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1

Global Carbon Cycle, Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Mitigation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The carbon cycle is one of the biogeochemical cycles and describes the movement of carbon, in its many forms, within the biosphere, atmosphere, oceans and geosphere. The global carbon cycle involves the earth...

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

NPP and the Global Carbon Cycle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the Global Carbon Cycle the Global Carbon Cycle Introduction Photosynthetic carbon fixation comprises a major component of the global carbon cycle. Data on net primary productivity (NPP) may be sparse, but a consistent NPP data set may be used to calibrate, parameterize and evaluate models of terrestrial carbon cycling, as well as for validation of remote sensing data and other applications (identifying trends, investigating biogeochemical processes, etc.). It is also useful to place such data within the context of carbon cycling and carbon storage worldwide. For example: How much carbon exists in the biosphere, and where exactly is it stored? How much is in fossil fuels (coal, oil, gas), and how large are current fossil-fuel emissions? How much is in living biomass (plants/ animals/ humans)?

3

Global Impacts (Carbon Cycle 2.0)  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Ashok Gadgil, Faculty Senior Scientist and Acting Director, EETD, also Professor of Environmental Engineering, UC Berkeley, speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

Gadgil, Ashok [EETD and UC Berkeley

2011-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

4

The Global Carbon Cycle Radiative forcing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, solubility defined Effective partial pressure in surface water Gas exchange between air and water driven" of carbon Cooling of high latitude surface waters increases solubility of CO2 and saturation DIC Induces in deep ocean Carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, iron, etc. returned to inorganic form in the deep waters

Follows, Mick

5

The Global Carbon Cycle Radiative forcing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

water Gas exchange between air and water driven by partial pressure difference Ko = CO2 * / pCO2 pCO2 waters increases solubility of CO2 and saturation DIC Induces uptake of CO2 from atmosphere and increase Solubility pump Carbonate chemistry Biological pump Photosynthesis and respiration Causes of glacial

Follows, Mick

6

Carbon Sequestration and Its Role in the Global Carbon Cycle Geophysical Monograph Series 183  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

73 Carbon Sequestration and Its Role in the Global Carbon Cycle Geophysical Monograph Series 183. Blaine Metting2 The purpose of this chapter is to review terrestrial biological carbon sequestration Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington, USA. #12;74 TERRESTRIAL BIOLOGICAL CARBON SEqUESTRATION

Pennycook, Steve

7

Authigenic Carbonate and the History of the Global Carbon Cycle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Earth's surface reservoirs ({delta} 13 C...of carbonate rocks. In either case, this...history when the porosity and permeability of...track the bulk rock {delta} 13...of carbonate rocks...sedimentary reservoirs does...

Daniel P. Schrag; John. A. Higgins; Francis A. Macdonald; David T. Johnston

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Carbon Cycle 2.0: Ashok Gadgil: global impact  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Ashok Gadgil speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

Ashok Gadgi

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Carbon Cycle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Cycle Carbon Cycle Latest Global Carbon Budget Estimates Including CDIAC Estimates Terrestrial Carbon Management Data Sets and Analyses Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil-Fuel Consumption and Cement Manufacture, (2011) Annual Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions: Mass of Emissions Gridded by One Degree Latitude by One Degree Longitude (2012) Monthly Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions: Mass of Emissions Gridded by One Degree Latitude by One Degree Longitude (2012) Annual Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions: Global Stable Carbon Isotopic Signature (2012) Monthly Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions: Isomass (δ 13C) of Emissions Gridded by One Degree Latitude by One Degree Longitude (2012) AmeriFlux - Terrestrial Carbon Dioxide, Water Vapor, and Energy Balance Measurements Estimates of Monthly CO2 Emissions and Associated 13C/12C Values

10

Authigenic Carbonate and the History of the Global Carbon Cycle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...production and consumption throughout the...the sediment-water interface or...usually those that reduce sulfate or ferric ironresulting...meters in the water column...of a separate pool of water (pore fluid or intracellular...authigenic carbonate make up 29 to 37...

Daniel P. Schrag; John. A. Higgins; Francis A. Macdonald; David T. Johnston

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Global Biogeochemistry Models and Global Carbon Cycle Research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The climate modeling community has long envisioned an evolution from physical climate models to ''earth system'' models that include the effects of biology and chemistry, particularly those processes related to the global carbon cycle. The widely reproduced Box 3, Figure 1 from the 2001 IPCC Scientific Assessment schematically describes that evolution. The community generally accepts the premise that understanding and predicting global and regional climate change requires the inclusion of carbon cycle processes in models to fully simulate the feedbacks between the climate system and the carbon cycle. Moreover, models will ultimately be employed to predict atmospheric concentrations of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases as a function of anthropogenic and natural processes, such as industrial emissions, terrestrial carbon fixation, sequestration, land use patterns, etc. Nevertheless, the development of coupled climate-carbon models with demonstrable quantitative skill will require a significant amount of effort and time to understand and validate their behavior at both the process level and as integrated systems. It is important to consider objectively whether the currently proposed strategies to develop and validate earth system models are optimal, or even sufficient, and whether alternative strategies should be pursued. Carbon-climate models are going to be complex, with the carbon cycle strongly interacting with many other components. Off-line process validation will be insufficient. As was found in coupled atmosphere-ocean GCMs, feedbacks between model components can amplify small errors and uncertainties in one process to produce large biases in the simulated climate. The persistent tropical western Pacific Ocean ''double ITCZ'' and upper troposphere ''cold pole'' problems are examples. Finding and fixing similar types of problems in coupled carbon-climate models especially will be difficult, given the lack of observations required for diagnosis and validation of biogeochemical processes.

Covey, C; Caldeira, K; Guilderson, T; Cameron-Smith, P; Govindasamy, B; Swanston, C; Wickett, M; Mirin, A; Bader, D

2005-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

12

Multi-century Changes to Global Climate and Carbon Cycle: Results from a Coupled Climate and Carbon Cycle Model  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we use a coupled climate and carbon cycle model to investigate the global climate and carbon cycle changes out to year 2300 that would occur if CO{sub 2} emissions from all the currently estimated fossil fuel resources were released to the atmosphere. By year 2300, the global climate warms by about 8 K and atmospheric CO{sub 2} reaches 1423 ppmv. The warming is higher than anticipated because the sensitivity to radiative forcing increases as the simulation progresses. In our simulation, the rate of emissions peak at over 30 PgC yr{sup -1} early in the 22nd century. Even at year 2300, nearly 50% of cumulative emissions remain in the atmosphere. In our simulations both soils and living biomass are net carbon sinks throughout the simulation. Despite having relatively low climate sensitivity and strong carbon uptake by the land biosphere, our model projections suggest severe long-term consequences for global climate if all the fossil-fuel carbon is ultimately released to the atmosphere.

Bala, G; Caldeira, K; Mirin, A; Wickett, M; Delire, C

2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

13

Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and the Global Carbon Cycle: The Key Uncertainties  

DOE R&D Accomplishments (OSTI)

The biogeochemical cycling of carbon between its sources and sinks determines the rate of increase in atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. The observed increase in atmospheric CO{sub 2} content is less than the estimated release from fossil fuel consumption and deforestation. This discrepancy can be explained by interactions between the atmosphere and other global carbon reservoirs such as the oceans, and the terrestrial biosphere including soils. Undoubtedly, the oceans have been the most important sinks for CO{sub 2} produced by man. But, the physical, chemical, and biological processes of oceans are complex and, therefore, credible estimates of CO{sub 2} uptake can probably only come from mathematical models. Unfortunately, one- and two-dimensional ocean models do not allow for enough CO{sub 2} uptake to accurately account for known releases. Thus, they produce higher concentrations of atmospheric CO{sub 2} than was historically the case. More complex three-dimensional models, while currently being developed, may make better use of existing tracer data than do one- and two-dimensional models and will also incorporate climate feedback effects to provide a more realistic view of ocean dynamics and CO{sub 2} fluxes. The instability of current models to estimate accurately oceanic uptake of CO{sub 2} creates one of the key uncertainties in predictions of atmospheric CO{sub 2} increases and climate responses over the next 100 to 200 years.

Peng, T. H.; Post, W. M.; DeAngelis, D. L.; Dale, V. H.; Farrell, M. P.

1987-12-00T23:59:59.000Z

14

The Carbon Cycle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Carbon Cycle The Carbon Cycle The global carbon cycle involves the carbon in and exchanging between the earth's atmosphere, fossil fuels, the oceans, and the vegetation and soils of the earth's terrestrial ecosystems. image Each year, the world's terrestrial ecosystems withdraw carbon from the atmosphere through photosynthesis and add it again through respiration and decay. A more detailed look at the global carbon cycle for the 1990s is shown below. The main annual fluxes in GtC yr-1 are: pre-industrial "natural" fluxes in black and "anthropogenic" fluxes in red (modified from Sarmiento and Gruber, 2006, with changes in pool sizes from Sabine et al., 2004a). The net terrestrial loss of -39 GtC is inferred from cumulative fossil fuel emissions minus atmospheric increase minus ocean storage. The loss of

15

Ocean Carbon Cycle Data from the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS)  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

The U.S. JGOFS program, a component of the U.S Global Change Research Program, grew out of the recommendations of a National Academy of Sciences workshop in 1984. An ambitious goal was set to understand the controls on the concentrations and fluxes of carbon and associated nutrients in the ocean. A new field of ocean biogeochemistry emerged with an emphasis on quality measurements of carbon system parameters and interdisciplinary field studies of the biological, chemical and physical process which control the ocean carbon cycle. U.S. JGOFS, ended in 2005 with the conclusion of the Synthesis and Modeling Project (SMP). Data are available throughout the U.S. JGOFS web site at http://usjgofs.whoi.edu/ and from the U.S. JGOFS Data System at http://usjgofs.whoi.edu/jg/dir/jgofs/. Major named segments of the project are: Bermuda Atlantic Time Series (BATS) Study, Hawaii Ocean Time-series (HOT) Study, Equatorial Pacific Process Study, North Atlantic Bloom Experiment (1989), Arabian Sea Process Study, and the Southern Ocean Process Study.

16

BNL | Carbon Cycle Science  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Carbon Cycle Science & Technology Group aims to increase understanding The Carbon Cycle Science & Technology Group aims to increase understanding of the impacts of global change on managed and unmanaged ecosystems and improve knowledge of possible global change mitigation approaches. The group has three main focus areas. FACE Climate Change Experimental Facility Design and Management The CCS&T group is an internationally recognized leader in the development of Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) research facilities. We are interested in the design and management of manipulative experiments that examine the effects of carbon dioxide, ozone, other atmospheric pollutants, temperature and precipitation on natural and managed ecosystems. FACE Plant Physiology and High Throughput Biochemical Phenotyping At FACE facilities we have studied the mechanisms that underlie the

17

Carbon Cycle 2.0  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Carbon Cycle 2.0 Carbon Cycle 2.0 Pioneering science for sustainable energy solutions Artificial Photosynthesis Energy Storage Combustion Carbon Capture & Storage Developing World Efficiency Photovoltaics Biofuels Energy Analysis Climate Modeling Carbon Cycle 2.0 is... 1. A vision for * a global energy system integrated with the Earth's natural carbon cycles * an interactive Berkeley Lab environment with a shared sense of purpose 2. A program development plan that will allow us to deepen our capabilities and provide more opportunities to have impact 3. An attempt to integrate our basic research with applications using models of technology deployment constraints 4. Set of internal activities aimed at priming the effort

18

Quantifying Carbon Cycle Feedbacks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Perturbations to the carbon cycle could constitute large feedbacks on future changes in atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate. This paper demonstrates how carbon cycle feedback can be expressed in formally similar ways to climate feedback, ...

J. M. Gregory; C. D. Jones; P. Cadule; P. Friedlingstein

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Influence of Dynamic Land Use and Land Cover Change on Simulated Global Terrestrial Carbon and Nitrogen Cycles, Climate-carbon Cycle Feedbacks, and Interactions with Rising CO2 and Anthropogenic Nitrogen Deposition  

SciTech Connect

Previous work has demonstrated the sensitivity of terrestrial net carbon exchange to disturbance history and land use patterns at the scale of individual sites or regions. Here we show the influence of land use and land cover dynamics over the historical period 1850-present on global-scale carbon, nutrient, water, and energy fluxes. We also explore the spatial and temporal details of interactions among land use and disturbance history, rising atmospheric carbon dioxide consentation, and increasing anthropogenic nitrogen deposition. Our simulations show that these interactions are significant, and that their importance grows over time, expressed as a fraction of the independent forcing terms. We conclude with an analysis of the influence of these interactions on the sign and magnitude of global climate-carbon cycle feedbacks.

Thornton, Peter E [ORNL; Hoffman, Forrest M [ORNL; Hurtt, George C [University of Hew Hampshire

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Wetland (peat) Carbon Cycle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Wetland (peat) Carbon Cycle Methane (CH4) is an important greenhouse gas, twenty times more potent than CO2, but atmospheric concentrations of CH4 under future climate change are...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "global carbon cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Landfill CH sub 4 : Rates, fates, and role in global carbon cycle  

SciTech Connect

Published estimates for worldwide landfill methane emissions range from 9 to 70 Tg yr{sup {minus}1}. Field and laboratory studies suggest that maximum methane yields from lanfilled refuse are about 0.06 to 0.09 m{sup 3} (dry Kg){sup {minus}1} refuse, depending on moisture content and other variables, such as organic loading, buffering capacity, and nutrients in landfill microevnironments. Methane yields may vary by more than an order of magnitude within a given site. Fates for landfill methane include (1) direct or delayed emission to the atmosphere through landfill cover materials or surface soils; (2) oxidation by methanotrophs in cover soils, with resulting emission of carbon dioxide; or (3) recovery of methane followed by combustion to produce carbon dioxide. The percent methane assigned to each pathway will vary among field sites and, for individual sites, through time. Nevertheless, a general framework for a landfill methane balance can be developed by consideration of landfill age, engineering and management practices, cover soil characteristics, and water balance. Direct measurements of landfill methane emissions are sparse, with rates between 10{sup {minus}6} and 10{sup {minus}8} g cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}; very high rates of 400 kg m{sup {minus}2} yr{sup {minus}1} have been measured at a semiarid unvegetated site. The proportion of landfill carbon that is ultimately converted to methane and carbon dioxide is problematical; the literature suggests that, at best, 25% to 40% of refuse carbon can be converted to biogas carbon. Cellulose contributes the major portion of the methane potential. Routine excavation of nondecomposed cellulosic materials after one or two decades of landfill burial suggests that uniformly high conversion rates are rarely attained at field sites.

Bogner, J.; Spokas, K.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Landfill CH{sub 4}: Rates, fates, and role in global carbon cycle  

SciTech Connect

Published estimates for worldwide landfill methane emissions range from 9 to 70 Tg yr{sup {minus}1}. Field and laboratory studies suggest that maximum methane yields from lanfilled refuse are about 0.06 to 0.09 m{sup 3} (dry Kg){sup {minus}1} refuse, depending on moisture content and other variables, such as organic loading, buffering capacity, and nutrients in landfill microevnironments. Methane yields may vary by more than an order of magnitude within a given site. Fates for landfill methane include (1) direct or delayed emission to the atmosphere through landfill cover materials or surface soils; (2) oxidation by methanotrophs in cover soils, with resulting emission of carbon dioxide; or (3) recovery of methane followed by combustion to produce carbon dioxide. The percent methane assigned to each pathway will vary among field sites and, for individual sites, through time. Nevertheless, a general framework for a landfill methane balance can be developed by consideration of landfill age, engineering and management practices, cover soil characteristics, and water balance. Direct measurements of landfill methane emissions are sparse, with rates between 10{sup {minus}6} and 10{sup {minus}8} g cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}; very high rates of 400 kg m{sup {minus}2} yr{sup {minus}1} have been measured at a semiarid unvegetated site. The proportion of landfill carbon that is ultimately converted to methane and carbon dioxide is problematical; the literature suggests that, at best, 25% to 40% of refuse carbon can be converted to biogas carbon. Cellulose contributes the major portion of the methane potential. Routine excavation of nondecomposed cellulosic materials after one or two decades of landfill burial suggests that uniformly high conversion rates are rarely attained at field sites.

Bogner, J.; Spokas, K.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

23

Natural migration rates of trees: Global terrestrial carbon cycle implications. Book chapter  

SciTech Connect

The paper discusses the forest-ecological processes which constrain the rate of response by forests to rapid future environmental change. It establishes a minimum response time by natural tree populations which invade alien landscapes and reach the status of a mature, closed canopy forest when maximum carbon storage is realized. It considers rare long-distance and frequent short-distance seed transport, seedling and tree establishment, sequential tree and stand maturation, and spread between newly established colonies.

Solomon, A.M.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

2013 Global Carbon Project  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2013 Global Carbon Project 2013 Global Carbon Project DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/GCP_2013_V1.1 image 2013 Budget v1.1 (November 2013) image 2013 Budget v1.3 (December 2013, contains typographical corrections to 2011 Australia emissions from v1.1 and corrections to the 2011 Australia transfer and consumption emissions from v1.2) image image image image Global Carbon Dioxide Emissions to Reach 36 Billion Tonnes in 2013 Global emissions of carbon dioxide from the combustion of fossil fuels will reach 36 billion tonnes for the year 2013. "This is a level unprecedented in human history," says CSIRO's Dr Pep Canadell, Executive-Director of the Global Carbon Project (GCP) and co-author of a new report. Global emissions due to fossil fuel alone are set to grow this year at a slightly lower pace of 2.1% than the average 3.1% since 2000, reaching 36

25

Terrestrial Carbon Cycle Dynamics under Recent and Future Climate Change  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The behavior of the terrestrial carbon cycle under historical and future climate change is examined using the University of Victoria Earth System Climate Model, now coupled to a dynamic terrestrial vegetation and global carbon cycle model. When ...

H. Damon Matthews; Andrew J. Weaver; Katrin J. Meissner

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Evaluating the Land and Ocean Components of the Global Carbon Cycle in the CMIP5 Earth System Models  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The authors assess the ability of 18 Earth system models to simulate the land and ocean carbon cycle for the present climate. These models will be used in the next Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) for ...

A. Anav; P. Friedlingstein; M. Kidston; L. Bopp; P. Ciais; P. Cox; C. Jones; M. Jung; R. Myneni; Z. Zhu

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Carbon-nitrogen interactions regulate climate-carbon cycle feedbacks: results from an atmosphere-ocean general circulation model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2009 P. E. Thornton et al. : Carbon-nitrogen interactionsregulate climate-carbon cycle feedbacks Monfray, P. ,T. H. : A global ocean carbon climatology: Results from

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Carbon Capture (Carbon Cycle 2.0)  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Berend Smit speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 3, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

Smit, Berend

2011-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

29

Water-Use Efficiency of the Terrestrial Biosphere: A Model Analysis Focusing on Interactions between the Global Carbon and Water Cycles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbon and water cycles are intimately coupled in terrestrial ecosystems, and water-use efficiency (WUE; carbon gain at the expense of unit water loss) is one of the key parameters of ecohydrology and ecosystem management. In this study, the ...

Akihiko Ito; Motoko Inatomi

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Integrated life-cycle assessment of electricity-supply scenarios confirms global environmental benefit of low-carbon technologies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...7 Vintage capital modeling...18 Natural gas...plant (IGCC), and natural gas combined cycle power...CdTe Roadmap (29) Capital costs per m2 module $26 per...7920 MWh/yr Annual natural gas consumptiona 8900 0...

Edgar G. Hertwich; Thomas Gibon; Evert A. Bouman; Anders Arvesen; Sangwon Suh; Garvin A. Heath; Joseph D. Bergesen; Andrea Ramirez; Mabel I. Vega; Lei Shi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Simple ocean carbon cycle models  

SciTech Connect

Simple ocean carbon cycle models can be used to calculate the rate at which the oceans are likely to absorb CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere. For problems involving steady-state ocean circulation, well calibrated ocean models produce results that are very similar to results obtained using general circulation models. Hence, simple ocean carbon cycle models may be appropriate for use in studies in which the time or expense of running large scale general circulation models would be prohibitive. Simple ocean models have the advantage of being based on a small number of explicit assumptions. The simplicity of these ocean models facilitates the understanding of model results.

Caldeira, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Hoffert, M.I. [New York Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Earth System Sciences; Siegenthaler, U. [Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Physik

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Consequences of Considering CarbonNitrogen Interactions on the Feedbacks between Climate and the Terrestrial Carbon Cycle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The impact of carbonnitrogen dynamics in terrestrial ecosystems on the interaction between the carbon cycle and climate is studied using an earth system model of intermediate complexity, the MIT Integrated Global Systems Model (IGSM). Numerical ...

Andrei P. Sokolov; David W. Kicklighter; Jerry M. Melillo; Benjamin S. Felzer; C. Adam Schlosser; Timothy W. Cronin

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Fish are crucial in oceanic carbon cycle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... Fish may play a more important role in the marine carbon cycle than previously thought, ... marine carbon cycle than previously thought, a new study shows. Researchers have found that fish excrete prodigious amounts of a mineral, calcium carbonate, that had been thought to come ...

Roberta Kwok

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

34

Carbon Markets Global Ltd | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Markets Global Ltd Place: London, United Kingdom Zip: NW4 2HT Product: Assist project originators develop and finance clean development projects. References: Carbon Markets Global...

35

Combustion of biomass as a global carbon sink  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This note is intended to highlight the important role of black carbon produced from biomass burning in the global carbon cycle, and encourage further research in this area. Consideration of the fundamental physical chemistry of cellulose thermal decomposition suggests that suppression of biomass burning or biasing burning practices to produce soot-free flames must inevitably transfer more carbon to the atmosphere. A simple order-of-magnitude quantitative analysis indicates that black carbon may be a significant carbon reservoir that persists over geological time scales.

Ball, Rowena

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Cumulative Carbon and Just Allocation of the Global Carbon Commons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cumulative Carbon and Just Allocation of the Global Carbon Commons R.T. Pierrehumbert1 on climate can be characterized by a single statistic, called Cumulative Carbon. This is the aggregate amount of carbon emitted in the form of carbon dioxide by activities such as fossil fuel burning and deforestation

Pierrehumbert, Raymond

37

The Global Carbon Bank | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

form form View source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » The Global Carbon Bank Jump to: navigation, search Name The Global Carbon Bank Place Houston, Texas Zip 77025 Sector Carbon, Services Product Houston-based provider of advisory and development services to utilities regarding carbon compliance and emissions offsets. References The Global Carbon Bank[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. The Global Carbon Bank is a company located in Houston, Texas . References ↑ "The Global Carbon Bank"

38

Cumulative Carbon and Just Allocation of the Global Carbon Commons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cumulative Carbon and Just Allocation of the Global Carbon Commons R.T. Pierrehumbert* Abstract statistic, called cumulative carbon. This statistic is the aggregate amount ofcarbon emitted in theform such activitiespersist.In thispaper the conceptis usedto addressthe question offair allocation of carbon emissions

Pierrehumbert, Raymond

39

Black Carbon and the Carbon Cycle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...reduces net CO 2 release by permanent deforestation...constitute a substantial fraction of the missing carbon...estimate of oxygen release assuming 10% of...constitute a substantial fraction of sedimentary organic...formation by vegetation fires may be important...from soils becoming airborne by wind erosion...

Thomas A. J. Kuhlbusch

1998-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

40

Recuperative supercritical carbon dioxide cycle  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A power plant includes a closed loop, supercritical carbon dioxide system (CLS-CO.sub.2 system). The CLS-CO.sub.2 system includes a turbine-generator and a high temperature recuperator (HTR) that is arranged to receive expanded carbon dioxide from the turbine-generator. The HTR includes a plurality of heat exchangers that define respective heat exchange areas. At least two of the heat exchangers have different heat exchange areas.

Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Sprouse, Kenneth M; Subbaraman, Ganesan; O'Connor, George M; Johnson, Gregory A

2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "global carbon cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Microbial Carbon Cycling in Permafrost-Affected Soils  

SciTech Connect

The Arctic plays a key role in Earth s climate system as global warming is predicted to be most pronounced at high latitudes and because one third of the global carbon pool is stored in ecosystems of the northern latitudes. In order to improve our understanding of the present and future carbon dynamics in climate sensitive permafrost ecosystems, present studies concentrate on investigations of microbial controls of greenhouse gas fluxes, on the activity and structure of the involved microbial communities, and on their response to changing environmental conditions. Permafrost-affected soils can function as both a source and a sink for carbon dioxide and methane. Under anaerobic conditions, caused by flooding of the active layer and the effect of backwater above the permafrost table, the mineralization of organic matter can only be realized stepwise by specialized microorganisms. Important intermediates of the organic matter decomposition are hydrogen, carbon dioxide and acetate, which can be further reduced to methane by methanogenic archaea. Evolution of methane fluxes across the subsurface/atmosphere boundary will thereby strongly depend on the activity of anaerobic methanogenic archaea and obligately aerobic methane oxidizing proteobacteria, which are known to be abundant and to significantly reduce methane emissions in permafrost-affected soils. Therefore current studies on methane-cycling microorganisms are the object of particular attention in permafrost studies, because of their key role in the Arctic methane cycle and consequently of their significance for the global methane budget.

Vishnivetskaya, T. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Liebner, Susanne [University of Tromso, Norway; Wilhelm, Ronald [McGill University, Montreal, Quebec; Wagner, Dirk [Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Potsdam, Germany

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

The global geochemical cycles of iron and calcium: using novel isotope systems to understand weathering, global mass budgets, natural reaction rates, and paleoclimate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Traditional geochemical proxies utilize variations in the oxygen, carbon, and boron isotopic compositionThe global geochemical cycles of iron and calcium: using novel isotope systems to understand of California, Berkeley Spring 2005 #12;The global geochemical cycles of iron and calcium: using novel isotope

Fantle, Matthew

43

A Call to Action: Carbon Cycle 2.0 (Carbon Cycle 2.0)  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Berkeley Lab Director Paul Alivisatos speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 1, 2010. Humanity emits more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences.Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

Alivisatos, Paul

2011-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

44

Forests, carbon and global climate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...through fossil-fuel combustion and land-use change...Atmosphere analysis Biomass Carbon metabolism Carbon...through fossil-fuel combustion and land-use change...during fossil fuel and biomass combustion and the release of ammo...

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Achieving Carbon Neutrality in the Global Aluminum Industry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

TableVII...illustrates a suggested carbon scoreboard. The global aluminum industry can become carbon neutral, reducing its current carbon print of 500million metric tonnes per year... ...

Subodh Das

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

ECONOMIC MODELING OF THE GLOBAL ADOPTION OF CARBON CAPTURE AND SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ECONOMIC MODELING OF THE GLOBAL ADOPTION OF CARBON CAPTURE AND SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES J. R. Mc of carbon capture and sequestration technologies as applied to electric generating plants. The MIT Emissions, is used to model carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies based on a natural gas combined cycle

47

Carbon Cycle Engineering | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cycle Engineering Cycle Engineering Jump to: navigation, search Name Carbon Cycle Engineering Address 13725 Dutch Creek Road Place Athens, Ohio Zip 45701 Sector Biofuels, Biomass, Efficiency, Renewable Energy Product Agriculture; Consulting; Engineering/architectural/design Phone number 740-541-1685 Website http://www.Carboncycleengineer Coordinates 39.376838°, -82.029904° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":39.376838,"lon":-82.029904,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

48

Monthly, global emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel consumption  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines available data, develops a strategy and presents a monthly, global time series of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions for the years 1950 2006. This monthly time series was constructed from detailed study of monthly data from the 21 countries that account for approximately 80% of global total emissions. These data were then used in a Monte Carlo approach to proxy for all remaining countries. The proportional-proxy methodology estimates by fuel group the fraction of annual emissions emitted in each country and month. Emissions from solid, liquid and gas fuels are explicitly modelled by the proportional-proxy method. The primary conclusion from this study is the global monthly time series is statistically significantly different from a uniform distribution throughout the year. Uncertainty analysis of the data presented show that the proportional-proxy method used faithfully reproduces monthly patterns in the data and the global monthly pattern of emissions is relatively insensitive to the exact proxy assignments used. The data and results presented here should lead to a better understanding of global and regional carbon cycles, especially when the mass data are combined with the stable carbon isotope data in atmospheric transport models.

Andres, Robert Joseph [ORNL; Gregg, JS [Riso National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark; Losey, London M [ORNL; Marland, Gregg [ORNL; Boden, Thomas A [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

ORNL researchers improve soil carbon cycling models | ornl.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

researchers improve soil carbon cycling models researchers improve soil carbon cycling models January 01, 2013 ORNL's new carbon cycling model could help scientists understand the role of soil microbes (MBC) in climate change by tracking extracellular enzymes (ENZ) that break down carbon-rich soil materials (SOC) into forms that microbes can respire (DOC). A more robust model of the soil carbon cycle developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) improves understanding of carbon residence time in soils and enables scientists to make more accurate climate predictions. The model does a better job than previous models of accounting for how microbes in the soil break down carbon-rich materials and release carbon dioxide. "Soil is a big reservoir of carbon," said co-author Melanie Mayes of the Environmental Sciences Division and the Climate Change Science

50

Solar cycle dependence of global distribution of solar wind speed  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A review is given of observational results concerning the solar cycle dependence of the global structure of solar wind speed distribution during the years from 1973 to 1987. Since observations of solar wind speed

Masayoshi Kojima; Takakiyo Kakinuma

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

GlobalBiogeochemicalCycles RESEARCH ARTICLE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Zhang (2014), Global dry deposition of nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide inferred from space Accepted article online 3 SEP 2014 Global dry deposition of nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide inferred contributes on average 9­36% and as much as 85% of total NOy dry deposition. 1. Introduction Nitrogen dioxide

Martin, Randall

52

Belowground Carbon Cycling Processes at the Molecular Scale  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

919 919 Belowground Carbon Cycling Processes at the Molecular Scale An EMSL Science Theme Advisory Panel Workshop Workshop Date: February 19-21, 2013 Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research under Contract DE-AC05-76RL01830 Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington 99352 Belowground Carbon Cycling Processes at the Molecular Scale iii Executive Summary As part of the Belowground Carbon Cycling Processes at the Molecular Scale workshop, an Environmental Molecular

53

Peatland carbon cycle responses to hydrological change at time scales from years to centuries: Impacts on model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Peatland carbon cycle responses to hydrological change at time scales from years to centuries: Impacts on model simulations and regional carbon budgets By Benjamin N. Sulman A dissertation submitted to the long-term storage of carbon in peat, these ecosystems contain a significant fraction of the global

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

54

Climate-Carbon Cycle Interactions Dr. John P. Krasting  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

change. NOAA-GFDL developed two coupled climate- carbon cycle models - or Earth System Models (ESMs) - that are able to simulate these interactions. While the major...

55

COLLOQUIUM: Ensemble Modeling of Climate-Carbon Cycle Interactions...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

change. NOAA-GFDL developed two coupled climate-carbon cycle models - or Earth System Models (ESMs) - that are able to simulate these interactions. While the major...

56

Energy Demand in China (Carbon Cycle 2.0)  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Lynn Price, LBNL scientist, speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

Price, Lynn

2011-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

57

Global Biogeochemical Cycling of Mercury: A Review  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

's biogeo- chemical system, but centuries of human activi- ties, such as mining and fossil fuel burning by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved 1543-5938/09/1121-0043$20.00 Key Words ecosystem dynamics, health, land-atmosphere interactions, pollution Abstract Mercury pollution poses global human health

58

The Global Hydrological Cycle Bob Stewart  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is a heat pump, and water and vapor is the working medium. (Your air conditioner is a heat pump, and freon Association 2008 #12;What is Wrong With This Picture? Source: US Global Change Research Program: Our Changing in the atmosphere help keep heat near the surface, and because there is no convection, and no transport of heat

59

Carbon Dioxide Carbonates in the Earth;s Mantle: Implications to the Deep Carbon Cycle  

SciTech Connect

An increase in the ionic character in C-O bonds at high pressures and temperatures is shown by the chemical/phase transformation diagram of CO{sub 2}. The presence of carbonate carbon dioxide (i-CO{sub 2}) near the Earth's core-mantle boundary condition provides insights into both the deep carbon cycle and the transport of atmospheric CO{sub 2} to anhydrous silicates in the mantle and iron core.

Yoo, Choong-Shik; Sengupta, Amartya; Kim, Minseob (Princeton); (WSU)

2012-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

60

Ewing Symposium in Honor of Taro Takahashi: The controversial aspects of the contemporary [carbon] cycle  

SciTech Connect

This Ewing Symposium in honor of Taro Takahashi's work on the carbon cycle was held at Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Palisades, New York, on October 26-27, 2000. A program and set of abstracts are appended to this report. A summary of the meeting (included in this report) will be published in Global Biogeochemical Cycles. The theme of the symposium was the magnitude and cause of excess carbon storage on the north temperate continents. Disagreement exists on the relative roles of forest regrowth and fertilization by excess fixed nitrogen and carbon dioxide, as well as the distribution of this storage. Phenomena playing important roles include pre-anthropogenic gradients in carbon dioxide, the so-called rectification effect, uptake and release of carbon dioxide by the ocean, soil nitrogen dynamics, atmospheric carbon-13 gradients, and the role of fire.

Broecker, Wallace Smith

2001-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "global carbon cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Evaluation of Biases in JRA-25/JCDAS Precipitation and Their Impact on the Global Terrestrial Carbon Balance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study evaluates a modeled precipitation field and examines how its bias affects the modeling of the regional and global terrestrial carbon cycle. Spatial and temporal variations in precipitation produced by the Japanese 25-yr reanalysis (JRA-...

Makoto Saito; Akihiko Ito; Shamil Maksyutov

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

E-Print Network 3.0 - anthropogenic iron cycles Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

iron cycle control atmospheric CO ? 12;The Global Carbon Cycle 70 times more carbon in ocean than... on ocean biological activity Iron cycle processes Modeling ... Source:...

63

ARM - PI Product - ARM-LBNL-NOAA Flask Sampler for Carbon Cycle Gases  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ProductsARM-LBNL-NOAA Flask Sampler for Carbon Cycle ProductsARM-LBNL-NOAA Flask Sampler for Carbon Cycle Gases Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Product : ARM-LBNL-NOAA Flask Sampler for Carbon Cycle Gases Site(s) SGP General Description Data from ccg-flasks are sampled at the ARM SGP site and analyzed by the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) as part of the NOAA Cooperative Global Air Sampling Network. Surface samples are collected from a 60m tower at the SGP Central Facility, usually once per week on one afternoon. The aircraft samples are collected approximately weekly from a chartered aircraft, and the collection flight path is centered over the tower where the surface samples are collected. Samples are collected by the ARM/LBNL Carbon Project. CO2 flask data contains measurements of CO2

64

Carbon Cycle 2.0: Robert Cheng and Juan Meza  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Feb. 4, 2010: Humanity emits more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future.

Robert Cheng and Juan Meza

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Global Coastal Carbon Program Data from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

CDIAC provides data management support for the Global Coastal Carbon Data Project. The coastal regions data are very important for the understanding of carbon cycle on the continental margins. The Coastal Project data include the bottle (discrete) and surface (underway) carbon-related measurements from coastal research cruises, the data from time series cruises, and coastal moorings. The data from US East Coast, US West Coast, and European Coastal areas are available. CDIAC provides a map interface with vessel or platform names. Clicking on the name brings up information about the vessel or the scientific platform, the kinds of measurements collected and the timeframe, links to project pages, when available, and the links to the data files themselves.

66

Carbon Dioxide, Global Warming, and Michael Crichton's "State of Fear"  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon Dioxide, Global Warming, and Michael Crichton's "State of Fear" Bert W. Rust Mathematical- tioned the connection between global warming and increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide by pointing out of these plots to global warming have spilled over to the real world, inviting both praise [4, 17] and scorn [15

Rust, Bert W.

67

Carbon-cycle models for better long-term predictions | EMSL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon-cycle models for better long-term predictions Carbon-cycle models for better long-term predictions Reduced variation among models should improve precision Improved...

68

Carbon Cycle 2.0: Paul Alivisatos: Introduction  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Berkeley Lab Director Paul Alivisatos speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 1, 2010. Humanity emits more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences.Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

Paul Alivisatos

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Strategic Analysis of the Global Status of Carbon Capture and...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Strategic Analysis of the Global Status of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS): Country Studies, United Arab Emirates Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name:...

70

Methanogenic burst in the end-Permian carbon cycle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The end-Permian extinction is associated with a mysterious disruption to Earths carbon cycle. Here we identify causal mechanisms via three observations. First, we show that geochemical signals indicate superexponential ...

Rothman, Daniel H.

71

Effect of Vinylene Carbonate on Graphite Anode Cycling Efficiency  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Effect of Vinylene Carbonate on Graphite Anode Cycling Efficiency Effect of Vinylene Carbonate on Graphite Anode Cycling Efficiency Title Effect of Vinylene Carbonate on Graphite Anode Cycling Efficiency Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2009 Authors Ridgway, Paul L., Honghe Zheng, Xiangyun Song, Gao Liu, Philip N. Ross, and Vincent S. Battaglia Journal Electrochemical Society Volume 19 Start Page 51 Issue 25 Pagination 51-57 Abstract Vinylene Carbonate (VC) was added to the electrolyte in graphite-lithium half-cells. We report its effect on the coulombic efficiency (as capacity shift) of graphite electrodes under various formation cycling conditions. Cyclic voltammetry on glassy carbon showed that VC passivates the electrode against electrolyte reduction. The dQ/dV plots of the first lithiation of the graphite suggest that VC alters the SEI layer, and that by varying the cell formation rate, the initial ratio of ethylene carbonate to VC in the SEI layer can be controlled. VC was found to decrease first cycle efficiency and reversible capacity (in ongoing cycling) when used to excess. However, experiments with VC additive used with various formation rates did not show any decrease in capacity shift.

72

Phosphate influences cycling of iron and carbon in the environment |  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Science Science Computing, Environment & Life Sciences Energy Engineering & Systems Analysis Photon Sciences Physical Sciences & Engineering Energy Frontier Research Centers Science Highlights Postdoctoral Researchers Phosphate influences cycling of iron and carbon in the environment August 30, 2013 Tweet EmailPrint Aquatic and terrestrial environments are dynamic systems where coupled microbiological, geochemical, and hydrological processes define the complex interactions that drive the biogeochemical cycling of water and the major and minor elements. Therefore, a thorough understanding of these complex interactions is critical for predicting the biogeochemical cycling of carbon, nutrients, heavy metals, radionuclides, and other contaminants; managing water quality; and understanding the interactions between

73

Global compilation of Carbon-13 measurements  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

compilation of Carbon-13 measurements during 1990-2005 in dissolved inorganic carbon (δ13C_DIC) compilation of Carbon-13 measurements during 1990-2005 in dissolved inorganic carbon (δ13C_DIC) A. Schmittner1, N. Gruber2, A. C. Mix1, R. M. Key3, A. Tagliabue4, and T. K. Westberry5 1College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA 2Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland 3Department of Geosciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, USA 4School of Environmental Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK 5Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA data Data and Documentation Files The primary data source for the δ13C_DIC measurements is the Web Accessible Visualization and Extraction System (W.A.V.E.S) at the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). On 27 August 2010 we extracted data from two databases within CDIAC: First, from the Global Data Analysis Project GLODAP (Key et al., 2004) and second, from the Carbon Dioxide in the Atlantic Ocean (CARINA) data synthesis project mainly from WOCE and CLIVAR expeditions. The δ13C_DIC data on file at CDIAC have not been quality controlled. In the GLODAP database, some cruises (for example, 316N145_5 and INDIGO_123) had obvious bad data, and these were excluded from our compilation. From the remaining 31 GLODAP expeditions, we removed bottle numbers > 70 from seven cruises in order to exclude large Volume (LV) samples, many of which had large negative biases. From the CARINA database cruise 64TR19900417 was excluded due to obvious bad data, leaving 18 cruises. The remaining combined GLODAP and CARINA database contains 17,989 δ13C_DIC data for the time period from 1990-2005 from all oceans and all depths. These data were supplemented by 632 measurements from 1990 to 1998 made at Charles (Dave) Keeling's laboratory at Scripps Institution of Oceanography, described by Gruber et al. (1999), and by one transect (50 data points) from the northeast Pacific measured in Alan Mix's laboratory at Oregon State University, published along with nutrient data by Ortiz et al. (2000). The Keeling dataset is also available at CDIAC (http://cdiac.ornl.gov/ftp/oceans/keeling.data/), although here we used one single data file provided by N. Gruber. We do not use measurements prior to 1990 (such as all GEOSECS and TTO data). Due to unresolved intercalibration issues between laboratories the accuracy is currently estimated to be 0.1-0.2‰ (A. McNichol, personal communication, 2012). The combined data set contains a total of 18,670 δ13C_DIC measurements.

74

Prospective Life-Cycle Modeling of Novel Carbon Capture Materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Prospective Life-Cycle Modeling of Novel Carbon Capture Materials Prospective Life-Cycle Modeling of Novel Carbon Capture Materials Speaker(s): Roger Sathre Date: December 5, 2011 - 3:30pm Location: 90-4133 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Anita Estner Barbara Adams In this presentation we describe the prospective life-cycle modeling of metal-organic frameworks (MOF), a novel type of material with the potential for efficiently capturing CO2. Life-cycle modeling of emerging technologies, conducted early in the innovation process, can generate knowledge that can feed back to inform scientific discovery and development. We discuss the challenges of credibly modeling a system that does not yet exist, and describe methodological approaches including parametric system modeling (quantifying relations between system elements), scenario projections (defining plausible pathways for system scale-up),

75

Annual Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions: Global Stable Carbon Isotopic Signature  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2 2 data Data image Documentation Contributors R.J. Andres, T.A. Boden, and G. Marland The 2012 revision of this database contains estimates of the annual, global mean value of δ 13C of CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel consumption and cement manufacture for 1751-2009. These estimates of the carbon isotopic signature account for the changing mix of coal, petroleum, and natural gas being consumed and for the changing mix of petroleum from various producing areas with characteristic isotopic signatures. This time series of global fossil-fuel del 13C signature provides an additional constraint for balancing the sources and sinks of the global carbon cycle and complements the atmospheric δ 13C measurements that are used to partition the uptake of fossil carbon emissions among the ocean, atmosphere, and terrestrial

76

Annual Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions: Global Stable Carbon Isotopic Signature  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 3 data Data image Documentation Contributors R.J. Andres, T.A. Boden, and G. Marland The 2013 revision of this database contains estimates of the annual, global mean value of δ 13C of CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel consumption and cement manufacture for 1751-2010. These estimates of the carbon isotopic signature account for the changing mix of coal, petroleum, and natural gas being consumed and for the changing mix of petroleum from various producing areas with characteristic isotopic signatures. This time series of global fossil-fuel del 13C signature provides an additional constraint for balancing the sources and sinks of the global carbon cycle and complements the atmospheric δ 13C measurements that are used to partition the uptake of fossil carbon emissions among the ocean, atmosphere, and terrestrial

77

Annual Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions: Global Stable Carbon Isotopic Signature  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 1 data Data image Documentation Contributors R.J. Andres, T.A. Boden, and G. Marland The 2011 revision of this database contains estimates of the annual, global mean value of del 13C of CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel consumption and cement manufacture for 1751-2008. These estimates of the carbon isotopic signature account for the changing mix of coal, petroleum, and natural gas being consumed and for the changing mix of petroleum from various producing areas with characteristic isotopic signatures. This time series of global fossil-fuel del 13C signature provides an additional constraint for balancing the sources and sinks of the global carbon cycle and complements the atmospheric del 13C measurements that are used to partition the uptake of fossil carbon emissions among the ocean, atmosphere, and terrestrial

78

High efficiency carbonate fuel cell/turbine hybrid power cycle  

SciTech Connect

The hybrid power cycle studies were conducted to identify a high efficiency, economically competitive system. A hybrid power cycle which generates power at an LHV efficiency > 70% was identified that includes an atmospheric pressure direct carbonate fuel cell, a gas turbine, and a steam cycle. In this cycle, natural gas fuel is mixed with recycled fuel cell anode exhaust, providing water for reforming fuel. The mixed gas then flows to a direct carbonate fuel cell which generates about 70% of the power. The portion of the anode exhaust which is not recycled is burned and heat transferred through a heat exchanger (HX) to the compressed air from a gas turbine. The heated compressed air is then heated further in the gas turbine burner and expands through the turbine generating 15% of the power. Half the exhaust from the turbine provides air for the anode exhaust burner. All of the turbine exhaust eventually flows through the fuel cell cathodes providing the O2 and CO2 needed in the electrochemical reaction. Exhaust from the cathodes flows to a steam system (heat recovery steam generator, staged steam turbine generating 15% of the cycle power). Simulation of a 200 MW plant with a hybrid power cycle had an LHV efficiency of 72.6%. Power output and efficiency are insensitive to ambient temperature, compared to a gas turbine combined cycle; NOx emissions are 75% lower. Estimated cost of electricity for 200 MW is 46 mills/kWh, which is competitive with combined cycle where fuel cost is > $5.8/MMBTU. Key requirement is HX; in the 200 MW plant studies, a HX operating at 1094 C using high temperature HX technology currently under development by METC for coal gassifiers was assumed. A study of a near term (20 MW) high efficiency direct carbonate fuel cell/turbine hybrid power cycle has also been completed.

Steinfeld, G.; Maru, H.C. [Energy Research Corp., Danbury, CT (United States); Sanderson, R.A. [Sanderson (Robert) and Associates, Wethersfield, CT (United States)

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

A global coal production forecast with multi-Hubbert cycle analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Based on economic and policy considerations that appear to be unconstrained by geophysics, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) generated forty carbon production and emissions scenarios. In this paper, we develop a base-case scenario for global coal production based on the physical multi-cycle Hubbert analysis of historical production data. Areas with large resources but little production history, such as Alaska and the Russian Far East, are treated as sensitivities on top of this base-case, producing an additional 125Gt of coal. The value of this approach is that it provides a reality check on the magnitude of carbon emissions in a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario. The resulting base-case is significantly below 36 of the 40 carbon emission scenarios from the IPCC. The global peak of coal production from existing coalfields is predicted to occur close to the year 2011. The peak coal production rate is 160EJ/y, and the peak carbon emissions from coal burning are 4.0GtC (15GtCO2) per year. After 2011, the production rates of coal and CO2 decline, reaching 1990 levels by the year 2037, and reaching 50% of the peak value in the year 2047. It is unlikely that future mines will reverse the trend predicted in this BAU scenario.

Tadeusz W. Patzek; Gregory D. Croft

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

The oceanic cycle and global atmospheric budget of carbonyl sulfide  

SciTech Connect

A significant portion of stratospheric air chemistry is influenced by the existence of carbonyl sulfide (COS). This ubiquitous sulfur gas represents a major source of sulfur to the stratosphere where it is converted to sulfuric acid aerosol particles. Stratospheric aerosols are climatically important because they scatter incoming solar radiation back to space and are able to increase the catalytic destruction of ozone through gas phase reactions on particle surfaces. COS is primarily formed at the surface of the earth, in both marine and terrestrial environments, and is strongly linked to natural biological processes. However, many gaps in the understanding of the global COS cycle still exist, which has led to a global atmospheric budget that is out of balance by a factor of two or more, and a lack of understanding of how human activity has affected the cycling of this gas. The goal of this study was to focus on COS in the marine environment by investigating production/destruction mechanisms and recalculating the ocean-atmosphere flux.

Weiss, P.S.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "global carbon cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Black Carbons Properties and Role in the Environment: A Comprehensive Review  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NOAA/ESRL. Mauna Loa Carbon Dioxide Annual Mean Data.H. Can reducing black carbon emissions counteract globalanalysis of black carbon in soils. Global Biogeochem. Cycle.

Shrestha, Gyami

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Life cycle assessment and biomass carbon accounting  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Biomass feedstocks Biomass feedstocks and the climate implications of bioenergy Steven Hamburg Environmental Defense Fund Slides adapted from Reid Miner NCASI On the landscape, the single-plot looks like this 75 Harvested and burned for energy In year zero, the plot is harvested and the wood is burned for energy 1.1 Year 1 After regeneration begins, the growing biomass sequesters small amounts of CO2 annually 2.1 Year 2 2.8 Year 3 ??? Year X, until next harvest Σ = . Over time, if carbon stocks are returned to pre-harvest levels... ...the net emissions over this time are zero. single plot analysis Net Cumulative CO2 combustion emissions Cumulative CO2 combustion emissions Time Time Biomass energy Fossil fuel energy single plot analysis Net Cumulative CO2 combustion emissions Cumulative

83

NETL: Demonstration of a Novel Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Power Cycle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oxy-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control Oxy-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control Demonstration of a Novel Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Power Cycle Utilizing Pressurized Oxy-Combustion in Conjunction with Cryogenic Compression Project No.: DE-FE0009395 Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) is developing a novel supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2) advanced power system utilizing pressurized oxy-combustion in conjunction with cryogenic compression. The proposed power system offers a leap in overall system efficiency while producing an output stream of sequestration ready CO2 at pipeline pressures. The system leverages developments in pressurized oxy-combustion technology and recent developments in sCO2 power cycles to achieve high net cycle efficiencies and produce CO2 at pipeline pressures without requiring additional compression of the flue gas.

84

Black Carbon in the Soil Carbon Cycle: Is it an Oxidation Resistant End-Product?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for different materials and combustion temperatures. It is less than 1% for thermally altered biomass at combusBlack Carbon in the Soil Carbon Cycle: Is it an Oxidation Resistant End-Product? Simone resistant product of incomplete combustion, and consists out of a range of combustion products such as char

Fischlin, Andreas

85

Proceedings of GLOBAL 2013: International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Conference - Nuclear Energy at a Crossroads  

SciTech Connect

The Global conference is a forum for the discussion of the scientific, technical, social and regulatory aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle. Relevant topics include global utilization of nuclear energy, current fuel cycle technologies, advanced reactors, advanced fuel cycles, nuclear nonproliferation and public acceptance.

NONE

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Carbon-nitrogen interactions regulate climate-carbon cycle feedbacks: results from an atmosphere-ocean general circulation model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Biogeosciences, 6, 20992120, 2009 www.biogeosciences.net/6/2099/2009/ Author(s) 2009. This work is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. Biogeosciences Carbon-nitrogen interactions regulate climate-carbon cycle feedbacks.... Inclusion of fundamental ecological interactions between carbon and nitrogen cycles in the land component of an atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (AOGCM) leads to decreased carbon uptake associated with CO2 fertil- ization, and increased carbon...

Thornton, P. E.; Doney, S. C.; Lindsay, Keith; Moore, J. K.; Mahowald, N. M.; Randerson, J. T.; Fung, I.; Lamarque, J. F.; Feddema, Johannes J.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Nonlinearity of Ocean Carbon Cycle Feedbacks in CMIP5 Earth System Models  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbon cycle feedbacks are usually categorized into carbonconcentration and carbonclimate feedbacks, which arise owing to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration and changing physical climate. Both feedbacks are often assumed to operate ...

Jrg Schwinger; Jerry F. Tjiputra; Christoph Heinze; Laurent Bopp; James R. Christian; Marion Gehlen; Tatiana Ilyina; Chris D. Jones; David Salas-Mlia; Joachim Segschneider; Roland Sfrian; Ian Totterdell

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Performance improvement options for the supercritical carbon dioxide brayton cycle.  

SciTech Connect

The supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO{sub 2}) Brayton cycle is under development at Argonne National Laboratory as an advanced power conversion technology for Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors (SFRs) as well as other Generation IV advanced reactors as an alternative to the traditional Rankine steam cycle. For SFRs, the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle eliminates the need to consider sodium-water reactions in the licensing and safety evaluation, reduces the capital cost of the SFR plant, and increases the SFR plant efficiency. Even though the S-CO{sub 2} cycle has been under development for some time and optimal sets of operating parameters have been determined, those earlier development and optimization studies have largely been directed at applications to other systems such as gas-cooled reactors which have higher operating temperatures than SFRs. In addition, little analysis has been carried out to investigate cycle configurations deviating from the selected 'recompression' S-CO{sub 2} cycle configuration. In this work, several possible ways to improve S-CO{sub 2} cycle performance for SFR applications have been identified and analyzed. One set of options incorporates optimization approaches investigated previously, such as variations in the maximum and minimum cycle pressure and minimum cycle temperature, as well as a tradeoff between the component sizes and the cycle performance. In addition, the present investigation also covers options which have received little or no attention in the previous studies. Specific options include a 'multiple-recompression' cycle configuration, intercooling and reheating, as well as liquid-phase CO{sub 2} compression (pumping) either by CO{sub 2} condensation or by a direct transition from the supercritical to the liquid phase. Some of the options considered did not improve the cycle efficiency as could be anticipated beforehand. Those options include: a double recompression cycle, intercooling between the compressor stages, and reheating between the turbine stages. Analyses carried out as part of the current investigation confirm the possibilities of improving the cycle efficiency that have been identified in previous investigations. The options in this group include: increasing the heat exchanger and turbomachinery sizes, raising of the cycle high end pressure (although the improvement potential of this option is very limited), and optimization of the low end temperature and/or pressure to operate as close to the (pseudo) critical point as possible. Analyses carried out for the present investigation show that significant cycle performance improvement can sometimes be realized if the cycle operates below the critical temperature at its low end. Such operation, however, requires the availability of a heat sink with a temperature lower than 30 C for which applicability of this configuration is dependent upon the climate conditions where the plant is constructed (i.e., potential performance improvements are site specific). Overall, it is shown that the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle efficiency can potentially be increased to 45 %, if a low temperature heat sink is available and incorporation of larger components (e.g.., heat exchangers or turbomachinery) having greater component efficiencies does not significantly increase the overall plant cost.

Moisseytsev, A.; Sienicki, J. J.; Nuclear Engineering Division

2008-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

89

Long-term soil warming and Carbon Cycle Feedbacks to the Climate System  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of the proposed research was to quantify and explain the effects of a sustained in situ 5oC soil temperature increase on net carbon (C) storage in a northeastern deciduous forest ecosystem. The research was done at an established soil warming experiment at the Harvard Forest in central Massachusetts Barre Woods site established in 2001. In the field, a series of plant and soil measurements were made to quantify changes in C storage in the ecosystem and to provide insights into the possible relationships between C-storage changes and nitrogen (N) cycling changes in the warmed plots. Field measurements included: 1) annual woody increment; 2) litterfall; 3) carbon dioxide (CO2) efflux from the soil surface; 4) root biomass and respiration; 5) microbial biomass; and 6) net N mineralization and net nitrification rates. This research was designed to increase our understanding of how global warming will affect the capacity of temperate forest ecosystems to store C. The work explored how soil warming changes the interactions between the C and N cycles, and how these changes affect land-atmosphere feedbacks. This core research question framed the project What are the effects of a sustained in situ 5oC soil temperature increase on net carbon (C) storage in a northeastern deciduous forest ecosystem? A second critical question was addressed in this research What are the effects of a sustained in situ 5{degrees}C soil temperature increase on nitrogen (N) cycling in a northeastern deciduous forest ecosystem?

Melillo, Jerry M.

2014-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

90

Carbon Footprint of Nations: A Global, Trade-Linked Analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Per capita carbon footprints increase proportionally to income, but the most important contributors shift from food to mobility and manufactured products. ... On the global level, 72% are related to household consumption, 10% to government consumption (compared to a 16% share in global GDP), and 18% to investments (compared to a 21% share in global GDP). ... This paper presents a regionalized LCA-based multiobjective optimization model of building energy demand and supply for the case of a Swiss municipality for the minimization of greenhouse gas emissions and particulate matter formation. ...

Edgar G. Hertwich; Glen P. Peters

2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

91

Climate Change: Global growth of carbon dioxide emissions continues  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

After declining 1.5% in 2009, global carbon dioxide emissions rose 5.8% in 2010, the largest yearly jump in two decades, according to a Worldwatch Institute report released on April 28. Worldwatch is a Washington, D.C.-based, environmental think tank. ...

JEFF JOHNSON

2012-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

92

GLOBAL BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES, VOL. ???, XXXX, DOI:10.1029/, Global Dry Deposition of Nitrogen Dioxide and1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-DERIVED NO2 AND SO2 DRY DEPOSITION 1. Introduction Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) haveGLOBAL BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES, VOL. ???, XXXX, DOI:10.1029/, Global Dry Deposition of Nitrogen Dioxide and1 Sulfur Dioxide Inferred from Space-Based2 Measurements3 C. R. Nowlan, 1,2 R. V. Martin, 1,2 S

Martin, Randall

93

Microsoft PowerPoint - 6_Rowe-Future Challenges for Global Fuel Cycle Material Accounting Final_Updated.pptx  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Future Challenges Future Challenges for Global Fuel Cycle Material Accounting Nathan Rowe Chris Pickett Oak Ridge National Laboratory Nuclear Materials Management & Safeguards System Users Annual Training Meeting May 20-23, 2013 St. Louis, Missouri 2 Future Challenges for Global Fuel Cycle Material Accounting Introduction * Changing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Activities * Nuclear Security Challenges * How to Respond? - Additional Protocol - State-Level Concept - Continuity of Knowledge * Conclusion 3 Future Challenges for Global Fuel Cycle Material Accounting Nuclear Fuel Cycle Source: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Nuclear Fuel Cycle Information System (NFCIS) web site IAEA Safeguards Begins Here 4 Future Challenges for Global Fuel Cycle Material Accounting Nuclear Weapons Cycle Conversion

94

MOBILE PAYMENTS & VIRTUAL CURRENCIES Adoption Cycles Meeting Reality Global Lessons & Strategies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MOBILE PAYMENTS & VIRTUAL CURRENCIES Adoption Cycles Meeting Reality ­Global Lessons & Strategies Moderator: · Ulrike Guigui, Deloitte, NY 09:00-09:20 The State Of Mobile Payments Globally · David Birch, Consult Hyperion, UK 09:20-09:40 Global Presence, Local Solutions in Mobile Payments · Tomasz Smilowicz

Qian, Ning

95

Impact of climate change on the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea pelagic planktonic ecosystem and associated carbon cycle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and the microbial loop intensifies as the small-sized plankton biomass increases. Carbon net fixation and deep and associated carbon cycle M. Herrmann, C. Estournel, F. Diaz, F. Adloff ; LEGOS, LA, MIO, CNRM The northwestern and associated carbon cycle to the long-term evolution of oceanic and atmospheric circulations. For that we

96

Combined Simple Biosphere/Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach terrestrial carbon cycle model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Combined Simple Biosphere/Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach terrestrial carbon cycle model Kevin and physical processes to test our understanding of the terrestrial carbon cycle and to predict ecosystem biomass and carbon fluxes. We combine the photosynthesis and biophysical calculations in the Simple

Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

97

Can Reducing Black Carbon Emissions Counteract Global Warming?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Can Reducing Black Carbon Emissions Counteract Global Warming? ... It has been known for over 30 years that aerosols affect the Earth's radiative balance:? reflective particles (such as sulfates) have a cooling effect, and light-absorbing particles (such as BC) warm the system (3). ... Although Figure 3 shows many of the high-emitting devices that contribute most to global BC concentrations, much of the world's fuel is burned in low-emitting technologies such as pulverized coal burners and gasoline vehicles with current technology. ...

Tami C. Bond; Haolin Sun

2005-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

98

Three-dimensional model synthesis of the global methane cycle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

39, Ehhalt, D. H. , The atmoheric cycle of methane, Tellugworld-wide increase in theric methane, 1978-1987, Science,

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

The effect of carbonation after demolition on the life cycle assessment of pavements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The high contribution of CO? emissions associated with pavements has driven research to assess the life cycle of concrete versus asphalt structures and to develop a strategy to reduce the carbon footprint. The life cycle ...

Rossick, Katelyn M

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Power conversion system design for supercritical carbon dioxide cooled indirect cycle nuclear reactors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO?) cycle is a promising advanced power conversion cycle which couples nicely to many Generation IV nuclear reactors. This work investigates the power conversion system design and ...

Gibbs, Jonathan Paul

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "global carbon cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Carbon Cycle 2.0: Mary Ann Piette: Impact of efficient buildings  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Mary Ann Piette speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

Mary Ann Piette

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Trend in Global Black Carbon Emissions from 1960 to 2007  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Black carbon (BC) warms the Earth system by absorbing sunlight and emitting infrared radiation, and by decreasing the ice/snow albedo. ... (2, 3) Therefore, any efforts to reduce BC emission can lead to the dual benefit of slowing down global warming and of protecting human health. ... This work measured PM (EFPM) and EC (EFEC) EF for 9 crop residues and 5 coals in actual rural cooking and coal stoves using the C mass balance method. ...

Rong Wang; Shu Tao; Huizhong Shen; Ye Huang; Han Chen; Yves Balkanski; Olivier Boucher; Philippe Ciais; Guofeng Shen; Wei Li; Yanyan Zhang; Yuanchen Chen; Nan Lin; Shu Su; Bengang Li; Junfeng Liu; Wenxin Liu

2014-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

103

Diurnal Cycle of Precipitation in the Tropics Simulated in a Global Cloud-Resolving Model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study analyzes the diurnal cycle of precipitation simulated in a global cloud-resolving model (GCRM) named the Nonhydrostatic Icosahedral Atmospheric Model (NICAM). A 30-day integration of NICAM successfully simulates the precipitation ...

Tomonori Sato; Hiroaki Miura; Masaki Satoh; Yukari N. Takayabu; Yuqing Wang

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Global warming implications of facade parameters: A life cycle assessment of residential buildings in Bahrain  

SciTech Connect

On a global scale, the Gulf Corporation Council Countries (GCCC), including Bahrain, are amongst the top countries in terms of carbon dioxide emissions per capita. Building authority in Bahrain has set a target of 40% reduction of electricity consumption and associated CO{sub 2} emissions to be achieved by using facade parameters. This work evaluates how the life cycle CO{sub 2} emissions of buildings are affected by facade parameters. The main focus is placed on direct and indirect CO{sub 2} emissions from three contributors, namely, chemical reactions during production processes (Pco{sub 2}), embodied energy (Eco{sub 2}) and operational energy (OPco{sub 2}). By means of the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology, it has been possible to show that the greatest environmental impact occurs during the operational phase (80-90%). However, embodied CO{sub 2} emissions are an important factor that needs to be brought into the systems used for appraisal of projects, and hence into the design decisions made in developing projects. The assessment shows that masonry blocks are responsible for 70-90% of the total CO{sub 2} emissions of facade construction, mainly due to their physical characteristics. The highest Pco{sub 2} emissions factors are those of window elements, particularly aluminium frames. However, their contribution of CO{sub 2} emissions depends largely on the number and size of windows. Each square metre of glazing is able to increase the total CO{sub 2} emissions by almost 30% when compared with the same areas of opaque walls. The use of autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) walls reduces the total life cycle CO{sub 2} emissions by almost 5.2% when compared with ordinary walls, while the use of thermal insulation with concrete wall reduces CO{sub 2} emissions by 1.2%. The outcome of this work offers to the building industry a reliable indicator of the environmental impact of residential facade parameters. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Life cycle carbon assessment of facade parameters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Greatest environmental impact occurs during the operational phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Masonry blocks are responsible for 70-90% of the total CO2 emissions of facade construction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Window contribution of CO2 emissions depends on the number and size of windows. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Without insulation, AAC walls offer more savings in CO2 emissions.

Radhi, Hassan, E-mail: h_alradhi@yahoo.com [Global Engineering Bureau, P.O Box 33130, Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain (Bahrain); Sharples, Stephen, E-mail: steve.sharples@liverpool.ac.uk [School of Architecture, University of Liverpool (United Kingdom)

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

105

ARM-LBNL-NOAA Flask Sampler for Carbon Cycle Gases  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

Data from ccg-flasks are sampled at the ARM SGP site and analyzed by the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) as part of the NOAA Cooperative Global Air Sampling Network. Surface samples are collected from a 60m tower at the SGP Central Facility, usually once per week on one afternoon. The aircraft samples are collected approximately weekly from a chartered aircraft, and the collection flight path is centered over the tower where the surface samples are collected. Samples are collected by the ARM/LBNL Carbon Project. CO2 flask data contains measurements of CO2 concentration and CO2 stable isotope ratios (13CO2 and C18OO) from flasks collected at the SGP site. The flask samples are collected at 2m, 4m, 25m, and 60m along the 60m tower.

Torn, Margaret

106

Gasification combined cycle: Carbon dioxide recovery, transport, and disposal  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the project is to develop engineering evaluations of technologies for the capture, use, and disposal of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). This project emphasizes CO{sub 2}-capture technologies combined with integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power systems. Complementary evaluations address CO{sub 2} transportation, CO{sub 2} use, and options for the long-term sequestering of unused CO{sub 2}. Commercially available CO{sub 2}-capture technology is providing a performance and economic baseline against which to compare innovative technologies. The intent is to provide the CO{sub 2} budget, or an {open_quotes}equivalent CO{sub 2}{close_quotes} budget, associated with each of the individual energy-cycle steps, in addition to process design capital and operating costs. The value used for the {open_quotes}equivalent CO{sub 2}{close_quotes} budget is 1 kg of CO{sub 2} per kilowatt-hour (electric). The base case is a 458-MW IGCC system that uses an air-blown Kellogg-Rust-Westinghouse agglomerating fluidized-bed gasifier, Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal feed, and in-bed sulfur removal. Mining, feed preparation, and conversion result in a net electric power production of 454 MW, with a CO{sub 2} release rate of 0.835 kg/kWhe. Two additional life-cycle energy balances for emerging technologies were considered: (1) high-temperature CO{sub 2} separation with calcium- or magnesium-based sorbents, and (2) ambient-temperature facilitated-transport polymer membranes for acid-gas removal.

Doctor, R.D.; Molburg, J.C.; Thimmapuram, P.R.; Berry, G.F.; Livengood, C.D.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

PUBLISHED ONLINE: XX MONTH XXXX | DOI: 10.1038/NCLIMATE1951 Global soil carbon projections are improved by  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Society relies on Earth system models (ESMs) to project future climate and carbon cycle feedbacks. However

German, Donovan P.

108

PUBLISHED ONLINE: 28 JULY 2013 | DOI: 10.1038/NCLIMATE1951 Global soil carbon projections are improved by  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Society relies on Earth system models (ESMs) to project future climate and carbon (C) cycle feedbacks

Saleska, Scott

109

Modeling and Optimization of Membrane Reactors for Carbon Capture in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Units  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Modeling and Optimization of Membrane Reactors for Carbon Capture in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Units ... This paper investigates the alternative of precombustion capture of carbon dioxide from integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants using membrane reactors equipped with H2-selective zeolite membranes for the water gas shift reaction. ...

Fernando V. Lima; Prodromos Daoutidis; Michael Tsapatsis; John J. Marano

2012-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

110

Atmospheric chemistry impacts and feedbacks on the global carbon cycle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

prediction. Issues to be addressed include the quantification of the impact of the atmospheric oxidation and the oxidative state of the atmosphere. The end goal is to create a model that can quantitatively predict is required to: Predict 3-D atmospheric CO2 production as a function of the CCSM3 atmospheric chemistry module

111

Terrestrial nitrogencarbon cycle interactions at the global scale  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...N. Depending on whether the radiative forcing in Earth system models is prescribed (RCP-type forcing) or calculated...accounted for interactively in the next generation of Earth system models designed for long-term studies of biogeochemical-climate...

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Estimating Carbon Supply Curves for Global Forests and Other Land Uses |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Estimating Carbon Supply Curves for Global Forests and Other Land Uses Estimating Carbon Supply Curves for Global Forests and Other Land Uses Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Estimating Carbon Supply Curves for Global Forests and Other Land Uses Agency/Company /Organization: Resources for the Future Sector: Land Focus Area: Forestry, Agriculture Topics: GHG inventory, Resource assessment Resource Type: Guide/manual Website: www.rff.org/documents/RFF-DP-01-19.pdf Estimating Carbon Supply Curves for Global Forests and Other Land Uses Screenshot References: Estimating Carbon Supply Curves for Global Forests and Other Land Uses[1] Abstract "This study develops cumulative carbon "supply curves" for global forests utilizing an dynamic timber supply model for sequestration of forest carbon. Because the period of concern is the next century, and

113

Phosphate mineral reactivity: from global cycles to sustainable development  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Experimentale, LMTG-Universite Paul Sabatier-CNRS-IRD-OMP, 14 av...cycle; and (2) enable the improved use and conservation of phosphate...natural apatite in closed system reactors at temperatures from 5 to 50C...obs-mip.fr Universite Paul Sabatier, Biogeochimie et Geochimie...

E. H. Oelkers; E. Valsami-Jones; T. Roncal-Herrero

114

A Carbon Dioxide Gas Turbine Direct Cycle with Partial Condensation for Nuclear Reactors  

SciTech Connect

A carbon dioxide gas turbine power generation system with a partial condensation cycle has been proposed for thermal and fast nuclear reactors, in which compression is done partly in the liquid phase and partly in the gas phase. This cycle achieves higher cycle efficiency than a He direct cycle mainly due to reduced compressor work of the liquid phase and of the carbon dioxide real gas effect, especially in the vicinity of the critical point. If this cycle is applied to a thermal reactor, efficiency of this cycle is about 55% at a reactor outlet temperature of 900 deg. C and pressure of 12.5 MPa, which is higher by about 10% than a typical helium direct gas turbine cycle plant (PBMR) at 900 deg. C and 8.4 MPa; this cycle also provides comparable cycle efficiency at the moderate core outlet temperature of 600 deg. C with that of the helium cycle at 900 deg. C. If this cycle is applied to a fast reactor, it is anticipated to be an alternative to liquid metal cooled fast reactors that can provide slightly higher cycle efficiency at the same core outlet temperature; it would eliminate safety problems, simplify the heat transport system and simplify plant maintenance. A passive decay heat removal system is realized by connecting a liquid carbon dioxide storage tank with the reactor vessel and by supplying carbon dioxide gasified from the tank to the core in case of depressurization event. (authors)

Yasuyoshi Kato; Takeshi Nitawaki; Yoshio Yoshizawa [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, 152-8550 (Japan)

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Photobiogeochemical cycling of carbon monoxide in the southeastern Beaufort Sea in spring and autumn  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Photobiogeochemical cycling of carbon monoxide in the southeastern Beaufort Sea in spring the distribution, photoproduction, microbial uptake, and air­sea exchange of carbon monoxide (CO), a key that in warmer seas. Carbon monoxide (CO) is the dominant sink for hydroxyl radicals in the troposphere, thus

Vincent, Warwick F.

116

Carbon Dioxide Capture from Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Gas Streams Using the Ammonium Carbonate-Ammonium Bicarbonate Process  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Integrated Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Gas Streams Using the Ammonium Carbonate- Ammonium Bicarbonate Process Description Current commercial processes to remove carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from conventional power plants are expensive and energy intensive. The objective of this project is to reduce the cost associated with the capture of CO 2 from coal based gasification processes, which convert coal and other carbon based feedstocks to synthesis gas.

117

Uncertainties in CMIP5 Climate Projections due to Carbon Cycle Feedbacks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the context of phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, most climate simulations use prescribed atmospheric CO2 concentration and therefore do not interactively include the effect of carbon cycle feedbacks. However, the ...

Pierre Friedlingstein; Malte Meinshausen; Vivek K. Arora; Chris D. Jones; Alessandro Anav; Spencer K. Liddicoat; Reto Knutti

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

CDIAC::Carbon Emission::Time Series Global Data  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The 2013 version of this database presents a time series recording 1° The 2013 version of this database presents a time series recording 1° latitude by 1° longitude CO2 emissions in units of million metric tons of carbon per year from anthropogenic sources for 1751-2010. Detailed geographic information on CO2 emissions can be critical in understanding the pattern of the atmospheric and biospheric response to these emissions. Global, regional, and national annual estimates for 1751 through 2010 were published earlier (Boden et al. 2013). Those national, annual CO2 emission estimates were based on statistics about fossil-fuel burning, cement manufacturing and gas flaring in oil fields as well as energy production, consumption, and trade data, using the methods of Marland and Rotty (1984). The national annual estimates were combined with gridded 1° data on

119

Vol. 16, No. 2 May 2006Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment World Climate Research Programme  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NEWSNEWS Vol. 16, No. 2 May 2006Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment World Climate Research by the exchanges of energy and water. Although some statistics of these varia- tions may be static, the energy Programme (A Programme of WMO, ICSU and IOC) GEWEX ADDRESSES WATER AND ENERGY BUDGETS USING SATELLITES

120

GLOBAL EMISSIONS Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, largely carbon dioxide (CO2)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

GLOBAL EMISSIONS Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, largely carbon dioxide (CO2) from the combustion. Figure 1 Global Carbon Dioxide Emissions: 1850­2030 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940- related CO2 emissions have risen 130-fold since 1850--from 200 million tons to 27 billion tons a year

Green, Donna

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "global carbon cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Deep-Sea Research II 53 (2006) 555575 Spatial and seasonal patterns of carbon cycling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the world's ocean and has been an area of intense scientific interest for several decades (Wu¨ st, 1959Deep-Sea Research II 53 (2006) 555­575 Spatial and seasonal patterns of carbon cycling through stations in the Arabian Sea. The goal of this work was to characterize carbon flows and trophic transfers

Jackson, George

122

Dynamics of decadally cycling carbon in subsurface soils  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

dynamics in a California conifer forest, Soil Sci. Soc. Am.in a range of temperate conifer forest soils, Global Change

Koarashi, Jun; Hockaday, William C; Masiello, Caroline A; Trumbore, Susan E

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Combined surface solar brightening and increasing greenhouse effect support recent intensification of the global land-based hydrological cycle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Combined surface solar brightening and increasing greenhouse effect support recent intensification of the global land-based hydrological cycle Martin Wild,1 Ju¨rgen Grieser,2 and Christoph Scha¨r1 Received 30 radiation (surface radiation balance) is the key driver behind the global hydrological cycle. Here we

Fischlin, Andreas

124

A Global Technology Roadmap on Carbon Capture and Storage in Industry |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

A Global Technology Roadmap on Carbon Capture and Storage in Industry A Global Technology Roadmap on Carbon Capture and Storage in Industry Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: A Global Technology Roadmap on Carbon Capture and Storage in Industry Agency/Company /Organization: United Nations Industrial Development Organization Focus Area: Industry Topics: Pathways analysis, Technology characterizations Resource Type: Publications Website: www.unido.org/index.php?id=1000821 References: A Global Technology Roadmap on Carbon Capture and Storage in Industry[1] CO2 Capture and Storage (CCS) is a key technology option for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions mitigation. Recent studies suggest that CCS would contribute 19% of the total global mitigation that is needed for halving global GHG emissions by 2050. Overview

125

Photosynthesis-dependent isoprene emission from leaf to planet in a global carbon-chemistry-climate model  

SciTech Connect

We describe the implementation of a biochemical model of isoprene emission that depends on the electron requirement for isoprene synthesis into the Farquhar/Ball- Berry leaf model of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance that is embedded within a global chemistry-climate simulation framework. The isoprene production is calculated as a function of electron transport-limited photosynthesis, intercellular carbon dioxide concentration, and canopy temperature. The vegetation biophysics module computes the photosynthetic uptake of carbon dioxide coupled with the transpiration of water vapor and the isoprene emission rate at the 30 min physical integration time step of the global chemistry-climate model. In the model, the rate of carbon assimilation provides the dominant control on isoprene emission variability over canopy temperature. A control simulation representative of the present day climatic state that uses plant functional types (PFTs), prescribed phenology and generic PFT-specific isoprene emission potentials (fraction of electrons available for isoprene synthesis) reproduces 50% of the variability across different ecosystems and seasons in a global database of measured campaign-average fluxes. Compared to time-varying isoprene flux measurements at select sites, the model authentically captures the observed variability in the 30 min average diurnal cycle (R2 = 64-96 %) and simulates the flux magnitude to within a factor of 2. The control run yields a global isoprene source strength of 451 TgCyr?1 that increases by 30% in the artificial absence of plant water stress and by 55% for potential natural vegetation.

Unger, N.; Harper, K.; Zheng, Y.; Kiang, N. Y.; Aleinov, I.; Arneth, Almut; Schurgers, G.; Amelynck, C.; Goldstein, Allen H.; Guenther, Alex B.; Heinesch, B.; Hewitt, C. N.; Karl, T.; Laffineur, Q.; Langford, B.; McKinney, Karena A.; Misztal, P.; Potosnak, M.; Rinne, J.; Pressley, S.; Schoon, N.; Serca, D.

2013-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

126

Introduction to special section on North Pacific Carbon Cycle Variability and Climate Change  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

dissolved inorganic carbon and temperature driven variations in the seawater pCO2 tend to compensate each., 111, C07S01, doi:10.1029/2006JC003532. 1. Background [2] Air-sea exchange and storage of carbon contribution to the global oceanic storage of anthropogenic CO2 [Sabine et al., 2002, 2004b]. [4] Evidence

Gruber, Nicolas

127

Carbon capture and storage in geologic formations has been proposed as a global warming mitigation strategy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract Carbon capture and storage in geologic formations has been proposed as a global warming mitigation strategy that can contribute to stabilize the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide to maintain adsorbed methane in the coalbed formation. But now carbon dioxide will replace the methane

Mohaghegh, Shahab

128

Global Change Biology (2000) 6, 317328 Soil Carbon Sequestration and Land-Use Change: Processes and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Global Change Biology (2000) 6, 317­328 Soil Carbon Sequestration and Land-Use Change: Processes in enhanced soil carbon sequestration with changes in land-use and soil management. We review literature, and indicates the relative importance of some factors that influence the rates of organic carbon sequestration

Post, Wilfred M.

129

CARBON ISOTOPE STRATIGRAPHY AND DIAGENESIS OF PENNSYLVANIAN (DESMOINESIAN-MISSOURIAN) CARBONATES IN EAST-CENTRAL IDAHO  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon isotope stratigraphy of carbonate sediments is instrumental in examining major perturbations in the global carbon cycle and in correlating strata. However, the primary isotopic signal recorded in these sediments can vary with depositional...

Wood, Stephanie

2011-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

130

Cost-Effective Choices of Marine Fuels in a Carbon-Constrained World: Results from a Global Energy Model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cost-Effective Choices of Marine Fuels in a Carbon-Constrained World: Results from a Global Energy Model ... Department

Maria Taljegard; Selma Brynolf; Maria Grahn; Karin Andersson; Hannes Johnson

2014-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

131

High-Efficiency Receivers for Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Cycles  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This fact sheet describes a project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D award program. The team, led by Brayton Energy, aims to develop and demonstrate a low-cost, high-efficiency solar receiver that is compatible with s-CO2 cycles and modern thermal storage subsystems. Supercritical CO2 Brayton-cycle engines have the potential to increase conversion efficiency to more than 50%. This high conversion efficiency drives down the cost of the supporting solar field, tower, and thermal storage systems, which could significantly reduce the lifetime costs of a CSP system to achieve the SunShot goal.

132

Supply of carbon sequestration and biodiversity services from Australia's agricultural land under global change  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Global agroecosystems can contribute to both climate change mitigation and biodiversity conservation, and market mechanisms provide a highly prospective means of achieving these outcomes. However, the ability of markets to motivate the supply of carbon sequestration and biodiversity services from agricultural land is uncertain, especially given the future changes in environmental, economic, and social drivers. We quantified the potential supply of these services from the intensive agricultural land of Australia from 2013 to 2050 under four global outlooks in response to a carbon price and biodiversity payment scheme. Each global outlook specified emissions pathways, climate, food demand, energy price, and carbon price modeled using the Global Integrated Assessment Model (GIAM). Using a simplified version of the Land Use Trade-Offs (LUTO) model, economic returns to agriculture, carbon plantings, and environmental plantings were calculated each year. The supply of carbon sequestration and biodiversity services was then quantified given potential land use change under each global outlook, and the sensitivity of the results to key parameters was assessed. We found that carbon supply curves were similar across global outlooks. Sharp increases in carbon sequestration supply occurred at carbon prices exceeding 50$tCO2?1 in 2015 and exceeding 65$tCO2?1 in 2050. Based on GIAM-modeled carbon prices, little carbon sequestration was expected at 2015 under any global outlook. However, at 2050 expected carbon supply under each outlook differed markedly, ranging from 0 to 189MtCO2yr?1. Biodiversity services of 3.32% of the maximum may be achieved in 2050 for a 1$B investment under median scenario settings. We conclude that a carbon market can motivate supply of substantial carbon sequestration but only modest amounts of biodiversity services from agricultural land. A complementary biodiversity payment can synergistically increase the supply of biodiversity services but will not provide much additional carbon sequestration. The results were sensitive to global drivers, especially the carbon price, and the domestic drivers of adoption hurdle rate and agricultural productivity. The results can inform the design of an effective national policy and institutional portfolio addressing the dual objectives of climate change and biodiversity conservation that is robust to future uncertainty in both national and global drivers.

B.A. Bryan; M. Nolan; T.D. Harwood; J.D. Connor; J. Navarro-Garcia; D. King; D.M. Summers; D. Newth; Y. Cai; N. Grigg; I. Harman; N.D. Crossman; M.J. Grundy; J.J. Finnigan; S. Ferrier; K.J. Williams; K.A. Wilson; E.A. Law; S. Hatfield-Dodds

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Not All Salmon Are Created Equal: Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of Global Salmon Farming Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Not All Salmon Are Created Equal: Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of Global Salmon Farming Systems ... Life cycle assessment (LCA) is an ISO-standardized biophysical accounting framework used to (1) compile an inventory of material and energy inputs and outputs characteristic of each stage of a product life cycle and (2) quantify its contributions to a specified suite of resource use and emissions-related environmental impact categories (8, 9). ... System boundaries for a cradle-to-farm-gate LCA of live-weight salmon production in Norway, the UK, Canada, and Chile (gray font denotes background system data derived from the EcoInvent database, modified as appropriate to conform to regional conditions). ...

Nathan Pelletier; Peter Tyedmers; Ulf Sonesson; Astrid Scholz; Friederike Ziegler; Anna Flysjo; Sarah Kruse; Beatriz Cancino; Howard Silverman

2009-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

134

August 22, 2002 Contribution to Stein, R. and Macdonald, R. W. (eds.) The Organic Carbon Cycle in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 August 22, 2002 Contribution to Stein, R. and Macdonald, R. W. (eds.) The Organic Carbon Cycle. This problem is highlighted by a recent study of the carbon budget of the Mackenzie shelf by Macdonald et al

Eicken, Hajo

135

Preindustrial-Control and Twentieth-Century Carbon Cycle Experiments with the Earth System Model CESM1(BGC)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Version 1 of the Community Earth System Model, in the configuration where its full carbon cycle is enabled, is introduced and documented. In this configuration, the terrestrial biogeochemical model, which includes carbonnitrogen dynamics and is ...

Keith Lindsay; Gordon B. Bonan; Scott C. Doney; Forrest M. Hoffman; David M. Lawrence; Matthew C. Long; Natalie M. Mahowald; J. Keith Moore; James T. Randerson; Peter E. Thornton

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Analysis of Biomass/Coal Co-Gasification for Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Systems with Carbon Capture.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? In recent years, Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Technology (IGCC) has become more common in clean coal power operations with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS). (more)

Long, Henry A, III

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

On the relationship between uncertainties in tropical divergence and the hydrological cycle in global models  

SciTech Connect

A survey of tropical divergence from three GCMs, three global reanalyses and four insitu soundings from field campaigns shows the existence of large uncertainties in the ubiquity of shallow divergent circulation as well as the depth and strength of the deep divergent circulation. More specifically, only two GCMs out of the three GCMs and three global reanalyses show significant shallow divergent circulation, which is present in all in-situ soundings, and of the three GCMs and three global reanalyses, only two global reanalyses have deep divergence profiles that lie within the range of uncertainty of the soundings. The relationships of uncertainties in the shallow and deep divergent circulation to uncertainties in present day and projected strength of the hydrological cycle from the GCMs are assessed. In the tropics and subtropics, deep divergent circulation is the largest contributor to moisture convergence that balances the net precipitation, and inter-model differences in the present day simulations carry over onto the future projections. In comparison to the soundings and reanalyses, the GCMs are found to have deeper and stronger divergent circulation. While these two characteristics of GCM divergence affect the strength of the hydrological cycle, they tend to compensate for each other so that their combined effect is relatively modest.

Hagos, Samson M.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Evaluation and Optimization of a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Power Conversion Cycle for Nuclear Applications  

SciTech Connect

There have been a number of studies involving the use of gases operating in the supercritical mode for power production and process heat applications. Supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) is particularly attractive because it is capable of achieving relatively high power conversion cycle efficiencies in the temperature range between 550C and 750C. Therefore, it has the potential for use with any type of high-temperature nuclear reactor concept, assuming reactor core outlet temperatures of at least 550C. The particular power cycle investigated in this paper is a supercritical CO2 Recompression Brayton Cycle. The CO2 Recompression Brayton Cycle can be used as either a direct or indirect power conversion cycle, depending on the reactor type and reactor outlet temperature. The advantage of this cycle when compared to the helium Brayton Cycle is the lower required operating temperature; 550C versus 850C. However, the supercritical CO2 Recompression Brayton Cycle requires an operating pressure in the range of 20 MPa, which is considerably higher than the required helium Brayton cycle operating pressure of 8 MPa. This paper presents results of analyses performed using the UniSim process analyses software to evaluate the performance of the supercritical CO2 Brayton Recompression Cycle for different reactor outlet temperatures. The UniSim model assumed a 600 MWt reactor power source, which provides heat to the power cycle at a maximum temperature of between 550C and 750C. The UniSim model used realistic component parameters and operating conditions to model the complete power conversion system. CO2 properties were evaluated, and the operating range for the cycle was adjusted to take advantage of the rapidly changing conditions near the critical point. The UniSim model was then optimized to maximize the power cycle thermal efficiency at the different maximum power cycle operating temperatures. The results of the analyses showed that power cycle thermal efficiencies in the range of 40 to 50% can be achieved.

Edwin A. Harvego; Michael G. McKellar

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

R E V I E W Liana Impacts on Carbon Cycling, Storage and Sequestration in Tropical Forests  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

R E V I E W Liana Impacts on Carbon Cycling, Storage and Sequestration in Tropical Forests Geertje for carbon storage and sequestration. Lianas reduce tree growth, survival, and leaf productivity; however liana carbon stocks are unlikely to compensate for liana-induced losses in net carbon sequestration

Schnitzer, Stefan

140

Wetlands, Microbes, and the Carbon Cycle: Behind the Scenes @ Berkeley Lab  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Susannah Tringe, who leads the Metagenome Program at the Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute (JGI), a collaboration in which Berkeley Lab plays a leading role, takes us behind the scenes to show how DNA from unknown wild microbes is extracted and analyzed to see what role they play in the carbon cycle. Tringe collects samples of microbial communities living in the wetland muck of the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, organisms that can determine how these wetlands store or release carbon.

Tringe, Susannah

2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "global carbon cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

The cycling of carbon into and out of dust  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Observational evidence seems to indicate that the depletion of interstellar carbon into dust shows rather wide variations and that carbon undergoes rather rapid recycling in the interstellar medium (ISM). Small hydrocarbon grains are processed in photo-dissociation regions by UV photons, by ion and electron collisions in interstellar shock waves and by cosmic rays. A significant fraction of hydrocarbon dust must therefore be re-formed by accretion in the dense, molecular ISM. A new dust model (Jones et al., Astron. Astrophys., 2013, 558, A62) shows that variations in the dust observables in the diffuse interstellar medium (nH = 1000 cm^3), can be explained by systematic and environmentally-driven changes in the small hydrocarbon grain population. Here we explore the consequences of gas-phase carbon accretion onto the surfaces of grains in the transition regions between the diffuse ISM and molecular clouds (e.g., Jones, Astron. Astrophys., 2013, 555, A39). We find that significant carbonaceous dust re-processi...

Jones, Anthony P; Koehler, Melanie; Fanciullo, Lapo; Bocchio, Marco; Micelotta, Elisabetta; Verstraete, Laurent; Guillet, Vincent

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Analysis and optimization of the Graz cycle : a coal fired power generation scheme with near-zero carbon dioxide emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Humans are releasing record amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere through the combustion of fossil fuels in power generation plants. With mounting evidence that this carbon dioxide is a leading cause of global ...

Alexander, Brentan R

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Protecting terrestrial ecosystems and the climate through a global carbon market  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...a global carbon market Robert Bonnie Melissa...Washington, DC 20009, USA Protecting terrestrial...through a carbon market 1861 0 400 800 1200 1600 USA China Russia Japan...US Department of Energy (1999). ural...typically have market values for the...

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

A Comparison of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Power Cycle Configurations with an Emphasis on CSP Applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Recent research suggests that an emerging power cycle technology using supercritical carbon dioxide (s-CO2) operated in a closed-loop Brayton cycle offers the potential of equivalent or higher cycle efficiency versus supercritical or superheated steam cycles at temperatures relevant for CSP applications. Preliminary design-point modeling suggests that s-CO2 cycle configurations can be devised that have similar overall efficiency but different temperature and/or pressure characteristics. This paper employs a more detailed heat exchanger model than previous work to compare the recompression and partial cooling cycles, two cycles with high design-point efficiencies, and illustrates the potential advantages of the latter. Integration of the cycles into CSP systems is studied, with a focus on sensible heat thermal storage and direct s-CO2 receivers. Results show the partial cooling cycle may offer a larger temperature difference across the primary heat exchanger, thereby potentially reducing heat exchanger cost and improving CSP receiver efficiency.

T. Neises; C. Turchi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Global Change Biology (1996)2,169-182 Measurements of carbon sequestration by long-term  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Global Change Biology (1996)2,169-182 Measurements of carbon sequestration by long-term eddy. The integrated carbon sequestration in 1994 was 2.1 t C ha-l y-l with a 90% confidence interval due to sampling an overall uncertainty on the annual carbon sequestration in 1994 of --0.3to +0.8 t C ha-l y-l. Keywords

Rose, Michael R.

146

Ecological Modelling xxx (2005) xxxxxx Modelling carbon and water cycles in a beech forest  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on simulated NEE. Finally 17 parameters, linked to photosynthesis, vegetative respiration and soil water are used to create a set of 17,000 simulations, where the values of the 17 key parameters are randomlyEcological Modelling xxx (2005) xxx­xxx Modelling carbon and water cycles in a beech forest Part I

Boyer, Edmond

147

Grand vision for future ESRL Carbon Cycle Effort Contribution to GEOSS In situ  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Grand vision for future ESRL Carbon Cycle Effort · Contribution to GEOSS ­ In situ GHG monitoring (~weekly) NOAA Tall Tower Partner regional networks #12;Hypothetical Future GEOSS In Situ GHG NetworkHypothetical Future GEOSS In Situ GHG Network #12;Hypothetical Future GEOSS In Situ GHG NetworkHypothetical Future

148

An estimate of monthly global emissions of anthropogenic CO2: Impact on the seasonal cycle of atmospheric CO2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An estimate of monthly global emissions of anthropogenic CO2: Impact on the seasonal cycle of anthropogenic CO2 are presented. Approximating the seasonal CO2 emission cycle using a 2-harmonic Fourier series with regions of strong anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Citation: Erickson, D. J., III, R. T. Mills, J. Gregg, T. J

Hoffman, Forrest M.

149

Belowground Carbon Cycling Processes at the Molecular Scale: An EMSL Science Theme Advisory Panel Workshop  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Belowground Carbon Cycling Processes at the Molecular Scale workshop, an EMSL Science Theme Advisory Panel meeting held in February 2013, attendees discussed critical biogeochemical processes that regulate carbon cycling in soil. The meeting attendees determined that as a national scientific user facility, EMSL can provide the tools and expertise needed to elucidate the molecular foundation that underlies mechanistic descriptions of biogeochemical processes that control carbon allocation and fluxes at the terrestrial/atmospheric interface in landscape and regional climate models. Consequently, the workshop's goal was to identify the science gaps that hinder either development of mechanistic description of critical processes or their accurate representation in climate models. In part, this report offers recommendations for future EMSL activities in this research area. The workshop was co-chaired by Dr. Nancy Hess (EMSL) and Dr. Gordon Brown (Stanford University).

Hess, Nancy J.; Brown, Gordon E.; Plata, Charity

2014-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

150

CARBON LIFE-CYCLE AND ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF FOREST CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND WOODY BIOENERGY PRODUCTION.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Sequestering carbon in standing biomass, using woody bioenergy, and using woody products are the three potential ways to utilize forests in reducing greenhouse gases (GHGs) (more)

Shrestha, Prativa

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Litter-Carbon Dynamics: The Importance of Decomposition, Accretion, and Sequestration in Understanding Ecosystem Carbon Cycling.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The atmospheric CO2 concentration has been increasing since the industrial revolution. A proposed mitigation strategy is sequestering carbon (C) in terrestrial ecosystems, either in plant (more)

Kochsiek, Amy

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Strategic Analysis of the Global Status of Carbon Capture and Storage  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Strategic Analysis of the Global Status of Carbon Capture and Storage Strategic Analysis of the Global Status of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS): Country Studies, United Arab Emirates Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Strategic Analysis of the Global Status of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS): Country Studies, United Arab Emirates Focus Area: Clean Fossil Energy Topics: Opportunity Assessment & Screening Website: www.globalccsinstitute.com/sites/default/files/publications/8737/strat Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.org/content/strategic-analysis-global-status-carb Policies: "Deployment Programs,Financial Incentives" is not in the list of possible values (Deployment Programs, Financial Incentives, Regulations) for this property. DeploymentPrograms: Public-Private Partnerships

153

Exploiting simultaneous observational constraints on mass and absorption to estimate the global direct radiative forcing of black carbon and brown carbon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Atmospheric black carbon (BC) is a leading climate warming agent, yet uncertainties on the global direct radiative forcing (DRF) remain large. Here we expand a global model simulation (GEOS-Chem) of BC to include the ...

Schwarz, J. P.

154

A Global Land System Framework for Integrated Climate-Change Assessments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Land ecosystems play a major role in the global cycles of energy, water, carbon and nutrients. A Global Land System (GLS) framework has been developed for the Integrated Global Systems Model Version 2 (IGSM2) to simulate ...

Schlosser, C. Adam

155

Amazon Basin climate under global warming: the role of the sea surface temperature  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Amazon Basin climate under global warming: the role of the sea surface...temperature|carbon cycle|global warming| 1. Introduction First-generation...further into two components: a global mean warming (MW) and gridbox local anomalies...

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Novel Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Power Cycle Utilizing Pressured Oxy-combustion in Conjunction with Cryogenic Compression  

SciTech Connect

The team of Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) and Thar Energy LLC (Thar) applied technology engineering and economic analysis to evaluate two advanced oxy-combustion power cycles, the Cryogenic Pressurized Oxy-combustion Cycle (CPOC), and the Supercritical Oxy-combustion Cycle. This assessment evaluated the performance and economic cost of the two proposed cycles with carbon capture, and included a technology gap analysis of the proposed technologies to determine the technology readiness level of the cycle and the cycle components. The results of the engineering and economic analysis and the technology gap analysis were used to identify the next steps along the technology development roadmap for the selected cycle. The project objectives, as outlined in the FOA, were 90% CO{sub 2} removal at no more than a 35% increase in cost of electricity (COE) as compared to a Supercritical Pulverized Coal Plant without CO{sub 2} capture. The supercritical oxy-combustion power cycle with 99% carbon capture achieves a COE of $121/MWe. This revised COE represents a 21% reduction in cost as compared to supercritical steam with 90% carbon capture ($137/MWe). However, this represents a 49% increase in the COE over supercritical steam without carbon capture ($80.95/MWe), exceeding the 35% target. The supercritical oxy-combustion cycle with 99% carbon capture achieved a 37.9% HHV plant efficiency (39.3% LHV plant efficiency), when coupling a supercritical oxy-combustion thermal loop to an indirect supercritical CO{sub 2} (sCO{sub 2}) power block. In this configuration, the power block achieved 48% thermal efficiency for turbine inlet conditions of 650C and 290 atm. Power block efficiencies near 60% are feasible with higher turbine inlet temperatures, however a design tradeoff to limit firing temperature to 650C was made in order to use austenitic stainless steels for the high temperature pressure vessels and piping and to minimize the need for advanced turbomachinery features such as blade cooling. The overall technical readiness of the supercritical oxy-combustion cycle is TRL 2, Technology Concept, due to the maturity level of the supercritical oxy-combustor for solid fuels, and several critical supporting components, as identified in the Technical Gap Analysis. The supercritical oxycombustor for solid fuels operating at pressures near 100 atm is a unique component of the supercritical oxy-combustion cycle. In addition to the low TRL supercritical oxy-combustor, secondary systems were identified that would require adaptation for use with the supercritical oxycombustion cycle. These secondary systems include the high pressure pulverized coal feed, high temperature cyclone, removal of post-combustion particulates from the high pressure cyclone underflow stream, and micro-channel heat exchangers tolerant of particulate loading. Bench scale testing was utilized to measure coal combustion properties at elevated pressures in a CO{sub 2} environment. This testing included coal slurry preparation, visualization of coal injection into a high pressure fluid, and modification of existing test equipment to facilitate the combustion properties testing. Additional bench scale testing evaluated the effectiveness of a rotary atomizer for injecting a coal-water slurry into a fluid with similar densities, as opposed to the typical application where the high density fluid is injected into a low density fluid. The swirl type supercritical oxy-combustor was developed from initial concept to an advanced design stage through numerical simulation using FLUENT and Chemkin to model the flow through the combustor and provide initial assessment of the coal combustion reactions in the flow path. This effort enabled the initial combustor mechanical layout, initial pressure vessel design, and the conceptual layout of a pilot scale test loop. A pilot scale demonstration of the supercritical oxy-combustion cycle is proposed as the next step in the technology development. This demonstration would advance the supercritical oxy-combustion cycle and the supercritical

Brun, Klaus; McClung, Aaron; Davis, John

2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

157

Building a Global Low-Carbon Technology Pathway  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

At COP 20 in Lima, Peru, Department of Energy staff will discuss actions we're taking to help implement the United States' commitments to fight global climate change.

158

Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions with Enhanced Oil Recovery Projects:? A Life Cycle Assessment Approach  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions with Enhanced Oil Recovery Projects:? A Life Cycle Assessment Approach ... This capacity corresponds approximately to storing the emissions of a 5 MW power plant emitting 65 tons of CO2 per day for almost 1800 years27 or 14 years from a 300 MW coal power plant where 8000 tons of CO2 is captured per day. ... To overcome this CO2 emission problem, there is great interest, esp. in Canada, to capture carbon dioxide and utilize it as a flooding agent for the enhanced oil recovery (EOR) process. ...

Anne-Christine Aycaguer; Miriam Lev-On; Arthur M. Winer

2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Crystallographic Snapshots of Cyanide- and Water-Bound C-Clusters from Bifunctional Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase/Acetyl-CoA Synthase  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nickel-containing carbon monoxide dehydrogenases (CODHs) reversibly catalyze the oxidation of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide and are of vital importance in the global carbon cycle. The unusual catalytic CODH C-cluster ...

Kung, Yan

160

An examination of carbon budgets, carbon taxes, industry attitudes to global warming, and AAPG  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Energy Corporation, 2014, Air, accessed November 13, 2014...social-responsibility/environment/air . DPA, 2007, Climate change...cfm . EPA, 2014, Carbon Pollution Standards, Regulatory Actions...www2.epa.gov/carbon-pollution-standards/regulatory-actions...

James M. Rine

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "global carbon cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Global Carbon Pricing Among Countries With Different Economic Prospects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of greenhouse gases (ghg). The United States, which accounts for around a quarter of global ghg emissions (IEA change problem and argue that ghg cuts could imperil their economic growth, which they expect to lift have less capacity for ghg miti- gation, but also from the fact that, given their economic growth

162

Long-Term Shifts in Life-Cycle Energy Efficiency and Carbon Intensity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

System-level life-cycle efficiency may decrease as mitigation efforts intensify, since low-efficiency renewable systems with high output have much lower GHG emissions than some high-efficiency fossil fuel systems. ... Climate policies accelerate both improvements in EF and the adoption of renewable technologies, resulting in considerably lower primary energy demand and GHG emissions. ... Schipper, L.; Saenger, C.; Sudardshan, A.Transport and carbon emissions in the United States: The Long View Energies 2011, 4, 563 581 ...

Sonia Yeh; Gouri Shankar Mishra; Geoff Morrison; Jacob Teter; Raul Quiceno; Kenneth Gillingham; Xavier Riera-Palou

2013-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

163

Development of advanced off-design models for supercritical carbon dioxide power cycles  

SciTech Connect

In the search for increased efficiency of utility-scale electricity generation, Brayton cycles operating with supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO{sub 2}) have found considerable interest. There are two main advantages of a S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle compared to a Rankine cycle: 1) equal or greater thermal efficiencies can be realized using significantly smaller turbomachinery, and 2) heat rejection is not limited by the saturation temperature of the working fluid, which has the potential to reduce or completely eliminate the need for cooling water and instead allow dry cooling. While dry cooling is especially advantageous for power generation in arid climates, a reduction of water consumption in any location will be increasingly beneficial as tighter environmental regulations are enacted in the future. Because daily and seasonal weather variations may result in a plant operating away from its design point, models that are capable of predicting the off-design performance of S-CO{sub 2} power cycles are necessary for characterizing and evaluating cycle configurations and turbomachinery designs on an annual basis. To this end, an off-design model of a recuperated Brayton cycle was developed based on the radial turbomachinery currently being investigated by Sandia National Laboratory. (authors)

Dyreby, J. J.; Klein, S. A.; Nellis, G. F.; Reindl, D. T. [Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, Solar Energy Laboratory, 1343 Engineering Research Building, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Reducing Demand through Efficiency and Services: Impacts and Opportunities in Buildings Sector (Carbon Cycle 2.0)  

SciTech Connect

Mary Ann Piette, Deputy of LBNL's Building Technologies Department and Director of the Demand Response Research Center, speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

Piette, Mary Ann [Director, Demand Response Research Center] [Director, Demand Response Research Center

2010-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

165

Reducing Demand through Efficiency and Services: Impacts and Opportunities in Buildings Sector (Carbon Cycle 2.0)  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Mary Ann Piette, Deputy of LBNL's Building Technologies Department and Director of the Demand Response Research Center, speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

Piette, Mary Ann [Director, Demand Response Research Center

2011-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

166

The effect of political cycles on power investment decisions: Expectations over the repeal and reinstatement of carbon policy mechanisms in Australia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Political uncertainty over global greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation policy is likely to defer investment in cleaner technologies. It may also incentivise short-lived, high-cost interim investments while businesses wait for the uncertainty to subside. The range of possible policy responses to the issue has created uncertainty over the future of national mitigation pathways. Given that the electricity sector, globally, is a major emitter of GHGs, this represents a systematic risk to investment in electricity generation assets. This paper uses a real options analysis framework informed by a survey of experts conducted in Australia used as a proxy to model the degree of the uncertainty to investigate the optimal timing for investment in the conversion of a coal plant to a combined cycle gas turbine plant using the American-style option valuation method. The effect of market and political uncertainty is studied for the Clean Energy Act 2011 in Australia. Political uncertainty is addressed bi-modally in terms of: (1) uncertainty over the repeal of the carbon pricing policy, and (2) if it is repealed, uncertainty over the reinstatement of the policy, to represent the effect of electoral cycles and the possibility of more stringent future global mitigation efforts. Results of the analysis show that although political uncertainty with respect to GHG mitigation policy may delay investment in the conversion of the coal plant, expectations over the reinstatement of the carbon pricing reduces the amount of option premium to defer the conversion decision.

Mahdi ShahNazari; Adam McHugh; Bryan Maybee; Jonathan Whale

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Marine methane cycle simulations for the period of early global warming  

SciTech Connect

Geochemical environments, fates, and effects are modeled for methane released into seawater by the decomposition of climate-sensitive clathrates. A contemporary global background cycle is first constructed, within the framework of the Parallel Ocean Program. Input from organics in the upper thermocline is related to oxygen levels, and microbial consumption is parameterized from available rate measurements. Seepage into bottom layers is then superimposed, representing typical seabed fluid flow. The resulting CH{sub 4} distribution is validated against surface saturation ratios, vertical sections, and slope plume studies. Injections of clathrate-derived methane are explored by distributing a small number of point sources around the Arctic continental shelf, where stocks are extensive and susceptible to instability during the first few decades of global warming. Isolated bottom cells are assigned dissolved gas fluxes from porous-media simulation. Given the present bulk removal pattern, methane does not penetrate far from emission sites. Accumulated effects, however, spread to the regional scale following the modeled current system. Both hypoxification and acidification are documented. Sensitivity studies illustrate a potential for material restrictions to broaden the perturbations, since methanotrophic consumers require nutrients and trace metals. When such factors are considered, methane buildup within the Arctic basin is enhanced. However, freshened polar surface waters act as a barrier to atmospheric transfer, diverting products into the deep return flow. Uncertainties in the logic and calculations are enumerated including those inherent in high-latitude clathrate abundance, buoyant effluent rise through the column, representation of the general circulation, and bacterial growth kinetics.

Elliott, S.; Maltrud, M.; Reagan, M.T.; Moridis, G.J.; Cameron-Smith, P.J.

2011-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

168

Drought effects on litterfall, wood production and belowground carbon cycling in an Amazon forest: results of a throughfall reduction experiment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...properly cited. Drought effects on litterfall, wood production and belowground carbon cycling in an...Barbosa, 136, 68005-080 Santarem, Para, Brazil 2 Woods Hole Research Center149 Woods Hole Road, Falmouth, MA 02543, USA 3 Department...

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

15 Energy for development: solar home systemsin Africa and global carbon emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solar,and the Dutch utility Nuon (Karnmen, 1999; Anderson and Duke, 2001). Evencomplete saturationof15 Energy for development: solar home systemsin Africa and global carbon emissions RICHARD D. DUKEl;market transformation;photovoltaics; solar home systems; buydown ABST RACT A growingnumberofrural

Kammen, Daniel M.

170

A fast method for updating global fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We provide a fast and efficient method for calculating global annual mean carbon dioxide emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels by combining data from an established data set with BP annual statistics. Using this method it is possible to retrieve an updated estimate of global CO2 emissions six months after the actual emissions occurred. Using this data set we find that atmospheric carbon dioxide emissions have increased by over 40% from 1990 to 2008 with an annual average increase of 3.7% over the five-year period 2003?2007. In 2008 the growth rate in the fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions was smaller than in the preceding five years, but it was still over 2%. Global mean carbon dioxide emissions in 2008 were 8.8?GtC? yr?1. For the latter part of the last century emissions of carbon dioxide have been greater from oil than from coal. However during the last few years this situation has changed. The recent strong increase in fossil fuel CO2 emissions is mainly driven by an increase in emissions from coal, whereas emissions from oil and gas to a large degree follow the trend from the 1990s.

G Myhre; K Alterskj?r; D Lowe

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Techno-economic analysis of sour gas oxy-fuel combustion power cycles for carbon capture and sequestration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The world's growing energy demand coupled with the problem of global warming have led us to investigate new energy sources that can be utilized in a way to reduce carbon dioxide emissions than traditional fossil fuel power ...

Chakroun, Nadim Walid

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Soil Organic Carbon Sequestration by Tillage and Crop Rotation: A Global  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tillage and Crop Rotation Tillage and Crop Rotation Soil Organic Carbon Sequestration by Tillage and Crop Rotation: A Global Data Analysis DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/tcm.002 PDF file Full text Soil Science Society of America Journal 66:1930-1946 (2002) CSITE image Tristram O. West and Wilfred M. Post DOE Center for Carbon Sequestration in Terrestrial Ecosystems (CSiTE) Environmental Sciences Division Oak Ridge National Laboratory P.O. Box 2008 Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6290 U.S.A. Sponsor: U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science, Biological and Environmental Research Program Abstract Global map Changes in agricultural management can potentially increase the accumulation rate of soil organic carbon (SOC), thereby sequestering CO2 from the atmosphere. This study was conducted to quantify potential soil

173

Shedding light on carbon-mineral complexation in the soil environment: impacts on C sequestration and cycling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

42 Shedding light on carbon-mineral complexation in the soil environment: impacts on C sequestration and cycling Sparks, D.L. & C. Chen Department of Plant and Soil Sciences and Delaware@udel.edu) Abstract Organic matter (OM)-mineral complexation plays a critical role in soil carbon (C) stabilization

Sparks, Donald L.

174

Is the basinwide warming in the North Atlantic Ocean related to atmospheric carbon dioxide and global warming?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to atmospheric carbon dioxide and global warming? Chunzai Wang1 and Shenfu Dong1,2 Received 31 January 2010 is controversial. Some studies argued that the warming is due to global warming in association with the secular sea surface temperature. Here we show that both global warming and AMO variability make a contribution

Wang, Chunzai

175

Carbon capture with low energy penalty: Supplementary fired natural gas combined cycles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Enhancing CO2 concentration in exhaust gas has been considered as a potentially effective method to reduce the penalty of electrical efficiency caused by CO2 chemical absorption in post-combustion carbon capture systems. Supplementary firing is an option that inherently has an increased CO2 concentration in the exhaust gas, albeit a relatively low electrical efficiency due to its increased mass flow of exhaust gas to treat and large temperature difference in heat recovery steam generator. This paper focuses on the methods that can improve the electrical efficiency of the supplementary fired combined cycles (SFCs) integrated with MEA-based CO2 capture. Three modifications have been evaluated: (I) integration of exhaust gas reheating, (II) integration of exhaust gas recirculation, and (III) integration of supercritical bottoming cycle. It is further showed that combining all three modifications results in a significant increase in electrical efficiency which is raised from 43.3% to 54.1% based on Lower Heating Value (LHV) of natural gas when compared to the original SFC. Compared with a conventional combined cycle with a subcritical bottoming cycle and without CO2 capture (56.7% of LHV), the efficiency penalty caused by CO2 capture is only 2.6% of LHV.

Hailong Li; Mario Ditaranto; Jinyue Yan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Life Cycle Carbon Footprint of Shale Gas: Review of Evidence and Implications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Life Cycle Carbon Footprint of Shale Gas: Review of Evidence and Implications ... Most of the studies utilize US EPAs Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reporting Background Technical Support Document (TSD) for their assumptions regarding the amount of gas released per completion and the flaring rate for completions, the two critical parameters that describe the amount of greenhouse gases released per completion. ... These ?13C-CH4 data, coupled with the ratios of methane-to-higher-chain hydrocarbons, and ?2H-CH4 values, are consistent with deeper thermogenic methane sources such as the Marcellus and Utica shales at the active sites and matched gas geochem. ...

Christopher L. Weber; Christopher Clavin

2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

177

Study of Gas-steam Combined Cycle Power Plants Integrated with MCFC for Carbon Dioxide Capture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In the field of fossil-fuel based technologies, natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) power plants are currently the best option for electricity generation, having an efficiency close to 60%. However, they produce significant CO2 emissions, amounting to around 0.4 tonne/MWh for new installations. Among the carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies, the process based on chemical absorption is a well-established technology, but markedly reduces the NGCC performances. On the other side, the integration of molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs) is recognized as an attractive option to overcome the main drawbacks of traditional CCS technologies. If the cathode side is fed by NGCC exhaust gases, the MCFC operates as a CO2 concentrator, beside providing an additional generating capacity. In this paper the integration of MCFC into a two pressure levels combined cycle is investigated through an energy analysis. To improve the efficiency of MCFC and its integration within the NGCC, plant configurations based on two different gas recirculation options are analyzed. The first is a traditional recirculation of exhaust gases at the compressor inlet; the second, mainly involving the MCFC stack, is based on recirculating a fraction of anode exhaust gases at the cathode inlet. Effects of MCFC operating conditions on energy and environmental performances of the integrated system are evaluated.

Roberto Carapellucci; Roberto Saia; Lorena Giordano

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

An examination of carbon budgets, carbon taxes, industry attitudes to global warming, and AAPG  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...consumption. To demonstrate how a market approach might limit carbon...equivalent = 40 MMBtu 161.3 (diesel fuel heating oil) Tar Sand...prices are expected to drive the market away from fossil fuels like...2013). There are a number of market-based plans to encourage the...

James M. Rine

179

Implications of a large global root biomass for carbon sink estimates and for soil carbon dynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...the time when foliage, wood, debris, roots and...and 97% of global root biomass (Jackson et al. 1996...tropical woodland or plantation classes defined by Mokany...not rely exclusively on biomass inventories? The 1990-2005...rules for patterns of biomass partitioning in seed...

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Soilplant nitrogen cycling modulated carbon exchanges in a western temperate conifer forest in Canada  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nitrogen controls, on the seasonal and inter-annual variability of net ecosystem productivity (NEP) in a western temperate conifer forest in British Columbia, Canada, were simulated by a coupled carbon and nitrogen (C&N) model. The model was developed by incorporating plantsoil nitrogen algorithms in the Carbon-Canadian Land Surface Scheme (C-CLASS). In the coupled C&N-CLASS, the maximum carboxylation rate of Rubisco (Vcmax) is determined non-linearly from the modelled leaf Rubisco-nitrogen, rather than being prescribed. Hence, variations in canopy assimilation and stomatal conductance are sensitive to leaf nitrogen status through the Rubisco enzyme. The plantsoil nitrogen cycle includes nitrogen pools from photosynthetic enzymes, leaves and roots, as well as organic and mineral reservoirs from soil, which are generated, exchanged, and lost by biological fixation, atmospheric deposition, fertilization, mineralization, nitrification, root uptake, denitrification, and leaching. Model output was compared with eddy covariance flux measurements made over a 5-year period (19982002). The model performed very well in simulating half-hourly and monthly mean NEP values for a range of environmental conditions observed during the 5 years. C&N-CLASS simulated NEP values were 274, 437, 354, 352 and 253gCm?2 for 19982002, compared to observed NEP values of 269, 360, 381, 418 and 264gCm?2, for the respective years. Compared to the default C-CLASS, the coupled C&N model showed improvements in simulating the seasonal and annual dynamics of carbon fluxes in this forest. The nitrogen transformation to soil organic forms, mineralization, plant nitrogen uptake and leaf Rubisco-nitrogen concentration patterns were strongly influenced by seasonal and annual temperature variations. In contrast, the impact of precipitation was insignificant on the overall forest nitrogen budget. The coupled C&N modelling framework will help to evaluate the impact of nitrogen cycle on terrestrial ecosystems and its feedbacks on Earth's climate system.

M. Altaf Arain; Fengming Yuan; T. Andrew Black

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "global carbon cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Innovation and the dynamics of global warming  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Global warming and the carbon cycle are a dynamic system with positive feedbacks. Fossil fuels are exhaustible resources. These two facts mean that innovation in clean energy technology, rather than mitigating global warming, can lead to a permanently higher temperature path. This paper explores the impact of innovation in the simplest model linking the economic theory of exhaustible resources with positive feedback dynamics in the carbon cycle.

Ralph A. Winter

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

GFDLs ESM2 Global Coupled ClimateCarbon Earth System Models. Part II: Carbon System Formulation and Baseline Simulation Characteristics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The authors describe carbon system formulation and simulation characteristics of two new global coupled carbonclimate Earth System Models (ESM), ESM2M and ESM2G. These models demonstrate good climate fidelity as described in part I of this study ...

John P. Dunne; Jasmin G. John; Elena Shevliakova; Ronald J. Stouffer; John P. Krasting; Sergey L. Malyshev; P. C. D. Milly; Lori T. Sentman; Alistair J. Adcroft; William Cooke; Krista A. Dunne; Stephen M. Griffies; Robert W. Hallberg; Matthew J. Harrison; Hiram Levy; Andrew T. Wittenberg; Peter J. Phillips; Niki Zadeh

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Global Patterns of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Soils on a 0.5 Degree Grid  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Global Patterns of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Soils on a 0.5 Degree Grid Global Patterns of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Soils on a 0.5 Degree Grid Cell Basis (DB-1015) DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/lue.db1015 This data has been updated. Please see NDP-081. Contributed by: James W. Raich 1 and Christopher S. Potter2 1Department of Botany Iowa State University Ames, IA 50011 USA Email: jraich@iastate.edu 2NASA Ames Research Center MS 242-2 Moffett Field, CA 94035 USA Email: cpotter@gaia.arc.nasa.gov Prepared by L.M. Olsen. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center Date Published: March, 1996 (Revised for the web: 2002) The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center is a part of the Environmental Sciences Division of the OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY (ORNL) and is located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6290. The ORNL is managed by University of Tennessee-Battelle, LLC for the U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY

184

Global patterns of landatmosphere fluxes of carbon dioxide, latent heat, and sensible heat derived from eddy covariance,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(NEE), latent energy (LE), and sensible heat (H) based on remote sensing indices, climateGlobal patterns of landatmosphere fluxes of carbon dioxide, latent heat, and sensible heat derived

Chen, Jiquan

185

Impact of emissions, chemistry, and climate on atmospheric carbon monoxide : 100-year predictions from a global chemistry-climate model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The possible trends for atmospheric carbon monoxide in the next 100 yr have been illustrated using a coupled atmospheric chemistry and climate model driven by emissions predicted by a global economic development model. ...

Wang, Chien.; Prinn, Ronald G.

186

Soil organic carbon sequestration potential of cropland in China Zhangcai Qin,1,2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Soil organic carbon sequestration potential of cropland in China Zhangcai Qin,1,2 Yao Huang,1), Soil organic carbon sequestration potential of cropland in China, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 27, doi:10 carbon (SOC) in cropland is of great importance to the global carbon (C) balance and to agricultural

Pittendrigh, Barry

187

Life-cycle Assessment of Semiconductors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

life-cycle energy requirements (e total ) and global warmingtotal life-cycle global warming impacts. Chapter 3 Life-cycle Energy and Global

Boyd, Sarah B.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Is Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle with Carbon Capture-Storage the Solution for Conventional Coal Power Plants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Engineering Management Field Project Is Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle with Carbon Capture-Storage the Solution for Conventional Coal Power Plants By Manish Kundi Fall Semester, 2011 An EMGT Field Project report... 2.4 Environmental Aspects-Emissions 23 3.0 Procedure & Methodology 3.1 Working technology Conventional Coal Plants 30 3.2 Working technology IGCC Power Plants 32 3.3 Carbon Capture and Storage 35 3...

Kundi, Manish

2011-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

189

The cycling and oxidation pathways of organic carbon in a shallow estuary along the Texas Gulf Coast  

SciTech Connect

The cycling and oxidation pathways of organic carbon were investigated at a single shallow water estuarine site in Trinity Bay, Texas, the uppermost lobe of Galveston Bay, during November 2000. Radio-isotopes were used to estimate sediment mixing and accumulation rates, and benthic chamber and pore water measurements were used to determine sediment-water exchange fluxes of oxygen, nutrients and metals, and infer carbon oxidation rates.

Warnken, Kent W.; Santschi, Peter H.; Roberts, Kimberly A.; Gill, Gary A.

2007-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

190

Strategic Analysis of the Global Status of Carbon Capture and Storage:  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

form form View source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Strategic Analysis of the Global Status of Carbon Capture and Storage: Country Studies, Brazil Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Strategic Analysis of the Global Status of Carbon Capture and Storage: Country Studies, Brazil Focus Area: Clean Fossil Energy Topics: Policy Impacts Website: cdn.globalccsinstitute.com/sites/default/files/publications/8732/strat Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.org/content/strategic-analysis-global-status-carb Policies: Regulations Regulations: "Emissions Mitigation Scheme,Mandates/Targets" is not in the list of possible values (Agriculture Efficiency Requirements, Appliance & Equipment Standards and Required Labeling, Audit Requirements, Building Certification, Building Codes, Cost Recovery/Allocation, Emissions Mitigation Scheme, Emissions Standards, Enabling Legislation, Energy Standards, Feebates, Feed-in Tariffs, Fuel Efficiency Standards, Incandescent Phase-Out, Mandates/Targets, Net Metering & Interconnection, Resource Integration Planning, Safety Standards, Upgrade Requirements, Utility/Electricity Service Costs) for this property.

191

Life-cycle assessment of wastewater treatment plants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis presents a general model for the carbon footprints analysis of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), using a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. In previous research, the issue of global warming is often related ...

Dong, Bo, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Global warming in the twenty-first century: An alternative scenario  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...carbon emissions from diesel fuel and coal...understanding of the CH 4 cycle, especially CH 4 sources...I Koch D ( 2000 ) in General Circulation Model Development...1988 ) Global Biogeo Cycles 2 : 299 327 . 46 Karlsdottir S...2000 ) Global Biogeo Cycles 14 : 61 72 . 59 Sass...

James Hansen; Makiko Sato; Reto Ruedy; Andrew Lacis; Valdar Oinas

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Journal ofMurirzr Research, 53, 799-8 19, 1995 Carbon cycling in mesohaline ChesapeakeBay sediments 1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Journal ofMurirzr Research, 53, 799-8 19, 1995 Carbon cycling in mesohaline ChesapeakeBay sedimentsChesapeake Baywas analyzed using available data on sediment sulfate reduction, sediment oxygen consumption of integrated sediment metabolism and POC burial compared well with direct estimates derived from chlorophyll

Boynton, Walter R.

194

Geologic carbon sequestration as a global strategy to mitigate CO2 emissions: Sustainability and environmental risk  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Co. (2008) Carbon capture and storage: Assessing theof Carbon Dioxide, in Carbon Capture and SequestrationWilson and Gerard, editors, Carbon Capture and Sequestration

Oldenburg, C.M.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

2005: Future effects of ozone on carbon sequestration and climate change policy using a global  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

production and carbon sequestration. The reduced carbon storage would then require further reductions in

B. Felzer; J. Reilly; J. Melillo; D. Kicklighter; M. Sarofim; C. Wang; R. Prinn; Q. Zhuang

196

A DATA-CENTERED COLLABORATION PORTAL TO SUPPORT GLOBAL CARBON-FLUX ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

Carbon-climate, like other environmental sciences, has been changing. Large-scalesynthesis studies are becoming more common. These synthesis studies are often conducted by science teams that are geographically distributed and on datasets that are global in scale. A broad array of collaboration and data analytics tools are now available that could support these science teams. However, building tools that scientists actually use is hard. Also, moving scientists from an informal collaboration structure to one mediated by technology often exposes inconsistencies in the understanding of the rules of engagement between collaborators. We have developed a scientific collaboration portal, called fluxdata.org, which serves the community of scientists providing and analyzing the global FLUXNET carbon-flux synthesis dataset. Key things we learned or re-learned during our portal development include: minimize the barrier to entry, provide features on a just-in-time basis, development of requirements is an on-going process, provide incentives to change leaders and leverage the opportunity they represent, automate as much as possible, and you can only learn how to make it better if people depend on it enough to give you feedback. In addition, we also learned that splitting the portal roles between scientists and computer scientists improved user adoption and trust. The fluxdata.org portal has now been in operation for ~;;1.5 years and has become central to the FLUXNET synthesis efforts.

Agarwal, Deborah A.; Humphrey, Marty; Beekwilder, Norm; Jackson, Keith; Goode, Monte; van Ingen, Catharine

2009-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

197

Development of a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle: Improving VHTR Efficiency and Testing Material Compatibility - Final Report  

SciTech Connect

Generation IV reactors will need to be intrinsically safe, having a proliferation-resistant fuel cycle and several advantages relative to existing light water reactor (LWR). They, however, must still overcome certain technical issues and the cost barrier before it can be built in the U.S. The establishment of a nuclear power cost goal of 3.3 cents/kWh is desirable in order to compete with fossil combined-cycle, gas turbine power generation. This goal requires approximately a 30 percent reduction in power cost for stateof-the-art nuclear plants. It has been demonstrated that this large cost differential can be overcome only by technology improvements that lead to a combination of better efficiency and more compatible reactor materials. The objectives of this research are (1) to develop a supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle in the secondary power conversion side that can be applied to the Very-High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (VHTR), (2) to improve the plant net efficiency by using the carbon dioxide Brayton cycle, and (3) to test material compatibility at high temperatures and pressures. The reduced volumetric flow rate of carbon dioxide due to higher density compared to helium will reduce compression work, which eventually increase plant net efficiency.

Chang H. Oh

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Study on a gas-steam combined cycle system with CO2 capture by integrating molten carbonate fuel cell  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper studies a gas-steam combined cycle system with CO2 capture by integrating the MCFC (molten carbonate fuel cell). With the Aspen plus software, this paper builds the model of the overall MCFC-GT hybrid system with CO2 capture and analyzes the effects of the key parameters on the performances of the overall system. The result shows that compared with the gas-steam combined cycle system without CO2 capture, the efficiency of the new system with CO2 capture does not decrease obviously and keeps the same efficiency with the original gas steam combined cycle system when the carbon capture percentage is 45%. When the carbon capture percentage reaches up to 85%, the efficiency of the new system is about 54.96%, only 0.67 percent points lower than that of the original gas-steam combined cycle system. The results show that the new system has an obvious superiority of thermal performance. However, its technical economic performance needs be improved with the technical development of MCFC and ITM (oxygen ion transfer membrane). Achievements from this paper will provide the useful reference for CO2 capture with lower energy consumption from the traditional power generation system.

Liqiang Duan; Jingnan Zhu; Long Yue; Yongping Yang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Global Potential for Biomethane Production with Carbon Capture, Transport and Storage up to 2050  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Biomass in combination with carbon capture and storage (CCS) is one of few options that make a reduction of global CO2 concentration in the atmosphere possible. This option is likely to be required to meet climate targets. This study shows the global potential for combining bio-energy conversion with CCS (BE-CCS) up to 2050. The assessment focuses on two BE-CCS routes for the production of biomethane, based on gasification and anaerobic digestion. Routes for the production of power and liquid fuels have been addressed in an earlier study by IEAGHG. For the two routes the technical and economic potential was analysed. The results show that deployment of the global technical potential can result in negative greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) up to 3.5 Gt CO2-eq. on an annual basis in 2050. Including avoided emissions by replacing natural gas, the annual greenhouse gas emission savings could add up to almost 8 Gt of CO2-eq in 2050. The economic potential reaches up to 0.8 Gt of negative GHG emissions when assuming a CO2 price of 50 /tonne.

Joris Koornneef; Pieter van Breevoort; Paul Noothout; Chris Hendriks; uchien Luning; Ameena Camps

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Comparison of Life Cycle Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Embodied Energy in Four Renewable Electricity Generation Technologies in New Zealand  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Comparison of Life Cycle Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Embodied Energy in Four Renewable Electricity Generation Technologies in New Zealand ... Fugitive emissions from geothermal fields were noted, though not added to the result for geothermal power generation, but all other CO2 emissions pertaining to this study arose from construction, maintenance, and decommissioning of power stations, since renewable technologies (apart from geothermal) do not emit CO2 during normal operation. ... Hondo, H. Life cycle GHG emission analysis of power generation systems: Japanese case Energy 2005, 30 ( 11?12 SPEC. ...

Bridget M. Rule; Zeb J. Worth; Carol A. Boyle

2009-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "global carbon cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Influence of outer rust layers on corrosion of carbon steel and weathering steel during wetdry cycles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The influence of the rust layers of carbon steel and weathering steel on the corrosion were investigated. It was found that corrosion of carbon steel slows down when its outer rust layer is removed. This phenomenon might be attributed to the shortening of the wetting time in wetdry cycles when the outer rust layers are removed. What is more, growth time of the corrosion products is shortened as well, which results in the formation of the fine corrosion products. However, the behavior of corrosion of weathering steel is not obviously influenced by the outer rust layer and the wetting time.

Xu Zhang; Shanwu Yang; Wenhua Zhang; Hui Guo; Xinlai He

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Intention to change activities that reduce carbon dioxide emissions related to worry about global climate change consequences  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Introduction Mitigating the global climate change requires actions at different levels including that lay people change their consumption patterns, which cause emissions of greenhouse gases. Recent research suggests that inducing affects such as fear and worry may have positive effects. Objective To investigate whether worry in addition to personalized information about emissions of carbon dioxide would influence lay people's intentions to change consumption-related personal activities causing carbon-dioxide emissions. Method A municipality-provided tool to calculate their annual carbon dioxide emissions was used by 135 university students who after being informed about negative consequences of global climate change stated their intentions to change a number of personal activities to reduce carbon dioxide emissions during the following 12 months. They also rated how worried they were about eight global climate change consequences. Results Intentions to change travel, energy use at home, food consumption, involvement in environmental organizations, and support of environmental policies increased with worry. An interaction was also observed such that high-emitters intentions to invest in energy-efficient infrastructure increased more with worry than did low- and medium-emitters intentions. Conclusions In line with recent research positing that affect increases preventive actions, the hypothesis was supported that intentions to change personal activities to reduce carbon dioxide emissions increased with participants worry about the consequences of global climate change.

E.-L. Sundblad; A. Biel; T. Grling

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Global Carbon Emissions in the Coming Decades: The Case of China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2007. Who Owns Chinas Carbon Emissions? Tyndall Centre for34 Key Words Carbon emissions forecasts, carbon intensity,s annual energy-related carbon emissions surpassed those of

Levine, Mark D.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

THE INFLUENCE OF CHRONIC OZONE EXPOSURE ON GLOBAL CARBON AND WATER CYCLES  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ozone (O3) is a phytotoxic greenhouse gas that has increased more than 3-fold at Earths surface from pre-industrial values. In addition to directly increasing radiative forcing as a greenhouse gas, O3 indirectly impacts climate through altering ...

D. Lombardozzi; Samuel Levis; G. Bonan; P.G. Hess; J.P. Sparks

205

Model Development Development of a system emulating the global carbon cycle in Earth system models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

developed a loosely coupled model (LCM) which can represent the outputs of a GCMbased Earth system model

K. Tachiiri; J. C. Hargreaves; J. D. Annan; A. Oka; A. Abe-ouchi; M. Kawamiya

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Ocean methane hydrates as a slow tipping point in the global carbon cycle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Hydrates in the Gulf of Mexico and Hydrate Ridge...half flowing down. The geothermal gradient is 40 K/km...42) climates, as well as intercomparisons...subsurface in the Gulf of Mexico . Mar Petrol Geol 18 : 551 560...the northern Gulf of Mexico . Geophys Res Lett 32...

David Archer; Bruce Buffett; Victor Brovkin

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Development of a dynamic simulator for a natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) power plant with post-combustion carbon capture  

SciTech Connect

The AVESTAR Center located at the U.S. Department of Energys National Energy Technology Laboratory and West Virginia University is a world-class research and training environment dedicated to using dynamic process simulation as a tool for advancing the safe, efficient and reliable operation of clean energy plants with CO{sub 2} capture. The AVESTAR Center was launched with a high-fidelity dynamic simulator for an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant with pre-combustion carbon capture. The IGCC dynamic simulator offers full-scope Operator Training Simulator (OTS) Human Machine Interface (HMI) graphics for realistic, real-time control room operation and is integrated with a 3D virtual Immersive Training Simulator (ITS), thus allowing joint control room and field operator training. The IGCC OTS/ITS solution combines a gasification with CO{sub 2} capture process simulator with a combined cycle power simulator into a single high-performance dynamic simulation framework. This presentation will describe progress on the development of a natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) dynamic simulator based on the syngas-fired combined cycle portion of AVESTARs IGCC dynamic simulator. The 574 MW gross NGCC power plant design consisting of two advanced F-class gas turbines, two heat recovery steam generators (HRSGs), and a steam turbine in a multi-shaft 2x2x1 configuration will be reviewed. Plans for integrating a post-combustion carbon capture system will also be discussed.

Liese, E.; Zitney, S.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Twentieth-Century Droughts and Their Impacts on Terrestrial Carbon Cycling in China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Midlatitude regions experienced frequent droughts during the twentieth century, but their impacts on terrestrial carbon balance are unclear. This paper presents a century-scale study of drought effects on the carbon balance of terrestrial ...

Jingfeng Xiao; Qianlai Zhuang; Eryuan Liang; Xuemei Shao; A. David McGuire; Aaron Moody; David W. Kicklighter; Jerry M. Melillo

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Reducing the Carbon Footprint of Commercial Refrigeration Systems Using Life Cycle Climate Performance Analysis: From System Design to Refrigerant Options  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP) analysis is used to estimate lifetime direct and indirect carbon dioxide equivalent gas emissions of various refrigerant options and commercial refrigeration system designs, including the multiplex DX system with various hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants, the HFC/R744 cascade system incorporating a medium-temperature R744 secondary loop, and the transcritical R744 booster system. The results of the LCCP analysis are presented, including the direct and indirect carbon dioxide equivalent emissions for each refrigeration system and refrigerant option. Based on the results of the LCCP analysis, recommendations are given for the selection of low GWP replacement refrigerants for use in existing commercial refrigeration systems, as well as for the selection of commercial refrigeration system designs with low carbon dioxide equivalent emissions, suitable for new installations.

Fricke, Brian A [ORNL] [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL] [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

A global analysis of soil microbial biomass carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in terrestrial ecosystems  

SciTech Connect

Soil microbes play a pivotal role in regulating land-atmosphere interactions; the soil microbial biomass carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and C:N:P stoichiometry are important regulators for soil biogeochemical processes; however, the current knowledge on magnitude, stoichiometry, storage, and spatial distribution of global soil microbial biomass C, N, and P is limited. In this study, 3087 pairs of data points were retrieved from 281 published papers and further used to summarize the magnitudes and stoichiometries of C, N, and P in soils and soil microbial biomass at global- and biome-levels. Finally, global stock and spatial distribution of microbial biomass C and N in 0-30 cm and 0-100 cm soil profiles were estimated. The results show that C, N, and P in soils and soil microbial biomass vary substantially across biomes; the fractions of soil nutrient C, N, and P in soil microbial biomass are 1.6% in a 95% confidence interval of (1.5%-1.6%), 2.9% in a 95% confidence interval of (2.8%-3.0%), and 4.4% in a 95% confidence interval of (3.9%-5.0%), respectively. The best estimates of C:N:P stoichiometries for soil nutrients and soil microbial biomass are 153:11:1, and 47:6:1, respectively, at global scale, and they vary in a wide range among biomes. Vertical distribution of soil microbial biomass follows the distribution of roots up to 1 m depth. The global stock of soil microbial biomass C and N were estimated to be 15.2 Pg C and 2.3 Pg N in the 0-30 cm soil profiles, and 21.2 Pg C and 3.2 Pg N in the 0-100 cm soil profiles. We did not estimate P in soil microbial biomass due to data shortage and insignificant correlation with soil total P and climate variables. The spatial patterns of soil microbial biomass C and N were consistent with those of soil organic C and total N, i.e. high density in northern high latitude, and low density in low latitudes and southern hemisphere.

Xu, Xiaofeng [ORNL; Thornton, Peter E [ORNL; Post, Wilfred M [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

The future of the carbon cycle: review, calcification response, ballast and feedback on atmospheric CO2  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...inorganic carbon ( C O2) in seawater is in the form HCO- 3 , the...inorganic carbon species in seawater is such that, for a given...effective buffering capacity of seawater is analogous to the Revelle...larger capacity for carbon storage in the oceans than in the atmosphere...

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Black carbon in the Gulf of Maine : new insights into inputs and cycling of combustion-derived organic carbon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Emissions of black carbon (BC), the soot and char formed during incomplete combustion of fossil and biomass fuels, have increased over the last century and are estimated to be between 8 and 270 Tg BC/yr. BC may affect ...

Flores Cervantes, Dborah Xanat, 1978-

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Duke, R. D. and Kammen, D. M. (2003) "Energy for Development: Solar Home Systems in Africa and Global Carbon Emissions", Climate Change for Africa: Science,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Duke, R. D. and Kammen, D. M. (2003) "Energy for Development: Solar Home Systems in Africa and Global Carbon Emissions", Climate Change for Africa: Science, Technology, Policy and Capacity Building: Solar Home Systems in Africa and Global Carbon Emissions Richard D. Duke* and Daniel M. Kammen

Kammen, Daniel M.

214

Projecting Impacts of Global Climate Change on the U.S. Forest and Agriculture Sectors and Carbon Budgets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Projecting Impacts of Global Climate Change on the U.S. Forest and Agriculture Sectors and Carbon impacts of climate change on the sectors. We find that less cropland is projected to be converted climate change on the two sectors vary over the 100-year projection period. The forest sector is found

McCarl, Bruce A.

215

Life cycle analysis of distributed concentrating solar combined heat and power: economics, global warming potential and water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report on life cycle assessment (LCA) of the economics, global warming potential and water (both for desalination and water use in operation) for a distributed concentrating solar combined heat and power (DCS-CHP) system. Detailed simulation of system performance across 1020 sites in the US combined with a sensible cost allocation scheme informs this LCA. We forecast a levelized cost of $0.25kWh?1 electricity and $0.03kWh?1 thermal, for a system with a life cycle global warming potential of ~80gCO2eqkWh?1 of electricity and ~10gCO2eqkWh?1 thermal, sited in Oakland, California. On the basis of the economics shown for air cooling, and the fact that any combined heat and power system reduces the need for cooling while at the same time boosting the overall solar efficiency of the system, DCS-CHP compares favorably to other electric power generation systems in terms of minimization of water use in the maintenance and operation of the plant. The outlook for water desalination coupled with distributed concentrating solar combined heat and power is less favorable. At a projected cost of $1.40m?3, water desalination with DCS-CHP would be economical and practical only in areas where water is very scarce or moderately expensive, primarily available through the informal sector, and where contaminated or salt water is easily available as feed-water. It is also interesting to note that $0.40$1.90m?3 is the range of water prices in the developed world, so DCS-CHP desalination systems could also be an economical solution there under some conditions.

Zack Norwood; Daniel Kammen

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

An observing system simulation for Southern Ocean carbon dioxide uptake  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...components of the global carbon cycle in the CMIP5 Earth system models. J. Clim. 26, 6801-6843. ( doi:10.1175...2012 GFDL's ESM2 global coupled climate-carbon Earth system models. Part I: physical formulation and baseline simulation...

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Recent Climate-Driven Increases in Vegetation Productivity for the Western Arctic: Evidence of an Acceleration of the Northern Terrestrial Carbon Cycle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Northern ecosystems contain much of the global reservoir of terrestrial carbon that is potentially reactive in the context of near-term climate change. Annual variability and recent trends in vegetation productivity across Alaska and northwest ...

J. S. Kimball; M. Zhao; A. D. McGuire; F. A. Heinsch; J. Clein; M. Calef; W. M. Jolly; S. Kang; S. E. Euskirchen; K. C. McDonald; S. W. Running

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Estimates of Embodied Global Energy and Air-Emission Intensities of Japanese Products for Building a Japanese InputOutput Life Cycle Assessment Database with a Global System Boundary  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

To build a life cycle assessment (LCA) database of Japanese products embracing their global supply chains in a manner requiring lower time and labor burdens, this study estimates the intensity of embodied global environmental burden for commodities produced in Japan. ... This sector is followed by several food- and agriculture-related sectors such as seeds and seedlings (JD11) (?57%), flour and other grain mill products (JD47) (?52%), timber (JD90) (?52%), and Feeds (JD72) (?51%). ...

Keisuke Nansai; Yasushi Kondo; Shigemi Kagawa; Sangwon Suh; Kenichi Nakajima; Rokuta Inaba; Susumu Tohno

2012-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

219

Preserving Russia's carbon sink: strategies for improving carbon storage through boreal forest protection  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The boreal forests of Siberia, which store 40000 million tons of carbon and account for 25% of all non-ocean carbon absorption in the northern hemisphere, play a critical role in maintaining global climate balance. Siberia's forests, however, are being destroyed and degraded at an ever-increasing rate. This paper discusses the impact of Siberia's forests on the global carbon cycle, and what political and economic steps can be taken to ensure their preservation.

Olivia Rugo; Adam Weiss

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

T E C H N I C A L A D V A N C E Soil organic carbon dust emission: an omitted global  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

T E C H N I C A L A D V A N C E Soil organic carbon dust emission: an omitted global source emission, soil organic carbon Received 16 April 2013 and accepted 21 May 2013 Introduction Uncertainty, Gunnedah, NSW 2380, Australia Abstract Soil erosion redistributes soil organic carbon (SOC) within

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "global carbon cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Global Carbon Emissions in the Coming Decades: The Case of China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

related carbon emissions per unit GDP. Energy intensity: thes per capita emissions of energy-related carbon dioxide weres carbon emissions, per se. On the basis of NBS energy data,

Levine, Mark D.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Global carbon dioxide emissions scenarios: Sensitivity to social and technological factors in three regions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide emissions from 1990 to 2100 AD are decomposed ... intensity (energy use per unit GDP) and carbon intensity (carbon dioxide emissions per unit energy). These emissions factors are further subdivided...

Christopher Yang; Stephen H. Schneider

223

Global Carbon Dioxide Emissions Scenarios: Sensitivity to Social and Technological Factors in Three Regions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide emissions from 1990 to 2100 AD are decomposed ... intensity (energy use per unit GDP) and carbon intensity (carbon dioxide emissions per unit energy). These emissions factors are further subdivided...

Christopher Yang; Stephen H. Schneider

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

The role of Life Cycle Assessment in identifying and reducing environmental impacts of CCS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

M, Deschnes L, Samson R. 2010. Considering time in LCA:Dynamic LCA and its application to global warming impactLife Cycle Assessment (LCA) should be used to assist carbon

Sathre, Roger

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

North Pacific carbon cycle response to climate variability on seasonal to decadal timescales  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the subarctic North Pacific Ocean, Global Biogeochem.of the tropical Pacific Ocean: I. Seasonal and interannualthe subtropical North Pacific Ocean, Nature, 424, 754 757.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Designing a Dynamic Data-Driven Application System for Estimating Real-Time Load of Dissolved Organic Carbon in a River  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Understanding the dynamics of naturally occurring dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in a river is central to estimating surface water quality, aquatic carbon cycling, and global climate change. Currently, determinat...

Ying Ouyang

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Agriculture, Land Use, Energy and Carbon Emission Impacts of Global Biofuel Mandates to Mid-Century  

SciTech Connect

Three potential future scenarios of expanded global biofuel production are presented here utilizing the GCAM integrated assessment model. These scenarios span a range that encompasses on the low end a continuation of existing biofuel production policies to two scenarios that would require an expansion of current targets as well as an extension of biofuels targets to other regions of the world. Conventional oil use is reduced by 4-8% in the expanded biofuel scenarios, which results in a decrease of in CO2 emissions on the order of 1-2 GtCO2/year by mid-century from the global transportation sector. The regional distribution of crop production is relatively unaffected, but the biofuels targets do result in a marked increase in the production of conventional crops used for energy. Producer prices of sugar and corn reach levels about 12% and 7% above year 2005 levels, while the increased competition for land causes the price of food crops such as wheat, although not used for bioenergy in this study, to increase by 1 to 2%. The amount of land devoted to growing all food crops and dedicated bioenergy crops is increased by about 10% by 2050 in the High biofuel case, with concurrent decreases in other uses of land such as forest and pasture. In both of the expanded biofuels cases studied, there is an increase in net cumulative carbon emissions for the first couple of decades due to these induced land use changes. However, the difference in net cumulative emissions from the biofuels expansion decline by about 2035 as the reductions in energy system emissions exceed further increases in emissions from land use change. Even in the absence of a policy that would limit emissions from land use change, the differences in net cumulative emissions from the biofuels scenarios reach zero by 2050, and are decreasing further over time in both cases.

Wise, Marshall A.; Dooley, James J.; Luckow, Patrick; Calvin, Katherine V.; Kyle, G. Page

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

NERI Quarterly Progress Report -- April 1 - June 30, 2005 -- Development of a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle: Improving PBR Efficiency and Testing Material Compatibility  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research is to improve a helium Brayton cycle and to develop a supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle for the Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) that can also be applied to the Fast Gas-Cooled Reactor (FGR) and the Very-High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (VHTR). The proposed supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle will be used to improve the PBR, FGR, and VHTR net plant efficiency. Another objective of this research is to test materials to be used in the power conversion side at supercritical carbon dioxide conditions. Generally, the optimized Brayton cycle and balance of plant (BOP) to be developed from this study can be applied to Generation-IV reactor concepts. Particularly, we are interested in VHTR because it has a good chance of being built in the near future.

Chang Oh

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Development and application of a steady state code for supercritical carbon dioxide cycles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The supercritical CO2 power conversion system is of interest for advanced nuclear reactor applications because the same efficiencies are obtained as for the most developed of the closed gas-turbine cycles (helium-Brayton), ...

Legault, David M. (David Michael)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

A Framework to Analyze the Reduction Potential of Life Cycle Carbon Dioxide Emissions of Passenger Cars  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Automobile manufacturers are increasingly obligated to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions of their vehicle fleets. In this paper a framework to analyze the reduction potential of the life cycle CO2 emissions of ...

Christoph Herrmann; Karsten Kieckhfer

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Comparison of the Carbon System Parameters at the Global CO2 Survey Crossover Locations in the North and South Pacific Ocean, 1990-1996  

SciTech Connect

As a collaborative program to measure global ocean carbon inventories and provide estimates of the anthropogenic carbon dioxide (C02) uptake by the oceans. the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the U.S. Department of Energy have sponsored the collection of ocean carbon measurements as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment and Ocean-Atmosphere Carbon Exchange Study cruises. The cruises discussed here occurred in the North and South Pacific from 1990 through 1996. The carbon parameters from these 30 crossover locations have been compared to ensure that a consistent global data set emerges from the survey cruises. !'he results indicate that for dissolved inorganic carbon. fugacity of C02 and pH. the a~:,rreements at most crossover locations are well within the design specifications for the global CO) survey: whereas. in the case of total alkaliniry. the agreement between crossover locations is not as close.

Feely, Richard A [NOAA, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL); Lamb, Marilyn F. [NOAA, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL); Greeley, Dana J. [NOAA, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL); Wanninkhof, Rik [NOAA, Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML)

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Project Profile: High-Efficiency Receivers for Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Cycles  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Brayton Energy, under the 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) R&D FOA, is building and testing a new solar receiver that uses supercritical carbon dioxide (s-CO2) as the heat-transfer...

233

The Application of Carbon Print Analysis Method Based on Life Cycle in Accommodation Service Products  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

With the increasing attention of the international community, the greenhouse effect had make serious threat on humans living environment and economic development. Carbon emission is the main reason of greenho...

Lei Liu; Run-liang Dou; Hui Zheng

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Terrestrial Carbon Cycle: Climate Relations in Eight CMIP5 Earth System Models  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Eight Earth System Models from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) are evaluated, focusing on both the net carbon dioxide flux and its components and their relation with climatic variables (temperature, precipitation, and ...

Pu Shao; Xubin Zeng; Koichi Sakaguchi; Russell K. Monson; Xiaodong Zeng

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Biogeographic variation in evergreen conifer needle longevity and impacts on boreal forest carbon cycle projections  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...positive carbon feedback to future warming using earth system models (28). Empirical observations have found that needle...patterns have not been accounted for by any of the earth system models that were used for estimating the sensitivity of terrestrial...

Peter B. Reich; Roy L. Rich; Xingjie Lu; Ying-Ping Wang; Jacek Oleksyn

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

A review on solar thermal syngas production via redox pair-based water/carbon dioxide splitting thermochemical cycles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The high power density, ease of transportation and storage and many years of development of internal combustion engine technologies have put liquid hydrocarbon fuels at a privileged position in our energy mix. Therefore processes that use renewable energy sources to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels from H2O and CO2 are of crucial importance. Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) can be employed as the only energy source for the renewable production of hydrogen from water either indirectly, e.g. by supplying the electricity for electrolysis, or directly by supplying the necessary heat for thermochemically producing hydrogen. Among the various thermochemical cycles tested so far for CSP-driven hydrogen production via water splitting (WS), those based on redox-pair oxide systems, are directly adaptable to carbon dioxide splitting (CDS) and/or combined CO2/H2O splitting for the production of CO or syngas, respectively. The acknowledgement of this fact has recently revived the interest of the scientific community on such technologies. The current article presents the development, evolution and current status of CSP-aided syngas production via such redox-pair-based thermochemical cycles. At first the various redox oxide material compositions tested for water/carbon dioxide splitting are presented and their redox chemistries are discussed. Then the selection of suitable solar reactors is addressed in conjunction with the boundary conditions imposed by the redox systems as well as the heat demands, technical peculiarities and requirements of the cycle steps. The various solar reactor concepts proposed and employed for such reactions and their current status of development are presented. Finally, topics where further work is needed for commercialization of the technology are identified and discussed.

Christos Agrafiotis; Martin Roeb; Christian Sattler

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Tax policy to combat global warming : on designing a carbon tax  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper develops several points concerning the design and implementation of a carbon tax. First, if implemented without any offsetting changes in transfer programs, the carbon tax would be regressive. This regressivity ...

Poterba, James M.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

A DATA-CENTERED COLLABORATION PORTAL TO SUPPORT GLOBAL CARBON-FLUX ANALYSIS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High Energy Physics. 12. Collaboration Tools for the Global2002. Final Report of the Collaboration Tools for the GlobalForm for Scientific Collaboration. Finholt, T. A. and Olson,

Agarwal, Deborah A.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Constraining past global tropospheric methane budgets with carbon and hydrogen isotope ratios in ice  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...turn, shift the global delta13CH4 and deltaD-CH4...for natural gas (coal, thermogenic or...Ledru2001Correlations of char coal records of fires...Ward1993Methane production from global biomass burning...Wuebbles2000Radiative forcings and global warming potentials of 39...

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

GFDLs ESM2 Global Coupled ClimateCarbon Earth System Models. Part I: Physical Formulation and Baseline Simulation Characteristics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The physical climate formulation and simulation characteristics of two new global coupled carbonclimate Earth System Models, ESM2M and ESM2G, are described. These models demonstrate similar climate fidelity as the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics ...

John P. Dunne; Jasmin G. John; Alistair J. Adcroft; Stephen M. Griffies; Robert W. Hallberg; Elena Shevliakova; Ronald J. Stouffer; William Cooke; Krista A. Dunne; Matthew J. Harrison; John P. Krasting; Sergey L. Malyshev; P. C. D. Milly; Peter J. Phillipps; Lori T. Sentman; Bonita L. Samuels; Michael J. Spelman; Michael Winton; Andrew T. Wittenberg; Niki Zadeh

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "global carbon cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Transient Response of the Hadley Centre Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Model to Increasing Carbon Dioxide. Part III: Analysis of Global-Mean Response Using Simple Models  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The roles of surface, atmospheric, and oceanic feedbacks in controlling the global-mean transient response of a coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model to increasing carbon dioxide are investigated. The analysis employs a four-box ...

J. M. Murphy

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

EIS-0431: Hydrogen Energy California's Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle and Carbon Capture and Sequestration Project, California  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This EIS evaluates the potential environmental impacts of a proposal to provide financial assistance for the construction and operation of Hydrogen Energy California's LLC project, which would produce and sell electricity, carbon dioxide and fertilizer. DOE selected this project for an award of financial assistance through a competitive process under the Clean Coal Power Initiative program.

243

Quantification and Reduction of Critical Uncertainties Associated with Carbon Cycle-Climate System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

GHG levels to physical and biological processes on land and in the oceans. We have prioritized our DATE: July 7, 2010 PROJECT END DATE: June 30, 2013 SPONSOR: US DOE, Office of Science, Office of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases due to the direct influence of GHG concentrations

244

Oxygen as a control on seafloor biological communities and their roles in sedimentary carbon cycling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oxygen as a control on seafloor biological communities and their roles in sedimentary carbon experiments were conducted at sites spanning the steep oxygen, organic matter, and biological community gradients across the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone, in order to quantify the role that fauna play

245

Nitrogen cycling, plant biomass, and carbon dioxide evolution in a subsurface flow wetland  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to ascertain the fate of nitrogen in a constructed wetland and the rate of bioremediation as indicated by carbon dioxide evolution. Research included a study of nitrogen uptake by plants and nitrification. A tracer isotope of nitrogen,?N, was used to follow...

Lane, Jeffrey J

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

246

Model-data Fusion Approaches for Retrospective and Predictive Assessment of the Pan-Arctic Scale Permafrost Carbon Feedback to Global Climate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

representation of the Arctic system carbon cycle in Earth System Modeling frameworks. This proposed study of permafrost carbon processes in terrestrial biogeochemistry models, to operate within coupled Earth system modeling frameworks. PROJECT SIGNIFICANCE This work will provide a critical bridge between the abundant

247

Global Carbon Emissions in the Coming Decades: The Case of China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of embodied energy in international trade on ecologicalcalculate embedded energy and carbon of trade. While it isembodiment in USChina trade. Energy Policy 33. Int. Energy

Levine, Mark D.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Global carbon emissions in the coming decades: the case of China  

SciTech Connect

China's annual energy-related carbon emissions surpassed those of the United States in 2006, years ahead of published international and Chinese forecasts. Why were forecasts so greatly in error and what drove the rapid growth of China's energy-related carbon emissions after 2001? The divergence between actual and forecasted carbon emissions underscores the rapid changes that have taken place in China's energy system since 2001. In order to build a more robust understanding of China's energy-related carbon emissions, this article reviews the role of economic restructuring, urbanization, coal dependence, international trade, and central government policies in driving emissions growth.

Levine, M.D.; Aderi, N.T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Geologic carbon sequestration as a global strategy to mitigate CO2 emissions: Sustainability and environmental risk  

SciTech Connect

Fossil fuels are abundant, inexpensive to produce, and are easily converted to usable energy by combustion as demonstrated by mankind's dependence on fossil fuels for over 80% of its primary energy supply (13). This reliance on fossil fuels comes with the cost of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions that exceed the rate at which CO{sub 2} can be absorbed by terrestrial and oceanic systems worldwide resulting in increases in atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration as recorded by direct measurements over more than five decades (14). Carbon dioxide is the main greenhouse gas linked to global warming and associated climate change, the impacts of which are currently being observed around the world, and projections of which include alarming consequences such as water and food shortages, sea level rise, and social disruptions associated with resource scarcity (15). The current situation of a world that derives the bulk of its energy from fossil fuel in a manner that directly causes climate change equates to an energy-climate crisis. Although governments around the world have only recently begun to consider policies to avoid the direst projections of climate change and its impacts, sustainable approaches to addressing the crisis are available. The common thread of feasible strategies to the energy climate crisis is the simultaneous use of multiple approaches based on available technologies (e.g., 16). Efficiency improvements (e.g., in building energy use), increased use of natural gas relative to coal, and increased development of renewables such as solar, wind, and geothermal, along with nuclear energy, are all available options that will reduce net CO{sub 2} emissions. While improvements in efficiency can be made rapidly and will pay for themselves, the slower pace of change and greater monetary costs associated with increased use of renewables and nuclear energy suggests an additional approach is needed to help bridge the time period between the present and a future when low-carbon energy is considered cheap enough to replace fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) is one such bridging technology (1). CCS has been the focus of an increasing amount of research over the last 15-20 years and is the subject of a comprehensive IPCC report that thoroughly covers the subject (1). CCS is currently being carried out in several countries around the world in conjunction with natural gas extraction (e.g., 2, 3) and enhanced oil recovery (17). Despite this progress, widespread deployment of CCS remains the subject of research and future plans rather than present action on the scale needed to mitigate emissions from the perspective of climate change. The reasons for delay in deploying CCS more widely are concerns about cost (18), regulatory and legal uncertainty (19), and potential environmental impacts (21). This chapter discusses the long-term (decadal) sustainability and environmental hazards associated with the geologic CO{sub 2} storage (GCS) component of large-scale CCS (e.g., 20). Discussion here barely touches on capture and transport of CO{sub 2} which will occur above ground and which are similar to existing engineering, chemical processing, and pipeline transport activities and are therefore easier to evaluate with respect to risk assessment and feasibility. The focus of this chapter is on the more uncertain part of CCS, namely geologic storage. The primary concern for sustainability of GCS is whether there is sufficient capacity in sedimentary basins worldwide to contain the large of amounts of CO{sub 2} needed to address climate change. But there is also a link between sustainability and environmental impacts. Specifically, if GCS is found to cause unacceptable impacts that are considered worse than its climate-change mitigation benefits, the approach will not be widely adopted. Hence, GCS has elements of sustainability insofar as capacity of the subsurface for CO{sub 2} is concerned, and also in terms of whether the associated environmental risks are acceptable or not to the public.

Oldenburg, C.M.

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

An equitable, efficient and implementable scheme to control global carbon dioxide emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We design an international scheme to control global externalities in which autonomous regions choose their own emissions levels in anticipation of interregional resource transfers implemented by an internation...

Arthur J. Caplan; Emilson C. D. Silva

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Life Cycle Carbon Footprint of Re-Refined versus Base Oil That Is Not Re-Refined  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The study showed that global warming potential was lower for all five re-refining techniques considered compared to the production of base oil in standard refineries. ... Safety-Kleen, the largest used oil re-refiner in North America, collects and re-refines used oil into approximately 100,000,000 gallons of base oil per year. ... Figure 4 presents the re-refined carbon footprint-based oil GHG emissions for re-refinery system yields of 50% (equivalent to two gallons of use over a gallon of base oils lifetime; 50% burden from virgin base oil input) to 100% (infinite re-refining; no burden from virgin base oil input). ...

Lisa N. Grice; Carolyn E. Nobel; Lin Longshore; Ramsay Huntley; Ashley L. DeVierno

2013-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

252

Economic comparison between coal-fired and liquefied natural gas combined cycle power plants considering carbon tax: Korean case  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Economic growth is main cause of environmental pollution and has been identified as a big threat to sustainable development. Considering the enormous role of electricity in the national economy, it is essential to study the effect of environmental regulations on the electricity sector. This paper aims at making an economic analysis of Korea's power plant utilities by comparing electricity generation costs from coal-fired power plants and liquefied natural gas (LNG) combined cycle power plants with environmental consideration. In this study, the levelized generation cost method (LGCM) is used for comparing economic analysis of power plant utilities. Among the many pollutants discharged during electricity generation, this study principally deals with control costs related only to CO2 and NO2, since the control costs of SO2 and total suspended particulates (TSP) are already included in the construction cost of utilities. The cost of generating electricity in a coal-fired power plant is compared with such cost in a LNG combined cycle power plant. Moreover, a sensitivity analysis with computer simulation is performed according to fuel price, interest rates and carbon tax. In each case, these results can help in deciding which utility is economically justified in the circumstances of environmental regulations.

Suk-Jae Jeong; Kyung-Sup Kim; Jin-Won Park; Dong-soon Lim; Seung-moon Lee

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Equatorial Pacific Sediment Deposition during the Early to Middle Miocene: Carbon Cycling and Proxies for Productivity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

trough [Shipboard Scientific Party, Init. Repts. DSDP 574, 1985]. Four holes were cored: Hole 574 cored from 0 ? 206.5 mbsf, Hole 574A cored from 0 - 180.2 m in length (100% recovery) and Hole 574C cored from 194.5 to 525.5 mbsf (58% recovery); Hole B... recovered only 9.5 m of core. Sediments from both Holes A and C are dominantly calcareous ooze. Siliceous microfossils are a typical component (2-30%, 7 Table 1) and make up the majority of the non-carbonate sediment fraction [Mayer et al., 1986...

Piela, Christine Marie

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

254

Oxygen Utilization and Organic Carbon Remineralization in the Upper Water Column of the Pacific Ocean  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

As a part of the JGOFS synthesis and modeling project, researchers have been working to synthesize the WOCE/JGOFS/DOE/NOAA global CO2...survey data to better understand carbon cycling processes in the oceans. Wor...

Richard A. Feely; Christopher L. Sabine; Reiner Schlitzer

255

Project Title: Carbon cycling at the landscape scale: the effect of changes in climate and fire frequency on age distribution, stand structure, and net ecosystem production.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Project Title: Carbon cycling at the landscape scale: the effect of changes in climate and fire: Our project addresses Task 1 in RFP 2003-1. Climate, fire (frequency and intensity), and forest@mhub.zoology.wisc.edu, 4 Tinker@uwyo.edu Duration of Project: 3 years Annual Funding Requested from the Joint Fire Science

Turner, Monica G.

256

GIS Data Services Specialist Forest disturbance and carbon cycling Location: Newton Square, Pennsylvania (U.S. Forest Service Northern Research Station)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

GIS Data Services Specialist ­ Forest disturbance and carbon cycling Location: Newton Square Geographic Information System (GIS) and data management support for developing spatial databases sets and in applying analysis techniques and models within a GIS framework. A Master's or PhD degree

Lichstein, Jeremy W.

257

Economic value of improved quantification in global sources and sinks of carbon dioxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...approximately US$20 billion...value exceeding US$10 trillion...cycle and current sources of uncertainty...restructuring of internal energy consumption/production...greater than US$400 billion...reviewed the sources of errors in...

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

System-of-systems iso-performance search to inform multi-actor policymaking to reduce aviation life cycle carbon emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents a system-of-systems formalism for modeling and analyzing multi-actor policymaking to achieve a global system objective. In contrast to a single optimal solution that aggregates objectives of actors, the concept of iso-performance ... Keywords: aviation life cycle emissions, iso-performance, multi-actor policymaking, system-of-systems

Datu B. Agusdinata; Daniel A. DeLaurentis

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Carbon sequestration in peatland: patterns and mechanisms of response to climate change  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon sequestration in peatland: patterns and mechanisms of response to climate change L I S A R., 2000; Turunen et al., 2002; Kremenetski et al., 2003). Rates of carbon (C) sequestration (i.e., uptake in the climatic water budget is crucial to predicting potential feedbacks on the global carbon (C) cycle. To gain

260

Oxygen production and carbon sequestration in an upwelling coastal Burke Hales,1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oxygen production and carbon sequestration in an upwelling coastal margin Burke Hales,1 Lee Karp), Oxygen production and carbon sequestration in an upwelling coastal margin, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 20 of particulate organic carbon (POC) and dissolved O2 during the upwelling season off the Oregon coast. Oxygen

Pierce, Stephen

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "global carbon cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Modeling impacts of carbon sequestration on net greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural soils in China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Modeling impacts of carbon sequestration on net greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural soils impacts of carbon sequestration on net greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural soils in China, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 23, GB1007, doi:10.1029/2008GB003180. 1. Introduction [2] Carbon (C) sequestration has

262

Uncertainty of ConcentrationTerrestrial Carbon Feedback in Earth System Models  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbon uptake by land and ocean as a biogeochemical response to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration is called concentrationcarbon feedback and is one of the carbon cycle feedbacks of the global climate. This feedback can have a major impact ...

Tomohiro Hajima; Kaoru Tachiiri; Akihiko Ito; Michio Kawamiya

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Feedbacks in Emission-Driven and Concentration-Driven Global Carbon Budgets  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Emissions of CO2 into the atmosphere affect the carbon budgets of the land and ocean as biogeochemical processes react to increased CO2 concentrations. Biogeochemical processes also react to changes in temperature and other climate parameters. ...

G. J. Boer; V. K. Arora

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Life cycle analysis of a building-integrated solar thermal collector, based on embodied energy and embodied carbon methodologies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The present study is a life cycle analysis of a patented building-integrated solar thermal collector which was developed/experimentally tested at the University of Corsica, in France, with the concept integration into gutters/no visual impact. Three configurations (reference and two alternatives) are evaluated. The life-cycle impact assessment methodologies of embodied energy (EE)/embodied carbon (EC), two databases and multiple scenarios are adopted. The results reveal that the reference system can considerably improve its environmental performance by utilizing collectors connected in parallel. The Energy Payback Time of the reference system decreases to less than 2 years by parallel connection while it is around 0.5 years if recycling is also adopted. The EE of the systems is around 3GJprim/m2 and it is reduced to around 0.40.5GJprim/m2 by recycling. The EC of the configurations is approximately 0.16tCO2.eq/m2 without recycling and around 0.020.03tCO2.eq/m2 with recycling. CO2.eq emissions are strongly related with electricity mix. A reduction 2896% in CO2.eq emissions of the systems is achieved by adopting configurations with double collector surface/output. Concerning indicator of sustainability, the system with parallel connection shows a value of 0.78. The findings of the present investigation could be utilized for the design of building-integrated solar thermal systems as well as for research purposes.

Chr. Lamnatou; G. Notton; D. Chemisana; C. Cristofari

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Quantifying the role of fire in the Earth system - Part 2: Impact on the net carbon balance of global terrestrial ecosystems for the 20th century  

SciTech Connect

Fire is the primary terrestrial ecosystem disturbance agent on a global scale. It affects carbon balance of global terrestrial ecosystems by emitting carbon to atmosphere directly and immediately from biomass burning (i.e., fire direct effect), and by changing net ecosystem productivity and land-use carbon loss in post-fire regions due to biomass burning and fire-induced vegetation mortality (i.e., fire indirect effect). Here, we provide the first quantitative assessment about the impact of fire on the net carbon balance of global terrestrial ecosystems for the 20th century, and investigate the roles of fire direct and indirect effects. This study is done by quantifying the difference between the 20th century fire-on and fire-off simulations with NCAR community land model CLM4.5 as the model platform. Results show that fire decreases net carbon gain of the global terrestrial ecosystems by 1.0 Pg C yr-1 average across the 20th century, as a results of fire direct effect (1.9 Pg C yr-1) partly offset by indirect effect (-0.9 Pg C yr-1). Fire generally decreases the average carbon gains of terrestrial ecosystems in post-fire regions, which are significant over tropical savannas and part of forests in North America and the east of Asia. The general decrease of carbon gains in post-fire regions is because fire direct and indirect effects have similar spatial patterns and the former (to decrease carbon gain) is generally stronger. Moreover, the effect of fire on net carbon balance significantly declines prior to ~1970 with trend of 8 Tg C yr-1 due to increasing fire indirect effect and increases afterward with trend of 18 Tg C yr-1 due to increasing fire direct effect.

Li, Fang; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Levis, Samuel

2014-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

266

Potential responses of soil organic carbon to global environmental?change  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...this organic matter fraction. The Bomb 14 C Tracer. The incorporation of 14 C produced in the early 1960s by atmospheric thermonuclear weapons testing (bomb 14 C) into SOM during the past 30 years provides a direct measure of the amount of fast-cycling...

Susan E. Trumbore

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

THE ROLE OF ARCHAEAL METHANOGENS IN BIOMINERALIZATION AND METAL CYCLING: FROM THE MICROSCOPIC TO THE GLOBAL SCALE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Archaea, including methanogens, comprise 20% of microbial biomass in global oceans. This study examines the role of Archaeal cell walls in primary low-temperature (30oC) dolomite formation, the impact of biogenic methane ...

Kenward, Paul Alexander

2010-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

268

Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Latest Estimates Latest Estimates Atmos CO2 Level 397.31 ppm Fossil CO2 Emissions 9,167 MMT Carbon Global Temp Anomaly +0.56°C / +1.01°F Global Sea Level Rise +2.9 ± 0.4 mm/y Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) is the primary climate-change data and information analysis center of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). CDIAC is located at DOE's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and includes the World Data Center for Atmospheric Trace Gases. CDIAC's data holdings include estimates of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel consumption and land-use changes; records of atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and other radiatively active trace gases; carbon cycle and terrestrial carbon management datasets and analyses; and

269

Global forecasts of urban expansion to 2030 and direct impacts on biodiversity and carbon pools  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...lower per capita energy use and greenhouse...transport, energy, sanitation, buildings...For example, GDP is a strong...increase or decrease per capita greenhouse gas emissions...land uses affects energy use and carbon...increases the demand for fodder. Thus, the indirect...

Karen C. Seto; Burak Gneralp; Lucy R. Hutyra

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Modelling and simulation of CO2 (carbon dioxide) bottoming cycles for offshore oil and gas installations at design and off-design conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Improved energy efficiency is an issue of increasing importance in offshore oil and gas installations. The power on offshore installations is generated by gas turbines operating in a simple cycle. There is an obvious possibility for heat recovery for further power generation from the exhaust heat. However, the limited space and weight available makes the inclusion of bottoming cycles challenging. Due to its high working pressure and thereby compact components CO2 (carbon dioxide) could be a viable solution, combining compactness and efficiency. An in-house simulation tool is used to evaluate the performance of CO2 bottoming cycles at design and off-design conditions. Both a simple recuperated single stage cycle and a more advanced dual stage system are modelled. Results from simulations show a potential for 1011%-points increase in net plant efficiency at 100% gas turbine load. Also off-design simulations taking the variation in heat exchanger performance into account are performed showing that the bottoming cycle improves the off-design performance compared to the standard gas turbine solution. Even at 60% GT (gas turbine) load, the combined cycle with CO2 bottoming cycle can achieve up to 45% net plant efficiency, compared to 31% for only the gas turbine.

Harald Taxt Walnum; Petter Neks; Lars O. Nord; Trond Andresen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Pathways and Mechanisms of OceanTracer Transport: Implications for Carbon Sequestration  

SciTech Connect

This funding enabled the following published manuscripts in which we have developed models of direct relevance to ocean carbon sequestration and of the oceanic iron cycle, its connection to the global carbon cycle, and the sensitivity of atmospheric carbon dioxide to the external source of iron. As part of this process we have developed the adjoint of the MIT ocean biogeochemistry model which has enabled us to perform rigorous and efficient sensitivity studies.

Marshall, John; Follows, MIchael

2006-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

272

Study of Adsorption of Methanol in an Activated Carbon and Carbon Nanotube Matrix for Use in a Solar Based Refrigeration Cycle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

energy. Various adsorbent/adsorbate pairs have been tested in literature. The present work focuses on carbon nanotubes because theoretically, nanotubes should be able to adsorb better than activated carbon due to their high surface to volume ratios...

Sambath, Srivaths

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

273

Developing Model Constraints on Northern Extra-Tropical Carbon Cycling Based on measurements of the Abundance and Isotopic Composition of Atmospheric CO2  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to perform CO2 data syntheses and modeling activities to address two central questions: 1) how much has the seasonal cycle in atmospheric CO2 at northern high latitudes changed since the 1960s, and 2) how well do prognostic biospheric models represent these changes. This project also supported the continuation of the Scripps time series of CO2 isotopes and concentration at ten baseline stations distributed globally.

Keeling, Ralph [UCSD-SIO

2014-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

274

Conference for Biomass and Energy, Copenhagen, 1996 published by Elsevier BIOMASS ENERGY PRODUCTION: THE GLOBAL POTENTIAL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

9th Conference for Biomass and Energy, Copenhagen, 1996 ­ published by Elsevier 1 BIOMASS ENERGY disturbance of the natural global carbon cycle. The "carbon-neutral" renewable energy carrier biomass seems of biomass for energy purposes. The CEBM comprises a biospheric part being based on the "Osnabrück Biosphere

Keeling, Stephen L.

275

Carbon dioxide recovery from an integrated coal gasifier, combined cycle plant using membrane separation and a CO2 gas turbine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A scheme is described for electricity production based on coal gasification with recovery of carbon dioxide. In this scheme, coal is gasified into a coal gas, consisting mainly of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. A ...

Chris Hendriks

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Using NASA Remote Sensing Data to Reduce Uncertainty of Land-Use Transitions in Global Carbon-Climate Models: Data Management Plan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-use transitions and their inherent uncertainty. Our plan for managing these datasets includes quality assessmentUsing NASA Remote Sensing Data to Reduce Uncertainty of Land-Use Transitions in Global Carbon-Climate Models: Data Management Plan L. Chini, G.C. Hurtt, M. Hansen, and P. Potapov Department of Geography

277

Seasonal cycle of carbon dioxide and its isotopic composition in an urban atmosphere: Anthropogenic and biogenic effects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and soils on CO2 mixing ratio were quantified with a mass balance calculation using dual carbon and oxygen

Ehleringer, Jim

278

Biogeochemical cycling in an organic-rich coastal marine basin. 10. The role of amino acids in sedimentary carbon and nitrogen cycling  

SciTech Connect

Hydrolyzable amino acids were measured in cores and surface sediment samples collected over a 14 month period from the rapidly accumulating, anoxic sediments of Cape Lookout Bight, NC. The concentration of total hydrolyzable amino acids (THAAs) shows an exponential decrease with depth, in a manner similar to total organic carbon and total nitrogen. Carbon and nitrogen in THAAs averages 10-15% of the total organic carbon and 30-40% of the total nitrogen in these sediments. In surface sediments the concentration of THAAs do not show strong seasonal variations, with the exception of a small apparent decrease during the winter months. Aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine and alanine are the most abundant individual amino acids in Cape Lookout Bight sediments. The distribution of individual amino acids in these sediments is very similar to that observed in the two major sources of organic matter, vascular salt marsh plants and marine plankton. The mole fractions of most amino acids show no depth variation in Cape Lookout Bight sediments. Kinetic modeling of these data indicates that the deposition of amino acids to the surface of these sediments is 5.8 {plus minus} 1.0 mol{center dot}m{sup {minus}2}{center dot}yr{sup {minus}1}. Approximately 46 {plus minus} 16% of this input is remineralized in the upper 40 cm. The recycling of amino acids accounts for 82 {plus minus} 43% of the total nitrogen regeneration and 27 {plus minus} 11% of the regeneration of total organic carbon in these sediments. The mean residence time of metabolizable amino acids is approx. 9 months, a value which is comparable to the mean residence time of both metabolizable organic carbon and nitrogen in these sediments.

Burdige, D.J.; Martens, C.S. (Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (USA))

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Comparison of Two U.S. Power-Plant Carbon Dioxide Emissions Data Sets  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Comparison of Two U.S. Power-Plant Carbon Dioxide Emissions Data Sets ... The varying proportions of CO2 emitted from each fuel type over the course of a year lead to an annual cycle in the carbon isotope ratio (?13C), with a range of about 2 . ... The large range of carbon emissions within the bituminous rank class suggests that rank-specific carbon emission factors are provincial rather than global. ...

Katherine V. Ackerman; Eric T. Sundquist

2008-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

280

Integrated life-cycle assessment of electricity-supply scenarios confirms global environmental benefit of low-carbon technologies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...large wind turbines and wind power plants. With the...submarine cables connect the wind turbines to a substation; external...installation, operations and maintenance (O&M) and end-of-life...inventories for offshore wind farms were based on...

Edgar G. Hertwich; Thomas Gibon; Evert A. Bouman; Anders Arvesen; Sangwon Suh; Garvin A. Heath; Joseph D. Bergesen; Andrea Ramirez; Mabel I. Vega; Lei Shi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "global carbon cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Integrated life-cycle assessment of electricity-supply scenarios confirms global environmental benefit of low-carbon technologies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...integrated circuits; laser diodes and light-emitting...photovoltaic module or wind power technologies...magnets for wind turbines is constrained...onshore sited wind power plants...V82-1.65 MW turbines. (Vestas Wind Systems A...Greenhouse Gas Control 5(3):457-466...

Edgar G. Hertwich; Thomas Gibon; Evert A. Bouman; Anders Arvesen; Sangwon Suh; Garvin A. Heath; Joseph D. Bergesen; Andrea Ramirez; Mabel I. Vega; Lei Shi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Integrated life-cycle assessment of electricity-supply scenarios confirms global environmental benefit of low-carbon technologies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Similarly, the inventories for offshore wind farms were based on (46). Finally...production of foundations. For wind farms situated offshore, array cables within the...conceptual land-based and offshore wind farms Land-based Offshore Nominal...

Edgar G. Hertwich; Thomas Gibon; Evert A. Bouman; Anders Arvesen; Sangwon Suh; Garvin A. Heath; Joseph D. Bergesen; Andrea Ramirez; Mabel I. Vega; Lei Shi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Integrated life-cycle assessment of electricity-supply scenarios confirms global environmental benefit of low-carbon technologies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...models and technology roadmaps and are summarized...mounted systems (34). Decommissioning was accounted for...both types of CSP. Decommissioning was accounted for in...2010) Technology Roadmap Concentrating Solar...2007) Impacts from decommissioning of hydroelectric dams...

Edgar G. Hertwich; Thomas Gibon; Evert A. Bouman; Anders Arvesen; Sangwon Suh; Garvin A. Heath; Joseph D. Bergesen; Andrea Ramirez; Mabel I. Vega; Lei Shi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Integrated life-cycle assessment of electricity-supply scenarios confirms global environmental benefit of low-carbon technologies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...presents an opportunity to address pollution resulting from fossil-fuel...Baseline scenario, emissions of air and water pollutants more than...stabilizing or even reducing pollution. Material requirements per unit...emerging battery or compressed air technologies, for which far...

Edgar G. Hertwich; Thomas Gibon; Evert A. Bouman; Anders Arvesen; Sangwon Suh; Garvin A. Heath; Joseph D. Bergesen; Andrea Ramirez; Mabel I. Vega; Lei Shi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Integrated life-cycle assessment of electricity-supply scenarios confirms global environmental benefit of low-carbon technologies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...impacts and options for their minimization through employing through more powerful grids, energy storage, flexible demand response, or different forms of back-up are not yet well understood. 23 IMPLICATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH A contribution...

Edgar G. Hertwich; Thomas Gibon; Evert A. Bouman; Anders Arvesen; Sangwon Suh; Garvin A. Heath; Joseph D. Bergesen; Andrea Ramirez; Mabel I. Vega; Lei Shi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

The Impact of Global Warming on the Carbon Cycle of Arctic Permafrost: An Experimental and Field Based Study  

SciTech Connect

Our results to date indicate that CO2 and CH4 fluxes from organic poor, Arctic cryosols on Axel Heiberg Island are net CH4 sinks and CO2 emitters in contrast to organic-rich peat deposits at sub-Arctic latitudes. This is based upon field observations and a 1.5 year long thawing experiment performed upon one meter long intact cores. The results of the core thawing experiments are in good agreement with field measurements. Metagenomic, metatranscriptomic and metaproteomic analyses indicate that high affinity aerobic methanotrophs belong to the uncultivated USCalpha are present in <1% abundance in these cryosols are are active in the field during the summer and in the core thawing experiments. The methanotrophs are 100 times more abundant than the methanogens. As a result mineral cryosols, which comprise 87% of Arctic tundra, are net methane sinks. Their presence and activity may account for the discrepancies observed between the atmospheric methane concentrations observed in the Arctic predicted by climate models and the observed seasonal fluctuations and decadal trends. This has not been done yet.

Onstott, Tullis C [Princeton University; Pffifner, Susan M; Chourey, Karuna [Oak Ridge National Laboratory

2014-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

287

Integrated life-cycle assessment of electricity-supply scenarios confirms global environmental benefit of low-carbon technologies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...opportunities. (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Co). 28. Margolis R, Coggeshall C, & Zuboy J (2012) SunShot Vision Study. (US Department of Energy (DoE)). 29. Woodhouse M, et al. (2013) Perspectives on the pathways for cadmium...

Edgar G. Hertwich; Thomas Gibon; Evert A. Bouman; Anders Arvesen; Sangwon Suh; Garvin A. Heath; Joseph D. Bergesen; Andrea Ramirez; Mabel I. Vega; Lei Shi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Integrated life-cycle assessment of electricity-supply scenarios confirms global environmental benefit of low-carbon technologies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...are attributable to marine vessel operations and one fifth to...associated with the upstream fuel chain processes, the inclusion...42 - Annual grid electricity consumption 3700 7920 MWh/yr Annual natural...Table S5: Key data for fossil fuel plants ZZQQhy Power plant efficiencies...

Edgar G. Hertwich; Thomas Gibon; Evert A. Bouman; Anders Arvesen; Sangwon Suh; Garvin A. Heath; Joseph D. Bergesen; Andrea Ramirez; Mabel I. Vega; Lei Shi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Integrated life-cycle assessment of electricity-supply scenarios confirms global environmental benefit of low-carbon technologies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Concentrating Solar Plant and the...Concentrating Solar Power Plant and...Biogenic Greenhouse Gas Emissions from...reference wind turbine for offshore system...production 900 kg Solar grade silicon...Annual natural gas consumptiona 8900...capacity wind turbine 2.5 MW 5 MW...

Edgar G. Hertwich; Thomas Gibon; Evert A. Bouman; Anders Arvesen; Sangwon Suh; Garvin A. Heath; Joseph D. Bergesen; Andrea Ramirez; Mabel I. Vega; Lei Shi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Integrated life-cycle assessment of electricity-supply scenarios confirms global environmental benefit of low-carbon technologies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...1.5 per m2 ) CdTe Roadmap (29) Poly-Si Module...21% Wafer Silicon Roadmap (33) Poly-silicon wafer...120 m Wafer Silicon Roadmap (33) Materials efficient...MWh/yr Annual natural gas consumptiona 8900 0 MMBtu...Nominal capacity wind turbine 2.5 MW 5 MW Lifetime...

Edgar G. Hertwich; Thomas Gibon; Evert A. Bouman; Anders Arvesen; Sangwon Suh; Garvin A. Heath; Joseph D. Bergesen; Andrea Ramirez; Mabel I. Vega; Lei Shi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Integrated life-cycle assessment of electricity-supply scenarios confirms global environmental benefit of low-carbon technologies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...impact categories. Natural gas Natural gas power generation without CCS has considerably...emissions than coal- fired power without CCS. However...comparable to that of coal fired power plants. For natural gas power generation with CCS technology...

Edgar G. Hertwich; Thomas Gibon; Evert A. Bouman; Anders Arvesen; Sangwon Suh; Garvin A. Heath; Joseph D. Bergesen; Andrea Ramirez; Mabel I. Vega; Lei Shi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Integrated life-cycle assessment of electricity-supply scenarios confirms global environmental benefit of low-carbon technologies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Scenarios and strategies to 2050 (OECD...of natural gas based fuel...EXIOPOL - development and illustrative...Greenhouse Gas Emissions from...reference wind turbine for offshore system development. (National...V82-1.65 MW turbines. (Vestas...and natural gas to electricity-Revision...

Edgar G. Hertwich; Thomas Gibon; Evert A. Bouman; Anders Arvesen; Sangwon Suh; Garvin A. Heath; Joseph D. Bergesen; Andrea Ramirez; Mabel I. Vega; Lei Shi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Integrated life-cycle assessment of electricity-supply scenarios confirms global environmental benefit of low-carbon technologies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...address the issue of system balancing for the...tidal, geothermal, solar photovoltaics (PV), concentrating solar power (CSP), and onshore and offshore wind power. The scenario...technology product systems (foreground) In...rail, or ship. In hybrid assessment, the...

Edgar G. Hertwich; Thomas Gibon; Evert A. Bouman; Anders Arvesen; Sangwon Suh; Garvin A. Heath; Joseph D. Bergesen; Andrea Ramirez; Mabel I. Vega; Lei Shi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Integrated life-cycle assessment of electricity-supply scenarios confirms global environmental benefit of low-carbon technologies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Biogenic Greenhouse Gas Emissions from...reference wind turbine for offshore system development. (National Renewable...of Science and Technology, Trondheim...V82-1.65 MW turbines. (Vestas Wind...coal and natural gas to electricity-Revision...

Edgar G. Hertwich; Thomas Gibon; Evert A. Bouman; Anders Arvesen; Sangwon Suh; Garvin A. Heath; Joseph D. Bergesen; Andrea Ramirez; Mabel I. Vega; Lei Shi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Integrated life-cycle assessment of electricity-supply scenarios confirms global environmental benefit of low-carbon technologies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Electricity Generation. J. Ind...costs of photovoltaic systems...2005) Environmental Impact of Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Module Production...electricity generation technologies...concentrating solar power plants...

Edgar G. Hertwich; Thomas Gibon; Evert A. Bouman; Anders Arvesen; Sangwon Suh; Garvin A. Heath; Joseph D. Bergesen; Andrea Ramirez; Mabel I. Vega; Lei Shi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Integrated life-cycle assessment of electricity-supply scenarios confirms global environmental benefit of low-carbon technologies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...of a 5 MW reference wind turbine for offshore system development. (National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Technical...environmental impacts of offshore wind power generation and...Technology, Trondheim, Norway). 50. Vestas (2006...

Edgar G. Hertwich; Thomas Gibon; Evert A. Bouman; Anders Arvesen; Sangwon Suh; Garvin A. Heath; Joseph D. Bergesen; Andrea Ramirez; Mabel I. Vega; Lei Shi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Integrated life-cycle assessment of electricity-supply scenarios confirms global environmental benefit of low-carbon technologies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL...wind turbine for offshore system development. (National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Technical...environmental impacts of offshore wind power generation...Technology, Trondheim, Norway). 50. Vestas...

Edgar G. Hertwich; Thomas Gibon; Evert A. Bouman; Anders Arvesen; Sangwon Suh; Garvin A. Heath; Joseph D. Bergesen; Andrea Ramirez; Mabel I. Vega; Lei Shi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Integrated life-cycle assessment of electricity-supply scenarios confirms global environmental benefit of low-carbon technologies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...less turbulent winds, and thus less stress on turbines, at offshore sites. We distinguished...somewhat higher for offshore wind. In land-based...production of wind turbine components including...MW reference wind turbine for offshore system development...

Edgar G. Hertwich; Thomas Gibon; Evert A. Bouman; Anders Arvesen; Sangwon Suh; Garvin A. Heath; Joseph D. Bergesen; Andrea Ramirez; Mabel I. Vega; Lei Shi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Integrated life-cycle assessment of electricity-supply scenarios confirms global environmental benefit of low-carbon technologies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...of variable renewable generation and...the problem of grid integration is expected to be modest. The challenge of integrating intermittent renewable electricity sources...through more powerful grids, energy storage, flexible...

Edgar G. Hertwich; Thomas Gibon; Evert A. Bouman; Anders Arvesen; Sangwon Suh; Garvin A. Heath; Joseph D. Bergesen; Andrea Ramirez; Mabel I. Vega; Lei Shi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

System dynamics based models for selecting HVAC systems for office buildings: a life cycle assessment from carbon emissions perspective.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This study aims to explore the life cycle environmental impacts of typical heating ventilation and air condition (HVAC) systems including variable air volume (VAV) system, (more)

Chen, S

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "global carbon cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Estimation of net carbon sequestration potential of citrus under different management systems using the life cycle approach.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A study was conducted to determine the net carbon sequestration potential of citrus to mitigate climate change. Perennial crops such as citrus have the potential (more)

Bwalya, jackson Mwamba

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Global warming and its implications for conservation. 1. Overview.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as usual projections from NCAR, Hadley, CSIRO. There is good evidence that current climate change is due to anthropogenic release of CO2 into the atmosphere. (Much more on the carbon cycle and atmospheric CO2 later temperatures, such as solar intensity or volcanic activity Ohead: global climate anomaly time series (Mears

Creel, Scott

303

Carbon Sequestered, Carbon Displaced and the Kyoto Context  

SciTech Connect

The integrated system that embraces forest management, forest products, and land-use change impacts the global carbon cycle - and hence the net emission of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide - in four fundamental ways. Carbon is stored in living and dead biomass, carbon is stored in wood products and landfills, forest products substitute in the market place for products made from other materials, and forest harvests can be used wholly or partially to displace fossil fuels in the energy sector. Implementation of the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change would result in the creation of international markets for carbon dioxide emissions credits, but the current Kyoto text does not treat all carbon identically. We have developed a carbon accounting model, GORCAM, to examine a variety of scenarios for land management and the production of forest products. In this paper we explore, for two simple scenarios of forest management, the carbon flows that occur and how these might be accounted for under the Kyoto text. The Kyoto protocol raises questions about what activities can result in emissions credits, which carbon reservoirs will be counted, who will receive the credits, and how much credit will be available? The Kyoto Protocol would sometimes give credits for carbon sequestered, but it would always give credits when fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions are displaced.

Marland, G.; Schlamadinger, B.

1999-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

304

EVOLUTION OF THE GLOBAL TEMPERATURE STRUCTURE OF THE SOLAR CORONA DURING THE MINIMUM BETWEEN SOLAR CYCLES 23 AND 24  

SciTech Connect

The combination of differential emission measure tomography with extrapolation of the photospheric magnetic field allows determination of the electron density and electron temperature along individual magnetic field lines. This is especially useful in quiet-Sun (QS) plasmas where individual loops cannot otherwise be identified. In Paper I, this approach was applied to study QS plasmas during Carrington rotation (CR) 2077 at the minimum between solar cycles (SCs) 23 and 24. In that work, two types of QS coronal loops were identified: ''up'' loops in which the temperature increases with height, and ''down'' loops in which the temperature decreases with height. While the first ones were expected, the latter ones were a surprise and, furthermore, were found to be ubiquitous in the low-latitude corona. In the present work, we extend the analysis to 11 CRs around the last solar minimum. We found that the ''down'' population, always located at low latitudes, was maximum at the time when the sunspot number was minimum, and the number of down loops systematically increased during the declining phase of SC-23 and diminished during the rising phase of SC-24. ''Down'' loops are found to have systematically larger values of {beta} than do ''up'' loops. These discoveries are interpreted in terms of excitation of Alfven waves in the photosphere, and mode conversion and damping in the low corona.

Nuevo, Federico A.; Vasquez, Alberto M. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (CONICET-UBA) and FCEN (UBA), CC 67-Suc 28, Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Huang Zhenguang; Frazin, Richard; Manchester, Ward B. IV; Jin Meng [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

2013-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

305

Pyrolysis as a way to close a CFRC life cycle: Carbon fibers recovery and their use as feedstock for a new composite production  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Pyrolysis is shown to be an efficient method for recycling carbon fiber composites in the form of both uncured prepregs scraps or as cured end-of-life objects. The pyrolytic process leads to different products in three physical states of matter. The gaseous fraction called syngas can be used as energy feedstock in the process itself. The oil fraction can be used as fuel or chemical feedstock. The solid residue contains substantially unharmed carbon fibers that can be isolated and recovered for the production of new composite materials thus closing the life cycle of the composite in a cradle to cradle approach. All the pyrolysis outputs were thoroughly analyzed and characterized in terms of composition for oil and gas fraction and surface characteristics of the fibers. In particular it is of paramount importance to correlate the aspect and properties of the fibers obtained with different composite feedstock and operational conditions that can be significantly different with the reinforcing performance in the newly produced Recycled Carbon Fibers Reinforced Polymers. Present results have been obtained on a pyrolysis pilot plant that offers the possibility of treating up to 70kg of materials thus leading to a significant amount of products to be tested in the further composites production focused mainly on chopped carbon fiber reinforcement.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Sensitivity of global-scale climate change attribution results to inclusion of fossil fuel black carbon aerosol - article no. L14701  

SciTech Connect

It is likely that greenhouse gas emissions caused most of the global mean warming observed during the 20th century, and that sulphate aerosols counteracted this warming to some extent, by reflecting solar radiation to space and thereby cooling the planet. However, the importance of another aerosol, namely black carbon, could be underestimated. Here we include fossil fuel black carbon aerosol in a detection and attribution analysis with greenhouse gas and sulphate aerosols. We find that most of the warming of the 20th Century is attributable to changes in greenhouse gases offset by net aerosol cooling. However the pattern of temperature change due to black carbon is currently indistinguishable from the sulphate aerosol pattern of temperature change. The attribution of temperature change due to greenhouse gases is not sensitive to the inclusion of black carbon. We can be confident about the overall attribution of total aerosols, but less so about the contributions of black carbon emissions to 20th century climate change. This work presents no evidence that black carbon aerosol forcing outweighed the cooling due to sulphate aerosol.

Jones, G.S.; Jones, A.; Roberts, D.L.; Stott, P.A.; Williams, K.D. [Hadley Center for Climate Predictions & Research, Exeter (United Kingdom)

2005-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

307

A model for the contribution of macrophyte-derived organic carbon in harvested tidal freshwater marshes to surrounding estuarine and oceanic ecosystems and its response to global warming  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The tidal freshwater marshes dominated by Phragmites australis (common reed) in the Chongxi Wetland are important components of the Yangtze River estuary in China. The litter from P. australis is exported to the surrounding estuarine area and the sea with the tidal flushing in the form of plant residue, particulate organic matter, and dissolved organic matter and is an important organic carbon resource of the East China Sea. A model was constructed using STELLA software (version 9.1.3) to simulate the contribution of macrophyte-derived organic carbon to surrounding estuary and ocean ecosystems. The model is based on the monitoring and observational data from field surveys and published information on the Chongxi Wetland from 2008 to 2011, and the response of the total organic carbon flowing out of the wetland to global changes was also predicted in conditions of plant shoots that were annually harvested in winter. The results demonstrate the following: (1) the annual contributed organic carbon is 891gCm?2, of which 612gCm?2 flows out of the wetland directly as plant residue; (2) total organic carbon continually increases after a short decrease at the start of April of 2010, retains a high value from mid-July to mid-November and rapidly decreases to approximately zero during the harvest of the aboveground plant organs; and (3) accumulated annual organic carbon contributions to the surrounding estuarine and oceanic ecosystems are predicted to increase as the global average temperature rises, and the sea level increases.

Jiarui Zhang; Sven E. Jrgensen; Jianjian Lu; Sren N. Nielsen; Qiang Wang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Global patterns of nitrogen limitation: confronting two global biogeochemical models with observations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

representations of Earth System Models have included the carbon (C) cycle (Friedlingstein et al., 2006

Templer, Pamela

309

Success Stories: Carbon Explorer  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

LBNL Device Monitors Ocean Carbon LBNL Device Monitors Ocean Carbon Imagine waking up each morning and discovering that twenty percent of all plants in your garden had disappeared over night. They had been eaten. Equally astonishing would be the discovery in the afternoon that new plants had taken their place. This is the norm of life in the ocean. Without the ability to accurately observe these daily changes in ocean life cycles, over vast spatial scales, we lack the ability to predict how the ocean will respond to rising CO2 levels, crippling our ability to develop accurate models of global warming or devise strategies to prevent it. The Carbon Explorer, conceived by Berkeley Lab's James K. Bishop in collaboration with Scripps Institution of Oceanography (La Jolla, California) and WET labs, Inc. (Philomath, Oregon), bridges this

310

Thermal cycling effect on the nanoparticle distribution and specific heat of a carbonate eutectic with alumina nanoparticles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. The concentration of alumina nanoparticles in this material was measured using neutron activation analysis. The average specific heat of the uncycled material was found to be 1.37 J/gC.The average specific heat of the thermally cycled material was between 1.7-2.1 J...

Shankar, Sandhya

2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

311

Sustainable Management of Carbon, Nutrients, and Agrichemicals through Cycling of Bioresources fom Bioenergy and Livestock Production and Municipalities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bioenergy and Livestock Production and Municipalities Bioenergy and livestock industries and municipalities offer bioresources for sustained crop productivity and environmental quality. In the emerging bioenergy and a potential source of carbon· credits for bioenergy systems. Incorporation of the char by-product in soil can

312

Role of Lignin in Reducing Life-Cycle Carbon Emissions, Water Use, and Cost for United States Cellulosic Biofuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The grid electricity offset credits alone can reduce the life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) footprint of cellulosic ethanol by up to 20 g CO2e/MJ ethanol, in some cases resulting in a net negative GHG footprint. ... Case 2 represents a system in which the solids boiler and steam turbine from case 1 remain operational, but imported natural gas is used to operate an additional 65 MW gas turbine, resulting in a net power output of 50 MW. ... In each case, the capital costs for gas turbines are calculated on the basis of the gross power output rating. ...

Corinne D. Scown; Amit A. Gokhale; Paul A. Willems; Arpad Horvath; Thomas E. McKone

2014-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

313

Carbon-Optimal and Carbon-Neutral Supply Chains  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the life-cycle assessment (LCA) and carbon footprintingto integrate the economics- and LCA-based perspectives onto life-cycle assessment (LCA). The existing literature on

Caro, F.; Corbett, C. J.; Tan, T.; Zuidwijk, R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Circulating-Fluidized-Bed-Based Calcium-Looping Gasifier: Experimental Studies on the CalcinationCarbonation Cycle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

With the first one, kinetic rates are developed for calcination in the presence of three media: nitrogen (N2), CO2, and steam (H2O). ... For this study, the particle size was taken to be 45 ?m.(1)(2)To study the effects of the particle size on calcination and carbonation reactions, limestone particles of sizes 325, 275, 230, and 135 ?m were subjected to calcination with N2 as the medium at 950 C. ... The gasifier was heated by a hot solid coming from the regenerator and by the fluidizing medium. ...

Bishnu Acharya; Animesh Dutta; Prabir Basu

2012-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

315

Energetic analysis of a syngas-fueled chemical-looping combustion combined cycle with integration of carbon dioxide sequestration  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Chemical-looping combustion for power generation has significant advantages over conventional combustion. Mainly, it allows an integration of CO2 capture in the power plant without energy penalty; secondly, a less exergy destruction in the combustion chemical transformation is achieved, leading to a greater overall thermal efficiency. Most efforts have been devoted to systems based on methane as a fuel, although other systems for alternative fuels have can be proposed. This paper focus on the study of the energetic performance of this concept of combustion in a gas turbine combined cycle when synthesis gas is used as fuel. After optimization of some thermodynamic parameters of the cycle, the power plant performance is evaluated under diverse working conditions and compared to a conventional gas turbine system. Energy savings related with CO2 capture and storage have been quantified. The overall efficiency increase is found to be significant, reaching values of around 5% (even more in some cases). In order to analyze the influence of syngas composition on the results, different H2-content fuels are considered. In a context of real urgency to reduce green house gas emissions, this work is intended to contribute to the conceptual development of highly efficient alternative power generation systems.

ngel Jimnez lvaro; Ignacio Lpez Paniagua; Celina Gonzlez Fernndez; Rafael Nieto Carlier; Javier Rodrguez Martn

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Fostering a triple response mechanism to combat global climate change: Emission abatement, carbon capture and water improvement  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Kyoto Protocol has established emission abatement and carbon sink increase to cope with climate change. However, in recent years, developed countries tend to focus more on the former. The simplifying of GH...

Ke Zhou; Xia Cao

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Atmospheric three-dimensional inverse modeling of regional industrial emissions and global oceanic uptake of carbon tetrachloride  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) has substantial stratospheric ozone depletion potential and its consumption is controlled under the Montreal Protocol and its amendments. We implement a Kalman filter using atmospheric CCl4 ...

Xiao, X.

318

Global Economic Effects of Changes in Crops, Pasture, and Forests due to Changing Climate, Carbon Dioxide, and Ozone  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Multiple environmental changes will have consequences for global vegetation. To the extent that crop yields and pasture and forest productivity are affected there can be important economic consequences. We examine the ...

Reilly, John M.

319

Satellite-Based Modeling of the Carbon Fluxes in Mature Black Spruce Forests in Alaska: A Synthesis of the Eddy Covariance Data and Satellite Remote Sensing Data  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Scaling up of observed point data to estimate regional carbon fluxes is an important issue in the context of the global terrestrial carbon cycle. In this study, the authors proposed a new model to scale up the eddy covariance data to estimate ...

Masahito Ueyama; Yoshinobu Harazono; Kazuhito Ichii

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Accounting for forest carbon pool dynamics in product carbon footprints: Challenges and opportunities  

SciTech Connect

Modification and loss of forests due to natural and anthropogenic disturbance contribute an estimated 20% of annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions worldwide. Although forest carbon pool modeling rarely suggests a 'carbon neutral' flux profile, the life cycle assessment community and associated product carbon footprint protocols have struggled to account for the GHG emissions associated with forestry, specifically, and land use generally. Principally, this is due to underdeveloped linkages between life cycle inventory (LCI) modeling for wood and forest carbon modeling for a full range of forest types and harvest practices, as well as a lack of transparency in globalized forest supply chains. In this paper, through a comparative study of U.S. and Chinese coated freesheet paper, we develop the initial foundations for a methodology that rescales IPCC methods from the national to the product level, with reference to the approaches in three international product carbon footprint protocols. Due to differences in geographic origin of the wood fiber, the results for two scenarios are highly divergent. This suggests that both wood LCI models and the protocols need further development to capture the range of spatial and temporal dimensions for supply chains (and the associated land use change and modification) for specific product systems. The paper concludes by outlining opportunities to measure and reduce uncertainty in accounting for net emissions of biogenic carbon from forestland, where timber is harvested for consumer products. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Typical life cycle assessment practice for consumer products often excludes significant land use change emissions when estimating carbon footprints. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The article provides a methodology to rescale IPCC guidelines for product-level carbon footprints. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Life cycle inventories and product carbon footprint protocols need more comprehensive land use-related accounting. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interdisciplinary collaboration linking the LCA and forest carbon modeling communities is necessary.

Newell, Joshua P., E-mail: jpnewell@umich.edu [School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (United States); Vos, Robert O., E-mail: vos@usc.edu [Spatial Sciences Institute, University of Southern California (United States)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "global carbon cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Substrate and environmental controls on microbial assimilation of soil organic carbon: a framework for Earth System Models  

SciTech Connect

Microbial assimilation of soil organic carbon is one of the fundamental processes of global carbon cycling and it determines the magnitude of microbial biomass in soils. Mechanistic understanding of microbial assimilation of soil organic carbon and its controls is important for to improve Earth system models ability to simulate carbon-climate feedbacks. Although microbial assimilation of soil organic carbon is broadly considered to be an important parameter, it really comprises two separate physiological processes: one-time assimilation efficiency and time-dependent microbial maintenance energy. Representing of these two mechanisms is crucial to more accurately simulate carbon cycling in soils. In this study, a simple modeling framework was developed to evaluate the substrate and environmental controls on microbial assimilation of soil organic carbon using a new term: microbial annual active period (the length of microbes remaining active in one year). Substrate quality has a positive effect on microbial assimilation of soil organic carbon: higher substrate quality (lower C:N ratio) leads to higher ratio of microbial carbon to soil organic carbon and vice versa. Increases in microbial annual active period from zero stimulate microbial assimilation of soil organic carbon; however, when microbial annual active period is longer than an optimal threshold, increasing this period decreases microbial biomass. The simulated ratios of soil microbial biomass to soil organic carbon are reasonably consistent with a recently compiled global dataset at the biome-level. The modeling framework of microbial assimilation of soil organic carbon and its controls developed in this study offers an applicable ways to incorporate microbial contributions to the carbon cycling into Earth system models for simulating carbon-climate feedbacks and to explain global patterns of microbial biomass.

Xu, Xiaofeng [ORNL] [ORNL; Schimel, Joshua [University of California, Santa Barbara] [University of California, Santa Barbara; Thornton, Peter E [ORNL] [ORNL; Song, Xia [ORNL] [ORNL; Yuan, Fengming [ORNL] [ORNL; Goswami, Santonu [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Why sequence microbes integral to the cycling of sulfur and iron?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

microbes integral to the cycling of sulfur and iron? microbes integral to the cycling of sulfur and iron? Ten percent of the Earth's surface is subglacial and holds a quarter of the world's soil carbon. The environment was long thought to be incapable of supporting life, but recent studies have revealed that microbes thrive in these cold, dark regions though the processes that enable them to do so remain poorly understood. Researchers are studying the subglacial environment below Taylor Glacier, McMurdo Dry Valleys Antarctica to better understand how carbon is sequestered here and how this impacts the global carbon cycle. The project calls for sequencing five bacteria from this Blood Falls ecosystem to answer questions such as how they tolerate the cold, providing further publicly accessible insight on psychrophiles, and what organic material

323

High-Resolution Carbon Isotope Stratigraphy, Pennsylvanian Snaky Canyon Formation, East-Central Idaho: Implications for Regional and Global Correlations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

................................................... 25 Table 2 Average ?18O and ?13C by rock classification and age ............................. 34 Table 3 Electron microprobe analyses of carbonate matrix and skeletal grains .... 38 Table 4 North American and International stage boundary ages... of the Bloom Member (Fig. 2) consists primarily of medium-dark-gray skeletal wackestone (?44%), skeletal packstone (?26%), mudstone (?13%), and siltstone (?11%), with the remaining 6% composed of grainstone, calcisiltstone, algal boundstone, and bedded...

Jolley, Casey

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

324

IGBP-DIS Global Primary Production Data Initiative  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

IGBP-DIS Global Primary Production Data Initiative IGBP-DIS Global Primary Production Data Initiative The GPPDI Workshop was held in Cincinnati, U.S.A., December 1996 (Olson et al., 1997). Summary (September 1996) by Dick Olson and Steve Prince from Global Change Newsletter No. 27; International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme: A Study of Global Change (IGBP) of the International Council of Scientific Unions Global modelling and monitoring of net primary production (NPP) is being given high priority in IGBP owing to increasing concern over issues such as the consequences of perturbations in the carbon cycle, the impacts of global land-use change, global climate change, and global food security. Significant advances have been made in process modelling and in the use of remote sensing to monitor global vegetation. The advances in modelling and remote sensing of NPP have highlighted the lack of readily available, reliable information from field studies with which to parameterise and validate the models. The Global Primary Production Data Initiative (GPPDI) is intended to remedy this problem by identifying existing field data sets of primary production and associated environmental data. The programme is using data sets for representative sites, and extrapolating or regionalising the better data sets to grid cells sizes of up to 0.5º x 0.5º. Emphasis is on variables needed to parameterise and validate primary production models, including above and below ground NPP, standing crop, LAI, climate data, site data and landscape variability.

325

Carbon Cycle 2.0  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

循环 2.0 循环 2.0 为可持续能源解决方案提供创新科学研究 人工光合作用 能源储存 燃烧技术 碳捕集和储存 发展中国家 能效 光伏太阳能板 生物燃料 能源分析 气候模拟 碳循环2.0是... 1. 愿景: * 碳循环2.0是一个与地球自然碳循环系统整合为一体的全球能源系统。 * 碳循环2.0是伯克利实验室各个研究领域共同追求的目标。 2. 这是一个项目发展规划,它将会加强我们的能力,并给予我们创 造更多影响力的机会。 3. 这是一个新的尝试,通过技术推广模式,将基础研究与实际应用

326

SCOPE 61: Interactions of the major biogeochemical cycles: Global change and human Jerry M. Mellilo, Christopher B. Field, and B. Moldan, editors. 2003. Interactions of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of fossil fuels, urbanization, land-use change, and agricultural intensification have led to environmental problems as diverse as global climate change, tropospheric air pollution, stratospheric ozone hole a solution for the man-made increase in atmospheric CO2. The idea to sprinkle #12;a relatively tiny amount

Gruber, Nicolas

327

Influence of stand age on the magnitude and seasonality of carbon fluxes in Canadian forests  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

seasons lead to less carbon sequestration by a subalpineboreal forests to global carbon sequestration (Kurz et al. ,off- set point when carbon sequestration equals carbon loss

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

The importance of use and end-of-life phases to the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of concrete A review  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Global climate change is one of the most significant environmental impacts at the moment. One central issue for the building and construction industry to address global climate change is the development of credible carbon labelling schemes for building materials. Various carbon labelling schemes have been developed for concrete due to its high contribution to global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, as most carbon labelling schemes adopt cradle-to-gate as system boundary, the credibility of the eco-label information may not be satisfactory because recent studies show that the use and end-of-life phases can have a significant impact on the life cycle GHG emissions of concrete in terms of carbonation, maintenance and rehabilitation, other indirect emissions, and recycling activities. A comprehensive review on the life cycle assessment of concrete is presented to holistically examine the importance of use and end-of-life phases to the life cycle GHG quantification of concrete. The recent published ISO 14067: Carbon footprint of products requirements and guidelines for quantification and communication also mandates the use of cradle-to-grave to provide publicly available eco-label information when the use and end-of-life phases of concrete can be appropriately simulated. With the support of Building Information Modelling (BIM) and other simulation technologies, the contribution of use and end-of-life phases to the life cycle GHG emissions of concrete should not be overlooked in future studies.

Peng Wu; Bo Xia; Xianbo Zhao

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Analysis of mid-tropospheric carbon monoxide data using a three- dimensional Global atmospheric Chemistry numerical Model  

SciTech Connect

The GChM atmospheric chemistry and transport model has been used to analyze the mid-tropospheric CO dataset obtained from NASA`s Measurement of Air Pollution by Satellites (MAPS) program. Fourteen simulations with a 3.75 horizontal resolution have been performed, including a base case and 13 sensitivity runs. The model reproduces many, but not all, of the major features of the MAPS dataset. Locations of peak CO mixing ratios associated with biomass burning as observed in the MAPS experiment are slightly farther south than the model result, indicating either greater horizontal transport than present in the model representation or a spatial difference between the location of modeled biomass fires and actual fires. The current version of GChM was shown to be relatively insensitive to the magnitude of the prescribed NO{sub x} and O{sub 3} global distributions and very insensitive to the depth of the mixed layer as parameterized in the model. Cloud convective transport was shown to play an important role in venting boundary layer CO to the free troposphere. This result agrees with prior meteorological analyses of the MAPS dataset that have-indirectly inferred the presence of convective activity through satellite-based information. Work is continuing to analyze the results of these simulations further and to perform more detailed comparisons between model results and MAPS data.

Easter, R.C.; Saylor, R.D.; Chapman, E.G.

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Warming accelerates decomposition of decades-old carbon in forest soils  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...from the canisters on a vacuum line, graphitized for...Keck Carbon Cycle Accelerator Mass Spectrometer...atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons testing ended...Keck Carbon Cycle Accelerator Mass Spectrometer, University...Keck Carbon Cycle Accelerator Mass Spectrometer facility...

Francesca M. Hopkins; Margaret S. Torn; Susan E. Trumbore

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

The lifetime of excess atmospheric carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

Since the beginning of the industrial revolution human activity has significantly altered biogeochemical cycling on a global scale. The uncertainties of future climate change rests partly on issues of physical-climate system dynamics and their representation in general circulation models. However understanding the carbon cycle is a key to comprehending the changing terrestrial biosphere and to developing a reasonable range of future concentrations of greenhouse gases. The authors look at correction of model uncertainties in the examination of the lifetime of carbon dioxide. The two difficulties analysed are as follows: (1) most model-derived estimates of the relaxation of the concentration of CO2 reveal a function which is not always well approximated by weighted sums of exponentials; (2) the function c(t) is quite sensitive to assumptions about the terrestrial biosphere and the relaxation experiment. 51 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.

Moore, B. III; Braswell, B.H. (Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States))

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Recovery of Carbon and Nitrogen Cycling and Microbial Community Functionality in a Post-Lignite Mining Rehabilitation Chronosequence in East Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

al., 2005). Organic carbon is important for 4 many soil processes, like water and nutrient holding capacity. On a larger scale, soil carbon sequestration is important for mitigating increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Nitrogen... in determining the microbially-driven portion of ecosystem recovery and its influence on soil carbon sequestration. For the nitrogen side of the organic matter equation, mineralization rates were evaluated to determine nitrogen turnover rates. Mineralization...

Ng, Justin

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

333

Trade, transport, and sinks extend the carbon dioxide responsibility of countries: An editorial essay  

SciTech Connect

Globalization and the dynamics of ecosystem sinks need be considered in post-Kyoto climate negotiations as they increasingly affect the carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere. Currently, the allocation of responsibility for greenhouse gas mitigation is based on territorial emissions from fossil-fuel combustion, process emissions and some land-use emissions. However, at least three additional factors can significantly alter a country's impact on climate from carbon dioxide emissions. First, international trade causes a separation of consumption from production, reducing domestic pollution at the expense of foreign producers, or vice versa. Second, international transportation emissions are not allocated to countries for the purpose of mitigation. Third, forest growth absorbs carbon dioxide and can contribute to both carbon sequestration and climate change protection. Here we quantify how these three factors change the carbon dioxide emissions allocated to China, Japan, Russia, USA, and European Union member countries. We show that international trade can change the carbon dioxide currently allocated to countries by up to 60% and that forest expansion can turn some countries into net carbon sinks. These factors are expected to become more dominant as fossil-fuel combustion and process emissions are mitigated and as international trade and forest sinks continue to grow. Emission inventories currently in wide-spread use help to understand the global carbon cycle, but for long-term climate change mitigation a deeper understanding of the interaction between the carbon cycle and society is needed. Restructuring international trade and investment flows to meet environmental objectives, together with the inclusion of forest sinks, are crucial issues that need consideration in the design of future climate policies. And even these additional issues do not capture the full impact of changes in the carbon cycle on the global climate system.

Peters, Glen P [Center for International Climate and Energy Research (CICERO), Oslo, Norway; Marland, Gregg [ORNL; Hertwich, Edgar G. [Norwegian University of Science and Technology; Saikku, Laura [University of Helsinki

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Carbon Dioxide Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Emerging Technologies » Carbon Dioxide Heat Pump Water Heater Emerging Technologies » Carbon Dioxide Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project Carbon Dioxide Heat Pump Water Heater Research Project The U.S. Department of Energy is currently conducting research into carbon dioxide (CO2) heat pump water heaters. This project will employ innovative techniques to adapt water heating technology to meet U.S. market requirements, including specifications, cost, and performance targets. Carbon dioxide is a refrigerant with a global warming potential (GWP) of 1. The CO2 heat pump water heater research seeks to develop an improved life cycle climate performance compared to conventional refrigerants. For example, R134a, another type of refrigerant, has a GWP of 1,300. Project Description This project seeks to develop a CO2-based heat pump water heater (HPWH)

335

Applications of carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies in reducing emissions from fossil-fired power plants  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this paper is to investigate the global contribution of carbon capture and storage technologies to mitigating climate change. Carbon capture and storage is a technology that comprises the separation of from carbon dioxide industrial- and energy-related sources, transport to a storage location (e.g., saline aquifers and depleted hydrocarbon fields), and long-term isolation from the atmosphere. The carbon dioxides emitted directly at the power stations are reduced by 80 to 90%. In contrast, the life cycle assessment shows substantially lower reductions of greenhouse gases in total (minus 65 to 79%).

Balat, M.; Balat, H.; Oz, C. [University of Mahallesi, Trabzon (Turkey)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Supplementary Information for: Global soil carbon projections are improved by modeling microbial processes. William R. Wieder, Gordon B. Bonan, & Steven D. Allison (2.1 MB .pdf)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

total = 660 Pg C; (b) Observed soil profile, global total = 1259 Pg C; (c) CLM microbial model surface soils, global total = 784 Pg C [spatial correlation with observations (r) = 0.75, model-weighted root mean square error (RMSE) = 2.9 kg C m-2 ]; (d) CLM microbial model soil profile, global total = 1310 Pg

Saleska, Scott

337

EDDY RESOLVING NUTRIENT ECODYNAMICS IN THE GLOBAL PARALLEL OCEAN PROGRAM AND CONNECTIONS WITH TRACE GASES IN THE SULFUR, HALOGEN AND NMHC CYCLES  

SciTech Connect

Ecodynamics and the sea-air transfer of climate relevant trace gases are intimately coupled in the oceanic mixed layer. Ventilation of species such as dimethyl sulfide and methyl bromide constitutes a key linkage within the earth system. We are creating a research tool for the study of marine trace gas distributions by implementing coupled ecology-gas chemistry in the high resolution Parallel Ocean Program (POP). The fundamental circulation model is eddy resolving, with cell sizes averaging 0.15 degree (lat/long). Here we describe ecochemistry integration. Density dependent mortality and iron geochemistry have enhanced agreement with chlorophyll measurements. Indications are that dimethyl sulfide production rates must be adjusted for latitude dependence to match recent compilations. This may reflect the need for phytoplankton to conserve nitrogen by favoring sulfurous osmolytes. Global simulations are also available for carbonyl sulfide, the methyl halides and for nonmethane hydrocarbons. We discuss future applications including interaction with atmospheric chemistry models, high resolution biogeochemical snapshots and the study of open ocean fertilization.

S. CHU; S. ELLIOTT

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Carbon Dioxide and Methane Emissions from Estuaries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide and methane emissions from estuaries are reviewed in relation with biogeochemical processes and carbon cycling. In estuaries, carbon dioxide and methane emissions show a large spatial and temporal ...

Gwenal Abril; Alberto Vieira Borges

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electricity Natural gas combined cycle and renewablecoal gasification combined cycle with carbon captureand storage Natural gas combined cycle Price change and

Farrell, Alexander E.; Sperling, Dan

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electricity Natural gas combined cycle and renewablecoal gasification combined cycle with carbon captureand storage Natural gas combined cycle Price change and

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "global carbon cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

NETL: Methane Hydrates - Global Assessment of Methane Gas Hydrates  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Global Assessment of Methane Gas Hydrates Last Reviewed 12/18/2013 Global Assessment of Methane Gas Hydrates Last Reviewed 12/18/2013 DE-FE0003060 Goal The goal of this project is to develop a global assessment of methane gas hydrates that will facilitate informed decision-making regarding the potential development of gas hydrate resources between the scientific community and other stakeholders/decision makers. The Assessment will provide science-based information on the role of gas hydrates in natural climate change and the carbon cycle, their sensitivity to climate change, and the potential environmental and socio-economic impacts of hydrate production. Performers Stiftelsen GRID-Arendal, Arendal, Norway Funding Institutions United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Statoil Schlumberger United States Department of Energy (USDOE)

342

Photosynthesis and carbon dioxide fixation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Photosynthesis and carbon dioxide fixation ... Photosynthetic pigments, photosystems, the Calvin cycle, the Hatch-Slack pathway, photorespiration, and photosynthetic yield improvement. ...

Muriel B. Bishop; Carl B. Bishop

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Forests, carbon and global climate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...including shifting to renewable energy sources, increasing...energy use, and energy supply, the only...of forests for mitigation of greenhouse gas...Climate Change 2001: mitigation, pp. 302{343...US Department of Energy. Lloyd, J...

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

5, 45994639, 2005 Global carbon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

such as the combustion of fossil fuels, biomass burning and by the oxidation of CH4 and other hydrocarbons (Holloway et

345

The human carbon budget: an estimate of the spatial distribution of metabolic carbon consumption and release in the United States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

West TO, Marland G (2002a) Net carbon ?ux from agriculturalmethodology for full carbon cycle analyses. Environ PollutG (2002b) A synthesis of carbon seques- tration, carbon

West, Tristram O.; Marland, Gregg; Singh, Nagendra; Bhaduri, Budhendra L.; Roddy, Adam B.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Carbon isotope ratios of organic compound fractions in oceanic suspended particles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Radiocarbon evidence of fossil-carbon cycling in sediments1968), Metabolic fractionation of carbon isotopes in marineof particulate organic carbon using bomb 14 C, Nature,

Hwang, Jeomshik; Druffel, Ellen R. M

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

In-operando hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study on the impact of current compliance and switching cycles on oxygen and carbon defects in resistive switching Ti/HfO{sub 2}/TiN cells  

SciTech Connect

In this study, direct experimental materials science evidence of the important theoretical prediction for resistive random access memory (RRAM) technologies that a critical amount of oxygen vacancies is needed to establish stable resistive switching in metal-oxide-metal samples is presented. In detail, a novel in-operando hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy technique is applied to non-destructively investigates the influence of the current compliance and direct current voltage sweep cycles on the Ti/HfO{sub 2} interface chemistry and physics of resistive switching Ti/HfO{sub 2}/TiN cells. These studies indeed confirm that current compliance is a critical parameter to control the amount of oxygen vacancies in the conducting filaments in the oxide layer during the RRAM cell operation to achieve stable switching. Furthermore, clear carbon segregation towards the Ti/HfO{sub 2} interface under electrical stress is visible. Since carbon impurities impact the oxygen vacancy defect population under resistive switching, this dynamic carbon segregation to the Ti/HfO{sub 2} interface is suspected to negatively influence RRAM device endurance. Therefore, these results indicate that the RRAM materials engineering needs to include all impurities in the dielectric layer in order to achieve reliable device performance.

Sowinska, Malgorzata, E-mail: sowinska@ihp-microelectronics.com; Bertaud, Thomas; Walczyk, Damian; Calka, Pauline; Walczyk, Christian [IHP, Im Technologiepark 25, 15236 Frankfurt (Oder) (Germany); Thiess, Sebastian [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Alff, Lambert [Institute of Materials Science, Technische Universitt Darmstadt, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Schroeder, Thomas [IHP, Im Technologiepark 25, 15236 Frankfurt (Oder) (Germany); Brandenburgische Technische Universitt, Konrad-Zuse-Strasse 1, 03046 Cottbus (Germany)

2014-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

348

How Minds Work The IDA Cognitive Cycle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 How Minds Work The IDA Cognitive Cycle Stan Franklin Computer Science Division & Institute for Intelligent Systems The University of Memphis #12;HMW: The IDA Cognitive Cycle 2 Memory Systems #12;HMW: The IDA Cognitive Cycle 3 Global Workspace Theory I · The nervous system is a distributed parallel

Memphis, University of

349

Extent of partial ice cover due to carbon cycle feedback in a zonal energy balance model Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 7(2), 213219 (2003) EGU  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for Global Change, 3173-25 Showa-machi, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama-shi,Kanagawa, 236-0001, Japan Also at Proudman between available radiation (incoming shortwave radiation minus both reflected shortwave radiation and outgoing infrared radiation) and the zonal atmospheric diffusion of heat. The (infrared) radiation emitted

Boyer, Edmond

350

Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options in ISEEM Global Energy Model: 2010-2050 Scenario Analysis for Least-Cost Carbon Reduction in Iron and Steel Sector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2011. The World Coke & Coking Coal Markets, Global Steel2010. India's Domestic Coking Coal Scenario. New WorldSTEELEASE, 2011. China Coking Coal and Coke Weekly Monitor,

Karali, Nihan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

New Species of Cyanobacteria Forms Intracellular Carbonates  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

New Species of Cyanobacteria New Species of Cyanobacteria Forms Intracellular Carbonates New Species of Cyanobacteria Forms Intracellular Carbonates Print Wednesday, 30 January 2013 00:00 A new species of cyanobacteria-photosynthetic bacteria that occupy a wide array of habitats-was discovered in the Mexican Lake of Alchichica where massive carbonate rocks form. Cyanobacteria have been impacting the global carbon cycle of the Earth for more than 2.3 billion years by assimilating CO2 into organic compounds and triggering calcium carbonate (CaCO3) precipitation. Despite the importance of this cyanobacteria-mediated CaCO3 biomineralization, the mechanistic details of this process are still poorly understood. Scientists agree that calcification in cyanobacteria is an extracellular process: Photosynthesizing cells commonly export the photosynthesis byproduct CO32- outside their cells where it bonds with an alkaline earth metal like Ca2+. The cyanobacteria recently found in Lake Alchichica, however, forms amorphous Ca-, Mg-, Sr- and Ba-rich carbonates intracellularly. This discovery significantly modifies the traditional view of how bacteria induce CaCO3 precipitation and may improve understanding of the fossil record by hinting at ancient traces of life in rocks, or designing new routes for sequestering CO2 or 90Sr in minerals.

352

New Species of Cyanobacteria Forms Intracellular Carbonates  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

New Species of Cyanobacteria Forms Intracellular Carbonates Print New Species of Cyanobacteria Forms Intracellular Carbonates Print A new species of cyanobacteria-photosynthetic bacteria that occupy a wide array of habitats-was discovered in the Mexican Lake of Alchichica where massive carbonate rocks form. Cyanobacteria have been impacting the global carbon cycle of the Earth for more than 2.3 billion years by assimilating CO2 into organic compounds and triggering calcium carbonate (CaCO3) precipitation. Despite the importance of this cyanobacteria-mediated CaCO3 biomineralization, the mechanistic details of this process are still poorly understood. Scientists agree that calcification in cyanobacteria is an extracellular process: Photosynthesizing cells commonly export the photosynthesis byproduct CO32- outside their cells where it bonds with an alkaline earth metal like Ca2+. The cyanobacteria recently found in Lake Alchichica, however, forms amorphous Ca-, Mg-, Sr- and Ba-rich carbonates intracellularly. This discovery significantly modifies the traditional view of how bacteria induce CaCO3 precipitation and may improve understanding of the fossil record by hinting at ancient traces of life in rocks, or designing new routes for sequestering CO2 or 90Sr in minerals.

353

New Species of Cyanobacteria Forms Intracellular Carbonates  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

New Species of Cyanobacteria Forms Intracellular Carbonates Print New Species of Cyanobacteria Forms Intracellular Carbonates Print A new species of cyanobacteria-photosynthetic bacteria that occupy a wide array of habitats-was discovered in the Mexican Lake of Alchichica where massive carbonate rocks form. Cyanobacteria have been impacting the global carbon cycle of the Earth for more than 2.3 billion years by assimilating CO2 into organic compounds and triggering calcium carbonate (CaCO3) precipitation. Despite the importance of this cyanobacteria-mediated CaCO3 biomineralization, the mechanistic details of this process are still poorly understood. Scientists agree that calcification in cyanobacteria is an extracellular process: Photosynthesizing cells commonly export the photosynthesis byproduct CO32- outside their cells where it bonds with an alkaline earth metal like Ca2+. The cyanobacteria recently found in Lake Alchichica, however, forms amorphous Ca-, Mg-, Sr- and Ba-rich carbonates intracellularly. This discovery significantly modifies the traditional view of how bacteria induce CaCO3 precipitation and may improve understanding of the fossil record by hinting at ancient traces of life in rocks, or designing new routes for sequestering CO2 or 90Sr in minerals.

354

New Species of Cyanobacteria Forms Intracellular Carbonates  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

New Species of Cyanobacteria Forms Intracellular Carbonates Print New Species of Cyanobacteria Forms Intracellular Carbonates Print A new species of cyanobacteria-photosynthetic bacteria that occupy a wide array of habitats-was discovered in the Mexican Lake of Alchichica where massive carbonate rocks form. Cyanobacteria have been impacting the global carbon cycle of the Earth for more than 2.3 billion years by assimilating CO2 into organic compounds and triggering calcium carbonate (CaCO3) precipitation. Despite the importance of this cyanobacteria-mediated CaCO3 biomineralization, the mechanistic details of this process are still poorly understood. Scientists agree that calcification in cyanobacteria is an extracellular process: Photosynthesizing cells commonly export the photosynthesis byproduct CO32- outside their cells where it bonds with an alkaline earth metal like Ca2+. The cyanobacteria recently found in Lake Alchichica, however, forms amorphous Ca-, Mg-, Sr- and Ba-rich carbonates intracellularly. This discovery significantly modifies the traditional view of how bacteria induce CaCO3 precipitation and may improve understanding of the fossil record by hinting at ancient traces of life in rocks, or designing new routes for sequestering CO2 or 90Sr in minerals.

355

Method of making carbon-carbon composites  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for making 2D and 3D carbon-carbon composites having a combined high crystallinity, high strength, high modulus and high thermal and electrical conductivity. High-modulus/high-strength mesophase derived carbon fibers are woven into a suitable cloth. Layers of this easily graphitizible woven cloth are infiltrated with carbon material to form green composites. The carbonized composite is then impregnated several times with pitch by covering the composite with hot pitch under pressure. The composites are given a heat treatment between each impregnant step to crack up the infiltrated carbon and allow additional pitch to enter the microstructure during the next impregnation cycle. The impregnated composites are then given a final heat treatment in the range 2500.degree. to 3100.degree. C. to fully graphitize the fibers and the matrix carbon. The composites are then infiltrated with pyrolytic carbon by chemical vapor deposition in the range 1000.degree. C. to 1300.degree. C. at a reduced. pressure.

Engle, Glen B. (16716 Martincoit Rd., Poway, CA 92064)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Global Green Partners | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search Name: Global Green Partners Place: Los Altos, California Zip: 94024 Sector: Carbon Product: California-based investment fund prioritizing trade in...

358

Molecular Basis of Microbial One-Carbon Metabolism 2008 Gordon Research Conference (July 20-25, 2008)  

SciTech Connect

One-carbon (C-1) compounds play a central role in microbial metabolism. C-1 compounds include methane, carbon monoxide, CO2, and methanol as well as coenzyme-bound one-carbon compounds (methyl-B12, CH3-H4folate, etc). Such compounds are of broad global importance because several C-1 compounds (e.g., CH4) are important energy sources, some (e.g., CO2 and CH4) are potent greenhouse gases, and others (e.g., CH2Cl2) are xenobiotics. They are central in pathways of energy metabolism and carbon fixation by microbes and many are of industrial interest. Research on the pathways of one-carbon metabolism has added greatly to our understanding of evolution, structural biology, enzyme mechanisms, gene regulation, ecology, and applied biology. The 2008 meeting will include recent important findings in the following areas: (a) genomics, metagenomics, and proteomic studies that have expanded our understanding of autotrophy and C-1 metabolism and the evolution of these pathways; (b) redox regulation of carbon cycles and the interrelationship between the carbon cycle and other biogeochemical cycles (sulfur, nitrogen, oxygen); (c) novel pathways for carbon assimilation; (d) biotechnology related to C-1 metabolism; (e) novel enzyme mechanisms including channeling of C-1 intermediates during metabolism; and (f) the relationship between metal homeostasis and the global carbon cycle. The conference has a diverse and gender-balanced slate of speakers and session leaders. The wide variety of disciplines brought to the study of C-1 metabolism make the field an excellent one in which to train young researchers.

Stephen W. Ragsdale

2009-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

359

Global Change at Edinburgh  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The University of Edinburgh (all rights reserved) Printed on recycled paper: Crusade 150gsm Designed and produced programme. 8 researchers. Biosphere: Terrestrial carbon and water cycles, trace gas emissions, bio- & hydro and Remediation 12 Corals and Climate 14 The Monsoon and Ocean Oxygen 16 Landscapes Frozen in Time 18 Mars

Greenaway, Alan

360

Greenhouse Gas Emissions from the Nuclear Fuel Cycle  

SciTech Connect

Since greenhouse gases are a global concern, rather than a local concern as are some kinds of effluents, one must compare the entire lifecycle of nuclear power to alternative technologies for generating electricity. A recent critical analysis by Sovacool (2008) gives a clearer picture. "It should be noted that nuclear power is not directly emitting greenhouse gas emissions, but rather that lifecycle emissions occur through plant construction, operation, uranium mining and milling, and plant decommissioning." "[N]uclear energy is in no way 'carbon free' or 'emissions free,' even though it is much better (from purely a carbon-equivalent emissions standpoint) than coal, oil, and natural gas electricity generators, but worse than renewable and small scale distributed generators" (Sovacool 2008). According to Sovacool, at an estimated 66 g CO2 equivalent per kilowatt-hour (gCO2e/kWh), nuclear power emits 15 times less CO2 per unit electricity generated than unscrubbed coal generation (at 1050 gCO2e/kWh), but 7 times more than the best renewable, wind (at 9 gCO2e/kWh). The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (2009) has long recognized CO2 emissions in its regulations concerning the environmental impact of the nuclear fuel cycle. In Table S-3 of 10 CFR 51.51(b), NRC lists a 1000-MW(electric) nuclear plant as releasing as much CO2 as a 45-MW(e) coal plant. A large share of the carbon emissions from the nuclear fuel cycle is due to the energy consumption to enrich uranium by the gaseous diffusion process. A switch to either gas centrifugation or laser isotope separation would dramatically reduce the carbon emissions from the nuclear fuel cycle.

Strom, Daniel J.

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "global carbon cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Strike variability of carbonate platform margin stratal architecture and cycle stacking patterns: Outcrop and seismic examples from lower Permian depositional sequences of the Permian Basin, U. S. A  

SciTech Connect

Strike variability in stratal architecture, cycle stacking patterns and facies differentiation within sequences exemplifies the potential for differential stratigraphic response of platforms to eustasy. Variability exists within base-level cycles of several scales within a compound stratigraphic hierarchy, though the causes may vary among different scales. Cross-sections from outcrops in the Sierra Diablo document the framework and stacking pattern of 3rd-order sequences (HFS), including: two progradational middle Wolfcampian HFS (mW1-2), one backstepped upper Wolfcampian HFS (uW1), one progradational lower Leonardin HFS (L1), aggradational middle (L2) and upper Leonardian HFS (L3), three progradatic upper Leonardian HFS (L4-6), and two backstepped, aggradational upper Leonardian HFS (L7-8). Seismic lines from the northern Delaware and Midland Basins and San Simon Channel area document the regional consistency of 3rd-order sequence stacking patterns (a response to eustasy), but show variability related to local subsidence, antecedent topography (owing to deeper structures and platform margin erosion), windward vs. leeward facing, and siliciclastic sediment supply. Sequences L2 and L3 appear to exhibit the greatest variability in stacking pattern. Strike variability in 4th/5th-order cycle stacking patterns within 3rd-order sequences as studied in outcrop is greatest in sequences L2 and L3, in which headland-bight margin trends are developed on a lateral scale of 1-2 miles. Aggrational to backstepping reef-margin facies with steep ([le]35[degrees]) foreslopes developed along headlands. Mudstones abut these margin facies abruptly along headlands and may contain megabreccias at the toe-of-slope. More gently sloping (10-15[degrees]) [open quotes]ramp[close quotes] margin strata composed of fusulinid packstones characterize bights.

Fitchen, W.M. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States))

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Forestry and global warming: the physical and policy linkages  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The potential for biotically mitigating global warming is receiving a great deal of policy and technical attention around the world. Elements of the political community are drawn to the notion that land?use patterns can be modified more easily than energy consumption patterns and some modelers suggest that the potential for storing carbon in terrestrial ecosystems is very large. Most work to date however uses only physical criteria in estimating how much land might be available for reforestation. Accounting for social and economic constraints is much more difficult resulting in daunting uncertainty about what could actually be accomplished. Furthermore our relative ignorance of the functioning of the global carbon cycle makes attempting to manipulate it for human purposes questionable at best. Nevertheless there are many reasons besides global warming to pursue a radical restructuring of land?use patterns around the world. Such a restructuring should be undertaken in conjunction with many other measures to slow global warming most immediately in the energy sector.

M. C. Trexler

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options in ISEEM Global Energy Model: 2010-2050 Scenario Analysis for Least-Cost Carbon Reduction in Iron and Steel Sector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A. , 2011. The World Coke & Coking Coal Markets, Globalnishant.blogspot.com/2010/03/met-coke-prices-rise-sharply-Ojha, V. , 2010. Global Coke, ICC Conference, New Delhi,

Karali, Nihan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options in ISEEM Global Energy Model: 2010-2050 Scenario Analysis for Least-Cost Carbon Reduction in Iron and Steel Sector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2011. The World Coke & Coking Coal Markets, Global SteelSengupta, 2008. Rise of the Coal-Based Sponge Iron Sector in1999. Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection System, Final

Karali, Nihan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Global Hydrological Cycles and World Water Resources  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...metric ton of water per day per person in developing...tanker or other high energyconsuming means...other hand, water demand for food and industrial production...Water demand per person will most...Domestic per capita water use has increased...domestic product (GDP) growth, but...

Taikan Oki; Shinjiro Kanae

2006-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

366

Supercritical CO2Brayton Cycle Control Strategy for Autonomous Liquid Metal-Cooled Reactors  

SciTech Connect

This presentation discusses a supercritical carbon dioxide brayton cycle control strategy for autonomous liquid metal-cooled reactors.

Moisseytsev, A.; Sienicki, J.J.

2004-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

367

Climate control of terrestrial carbon exchange across biomes and continents  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon Cycle Climate Model Intercomparison Project modelprojects are supported by the European Commission Directorate General XII Environment, Climate

Yi, C.; Ricciuota, D.; Goulden, M. L.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Global warming  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is today generally agreed that some 6 billion tonnes of carbon in the form of carbon dioxide are emitted into the atmosphere annually as a result of the burning of fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide concentration...

R. W. Herschy

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Microsoft PowerPoint - 6_Rowe-Future Challenges for Global Fuel...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Nuclear Fuel Cycle Information System (NFCIS) web site IAEA Safeguards Begins Here 4 Future Challenges for Global Fuel Cycle Material...

370

A Global Assessment of Manufacturing: Economic  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Global Assessment of Manufacturing: Economic Development, Energy Use, Carbon Emissions Keywords production, materials, closed loop, China, emerging economies Abstract We present in two parts an assessment of global manufacturing. In the first part, we review economic development, pollution, and carbon

Gutowski, Timothy

371

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Nuclear Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization  

SciTech Connect

A systematic review and harmonization of life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of nuclear electricity generation technologies was performed to determine causes of and, where possible, reduce variability in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to clarify the state of knowledge and inform decision making. LCA literature indicates that life cycle GHG emissions from nuclear power are a fraction of traditional fossil sources, but the conditions and assumptions under which nuclear power are deployed can have a significant impact on the magnitude of life cycle GHG emissions relative to renewable technologies. Screening 274 references yielded 27 that reported 99 independent estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from light water reactors (LWRs). The published median, interquartile range (IQR), and range for the pool of LWR life cycle GHG emission estimates were 13, 23, and 220 grams of carbon dioxide equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh), respectively. After harmonizing methods to use consistent gross system boundaries and values for several important system parameters, the same statistics were 12, 17, and 110 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh, respectively. Harmonization (especially of performance characteristics) clarifies the estimation of central tendency and variability. To explain the remaining variability, several additional, highly influential consequential factors were examined using other methods. These factors included the primary source energy mix, uranium ore grade, and the selected LCA method. For example, a scenario analysis of future global nuclear development examined the effects of a decreasing global uranium market-average ore grade on life cycle GHG emissions. Depending on conditions, median life cycle GHG emissions could be 9 to 110 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh by 2050.

Warner, E. S.; Heath, G. A.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Global Security  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Applications Global Security science-innovationassetsimagesicon-science.jpg Global Security National security depends on science and technology. The United States relies on...

373

Shale Gas Formations and Their Potential for Carbon Storage: Opportunities and Outlook  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Shale gas resources are proving to be globally abundant...2...(carbon dioxide) to mitigate the climate impacts of global carbon emissions from power and industrial sectors. This paper reviews global shale gas res...

Roozbeh Khosrokhavar; Steve Griffiths; Karl-Heinz Wolf

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Terrestrial Carbon Management  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Terrestrial Carbon Management Data Sets and Analyses Terrestrial Carbon Management Data Sets and Analyses Carbon Accumulation with Cropland Management Influence of Agricultural Management on Soil Organic Carbon: A Compendium and Assessment of Canadian Studies (VandenBygaart et al., Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada) Soil Carbon Sequestration by Tillage and Crop Rotation: A Global Data Analysis (West and Post, Oak Ridge National Laboratory) Preliminary Estimates of the Potential for Carbon Mitigation in European Soils Through No-Till Farming (Smith et al., University of Aberdeen, United Kingdom) Potential for Carbon Sequestration in European Soils: Preliminary Estimates for Five Scenarios Using Results from Long-Term Experiments (Smith et al., University of Aberdeen, United Kingdom) Carbon Accumulation with Grassland Management

375

Desert dust and anthropogenic aerosol interactions in the Community Climate System Model coupled-carbon-climate model  

SciTech Connect

Coupled-carbon-climate simulations are an essential tool for predicting the impact of human activity onto the climate and biogeochemistry. Here we incorporate prognostic desert dust and anthropogenic aerosols into the CCSM3.1 coupled carbon-climate model and explore the resulting interactions with climate and biogeochemical dynamics through a series of transient anthropogenic simulations (20th and 21st centuries) and sensitivity studies. The inclusion of prognostic aerosols into this model has a small net global cooling effect on climate but does not significantly impact the globally averaged carbon cycle; we argue that this is likely to be because the CCSM3.1 model has a small climate feedback onto the carbon cycle. We propose a mechanism for including desert dust and anthropogenic aerosols into a simple carbon-climate feedback analysis to explain the results of our and previous studies. Inclusion of aerosols has statistically significant impacts on regional climate and biogeochemistry, in particular through the effects on the ocean nitrogen cycle and primary productivity of altered iron inputs from desert dust deposition.

Mahowald, Natalie [Cornell University; Rothenberg, D. [Cornell University; Lindsay, Keith [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Doney, Scott C. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution; Moore, Jefferson Keith [University of California, Irvine; Randerson, James T. [University of California, Irvine; Thornton, Peter E [ORNL; Jones, C. D. [Hadley Center, Devon, England

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Version 2 Global Fire Emissions Database Available  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Global Fire Emissions Database Available Global Fire Emissions Database Available The ORNL DAAC announces the release of the data set "Global Fire Emissions Database, Version 2 (GFEDv2)." This data set, which supersedes and replaces the Global Fire Emissions Database, Version 1 (GFEDv1), consists of 1 degree x 1 degree gridded monthly burned area, fuel loads, combustion completeness, and fire emissions of carbon (C), carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), molecular hydrogen (H2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), nitrous oxide (N2O), particulate matter (PM2.5), total particulate matter (TPM), total carbon (TC), organic carbon (OC), and black carbon (BC) for the time period January 1997 - December 2004. For more information or to access this data set, please see the Vegetation

377

Lesson Summary Students will learn about different carbon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lesson Summary Students will learn about different carbon sources and sinks and the release · Knowledge of carbon as the main constituent of living organisms AAAS Science Benchmarks The Physical Setting Materials · 1 copy of The Carbon Cycle (Figure 1) · 1 copy of The Carbon Cycle A4 sheet for each student · 1

Mojzsis, Stephen J.

378

Analytical relationships between atmospheric carbon dioxide, carbon emissions, and ocean processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Analytical relationships between atmospheric carbon dioxide, carbon emissions, and ocean processes of the air-sea system. The perturbation, dIc, includes carbon emissions and changes in the terrestrial), Analytical relationships between atmospheric carbon dioxide, carbon emissions, and ocean processes, Global

Follows, Mick

379

Enhanced terrestrial carbon uptake in the Northern High Latitudes in the 21st century from the Coupled Carbon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the Coupled Carbon Cycle Climate Model Intercomparison Project model projections H A I F E N G Q I A N *, R E Carbon Cycle Climate Model Intercomparison Project. Our analysis suggests that the NHL will be a carbon the intense warming there enhances SOM decomposition, soil organic carbon (SOC) storage continues to increase

Zeng, Ning

380

Soil Carbon Modeling (Mac Post) A. Rothamsted model carbon pools and processes. Their approximate equivalents for the EBIS sample processing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

' soil horizon show that model improvements need to be made to capture observed soil carbon cyclingSoil Carbon Modeling (Mac Post) A. Rothamsted model carbon pools and processes. Their approximate and transport processes. Testing and improvement of soil carbon cycling models is a key anticipated output

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "global carbon cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Cycle cover with short cycles Nicole Immorlica  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Introduction Given a graph and a subset of marked elements (nodes, edges, or some combination thereof), a cycleCycle cover with short cycles Nicole Immorlica£ Mohammad Mahdian£ Vahab S. Mirrokni£ Abstract Cycle for variants of cycle covering problems which bound the size and/or length of the covering cycles

Immorlica, Nicole

382

Environmental biogeochemistry. V. 1: Carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus ...  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

V. 1: Carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur and selenium cycles. V. 2: Metals transfer and ecological mass balances. Ann Arbor Sci. Publ., Inc., Ann. Arbor, Mich.

2000-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

383

Frequently Asked Global Change Questions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Asked Global Change Questions Asked Global Change Questions This page lists global change questions that have been received at CDIAC and the answers that were provided to a diverse audience. If you have a question relating to carbon dioxide and global change and cannot find the answer you need here, you can "Ask Us a Question", and we will be glad to try to help you. Questions Should we grow trees to remove carbon in the atmosphere? What are the present tropospheric concentrations, global warming potentials (100 year time horizon), and atmospheric lifetimes of CO2, CH4, N2O, CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, CCl4, methyl chloroform, HCFC-22, sulphur hexafluoride, trifluoromethyl sulphur pentafluoride, perfluoroethane, and surface ozone? Where can I find information on the naming of halocarbons?

384

Extension of the supercritical carbon dioxide brayton cycle to low reactor power operation: investigations using the coupled anl plant dynamics code-SAS4A/SASSYS-1 liquid metal reactor code system.  

SciTech Connect

Significant progress has been made on the development of a control strategy for the supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO{sub 2}) Brayton cycle enabling removal of power from an autonomous load following Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) down to decay heat levels such that the S-CO{sub 2} cycle can be used to cool the reactor until decay heat can be removed by the normal shutdown heat removal system or a passive decay heat removal system such as Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling System (DRACS) loops with DRACS in-vessel heat exchangers. This capability of the new control strategy eliminates the need for use of a separate shutdown heat removal system which might also use supercritical CO{sub 2}. It has been found that this capability can be achieved by introducing a new control mechanism involving shaft speed control for the common shaft joining the turbine and two compressors following reduction of the load demand from the electrical grid to zero. Following disconnection of the generator from the electrical grid, heat is removed from the intermediate sodium circuit through the sodium-to-CO{sub 2} heat exchanger, the turbine solely drives the two compressors, and heat is rejected from the cycle through the CO{sub 2}-to-water cooler. To investigate the effectiveness of shaft speed control, calculations are carried out using the coupled Plant Dynamics Code-SAS4A/SASSYS-1 code for a linear load reduction transient for a 1000 MWt metallic-fueled SFR with autonomous load following. No deliberate motion of control rods or adjustment of sodium pump speeds is assumed to take place. It is assumed that the S-CO{sub 2} turbomachinery shaft speed linearly decreases from 100 to 20% nominal following reduction of grid load to zero. The reactor power is calculated to autonomously decrease down to 3% nominal providing a lengthy window in time for the switchover to the normal shutdown heat removal system or for a passive decay heat removal system to become effective. However, the calculations reveal that the compressor conditions are calculated to approach surge such that the need for a surge control system for each compressor is identified. Thus, it is demonstrated that the S-CO{sub 2} cycle can operate in the initial decay heat removal mode even with autonomous reactor control. Because external power is not needed to drive the compressors, the results show that the S-CO{sub 2} cycle can be used for initial decay heat removal for a lengthy interval in time in the absence of any off-site electrical power. The turbine provides sufficient power to drive the compressors. Combined with autonomous reactor control, this represents a significant safety advantage of the S-CO{sub 2} cycle by maintaining removal of the reactor power until the core decay heat falls to levels well below those for which the passive decay heat removal system is designed. The new control strategy is an alternative to a split-shaft layout involving separate power and compressor turbines which had previously been identified as a promising approach enabling heat removal from a SFR at low power levels. The current results indicate that the split-shaft configuration does not provide any significant benefits for the S-CO{sub 2} cycle over the current single-shaft layout with shaft speed control. It has been demonstrated that when connected to the grid the single-shaft cycle can effectively follow the load over the entire range. No compressor speed variation is needed while power is delivered to the grid. When the system is disconnected from the grid, the shaft speed can be changed as effectively as it would be with the split-shaft arrangement. In the split-shaft configuration, zero generator power means disconnection of the power turbine, such that the resulting system will be almost identical to the single-shaft arrangement. Without this advantage of the split-shaft configuration, the economic benefits of the single-shaft arrangement, provided by just one turbine and lower losses at the design point, are more important to the overall cycle performance. Therefore, the single-shaft

Moisseytsev, A.; Sienicki, J. J. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

2012-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

385

NETL: Global Environmental Benefits  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Global Environmental Benefits Global Environmental Benefits Gasification Systems Global Environmental Benefits Environmental performance for future energy production systems is a much greater factor as emission standards tighten in the United States and worldwide. The outstanding environmental performance of gasification systems makes it an excellent technology for the clean production of electricity and other products. In addition, the reduction of CO2 emissions is one of the major challenges facing industry in response to global climate change. Other countries with coal reserves might potentially import technologies developed in the United States to enable low-cost gasification with carbon capture and EOR or sequestration. Not only will this benefit the U.S. gasification technology industry, but it will also result in a global environmental benefit through more affordable control of greenhouse gases (GHGs). See the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) link below for a summary of the impact of fossil fuels without carbon capture on CO2 emissions, on the GHG contributions of different countries, and of the projected impact of developing countries to 2030:

386

Climate Models from the Joint Global Change Research Institute  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

Staff at the Joint Institute develop and use models to simulate the economic and physical impacts of global change policy options. The GCAM, for example, gives analysts insight into how regional and national economies might respond to climate change mitigation policies including carbon taxes, carbon trading, and accelerated deployment of energy technology. Three available models are Phoenix, GCAM, and EPIC. Phoenix is a global, dynamic recursive, computable general equilibrium model that is solved in five-year time steps from 2005 through 2100 and divides the world into twenty-four regions. Each region includes twenty-six industrial sectors. Particular attention is paid to energy production in Phoenix. There are nine electricity-generating technologies (coal, natural gas, oil, biomass, nuclear, hydro, wind, solar, and geothermal) and four additional energy commodities: crude oil, refined oil products, coal, and natural gas. Phoenix is designed to answer economic questions related to international climate and energy policy and international trade. Phoenix replaces the Second Generation Model (SGM) that was formerly used for general equilibrium analysis at JGCRI. GCAM is the Global Change Assessment Model, a partial equilibrium model of the world with 14 regions. GCAM operates in 5 year time steps from 1990 to 2095 and is designed to examine long-term changes in the coupled energy, agriculture/land-use, and climate system. GCAM includes a 151-region agriculture land-use module and a reduced form carbon cycle and climate module in addition to its incorporation of demographics, resources, energy production and consumption. The model has been used extensively in a number of assessment and modeling activities such as the Energy Modeling Forum (EMF), the U.S. Climate Change Technology Program, and the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and IPCC assessment reports. GCAM is now freely available as a community model. The Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) Model is a process-based agricultural systems model composed of simulation components for weather, hydrology, nutrient cycling, pesticide fate, tillage, crop growth, soil erosion, crop and soil management and economics. Staff at PNNL have been involved in the development of this model by integrating new sub-models for soil carbon dynamics and nitrogen cycling.

387

Stability of Biomass-derived Black Carbon in Soils . | EMSL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Stability of Biomass-derived Black Carbon in Soils . Stability of Biomass-derived Black Carbon in Soils . Abstract: Black carbon (BC) may play an important role in the global C...

388

The research project GLOWA-Danube (www.glowa-danube.de) investigates Global Change effects on the water cycle of the Upper Danube river basin (Germany, ~80.0000 km) involving 11 different disciplines from natural and social sciences.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Danube GLOWA The research project GLOWA-Danube (www.glowa-danube.de) investigates Global Change in the simulation system DANUBIA. A primary scope of DANUBIA is to evaluate consequences of IPCC derived climate DANUBIA ­ A coupled simulation system Socioeconomic response to Global Change is quite often based

Cirpka, Olaf Arie

389

The North American Carbon Program Multi-scale synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project Part 1: Overview and experimental design  

SciTech Connect

Terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) have become an integral tool for extrapolating local observations and understanding of land-atmosphere carbon exchange to larger regions. The North American Carbon Program (NACP) Multi-scale synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP) is a formal model intercomparison and evaluation effort focused on improving the diagnosis and attribution of carbon exchange at regional and global scales. MsTMIP builds upon current and past synthesis activities, and has a unique framework designed to isolate, interpret, and inform understanding of how model structural differences impact estimates of carbon uptake and release. Here we provide an overview of the MsTMIP effort and describe how the MsTMIP experimental design enables the assessment and quantification of TBM structural uncertainty. Model structure refers to the types of processes considered (e.g. nutrient cycling, disturbance, lateral transport of carbon), and how these processes are represented (e.g. photosynthetic formulation, temperature sensitivity, respiration) in the models. By prescribing a common experimental protocol with standard spin-up procedures and driver data sets, we isolate any biases and variability in TBM estimates of regional and global carbon budgets resulting from differences in the models themselves (i.e. model structure) and model-specific parameter values. An initial intercomparison of model structural differences is represented using hierarchical cluster diagrams (a.k.a. dendrograms), which highlight similarities and differences in how models account for carbon cycle, vegetation, energy, and nitrogen cycle dynamics. We show that, despite the standardized protocol used to derive initial conditions, models show a high degree of variation for GPP, total living biomass, and total soil carbon, underscoring the influence of differences in model structure and parameterization on model estimates.

Huntzinger, D.N. [Northern Arizona University] [Northern Arizona University; Schwalm, C. [Northern Arizona University] [Northern Arizona University; Michalak, A.M [Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford] [Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford; Schaefer, K. [National Snow and Ice Data Center] [National Snow and Ice Data Center; King, A.W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Wei, Y. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Jacobson, A. [National Snow and Ice Data Center] [National Snow and Ice Data Center; Liu, S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Cook, R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Post, W.M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Berthier, G. [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE)] [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE); Hayes, D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Huang, M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)] [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Ito, A. [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan] [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan; Lei, H. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)] [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Lu, C. [International Center for Climate and Global Change Research and School of Forestry and Wildlife Sci.] [International Center for Climate and Global Change Research and School of Forestry and Wildlife Sci.; Mao, J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Peng, C.H. [University of Quebec at Montreal, Institute of Environment Sciences] [University of Quebec at Montreal, Institute of Environment Sciences; Peng, S. [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE)] [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE); Poulter, B. [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE)] [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE); Riccuito, D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Shi, X. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Tian, H. [International Center for Climate and Global Change Research and School of Forestry and Wildlife Sci.] [International Center for Climate and Global Change Research and School of Forestry and Wildlife Sci.; Wang, W. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Ames Research Center, Moffett Field] [National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Ames Research Center, Moffett Field; Zeng, N. [University of Maryland] [University of Maryland; Zhao, F. [University of Maryland] [University of Maryland; Zhu, Q. [Laboratory for Ecological Forecasting and Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University] [Laboratory for Ecological Forecasting and Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

THE NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE versus THE CARBON CYCLE  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...license for the disposal of SNF and...at the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada...decades on the Yucca Mountain site in order...the initial funding that allowed...reprocessing and disposal of nuclear...repository at Yucca Mountain. One approach...

Rodney C. Ewing

391

Carbon for Farmers: Assessing the Potential for Soil Carbon Sequestration in the Old Peanut Basin of Senegal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbon sequestration in soil organic matter of degraded Sahelian ... could play a significant role in the global carbon (C) uptake through terrestrial sinks while,...in situ soil and biomass carbon

Petra Tschakert

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

March 2005 Number 238 CARBON CAPTURE AND  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

March 2005 Number 238 CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE (CCS) As part of the government's global strategy. This POSTnote discusses the potential of carbon capture and storage (CCS), a method of carbon sequestration2 stages: CO2 capture, transport and storage. CO2 capture Carbon capture is best applied to large

Mather, Tamsin A.

393

International low carbon technology transfer: Do intellectual property regimes matter?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Transfer of low carbon technologies to developing countries has been recognized as important in global efforts to limit climate change. Yet the mechanics of international technology transfer, especially around intellectual property rights, have remained a controversial issue in international negotiations. Using a new dataset on international partnerships in China and India in three key low carbon technologiessolar photovoltaics, electric vehicles, and coal gasification/integrated gasification combined cycleand complementary expert interviews we study the dynamics of the transfer of intellectual property and the underlying drivers that guide the development of business strategies and partnerships in the context of transitioning intellectual property regimes in emerging markets. We find that weak intellectual property regimes are indeed a hindrance to the diffusion of certain classes of low carbon technologies: (i) for cutting-edge technologies, (ii) for fully-embodied (explicitly codified) technologies, and (iii) for small firms. However, we also find that intellectual property issues do not represent a barrier to the diffusion of the relatively mature and low to medium cost low carbon technologies that are materially (at scale) most important for carbon dioxide emissions reduction in the short to medium term. Competitive technology supply, shifting market dynamics, and increasingly vigorous domestic innovation coupled with mechanisms and opportunities to structure credible intellectual property deals allow for the diffusion of key low carbon technologies to occur within the context of existing business, political, and institutional structures.

Varun Rai; Kaye Schultz; Erik Funkhouser

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Recent Global Climate Change-Related News and Publications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Recent Global Climate Change-Related News and Publications Recent Global Climate Change-Related News and Publications A sampling of what CDIAC staff members have been following: Extreme summer weather in northern mid-latitudes linked to a vanishing cryosphere. Tang, Q., X. Zhang, and J.A. Francis, 2013, Nature Climate Change DOI: 10.1038/nclimate2065. Uncertainty in annual aankings from NOAA's global temperature time series. Arguez A., T.R. Karl, M.F. Squires, and R.S. Vose, 2013, Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1002/2013GL057999. Climate extremes and the carbon cycle. Reichstein, M., et al.., 2013, Nature DOI: 10.1038/nature12350. Anatomy of an extreme event. Hoerling, M., et al., 2013, J. Climate DOI: 10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00270.1. Australia's unique influence on global sea level in 2010-2011. Fasullo, J.T., C. Boening, F.W. Landerer, and R.S. Nerem, 2013, Geophysical

395

Warming up, turning sour, losing breath: ocean biogeochemistry under global change  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...hydrological cycle in response to global warming. Particularly in the high latitudes...This effect could be modified by global warming-induced changes in the upwelling...emission targets for limiting global warming to 2CNature 458 11581162 10...

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Secretary Chu Stresses Global Cooperation on Energy, Economic...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

the opportunity for global cooperation Secretary Chu has discussed is the development of carbon capture and sequestration technology from coal-fired power plants that can...

397

NETL: Carbon Storage  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Storage Storage Technologies Carbon Storage (formerly referred to as the "Carbon Sequestration Program") Program Overview For quick navigation of NETL's Carbon Storage Program website, please click on the image. NETL's Carbon Storage Program Fossil fuels are considered the most dependable, cost-effective energy source in the world. The availability of these fuels to provide clean, affordable energy is essential for domestic and global prosperity and security well into the 21st century. However, a balance is needed between energy security and concerns over the impacts of concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere - particularly carbon dioxide (CO2). NETL's Carbon Storage Program is developing a technology portfolio of safe, cost-effective, commercial-scale CO2 capture, storage, and mitigation

398

Preservation of iron(II) by carbon-rich matrices in a hydrothermal plume  

SciTech Connect

Hydrothermal venting associated with mid-ocean ridge volcanism is globally widespread. This venting is responsible for a dissolved iron flux to the ocean that is approximately equal to that associated with continental riverine runoff. For hydrothermal fluxes, it has long been assumed that most of the iron entering the oceans is precipitated in inorganic forms. However, the possibility of globally significant fluxes of iron escaping these mass precipitation events and entering open-ocean cycles is now being debated, and two recent studies suggest that dissolved organic ligands might influence the fate of hydrothermally vented metals. Here we present spectromicroscopic measurements of iron and carbon in hydrothermal plume particles at the East Pacific Rise mid-ocean ridge. We show that organic carbon-rich matrices, containing evenly dispersed iron(II)-rich materials, are pervasive in hydrothermal plume particles. The absence of discrete iron(II) particles suggests that the carbon and iron associate through sorption or complexation. We suggest that these carbon matrices stabilize iron(II) released from hydrothermal vents in the region, preventing its oxidation and/or precipitation as insoluble minerals. Our findings have implications for deep-sea biogeochemical cycling of iron, a widely recognized limiting nutrient in the oceans.

Toner, Brandy M.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Manganini, Steven J.; Santelli, Cara M.; Marcus, Matthew A.; Moffett, James W.; Rouxel, Olivier; German, Christopher R.; Edwards, Katrina J.

2008-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

399

Seasonal variations in the stable carbon isotopic signature of biogenic methane in a coastal sediment  

SciTech Connect

Systematic seasonal variations in the stable carbon isotopic signature of methane gas occur in the anoxic sediments of Cape Lookout Bight, a lagoonal basin on North Carolina's Outer Banks. Values for the carbon isotope ratio (delta /sup 13/C) of methane range from -57.3 per mil during summer to -68.5 per mil during winter in gas bubbles with an average methane content of 95%. The variations are hypothesized to result from changes in the pathways of microbial methane production and cycling of key substrates including acetate and hydrogen. The use of stable isotopic signatures to investigate the global methane cycle through mass balance calculations, involving various sediment and soil biogenic sources, appears to require seasonally averaged data from individual sites. 17 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

Martens, C.S.; Blair, N.E.; Green, C.D.; Des Marais, D.J.

1986-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

400

Method of making carbon-carbon composites  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for making a carbon-carbon composite having a combination of high crystallinity, high strength, high modulus and high thermal and electrical conductivity. High-modulus/high-strength mesophase derived carbon fibers are woven into a suitable cloth. Layers of this easily graphitizable woven cloth are covered with petroleum or coal tar pitch and pressed at a temperature a few degrees above the softening point of the pitch to form a green laminated composite. The green composite is restrained in a suitable fixture and heated slowly to carbonize the pitch binder. The carbonized composite is then impregnated several times with pitch by covering the composite with hot pitch under pressure. The composites are given a heat treatment between each impregnation step to crack up the infiltrated carbon and allow additional pitch to enter the microstructure during the next impregnation cycle. The impregnated composites are then given a final heat treatment in the range 2500.degree. to 3000.degree. C. to fully graphitize the fibers and the matrix carbon. The composites are then infiltrated with pyrolytic carbon by chemical vapor deposition in the range 1000.degree. to 1300.degree. C. at a reduced pressure for approximately one hundred and fifty (150) hours.

Engle, Glen B. (16716 Martincoit Rd., Poway, CA 92064)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "global carbon cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Carbon capture and sequestration versus carbon capture utilisation and storage for enhanced oil recovery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

There are 74 integrated carbon capture projects worldwide currently listed by the Global ... oil recovery and those for permanent storage of carbon dioxide in saline aquifers or in depleted ... challenges related...

Bob Harrison; Gioia Falcone

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Carbon emission and mitigation cost comparisons between fossil fuel, nuclear and renewable energy resources for electricity generation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A study was conducted to compare the electricity generation costs of a number of current commercial technologies with technologies expected to become commercially available within the coming decade or so. The amount of greenhouse gas emissions resulting per kWh of electricity generated were evaluated. A range of fossil fuel alternatives (with and without physical carbon sequestration), were compared with the baseline case of a pulverised coal, steam cycle power plant. Nuclear, hydro, wind, bioenergy and solar generating plants were also evaluated. The objectives were to assess the comparative costs of mitigation per tonne of carbon emissions avoided, and to estimate the total amount of carbon mitigation that could result from the global electricity sector by 2010 and 2020 as a result of fuel switching, carbon dioxide sequestration and the greater uptake of renewable energy. Most technologies showed potential to reduce both generating costs and carbon emission avoidance by 2020 with the exception of solar power and carbon dioxide sequestration. The global electricity industry has potential to reduce its carbon emissions by over 15% by 2020 together with cost saving benefits compared with existing generation.

Ralph E.H. Sims; Hans-Holger Rogner; Ken Gregory

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Integration of coal utilization and environmental control in integrated gasification combined cycle systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Integration of coal utilization and environmental control in integrated gasification combined cycle systems ... The Cost of Carbon Capture and Storage for Natural Gas Combined Cycle Power Plants ... The Cost of Carbon Capture and Storage for Natural Gas Combined Cycle Power Plants ...

H. Christopher Frey; Edward S. Rubin

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Carbon-Neutral Energy Sources  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Among the main approaches to decarbonizing global economy, the switching to carbon-neutral energy sources such as nuclear and renewables (solar, wind, biomass, etc.) is mentioned most often. Nuclear energy is ...

Nazim Muradov

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Global Warming  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

primary component of natural gas, is the second most important contributor to the greenhouse effect (after carbon dioxide). Natural sources of methane include wetlands, fossil...

406

Estimating Biomass Burnt and CarbonEstimating Biomass Burnt and Carbon Emissions from Large Wildfires  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Estimating Biomass Burnt and CarbonEstimating Biomass Burnt and Carbon Emissions from Large: Global Biomass Burning & Carbon Emissions Standard Emissions Inventories: Burned Area & GFED recently daily. Fire occurrenceoccurrence Roy et al.Roy et al. Carbon emissions (C) = burned area . fuel

407

Influence of a cyclonic eddy on microheterotroph biomass and carbon export in the lee of Hawaii  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

March 2003. [1] A multi-platform sampling strategy was used to investigate carbon cycling in a cold Oceanography: Biological and Chemical: Carbon cycling; 4855 Oceanography: Biological and Chemical: Plankton; 4866 Oceanography: Biological and Chemical: Sorptive scavenging; 4870 Oceanography: Biological

Hawai'i at Manoa, University of

408

Microbially induced magnesium carbonation reactions as a strategy for carbon sequestration in ultramafic mine tailings.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration has increased due to anthropogenic fossil fuel combustion, causing higher global temperatures and other negative environmental effects. CO2 sequestration (more)

McCutcheon, Jenine

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Relative Permeability Experiments of Carbon Dioxide Displacing Brine and Their Implications for Carbon Sequestration.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??To continue running our civilization on fossil fuels while avoiding global warming and ocean acidification, anthropogenic carbon dioxide must be diverted from atmospheric release. For (more)

Levine, Jonathan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Global Security  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

nonpartisan organization with a mission to strengthen global security by reducing the risk of use and preventing the spread of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons and to...

411

CARBON-CARBON COMPOSITE ALLCOMP Carbon-Carbon Composite  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CARBON-CARBON COMPOSITE ALLCOMP Carbon-Carbon Composite · C-C supplied in two forms · T300: C-C composite containing continuous PAN T300 fibers · SWB: Chopped Fiber Composite containing SWB fibers Crush strength 4340 steel, carbon-carbon composite, and Carbon-Silicon Carbide composite were tested to examine

Rollins, Andrew M.

412

ARM - Field Campaign - Aircraft Carbon  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govCampaignsAircraft Carbon govCampaignsAircraft Carbon Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Aircraft Carbon 2006.07.01 - 2008.09.30 Lead Scientist : Margaret Torn For data sets, see below. Description Airborne trace-gas measurements at ARM-SGP provided valuable data for addressing carbon-cycle questions highlighted by the US Climate Change Research Program and the North American Carbon Program. A set of carbon-cycle instruments and sample collection systems were added to an ARM-managed aircraft at ARM-SGP user facility. A separate (in-place) grant covered the cost of developing the instrument systems, analyzing the data, and ingesting all data to the ARM data archives. In the short-term (~1 y) we had two priorities. The first was to acquire

413

Life cycle study of coal-based dimethyl ether as vehicle fuel for urban bus in China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

With life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology, a life cycle model of coal-based dimethyl ether (CBDME) as a vehicle fuel is established for China. Its life cycle from well to wheel are divided into three phases. They are feedstock extraction, fuel production and fuel consumption in vehicle. The primary energy consumption (PEC) and global warming potential (GWP) of CBDME pathway are analyzed and compared with coal-based diesel (CBD) as a latent rival to replace conventional petroleum-based diesel (CPBD). This study demonstrates that the LCA methodology is very suitable and effective for the choice of vehicle fuels. One result is that the greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission of coal-based vehicle fuel pathways is usually concentrated on fuel production stage. The percentages of CBDME and CBD pathways both exceed 60%. The application of carbon capture and storage (CCS) is helpful for coal-based vehicle fuel pathways to improve their global warming effect dramatically. Compared with CBD pathway, CBDME pathway consumes less PEC and emits less \\{GHGs\\} emission as well. Even though the CCS and CH4-fired generation are used, the advantages of CBDME are still kept. For saving petroleum energy and reducing global warming effect, CBDME has greater potential than CBD to substitute CPBD under current fuel synthesis technologies. If the hurdles such as the maturity of engine and vehicle technologies, corresponding regulations and standards and infrastructures are reliably solved, CBDME will have better prospect in China.

Liang Zhang; Zhen Huang

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Major World Ecosystem Complexes Ranked by Carbon in Live Vegetation: A  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

17 17 Major World Ecosystem Complexes Ranked by Carbon in Live Vegetation: A Database (Revised November 2000) J. S. Olson, J. A. Watts, and L. J. Allison DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/lue.ndp017 In 1980, this data base and the corresponding map were completed after more than 20 years of field investigations, consultations, and analyses of published literature. They characterize the use and vegetative cover of the Earth's land surface with a 0.5° × 0.5° grid. This world-ecosystem-complex data set and the accompanying map provide a current reference base for interpreting the role of vegetation in the global cycling of CO2 and other gases and a basis for improved estimates of vegetation and soil carbon, of natural exchanges of CO2, and of net historic shifts of carbon between the biosphere and the atmosphere. The

415

Exposure to ambient black carbon derived from a unique inventory and high-resolution model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...properties of diesel particulate emissions...Global Biogeochem Cycles 21 : GB2018...2006 ) The LMDZ4 general circulation...Global Biogeochem Cycles 21:GB2018...properties of diesel particulate...Global Biogeochem Cycles 21:GB2018...properties of diesel particulate emissions...

Rong Wang; Shu Tao; Yves Balkanski; Philippe Ciais; Olivier Boucher; Junfeng Liu; Shilong Piao; Huizhong Shen; Maria Raffaella Vuolo; Myrto Valari; Han Chen; Yuanchen Chen; Anne Cozic; Ye Huang; Bengang Li; Wei Li; Guofeng Shen; Bin Wang; Yanyan Zhang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Global warming and transport in Brazil - ethanol alternative  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper deals with the risk of global warming as intensified by the carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions of the transport sector, particularly in gasoline-powered vehicles in Brazil. Car ownership and use are increasing rapidly partly because of very poor public transport quality, which, in turn, is causing higher emission levels of CO2. In this connection, the use of ethanol in Brazil for the transport sector may prove to be an important alternative, furthering the efforts to stabilise the actual level of gases in the atmosphere. The energy derived from biomass, and in this case, from a renewable, ''clean'' source, i.e., from sugar-cane, has the unquestionable advantage of permitting the almost complete reabsorption of CO2 emitted through the combustion of fuel alcohol. This closed cycle allows, in principle, the increase of the energy supply, essential for economic development, with fewer hazards to the environment.

Suzana Kahn Ribeiro; Pauline Staib Younes-Ibrahim

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

The effect of anthropogenic emissions corrections on the seasonal cycle of atmospheric CO2  

SciTech Connect

A previous study (Erickson et al. 2008) approximated the monthly global emission estimates of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} by applying a 2-harmonic Fourier expansion with coefficients as a function of latitude to annual CO{sub 2} flux estimates derived from United States data (Blasing et al. 2005) that were extrapolated globally. These monthly anthropogenic CO{sub 2} flux estimates were used to model atmospheric concentrations using the NASA GEOS-4 data assimilation system. Local variability in the amplitude of the simulated CO{sub 2} seasonal cycle were found to be on the order of 2-6 ppmv. Here we used the same Fourier expansion to seasonally adjust the global annual fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emissions from the SRES A2 scenario. For a total of four simulations, both the annual and seasonalized fluxes were advected in two configurations of the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) used in the Carbon-Land Model Intercomparison Project (C-LAMP). One configuration used the NCAR Community Land Model (CLM) coupled with the CASA (carbon only) biogeochemistry model and the other used CLM coupled with the CN (coupled carbon and nitrogen cycles) biogeochemistry model. All four simulations were forced with observed sea surface temperatures and sea ice concentrations from the Hadley Centre and a prescribed transient atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration for the radiation and land forcing over the 20th century. The model results exhibit differences in the seasonal cycle of CO{sub 2} between the seasonally corrected and uncorrected simulations. Moreover, because of differing energy and water feedbacks between the atmosphere model and the two land biogeochemistry models, features of the CO{sub 2} seasonal cycle were different between these two model configurations. This study reinforces previous findings that suggest that regional near-surface atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations depend strongly on the natural sources and sinks of CO{sub 2}, but also on the strength of local anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions and geographic position. This work further attests to the need for remotely sensed CO{sub 2} observations from space.

Hoffman, Forrest M [ORNL] [ORNL; Erickson III, David J [ORNL] [ORNL; Blasing, T J [ORNL] [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Modelling of CO2 content in the atmosphere until 2300: influence of energy intensity of gross domestic product and carbon intensity of energy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The study provides a model of CO2 content in the atmosphere based on the global carbon cycle and the Kaya identity. The influences of: 1) energy intensity of GDP; 2) carbon intensity of energy on CO2 trajectories are given under four scenarios. The results from the most optimistic and technologically challenging scenario show that the atmospheric CO2 concentration can stabilise at 610 ppmv. It is also shown that the annual growth rates of atmospheric CO2 peak for all the scenarios before 2100 due to the expected world population peak in 2075 and the large share of fossil fuel energy.

Wojciech M. Budzianowski

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

EIA - Will carbon capture and storage reduce the world's carbon dioxide  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Will carbon capture and storage reduce the world's carbon dioxide emissions? Will carbon capture and storage reduce the world's carbon dioxide emissions? International Energy Outlook 2010 Will carbon capture and storage reduce the world'ss carbon dioxide emissions? The pursuit of greenhouse gas reductions has the potential to reduce global coal use significantly. Because coal is the most carbon-intensive of all fossil fuels, limitations on carbon dioxide emissions will raise the cost of coal relative to the costs of other fuels. Under such circumstances, the degree to which energy use shifts away from coal to other fuels will depend largely on the costs of reducing carbon dioxide emissions from coal-fired plants relative to the costs of using other, low-carbon or carbon-free energy sources. The continued widespread use of coal could rely on the cost and availability of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies that capture carbon dioxide and store it in geologic formations.

420

Carbon dioxide and climate. [Appendix includes names and addresses of the Principal Investigators for the research projects funded in FY1991  

SciTech Connect

Global climate change is a serious environmental concern, and the US has developed An Action Agenda'' to deal with it. At the heart of the US effort is the US Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), which has been developed by the Committee on Earth and Environmental Sciences (CEES) of the Federal Coordinating Council for Sciences, Engineering, and Technology (FCCSET). The USGCRP will provide the scientific basis for sound policy making on the climate-change issue. The DOE contribution to the USGCRP is the Carbon Dioxide Research Program, which now places particular emphasis on the rapid improvement of the capability to predict global and regional climate change. DOE's Carbon Dioxide Research Program has been addressing the carbon dioxide-climate change connection for more than twelve years and has provided a solid scientific foundation for the USGCRP. The expansion of the DOE effort reflects the increased attention that the Department has placed on the issue and is reflected in the National Energy Strategy (NES) that was released in 1991. This Program Summary describes projects funded by the Carbon Dioxide Research Program during FY 1991 and gives a brief overview of objectives, organization, and accomplishments. The Environmental Sciences Division of the Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of Energy Research supports a Carbon Dioxide Research Program to determine the scientific linkage between the rise of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, especially carbon dioxide, and climate and vegetation change. One facet is the Core CO{sub 2} Program, a pioneering program that DOE established more than 10 years ago to understand and predict the ways that fossil-fuel burning could affect atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration, global climate, and the Earth's biosphere. Major research areas are: global carbon cycle; climate detection and models of climate change; vegetation research; resource analysis; and, information and integration.

Not Available

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "global carbon cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Global Insight Energy Group  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Outlook Outlook Mary Novak Managing Director IHS Global Insight Copyright © 2010 IHS Global Insight, Inc. Overview: Energy Sector Transformation Underway * The recession has hit energy demand hard, and aggregate energy demand is not expected to return to 2007 levels until 2018. * Oil and natural gas prices will both rise over the long-term, but the price trends will diverge with natural gas prices rising slowly due to the development of shale gas. * This forecast does not include a GHG cap-and-trade program. However, it is assumed that there will be continued improvement in equipment, appliance and building efficiencies that will reduce carbon emissions relative to past projections. * The forecast also includes the more than 30 state- level programs to increase efficiency and reduce

422

Cycle Track Lessons Learned  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cycle Track Lessons Learned #12;Presentation Overview · Bicycling trends · Cycle track lessons learned · What is a "Cycle track"? · Essential design elements of cycle tracks Separation Width Crossing driveways & low-volume streets Signalized intersections #12;Trend in kilometers cycled per year

Bertini, Robert L.

423

Photovoltaics Life Cycle Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Metrics of Life-Cycle Performance Energy Payback Times (EPBT) Greenhouse Gas Emissions (GHG) Toxic Gases #12;6 Life Cycle GHG Emissions ­EuropeLife Cycle GHG Emissions ­Europe Insolation: 1700 kwh/m2-yr 0 10 #12;7 Life Cycle GHG Emissions ­Comparison with Conventional Technologies Life Cycle GHG Emissions

424

Evaluation of food waste disposal options by LCC analysis from the perspective of global warming: Jungnang case, South Korea  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: > Various food waste disposal options were evaluated from the perspective of global warming. > Costs of the options were compared by the methodology of life cycle assessment and life cycle cost analysis. > Carbon price and valuable by-products were used for analyzing environmental credits. > The benefit-cost ratio of wet feeding scenario was the highest. - Abstract: The costs associated with eight food waste disposal options, dry feeding, wet feeding, composting, anaerobic digestion, co-digestion with sewage sludge, food waste disposer, incineration, and landfilling, were evaluated in the perspective of global warming and energy and/or resource recovery. An expanded system boundary was employed to compare by-products. Life cycle cost was analyzed through the entire disposal process, which included discharge, separate collection, transportation, treatment, and final disposal stages, all of which were included in the system boundary. Costs and benefits were estimated by an avoided impact. Environmental benefits of each system per 1 tonne of food waste management were estimated using carbon prices resulting from CO{sub 2} reduction by avoided impact, as well as the prices of by-products such as animal feed, compost, and electricity. We found that the cost of landfilling was the lowest, followed by co-digestion. The benefits of wet feeding systems were the highest and landfilling the lowest.

Kim, Mi-Hyung, E-mail: mhkim9@snu.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Planning, Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Sillim-Dong, Gwanak-Gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Yul-Eum, E-mail: yesong0724@dongguk.edu [Department of Philosophy, Dongguk University, Pil-Dong 3-Ga, Jung-Gu, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Life Science, Dongguk University, Pil-Dong 3-Ga, Jung-Gu, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Han-Byul, E-mail: kuackyang@ssu.ac.kr [Department of Chemical Engineering, Soongsil University, Sangdo-Ro 369, Dongjak-Gu, Seoul 156-743 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung-Wk, E-mail: kimjw@snu.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Planning, Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Sillim-Dong, Gwanak-Gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Sun-Jin, E-mail: sjhwang@khu.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Center for Environmental Studies, Kyung Hee University, Seocheon-Dong, Giheung-Gu, Yongin-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

425

Aquifers and Wetlands SUMMARY: This chapter begins with an overview of the hydrological cycle and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cycle and considers the flow of water in wetlands and undergraound. Special attention is paid to flow through vegetated wetlands. 14.1 The Hydrological Cycle Rivers and streams are but a link in the global cycle of water, called the hydro- logical cycle. Approximately half of the solar energy striking

Cushman-Roisin, Benoit

426

Life Cycle Regulation of Transportation Fuels: Uncertainty and its Policy Implications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cycle Assessment 10(1), 6876. NETL (2008). Development offossil carbon in the fuel (NETL, 2008). The upstream portionof the carbon in the fuel (NETL, 2008), which is directly

Plevin, Richard Jay

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Dynamics of carbon sequestration in a coastal wetland using radiocarbon measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dynamics of carbon sequestration in a coastal wetland using radiocarbon measurements Yonghoon Choi1. Wang (2004), Dynamics of carbon sequestration in a coastal wetland using radiocarbon measurements carbon cycle. However, the dynamics of carbon (C) cycling in coastal wetlands and its response to sea

Wang, Yang

428

Control strategies for supercritical carbon dioxide power conversion systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The supercritical carbon dioxide (S-C02) recompression cycle is a promising advanced power conversion cycle which couples well to numerous advanced nuclear reactor designs. This thesis investigates the dynamic simulation ...

Carstens, Nathan, 1978-

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

110 Table 4-14: WESTCARB carbon capture and sequestrationThat $25 charge might make carbon capture and storage (CCS)combined cycle with carbon capture and storage Natural gas

Farrell, Alexander E.; Sperling, Dan

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

110 Table 4-14: WESTCARB carbon capture and sequestrationThat $25 charge might make carbon capture and storage (CCS)combined cycle with carbon capture and storage Natural gas

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Global Warming and Extreme Weather  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Global Warming and Extreme Weather Global Warming and Extreme Weather Speaker(s): Michael Wehner Date: November 28, 2006 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Surabi Menon Extreme weather events can have serious impacts on human and ecological systems. Changes in the magnitude and frequency of extreme weather associated with changes in the mean climate are likely the most serious consequence of human induced global warming. Understanding what the future portends is vital if society hopes to adapt to the very different world that awaits. In this talk, we will exploit simple extreme value theory to make predictions about the late 21st century climate. Current work on the relationship between global warming and the hurricane cycle will also be presented. The bottom line is that events that are considered rare today

432

Global Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Data (ASCII, Fixed Format) Data graphic Data (ASCII, Fixed Format) Data graphic Data (ASCII, Comma-delimited) Trends Since 1751 approximately 337 billion metric tonnes of carbon have been released to the atmosphere from the consumption of fossil fuels and cement production. Half of these emissions have occurred since the mid 1970s. The 2007 global fossil-fuel carbon emission estimate, 8365 million metric tons of carbon, represents an all-time high and a 1.7% increase from 2006. Globally, liquid and solid fuels accounted for 76.3% of the emissions from fossil-fuel burning and cement production in 2007. Combustion of gas fuels (e.g., natural gas) accounted for 18.5% (1551 million metric tons of carbon) of the total emissions from fossil fuels in 2007 and reflects a gradually increasing global utilization of natural gas. Emissions from

433

Offshore Rankine Cycles.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? The title of the thesis - "Offshore Rankine Cycles" - is very general and cover a large range of engineering fields, e.g. thermodynamic cycles (more)

Brandsar, Jo

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

The Organic Rankine Cycle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Chap. 3 is dedicated to Rankine cycles with organic fluids: the so-called organic Rankine cycles (ORC), which in recent years have ... of the use of...

Costante Mario Invernizzi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Optimization of Air Conditioning Cycling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Benchmark Long Cycle .............................................................................................. 95 5.46 System Pressures and Temperatures Valve Part Cycle Vs Benchmark Long Cycle...

Seshadri, Swarooph

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

436

Life-Cycle Energy Demand of Computational Logic:From High-Performance 32nm CPU to Ultra-Low-Power 130nm MCU  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Boyd et al. : Life-cycle energy demand and global warmingLife-Cycle Energy Demand of Computational Logic: From High-to assess the life-cycle energy demand of its products for

Bol, David; Boyd, Sarah; Dornfeld, David

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Life-Cycle Energy Demand of Computational Logic: From High-Performance 32nm CPU to Ultra-Low-Power 130nm MCU  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Boyd et al. : Life-cycle energy demand and global warmingLife-Cycle Energy Demand of Computational Logic: From High-to assess the life-cycle energy demand of its products for

Bol, David; Boyd, Sarah; Dornfeld, David

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Incorporating Carbon Capture and Storage Technologies in Integrated Assessment Models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Incorporating Carbon Capture and Storage Technologies in Integrated Assessment Models J. R. Mc climate policy analysis. This paper examines the representation of carbon capture and storage (CCS carbon capture and storage, 2) a natural gas combined cycle technology with carbon capture and storage 1

439

Advanced Fuel Cycles Activities in IAEA  

SciTech Connect

Considerable scientific and technical progress in many areas of Partitioning and Transmutation (P and T) has been recognized as probable answers to ever-growing issues threatening sustainability, environmental protection and non-proliferation. These recent global developments such as Russian initiative on Global Nuclear Infrastructure-International Fuel Centre and the US initiative on Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) have made advanced fuel cycles as one of the decisive influencing factor for the future growth of nuclear energy. International Atomic Energy Agency has initiated the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) with overall objective of bringing together technology holders and technology users to consider jointly the international and national actions required achieving desired innovations in nuclear reactors and fuel cycles. One of the interesting common features of these initiatives (INPRO, GNEP and GNI-IFC) is closed fast reactor fuel cycles and proliferation resistance. Any fuel cycle that integrate P and T into it is also known as 'Advanced Fuel Cycle' (AFC) that could achieve reduction of plutonium and Minor Actinide (MA) elements (namely Am, Np, Cm, etc.). In this regard, some Member States are also evaluating alternative concepts involving the use of thorium fuel cycle, inert-matrix fuel or coated particle fuel. Development of 'fast reactors with closed fuel cycles' would be the most essential step for implementation of P and T. The scale of realization of any AFC depends on the maturity of the development of all these elemental technologies such as recycling MA, Pu as well as reprocessed uranium. In accordance with the objectives of the Agency, the programme B entitled 'Nuclear Fuel cycle technologies and materials' initiated several activities aiming to strengthen the capabilities of interested Member States for policy making, strategic planning, technology development and implementation of safe, reliable, economically efficient, proliferation resistant, environmentally sound and secure nuclear fuel cycle programmes. The paper describes some on-going IAEA activities in the area of: MA-fuel and target, thorium fuel cycle, coated particle fuel, MA-property database, inert matrix fuels, liquid metal cooled fast reactor fuels and fuel cycles, management of reprocessed uranium and proliferation resistance in fuel cycle. (authors)

Nawada, H.P.; Ganguly, C. [Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Materials Section, Division of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology, Department of Nuclear Energy, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Abandoned Soviet farmlands could help offset global warming  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abandoned Soviet farmlands could help offset global warming ... Also, should these countries find themselves with carbon-emissions treaty obligations following the upcoming Copenhagen conference on global warming, burning grasses in lieu of coal would give them carbon credits forever, says Wolf. ... Coal and oil, on the other hand, took the CO2 out of the atmosphere millions of years ago, so burning them only adds to the global CO2 supply. ...

Christopher Pala

2009-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "global carbon cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

INVESTIGATIONS ON THE IMPACTS OF LAND-COVER CHANGES AND/OR INCREASED CO2 CONCENTRATIONS ON FOUR REGIONAL WATER CYCLES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

REGIONAL WATER CYCLES AND THEIR INTERACTIONS WITH THE GLOBAL WATER CYCLE By Zhao Li RECOMMENDED-COVER CHANGES AND/OR INCREASED CO2 CONCENTRATIONS ON FOUR REGIONAL WATER CYCLES AND THEIR INTERACTIONS WITH THE GLOBAL WATER CYCLE A THESIS Presented to the Faculty of the University of Alaska Fairbanks In Partial

Moelders, Nicole

442

Carbon Emission Targets for Driving Sustainable Mobility with US Light-Duty Vehicles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and many independent scientists warn that if global mean temperatures rise 1?5 C from 1990 levels due to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, risks of extreme climate events and widespread regional ecological and economic impacts will significantly increase (11, 12). ... PHEVs can displace on-road gasoline-powered vehicles and help to meet the defined targets if the average carbon intensity of the remaining conventional and PHEV vehicle mix is less than the LDV g/mile target. ... Keoleian, G. A.; Kar, K.; Manion, M.; Bulkley, J. W. Industrial Ecology of the Automobile: A Life Cycle Assessment; Society of Automotive Engineers: Warrendale, PA, 1997. ...

Hilary G. Grimes-Casey; Gregory A. Keoleian; Blair Willcox

2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

443

The microbial fate of carbon in high-latitude seas: Impact of the microbial loop on oceanic uptake of CO{sub 2}  

SciTech Connect

This dissertation examines pelagic microbial processes in high-latitude seas, how they affect regional and global carbon cycling, and how they might respond to hypothesized changes in climate. Critical to these interests is the effect of cold temperature on bacterial activity. Also important is the extent to which marine biological processes in general impact the inorganic carbon cycle. The study area is the Northeast Water (NEW) Polynya, a seasonally-recurrent opening in the permanent ice situated over the northeastern Greenland continental shelf. This work was part of an international, multi-disciplinary research project studying carbon cycling in the coastal Arctic. The first chapter describes a simple model which links a complex marine food web to a simplified ocean and atmosphere. The second chapter investigates the inorganic carbon inventory of the summertime NEW Polynya surface waters to establish the effect of biological processes on the air-sea pCO{sub 2} gradient. The third and fourth chapters use a kinetic approach to examine microbial activities in the NEW Polynya as a function of temperature and dissolved organic substrate concentration, testing the so-called Pomeroy hypothesis that microbial activity is disproportionately reduced at low environmental temperatures owing to increased organic substrate requirements. Together, the suite of data collected on microbial activities, cell size, and grazing pressure suggest how unique survival strategies adopted by an active population of high-latitude bacteria may contribute to, rather than detract from, an efficient biological carbon pump.

Yager, P.L.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

444

The carbon isotope composition of ancient CO2 based on higher-plant organic matter  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...carbon dioxide, and global warming. Geophys. Res...an indicator of global ecological change...invertebrates and coals from the Australian...potential of humic coals from dry pyrolysis...Fossil plants and global warming at the TriassicJurassic...

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Combined life cycle and economic assessment of wood based bio fuels in Norway.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? The increasing global demand for energy coupled with decreasing oil-supplies, and increasing risk of adverse climate change due to anthropogenic carbon emissions has created (more)

Gryczon, Michal

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Global demographic trends and future carbon emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...multivariate analysis of energy requirements of households in Australia, Brazil, Denmark, India and Japan . Energy J (Cambridge, MA...failed to match primary energy targets from the IIASA...primary nu-clear and renewable source inputs to...

Brian C. O'Neill; Michael Dalton; Regina Fuchs; Leiwen Jiang; Shonali Pachauri; Katarina Zigova

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Global demographic trends and future carbon emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...traditional and commercial) Oil and natural gas Crude oil and primary natural gas Electricity Electricity, heat...and commercial sectors (as a substitute for electricity), nuclear...liquid fuels (ethanol), syngas, and hydrogen used by the...

Brian C. O'Neill; Michael Dalton; Regina Fuchs; Leiwen Jiang; Shonali Pachauri; Katarina Zigova

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Global demographic trends and future carbon emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...comparative multivariate analysis of energy requirements of households in Australia, Brazil, Denmark, India and Japan . Energy J (Cambridge, MA) 31 : 181...cross-sectional variations in total household energy requirements in India using...

Brian C. O'Neill; Michael Dalton; Regina Fuchs; Leiwen Jiang; Shonali Pachauri; Katarina Zigova

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Carbon Sequestration and Turnover in Semiarid Savannas and Dry Forest  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Data on carbon and biomass budgets under different land use in tropical savannas and some dry forests are reviewed. Global data show wide ranges of biomass carbon stocks (20-150 Mg C ha-1), net primary product...

H. Tiessen; C. Feller; E.V.S.B. Sampaio; P. Garin

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Carbon sequestration in reclaimed manganese mine land at Gumgaon, India  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbon emission is supposed to be the strongest factor for global warming. Removing atmospheric carbon and storing it in the terrestrial biosphere is one of the cost-effective options, to compensate greenhouse...

Asha A. Juwarkar; K. L. Mehrotraa; Rajani Nair

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Historical warming reduced due to enhanced land carbon uptake  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...JP ( 2012 ) ESM2 global coupled climate-carbon Earth System Models Part II: Carbon system formulation and baseline simulation...emissions and airborne fraction simulated by CMIP5 Earth System models under 4 representative concentration pathways. J...

Elena Shevliakova; Ronald J. Stouffer; Sergey Malyshev; John P. Krasting; George C. Hurtt; Stephen W. Pacala

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

The energy and water nexus in Chinese electricity production: A hybrid life cycle analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Between 2000 and 2010, China?s electricity production had increased threefold and accounted for 50% of domestic and 12% of global CO2 emissions in 2010. Substantial changes in the electricity fuel mix are urgently required to meet China?s carbon intensity target of reducing CO2 emissions by 4045% by 2020. Moreover, electricity production is the second largest consumer of water in China, but water requirements vary significantly between different electricity generation technologies. By integrating process-based life-cycle analysis (LCA) and inputoutput analysis (IOA) and through tracking national supply chains, we have provided a detailed account of total life-cycle carbon emissions (g/kWh) and water consumption (l/kWh) for eight electricity generation technologies (pulverized) coal, gas, oil, hydro, nuclear, wind, solar photovoltaic, and biomass. We have demonstrated that a shift to low carbon renewable electricity generation technologies, i.e. wind, could potentially save more than 79% of total life-cycle CO2 emissions and more than 50% water consumption per kWh electricity generation compared to the current fuel mix and technology for electricity generation. If the projected wind farms are built by 2020, Inner Mongolia, one of the water scarce northern provinces, would annually save 179MT CO2 (i.e. 44% of Inner Mongolia?s total CO2 emissions in 2008) and 418millionm3 (Mm3) water (18% of its industrial water use in 2008) compared with the same amount of electricity produced from coal.

Kuishuang Feng; Klaus Hubacek; Yim Ling Siu; Xin Li

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Carbon taxes and India  

SciTech Connect

Using the Indian module of the Second Generation Model 9SGM, we explore a reference case and three scenarios in which greenhouse gas emissions were controlled. Two alternative policy instruments (carbon taxes and tradable permits) were analyzed to determine comparative costs of stabilizing emissions at (1) 1990 levels (the 1 X case), (2) two times the 1990 levels (the 2X case), and (3) three times the 1990 levels (the 3X case). The analysis takes into account India`s rapidly growing population and the abundance of coal and biomass relative to other fuels. We also explore the impacts of a global tradable permits market to stabilize global carbon emissions on the Indian economy under the following two emissions allowance allocation methods: (1) {open_quotes}Grandfathered emissions{close_quotes}: emissions allowances are allocated based on 1990 emissions. (2) {open_quotes}Equal per capita emissions{close_quotes}: emissions allowances are allocated based on share of global population. Tradable permits represent a lower cost method to stabilize Indian emissions than carbon taxes, i.e., global action would benefit India more than independent actions.

Fisher-Vanden, K.A.; Pitcher, H.M.; Edmonds, J.A.; Kim, S.H. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Shukla, P.R. [Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad (India)

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Cryogenic Carbon Capture using a Desublimating Spray Tower.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Global warming is becoming ever increasing concern in our society. As such the likelihood of a carbon tax in the US is becoming increasingly likely. (more)

Nielson, Bradley J

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Liquid fuels perspective on ultra low carbon vehicles | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

fuels perspective on ultra low carbon vehicles Fuels challenges in the evolving global energy market deer11simnick.pdf More Documents & Publications Green Racing Initiative:...

456

Global Paradox  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

From the Publisher:In the tradition of his bestselling Megatrends books, John Naisbitt explores the new wave of global economic change predicted as a result of the breaking apart of the Soviet empire--and the opportunities and challenges for nations, ...

John Naisbitt

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Integrated Assessment Modeling of Carbon Sequestration and Land Use Emissions Using Detailed Model Results and Observations  

SciTech Connect

This report outlines the progress on the development and application of Integrated Assessment Modeling of Carbon Sequestrations and Land Use Emissions supported by the DOE Office of Biological and Environmental Research (OBER), U.S. Department of Energy, Grant No. DOE-DE-FG02-01ER63069. The overall objective of this collaborative project between the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was to unite the latest advances in carbon cycle research with scientifically based models and policy-related integrated assessment tools that incorporate computationally efficient representations of the latest knowledge concerning science and emission trajectories, and their policy implications. As part of this research we accomplished the following tasks that we originally proposed: (1) In coordination with LLNL and ORNL, we enhanced the Integrated Science Assessment Model's (ISAM) parametric representation of the ocean and terrestrial carbon cycles that better represent spatial and seasonal variations, which are important to study the mechanisms that influence carbon sequestration in the ocean and terrestrial ecosystems; (2) Using the MiniCAM modeling capability, we revised the SRES (IPCC Special Report on Emission Scenarios; IPCC, 2000) land use emission scenarios; and (3) On the application front, the enhanced version of ISAM modeling capability is applied to understand how short- and long-term natural carbon fluxes, carbon sequestration, and human emissions contribute to the net global emissions (concentrations) trajectories required to reach various concentration (emission) targets. Under this grant, 21 research publications were produced. In addition, this grant supported a number of graduate and undergraduate students whose fundamental research was to learn a disciplinary field in climate change (e.g., ecological dynamics and ocean circulations) and then complete research on how this field could be linked to the other factors we need to consider in its dynamics (e.g., land use, ocean and terrestrial carbon sequestration and climate change).

Dr. Atul Jain

2005-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

458

Carbon sequestration  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Leaver and Howard Dalton Carbon sequestration Rattan Lal * * ( lal.1...and biotic technologies. Carbon sequestration implies transfer of atmospheric...and biomass burning. 3. Carbon sequestration Emission rates from fossil...

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Carbon Sequestration  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbon sequestration refers to a portfolio of activities for ... capture, separation and storage or reuse of carbon or CO2. Carbon sequestration technologies encompass both the prevention of CO2 emissions into ...

Robert L. Kane MS; Daniel E. Klein MBA

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Analysis of black carbon and carbon monoxide observed over the Indian Ocean: Implications for emissions and photochemistry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and known emission factors for black carbon (BC) from South Asia yields 0.7 Tg yr?1 (upper limit of about 1 Global Change: Atmosphere (0315, 0325); KEYWORDS: Soot, black carbon, CO, emissions, India Citation of black carbon and carbon monoxide observed over the Indian Ocean: Implications for emissions

Dickerson, Russell R.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "global carbon cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Life cycle assessment of base-load heat sources for district heating system options  

SciTech Connect

Purpose There has been an increased interest in utilizing renewable energy sources in district heating systems. District heating systems are centralized systems that provide heat for residential and commercial buildings in a community. While various renewable and conventional energy sources can be used in such systems, many stakeholders are interested in choosing the feasible option with the least environmental impacts. This paper evaluates and compares environmental burdens of alternative energy source options for the base load of a district heating center in Vancouver, British Columbia (BC) using the life cycle assessment method. The considered energy sources include natural gas, wood pellet, sewer heat, and ground heat. Methods The life cycle stages considered in the LCA model cover all stages from fuel production, fuel transmission/transportation, construction, operation, and finally demolition of the district heating system. The impact categories were analyzed based on the IMPACT 2002+ method. Results and discussion On a life-cycle basis, the global warming effect of renewable energy options were at least 200 kgeqCO2 less than that of the natural gas option per MWh of heat produced by the base load system. It was concluded that less than 25% of the upstream global warming impact associated with the wood pellet energy source option was due to transportation activities and about 50% of that was resulted from wood pellet production processes. In comparison with other energy options, the wood pellets option has higher impacts on respiratory of inorganics, terrestrial ecotoxicity, acidification, and nutrification categories. Among renewable options, the global warming impact of heat pump options in the studied case in Vancouver, BC, were lower than the wood pellet option due to BC's low carbon electricity generation profile. Ozone layer depletion and mineral extraction were the highest for the heat pump options due to extensive construction required for these options. Conclusions Natural gas utilization as the primary heat source for district heat production implies environmental complications beyond just the global warming impacts. Diffusing renewable energy sources for generating the base load district heat would reduce human toxicity, ecosystem quality degradation, global warming, and resource depletion compared to the case of natural gas. Reducing fossil fuel dependency in various stages of wood pellet production can remarkably reduce the upstream global warming impact of using wood pellets for district heat generation.

Ghafghazi, Saeed [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sowlati, T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Melin, Staffan [Delta Research Corporation

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Common Carbon Metric | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Common Carbon Metric Common Carbon Metric Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Common Carbon Metric Agency/Company /Organization: United Nations Environment Programme, World Resources Institute Sector: Energy Focus Area: Buildings, Energy Efficiency, Industry Topics: GHG inventory, Implementation Resource Type: Guide/manual, Publications Website: www.unep.org/sbci/pdfs/Common-Carbon-Metric-for_Pilot_Testing_220410.p Common Carbon Metric Screenshot References: Common Carbon Metrics [1] "This paper is offered by the United Nations Environment Programme's Sustainable Buildings & Climate Initiative (UNEP-SBCI), a partnership between the UN and public and private stakeholders in the building sector, promoting sustainable building practices globally. The purpose of this

463

Climatic Change: Are We on the Brink of a Pronounced Global Warming?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...1976006149 Arctic region atmosphere Camp Century carbon dioxide Cenozoic changes...Year 461 I l-C02 effect plus i Camp Century cycles Meteorological \\\\ records c CO2 effect/ Camp Century cycles 0) 0L) 0L) 0 (L...

Wallace S. Broecker

1975-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

464

Diurnal to annual variations in the atmospheric water cycle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

diurnal cycle of total dry energy in the global reanalyses.total dry energy divergence. These components are only available in the globaltotal atmospheric dry energy divergence and tendency ..50 Figure 3.1 Mean precipitation rate for each of the five global

Ruane, Alexander C

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Global Health Research | 2 Global Health Research  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Global Health Research | 2 Global Health Research Supporting researchers in low- and middle-income countries to carry out health- related research within their own countries. Gl bal Health #12;3 | Global Health Research #12;Global Health Research | 4 We are a global charitable foundation dedicated

Rambaut, Andrew

466

Global Predictions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

created every day by the lab and used by the forest service, county commissioners and others. Using computer technology and satellites, the lab currently focuses on three core spatial technologies? GIS, global positioning systems (GPS) and remote...,? said Srinivasan. The lab also uses GPS, a satellite navigation system useful for surveying property boundaries and fields. GPS uses satellites to locate and track any feature on Earth at any given time. The lab is using GPS in identifying the Corps...

Swyden, Courtney

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Technology and information management for low-carbon building  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

All buildings worldwide combined use 40% of the global energy and are responsible for one third of global energy-related greenhouse gas(GHG) emissions. The majority of GHG emissions of buildings come from fossil fuel energy in several stages of the life cycle of the building; 80%90% of GHG emissions of buildings are emitted in the operations stage; 10%20% GHG emissions are from embodied energy and carbon emissions related to construction stage. The greatest potential for low-hanging fruit in cost effective quick deep GHG reduction and mitigation is found in the construction industry. With currently available and proven technologies reductions in energy consumption on both new and existing buildings are estimated to achieve 30%80%. When costs of implementing energy reduction technologies are offset by energy savings there is potential for a net profit over the life span of the building. Much has been done to study energy reductions define GHG emissions and develop metrics and protocols for measuring and reporting carbon emissions. This paper addresses the How. How energy consumption of a house was reduced almost 70%. How CO2 emission was reduced 44%. How embodied GHG emissions of the house were measured and certified carbon neutral. How USGBC LEED for Homes platinum certification was attained. How actual savings from energy reductions are able to pay back up-front cost of implementing technologies and begin earning a profit in fifteen years. How reducing electric consumption has the greatest impact in reducing energy costs and reducing CO2 emissions compared to propane and #2 fuel oil. How earning LEED points provided a surprise benefit of mitigating overall GHG emissions by earning carbon offsets. How these achievements and findings were accomplished in the reconstruction of one home.

Frank Dalene

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Agricultural Carbon Mitigation in Europe  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Agricultural Carbon Mitigation in Europe Agricultural Carbon Mitigation in Europe Agricultural Carbon Mitigation in Europe Smith P, Powlson DS, Smith JU, Falloon P, and Coleman K. 2000. Meeting Europe's climate change commitments: Quantitative estimates of the potential for carbon mitigation by agriculture. Global Climate Change 6:525-539. Abstract Under the Kyoto Protocol, the European Union is committed to a reduction in CO2 emissions to 92% of baseline (1990) levels during the first commitment period (2008-2012). The Kyoto Protocol allows carbon emissions to be offset by demonstrable removal of carbon from the atmosphere. Thus, land-use / land-management change and forestry activities that are shown to reduce atmospheric CO2 levels can be included in the Kyoto targets. These activities include afforestation, reforestation and deforestation (article

469

Multiple Rankine topping cycles  

SciTech Connect

The efficiency of a Rankine cycle is primarily determined by the temperatures of heat addition and rejection. However, no working fluid has been identified which will operate in a Rankine cycle over an extremely wide temperature range. Multiple Rankine topping cycles offer a technique for achieving high thermal efficiencies in power plants by allowing the use of several working fluids. This paper gives a history of Rankine topping cycles, presents an analysis for the calculation of the overall efficiency of a three-module multiple Rankine cycle, and presents results from a case study for a sodium-mercury-water cycle.

McWhirter, J.D. [Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Engineering Div.]|[Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States). Coll. of Engineering

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

DOE Manual Studies Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Manual Studies Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration Manual Studies Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration DOE Manual Studies Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration January 18, 2011 - 12:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - There is considerable opportunity and growing technical sophistication to make terrestrial carbon sequestration both practical and effective, according to the latest carbon capture and storage (CCS) "best practices" manual issued by the U.S. Department of Energy. Best Practices for Terrestrial Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide details the most suitable operational approaches and techniques for terrestrial sequestration, a carbon dioxide (CO2) mitigation strategy capable of removing CO2 already in the air. Consequently, terrestrial sequestration, which uses photosynthesis - part of the natural carbon cycle - to create

471

Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Fact Sheet - Develop Enhanced Nuclear  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Fact Sheet - Develop Enhanced Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Fact Sheet - Develop Enhanced Nuclear Safeguards Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Fact Sheet - Develop Enhanced Nuclear Safeguards GNEP will help prevent misuse of civilian nuclear facilities for nonpeaceful purposes by developing enhanced safeguards programs and technologies. International nuclear safeguards are integral to implementing the GNEP vision of a peaceful expansion of nuclear energy and demonstration of more proliferation-resistant fuel cycle technologies. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Fact Sheet - Develop Enhanced Nuclear Safeguards More Documents & Publications GNEP Element:Develop Enhanced Nuclear Safeguards Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Fact Sheet Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Fact Sheet - Demonstrate Small-Scale

472

Review: Global Climate Change  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

introduction to global climate change, the greenhouseReview: Global Climate Change: A Primer By Orrin H PilkeyPilkey, Keith C. Global Climate Change: a primer. Durham,

Smith, Jennifer

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Review problems on photosynthesis, carbon cycle. Julie Wright, HAS222d/253e 2007 1) Photosynthesis resembles the hydrogen fuel cell we studied in the lab. The following reactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

resembles the hydrogen fuel cell we studied in the lab. The following reactions were taken from the review) the overall reaction of photosynthesis is: H2O + CO2 ---> O2 + CH2O E'o = -1.24 Hydrogen fuel cell: 2H2O does hydrogen combustion differ from sugar/alcohol/biofuels combustion ecologically? 2) Why is carbon

474

Worldwide, accelerating glacier loss provides independent and startling evidence that global warming is occurring1 It is now clear that the Earth is warming rapidly due to man-made emissions of carbon dioxide and other heat-trap-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-made emissions of carbon dioxide and other heat-trap- ping gases, which blanket the planet and cause temperatures future limits on carbon emissions. · Electricity consumers should opt for "green power" where imperative that emissions of the main heat-trapping gas, car- bon dioxide (CO2), are significantly reduced

Combes, Stacey A.

475

Snowball Earth prevention by dissolved organic carbon remineralization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... model of the co-evolution of Neoproterozoic climate and the carbon cycle that provides an alternative interpretation to the hard snowball hypothesis of the origin of the observed ?13C variations ... carbon cycle component of the model. Supplementary Fig. 4 shows equivalent results for the case X = 1. ...

W. Richard Peltier; Yonggang Liu; John W. Crowley

2007-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

476

Carbon Smackdown: Carbon Capture  

SciTech Connect

In this July 9, 2010 Berkeley Lab summer lecture, Lab scientists Jeff Long of the Materials Sciences and Nancy Brown of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division discuss their efforts to fight climate change by capturing carbon from the flue gas of power plants, as well as directly from the air

Jeffrey Long

2010-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

477

Edgeworth cycles revisited  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Some gasoline markets exhibit remarkable price cycles, where price spikes are followed by a series of small price declines: a pattern consistent with a model of Edgeworth cycles described by Maskin and Tirole. We extend ...

Doyle, Joseph J.

478

The combined cycle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Any combination of at least two cyclic processes converting thermal energy (heat) to work forms a combined cycle. In principle, the potential number of ... number of options reduces to a variety of cycles consi...

R. U. Pitt

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Water Cycle Pilot Study  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 Water Cycle Pilot Study To learn more about Earth's water cycle, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has established a multi-laboratory science team representing five DOE...

480

Optimal Estimation of the Surface Fluxes of Chloromethanes Using a 3-D Global Atmospheric  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(CH2Cl2), chloroform (CHCl3), and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), are chlorine-containing gases concentrations of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. The Center for Global Change Science at MIT

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "global carbon cycle" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Fuel Cycle Research & Development Documents | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Initiatives » Fuel Cycle Technologies » Fuel Cycle Research & Initiatives » Fuel Cycle Technologies » Fuel Cycle Research & Development » Fuel Cycle Research & Development Documents Fuel Cycle Research & Development Documents November 8, 2011 2011 Fuel Cycle Technologies Annual Review Meeting As the largest domestic source of low-carbon energy, nuclear power is making major contributions toward meeting our nation's current and future energy demands. The United States must continue to ensure improvements and access to this technology so we can meet our economic, environmental and energy security goals. We rely on nuclear energy because it provides a consistent, reliable and stable source of base load electricity with an excellent safety record in the United States. July 11, 2011 Nuclear Separations Technologies Workshop Report

482

global warming's six indias  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

global warming's six indias: An Audience Segmentation Analysis #12;Global Warming's Six Indias 1............................................................................................................................................20 2. Global Warming Beliefs and Attitudes................................................................................ 21 Knowledge about global warming varies widely by group

Haller, Gary L.

483

mathematics single cycle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

47 mathematics education single cycle master's study programme #12;48 single cycle master's study program in Mathematics Education #12;49 single cycle master's study program in Mathematics Education MATHEMATICS EDUCATION The program is in tune with the principles of the Bologna Declaration. · Academic title

?umer, Slobodan

484

Scaling up carbon dioxide capture and storage: From megatons to gigatons Howard J. Herzog  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Scaling up carbon dioxide capture and storage: From megatons to gigatons Howard J. Herzog MIT Global warming Carbon mitigation Low carbon energy technologies Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) Carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and storage (CCS) is the only technology that can reduce CO2 emissions

485

Comparative life-cycle air emissions of coal, domestic natural gas, LNG, and SNG for electricity generation  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) estimates that in the coming decades the United States' natural gas (NG) demand for electricity generation will increase. Estimates also suggest that NG supply will increasingly come from imported liquefied natural gas (LNG). Additional supplies of NG could come domestically from the production of synthetic natural gas (SNG) via coal gasification-methanation. The objective of this study is to compare greenhouse gas (GHG), SOx, and NOx life-cycle emissions of electricity generated with NG/LNG/SNG and coal. This life-cycle comparison of air emissions from different fuels can help us better understand the advantages and disadvantages of using coal versus globally sourced NG for electricity generation. Our estimates suggest that with the current fleet of power plants, a mix of domestic NG, LNG, and SNG would have lower GHG emissions than coal. If advanced technologies with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) are used, however, coal and a mix of domestic NG, LNG, and SNG would have very similar life-cycle GHG emissions. For SOx and NOx we find there are significant emissions in the upstream stages of the NG/LNG life-cycles, which contribute to a larger range in SOx and NOx emissions for NG/LNG than for coal and SNG. 38 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Paulina Jaramillo; W. Michael Griffin; H. Scott Matthews [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Civil and Environmental Engineering Department

2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

486

Carbon sequestration research and development  

SciTech Connect

Predictions of global energy use in the next century suggest a continued increase in carbon emissions and rising concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in the atmosphere unless major changes are made in the way we produce and use energy--in particular, how we manage carbon. For example, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts in its 1995 ''business as usual'' energy scenario that future global emissions of CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere will increase from 7.4 billion tonnes of carbon (GtC) per year in 1997 to approximately 26 GtC/year by 2100. IPCC also projects a doubling of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration by the middle of next century and growing rates of increase beyond. Although the effects of increased CO{sub 2} levels on global climate are uncertain, many scientists agree that a doubling of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations could have a variety of serious environmental consequences. The goal of this report is to identify key areas for research and development (R&D) that could lead to an understanding of the potential for future use of carbon sequestration as a major tool for managing carbon emissions. Under the leadership of DOE, researchers from universities, industry, other government agencies, and DOE national laboratories were brought together to develop the technical basis for conceiving a science and technology road map. That effort has resulted in this report, which develops much of the information needed for the road map.

Reichle, Dave; Houghton, John; Kane, Bob; Ekmann, Jim; and others

1999-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

487

Cycle to Cycle Manufacturing Process Control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Most manufacturing processes produce parts that can only be correctly measured after the process cycle has been completed. Even if in-process measurement and control is possible, it is often too expensive or complex to ...

Hardt, David E.

488

Project Profile: 10-Megawatt Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Turbine  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and its partners, under the 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) R&D funding opportunity announcement (FOA), aim to demonstrate a multi-megawatt power cycle using supercritical carbon dioxide (s-CO2) as the working fluid. The use of carbon dioxide instead of steam allows higher power-cycle efficiency and cycle components that are more compact.

489

Continuous, Non-Invasive, In-Field Soil Carbon Scanning System  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Continuous, Non-Invasive, In-Field Soil Continuous, Non-Invasive, In-Field Soil Carbon Scanning System Background Earth generates and emits an enormous amount of carbon dioxide into the atmos- phere from its deep energy resources, its near-surface processes, and biotic activi- ties. Although anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions increase global warming, global warming is also alleviated by human activities in sequestering carbon into the terrestrial ecosystem and injecting carbon dioxide deep into geological formations,

490

Stimulating carbon efficient supply chains : carbon labels and voluntary public private partnerships  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis looks at the potential of labeling products with life cycle greenhouse gas emission information as a bottom-up, complementary alternative to carbon cap and trade systems. By improving the transparency of product ...

Tan, Kwan Chong

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

Strike variability of carbonate platform margin stratal architecture and cycle stacking patterns: Outcrop and seismic examples from lower Permian depositional sequences of the Permian Basin, U.S.A.  

SciTech Connect

Strike variability in stratal architecture, cycle stacking patterns and facies differentiation within sequences exemplifies the potential for differential stratigraphic response of platforms to eustasy. Variability exists within base-level cycles of several scales within a compound stratigraphic hierarchy, though the causes may vary among different scales. Cross-sections from outcrops in the Sierra Diablo document the framework and stacking pattern of 3rd-order sequences (HFS), including: two progradational middle Wolfcampian HFS (mW1-2), one backstepped upper Wolfcampian HFS (uW1), one progradational lower Leonardin HFS (L1), aggradational middle (L2) and upper Leonardian HFS (L3), three progradatic upper Leonardian HFS (L4-6), and two backstepped, aggradational upper Leonardian HFS (L7-8). Seismic lines from the northern Delaware and Midland Basins and San Simon Channel area document the regional consistency of 3rd-order sequence stacking patterns (a response to eustasy), but show variability related to local subsidence, antecedent topography (owing to deeper structures and platform margin erosion), windward vs. leeward facing, and siliciclastic sediment supply. Sequences L2 and L3 appear to exhibit the greatest variability in stacking pattern. Strike variability in 4th/5th-order cycle stacking patterns within 3rd-order sequences as studied in outcrop is greatest in sequences L2 and L3, in which headland-bight margin trends are developed on a lateral scale of 1-2 miles. Aggrational to backstepping reef-margin facies with steep ({le}35{degrees}) foreslopes developed along headlands. Mudstones abut these margin facies abruptly along headlands and may contain megabreccias at the toe-of-slope. More gently sloping (10-15{degrees}) {open_quotes}ramp{close_quotes} margin strata composed of fusulinid packstones characterize bights.

Fitchen, W.M. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

492

The Sustainable Global Energy Economy: Hydrogen or Silicon?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A sustainable global silicon energy economy is proposed as a potential alternative to the hydrogen economy. This first visualization of a silicon energy economy is based on large-scale and carbon- ... uncertainti...

W. Earl Bardsley

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

Global Warming in Geologic Time  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

The notion is pervasive in the climate science community and in the public at large that the climate impacts of fossil fuel CO2 release will only persist for a few centuries. This conclusion has no basis in theory or models of the atmosphere / ocean carbon cycle, which we review here. The largest fraction of the CO2 recovery will take place on time scales of centuries, as CO2 invades the ocean, but a significant fraction of the fossil fuel CO2, ranging in published models in the literature from 20-60%, remains airborne for a thousand years or longer. Ultimate recovery takes place on time scales of hundreds of thousands of years, a geologic longevity typically associated in public perceptions with nuclear waste. The glacial / interglacial climate cycles demonstrate that ice sheets and sea level respond dramatically to millennial-timescale changes in climate forcing. There are also potential positive feedbacks in the carbon cycle, including methane hydrates in the ocean, and peat frozen in permafrost, that are most sensitive to the long tail of the fossil fuel CO2 in the atmosphere.

David Archer

2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

494

Indirect-fired gas turbine dual fuel cell power cycle  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell and gas turbine combined cycle system which includes dual fuel cell cycles combined with a gas turbine cycle wherein a solid oxide fuel cell cycle operated at a pressure of between 6 to 15 atms tops the turbine cycle and is used to produce CO.sub.2 for a molten carbonate fuel cell cycle which bottoms the turbine and is operated at essentially atmospheric pressure. A high pressure combustor is used to combust the excess fuel from the topping fuel cell cycle to further heat the pressurized gas driving the turbine. A low pressure combustor is used to combust the excess fuel from the bottoming fuel cell to reheat the gas stream passing out of the turbine which is used to preheat the pressurized air stream entering the topping fuel cell before passing into the bottoming fuel cell cathode. The CO.sub.2 generated in the solid oxide fuel cell cycle cascades through the system to the molten carbonate fuel cell cycle cathode.

Micheli, Paul L. (Sacramento, CA); Williams, Mark C. (Morgantown, WV); Sudhoff, Frederick A. (Morgantown, WV)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

Carbon Conference  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbon Conference ... The Fourth Hienninl Conference on Carbon will be held at the University of Buffalo, June 15 to 19. ... The Pittsburgh Section's coal technology group will meet in the conference room at Mellon Institute, Pittsburgh, June ... ...

1959-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

Diurnal Precipitation Regimes in the Global Tropics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Diurnal variations of the global tropical precipitation are documented by using two complementary Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) datasets (3B42 and 3G68) for 19982006 in an attempt to provide a unified view of the diurnal cycle and a ...

Kazuyoshi Kikuchi; Bin Wang

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

Safeguarding and Protecting the Nuclear Fuel Cycle  

SciTech Connect

International safeguards as applied by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) are a vital cornerstone of the global nuclear nonproliferation regime - they protect against the peaceful nuclear fuel cycle becoming the undetected vehicle for nuclear weapons proliferation by States. Likewise, domestic safeguards and nuclear security are essential to combating theft, sabotage, and nuclear terrorism by non-State actors. While current approaches to safeguarding and protecting the nuclear fuel cycle have been very successful, there is significant, active interest to further improve the efficiency and effectiveness of safeguards and security, particularly in light of the anticipated growth of nuclear energy and the increase in the global threat environment. This article will address two recent developments called Safeguards-by-Design and Security-by-Design, which are receiving increasing broad international attention and support. Expected benefits include facilities that are inherently more economical to effectively safeguard and protect. However, the technical measures of safeguards and security alone are not enough - they must continue to be broadly supported by dynamic and adaptive nonproliferation and security regimes. To this end, at the level of the global fuel cycle architecture, 'nonproliferation and security by design' remains a worthy objective that is also the subject of very active, international focus.

Trond Bjornard; Humberto Garcia; William Desmond; Scott Demuth

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

A Detailed Assessment of Global Nickel Resource Trends and Endowments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...reflects the true situation in the global Ni market. The fact that mining companies invest...cycles of production related to global market conditions, in the early 2000s Western...reliance on emission intensive coal- or diesel-based electricity, may be uneconomic...

Gavin M. Mudd; Simon M. Jowitt

499

Foiling the Flu Bug Global Partnerships for Nuclear Energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 1663 Foiling the Flu Bug Global Partnerships for Nuclear Energy Dark Universe Mysteries WILL NOT NEED TESTING Expanding Nuclear Energy the Right Way GLOBAL PARTNERSHIPS AND AN ADVANCED FUEL CYCLE sense.The Laboratory is operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC, for the Department of Energy

500

Increasing access to the carbon market ENERGY, CLIMATE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Increasing access to the carbon market ENERGY, CLIMATE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 2008 #12;2 World is growing in parallel. With a dynamic carbon market under constant development, the Energy and Carbon Fi events in 2008 have substantially altered the global financial landscape. What that means for energy