

  6. Climate Models from the Joint Global Change Research Institute

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Staff at the Joint Institute develop and use models to simulate the economic and physical impacts of global change policy options. The GCAM, for example, gives analysts insight into how regional and national economies might respond to climate change mitigation policies including carbon taxes, carbon trading, and accelerated deployment of energy technology. Three available models are Phoenix, GCAM, and EPIC. Phoenix is a global, dynamic recursive, computable general equilibrium model that is solved in five-year time steps from 2005 through 2100 and divides the world into twenty-four regions. Each region includes twenty-six industrial sectors. Particular attention is paid to energy production in Phoenix. There are nine electricity-generating technologies (coal, natural gas, oil, biomass, nuclear, hydro, wind, solar, and geothermal) and four additional energy commodities: crude oil, refined oil products, coal, and natural gas. Phoenix is designed to answer economic questions related to international climate and energy policy and international trade. Phoenix replaces the Second Generation Model (SGM) that was formerly used for general equilibrium analysis at JGCRI. GCAM is the Global Change Assessment Model, a partial equilibrium model of the world with 14 regions. GCAM operates in 5 year time steps from 1990 to 2095 and is designed to examine long-term changes in the coupled energy, agriculture/land-use, and climate system. GCAM includes a 151-region agriculture land-use module and a reduced form carbon cycle and climate module in addition to its incorporation of demographics, resources, energy production and consumption. The model has been used extensively in a number of assessment and modeling activities such as the Energy Modeling Forum (EMF), the U.S. Climate Change Technology Program, and the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and IPCC assessment reports. GCAM is now freely available as a community model. The Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) Model is a process-based agricultural systems model composed of simulation components for weather, hydrology, nutrient cycling, pesticide fate, tillage, crop growth, soil erosion, crop and soil management and economics. Staff at PNNL have been involved in the development of this model by integrating new sub-models for soil carbon dynamics and nitrogen cycling.

  7. Combustion of biomass as a global carbon sink

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ball, Rowena

    2008-01-01

    This note is intended to highlight the important role of black carbon produced from biomass burning in the global carbon cycle, and encourage further research in this area. Consideration of the fundamental physical chemistry of cellulose thermal decomposition suggests that suppression of biomass burning or biasing burning practices to produce soot-free flames must inevitably transfer more carbon to the atmosphere. A simple order-of-magnitude quantitative analysis indicates that black carbon may be a significant carbon reservoir that persists over geological time scales.

  8. Carbon Disclosure Project Webinar: Climate Change: A Challenge...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Carbon Disclosure Project Webinar: Climate Change: A Challenge for Bond Analysts Carbon Disclosure Project Webinar: Climate Change: A Challenge for Bond Analysts April 8, 2015...

  9. Global Impacts (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Gadgil, Ashok [EETD and UC Berkeley

    2011-06-08

    Ashok Gadgil, Faculty Senior Scientist and Acting Director, EETD, also Professor of Environmental Engineering, UC Berkeley, speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  10. Global fish production and climate change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brander, K.M.

    2007-12-11

    Current global fisheries production of {approx}160 million tons is rising as a result of increases in aquaculture production. A number of climate-related threats to both capture fisheries and aquaculture are identified, but there is low confidence in predictions of future fisheries production because of uncertainty over future global aquatic net primary production and the transfer of this production through the food chain to human consumption. Recent changes in the distribution and productivity of a number of fish species can be ascribed with high confidence to regional climate variability, such as the El Nino-Southern Oscillation. Future production may increase in some high-latitude regions because of warming and decreased ice cover, but the dynamics in low-latitude regions are giverned by different processes, and production may decline as a result of reduced vertical mixing of the water column and, hence, reduced recycling of nutrients. There are strong interactions between the effects of fishing and the effects of climate because fishing reduces the age, size, and geographic diversity of populations and the biodiversity of marine ecosystems, making both more sensitive to additional stresses such as climate change. Inland fisheries are additionally threatened by changes in precipiation and water management. The frequency and intensity of extreme climate events is likely to have a major impact on future fisheries production in both inland and marine systems. Reducing fishing mortality in the majority of fisheries, which are currently fully exploited or overexploited, is the pricipal feasible means of reducing the impacts of climate change.

  11. TRENDS 1991: A compendium of data on global change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boden, T.A.; Sepanski, R.J.; Stoss, F.W.

    1991-12-01

    This document is a source of frequently used global-change data. This second issue of the Trends series expands the coverage of sites recording atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and methane (CH{sub 4}), and it updates records reported in the first issue. New data for other trace atmospheric gases have been included in this issue; historical data on nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}) from ice cores, modern records of atmospheric concentrations of chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-11 and CFC-12) and N{sub 2}O, and estimates of global estimates of CFC-11 and CFC-12. The estimates for global and national CO{sub 2} emissions from the burning of fossil fuels, the production of cement, and gas flaring have been revised and updated. Regional CO{sub 2} emission estimates have been added, and long-term temperature records have been updated and expanded. Data records are presented in four- to six-page formats, each dealing with a specific site, region, or emissions species. The data records include tables and graphs; discussion of methods for collecting, measuring, and reporting the data; trends in the data; and references to literature that provides further information. All data appearing in the document are available on digital media from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center.

  12. Multiple Roles for GIS in US Global Change Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Barbara, University of

    Multiple Roles for GIS in US Global Change Research: Annotated Bibliography Compiled by Ashton: Multiple Roles for GIS in US Global Change Research. The bibliography consists of an annotated collection of articles concerned with the application of GIS in global change research. These papers range from reviewed

  13. From global change science to action with social sciences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weaver, C. P.; Mooney, Sian; Allen, D.; Beller-Simms, Nancy; Fish, T.; Grambsch, A.; Hohenstein, W.; Jacobs, Kathy; Kenney, Melissa A.; Lane, Meredith A.; Langner, L.; Larson, E.; McGinnis, D. L.; Moss, Richard H.; Nichols, L. G.; Nierenberg, Claudia; Seyller, E. A.; Stern, Paul; Winthrop, R.

    2014-08-01

    US efforts to integrate social and biophysical sciences to address the issue of global change exist within a wider movement to understand global change as a societal challenge and to inform policy. Insights from the social sciences can help transform global change research into action.

  14. Global Climate Change and the Unique (?) Challenges Posed by...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Change and the Unique (?) Challenges Posed by the Transportation Sector Global Climate Change and the Unique (?) Challenges Posed by the Transportation Sector 2002 DEER Conference...

  15. 173Bailey: Design ofEcologicalNetworksfor Monitoring Global Change Designof Ecological Networks for Monitoring Global Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Environment Monitoring System (GEMS) of the United Nations Environment Programme, and the US Global Change173Bailey: Design ofEcologicalNetworksfor Monitoring Global Change Designof Ecological Networks for Monitoring Global Change World-wide monitoring of agricultural and other natural-resource ecosystems

  16. Thermohaline circulations and global climate change. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanson, H.P.

    1994-09-01

    This research is ultimately concerned with investigating the hypothesis that changes in surface thermal and hydrological forcing of the North Atlantic, changes that might be expected to accompany CO2-induced global warming, could result in ocean-atmosphere interactions` exerting a positive feedback on the climate system. This report concerns research conducted with funding from the Carbon Dioxide Research Program (now the Global Climate Change Program) of the US Department of Energy via grant no. DE-FG02-90ER61019 during the period 15 July 1990 - 14 July 1994. This was a three-year award, extended to a fourth year (15 July 1993 - 14 July 1994) via a no-cost extension. It is important to emphasize that this award has been renewed for an additional two years (15 July 1993 - 14 July 1995) via grant no. DE-FG03-93ER61646 (with the same title). Because the project was originally envisioned to be a five-year effort, many of the important results and conclusions will be available for the Final Report of that second award. This report therefore concerns mainly preliminary conclusions and a discussion of progress toward understanding the central hypothesis of the research.

  17. Global climate change and the mitigation challenge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank Princiotta

    2009-10-15

    Anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, especially carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), have led to increasing atmospheric concentrations, very likely the primary cause of the 0.8{sup o}C warming the Earth has experienced since the Industrial Revolution. With industrial activity and population expected to increase for the rest of the century, large increases in greenhouse gas emissions are projected, with substantial global additional warming predicted. This paper examines forces driving CO{sub 2} emissions, a concise sector-by-sector summary of mitigation options, and research and development (R&D) priorities. To constrain warming to below approximately 2.5{sup o}C in 2100, the recent annual 3% CO{sub 2} emission growth rate needs to transform rapidly to an annual decrease rate of from 1 to 3% for decades. Furthermore, the current generation of energy generation and end-use technologies are capable of achieving less than half of the emission reduction needed for such a major mitigation program. New technologies will have to be developed and deployed at a rapid rate, especially for the key power generation and transportation sectors. Current energy technology research, development, demonstration, and deployment (RDD&D) programs fall far short of what is required. 20 refs., 18 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. GLOBAL CHANGE ECOLOGY N. J. Karberg K. S. Pregitzer J. S. King

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    carbon dioxide partial pressure and dissolved inorganic carbonate chemistry under elevated carbon dioxide Carbon-13 Æ Carbon sequestration Æ FACE Æ Free air carbon dioxide and ozone enrichment Æ Global carbonate-Verlag 2004 Abstract Global emissions of atmospheric CO2 and tropospheric O3 are rising and expected to impact

  19. White House Conference on Global Climate Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    President Clinton has directed the White House office on Environmental Policy to coordinate an interagency process to develop a plan to fulfill the commitment he made in his Earth Day address on April 21, 1993. This plan will become the cornerstone of the Climate Change Plan that will be completed shortly after the Rio Accord enters into force. The Office on Environmental Policy established the Interagency Climate Change Mitigation Group to draw on the expertise of federal agencies including the National Economic Council; the Council of Economic Advisors; the Office of Science and Technology Policy; the Office of Management and Budget; the National Security Council; the Domestic Policy Council; the Environmental Protection Agency; and the Departments of Energy, Transportation, Agriculture, Interior, Treasury, Commerce, and State. Working groups have been established to examine six key policy areas: energy demand, energy supply, joint implementation, methane and other gases, sinks, and transportation. The purpose of the White House Conference on Global Climate Change was to ``tap the real-world experiences`` of diverse participants and seek ideas and information for meeting the President`s goals. During the opening session, senior administration officials defined the challenge ahead and encouraged open and frank conversation about the best possible ways to meet it.

  20. Global climate change crosses state boundaries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Changnon, S.A.

    1996-12-31

    The hot, dry summer of 1988 brought the specter of global warming a bit too close for comfort. {open_quotes}Scorching heat, not scientific models, attracted media attention,{close_quotes} says Stanley A. Changnon, senior scientist with the Illinois State Water Survey in Champaign, Illinois. Rising temperatures in the late 1980`s prompted individual states to begin to take action to curb greenhouse-gas emissions. A 1990 report by the National Governors Association identified two guiding principles for addressing climate change issues. {open_quotes}First, that energy policy must be at the center of any efforts to control greenhouse-gas emissions. Second, that state can...restrict emissions through state policies related to public utilities, land use, transportation, and even taxation,{close_quotes} Changnon says. Even if concerns for global warming prove to be overblown, states decided to act for broader economic and environmental reasons. Such initiatives not only save money, but they improve air quality and leave the nation more energy independent,{close_quotes} Changnon says.

  1. Global Change Research: Summaries of research in FY 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This document describes the activities and products of the Global Research Program in FY 1993. This publication describes all of the projects funded by the Environmental Sciences Division of DOE under annual contracts, grants, and interagency agreements in FY 1993. Each description contains the project`s title; its 3-year funding history (in thousands of dollars); the period over which the funding applies; the name(s) of the principal investigator(s); the institution(s) conducting the projects; and the project`s objectives, products, approach, and results to date (for most projects older than 1 year). Project descriptions are categorized within the report according to program areas: climate modeling, quantitative links, global carbon cycle, vegetation research, ocean research, economics of global climate change, education, information and integration, and NIGEC. Within these categories, the descriptions are grouped alphabetically by principal investigator. Each program area is preceded by a brief text that defines the program area, states its goals and objectives, lists principal research questions, and identifies program managers.

  2. UWM Global Climate Change and Sustainable Development Initiative CONFERENCE ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saldin, Dilano

    UWM Global Climate Change and Sustainable Development Initiative CONFERENCE ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Sponsored By UWM Global Climate Change and Sustainable Development Initiative Co Conference Description This conference will discuss the global issue of climate change in the regional

  3. Phase relation between global temperature and atmospheric carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stallinga, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The primary ingredient of Anthropogenic Global Warming hypothesis is the assumption that atmospheric carbon dioxide variations are the cause for temperature variations. In this paper we discuss this assumption and analyze it on basis of bi-centenary measurements and using a relaxation model which causes phase shifts and delays.

  4. Carbon Markets Global Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoopButte County,Camilla, Georgia: Energy ResourcesRanch JumpMarkets Global Ltd Jump

  5. Project title: Global environmental change: biomineral proxies of ocean chemistry and climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-07-10

    for tomato plants. Tyndall conference was a brainstorming session, tables many farfetched ideas for solving with CO2 problem. Carbon Sequestration: Mining Cos. Geological Cos. Auto industry Schlumberger, BP. PIs want to hold a followup conference in a... ;objective met#7;objective changed#7;#7;1#7;The oceans play a central role in modulating the carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere. Indicators of the chemistry of past oceans and the variation of global climate over Earth history are locked up...

  6. ORAU Science Education Program (SEP) Global Change Education...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Organization Contact Us Contact Us Home Operational Management Services Offices ORAU Science Education Program (SEP) Global Change Education Program (GCEP) PIA, Office of...

  7. National Conference and Global Forum on Science, Policy and the Environment Energy and Climate Change

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The 15th National Conference and Global Forum on Science, Policy and the Environment: Energy and Climate Change will develop and advance partnerships that focus on transitioning the world to a new "low carbon" and "climate resilient" energy system. It will emphasize putting ideas into action - moving forward on policy and practice.

  8. MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change Russia's Natural Gas Export Potential.mit.edu / Printed on recycled paper #12;1 Russia's Natural Gas Export Potential up to 2050 Sergey Paltsev Abstract a fuel with good prospects to serve a bridge to a low-carbon world. Russia is an important energy

  9. CO Capture, Reuse, and Storage Technologies2 for Mitigating Global Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CO Capture, Reuse, and Storage Technologies2 for Mitigating Global Climate Change A White Paper Gas R&D Programme; Jefferson Tester, MIT Energy Laboratory; and Edward Winter, Burns and Roe. Helpful production), Klaus Lackner of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (carbonate storage) and Meyer Steinberg

  10. Predicting Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Soil Carbon from Changing Pasture to an Energy Crop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeLucia, Evan H.

    Predicting Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Soil Carbon from Changing Pasture to an Energy Crop biogeochemical cycles and global greenhouse gas budgets. Energy cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) is a sugarcane changing land from grazed pasture to energy cane would affect greenhouse gas (CO2, CH4 and N2O) fluxes

  11. Global Change and Sustainability Center Spring Seminar Series

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tipple, Brett

    science. His research interests include sustainable development, Muslim and South Asian politicsGlobal Change and Sustainability Center Spring Seminar Series " Environment, Development & Security in the Age of Climate Change Adaptation

  12. Uncertainty in atmospheric CO? predictions from a parametric uncertainty analysis of a global carbon cycle model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holian, Gary L.; Sokolov, Andrei P.; Prinn, Ronald G.

    Key uncertainties in the global carbon cycle are explored with a 2-D model for the oceanic carbon sink. By calibrating the key parameters of this ocean carbon sink model to widely referenced values, it produces an average ...

  13. Global Carbon Emissions in the Coming Decades: The Case of China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, Mark D.

    2008-01-01

    C, Meida LO. 2001. Carbon Dioxide Emission from the GlobalN, Wyckoff A. 2003. “Carbon Dioxide Emissions Embodied inin energy-related carbon dioxide emissions had moved even

  14. A global comparison of carbon monoxide profiles and column amounts from Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and anthropogenic incomplete combustion processes. In the presence of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide (COA global comparison of carbon monoxide profiles and column amounts from Tropospheric Emission compare carbon monoxide (CO) products from the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT

  15. Global environmental change: Modifying human contributions through education

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, L.M.

    1997-12-31

    The 1995 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Science report concludes that evidence now available {open_quotes}points toward a discernible human influence on global climate{close_quotes}. Reductions in emissions will require changes in human behavior. Knowledge, often through education, is an important moderator of human environmental behavior. This study assessed whether gains in global environmental change knowledge would lead to changes in human behaviors that could be deemed environmentally responsible.

  16. Nitrogen attenuation of terrestrial carbon cycle response to global environmental factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jain, Atul; Yang, Xiaojuan; Kheshgi, Haroon; Mcguire, David; Post, Wilfred M

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen cycle dynamics have the capacity to attenuate the magnitude of global terrestrial carbon sinks and sources driven by CO2 fertilization and changes in climate. In this study, two versions of the terrestrial carbon and nitrogen cycle components of the Integrated Science Assessment Model (ISAM) are used to evaluate how variation in nitrogen availability influences terrestrial carbon sinks and sources in response to changes over the 20th century in global environmental factors including atmospheric CO2 concentration, nitrogen inputs, temperature, precipitation and land use. The two versions of ISAM vary in their treatment of nitrogen availability: ISAM-NC has a terrestrial carbon cycle model coupled to a fully dynamic nitrogen cycle while ISAM-C has an identical carbon cycle model but nitrogen availability is always in sufficient supply. Overall, the two versions of the model estimate approximately the same amount of global mean carbon uptake over the 20th century. However, comparisons of results of ISAM-NC relative to ISAM-C reveal that nitrogen dynamics: (1) reduced the 1990s carbon sink associated with increasing atmospheric CO2 by 0.53 PgC yr1 (1 Pg = 1015g), (2) reduced the 1990s carbon source associated with changes in temperature and precipitation of 0.34 PgC yr1 in the 1990s, (3) an enhanced sink associated with nitrogen inputs by 0.26 PgC yr1, and (4) enhanced the 1990s carbon source associated with changes in land use by 0.08 PgC yr1 in the 1990s. These effects of nitrogen limitation influenced the spatial distribution of the estimated exchange of CO2 with greater sink activity in high latitudes associated with climate effects and a smaller sink of CO2 in the southeastern United States caused by N limitation associated with both CO2 fertilization and forest regrowth. These results indicate that the dynamics of nitrogen availability are important to consider in assessing the spatial distribution and temporal dynamics of terrestrial carbon sources and sinks.

  17. GEOGRAPHY 288: GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE 4 credits (or negotiable)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lopez-Carr, David

    (GEC). Global environmental change has often been framed as an issue of the biophysical sciences, yet will explore these issues through perspectives from geography, political ecology, ecology, institutionalGEOGRAPHY 288: GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE 4 credits (or negotiable) Winter 2007 Class: W 5:00PM-7

  18. Global Atmospheric Change and Animal Populations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    contaminants. In the mid 1800s, with the advent of the industrial revolution, greenhouse gas levels started unabated since the beginning of the industrial age. (Courtesy of Hannes Grobe) Key Greenhouse Gasses Carbon

  19. Present and Future of Modeling Global Environmental Change: Toward Integrated Modeling, Eds., T. Matsuno and H. Kida, pp. 145172.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moorcroft, Paul R.

    145 Present and Future of Modeling Global Environmental Change: Toward Integrated Modeling, Eds., T, NH 03824, U.S.A. Abstract--Here we examine the cause, size and future of the U.S. carbon sink.4%, with the remainder due to land use. To forecast the future of the U.S. carbon sink, we used the Ecosystem Demography

  20. the carbon dioxide balance than can change. First the oceans absorb more carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    today's concerns about human-driven climate change and the need to cut carbon emissions, itthe carbon dioxide balance than can change. First the oceans absorb more carbon dioxide to come for this process to come to equilibrium. Whenever the carbon dioxide amount is increasing an upper limit

  1. Wind-driven changes in Southern Ocean residual circulation, ocean carbon reservoirs and atmospheric CO[subscript 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lauderdale, Jonathan M.

    The effect of idealized wind-driven circulation changes in the Southern Ocean on atmospheric CO[subscript 2] and the ocean carbon inventory is investigated using a suite of coarse-resolution, global coupled ocean circulation ...

  2. Global Environmental Change 9 (1999) S1}S2 The global impact of climate change: a new assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Andrew

    1999-01-01

    Global Environmental Change 9 (1999) S1}S2 Viewpoint The global impact of climate change: a new assessment Martin Parry *, Nigel Arnell , Mike Hulme , Pim Martens , Robert Nicholls , Andrew White Jackson due to the sheer complexity of the issue and the state of science in impact assessment that is less

  3. Expert assessment of vulnerability of permafrost carbon to climate change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    of permafrost carbon to climate change E. A. G. Schuur & B.permafrost C feedback to climate change. We used a survey toof this feedback to climate change. However, the level of

  4. Is climate change the greatest threat to global health?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Peter JS

    Commentary Is climate change the greatest threat to global health? ANDREW PAPWORTH, MARK MASLIN for publication in October 2014 This commentary critically engages with the argument that climate change that although it is important to be aware of the risk that climate change presents, health status is caused

  5. Transient Floral Change and Rapid Global Warming at the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lyons, S. Kathleen

    #12;Transient Floral Change and Rapid Global Warming at the Paleocene-Eocene Boundary Scott L. Wing. Freeman3 Rapid global warming of 5- to 10-C during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) coincided shape and size suggest that climate warmed by È5-C during the PETM and that precipitation was low early

  6. Global Change and Sustainability Center Fall Seminar Series

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tipple, Brett

    Global Change and Sustainability Center Fall Seminar Series that mitigate negative effects of human activities and sustain ecosystems. Noted project focused on environmental sustainability and funded by a cooperative agreement

  7. Global Climate Change Assessment Report Shows Nations Not Doing...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Climate Change Assessment Report Shows Nations Not Doing Enough Home > Blogs > Dc's blog Dc's picture Submitted by Dc(266) Contributor 5 November, 2014 - 15:49 The latest...

  8. Simulating land use change in China from a global perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palmer, Paul

    drivers of population growth and socio-economic development to agricultural yield changes and alternative productivity and stable relationships with global food suppliers are important determinants of food security

  9. How strong is carbon cycle-climate feedback under global warming?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maryland at College Park, University of

    How strong is carbon cycle-climate feedback under global warming? Haifeng Qian Advisor: Prof. Ning IPCC report, global warming was predicted under different CO2 scenarios. Under such warming conditions carbon cycle to the climate system, which means that under the global warming condition, the ecosystem

  10. Land system architecture: Using land systems to adapt and mitigate global environmental change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, B.L.; Janetos, Anthony C.; Verbug, Peter H.; Murray, Alan T.

    2013-04-01

    Land systems (mosaics of land use and cover) are human environment systems, the changes in which drive and respond to local to global environmental changes, climate to macro-economy (Foley et al., 2005). Changes in land systems have been the principal proximate cause in the loss of habitats and biota globally, long contributed to atmospheric greenhouse gases, and hypothesized to have triggered climate changes in the early Holocene (Ruddiman, 2003). Land use, foremost agriculture, is the largest source of biologically active nitrogen to the atmosphere, critical to sources and sinks of carbon, and a major component in the hydrologic cycle (e.g., Bouwman et al., 2011). Changes in land systems also affect regional climate (Feddema et al., 2005; Pielke, 2005), ecosystem functions, and the array of ecosystem services they provide. Land systems, therefore, are a central feature of how humankind manages its relationship with nature-intended or not, or whether this relationship proceeds sustainably or not.

  11. The contribution of future agricultural trends in the US Midwest to global climate change mitigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomson, Allison M.; Kyle, G. Page; Zhang, Xuesong; Bandaru, Varaprasad; West, Tristram O.; Wise, Marshall A.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Calvin, Katherine V.

    2014-01-19

    Land use change is a complex response to changing environmental and socioeconomic systems. Historical drivers of land use change include changes in the natural resource availability of a region, changes in economic conditions for production of certain products and changing policies. Most recently, introduction of policy incentives for biofuel production have influenced land use change in the US Midwest, leading to concerns that bioenergy production systems may compete with food production and land conservation. Here we explore how land use may be impacted by future climate mitigation measures by nesting a high resolution agricultural model (EPIC – Environmental Policy Indicator Climate) for the US Midwest within a global integrated assessment model (GCAM – Global Change Assessment Model). This approach is designed to provide greater spatial resolution and detailed agricultural practice information by focusing on the climate mitigation potential of agriculture and land use in a specific region, while retaining the global economic context necessary to understand the far ranging effects of climate mitigation targets. We find that until the simulated carbon prices are very high, the US Midwest has a comparative advantage in producing traditional food and feed crops over bioenergy crops. Overall, the model responds to multiple pressures by adopting a mix of future responses. We also find that the GCAM model is capable of simulations at multiple spatial scales and agricultural technology resolution, which provides the capability to examine regional response to global policy and economic conditions in the context of climate mitigation.

  12. Game Changing Technology | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation Current HABFESOpportunities Nuclear PhysicsGE GlobalGetting&Tools »GambitI

  13. Impacts of land use change due to biofuel crops on carbon balance, bioenergy production, and agricultural

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhuang, Qianlai

    Impacts of land use change due to biofuel crops on carbon balance, bioenergy production that biofuel crops have much higher net pri- mary production (NPP) than soybean and wheat crops. When food). Global biofuel production has increased dramatically in the last decade, especially in United States

  14. Global warming and the future of coal carbon capture and storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ken Berlin; Robert M. Sussman

    2007-05-15

    The paper considers how best to change the economic calculus of power plant developers so they internalize CCS costs when selecting new generation technologies. Five policy tools are analyzed: establishing a greenhouse gas cap-and-trade program; imposing carbon taxes; defining CCS systems as a so-called Best Available Control Technology for new power plants under the USA Clean Air Act's New Source Review program; developing a 'low carbon portfolio' standard that requires utilities to provide an increasing proportion of power from low-carbon generation sources over time; and requiring all new coal power plants to meet an 'emission performance' standard that limits CO{sub 2} emissions to levels achievable with CCS systems. Each of these tools has advantages and drawbacks but an emission performance standard for new power plants is likely to be most effective in spurring broad-scale adoption of CCS systems. Chapter headings are: global warming and the future of coal; new coal-fired power plants threaten all other efforts to combat global warming; a potential path to zero emissions through carbon capture and storage; CO{sub 2} capture at coal plants: the promise of IGCC and other technologies; barriers to commercialization of IGCC technology; crossing the chasm: a new policy framework to push ccs implementation forward; encouraging CCS systems with carbon caps and trading programs; using the existing Clean Air Act to require CCS systems for new coal plants; retail low carbon portfolio standard; carbon tax; emission performance standards for new coal power plants; and conclusions. 16 figs.

  15. A Global Land System Framework for Integrated Climate-Change Assessments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlosser, C. Adam

    Land ecosystems play a major role in the global cycles of energy, water, carbon and nutrients. A Global Land System (GLS) framework has been developed for the Integrated Global Systems Model Version 2 (IGSM2) to simulate ...

  16. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    concerns about rising energy demand and cost, diminishing oil reserves, and climate change, Central a critical analysis of this experience focusing on non-technical barriers to investment. Survey results America . Caribbean basin initiative . Trade and investment . Energy security Mitig Adapt Strateg Glob

  17. Chasing a specter: Risk management for global environmental change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Riordan, T. ); Rayner, S. )

    1989-10-01

    Global environmental change is both a concept and a process that changes in meaning with scientific discovery, public concern, and political responsiveness. It is the relationship between the problems as perceived and the various institutions that help shape and adapt to such problems that defines global environmental change. There is a kind of race between scientific detective work and political adjustment to lessen the likely impacts that predictive science is trying to verify. Risk analysis, because of its capacity to recognize this relationship in many spheres of problem identification, can contribute to the political debate, mostly by proposing institutional redesign of the relationship among scientific research, public entry, and experimental readjustments to consensus formation and international action. This paper discusses the factors involved in global environmental change, the risk management involved, the holistic interpretation, and the environmental impacts. 21 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Global Coastal Carbon Program Data from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    CDIAC provides data management support for the Global Coastal Carbon Data Project. The coastal regions data are very important for the understanding of carbon cycle on the continental margins. The Coastal Project data include the bottle (discrete) and surface (underway) carbon-related measurements from coastal research cruises, the data from time series cruises, and coastal moorings. The data from US East Coast, US West Coast, and European Coastal areas are available. CDIAC provides a map interface with vessel or platform names. Clicking on the name brings up information about the vessel or the scientific platform, the kinds of measurements collected and the timeframe, links to project pages, when available, and the links to the data files themselves.

  19. Global Change Associates | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource History View New Pages RecentPlant <SilverChange Associates Jump to:

  20. Global climate change: Social and economic research issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, M.; Snow, J.; Jacobson, H.

    1992-05-01

    This workshop was designed to bring together a group of scholars, primarily from the social sciences, to explore research that might help in dealing with global climate change. To illustrate the state of present understanding, it seemed useful to focus this workshop on three broad questions that are involved in coping with climate change. These are: (1) How can the anticipated economic costs and benefits of climate change be identified; (2) How can the impacts of climate change be adjusted to or avoided; (3) What previously studied models are available for institutional management of the global environment? The resulting discussions may (1) identify worthwhile avenues for further social science research, (2) help develop feedback for natural scientists about research information from this domain needed by social scientists, and (3) provide policymakers with the sort of relevant research information from the social science community that is currently available. Individual papers are processed separately for the database.

  1. Groundwater and global hydrological change current challenges and new insight

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Groundwater and global hydrological change ­ current challenges and new insight R. TAYLOR1 , L Groundwater Resources Assessment Centre, Utrecht, The Netherlands 11 Federal Institute for Geosciences, groundwater plays a critical role in enabling communities to adapt to freshwater shortages derived from low

  2. Carbon capture and storage in geologic formations has been proposed as a global warming mitigation strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    Abstract Carbon capture and storage in geologic formations has been proposed as a global warming mitigation strategy that can contribute to stabilize the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide to maintain adsorbed methane in the coalbed formation. But now carbon dioxide will replace the methane

  3. ECONOMIC MODELING OF THE GLOBAL ADOPTION OF CARBON CAPTURE AND SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ECONOMIC MODELING OF THE GLOBAL ADOPTION OF CARBON CAPTURE AND SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES J. R. Mc of carbon capture and sequestration technologies as applied to electric generating plants. The MIT Emissions, is used to model carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies based on a natural gas combined cycle

  4. Altered Belowground Carbon Cycling Following Land-Use Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeLucia, Evan H.

    Pesquisas Espaciais, Cachoeira Paulista, SP, Brazil ABSTRACT Belowground carbon (C) dynamics of terrestrial to be thoroughly quantified through field measurements. Here, we show that belowground C cycling pathways grasses; establishment phase. INTRODUCTION Terrestrial ecosystems have a pervasive influence on the global

  5. Z .Global and Planetary Change 20 1999 93123 Global sea level rise and glacial isostatic adjustment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peltier, W. Richard

    adjustment W.R. Peltier ) Department of Physics, UniÕersity of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto-mail: peltier@atmosp.physics.utoronto.ca Z .rather recently Peltier and Tushingham, 1989 , it was not clearly;( )W.R. PeltierrGlobal and Planetary Change 20 1999 93­12394 Z .existed at that time e.g., Peltier

  6. Microbial response to simulated global change is phylogenetically conserved and linked with functional potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    woods are driven by climate change. Proc Natl Acad Sci USASE, Wallenstein MD. (2014). Climate change alters ecologicalresponse to global climate change. Phil Trans R Soc B Biol

  7. Temporal variation overshadows the response of leaf litter microbial communities to simulated global change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    multi- ple experimental climate change drivers. Appl EnvironCEC (2003). Global Climate Change and California: Potential2008). The effects of climate change on plant phenology.

  8. The economics of long-term global climate change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    This report is intended to provide an overview of economic issues and research relevant to possible, long-term global climate change. It is primarily a critical survey, not a statement of Administration or Department policy. This report should serve to indicate that economic analysis of global change is in its infancy few assertions about costs or benefits can be made with confidence. The state of the literature precludes any attempt to produce anything like a comprehensive benefit-cost analysis. Moreover, almost all the quantitative estimates regarding physical and economic effects in this report, as well as many of the qualitative assertions, are controversial. Section I provides background on greenhouse gas emissions and their likely climatic effects and on available policy instruments. Section II considers the costs of living with global change, assuming no substantial efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Section III considers costs of reducing these emissions, though the available literature does not contain estimates of the costs of policies that would, on the assumptions of current climate models, prevent climate change altogether. The individual sections are not entirely compartmentalized, but can be read independently if necessary.

  9. Climate change has been one of the major issues of global economic and social concerns in the past decade. To quantitatively predict global climate change, the Intergovernmental

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Climate change has been one of the major issues of global economic and social concerns in the past decade. To quantitatively predict global climate change, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change-ocean models to project anthropogenically induced climate changes in the 21st century. The computer simulations

  10. Fossils in an era of globalization, technology and climate change: what has changed and what has to be changed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shikanai, Mitsuru

    This dissertation considers why inaction of people and governments against global and intergenerational injustice prompted by climate change and other environmental issues persists, and provides some theoretical and actual solutions for the problem...

  11. Global Analysis of Snow Cover Changes Using Google Earth Engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coll, Jim

    2014-11-19

    Global Analysis of Snow Cover Changes Using MODIS and Google Earth Engine By: Jim Coll Importance of This Project • To establish whether or not Google Earth Engine is a viable platform for this type of “big data” analysis • Depending... is Google Earth Engine? Google Earth Engine is a massive data warehouse (2+ petabytes) of remote sensing imagery including all past Landsat and MODIS data. The platform supports JavaScript and Python analysis of these data, and performs the calculations...

  12. Integrating Natural Gas Hydrates in the Global Carbon Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Archer; Bruce Buffett

    2011-12-31

    We produced a two-dimensional geological time- and basin-scale model of the sedimentary margin in passive and active settings, for the simulation of the deep sedimentary methane cycle including hydrate formation. Simulation of geochemical data required development of parameterizations for bubble transport in the sediment column, and for the impact of the heterogeneity in the sediment pore fluid flow field, which represent new directions in modeling methane hydrates. The model is somewhat less sensitive to changes in ocean temperature than our previous 1-D model, due to the different methane transport mechanisms in the two codes (pore fluid flow vs. bubble migration). The model is very sensitive to reasonable changes in organic carbon deposition through geologic time, and to details of how the bubbles migrate, in particular how efficiently they are trapped as they rise through undersaturated or oxidizing chemical conditions and the hydrate stability zone. The active margin configuration reproduces the elevated hydrate saturations observed in accretionary wedges such as the Cascadia Margin, but predicts a decrease in the methane inventory per meter of coastline relative to a comparable passive margin case, and a decrease in the hydrate inventory with an increase in the plate subduction rate.

  13. Coordinated Approaches to Quantify Long-Term Ecosystem Dynamics in Response to Global Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, Yiqi [University of Oklahoma; Beier, Claus [Riso National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark; Classen, Aimee T [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Norby, Richard J [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Many serious ecosystem consequences of climate change will take decades or even 50 centuries to emerge. Long-term ecological responses to global change are strongly regulated by 51 slow processes, such as changes in species composition, carbon dynamics in soil and by long-52 lived plants, and accumulation of nutrient capitals. Understanding and predicting these processes 53 requires experiments on decadal time scales. But decadal experiments by themselves may not be 54 adequate because many of the slow processes have characteristic time scales much longer than 55 experiments can be maintained. This article promotes a coordinated approach that combines 56 long-term, large-scale global change experiments with process studies and modeling. Long-term 57 global change manipulative experiments, especially in high-priority ecosystems such as tropical 58 forests and high-latitude regions, are essential to maximize information gain concerning future 59 states of the earth system. The long-term experiments should be conducted in tandem with 60 complementary process studies, such as those using model ecosystems, species replacements, 61 laboratory incubations, isotope tracers, and greenhouse facilities. Models are essential to 62 assimilate data from long-term experiments and process studies together with information from 63 long-term observations, surveys, and space-for-time studies along environmental and biological 64 gradients. Future research programs with coordinated long-term experiments, process studies, 65 and modeling have the potential to be the most effective strategy to gain the best information on 66 long-term ecosystem dynamics in response to global change. 67 68

  14. Tax policy to combat global warming : on designing a carbon tax

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poterba, James M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper develops several points concerning the design and implementation of a carbon tax. First, if implemented without any offsetting changes in transfer programs, the carbon tax would be regressive. This regressivity ...

  15. Carbon Cycle 2.0: Ashok Gadgil: global impact

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Ashok Gadgi

    2010-09-01

    Ashok Gadgil speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  16. MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change The Effects of Changing Consumption established research centers at MIT: the Center for Global Change Science (CGCS) and the Center for Energy No. 64 August 2000 #12;The MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change

  17. The Impact of Global Warming on the Carbon Cycle of Arctic Permafrost...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: The Impact of Global Warming on the Carbon Cycle of Arctic Permafrost: An Experimental and Field Based Study Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Impact...

  18. Ocean Carbon Cycle Data from the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The U.S. JGOFS program, a component of the U.S Global Change Research Program, grew out of the recommendations of a National Academy of Sciences workshop in 1984. An ambitious goal was set to understand the controls on the concentrations and fluxes of carbon and associated nutrients in the ocean. A new field of ocean biogeochemistry emerged with an emphasis on quality measurements of carbon system parameters and interdisciplinary field studies of the biological, chemical and physical process which control the ocean carbon cycle. U.S. JGOFS, ended in 2005 with the conclusion of the Synthesis and Modeling Project (SMP). Data are available throughout the U.S. JGOFS web site at http://usjgofs.whoi.edu/ and from the U.S. JGOFS Data System at http://usjgofs.whoi.edu/jg/dir/jgofs/. Major named segments of the project are: Bermuda Atlantic Time Series (BATS) Study, Hawaii Ocean Time-series (HOT) Study, Equatorial Pacific Process Study, North Atlantic Bloom Experiment (1989), Arabian Sea Process Study, and the Southern Ocean Process Study.

  19. (Meeting on human dimensions of global environmental change)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rayner, S.

    1990-12-18

    Traveler attended the meeting of the Standing Committee on the Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change of the International Social Science Council (ISSC) and the Scientific Symposium organized by the Standing Committee. The purpose of the meeting and symposium was to discuss the Draft Framework and the Workplan of the Standing Committee prior to its presentation to the 1990 Congress of the ISSC on November 28--30, 1990. The meetings indicate that ORNL Global Environmental Studies Center is on the international leading edge of human dimensions research, except in the area of human dimensions data systems. This weakness could be rectified by close collaboration with the efforts of the Consortium for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) in Michigan.

  20. Financing Global Climate Change Mitigation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar2-0057-EA Jump to:ofEnia SpA JumpGmbHFerrisFillmore CityGlobal Climate Change

  1. MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for Global Change Science (CGCS) and the Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research (CEEPRMIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change Unemployment Effects of Climate Policy on the Science and Policy of Global Change is an organization for research, independent policy analysis

  2. US forests and global change - precolonization to the 21st century

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zerbe, J.I.

    1997-12-31

    The forests of the United States and manufacture of products from raw materials produced in the forests are significant for the international global economy and for amelioration of threatening global climate change. This paper explores the conditions of the forests as a result of changing anthropogenic influences, and how these conditions might impact on global change.

  3. MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deutch, John

    MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change What Should the Government Do analysis, and public education in global environmental change. It seeks to provide leadership: the Center for Global Change Science (CGCS) and the Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research

  4. Global/Terrestrial Carbon Cycle Publications Baes, C. F., H. E. Goeller, J. S. Olson, and R. M. Rotty. 1977. Carbon dioxide and climate: The

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Rotty. 1977. Carbon dioxide and climate: The uncontrolled experiment. American Scientist 65.S. and the global carbon dioxide problem. Journal of Environmental Management 10:37­49. Gardner, R. H., J. B. Mankin Carbon. CONF-8108131. Carbon Dioxide Research Division, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C. Post

  5. Exploiting simultaneous observational constraints on mass and absorption to estimate the global direct radiative forcing of black carbon and brown carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwarz, J. P.

    Atmospheric black carbon (BC) is a leading climate warming agent, yet uncertainties on the global direct radiative forcing (DRF) remain large. Here we expand a global model simulation (GEOS-Chem) of BC to include the ...

  6. THE IMPACT OF THERMAL ENGINEERING RESEARCH ON GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phelan, Patrick; Abdelaziz, Omar; Otanicar, Todd; Phelan, Bernadette; Prasher, Ravi; Taylor, Robert; Tyagi, Himanshu

    2014-01-01

    Global climate change is recognized by many people around the world as being one of the most pressing issues facing our society today. The thermal engineering research community clearly plays an important role in addressing this critical issue, but what kind of thermal engineering research is, or will be, most impactful? In other words, in what directions should thermal engineering research be targeted in order to derive the greatest benefit with respect to global climate change? To answer this question we consider the potential reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, coupled with potential economic impacts, resulting from thermal engineering research. Here a new model framework is introduced that allows a technological, sector-by-sector analysis of GHG emissions avoidance. For each sector, we consider the maximum reduction in CO2 emissions due to such research, and the cost effectiveness of the new efficient technologies. The results are normalized on a country-by-country basis, where we consider the USA, the European Union, China, India, and Australia as representative countries or regions. Among energy supply-side technologies, improvements in coal-burning power generation are seen as having the most beneficial CO2 and economic impacts. The one demand-side technology considered, residential space cooling, offers positive but limited impacts. The proposed framework can be extended to include additional technologies and impacts, such as water consumption.

  7. Interaction effects of climate and land use/land cover change on soil organic carbon sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grunwald, Sabine

    Interaction effects of climate and land use/land cover change on soil organic carbon sequestration carbon sequestration Climate change Soil carbon change Historically, Florida soils stored the largest in Florida (FL) have acted as a sink for carbon (C) over the last 40 years. · Climate interacting with land

  8. Public Awareness of Carbon Capture and Storage: A Survey of Attitudes toward Climate Change Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in Technology and Policy Abstract The Carbon Capture and Sequestration Technologies Program in the Laboratory show that carbon dioxide capture and storage and carbon sequestration are largely unknown to acknowledge the generous support of the Alliance for Global Sustainability and the Carbon Sequestration

  9. Agriculture, Land Use, Energy and Carbon Emission Impacts of Global Biofuel Mandates to Mid-Century

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wise, Marshall A.; Dooley, James J.; Luckow, Patrick; Calvin, Katherine V.; Kyle, G. Page

    2014-02-01

    Three potential future scenarios of expanded global biofuel production are presented here utilizing the GCAM integrated assessment model. These scenarios span a range that encompasses on the low end a continuation of existing biofuel production policies to two scenarios that would require an expansion of current targets as well as an extension of biofuels targets to other regions of the world. Conventional oil use is reduced by 4-8% in the expanded biofuel scenarios, which results in a decrease of in CO2 emissions on the order of 1-2 GtCO2/year by mid-century from the global transportation sector. The regional distribution of crop production is relatively unaffected, but the biofuels targets do result in a marked increase in the production of conventional crops used for energy. Producer prices of sugar and corn reach levels about 12% and 7% above year 2005 levels, while the increased competition for land causes the price of food crops such as wheat, although not used for bioenergy in this study, to increase by 1 to 2%. The amount of land devoted to growing all food crops and dedicated bioenergy crops is increased by about 10% by 2050 in the High biofuel case, with concurrent decreases in other uses of land such as forest and pasture. In both of the expanded biofuels cases studied, there is an increase in net cumulative carbon emissions for the first couple of decades due to these induced land use changes. However, the difference in net cumulative emissions from the biofuels expansion decline by about 2035 as the reductions in energy system emissions exceed further increases in emissions from land use change. Even in the absence of a policy that would limit emissions from land use change, the differences in net cumulative emissions from the biofuels scenarios reach zero by 2050, and are decreasing further over time in both cases.

  10. Climate Change at Annual Timescales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stine, Alexander Robin

    2010-01-01

    carbon cycling to global climate change, Nature, 393 (6682),2005. Meehl, G. , et al. , Climate Change 2007: The PhysicalIntergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, chap. 10. Global

  11. Mechanisms for Tropical Tropospheric Circulation Change in Response to Global Warming*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Shang-Ping

    Mechanisms for Tropical Tropospheric Circulation Change in Response to Global Warming* JIAN MA change in global warming is studied by comparing the response of an atmospheric general circulation model globally in response to SST warming. A diagnostic framework is developed based on a linear baroclinic model

  12. DO GLOBAL WARMING AND CLIMATE CHANGE REPRESENT A SERIOUS THREAT TO OUR WELFARE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DO GLOBAL WARMING AND CLIMATE CHANGE REPRESENT A SERIOUS THREAT TO OUR WELFARE AND ENVIRONMENT? By Michael E. Mann I. Introduction The subjects of "global warming" and "climate change" have become parts of both the popular lexicon and the public discourse. Discussions of global warming often evoke passionate

  13. MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for Global Change Science (CGCS) and the Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research (CEEPR and Policy of Global Change, MIT 3 AVL List GmbH, Graz, Austria 4 ECOFYS energy & environment, Energy Technologies Centre (ETZ), Nuremberg, Germany Abstract Future global climate projections are subject to large

  14. Global Warming, and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change: Interview with Ron Stouffer Global Warming, and the Intergovernmental

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    or making -- burning coal for power plants generates carbon dioxide. When you burn wood, it makes carbon just about whenever you burn anything. Virtually any form of combustion, burning gasoline in cars are happening. And, in response, the natural system, way animals and plants are responding, are also changing

  15. I read with interest the report entitled, "Carbon Dioxide Footprint of the Northwest Power System." Unfortunately your analysis does not take into consideration renewable power production using a Solena Group gasification process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    climate change, global warming, greenhouse gases or carbon dioxide. Exxon Mobil made only scant mention

  16. Political Polarization over Global Warming: Analyzing Twitter Data on Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sukthankar, Gita Reese

    Political Polarization over Global Warming: Analyzing Twitter Data on Climate Change Alireza/Democrats are more likely to ex- press personal concern about global warming than are self-identified conservatives

  17. Global Priority Conservation Areas in the Face of 21st Century Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Junsheng; Lin, Xin; Chen, Anping; Peterson, A. Townsend; Ma, Keping; Bertzky, Monika; Ciais, Philippe; Kapos, Valerie; Peng, Changhui; Poulter, Benjamin

    2013-01-24

    In an era when global biodiversity is increasingly impacted by rapidly changing climate, efforts to conserve global biodiversity may be compromised if we do not consider the uneven distribution of climate-induced threats. Here, via a novel...

  18. Local and Seasonal Effects in the U.S. of Global Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eckaus, Richard S.

    2012-05-21

    Though the facts of global climate change are beyond doubt, there has been relatively limited information about its local consequences. Global climate models and their derivatives have provided often differing and unspecific ...

  19. Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go? An analysis based on radiocarbon observations and an atmospheric transport model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    1960 through 2001, Carbon Dioxide Inf. Anal. Cent. , OakAtmospheric and oceanic carbon dioxide models, Science, 282,Data on Global Change, Carbon Dioxide Inf. Anal. Cent. , Oak

  20. CO2 stabilization, climate change and the terrestrial carbon sink

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Andrew

    CO2 stabilization, climate change and the terrestrial carbon sink A N D R E W W H I T E , * M E L V, Hybrid v4.1, with a subdaily timestep, was driven by increasing CO2 and transient climate output from scenarios were used: (i) IS92a, giving 790 ppm CO2 by 2100, (ii) CO2 stabilization at 750 ppm by 2225

  1. Measures used to tackle environmental problems related to global warming and climate change resulting from the use of coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoppe, J.A.

    1996-12-31

    Environmental issues continue to play a major role in strategic planning associated with the use of coal for power generation. Problems, such as Acid Rain resulting from SO{sub 2} emissions produced from the sulfur content of coal during coal combustion, have recently cornered the attention of policy makers and planners. More recently the carbon content of coal, which provides for most of the coals heating value, has been identified as the major contributor to the production of CO{sub 2} and other emissions associated with Global Warming and Climate Change. Total world carbon emissions resulting from the burning of fossil fuels were approximately 6 billion metric tons in 1990, of which 44% were from the consumption of oil, 39% from coal, and 17% from natural gas. Assuming no change in current regulations, carbon emissions are anticipated to grow by 1.5% per year, and are predicted to reach more than 8 billion tons by the year 2010. Most of this increase in carbon emissions is expected to come from developing countries in the Asian Pacific Region such as China where coal use dominates the power production industry and accounts for 71% of its total CO{sub 2} emissions. Asian Pacific coal demand is expected to double over the next 15 years accounting for a 46% increase in total primary energy demand, and China currently produces approximately 11% of the world`s global greenhouse gas emissions which is expected to grow to 15% by the year 2010.

  2. Japan-Economics of Climate Change and Low Carbon Growth Strategies...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Japan-Economics of Climate Change and Low Carbon Growth Strategies in Northeast Asia Jump to: navigation, search Name Japan-Economics of Climate Change and Low Carbon Growth...

  3. Variations in carbon exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere due to CO{sub 2} evaluation and climate change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, M.; Woodward, F.I.

    1997-12-31

    The global carbon budget for atmospheric CO{sub 2} can`t been balanced, a sink of 1 to 3 Gt C yr{sup -1} has not yet been clearly identified. Without a good account for the fate of the miss carbon, prediction of future atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration and climate change will remain uncertain. It is suggested that terrestrial ecosystems may take up the miss carbon. To validate this hypothesis and to improve the estimates of the carbon sink or source strength requires a direct investigation of the carbon exchange of terrestrial ecosystems and its response to atmospheric CO{sub 2} elevation and climate change at the global scale. In this study, a highly aggregated model was developed on the basis of photosynthesis, plant growth, litter production and soil organic carbon decomposition. And the model was use to predict the variations in carbon fluxes between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere from 1860 to 2020. In our estimates, climate change alone does not cause a significant variation in net primary production (NPP), but results in a reduction in net ecosystem production (NEP) by 50% thus, a decrease in the total carbon storage, since 1960s. Climate change happened undercuts the capacity of terrestrial ecosystems taking up atmospheric CO{sub 2}. Without climate change, CO{sub 2} elevation enhances NPP and NEP steadily. NPP is enhanced by 26% and NEP is increased from about 1.0 Gt C yr{sup -1} in 1860s to 4.0 Gt C yr{sup -1} in 2020s. The combined CO{sub 2} elevation and climate change increase the global annual NPP from 46.0 Gt C in 1860s to 57.0 Gt C in 2010s. NEP is increased to 2.1 Gt C yr{sup -1} in 1980s and about 3.6 Gt C yr{sup -1} in 2010s. The increase occurs in both the northern middle-high latitudes and tropical regions. Taking land use change into account, terrestrial ecosystems are nearly carbon-balanced before 1950s, but afterwards they become a significant sink of about 1.6 Gt C yr{sup -1} for atmospheric CO{sub 2}.

  4. Global climate change is currently affecting many ecological systems and may have large impacts on agri-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Articles Global climate change is currently affecting many ecological systems and may have large (Dunbar et al.1994).Such changes in global climate patterns portend potentially large effects on both be crucial in the tropics, where most agriculture is in rain-fed systems and climate change has a potentially

  5. A DBMS Architecture for Global Change Research \\Lambda Nabil I. Hachem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ward, Matthew

    A DBMS Architecture for Global Change Research \\Lambda Nabil I. Hachem Michael A. Gennert Matthew O to understand and predict global change. I. Introduction Conventional database management systems (DBMS) are and processed. By studying the history of change in particular areas, researchers are better able to form

  6. MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    established research centers at MIT: the Center for Global Change Science (CGCS) and the Center for Energy.S. annual residential energy consumption by a statistically significant 15% to 30MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change Climate Change, Mortality

  7. Global Climate Change and Contaminants, a Call to Arms Not Yet Heard?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rohr, Jason

    Global Climate Change and Contaminants, a Call to Arms Not Yet Heard? A consensus has existed from the mid2000s that climate change is occurring and is the result of anthropogenic causes (Oreskes 2004 (SETAC) to develop research on the potential interactions between global climate change (GCC

  8. Quantifying the role of fire in the Earth system - Part 2: Impact on the net carbon balance of global terrestrial ecosystems for the 20th century

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Fang; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Levis, Samuel

    2014-03-07

    Fire is the primary terrestrial ecosystem disturbance agent on a global scale. It affects carbon balance of global terrestrial ecosystems by emitting carbon to atmosphere directly and immediately from biomass burning (i.e., fire direct effect), and by changing net ecosystem productivity and land-use carbon loss in post-fire regions due to biomass burning and fire-induced vegetation mortality (i.e., fire indirect effect). Here, we provide the first quantitative assessment about the impact of fire on the net carbon balance of global terrestrial ecosystems for the 20th century, and investigate the roles of fire direct and indirect effects. This study is done by quantifying the difference between the 20th century fire-on and fire-off simulations with NCAR community land model CLM4.5 as the model platform. Results show that fire decreases net carbon gain of the global terrestrial ecosystems by 1.0 Pg C yr-1 average across the 20th century, as a results of fire direct effect (1.9 Pg C yr-1) partly offset by indirect effect (-0.9 Pg C yr-1). Fire generally decreases the average carbon gains of terrestrial ecosystems in post-fire regions, which are significant over tropical savannas and part of forests in North America and the east of Asia. The general decrease of carbon gains in post-fire regions is because fire direct and indirect effects have similar spatial patterns and the former (to decrease carbon gain) is generally stronger. Moreover, the effect of fire on net carbon balance significantly declines prior to ~1970 with trend of 8 Tg C yr-1 due to increasing fire indirect effect and increases afterward with trend of 18 Tg C yr-1 due to increasing fire direct effect.

  9. Integrated assessment of global water scarcity over the 21st century under multiple climate change mitigation policies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan; Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Wise, Marshall A.; Patel, Pralit L.; Eom, Jiyong; Calvin, Katherine V.

    2014-08-01

    Water scarcity conditions over the 21st century both globally and regionally are assessed in the context of climate change and climate mitigation policies, by estimating both water availability and water demand within the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), a leading community integrated assessment model of energy, agriculture, climate, and water. To quantify changes in future water availability, a new gridded water-balance global hydrologic model – namely, the Global Water Availability Model (GWAM) – is developed and evaluated. Global water demands for six major demand sectors (irrigation, livestock, domestic, electricity generation, primary energy production, and manufacturing) are modeled in GCAM at the regional scale (14 geopolitical regions, 151 sub-regions) and then spatially downscaled to 0.5 o x 0.5o resolution to match the scale of GWAM. Using a baseline scenario (i.e., no climate change mitigation policy) with radiative forcing reaching 8.8 W/m2 (equivalent to the SRES A1Fi emission scenario) and three climate policy scenarios with increasing mitigation stringency of 7.7, 5.5, and 4.2 W/m2 (equivalent to the SRES A2, B2, and B1 emission scenarios, respectively), we investigate the effects of emission mitigation policies on water scarcity. Two carbon tax regimes (a universal carbon tax (UCT) which includes land use change emissions, and a fossil fuel and industrial emissions carbon tax (FFICT) which excludes land use change emissions) are analyzed. The baseline scenario results in more than half of the world population living under extreme water scarcity by the end of the 21st century. Additionally, in years 2050 and 2095, 36% (28%) and 44% (39%) of the global population, respectively, is projected to live in grid cells (in basins) that will experience greater water demands than the amount of available water in a year (i.e., the water scarcity index (WSI) > 1.0). When comparing the climate policy scenarios to the baseline scenario while maintaining the same baseline socioeconomic assumptions, water scarcity declines under a UCT mitigation policy but increases with a FFICT mitigation scenario by the year 2095 particularly with more stringent climate mitigation targets. Under the FFICT scenario, water scarcity is projected to increase driven by higher water demands for bio-energy crops.

  10. Global patterns of landatmosphere fluxes of carbon dioxide, latent heat, and sensible heat derived from eddy covariance,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Jiquan

    Global patterns of landatmosphere fluxes of carbon dioxide, latent heat, and sensible heat derived 2011. [1] We upscaled FLUXNET observations of carbon dioxide, water, and energy fluxes to the global (NEE), latent energy (LE), and sensible heat (H) based on remote sensing indices, climate

  11. 15 Energy for development: solar home systemsin Africa and global carbon emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    15 Energy for development: solar home systemsin Africa and global carbon emissions RICHARD D. DUKEl, private and non- governmental organization (NGG) projects have already targeted SHS in Africa. The World;market transformation;photovoltaics; solar home systems; buydown ABST RACT A growingnumberofrural

  12. GLOBAL EMISSIONS Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, largely carbon dioxide (CO2)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Green, Donna

    GLOBAL EMISSIONS Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, largely carbon dioxide (CO2) from the combustion- related CO2 emissions have risen 130-fold since 1850--from 200 million tons to 27 billion tons a year--and are projected to rise another 60 percent by 2030 (see Figure 1).1 Most of the world's emissions come from

  13. Global Soil Change: Land Use, Soil and Water SWS4231C, SWS5234

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    Global Soil Change: Land Use, Soil and Water SWS4231C, SWS5234 Course Syllabus: Fall 2014 that can be found at: https://catalog

  14. Effective Permeability Change in Wellbore Cement with Carbon Dioxide Reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Um, Wooyong; Jung, Hun Bok; Martin, Paul F.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2011-11-01

    Portland cement, a common sealing material for wellbores for geological carbon sequestration was reacted with CO{sub 2} in supercritical, gaseous, and aqueous phases at various pressure and temperature conditions to simulate cement-CO{sub 2} reaction along the wellbore from carbon injection depth to the near-surface. Hydrated Portland cement columns (14 mm diameter x 90 mm length; water-to-cement ratio = 0.33) including additives such as steel coupons and Wallula basalt fragments were reacted with CO{sub 2} in the wet supercritical (the top half) and dissolved (the bottom half) phases under carbon sequestration condition with high pressure (10 MPa) and temperature (50 C) for 5 months, while small-sized hydrated Portland cement columns (7 mm diameter x 20 mm length; water-to-cement ratio = 0.38) were reacted with CO{sub 2} in dissolved phase at high pressure (10 MPa) and temperature (50 C) for 1 month or with wet CO{sub 2} in gaseous phase at low pressure (0.2 MPa) and temperature (20 C) for 3 months. XMT images reveal that the cement reacted with CO{sub 2} saturated groundwater had degradation depth of {approx}1 mm for 1 month and {approx}3.5 mm for 5 month, whereas the degradation was minor with cement exposure to supercritical CO{sub 2}. SEM-EDS analysis showed that the carbonated cement was comprised of three distinct zones; the innermost less degraded zone with Ca atom % > C atom %, the inner degraded zone with Ca atom % {approx} C atom % due to precipitation of calcite, the outer degraded zone with C atom % > Ca atom % due to dissolution of calcite and C-S-H, as well as adsorption of carbon to cement matrix. The outer degraded zone of carbonated cement was porous and fractured because of dissolution-dominated reaction by carbonic acid exposure, which resulted in the increase in BJH pore volume and BET surface area. In contrast, cement-wet CO{sub 2}(g) reaction at low P (0.2 MPa)-T (20 C) conditions for 1 to 3 months was dominated by precipitation of micron-sized calcite on the outside surface of cement, which resulted in the decrease in BJH pore volume and BET surface area. Cement carbonation and pore structure change are significantly dependent on pressure and temperature conditions as well as the phase of CO{sub 2}, which controls the balance between precipitation and dissolution in cement matrix. Geochemical modeling result suggests that ratio of solid (cement)-to-solution (carbonated water) has a significant effect on cement carbonation, thus the cement-CO{sub 2} reaction experiment needs to be conducted under realistic conditions representing the in-situ wellbore environment of carbon sequestration field site. Total porosity and air permeability for a duplicate cement column with water-to-cement ratio of 0.38 measured after oven-drying by Core Laboratories using Boyle's Law technique and steady-state method were 31% and 0.576 mD. A novel method to measure the effective liquid permeability of a cement column using X-ray micro-tomography images after injection of pressurized KI (potassium iodide) is under development by PNNL. Preliminary results indicate the permeability of a cement column with water-to-cement ratio of 0.38 is 4-8 mD. PNNL will apply the method to understand the effective permeability change of Portland cement by CO{sub 2}(g) reaction under a variety of pressure and temperature conditions to develop a more reliable well-bore leakage risk model.

  15. Atmospheric composition change - global and regional air quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    CO) maximum over the Zagros mountains in the Middle East:carbon monoxide (CO) over the Zagros Mountains in the Middle

  16. The Implications of Global Climate Change for Mountain Gorilla Conservation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    The implication of projected climate change for freshwaterand P. Martens, 2004. Climate change and malaria: analysisEra for Conservation: Review of Climate Change Adaptation

  17. in press, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, April 18, 2007 Carbon dioxide and oxygen fluxes in the Southern Ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Czaja, Arnaud

    in press, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, April 18, 2007 Carbon dioxide and oxygen fluxes College, London, UK Abstract. We analyze the variability of air-sea fluxes of carbon dioxide and oxygen. The Southern Annular Mode (SAM), known to impact the variability of air-sea fluxes of carbon dioxide, is also

  18. Climate changes mirror global warming predictions BY THOMAS CROWLEY Guest columnist

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Climate changes mirror global warming predictions BY THOMAS CROWLEY Guest columnist The Herald" and must reflect, at least in part, the climate system response to the increase in global warming. What if we wanted to prevent global warming. This is just doomsday speaking of the same type that he

  19. Forecasting changes in population genetic structure of alpine plants in response to global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    François, Olivier

    Forecasting changes in population genetic structure of alpine plants in response to global warming the European Alps, we applied this approach to 20 alpine plant species considering a global increase populations potentially adapted to warmer environments and other populations. While a global trend of movement

  20. Global warming and changes in risk of concurrent climate extremes: Insights from the 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AghaKouchak, Amir

    Global warming and changes in risk of concurrent climate extremes: Insights from the 2014 for Hydrometeorology and Remote Sensing, University of California, Irvine, California, USA Abstract Global warming The warming global climate has increased concurrent climatic extremes such as droughts and heat waves [Leonard

  1. Migration and Global Environmental DR7a: Changes in ecosystem services and migration in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vermont, University of

    .....................................................................................................9 Cultural and information ecosystem services1 Migration and Global Environmental Change DR7a: Changes in ecosystem services and migration .............................................................................................................................................5 Ecosystem services in low-lying coastal areas

  2. Climate change and agriculture : global and regional effects using an economic model of international trade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reilly, John M.

    1993-01-01

    Empirical estimates of the economic welfare implications of the impact of climate change on global agricultural production are made. Agricultural yield changes resulting from climate scenarios associated with a doubling ...

  3. Where does the carbon go?–Plant carbon allocation under climate change

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sevanto, Sanna; Dickman, L. Turin

    2015-06-01

    The ability of terrestrial vegetation to both take up and release carbon and water makes understanding climate change effects on plant function critical. These effects could alter the impacts and feedbacks of vegetation on climate and either slow down or accelerate climatic warming (Bonan 2008). In conclusion, studies on plant responses to increased atmospheric CO2 concentration and elevated temperatures have become abundant in the last 20 years (for reviews, see Way and Oren 2010, Franks et al. 2013).

  4. Is the basinwide warming in the North Atlantic Ocean related to atmospheric carbon dioxide and global warming?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chunzai

    to atmospheric carbon dioxide and global warming? Chunzai Wang1 and Shenfu Dong1,2 Received 31 January 2010 is controversial. Some studies argued that the warming is due to global warming in association with the secular sea surface temperature. Here we show that both global warming and AMO variability make a contribution

  5. Trends `91: A compendium of data on global change---highlights

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boden, T.A.; Sepanski, R.J.; Stoss, F.W.

    1992-03-01

    The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been prompted to produce the series Trends, a concise inventory of data in response to heightened concern about global environmental issues, in particular climate changes induced by the greenhouse effect. This report contains extracts from Trends `91 to illustrate the content, style, and presentation of data contained in the full 700-page report. This report includes a listing of the investigators contributing data for Trends `91. In addition, it contains the abstract, foreword, and acknowledgments, as well as the introduction and a sample data record from each of the reports`s five chapters. The chapters are ``Atmospheric CO{sub 2},`` ``Atmospheric CH{sub 4},`` ``Other Trace Gases,`` ``CO{sub 2} Emissions,`` and ``Temperature.`` Appendix A provides information about CDIAC and its activities related to global environmental issues. Appendix B lists the contents of the full report. An order form for obtaining a free copy of Trends `91 is found in Appendix C.

  6. Trends '91: A compendium of data on global change---highlights

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boden, T.A.; Sepanski, R.J.; Stoss, F.W.

    1992-03-01

    The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been prompted to produce the series Trends, a concise inventory of data in response to heightened concern about global environmental issues, in particular climate changes induced by the greenhouse effect. This report contains extracts from Trends '91 to illustrate the content, style, and presentation of data contained in the full 700-page report. This report includes a listing of the investigators contributing data for Trends '91. In addition, it contains the abstract, foreword, and acknowledgments, as well as the introduction and a sample data record from each of the reports's five chapters. The chapters are Atmospheric CO[sub 2],'' Atmospheric CH[sub 4],'' Other Trace Gases,'' CO[sub 2] Emissions,'' and Temperature.'' Appendix A provides information about CDIAC and its activities related to global environmental issues. Appendix B lists the contents of the full report. An order form for obtaining a free copy of Trends '91 is found in Appendix C.

  7. MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change What to Expect from Sectoral Trading centers at MIT: the Center for Global Change Science (CGCS) and the Center for Energy and Environmental.mit.edu / Printed on recycled paper #12;1 What to Expect from Sectoral Trading: A U.S.­China Example Claire Gavard

  8. MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    established research centers at MIT: the Center for Global Change Science (CGCS) and the Center for Energy issue, the uncertainties, and the economic and social implications of policy alternatives. Henry D and Policy of Global Change, MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139 4 Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska

  9. WHY CONVENTIONAL TOOLS FOR POLICY ANALYSIS ARE OFTEN INADEQUATE FOR PROBLEMS OF GLOBAL CHANGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risbey, James S.

    WHY CONVENTIONAL TOOLS FOR POLICY ANALYSIS ARE OFTEN INADEQUATE FOR PROBLEMS OF GLOBAL CHANGE of tools for quantitative policy analysis. As policy analysts have turned to the consideration of climate and other problems of global change, they have found it natural to employ such now standard tools as utility

  10. RESEARCH INITIATIVE 15: Multiple Roles for GIS in US Global Change Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Barbara, University of

    RESEARCH INITIATIVE 15: Multiple Roles for GIS in US Global Change Research REPORT OF THE FIRST, for their assistance with the conference. #12;2 #12;3 TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction Background Research Initiative 15" Global change research communities The issues NCGIA plans for the initiative Data Issues Data quality

  11. MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for research, independent policy analysis, and public education in global environmental change. It seeks centers at MIT: the Center for Global Change Science (CGCS) and the Center for Energy and Environmental, and environmental effects. In turn, the greenhouse gas and atmospheric aerosol assumptions underlying climate

  12. MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    similar to those in the U.S. wind atlas developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NRELMIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change Characterization of Wind Power established research centers at MIT: the Center for Global Change Science (CGCS) and the Center for Energy

  13. MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Rising per capita income plays an important role in lower energy intensity. Higher energy prices alsoMIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change Energy Conservation in the United centers at MIT: the Center for Global Change Science (CGCS) and the Center for Energy and Environmental

  14. Adaptation, extinction and global change Graham Bell1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fussman, Gregor

    challenge for evolutionary biology. The transformation of environments by agriculture and industry has. This is likely to reduce the effectiveness of the oceanic carbon pump. Elevated CO2 is also likely to lead

  15. Changes in greenhouse gas emissions such as methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) from high-latitude wetlands in a warming climate may have important implications for projections of global warming, due to the large amounts of carbon stored in high-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    potential of methane. As much as 1/3 of global natural methane emissions come from high latitudes. Efforts and Heimann (2000) with modifications described in Walter et al (2001a ) · soil methane production, and transport of methane by diffusion, ebullition, and through plants modeled explicitly · methane production

  16. Stabilization Wedges and the Management of Global Carbon for the next 50 years

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Socolow, Robert [Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, United States

    2009-09-01

    More than 40 years after receiving a Ph.D. in physics, I am still working on problems where conservation laws matter. In particular, for the problems I work on now, the conservation of the carbon atom matters. I will tell the saga of an annual flow of 8 billion tons of carbon associated with the global extraction of fossil fuels from underground. Until recently, it was taken for granted that virtually all of this carbon will move within weeks through engines of various kinds and then into the atmosphere. For compelling environmental reasons, I and many others are challenging this complacent view, asking whether the carbon might wisely be directed elsewhere. To frame this and similar discussions, Steve Pacala and I introduced the 'stabilization wedge' in 2004 as a useful unit for discussing climate stabilization. Updating the definition, a wedge is the reduction of CO2 emissions by one billion tons of carbon per year in 2057, achieved by any strategy generated as a result of deliberate attention to global carbon. Each strategy uses already commercialized technology, generally at much larger scale than today. Implementing seven wedges should enable the world to achieve the interim goal of emitting no more CO2 globally in 2057 than today. This would place humanity, approximately, on a path to stabilizing CO2 at less than double the pre-industrial concentration, and it would put those at the helm in the following 50 years in a position to drive CO2 emissions to a net of zero in the following 50 years. Arguably, the tasks of the two half-centuries are comparably difficult.

  17. Defining a changing world: the discourse of globalization 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teubner, Gillian

    2004-09-30

    Globalization has, within academic, political and business circles alike, become a prominent buzzword of the past decade, conjuring a diversity of associations, connotations and attendant mythologies. The literature devoted to the issue...

  18. Predicted change in global secondary organic aerosol concentrations in response to future climate, emissions, and land use change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heald, C. L.; Henze, D. K.; Horowitz, L. W.; Feddema, Johannes J.; Lamarque, J. F.; Guenther, A.; Hess, P. G.; Vitt, F.; Seinfeld, J. H.; Goldstein, A. H.; Fung, I.

    2008-03-01

    The sensitivity of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) concentration to changes in climate and emissions is investigated using a coupled global atmosphere-land model driven by the year 2100 IPCC A1B scenario predictions. The Community Atmosphere Model...

  19. Building a Global Federation System for Climate Change Research: The Earth System Grid Center for Enabling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chervenak, Ann

    Building a Global Federation System for Climate Change Research: The Earth System Grid Center for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) [2]. Increasingly, climate change research is data intensive@mcs.anl.gov, bernholdtde@ornl.gov Abstract. The recent release of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 4th

  20. Changes in soil organic carbon storage predicted by Earth system models during the 21st century

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    carbon changes in Earth system models K. E. O. Todd-Brown etcarbon changes in Earth system models K. E. O. Todd-Brown etcarbon changes in Earth system models K. E. O. Todd-Brown et

  1. Carbon nanofibers, precious commodities from sunlight & CO2 to ameliorate global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Licht, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    This study introduces the high yield, electrolytic synthesis of carbon nanofibers, CNFs, directly from carbon dioxide. Production of a precious commodity such as CNFs from atmospheric carbon dioxide provides impetus to limit this greenhouse gas and mitigate the rate of climate change. CNFs are formed at high rate using inexpensive nickel and steel electrodes in molten electrolytes. The process is demonstrated as a scaled-up stand-alone electrolytic cell, and is also shown compatible with the STEP, solar thermal electrochemical process, using concentrated sunlight at high solar to electric efficiency to provide the heat and electrical energy to drive the CNF production.

  2. Global surface temperature changes since the 1850s

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, P.D.

    1996-12-31

    Temperature data from land and marine areas form the basis for many studies of climatic variations on local, regional and hemispheric scales, and the global mean temperature is a fundamental measure of the state of the climate system. In this paper it is shown that the surface temperature of the globe has warmed by about 0.5{degrees}C since the mid-nineteenth century. This is an important part of the evidence in the {open_quote}global warming{close_quote} debate. How certain are we about the magnitude of the warming? Where has it been greatest? In this paper, these and related issues will be addressed.

  3. The Implications of Global Climate Change for Mountain Gorilla Conservation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    a changing and uncertain climate. Frontiers in Ecology andother/ipcc_tar/? src=/climate/ipcc_tar/wg2/index.htm.The implication of projected climate change for freshwater

  4. Geologic carbon sequestration as a global strategy to mitigate CO2 emissions: Sustainability and environmental risk

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldenburg, C.M.

    2011-04-01

    Fossil fuels are abundant, inexpensive to produce, and are easily converted to usable energy by combustion as demonstrated by mankind's dependence on fossil fuels for over 80% of its primary energy supply (13). This reliance on fossil fuels comes with the cost of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions that exceed the rate at which CO{sub 2} can be absorbed by terrestrial and oceanic systems worldwide resulting in increases in atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration as recorded by direct measurements over more than five decades (14). Carbon dioxide is the main greenhouse gas linked to global warming and associated climate change, the impacts of which are currently being observed around the world, and projections of which include alarming consequences such as water and food shortages, sea level rise, and social disruptions associated with resource scarcity (15). The current situation of a world that derives the bulk of its energy from fossil fuel in a manner that directly causes climate change equates to an energy-climate crisis. Although governments around the world have only recently begun to consider policies to avoid the direst projections of climate change and its impacts, sustainable approaches to addressing the crisis are available. The common thread of feasible strategies to the energy climate crisis is the simultaneous use of multiple approaches based on available technologies (e.g., 16). Efficiency improvements (e.g., in building energy use), increased use of natural gas relative to coal, and increased development of renewables such as solar, wind, and geothermal, along with nuclear energy, are all available options that will reduce net CO{sub 2} emissions. While improvements in efficiency can be made rapidly and will pay for themselves, the slower pace of change and greater monetary costs associated with increased use of renewables and nuclear energy suggests an additional approach is needed to help bridge the time period between the present and a future when low-carbon energy is considered cheap enough to replace fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) is one such bridging technology (1). CCS has been the focus of an increasing amount of research over the last 15-20 years and is the subject of a comprehensive IPCC report that thoroughly covers the subject (1). CCS is currently being carried out in several countries around the world in conjunction with natural gas extraction (e.g., 2, 3) and enhanced oil recovery (17). Despite this progress, widespread deployment of CCS remains the subject of research and future plans rather than present action on the scale needed to mitigate emissions from the perspective of climate change. The reasons for delay in deploying CCS more widely are concerns about cost (18), regulatory and legal uncertainty (19), and potential environmental impacts (21). This chapter discusses the long-term (decadal) sustainability and environmental hazards associated with the geologic CO{sub 2} storage (GCS) component of large-scale CCS (e.g., 20). Discussion here barely touches on capture and transport of CO{sub 2} which will occur above ground and which are similar to existing engineering, chemical processing, and pipeline transport activities and are therefore easier to evaluate with respect to risk assessment and feasibility. The focus of this chapter is on the more uncertain part of CCS, namely geologic storage. The primary concern for sustainability of GCS is whether there is sufficient capacity in sedimentary basins worldwide to contain the large of amounts of CO{sub 2} needed to address climate change. But there is also a link between sustainability and environmental impacts. Specifically, if GCS is found to cause unacceptable impacts that are considered worse than its climate-change mitigation benefits, the approach will not be widely adopted. Hence, GCS has elements of sustainability insofar as capacity of the subsurface for CO{sub 2} is concerned, and also in terms of whether the associated environmental risks are acceptable or not to the public.

  5. Modeling U.S. Energy Use Changes with Global Climate Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadley, Stanton W; Erickson III, David J; Hernandez Figueroa, Jose L

    2006-09-01

    Using a general circulation model of Earth climate (PCM-IBIS) to drive an energy use model (DD-NEMS), we calculated the energy use changes for each year from 2003-2025 for the nine U.S. Census regions. We used five scenarios: 1) a reference with no change in temperatures from the 1970-2003 average, 2) a gradual 1 F rise in temperature by 2025, 3) a gradual 3 F rise by 2025, 4) a climate simulation with low temperature response to CO2 doubling in the atmosphere, and 5) a climate simulation with a more extreme response. The low-?T scenario had a cumulative reduction in energy of 2.1 Quads but an increase in cost of $14.8 billion. The northern states had reductions in cost over the entire period, but most other regions had increases in costs because increases in cooling costs outweighed reductions in heating and other energy uses. Higher temperature sensitivity resulted in increased warming, especially in the winter months. Because heating needs decreased, total energy requirements declined by a cumulative 4.2 Quads. However, total cost still increased $6.1 billion and carbon emissions still rose as coal-based electricity for cooling needs grew.

  6. Impact of emissions, chemistry, and climate on atmospheric carbon monoxide : 100-year predictions from a global chemistry-climate model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chien.; Prinn, Ronald G.

    The possible trends for atmospheric carbon monoxide in the next 100 yr have been illustrated using a coupled atmospheric chemistry and climate model driven by emissions predicted by a global economic development model. ...

  7. Estimation of methane and carbon dioxide surface fluxes using a 3-D global atmospheric chemical transport model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yu-Han, 1973-

    2004-01-01

    Methane (CH?) and carbon dioxide (CO?) are the two most radiatively important greenhouse gases attributable to human activity. Large uncertainties in their source and sink magnitudes currently exist. We estimate global ...

  8. Climate change and the socioeconomics of global food production: A quantitative analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rambaut, Andrew

    1 Climate change and the socioeconomics of global food production: A quantitative analysis of how, Andrew J. Dougill and Piers M. Forster August 2010 Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy Working Paper No. 29 #12;2 The Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy (CCCEP) was established

  9. Carbon Disclosure Project Webinar: Climate Change: A Challenge for Bond Analysts

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hosted by the Carbon Disclosure Project, this webinar will cover climate change and how its impacts can present significant risks for municipalities and municipal bond investors.

  10. Carbon Accounting and Economic Model Uncertainty of Emissions from Biofuels-Induced Land Use Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plevin, Richard J; Beckman, Jayson; Golub, Alla A; Witcover, Julie; O'??Hare, Michael

    2015-01-01

    uncertainty of full carbon accounting of forest ecosystemsA. ; Hopson, E. , Proper accounting for time increases crop-use change modeling in GTEM: Accounting for forest sinks.

  11. "The gate-keepers in a changing world: integrating microbial diversity and dynamics with global change biology."

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jessica L.M. Gutknecht and Kathryn M. Docherty

    2011-11-01

    Microorganisms (Bacteria, Archaea and Fungi) are the gate-keepers of many ecosystem-scale biogeochemical cycles. Although there have been measurable changes in ecosystem function due to human activities such as greenhouse gas production, nutrient loading, land-use change, and water consumption, few studies have connected microbial community dynamics with these changes in ecosystem function. Specifically, very little is known about how global changes will induce important functional changes in microbial biodiversity. Even less is known about how microbial functional changes could alter rates of nutrient cycling or whether microbial communities have enough functional redundancy that changes will have little impact on overall process rates. The proposed symposium will provide an overview of this emerging research area, with emphasis on linking the microorganisms directly to important ecological functions under the influence of global change dynamics. The session will include both broad overviews as well as specific case-studies by researchers who examine microbial communities from a variety of taxonomic levels and from various environments. The session will begin broadly, with speakers discussing how microbial communities may inform ecosystem-scale global change studies, and help to make microbial ecological knowledge more tangible for a broad range of ecologists. The session will continue with case studies of microbial community information informing process in global change experiments. Finally, the session will close with speakers discussing how microbial community information might fit into global change models, and what types of information are useful for future studies. We have requested that speakers particularly incorporate their views on what types of microbial data is useful and informative in the context of larger ecosystem processes. We foresee that this session could serve as a focal point for global change microbial ecologists to meet and discuss their field at the ESA 2010 General Meeting. However, more importantly, the session will provide for a broad range of interests for ecosystem ecologists, theoretical ecologists, and global change biologists, and will foster communication between these groups to generate informative microbial community data in the future.

  12. Conceptual understanding of climate change with a globally resolved energy balance model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dommenget, Dietmar

    on the surface energy balance by very simple repre- sentations of solar and thermal radiation, the atmosphericConceptual understanding of climate change with a globally resolved energy balance model Dietmar will introduce a very simple, globally resolved energy bal- ance (GREB) model, which is capable of simulating

  13. MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is driven primarily by a world oil price that in the year 2100 is over 4.5 times the price in the year 2000. In the scenarios of stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations, the global biomass energy production increasesMIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change Biomass Energy and Competition

  14. The change in oceanic O2 inventory associated with recent global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keeling, Ralph

    The change in oceanic O2 inventory associated with recent global warming Ralph F. Keeling, 2002 (received for review September 24, 2001) Oceans general circulation models predict that global warming may cause a decrease in the oceanic O2 inventory and an associated O2 outgassing. An independent

  15. MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change The EU's Emissions Trading Scheme on recycled paper #12;1 The EU's Emissions Trading Scheme: A Prototype Global System? Denny Ellerman* Abstract The European Union's Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) is the world's first multinational cap- and-trade system

  16. GFDL's ESM2 Global Coupled ClimateCarbon Earth System Models. Part I: Physical Formulation and Baseline Simulation Characteristics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wittenberg, Andrew

    GFDL's ESM2 Global Coupled Climate­Carbon Earth System Models. Part I: Physical Formulation coupled carbon­climate Earth System Models, ESM2M and ESM2G, are described. These models demonstrate al. 2002; Delworth et al. 2006). Our approach has been to de- velop two Earth System Models

  17. Simulations of the global carbon cycle and anthropogenic CO{sub 2} transient. Final report, September 15, 1993--September 14, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarmiento, J.L.; Pacala, S.W.

    1998-06-01

    The primary accomplishment of this research was the development of an ocean biogeochemistry model for the carbon cycle, and the application of this model to studies of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} uptake and the global carbon cycle. The model has been used to study the oceanic uptake that would occur if future atmospheric CO{sub 2} were to be stabilized with the ocean circulation remaining constant. The authors also modeled how oceanic uptake would be affected by changes in ocean circulation that are predicted to occur due to global warming. The research resulted in 21 publications, and an additional 5 papers either in press or in preparation. The accomplishments of this research served as the foundation on which the Carbon Modeling Consortium was built. The CMC is a NOAA funded collaborative program involving principal investigators from various NOAA laboratories and universities. It has the goal of developing techniques to monitor the global carbon cycle on land as well as the ocean, and to predict its future course.

  18. Tectonics, global changes in sea level and their relationship to stratigraphical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watts, A. B. "Tony"

    Tectonics, global changes in sea level and their relationship to stratigraphical sequences. Keywords: Sea level; Stratigraphy; Tectonics The development of stratigraphical modelling techni- ques have al., 1982) have focussed on modelling the stratigraphy of rifted Atlantic-type continental margin

  19. International conference on the role of the polar regions in global change: Proceedings. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weller, G.; Wilson, C.L.; Severin, B.A.B.

    1991-12-01

    The International Conference on the Role of the Polar Regions in Global Change took place on the campus of the University of Alaska Fairbanks on June 11--15, 1990. The goal of the conference was to define and summarize the state of knowledge on the role of the polar regions in global change, and to identify gaps in knowledge. To this purpose experts in a wide variety of relevant disciplines were invited to present papers and hold panel discussions. While there are numerous conferences on global change, this conference dealt specifically with polar regions which occupy key positions in the global system. These two volumes of conference proceedings include papers on (1) detection and monitoring of change; (2) climate variability and climate forcing; (3) ocean, sea ice, and atmosphere interactions and processes; (4) effects on biota and biological feedbacks; (5) ice sheet, glacier and permafrost responses and feedbacks; (6) paleoenvironmental studies; and, (7) aerosols and trace gases.

  20. Climate Change Influences on Global Distributions of Dengue and Chikungunya Virus Vectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Campbell, Lindsay P.; Luther, Caylor; Moo-Llanes, David; Ramsey, Janine M.; Danis-Lozano, Rogelio; Peterson, A. Townsend

    2014-01-01

    This packet presents raster data files that accompany a manuscript submitted for publication to Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, titled “Climate Change Influences on Global Vector Distributions for Dengue ...

  1. International conference on the role of the polar regions in global change: Proceedings. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weller, G.; Wilson, C.L.; Severin, B.A.B.

    1991-12-01

    The International Conference on the Role of the Polar Regions in Global Change took place on the campus of the University of Alaska Fairbanks on June 11--15, 1990. The goal of the conference was to define and summarize the state of knowledge on the role of the polar regions in global change, and to identify gaps in knowledge. To this purpose experts in a wide variety of relevant disciplines were invited to present papers and hold panel discussions. While there are numerous conferences on global change, this conference dealt specifically with the polar regions which occupy key positions in the global system. These two volumes of conference proceedings include papers on (1) detection and monitoring of change; (2) climate variability and climate forcing; (3) ocean, sea ice, and atmosphere interactions and processes; and (4) effects on biota and biological feedbacks; (5) ice sheet, glacier and permafrost responses and feedbacks, (6) paleoenvironmental studies; and, (7) aerosol and trace gases.

  2. Observed hemispheric asymmetry in global sea ice changes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cavalieri, D.J.; Gloersen, P.; Parkinson, C.L.; Comiso, J.C.; Zwally, H.J.

    1997-11-07

    From November 1978 through December 1996, the areal extent of sea ice decreased by 2.9 {+-} 0.4 percent decade in the Arctic and increased by 1.3 {+-} 0.2 percent per decade in the Antarctic. The observed hemispheric asymmetry in these trends is consistent with a modeled response to a carbon dioxide-induced climate warming. The interannual variations, which are 2.3 percent of the annual mean in the Arctic, with a predominant period of about 5 years, and 3.4 percent of the annual mean in the Antarctic, with a predominant period of about 3 years, are uncorrelated. 29 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Soil carbon sequestration and land-use change: processes and potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soil carbon sequestration and land-use change: processes and potential W . M . P O S T * and K . C to perennial vegetation, soil organic carbon can accumulate. This accumulation process essentially reverses some of the effects respon- sible for soil organic carbon losses from when the land was converted from

  4. Expert assessment of vulnerability of permafrost carbon to climate change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    emissions and climate forcing. Abbreviations Pg Petagrams C Carbon Carbon dioxidecarbon dioxide (CO 2 ) or methane (CH 4 ) will determine the ultimate radiative-forcing potential of these emissions.

  5. Financing a Global Deal on Climate Change | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar2-0057-EA Jump to:ofEnia SpA JumpGmbHFerrisFillmore CityGlobal Climate

  6. Interactive chemistry and climate models in global change studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chien.; Prinn, Ronald G.

    Continually increasing atmospheric concentrations of radiatively important chemical species such as CO2, CH4, N2O, tropospheric O3, and certain halocarbons most likely will cause future climate changes, which could in turn ...

  7. Changes in soil organic carbon storage predicted by Earth system models during the 21st century

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    carbon changes in Earth system models K. E. O. Todd-Brown etcarbon changes in Earth system models K. E. O. Todd-Brown etDiscussion Paper CMIP5 Earth system models and comparison

  8. Spatial distribution of climate change and carbon taught in MBA schools 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Georgopoulou, Stefi

    2011-08-10

    This paper reports and explores the existing gap in the field of the business industry, as reference to the integration of climate change and carbon management in taught MBA programs. Climate change influences every industry in today’s life...

  9. Global Climate Change Response Program: Potential regional impacts of global warming on precipitation in the western United States. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leverson, V.

    1997-01-01

    This study was designed to build upon a previous Global Climate Change Response Program investigation in which an initial `first guess` climate change scenario was derived for the Western United States. Using the scenario`s hypothesized northward shift in the mean wintertime storm track, historical upper-air patterns in the atmosphere were searched to identify winter months (December, January, or February) that would serve as appropriate global warming analogues (GWA). Contour charts were generated of four geopotential height parameters. Specific pattern configurations of the four parameters were identified that reflected the altered storm track pattern, and guidelines for selecting suitable analogues based on the configurations were developed. Monthly mean precipitation values for the GWA months at three climatological divisions in Western Montana, northern Utah, and east central Arizona were compared with median values for the 1946-89 period to determine if any significant differences existed.

  10. Global Climate Change: Risk to Bank Loans | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainable UrbanKentucky:BoreOpenGilliamOhio:Change | Open EnergyChange: Risk to

  11. Understanding the ocean carbon and sulfur cycles in the context of a variable ocean : a study of anthropogenic carbon storage and dimethylsulfide production in the Atlantic Ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, Naomi Marcil

    2010-01-01

    Anthropogenic activity is rapidly changing the global climate through the emission of carbon dioxide. Ocean carbon and sulfur cycles have the potential to impact global climate directly and through feedback loops. Numerical ...

  12. The terrestrial carbon inventory on the Savannah River Site: Assessing the change in Carbon pools 1951-2001.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dai, Zhaohua; Trettin, Carl, C.; Parresol, Bernard, R.

    2011-11-30

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has changed from an agricultural-woodland landscape in 1951 to a forested landscape during that latter half of the twentieth century. The corresponding change in carbon (C) pools associated land use on the SRS was estimated using comprehensive inventories from 1951 and 2001 in conjunction with operational forest management and monitoring data from the site.

  13. Global Climate Change Assessment Report Shows Nations Not Doing Enough |

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainable UrbanKentucky:BoreOpenGilliamOhio:Change | Open Energy

  14. Global inventory of methane clathrate: sensitivity to changes in the deep ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Global inventory of methane clathrate: sensitivity to changes in the deep ocean Bruce Buffett of methane clathrate in marine sediments, and use it to predict the sensitivity of the steady-state methane inventory to changes in the deep ocean. The methane inventory is determined by binning the seafloor area

  15. Global Change II Water is central to life on Earth. Energy is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Lectures Today's state of global energy oil, gas, coal Alternatives to fossil fuels renewables, nuclear only change from type to type. Second Law of Thermodynamics: Increasing Entropy Changes always occur molecular bonds is called CHEMICAL ENERGY. Choices: Types of Energy #12;Human Use of Energy Before

  16. MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    " in Climate Policy: Should We Wait for More Data? Mort D. Webster Report No. 67 October 2000 #12;The MIT Joint: the Center for Global Change Science (CGCS) and the Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research-profit organizations. To inform processes of policy development and implementation, climate change research needs

  17. U.S. Greenhouse Gas Intensity and the Global Climate Change Initiative (released in AEO2005)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    On February 14, 2002, President Bush announced the Administrations Global Climate Change Initiative. A key goal of the Climate Change Initiative is to reduce U.S. greenhouse gas intensity by 18% over the 2002 to 2012 time frame. For the purposes of the initiative, greenhouse gas intensity is defined as the ratio of total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions to economic output.

  18. U.S. Greenhouse Gas Intensity and the Global Climate Change Initiative (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    On February 14, 2002, President Bush announced the Administrations Global Climate Change Initiative. A key goal of the Climate Change Initiative is to reduce U.S. greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity-defined as the ratio of total U.S. GHG emissions to economic output-by 18% over the 2002 to 2012 time frame.

  19. Global Climate Change Alliance Training Workshops on Mainstreaming Climate

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainable UrbanKentucky:BoreOpenGilliamOhio:Change | Open Energy Information

  20. The carbon question Debate The carbon question Comment/Q&A he key to climate change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - wide deployment of CCS. First, some of the basic engineering required to make rapid economic growth with lower emissions. Moreover, a carbon permit system or carbon tax is only part

  1. Natural migration rates of trees: Global terrestrial carbon cycle implications. Book chapter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solomon, A.M.

    1996-06-01

    The paper discusses the forest-ecological processes which constrain the rate of response by forests to rapid future environmental change. It establishes a minimum response time by natural tree populations which invade alien landscapes and reach the status of a mature, closed canopy forest when maximum carbon storage is realized. It considers rare long-distance and frequent short-distance seed transport, seedling and tree establishment, sequential tree and stand maturation, and spread between newly established colonies.

  2. Lechowicz, M.J., 2001. Phenology. In the Encyclopedia of Global Environmental Change, Volume 2. The Earth System:biological and ecological dimensions of global environmental

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lechowicz, Martin J.

    Lechowicz, M.J., 2001. Phenology. In the Encyclopedia of Global Environmental Change, Volume 2. The Earth System:biological and ecological dimensions of global environmental change. Wiley, London. Phenology Martin J. Lechowicz Department of Biology McGill University Montréal, Québec, CANADA Phenology

  3. Does the location of a company’s global headquarters have an influence on its climate change awareness? 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Zao

    This paper studies whether the location of a company’s global headquarters has an influence on its climate change awareness. The global headquarters hosting business elites from multinational companies are the surrogate ...

  4. An Integrated Assessment Framework for Uncertainty Studies in Global and Regional Climate Change: The IGSM-CAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monier, Erwan

    2012-06-18

    This paper describes an integrated assessment framework for uncertainty studies in global and regional climate change. In this framework, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Integrated Global System Model (IGSM), ...

  5. The dilemma of fossil fuel use and global climate change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Judkins, R.R.; Fulkerson, W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Sanghvi, M.K. (Amoco Corp., Chicago, IL (USA))

    1991-01-01

    The use of fossil fuels and relationship to climate change is discussed. As the use of fossil fuels has grown, the problems of protecting the environment and human health and safety have also grown, providing a continuing challenge to technological and managerial innovation. Today that challenge is to control atmospheric emissions from combustion, particularly those emissions that cause acidic deposition, urban pollution, and increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases. Technology for reducing acidic deposition is available and needs only to be adopted, and the remedies for urban pollution are being developed and tested. How effective or expensive these will be remains to be determined. The control of emissions of the greenhouse gas, CO{sub 2}, seems possible only be reducing the total amounts of fossil fuels used worldwide, and by substituting efficient natural gas technologies for coal. Long before physical depletion forces the transition away from fossil fuels, it is at least plausible and even likely that the greenhouse effect will impose a show-stopping constraint. If such a transition were soon to be necessary, the costs would be very high because substitute energy sources are either limited or expensive or undesirable for other reasons. Furthermore, the costs would be unevenly felt and would be more oppressive for developing nations because they would be least able to pay and, on average, their use rates of fossil fuels are growing much faster than those of many industrialized countries. It is prudent, therefore, to try to manage the use of fossil fuels as if a greenhouse constraint is an important possibility.

  6. Expert assessment of vulnerability of permafrost carbon to climate change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turetsky, Merritt

    to be the main source of C emissions and climate forcing. Abbreviations Pg Petagrams C Carbon CO2 Carbon dioxide be 19­45 Pg C by 2040, 162­288 Pg C by 2100, and 381­616 Pg C by 2300 in CO2 equivalent using 100-year of emissions proposed here are unlikely to overshadow the impact of fossil fuel burning, which will continue

  7. Expert assessment of vulnerability of permafrost carbon to climate change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    Climatic Change (2013) 119:359–374 DOI 10.1007/s10584-013-Canberra, Australia Climatic Change (2013) 119:359–374 ofStockholm, Sweden Climatic Change (2013) 119:359–374 result

  8. Future global environmental changes: Comparison with past and present rates of change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, K.L. (Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul (United States))

    1993-06-01

    Quantification of past and present rates of vegetation change provides a yardstick for the evaluation of future rates of change. Holocene and post-settlement rates of vegetation change were measured at Channel Islands and Capitol Reef National Parks, and at Indiana Dunes and Pictured Rocks National Lakeshores, using various paleoecological proxy data. Vegetation changes were quantified using several multivariate ordination techniques. Comparison of past vegetation changes due to climatic shifts, plant succession, and plant migration, with ongoing changes due to grazing, logging, exotic species invasions, and modified fire regimes, demonstrates that plant communities are presently suffering rates of change which are unprecedented in their severity for the Last 5000 years. The climatic warming projected for the next 50 years will exacerbate these ongoing changes, but win only be one of many variables operating in the unplanned experimental redesign our natural ecosystems.

  9. Global Climate Change Policy A significant proportion of scientific opinion, based on both empirical data and large-scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Global Climate Change Policy A significant proportion of scientific opinion, based on both of climate change are more uncertain. Global models seem to agree that Northwest temperatures will be higher of climate change on the hydropower system are discussed in Appendix N. Nationwide, the electric power system

  10. A Method Countries Can Use to Estimate Changes in Carbon Stored in Harvested Wood Products and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Method Countries Can Use to Estimate Changes in Carbon Stored in Harvested Wood Products to carbon stored in harvested wood products (HWP) and for evaluating uncertainty. The method uses data suggest that uncertainty is most sensitive to uncertainty in production data for solid- wood products

  11. Possible changes for mudflow and avalanche activity in former Soviet Union due to the global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glazovskaya, T.G.; Sidorova, T.L.; Seliverstov, Y.G.

    1996-12-31

    Past research, as well as laboratory evidence have revealed a relationship between climate, mudflow, and avalanche activity. It is possible to predict changes in mudflow and avalanche activity by using climate models. In this study, the GFDL model was used which contained data on mean monthly air temperature, precipitation, and carbon dioxide concentrations.

  12. MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) is the world's first large experiment with an emission trading system for CO2 and it is likely to be copied in dealing with climate change is deciding who has a right to emit carbon dioxide (CO2), and under what analysis need to be related to the economic, technological, and political forces that drive emissions

  13. Towards an understanding of the carbon isotopic changes across the Toarcian oceanic anoxic event

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Alison Margaret

    2005-01-01

    A combination of bulk carbon, biomarker and compound specific isotopic analyses were used in order to investigate the changes which accompanied the deposition of black shales during the upper tenuicostatum and lower ...

  14. National Environmental Health Association position on global climate change adopted July 2, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radtke, T.; Gist, G.L.; Wittkopf, T.E.

    1997-11-01

    The National Environmental Health Association (NEHA) supports the precept that anthropogenic sources, specifically greenhouse gases, are responsible for a significant portion of the measured change in global climate. Further, NEHA supports the concept of an association between global warming and an increased risk to public health. Reducing the amount of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere will benefit human health. This position paper reviews current information on the status of global climate change with particular emphasis on the implications for environmental and public health. It is intended to be used as a basis from which environmental and public health practitioners and colleagues in related fields can initiate discussions with policy makers at all levels -- local, state, national, and worldwide.

  15. Estimating Carbon Supply Curves for Global Forests and Other Land Uses April 2001, Discussion Paper 01-19

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sedjo, Roger; Sohngen, Brent; Mendelsohn, Robert

    2001-04-05

    This study develops cumulative carbon ''supply curves'' for global forests utilizing a dynamic timber supply model for sequestration of forest carbon. Because the period of concern is the next century, and particular time points within that century, the curves are not traditional Marshallian supply curves or steady-state supply curves. Rather, the focus is on cumulative carbon cost curves (quasi-supply curves) at various points in time over the next 100 years. The research estimates a number of long-term, cumulative, carbon quasi-supply curves under different price scenarios and for different time periods. The curves trace out the relationship between an intertemporal price path for carbon, as given by carbon shadow prices, and the cumulative carbon sequestered from the initiation of the shadow prices, set at 2000, to a selected future year (2010, 2050, 2100). The timber supply model demonstrates that cumulative carbon quasi-supply curves that can be generated through forestry significantly depend on initial carbon prices and expectations regarding the time profile of future carbon prices. Furthermore, long-run quasi-supply curves generated from a constant price will have somewhat different characteristics from quasi-supply curves generated with an expectation of rising carbon prices through time.The ?least-cost? curves vary the time periods under consideration and the time profile of carbon prices. The quasi-supply curves suggest that a policy of gradually increasing carbon prices will generate the least costly supply curves in the shorter periods of a decade or so. Over longer periods of time, however, such as 50 or 100 years, these advantages appear to dissipate.

  16. Global Environmental Change 18 (2008) 2637 The new climate discourse: Alarmist or alarming?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risbey, James S.

    2008-01-01

    Global Environmental Change 18 (2008) 26­37 The new climate discourse: Alarmist or alarming? James breakdown in response to sustained warming. Whether this rate is fast or slow, the amount of time available of warming required and the inertia of the climate and energy systems. A new discourse is emerging which

  17. National Institute for Global Environmental Change, July 1, 1994-- June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-31

    This document contains the report from the National Institute for Global Environmental Change for the period July 1, 1994 to June 30, 1995. Separate sections for the Great Plains, Midwestern, Norhteast, South Central, Southeast and Western regions are present. Each section contains project descriptions and abstracts for projects managed by the respective regional offices.

  18. UCIrvineEnvironmentInstitute: GlobalChange,Energy,andSustainableResources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, Michael R.

    UCIrvineEnvironmentInstitute: GlobalChange,Energy,andSustainableResources 2010SustainabilityScienceTeam 2010SSTCohort_pics.docx.8/6/10 Alexis Hickman School of Social Ecology Department: Planning, Policy & Design Adviser: Joe DiMento Concentration: Urban & Community Development hickmana@uci.edu Joe Horwath

  19. MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    centers at MIT: the Center for Global Change Science (CGCS) and the Center for Energy and Environmental issue, the uncertainties, and the economic and social implications of policy alternatives. Titles, and Alaska are the major CH4 regional sources to the atmosphere; responsible for 64%, 11%, and 7

  20. MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    centers at MIT: the Center for Global Change Science (CGCS) and the Center for Energy and Environmental in the formulation of a cost-effective response. To provide improved facilities for addressing their role, we develop (CGE) model of the world economy. The calculation is consistent with underlying economic production

  1. MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change Emissions Trading to Reduce Greenhouse://mit.edu/globalchange/ Printed on recycled paper #12;Emissions Trading to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the United States, allowances acquired from foreign emissions trading systems, and from a special incentive program

  2. MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change Is International Emissions Trading://mit.edu/globalchange/ Printed on recycled paper #12;Is International Emissions Trading Always Beneficial? M. Babikerab , J with the emission targets. However, we show that international emission trading could be welfare decreasing under

  3. MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change The Value of Emissions Trading Mort paper #12;The Value of Emissions Trading Mort Webster, Sergey Paltsev and John Reilly Abstract This paper estimates the value of international emissions trading, focusing attention on a here

  4. U.S. Department of Energy Global Change Fellowships, 1991-2006: Participant Follow-Up

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education

    2006-09-01

    This report provides information on the impact of two U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) programs supporting graduate study related to global change. The information was obtained from former fellows in the two programs, and the report examines their subsequent careers and the benefits of program participation.

  5. The Global Economy and Changes in the Determinants of Cross-National Income Inequality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morris, Theresa M.

    1999-04-01

    economic changes,stemming from the collapse of the Bretton Woods system in 1971 and the OPEC oil crisis in 1973 and 1974, occurred in the global economy. Data from two cohorts of countries are used to test these theories. The first cohort contains thirty...

  6. .Industrial Ecology and Global Change R. SOCOLOW, C. ANDREV/S, F. BERKHOUT, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : Management and Science 261 SusanAnderson 19. Industrial Activity and Metals Emissions 277 Jerome Nriagu 20 IN FIRMS 23. Introduction 331 The Editors 24. Product Life-Cycle Management to Replace Waste Management 335--- .Industrial Ecology and Global Change Edited by R. SOCOLOW, C. ANDREV/S, F. BERKHOUT, and V

  7. MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : the Center for Global Change Science (CGCS) and the Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research://globalchange.mit.edu/ Printed on recycled paper #12;1 Potential Climatic Impacts and Reliability of Very Large-Scale Wind Farms such as wind energy. The widespread availability of wind power has fueled legitimate interest in this renewable

  8. MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in China Kira Matus, Kyung-Min Nam, Noelle E. Selin, Lok N. Lamsal, John M. Reilly and Sergey Paltsev established research centers at MIT: the Center for Global Change Science (CGCS) and the Center for Energy analysis need to be related to the economic, technological, and political forces that drive emissions

  9. MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    emissions taxes. Using a stylized energy-economic model, we analyze the impact of BCAs for alternative Adjustments under Alternative Producer Responses Niven Winchester Report No. 192 February 2011 #12;The MIT: the Center for Global Change Science (CGCS) and the Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research

  10. PacificSouthwestResearchStationPrograms Air Pollution and Global Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PacificSouthwestResearchStationPrograms Air Pollution and Global Change Impacts on Western Forest branch of the USDA Forest Service in the states of California and Hawaii and the U.S.-affiliat- ed economy in the world) and Hawaii (a strategic location in the Pacific Rim economies and tourism). We

  11. PacificSouthwestResearchStationPrograms Air Pollution and Global Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PacificSouthwestResearchStationPrograms Air Pollution and Global Change Impacts on Western Forest of the USDA Forest Service in the states of California and Hawaii and the U.S.-affiliat- ed Pacific Islands in the world) and Hawaii (a strategic location in the Pacific Rim economies and tourism). We develop

  12. MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change Russia's Role in the Kyoto Protocol, and environmental effects. In turn, the greenhouse gas and atmospheric aerosol assumptions underlying climate://mit.edu/globalchange/ Printed on recycled paper #12;Russia's Role in the Kyoto Protocol A. Bernarda , S. Paltsevb , J. Reillyb

  13. Women Changing Africa: Barnard's Third Annual Global Symposium Johannesburg, South Africa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Women Changing Africa: Barnard's Third Annual Global Symposium Johannesburg, South Africa March Banking Division, Development Bank of Southern Africa It really is a tremendous honor to welcome you all to South Africa and to this very special symposium. We have been incredibly honored to see the guest list

  14. Women Changing Africa: Barnard's Third Annual Global Symposium Johannesburg, South Africa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Women Changing Africa: Barnard's Third Annual Global Symposium Johannesburg, South Africa March in South Africa. She, in her key role, saw to it that the World Cup was a smoothly run success and let me of the franchise at Coca Cola, South Africa. She has many times been honoured for her talents in advertising

  15. MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , on balance increasing its role from present levels. The shale gas resource is a major contributor including the scale and cost of gas resources, the costs of competing technologies, the patternMIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change The Future of U.S. Natural Gas

  16. Impacts of Global Change on Diseases of Agricultural Crops and Forest Trees

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Department of Plant Pathology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506-5502, USA. 5 Natural Resources on Climate Change projects rising levels of greenhouse gas and global temperature. The well-known dependence on pathogens have recently been shown in literature linking pathogen abundance to atmospheric composition. Past

  17. POTENTIAL EFFECTS OF GLOBAL CLIMATIC CHANGE ON THE PHENOLOGY AND YIELD OF MAIZE IN VENEZUELA *

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robock, Alan

    POTENTIAL EFFECTS OF GLOBAL CLIMATIC CHANGE ON THE PHENOLOGY AND YIELD OF MAIZE IN VENEZUELA de Ciencias, Universidad de Los Andes, Mdrida 5101, Venezuela 21nstitute of Applied Sciences, Venezuela 4Centro de Estudios Avanzados del Clima Tropical (CEACT), Ministerio deI Ambiente y de los

  18. MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to economic viability affects the nation's energy outlook and the expected role of natural gas in climate, the other using price to achieve a 50% emissions reduction. The shale gas is shown both to benefitMIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change The Influence of Shale Gas on U

  19. Soil microbial responses to fire and interacting global change factors in a California annual grassland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bohannan, Brendan

    and ecosystem control. Regional and global climate changes that affect aboveground biomass will alter fire such as annual grasslands. We examined the effects of a low- severity fire on microbial biomass and specific-deposition, precipitation and CO2) on plant biomass and soil microbial communities for three growing seasons after fire. Our

  20. MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change Energy Scenarios for East Asia: 2005 paper #12;1 Energy Scenarios for East Asia: 2005­2025* Sergey Paltsev and John Reilly Abstract We describe several scenarios for economic development and energy use in East Asia based on the MIT Emissions

  1. MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change Future United States Energy Security paper #12;1 Future United States Energy Security Concerns John Deutch Department of Chemistry the connection between energy and security, especially how the energy security issues that we face in the future

  2. A global analysis of soil microbial biomass carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in terrestrial ecosystems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Xiaofeng; Thornton, Peter E; Post, Wilfred M

    2013-01-01

    Soil microbes play a pivotal role in regulating land-atmosphere interactions; the soil microbial biomass carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and C:N:P stoichiometry are important regulators for soil biogeochemical processes; however, the current knowledge on magnitude, stoichiometry, storage, and spatial distribution of global soil microbial biomass C, N, and P is limited. In this study, 3087 pairs of data points were retrieved from 281 published papers and further used to summarize the magnitudes and stoichiometries of C, N, and P in soils and soil microbial biomass at global- and biome-levels. Finally, global stock and spatial distribution of microbial biomass C and N in 0-30 cm and 0-100 cm soil profiles were estimated. The results show that C, N, and P in soils and soil microbial biomass vary substantially across biomes; the fractions of soil nutrient C, N, and P in soil microbial biomass are 1.6% in a 95% confidence interval of (1.5%-1.6%), 2.9% in a 95% confidence interval of (2.8%-3.0%), and 4.4% in a 95% confidence interval of (3.9%-5.0%), respectively. The best estimates of C:N:P stoichiometries for soil nutrients and soil microbial biomass are 153:11:1, and 47:6:1, respectively, at global scale, and they vary in a wide range among biomes. Vertical distribution of soil microbial biomass follows the distribution of roots up to 1 m depth. The global stock of soil microbial biomass C and N were estimated to be 15.2 Pg C and 2.3 Pg N in the 0-30 cm soil profiles, and 21.2 Pg C and 3.2 Pg N in the 0-100 cm soil profiles. We did not estimate P in soil microbial biomass due to data shortage and insignificant correlation with soil total P and climate variables. The spatial patterns of soil microbial biomass C and N were consistent with those of soil organic C and total N, i.e. high density in northern high latitude, and low density in low latitudes and southern hemisphere.

  3. Acting Globally: Potential Carbon Emissions Mitigation Impacts from an International Standards and Labelling Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNeil, Michael A; Letschert, Virginie E.; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Egan, Christine

    2009-05-29

    This paper presents an analysis of the potential impacts of an international initiative designed to support and promote the development and implementation of appliances standards and labelling programs throughout the world. As part of previous research efforts, LBNL developed the Bottom Up Energy Analysis System (BUENAS), an analysis framework that estimates impact potentials of energy efficiency policies on a global scale. In this paper, we apply this framework to an initiative that would result in the successful implementation of programs focused on high priority regions and product types, thus evaluating the potential impacts of such an initiative in terms of electricity savings and carbon mitigation in 2030. In order to model the likely parameters of such a program, we limit impacts to a five year period starting in 2009, but assume that the first 5 years of a program will result in implementation of 'best practice' minimum efficiency performance standards by 2014. The 'high priority' regions considered are: Brazil, China, the European Union,India, Mexico and the United States. The products considered are: refrigerators, air conditioners, lighting (both fluorescent and incandescent), standby power (for consumer electronics) and televisions in the residential sector, and air conditioning and lighting in commercial buildings. In 2020, these regions and enduses account for about 37percent of global residential electricity and 29percent of electricity in commercial buildings. We find that 850Mt of CO2 could be saved in buildings by 2030 compared to the baseline forecast.

  4. A coupled model of the global cycles of carbonyl sulfide and CO2: A possible new window on the carbon cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

    A coupled model of the global cycles of carbonyl sulfide and CO2: A possible new window] Carbonyl sulfide (COS) is an atmospheric trace gas that participates in some key reactions of the carbon model of the global cycles of carbonyl sulfide and CO2: A possible new window on the carbon cycle, J

  5. Carbon constraint conference: dealing with the climate change conundrum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neville, A.

    2008-07-15

    A report on the carbon constraint conference is given. Papers discussed the US national cap-and-trade program that is on the horizon, managing greenhouse gases, the value of corporate sustainability reporting, balancing the generation portfolio and the use of offsets. 1 fig.

  6. The impacts of population change on carbon emissions in China during 1978-2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu Qin, E-mail: zhuqin@fudan.edu.cn; Peng Xizhe, E-mail: xzpeng@fudan.edu.cn

    2012-09-15

    This study examines the impacts of population size, population structure, and consumption level on carbon emissions in China from 1978 to 2008. To this end, we expanded the stochastic impacts by regression on population, affluence, and technology model and used the ridge regression method, which overcomes the negative influences of multicollinearity among independent variables under acceptable bias. Results reveal that changes in consumption level and population structure were the major impact factors, not changes in population size. Consumption level and carbon emissions were highly correlated. In terms of population structure, urbanization, population age, and household size had distinct effects on carbon emissions. Urbanization increased carbon emissions, while the effect of age acted primarily through the expansion of the labor force and consequent overall economic growth. Shrinking household size increased residential consumption, resulting in higher carbon emissions. Households, rather than individuals, are a more reasonable explanation for the demographic impact on carbon emissions. Potential social policies for low carbon development are also discussed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine the impacts of population change on carbon emissions in China. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We expand the STIRPAT model by containing population structure factors in the model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The population structure includes age structure, urbanization level, and household size. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ridge regression method is used to estimate the model with multicollinearity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The population structure plays a more important role compared with the population size.

  7. Carbon Cycle Coastal Sensitivity to Sea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    For the Year 2000. Available online from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center [http to reduce carbon emissions from landuse change, and may also advance global terrestrial and climate an enormous 500 billion tones of carbon, more than 60 times annual anthropogenic carbon emissions

  8. Tropical Cyclone Changes in the Western North Pacific in a Global Warming Scenario MARKUS STOWASSER, YUQING WANG, AND KEVIN HAMILTON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yuqing

    Tropical Cyclone Changes in the Western North Pacific in a Global Warming Scenario MARKUS STOWASSER The influence of global warming on the climatology of tropical cyclones in the western North Pacific basin Model version 2 (CCSM2) coupled global climate model. The regional model is first tested in 10 yr

  9. Water Resources Challenges in the Next Decade and Beyond - Global Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald Sehlke

    2008-05-01

    One of the most pressing issues facing water resources professionals in the next decade is “Global Change” and its impacts on humans and the environment. Global change research focuses on the anthropogenic aspects of climate change, land use change, water resources development and urbanization. Global change, at its root, is driven by two major factors; first, the overall size and growth of the human population, and second, by a combination of our life styles, our economies and technology development. Arguably, much of the success associated with human survival and prosperity has been related to our ability to control and utilize water resources to our benefit. However, while such development has helped extend human longevity, health and prosperity, our activities have greatly altered the earth’s climate and land and water resources. The hydrological and biological capacity of the earth must be shared by all living creatures. The challenges for water resources professionals in the next decade and beyond are to limit our population growth, to moderate our life styles and economies, and to develop technologies that will provide for our human needs, yet protect and maintain the earth’s environment for all current and future inhabitants.

  10. Physically-Based Global Downscaling: Climate Change Projections for a Full Century

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghan, Steven J.; Shippert, Timothy R.

    2006-05-01

    A global atmosphere/land model with an embedded subgrid orography scheme is used to simulate the period 1977-2100 using ocean surface conditions and radiative constituent concentrations for a climate change scenario. Climate variables simulated for multiple elevation classes are mapping according to the high-resolution of topography in ten regions with complex terrain. Analysis of changes in the simulated climate lead to the following conclusions. Changes in precipitation vary widely, with precipitation increasing more with increasing altitude in some region, decreasing more with altitude in others, and changing little in still others. In some regions the sign of the precipitation change depends on surface elevation. Changes in surface air temperature are rather uniform, with at most a two-fold difference between the largest and smallest changes within a region. In most cases the warming increases with altitude. Changes in snow water are highly dependent on altitude. Absolute changes usually increase with altitude, while relative changes decrease. In places where snow accumulates, an artificial upper bound on snow water limits the sensitivity of snow water to climate change considerably. The simulated impact of climate change on regional mean snow water varies widely, with little impact in regions in which the upper bound on snow water is the dominant snow water sink, moderate impact in regions with a mixture of seasonal and permanent snow, and profound impacts on regions with little permanent snow.

  11. Physically-Based Global Downscaling Climate Change Projections for a Full Century

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghan, Steven J.; Shippert, Timothy R.

    2005-04-15

    A global atmosphere/land model with an embedded subgrid orography scheme is used to simulate the period 1977-2100 using ocean surface conditions and radiative constituent concentrations for a climate change scenario. Climate variables simulated for multiple elevation classes are mapping according to a high-resolution elevation dataset in ten regions with complex terrain. Analysis of changes in the simulated climate leads to the following conclusions. Changes in precipitation vary widely, with precipitation increasing more with increasing altitude in some region, decreasing more with altitude in others, and changing little in still others. In some regions the sign of the precipitation change depends on surface elevation. Changes in surface air temperature are rather uniform, with at most a two-fold difference between the largest and smallest changes within a region; in most cases the warming increases with altitude. Changes in snow water are highly dependent on altitude. Absolute changes usually increase with altitude, while relative changes decrease. In places where snow accumulates, an artificial upper bound on snow water limits the sensitivity of snow water to climate change considerably. The simulated impact of climate change on regional mean snow water varies widely, with little impact in regions in which the upper bound on snow water is the dominant snow water sink, moderate impact in regions with a mixture of seasonal and permanent snow, and profound impacts on regions with little permanent snow.

  12. Local Response to Global Climate Change: The Role of Local Development Plans in Climate Change Management 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grover, Himanshu

    2011-10-21

    change management issues in local policy making have remained a research rhetoric and have not yet translated into planning action. This gap between planning research and practice is probably due to lack of evidence based research on this issue...

  13. Assessing "Dangerous Climate Change": Required Reduction of Carbon Emissions to Protect Young People, Future Generations and Nature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    Assessing "Dangerous Climate Change": Required Reduction of Carbon Emissions to Protect Young high and would subject young people, future generations and nature to irreparable harm. Carbon dioxide. Of course carbon dioxide from deforestation also causes warming and policies must address that carbon source

  14. Assessing the impact of changes in climate and CO2 on potential carbon sequestration in agricultural soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Assessing the impact of changes in climate and CO2 on potential carbon sequestration the influence of climate and CO2 feedbacks on soil carbon sequestration using a terrestrial carbon cycle model sequestration of 42 Tg. This is 5% of the soil carbon estimated to be potentially sequestered as the result

  15. CDIAC -WHPO/CCHDO Data Management Plan for CTD/Hydrographic/CO2/Tracer Data for the Global Ocean Carbon and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    documentation are prepared and made available for both immediate use and a long service life. The CTD hydrography, global ocean carbon hydrography, and similar programs which make use of high quality ocean Carbon and Repeat Hydrography Program Alex Kozyr Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center Environmental

  16. Sensitivity of China's ozone air quality to 2000-2050 global changes of1 climate and emissions2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shiliang

    1 Sensitivity of China's ozone air quality to 2000-2050 global changes of1 climate and emissions2 3 the effect on China's ozone air quality from 2000-2050 global15 changes in climate and anthropogenic emissions of ozone precursors. The climate and16 emission effect in combination will increase afternoon mean

  17. What influence will future solar activity changes over the 21st century have on projected global near-surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lockwood, Mike

    What influence will future solar activity changes over the 21st century have on projected global underestimate the response to solar variations, then there is a potential for a reduction in solar activity will future solar activity changes over the 21st century have on projected global near-surface temperature

  18. Global situational awareness and early warning of high-consequence climate change.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Backus, George A.; Carr, Martin J.; Boslough, Mark Bruce Elrick

    2009-08-01

    Global monitoring systems that have high spatial and temporal resolution, with long observational baselines, are needed to provide situational awareness of the Earth's climate system. Continuous monitoring is required for early warning of high-consequence climate change and to help anticipate and minimize the threat. Global climate has changed abruptly in the past and will almost certainly do so again, even in the absence of anthropogenic interference. It is possible that the Earth's climate could change dramatically and suddenly within a few years. An unexpected loss of climate stability would be equivalent to the failure of an engineered system on a grand scale, and would affect billions of people by causing agricultural, economic, and environmental collapses that would cascade throughout the world. The probability of such an abrupt change happening in the near future may be small, but it is nonzero. Because the consequences would be catastrophic, we argue that the problem should be treated with science-informed engineering conservatism, which focuses on various ways a system can fail and emphasizes inspection and early detection. Such an approach will require high-fidelity continuous global monitoring, informed by scientific modeling.

  19. Large historical changes of fossil-fuel black carbon aerosols T. Novakov,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knowles, David William

    Large historical changes of fossil-fuel black carbon aerosols T. Novakov,1 V. Ramanathan,2 J. E the past century in response to changes of fossil-fuel utilization, technology developments, and emission controls. We estimate historical trends of fossil- fuel BC emissions in six regions that represent about

  20. Does black carbon and humic materials in snow and ice Supervisor: Martin D. King

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Royal Holloway, University of London

    ) burner technology changes the and optics properties of black carbon change. As little as 10 ng of Black carbon in snowpack is a factor of two more effective than carbon dioxide in changing global air with different black carbon and humic loadings, modeling the optical properties of the snow/ice and measuring

  1. Do Forests Have a Say in Global Carbon Markets for Climate Stabilization Policy ? Massimo Tavoni1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ., and Dev. Economics, Ohio State University While carbon sequestration was included in the Kyoto Protocol. Notwithstanding the widespread research suggesting that biological sequestration of carbon can play an important reason for the setbacks to forest sequestration regarded whether carbon sequestration would reduce carbon

  2. National Institute for Global Environmental Change. Semi-annual report, July 1, 1991--December 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Werth, G.C.

    1992-04-01

    This document is the Semi-Annual Report of the National Institute for Global Environmental Change for the reporting period July 1 to December 31, 1991. The report is in two parts. Part I presents the mission of the Institute, examples of progress toward that mission, a brief description of the revised management plan, and the financial report. Part II presents the statements of the Regional Center Directors along with progress reports of the projects written by the researchers themselves.

  3. Geologic Carbon Sequestration: Mitigating Climate Change by Injecting CO2 Underground

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldenburg

    2009-07-30

    July 21, 2009 Berkeley Lab summer lecture: Climate change provides strong motivation to reduce CO2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide capture and storage involves the capture, compression, and transport of CO2 to geologically favorable areas, where its injected into porous rock more than one kilometer underground for permanent storage. Oldenburg, who heads Berkeley Labs Geologic Carbon Sequestration Program, will focus on the challenges, opportunities, and research needs of this innovative technology.

  4. Geologic Carbon Sequestration: Mitigating Climate Change by Injecting CO2 Underground (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Oldenburg, Curtis M [LBNL Earth Sciences Division

    2011-04-28

    Summer Lecture Series 2009: Climate change provides strong motivation to reduce CO2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide capture and storage involves the capture, compression, and transport of CO2 to geologically favorable areas, where its injected into porous rock more than one kilometer underground for permanent storage. Oldenburg, who heads Berkeley Labs Geologic Carbon Sequestration Program, will focus on the challenges, opportunities, and research needs of this innovative technology.

  5. Geologic Carbon Sequestration: Mitigating Climate Change by Injecting CO2 Underground (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2009-07-21

    Summer Lecture Series 2009: Climate change provides strong motivation to reduce CO2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide capture and storage involves the capture, compression, and transport of CO2 to geologically favorable areas, where its injected into porous rock more than one kilometer underground for permanent storage. Oldenburg, who heads Berkeley Labs Geologic Carbon Sequestration Program, will focus on the challenges, opportunities, and research needs of this innovative technology.

  6. Comparison of the Carbon System Parameters at the Global CO2 Survey Crossover Locations in the North and South Pacific Ocean, 1990-1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feely, Richard A [NOAA, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL); Lamb, Marilyn F. [NOAA, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL); Greeley, Dana J. [NOAA, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL); Wanninkhof, Rik [NOAA, Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML)

    1999-10-01

    As a collaborative program to measure global ocean carbon inventories and provide estimates of the anthropogenic carbon dioxide (C02) uptake by the oceans. the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the U.S. Department of Energy have sponsored the collection of ocean carbon measurements as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment and Ocean-Atmosphere Carbon Exchange Study cruises. The cruises discussed here occurred in the North and South Pacific from 1990 through 1996. The carbon parameters from these 30 crossover locations have been compared to ensure that a consistent global data set emerges from the survey cruises. !'he results indicate that for dissolved inorganic carbon. fugacity of C02• and pH. the a~:,rreements at most crossover locations are well within the design specifications for the global CO) survey: whereas. in the case of total alkaliniry. the agreement between crossover locations is not as close.

  7. Carbon dynamics in arctic vegetation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Street, Lorna Elizabeth

    2011-11-24

    Rapid climate change in Arctic regions is of concern due to important feedbacks between the Arctic land surface and the global climate system. A large amount of organic carbon (C) is currently stored in Arctic soils; if ...

  8. Promoting lower-carbon lifestyles: the role of personal values, climate change communications and carbon allowances in processes of change 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howell, Rachel Angharad

    2013-07-01

    Climate change is a pressing problem and substantial reductions in the greenhouse gas emissions that cause it are necessary to avert the worst impacts predicted. The UK has targeted an 80% reduction from 1990 emissions ...

  9. A Study of the Abundance and 13C/12C Ratio of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide to Advance the Scientific Understanding of Terrestrial Processes Regulating the Global Carbon Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen C. Piper

    2005-10-15

    The primary goal of our research program, consistent with the goals of the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and funded by the terrestrial carbon processes (TCP) program of DOE, has been to improve understanding of changes in the distribution and cycling of carbon among the active land, ocean and atmosphere reservoirs, with particular emphasis on terrestrial ecosystems. Our approach is to systematically measure atmospheric CO2 to produce time series data essential to reveal temporal and spatial patterns. Additional measurements of the 13C/12C isotopic ratio of CO2 provide a basis for distinguishing organic and inorganic processes. To pursue the significance of these patterns further, our research also involved interpretations of the observations by models, measurements of inorganic carbon in sea water, and of CO2 in air near growing land plants.

  10. Global patterns and controls of soil organic carbon dynamics as simulated by multiple terrestrial biosphere models: Current status and future directions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tian, Hanqin; Lu, Chaoqun; Yang, Jia; Banger, Kamaljit; Huntzinger, Deborah N.; Schwalm, Christopher R.; Michalak, Anna M.; Cook, Robert; Ciais, Philippe; Hayes, Daniel; et al

    2015-06-05

    Soil is the largest organic carbon (C) pool of terrestrial ecosystems, and C loss from soil accounts for a large proportion of land-atmosphere C exchange. Therefore, a small change in soil organic C (SOC) can affect atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO?) concentration and climate change. In the past decades, a wide variety of studies have been conducted to quantify global SOC stocks and soil C exchange with the atmosphere through site measurements, inventories, and empirical/process-based modeling. However, these estimates are highly uncertain, and identifying major driving forces controlling soil C dynamics remains a key research challenge. This study has compiled century-longmore »(1901–2010) estimates of SOC storage and heterotrophic respiration (Rh) from 10 terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) in the Multi-scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project and two observation-based data sets. The 10 TBM ensemble shows that global SOC estimate ranges from 425 to 2111 Pg C (1 Pg = 10¹? g) with a median value of 1158 Pg C in 2010. The models estimate a broad range of Rh from 35 to 69 Pg C yr?¹ with a median value of 51 Pg C yr?¹ during 2001–2010. The largest uncertainty in SOC stocks exists in the 40–65°N latitude whereas the largest cross-model divergence in Rh are in the tropics. The modeled SOC change during 1901–2010 ranges from –70 Pg C to 86 Pg C, but in some models the SOC change has a different sign from the change of total C stock, implying very different contribution of vegetation and soil pools in determining the terrestrial C budget among models. The model ensemble-estimated mean residence time of SOC shows a reduction of 3.4 years over the past century, which accelerate C cycling through the land biosphere. All the models agreed that climate and land use changes decreased SOC stocks, while elevated atmospheric CO? and nitrogen deposition over intact ecosystems increased SOC stocks—even though the responses varied significantly among models. Model representations of temperature and moisture sensitivity, nutrient limitation, and land use partially explain the divergent estimates of global SOC stocks and soil C fluxes in this study. In addition, a major source of systematic error in model estimations relates to nonmodeled SOC storage in wetlands and peatlands, as well as to old C storage in deep soil layers.« less

  11. Attributing land-use change carbon emissions to exported biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saikku, Laura, E-mail: laura.saikku@helsinki.fi [University of Helsinki, P.O Box 65, 00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Soimakallio, Sampo, E-mail: sampo.soimakallio@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, 02044 VTT (Finland); Pingoud, Kim, E-mail: kim.pingoud@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, 02044 VTT (Finland)

    2012-11-15

    In this study, a simple, transparent and robust method is developed in which land-use change (LUC) emissions are retrospectively attributed to exported biomass products based on the agricultural area occupied for the production. LUC emissions account for approximately one-fifth of current greenhouse gas emissions. Increasing agricultural exports are becoming an important driver of deforestation. Brazil and Indonesia are used as case studies due to their significant deforestation in recent years. According to our study, in 2007, approximately 32% and 15% of the total agricultural land harvested and LUC emissions in Brazil and Indonesia respectively were due to exports. The most important exported single items with regard to deforestation were palm oil for Indonesia and bovine meat for Brazil. To reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions effectively worldwide, leakage of emissions should be avoided. This can be done, for example, by attributing embodied LUC emissions to exported biomass products. With the approach developed in this study, controversial attribution between direct and indirect LUC and amortization of emissions over the product life cycle can be overcome, as the method operates on an average basis and annual level. The approach could be considered in the context of the UNFCCC climate policy instead of, or alongside with, other instruments aimed at reducing deforestation. However, the quality of the data should be improved and some methodological issues, such as the allocation procedure in multiproduct systems and the possible dilution effect through third parties not committed to emission reduction targets, should be considered. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CO{sub 2} emissions from land use changes are highly important. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Attribution of land use changes for products is difficult. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simple and robust method is developed to attribute land use change emissions.

  12. The role of moisture transport between ground and atmosphere in global change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rind, D.; Rosenzweig, C.; Stieglitz, M.

    1997-12-31

    Projections of the effect of climate change on future water availability are examined by reviewing the formulations used to calculate moisture transport between the ground and the atmosphere. General circulation models and climate change impact models have substantially different formulations for evapotranspiration, so their projections of future water availability often disagree, even though they use the same temperature and precipitation forecasts. General circulation models forecast little change in tropical and subtropical water availability, while impact models show severe water and agricultural shortages. A comparison of observations and modeling techniques shows that the parameterizations in general circulation models likely lead to an underestimate of the impacts of global warming on soil moisture and vegetation. Such errors would crucially affect the temperature and precipitation forecasts used in impact models. Some impact model evaporation formulations are probably more appropriate than those in general circulation models, but important questions remain. More observations are needed, especially in the vicinity of forests, to determine appropriate parameterizations.

  13. Relationships between daytime carbon dioxide uptake and absorbed photosynthetically active radiation for three different mountain/plains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt Jr., E. Raymond

    Relationships between daytime carbon dioxide uptake and absorbed photosynthetically active and Atmospheric Dynamics: Boundary layer processes; KEYWORDS: CO2 flux, absorbed PAR, carbon cycle, remote sensing Change: Biogeochemical processes (4805); 1640 Global Change: Remote sensing; 3307 Meteorology

  14. Forest biomes are major reserves for terrestrial carbon, and major components of global primary productivity.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malhi, Yadvinder

    (World Energy Council, Nature 390, p. 215) and increasing at a rate of about 0·1 Gt year­1 primary productivity. The carbon balance of forests is determined by a number of component processes in the carbon balance of each biome are also reviewed, and the evidence for a carbon sink in each forest biome

  15. Structural analysis of three global land models on carbon cycle simulations using a traceability framework

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rafique, R.; Xia, J.; Hararuk, O.; Luo, Y.

    2014-06-27

    Modeled carbon (C) storage capacity is largely determined by the C residence time and net primary productivity (NPP). Extensive research has been done on NPP dynamics but the residence time and their relationships with C storage are much less studied. In this study, we implemented a traceability analysis to understand the modeled C storage and residence time in three land surface models: CSIRO's Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange (CABLE) with 9 C pools, Community Land Model (version 3.5) combined with Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CLM3.5-CASA) with 12 C pools and Community Land Model (version 4) (CLM4) with 26 C pools. The globally averagedmore »C storage and residence time was computed at both individual pool and total ecosystem levels. The spatial distribution of total ecosystem C storage and residence time differ greatly among the three models. The CABLE model showed a closer agreement with measured C storage and residence time in plant and soil pools than CLM3.5-CASA and CLM4. However, CLM3.5-CASA and CLM4 were close to each other in modeled C storage but not with measured data. CABLE stores more C in root whereas CLM3.5-CASA and CLM4 store more C in woody pools, partly due to differential NPP allocation in respective pools. The C residence time in individual C pools is greatly different among models, largely because of different transfer coefficient values among pools. CABLE had higher bulk residence time for soil C pools than the other two models. Overall, the traceability analysis used in this study can help fully characterizes the behavior of complex land models.« less

  16. Carbon cost of plant nitrogen acquisition: A mechanistic, globally applicable model of plant nitrogen uptake, retranslocation,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malhi, Yadvinder

    in the new generation of Earth system models that aim to describe the global N cycle. Citation: Fisher, J. B

  17. Gene expression profiling--Opening the black box of plant ecosystem responses to global change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leakey, A.D.B.; Ainsworth, E.A.; Bernard, S.M.; Markelz, R.J.C.; Ort, D.R.; Placella, S.A.P.; Rogers, A.; Smith, M.D.; Sudderth, E.A.; Weston, D.J.; Wullschleger, S.D.; Yuan, S.

    2009-11-01

    The use of genomic techniques to address ecological questions is emerging as the field of genomic ecology. Experimentation under environmentally realistic conditions to investigate the molecular response of plants to meaningful changes in growth conditions and ecological interactions is the defining feature of genomic ecology. Since the impact of global change factors on plant performance are mediated by direct effects at the molecular, biochemical and physiological scales, gene expression analysis promises important advances in understanding factors that have previously been consigned to the 'black box' of unknown mechanism. Various tools and approaches are available for assessing gene expression in model and non-model species as part of global change biology studies. Each approach has its own unique advantages and constraints. A first generation of genomic ecology studies in managed ecosystems and mesocosms have provided a testbed for the approach and have begun to reveal how the experimental design and data analysis of gene expression studies can be tailored for use in an ecological context.

  18. Effects of 20002050 changes in climate and emissions on global tropospheric ozone and the policy-relevant background surface ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shiliang

    Effects of 2000­2050 changes in climate and emissions on global tropospheric ozone and the policy-relevant background surface ozone in the United States Shiliang Wu,1 Loretta J. Mickley,1 Daniel J. Jacob,1 David Rind) on the global tropospheric ozone budget and on the policy-relevant background (PRB) ozone in the United States

  19. Seasonal and interannual changes in particulate organic carbon export and deposition in the Chukchi Sea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansell, Dennis

    Seasonal and interannual changes in particulate organic carbon export and deposition in the Chukchi) export fluxes were estimated in the shelf-slope region of the Chukchi Sea using measurements of 234 ThÀ238 U disequilibria and the POC/234 Th ratio in large (>53-mm) particles. These export fluxes were

  20. Carbon capture technology: future fossil fuel use and mitigating climate change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    sources for countries heavily reliant on imported fuels4 . Why CCS is not just a synonym for `clean coal'? CCS technology is most frequently discussed in the context of capturing CO2 from coal-fired powerCarbon capture technology: future fossil fuel use and mitigating climate change DR N FloRiN aND DR

  1. Mobilization pathways of organic carbon from permafrost to arctic rivers in a changing climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Laodong

    Mobilization pathways of organic carbon from permafrost to arctic rivers in a changing climate rivers and Arctic coastal regions. To elucidate the transport pathways of SOC, radiocarbon composition is more readily influenced by modern terrestrial biomass, especially in large river basins which also

  2. Growth Termination of Carbon Nanotubes at Millimeter Thickness Due to Structural Change in Catalyst

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    Growth Termination of Carbon Nanotubes at Millimeter Thickness Due to Structural Change in Catalyst, it is reported that "supergrowth" rate decreases with reaction time and finally the growth terminates [2]. Our group recently reproduced "supergrowth" [3] and observed similar "supergrowth" termination within a few

  3. Global climate change mitigation and sustainable forest management--The challenge of monitoring and verification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makundi, Willy R.

    1997-12-31

    In this paper, sustainable forest management is discussed within the historical and theoretical framework of the sustainable development debate. The various criteria and indicators for sustainable forest management put forth by different institutions are critically explored. Specific types of climate change mitigation policies/projects in the forest sector are identified and examined in the light of the general criteria for sustainable forest management. Areas of compatibility and contradiction between the climate mitigation objectives and the minimum criteria for sustainable forest management are identified and discussed. Emphasis is put on the problems of monitoring and verifying carbon benefits associated with such projects given their impacts on pre-existing policy objectives on sustainable forest management. The implications of such policy interactions on assignment of carbon credits from forest projects under Joint Implementation/Activities Implemented Jointly initiatives are discussed. The paper concludes that a comprehensive monitoring and verification regime must include an impact assessment on the criteria covered under other agreements such as the Biodiversity and/or Desertification Conventions. The actual carbon credit assigned to a specific project should at least take into account the negative impacts on the criteria for sustainable forest management. The value of the impacts and/or the procedure to evaluate them need to be established by interested parties such as the Councils of the respective Conventions.

  4. Energy and Climate Change: 15th National Conference and Global Forum on Science, Policy, and the Environment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The 15th National Conference and Global Forum on Science, Policy and the Environment: Energy and Climate Change will develop and advance partnerships that focus on transitioning the world to a new ...

  5. 15.023J / 12.848J / ESD.128J Global Climate Change: Economics, Science, and Policy, Spring 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacoby, Henry D.

    Introduces scientific, economic, and ecological issues underlying the threat of global climate change, and the institutions engaged in negotiating an international response. Develops an integrated approach to analysis of ...

  6. 15.023J / 12.848J / ESD.128J Global Climate Change: Economics, Science, and Policy, Spring 2004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacoby, Henry D.

    Introduces scientific, economic, and ecological issues underlying the threat of global climate change, and the institutions engaged in negotiating an international response. Develops an integrated approach to analysis of ...

  7. Response of tropical sea surface temperature, precipitation, and tropical cyclone-related variables to changes in global and local forcing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sobel, Adam

    A single-column model is used to estimate the equilibrium response of sea surface temperature (SST), precipitation, and several variables related to tropical cyclone (TC) activity to changes in both local and global forcing. ...

  8. Managing the global commons decision making and conflict resolution in response to climate change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rayner, S. ); Naegeli, W.; Lund, P. )

    1990-07-01

    A workshop was convened to develop a better understanding of decision-making matters concerning management of the global commons and to resolve conflicts in response to climate change. This workshop report does not provide a narrative of the proceedings. The workshop program is included, as are the abstracts of the papers that were presented. Only the introductory paper on social science research by William Riebsame and the closing summary by Richard Rockwell are reprinted here. This brief report focuses instead on the deliberations of the working groups that developed during the workshop. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  9. A valuation of possible glacio-hydrological characteristics changes under global warming for Pamiro-Alay glaciation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ananicheva, M.D.

    1996-12-31

    Scenarios of global climate change for doubled carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is transformed into isoline maps for glaciated mountain region. Model data of monthly air temperature and precipitation are recalculated to values of annual solid precipitation and mean summer air temperature reduced to the level of 4,000 meters a.s.l. with the help of contemporary vertical gradients of air temperature and solid precipitation. The calculation algorithm is based on new techniques which analyze relationships between the spatial and altitudinal variability of meteorological parameters and their influence on snow and ice extent. Results form the basis for the calculation of the primary glaciologic and hydrologic characteristics: accumulation, ablation, melt runoff. New altitudes of main glaciological levels are calculated together with corresponding ablation and accumulation in the condition of doubled CO{sub 2}. These data are then used to produce a new spatial distribution of the input variables which can be used for improved melt water and heat resources calculation. The time period over which the model is run to obtain spatial distribution of pointed characteristics is the middle of 21 century, the situation of doubled CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere. Model output is in the form of isoline maps as well as digital data and covers the territory of Pamiro-Alay mountains and adjacent areas.

  10. A Cross-model Comparison of Global Long-term Technology Diffusion under a 2?C Climate Change Control Target

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van der Zwaan, Bob; Rosler, Hilke; Kober, Tom; Aboumahboub, Tino; Calvin, Katherine V.; Gernaat, David; Marangoni, Giacomo; McCollum, David

    2013-11-01

    We investigate the long-term global energy technology diffusion patterns required to reach a stringent climate change target with a maximum average atmospheric temperature increase of 2°C. If the anthropogenic temperature increase is to be limited to 2°C, total CO2 emissions have to be reduced massively, so as to reach substantial negative values during the second half of the century. Particularly power sector CO2 emissions should become negative from around 2050 onwards according to most models used for this analysis in order to compensate for GHG emissions in other sectors where abatement is more costly. The annual additional capacity deployment intensity (expressed in GW/yr) for solar and wind energy until 2030 needs to be around that recently observed for coal-based power plants, and will have to be several times higher in the period 2030–2050. Relatively high agreement exists across models in terms of the aggregated low-carbon energy system cost requirements on the supply side until 2050, which amount to about 50 trillion US$.

  11. Agriculture and Climate Change in Global Scenarios: Why Don't the Models Agree

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Gerald; van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique; Ahammad, Helal; Blanc, Elodie; Calvin, Katherine V.; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Havlik, Petr; Heyhoe, Edwina; Kyle, G. Page; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; von Lampe, Martin; Mason d'Croz, Daniel; van Meijl, Hans; Mueller, C.; Reilly, J. M.; Robertson, Richard; Sands, Ronald; Schmitz, Christoph; Tabeau, Andrzej; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Valin, Hugo; Willenbockel, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture is unique among economic sectors in the nature of impacts from climate change. The production activity that transforms inputs into agricultural outputs makes direct use of weather inputs. Previous studies of the impacts of climate change on agriculture have reported substantial differences in outcomes of key variables such as prices, production, and trade. These divergent outcomes arise from differences in model inputs and model specification. The goal of this paper is to review climate change results and underlying determinants from a model comparison exercise with 10 of the leading global economic models that include significant representation of agriculture. By providing common productivity drivers that include climate change effects, differences in model outcomes are reduced. All models show higher prices in 2050 because of negative productivity shocks from climate change. The magnitude of the price increases, and the adaptation responses, differ significantly across the various models. Substantial differences exist in the structural parameters affecting demand, area, and yield, and should be a topic for future research.

  12. Global

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (Journalvivo Low-Dose Low LETUseful LinksGlass Stronger thanGlenn T.4Global

  13. Climate response to changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide and solar irradiance on the time scale of days to weeks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srinivasan, N.

    Climate response to changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide and solar irradiance on the time scale response to changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide and solar irradiance on the time scale of days to weeks this with the response to a 4% increase in solar irradiance. Our simulations show that significant climate effects occur

  14. The future of carbon sequestration. 2nd ed.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-04-15

    The report is an overview of the opportunities for carbon sequestration to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. It provides a concise look at what is driving interest in carbon sequestration, the challenges faced in implementing carbon sequestration projects, and the current and future state of carbon sequestration. Topics covered in the report include: Overview of the climate change debate; Explanation of the global carbon cycle; Discussion of the concept of carbon sequestration; Review of current efforts to implement carbon sequestration; Analysis and comparison of carbon sequestration component technologies; Review of the economic drivers of carbon sequestration project success; and Discussion of the key government and industry initiatives supporting carbon sequestration.

  15. Proposed Studentship Does black carbon and humic materials in snow and ice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Royal Holloway, University of London

    ) black carbon is increasing or (b) burner technology changes the and optics properties of black carbon carbon dioxide in changing global air temperatures.2 The successful candidate will set-up and conductProposed Studentship Does black carbon and humic materials in snow and ice decay? Supervisors: Dr

  16. The Importance of Carbon Footprint Estimation Boundaries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    The Importance of Carbon Footprint Estimation Boundaries H . S C O T T M A T T H E W S , C H R I and organizations are pursuing "carbon footprint" projects to estimate their own contributions to global climate change. Protocol definitions from carbon registries help organizations analyze their footprints

  17. Integrated Assessment of Global Water Scarcity over the 21st Century under Multiple Climate Change Mitigation Policies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan; Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Wise, Marshall A.; Patel, Pralit L.; Eom, Jiyong; Calvin, Katherine V.

    2014-01-01

    Water scarcity conditions over the 21st century both globally and regionally are assessed in the context of climate change, by estimating both water availability and water demand within the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), a leading community integrated assessment model of energy, agriculture, climate, and water. To quantify changes in future water availability, a new gridded water-balance global hydrologic model – namely, the Global Water Availability Model (GWAM) – is developed and evaluated. Global water demands for six major demand sectors (irrigation, livestock, domestic, electricity generation, primary energy production, and manufacturing) are modeled in GCAM at the regional scale (14 geopolitical regions, 151 sub-regions) and then spatially downscaled to 0.5 o x 0.5o resolution to match the scale of GWAM. Using a baseline scenario (i.e., no climate change mitigation policy) with radiative forcing reaching 8.8 W/m2 (equivalent to the SRES A1Fi emission scenario) and a global population of 14 billion by 2095, global annual water demand grows from about 9% of total annual renewable freshwater in 2005 to about 32% by 2095. This results in almost half of the world population living under extreme water scarcity by the end of the 21st century. Regionally, the demand for water exceeds the amount of water availability in two GCAM regions, the Middle East and India. Additionally, in years 2050 and 2095, 20% and 27% of the global population, respectively, is projected to live in areas (grid cells) that will experience greater water demands than the amount of available water in a year (i.e., the water scarcity index (WSI) > 1.0). This study implies an increasingly prominent role for water in future human decisions, and highlights the importance of including water in integrated assessment of global change.

  18. National Institute for Global Environmental Change. Final Technical Report 1990-2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Athanasios Toulopoulos

    2007-11-01

    Research conducted by the six NIGEC Regional Centers during recent years is reported. An overview of the NIGEC program from its beginnings provides a description and evaluation of the program's vision, strategy and major accomplishments. The program's purpose was to support academic research on environmental change in regions of the country that had historically received relatively little federal funding. The overall vision of NIGEC may be stated as the performance of academic research on the regional interactions between ecosystems and climate. NIGEC's research presents important evidence on the impacts of climate variability and change, and in some cases adaptability, for a broad range of both managed and unmanaged ecosystems, and has thereby documented significant regional issues on the environmental responses to climate change. NIGEC's research has demonstrated large regional differences in the atmospheric carbon exchange budgets of croplands and forests, that there are significant variations of this exchange on diurnal, synoptic, seasonal and interannual time scales due to atmospheric variability (including temperature, precipitation and cloudiness), and that management practices and past history have predominant effects in grasslands and croplands. It is the mid-latitude forests, however, that have received more attention in NIGEC than any other specific ecosystem, and NIGEC's initiation of and participation in the AmeriFlux program, network of carbon flux measurement sites in North American old-growth forests, is generally considered to be its most significant single accomplishment. By including appendices with complete listings of NIGEC publications, principal investigators and participating institutions, this report may also serve as a useful comprehensive documentation of NIGEC.

  19. Review: The Global Warming Reader: A Century of Writing About Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Byron P.

    2013-01-01

    Review: The Global Warming Reader: A Century of WritingMcKibben, Bill, ed. The Global Warming Reader: A Century ofrecord of no action on global warming. Those who have done

  20. The Role of Knowledge in Global Climate Change Governance: Modes of Legitimation in Tuvalu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lazrus, Heather

    2005-01-01

    Local  and  global  environmental  governance.  pp335?350.  Local and global  environmental governance.  pp1?31.  Local and global environmental governance.   pp103?126.  

  1. Conservation priorities under global change : protected areas, threatened biodiversity and research trends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Tien Ming

    2011-01-01

    global protected area governance, 1992-2002. Environmentalgovernance and wealth? Shortfalls in the environmental coverage of terrestrial reserve networks under global

  2. Global modeling of cancer gene expression signa-Cancer leads to permanent changes in cell's physiological state and various

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaski, Samuel

    Global modeling of cancer gene expression signa- tures Cancer leads to permanent changes in cell cancer types. Less is known about the underlying biological processes, or relationships between different cancer types with respect to these changes. While each specific cancer type has a set of unique

  3. Preprint Downscaling Climate Change Salath 02/02/2005 Downscaling Simulations of future Global Climate with Application to Hydrologic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salathé Jr., Eric P.

    statistics to streamflow computed from the observed data. Downscaled climate-change scenarios fromPreprint Downscaling Climate Change ­ Salathé 02/02/2005 Downscaling Simulations of future Global Climate with Application to Hydrologic Modeling Eric P. Salathé Jr. Center for Science in the Earth System

  4. PlanetEarthAutumn2005--www.nerc.ac.uk limate change and global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilfillan, Stuart

    greenhouse gas emissions to 12.5% below 1990 levels by the year 2012. In the UK alone, carbon dioxide traditional energy sources within the next few years. But if carbon dioxide can be separated off from power. Capturing and storing carbon dioxide is called sequestration. Carbon dioxide could be sequestered

  5. Life cycle inventory analysis of regenerative thermal oxidation of air emissions from oriented strand board facilities in Minnesota - a perspective of global climate change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nicholson, W.J.

    1997-12-31

    Life cycle inventory analysis has been applied to the prospective operation of regenerative thermal oxidation (RTO) technology at oriented strand board plants at Bemidji (Line 1) and Cook, Minnesota. The net system destruction of VOC`s and carbon monoxide, and at Cook a small quantity of particulate, has a very high environmental price in terms of energy and water use, global warming potential, sulfur and nitrogen oxide emissions, solids discharged to water, and solid waste deposited in landfills. The benefit of VOC destruction is identified as minor in terms of ground level ozone at best and possibly slightly detrimental. Recognition of environmental tradeoffs associated with proposed system changes is critical to sound decision-making. There are more conventional ways to address carbon monoxide emissions than combustion in RTO`s. In an environment in which global warming is a concern, fuel supplemental combustion for environmental control does not appear warranted. Consideration of non-combustion approaches to address air emission issues at the two operations is recommended. 1 ref., 5 tabs.

  6. Storing Carbon in Agricultural Soils to Help Head-Off Global Warming and to Combat Desertification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenberg, Norman J.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.

    2001-12-31

    We know for sure that addition of organic matter to soil increases water-holding capacity, imparts fertility with the addition of nutrients, increases soil aggregation and improves tilth. Depeing on it's type, organic matter contains between 40 and 60% carbon. Using agricultural management practices to increase the amount of organic matter and carbon in soils can be an effective strategy to offset carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere as well as to improve the quality of the soil and slow or prevent desertification.

  7. ENV/ERS 467/667 Regional and Global Issues in Environmental & Resource Sciences Spring 2005 Global Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nowak, Robert S.

    ) Socio-economic futures in climate change impact assessment: using scenarios as "learning machines synchronous changes in climate. Quaternary Research 56:289-298. Gruber N, Keeling CD, Bates NR (2002

  8. Global Carbon Emissions in the Coming Decades: The Case of China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, Mark D.

    2008-01-01

    2006 GDP CO2 Population Source: LBNL, emissions are derivedCarbon Emissions Reductions, 2000-2020 Mt CO2 Source:CO 2 Emissions, 1950-2006 Mt CO2 USA PRC Source: Historical

  9. Global climate change and international security. Report on a conference held at Argonne National Laboratory, May 8--10, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, M.

    1991-12-31

    On May 8--10, 1991, the Midwest Consortium of International Security Studies (MCISS) and Argonne National Laboratory cosponsored a conference on Global Climate Change and International Security. The aim was to bring together natural and social scientists to examine the economic, sociopolitical, and security implications of the climate changes predicted by the general circulation models developed by natural scientists. Five themes emerged from the papers and discussions: (1) general circulation models and predicted climate change; (2) the effects of climate change on agriculture, especially in the Third World; (3) economic implications of policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions; (4) the sociopolitical consequences of climate change; and (5) the effect of climate change on global security.

  10. International potential of IGCC technology for use in reducing global warming and climate change emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lau, F.S.

    1996-12-31

    High efficiency advanced coal-based technologies such as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) that can assist in reducing CO{sub 2} emissions which contribute to Global Warming and Climate Change are becoming commercially available. U-GAS is an advanced gasification technology that can be used in many applications to convert coal in a high efficiency manner that will reduce the total amount of CO{sub 2} produced by requiring less coal-based fuel per unit of energy output. This paper will focus on the status of the installation and performance of the IGT U-GAS gasifiers which were installed at the Shanghai Cooking and Chemical Plant General located in Shanghai, China. Its use in future IGCC project for the production of power and the benefits of IGCC in reducing CO{sub 2} emissions through its high efficiency operation will be discussed.

  11. Global Warming What is Climate? Ocean's Role in Climate Change Uncertainty Quantification, the Next Frontier The Role Played by Oceans in Climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Restrepo, Juan M.

    Global Warming What is Climate? Ocean's Role in Climate Change Uncertainty Quantification, the Next Department University of Arizona October 11, 2008 #12;Global Warming What is Climate? Ocean's Role in Climate, Undergraduate Students: 2. UQGQG #12;Global Warming What is Climate? Ocean's Role in Climate Change Uncertainty

  12. Global covariation of carbon turnover times with climate in terrestrial ecosystems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-01-01

    cycle in the CMIP5 earth system models. J. Clim. 26, 6801–simulations from CMIP5 Earth system models and comparisonand is considered in Earth system models. The largest global

  13. Decomposing the Impact of Alternative Technology Sets on Future Carbon Emissions Growth1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wing, Ian Sue

    of carbon capture and storage, nuclear, and hydroelectric generation all lead to upward shifts in the long are the drivers of future global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions growth and how would the availability of key Classification: D58, Q4, Q54, O1, Keywords: Asia, energy use, carbon emissions, global climate change, computable

  14. Hydrothermal venting of greenhouse gases triggering Early Jurassic global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Svensen, Henrik

    Hydrothermal venting of greenhouse gases triggering Early Jurassic global warming Henrik Svensen a carbon cycle. The event lasted for approximately 200,000 years and was manifested by a global warming, and the Toarcian global warming. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: climate change; Toarcian

  15. 150 G. Marland et al. / Climate Policy 3 (2003) 149157 Strategies to mitigate anthropogenic climate change recognize that carbon sequestration in the terrestrial biosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niyogi, Dev

    2003-01-01

    anthropogenic climate change recognize that carbon sequestration in the terrestrial biosphere can reduce to create a system of credits and debits wherein emission or sequestration of carbon in the biosphere; Carbon sequestration; Land use change; Land surface change; Surface energy balance 1. Introduction Human

  16. An integrated assessment modeling framework for uncertainty studies in global and regional climate change: the MIT IGSM-CAM (version 1.0)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monier, Erwan

    This paper describes a computationally efficient framework for uncertainty studies in global and regional climate change. In this framework, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Integrated Global System Model ...

  17. Evaluation of Global Monsoon Precipitation Changes based on Five Reanalysis Datasets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Renping; Zhou, Tianjun; Qian, Yun

    2014-02-01

    With the motivation to identify whether or not a reasonably simulated atmospheric circulation would necessarily lead to a successful reproduction of monsoon precipitation, the performances of five sets of reanalysis data (NCEP2, ERA40, JRA25, ERA-Interim and MERRA) in reproducing the climatology, interannual variation and long-term trend of global monsoon (GM) precipitation are comprehensively evaluated. In order to better understand the variability and long-term trend of GM precipitation, we also examined the major components of water budget, including evaporation, water vapor convergence and the change in local water vapor storage, based on five reanalysis datasets. The results show that all five reanalysis data reasonably reproduce the climatology of GM precipitation. The ERA-Interim (NCEP2) shows the highest (lowest) skill among the five datasets. The observed GM precipitation shows an increasing tendency during 1979-2001 along with a strong interannual variability, which is reasonably reproduced by the five sets of reanalysis data. The observed increasing trend of GM precipitation is dominated by the contribution from the North African, North American and Australian monsoons. All five data fail in reproducing the increasing tendency of North African monsoon precipitation. The wind convergence term in water budget equation dominate the GM precipitation variation, indicating a consistency between the GM precipitation and the seasonal change of prevailing wind.

  18. Global warming and climate change - predictive models for temperate and tropical regions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malini, B.H.

    1997-12-31

    Based on the assumption of 4{degree}C increase of global temperature by the turn of 21st century due to the accumulation of greenhouse gases an attempt is made to study the possible variations in different climatic regimes. The predictive climatic water balance model for Hokkaido island of Japan (a temperate zone) indicates the possible occurrence of water deficit for two to three months, which is a unknown phenomenon in this region at present. Similarly, India which represents tropical region also will experience much drier climates with increased water deficit conditions. As a consequence, the thermal region of Hokkaido which at present is mostly Tundra and Micro thermal will change into a Meso thermal category. Similarly, the moisture regime which at present supports per humid (A2, A3 and A4) and Humid (B4) climates can support A1, B4, B3, B2 and B1 climates indicating a shift towards drier side of the climatic spectrum. Further, the predictive modes of both the regions have indicated increased evapotranspiration rates. Although there is not much of change in the overall thermal characteristics of the Indian region the moisture regime indicates a clear shift towards the aridity in the country.

  19. Impacts of global warming on climate change over East Asia as simulated by 15 GCMs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zong-ci Zhao; Xiaodong Li

    1997-12-31

    About 15 GCMs (GFDL1, GISS, LLNL, MPI, OSU, UKMOL, UKMOH, GCMs90-92, GFDL2, NCAR, OPYC, LSG, HADL, GCMs95) obtained from the IPCC WG 1 1990, 1992 and 1995 reports have been chosen to examine the impacts of global warming, on the climate chance over East Asia. Although the models scenarios of the human activities were different for the different GCMs, the climate change over East Asia (70E-140E, 15N-60N) for tile doubled CO{sub 2} as simulated by about 15 GCMs have been analysed. The Simulations shown that the temperature might increased by about 0.5 - 1.5 C over East Asia, especially in winter and northwestern parts of East Asia. The precipitation might increase in northwestern and northeastern parts of East Asia and decrease in the central part of East Asia. The evaluations and assessments of the GCMs over East Asia have indicated that the GCMs have the abilities to simulate the climate change over East Asia, especially for the temperature and the winter season. There are some uncertainties for the simulations to compare with the observations, especially for tile precipitation and tile summer season.

  20. Carbon sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon sequestration is the process of capture and long-term storage of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2).[1] Carbon sequestration describes long-term storage of carbon dioxide or other forms of carbon to either mitigate or defer global warming and avoid ...

  1. MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    under Carbon Constraint: Relationship Between Profit Structure of Companies and Carbon/Fuel Price Structure of Companies and Carbon/Fuel Price Uncertainty Susumu Hashimoto* Abstract This paper examines, by collaboration with the Ecosystems Center of the Marine Biology Laboratory (MBL) at Woods Hole, and by short

  2. Terrestrial Carbon Cycle Dynamics under Recent and Future Climate Change H. DAMON MATTHEWS, ANDREW J. WEAVER, AND KATRIN J. MEISSNER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meissner, Katrin Juliane

    extensive research over the past several years, the uncertainty range on estimates of terrestrial carbonTerrestrial Carbon Cycle Dynamics under Recent and Future Climate Change H. DAMON MATTHEWS, ANDREW, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada (Manuscript received 18 June 2004, in final form 21 October 2004

  3. Thermal Performance of a Novel Heat Transfer Fluid Containing Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes and Microencapsulated Phase Change Materials 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tumuluri, Kalpana

    2011-08-08

    The present research work aims to develop a new heat transfer fluid by combining multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and microencapsulated phase change materials (MPCMs). Stable nanofluids have been prepared using different sizes of multiwalled...

  4. ORIGINAL PAPER Changes in carbon density for three old-growth forests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    a living laboratory for studying forest carbon sequestration under natural environmental conditions that forest landscapes on Changbai Mountain are indeed carbon sinks. Keywords Carbon sequestration . China provide baselines that reveal the potential for continued carbon sequestration in many places where

  5. Evaluating aerosol direct radiative effects on global terrestrial ecosystem carbon dynamics from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhuang, Qianlai

    loading normally induces lower solar energy arriving at the land surface whereas plant photosynthesis of diffuse solar radiation for plant carbon uptake. Comparing with direct-beam solar radiation, diffuse solar to quantify aerosol effects on downward solar radiation. Simulations with and without considering the aerosol

  6. Carbon Density and Anthropogenic Land Use Influences on Net Land-Use Change Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Steven J.; Rothwell, Andrew J.

    2013-10-08

    We examine historical and future land-use emissions using a simple mechanistic carbon-cycle model with regional and ecosystem specific parameterizations. Our central estimate of net terrestrial land-use change emissions, exclusive of climate feedbacks, is 250 GtC over the last three hundred years. This estimate is most sensitive to assumptions for preindustrial forest and soil carbon densities. We also find that estimates are sensitive to the treatment of crop and pasture lands. These sensitivities also translate into differences in future terrestrial uptake in the RCP4.5 land-use scenario. This estimate of future uptake is lower than the native values from the GCAM integrated assessment model result due to lower net reforestation in the RCP4.5 gridded land-use data product

  7. Carbon and nitrogen dynamics in bioenergy ecosystems: 2. Potential greenhouse gas emissions and global

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhuang, Qianlai

    concerns about energy security and environ- mental sustainability have prompted development of renewable energy. Currently, global energy supplies are dominated by fossil fuels, with very limited renewable, only a very small proportion of the world energy supply came from renewable energy sources like hydro

  8. Carbon Capture and Storage, 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-03-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy is researching the safe implementation of a technology called carbon sequestration, also known as carbon capture and storage, or CCS. Based on an oilfield practice, this approach stores carbon dioxide, or CO2 generated from human activities for millennia as a means to mitigate global climate change. In 2003, the Department of Energys National Energy Technology Laboratory formed seven Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships to assess geologic formations suitable for storage and to determine the best approaches to implement carbon sequestration in each region. This video describes the work of these partnerships.

  9. Carbon Capture and Storage, 2008

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-08

    The U.S. Department of Energy is researching the safe implementation of a technology called carbon sequestration, also known as carbon capture and storage, or CCS. Based on an oilfield practice, this approach stores carbon dioxide, or CO2 generated from human activities for millennia as a means to mitigate global climate change. In 2003, the Department of Energys National Energy Technology Laboratory formed seven Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships to assess geologic formations suitable for storage and to determine the best approaches to implement carbon sequestration in each region. This video describes the work of these partnerships.

  10. Estimates of the long-term U.S. economic impacts of global climate change-induced drought.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehlen, Mark Andrew; Loose, Verne W.; Warren, Drake E.; Vargas, Vanessa N.

    2010-01-01

    While climate-change models have done a reasonable job of forecasting changes in global climate conditions over the past decades, recent data indicate that actual climate change may be much more severe. To better understand some of the potential economic impacts of these severe climate changes, Sandia economists estimated the impacts to the U.S. economy of climate change-induced impacts to U.S. precipitation over the 2010 to 2050 time period. The economists developed an impact methodology that converts changes in precipitation and water availability to changes in economic activity, and conducted simulations of economic impacts using a large-scale macroeconomic model of the U.S. economy.

  11. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory interests and capabilities for research on the ecological effects of global climatic and atmospheric change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amthor, J.S.; Houpis, J.L.; Kercher, J.R.; Ledebuhr, A.; Miller, N.L.; Penner, J.E.; Robison, W.L.; Taylor, K.E.

    1994-09-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has interests and capabilities in all three types of research that must be conducted in order to understand and predict effects of global atmospheric and climatic (i.e., environmental) changes on ecological systems and their functions (ecosystem function is perhaps most conveniently defined as mass and energy exchange and storage). These three types of research are: (1) manipulative experiments with plants and ecosystems; (2) monitoring of present ecosystem, landscape, and global exchanges and pools of energy, elements, and compounds that play important roles in ecosystem function or the physical climate system, and (3) mechanistic (i.e., hierarchic and explanatory) modeling of plant and ecosystem responses to global environmental change. Specific experimental programs, monitoring plans, and modeling activities related to evaluation of ecological effects of global environmental change that are of interest to, and that can be carried out by LLNL scientists are outlined. Several projects have the distinction of integrating modeling with empirical studies resulting in an Integrated Product (a model or set of models) that DOE or any federal policy maker could use to assess ecological effects. The authors note that any scheme for evaluating ecological effects of atmospheric and climatic change should take into account exceptional or sensitive species, in particular, rare, threatened, or endangered species.

  12. Z .The Science of the Total Environment 262 2000 263 286 Assessing the consequences of global change for forest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ayres, Matthew.P.

    Z .The Science of the Total Environment 262 2000 263 286 Assessing the consequences of global , and competitors. Because of their short life cycles, mobility, reproductive potential, and physiological. Changes in temperature, precipitation, solar radiation, and atmospheric CO concentra-2 tions can alter

  13. Carbon sequestration monitoring with acoustic double-difference waveform inversion: A case study on SACROC walkaway VSP data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Di

    2011-01-01

    Geological carbon sequestration involves large-scale injection of carbon dioxide into underground geologic formations and is considered as a potential approach for mitigating global warming. Changes in reservoir properties ...

  14. Pitch-based carbon foam heat sink with phase change material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klett, James W. (Knoxville, TN); Burchell, Timothy D. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2000-01-01

    A process for producing a carbon foam heat sink is disclosed which obviates the need for conventional oxidative stabilization. The process employs mesophase or isotropic pitch and a simplified process using a single mold. The foam has a relatively uniform distribution of pore sizes and a highly aligned graphic structure in the struts. The foam material can be made into a composite which is useful in high temperature sandwich panels for both thermal and structural applications. The foam is encased and filled with a phase change material to provide a very efficient heat sink device.

  15. Pitch-based carbon foam heat sink with phase change material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klett, James W. (Knoxville, TN); Burchell, Timothy D. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2002-01-01

    A process for producing a carbon foam heat sink is disclosed which obviates the need for conventional oxidative stabilization. The process employs mesophase or isotropic pitch and a simplified process using a single mold. The foam has a relatively uniform distribution of pore sizes and a highly aligned graphic structure in the struts. The foam material can be made into a composite which is useful in high temperature sandwich panels for both thermal and structural applications. The foam is encased and filled with a phase change material to provide a very efficient heat sink device.

  16. Carbon Sequestration to Mitigate Climate Change Human activities, especially the burning of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and gas, have caused a substantial increase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon Sequestration to Mitigate Climate Change Human activities, especially the burning of fossil-caused CO2 emissions and to remove CO2 from the atmosphere. 2.0 What is carbon sequestration? The term "carbon sequestration" is used to describe both natural and deliberate CARBON,INGIGATONSPERYEAR 1.5 Fossil

  17. Building umbrellas or arks? three alternatives to carbon credits and offsets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.

    2010-03-15

    Carbon credit markets suffer seemingly inescapable flaws that may justify alternative approaches such as carbon taxes, a complete phase-out of carbon dioxide emissions, or a global carbon fund. In the years to come, we must remember that credits are not the only sensible policy options for responding to climate change. (author)

  18. R E V I E W Effects of biological invasions on forest carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R E V I E W Effects of biological invasions on forest carbon sequestration D . A . P E LT Z E R on the effects of some of the major drivers of global change on carbon (C) sequestration, particularly carbon that drive C sequestration. Keywords: biological invasion, carbon sequestration, community structure, forest

  19. Department of Earth Sciences www.rhul.ac.uk/earthsciences Page 1 of 1 Does black carbon and humic materials in snow and ice decay?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheldon, Nathan D.

    the and optics properties of black carbon change. As little as 10 ng of Black carbon in 1 g of snow can cause 1 of two more effective than carbon dioxide in changing global air temperatures.2 The successful candidateDepartment of Earth Sciences www.rhul.ac.uk/earthsciences Page 1 of 1 Does black carbon and humic

  20. Using NASA Remote Sensing Data to Reduce Uncertainty of Land-Use Transitions in Global Carbon-Climate Models: Data Management Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Using NASA Remote Sensing Data to Reduce Uncertainty of Land-Use Transitions in Global Carbon University of Maryland The following Data Management Plan was part of the NASA ROSES 2012 Proposal Using NASA), as described below. We will follow all guidelines in the NASA Earth Science Data and Information Policy, along

  1. MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ://mit.edu/globalchange/ Printed on recycled paper #12;Potential Land Use Implications of a Global Biofuels Industry Angelo Gurgel of a Global Biofuels Industry Angelo Gurgel, John M. Reilly and Sergey Paltsev Report No. 155 March 2008 #12. The Program involves sponsorship and active participation by industry, government, and non

  2. Climate Change Seminar, Fall 2007 1 Climate Change Effects on Natural Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stella, John C.

    . The Discovery of Global Warming. Harvard University Press. Gore, A. 2006. An Inconvenient Truth. Rodale Press and impacts of global climate change, with a focus on natural resources in the Northeast region. We explore migrations and extinctions, the global carbon budget and water resource availability, among other impacts

  3. Carbon dioxide in soil profiles: Production and temperature dependence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : Biosphere/atmosphere interactions 1. Introduction [2] Soil CO2 emissions comprise an important component of the global carbon cycle, and represent the largest terrestrial source of CO2 to the atmosphere. Globally, 2000]. As global temperatures rise, any changes in soil CO2 emissions will in part be determined

  4. The role of US agricultural and forest activities in global climate change mitigation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, En

    2009-05-15

    cost strategies to help with this mitigation principally through carbon sequestration but must be competitive with mitigation costs in the rest of the economy. A general equilibrium approach is used herein to evaluate the role of AF mitigation...

  5. MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    combined cycle (NGCC) without carbon capture and sequestration (CCS), natural gas combined cycle with CCS of this difficult issue, and combining them into policy assessments that serve the needs of ongoing national

  6. Z .Global and Planetary Change 26 2000 7784 www.elsevier.comrlocatergloplacha

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    is only calculated radiation and atmospheric optical depth estimated from a database of global volcanicityArchaeol. Res., 13, pp. 483­501 . Modeled precipitation histories for specific sites in China, Thailand

  7. A review of global ocean temperature observations: Implications for ocean heat content estimates and climate change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    J. Intl 171 497–508 Peltier W R 2004 Annu. Rev. Earthof GIA models: (1) global (Peltier 2004) and (2) regionala layered approximation of the Peltier VM2 mantle viscosity

  8. International impacts of global climate change: Testimony to House Appropriations Subcommittee on Foreign Operations, Export Financing and Related Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fulkerson, W.; Cushman, R.M.; Marland, G.; Rayner, S.

    1989-02-21

    International impacts of global climate change are those for which the important consequences arise because of national sovereignty. Such impacts could be of two types: (1) migrations across national borders of people, of resources (such as agricultural productivity, or surface water, or natural ecosystems), of effluents, or of patterns of commerce; and (2) changes to the way nations use and manage their resources, particularly fossil fuels and forests, as a consequence of international concern over the global climate. Actions by a few resource-dominant nations may affect the fate of all. These two types of international impacts raise complex equity issues because one nation may perceive itself as gaining at the expense of its neighbors, or it may perceive itself as a victim of the actions of others. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  9. FTT:Power : A global model of the power sector with induced technological change and natural resource depletion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mercure, J -F

    2012-01-01

    This work introduces a model of Future Technology Transformations for the power sector (FTT:Power), a representation of global power systems based on market competition, induced technological change (ITC) and natural resource use and depletion. It is the first component of a family of sectoral bottom-up models of technology, designed for integration into the global macroeconometric model E3MG. ITC occurs as a result of technological learning produced by cumulative investment and leads to highly nonlinear, irreversible and path dependent technological transitions. The model uses a dynamic coupled set of logistic differential equations. As opposed to traditional bottom-up energy models based on systems optimisation, such differential equations offer an appropriate treatment of the times and structure of change involved in sectoral technology transformations, as well as a much reduced computational load. Resource use and depletion are represented by local cost-supply curves, which give rise to different regional...

  10. Global hydrological cycle response to rapid and slow global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuang, Zhiming

    Global hydrological cycle response to rapid and slow global warming and Jiaxu Zhang #12;· Anthropogenic global warming causes "robust" changes in the global in the global hydrological cycle due to anthropogenic global warming Atmospheric radiative

  11. The lifetime of carbon capture and storage as a climate-change mitigation technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Juanes, Ruben

    2013-12-30

    In carbon capture and storage (CCS), CO2 is captured at power plants and then injected underground into reservoirs like deep saline aquifers for long-term storage. While CCS may be critical for the continued use of fossil fuels in a carbon-constrained world, the deployment of CCS has been hindered by uncertainty in geologic storage capacities and sustainable injection rates, which has contributed to the absence of concerted government policy. Here, we clarify the potential of CCS to mitigate emissions in the United States by developing a storage-capacity supply curve that, unlike current large-scale capacity estimates, is derived from the fluid mechanics of CO2 injection and trapping and incorporates injection-rate constraints. We show that storage supply is a dynamic quantity that grows with the duration of CCS, and we interpret the lifetime of CCS as the time for which the storage supply curve exceeds the storage demand curve from CO2 production. We show that in the United States, if CO2 production from power generation continues to rise at recent rates, then CCS can store enough CO2 to stabilize emissions at current levels for at least 100 years. This result suggests that the large-scale implementation of CCS is a geologically viable climate-change mitigation option in the United States over the next century.

  12. Carbon impact of proposed hydroelectric dams in Chilean Patagonia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mar, Laura E. (Laura Elizabeth)

    2009-01-01

    The concern for and awareness of climate change is growing, and the world needs to react quickly and efficiently to manage the carbon intensity of the global energy industry. Making smart decisions about energy technology ...

  13. Real estate opportunities in energy efficiency and carbon markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Binkley, Aaron G

    2007-01-01

    Global interest in the effects of climate change has grown rapidly in recent years. The US federal government mulls a cap and trade system for large carbon emitters while states implement their own greenhouse gas schemes. ...

  14. PUBLISHED ONLINE: XX MONTH XXXX | DOI: 10.1038/NCLIMATE1951 Global soil carbon projections are improved by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allison, Steven D.

    Society relies on Earth system models (ESMs) to project future climate and carbon cycle feedbacks. However

  15. PUBLISHED ONLINE: 28 JULY 2013 | DOI: 10.1038/NCLIMATE1951 Global soil carbon projections are improved by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saleska, Scott

    Society relies on Earth system models (ESMs) to project future climate and carbon (C) cycle feedbacks

  16. o meet the challenges of global climate change, greenhouse-gas emissions must

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lehmann, Johannes

    that sequester carbon dioxide in their biomass or in soil organic matter2 (see graphic, overleaf). Indeed biomass without oxygen (a process known as low-temperature pyrolysis). Pyrolysis converts trees remains in soils for hundreds or thousands of years, it would be considered a long-term sink

  17. MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emissions Trading: A Laboratory Test Björn Carlén Report No. 96 January 2003 #12;The MIT Joint Program paper #12;Market Power in International Carbon Emissions Trading: A Laboratory Test Björn Carlén in international greenhouse gas emissions trading has led several policy analysts to express concerns that trade

  18. MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the Marine Biology Laboratory (MBL) at Woods Hole, and by short- and long-term visitors to the Program the apparent paradox that the relative carbon price among Kyoto parties may not be an accurate measure distortions, in the form of fuel and other taxes, in determining the burden of a climate policy. Also, effects

  19. MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the Marine Biology Laboratory (MBL) at Woods Hole, and by short- and long-term visitors to the Program, the tax would be levied on fossil fuel use and the revenue distributed to several sectors of the economy that they are substantial. Full utilization of international emission trading by Japan reduces the carbon price, w

  20. MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    type of power plant to build. The pulverized coal technology (PC) still offer the lowest cost power Investments in Alternative Coal-Fired Power Plant Designs Ram C. Sekar, John E. Parsons, Howard J. Herzog paper #12;Future Carbon Regulations and Current Investments in Alternative Coal-Fired Power Plant

  1. MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Generation Technologies and the Cost of Carbon Abatement Bruno Lanz and Sebastian Rausch Report No. 194.mit.edu / Printed on recycled paper #12;General Equilibrium, Electricity Generation Technologies and the Cost sector that use bottom-up engineering data on generation technology costs, and (ii) multi-sector general

  2. MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) may offer a potential near term, low carbon alternative to today Vehicles in the United States and Japan: A General Equilibrium Analysis Valerie J. Karplus, Sergey Paltsev) and the Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research (CEEPR). These two centers bridge many key areas

  3. Same Science, Differing Policies; The Saga of Global Climate Change Eugene B. Skolnikoff *

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    presents at best only a minor problem for the future. Why are there such differing responses and what can of Europe and the U.S. on this issue. It is necessarily an impressionistic analysis, based on general of living. Carbon dioxide (CO2), a product primarily of the burning of fossil fuels to produce usable energy

  4. MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for 100 parameters in the EPPA model, including labor productivity growth rates, energy efficiency trends) and the Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research (CEEPR). These two centers bridge many key areas in emissions factors for urban pollutants. The resulting uncertainty in emissions and global costs is explored

  5. Projected changes in global tropospheric ozone to 2030 David Stevenson, Institute for Meteorology, University of Edinburgh

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevenson, David

    ,000 Lagrangian air parcels, and simulates 70 species with 160 reactions. It has an output resolution of 5° x 5° x much of the troposphere, often reinforcing the existing spring maximum. Tateno Japan36°N Hilo Hawaii20 globally. Emissions controls have been used successfully to reduce peak O3 values seen during pollution

  6. Expanding Global Network: Discovery to Delivery The United States ranks #1 in innovation. Purdue is preparing for the 21st century global

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    challenges ­ global health, global competitiveness, global energy security, global warming, global with the Bayero University, Nigeria (K. Beaver) Frontiers in applications of carbon nanotubes and graphene

  7. Co-benefits of Carbon Standards Part 1: Air Pollution Changes under Different 111d Options for Existing Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohan, Chilukuri K.

    Co-benefits of Carbon Standards Part 1: Air Pollution Changes under Different 111d Options for existing power plants would decrease emissions of co-pollutants that contribute to local and regional air pollution standard would improve air quality and decrease the deposition of harmful pollutants. It is well

  8. PHYSICAL REVIEW B 88, 245402 (2013) Limits of mechanical energy storage and structural changes in twisted carbon nanotube ropes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tománek, David

    2013-01-01

    PHYSICAL REVIEW B 88, 245402 (2013) Limits of mechanical energy storage and structural changes examine the limits of reversible energy storage and identify structural deformations beyond the elastic conditions, the calculated reversible mechanical energy storage capacity of twisted carbon nanotube ropes

  9. Moisture Flux Convergence in Regional and Global Climate Models: Implications for Droughts in the Southwestern United States Under Climate Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Yanhong; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Salathe, E.; Dominguez, Francina; Nijssen, Bart; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2012-05-10

    The water cycle of the southwestern United States (SW) is dominated by winter storms that maintain a positive annual net precipitation. Analysis of the control and future climate from four pairs of regional and global climate models (RCMs and GCMs) shows that the RCMs simulate a higher fraction of transient eddy moisture fluxes because the hydrodynamic instabilities associated with flow over complex terrain are better resolved. Under global warming, this enables the RCMs to capture the response of transient eddies to increased atmospheric stability that allows more moisture to converge on the windward side of the mountains by blocking. As a result, RCMs simulate enhanced transient eddy moisture convergence in the SW compared to GCMs, although both robustly simulate drying due to enhanced moisture divergence by the divergent mean flow in a warmer climate. This enhanced convergence leads to reduced susceptibility to hydrological change in the RCMs compared to GCMs.

  10. Global Change and Mountain Lakes: Establishing Nutrient Criteria and Critical Loads for Sierra Nevada Lakes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heard, ANDREA Michelle

    2013-01-01

    and climate change in European mountain lakes assessed usinglimitation in Colorado mountain lakes. Freshwater Biologyparks of the Rocky Mountains. Ecological Applications 19(4):

  11. MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ://MIT.EDU/globalchange/ Printed on recycled paper #12;Explaining Long-Run Changes in the Energy Intensity of the U.S. Economy Ian industries over 39 years to decompose changes in the aggregate energy-GDP ratio into shifts in sectoral

  12. alpine space -man & environment, vol. 7: Global Change and Sustainable Development in Mountain Regions 2008 iup innsbruck university press, ISBN 978-3-902571-97-7

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Charles W.

    95 alpine space - man & environment, vol. 7: Global Change and Sustainable Development in Mountain Mountain Forests: Connecting People and Ecology Dan Binkley Colorado Forest Restoration Institute, Warner Mountains form the backbone of the North American continent, separating waters flowing eastward

  13. Using an Explicit Emission Tagging Method in Global Modeling of Source-Receptor Relationships for Black Carbon in the Arctic: Variations, Sources and Transport Pathways

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Hailong; Rasch, Philip J.; Easter, Richard C.; Singh, Balwinder; Zhang, Rudong; Ma, Po-Lun; Qian, Yun; Ghan, Steven J.; Beagley, Nathaniel

    2014-11-27

    We introduce an explicit emission tagging technique in the Community Atmosphere Model to quantify source-region-resolved characteristics of black carbon (BC), focusing on the Arctic. Explicit tagging of BC source regions without perturbing the emissions makes it straightforward to establish source-receptor relationships and transport pathways, providing a physically consistent and computationally efficient approach to produce a detailed characterization of the destiny of regional BC emissions and the potential for mitigation actions. Our analysis shows that the contributions of major source regions to the global BC burden are not proportional to the respective emissions due to strong region-dependent removal rates and lifetimes, while the contributions to BC direct radiative forcing show a near-linear dependence on their respective contributions to the burden. Distant sources contribute to BC in remote regions mostly in the mid- and upper troposphere, having much less impact on lower-level concentrations (and deposition) than on burden. Arctic BC concentrations, deposition and source contributions all have strong seasonal variations. Eastern Asia contributes the most to the wintertime Arctic burden. Northern Europe emissions are more important to both surface concentration and deposition in winter than in summer. The largest contribution to Arctic BC in the summer is from Northern Asia. Although local emissions contribute less than 10% to the annual mean BC burden and deposition within the Arctic, the per-emission efficiency is much higher than for major non-Arctic sources. The interannual variability (1996-2005) due to meteorology is small in annual mean BC burden and radiative forcing but is significant in yearly seasonal means over the Arctic. When a slow aging treatment of BC is introduced, the increase of BC lifetime and burden is source-dependent. Global BC forcing-per-burden efficiency also increases primarily due to changes in BC vertical distributions. The relative contribution from major non-Arctic sources to the Arctic BC burden increases only slightly, although the contribution of Arctic local sources is reduced by a factor of 2 due to the slow aging treatment.

  14. Understanding and predicting global leaf phenology using satellite observations of vegetation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caldararu, Silvia

    2013-07-01

    Leaf phenology refers to the timing of leaf life cycle events and is essential to our understanding of the earth system as it impacts the terrestrial carbon and water cycles and indirectly global climate through changes ...

  15. Detailed Modeling of Industrial Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in an Integrated Assessment Model of Long-term Global Change 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinha, P.; Wise, M.; Smith, S.

    2006-01-01

    Conference 2006 Session 11 – Industrial Energy Modeling: What is the State of the Art? Detailed Modeling of Industrial Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in an Integrated Assessment Model of Long-term Global Change ParamitaSinha 1 MarshallWise 2* ,and...StevenSmith 2 1 UniversityofMaryland,CollegePark. 2 PacificNorthwestNationalLaboratory,JointGlobalChangeResearch Institute,CollegePark,MD. 1. Introduction Thispaperpresentsanewapproachtounderstandingthepotentiallong-termevolutionofenergy demandsinthe...

  16. The change of microstructure and thermal properties in ion irradiated carbon nanotube mats as a function of ion penetration depth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aitkaliyeva, A. [Materials Science and Engineering Program, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States)] [Materials Science and Engineering Program, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Shao, L. [Materials Science and Engineering Program, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States) [Materials Science and Engineering Program, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States)

    2013-02-11

    A stack of three carbon nanotube (CNT) mats was irradiated with 3 MeV He ions. The change in structural and thermal properties of individual mats as a function of ion penetration depth was characterized using electron microscopy and laser flash techniques. Ion irradiation can enhance thermal conductivity of the mats by introducing inter-tube displacements, which improve phonon transport across adjacent nanotubes. The enhancement, however, is reduced at higher damage levels due to the increasing phonon-defect scattering within the tubes. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using ion irradiation to manipulate thermal transport in carbon nanotubes.

  17. Crop water stress under climate change uncertainty : global policy and regional risk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gueneau, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    Fourty percent of all crops grown in the world today are grown using irrigation, and shifting precipitation patterns due to climate change are viewed as a major threat to food security. This thesis examines, in the framework ...

  18. Global Change and Mountain Lakes: Establishing Nutrient Criteria and Critical Loads for Sierra Nevada Lakes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heard, ANDREA Michelle

    2013-01-01

    change in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, Alberta. Journalor the Canadian Athabasca Oil Sands (Curtis et al. 2010),Rose et al. 1999 Athabasca Oil Sands SM6 Curtis et al. 2010

  19. A Model of Global Learning: How Students Change Through International High-Impact Experiences 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Redwine, Tobin Dean

    2014-12-12

    is warranted. The purpose of this study was to develop a model to explain the viewpoints of student changes by students who participate in a study abroad experience. To meet that purpose, three objectives were utilized. First, a qualitative phenomenology...

  20. CTFS-ForestGEO: a worldwide network monitoring forests in an era of global change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    W. HARGROVE 29 , TERESE B. HART 30 , BILLY C.H. HAU 31 ,McMahon SM, Thomas SC, Hart TB, Condit R (2011) DemographyChange Biology Makana  J,  Hart  T,  Liengola  I,  Ewango  

  1. Carbon offsets, the CDM, and sustainable development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for research on post-2012 climate policy at the British Tyndall Centre for Climate Change, and chairsChapter 11 Carbon offsets, the CDM, and sustainable development Diana M. Liverman Diana M. Liverman of the ESSP. Her research has focused on the human dimensions of global environmental change, especially

  2. R E V I E W Mineral soil carbon fluxes in forests and implications for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keeton, William S.

    R E V I E W Mineral soil carbon fluxes in forests and implications for carbon balance assessments and mitigate climate change. Large amounts of carbon (C) are stored in deep mineral forest soils, but are often not considered in accounting for global C fluxes because mineral soil C is commonly thought to be relatively

  3. The legacy of harvest and fire on ecosystem carbon storage in a north temperate forest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Curtis, Peter S.

    to store carbon (C) due to variation in disturbance frequency and intensity, successional status, soil: Disturbance effects on forest carbon storage Final Submission to Global Change Biology 1 #12;Summary1 2 3 4 5 this legacy of disturbance constrains forest carbon (C) storage rates by quantifying C pools and fluxes after

  4. Modelling vegetation dynamics at global scale due to climate changes: Comparison of two approaches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belotelov, N.V.; Bogatyrev, B.G.; Lobanov, A.I.

    1996-12-31

    Climate changes will influence vegetation dynamics. One of the ways of forecasting these changes is the creation of mathematical models describing vegetation dynamics. Computer experiments can then be conducted under climate change scenarios. Two main approaches are used to create such models. The first approach is based on a bioclimatic dynamic approach. The second approach is based on modelling the main eco-physiological processes. The bioclimatic dynamic approach consists of hypotheses about vegetation types or biomes, and their interrelationships with climate. In the eco-physiological approach, a detailed description of the processes, such as production, mortality, plants migration and their competition is presented. A number of computer experiments has been conducted for several climatic scenario for Russia and the whole world. A qualitative comparison of the results with the results of an earlier bioclimatic model has been done.

  5. Chapter 1 Climate monitoring The European Commission strategy for global climate change studies and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel, Rosenfeld

    now in changing the climate, it is only one of the two major components that energize the climate system. Because the air is transparent to sunlight at most of the solar wavelengths, most of the solar radiation is delivered to the atmosphere indirectly by surface heating. However, most (~ 77%) of the solar

  6. Z .Global and Planetary Change 29 2001 149152 www.elsevier.comrlocatergloplacha

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beltrami, Hugo

    : Inference of climate change from geothermal data Over the past century, both anthropogenic green- house instrumental records. Geothermal data provide an important supplement to traditional proxy records was recognized almost as soon as tempera- ture­depth measurements were made in boreholes Z .Lane, 1923; Hotchkiss

  7. MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    find the cost-effective climate policy to include a combination of R&D subsidies and CO2 emission differentiated toward CO2-intensive sectors are more cost effective than constraints that generate uniform CO2 links between CO2 emissions associated with energy use, directed technical change and the economy. We

  8. MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Change Science (CGCS) and the Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research (CEEPR). These two, and political forces that drive emissions, and to the results of international agreements and mitigation Agriculture Richard S. Eckaus and Katherine Kit-Yan Tso Abstract In this paper the variations across China

  9. MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Change Science (CGCS) and the Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research (CEEPR). These two, and political forces that drive emissions, and to the results of international agreements and mitigation damages occur in the eastern U.S., Europe, and eastern China, with reductions in Net Primary Production

  10. A comparison of neural network and processbased models for vegetation distribution under global climate change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    climate change Eric Chown chown@cs.orst.edu Thomas G. Dietterich tgd@cs.orst.edu Department of Computer covering current climate and vegetation distribution in the coterminous United States. Completely automated on two tasks: prediction of current vegetation distribution given current climate and prediction

  11. MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (climate sensitivity and rate of heat penetration into the deep ocean) by comparing a modelÕs response-dimensional (2D) climate model in conjunction with results from the UK Hadley CentreÕs coupled atmosphere-ocean into the deep ocean. Vertical patterns of zonal mean temperature change through the troposphere and lower

  12. Global climate change and maize production in Spain: Risk assessment and impacts of weather on yields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feijoo, M.L.; Mestre, F.; Iglesias, A.; Rosenzweig, C.

    1996-12-31

    The study evaluates the potential effect of climate change on maize production in Spain, combining climate models, a crop productivity model, a decision support system and a yield-response model. The study was carried out for two agricultural regions that include the largest areas of Spain where maize is grown as a high input crop. The paper combines the output from a crop model with different techniques of analysis. The scenarios used in this study were generated from the output of two General Circulation Models (GCMs): the Goddard Institute for Space Studies model (GISS) and the Canadian Climate Change Model (CCCM). The study also includes a preliminary evaluation of the potential changes in monetary returns taking into account the possible variability of grain yields and prices, using mean-Gini stochastic dominance (MGSD). A yield response model was estimated using simulated data from the crop model. Weather variables are included. Typically, temperature and precipitation are the only weather variables included in these models. However, solar radiation is another important climate factor for plant growth and development and were included in the yield response model.

  13. High-Resolution Carbon Isotope Stratigraphy, Pennsylvanian Snaky Canyon Formation, East-Central Idaho: Implications for Regional and Global Correlations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jolley, Casey

    2012-07-16

    Nearly 550 samples of fine grained carbonates, collected every 0.5 to 1.0 m from the Bloom Member of the Snaky Canyon Formation at Gallagher Peak, Idaho, were analyzed to determine the high-resolution carbon isotope stratigraphy. To constrain...

  14. Carbon sequestration research and development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reichle, Dave; Houghton, John; Kane, Bob; Ekmann, Jim; and others

    1999-12-31

    Predictions of global energy use in the next century suggest a continued increase in carbon emissions and rising concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in the atmosphere unless major changes are made in the way we produce and use energy--in particular, how we manage carbon. For example, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts in its 1995 ''business as usual'' energy scenario that future global emissions of CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere will increase from 7.4 billion tonnes of carbon (GtC) per year in 1997 to approximately 26 GtC/year by 2100. IPCC also projects a doubling of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration by the middle of next century and growing rates of increase beyond. Although the effects of increased CO{sub 2} levels on global climate are uncertain, many scientists agree that a doubling of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations could have a variety of serious environmental consequences. The goal of this report is to identify key areas for research and development (R&D) that could lead to an understanding of the potential for future use of carbon sequestration as a major tool for managing carbon emissions. Under the leadership of DOE, researchers from universities, industry, other government agencies, and DOE national laboratories were brought together to develop the technical basis for conceiving a science and technology road map. That effort has resulted in this report, which develops much of the information needed for the road map.

  15. ITF CLIMATE CHANGE CONFERENCE MEXICO CITY 4 AUGUST 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danforth, Bryan Nicholas

    ITF CLIMATE CHANGE CONFERENCE MEXICO CITY 4 AUGUST 2010 DISCUSSION DOCUMENT TRANSPORT WORKERS AND CLIMATE CHANGE: TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE, LOW-CARBON MOBILITY ITF CLIMATE CHANGE WORKING GROUP IN COLLABORATION Climate Change Working Group in collaboration with the Global Labor Institute (GLI), School of Industrial

  16. Remote estimation of carbon dioxide uptake by a Mediterranean forest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garbulsky, Martín

    Remote estimation of carbon dioxide uptake by a Mediterranean forest M A R T I´ N F. G A R B U L Science and Environment, University of Tuscia, 01100 Viterbo, Italy Abstract The estimation of the carbon of the ecology of global change. Current remote sensing methodologies for estimating gross primary productivity

  17. Possible impacts of a future Grand Solar Minimum on climate: Stratospheric and global circulation changes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maycock, A. C.; Ineson, S.; Gray, L. J.; Scaife, A. A.; Anstey, J. A.; Lockwood, M.; Butchart, N.; Hardiman, S. C.; Mitchell, D. M.; Osprey, S. M.

    2015-04-28

    record of the solar modulation potential, ?, for the last 9300 years. This is a measure of35 the shielding of the Earth from galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) by the Sun’s magnetic field,36 and is derived from cosmogenic radionuclide data from ice cores... and changes in surface temperature that resemble the positive96 phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) [Seppa¨la¨ et al., 2009]. Such effects will not97 be considered in this study because solar particles are not currently represented in the98 climate...

  18. Public awareness of carbon capture and storage : a survey of attitudes toward climate change mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Curry, Thomas Edward, 1977-

    2004-01-01

    The Carbon Capture and Sequestration Technologies Program in the Laboratory for Energy and the Environment at MIT conducted a survey of public attitudes on energy use and environmental concerns. Over 1,200 people, representing ...

  19. The lifetime of carbon capture and storage as a climate-change mitigation technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Szulczewski, Michael Lawrence

    In carbon capture and storage (CCS), CO[subscript 2] is captured at power plants and then injected underground into reservoirs like deep saline aquifers for long-term storage. While CCS may be critical for the continued ...

  20. Chemical sensing and imaging in microfluidic pore network structures relevant to natural carbon cycling and industrial carbon sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grate, Jay W.; Zhang, Changyong; Wilkins, Michael J.; Warner, Marvin G.; Anheier, Norman C.; Suter, Jonathan D.; Kelly, Ryan T.; Oostrom, Martinus

    2013-06-11

    Energy and climate change represent significant factors in global security. Atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, while global in scope, are influenced by pore-scale phenomena in the subsurface. We are developing tools to visualize and investigate processes in pore network microfluidic structures with transparent covers as representations of normally-opaque porous media. In situ fluorescent oxygen sensing methods and fluorescent cellulosic materials are being used to investigate processes related to terrestrial carbon cycling involving cellulytic respiring microorganisms. These structures also enable visualization of water displacement from pore spaces by hydrophobic fluids, including carbon dioxide, in studies related to carbon sequestration.

  1. Carbon Accounting and Economic Model Uncertainty of Emissions from Biofuels-Induced Land Use Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plevin, Richard J; Beckman, Jayson; Golub, Alla A; Witcover, Julie; O'??Hare, Michael

    2015-01-01

    the GTAP-BIO framework. Climate Change Economics 2012, 03, (in the GTAP-BIO framework. Climate Change Economics 03 (03),Land Use Data for Climate Change Analysis. Routledge Press.

  2. The Politics of Carbon Dioxide Emissions Reduction: The Role of Pluralism in Shaping the Climate Change Technology Initiative

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golden, Dylan

    1999-01-01

    sources of carbon dioxide emissions are the destruction ofat 570. 1998/99] CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS REDUCTION causedat 438. 1998/99] CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS REDUCTION trucks.

  3. Carbon and Greenhouse Gas Dynamics in Annual Grasslands: Effects of Management and Potential for Climate Change Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryals, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    dynamics and potential carbon sequestration by rangelands.G. E. Schuman. 2007. Carbon sequestration and rangelands: Aconcepts and carbon sequestration in cropland soils. Soil &

  4. Geologic carbon dioxide sequestration from the Mexican oil industry : an action plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lacy, Rodolfo

    2005-01-01

    Climate change has become an important focus of international environmental negotiations. In response, global energy corporations have been looking for practical ways of reducing their industrial carbon dioxide (CO?) ...

  5. Estimation of biomass and carbon stocks: the case of the Atlantic Forest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    S.E. 2008. Estimation of biomass and carbon stocks: the casein Amazonian forest biomass. Global Change Biol. 10:545-562R. 2004b. Increasing biomass in Amazonian forest plots.

  6. Worldwide, accelerating glacier loss provides independent and startling evidence that global warming is occurring1 It is now clear that the Earth is warming rapidly due to man-made emissions of carbon dioxide and other heat-trap-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Combes, Stacey A.

    such as coal, oil and natural gas are burned for trans- portation, heating, or the production of electricity! Climate Change And Global Glacier Decline Global Warming is melting glaciers in every region of the world that global warming is occurring1 . It is now clear that the Earth is warming rapidly due to man

  7. Past and Future Effects of Ozone on Net Primary Production and Carbon Sequestration Using a Global Biogeochemical Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Felzer, Benjamin Seth.

    Exposure of plants to ozone inhibits photosynthesis and therefore reduces vegetation production and carbon sequestration. Simulations with the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM) for the historical period (1860-1995) show ...

  8. Impact of Emissions, Chemistry, and Climate on Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide: 100-year Predictions from a Global Chemistry-Climate Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of methane and the production of CO2, ozone, and sulfate aerosols and thus affects climate, while, producing formaldehyde (CH2O) and then carbon monoxide. This methane reaction, in combination with R1

  9. Impact of modern climate change on the intercommunication: Global ocean-land (Northern Hemisphere)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lobanova, H.V.; Lobanov, V.A.; Stepanenko, S.R.

    1996-12-31

    Two main temperature gradients define the synoptic and climatic conditions on the earth in general: equator-pole gradient and ocean-land gradient. The analysis of temperature on the basis of new cyclic-different-scales conception has been fulfilled in every important part of the climatic system in the Northern Hemisphere for assessment of their vulnerability to modern climate change. Historical time series of monthly surface temperature have been used for this aim in the points of regular grid over the Northern Hemisphere from 1891 to 1992. The main feature of the temperature in main climatic parts of the earth is a complexity of its spatial structure. New methods of spatial decomposition have been developed for the division of this complex fields structure into characteristics of mean value of the field and index of its non-homogeneity or spatial variation. It has been established, that the temperature gradient between ocean and land is increasing that is characterized of the increasing of an intensity of synoptic processes, their spatial non-homogeneity and more frequent appearance of the extreme synoptic events. The models of intercommunications between coefficients of temperature spatial decomposition over the ocean and land have been developed for two time period and the increasing of the relationships closeness has been established between ocean and land as well as the decrease of main planet gradient: the pole(the Polar ocean)-equator.

  10. Pan-Arctic land–atmospheric fluxes of methane and carbon dioxide in response to climate change over the 21st century

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Xudong

    Future changes of pan-Arctic land–atmospheric methane (CH[subscript 4]) and carbon dioxide (CO[subscript 2]) depend on how terrestrial ecosystems respond to warming climate. Here, we used a coupled hydrology–biogeochemistry ...

  11. Land-use change trajectories up to 2050: insights from a global agro-economic model comparison

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmitz, Christoph; van Meijl, Hans; Kyle, G. Page; Nelson, Gerald C.; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Gurgel, Angelo; Havlik, Petr; Heyhoe, Edwina; Mason d'Croz, Daniel; Popp, Alexander; Sands, Ronald; Tabeau, Andrzej; van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique; von Lampe, Martin; Wise, Marshall A.; Blanc, Elodie; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Kavallari, Aikaterini; Valin, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    Changes in agricultural land use have important implications for environmental services. Previous studies of agricultural land-use futures have been published indicating large uncertainty due to different model assumptions and methodologies. In this article we present a first comprehensive comparison of global agro-economic models that have harmonized drivers of population, GDP, and biophysical yields. The comparison allows us to ask two research questions: (1) How much cropland will be used under different socioeconomic and climate change scenarios? (2) How can differences in model results be explained? The comparison includes four partial and six general equilibrium models that differ in how they model land supply and amount of potentially available land. We analyze results of two different socioeconomic scenarios and three climate scenarios (one with constant climate). Most models (7 out of 10) project an increase of cropland of 10–25% by 2050 compared to 2005 (under constant climate), but one model projects a decrease. Pasture land expands in some models, which increase the treat on natural vegetation further. Across all models most of the cropland expansion takes place in South America and sub-Saharan Africa. In general, the strongest differences in model results are related to differences in the costs of land expansion, the endogenous productivity responses, and the assumptions about potential cropland.

  12. Shoreline, grain-size, and total-carbon distribution changes before and after Hurricane Alicia, Galveston Island, Texas, 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rothammer, C.M.; Morrison, L.R.; Warkentin, S.L.

    1985-02-01

    Shoreline, grain-size, and sediment total-carbon changes were monitored, on a monthly basis, on three Galveston Island beaches, from January through December 1983. The study area included: (1) East Beach, obstructed by groins and a seawall; (2) Galveston Island State Park, obstructed by fences artificially stabilizing the dunes; and (3) West Beach, an unobstructed beach. Beach profiles revealed the effects of beach obstruction, such as erosion and undercutting at East Beach, and truncation of the dunes at Galveston Island State Park. Approximately 20 m of expansional cutback occurred on the beaches after Hurricane Alicia hit on August 18, 1983. Contour maps of grain-size and total-carbon distributions reflect the movement of beach sand by either onshore-offshore transport during low-energy periods, or longshore, edge-wave transport during high-energy periods. Statistical analyses revealed a small variation in grain size throughout the year. There were well-defined times of either no correlation or strong correlation between total carbon vs. mean grain size, skewness vs. mean grain size, kurtosis vs. mean grain size, skewness vs. mean grain size, kurtosis vs. mean grain size, total carbon vs. percent sand, total carbon vs. skewness, and skewness vs. kurtosis. Strong correlation was found in response to high-energy events, whereas no correlation was found in response to low-energy events. Galveston Island is undergoing net erosion and appears to be in a metastable state, still capable of responding to oceanographic conditions. The economic effects of Hurricane Alicia include considerable loss of the shoreline and destruction of property. Beach nourishment appears to be the only economically feasible solution to counteract the extensive erosion.

  13. Seasonal changes in the age and structure of dissolved organic carbon in Siberian rivers and streams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neff, Jason

    > 100%) and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy techniques showed high concentration soils or other terrestrial sources of old, previously stabilized C. Citation: Neff, J. C., J. C. Finlay]. The resulting soil deposits contain organic carbon concentrations that average between 2­5% C with numerous

  14. On the magnitude of positive feedback between future climate change and the carbon cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dufresne, Jean-Louis

    - pogenic emissions are expected to continue in the com- ing decades. The corresponding atmospheric CO 2 con by [Cox et al., 2000] using the Hadley Center HadCM3 climate model coupled to a car- bon cycle model emissions and the land and ocean sinks. Starting from an initial state where the coupled climate carbon

  15. Lifetime of carbon capture and storage as a climate-change mitigation technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of fossil fuels in a carbon-constrained world, the deployment of CCS has been hindered by uncertainty in geo is important because it may enable the continued use of fossil fuels, which currently supply >80 CCS has been identified as the critical enabling technology for the continued use of fossil fuels

  16. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGES OF PINK SHRIMP, PANDALUS BOREALIS, HELD IN CARBON DIOXIDE MODIFIED REFRIGERATED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and in ice for 11.5 days. Chemical tests for spoilage indicated that shrimp held in carbon dioxide modified and disadvantages of the refrig- erated seawater system (RSW)for holding fish and shellfish are well documented vessel. Shrimp were separated from fish and after a briefrinse in cold freshwater were placed in fiber

  17. ATM S 211 Climate and Climate Change Prof. David Catling EXAMPLES OF MISINFORMATION FROM GLOBAL WARMING DENIERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Catling, David C.

    in great detail in the IPCC report. The IPCC consensus concluded: - There was a global warming trend warming. Kuwaiti Foundation funded Balling's skeptic book on global warming. Prof. Richard Lindzen (MIT) Mostly has his own scientific reasons for "opposing" global warming. But 1991 trip to Senate hearings

  18. Carbon Constraints and the Electric Power Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-11-15

    The report is designed to provide a thorough understanding of the type of carbon constraints that are likely to be imposed, when they are likely to take effect, and how they will impact the electric power industry. The main objective of the report is to provide industry participants with the knowledge they need to plan for and react to a future in which carbon emissions are restricted. The main goal of the report is to ensure an understanding of the likely restrictions that will be placed on carbon emissions, the methods available for reducing their carbon emissions, and the impact that carbon reductions will have on the electric power industry. A secondary goal of the report is to provide information on key carbon programs and market participants to enable companies to begin participating in the international carbon marketplace. Topics covered in the report include: overview of what climate change and the Kyoto Protocol are; analysis of the impacts of climate change on the U.S. and domestic efforts to mandate carbon reductions; description of carbon reduction mechanisms and the types of carbon credits that can be created; evaluation of the benefits of carbon trading and the rules for participation under Kyoto; Description of the methods for reducing carbon emissions available to the U.S. electric power industry; analysis of the impact of carbon restrictions on the U.S. electric power industry in terms of both prices and revenues; evaluation of the impact of carbon restrictions on renewable energy; overview of the current state of the global carbon market including descriptions of the three major marketplaces; descriptions of the industry and government programs already underway to reduce carbon emissions in the U.S. electric power industry; and, profiles of the major international carbon exchanges and brokers.

  19. ENV/ERS 467/667 Regional and Global Issues in Environmental & Resource Sciences Spring 2006 Global Change Readings and Assignment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nowak, Robert S.

    ) Socio-economic futures in climate change impact assessment: using scenarios as "learning machines synchronous changes in climate. Quaternary Research 56:289-298. Gruber N, Keeling CD, Bates NR (2002

  20. Globalization of biopharmaceutical manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pande, Rachna

    2011-01-01

    The biomanufacturing industry is changing due to increasing globalization. However, it is changing differently from other high tech industries like software/ semiconductor/ automobiles. In this study we use global ...

  1. May 2008 Global Gas Turbine News 3 By: Dr. Reza S. Abhari

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daraio, Chiara

    -influenced global warming, now being effectively over, has been replaced by a surge in a number of global political time frame to reduce their CO2 emissions. The carbon emission foot-print is replacing the energy the impact of the link between the energy supply and the climate change. By limiting the amount of CO2

  2. Global Cool and Vodafone Recycling Phones to Save the Planet Climate-change campaign Global Cool and mobile network Vodafone have joined forces to recycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wallace, Mark

    in hot countries, bringing light and energy to the people who need it most. For more information on Solar households - and less than 5% of the 15 million that get thrown away each year are recycled. What's more old phone with Vodafone and Global Cool will raise money for two major projects: Solar Aid

  3. Climate change and trace gases BY JAMES HANSEN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ford, Andrew

    Climate change and trace gases BY JAMES HANSEN 1,*, MAKIKO SATO 1 , PUSHKER KHARECHA 1 , GARY climate change that could run out of our control, with great dangers for humans and other creatures and the global environment. Keywords: climate change; trace gases; climate feedbacks; black carbon; sea level

  4. Alien Species as Agents of Global Change Ecology and Management of the Gypsy Moth in North America as a Case History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liebhold, Andrew

    Alien Species as Agents of Global Change Ecology and Management of the Gypsy Moth in North America-down and alien species are increasingly being transported into new habitats. Many alien species have had of temperate northeastern North America have been affected by alien insects and diseases particularly

  5. POST OAK SAVANNA IN TRANSITION: JUNIPER ENCROACHMENT AND CLIMATE CHANGE ALTER GRASSLAND SOIL RESPIRATION 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Bennie

    2011-08-08

    The amount of carbon flux from soils on a global scale is estimated at over 75 x 1015 g C yr-1. Climate change is projected to affect regional environmental conditions, raising temperatures and altering precipitation patterns. The semi...

  6. CHILLING CONSIDERATIONS GLOBAL WARMING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    CHILLING CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING GLOBAL WARMING Stephen E. Schwartz http IS INCREASING Global carbon dioxide concentration over the last thousand years Polar ice cores #12;Mann et al 1000-1850) 1998 THE TEMPERATURE'S RISING #12;GLOBAL ANNUAL TEMPERATURE ANOMALY, 1880-2008 0.8 0.6 0.4 0

  7. The 7. global warming international conference and expo: Abstracts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-12-31

    This conference was held April 1--3, 1996 in Vienna, Austria. The purpose of this conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on global warming. Topics of interest include the following: global and regional natural resource management; energy, transportation, minerals and natural resource management; industrial technology and greenhouse gas emission; strategies for the mitigation of greenhouse gas emission; greenhouse gas production/utilization and carbon budgets; strategies for promoting the understanding of global change; international policy strategy and economics; and global warming and public health. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  8. Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options in ISEEM Global Energy Model: 2010-2050 Scenario Analysis for Least-Cost Carbon Reduction in Iron and Steel Sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karali, Nihan; Xu, Tengfang; Sathaye, Jayant

    2013-12-01

    The goal of the modeling work carried out in this project was to quantify long-term scenarios for the future emission reduction potentials in the iron and steel sector. The main focus of the project is to examine the impacts of carbon reduction options in the U.S. iron and steel sector under a set of selected scenarios. In order to advance the understanding of carbon emission reduction potential on the national and global scales, and to evaluate the regional impacts of potential U.S. mitigation strategies (e.g., commodity and carbon trading), we also included and examined the carbon reduction scenarios in China’s and India’s iron and steel sectors in this project. For this purpose, a new bottom-up energy modeling framework, the Industrial Sector Energy Efficiency Modeling (ISEEM), (Karali et al. 2012) was used to provide detailed annual projections starting from 2010 through 2050. We used the ISEEM modeling framework to carry out detailed analysis, on a country-by-country basis, for the U.S., China’s, and India’s iron and steel sectors. The ISEEM model applicable to iron and steel section, called ISEEM-IS, is developed to estimate and evaluate carbon emissions scenarios under several alternative mitigation options - including policies (e.g., carbon caps), commodity trading, and carbon trading. The projections will help us to better understand emission reduction potentials with technological and economic implications. The database for input of ISEEM-IS model consists of data and information compiled from various resources such as World Steel Association (WSA), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), China Steel Year Books, India Bureau of Mines (IBM), Energy Information Administration (EIA), and recent LBNL studies on bottom-up techno-economic analysis of energy efficiency measures in the iron and steel sector of the U.S., China, and India, including long-term steel production in China. In the ISEEM-IS model, production technology and manufacturing details are represented, in addition to the extensive data compiled from recent studies on bottom-up representation of efficiency measures for the sector. We also defined various mitigation scenarios including long-term production trends to project country-specific production, energy use, trading, carbon emissions, and costs of mitigation. Such analyses can provide useful information to assist policy-makers when considering and shaping future emissions mitigation strategies and policies. The technical objective is to analyze the costs of production and CO{sub 2} emission reduction in the U.S, China, and India’s iron and steel sectors under different emission reduction scenarios, using the ISEEM-IS as a cost optimization model. The scenarios included in this project correspond to various CO{sub 2} emission reduction targets for the iron and steel sector under different strategies such as simple CO{sub 2} emission caps (e.g., specific reduction goals), emission reduction via commodity trading, and emission reduction via carbon trading.

  9. Carbon-isotope stratigraphy of Early Cretaceous (Urgonian) shoal-water deposits: Diachronous changes in carbonate-platform production in the north-western Tethys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilli, Adrian

    Carbon-isotope stratigraphy of Early Cretaceous (Urgonian) shoal-water deposits: Diachronous Chains, ESE France), with special focus on sedimentological analyses and high-resolution carbon- isotope stratigraphy. A characteristic Barremian­Aptian carbon-isotope pattern permits precise platform-to- basin

  10. Global decarbonization strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Messner, S.

    1996-12-31

    The presentation covers a brief summary of the research activities of the Environmentally Compatible Energy Strategies Project (ECS) at IIASA. The overall research focuses on long-term global energy development and emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG). The ultimate goal is to analyze strategies that achieve decarbonization of global energy systems during the next century. The specific activities range from mitigation of GHG emissions to an integrated assessment of climate change. One focal point is the GHG mitigation technology inventory CO{sub 2}DB, which presently covers approximately 1,400 technologies related to energy and the greenhouse effect. Another integral part is the development of global energy and emissions scenarios, an effort involving a number of formal models to assess the implications. A large number of global scenarios for the next century has been developed, that could be grouped into three families. All of them include energy efficiency improvements and some degree of decarbonization in the world. They are based on different economic and technological development trajectories, and their emissions range from very high to a stabilization of atmospheric carbon dioxide emissions. The presentation will outline the salient characteristics of the three scenario families and provide some regional implications of these alternative futures.

  11. RESEARCH SUMMARY BY QUANLIN ZHOU During my stay at LBNL from March 2001, I have been working on (1) geologic carbon sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Quanlin

    on (1) geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) projects for mitigating global climate change, (2) the DOE projects. 1 Research Highlights 1.1. Geological Carbon Sequestration I have been working on eight research projects in the area of geologic carbon sequestration since 2006. I have been PI or Co-PI for six projects

  12. We already have clear evidence for climate change with a 0.75C rise in global temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Peter JS

    ,whichis releasedaslong-waveinfraredor`heat'radiation. Greenhouse gases such as water vapour, carbon dioxide, methane gas) deposited hundreds of millions years ago, releasing the carbon back into the atmosphere of about 4000 metres on the summit of Mauna Loa in Hawaii; a remote site free from local pollution

  13. Climate-induced changes in carbon and nitrogen cycling in the rapidly warming Antarctic coastal ocean 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henley, Sian Frances

    2013-07-01

    The western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) is a hotspot of climatic and oceanographic change, with a 6°C rise in winter atmospheric temperatures and >1°C warming of the surface ocean since the 1950s. These trends are having ...

  14. The effects of potential changes in United States beef production on global grazing systems and greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Yaoqi

    and greenhouse gas emissions Jerome Dumortier1 , Dermot J Hayes2 , Miguel Carriquiry2 , Fengxia Dong3 , Xiaodong in the U.S. causes a net increase in GHG emissions on a global scale. We couple a global agricultural production in the United States. The effects on emissions from agricultural production (i.e., methane

  15. Stratigraphy and geochronology of the Tambien Group, Ethiopia: Evidence for globally synchronous carbon isotope change in the Neoproterozoic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    glaciation in Namibia: Sedimentology, v. 58, p. 57–119, doi:AND DISCUSSION Physical Sedimentology and Stratigraphy In

  16. Stratigraphy and geochronology of the Tambien Group, Ethiopia: Evidence for globally synchronous carbon isotope change in the Neoproterozoic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    indicated by U-Pb geochronology of the Cottons Breccia,and Selby, D. , 2014, Re-Os geochronology and coupled Os-SrStratigraphy and geochronology of the Tambien Group,

  17. Influence of stand age on the magnitude and seasonality of carbon fluxes in Canadian forests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    seasons lead to less carbon sequestration by a subalpineboreal forests to global carbon sequestration (Kurz et al. ,off- set point when carbon sequestration equals carbon loss

  18. Autonomous observations of the ocean biological carbon pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bishop, James K.B.

    2009-03-01

    Prediction of the substantial biologically mediated carbon flows in a rapidly changing and acidifying ocean requires model simulations informed by observations of key carbon cycle processes on the appropriate space and time scales. From 2000 to 2004, the National Oceanographic Partnership Program (NOPP) supported the development of the first low-cost fully-autonomous ocean profiling Carbon Explorers that demonstrated that year-round real-time observations of particulate organic carbon (POC) concentration and sedimentation could be achieved in the world's ocean. NOPP also initiated the development of a sensor for particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) suitable for operational deployment across all oceanographic platforms. As a result, PIC profile characterization that once required shipboard sample collection and shipboard or shore based laboratory analysis, is now possible to full ocean depth in real time using a 0.2W sensor operating at 24 Hz. NOPP developments further spawned US DOE support to develop the Carbon Flux Explorer, a free-vehicle capable of following hourly variations of particulate inorganic and organic carbon sedimentation from near surface to kilometer depths for seasons to years and capable of relaying contemporaneous observations via satellite. We have demonstrated the feasibility of real time - low cost carbon observations which are of fundamental value to carbon prediction and when further developed, will lead to a fully enhanced global carbon observatory capable of real time assessment of the ocean carbon sink, a needed constraint for assessment of carbon management policies on a global scale.

  19. Reduced diurnal temperature range does not change warming impacts on ecosystem carbon balance of Mediterranean grassland mesocosms

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Phillips, Claire L.; Gregg, Jillian W.; Wilson, John K.

    2011-11-01

    Daily minimum temperature (Tmin) has increased faster than daily maximum temperature (Tmax) in many parts of the world, leading to decreases in diurnal temperature range (DTR). Projections suggest these trends are likely to continue in many regions, particularly northern latitudes and in arid regions. Despite wide speculation that asymmetric warming has different impacts on plant and ecosystem production than equal-night-and-day warming, there has been little direct comparison of these scenarios. Reduced DTR has also been widely misinterpreted as a result of night-only warming, when in fact Tmin occurs near dawn, indicating higher morning as well as night temperatures. We reportmore »on the first experiment to examine ecosystem-scale impacts of faster increases in Tmin than Tmax, using precise temperature controls to create realistic diurnal temperature profiles with gradual day-night temperature transitions and elevated early morning as well as night temperatures. Studying a constructed grassland ecosystem containing species native to Oregon, USA, we found the ecosystem lost more carbon at elevated than ambient temperatures, but was unaffected by the 3ºC difference in DTR between symmetric warming (constantly ambient +3.5ºC) and asymmetric warming (dawn Tmin=ambient +5ºC, afternoon Tmax= ambient +2ºC). Reducing DTR had no apparent effect on photosynthesis, likely because temperatures were most different in the morning and late afternoon when light was low. Respiration was also similar in both warming treatments, because respiration temperature sensitivity was not sufficient to respond to the limited temperature differences between asymmetric and symmetric warming. We concluded that changes in daily mean temperatures, rather than changes in Tmin/Tmax, were sufficient for predicting ecosystem carbon fluxes in this reconstructed Mediterranean grassland system.« less

  20. Reduced diurnal temperature range does not change warming impacts on ecosystem carbon balance of Mediterranean grassland mesocosms

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Phillips, Claire L.; Gregg, Jillian W. [Terrestrial Ecosystems Research Associates; 200 SW 35th St.; Corvallis; OR; 97333; USA; Wilson, John K. [Terrestrial Ecosystems Research Associates; 200 SW 35th St.; Corvallis; OR; 97333; USA

    2011-11-01

    Daily minimum temperature (Tmin) has increased faster than daily maximum temperature (Tmax) in many parts of the world, leading to decreases in diurnal temperature range (DTR). Projections suggest these trends are likely to continue in many regions, particularly northern latitudes and in arid regions. Despite wide speculation that asymmetric warming has different impacts on plant and ecosystem production than equal-night-and-day warming, there has been little direct comparison of these scenarios. Reduced DTR has also been widely misinterpreted as a result of night-only warming, when in fact Tmin occurs near dawn, indicating higher morning as well as night temperatures. We report on the first experiment to examine ecosystem-scale impacts of faster increases in Tmin than Tmax, using precise temperature controls to create realistic diurnal temperature profiles with gradual day-night temperature transitions and elevated early morning as well as night temperatures. Studying a constructed grassland ecosystem containing species native to Oregon, USA, we found the ecosystem lost more carbon at elevated than ambient temperatures, but was unaffected by the 3ºC difference in DTR between symmetric warming (constantly ambient +3.5ºC) and asymmetric warming (dawn Tmin=ambient +5ºC, afternoon Tmax= ambient +2ºC). Reducing DTR had no apparent effect on photosynthesis, likely because temperatures were most different in the morning and late afternoon when light was low. Respiration was also similar in both warming treatments, because respiration temperature sensitivity was not sufficient to respond to the limited temperature differences between asymmetric and symmetric warming. We concluded that changes in daily mean temperatures, rather than changes in Tmin/Tmax, were sufficient for predicting ecosystem carbon fluxes in this reconstructed Mediterranean grassland system.

  1. Reduced diurnal temperature range does not change warming impacts on ecosystem carbon balance of Mediterranean grassland mesocosms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, Claire L. [Terrestrial Ecosystems Reserach Associates,Corvallis, OR (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gregg, Jillian W. [Terrestrial Ecosystems Reserach Associates,Corvallis, OR (United States); Wilson, John K. [Terrestrial Ecosystems Reserach Associates,Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Daily minimum temperature (Tmin) has increased faster than daily maximum temperature (Tmax) in many parts of the world, leading to decreases in diurnal temperature range (DTR). Projections suggest these trends are likely to continue in many regions, particularly northern latitudes and in arid regions. Despite wide speculation that asymmetric warming has different impacts on plant and ecosystem production than equal-night-and-day warming, there has been little direct comparison of these scenarios. Reduced DTR has also been widely misinterpreted as a result of night-only warming, when in fact Tmin occurs near dawn, indicating higher morning as well as night temperatures. We report on the first experiment to examine ecosystem-scale impacts of faster increases in Tmin than Tmax, using precise temperature controls to create realistic diurnal temperature profiles with gradual day-night temperature transitions and elevated early morning as well as night temperatures. Studying a constructed grassland ecosystem containing species native to Oregon, USA, we found the ecosystem lost more carbon at elevated than ambient temperatures, but was unaffected by the 3ºC difference in DTR between symmetric warming (constantly ambient +3.5ºC) and asymmetric warming (dawn Tmin=ambient +5ºC, afternoon Tmax= ambient +2ºC). Reducing DTR had no apparent effect on photosynthesis, likely because temperatures were most different in the morning and late afternoon when light was low. Respiration was also similar in both warming treatments, because respiration temperature sensitivity was not sufficient to respond to the limited temperature differences between asymmetric and symmetric warming. We concluded that changes in daily mean temperatures, rather than changes in Tmin/Tmax, were sufficient for predicting ecosystem carbon fluxes in this reconstructed Mediterranean grassland system.

  2. e are hearing a lot these days about carbon emissions and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherwood, Steven

    of climate change or global warming. The basic problem, we are told, is the carbon dioxide that is released into theatmosphereeverytimeweburnsome- thing like petrol or coal. Carbon dioxide is a "greenhouse gas" that causes warming of the planet dioxide, is actually the strongest green- house gas in our atmosphere. Does that mean all the hype about

  3. Autonomous observations of the ocean biological carbon pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bishop, James K.B.

    2009-01-01

    efficiency of biological pump in the global ocean. JournalOcean Biological Carbon Pump Carbon Flux Explorerocean’s “biological carbon pump” (Broecker and Peng, 1982;

  4. Carbon-nitrogen interactions regulate climate-carbon cycle feedbacks: results from an atmosphere-ocean general circulation model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    2009 P. E. Thornton et al. : Carbon-nitrogen interactionsregulate climate-carbon cycle feedbacks Monfray, P. ,T. H. : A global ocean carbon climatology: Results from

  5. Permafrost soils and carbon cycling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ping, C. L.; Jastrow, J. D.; Jorgenson, M. T.; Michaelson, G. J.; Shur, Y. L.

    2015-02-05

    Knowledge of soils in the permafrost region has advanced immensely in recent decades, despite the remoteness and inaccessibility of most of the region and the sampling limitations posed by the severe environment. These efforts significantly increased estimates of the amount of organic carbon stored in permafrost-region soils and improved understanding of how pedogenic processes unique to permafrost environments built enormous organic carbon stocks during the Quaternary. This knowledge has also called attention to the importance of permafrost-affected soils to the global carbon cycle and the potential vulnerability of the region's soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks to changing climatic conditions. Inmore »this review, we briefly introduce the permafrost characteristics, ice structures, and cryopedogenic processes that shape the development of permafrost-affected soils, and discuss their effects on soil structures and on organic matter distributions within the soil profile. We then examine the quantity of organic carbon stored in permafrost-region soils, as well as the characteristics, intrinsic decomposability, and potential vulnerability of this organic carbon to permafrost thaw under a warming climate. Overall, frozen conditions and cryopedogenic processes, such as cryoturbation, have slowed decomposition and enhanced the sequestration of organic carbon in permafrost-affected soils over millennial timescales. Due to the low temperatures, the organic matter in permafrost soils is often less humified than in more temperate soils, making some portion of this stored organic carbon relatively vulnerable to mineralization upon thawing of permafrost.« less

  6. Carbon Cycling and Biosequestration Integrating Biology and Climate Through Systems Science Report from the March 2008 Workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graber, J.; Amthor, J.; Dahlman, R.; Drell, D.; Weatherwax, S.

    2008-12-01

    One of the most daunting challenges facing science in the 21st Century is to predict how Earth's ecosystems will respond to global climate change. The global carbon cycle plays a central role in regulating atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) levels and thus Earth's climate, but our basic understanding of the myriad of tightly interlinked biological processes that drive the global carbon cycle remains limited at best. Whether terrestrial and ocean ecosystems will capture, store, or release carbon is highly dependent on how changing climate conditions affect processes performed by the organisms that form Earth's biosphere. Advancing our knowledge of biological components of the global carbon cycle is thus crucial to predicting potential climate change impacts, assessing the viability of climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies, and informing relevant policy decisions. Global carbon cycling is dominated by the paired biological processes of photosynthesis and respiration. Photosynthetic plants and microbes of Earth's land-masses and oceans use solar energy to transform atmospheric CO{sub 2} into organic carbon. The majority of this organic carbon is rapidly consumed by plants or microbial decomposers for respiration and returned to the atmosphere as CO{sub 2}. Coupling between the two processes results in a near equilibrium between photosynthesis and respiration at the global scale, but some fraction of organic carbon also remains in stabilized forms such as biomass, soil, and deep ocean sediments. This process, known as carbon biosequestration, temporarily removes carbon from active cycling and has thus far absorbed a substantial fraction of anthropogenic carbon emissions.

  7. China-Economics of Climate Change and Low Carbon Growth Strategies in

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar Energy LLCLtd Jump to:ChangingCNE Jump to:New EnergyPFAN) |

  8. Terrestrial Carbon Management Data from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    CDIAC products are indexed and searchable through a customized interface powered by ORNL's Mercury search engine. Products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, and models and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Some of the collections may also be included in the CDIAC publication Trends Online: A Compendium of Global Change Data. Most data sets, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. Collections under the broad heading of Terrestrial Carbon Management are organized as Carbon Accumulation with Cropland Management, Carbon Accumulation with Grassland Management, Carbon Loss Following Cultivation, Carbon Accumulation Following Afforestation, and Carbon Sources and Sinks Associated with U.S. Cropland Production.

  9. On carbon footprints and growing energy use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldenburg, C.M.

    2011-06-01

    Could fractional reductions in the carbon footprint of a growing organization lead to a corresponding real reduction in atmospheric CO{sub 2} emissions in the next ten years? Curtis M. Oldenburg, head of the Geologic Carbon Sequestration Program of LBNL’s Earth Sciences Division, considers his own organization's carbon footprint and answers this critical question? In addressing the problem of energy-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and climate change, it is essential that we understand which activities are producing GHGs and the scale of emission for each activity, so that reduction efforts can be efficiently targeted. The GHG emissions to the atmosphere of an individual or group are referred to as the ‘carbon footprint’. This terminology is entirely appropriate, because 85% of the global marketed energy supply comes from carbon-rich fossil fuel sources whose combustion produces CO{sub 2}, the main GHG causing global climate change. Furthermore, the direct relation between CO2 emissions and fossil fuels as they are used today makes energy consumption a useful proxy for carbon footprint. It would seem to be a simple matter to reduce energy consumption across the board, both individually and collectively, to help reduce our carbon footprints and therefore solve the energyclimate crisis. But just how much can we reduce carbon footprints when broader forces, such as growth in energy use, cause the total footprint to simultaneously expand? In this feature, I present a calculation of the carbon footprint of the Earth Sciences Division (ESD), the division in which I work at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), and discuss the potential for reducing this carbon footprint. It will be apparent that in terms of potential future carbon footprint reductions under projections of expected growth, ESD may be thought of as a microcosm of the situation of the world as a whole, in which alternatives to the business-as-usual use of fossil fuels are needed if absolute GHG emission reductions are to be achieved.

  10. Regional versus global? -- Will strategies for reduction of sulfur dioxide emissions from electric utilities increase carbon dioxide emissions?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randolph, J.C.; Dolsak, N.

    1996-12-31

    Electric utilities, which are dependent on high-sulfur coal are expected to reduce their SO{sub 2} emissions. The strategies for reduction of SO{sub 2} emissions may result in increased CO{sub 2} emissions. Thereby decrease of regional pollution may cause increase of global pollution. Environmental, political, moral, and economic consequences of the two types of pollution differ significantly. Midwestern electric utilities, USA, which are dependent on high-sulfur coal, are analyzed in the paper. However, the same problem is relevant for some European coal fueled power plants. Strategies for reduction of SO{sub 2} emissions, employed by Midwestern electric utilities to comply with the clean Air Act amendments (CAAA) of 1990 and their possible affects on CO{sub 2} emissions, are presented. The paper focuses on two general strategies for reduction of SO{sub 2} emissions. First is coal-switching or blending with a low-sulfur coal. Second is construction and use of flue-gas desulfurization devices (scrubbers). A combination of both strategies is also a viable option. Switching to low-sulfur coal may result in larger CO{sub 2} emissions because that coal has different characteristics and has to be transported much greater distances. Scrubbers require significant amounts of energy for their operation which requires burning more coal. This increases the level of CO{sub 2} emissions.

  11. Carbon Smackdown: Carbon Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey Long

    2010-07-12

    In this July 9, 2010 Berkeley Lab summer lecture, Lab scientists Jeff Long of the Materials Sciences and Nancy Brown of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division discuss their efforts to fight climate change by capturing carbon from the flue gas of power plants, as well as directly from the air

  12. Carbon Smackdown: Carbon Capture

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Jeffrey Long

    2010-09-01

    In this July 9, 2010 Berkeley Lab summer lecture, Lab scientists Jeff Long of the Materials Sciences and Nancy Brown of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division discuss their efforts to fight climate change by capturing carbon from the flue gas of power plants, as well as directly from the air

  13. The Madotz Urgonian platform (Aralar, northern Spain): Paleoecological changes in response to Early Aptian global environmental events

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilli, Adrian

    The Madotz Urgonian platform (Aralar, northern Spain): Paleoecological changes in response to Early. The paleoecological change coinciding with the base of OAE1a occurred at a time of sea level rise and it coincided with a demise of heavily calcified nannoconids in the Tethys and Pacific Oceans. The paleoecological change

  14. Carbon investment funds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-01-15

    The report is a study of the development of funds to invest in the purchase of carbon credits. It takes a look at the growing market for carbon credits, the rise of carbon investment funds, and the current state of carbon investing. Topics covered in the report include: Overview of climate change, greenhouse gases, and the Kyoto Protocols. Analysis of the alternatives for reducing carbon emissions including nitrous oxide reduction, coal mine methane capture and carbon capture and storage; Discussion of the different types of carbon credits; Discussion of the basics of carbon trading; Evaluation of the current status of carbon investing; and Profiles of 37 major carbon investment funds worldwide.

  15. Identification and preliminary characterization of global water resource issues which may be affected by CO/sub 2/-induced climate change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Callaway, J.M.; Cohen, M.L.; Currie, J.W.

    1984-04-01

    The objectives were to: (1) identify, characterize, and define existing or projected regional and global water resource management issues which may be affected by CO/sub 2/-induced climate changes; and (2) develop research priorities for acquiring additional information about the potential effects of a CO/sub 2/-induced climate change on the availability and allocation of freshwater supplies. The research was broken into four work elements: (1) identification of water resource management issues on a global and regional basis; (2) identification of a subset of generic CO/sub 2/-related water resource management issues believed to have the highest probability of being affected, beneficially or adversely, by a CO/sub 2/-induced climate change; (3) selection of specific sites for examining the potential effect of a CO/sub 2/-induced climate change on these issues; and (4) conducting detailed case studies at these sites, the results from which will be used to identify future research and data needs in the area of water resources. This report summarizes the research related to the first three work elements. 6 figures, 9 tables.

  16. An open letter to the 2008 presidential candidates: get the facts right on what's responsible for global climate change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linden, Henry R.

    2008-07-15

    The two remaining presidential candidates have adopted policies for reducing anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions that address factors that are mistakenly held responsible as the primary cause of global warming. Here's what they need to keep in mind in order to craft genuinely efficacious policies. (author)

  17. Climate change in a shoebox: Right result, wrong physics Paul Wagoner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tobin, Roger G.

    Climate change in a shoebox: Right result, wrong physics Paul Wagoner TERC, Cambridge of carbon dioxide's far-infrared absorption in global climate change are more subtle than is commonly Teachers. DOI: 10.1119/1.3322738 I. INTRODUCTION The worldwide interest in climate change induced by the by

  18. Measurement of diffusion coefficients in supercritical carbon dioxide and correlation with the equation of Wilke and Chang

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sassiat, P.R.; Mourier, P.; Caude, M.H.; Rosset, R.H.

    1987-04-15

    Diffusion coefficients of acetone, benzene, naphthalene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene, phenanthrene, pyrene, and chrysene have been measured by a chromatographic broadening technique in an open capillary tube (950 x 0.103 cm) filled with pure supercritical carbon dioxide or, in the case of benzene, with CO/sub 2/-methanol mixtures ranging from 0 to 100% in methanol. In pure supercritical CO/sub 2/, diffusion coefficients decrease when density increases; they increase linearly vs. the reciprocal of the viscosity; a linear relationship exists between the logarithms of the diffusion coefficients and the molar volumes with a slope of 0.6. Finally, in the range 0.6-0.9 g cm/sup -3/, the Wilke and Chang equation for the calculation of diffusion coefficients is valid for supercritical CO/sub 2/. For methanol-CO/sub 2/ mixtures there is no discontinuity of the diffusion coefficient of benzene when the methanol content varies from 0 to 100%. In the usual supercritical chromatographic conditions with a methanol content less than 10%, diffusion coefficients are at least 4 times higher than in pure methanol.

  19. Measurement and computations for temperature dependences of self-broadened carbon dioxide transitions in the 30012'00001 and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gamache, Robert R.

    that the anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases may cause changes in our global climate for many years to come's atmosphere led to numerous studies of its main greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide [1 and reference thereinMeasurement and computations for temperature dependences of self-broadened carbon dioxide

  20. A study of the abundance and {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C ratio of atmospheric carbon dioxide and oceanic carbon in relation to the global carbon cycle. Final technical report, February 15, 1990--July 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keeling, C.D.

    1995-12-31

    Knowledge can be gained about the fluxes and storage of carbon in natural systems and their relation to climate by detecting temporal and spatial patterns in atmospheric CO{sub 2}. When patterns in its {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C isotopic ratio are included in the analysis, there is also a basis for distinguishing organic and inorganic processes. The authors systematically measured the concentration and {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C ratio of atmospheric CO{sub 2} to produce time series data essential to reveal these temporal and spatial patterns. To pursue the significance of these patterns further, the result also involved measurements of inorganic carbon in sea water and of CO{sub 2} in air near growing land plants. The study was coordinated with a study of the same title concurrently funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF). The study called for continued atmospheric measurements at an array of ten stations from the Arctic Basin to the South Pole. Air was collected in flasks brought back to the laboratory for analysis, except at Mauna Loa. Observatory, Hawaii, where continuous measurements were also carried out.