National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for global average temperature

  1. Insolation data manual: long-term monthly averages of solar radiation, temperature, degree-days and global anti K/sub T/ for 248 national weather service stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knapp, C L; Stoffel, T L; Whitaker, S D

    1980-10-01

    Monthly averaged data is presented which describes the availability of solar radiation at 248 National Weather Service stations. Monthly and annual average daily insolation and temperature values have been computed from a base of 24 to 25 years of data. Average daily maximum, minimum, and monthly temperatures are provided for most locations in both Celsius and Fahrenheit. Heating and cooling degree-days were computed relative to a base of 18.3/sup 0/C (65/sup 0/F). For each station, global anti K/sub T/ (cloudiness index) were calculated on a monthly and annual basis. (MHR)

  2. Global temperature deviations as a random walk

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karner, O.

    1996-12-31

    Surface air temperature is the main parameter to represent the earth`s contemporary climate. Several historical temperature records on a global/monthly basis are available. Time-series analysis shows that they can be modelled via autoregressive moving average models closely connected to the classical random walk model. Fitted models emphasize a nonstationary character of the global/monthly temperature deviation from a certain level. The nonstationarity explains all trends and periods, found in the last century`s variability of global mean temperature. This means that the short-term temperature trends are inevitable and may have little in common with a currently increasing carbon dioxide amount. The calculations show that a reasonable understanding of the contemporary global mean climate is attainable, assuming random forcing to the climate system and treating temperature deviation as a response to it. The forcings occur due to volcanic eruptions, redistribution of cloudiness, variations in snow and ice covered areas, changes in solar output, etc. Their impact can not be directly estimated from changes of the earth`s radiation budget at the top of the atmosphere, because actual measurements represent mixture of the forcings and responses. Thus, it is impossible empirically to separate the impact of one particular forcing (e.g., that due to increase of CO{sub 2} amount) from the sequence of all existing forcings in the earth climate system. More accurate modelling involving main feedback loops is necessary to ease such a separation.

  3. Global Cooling: Effect of Urban Albedo on Global Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, Hashem; Menon, Surabi; Rosenfeld, Arthur

    2007-05-22

    In many urban areas, pavements and roofs constitute over 60% of urban surfaces (roof 20-25%, pavements about 40%). The roof and the pavement albedo can be increased by about 0.25 and 0.10, respectively, resulting in a net albedo increase for urban areas of about 0.1. Many studies have demonstrated building cooling-energy savings in excess of 20% upon raising roof reflectivity from an existing 10-20% to about 60%. We estimate U.S. potential savings in excess of $1 billion (B) per year in net annual energy bills. Increasing albedo of urban surfaces can reduce the summertime urban temperature and improve the urban air quality. Increasing the urban albedo has the added benefit of reflecting more of the incoming global solar radiation and countering the effect of global warming. We estimate that increasing albedo of urban areas by 0.1 results in an increase of 3 x 10{sup -4} in Earth albedo. Using a simple global model, the change in air temperature in lowest 1.8 km of the atmosphere is estimated at 0.01K. Modelers predict a warming of about 3K in the next 60 years (0.05K/year). Change of 0.1 in urban albedo will result in 0.01K global cooling, a delay of {approx}0.2 years in global warming. This 0.2 years delay in global warming is equivalent to 10 Gt reduction in CO2 emissions.

  4. Effect of vitrification temperature upon the solar average absorptance properties of Pyromark Series 2500 black paint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, C.; Mahoney, A.R.

    1986-06-01

    A significant drop in production efficiency has occurred over time at the Solar One facility at Barstow, California, primarily as a result of the degradation of the Pyromark Series 2500 black paint used as the absorptive coating on the receiver panels. As part of the investigation of the problem, the solar-averaged adsorptance properties of the paint were determined as a function of vitrification temperature, since it is known that a significant amount of the panel surface area at Solar One was vitrified at temperatures below those recommended by the paint manufacturer (540/sup 0/C, 1000/sup 0/F). Painted samples initially vitrified at 230/sup 0/C (450/sup 0/F), 315/sup 0/C (600/sup 0/F), 371/sup 0/C (700/sup 0/F), and 480/sup 0/C (900/sup 0/F) exhibited significantly lower solar-averaged absorptance values (0.02 absorptance units) compared to samples vitrified at 540/sup 0/C (1000/sup 0/F). Thus, Solar One began its service life below optimal levels. After 140 h of thermal aging at 370/sup 0/C (700/sup 0/F) and 540/sup 0/C (1000/sup 0/F), all samples regardless of their initial vitrification temperatures, attained the same solar-averaged absorptance value (..cap alpha../sub s/ = 0.973). Therefore, both the long-term low-temperature vitrification and the short-term high-temperature vitrification can be used to obtain optimal or near-optimal absorptance of solar flux. Futher thermal aging of vitrified samples did not result in paint degradation, clearly indicating that high solar flux is required to produce this phenomenon. The panels at Solar One never achieved optimal absorptance because their exposure to high solar flux negated the effect of long-term low-temperature vitrification during operation. On future central receiver projects, every effort should be made to properly vitrify the Pyromark coating before its exposure to high flux conditions.

  5. Calculation of variable-base degree-days and degree-nights from monthly average temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sonderegger, R.; Cleary, P.; Dickinson, B.

    1985-01-01

    The Computerized Instrumented Residential Audit (CIRA), a micro-computer building energy analysis program developed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, uses a monthly variable-base degree-day method to calculate heating and cooling loads. The method's unique feature is its ability to model thermostat setbacks and storage of solar gain. The program accomplishes this by dividing each day into two periods, ''average day'' (8 a.m. to 8 p.m.) and ''average night'' (8 p.m. to 8 a.m.), with different base temperatures. For each mode (heating or cooling) and for each period (day or night), the program reconstructs degree-days as a function of average monthly day or night temperature using three empirical coefficients specific to the location. A comparison is made between degree-days computed from hourly weather tapes and those predicted using this method. The root mean square error between predicted and actual degree days is typically between 3 and 12 degree-days per month. Tables of the coefficients are given for over 150 locations in the United States, computed from hourly dry-bulb temperatures on TRY and TMY tapes. Seasonal predictions of heating and cooling energy budgets using this method show good correspondence to the DOE-2 hourly simulation method.

  6. Global surface temperature changes since the 1850s

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, P.D.

    1996-12-31

    Temperature data from land and marine areas form the basis for many studies of climatic variations on local, regional and hemispheric scales, and the global mean temperature is a fundamental measure of the state of the climate system. In this paper it is shown that the surface temperature of the globe has warmed by about 0.5{degrees}C since the mid-nineteenth century. This is an important part of the evidence in the {open_quote}global warming{close_quote} debate. How certain are we about the magnitude of the warming? Where has it been greatest? In this paper, these and related issues will be addressed.

  7. Rising global temperatures accelerate drought-induced forest mortality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Drought-induced forest mortality Rising global temperatures accelerate drought-induced forest mortality Many southwestern forests in the United States will disappear or be heavily altered by 2050, according to a series of joint LANL-UNM studies. April 23, 2015 Piñon trees show increased susceptibility to drought when also subjected to rising temperatures. Piñon trees show increased susceptibility to drought when also subjected to rising temperatures. Contact Nancy Ambrosiano Communications

  8. Temperature-associated increases in the global soil respiration record

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Thomson, Allison M.

    2010-03-25

    Soil respiration (RS), the flux of CO2 from the soil surface to the atmosphere, comprises the second-largest terrestrial carbon flux, but its dynamics are incompletely understood, and the global flux remains poorly constrained. Ecosystem warming experiments, modelling analyses, and biokinetics all suggest that RS should change with climate. This has been difficult to confirm observationally because of the high spatial variability of RS, inaccessibility of the soil medium, and inability of remote sensing instruments to measure large-scale RS fluxes. Given these constraints, is it possible to discern climate-driven changes in regional or global RS fluxes in the extant four-decade record of RS chamber measurements? Here we use a database of worldwide RS observations, matched with high-resolution historical climate data, to show a previously unknown temporal trend in the RS record after accounting for mean annual climate, leaf area, nitrogen deposition, and changes in CO2 measurement technique. Air temperature anomaly (deviation from the 1961-1990 mean) is significantly and positively correlated with changes in RS fluxes; both temperature and precipitation anomalies exert effects in specific biomes. We estimate that the current (2008) annual global RS flux is 9812 Pg and has increased 0.1 Pg yr-1 over the last 20 years, implying a global RS temperature response (Q10) of 1.5. An increasing global RS flux does not necessarily constitute a positive feedback loop to the atmosphere; nonetheless, the available data are consistent with an acceleration of the terrestrial carbon cycle in response to global climate change.

  9. Fingerprints of anthropogenic and natural variability in global-mean surface temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wallace, J.M.; Zhang, Yuan

    1997-11-01

    This paper presents an analysis designed to detect greenhouse warming by distinguishing between temperature rises induced by increasing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases and those induced by background variability that are present without changes in atmospheric composition. The strategy is based on the surface temperature field. At each observation time, the projection of the anomalous temperature field on the presumed anthropogenic fingerprint is removed in order to obtain a temperature deviation field; i.e., the temperature anomalies in the phase space orthogonal to the anthropogenic fingerprint, which are presumed to be entirely natural. The time series of the expansion coefficients of the fingerprint a(t) is then regressed on this temperature deviation field to identify the axis in the orthogonal phase space along which the variations are most strongly correlated, and an index n(t) of the temporal variations along that axis is generated. The index a(t) is then regressed upon n(t) and the resulting least squares fit is regarded as the component of a(t) that can be ascribed to natural causes. The analysis was performed for monthly global surface temperature anomaly fields for the period 1900-95. Results indicate that two well defined patterns of natural variability contribute to variations in global mean temperature: the synthetic cold ocean-warm land (COWL) pattern and the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). In domains that include surface air temperature over Eurasia and North America, the COWL pattern tends to be dominant. The ENSO signature emerges as the pattern most strongly linearly correlated with global sea surface temperature and with tropospheric layer-averaged temperatures. 24 refs., 3 figs.

  10. U.S.DOE Global Monthly Station Temperature and Precipitation, 1738-1980

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The global monthly station temperature and precipitation data from the U.S. Department of Energy, a dataset hosted at, covers the time period from January, 1738 to December, 1980. The air temperature and precipitation levels are platform observations from ground and water surfaces. The data are maintained in the Research Data Archive at the National Center for Atmospheric Research.

  11. Coral reef bleaching and sea surface temperature anomalies: 1991-1996 global patterns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goreau, T.J.; Hayes, R.L.; Strong, A.

    1997-12-31

    Global spatio-temporal patterns of mass coral reef bleaching during the first half of the 1990s continued to show the strong temperature correlations which first became established in the 1980s. Satellite sea surface temperature data and field observations were used to track thermal bleaching events in real time. Most bleaching events followed warm season sea surface temperature anomalies of around +1 degree celsius above historical means. Global bleaching patterns appear to have been strongly affected by worldwide cooling which followed eruption of Mount Pinatubo in June 1991. High water temperatures and mass coral reef bleaching took place in the Caribbean, Indian Ocean, and South Pacific in 1991, but there were few thermal anomalies or bleaching events in 1992 and 1993, years which were markedly cooler worldwide. Following the settling of Mount Pinatubo aerosols and resumption of global warming trends, extensive ocean thermal hot spots and bleaching events resumed in the South Pacific, South Atlantic, and Indian Oceans in 1994. Bleaching again took place in hot spots in the Indian Ocean and Caribbean in 1995, and in the South Atlantic, Caribbean, South Pacific, North Pacific, and Persian Gulf in 1996. Coral reefs worldwide are now very close to their upper temperature tolerance limits. This sensitivity, and the fact that the warmest ecosystems have no source of immigrant species pre-adapted to warmer conditions, may make coral reef ecosystems the first to be severely impacted if global temperatures and sea levels remain at current values or increase further.

  12. An updated global grid point surface air temperature anomaly data set: 1851--1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sepanski, R.J.; Boden, T.A.; Daniels, R.C.

    1991-10-01

    This document presents land-based monthly surface air temperature anomalies (departures from a 1951--1970 reference period mean) on a 5{degree} latitude by 10{degree} longitude global grid. Monthly surface air temperature anomalies (departures from a 1957--1975 reference period mean) for the Antarctic (grid points from 65{degree}S to 85{degree}S) are presented in a similar way as a separate data set. The data were derived primarily from the World Weather Records and the archives of the United Kingdom Meteorological Office. This long-term record of temperature anomalies may be used in studies addressing possible greenhouse-gas-induced climate changes. To date, the data have been employed in generating regional, hemispheric, and global time series for determining whether recent (i.e., post-1900) warming trends have taken place. This document also presents the monthly mean temperature records for the individual stations that were used to generate the set of gridded anomalies. The periods of record vary by station. Northern Hemisphere station data have been corrected for inhomogeneities, while Southern Hemisphere data are presented in uncorrected form. 14 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  13. Accelerating Monte Carlo molecular simulations by reweighting and reconstructing Markov chains: Extrapolation of canonical ensemble averages and second derivatives to different temperature and density conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kadoura, Ahmad; Sun, Shuyu Salama, Amgad

    2014-08-01

    Accurate determination of thermodynamic properties of petroleum reservoir fluids is of great interest to many applications, especially in petroleum engineering and chemical engineering. Molecular simulation has many appealing features, especially its requirement of fewer tuned parameters but yet better predicting capability; however it is well known that molecular simulation is very CPU expensive, as compared to equation of state approaches. We have recently introduced an efficient thermodynamically consistent technique to regenerate rapidly Monte Carlo Markov Chains (MCMCs) at different thermodynamic conditions from the existing data points that have been pre-computed with expensive classical simulation. This technique can speed up the simulation more than a million times, making the regenerated molecular simulation almost as fast as equation of state approaches. In this paper, this technique is first briefly reviewed and then numerically investigated in its capability of predicting ensemble averages of primary quantities at different neighboring thermodynamic conditions to the original simulated MCMCs. Moreover, this extrapolation technique is extended to predict second derivative properties (e.g. heat capacity and fluid compressibility). The method works by reweighting and reconstructing generated MCMCs in canonical ensemble for Lennard-Jones particles. In this paper, system's potential energy, pressure, isochoric heat capacity and isothermal compressibility along isochors, isotherms and paths of changing temperature and density from the original simulated points were extrapolated. Finally, an optimized set of Lennard-Jones parameters (?, ?) for single site models were proposed for methane, nitrogen and carbon monoxide.

  14. Global

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Permalink EC, DHS's S&T Directorate, Federal Emergency Management Agency: SUMMIT Analysis, Capabilities, Facilities, Global, Infrastructure Security, Modeling, Modeling & Analysis, NISAC, Partnership, Research & Capabilities EC, DHS's S&T Directorate, Federal Emergency Management Agency: SUMMIT Natural disasters create emergency situations that must be dealt with quickly and effectively in order to minimize injury and loss of life. Simulating such events before they occur can

  15. Development of an operational global ocean climatology through the use of remotely sensed sea surface temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winter, T.M.

    1995-05-09

    Monthly mean satellite-derived sea surface temperature SST data have been derived globally using daytime and nighttime AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) multi-channel data. From a 12 year data set (1982-1993), valid monthly daytime and nighttime climatologies were created using an eight year subset (1984-1990, 1993). Based on buoy comparisons, four years were omitted due to volcanic aerosol corruption (El Chichon 1982/83, Mt. Pinatubo 1991/92). These resulting monthly climatologies provide SST fields at approximately 1/3rd degree latitude/longitude resolution. Difference fields have been created comparing the new satellite climatology with the older and coarser-resolution climatology constructed from conventional SST data. Regional and zonal climatology differences were also created to highlight the deficiencies, especially in the Southern Hemisphere, in the older climatology believed to result primarily from a lack of buoy/ship (in situ) data. Such comparisons made it clear that the satellite climatology provided a much better product. Ocean current systems, El Nino, La Nina, and other water mass characteristics all appear with better detail and accuracy within the high-resolution satellite climatology.

  16. The Global Historical Climatology Network: Long-term monthly temperature, precipitation, sea level pressure, and station pressure data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vose, R.S. . Energy, Environment and Resources Center); Schmoyer, R.L. ); Steurer, P.M.; Peterson, T.C.; Heim, R.; Karl, T.R. ); Eischeid, J.K. . Cooperative Inst. for Research in Environmental Sciences)

    1992-07-01

    Interest in global climate change has risen dramatically during the last several years. In a similar fashion, the number of data sets available to study global change has also increased. Unfortunately, these data sets have been compiled by many different organizations/researchers, making it confusing and time consuming for individual researchers to acquire the best'' data. In response to this rapid growth in the number of global data sets, the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) and the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) commenced the Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) project. The purpose of this project is to compile an improved global base-line data set of long-term monthly mean temperature, precipitation, sea level pressure, and station pressure for a dense network. of worldwide meteorological stations. Specifically, the GHCN project seeks to consolidate the numerous preexisting national-, regional-, and global-scale data sets into a single global climate data base that can be updated, enhanced, and distributed at regular intervals. The first version of the GHCN data base was completed during the summer of 1992. It contains 6039 temperature, 7533 precipitation, 1883 sea level pressure, and 1873 station pressure stations. All stations have at least 10 years of data, 40% have more than 50 years of data, and 10% have more than 100 years of data. Spatial coverage is good over most of the globe, particularly for the United States and central Europe. In comparison to other major global data sets, dramatic improvements are evident over South America, Africa, and Asia. The GHCN data base is available as a Numeric Data Package (NDP) from CDIAC. The NDP consists of this document and two magnetic tapes that contain machine-readable data files and accompanying retrieval codes. This document describes, in detail, both the GHCN data base and the contents of the magnetic tap

  17. The Global Historical Climatology Network: Long-term monthly temperature, precipitation, sea level pressure, and station pressure data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vose, R.S.; Schmoyer, R.L.; Steurer, P.M.; Peterson, T.C.; Heim, R.; Karl, T.R.; Eischeid, J.K.

    1992-07-01

    Interest in global climate change has risen dramatically during the last several years. In a similar fashion, the number of data sets available to study global change has also increased. Unfortunately, these data sets have been compiled by many different organizations/researchers, making it confusing and time consuming for individual researchers to acquire the ``best`` data. In response to this rapid growth in the number of global data sets, the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) and the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) commenced the Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) project. The purpose of this project is to compile an improved global base-line data set of long-term monthly mean temperature, precipitation, sea level pressure, and station pressure for a dense network. of worldwide meteorological stations. Specifically, the GHCN project seeks to consolidate the numerous preexisting national-, regional-, and global-scale data sets into a single global climate data base that can be updated, enhanced, and distributed at regular intervals. The first version of the GHCN data base was completed during the summer of 1992. It contains 6039 temperature, 7533 precipitation, 1883 sea level pressure, and 1873 station pressure stations. All stations have at least 10 years of data, 40% have more than 50 years of data, and 10% have more than 100 years of data. Spatial coverage is good over most of the globe, particularly for the United States and central Europe. In comparison to other major global data sets, dramatic improvements are evident over South America, Africa, and Asia. The GHCN data base is available as a Numeric Data Package (NDP) from CDIAC. The NDP consists of this document and two magnetic tapes that contain machine-readable data files and accompanying retrieval codes. This document describes, in detail, both the GHCN data base and the contents of the magnetic tap

  18. Neutron resonance averaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chrien, R.E.

    1986-10-01

    The principles of resonance averaging as applied to neutron capture reactions are described. Several illustrations of resonance averaging to problems of nuclear structure and the distribution of radiative strength in nuclei are provided. 30 refs., 12 figs.

  19. Five-years of microenvironment data along an urban-rural transect; temperature and CO2 concentrations in urban area at levels expected globally with climate change.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George, Kate; Ziska, Lewis H; Bunce, James A; Quebedeaux, Bruno

    2007-11-01

    The heat island effect and the high use of fossil fuels in large city centers is well documented, but by how much fossil fuel consumption is elevating atmospheric CO2 concentrations and whether elevations in both atmospheric CO2 and air temperature are consistent from year to year are less well known. Our aim was to record atmospheric CO2 concentrations, air temperature and other environmental variables in an urban area and compare it to suburban and rural sites to see if urban sites are experiencing climates expected globally in the future with climate change. A transect was established from Baltimore city center (Urban site), to the outer suburbs of Baltimore (suburban site) and out to an organic farm (rural site). At each site a weather station was set-up to monitor environmental variables annually for five years. Atmospheric CO2 was significantly increased on average by 66 ppm from the rural to the urban site over the five years of the study. Air temperature was significantly higher at the urban site (14.8 oC) compared to the suburban (13.6 oC) and rural (12.7 oC) sites. Relative humidity was not different between sites but vapor pressure deficit (VPD) was significantly higher at the urban site compared to the suburban and rural sites. During wet years relative humidity was significantly increased and VPD significantly reduced. Increased nitrogen deposition at the rural site (2.1 % compared to 1.8 and 1.2 % at the suburban and urban sites) was small enough not to affect soil nitrogen content. Dense urban areas with large populations and high vehicular traffic have significantly different microclimates compared to outlying suburban and rural areas. The increases in atmospheric CO2 and air temperature are similar to changes predicted in the short term with global climate change, therefore providing an environment suitable for studying future effects of climate change on terrestrial ecosystems.

  20. Borehole temperatures and a baseline for 20th-century global warming estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, R.N.; Chapman, D.S.

    1997-03-14

    Lack of a 19th-century baseline temperature against which 20th-century warming can be referenced constitutes a deficiency in understanding recent climate change. Combination of borehole temperature profiles, which contain a memory of surface temperature changes in previous centuries, with the meteorologicl archive of surface air temperatures can provide a 19th-century baseline temperature tied to the current observational record. A test case in Utah, where boreholes are interspersed with meteorological stations belonging to the Historical Climatological network, Yields a noise reduction in estimates of 20th-century warming and a baseline temperature that is 0.6{degrees} {+-} 0.1{degrees}C below the 1951 to 1970 mean temperature for the region. 22 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  1. GSOD Based Daily Global Mean Surface Temperature and Mean Sea Level Air Pressure (1982-2011)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Xuan Shi, Dali Wang

    This data product contains all the gridded data set at 1/4 degree resolution in ASCII format. Both mean temperature and mean sea level air pressure data are available. It also contains the GSOD data (1982-2011) from NOAA site, contains station number, location, temperature and pressures (sea level and station level). The data package also contains information related to the data processing methods

  2. GSOD Based Daily Global Mean Surface Temperature and Mean Sea Level Air Pressure (1982-2011)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Xuan Shi, Dali Wang

    2014-05-05

    This data product contains all the gridded data set at 1/4 degree resolution in ASCII format. Both mean temperature and mean sea level air pressure data are available. It also contains the GSOD data (1982-2011) from NOAA site, contains station number, location, temperature and pressures (sea level and station level). The data package also contains information related to the data processing methods

  3. NEWLY DISCOVERED GLOBAL TEMPERATURE STRUCTURES IN THE QUIET SUN AT SOLAR MINIMUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang Zhenguang; Frazin, Richard A.; Landi, Enrico; Manchester, Ward B.; Gombosi, Tamas I.; Vasquez, Alberto M.

    2012-08-20

    Magnetic loops are building blocks of the closed-field corona. While active region loops are readily seen in images taken at EUV and X-ray wavelengths, quiet-Sun (QS) loops are seldom identifiable and are therefore difficult to study on an individual basis. The first analysis of solar minimum (Carrington Rotation 2077) QS coronal loops utilizing a novel technique called the Michigan Loop Diagnostic Technique (MLDT) is presented. This technique combines Differential Emission Measure Tomography and a potential field source surface (PFSS) model, and consists of tracing PFSS field lines through the tomographic grid on which the local differential emission measure is determined. As a result, the electron temperature T{sub e} and density N{sub e} at each point along each individual field line can be obtained. Using data from STEREO/EUVI and SOHO/MDI, the MLDT identifies two types of QS loops in the corona: so-called up loops in which the temperature increases with height and so-called down loops in which the temperature decreases with height. Up loops are expected, however, down loops are a surprise, and furthermore, they are ubiquitous in the low-latitude corona. Up loops dominate the QS at higher latitudes. The MLDT allows independent determination of the empirical pressure and density scale heights, and the differences between the two remain to be explained. The down loops appear to be a newly discovered property of the solar minimum corona that may shed light on the physics of coronal heating. The results are shown to be robust to the calibration uncertainties of the EUVI instrument.

  4. Concentration Averaging | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Concentration Averaging Concentration Averaging Summary Notes from 3 October 2007 Generic Technical Issue Discussion on Concentration Averaging PDF icon Summary Notes from 3...

  5. "2014 Average Monthly Bill- Commercial"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Consumption (kWh)","Average Price (centskWh)","Average Monthly Bill (Dollar and cents)" "New England",862269,5132.4894,14.699138,754.43169 "Connecticut",155372,6915.4089,15.547557...

  6. Spacetime averaged null energy condition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urban, Douglas; Olum, Ken D.

    2010-06-15

    The averaged null energy condition has known violations for quantum fields in curved space, even when one considers only achronal geodesics. Many such examples involve rapid variation in the stress-energy tensor in the vicinity of the geodesic under consideration, giving rise to the possibility that averaging in additional dimensions would yield a principle universally obeyed by quantum fields. However, after discussing various procedures for additional averaging, including integrating over all dimensions of the manifold, we give here a class of examples that violate any such averaged condition.

  7. 2014 Average Monthly Bill- Residential

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Consumption (kWh) Average Price (centskWh) Average Monthly Bill (Dollar and cents) New England 6,243,013 630 17.82 112.31 Connecticut 1,459,239 730 19.75 144.10 Maine...

  8. 2014 Average Monthly Bill- Commercial

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Consumption (kWh) Average Price (centskWh) Average Monthly Bill (Dollar and cents) New England 862,269 5,132 14.70 754.43 Connecticut 155,372 6,915 15.55 1,075.18 Maine...

  9. Global Warming

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Global Warming and Methane Global warming, an increase in Earth's near-surface temperature, is believed to result from the buildup of what scientists refer to as "greenhouse gases." These gases include water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, ozone, perfluorocarbons, hydrofluoro- carbons, and sulfur hexafluoride. Greenhouse gases can absorb outgoing infrared (heat) radiation and re-emit it back to Earth, warming the surface. Thus, these gases act like the glass of a

  10. High average power pockels cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daly, Thomas P. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1991-01-01

    A high average power pockels cell is disclosed which reduces the effect of thermally induced strains in high average power laser technology. The pockels cell includes an elongated, substantially rectangular crystalline structure formed from a KDP-type material to eliminate shear strains. The X- and Y-axes are oriented substantially perpendicular to the edges of the crystal cross-section and to the C-axis direction of propagation to eliminate shear strains.

  11. ARM - Global Beginners

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Beginners Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Global Beginners What is Global Warming? Have you noticed a change in the temperature outside? Learn about global warming. What Causes Global Warming? Greenhouse gases, cars, and coal are just a few of the factors that cause global

  12. 2014 Average Monthly Bill- Industrial

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Industrial (Data from forms EIA-861- schedules 4A-D, EIA-861S and EIA-861U) State Number of Customers Average Monthly Consumption (kWh) Average Price (cents/kWh) Average Monthly Bill (Dollar and cents) New England 28,017 56,833 11.84 6,730.30 Connecticut 4,648 63,016 12.92 8,138.94 Maine 3,023 92,554 8.95 8,281.27 Massachusetts 14,896 44,536 12.74 5,674.13 New Hampshire 3,342 49,099 11.93 5,857.27 Rhode Island 1,884 39,241 12.86 5,047.36 Vermont 224 527,528 10.23 53,984.67 Middle Atlantic 44,397

  13. Variable Average Absolute Percent Differences

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Variable Average Absolute Percent Differences Percent of Projections Over- Estimated Gross Domestic Product Real Gross Domestic Product (Average Cumulative Growth)* (Table 2) 0.9 45.8 Petroleum Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil (Constant $) (Table 3a) 37.7 17.3 Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil (Nominal $) (Table 3b) 36.6 18.7 Total Petroleum Consumption (Table 4) 7.9 70.7 Crude Oil Production (Table 5) 8.1 51.1 Petroleum Net Imports (Table 6) 24.7 73.8 Natural Gas

  14. U.S. Global Change Research Program Recommended Citation: Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States, Thomas R. Karl, Jerry M. Melillo, and Thomas C. Peterson,

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    A State of Knowledge Report from the U.S. Global Change Research Program Recommended Citation: Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States, Thomas R. Karl, Jerry M. Melillo, and Thomas C. Peterson, (eds.). Cambridge University Press, 2009. The bars at the bottom of the front cover show the global annual average temperature from 1900-2008, see page 17. CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, São Paulo, Delhi Cambridge University Press 32

  15. Collaborative Research: Process-Resolving Decomposition of the Global Temperature Response to Modes of Low Frequency Variability in a Changing Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Yi

    2014-11-24

    DOE-GTRC-05596 11/24/2104 Collaborative Research: Process-Resolving Decomposition of the Global Temperature Response to Modes of Low Frequency Variability in a Changing Climate PI: Dr. Yi Deng (PI) School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences Georgia Institute of Technology 404-385-1821, yi.deng@eas.gatech.edu El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Annular Modes (AMs) represent respectively the most important modes of low frequency variability in the tropical and extratropical circulations. The projection of future changes in the ENSO and AM variability, however, remains highly uncertain with the state-of-the-science climate models. This project conducted a process-resolving, quantitative evaluations of the ENSO and AM variability in the modern reanalysis observations and in climate model simulations. The goal is to identify and understand the sources of uncertainty and biases in models’ representation of ENSO and AM variability. Using a feedback analysis method originally formulated by one of the collaborative PIs, we partitioned the 3D atmospheric temperature anomalies and surface temperature anomalies associated with ENSO and AM variability into components linked to 1) radiation-related thermodynamic processes such as cloud and water vapor feedbacks, 2) local dynamical processes including convection and turbulent/diffusive energy transfer and 3) non-local dynamical processes such as the horizontal energy transport in the oceans and atmosphere. In the past 4 years, the research conducted at Georgia Tech under the support of this project has led to 15 peer-reviewed publications and 9 conference/workshop presentations. Two graduate students and one postdoctoral fellow also received research training through participating the project activities. This final technical report summarizes key scientific discoveries we made and provides also a list of all publications and conference presentations resulted from research activities at Georgia Tech. The main findings include: 1) the distinctly different roles played by atmospheric dynamical processes in establishing surface temperature response to ENSO at tropics and extratropics (i.e., atmospheric dynamics disperses energy out of tropics during ENSO warm events and modulate surface temperature at mid-, high-latitudes through controlling downward longwave radiation); 2) the representations of ENSO-related temperature response in climate models fail to converge at the process-level particularly over extratropics (i.e., models produce the right temperature responses to ENSO but with wrong reasons); 3) water vapor feedback contributes substantially to the temperature anomalies found over U.S. during different phases of the Northern Annular Mode (NAM), which adds new insight to the traditional picture that cold/warm advective processes are the main drivers of local temperature responses to the NAM; 4) the overall land surface temperature biases in the latest NCAR model (CESM1) are caused by biases in surface albedo while the surface temperature biases over ocean are related to multiple factors including biases in model albedo, cloud and oceanic dynamics, and the temperature biases over different ocean basins are also induced by different process biases. These results provide a detailed guidance for process-level model turning and improvement, and thus contribute directly to the overall goal of reducing model uncertainty in projecting future changes in the Earth’s climate system, especially in the ENSO and AM variability.

  16. Ensemble bayesian model averaging using markov chain Monte Carlo sampling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vrugt, Jasper A; Diks, Cees G H; Clark, Martyn P

    2008-01-01

    Bayesian model averaging (BMA) has recently been proposed as a statistical method to calibrate forecast ensembles from numerical weather models. Successful implementation of BMA however, requires accurate estimates of the weights and variances of the individual competing models in the ensemble. In their seminal paper (Raftery etal. Mon Weather Rev 133: 1155-1174, 2(05)) has recommended the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm for BMA model training, even though global convergence of this algorithm cannot be guaranteed. In this paper, we compare the performance of the EM algorithm and the recently developed Differential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM) Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm for estimating the BMA weights and variances. Simulation experiments using 48-hour ensemble data of surface temperature and multi-model stream-flow forecasts show that both methods produce similar results, and that their performance is unaffected by the length of the training data set. However, MCMC simulation with DREAM is capable of efficiently handling a wide variety of BMA predictive distributions, and provides useful information about the uncertainty associated with the estimated BMA weights and variances.

  17. A KNOWLEDGE DISCOVERY STRATEGY FOR RELATING SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURES TO FREQUENCIES OF TROPICAL STORMS AND GENERATING PREDICTIONS OF HURRICANES UNDER 21ST-CENTURY GLOBAL WARMING SCENARIOS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Race, Caitlin; Steinbach, Michael; Ganguly, Auroop R; Semazzi, Fred; Kumar, Vipin

    2010-01-01

    The connections among greenhouse-gas emissions scenarios, global warming, and frequencies of hurricanes or tropical cyclones are among the least understood in climate science but among the most fiercely debated in the context of adaptation decisions or mitigation policies. Here we show that a knowledge discovery strategy, which leverages observations and climate model simulations, offers the promise of developing credible projections of tropical cyclones based on sea surface temperatures (SST) in a warming environment. While this study motivates the development of new methodologies in statistics and data mining, the ability to solve challenging climate science problems with innovative combinations of traditional and state-of-the-art methods is demonstrated. Here we develop new insights, albeit in a proof-of-concept sense, on the relationship between sea surface temperatures and hurricane frequencies, and generate the most likely projections with uncertainty bounds for storm counts in the 21st-century warming environment based in turn on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emissions Scenarios. Our preliminary insights point to the benefits that can be achieved for climate science and impacts analysis, as well as adaptation and mitigation policies, by a solution strategy that remains tailored to the climate domain and complements physics-based climate model simulations with a combination of existing and new computational and data science approaches.

  18. STEO January 2013 - average gasoline prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    drivers to see lower average gasoline prices in 2013 and 2014 U.S. retail gasoline prices are expected to decline over the next two years. The average pump price for regular...

  19. ARM - Evaluation Product - Areal Average Albedo (AREALAVEALB)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ProductsAreal Average Albedo (AREALAVEALB) ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Documentation Use the Data File Inventory tool to view data availability at the file level. Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Evaluation Product : Areal Average Albedo (AREALAVEALB) [ ARM research - evaluation data product ] The Areal Averaged Albedo VAP yields areal averaged surface spectral albedo estimates from MFRSR measurements collected under fully

  20. Average and effective Q-values for fission product average (n...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Average and effective Q-values for fission product average (n,2n) and (n,3n) reaction cross sections Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Average and...

  1. Temperature System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Soil Water and Temperature System  SWATS In the realm of global climate modeling, numerous variables affect the state of the atmosphere and climate. One important area is soil moisture and temperature. The ARM Program uses several types of instruments to gather soil moisture information. An example is the soil water and temperature system (SWATS) (Figure 1). A SWATS is located at each of 21 extended facility sites within the CART site boundary. Each system is configured to measure soil

  2. Dynamic Multiscale Averaging (DMA) of Turbulent Flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard W. Johnson

    2012-09-01

    A new approach called dynamic multiscale averaging (DMA) for computing the effects of turbulent flow is described. The new method encompasses multiple applications of temporal and spatial averaging, that is, multiscale operations. Initially, a direct numerical simulation (DNS) is performed for a relatively short time; it is envisioned that this short time should be long enough to capture several fluctuating time periods of the smallest scales. The flow field variables are subject to running time averaging during the DNS. After the relatively short time, the time-averaged variables are volume averaged onto a coarser grid. Both time and volume averaging of the describing equations generate correlations in the averaged equations. These correlations are computed from the flow field and added as source terms to the computation on the next coarser mesh. They represent coupling between the two adjacent scales. Since they are computed directly from first principles, there is no modeling involved. However, there is approximation involved in the coupling correlations as the flow field has been computed for only a relatively short time. After the time and spatial averaging operations are applied at a given stage, new computations are performed on the next coarser mesh using a larger time step. The process continues until the coarsest scale needed is reached. New correlations are created for each averaging procedure. The number of averaging operations needed is expected to be problem dependent. The new DMA approach is applied to a relatively low Reynolds number flow in a square duct segment. Time-averaged stream-wise velocity and vorticity contours from the DMA approach appear to be very similar to a full DNS for a similar flow reported in the literature. Expected symmetry for the final results is produced for the DMA method. The results obtained indicate that DMA holds significant potential in being able to accurately compute turbulent flow without modeling for practical engineering applications.

  3. Signal and noise in global warming detection. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    North, G.R.

    1998-11-01

    The specific objectives of this study were the following: (1) What is the expected sampling error and bias incurred in estimation of the global average temperature from a finite number of point gauges? (2) What is the best one can do by optimally arranging N point gauges, how can one make best use of existing data at N point gauges by optimally weighting them? (3) What is a good estimation of the signal of global warming based upon simple models of the climate system? (4) How does one develop an optimal signal detection technique from the knowledge of signal and noise?

  4. Integrated assessment of global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ott, K.O.

    1996-12-31

    The anomalies of sea surface temperatures, which show a warming trend since the 1850s through the decade 1960/70 of {Delta}SST {approximately} 0.3 C, are complemented by changes of the ground surface temperature ({Delta}GST). The global surface temperature change, based on these data, allows an integrated assessment of the associated increase in black-body irradiance and a comparison with the enhanced greenhouse-gas back-scattering. Information on the GST history is obtained from unfolding analyses of underground temperature distributions measured in 90 boreholes in Alaskan permafrost and Canadian bedrock. These analyses show GST increases ({Delta}GST) since the 19th century through 1960/70 of 3 C on average, with standard deviations of +1.8 C and {minus}0.9 C on the high and low end respectively. The onset of the warming trend, which is uncertain in the GST data, is timed more accurately by detailed length records of large valley glaciers in the US and the Alps. Evaluation of the heat capacities and heat transfer indicates that the temperature response to an increase in radiative forcing must be much larger on land than on the sea. Conversely, the observed large ratio of {Delta}GST and {Delta}SST can only be explained by increased radiative forcing. From 1960/70 through the warmest decade on record, 1980/90, global {Delta}SST and {Delta}SAT have further increased to 0.6 C and 0.8 C respectively, But, the most recent GST data are not accurate enough to extend the comparison through 1990. Calculation of the increase of radiative forcing from back-scattering of greenhouse gases for 1850 to 1970 yields 1.3 W/cm{sup 2}. The increase in black-body irradiance from 3.6 C warming on land and 0.3 C on sea provides the required balance. The warming on land of 3.6 C is larger than the average value of 3.0 C, but well within the observed range.

  5. Spacetime Average Density (SAD) cosmological measures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Page, Don N.

    2014-11-01

    The measure problem of cosmology is how to obtain normalized probabilities of observations from the quantum state of the universe. This is particularly a problem when eternal inflation leads to a universe of unbounded size so that there are apparently infinitely many realizations or occurrences of observations of each of many different kinds or types, making the ratios ambiguous. There is also the danger of domination by Boltzmann Brains. Here two new Spacetime Average Density (SAD) measures are proposed, Maximal Average Density (MAD) and Biased Average Density (BAD), for getting a finite number of observation occurrences by using properties of the Spacetime Average Density (SAD) of observation occurrences to restrict to finite regions of spacetimes that have a preferred beginning or bounce hypersurface. These measures avoid Boltzmann brain domination and appear to give results consistent with other observations that are problematic for other widely used measures, such as the observation of a positive cosmological constant.

  6. Polarized electron beams at milliampere average current

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poelker, Matthew

    2013-11-01

    This contribution describes some of the challenges associated with developing a polarized electron source capable of uninterrupted days-long operation at milliAmpere average beam current with polarization greater than 80%. Challenges will be presented in the context of assessing the required level of extrapolation beyond the performance of today's CEBAF polarized source operating at ~ 200 uA average current. Estimates of performance at higher current will be based on hours-long demonstrations at 1 and 4 mA. Particular attention will be paid to beam-related lifetime-limiting mechanisms, and strategies to construct a photogun that operate reliably at bias voltage > 350kV.

  7. Average and effective Q-values for fission product average (n,2n) and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (n,3n) reaction cross sections (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Average and effective Q-values for fission product average (n,2n) and (n,3n) reaction cross sections Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Average and effective Q-values for fission product average (n,2n) and (n,3n) reaction cross sections Authors: Kawano, Toshihiko [1] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States) Publication Date: 2015-10-01 OSTI

  8. The global climate for December 1990-February 1991: Strong temperature and precipitation contrasts over North America and Eurasia; mixed ENSO conditions in the tropics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chelliah, M. )

    1993-07-01

    During most of the December 1990-February 1991 season sharp transcontinental temperature anomaly contrasts were evident in North America, Eurasia, and Australia. Large-scale atmospheric precipitations are more difficult to characterize. In the equatorial tropics there was some evidence of conditions similar to ENSO near the date line, but an almost complete failure of other ENSO components to appear in the east Pacific and in the tropical atmospheric circulation. 12 refs., 21 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Table 1. Real Average Transportation and Delivered Costs of Coal...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Real Average Transportation and Delivered Costs of Coal, By Year and Primary Transport Mode" "Year","Average Transportation Cost of Coal (Dollars per Ton)","Average Delivered Cost...

  10. Fact #693: September 19, 2011 Average Vehicle Footprint for Cars...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the average track width of the vehicle. The upcoming Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards have fuel economy targets based on the vehicle footprint. The average...

  11. Cold stress on Russian territory during last global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vinogradov, V.V.

    1996-12-31

    A great part of Russian territory is characterized by climate discomfort of life. In winter cold stress covers nearly all territory. The purpose of this work is to learn how the climatic discomfort of life is affected by climate change. The effect of global warming for the period 1981--1990 on geographical distribution of bioclimatic indexes by seasons (compared with average figures) is analyzed. Indexes of enthalpy, dry cooling, wind chill, wet cooling, effective temperature, physiological deficit index for monthly average figures were calculated and the data bank for the period 1981--1990 was made up. The indexes of enthalpy, wet cooling, and dry cooling according to Bodman were chosen as the most informative and independent. Maps of the climatic indexes taking into account temperature, humidity and wind speed were made up on the basis of the calculated figures.

  12. Temperature Data for Week Ending May 12, 2005

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Temperature Data for Week Ending May 12, 2005 (F) Source: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Weather Service Average Temperature Deviation Between Average...

  13. Global crop yield losses from recent warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lobell, D; Field, C

    2006-06-02

    Global yields of the world-s six most widely grown crops--wheat, rice, maize, soybeans, barley, sorghum--have increased since 1961. Year-to-year variations in growing season minimum temperature, maximum temperature, and precipitation explain 30% or more of the variations in yield. Since 1991, climate trends have significantly decreased yield trends in all crops but rice, leading to foregone production since 1981 of about 12 million tons per year of wheat or maize, representing an annual economic loss of $1.2 to $1.7 billion. At the global scale, negative impacts of climate trends on crop yields are already apparent. Annual global temperatures have increased by {approx}0.4 C since 1980, with even larger changes observed in several regions (1). While many studies have considered the impacts of future climate changes on food production (2-5), the effects of these past changes on agriculture remain unclear. It is likely that warming has improved yields in some areas, reduced them in others, and had negligible impacts in still others; the relative balance of these effects at the global scale is unknown. An understanding of this balance would help to anticipate impacts of future climate changes, as well as to more accurately assess recent (and thereby project future) technologically driven yield progress. Separating the contribution of climate from concurrent changes in other factors--such as crop cultivars, management practices, soil quality, and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) levels--requires models that describe the response of yields to climate. Studies of future global impacts of climate change have typically relied on a bottom-up approach, whereby field scale, process-based models are applied to hundreds of representative sites and then averaged (e.g., ref 2). Such approaches require input data on soil and management conditions, which are often difficult to obtain. Limitations on data quality or quantity can thus limit the utility of this approach, especially at the local scale (6-8). At the global scale, however, many of the processes and impacts captured by field scale models will tend to cancel out, and therefore simpler empirical/statistical models with fewer input requirements may be as accurate (8, 9). Empirical/statistical models also allow the effects of poorly modeled processes (e.g., pest dynamics) to be captured and uncertainties to be readily quantified (10). Here we develop new, empirical/statistical models of global yield responses to climate using datasets on broad-scale yields, crop locations, and climate variability. We focus on global average yields for the six most widely grown crops in the world: wheat, rice, maize, soybeans, barley, and sorghum. Production of these crops accounts for over 40% of global cropland area (11). 55% of non-meat calories, and over 70% of animal feed (12).

  14. ARM - What is Global Warming?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is Global Warming? Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans What is Global Warming? The surface temperature of each of the planets in our solar system depends on a process called the heat budget. This budget, like any other type of budget, remains balanced if the amount (of energy)

  15. ARM - What is Global Warming?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    be a little hotter than normal where YOU live but it may be a little cooler where other people live So, when you look at the average temperature everywhere on the earth for a...

  16. Description of Atmospheric Conditions at the Pierre Auger Observatory using the Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E.J.; Albuquerque, I.F.M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; /Mexico U., ICN /Santiago de Compostela U.

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric conditions at the site of a cosmic ray observatory must be known for reconstructing observed extensive air showers. The Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) is a global atmospheric model predicated on meteorological measurements and numerical weather predictions. GDAS provides altitude-dependent profiles of the main state variables of the atmosphere like temperature, pressure, and humidity. The original data and their application to the air shower reconstruction of the Pierre Auger Observatory are described. By comparisons with radiosonde and weather station measurements obtained on-site in Malargue and averaged monthly models, the utility of the GDAS data is shown.

  17. Global warming, global research, and global governing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Preining, O.

    1997-12-31

    The anticipated dangers of Global Warming can be mitigated by reducing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations, especially CO{sub 2}. To reach acceptable, constant levels within the next couple of centuries it might be necessary to accept stabilization levels higher than present ones, The annual CO{sub 2} emissions must be reduced far below today`s values. This is a very important result of the models discussed in the 1995 IPCC report. However, any even very modest scenario for the future must take into account a substantial increase in the world population which might double during the 21st century, There is a considerable emission reduction potential of the industrialized world due to efficiency increase, However, the demand for energy services by the growing world population will, inspite of the availability of alternative energy resources, possibly lead to a net increase in fossil fuel consumption. If the climate models are right, and the science community believes they are, we will experience a global warming of the order of a couple of degrees over the next century; we have to live with it. To be prepared for the future it is essential for us to use new research techniques embracing not only the familiar fields of hard sciences but also social, educational, ethical and economic aspects, We must find a way to build up the essential intellectual capacities needed to deal with these kinds of general problems within all nations and all societies. But this is not Although, we also have to find the necessary dynamical and highly flexible structures for a global governing using tools such as the environmental regime. The first step was the Framework Convention On Climate Change, UN 1992; for resolution of questions regarding implementations the Conference of the Parties was established.

  18. Annual average efficiency of a solar thermochemical reactor....

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Annual average efficiency of a solar thermochemical reactor. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Annual average efficiency of a solar thermochemical reactor. Abstract not ...

  19. High Average Brightness Photocathode Development for FEL Applications...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: High Average Brightness Photocathode Development for FEL Applications Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High Average Brightness Photocathode Development for...

  20. ARM - Will There be Increased Global Precipitation?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Will There be Increased Global Precipitation? Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Will There be Increased Global Precipitation? Very probable. Along with an increase in air temperature might be an increase in evaporation, which could lead to greater global precipitation. The

  1. Radiative forcing and temperature response to changes in urban albedos and associated CO2 offsets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menon, Surabi; Akbari, Hashem; Mahanama, Sarith; Sednev, Igor; Levinson, Ronnen

    2010-02-12

    The two main forcings that can counteract to some extent the positive forcings from greenhouse gases from pre-industrial times to present-day are the aerosol and related aerosol-cloud forcings, and the radiative response to changes in surface albedo. Here, we quantify the change in radiative forcing and land surface temperature that may be obtained by increasing the albedos of roofs and pavements in urban areas in temperate and tropical regions of the globe by 0.1. Using the catchment land surface model (the land model coupled to the GEOS-5 Atmospheric General Circulation Model), we quantify the change in the total outgoing (outgoing shortwave+longwave) radiation and land surface temperature to a 0.1 increase in urban albedos for all global land areas. The global average increase in the total outgoing radiation was 0.5 Wm{sup -2}, and temperature decreased by {approx}0.008 K for an average 0.003 increase in surface albedo. These averages represent all global land areas where data were available from the land surface model used and are for the boreal summer (June-July-August). For the continental U.S. the total outgoing radiation increased by 2.3 Wm{sup -2}, and land surface temperature decreased by {approx}0.03 K for an average 0.01 increase in surface albedo. Based on these forcings, the expected emitted CO{sub 2} offset for a plausible 0.25 and 0.15 increase in albedos of roofs and pavements, respectively, for all global urban areas, was found to be {approx} 57 Gt CO{sub 2}. A more meaningful evaluation of the impacts of urban albedo increases on global climate and the expected CO{sub 2} offsets would require simulations which better characterizes urban surfaces and represents the full annual cycle.

  2. Global Arrays

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-02-23

    The Global Arrays (GA) toolkit provides an efficient and portable “shared-memory” programming interface for distributed-memory computers. Each process in a MIMD parallel program can asynchronously access logical blocks of physically distributed dense multi-dimensional arrays, without need for explicit cooperation by other processes. Unlike other shared-memory environments, the GA model exposes to the programmer the non-uniform memory access (NUMA) characteristics of the high performance computers and acknowledges that access to a remote portion of the sharedmore » data is slower than to the local portion. The locality information for the shared data is available, and a direct access to the local portions of shared data is provided. Global Arrays have been designed to complement rather than substitute for the message-passing programming model. The programmer is free to use both the shared-memory and message-passing paradigms in the same program, and to take advantage of existing message-passing software libraries. Global Arrays are compatible with the Message Passing Interface (MPI).« less

  3. ARM - Word Seek: Temperature

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Temperature Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Word Seek: Temperature

  4. Fact #889: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    9: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than Gasoline for the First Time in Six Years Fact 889: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than Gasoline for the First...

  5. Fact #889: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fact 889: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than Gasoline for the First Time in Six Years - Dataset Excel file and dataset for Average Diesel Price Lower than Gasoline ...

  6. Fact #835: August 25, 2014 Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fact 835: August 25, 2014 Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2013 - Dataset Excel file with dataset for Fact 835: Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2013 File ...

  7. Fact #915: March 7, 2016 Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fact 915: March 7, 2016 Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2015 - Dataset Excel file and dataset for Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2015 File ...

  8. Near-Term Acceleration In The Rate of Temperature Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Steven J.; Edmonds, James A.; Hartin, Corinne A.; Mundra, Anupriya; Calvin, Katherine V.

    2015-03-09

    Anthropogenically-driven climate changes, which are expected to impact human and natural systems, are often expressed in terms of global-mean temperature . The rate of climate change over multi-decadal scales is also important, with faster rates of change resulting in less time for human and natural systems to adapt . We find that current trends in greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions are now moving the Earth system into a regime in terms of multi-decadal rates of change that are unprecedented for at least the last 1000 years. The rate of global-mean temperature increase in the CMIP5 archive over 40-year periods increases to 0.25±0.05 (1σ) °C per decade by 2020, an average greater than peak rates of change during the previous 1-2 millennia. Regional rates of change in Europe, North America and the Arctic are higher than the global average. Research on the impacts of such near-term rates of change is urgently needed.

  9. U.S. Oxygenated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    - - - - - - 1994-2014 Through Retail Outlets 1994-2006 Sales for Resale, Average - - - - - - 1994-2014 DTW 1994-2006 Rack 1994-2006 Bulk 1994-2006

  10. "Table 2. Real Average Annual Coal Transportation Costs, By Primary...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Real Average Annual Coal Transportation Costs, By Primary Transport Mode and Supply Region" "(2013 dollars per ton)" "Coal Supply Region",2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013 "Railroad"...

  11. Turning Bayesian model averaging into Bayesian model combination...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Turning Bayesian model averaging into Bayesian model combination Authors: Carroll, James 1 ; Monteith, Kristine 2 ; Seppi, Kevin 2 ; Martinez, Tony 2 + Show Author...

  12. High Average Brightness Photocathode Development for FEL Applications...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High Average Brightness Photocathode Development for FEL Applications Citation Details ... OFFICE OF SCIENCE (SC) Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 46

  13. Fact #870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1978-2014 | Department of Energy 70: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 Fact #870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 The Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) is the sales-weighted harmonic mean fuel economy of a manufacturer's fleet of new cars or light trucks in a certain model year (MY). First enacted by Congress in 1975, the standards for cars began in MY 1978 and for light trucks in MY 1979. In general, the average of all

  14. Electric Sales, Revenue, and Average Price 2011 - Energy Information...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Alphabetical Frequency Tag Cloud See All Electricity Reports Electric Sales, Revenue, and Average Price With Data for 2014 | Release Date: October 21, 2015 | Next Release Date: ...

  15. ARM - Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ListGreenhouse Effect and Global Warming Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming The Greenhouse Effect refers to a naturally occurring phenomenon that is responsible for maintaining a temperature that supports life on earth. However, this is often

  16. A tropical influence on global climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, E.K.; Kirtman, B.P.; Lindzen, R.S.

    1997-05-15

    A potential influence of tropical sea surface temperature on the global climate response to a doubling of the CO{sub 2} concentration is tested using an atmospheric general circulation model coupled to a slab mixed layer ocean. The warming is significantly reduced when sea surface temperatures in the eastern equatorial Pacific cold tongue region between latitudes 2.25{degrees}N and 2.25{degrees}S are held at the control simulation values. Warming of the global mean temperature outside of the cold tongue region is reduced from 2.4{degrees}C in the unconstrained case to 1.9{degrees}C when the sea surface temperature constraint is applied. The decrease in the warming results from a positive net heat flux into the ocean cold tongue region and implicit heat storage in the subsurface ocean, induced by horizontal atmospheric heat fluxes. The reduced surface temperature warming outside of the cold tongue region is due to reduction in the downward longwave radiative flux at the surface, caused in turn by reduced atmospheric temperature and moisture. The global mean surface temperature responds to the heat storage in the ocean as if the global mean radiative forcing due to the doubled CO{sub 2} (approximately 4 W m{sup {minus}2}) was reduced by the value of the global mean heat flux into the ocean. This mechanism also provides a possible explanation for the observed high correlation on interannual timescales between the global mean tropospheric temperature and sea surface temperature in the eastern tropical Pacific. The results emphasize the importance of correctly modeling the dynamical processes in the ocean and atmosphere that help determine the sea surface temperature in the equatorial eastern Pacific, in addition to the thermodynamical processes, in projecting global warming. 23 refs., 8 figs.

  17. "2014 Average Monthly Bill- Industrial"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Industrial" "(Data from forms EIA-861- schedules 4A-D, EIA-861S and EIA-861U)" "State","Number of Customers","Average Monthly Consumption (kWh)","Average Price (cents/kWh)","Average Monthly Bill (Dollar and cents)" "New England",28017,56832.854,11.842263,6730.2959 "Connecticut",4648,63016.315,12.915601,8138.9361 "Maine",3023,92553.92,8.9475131,8281.2741

  18. "2014 Average Monthly Bill- Residential"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residential" "(Data from forms EIA-861- schedules 4A-D, EIA-861S and EIA-861U)" "State","Number of Customers","Average Monthly Consumption (kWh)","Average Price (cents/kWh)","Average Monthly Bill (Dollar and cents)" "New England",6243013,630.1915,17.822291,112.31456 "Connecticut",1459239,729.69421,19.748254,144.10186 "Maine",706952,549.37782,15.272983,83.90638

  19. U.S. Refiner Sales to End Users (Average) Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales Type: Sales to End Users, Average Through Retail Outlets Sales for Resale, Average DTW Rack Bulk Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Formulation/ Grade Sales Type Jul-15 Aug-15 Sep-15 Oct-15 Nov-15 Dec-15 View History Conventional, Average 2.161 2.057 1.785 1.759 1.601 1.472 1994-2015 Conventional Regular 2.124 2.018 1.743 1.721 1.562 1.431 1994-2015 Conventional Midgrade 2.325 2.229 1.985 1.923

  20. Fighting Fire with Fire: Superlattice Cooling of Silicon Hotspots to Reduce Global Cooling Requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biswas, S; Tiwari, M; Sherwood, T; Theogarajan, L; Chong, F T

    2010-10-05

    The running costs of data centers are dominated by the need to dissipate heat generated by thousands of server machines. Higher temperatures are undesirable as they lead to premature silicon wear-out; in fact, mean time to failure has been shown to decrease exponentially with temperature (Black's law). Although other server components also generate heat, microprocessors still dominate in most server configurations and are also the most vulnerable to wearout as the feature sizes shrink. Even as processor complexity and technology scaling have increased the average energy density inside a processor to maximally tolerable levels, modern microprocessors make extensive use of hardware structures such as the load-store queue and other CAM-based units, and the peak temperatures on chip can be much worse than even the average temperature of the chip. In recent studies, it has been shown that hot-spots inside a processor can generate {approx} 800W/cm{sup 2} heat flux whereas the average heat flux is only 10-50W/cm{sup 2}, and due to this disparity in heat generation, the temperature in hot spots may be up to 30 C more than average chip temperature. The key problem processor hot-spots create is that in order to prevent some critical hardware structures from wearing out faster, the air conditioners in a data center have to be provisioned for worst case requirements. Worse yet, air conditioner efficiencies decrease exponentially as the desired ambient temperature decreases relative to the air outside. As a result, the global cooling costs in data centers, which nearly equals the IT equipment power consumption, are directly correlated with the maximum hot spot temperatures of processors, and there is a distinct requirement for a cooling technique to mitigate hot-spots selectively so that the global air conditioners can operate at higher, more efficient, temperatures. We observe that localized cooling via superlattice microrefrigeration presents exactly this opportunity whereby hot-spots can be cooled selectively and allow global coolers to operate at much more efficient temperatures. Recent advances in processor cooling technologies have demonstrated that thermoelectric coolers (TEC), which use a Peltier effect to form heat pumps, can be used to reduce the temperature of hot spots. By applying a thermoelectric cooler between the heat spreader and the processor die and applying current selectively at the hot spots, heat from the hot-spots can be spread much more efficiently. The ability to implement such thermoelectric coolers on a real silicon device has been demonstrated recently, albeit for small prototype chips. The key question then, that needs to be answered before such thermoelectric coolers can be integrated in commodity server processors, is 'What is the potential for superlattice microrefrigeration to reduce global cooling costs in data centers?'. In order to answer this question, we present a comprehensive analysis of the impact of thermoelectric coolers on global cooling costs. Our thermal analysis covers all aspects of cooling a server in a data center, and integrates on-chip dynamic and leakage power sources with a detailed heat diffusion model of a processor (that models the silicon to the thermoelectric cooler to the heat spreader and the heat sink) and finally the computer room air conditioner (CRAC) efficiency, as shown in Figure 1. In Section II, we present the components of the system model.

  1. ARM - Temperature Converter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CalculatorsTemperature Converter Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Temperature Converter The Fahrenheit scale, invented by German physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686-1736), is based on 32 °F for the freezing point of water and 212 °F for the boiling point of water. The

  2. ARM - Global Thinkers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thinkers Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Global Thinkers What is Global Warming? Investigate global warming and the conditions which lead to climatic changes. What Causes Global Warming? Information about the conditions in the atmosphere that lead to global warming. What are

  3. Fact #624: May 24, 2010 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Standards, Model Years 2012-2016 The final rule for the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards was published in March 2010. Under this rule, each light vehicle model...

  4. Does anyone have access to 2012 average residential rates by...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Does anyone have access to 2012 average residential rates by utility company? I'm seeing an inconsistency between the OpenEI website and EIA 861 data set. Home > Groups > Utility...

  5. Table 14b. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected Price in Nominal Dollars" " (nominal dollars, cents per kilowatt-hour)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,200...

  6. Table 14b. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual Projected Price in Nominal Dollars (nominal dollars, cents per kilowatt-hour) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002...

  7. Pennsylvania Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    67 15.82 17.83 18.62 18.32 NA 1989-2015 Commercial Average Price 10.73 11.25 12.09 11.21 11.10 NA...

  8. Averaged null energy condition violation in a conformally flat spacetime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urban, Douglas; Olum, Ken D.

    2010-01-15

    We show that the averaged null energy condition can be violated by a conformally coupled scalar field in a conformally flat spacetime in 3+1 dimensions. The violation is dependent on the quantum state and can be made as large as desired. It does not arise from the presence of anomalies, although anomalous violations are also possible. Since all geodesics in conformally flat spacetimes are achronal, the achronal averaged null energy condition is likewise violated.

  9. High Average Brightness Photocathode Development for FEL Applications

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect High Average Brightness Photocathode Development for FEL Applications Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High Average Brightness Photocathode Development for FEL Applications Authors: Rao T. ; Ben-Zvi I. ; Skarita, J. ; Wang, E. Publication Date: 2013-08-26 OSTI Identifier: 1095687 Report Number(s): BNL--101607-2013-CP KA-04 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC02-98CH10886 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: 35th International Free Electron

  10. Flavor Physics Data from the Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG) was established at the May 2002 Flavor Physics and CP Violation Conference in Philadelphia, and continues the LEP Heavy Flavor Steering Group's tradition of providing regular updates to the world averages of heavy flavor quantities. Data are provided by six subgroups that each focus on a different set of heavy flavor measurements: B lifetimes and oscillation parameters, Semi-leptonic B decays, Rare B decays, Unitarity triangle parameters, B decays to charm final states, and Charm Physics.

  11. Strongly Coupled Data Assimilation Using Leading Averaged Coupled

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Covariance (LACC). Part II: CGCM experiments (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Strongly Coupled Data Assimilation Using Leading Averaged Coupled Covariance (LACC). Part II: CGCM experiments Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Strongly Coupled Data Assimilation Using Leading Averaged Coupled Covariance (LACC). Part II: CGCM experiments Authors: Liu, Feiyu ; Liu, Zhengyu ; Zhang, S. ; Liu, Y. ; Jacob, Robert L. Publication Date: 2015-11-01 OSTI Identifier: 1237902 DOE Contract Number:

  12. Sandia Energy - Global

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Global Home Analysis Permalink Gallery Results from the Human Resilience Index and Modeling project were reported recently in the National Intelligence Council's Global Trends 2030...

  13. Cleantech Professional Resource Global Limited CPR Global | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Professional Resource Global Limited CPR Global Jump to: navigation, search Name: Cleantech Professional Resource Global Limited (CPR Global) Place: London, United Kingdom Zip:...

  14. Before House Subcommittee on Africa, Global Health, Global Human...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Subcommittee on Africa, Global Health, Global Human Rights, and International Organizations, Committee on Foreign Affairs Before House Subcommittee on Africa, Global Health, Global ...

  15. Global Climate Change and Agriculture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Izaurralde, Roberto C.

    2009-01-01

    The Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change released in 2007 significantly increased our confidence about the role that humans play in forcing climate change. There is now a high degree of confidence that the (a) current atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) far exceed those of the pre-industrial era, (b) global increases in CO2 arise mainly from fossil fuel use and land use change while those of CH4 and N2O originate primarily from agricultural activities, and (c) the net effect of human activities since 1750 has led to a warming of the lower layers of the atmosphere, with an increased radiative forcing of 1.6 W m-2. Depending on the scenario of human population growth and global development, mean global temperatures could rise between 1.8 and 4.0 C by the end of the 21st century.

  16. Global Scratch File System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scratch Global Scratch File System Status: Retired Overview The global scratch file system (or "global scratch") can be accessed by multiple NERSC systems. Its default quota is much larger than the Global Home quota, so it can be used to temporarily store large amounts of data. This file system is periodically purged. Platforms Using Global Scratch The global scratch file system is available on all NERSC systems. Quotas Default global scratch quotas are 20 TB and 4,000,000 inodes. If

  17. GE Global Research Leadership | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    About GE Global Research > Leadership Leadership GE Global Research Centers rely on the guidance of visionary leaders with deep technical knowledge on the ground at each of our sites. A photo of Vic Abate Vic Abate Chief Technology Officer GE Global Research As senior vice president and chief technology officer for GE, Vic is responsible for one of the world's largest and most diversified industrial research and technology organizations. Vic leads GE's 50,000 engineers and scientists and G...

  18. GE Global Research Locations | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Locations GE Global Research is innovating around the clock. Select one of our locations to learn more about operations there.GE Global Research is innovating around the clock. Select a location to learn more about our operations. Home > Locations GE Global Research is ALWAYS OPEN Already know about our locations? Experience a special look at a day in our life around the world! See What We're Doing Dhahran, Saudi Arabia Founded: 2015 Employees: 15 Focus Areas: Material Characterization,

  19. Global carbon budget 2014

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Peters, G. P.; Ciais, P.; Friedlingstein, P.; Jones, S. D.; Sitch, S.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Boden, T. A.; Bopp, L.; Bozec, Y.; Canadell, J. G.; Chini, L. P.; Chevallier, F.; Cosca, C. E.; Harris, I.; Hoppema, M.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Jain, A. K.; Johannessen, T.; Kato, E.; Keeling, R. F.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Koven, C.; Landa, C. S.; Landschützer, P.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I. D.; Marland, G.; Mathis, J. T.; Metzl, N.; Nojiri, Y.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Peng, S.; Peters, W.; Pfeil, B.; Poulter, B.; Raupach, M. R.; Regnier, P.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Salisbury, J. E.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Segschneider, J.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B. D.; Sutton, A. J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van der Werf, G. R.; Viovy, N.; Wang, Y.-P.; Wanninkhof, R.; Wiltshire, A.; Zeng, N.

    2015-05-08

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates, consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover-change (some including nitrogen–carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ;, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2004–2013), EFF was 8.9 ± 0.4 GtC yr⁻¹,ELUC 0.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr⁻¹, GATM 4.3 ± 0.1 GtC yr⁻¹, SOCEAN 2.6 ± 0.5 GtC yr⁻¹, and SLAND 2.9 ± 0.8 GtC yr⁻¹. For year 2013 alone, EFF grew to 9.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr⁻¹, 2.3% above 2012, continuing the growth trend in these emissions, ELUC was 0.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr⁻¹, GATM was 5.4 ± 0.2 GtC yr⁻¹, SOCEAN was 2.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr⁻¹, and SLAND was 2.5 ± 0.9 GtC yr⁻¹. GATM was high in 2013, reflecting a steady increase in EFF and smaller and opposite changes between SOCEAN and SLAND compared to the past decade (2004–2013). The global atmospheric CO2 concentration reached 395.31 ± 0.10 ppm averaged over 2013. We estimate that EFF will increase by 2.5% (1.3–3.5%) to 10.1 ± 0.6 GtC in 2014 (37.0 ± 2.2 GtCO2 yr⁻¹), 65% above emissions in 1990, based on projections of world gross domestic product and recent changes in the carbon intensity of the global economy. From this projection of EFF and assumed constant ELUC for 2014, cumulative emissions of CO2 will reach about 545 ± 55 GtC (2000 ± 200 GtCO2) for 1870–2014, about 75% from EFF and 25% from ELUC. This paper documents changes in the methods and data sets used in this new carbon budget compared with previous publications of this living data set (Le Quéré et al., 2013, 2014). All observations presented here can be downloaded from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (doi:10.3334/CDIAC/GCP_2014).

  20. Global carbon budget 2014

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Peters, G. P.; Ciais, P.; Friedlingstein, P.; Jones, S. D.; Sitch, S.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; et al

    2015-05-08

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates, consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissionsmore » from fossil fuel combustion and cement production (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover-change (some including nitrogen–carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ;, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2004–2013), EFF was 8.9 ± 0.4 GtC yr⁻¹,ELUC 0.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr⁻¹, GATM 4.3 ± 0.1 GtC yr⁻¹, SOCEAN 2.6 ± 0.5 GtC yr⁻¹, and SLAND 2.9 ± 0.8 GtC yr⁻¹. For year 2013 alone, EFF grew to 9.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr⁻¹, 2.3% above 2012, continuing the growth trend in these emissions, ELUC was 0.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr⁻¹, GATM was 5.4 ± 0.2 GtC yr⁻¹, SOCEAN was 2.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr⁻¹, and SLAND was 2.5 ± 0.9 GtC yr⁻¹. GATM was high in 2013, reflecting a steady increase in EFF and smaller and opposite changes between SOCEAN and SLAND compared to the past decade (2004–2013). The global atmospheric CO2 concentration reached 395.31 ± 0.10 ppm averaged over 2013. We estimate that EFF will increase by 2.5% (1.3–3.5%) to 10.1 ± 0.6 GtC in 2014 (37.0 ± 2.2 GtCO2 yr⁻¹), 65% above emissions in 1990, based on projections of world gross domestic product and recent changes in the carbon intensity of the global economy. From this projection of EFF and assumed constant ELUC for 2014, cumulative emissions of CO2 will reach about 545 ± 55 GtC (2000 ± 200 GtCO2) for 1870–2014, about 75% from EFF and 25% from ELUC. This paper documents changes in the methods and data sets used in this new carbon budget compared with previous publications of this living data set (Le Quéré et al., 2013, 2014). All observations presented here can be downloaded from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (doi:10.3334/CDIAC/GCP_2014).« less

  1. Averaged Description of Flow (Steady and Transient) and Nonreactive Solute Transport in Random Porous Media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schvidler, M.; Karasaki, K.

    2011-06-15

    In previous papers (Shvidler and Karasaki, 1999, 2001, 2005, and 2008) we presented and analyzed an approach for finding the general forms of exactly averaged equations of flow and transport in porous media. We studied systems of basic equations for steady flow with sources in unbounded domains with stochastically homogeneous conductivity fields. A brief analysis of exactly averaged equations of nonsteady flow and nonreactive solute transport was also presented. At the core of this approach is the existence of appropriate random Green's functions. For example, we showed that in the case of a 3-dimensional unbounded domain the existence of appropriate random Green's functions is sufficient for finding the exact nonlocal averaged equations for flow velocity using the operator with a unique kernel-vector. Examination of random fields with global symmetry (isotropy, transversal isotropy and orthotropy) makes it possible to describe significantly different types of averaged equations with nonlocal unique operators. It is evident that the existence of random Green's functions for physical linear processes is equivalent to assuming the existence of some linear random operators for appropriate stochastic equations. If we restricted ourselves to this assumption only, as we have done in this paper, we can study the processes in any dimensional bounded or unbounded fields and in addition, cases in which the random fields of conductivity and porosity are stochastically nonhomogeneous, nonglobally symmetrical, etc.. It is clear that examining more general cases involves significant difficulty and constricts the analysis of structural types for the processes being studied. Nevertheless, we show that we obtain the essential information regarding averaged equations for steady and transient flow, as well as for solute transport.

  2. GE Global Research Careers | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Finding solutions in energy, health and home, transportation and finance. Building, ... path at GE Global Research guides scientists' and engineers' individual development. ...

  3. Global Home Filesystem

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Home Global Home Filesystem Overview Global home directories (or "global homes") provide a convenient means for a user to have access to dotfiles, source files, input files, configuration files, etc., regardless of the platform the user is logged in to. Quotas, Performance, and Usage Default global home quotas are 40 GB and 1,000,000 inodes. Quota increases in global homes are approved only in extremely unusual circumstances; users are encouraged to use the various scratch, project,

  4. High average power scaleable thin-disk laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beach, Raymond J. (Livermore, CA); Honea, Eric C. (Sunol, CA); Bibeau, Camille (Dublin, CA); Payne, Stephen A. (Castro Valley, CA); Powell, Howard (Livermore, CA); Krupke, William F. (Pleasanton, CA); Sutton, Steven B. (Manteca, CA)

    2002-01-01

    Using a thin disk laser gain element with an undoped cap layer enables the scaling of lasers to extremely high average output power values. Ordinarily, the power scaling of such thin disk lasers is limited by the deleterious effects of amplified spontaneous emission. By using an undoped cap layer diffusion bonded to the thin disk, the onset of amplified spontaneous emission does not occur as readily as if no cap layer is used, and much larger transverse thin disks can be effectively used as laser gain elements. This invention can be used as a high average power laser for material processing applications as well as for weapon and air defense applications.

  5. Turning Bayesian model averaging into Bayesian model combination

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Turning Bayesian model averaging into Bayesian model combination Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Turning Bayesian model averaging into Bayesian model combination Authors: Carroll, James [1] ; Monteith, Kristine [2] ; Seppi, Kevin [2] ; Martinez, Tony [2] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory BYU Publication Date: 2011-07-28 OSTI Identifier: 1084524 Report Number(s): LA-UR-11-04419; LA-UR-11-4419 DOE Contract Number: AC52-06NA25396

  6. U.S. average gasoline price up slightly

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    U.S. average gasoline price up slightly The U.S. average retail price for regular gasoline rose slightly to $3.65 a gallon on Monday. That's up a tenth of a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Pump prices were highest in the West Coast region at 3.89 a gallon, down 4.4 cents from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast States at 3.34 a gallon, down 2.6 cents. Jonathan Cogan for EIA,

  7. Turning Bayesian model averaging into Bayesian model combination

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Turning Bayesian model averaging into Bayesian model combination Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Turning Bayesian model averaging into Bayesian model combination Authors: Carroll, James [1] ; Monteith, Kristine [2] ; Seppi, Kevin [2] ; Martinez, Tony [2] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory BYU Publication Date: 2011-07-28 OSTI Identifier: 1084524 Report Number(s): LA-UR-11-04419; LA-UR-11-4419 DOE Contract Number: AC52-06NA25396

  8. Parity-violating anomalies and the stationarity of stochastic averages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reuter, M.

    1988-01-15

    Within the framework of stochastic quantization the parity-violating anomalies in odd space-time dimensions are derived from the asymptotic stationarity of the stochastic average of a certain fermion bilinear. Contrary to earlier attempts, this method yields the correct anomalies for both massive and massless fermions.

  9. Speckle averaging system for laser raster-scan image projection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiszauer, Detlev H. (Tracy, CA); Hackel, Lloyd A. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-03-17

    The viewers' perception of laser speckle in a laser-scanned image projection system is modified or eliminated by the addition of an optical deflection system that effectively presents a new speckle realization at each point on the viewing screen to each viewer for every scan across the field. The speckle averaging is accomplished without introduction of spurious imaging artifacts.

  10. Speckle averaging system for laser raster-scan image projection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiszauer, D.H.; Hackel, L.A.

    1998-03-17

    The viewers` perception of laser speckle in a laser-scanned image projection system is modified or eliminated by the addition of an optical deflection system that effectively presents a new speckle realization at each point on the viewing screen to each viewer for every scan across the field. The speckle averaging is accomplished without introduction of spurious imaging artifacts. 5 figs.

  11. Florida Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Commercial Consumers by Local Distribution and Markete 4.58 24.59 24.41 23.37 21.56 19.15 1989-2015 Commercial Average Price 10.92 10.91 11.15 10.61 10.69 10.89

  12. Georgia Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Commercial Consumers by Local Distribution and Markete 5.45 24.78 25.75 20.43 15.20 14.41 1989-2015 Commercial Average Price 9.08 9.07 9.38 8.65 9.72 7.80

  13. Virginia Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Consumers by Local Distribution and Market 20.25 21.10 19.45 NA 11.72 12.09 1989-2015 Commercial Average Price 8.55 8.58 8.91 8.02 7.57 7.9

  14. Maryland Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8.35 18.44 19.08 19.39 13.51 12.72 1989-2015 Commercial Average Price 11.74 10.98 11.61 11.11 9.98 9.56...

  15. Michigan Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2.50 13.65 13.52 13.21 8.93 7.84 1989-2015 Commercial Average Price 8.91 9.31 9.17 9.05 7.46 6.75...

  16. New York Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6.28 17.10 17.33 17.53 14.26 12.27 1989-2015 Commercial Average Price 6.84 6.08 5.75 5.99 6.27 6.3...

  17. Maryland Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Local Distribution Companies 12.20 2006-2010 Marketers 13.51 2006-2010 Percent Sold by Local Distribution Companies 81.7 2006-2010 Commercial Average Price 9.87 10.29 10.00 10.06 ...

  18. Florida Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Local Distribution Companies 17.85 2006-2010 Marketers 19.44 2006-2010 Percent Sold by Local Distribution Companies 97.9 2006-2010 Commercial Average Price 10.60 11.14 10.41 10.87 ...

  19. New Jersey Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Local Distribution Companies 12.77 2006-2010 Marketers 14.87 2006-2010 Percent Sold by Local Distribution Companies 96.6 2006-2010 Commercial Average Price 10.11 9.51 8.50 9.55 ...

  20. Michigan Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Average Price 8.95 9.14 8.35 7.82 8.28 7.49 1967-2015 Local Distribution Companies 10.00 2006-2010 Marketers 7.61 2006-2010 Percent Sold by Local Distribution Companies ...

  1. Virginia Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Local Distribution Companies 12.64 2006-2010 Marketers 13.64 2006-2010 Percent Sold by Local Distribution Companies 90.9 2006-2010 Commercial Average Price 9.55 9.69 8.77 8.83 9.17 ...

  2. Pennsylvania Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Local Distribution Companies 12.82 2006-2010 Marketers 13.78 2006-2010 Percent Sold by Local Distribution Companies 91.2 2006-2010 Commercial Average Price 10.47 10.42 10.24 10.11 ...

  3. District of Columbia Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Average Price 12.26 12.24 11.19 11.64 12.18 11.55 1980-2015 Local Distribution Companies 12.99 2006-2010 Marketers 12.12 2006-2010 Percent Sold by Local Distribution Companies 16.4 ...

  4. Average summer electric power bills expected to be lowest in...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of forecasted milder temperatures compared with last summer is expected to more than offset higher electricity prices. The result is lower power bills for most U.S. households...

  5. Modeling an Application's Theoretical Minimum and Average Transactional Response Times

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paiz, Mary Rose

    2015-04-01

    The theoretical minimum transactional response time of an application serves as a ba- sis for the expected response time. The lower threshold for the minimum response time represents the minimum amount of time that the application should take to complete a transaction. Knowing the lower threshold is beneficial in detecting anomalies that are re- sults of unsuccessful transactions. On the converse, when an application's response time falls above an upper threshold, there is likely an anomaly in the application that is causing unusual performance issues in the transaction. This report explains how the non-stationary Generalized Extreme Value distribution is used to estimate the lower threshold of an ap- plication's daily minimum transactional response time. It also explains how the seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average time series model is used to estimate the upper threshold for an application's average transactional response time.

  6. Average dynamics of a finite set of coupled phase oscillators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dima, Germn C. Mindlin, Gabriel B.

    2014-06-15

    We study the solutions of a dynamical system describing the average activity of an infinitely large set of driven coupled excitable units. We compared their topological organization with that reconstructed from the numerical integration of finite sets. In this way, we present a strategy to establish the pertinence of approximating the dynamics of finite sets of coupled nonlinear units by the dynamics of its infinitely large surrogate.

  7. Averaging cross section data so we can fit it

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, D.

    2014-10-23

    The 56Fe cross section we are interested in have a lot of fluctuations. We would like to fit the average of the cross section with cross sections calculated within EMPIRE. EMPIRE is a Hauser-Feshbach theory based nuclear reaction code, requires cross sections to be smoothed using a Lorentzian profile. The plan is to fit EMPIRE to these cross sections in the fast region (say above 500 keV).

  8. Table A44. Average Prices of Purchased Electricity and Steam

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Average Prices of Purchased Electricity and Steam" " by Type of Supplier, Census Region, Census Division, and" " Economic Characteristics of the Establishment, 1994" " (Estimates in Dollars per Physical Units)" ," Electricity",," Steam" ," (kWh)",," (million Btu)" ,,,,,"RSE" ,"Utility","Nonutility","Utility","Nonutility","Row" "Economic

  9. ARM - Global Experts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Experts Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Global Experts Welcome to our Global Experts! These pages provide detailed information about global climate change. We hope you'll gain a good understanding of how our earth's climate is changing and how human activities are influencing

  10. New Global Research Website | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the time to visit geglobalresearch.com. We hope you make it a regular destination to learn about how GE Global Research is working to improve the world by pushing the limits of...

  11. GE Global Research Contact | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Contact Us Looking for more details? Please contact one of these individuals or visit the Newsroom for the latest information. Home > About GE Global Research > Contact Us GE Global Research 1 Research Circle, Niskayuna, NY 12309, USA Todd Alhart +1.518.387.7914 todd.alhart@ge.com Communications and Public Relations GE Brazil Technology Center Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Natalia Albuquerque +55 21 3548-6193 natalia.albuquerque@ge.com Communications and Public Relations GE China Technology

  12. Average Structure Evolution of ?-phase Pu-Ga Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Alice Iulia; Page, Katharine L.; Gourdon, Olivier; Siewenie, Joan E.; Richmond, Scott; Saleh, Tarik A.; Ramos, Michael; Schwartz, Daniel S.

    2015-03-30

    [Full Text] Plutonium metal is a highly unusual element, exhibiting six allotropes at ambient pressure, from room temperature to its melting point. Many phases of plutonium metal are unstable with temperature, pressure, chemical additions, and time. This strongly affects structure and properties, and becomes of high importance, particularly when considering effects on structural integrity over long time periods. The fcc ?-phase deserves additional attention, not only in the context of understanding the electronic structure of Pu, but also as one of the few high-symmetry actinide phases that can be stabilized down to ambient pressure and room temperature by alloying it with trivalent elements. We will present results on recent work on aging of Pu-2at.%Ga and Pu-7at.%Ga alloys

  13. Table 14a. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected Price in Constant Dollars" " (constant dollars, cents per kilowatt-hour in ""dollar year"" specific to each AEO)" ,"AEO $ Year",1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013 "AEO 1994",1992,6.799,6.7999,6.9,6.9,6.9,6.9,7,7,7.1,7.1,7.2,7.2,7.2,7.3,7.3,7.4,7.5,7.6 "AEO

  14. Before House Subcommittee on Africa, Global Health, Global Human Rights,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and International Organizations, Committee on Foreign Affairs | Department of Energy Subcommittee on Africa, Global Health, Global Human Rights, and International Organizations, Committee on Foreign Affairs Before House Subcommittee on Africa, Global Health, Global Human Rights, and International Organizations, Committee on Foreign Affairs Testimony of Jonathan Elkind, Acting Assistant Secretary, Office of International Affairs Before House Subcommittee on Africa, Global Health, Global Human

  15. Are we seeing global warming?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hasselmann, K.

    1997-05-09

    Despite considerable progress, the question of whether the observed gradual increase in global mean temperature over the last century is indeed caused by human activities or is simply an expression of natural climate variation on a larger spatial and temporal scales remains a controversial issue. To answer this question three things are needed: prediction of the anthropogenic climate change signal; determination of the natural climate variability noise; and computation of the signal-to-noise ratio and test of whether the ratio exceeds some predefined statistical detection threshold. This article discusses all these issues and the uncertainties involved in getting definitive answers. 12 refs., 1 fig.

  16. U.S. Conventional, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    1.841 2.259 3.008 3.083 2.977 2.778 1994-2014 Through Retail Outlets 1.845 2.264 3.016 3.098 2.997 2.800 1994-2014 Sales for Resale, Average 1.738 2.143 2.841 2.886 2.774 2.587 1994-2014 DTW 1.843 2.270 2.939 3.024 2.825 2.736 1994-2014 Rack 1.750 2.155 2.851 2.887 2.775 2.589 1994-2014 Bulk 1.664 2.069 2.758 2.843 2.755 2.535 1994-2014

  17. U.S. Conventional, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    161 2.057 1.785 1.759 1.601 1.472 1994-2015 Through Retail Outlets 2.160 2.058 1.786 1.760 1.602 1.472 1994-2015 Sales for Resale, Average 1.975 1.763 1.553 1.513 1.373 1.290 1994-2015 DTW 2.319 2.109 1.812 1.637 1.591 1.532 1994-2015 Rack 1.965 1.759 1.559 1.519 1.372 1.288 1994-2015 Bulk 1.991 1.707 1.449 1.413 1.326 1.254

  18. U.S. Reformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    660 2.501 2.155 2.007 1.905 1.836 1994-2015 Through Retail Outlets 2.661 2.503 2.157 2.008 1.907 1.837 1994-2015 Sales for Resale, Average 2.283 1.996 1.728 1.651 1.537 1.497 1994-2015 DTW 2.795 2.477 2.128 1.979 1.864 1.854 1994-2015 Rack 2.165 1.886 1.634 1.577 1.459 1.412 1994-2015 Bulk 2.208 1.866 1.645 1.566 1.524 1.456

  19. Table 17. Average Price of U.S. Coke Exports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    7. Average Price of U.S. Coke Exports (dollars per short ton) Year to Date Continent and Country of Destination July - September 2015 April - June 2015 July - September 2014 2015 2014 Percent Change North America Total 234.67 253.60 264.43 252.47 261.48 -3.4 Canada* 209.80 247.54 287.72 243.43 285.74 -14.8 Mexico 460.37 307.48 200.84 305.69 217.48 40.6 Other** 643.59 666.50 577.54 640.63 545.34 17.5 South America Total 135.27 - 465.18 252.87 154.98 63.2 Other** 135.27 - 465.18 252.87 154.98 63.2

  20. Table 19. Average Price of U.S. Coal Imports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    9. Average Price of U.S. Coal Imports (dollars per short ton) Year to Date Continent and Country of Origin July - September 2015 April - June 2015 July - September 2014 2015 2014 Percent Change North America Total 121.76 122.71 133.33 119.13 130.81 -8.9 Canada 121.76 122.71 133.33 119.13 130.81 -8.9 Mexico - - 209.82 113.43 209.82 -45.9 South America Total 65.22 66.89 76.03 67.64 78.56 -13.9 Colombia 65.34 66.89 75.63 67.59 78.37 -13.8 Peru - 92.99 81.65 86.24 81.65 5.6 Venezuela 57.60 - 90.59

  1. Table 22. Average Price of U.S. Coke Imports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2. Average Price of U.S. Coke Imports (dollars per short ton) Year to Date Continent and Country of Origin July - September 2015 April - June 2015 July - September 2014 2015 2014 Percent Change North America Total 120.37 192.95 189.61 131.75 96.81 36.1 Canada 120.37 192.95 189.61 131.75 96.81 36.1 South America Total 201.39 274.73 223.17 202.76 223.17 -9.1 Colombia 201.39 274.73 223.17 202.76 223.17 -9.1 Europe Total 120.34 302.86 363.18 153.02 397.65 -61.5 Czech Republic - 288.36 - 288.36 - -

  2. Table 8. Average Price of U.S. Coal Exports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8. Average Price of U.S. Coal Exports (dollars per short ton) Year to Date Continent and Country of Destination July - September 2015 April - June 2015 July - September 2014 2015 2014 Percent Change North America Total 82.44 83.85 79.86 81.55 76.14 7.1 Canada* 89.71 89.92 84.62 88.24 75.55 16.8 Dominican Republic 77.11 78.67 56.46 84.15 53.14 58.4 Guatemala 34.59 103.41 - 45.24 81.92 -44.8 Honduras 45.36 45.36 54.43 47.54 54.43 -12.7 Jamaica 80.74 90.72 55.34 73.19 54.88 33.4 Mexico 74.06 75.06

  3. Average System Cost Methodology : Administrator's Record of Decision.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1984-06-01

    Significant features of average system cost (ASC) methodology adopted are: retention of the jurisdictional approach where retail rate orders of regulartory agencies provide primary data for computing the ASC for utilities participating in the residential exchange; inclusion of transmission costs; exclusion of construction work in progress; use of a utility's weighted cost of debt securities; exclusion of income taxes; simplification of separation procedures for subsidized generation and transmission accounts from other accounts; clarification of ASC methodology rules; more generous review timetable for individual filings; phase-in of reformed methodology; and each exchanging utility must file under the new methodology within 20 days of implementation by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission of the ten major participating utilities, the revised ASC will substantially only affect three. (PSB)

  4. Gauge and averaging in gravitational self-force

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gralla, Samuel E.

    2011-10-15

    A difficulty with previous treatments of the gravitational self-force is that an explicit formula for the force is available only in a particular gauge (Lorenz gauge), where the force in other gauges must be found through a transformation law once the Lorenz-gauge force is known. For a class of gauges satisfying a 'parity condition' ensuring that the Hamiltonian center of mass of the particle is well-defined, I show that the gravitational self-force is always given by the angle average of the bare gravitational force. To derive this result I replace the computational strategy of previous work with a new approach, wherein the form of the force is first fixed up to a gauge-invariant piece by simple manipulations, and then that piece is determined by working in a gauge designed specifically to simplify the computation. This offers significant computational savings over the Lorenz gauge, since the Hadamard expansion is avoided entirely and the metric perturbation takes a very simple form. I also show that the rest mass of the particle does not evolve due to first-order self-force effects. Finally, I consider the 'mode sum regularization' scheme for computing the self-force in black hole background spacetimes, and use the angle-average form of the force to show that the same mode-by-mode subtraction may be performed in all parity-regular gauges. It appears plausible that suitably modified versions of the Regge-Wheeler and radiation gauges (convenient to Schwarzschild and Kerr, respectively) are in this class.

  5. ARM - Global Warming

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Warming Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Global Warming Click on one of the links below to learn more about global warming! But first, take a look at this presentation given by former Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Chief Scientist Tom Ackerman to a group of

  6. Curing | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Curing We're pioneering medical developments, from robotic healthcare assistants to diagnostic tools and specialized, globally deployed gear. Home > Impact > Curing Crowdsourcing...

  7. Table 14a. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    a. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual Projected Price in Constant Dollars (constant dollars, cents per kilowatt-hour in "dollar year" specific to each AEO) AEO $ Year 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 AEO 1994 1992 6.80 6.80 6.90 6.90 6.90 6.90 7.00 7.00 7.10 7.10 7.20 7.20 7.20 7.30 7.30 7.40 7.50 7.60 AEO 1995 1993 6.80 6.80 6.70 6.70 6.70 6.70 6.70 6.80 6.80 6.90 6.90 6.90 7.00 7.00 7.10 7.10 7.20

  8. High average power magnetic modulator for copper lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, E.G.; Ball, D.G.; Birx, D.L.; Branum, J.D.; Peluso, S.E.; Langford, M.D.; Speer, R.D.; Sullivan, J.R.; Woods, P.G.

    1991-06-14

    Magnetic compression circuits show the promise of long life for operation at high average powers and high repetition rates. When the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory needed new modulators to drive their higher power copper lasers in the Laser Demonstration Facility (LDF), existing technology using thyratron switched capacitor inversion circuits did not meet the goal for long lifetimes at the required power levels. We have demonstrated that magnetic compression circuits can achieve this goal. Improving thyratron lifetime is achieved by increasing the thyratron conduction time, thereby reducing the effect of cathode depletion. This paper describes a three stage magnetic modulator designed to provide a 60 kV pulse to a copper laser at a 4. 5 kHz repetition rate. This modulator operates at 34 kW input power and has exhibited MTBF of {approx}1000 hours when using thyratrons and even longer MTBFs with a series of stack of SCRs for the main switch. Within this paper, the electrical and mechanical designs for the magnetic compression circuits are discussed as are the important performance parameters of lifetime and jitter. Ancillary circuits such as the charge circuit and reset circuit are shown. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Fact #615: March 22, 2010 Average Vehicle Trip Length | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 5: March 22, 2010 Average Vehicle Trip Length Fact #615: March 22, 2010 Average Vehicle Trip Length According to the latest National Household Travel Survey, the average trip length grew to over 10 miles in 2009, just slightly over the 9.9 mile average in 2001. Trips to work in 2009 increased to an average of 12.6 miles. The average trip length has been growing each survey year since the lowest average in 1983. Average Vehicle Trip Length, 1969-2009 Graph showing the average vehicle

  10. A global warning for global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paepe, R.

    1996-12-31

    The problem of global warming is a complex one not only because it is affecting desert areas such as the Sahel leading to famine disasters of poor rural societies, but because it is an even greater threat to modern well established industrial societies. Global warming is a complex problem of geographical, economical and societal factors together which definitely are biased by local environmental parameters. There is an absolute need to increase the knowledge of such parameters, especially to understand their limits of variance. The greenhouse effect is a global mechanism which means that in changing conditions at one point of the Earth, it will affect all other regions of the globe. Industrial pollution and devastation of the forest are quoted as similar polluting anthropogenic activities in far apart regions of the world with totally different societies and industrial compounds. The other important factor is climatic cyclicity which means that droughts are bound to natural cycles. These natural cycles are numerous as is reflected in the study of geo-proxydata from several sequential geological series on land, ice and deepsea. Each of these cycles reveals a drought cycle which occasionally interfere at the same time. It is believed that the present drought might well be a point of interference between the natural cycles of 2,500 and 1,000 years and the man induced cycle of the last century`s warming up. If the latter is the only cycle involved, man will be able to remediate. If not, global warming will become even more disastrous beyond the 21st century.

  11. GE Global Research News | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Newsroom Our technologies transform GE's businesses and the world. Learn about them, meet our experts and read news coverage about our work. Home > Newsroom Meet Our Experts Our scientists are global leaders in their fields. They welcome media inquiries. Find an Expert » Media Contacts A photograph of Natalia Albuquerque Rio de Janeiro Natalia Albuquerque +55 21 3548-6193 A photograph of Todd Alhart Niskayuna, Oklahoma City, Munich Todd Alhart +1.518.387.7914 A photograph of Tenzin Dechen

  12. GE Global Research News | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Newsroom Our technologies transform GE's businesses and the world. Learn about them, meet our experts and read news coverage about our work. Home > Newsroom Meet Our Experts Our scientists are global leaders in their fields. They welcome media inquiries. Find an Expert » Media Contacts A photograph of Natalia Albuquerque Rio de Janeiro Natalia Albuquerque +55 21 3548-6193 A photograph of Todd Alhart Niskayuna, Oklahoma City, Munich Todd Alhart +1.518.387.7914 A photograph of Tenzin Dechen

  13. Beamline Temperatures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Temperatures Energy: 3.0000 GeV Current: 495.5347 mA Date: 09-Jan-2016 04:18:38 Beamline Temperatures Energy 3.0000 GeV Current 495.5 mA 09-Jan-2016 04:18:38 LN:MainTankLevel 112.0...

  14. Supercomputers Fuel Global High-Resolution Climate Models

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Supercomputers Fuel Global High-Resolution Climate Models Supercomputers Fuel Global High-Resolution Climate Models Berkeley Lab Researcher Says Climate Science is Entering New Golden Age November 12, 2014 Contact: Julie Chao, jchao@lbl.gov, 510.486.6491 wehnerclimate2 Simulated and observed annual maximum 5 day accumulated precipitation over land points, averaged. Observations are calculated from the period 1979 to 1999. Model results are calculated from the period 1979 to 2005. Not long ago,

  15. Fact #744: September 10, 2012 Average New Light Vehicle Price Grows Faster

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    than Average Used Light Vehicle Price | Department of Energy 4: September 10, 2012 Average New Light Vehicle Price Grows Faster than Average Used Light Vehicle Price Fact #744: September 10, 2012 Average New Light Vehicle Price Grows Faster than Average Used Light Vehicle Price In 2011 the average used light vehicle price was 36% higher than in 1990, while the average new light vehicle price was 67% higher than it was in 1990. The average price of a used vehicle had been between $6,000 and

  16. Global Cool Cities Alliance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is currently supporting the Global Cool Cities Alliance (GCCA), a non-profit organization that works with cities, regions, and national governments to speed the...

  17. Fast Global File Status

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2013-01-01

    Fast Global File Status (FGFS) is a system software package that implimints a scalable mechanism to retrieve file information, such as its degree of distribution or replication and consistency.

  18. Invention | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Invention Our people drive every scientific advance we make, every day. Find out who they are and what they're thinking right now. Home > Invention Inventors GE Global Research...

  19. Global Climate & Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SunShot Grand Challenge: Regional Test Centers Global Climate & Energy Home/Tag:Global Climate & Energy - Electricity use by water service sector and county. Shown are electricity use by (a) large-scale conveyance, (b) groundwater irrigation pumping, (c) surface water irrigation pumping, (d) drinking water, and (e) wastewater. Aggregate electricity use across these sectors (f) is also mapped. Permalink Gallery Sandians Recognized in Environmental Science & Technology's Best Paper

  20. Global Climate & Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Participated in the 2013 Domenici Public Policy Conference Carbon Capture & Storage, Carbon Storage, Climate, Earth Sciences Research Center, Energy, Global Climate & Energy, Global Climate & Energy, News, News & Events, Systems Analysis, Systems Engineering, Water Security Sandia Participated in the 2013 Domenici Public Policy Conference Marianne Walck, Director of Sandia's Geoscience, Climate, and Consequence Effects Center, spoke on "Hydraulic Fracturing: The Role of

  1. Connecting | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Connecting Through software, the Industrial Internet and the sharing of ideas, we're bringing people together all around the world. Home > Impact > Connecting Global Research and GE Capital: Middle Market Collaboration In 2013, a partnering initiative between Global Research and GE Capital resulted in dozens of middle market companies... Read More » GE, MIT Build Crowdsourcing Software Platform GE (NYSE: GE), with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the Defense Advanced

  2. Moving | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Moving We're always working on planes, trains and automobiles-and specialized ways to move people and products efficiently and sustainably. Home > Impact > Moving Rail Networks Are Getting Smarter Sources: 2012 GE Annual Report (page 12); Norfolk Southern 2010 sustainability reporter (page 17) North American Freight Railroad... Read More » The GE Store for Technology is Open for Business Welcome to GE Global Research, also known as the GE Store for Technology. Across our global network of

  3. Global Renewable Power International Global RPI | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to: navigation, search Name: Global Renewable Power International (Global RPI) Place: Spain Sector: Wind energy Product: Spain-based developer of wind projects in Poland, Croatia...

  4. Modelling estimation on the impacts of global warming on rice production in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Futang

    1997-12-31

    In this paper, based on the validation and sensitivity analyses of two rice growth models (ORYZA1 and DRISIC--Double Rice Cropping Simulation Model for China), and their joining with global warming scenarios projected by GCMs (GFDL, UKMO-H, MPI and DKRZ OPYC, DKRZ LSG, respectively), the modelling experiments were carried out on the potential impacts of global warming on rice production in China. The results show that although there are the some features for each rice cropping patterns because of different models and estimated methods, the rice production for all cropping patterns in China will trend to decrease with different degrees. In average, early, middle and later rice production, as well as, double-early and double-later rice production in different areas of China will decrease 3.7%, 10.5% and 10.4%, as well as, 15.9% and 14.4%, respectively. It do illustrates that the advantage effects induced by elevated CO{sub 2} concentration on photosynthesis does not compensate the adverse effects of temperature increase. Thus, it is necessary to adjusting rice cropping patterns, cultivars and farming techniques to the global warming timely.

  5. Perihelion Global | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Perihelion Global Jump to: navigation, search Name: Perihelion Global Place: Port Jefferson, New York Zip: 11776 Product: A company focused on the acquisition, development and...

  6. Going Global: Tight Oil Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    oil and unconventional techniques Global tight oil production has significant energy security implications 2 GOING GLOBAL: TIGHT OIL PRODUCTION Top Ten Countries with Largest ...

  7. Fact #614: March 15, 2010 Average Age of Household Vehicles | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 4: March 15, 2010 Average Age of Household Vehicles Fact #614: March 15, 2010 Average Age of Household Vehicles The average age of household vehicles has increased from 6.6 years in 1977 to 9.2 years in 2009. Pickup trucks have the oldest average age in every year listed. Sport utility vehicles (SUVs), first reported in the 1995 survey, have the youngest average age. Average Vehicle Age by Vehicle Type Graph showing the average vehicle age by type (car, van, pickup, SUV, all household

  8. Rising global temperatures accelerate drought-induced forest...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    research project at the Sevilleta now has eight years worth of data on drought and tree death. Rainfall is not always the answer "The irrigation has revealed that trees can do...

  9. Rising global temperatures accelerate drought-induced forest...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    professor, explain that their research, and more from scientists around the world, is forecasting that by 2100 most conifer forests should be heavily disturbed, if not gone, as...

  10. Butterfly Wing Nanostructures and Temperature Changes | GE Global...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2012.02.13 Hello Earth New technological advances that have been inspired by Nature provide our society with new, advanced products. Some examples of these available and...

  11. Fact #671: April 18, 2011 Average Truck Speeds | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1: April 18, 2011 Average Truck Speeds Fact #671: April 18, 2011 Average Truck Speeds The Federal Highway Administration studies traffic volume and flow on major truck routes by tracking more than 500,000 trucks. The average speed of trucks on selected interstate highways is between 50 and 60 miles per hour (mph). The average operating speed of trucks is typically below 55 mph in major urban areas, border crossings, and in mountainous terrain. The difference in average speed between peak traffic

  12. Timeline | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Global Research Over Time From our earliest days, we've been changing the landscape in commercial science and technology. Explore our inventions' evolution. Home > Global Research Over Time Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) Warning: You must have JavaScript enabled in your browser in order to use this

  13. Langmuir probe measurements in a time-fluctuating-highly ionized non-equilibrium cutting arc: Analysis of the electron retarding part of the time-averaged current-voltage characteristic of the probe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prevosto, L.; Mancinelli, B.; Kelly, H.; Instituto de Fsica del Plasma , Departamento de Fsica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales Ciudad Universitaria Pab. I, 1428 Buenos Aires

    2013-12-15

    This work describes the application of Langmuir probe diagnostics to the measurement of the electron temperature in a time-fluctuating-highly ionized, non-equilibrium cutting arc. The electron retarding part of the time-averaged current-voltage characteristic of the probe was analysed, assuming that the standard exponential expression describing the electron current to the probe in collision-free plasmas can be applied under the investigated conditions. A procedure is described which allows the determination of the errors introduced in time-averaged probe data due to small-amplitude plasma fluctuations. It was found that the experimental points can be gathered into two well defined groups allowing defining two quite different averaged electron temperature values. In the low-current region the averaged characteristic was not significantly disturbed by the fluctuations and can reliably be used to obtain the actual value of the averaged electron temperature. In particular, an averaged electron temperature of 0.98 0.07 eV (= 11400 800 K) was found for the central core of the arc (30 A) at 3.5 mm downstream from the nozzle exit. This average included not only a time-average over the time fluctuations but also a spatial-average along the probe collecting length. The fitting of the high-current region of the characteristic using such electron temperature value together with the corrections given by the fluctuation analysis showed a relevant departure of local thermal equilibrium in the arc core.

  14. Global Scratch Gets an Upgrade

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Global Scratch Gets an Upgrade Global Scratch Gets an Upgrade Improvements Will Include Higher Data Output Rates, Connection to PDSF October 29, 2013 The most used file system at the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC)-global scratch-just got an upgrade. As a result, some users may see their data output to global scratch reach up to 80 gigabytes per second. Although users will probably not see their 20-terabyte storage quotas increase, the upgrade ensures that global

  15. Global decarbonization strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Messner, S.

    1996-12-31

    The presentation covers a brief summary of the research activities of the Environmentally Compatible Energy Strategies Project (ECS) at IIASA. The overall research focuses on long-term global energy development and emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG). The ultimate goal is to analyze strategies that achieve decarbonization of global energy systems during the next century. The specific activities range from mitigation of GHG emissions to an integrated assessment of climate change. One focal point is the GHG mitigation technology inventory CO{sub 2}DB, which presently covers approximately 1,400 technologies related to energy and the greenhouse effect. Another integral part is the development of global energy and emissions scenarios, an effort involving a number of formal models to assess the implications. A large number of global scenarios for the next century has been developed, that could be grouped into three families. All of them include energy efficiency improvements and some degree of decarbonization in the world. They are based on different economic and technological development trajectories, and their emissions range from very high to a stabilization of atmospheric carbon dioxide emissions. The presentation will outline the salient characteristics of the three scenario families and provide some regional implications of these alternative futures.

  16. ARM - Lesson Plans: Air Density and Temperature

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Density and Temperature Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Lesson Plans: Air Density and Temperature Objective The objective of this activity is to investigate the effect of temperature on the density of air. Materials Each group of students will need the following: Balloon

  17. Derivation of 24-Hour Average SO2, Background for the Update...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Derivation of 24-Hour Average SO2, Background for the Update 1 Report Derivation of 24-Hour Average SO2, Background for the Update 1 Report Docket No. EO-05-01. As supporting...

  18. Fact #693: September 19, 2011 Average Vehicle Footprint for Cars and Light

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Trucks | Department of Energy 3: September 19, 2011 Average Vehicle Footprint for Cars and Light Trucks Fact #693: September 19, 2011 Average Vehicle Footprint for Cars and Light Trucks A vehicle footprint is the area defined by the four points where the tires touch the ground. It is calculated as the product of the wheelbase and the average track width of the vehicle. The upcoming Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards have fuel economy targets based on the vehicle footprint. The

  19. Fact #835: August 25, 2014 Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2013

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    - Dataset | Department of Energy 35: August 25, 2014 Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2013 - Dataset Fact #835: August 25, 2014 Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2013 - Dataset Excel file with dataset for Fact #835: Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2013 File fotw#835_web.xlsx More Documents & Publications Fact #915: March 7, 2016 Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2015 - Dataset Fact #888: August 31, 2015 Historical Gas Prices - Dataset Offshore

  20. ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 Average Square Footage of Northeast Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" " Final" ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member" "Housing Characteristics","Millions","Total2","Heated","Cooled","Total2","Heated","Cooled" "Total Northeast",20.8,2121,1663,921,836,656,363 "Northeast Divisions and

  1. ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Average Square Footage of Midwest Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" " Final" ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member" "Housing Characteristics","Millions","Total2","Heated","Cooled","Total2","Heated","Cooled" "Total Midwest",25.9,2272,1898,1372,912,762,551 "Midwest Divisions and

  2. ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Average Square Footage of South Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" " Final" ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member" "Housing Characteristics","Millions","Total2","Heated","Cooled","Total2","Heated","Cooled" "Total South",42.1,1867,1637,1549,732,642,607 "South Divisions and

  3. ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Average Square Footage of West Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" " Final" ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member" "Housing Characteristics","Millions","Total2","Heated","Cooled","Total2","Heated","Cooled" "Total West",24.8,1708,1374,800,628,506,294 "West Divisions and States"

  4. ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Average Square Footage of Single-Family Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" " Final" ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member" "Housing Characteristics","Millions","Total2","Heated","Cooled","Total2","Heated","Cooled" "Total Single-Family",78.6,2422,2002,1522,880,727,553 "Census

  5. ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Average Square Footage of Multi-Family Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" " Final" ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member" "Housing Characteristics","Millions","Total2","Heated","Cooled","Total2","Heated","Cooled" "Total Multi-Family",28.1,930,807,535,453,393,261 "Census Region"

  6. ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Average Square Footage of Mobile Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" " Final" ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member" "Housing Characteristics","Millions","Total2","Heated","Cooled","Total2","Heated","Cooled" "Total Mobile Homes",6.9,1087,985,746,413,375,283 "Census Region"

  7. ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9 Average Square Footage of U.S. Homes, by Housing Characteristics, 2009" " Final" ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",,,"Average Square Footage Per Household Member" "Housing Characteristics","Millions","Total2","Heated","Cooled","Total2","Heated","Cooled" "Total",113.6,1971,1644,1230,766,639,478 "Census Region"

  8. Global Bioenergy Partnership Meetings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office Sustainability Technology Manager Kristen Johnson represented the Office at the Global Bioenergy Partnership (GBEP) Meetings in Rome, Italy. The event included three meetings, the 7th annual GBEP Working Group on Capacity Building, the 13th annual Task Force on Sustainability to discuss the experiences with the GBEP Sustainability Indicators for Bioenergy, and the 18th annual GBEP Steering Committee to discuss strategies for sustainable bioenergy development and deployment.

  9. Building | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Building We're creating infrastructure, refining materials and assembling technologies that accommodate our constantly changing world. Home > Impact > Building How Green Is Green? GE's Global Research Center's Ecoassessment Center of Excellence was created to study the impact of GE products and services... Read More » Technology: Driving the Artificial Lift Market Gary Ford, president and CEO of GE Artificial Lift, discusses what the equipment does, the current state of the market and

  10. Global Climate & Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia, DOE Energy Storage Program, GeneSiC Semiconductor, U.S. Army ARDEC: Ultra-High-Voltage Silicon Carbide Thyristors Capabilities, Distribution Grid Integration, Energy, Energy Efficiency, Energy Storage Systems, Global Climate & Energy, Grid Integration, Infrastructure Security, Materials Science, Partnership, Research & Capabilities, SMART Grid, Systems Engineering, Transmission Grid Integration Sandia, DOE Energy Storage Program, GeneSiC Semiconductor, U.S. Army ARDEC:

  11. new Global Bio Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    pandemic detection tool ready to fight flu June 9, 2009 Los Alamos and Agilent Technologies develop first high-throughput system to be deployed at UCLA's new Global Bio Lab LOS ALAMOS, New Mexico, June 9, 2009-In a joint effort by national laboratory-, university- and private-sector institutions, researchers are developing new tools for rapidly characterizing biological pathogens that could give rise to potentially deadly pandemics such as Influenza A (H1N1).The first tool, an automated

  12. Global Climate & Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Team Attends World Water Week in Stockholm Climate, Energy, Global Climate & Energy, Modeling, Modeling & Analysis, News, News & Events, Water Security Sandia Team Attends World Water Week in Stockholm Stephanie Kuzio, Vince Tidwell, and Tom Lowry (all from Sandia's Earth Systems Analysis Dept.), represented Sandia's Water and Environment Program (part of the Sandia's Climate & Environment Program Area) at World Water Week in Stockholm August 31-September 5th. The theme for this

  13. Building | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Building We're creating infrastructure, refining materials and assembling technologies that accommodate our constantly changing world. Home > Impact > Building Bringing a Digital Mindset to Manufacturing The digital age will provide manufacturing insights that will save money and transform how we work across supply chains. By... Read More » What is the GE store? Mark Little, CTO & Head of Global Research at GE, describes what the GE Store means and why it's important to GE. The GE...

  14. Curing | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Curing We're pioneering medical developments, from robotic healthcare assistants to diagnostic tools and specialized, globally deployed gear. Home > Impact > Curing Invention Factory: How Will We Live Forever? In this episode of Invention Factory - a partnership between GE and Vice - we probe the cutting edge of medical... Read More » Invention Factory: How Will Mind Overcome Matter? In this episode of Invention Factory - a partnership between General Electric and Vice - we explore how

  15. Global Threat Reduction Initiative

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    The Current Status of Gap and U.S.-Origin Nuclear Fuel Removals 2011 Jeff Galan, Deputy Project Manager U.S.-Origin Nuclear Remove Program National Nuclear Security Administration Global Threat Reduction Initiative Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 2 GTRI Mission and Goals GTRI is: A part of President Obama's comprehensive strategy to prevent nuclear terrorism; and The key organization responsible for implementing the U.S. HEU minimization policy. GTRI MISSION Reduce

  16. Global Energy Futures Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-01-01

    The Global Energy Futures Model (GEFM) is a demand-based, gross domestic product (GDP)-driven, dynamic simulation tool that provides an integrated framework to model key aspects of energy, nuclear-materials storage and disposition, environmental effluents from fossil and non fossil energy and global nuclear-materials management. Based entirely on public source data, it links oil, natural gas, coal, nuclear and renewable energy dynamically to greenhouse-gas emissions and 13 other measures of environmental impact. It includes historical data frommore » 1990 to 2000, is benchmarked to the DOE/EIA/IEO 2002 [5] Reference Case for 2000 to 2020, and extrapolates energy demand through the year 2050. The GEFM is globally integrated, and breaks out five regions of the world: United States of America (USA), the Peoples Republic of China (China), the former Soviet Union (FSU), the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) nations excluding the USA (other industrialized countries), and the rest of the world (ROW) (essentially the developing world). The GEFM allows the user to examine a very wide range of what ir scenarios through 2050 and to view the potential effects across widely dispersed, but interrelated areas. The authors believe that this high-level learning tool will help to stimulate public policy debate on energy, environment, economic and national security issues.« less

  17. Global climate feedbacks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manowitz, B.

    1990-10-01

    The important physical, chemical, and biological events that affect global climate change occur on a mesoscale -- requiring high spatial resolution for their analysis. The Department of Energy has formulated two major initiatives under the US Global Change Program: ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurements), and CHAMMP (Computer Hardware Advanced Mathematics and Model Physics). ARM is designed to use ground and air-craft based observations to document profiles of atmospheric composition, clouds, and radiative fluxes. With research and models of important physical processes, ARM will delineate the relationships between trace gases, aerosol and cloud structure, and radiative transfer in the atmosphere, and will improve the parameterization of global circulation models. The present GCMs do not model important feedbacks, including those from clouds, oceans, and land processes. The purpose of this workshop is to identify such potential feedbacks, to evaluate the uncertainties in the feedback processes (and, if possible, to parameterize the feedback processes so that they can be treated in a GCM), and to recommend research programs that will reduce the uncertainties in important feedback processes. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases.

  18. GLOBAL H I KINEMATICS IN DWARF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stilp, Adrienne M.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Warren, Steven R.; Skillman, Evan; Ott, Juergen; Koribalski, Baerbel

    2013-03-10

    H I line widths are typically interpreted as a measure of interstellar medium turbulence, which is potentially driven by star formation (SF). In an effort to better understand the possible connections between line widths and SF, we have characterized H I kinematics in a sample of nearby dwarf galaxies by co-adding line-of-sight spectra after removing the rotational velocity to produce average global H I line profiles. These ''superprofiles'' are composed of a central narrow peak ({approx}6-10 km s{sup -1}) with higher-velocity wings to either side that contain {approx}10%-15% of the total flux. The superprofiles are all very similar, indicating a universal global H I profile for dwarf galaxies. We compare characteristics of the superprofiles to various galaxy properties, such as mass and measures of SF, with the assumption that the superprofile represents a turbulent peak with energetic wings to either side. We use these quantities to derive average scale heights for the sample galaxies. When comparing to physical properties, we find that the velocity dispersion of the central peak is correlated with ({Sigma}{sub HI}). The fraction of mass and characteristic velocity of the high-velocity wings are correlated with measures of SF, consistent with the picture that SF drives surrounding H I to higher velocities. While gravitational instabilities provide too little energy, the SF in the sample galaxies does provide enough energy through supernovae, with realistic estimates of the coupling efficiency, to produce the observed superprofiles.

  19. Global interrupt and barrier networks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blumrich, Matthias A. (Ridgefield, CT); Chen, Dong (Croton-On-Hudson, NY); Coteus, Paul W. (Yorktown Heights, NY); Gara, Alan G. (Mount Kisco, NY); Giampapa, Mark E (Irvington, NY); Heidelberger, Philip (Cortlandt Manor, NY); Kopcsay, Gerard V. (Yorktown Heights, NY); Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D. (Mount Kisco, NY); Takken, Todd E. (Mount Kisco, NY)

    2008-10-28

    A system and method for generating global asynchronous signals in a computing structure. Particularly, a global interrupt and barrier network is implemented that implements logic for generating global interrupt and barrier signals for controlling global asynchronous operations performed by processing elements at selected processing nodes of a computing structure in accordance with a processing algorithm; and includes the physical interconnecting of the processing nodes for communicating the global interrupt and barrier signals to the elements via low-latency paths. The global asynchronous signals respectively initiate interrupt and barrier operations at the processing nodes at times selected for optimizing performance of the processing algorithms. In one embodiment, the global interrupt and barrier network is implemented in a scalable, massively parallel supercomputing device structure comprising a plurality of processing nodes interconnected by multiple independent networks, with each node including one or more processing elements for performing computation or communication activity as required when performing parallel algorithm operations. One multiple independent network includes a global tree network for enabling high-speed global tree communications among global tree network nodes or sub-trees thereof. The global interrupt and barrier network may operate in parallel with the global tree network for providing global asynchronous sideband signals.

  20. Fact #715: February 20, 2012 The Average Age of Light Vehicles Continues to

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Rise | Department of Energy 5: February 20, 2012 The Average Age of Light Vehicles Continues to Rise Fact #715: February 20, 2012 The Average Age of Light Vehicles Continues to Rise The average age for cars and light trucks continues to rise as consumers hold onto their vehicles longer. Between 1995 and 2011, the average age for cars increased by 32% from 8.4 years to 11.1 years. For light trucks, the average age increased by 25% during that same period from 8.3 years to 10.4 years. The

  1. Fact #728: May 21, 2012 Average Trip Length is Less Than Ten Miles |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 8: May 21, 2012 Average Trip Length is Less Than Ten Miles Fact #728: May 21, 2012 Average Trip Length is Less Than Ten Miles The average trip length (one-way) is 9.7 miles according to the 2009 Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey. Trip lengths vary by the purpose of the trip. Shopping and family/personal business are the shortest trips, on average. One-way trips to/from work average 12.2 miles. Trip Length by Purpose, 2009 Graphic showing trip length by purpose,

  2. Fact #849: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51% Better Fuel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Economy than Midsize Non-Hybrid Cars in 2014 | Department of Energy 9: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51% Better Fuel Economy than Midsize Non-Hybrid Cars in 2014 Fact #849: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51% Better Fuel Economy than Midsize Non-Hybrid Cars in 2014 For the 2014 model year, midsize hybrid cars averaged 43.4 miles per gallon (mpg) while midsize non-hybrid cars averaged 28.7 mpg; the difference between the two has narrowed due to the rising average

  3. Endeavor Global | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    :"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":"" Hide Map References: Endeavor Global Web Site1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Endeavor Global is...

  4. NERSC Calculations Provide Independent Confirmation of Global Land Warming

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Since 1901 Calculations Provide Independent Confirmation of Global Land Warming Since 1901 NERSC Calculations Provide Independent Confirmation of Global Land Warming Since 1901 September 9, 2013 Contact: Jon Bashor, jbashor@lbl.gov, 510-486-5849 campo.jpg These maps show the changes in air temperatures over land as measured using thermometers (left side) and as calculated by the 20th Century Reanalysis project (left side). While more than 80 percent of the observed variation is captured by

  5. Enlighten Your Research Global Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enlighten Your Research Global Program Science Engagement Move your data Programs & Workshops CrossConnects Workshop Series Operating Innovative Networks Workshop Series Enlighten Your Research Global Program Science Requirements Reviews Case Studies Contact Us Technical Assistance: 1 800-33-ESnet (Inside US) 1 800-333-7638 (Inside US) 1 510-486-7600 (Globally) 1 510-486-7607 (Globally) Report Network Problems: trouble@es.net Provide Web Site Feedback: info@es.net Enlighten Your Research

  6. ARM - What Causes Global Warming?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ThinkersWhat Causes Global Warming? Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans What Causes Global Warming? What is the basis for the predictions concerning global warming? There are several gases in the air, collectively called greenhouse gases, that trap the infrared radiation emitted

  7. ARM - Lesson Plans: Global Warming

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Global Warming Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Lesson Plans: Global Warming Objective The objective is to understand the enhanced greenhouse effect and the effects of global warming. Important Points to Understand If the emission of greenhouse gases continues at the present

  8. Venture Global Calcasieu Pass, LLC - (Formerly Venture Global LNG, LLC) -

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    14-88-LNG | Department of Energy Venture Global Calcasieu Pass, LLC - (Formerly Venture Global LNG, LLC) - 14-88-LNG Venture Global Calcasieu Pass, LLC - (Formerly Venture Global LNG, LLC) - 14-88-LNG The Office of Fossil Energy gives notice of receipt of an application filed on May 13, 2014, by Venture Global LNG, LLC (VGP) requesting long-term, multi-contract authority to export (in addition to the volumes proposed in Docket 13-69-LNG) domestically produced LNG of up to five million

  9. Sensitivity of a global climate model to the critical Richardson number in the boundary layer parameterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Ning; Liu, Yangang; Gao, Zhiqiu; Li, Dan

    2015-04-27

    The critical bulk Richardson number (Ricr) is an important parameter in planetary boundary layer (PBL) parameterization schemes used in many climate models. This paper examines the sensitivity of a Global Climate Model, the Beijing Climate Center Atmospheric General Circulation Model, BCC_AGCM to Ricr. The results show that the simulated global average of PBL height increases nearly linearly with Ricr, with a change of about 114 m for a change of 0.5 in Ricr. The surface sensible (latent) heat flux decreases (increases) as Ricr increases. The influence of Ricr on surface air temperature and specific humidity is not significant. The increasing Ricr may affect the location of the Westerly Belt in the Southern Hemisphere. Further diagnosis reveals that changes in Ricr affect stratiform and convective precipitations differently. Increasing Ricr leads to an increase in the stratiform precipitation but a decrease in the convective precipitation. Significant changes of convective precipitation occur over the inter-tropical convergence zone, while changes of stratiform precipitation mostly appear over arid land such as North Africa and Middle East.

  10. Sensitivity of a global climate model to the critical Richardson number in the boundary layer parameterization

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Ning; Liu, Yangang; Gao, Zhiqiu; Li, Dan

    2015-04-27

    The critical bulk Richardson number (Ricr) is an important parameter in planetary boundary layer (PBL) parameterization schemes used in many climate models. This paper examines the sensitivity of a Global Climate Model, the Beijing Climate Center Atmospheric General Circulation Model, BCC_AGCM to Ricr. The results show that the simulated global average of PBL height increases nearly linearly with Ricr, with a change of about 114 m for a change of 0.5 in Ricr. The surface sensible (latent) heat flux decreases (increases) as Ricr increases. The influence of Ricr on surface air temperature and specific humidity is not significant. The increasingmore » Ricr may affect the location of the Westerly Belt in the Southern Hemisphere. Further diagnosis reveals that changes in Ricr affect stratiform and convective precipitations differently. Increasing Ricr leads to an increase in the stratiform precipitation but a decrease in the convective precipitation. Significant changes of convective precipitation occur over the inter-tropical convergence zone, while changes of stratiform precipitation mostly appear over arid land such as North Africa and Middle East.« less

  11. Global warming from HFC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, E.

    1998-11-01

    Using a variety of public sources, a computer model of hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerant emissions in the UK has been developed. This model has been used to estimate and project emissions in 2010 under three types of scenarios: (1) business as usual; (2) voluntary agreements to reduce refrigerant leakage; and (3) comprehensive regulations to reduce refrigerant leakage. This resulting forecast is that UK emissions of HFC refrigerants in 2010 will account for 2% to 4% of the UK`s 1990 baseline global warming contribution.

  12. The Global Energy Challenge

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Crabtree, George

    2010-01-08

    The expected doubling of global energy demand by 2050 challenges our traditional patterns of energy production, distribution and use.   The continued use of fossil fuels raises concerns about supply, security, environment and climate.  New routes are needed for the efficient conversion of energy from chemical fuel, sunlight, and heat to electricity or hydrogen as an energy carrier and finally to end uses like transportation, lighting, and heating. Opportunities for efficient new energy conversion routes based on nanoscale materials will be presented, with emphasis on the sustainable energy technologies they enable.

  13. Zero Temperature Hope Calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rozsnyai, B F

    2002-07-26

    The primary purpose of the HOPE code is to calculate opacities over a wide temperature and density range. It can also produce equation of state (EOS) data. Since the experimental data at the high temperature region are scarce, comparisons of predictions with the ample zero temperature data provide a valuable physics check of the code. In this report we show a selected few examples across the periodic table. Below we give a brief general information about the physics of the HOPE code. The HOPE code is an ''average atom'' (AA) Dirac-Slater self-consistent code. The AA label in the case of finite temperature means that the one-electron levels are populated according to the Fermi statistics, at zero temperature it means that the ''aufbau'' principle works, i.e. no a priory electronic configuration is set, although it can be done. As such, it is a one-particle model (any Hartree-Fock model is a one particle model). The code is an ''ion-sphere'' model, meaning that the atom under investigation is neutral within the ion-sphere radius. Furthermore, the boundary conditions for the bound states are also set at the ion-sphere radius, which distinguishes the code from the INFERNO, OPAL and STA codes. Once the self-consistent AA state is obtained, the code proceeds to generate many-electron configurations and proceeds to calculate photoabsorption in the ''detailed configuration accounting'' (DCA) scheme. However, this last feature is meaningless at zero temperature. There is one important feature in the HOPE code which should be noted; any self-consistent model is self-consistent in the space of the occupied orbitals. The unoccupied orbitals, where electrons are lifted via photoexcitation, are unphysical. The rigorous way to deal with that problem is to carry out complete self-consistent calculations both in the initial and final states connecting photoexcitations, an enormous computational task. The Amaldi correction is an attempt to address this problem by distorting the outer part of the self-consistent potential in such a way that in the final state after photoexcitation or photoionization the newly occupied orbital sees the hole left in the initial state. This is very important to account for the large number of Rydberg states in the case of low densities. In the next Section we show calculated photoabsorptions compared with experimental data in figures with some rudimentary explanations.

  14. Improved volume-averaged model for steady and pulsed-power electronegative discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Sungjin; Lieberman, M. A.; Lichtenberg, A. J.; Gudmundsson, J. T.

    2006-11-15

    An improved volume-averaged global model is developed for a cylindrical (radius R, length L) electronegative (EN) plasma that is applicable over a wide range of electron densities, electronegativities, and pressures. It is applied to steady and pulsed-power oxygen discharges. The model incorporates effective volume and surface loss factors for positive ions, negative ions, and electrons combining three electronegative discharge regimes: a two-region regime with a parabolic EN core surrounded by an electropositive edge, a one-region parabolic EN plasma, and a one-region flat-topped EN plasma, spanning the plasma parameters and gas pressures of interest for low pressure processing (below a few hundred millitorr). Pressure-dependent effective volume and surface loss factors are also used for the neutral species. A set of reaction rate coefficients, updated from previous model calculations, is developed for oxygen for the species O{sub 2}, O{sub 2}({sup 1}{delta}{sub g}), O, O{sub 2}{sup +}, O{sup +}, and O{sup -}, based on the latest published cross-section sets and measurements. The model solutions yield all of the quantities above together with such important processing quantities such as the neutral/ion flux ratio {gamma}{sub O}/{gamma}{sub i}, with the discharge aspect ratio 2R/L and pulsed-power period and duty ratio (pulse on-time/pulse period) as parameters. The steady discharge results are compared to an experiment, giving good agreement. For steady discharges, increasing 2R/L from 1 to 6 leads to a factor of 0.45 reduction in {gamma}{sub O}/{gamma}{sub i}. For pulsed discharges with a fixed duty ratio, {gamma}{sub O}/{gamma}{sub i} is found to have a minimum with respect to pulse period. A 25% duty ratio pulse reduces {gamma}{sub O}/{gamma}{sub i} by a factor of 0.75 compared to the steady-state case.

  15. Time-averaged quantum dynamics and the validity of the effective

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hamiltonian model (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Time-averaged quantum dynamics and the validity of the effective Hamiltonian model Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Time-averaged quantum dynamics and the validity of the effective Hamiltonian model We develop a technique for finding the dynamical evolution in time of an averaged density matrix. The result is an equation of evolution that includes an effective Hamiltonian, as well as decoherence terms in Lindblad form. Applying

  16. Fact #889: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than Gasoline for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the First Time in Six Years | Department of Energy 9: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than Gasoline for the First Time in Six Years Fact #889: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than Gasoline for the First Time in Six Years SUBSCRIBE to the Fact of the Week In July of 2015, the nationwide average price of diesel was lower than the average price of a regular gallon of gasoline for the first time since June 2009. Both gasoline and diesel prices fluctuate throughout the

  17. Average U.S. household to spend $710 less on gasoline during 2015

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Average U.S. household to spend $710 less on gasoline during 2015 Even with the recent increases in gasoline prices, the average U.S. household is still expected save $710 in gasoline costs this year compared with what was paid at the pump in 2014. In its new monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said the national average price for regular gasoline is expected to be $2.39 per gallon this year. That's almost $1 less than the $3.36 average in 2014. Lower crude oil prices

  18. Gasoline price to average below $2 in 2016 for first time in 12 years

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gasoline price to average below $2 in 2016 for first time in 12 years The annual average price for U.S. regular-grade gasoline is expected to fall below $2 per gallon this year for the first time since 2004. In its new monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said drivers will pay on average $1.98 per gallon to fill up at the pump with regular-grade gasoline. EIA expects the monthly average price of gasoline to reach a seven-year low of $1.82 per gallon in February, before

  19. Fact #915: March 7, 2016 Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price,

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    1929-2015 - Dataset | Department of Energy 5: March 7, 2016 Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2015 - Dataset Fact #915: March 7, 2016 Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2015 - Dataset Excel file and dataset for Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2015 File fotw#915_web.xlsx More Documents & Publications Fact #835: August 25, 2014 Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2013 - Dataset Fact #888: August 31, 2015 Historical Gas Prices -

  20. Global tree network for computing structures enabling global processing operations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blumrich; Matthias A. (Ridgefield, CT); Chen, Dong (Croton-On-Hudson, NY); Coteus, Paul W. (Yorktown Heights, NY); Gara, Alan G. (Mount Kisco, NY); Giampapa, Mark E. (Irvington, NY); Heidelberger, Philip (Cortlandt Manor, NY); Hoenicke, Dirk (Ossining, NY); Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D. (Mount Kisco, NY); Takken, Todd E. (Mount Kisco, NY); Vranas, Pavlos M. (Bedford Hills, NY)

    2010-01-19

    A system and method for enabling high-speed, low-latency global tree network communications among processing nodes interconnected according to a tree network structure. The global tree network enables collective reduction operations to be performed during parallel algorithm operations executing in a computer structure having a plurality of the interconnected processing nodes. Router devices are included that interconnect the nodes of the tree via links to facilitate performance of low-latency global processing operations at nodes of the virtual tree and sub-tree structures. The global operations performed include one or more of: broadcast operations downstream from a root node to leaf nodes of a virtual tree, reduction operations upstream from leaf nodes to the root node in the virtual tree, and point-to-point message passing from any node to the root node. The global tree network is configurable to provide global barrier and interrupt functionality in asynchronous or synchronized manner, and, is physically and logically partitionable.

  1. About GE Global Research Center | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    About GE Global Research GE has come a long way since the first bulb gave light. Find out what we're doing now, meet our leaders or contact us with questions. Home > About GE Global Research What We Do Making aircraft engines more efficient. Powering the world with flexible gas turbines. Crunching big data. Pioneering the Industrial Internet. Creating greener ground transportation. Refining medical imaging for the future. GE Global Research has served as the cornerstone of GE innovation for

  2. Global warming and nuclear power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, L., LLNL

    1998-07-10

    Nuclear fission power reactors represent a potential solution to many aspects of global change possibly induced by inputting of either particulate or carbon or sulfur oxides into the Earth`s atmosphere. Of proven technological feasibility, they presently produce high-grade heat for large-scale electricity generation, space heating and industrial process-energizing around the world, without emitting greenhouse gases or atmospheric particulates; importantly, electricity production costs from the best nuclear plants presently are closely comparable with those of the best fossil-fired plants. However, a substantial number of issues currently stand between nuclear power and widespread substitution for large stationary fossil fuel-fired systems. These include perceptual ones regarding both long-term and acute operational safety, plant decommissioning, fuel reprocessing, radwaste disposal, fissile materials diversion to military purposes and - perhaps most seriously- readily quantifiable concerns regarding long-term fuel supply and total unit electrical energy cost. We sketch a road-map for proceeding from the present situation toward a nuclear power-intensive world, addressing along the way each of the concerns which presently impede widespread nuclear substitution for fossil fuels, particularly for coal in the most populous and rapidly developing portions of the world, e.g., China and India. This `design to societal specifications` approach to large-scale nuclear fission power systems may lead to energy sources meeting essentially all stationary demands for high-temperature heat. Such advanced options offer a human population of ten billion the electricity supply levels currently enjoyed by Americans for 10,000 years. Nuclear power systems tailored to local needs-and-interests and having a common advanced technology base could reduce present-day world-wide C0{sub 2} emissions by two-fold, if universally employed. By application to small mobile demands, a second two-fold reduction might be attained. Even the first such halving of carbon intensivity of stationary-source energy production world-wide might permit continued slow power-demand growth in the highly developed countries and rapid development of the other 80% of the world, both without active governmental suppression of fossil fuel usage - while also stabilizing carbon input-rates into the Earth`s atmosphere. The second two-fold reduction might obviate most global warming concerns.

  3. A comparison of spatial averaging and Cadzow's method for array wavenumber estimation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, D.B.; Clark, G.A.

    1989-10-31

    We are concerned with resolving superimposed, correlated seismic waves with small-aperture arrays. The limited time-bandwidth product of transient seismic signals complicates the task. We examine the use of MUSIC and Cadzow's ML estimator with and without subarray averaging for resolution potential. A case study with real data favors the MUSIC algorithm and a multiple event covariance averaging scheme.

  4. ARM - What Causes Global Warming?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    BeginnersWhat Causes Global Warming? Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans What Causes Global Warming? On earth we get energy from the sun's light. As you know, it gets hot outside if the sun is shining brightly on a summer day. The reason it warms up is because the earth is

  5. Enlighten Your Research Global Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enlighten Your Research Global Program Science Engagement Move your data Programs & Workshops CrossConnects Workshop Series Operating Innovative Networks Workshop Series Enlighten...

  6. Office of Global Material Security

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    at Wilton Park, United Kingdom, on the growing challenge of securing the global maritime supply chain. In total, 55 participants from 15 countries and 9 international...

  7. Computer modeling of the global warming effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Washington, W.M.

    1993-12-31

    The state of knowledge of global warming will be presented and two aspects examined: observational evidence and a review of the state of computer modeling of climate change due to anthropogenic increases in greenhouse gases. Observational evidence, indeed, shows global warming, but it is difficult to prove that the changes are unequivocally due to the greenhouse-gas effect. Although observational measurements of global warming are subject to ``correction,`` researchers are showing consistent patterns in their interpretation of the data. Since the 1960s, climate scientists have been making their computer models of the climate system more realistic. Models started as atmospheric models and, through the addition of oceans, surface hydrology, and sea-ice components, they then became climate-system models. Because of computer limitations and the limited understanding of the degree of interaction of the various components, present models require substantial simplification. Nevertheless, in their present state of development climate models can reproduce most of the observed large-scale features of the real system, such as wind, temperature, precipitation, ocean current, and sea-ice distribution. The use of supercomputers to advance the spatial resolution and realism of earth-system models will also be discussed.

  8. (Managing the global environment)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rayner, S.F.

    1989-10-03

    The conference was stimulated by concern that policy makers increasingly have to make environmental management decisions in the absence of solidly established scientific consensus about ecological processes and the consequences of human actions. Often, as in the case of climate change, some decisions may have to be made in the absence of information that is desirable but may not be available for years to come, if ever. Six topics were identified as running throughout the Congress. These were: the epistemology and history of the sciences or disciplines concerned with the environment, including the scientific basis of rationality and modes of dealing with uncertainty and complexity; the social, economic, and institutional conditions for the production of knowledge bearing on the environment, including the politics of research and the improvement of scientific data; the structuring and institutionalization of expert assessments on national and international levels, including the global distribution of expertise; the means of establishing scientific information, the role of the media in transmitting and processing knowledge about the environment, and the organization of public environmental debate; and decision making and management under conditions of uncertainty; and, finally the relationship between science and ethics. 13 refs.

  9. Flowmeter for determining average rate of flow of liquid in a conduit

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Patent) | SciTech Connect Patent: Flowmeter for determining average rate of flow of liquid in a conduit Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Flowmeter for determining average rate of flow of liquid in a conduit This invention is a compact, precise, and relatively simple device for use in determining the average rate of flow of a liquid through a conduit. The liquid may be turbulent and contain bubbles of gas. In a preferred embodiment, the flowmeter includes an electrical circuit and

  10. U.S. average gasoline prices falling to near $2 in December

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    U.S. average gasoline prices falling to near $2 in December U.S. retail gasoline prices are expected to continue falling over the next few months, dropping to a national average near $2 per gallon in December. In its new forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said high gasoline production, cheaper winter-grade gasoline, and lower gasoline demand following this summer's peak driving season will contribute to savings at the pump for consumers. The monthly average price for gasoline

  11. Fact #622: May 10, 2010 Average Length of Light Vehicle Ownership |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 2: May 10, 2010 Average Length of Light Vehicle Ownership Fact #622: May 10, 2010 Average Length of Light Vehicle Ownership Vehicle owners are holding onto their vehicles for a longer period, according to data from R.L. Polk and Company. The vehicle retention trends show that owners held onto a new vehicle for 56.3 months in 2008, up from 48.4 months six years earlier. New vehicle owners hold onto vehicles about 15 or 16 months longer than used vehicle owners. Average

  12. Fact #794: August 26, 2013 How Much Does an Average Vehicle Owner Pay in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Taxes Each Year? | Department of Energy 4: August 26, 2013 How Much Does an Average Vehicle Owner Pay in Fuel Taxes Each Year? Fact #794: August 26, 2013 How Much Does an Average Vehicle Owner Pay in Fuel Taxes Each Year? According to the Federal Highway Administration, the average fuel economy for all light vehicles on the road today is 21.4 miles per gallon (mpg). A person owning a gasoline vehicle with that fuel efficiency pays between $137 and $296 in fuel taxes each year, depending

  13. Fact #889: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than Gasoline for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the First Time in Six Years - Dataset | Department of Energy 9: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than Gasoline for the First Time in Six Years - Dataset Fact #889: September 7, 2015 Average Diesel Price Lower than Gasoline for the First Time in Six Years - Dataset Excel file and dataset for Average Diesel Price Lower than Gasoline for the First Time in Six Years File fotw#889_web.xlsx More Documents & Publications Fact #859 February 9, 2015 Excess Supply is the Most Recent

  14. Average U.S. household to spend $710 less on gasoline during 2015

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    drivers to see big savings at the gasoline pump this summer U.S. consumers are expected to pay the lowest average price for gasoline in six years during this summer's driving season, mostly because of lower crude oil costs. In its new forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said the price for regular gasoline should average $2.45 per gallon this summer. That's down more than a dollar from the $3.59 per gallon seen last summer, and the cheapest average summer pump price since 2009.

  15. Average household expected to save $675 at the pump in 2015

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Average household expected to save $675 at the pump in 2015 Although retail gasoline prices have risen in recent weeks U.S. consumers are still expected to save about $675 per household in motor fuel costs this year. In its new monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration says the average pump price for regular grade gasoline in 2015 will be $2.43 per gallon. That's about 93 cents lower than last year's average. The savings for consumers will be even bigger during the

  16. Diesel prices continue to increase … U.S. average over $4

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Diesel prices continue to increase - U.S. average over $4 The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel broke the 4-dollar mark for the first time since last March. The U.S. retail average rose to $4.02 a gallon. That's up 2.8 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Diesel prices were highest in the New England region at 4.39 a gallon, up 1.3 cents from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast states at 3.81 a

  17. Fact #915: March 7, 2016 Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price,

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    1929-2015 | Department of Energy 915: March 7, 2016 Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2015 Fact #915: March 7, 2016 Average Historical Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2015 SUBSCRIBE to the Fact of the Week When adjusted for inflation, the average annual price of gasoline has fluctuated greatly, and has recently experienced sharp increases and decreases. The effect of the U.S. embargo of oil from Iran can be seen in the early 1980's with the price of gasoline peaking in

  18. Global extreme events and their regional economic impact: 1996 update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, S.

    1996-12-31

    The meaning of global warming and its relevance to everyday life is explained. Simple thermodynamics is used to predict an oscillatory nature of the change in climate due to global warming. The regional economic impacts of global extreme events are what mankind needs to focus on in government and private sector policy and planning. The economic impact of global warming has been tracked by the Extreme Event Index (EEI) established by the Global Warming International Center (GWIC). This review will update the overall trend and the components of the EEI from 1960 to 1996. The regional components of the global EEI have provided an excellent gauge for measuring the statistical vulnerability of any geographical locality in climate related economic disasters. The author further explains why we no longer fully understand the nature and magnitudes of common phenomena such as storms and wind speeds because of these extreme events, precipitation and temperature oscillations, atmospheric thermal unrest, as well as the further stratification of clouds, and changes in the absorptive properties of clouds. Hurricane strength winds are increasingly common even in continental areas. The author links the increase in duration of the El Nino to global warming, and further predicts a high public health risk as a result of the earth`s transition to another equilibrium state in its young history.

  19. Background noise spectra of global seismic stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wada, M.M.; Claassen, J.P.

    1996-08-01

    Over an extended period of time station noise spectra were collected from various sources for use in estimating the detection and location performance of global networks of seismic stations. As the database of noise spectra enlarged and duplicate entries became available, an effort was mounted to more carefully select station noise spectra while discarding others. This report discusses the methodology and criteria by which the noise spectra were selected. It also identifies and illustrates the station noise spectra which survived the selection process and which currently contribute to the modeling efforts. The resulting catalog of noise statistics not only benefits those who model network performance but also those who wish to select stations on the basis of their noise level as may occur in designing networks or in selecting seismological data for analysis on the basis of station noise level. In view of the various ways by which station noise were estimated by the different contributors, it is advisable that future efforts which predict network performance have available station noise data and spectral estimation methods which are compatible with the statistics underlying seismic noise. This appropriately requires (1) averaging noise over seasonal and/or diurnal cycles, (2) averaging noise over time intervals comparable to those employed by actual detectors, and (3) using logarithmic measures of the noise.

  20. Global production through 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foreman, N.E.

    1996-12-01

    Two companion studies released recently should provide great food for thought among geo-political strategists and various national governments. If predictions contained in these Petroconsultants studies of oil and gas production trends for the next 10 years are realized, there will be great repercussions for net exporters and importers, alike. After analyzing and predicting trends within each of the world`s significant producing nations for the 1996--2005 period, the crude oil and condensate report concludes tat global production will jump nearly 24%. By contrast, worldwide gas output will leap 40%. The cast of characters among producers and exporters that will benefit from these increases varies considerably for each fuel. On the oil side, Russia and the OPEC members, particularly the Persian Gulf nations, will be back in the driver`s seat in terms of affecting export and pricing patterns. On the gas side, the leading producers will be an interesting mix of mostly non-OPEC countries. The reemergence of Persian Gulf oil producers, coupled with an anticipated long-term decline among top non-OPEC producing nations should present a sobering picture to government planners within large net importers, such as the US. They are likely to find themselves in much the same supply trap as was experienced in the 1970s, only this time the dependence on foreign oil supplies will be much worse. Gas supplies will not be similarly constrained, and some substitution for oil is probable. Here, two articles, ``World oil industry is set for transition`` and ``Worldwide gas surges forward in next decade,`` present a summary of the findings detailed in Petroconsultants` recent studies.

  1. Impact of Geoengineering Schemes on the Global Hydrological Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bala, G; Duffy, P; Taylor, K

    2007-12-07

    The rapidly rising CO{sub 2} level in the atmosphere has led to proposals of climate stabilization via 'Geoengineering' schemes that would mitigate climate change by intentionally reducing the solar radiation incident on earth's surface. In this paper, we address the impact of these climate stabilization schemes on the global hydrological cycle, using equilibrium simulations from an atmospheric general circulation model coupled to a slab ocean model. We show that insolation reductions sufficient to offset global-scale temperature increases lead to a decrease in the intensity of the global hydrologic cycle. This occurs because solar forcing is more effective in driving changes in global mean evaporation than is CO{sub 2} forcing of a similar magnitude. In the model used here, the hydrologic sensitivity, defined as the percentage change in global mean precipitation per degree warming, is 2.4% for solar forcing, but only 1.5% for CO{sub 2} forcing. Although other models and the climate system itself may differ quantitatively from this result, the conclusion can be understood based on simple considerations of the surface energy budget and thus is likely to be robust. Compared to changing temperature by altering greenhouse gas concentrations, changing temperature by varying insolation results in larger changes in net radiative fluxes at the surface; these are compensated by larger changes in latent and sensible heat fluxes. Hence the hydrological cycle is more sensitive to temperature adjustment via changes in insolation than changes in greenhouse gases. This implies that an alteration in solar forcing might offset temperature changes or hydrological changes from greenhouse warming, but could not cancel both at once.

  2. Time-averaged quantum dynamics and the validity of the effective...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    We develop a technique for finding the dynamical evolution in time of an averaged density matrix. The result is an equation of evolution that includes an effective Hamiltonian, as ...

  3. Fact #624: May 24, 2010 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards, Model Years 2012-2016

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The final rule for the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards was published in March 2010. Under this rule, each light vehicle model produced for sale in the United States will have a fuel...

  4. U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Dry Developmental...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Dry Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

  5. U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil Exploratory and Developmental...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil Exploratory and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

  6. U.S. Average Depth of Natural Gas Exploratory and Developmental...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Natural Gas Exploratory and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

  7. U.S. Average Depth of Dry Holes Developmental Wells Drilled ...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Dry Holes Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

  8. U.S. Average Depth of Dry Holes Exploratory Wells Drilled (Feet...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Exploratory Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Dry Holes Exploratory Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

  9. U.S. Average Depth of Natural Gas Developmental Wells Drilled...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Natural Gas Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

  10. U.S. Average Depth of Natural Gas Exploratory Wells Drilled ...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Natural Gas Exploratory Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

  11. U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Dry Exploratory...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Dry Exploratory Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  12. U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil Exploratory Wells Drilled (Feet...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil Exploratory Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

  13. U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Dry Exploratory...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Dry Exploratory and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0...

  14. U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil Developmental Wells Drilled ...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Crude Oil Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

  15. U.S. Average Depth of Dry Exploratory and Developmental Wells...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Exploratory and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) U.S. Average Depth of Dry Exploratory and Developmental Wells Drilled (Feet per Well) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

  16. Variation in the annual average radon concentration measured in homes in Mesa County, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rood, A.S.; George, J.L.; Langner, G.H. Jr.

    1990-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the variability in the annual average indoor radon concentration. The TMC has been collecting annual average radon data for the past 5 years in 33 residential structures in Mesa County, Colorado. This report is an interim report that presents the data collected up to the present. Currently, the plans are to continue this study in the future. 62 refs., 3 figs., 12 tabs.

  17. "Table HC1.1.3 Housing Unit Characteristics by Average Floorspace--"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Housing Unit Characteristics by Average Floorspace--" " Single-Family Housing Units and Mobile Homes, 2005" ,,"Single- Family and Mobile Homes (millions)","Average Square Feet per Housing Unit-- Single-Family and Mobile Homes" ," Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Single-Family Detached",,,"Single-Family Attached",,,"Mobile Homes" "Housing Unit

  18. "Table HC1.2.3 Living Space Characteristics by Average Floorspace--"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Living Space Characteristics by Average Floorspace--" " Single-Family Housing Units and Mobile Homes, 2005" ,,"Single- Family and Mobile Homes (millions)","Average Square Feet per Housing Unit" ," Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Single-Family Detached",,,"Single-Family Attached",,,"Mobile Homes" "Housing Unit

  19. Direct health effects of global warming in Japan and China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ando, M.; Yamamoto, S.; Tamura, K.

    1997-12-31

    Combustion of fossil fuels and industrial and agricultural activities are resulting in greater emissions of some greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane into the atmosphere, therefore contributing to global warming. Using general circulation models, it is estimated that surface temperatures in temperate regions will rise 1 to 3 degrees C during the next 100 years. Because global warming may increase the frequency and length of high temperatures during hot summer months, various health risks caused by heat stress have been studied. According to our epidemiological survey, the incidence of heat-related illness was significantly correlated to hot environments in Tokyo, Japan and in Nanjing and Wuhan, China. The epidemiological results also showed that the incidence of heat-related morbidity and mortality in the elderly increased very rapidly in summer. The regression analysis on these data showed that the number of heat stroke patients increased exponentially when the mean daily temperature and maximum daily temperature exceeded 27C and 32C in Tokyo and 31C and 36C in Wuhan and Nanjing, respectively. Since the incidence of heat-related morbidity and mortality has been shown to increase as a result of exposure to long periods of hot summer temperatures, it is important to determine to what extent the incidence of heat stress-related morbidity and mortality will be affected as a result of global warming.

  20. Revision of the Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation - 12510

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, Maurice; Kennedy, James E.; Ridge, Christianne; Lowman, Donald [U.S. NRC, Washington, DC, 20555-0001 (United States); Cochran, John [Sandia National Laboratory (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulation governing low-level waste (LLW) disposal, 'Licensing Requirements for Land Disposal of Radioactive Waste', 10 CFR Part 61, establishes a waste classification system based on the concentration of specific radionuclides contained in the waste. The regulation also states, at 10 CFR 61.55(a)(8), that, 'the concentration of a radionuclide (in waste) may be averaged over the volume of the waste, or weight of the waste if the units are expressed as nanocuries per gram'. The NRC's Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation provides guidance on averaging radionuclide concentrations in waste under 10 CFR 61.55(a)(8) when classifying waste for disposal. In 2007, the NRC staff proposed to revise the Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation. The Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation is an NRC guidance document for averaging and classifying wastes under 10 CFR 61. The Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation is used by nuclear power plants (NPPs) licensees and sealed source users, among others. In addition, three of the four U.S. LLW disposal facility operators are required to honor the Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation as a licensing condition. In 2010, the Commission directed the staff to develop guidance regarding large scale blending of similar homogenous waste types, as described in SECY-10-0043 as part of its Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation revision. The Commission is improving the regulatory approach used in the Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation by moving towards a making it more risk-informed and performance-based approach, which is more consistent with the agency's regulatory policies. Among the improvements to the Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation are more risk-informed limits for the sizes of sealed sources for safe disposal. Using more realistic intruder exposure scenarios, the suggested limits for Class B and C waste disposal of sealed sources, particularly Cs-137 and Co-60, have been increased. These suggested changes, and others in the Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation, if adopted by Agreement States, have the potential to eliminate numerous orphan sources (i.e., sources that currently have no disposal pathway) that are now being stored. Permanent disposal of these sources, rather than temporary storage, will help reduce safety and security risks. The revised Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation has an alternative approach section which provides flexibility to generators and processors, while also ensuring that intruder protection will be maintained. Alternative approaches provide flexibility by allowing for consideration of likelihood of intrusion, the possibility of averaging over larger volumes and allowing for disposal of large activity sources. The revision has improved the organization of the Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation, improved its clarity, better documented the bases for positions, and made the positions more risk informed while also maintaining protection for intruder as required by 10 CFR Part 61. (authors)

  1. Working at GE Global Research | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    products and working on lots of different things, and I was convinced that this ideal job didn't exist. I came to find out about the Sensor & Signal Analytics Lab at GE Global...

  2. Women Engineers Lead Global Innovation in Bangalore | GE Global...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lead Global Innovation in Bangalore Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to...

  3. Global Research on On The Verge | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    this video on www.youtube.com, or enable JavaScript if it is disabled in your browser. Paul Miller from On the Verge takes a tour of GE's Global Research Center to see new...

  4. GE Global Research Experts and Media Contacts | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Home > Newsroom > Experts Experts Our researchers are subject matter experts and welcome media inquiries. To schedule an interview, please contact Todd Alhart. Photograph of Wole Akinyemi Wole Akinyemi Lab Manager Combustion Systems Specialties: diesel engine technologies, combustion, thermo-fluids research Wole joined GE Global Research in 2007 as a senior engineer supporting the research and development of diesel engines. H... Wole joined GE Global Research in 2007 as a senior engineer

  5. Laser Manufacturing | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laser Manufacturing at GE Global Research Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) Laser Manufacturing at GE Global Research Learn how laser sintering, an additive laser manufacturing process practiced at GE Global Research, makes parts from metal powder. You Might Also Like Munich_interior_V 10 Years ON: From

  6. Technical Education | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technical Education at GE Global Research Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click...

  7. Solar Global | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Republic Zip: 10100 Product: Czech PV developer and investor seeking partnership for its 200MW PV porfolio in the Czech Republic. References: Solar Global1 This article is a...

  8. Sourcing Capabilities | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Home > GE Global Research Sourcing External Document & Process Repository > Sourcing Capabilities Sourcing Capabilities The General Electric Company is strongly committed to meet the principles of Public Laws, Federal Acquisition Regulations (FARs), and specific cognizant Government Agency FAR supplemental regulations, and directs that business practices and procedures conform to these Federal laws and regulations. It is the policy of GE Global Research to encourage participation in

  9. COLLOQUIUM: Extreme Global Warming: Examples from the Past | Princeton

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plasma Physics Lab April 16, 2014, 4:00pm to 5:30pm MBG Auditorium COLLOQUIUM: Extreme Global Warming: Examples from the Past Professor Mark Pagani Yale University Earth's climate 50 million years ago was the warmest time of the Cenozoic and characterized by expansive high-latitude warmth and low meridional temperature gradients. Starting at about 55 million years ago, a series of rapid and extreme carbon-induced global warming events, known as hyperthermals, are evident. This presentation

  10. Average M shell fluorescence yields for elements with 70?Z?92

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kahoul, A.; Deghfel, B.; Aylikci, V.; Aylikci, N. K.; Nekkab, M.

    2015-03-30

    The theoretical, experimental and analytical methods for the calculation of average M-shell fluorescence yield (?{sup }{sub M}) of different elements are very important because of the large number of their applications in various areas of physical chemistry and medical research. In this paper, the bulk of the average M-shell fluorescence yield measurements reported in the literature, covering the period 1955 to 2005 are interpolated by using an analytical function to deduce the empirical average M-shell fluorescence yield in the atomic range of 70?Z?92. The results were compared with the theoretical and fitted values reported by other authors. Reasonable agreement was typically obtained between our result and other works.

  11. Reconstruction of ionization probabilities from spatially averaged data in N dimensions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strohaber, J.; Kolomenskii, A. A.; Schuessler, H. A.

    2010-07-15

    We present an analytical inversion technique, which can be used to recover ionization probabilities from spatially averaged data in an N-dimensional detection scheme. The solution is given as a power series in intensity. For this reason, we call this technique a multiphoton expansion (MPE). The MPE formalism was verified with an exactly solvable inversion problem in two dimensions, and probabilities in the postsaturation region, where the intensity-selective scanning approach breaks down, were recovered. In three dimensions, ionization probabilities of Xe were successfully recovered with MPE from simulated (using the Ammosov-Delone-Krainov tunneling theory) ion yields. Finally, we tested our approach with intensity-resolved benzene-ion yields, which show a resonant multiphoton ionization process. By applying MPE to this data (which were artificially averaged), the resonant structure was recovered, which suggests that the resonance in benzene may have been observed in spatially averaged data taken elsewhere.

  12. GS Global Biodiesel JV | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Biodiesel JV Jump to: navigation, search Name: GS Global Biodiesel JV Place: Iowa Product: JV between GS AgriFuels and Global Ethanol set-up to develop a plant that will...

  13. Comparison of average and point capillary pressure-saturation functions determined by steady-state centrifugation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cropper, Clark; Perfect, Edmund; van den Berg, Dr. Elmer; Mayes, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    The capillary pressure-saturation function can be determined from centrifuge drainage experiments. In soil physics, the data resulting from such experiments are usually analyzed by the 'averaging method.' In this approach, average relative saturation, , is expressed as a function of average capillary pressure, <{psi}>, i.e., (<{psi}>). In contrast, the capillary pressure-saturation function at a physical point, i.e., S({psi}), has been extracted from similar experiments in petrophysics using the 'integral method.' The purpose of this study was to introduce the integral method applied to centrifuge experiments to a soil physics audience and to compare S({psi}) and (<{psi}>) functions, as parameterized by the Brooks-Corey and van Genuchten equations, for 18 samples drawn from a range of porous media (i.e., Berea sandstone, glass beads, and Hanford sediments). Steady-state centrifuge experiments were performed on preconsolidated samples with a URC-628 Ultra-Rock Core centrifuge. The angular velocity and outflow data sets were then analyzed using both the averaging and integral methods. The results show that the averaging method smoothes out the drainage process, yielding less steep capillary pressure-saturation functions relative to the corresponding point-based curves. Maximum deviations in saturation between the two methods ranged from 0.08 to 0.28 and generally occurred at low suctions. These discrepancies can lead to inaccurate predictions of other hydraulic properties such as the relative permeability function. Therefore, we strongly recommend use of the integral method instead of the averaging method when determining the capillary pressure-saturation function by steady-state centrifugation. This method can be successfully implemented using either the van Genuchten or Brooks-Corey functions, although the latter provides a more physically precise description of air entry at a physical point.

  14. Origin of the failed ensemble average rule for the band gaps of disordered

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    nonisovalent semiconductor alloys (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES Origin of the failed ensemble average rule for the band gaps of disordered nonisovalent semiconductor alloys « Prev Next » Title: Origin of the failed ensemble average rule for the band gaps of disordered nonisovalent semiconductor alloys Authors: Ma, Jie ; Deng, Hui-Xiong ; Luo, Jun-Wei ; Wei, Su-Huai Publication Date: 2014-09-02 OSTI Identifier: 1180832 Grant/Contract Number: AC02-05CH11231; AC36-08GO28308 Type: Publisher's

  15. ,"U.S. Conventional, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Conventional, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Conventional, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices",6,"Monthly","12/2015","1/15/1994" ,"Release Date:","3/1/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","4/1/2016" ,"Excel

  16. ,"U.S. Reformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Reformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices",6,"Monthly","12/2015","1/15/1994" ,"Release Date:","3/1/2016" ,"Next Release Date:","4/1/2016" ,"Excel

  17. Table HC1.1.2 Housing Unit Characteristics by Average Floorspace, 2005

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Housing Unit Characteristics by Average Floorspace, 2005 " ,,"Average Square Feet per--" ," Housing Units (millions)" ,,"Housing Unit",,,"Household Member" "Housing Unit Characteristics",,"Total1","Heated","Cooled","Total","Heated","Cooled" "Total",111.1,2171,1618,1031,845,630,401 "Census Region and Division" "Northeast",20.6,2334,1664,562,911,649,220

  18. Table HC1.2.2 Living Space Characteristics by Average Floorspace

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Living Space Characteristics by Average Floorspace, " " Per Housing Unit and Per Household Member, 2005" ,,"Average Square Feet" ," Housing Units (millions)" ,,"Per Housing Unit",,,"Per Household Member" "Living Space Characteristics",,"Total1","Heated","Cooled","Total1","Heated","Cooled" "Total",111.1,2033,1618,1031,791,630,401 "Total Floorspace (Square

  19. Table HC1.2.4 Living Space Characteristics by Average Floorspace--Apartments, 2

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2.4 Living Space Characteristics by Average Floorspace--Apartments, 2005" ,,,"Average Square Feet per Apartment in a --" ," Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"2 to 4 Unit Building",,,"5 or More Unit Building" ,,"Apartments (millions)" "Living Space Characteristics",,,"Total","Heated","Cooled","Total","Heated","Cooled" "Total",111.1,24.5,1090,902,341,872,780,441

  20. Flowmeter for determining average rate of flow of liquid in a conduit

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Patent) | SciTech Connect Patent: Flowmeter for determining average rate of flow of liquid in a conduit Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Flowmeter for determining average rate of flow of liquid in a conduit × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy

  1. The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose this week

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose this week The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose slightly to $3.90 a gallon on Monday. That's up 8-tenths of a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Diesel prices were highest in the New England region, at 4.16 a gallon, down a penny from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Rocky Mountain States at $3.68 a gallon, down 1.7

  2. The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose this week

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose this week The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose to $3.93 a gallon on Monday. That's up 2 ½ cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Prices increased in all regions across the U.S. The highest prices were found in the New England region, at 4.18 a gallon, up 2.3 cents from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Rocky Mountain States at $3.74 a gallon,

  3. U.S. diesel prices decrease … U.S. average still over $4

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    U.S. diesel prices decrease - U.S. average still over $4 The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel fell to $4.02 a gallon. That's down a tenth of a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Diesel prices were highest in the New England region at 4.39 a gallon, up 3-tenths of a penny from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast states at 3.79 a gallon, down 1.3 cents.

  4. U.S. diesel prices decrease … U.S. average still over $4

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    U.S. diesel prices decrease - U.S. average still over $4 The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel fell to $4.00 a gallon. That's down 1.8 cents from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Diesel prices were highest in the New England region and Central Atlantic states at 4.31 a gallon, down 4.9 and 3.9 cents, respectively, from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast states at 3.80 a gallon, down 1.1 cents.

  5. U.S. diesel prices increase … U.S. average still over $4

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    U.S. diesel prices increase - U.S. average still over $4 The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel rose to $4.02 a gallon. That's up half a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Diesel prices were highest in the New England region at 4.36 a gallon, down 2.7 cents from a week ago. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast states at 3.81 a gallon, up 2.1 cents.

  6. ,"Sulfur Content, Weighted Average Refinery Crude Oil Input Qualities"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sulfur Content, Weighted Average Refinery Crude Oil Input Qualities" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Sulfur Content, Weighted Average Refinery Crude Oil Input Qualities",16,"Monthly","12/2015","1/15/1985" ,"Release Date:","2/29/2016" ,"Next Release

  7. Hydropower Upgrades to Yield Added Generation at Average Costs Less Than 4

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cents per kWh - Without New Dams | Department of Energy Hydropower Upgrades to Yield Added Generation at Average Costs Less Than 4 cents per kWh - Without New Dams Hydropower Upgrades to Yield Added Generation at Average Costs Less Than 4 cents per kWh - Without New Dams November 4, 2009 - 12:00am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu today announced up to $30.6 million in Recovery Act funding for the selection of seven hydropower projects that modernize hydropower

  8. Fact #803: November 11, 2013 Average Number of Transmission Gears is on the

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Rise | Department of Energy 3: November 11, 2013 Average Number of Transmission Gears is on the Rise Fact #803: November 11, 2013 Average Number of Transmission Gears is on the Rise The number of gears a transmission has affects a vehicle's fuel economy and performance. The more gears a vehicle has, the more time the engine spends within an optimal operating range while the vehicle speeds up and slows down. To achieve a better match between engine speed and wheel speed, manufacturers have

  9. Fact #851 December 15, 2014 The Average Number of Gears used in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transmissions Continues to Rise | Department of Energy 1 December 15, 2014 The Average Number of Gears used in Transmissions Continues to Rise Fact #851 December 15, 2014 The Average Number of Gears used in Transmissions Continues to Rise The number of gears in a transmission affects a vehicle's fuel economy and performance. The more gears a vehicle has, the more time the engine spends within an optimal operating range while the vehicle speeds up and slows down. To achieve a better match

  10. Builds in U.S. natural gas storage running above five-year average

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Builds in U.S. natural gas storage running above five-year average The amount of natural gas put into underground storage since the beginning of the so-called "injection season" in April has been above the five-year average by a wide margin. In its new forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said natural gas inventories, which are running more than 50% above year ago levels, are on track to reach almost 4 trillion cubic feet by the end of October which marks the start of

  11. Performance and production requirements for the optical components in a high-average-power laser system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chow, R.; Doss, F.W.; Taylor, J.R.; Wong, J.N.

    1999-07-02

    Optical components needed for high-average-power lasers, such as those developed for Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS), require high levels of performance and reliability. Over the past two decades, optical component requirements for this purpose have been optimized and performance and reliability have been demonstrated. Many of the optical components that are exposed to the high power laser light affect the quality of the beam as it is transported through the system. The specifications for these optics are described including a few parameters not previously reported and some component manufacturing and testing experience. Key words: High-average-power laser, coating efficiency, absorption, optical components

  12. Sky Solar Global SA | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global SA Jump to: navigation, search Name: Sky Solar Global SA Place: Madrid, Spain Zip: 28046 Product: Project developer, and distributor of Chinese PV modules to Spain and...

  13. Carbon Markets Global Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Markets Global Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon Markets Global Ltd Place: London, United Kingdom Zip: NW4 2HT Product: Assist project originators develop and finance...

  14. The Global Carbon Bank | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Carbon Bank Jump to: navigation, search Name: The Global Carbon Bank Place: Houston, Texas Zip: 77025 Sector: Carbon, Services Product: Houston-based provider of advisory...

  15. Global Celsius SL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Global Celsius SL Place: Madrid, Spain Sector: Wind energy Product: Spanish wind project developer. References: Global Celsius SL1 This article is a stub. You...

  16. Global Power Solutions LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Power Solutions LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Global Power Solutions LLC Place: Colorado Zip: CO 80401 Sector: Geothermal energy Product: String representation...

  17. Global Solar Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Jump to: navigation, search Name: Global Solar Energy Place: Tucson, AZ Website: www.globalsolarenergy.com References: Global Solar Energy1 Information About Partnership...

  18. Sunrise Global Solar Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Solar Energy Jump to: navigation, search Name: Sunrise Global Solar Energy Place: Taoyuan County, Taiwan Zip: 330 Sector: Solar Product: Engaged in solar monocrystalline...

  19. NERSC Calculations Provide Independent Confirmation of Global...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Calculations Provide Independent Confirmation of Global Land Warming Since 1901 NERSC Calculations Provide Independent Confirmation of Global Land Warming Since 1901 September 9,...

  20. Global Climate Change Institute | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Change Institute Jump to: navigation, search Name: Global Climate Change Institute Place: Tsinghua University, Beijing Municipality, China Zip: 100084 Product: Global Climate...

  1. Brazil Interministerial Commission on Global Climate Change ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Interministerial Commission on Global Climate Change Jump to: navigation, search Name: Brazil Interministerial Commission on Global Climate Change Place: Distrito Federal...

  2. Global Alternative Fuels | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Alternative Fuels Jump to: navigation, search Name: Global Alternative Fuels Place: El Paso, Texas Zip: 79922 Product: Global Alternative Fuels processes virgin oils (palm,...

  3. Eco Fuel Global | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fuel Global Jump to: navigation, search Name: Eco-Fuel Global Place: California, California Zip: 94596 Sector: Services Product: California-based environmental engineering and...

  4. Engine Combustion Network (ECN): Global sensitivity analysis...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Engine Combustion Network (ECN): Global sensitivity analysis of Spray A for different combustion vessels Title Engine Combustion Network (ECN): Global sensitivity analysis of Spray...

  5. Digilog Global Environmental LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Digilog Global Environmental LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Digilog Global Environmental LLC Place: Chicago, Illinois Zip: 60606 Product: TradeLink is registered as a...

  6. Global climate change crosses state boundaries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Changnon, S.A.

    1996-12-31

    The hot, dry summer of 1988 brought the specter of global warming a bit too close for comfort. {open_quotes}Scorching heat, not scientific models, attracted media attention,{close_quotes} says Stanley A. Changnon, senior scientist with the Illinois State Water Survey in Champaign, Illinois. Rising temperatures in the late 1980`s prompted individual states to begin to take action to curb greenhouse-gas emissions. A 1990 report by the National Governors Association identified two guiding principles for addressing climate change issues. {open_quotes}First, that energy policy must be at the center of any efforts to control greenhouse-gas emissions. Second, that state can...restrict emissions through state policies related to public utilities, land use, transportation, and even taxation,{close_quotes} Changnon says. Even if concerns for global warming prove to be overblown, states decided to act for broader economic and environmental reasons. Such initiatives not only save money, but they improve air quality and leave the nation more energy independent,{close_quotes} Changnon says.

  7. {sup 85}Kr induced global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zakharov, V.I.

    1996-12-31

    It`s well known that the trace atmospheric constituent as {sup 85}Kr is at present about 10{sup 6} cm{sup {minus}3} and increasing considerably (twice every 8--10 years) as a result of nuclear fuel utilization. This paper presents the model of influence of {sup 85}Kr accumulation in the earth atmosphere on climate perturbation and global warming. The process of increasing the concentrations in the troposphere due to the anthropogenic emission of {sup 85}Kr and its radioactive decay is analyzed, based on master kinetic equations. Results indicate that anthropogenic emissions contributing to the total equilibrium concentration of tropospheric ions due to {sup 85}Kr is about equal to the natural level of tropospheric ions. The influence of atmospheric electricity on the transformation between water vapor and clouds which result in an increase in the concentration of ions in troposphere is investigated. The paper shows that the process of anthropogenic accumulation of {sup 85}Kr in the troposphere at present rate up to 2005--2010 increases the mean of the dew-point temperature several degrees on the global scale. Relevant change of height for the lower level of clouds has been obtained. Positive feedback between the process of warming of the lower atmosphere and the concentration of tropospheric ions has been considered.

  8. Development of a high average current polarized electron source with long cathode operational lifetime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. K. Sinclair; P. A. Adderley; B. M. Dunham; J. C. Hansknecht; P. Hartmann; M. Poelker; J. S. Price; P. M. Rutt; W. J. Schneider; M. Steigerwald

    2007-02-01

    Substantially more than half of the electromagnetic nuclear physics experiments conducted at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Laboratory) require highly polarized electron beams, often at high average current. Spin-polarized electrons are produced by photoemission from various GaAs-based semiconductor photocathodes, using circularly polarized laser light with photon energy slightly larger than the semiconductor band gap. The photocathodes are prepared by activation of the clean semiconductor surface to negative electron affinity using cesium and oxidation. Historically, in many laboratories worldwide, these photocathodes have had short operational lifetimes at high average current, and have often deteriorated fairly quickly in ultrahigh vacuum even without electron beam delivery. At Jefferson Lab, we have developed a polarized electron source in which the photocathodes degrade exceptionally slowly without electron emission, and in which ion back bombardment is the predominant mechanism limiting the operational lifetime of the cathodes during electron emission. We have reproducibly obtained cathode 1/e dark lifetimes over two years, and 1/e charge density and charge lifetimes during electron beam delivery of over 2?105???C/cm2 and 200 C, respectively. This source is able to support uninterrupted high average current polarized beam delivery to three experimental halls simultaneously for many months at a time. Many of the techniques we report here are directly applicable to the development of GaAs photoemission electron guns to deliver high average current, high brightness unpolarized beams.

  9. Fact #851 December 15, 2014 The Average Number of Gears used...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Average Number of Gears in New Cars and Light Trucks Model Year Gears 1980 3.5 1981 3.5 1982 3.6 1983 3.7 1984 3.7 1985 3.8 1986 3.8 1987 3.9 1988 3.9 1989 3.9 1990 4.0 1991 4.0 ...

  10. Impacts of different data averaging times on statistical analysis of distributed domestic photovoltaic systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widen, Joakim; Waeckelgaard, Ewa; Paatero, Jukka; Lund, Peter

    2010-03-15

    The trend of increasing application of distributed generation with solar photovoltaics (PV-DG) suggests that a widespread integration in existing low-voltage (LV) grids is possible in the future. With massive integration in LV grids, a major concern is the possible negative impacts of excess power injection from on-site generation. For power-flow simulations of such grid impacts, an important consideration is the time resolution of demand and generation data. This paper investigates the impact of time averaging on high-resolution data series of domestic electricity demand and PV-DG output and on voltages in a simulated LV grid. Effects of 10-minutely and hourly averaging on descriptive statistics and duration curves were determined. Although time averaging has a considerable impact on statistical properties of the demand in individual households, the impact is smaller on aggregate demand, already smoothed from random coincidence, and on PV-DG output. Consequently, the statistical distribution of simulated grid voltages was also robust against time averaging. The overall judgement is that statistical investigation of voltage variations in the presence of PV-DG does not require higher resolution than hourly. (author)

  11. New Jersey Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Commercial Consumers by Local Distribution and Mark 2.03 12.98 12.38 10.30 9.08 7.85 1989-2015 Commercial Average Price 8.66 8.78 8.03 8.10 8.66 8.24

  12. District of Columbia Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    and Commercial Consumers by Local Distributio 17.68 18.15 18.17 16.21 12.60 10.70 1989-2015 Commercial Average Price 11.15 11.17 11.50 11.68 11.28 10.01

  13. Ohio Average Price of Natural Gas Delivered to Residential and Commercial

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Consumers by Local Distribution and Marketers 23.83 25.46 24.31 15.36 9.68 7.40 1989-2015 Commercial Average Price 8.14 8.02 7.99 6.79 6.03 5.5

  14. ARM - Lesson Plans: Temperature of the Pacific Ocean

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Temperature of the Pacific Ocean Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Lesson Plans: Temperature of the Pacific Ocean Objective The objective of this activity is to demonstrate how the earth's temperature has varied gradually in the past. Materials Each student or group of students

  15. Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient-Temperature

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Environments: R-22 and R-410A Alternatives for Mini-Split Air Conditioners | Department of Energy Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient-Temperature Environments: R-22 and R-410A Alternatives for Mini-Split Air Conditioners Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient-Temperature Environments: R-22 and R-410A Alternatives for Mini-Split Air Conditioners The Oak Ridge National Laboratory High-Ambient-Temperature Evaluation Program for Low Global Warming Potential (Low-GWP)

  16. Toxicological and epidemiological aspects of global warming on human health

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ando, M.; Yamamoto, S.; Wakamatsu, K.; Kawahara, I.; Asanuma, S.

    1996-12-31

    Since human activities are responsible for anthropogenic greenhouse gases emissions, climate models project an increase in the global surface temperature of 0.9 C to 4.0 C by 2100. For human health, it is projected that global warming may have a critical effect on the increased periods of severe heat stress in summer throughout the world. Global warming may have a critical issue on the increased periods of severe heat stress that have a potential impact on peroxidative damage in humans and animals. Lipid peroxidative damage is markedly related to GSH peroxidase activities, therefore the study was carried out to analyze the relationship between biochemical adaptability and the lipid peroxidative damage especially intracellular structure, such as mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum depending on the exposure time of heat stress.

  17. Global warming: A Northwest perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, M.J.; Counts, C.A.

    1990-02-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council convened a symposium in Olympia, Washington, on the subject of global climate change ( the greenhouse effect'') and its potential for affecting the Pacific Northwest. The symposium was organized in response to a need by the Power Council to understand global climate change and its potential impacts on resource planning and fish and wildlife planning for the region, as well as a need to understand national policy developing toward climate change and the Pacific Northwest's role in it. 40 figs., 15 tabs.

  18. Global change: Acronyms and abbreviations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodard, C.T.; Stoss, F.W.

    1995-05-01

    This list of acronyms and abbreviations is compiled to provide the user with a ready reference to dicipher the linguistic initialisms and abridgements for the study of global change. The terms included in this first edition were selected from a wide variety of sources: technical reports, policy documents, global change program announcements, newsletters, and other periodicals. The disciplinary interests covered by this document include agriculture, atmospheric science, ecology, environmental science, oceanography, policy science, and other fields. In addition to its availability in hard copy, the list of acronyms and abbreviations is available in DOS-formatted diskettes and through CDIAC`s anonymous File Transfer Protocol (FTP) area on the Internet.

  19. Pi Day | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Happy Pi Day from GE Global Research Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) Happy Pi Day from GE Global Research 2013.03.13 Chief Scientist Jim Bray shares a few of the many ways Pi is used and poses a question to stump at-home scientists. 1 Comment Comment Name Email Submit Comment Justin 2015.12.12 has our

  20. GIS applications to evaluate public health effects of global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Regens, J.L.; Hodges, D.G.

    1996-12-31

    Modeling projections of future climatic conditions suggest changes in temperature and precipitation patterns that might induce direct adverse effects on human health by altering the extent and severity of infectious and vector-borne diseases. The incidence of mosquito-borne diseases, for example, could increase substantially in areas where temperature and relative humidity rise. The application of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) offers new methodologies to evaluate the impact of global warming on changes in the incidence of infectious and vector-borne diseases. This research illustrates the potential analytical and communication uses of GIS for monitoring historical patterns of climate and human health variables and for projecting changes in these health variables with global warming.

  1. Global Threat Reduction Initiative | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    An overview of the Global Threat Reduction Initiative, U.S.-Origin Nuclear Fuel Removals.

  2. High Temperature ESP Monitoring

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of the High Temperature ESP Monitoring project is to develop a down-hole monitoring system to be used in wells with bottom hole temperature up to 300 °C for measuring motor temperature; pump discharge pressure; and formation temperature and pressure.

  3. Line Focus Receiver Infrared Temperature Survey System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2010-06-01

    For ongoing maintenance and performance purposes, solar parabolic trough field operators desire to know that the Heat Collection Elements (HCEs) are performing properly. Measuring their temperature is one way of doing this One 30MW field can contain approximately 10,000 HCE's. This software interfaces with a GPS receiver and an infrared camera. It takes global positioning data from the GPS and uses this information to automate the infrared image capture and temperature analysis of individual solarmore » parabolic HCEs in a solar parabolic trough field With this software system an entire 30MW field can be surveyed in 2-3 days.« less

  4. Cooled, temperature controlled electrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, John P.

    1992-01-01

    A cooled, temperature controlled electrometer for the measurement of small currents. The device employs a thermal transfer system to remove heat from the electrometer circuit and its environment and dissipate it to the external environment by means of a heat sink. The operation of the thermal transfer system is governed by a temperature regulation circuit which activates the thermal transfer system when the temperature of the electrometer circuit and its environment exceeds a level previously inputted to the external variable temperature control circuit. The variable temperature control circuit functions as subpart of the temperature control circuit. To provide temperature stability and uniformity, the electrometer circuit is enclosed by an insulated housing.

  5. Cooled, temperature controlled electrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, John P.

    1992-08-04

    A cooled, temperature controlled electrometer for the measurement of small currents. The device employs a thermal transfer system to remove heat from the electrometer circuit and its environment and dissipate it to the external environment by means of a heat sink. The operation of the thermal transfer system is governed by a temperature regulation circuit which activates the thermal transfer system when the temperature of the electrometer circuit and its environment exceeds a level previously inputted to the external variable temperature control circuit. The variable temperature control circuit functions as subpart of the temperature control circuit. To provide temperature stability and uniformity, the electrometer circuit is enclosed by an insulated housing.

  6. A Cross-model Comparison of Global Long-term Technology Diffusion under a 2?C Climate Change Control Target

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van der Zwaan, Bob; Rosler, Hilke; Kober, Tom; Aboumahboub, Tino; Calvin, Katherine V.; Gernaat, David; Marangoni, Giacomo; McCollum, David

    2013-11-01

    We investigate the long-term global energy technology diffusion patterns required to reach a stringent climate change target with a maximum average atmospheric temperature increase of 2C. If the anthropogenic temperature increase is to be limited to 2C, total CO2 emissions have to be reduced massively, so as to reach substantial negative values during the second half of the century. Particularly power sector CO2 emissions should become negative from around 2050 onwards according to most models used for this analysis in order to compensate for GHG emissions in other sectors where abatement is more costly. The annual additional capacity deployment intensity (expressed in GW/yr) for solar and wind energy until 2030 needs to be around that recently observed for coal-based power plants, and will have to be several times higher in the period 20302050. Relatively high agreement exists across models in terms of the aggregated low-carbon energy system cost requirements on the supply side until 2050, which amount to about 50 trillion US$.

  7. HIGH AVERAGE CURRENT LOW EMITTANCE BEAM EMPLOYING CW NORMAL CONDUCTING GUN.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CHANG,X.; BEN-ZVI, I.; KEWISCH, J.; PAI, C.

    2007-06-25

    CW normal conducting guns usually do not achieve very high field gradient and waste much RF power at high field gradient compared to superconducting cavities. But they have less trapped modes and wakefields compared to the superconducting cavities due to their low Q. The external bucking coil can also be applied very close to the cathode to improve the beam quality. By using a low frequency gun with a recessed cathode and a carefully designed beam line we can get a high average current and a high quality beam with acceptable RF power loss on the cavity wall. This paper shows that the CW normal conducting gun can be a backup solution for those projects which need high peak and average current, low emittance electron beams such as the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) e-cooling project and Energy Recovery Linac (Em) project.

  8. Gatling gun: high average polarized current injector for eRHIC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Litvinenko, V.N.

    2010-01-01

    This idea was originally developed in 2001 for, at that time, an ERL-based (and later recirculating-ring) electron-ion collider at JLab. Naturally the same idea is applicable for any gun requiring current exceeding capability of a single cathode. ERL-based eRHIC is one of such cases. This note related to eRHIC was prepared at Duke University in February 2003. In many case photo-injectors can have a limited average current - it is especially true about polarized photo-guns. It is know that e-RHIC requires average polarized electron current well above currently demonstrated by photo-injectors - hence combining currents from multiple guns is can be useful option for eRHIC.

  9. Coupling of an average-atom model with a collisional-radiative equilibrium model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faussurier, G. Blancard, C.; Cossé, P.

    2014-11-15

    We present a method to combine a collisional-radiative equilibrium model and an average-atom model to calculate bound and free electron wavefunctions in hot dense plasmas by taking into account screening. This approach allows us to calculate electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity as well as pressure in non local thermodynamic equilibrium plasmas. Illustrations of the method are presented for dilute titanium plasma.

  10. "Table A49. Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Steam, and Natural Gas"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9. Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Steam, and Natural Gas" " by Type of Supplier, Census Region, and Economic Characteristics of the" " Establishment, 1991" " (Estimates in Dollars per Physical Units)" ," Electricity",," Steam",," Natural Gas" ," (Million kWh)",," (Billion Btu)",," (1000 cu ft)"

  11. "Table E8.2. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 1998;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 1998;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Values of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: U.S. Dollars per Million Btu." " ",," "," ",," "," ","RSE" "Economic",,"Residual","Distillate",,"LPG and",,"Row"

  12. Table 7.1 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2002

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: All Energy Sources Collected;" " Unit: U.S. Dollars per Physical Units." ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Selected Wood and Other Biomass Components" ,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,,"Electricity Components",,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Natural Gas Components",,,"Steam Components"

  13. Table 7.2 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2002

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; " " Column: All Energy Sources Collected;" " Unit: U.S. Dollars per Million Btu." ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Selected Wood and Other Biomass Components" ,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,,"Electricity Components",,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Natural Gas Components",,,"Steam Components"

  14. Table 7.2 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2010;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table 7.2 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: All Energy Sources Collected; Unit: U.S. Dollars per Million Btu. Selected Wood and Other Biomass Components Coal Components Coke Electricity Components Natural Gas Components Steam Components Total Wood Residues Bituminous Electricity Diesel Fuel Motor Natural Gas Steam and Wood-Related and Electricity from Sources and Gasoline Pulping Liquor Natural Gas from Sources Steam

  15. Table 7.3 Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 20

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Supplier Sources of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam;" " Unit: U.S. Dollars per Physical Units." ,,,"Electricity","Components",,"Natural Gas","Components",,"Steam","Components" " ","

  16. Table 7.3 Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 2010;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Supplier Sources of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam; Unit: U.S. Dollars per Physical Units. Electricity Components Natural Gas Components Steam Components Electricity Natural Gas Steam Electricity from Sources Natural Gas from Sources Steam from Sources Electricity from Local Other than Natural Gas from Local Other than Steam from Local Other than

  17. Table N8.2. Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 1998

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 1998;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes; Column: All Energy Sources Collected;" " Unit: U.S. Dollars per Million Btu." ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Selected","Wood and Other","Biomass","Components" ,,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,"Electricity","Components",,,,,,,,,,,,,"Natural

  18. Table N8.3. Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3. Average Prices of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam, 1998;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Supplier Sources of Purchased Electricity, Natural Gas, and Steam;" " Unit: U.S. Dollars per Physical Units." ,,,"Electricity","Components",,"Natural Gas","Components",,"Steam","Components" " ","

  19. High temperature furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borkowski, Casimer J.

    1976-08-03

    A high temperature furnace for use above 2000.degree.C is provided that features fast initial heating and low power consumption at the operating temperature. The cathode is initially heated by joule heating followed by electron emission heating at the operating temperature. The cathode is designed for routine large temperature excursions without being subjected to high thermal stresses. A further characteristic of the device is the elimination of any ceramic components from the high temperature zone of the furnace.

  20. Physically Based Global Downscaling: Regional Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghan, Steven J.; Shippert, Timothy R.; Fox, Jared

    2006-02-01

    The climate simulated by a global atmosphere/land model with a physically-based subgrid orography scheme is evaluated in ten selected regions. Climate variables simulated for each of multiple elevation classes within each grid cell are mapped according the high-resolution distribution of surface elevation in each region. Comparison of the simulated annual mean climate with gridded observations leads to the following conclusions. At low to moderate elevations the downscaling scheme correctly simulates increasing precipitation, decreasing temperature, and increasing snow with increasing elevation within regions smaller than 100 km. At high elevations the downscaling scheme correctly simulates a decrease in precipitation with increasing elevation. Too little precipitation is simulated on the windward side of mountain ranges and too much precipitation is simulated on the lee side. The simulated sensitivity of surface air temperature to surface elevation is too strong, particularly in valleys influenced by drainage circulations. Observations show little evidence of a snow shadow, so the neglect of the subgrid rainshadow does not produce an unrealistic simulation of the snow distribution. Summertime snow area, which is a proxy for land ice, is much larger than observed. Summertime snow water equivalent is far less than the observed thickness of glaciers because a 1 m upper bound on snow water is applied to the simulations and because snow transport by slides is neglected. The 1 m upper bound on snow water equivalent also causes an underestimate of seasonal snow water during late winter, compared with gridded station measurements. Potential solutions to these problems are discussed.

  1. Global strategies for environmental issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This is the 19th Annual NAEP conference proceedings, containing abstracts of oral presentations and poster sessions. Broad areas covered include the following: Environmental Management; Biodiversity/sustainable development; Gulf Regional Issues; Environmental ethics/equity; NEPA workshop and symposium; International environmental issues; global Environmental Effects; Risk Assessment; and Environmental effects of nuclear waste management.

  2. Accounting for Global Climate Model Projection Uncertainty in Modern Statistical Downscaling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johannesson, G

    2010-03-17

    Future climate change has emerged as a national and a global security threat. To carry out the needed adaptation and mitigation steps, a quantification of the expected level of climate change is needed, both at the global and the regional scale; in the end, the impact of climate change is felt at the local/regional level. An important part of such climate change assessment is uncertainty quantification. Decision and policy makers are not only interested in 'best guesses' of expected climate change, but rather probabilistic quantification (e.g., Rougier, 2007). For example, consider the following question: What is the probability that the average summer temperature will increase by at least 4 C in region R if global CO{sub 2} emission increases by P% from current levels by time T? It is a simple question, but one that remains very difficult to answer. It is answering these kind of questions that is the focus of this effort. The uncertainty associated with future climate change can be attributed to three major factors: (1) Uncertainty about future emission of green house gasses (GHG). (2) Given a future GHG emission scenario, what is its impact on the global climate? (3) Given a particular evolution of the global climate, what does it mean for a particular location/region? In what follows, we assume a particular GHG emission scenario has been selected. Given the GHG emission scenario, the current batch of the state-of-the-art global climate models (GCMs) is used to simulate future climate under this scenario, yielding an ensemble of future climate projections (which reflect, to some degree our uncertainty of being able to simulate future climate give a particular GHG scenario). Due to the coarse-resolution nature of the GCM projections, they need to be spatially downscaled for regional impact assessments. To downscale a given GCM projection, two methods have emerged: dynamical downscaling and statistical (empirical) downscaling (SDS). Dynamic downscaling involves configuring and running a regional climate model (RCM) nested within a given GCM projection (i.e., the GCM provides bounder conditions for the RCM). On the other hand, statistical downscaling aims at establishing a statistical relationship between observed local/regional climate variables of interest and synoptic (GCM-scale) climate predictors. The resulting empirical relationship is then applied to future GCM projections. A comparison of the pros and cons of dynamical versus statistical downscaling is outside the scope of this effort, but has been extensively studied and the reader is referred to Wilby et al. (1998); Murphy (1999); Wood et al. (2004); Benestad et al. (2007); Fowler et al. (2007), and references within those. The scope of this effort is to study methodology, a statistical framework, to propagate and account for GCM uncertainty in regional statistical downscaling assessment. In particular, we will explore how to leverage an ensemble of GCM projections to quantify the impact of the GCM uncertainty in such an assessment. There are three main component to this effort: (1) gather the necessary climate-related data for a regional SDS study, including multiple GCM projections, (2) carry out SDS, and (3) assess the uncertainty. The first step is carried out using tools written in the Python programming language, while analysis tools were developed in the statistical programming language R; see Figure 1.

  3. Global

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia Co-Hosts "Climate Risk Forum: Bridging Climate Science and Actuarial Practice" This Fall event was a follow-up to a Climate and Environment Program Area meeting with the California governor's office in July. There, the California Insurance Commissioner, Dave Jones, recognized the value of Sandia's climate-impact modeling and analysis work, led by Stephen Conrad (manager of Sandia's Resilience and Regulatory Effects Dept.), and wanted to connect that [...] By

  4. Global

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    current sheet, 20-22 active perturbation of the cur- a Electronic mail: murphy@astro.wisc.edu. PHYSICS OF PLASMAS 15, 042313 2008 1070-664X20081540423131623.00 ...

  5. Evidences of global warming for various regions of Russia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batyreva, O.V.; Pischehko, V.A.; Vilfand, R.M.; Vasiliev, A.A.

    1997-12-31

    The automatical classification of mean monthly temperature fields of Russia was carried out. The data of 42 years in regular grid-points 5 x 10{degree} of Northern Hemisphere were used. The combination of land`s algorithm of K-averages was applied. The increasing of prevailing occurrence of warm types during last decades was discovered. It turned out that different regions had different dynamics of type occurrences.

  6. Enzymatic temperature change indicator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klibanov, Alexander M.; Dordick, Jonathan S.

    1989-01-21

    A temperature change indicator is described which is composed of an enzyme and a substrate for that enzyme suspended in a solid organic solvent or mixture of solvents as a support medium. The organic solvent or solvents are chosen so as to melt at a specific temperature or in a specific temperature range. When the temperature of the indicator is elevated above the chosen, or critical temperature, the solid organic solvent support will melt, and the enzymatic reaction will occur, producing a visually detectable product which is stable to further temperature variation.

  7. Properties of a new average power Nd-doped phosphate laser glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Payne, S.A.; Marshall, C.D.; Bayramian, A.J.; Wilke, G.D.; Hayden, J.S.

    1995-03-09

    The Nd-doped phosphate laser glass described herein can withstand 2.3 times greater thermal loading without fracture, compared to APG-1 (commercially-available average-power glass from Schott Glass Technologies). The enhanced thermal loading capability is established on the basis of the intrinsic thermomechanical properties and by direct thermally-induced fracture experiments using Ar-ion laser heating of the samples. This Nd-doped phosphate glass (referred to as APG-t) is found to be characterized by a 29% lower gain cross section and a 25% longer low-concentration emission lifetime.

  8. Laser properties of an improved average-power Nd-doped phosphate glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Payne, S.A.; Marshall, C.D.; Bayramian, A.J.

    1995-03-15

    The Nd-doped phosphate laser glass described herein can withstand 2.3 times greater thermal loading without fracture, compared to APG-1 (commercially-available average-power glass from Schott Glass Technologies). The enhanced thermal loading capability is established on the basis of the intrinsic thermomechanical properties (expansion, conduction, fracture toughness, and Young`s modulus), and by direct thermally-induced fracture experiments using Ar-ion laser heating of the samples. This Nd-doped phosphate glass (referred to as APG-t) is found to be characterized by a 29% lower gain cross section and a 25% longer low-concentration emission lifetime.

  9. High Average Power Laser Gain Medium With Low Optical Distortion Using A Transverse Flowing Liquid Host

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Comaskey, Brian J.; Ault, Earl R.; Kuklo, Thomas C.

    2005-07-05

    A high average power, low optical distortion laser gain media is based on a flowing liquid media. A diode laser pumping device with tailored irradiance excites the laser active atom, ion or molecule within the liquid media. A laser active component of the liquid media exhibits energy storage times longer than or comparable to the thermal optical response time of the liquid. A circulation system that provides a closed loop for mixing and circulating the lasing liquid into and out of the optical cavity includes a pump, a diffuser, and a heat exchanger. A liquid flow gain cell includes flow straighteners and flow channel compression.

  10. U.S. Natural Gas Average Consumption per Commercial Consumer (Thousand

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Cubic Feet) Commercial Consumer (Thousand Cubic Feet) U.S. Natural Gas Average Consumption per Commercial Consumer (Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 637 665 699 1970's 737 751 777 779 734 730 789 745 784 811 1980's 739 693 696 625 672 634 587 606 647 652 1990's 619 626 636 641 639 654 669 675 595 608 2000's 635 605 621 617 609 577 537 568 579 586 2010's 585 593 540 613 640 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA =

  11. "Table E8.1. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 1998;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 1998;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Values of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: U.S. Dollars per Physical Units." " ",," "," ",," "," " ,,"Residual","Distillate",,"LPG and",,"RSE" "Economic","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel

  12. Average Price (Cents/kilowatthour) by State by Provider, 1990-2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Average Price (Cents/kilowatthour) by State by Provider, 1990-2014" "Year","State","Industry Sector Category","Residential","Commercial","Industrial","Transportation","Other","Total" 2014,"AK","Total Electric Industry",19.14,17.09,15.66,0,"NA",17.46 2014,"AL","Total Electric Industry",11.48,10.79,6.15,0,"NA",9.27

  13. Method and system for modulation of gain suppression in high average power laser systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bayramian, Andrew James (Manteca, CA)

    2012-07-31

    A high average power laser system with modulated gain suppression includes an input aperture associated with a first laser beam extraction path and an output aperture associated with the first laser beam extraction path. The system also includes a pinhole creation laser having an optical output directed along a pinhole creation path and an absorbing material positioned along both the first laser beam extraction path and the pinhole creation path. The system further includes a mechanism operable to translate the absorbing material in a direction crossing the first laser beam extraction laser path and a controller operable to modulate the second laser beam.

  14. DE/SC-ARM/TR-130 Aerosol Observing System Cloud Condensation Nuclei Average

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DE/SC-ARM/TR-130 Aerosol Observing System Cloud Condensation Nuclei Average (AOSCCNAVG) Value-Added Product Y Shi A Jefferson C Flynn July 2013 DOE/SC-ARM/TR-130 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus,

  15. Table 7.1 Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Average Prices of Purchased Energy Sources, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: All Energy Sources Collected; Unit: U.S. Dollars per Physical Units. Coal NAICS TOTAL Acetylene Breeze Total Anthracite Code(a) Subsector and Industry (million Btu) (cu ft) (short tons) (short tons) (short tons) Total United States 311 Food 9.12 0.26 0.00 53.43 90.85 3112 Grain and Oilseed Milling 6.30 0.29 0.00 51.34 50.47 311221 Wet Corn Milling 4.87 0.48 0.00 47.74 50.47 31131 Sugar

  16. Table 7.4 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 2002

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Values of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: U.S. Dollars per Physical Units." " ",," "," ",," "," " ,,"Residual","Distillate","Natural ","LPG and",,"RSE" "Economic","Electricity","Fuel

  17. Table 7.4 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 2010;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: Values of Shipments and Employment Sizes; Column: Energy Sources; Unit: U.S. Dollars per Physical Units. Residual Distillate LPG and Economic Electricity Fuel Oil Fuel Oil(b) Natural Gas(c) NGL(d) Coal Characteristic(a) (kWh) (gallons) (gallons) (1000 cu ft) (gallons) (short tons) Total United States Value of Shipments and Receipts (million dollars) Under 20 0.093 1.55 2.58 6.64 1.80 78.29 20-49

  18. Table 7.5 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 2002

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Average Prices of Selected Purchased Energy Sources, 2002;" " Level: National and Regional Data; " " Row: Values of Shipments and Employment Sizes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit: U.S. Dollars per Million Btu." " ",," "," ",," "," ","RSE" "Economic",,"Residual","Distillate","Natural ","LPG and",,"Row"

  19. Average monthly gasoline price to fall to $3.43 by September

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    monthly gasoline price to fall to $3.43 by September The U.S. average monthly retail price of gasoline is expected to decline by about 18 cents per gallon between May and September, according to the new forecast from the U.S. Energy Information Administration. The lower price reflects, in part, slightly lower crude oil prices that account for about two-thirds of the cost at the pump. The largest price drops are expected in the Midwest states as refineries serving that region, which had been down

  20. Specification of optical components for a high average-power laser environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, J.R.; Chow, R.; Rinmdahl, K.A.; Willis, J.B.; Wong, J.N.

    1997-06-25

    Optical component specifications for the high-average-power lasers and transport system used in the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) plant must address demanding system performance requirements. The need for high performance optics has to be balanced against the practical desire to reduce the supply risks of cost and schedule. This is addressed in optical system design, careful planning with the optical industry, demonstration of plant quality parts, qualification of optical suppliers and processes, comprehensive procedures for evaluation and test, and a plan for corrective action.

  1. Radial convection of finite ion temperature, high amplitude plasma blobs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiesenberger, M. Kendl, A.; Madsen, J.

    2014-09-15

    We present results from simulations of seeded blob convection in the scrape-off-layer of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. We consistently incorporate high fluctuation amplitude levels and finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects using a fully nonlinear global gyrofluid model. This is in line with conditions found in tokamak scrape-off-layers (SOL) regions. Varying the ion temperature, the initial blob width, and the initial amplitude, we found an FLR dominated regime where the blob behavior is significantly different from what is predicted by cold-ion models. The transition to this regime is very well described by the ratio of the ion gyroradius to the characteristic gradient scale length of the blob. We compare the global gyrofluid model with a partly linearized local model. For low ion temperatures, we find that simulations of the global model show more coherent blobs with an increased cross-field transport compared to blobs simulated with the local model. The maximal blob amplitude is significantly higher in the global simulations than in the local ones. When the ion temperature is comparable to the electron temperature, global blob simulations show a reduced blob coherence and a decreased cross-field transport in comparison with local blob simulations.

  2. High temperature measuring device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tokarz, Richard D.

    1983-01-01

    A temperature measuring device for very high design temperatures (to 2,000.degree. C.). The device comprises a homogenous base structure preferably in the form of a sphere or cylinder. The base structure contains a large number of individual walled cells. The base structure has a decreasing coefficient of elasticity within the temperature range being monitored. A predetermined quantity of inert gas is confined within each cell. The cells are dimensionally stable at the normal working temperature of the device. Increases in gaseous pressure within the cells will permanently deform the cell walls at temperatures within the high temperature range to be measured. Such deformation can be correlated to temperature by calibrating similarly constructed devices under known time and temperature conditions.

  3. Measurements of the cosmic microwave background temperature at 1.47 GHz

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bensadoun, M.J.

    1991-11-01

    A radiofrequency-gain total power radiometer measured the intensity of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at a frequency of 1.47 GHz (20.4 cm wavelength) from White Mountain, California, in September 1988 and from the South Pole, Antarctica, in December 1989. The CMB thermodynamic temperature, TCMB, is 2.27 {plus_minus} 0.25 K (68% C.L.) measured from White Mountain and 2.26 {plus_minus} 0.21 K from the South Pole site. The combined result is 2.27 {plus_minus} 0.19 K. The correction for galactic emission has been derived from scaled low-frequency maps and constitutes the main source, of error. The atmospheric signal is found by extrapolation from zenith scan measurements at higher frequencies. The result is consistent with previous low-frequency measurements, including a measurement at 1.41 GHz (Levin et al. 1988) made with an earlier version of this instrument. The result is {approximately}2.5 {sigma} ({approximately}l% probability) from the 2.74 {plus_minus} 0.02,K global average CMB temperature.

  4. Measurements of the cosmic microwave background temperature at 1. 47 GHz

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bensadoun, M.J.

    1991-11-01

    A radiofrequency-gain total power radiometer measured the intensity of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at a frequency of 1.47 GHz (20.4 cm wavelength) from White Mountain, California, in September 1988 and from the South Pole, Antarctica, in December 1989. The CMB thermodynamic temperature, TCMB, is 2.27 {plus minus} 0.25 K (68% C.L.) measured from White Mountain and 2.26 {plus minus} 0.21 K from the South Pole site. The combined result is 2.27 {plus minus} 0.19 K. The correction for galactic emission has been derived from scaled low-frequency maps and constitutes the main source, of error. The atmospheric signal is found by extrapolation from zenith scan measurements at higher frequencies. The result is consistent with previous low-frequency measurements, including a measurement at 1.41 GHz (Levin et al. 1988) made with an earlier version of this instrument. The result is {approximately}2.5 {sigma} ({approximately}l% probability) from the 2.74 {plus minus} 0.02,K global average CMB temperature.

  5. Temperature-profile detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1981-01-29

    Temperature profiles at elevated temperature conditions are monitored by use of an elongated device having two conductors spaced by the minimum distance required to normally maintain an open circuit between them. The melting point of one conductor is selected at the elevated temperature being detected, while the melting point of the other is higher. As the preselected temperature is reached, liquid metal will flow between the conductors creating short circuits which are detectable as to location.

  6. Temperature profile detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tokarz, Richard D.

    1983-01-01

    Temperature profiles at elevated temperature conditions are monitored by use of an elongated device having two conductors spaced by the minimum distance required to normally maintain an open circuit between them. The melting point of one conductor is selected at the elevated temperature being detected, while the melting point of the other is higher. As the preselected temperature is reached, liquid metal will flow between the conductors, creating short circuits which are detectable as to location.

  7. Global Warming and Human Health

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    American Geophysical Union Global Warming and Human Health WHEN: Jul 27, 2015 5:30 PM - 6:30 PM WHERE: Eldorado Hotel 309 W San Francisco Street, Santa Fe SPEAKER: Robert Davis, University of Virginia CONTACT: Shermonta Grant (202) 777-7329 CATEGORY: Community Science TYPE: Lecture INTERNAL: Calendar Login Event Description The main reason we are concerned about human-induced climate change is that climate shifts might impact the health of Earth's populace. These impacts can be direct, such as

  8. Aviation Technology | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aviation We're helping people soar faster, cleaner, higher and better, with futuristic propulsion systems that solve today's flight challenges. Home > Innovation > Aviation Silicon Carbide Applications: Small Device, Broad Impact in Power Electronics It's not every day that the engineers at GE Global Research get their hands on a material that's literally revolutionizing an... Read More » Invention Factory: How Will The World Get Smaller? In this episode of Invention Factory - a

  9. Implementation of global energy sustainability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grob, G.R.

    1998-02-01

    The term energy sustainability emerged from the UN Conference on Environment and Development in Rio 1992, when Agenda 21 was formulated and the Global Energy Charter proclaimed. Emission reductions, total energy costing, improved energy efficiency, and sustainable energy systems are the four fundamental principles of the charter. These principles can be implemented in the proposed financial, legal, technical, and education framework. Much has been done in many countries toward the implementation of the Global Energy Charter, but progress has not been fast enough to ease the disastrous effects of the too many ill-conceived energy systems on the environment, climate, and health. Global warming is accelerating, and pollution is worsening, especially in developing countries with their hunger for energy to meet the needs of economic development. Asian cities are now beating all pollution records, and greenhouse gases are visibly changing the climate with rising sea levels, retracting glaciers, and record weather disasters. This article presents why and how energy investments and research money have to be rechanneled into sustainable energy, rather than into the business-as-usual of depleting, unsustainable energy concepts exceeding one trillion dollars per year. This largest of all investment sectors needs much more attention.

  10. High temperature sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tokarz, Richard D.

    1982-01-01

    A high temperature sensor includes a pair of electrical conductors separated by a mass of electrical insulating material. The insulating material has a measurable resistivity within the sensor that changes in relation to the temperature of the insulating material within a high temperature range (1,000 to 2,000 K.). When required, the sensor can be encased within a ceramic protective coating.

  11. Classical and quantum temperature fluctuations via holography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balatsky, Alexander V.; Gudnason, Sven Bjarke; Thorlacius, Larus; Zarembo, Konstantin; Krikun, Alexander; Kedem, Yaron

    2014-05-27

    We study local temperature fluctuations in a 2+1 dimensional CFT on the sphere, dual to a black hole in asymptotically AdS space-time. The fluctuation spectrum is governed by the lowest-lying hydrodynamic sound modes of the system whose frequency and damping rate determine whether temperature fluctuations are thermal or quantum. We calculate numerically the corresponding quasinormal frequencies and match the result with the hydrodynamics of the dual CFT at large temperature. As a by-product of our analysis we determine the appropriate boundary conditions for calculating low-lying quasinormal modes for a four-dimensional Reissner-Nordstrom black hole in global AdS.

  12. Mandarin Global Carbon Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mandarin Global Carbon Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Mandarin Global Carbon Ltd Place: Londaon, Greater London, United Kingdom Zip: W1S 1TD Sector: Carbon, Hydro Product:...

  13. Contour Global L P | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global L P Jump to: navigation, search Name: Contour Global L.P. Place: New York, New York Zip: 10022 Sector: Renewable Energy Product: New York-based energy development company,...

  14. Crest Global Green Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Green Energy Jump to: navigation, search Name: Crest Global Green Energy Place: County Durham, England, United Kingdom Zip: SR7 7EU Product: UK-based biofuel company with...

  15. Think Green Global Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Green Global Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Think Green Global, Inc. Place: New York, New York Zip: 10010 Sector: Renewable Energy Product: New York-based investment bank...

  16. The Global Innovation Commons | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Virginia. References "The Global Innovation Commons" Global Innovation Commons (G.I.C.) A patent is a contract between an inventor and the public. In order to promote and...

  17. Global Atlas | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Atlas Home Graham7781's picture Submitted by Graham7781(2017) Super contributor 11 February, 2013 - 15:18 IRENA launches global atlas of renewable energy potential data...

  18. T Solar Global SA | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Global SA Jump to: navigation, search Name: T-Solar Global SA Place: Madrid, Spain Zip: 28042 Product: Spain-based thin-film silicon PV cell and module maker, using Applied...

  19. Ardour Global Indexes LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: Ardour Global Indexes LLC Place: New York City, New York Zip: 10016 Product: New-York based company that manages the Ardour Global Indexes, a set of alternative energy...

  20. Global Energy Network Institute | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":"" Hide Map References: Global Energy Network Institute Web Site1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Global Energy...

  1. Global Wind Energy Council | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Council Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Global Wind Energy Council Name: Global Wind Energy Council Address: Wind Power House Rue d'Arlon 80 Place: Brussels, Belgium Phone...

  2. Temperature compensated photovoltaic array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mosher, Dan Michael

    1997-11-18

    A temperature compensated photovoltaic module (20) comprised of a series of solar cells (22) having a thermally activated switch (24) connected in parallel with several of the cells (22). The photovoltaic module (20) is adapted to charge conventional batteries having a temperature coefficient (TC) differing from the temperature coefficient (TC) of the module (20). The calibration temperatures of the switches (24) are chosen whereby the colder the ambient temperature for the module (20), the more switches that are on and form a closed circuit to short the associated solar cells (22). By shorting some of the solar cells (22) as the ambient temperature decreases, the battery being charged by the module (20) is not excessively overcharged at lower temperatures. PV module (20) is an integrated solution that is reliable and inexpensive.

  3. Temperature compensated photovoltaic array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mosher, D.M.

    1997-11-18

    A temperature compensated photovoltaic module comprises a series of solar cells having a thermally activated switch connected in parallel with several of the cells. The photovoltaic module is adapted to charge conventional batteries having a temperature coefficient differing from the temperature coefficient of the module. The calibration temperatures of the switches are chosen whereby the colder the ambient temperature for the module, the more switches that are on and form a closed circuit to short the associated solar cells. By shorting some of the solar cells as the ambient temperature decreases, the battery being charged by the module is not excessively overcharged at lower temperatures. PV module is an integrated solution that is reliable and inexpensive. 2 figs.

  4. Improved confinement and current drive of high temperature field reversed configurations in the new translation, confinement, and sustainment upgrade device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, H. Y.; Hoffman, A. L.; Milroy, R. D.; Steinhauer, L. C.; Brooks, R. D.; Deards, C. L.; Grossnickle, J. A.; Melnik, P.; Miller, K. E.; Vlases, G. C.

    2008-05-15

    Previous work in the translation, confinement, and sustainment (TCS) device [Hoffman, Guo, Slough et al., Fusion Sci. Technol. 41, 92 (2002)] demonstrated formation and steady-state sustainment of field reversed configurations (FRC) by rotating magnetic fields (RMF). However, in TCS the plasma temperature was limited to several 10 s of eV due to high impurity content. These impurities are greatly reduced in the new TCS upgrade device (TCSU), which was built with a bakable, ultrahigh vacuum chamber, and advanced wall conditioning capabilities. This led to dramatic improvements in TCSU with temperatures well over 200 eV, using simple even-parity RMF drive. The higher temperatures, coupled with reduced recycling, allowed plasma to enter into a collisionless, high-{zeta} (ratio of average electron rotation frequency to RMF frequency) regime. These new FRC states exhibit the following key features: (1) Dramatic improvement in current drive efficiency with {zeta} approaching 100%, for the first time in TCSU; (2) up to threefold increase in global energy confinement time; and (3) significant reduction in transport rates, accompanied by a striking transition from a Bohm-type transport to a lower hybrid driftlike transport that scales better than gyro-Bohm and is very favorable for the next step FRC development.

  5. More data needed to support or disprove global warming theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-05-26

    Reports of global warming are prevalent in the popular press. With the exception of Scandinavia, no major energy tax laws have been passed to date. But environmental pressures may change this, and the change could have a profound effect on refiners. These are the views of Gerald T. Westbrook, of TSBV Consultants, Houston. Westbrook summarized recent global-warming research, and his position on the subject, at the National Petroleum Refiners Association annual meeting, held March 16--18, in San Antonio. The greenhouse effect is real, says Westbrook. It is important, however, to distinguish between the two major mechanisms of the greenhouse effect: natural warming and anthropogenic warming (changes in the concentration of greenhouse gases caused by man). Without greenhouse gases the earth`s equilibrium temperature would be {minus}18 C. The effect of the gases is to raise the equilibrium temperature to 15 C. In the early 1980s, computer models estimated global warming over the past 100 years to be as much as 2.3 C. By 1986, those estimates had been reduced to 1.0 C, and in 1988, a range of 0.63 {+-} 0.2 C was reported. In 1995, a report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate change (IPCC) cited a range of 0.3--0.6 C. Westbrook asserts that the earth`s motion anomalies--orbit eccentricity, axial tilt, and wobbles--lead to dramatic changes in insolation, and are the dominant force over the last 160,000 years.

  6. U.S. Natural Gas Average Consumption per Industrial Consumer (Thousand

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Cubic Feet) Industrial Consumer (Thousand Cubic Feet) U.S. Natural Gas Average Consumption per Industrial Consumer (Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1980's 39,245 37,530 30,909 29,915 24,309 30,956 29,057 30,423 32,071 30,248 1990's 32,144 33,395 35,908 38,067 40,244 40,973 43,050 36,239 36,785 35,384 2000's 36,968 33,840 36,458 34,793 34,645 31,991 33,597 33,561 29,639 29,705 2010's 35,418 36,947 38,159

  7. Table 10. Average Price of U.S. Steam Coal Exports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0. Average Price of U.S. Steam Coal Exports (dollars per short ton) Year to Date Continent and Country of Destination July - September 2015 April - June 2015 July - September 2014 2015 2014 Percent Change North America Total 66.77 71.02 69.75 69.74 65.78 6.0 Canada* 58.57 69.55 74.38 67.41 55.21 22.1 Dominican Republic 77.11 78.67 56.46 84.15 55.63 51.3 Guatemala 34.59 103.41 - 45.24 81.92 -44.8 Honduras - - 54.43 54.43 54.43 s Jamaica 80.74 90.72 55.34 73.19 54.88 33.4 Mexico 70.80 70.39 69.53

  8. Table 12. Average Price of U.S. Metallurgical Coal Exports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2. Average Price of U.S. Metallurgical Coal Exports (dollars per short ton) Year to Date Continent and Country of Destination July - September 2015 April - June 2015 July - September 2014 2015 2014 Percent Change North America Total 96.66 97.73 85.77 96.57 86.97 11.0 Canada* 99.34 98.87 87.96 97.75 89.46 9.3 Dominican Republic - - - - 50.86 - Honduras 45.36 45.36 - 45.36 - - Mexico 97.65 103.74 80.50 103.16 86.56 19.2 Other** 112.84 89.81 - 89.84 - - South America Total 81.91 93.21 98.38 90.63

  9. Average Neutron Total Cross Sections in the Unresolved Energy Range From ORELA High Resolutio Transmission Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derrien, H

    2004-05-27

    Average values of the neutron total cross sections of {sup 233}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, and {sup 239}Pu have been obtained in the unresolved resonance energy range from high-resolution transmission measurements performed at ORELA in the past two decades. The cross sections were generated by correcting the effective total cross sections for the self-shielding effects due to the resonance structure of the data. The self-shielding factors were found by calculating the effective and true cross sections with the computer code SAMMY for the same Doppler and resolution conditions as for the transmission measurements, using an appropriate set of resonance parameters. Our results are compared to results of previous measurements and to the current ENDF/B-VI data.

  10. United States Wind Resource Map: Annual Average Wind Speed at 30 Meters

    Wind Powering America (EERE)

    30 m 21-FEB-2012 2.1.1 Wind Speed m/s >10.5 10.0 9.5 9.0 8.5 8.0 7.5 7.0 6.5 6.0 5.5 5.0 4.5 4.0 < 4.0 Source: Wind resource estimates developed by AWS Truepower, LLC. Web: http://www.awstruepower.com. Map developed by NREL. Spatial resolution of wind resource data: 2.0 km. Projection: Albers Equal Area WGS84. The average wind speeds indicated on this map are model-derived estimates that may not represent the true wind resource at any given location. Small terrain features, vegetation,

  11. Angular Averaged Profiling of the Radial Electric Field in Compensated FTICR Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tolmachev, Aleksey V.; Robinson, Errol W.; Wu, Si; Smith, Richard D.; Futrell, Jean H.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana

    2012-05-08

    A recent publication from this laboratory (1) reported a theoretical analysis comparing approaches for creating harmonic ICR cells. We considered two examples of static segmented cells - namely, a seven segment cell developed in this laboratory (2) and one described by Rempel et al (3), along with a recently described dynamically harmonized cell (4). This conceptual design for a dynamically harmonized cell has now been reduced to practice and first experimental results obtained with this cell were recently reported in this journal (5). This publication reports details of cell construction and describes its performance in a 7 Tesla Fourier Transform mass spectrometer. Herein, we describe the extension of theoretical analysis presented in (1) to include angular-averaged radial electric field calculations and a discussion of the influence of trapping plates.

  12. Measurement of average density and relative volumes in a dispersed two-phase fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sreepada, Sastry R. (Clifton Park, NY); Rippel, Robert R. (late of Scotia, NY)

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus and a method are disclosed for measuring the average density and relative volumes in an essentially transparent, dispersed two-phase fluid. A laser beam with a diameter no greater than 1% of the diameter of the bubbles, droplets, or particles of the dispersed phase is directed onto a diffraction grating. A single-order component of the diffracted beam is directed through the two-phase fluid and its refraction is measured. Preferably, the refracted beam exiting the fluid is incident upon a optical filter with linearly varing optical density and the intensity of the filtered beam is measured. The invention can be combined with other laser-based measurement systems, e.g., laser doppler anemometry.

  13. The impact of NRC guidance on concentration averaging on low level waste sealed source disposal - 11424

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitworth, Julia; Stewart, Bill; Cuthbertson, Abigail

    2011-01-20

    As part of its ongoing efforts to revise the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) current position on blending to be risk-informed and performance based and its current review of the low-level waste classification codified in 10 CFR 61.55, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has stated that it may review the 1995 'Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation' (BTP), which is still commonly used today. Such a review will have timely advantages, given the lack of commercial disposal availability within the United States for radioactive sealed sources that are in wide beneficial use across the country. The current application of the BTP guidance has resulted in an effective cap on commercial disposal for sources larger than 1.1 TBq (30 Ci). This paper will analyze how the BTP has been implemented with respect to sealed sources, what the implications have been for commercial disposal availability, and whether alternative packaging configurations could be considered for disposal.

  14. Medium term municipal solid waste generation prediction by autoregressive integrated moving average

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Younes, Mohammad K.; Nopiah, Z. M.; Basri, Noor Ezlin A.; Basri, Hassan

    2014-09-12

    Generally, solid waste handling and management are performed by municipality or local authority. In most of developing countries, local authorities suffer from serious solid waste management (SWM) problems and insufficient data and strategic planning. Thus it is important to develop robust solid waste generation forecasting model. It helps to proper manage the generated solid waste and to develop future plan based on relatively accurate figures. In Malaysia, solid waste generation rate increases rapidly due to the population growth and new consumption trends that characterize the modern life style. This paper aims to develop monthly solid waste forecasting model using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), such model is applicable even though there is lack of data and will help the municipality properly establish the annual service plan. The results show that ARIMA (6,1,0) model predicts monthly municipal solid waste generation with root mean square error equals to 0.0952 and the model forecast residuals are within accepted 95% confident interval.

  15. Flowmeter for determining average rate of flow of liquid in a conduit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kennerly, John M. (Knoxville, TN); Lindner, Gordon M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Rowe, John C. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1982-01-01

    This invention is a compact, precise, and relatively simple device for use in determining the average rate of flow of a liquid through a conduit. The liquid may be turbulent and contain bubbles of gas. In a preferred embodiment, the flowmeter includes an electrical circuit and a flow vessel which is connected as a segment of the conduit conveying the liquid. The vessel is provided with a valved outlet and is partitioned by a vertical baffle into coaxial chambers whose upper regions are vented to permit the escape of gas. The inner chamber receives turbulent downflowing liquid from the conduit and is sized to operate at a lower pressure than the conduit, thus promoting evolution of gas from the liquid. Lower zones of the two chambers are interconnected so that the downflowing liquid establishes liquid levels in both chambers. The liquid level in the outer chamber is comparatively calm, being to a large extent isolated from the turbulence in the inner chamber once the liquid in the outer chamber has risen above the liquid-introduction zone for that chamber. Lower and upper probes are provided in the outer chamber for sensing the liquid level therein at points above its liquid-introduction zone. An electrical circuit is connected to the probes to display the time required for the liquid level in the outer chamber to successively contact the lower and upper probes. The average rate of flow through the conduit can be determined from the above-mentioned time and the vessel volume filled by the liquid during that time.

  16. Flowmeter for determining average rate of flow of liquid in a conduit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kennerly, J.M.; Lindner, G.M.; Rowe, J.C.

    1981-04-30

    This invention is a compact, precise, and relatively simple device for use in determining the average rate of flow of a liquid through a conduit. The liquid may be turbulent and contain bubbles of gas. In a preferred embodiment, the flowmeter includes an electrical circuit and a flow vessel which is connected as a segment of the conduit conveying the liquid. The vessel is provided with a valved outlet and is partitioned by a vertical baffle into coaxial chambers whose upper regions are vented to permit the escape of gas. The inner chamber receives turbulent downflowing liquid from the conduit and is sized to operate at a lower pressure than the conduit, thus promoting evolution of gas from the liquid. Lower zones of the two chambers are interconnected so that the downflowing liquid establishes liquid levels in both chambers. The liquid level in the outer chamber is comparatively calm, being to a large extent isolated from the turbulence in the inner chamber once the liquid in the outer chamber has risen above the liquid-introduction zone for that chamber. Lower and upper probes are provided in the outer chamber for sensing the liquid level therein at points above its liquid-introduction zone. An electrical circuit is connected to the probes to display the time required for the liquid level in the outer chamber to successively contact the lower and upper probes. The average rate of flow through the conduit can be determined from the above-mentioned time and the vessel volume filled by the liquid during that time.

  17. Differences in carbon cycle and temperature projections from emission- and concentration-driven earth system model simulations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shao, P.; Zeng, X.; Zeng, X.

    2014-08-29

    The influence of prognostic and prescribed atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([CO2]) on the carbon uptake and temperature is investigated using all eight Earth System Models (ESMs) with relevant output variables from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). Under the RCP8.5 scenario, the projected [CO2] differences in 2100 vary from -19.7 to +207.3 ppm in emission-driven ESMs. Incorporation of the interactive concentrations also increases the range of global warming, computed as the 20 year average difference between 20812100 and 18501869/18611880, by 49% from 2.36 K (i.e. ranging from 3.11 to 5.47 K) in the concentration-driven simulations to 3.51 K inmorethe emission-driven simulations. The observed seasonal amplitude of global [CO2] from 19802011 is about 1.25.3 times as large as those from the eight emission-driven ESMs, while the [CO2] seasonality is simply neglected in concentration-driven ESMs, suggesting the urgent need of ESM improvements in this area. The temperature-concentration feedback parameter ? is more sensitive to [CO2] (e.g. during 19802005 versus 20752100) than how [CO2] is handled (i.e. prognostic versus prescribed). This sensitivity can be substantially reduced by using a more appropriate parameter ?' computed from the linear regression of temperature change versus that of the logarithm of [CO2]. However, the inter-model relative variations of both ? and ?' remain large, suggesting the need of more detailed studies to understand and hopefully reduce these discrepancies.less

  18. Averages of B-Hadron, C-Hadron, and tau-lepton properties as of early 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amhis, Y.; et al.

    2012-07-01

    This article reports world averages of measurements of b-hadron, c-hadron, and tau-lepton properties obtained by the Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG) using results available through the end of 2011. In some cases results available in the early part of 2012 are included. For the averaging, common input parameters used in the various analyses are adjusted (rescaled) to common values, and known correlations are taken into account. The averages include branching fractions, lifetimes, neutral meson mixing parameters, CP violation parameters, parameters of semileptonic decays and CKM matrix elements.

  19. Fact #851: December 15, 2014 The Average Number of Gears used in Transmissions Continues to Rise – Dataset

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Excel file with dataset for Fact #851: December 15, 2014 The Average Number of Gears used in Transmissions Continues to Rise

  20. U.S. gasoline price expected to average less than $2 a gallon both this year and next

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    U.S. gasoline price expected to average less than $2 a gallon both this year and next U.S. drivers are now expected to see back-to-back years of annual average gasoline prices below $2 per gallon for the first time in more than a decade. In its latest monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said low oil prices will keep the average annual price for a gallon of regular-grade gasoline at $1.89 this year and at $1.97 in 2017. The last time gasoline averaged less than $2 for two

  1. The NERSC Global File System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NERSC Global File System (NGF) Jason Hick jhick@lbl.gov Storage Systems Group Lead http://www.nersc.gov/nusers/systems/NGF/ CAS2K11 September 11-14, 2011 * Operated by University of California for the US Department of Energy * NERSC serves a large population - Approximately 4000 users, 400 projects, 500 codes - Focus on "unique" resources * High-end computing systems * High-end storage systems - Large shared GPFS (a.k.a. NGF) - Large archive (a.k.a. HPSS) * Interface to high speed

  2. New Developments | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    40 Things We Just Made Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) 140 Things We Just Made At GE Global Research, we're constantly building and making new things. Here are 140 of them. You Might Also Like IMG_0475 Innovation 24/7: We're Always Open » Munich_interior_V 10 Years ON: From the Lab to the Real World in

  3. MEMS Relays | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Next Revolution in MEMS Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) The Next Revolution in MEMS Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) engineers share what GE Global Research is doing to revolutionize MEMS technology. You Might Also Like 2-1-8-v-mems-applications Engineer Chris Keimel Introduces MEMS Technology

  4. Low-Temperature, Coproduced, and Geopressured Geothermal Power

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Geothermal Technology Program (GTP) low-temperature subprogram aims to provide the global geothermal community with the means to achieve development and widespread deployment of economically viable, innovative, and scalable technologies—including those involving coproducts—that will capture a significant portion of the low-temperature geothermal resource base over the next two decades. To that end, GTP held a Technology Roadmapping Workshop on July 13-14, 2010 in Golden, Colorado.

  5. Magnetic nanoparticle temperature estimation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weaver, John B.; Rauwerdink, Adam M.; Hansen, Eric W.

    2009-05-15

    The authors present a method of measuring the temperature of magnetic nanoparticles that can be adapted to provide in vivo temperature maps. Many of the minimally invasive therapies that promise to reduce health care costs and improve patient outcomes heat tissue to very specific temperatures to be effective. Measurements are required because physiological cooling, primarily blood flow, makes the temperature difficult to predict a priori. The ratio of the fifth and third harmonics of the magnetization generated by magnetic nanoparticles in a sinusoidal field is used to generate a calibration curve and to subsequently estimate the temperature. The calibration curve is obtained by varying the amplitude of the sinusoidal field. The temperature can then be estimated from any subsequent measurement of the ratio. The accuracy was 0.3 deg. K between 20 and 50 deg. C using the current apparatus and half-second measurements. The method is independent of nanoparticle concentration and nanoparticle size distribution.

  6. Economic Globalization and a Nuclear Renaissance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, Thomas W.; Johnson, Wayne L.; Parker, Brian M.

    2001-10-22

    The phenomenon of globalization has become increasingly well recognized, documented, and analyzed in the last several years. Globalization, the integration of markets and intra-firm competition on a worldwide basis, involves complex behavioral and mindset changes within a firm that facilitate global competition. The changes revolve around efficient information flow and rapid deployment of technology. The objective of this report is to examine the probable characteristics of a global nuclear renaissance and its broad implications for industry structure and export control relative to nuclear technology. The question of how a modern renaissance would affect the trend toward globalization of the nuclear industry is addressed.

  7. High temperature refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steyert, Jr., William A.

    1978-01-01

    A high temperature magnetic refrigerator which uses a Stirling-like cycle in which rotating magnetic working material is heated in zero field and adiabatically magnetized, cooled in high field, then adiabatically demagnetized. During this cycle said working material is in heat exchange with a pumped fluid which absorbs heat from a low temperature heat source and deposits heat in a high temperature reservoir. The magnetic refrigeration cycle operates at an efficiency 70% of Carnot.

  8. Automatic temperature adjustment apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaplin, James E.

    1985-01-01

    An apparatus for increasing the efficiency of a conventional central space heating system is disclosed. The temperature of a fluid heating medium is adjusted based on a measurement of the external temperature, and a system parameter. The system parameter is periodically modified based on a closed loop process that monitors the operation of the heating system. This closed loop process provides a heating medium temperature value that is very near the optimum for energy efficiency.

  9. ARM - Measurement - Atmospheric temperature

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    temperature ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Atmospheric temperature The temperature indicated by a thermometer exposed to the air in a place sheltered from direct solar radiation. Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list

  10. High-temperature sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1981-01-29

    A high temperature sensor is described which includes a pair of electrical conductors separated by a mass of electrical insulating material. The insulating material has a measurable resistivity within the sensor that changes in relation to the temperature of the insulating material within a high temperature range (1000 to 2000/sup 0/K). When required, the sensor can be encased within a ceramic protective coating.

  11. Remote sensing, global warming, and vector-borne disease

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, B.; Beck, L.; Dister, S.; Lobitz, B.

    1997-12-31

    The relationship between climate change and the pattern of vector-borne disease can be viewed at a variety of spatial and temporal scales. At one extreme are changes such as global warming, which are continental in scale and occur over periods of years, decades, or longer. At the opposite extreme are changes associated with severe weather events, which can occur at local and regional scales over periods of days, weeks, or months. Key ecological factors affecting the distribution of vector-borne diseases include temperature, precipitation, and habitat availability, and their impact on vectors, pathogens, reservoirs, and hosts. Global warming can potentially alter these factors, thereby affecting the spatial and temporal patterns of disease.

  12. Engineering change in global climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, S.H.

    1996-12-31

    {open_quotes}With increased public focus on global warming and in the wake of the intense heat waves, drought, fires, and super-hurricanes that occurred in 1988 and 1989, interest in geoengineering has surged,{close_quotes} says Stephen H. Schneider, professor of biological science at Stanford University in Stanford, California. One scheme set forth in a National Research Council report proposes using 16-inch naval guns to fire aerosol shells into the stratosphere in hopes of offsetting {open_quotes}the radiative effects of increasing carbon dioxide,{close_quotes} Schneider says. Schneider, however, would prefer that we {open_quotes}seek measures that can cure our global {open_quote}addiction{close_quote} to polluting practices.{close_quotes} Rather than playing God, he says we should {open_quotes}stick to being human and pursue problem - solving methods currently within our grasp.{close_quotes} Such strategies include efforts to promote energy efficiency and reduce our reliance on automobiles.

  13. Low temperature cryoprobe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sungaila, Zenon F. (Orland Park, IL)

    1989-01-01

    A portable, hand held probe usable within a small confine to produce a point source of nitrogen or helium at a relatively constant temperature of 77 degrees Kelvin.

  14. Temperature and RH Targets

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presented by Vishal O Mittal of the Florida Solar Energy Center at the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting, San Francisco, September 14, 2006.

  15. CO2 Global Solutions International | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Solutions International Jump to: navigation, search Name: CO2 Global Solutions International Place: Madrid, Spain Zip: 28001 Sector: Carbon Product: CO2 Global Solutions is...

  16. The Global Energy Challenge (Conference) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The Global Energy Challenge Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Global Energy Challenge The expected doubling of global energy demand by 2050 challenges our traditional...

  17. Wanted: Global Clean Energy Partners | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Super contributor 24 February, 2010 - 13:51 imported OpenEI Global climate change. Global sustainability. Global economic development. There's no doubt about it-if the...

  18. Average U.S. household to spend $710 less on gasoline during 2015

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    natural gas inventories at end of winter higher than last year Despite recent cold temperatures in some parts of the country, U.S. natural gas inventories ended the winter heating season in better shape than last year. In its new forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said natural gas inventories near the end of March were 75% higher compared with the same period in 2014. That sets up adequate supplies for gas-fired power plants this summer to meet electric cooling needs of

  19. Changes in Concurrent Precipitation and Temperature Extremes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hao, Zengchao; AghaKouchak, Amir; Phillips, Thomas J.

    2013-08-01

    While numerous studies have addressed changes in climate extremes, analyses of concurrence of climate extremes are scarce, and climate change effects on joint extremes are rarely considered. This study assesses the occurrence of joint (concurrent) monthly continental precipitation and temperature extremes in Climate Research Unit (CRU) and University of Delaware (UD) observations, and in 13 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) global climate simulations. Moreover, the joint occurrences of precipitation and temperature extremes simulated by CMIP5 climate models are compared with those derived from the CRU and UD observations for warm/wet, warm/dry, cold/wet, and cold/dry combinations of joint extremes.more » The number of occurrences of these four combinations during the second half of the 20th century (1951–2004) is assessed on a common global grid. CRU and UD observations show substantial increases in the occurrence of joint warm/dry and warm/wet combinations for the period 1978–2004 relative to 1951–1977. The results show that with respect to the sign of change in the concurrent extremes, the CMIP5 climate model simulations are in reasonable overall agreement with observations. The results reveal notable discrepancies between regional patterns and the magnitude of change in individual climate model simulations relative to the observations of precipitation and temperature.« less

  20. Changes in Concurrent Precipitation and Temperature Extremes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hao, Zengchao; AghaKouchak, Amir; Phillips, Thomas J.

    2013-08-01

    While numerous studies have addressed changes in climate extremes, analyses of concurrence of climate extremes are scarce, and climate change effects on joint extremes are rarely considered. This study assesses the occurrence of joint (concurrent) monthly continental precipitation and temperature extremes in Climate Research Unit (CRU) and University of Delaware (UD) observations, and in 13 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) global climate simulations. Moreover, the joint occurrences of precipitation and temperature extremes simulated by CMIP5 climate models are compared with those derived from the CRU and UD observations for warm/wet, warm/dry, cold/wet, and cold/dry combinations of joint extremes. The number of occurrences of these four combinations during the second half of the 20th century (19512004) is assessed on a common global grid. CRU and UD observations show substantial increases in the occurrence of joint warm/dry and warm/wet combinations for the period 19782004 relative to 19511977. The results show that with respect to the sign of change in the concurrent extremes, the CMIP5 climate model simulations are in reasonable overall agreement with observations. The results reveal notable discrepancies between regional patterns and the magnitude of change in individual climate model simulations relative to the observations of precipitation and temperature.

  1. Comparison of Two Gas Selection Methodologies: An Application of Bayesian Model Averaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renholds, Andrea S.; Thompson, Sandra E.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Chilton, Lawrence K.

    2006-03-31

    One goal of hyperspectral imagery analysis is the detection and characterization of plumes. Characterization includes identifying the gases in the plumes, which is a model selection problem. Two gas selection methods compared in this report are Bayesian model averaging (BMA) and minimum Akaike information criterion (AIC) stepwise regression (SR). Simulated spectral data from a three-layer radiance transfer model were used to compare the two methods. Test gases were chosen to span the types of spectra observed, which exhibit peaks ranging from broad to sharp. The size and complexity of the search libraries were varied. Background materials were chosen to either replicate a remote area of eastern Washington or feature many common background materials. For many cases, BMA and SR performed the detection task comparably in terms of the receiver operating characteristic curves. For some gases, BMA performed better than SR when the size and complexity of the search library increased. This is encouraging because we expect improved BMA performance upon incorporation of prior information on background materials and gases.

  2. Twist-averaged boundary conditions for nuclear pasta Hartree-Fock calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuetrumpf, B.; Nazarewicz, W.

    2015-10-21

    Nuclear pasta phases, present in the inner crust of neutron stars, are associated with nucleonic matter at subsaturation densities arranged in regular shapes. Those complex phases, residing in a layer which is approximately 100-m thick, impact many features of neutron stars. Theoretical quantum-mechanical simulations of nuclear pasta are usually carried out in finite three-dimensional boxes assuming periodic boundary conditions. The resulting solutions are affected by spurious finite-size effects. To remove spurious finite-size effects, it is convenient to employ twist-averaged boundary conditions (TABC) used in condensed matter, nuclear matter, and lattice quantum chromodynamics applications. In this work, we study the effectiveness of TABC in the context of pasta phase simulations within nuclear density functional theory. We demonstrated that by applying TABC reliable results can be obtained from calculations performed in relatively small volumes. By studying various contributions to the total energy, we gain insights into pasta phases in mid-density range. Future applications will include the TABC extension of the adaptive multiresolution 3D Hartree-Fock solver and Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov TABC applications to superfluid pasta phases and complex nucleonic topologies as in fission.

  3. Dynamical interpretation of average fission-fragment kinetic energy systematics and nuclear scission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nadtochy, P.N. [GSI, Plankstrasse 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Omsk State University, Department of Theoretical Physics, Mira Prospect 55-A, RU-644077 Omsk (Russian Federation); Adeev, G.D. [Omsk State University, Department of Theoretical Physics, Mira Prospect 55-A, RU-644077 Omsk (Russian Federation)

    2005-11-01

    A dynamical interpretation of the well-known systematics for average total kinetic energy of fission fragments over a wide range of the Coulomb parameter (600 on the Coulomb parameter. The results of dynamical calculations of within three-dimensional Langevin dynamics show that the mean distance between the centers of mass of nascent fragments at the scission configuration increases linearly with the parameter Z{sup 2}/A{sup 1/3}. This distance changes approximately from 2.35R{sub 0} for {sup 119}Xe to 2.6R{sub 0} for {sup 256}Fm. In spite of this increase in mean distance between future fragments at scission, the linear dependence of on the parameter Z{sup 2}/A{sup 1/3} remains approximately valid over a wide range of the Coulomb parameter Z{sup 2}/A{sup 1/3}.

  4. Cylinder-averaged histories of nitrogen oxide in a D.I. diesel with simulated turbocharging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donahue, R.J.; Borman, G.L.; Bower, G.R.

    1994-10-20

    An experimental study was conducted using the dumping technique (total cylinder sampling) to produce cylinder mass-averaged nitric oxide histories. Data were taken using a four stroke diesel research engine employing a quiescent chamber, high pressure direct ijection fuel system, and simulated turbocharging. Two fuels were used to determine fuel cetane number effects. Two loads were run, one at an equivalence ratio of 0.5 and the other at a ratio of 0.3. The engine speed was held constant at 1500 rpm. Under the turbocharged and retarded timing conditions of this study, nitric oxide was produced up to the point of about 85% mass burned. Two different models were used to simulate the engine mn conditions: the phenomenological Hiroyasu spray-combustion model, and the three dimensional, U.W.-ERO modified KIVA-lI computational fluid dynamic code. Both of the models predicted the correct nitric oxide trend. Although the modified KIVA-lI combustion model using Zeldovich kinetics correctly predicted the shapes of the nitric oxide histories, it did not predict the exhaust concentrations without arbitrary adjustment based on experimental values.

  5. Twist-averaged boundary conditions for nuclear pasta Hartree-Fock calculations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Schuetrumpf, B.; Nazarewicz, W.

    2015-10-21

    Nuclear pasta phases, present in the inner crust of neutron stars, are associated with nucleonic matter at subsaturation densities arranged in regular shapes. Those complex phases, residing in a layer which is approximately 100-m thick, impact many features of neutron stars. Theoretical quantum-mechanical simulations of nuclear pasta are usually carried out in finite three-dimensional boxes assuming periodic boundary conditions. The resulting solutions are affected by spurious finite-size effects. To remove spurious finite-size effects, it is convenient to employ twist-averaged boundary conditions (TABC) used in condensed matter, nuclear matter, and lattice quantum chromodynamics applications. In this work, we study the effectivenessmore » of TABC in the context of pasta phase simulations within nuclear density functional theory. We demonstrated that by applying TABC reliable results can be obtained from calculations performed in relatively small volumes. By studying various contributions to the total energy, we gain insights into pasta phases in mid-density range. Future applications will include the TABC extension of the adaptive multiresolution 3D Hartree-Fock solver and Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov TABC applications to superfluid pasta phases and complex nucleonic topologies as in fission.« less

  6. Fiber optic temperature sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabold, D.

    1995-12-01

    Our fiber optic temperature measurement sensor and system is a major improvement over methods currently in use in most industrial processes, and it delivers all of the attributes required simplicity, accuracy, and cost efficiency-to help improve all of these processes. Because temperature is a basic physical attribute of nearly every industrial and commercial process, our system can eventually result in significant improvements in nearly every industrial and commercial process. Many finished goods, and the materials that go into them, are critically dependent on the temperature. The better the temperature measurement, the better quality the goods will be and the more economically they can be produced. The production and transmission of energy requires the monitoring of temperature in motors, circuit breakers, power generating plants, and transmission line equipment. The more reliable and robust the methods for measuring these temperature, the more available, stable, and affordable the supply of energy will become. The world is increasingly realizing the threats to health and safety of toxic or otherwise undesirable by products of the industrial economy in the environment. Cleanup of such contamination often depends on techniques that require the constant monitoring of temperature in extremely hazardous environments, which can damage most conventional temperature sensors and which are dangerous for operating personnel. Our system makes such monitoring safer and more economical.

  7. The role of water vapor feedback in unperturbed climate variability and global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, A.; Manabe, Syukuro

    1999-08-01

    To understand the role of water vapor feedback in unperturbed surface temperature variability, a version of the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory coupled ocean-atmosphere model is integrated for 1,000 yr in two configurations, one with water vapor feedback and one without. To understand the role of water vapor feedback in global warming, two 500-yr integrations were also performed in which CO{sub 2} was doubled in both model configurations. The final surface global warming in the model with water vapor feedback is 3.38 C, while in the one without it is only 1.05 C. However, the model`s water vapor feedback has a larger impact on surface warming in response to a doubling of CO{sub 2} than it does on internally generated, low-frequency, global-mean surface temperature anomalies. Water vapor feedback`s strength therefore depends on the type of temperature anomaly it affects. Finally, the authors compare the local and global-mean surface temperature time series from both unperturbed variability experiments to the observed record. The experiment without water vapor feedback does not have enough global-scale variability to reproduce the magnitude of the variability in the observed global-mean record, whether or not one removes the warming trend observed over the past century. In contrast, the amount of variability in the experiment with water vapor feedback is comparable to that of the global-mean record, provided the observed warming trend is removed. Thus, the authors are unable to simulate the observed levels of variability without water vapor feedback.

  8. High Temperature ESP Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jack Booker; Brindesh Dhruva

    2011-06-20

    The objective of the High Temperature ESP Monitoring project was to develop a downhole monitoring system to be used in wells with bottom hole well temperatures up to 300C for measuring motor temperature, formation pressure, and formation temperature. These measurements are used to monitor the health of the ESP motor, to track the downhole operating conditions, and to optimize the pump operation. A 220 C based High Temperature ESP Monitoring system was commercially released for sale with Schlumberger ESP motors April of 2011 and a 250 C system with will be commercially released at the end of Q2 2011. The measurement system is now fully qualified, except for the sensor, at 300 C.

  9. High temperature probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swan, Raymond A.

    1994-01-01

    A high temperature probe for sampling, for example, smokestack fumes, and is able to withstand temperatures of 3000.degree. F. The probe is constructed so as to prevent leakage via the seal by placing the seal inside the water jacket whereby the seal is not exposed to high temperature, which destroys the seal. The sample inlet of the probe is also provided with cooling fins about the area of the seal to provide additional cooling to prevent the seal from being destroyed. Also, a heated jacket is provided for maintaining the temperature of the gas being tested as it passes through the probe. The probe includes pressure sensing means for determining the flow velocity of an efficient being sampled. In addition, thermocouples are located in various places on the probe to monitor the temperature of the gas passing there through.

  10. High Temperature Tools and Sensors, Down-hole Pumps and Drilling |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy High Temperature Tools and Sensors, Down-hole Pumps and Drilling High Temperature Tools and Sensors, Down-hole Pumps and Drilling Below are the project presentations and respective peer review results for High Temperature Tools and Sensors, Down-hole Pumps and Drilling. Multiparameter Fiber Optic Sensing System for Monitoring Enhanced Geothermal Systems, Dr. Aaron J. Knobloch, GE Global Research High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting for Enhanced Geothermal Systems, Norman

  11. Cosmic Rays and Global Warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sloan, T.; Wolfendale, A. W.

    2008-01-24

    Some workers have claimed that the observed temporal correlations of (low level) terrestrial cloud cover with the cosmic ray intensity changes, due to solar modulation, are causal. The possibility arises, therefore, of a connection between cosmic rays and Global Warming. If true, the implications would be very great. We have examined this claim in some detail. So far, we have not found any evidence in support and so our conclusions are to doubt it. From the absence of corroborative evidence we estimate that less than 15% at the 95% confidence level, of the 11-year cycle warming variations are due to cosmic rays and less than 2% of the warming over the last 43 years is due to this cause. The origin of the correlation itself is probably the cycle of solar irradiance although there is, as yet, no certainty.

  12. Global change monitoring with lichens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Insarov, G.

    1997-12-31

    Environmental monitoring involves observations and assessment of changes in ecosystems and their components caused by anthropogenetic influence. An ideal monitoring system enables quantification of the contemporary state of the environment and detect changes in it. An important function of monitoring is to assess environment quality of areas that are not affected by local anthropogenic impacts, i.e. background areas. In background areas terrestrial ecosystems are mainly affected by such anthropogenic factors as lowered air pollution and global climate change. Assessment of biotic responses to altered climatic and atmospheric conditions provides an important basis for ecosystem management and environmental decision making. Without the ability to make such assessment, sustainability of ecosystems as a support system for humans remains uncertain.

  13. Coal mine methane global review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-07-01

    This is the second edition of the Coal Mine Methane Global Overview, updated in the summer of 2008. This document contains individual, comprehensive profiles that characterize the coal and coal mine methane sectors of 33 countries - 22 methane to market partners and an additional 11 coal-producing nations. The executive summary provides summary tables that include statistics on coal reserves, coal production, methane emissions, and CMM projects activity. An International Coal Mine Methane Projects Database accompanies this overview. It contains more detailed and comprehensive information on over two hundred CMM recovery and utilization projects around the world. Project information in the database is updated regularly. This document will be updated annually. Suggestions for updates and revisions can be submitted to the Administrative Support Group and will be incorporate into the document as appropriate.

  14. Energy in Today's Global Society

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy is an abstract concept that is very familiar to students from personal experiences with household appliances, transportation, and their own bodies. However, the nature of energy, energy transformations, and energy conservation are poorly understood, even by most adults. The geopolitical and environmental issues associated with energy and its consumption in today’s global society are important for every citizen to appreciate in order to make informed decisions about the future. Without a deep understanding that energy is finite and that energy transformations are what give modern society its high standard of living, students today will not be prepared to make the tough personal and political decisions that await us as fossil fuel resources dwindle.

  15. A quantitative approach to the characterization of cumulative and average solvent exposure in paint manufacturing plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ford, D.P.; Schwartz, B.S.; Powell, S.; Nelson, T.; Keller, L.; Sides, S.; Agnew, J.; Bolla, K.; Bleecker, M. )

    1991-06-01

    Previous reports have attributed a range of neurobehavioral effects to low-level, occupational solvent exposure. These studies have generally been limited in their exposure assessments and have specifically lacked good estimates of exposure intensity. In the present study, the authors describe the development of two exposure variables that quantitatively integrate industrial hygiene sampling data with estimates of exposure duration--a cumulative exposure (CE) estimate and a lifetime weighted average exposure (LWAE) estimate. Detailed occupational histories were obtained from 187 workers at two paint manufacturing plants. Historic industrial hygiene sampling data for total hydrocarbons (a composite variable of the major neurotoxic solvents present) were grouped according to 20 uniform, temporally stable exposure zones, which had been defined during plant walk-through surveys. Sampling at the time of the study was used to characterize the few zones for which historic data were limited or unavailable. For each participant, the geometric mean total hydrocarbon level for each exposure zone worked in was multiplied by the duration of employment in that zone; the resulting products were summed over the working lifetime to create the CE variable. The CE variable was divided by the total duration of employment in solvent-exposed jobs to create the LWAE variable. The explanatory value of each participant's LWAE estimate in the regression of simple visual reaction time (a neurobehavioral test previously shown to be affected by chronic solvent exposure) on exposure was compared with that of several other exposure variables, including exposure duration and an exposure variable based on an ordinal ranking of the exposure zones.

  16. Impacts of Temperature Variation on Energy Demand in Buildings (released in AEO2005)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    In the residential and commercial sectors, heating and cooling account for more than 40% of end-use energy demand. As a result, energy consumption in those sectors can vary significantly from year to year, depending on yearly average temperatures.

  17. Global warming, insurance losses and financial industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Low, N.C.

    1996-12-31

    Global warming causes extremely bad weather in the near term. They have already caught the attention of the insurance industry, as they suffered massive losses in the last decade. Twenty-one out of the 25 largest catastrophes in the US, mainly in the form of hurricanes have occurred in the last decade. The insurance industry has reacted by taking the risk of global warming in decisions as to pricing and underwriting decisions. But they have yet to take a more active role in regulating the factors that contributes to global warming. How global warming can impact the financial industry and the modern economy is explored. Insurance and modern financial derivatives are key to the efficient functioning of the modern economy, without which the global economy can still function but will take a giant step backward. Any risk as global warming that causes economic surprises will hamper the efficient working of the financial market and the modern economy.

  18. Temperature-sensitive optrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hirschfeld, T.B.

    1985-09-24

    Method and apparatus are provided for measuring temperature and for generating optical signals related to temperature. Light from a fiber optic is directed to a material whose fluorescent response varies with ambient temperature. The same fiber optic delivering the excitation beam also collects a portion of the fluorescent emission for analysis. Signal collection efficiency of the fiber optic is enhanced by requiring that the fluorescent probe material be in the shape of an oblong parabolically tapered solid. Reproducibility is enhanced by using Raman backscatter to monitor excitation beam fluctuations, and by using measurements of fluorescence lifetime. 10 figs.

  19. ARM - Measurement - Virtual temperature

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsVirtual temperature ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Virtual temperature The virtual temperature Tv = T(1 + rv/{epsilon}), where rv is the mixing ratio, and {epsilon} is the ratio of the gas constants of air and water vapor ( 0.622). Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to

  20. Sustainability for the Global Biofuels Industry Minimizing Risks...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Sustainability for the Global Biofuels Industry: Minimizing Risks and Maximizing Opportunities Webinar Transcript Sustainability for the Global ...

  1. DOE Initiates Environmental Impact Statement for Global Nuclear...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Environmental Impact Statement for Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Technology Demonstrations DOE Initiates Environmental Impact Statement for Global Nuclear Energy Partnership...

  2. U.S. average gasoline and diesel fuel prices expected to be slightly lower in 2013 than in 2012

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    average gasoline and diesel fuel prices expected to be slightly lower in 2013 than in 2012 Despite the recent run-up in gasoline prices, the U.S. Energy Information Administration expects falling crude oil prices will lead to a small decline in average motor fuel costs this year compared with last year. The price for regular gasoline is expected to average $3.55 a gallon in 2013 and $3.39 next year, according to EIA's new Short-Term Energy Outlook. That's down from $3.63 a gallon in 2012. For

  3. Does the orbit-averaged theory require a scale separation between periodic orbit size and perturbation correlation length?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Wenlu; Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026; Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 ; Lin, Zhihong; Fusion Simulation Center, Peking University, Beijing 100871

    2013-10-15

    Using the canonical perturbation theory, we show that the orbit-averaged theory only requires a time-scale separation between equilibrium and perturbed motions and verifies the widely accepted notion that orbit averaging effects greatly reduce the microturbulent transport of energetic particles in a tokamak. Therefore, a recent claim [Hauff and Jenko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 075004 (2009); Jenko et al., ibid. 107, 239502 (2011)] stating that the orbit-averaged theory requires a scale separation between equilibrium orbit size and perturbation correlation length is erroneous.

  4. Global change research: Science and policy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rayner, S.

    1993-05-01

    This report characterizes certain aspects of the Global Change Research Program of the US Government, and its relevance to the short and medium term needs of policy makers in the public and private sectors. It addresses some of the difficulties inherent in the science and policy interface on the issues of global change. Finally, this report offers some proposals for improving the science for policy process in the context of global environmental change.

  5. Industrial Inspection Technologies | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Industrial Inspection Technologies at GE Global Research Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) Industrial Inspection Technologies at GE Global Research Waseem Faidi, manager of the Inspection and Metrology Lab at GE Global Research, describes developments in industrial inspection. You Might Also Like

  6. Heating tar sands formations to visbreaking temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX); Colmenares, Tulio Rafael (Houston, TX); Zhang, Etuan (Houston, TX); Marino, Marian (Houston, TX); Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria (Houston, TX); Ryan, Robert Charles (Houston, TX); Beer, Gary Lee (Houston, TX); Dombrowski, Robert James (Houston, TX); Jaiswal, Namit (Houston, TX)

    2009-12-22

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. The heat may be controlled so that at least a majority of the section reaches an average temperature of between 200.degree. C. and 240.degree. C., which results in visbreaking of at least some hydrocarbons in the section. At least some visbroken hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  7. Global Energias Renovables SL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energias Renovables SL Jump to: navigation, search Name: Global Energias Renovables SL Place: Madrid, Spain Sector: Wind energy Product: Spanish wind power developer. References:...

  8. Global Renewable Energy Database | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    LAUNCH TOOL Name: Global Renewable Energy Database AgencyCompany Organization: German Aerospace Center (DLR) Sector: Energy Focus Area: Renewable Energy, Solar, Wind...

  9. Ener t Global SA | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search Name: Ener-t Global SA Place: Valencia, Spain Zip: 46870 Product: Spanish developer of parabolic trough thermal plants on a turnkey basis. Coordinates:...

  10. Pax Global: Compromise Agreement (2013-SE-1413)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE and Pax Global, Inc., entered into a Compromise Agreement to resolve a case involving the distribution in commerce of noncompliant freezers.

  11. Global Change Associates | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Change Associates Jump to: navigation, search Name: Global Change Associates Place: New York City, New York Zip: 10025-5657 Product: Consulting firm focusing on the convergence...

  12. Global Electric Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    company in the development and marketing of electric vehicles, garden equipment and Lithium powered products. References: Global Electric Corporation1 This article is a stub....

  13. Global Green Partners | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Partners Jump to: navigation, search Name: Global Green Partners Place: Los Altos, California Zip: 94024 Sector: Carbon Product: California-based investment fund prioritizing trade...

  14. Enerwise Global Technologies Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to identify, quantify, and capitalize on economic opportunities related to the procurement and use of energy. References: Enerwise Global Technologies Inc1 This article is...

  15. Hexagon Global Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search Name: Hexagon Global Energy Place: Istanbul, Turkey Sector: Solar, Wind energy Product: Istanbul-based project developer with a focus on wind, solar and solid...

  16. Global Electric Motorcars | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Product: Global Electric Motorcars (GEM), a Chrysler Company, develops and manufactures electric vehicles. Coordinates: 36.37617, -99.622804 Show Map Loading map......

  17. Susan Murabana - Astronomer, Global Hands On Universe

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Murabana, Susan

    2013-05-29

    Susan Murabana is working to bring astronomy education to Africa through Global Hands-On Universe, a program founded by Berkeley Lab astronomer Carl Pennypacker.

  18. Global Green Growth Institute | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Growth Institute Redirect page Jump to: navigation, search REDIRECT Green Growth Strategy Support Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleGlobalGreenGrowthIn...

  19. 3D Printed Toy | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scientists at GE Global Research get into the holiday spirit by bringing high-tech additive manufacturing techniques to Christmas tree ornaments. You Might Also Like...

  20. Global Flex Group Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Global-Flex Group Inc. Place: Temple, Texas Zip: 76501 Product: Texas based trade and financial solutions company consisting of three operating divisions....

  1. Global Warming Solutions Inc previously Southern Investments...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solutions Inc previously Southern Investments Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Global Warming Solutions Inc (previously Southern Investments Inc) Place: Houston, Texas...

  2. Global Energy Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Energy Inc Place: Cincinnati, Ohio Zip: 45202-4048 Sector: Hydro, Hydrogen Product: Gasification technology and engineering firm, with activities in hydrogen production and...

  3. New Transportation Technology | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    transportation solutions. Home > Innovation > Transportation A World-Class Traction Motor for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles Engineers at GE Global Research are advancing motor...

  4. Global Security Sciences | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    our global security. Innovative decision support tools (including simulation models), databases and analytical methodologies are developed and used to provide quantitative...

  5. Lab joins in global Earth Day celebrations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lab joins in global Earth Day celebrations Community Connections: Your link to news and opportunities from Los Alamos National Laboratory Latest Issue: Dec. 2015-Jan. 2016 all...

  6. Global Environment Fund GEF | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Invests in companies that make positive contributions to environmental quality, human health and sustainable management of resources. References: Global Environment Fund...

  7. Global Capital Finance | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Finance Jump to: navigation, search Name: Global Capital Finance Place: Purchase, New York Zip: 10577 Sector: Renewable Energy, Services Product: New York-based international...

  8. Ultrasound Open Innovation | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to help accelerate the development of new applications to improve the quality of care. Michael Idelchik, vice president of Advanced Technology Programs at GE Global...

  9. GE Global Research in Niskayuna, NY

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Niskayuna, USA Niskayuna, USA GE Global Research headquarters is the nerve center for innovative work across technologies and collaboration across GE businesses. Click to email...

  10. Pioneer Global Renewables | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Renewables Jump to: navigation, search Name: Pioneer Global Renewables Place: San Rafael, California Zip: 94901 Sector: Renewable Energy Product: Pioneer develops, finances...

  11. Global Industry Analysts | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Global Industry Analysts Address: 6150 Hellyer Avenue Place: San Jose, California Zip: 95138 Region: Bay Area Product: Market research services Year Founded:...

  12. Disclosures, Disclaimers and Policies | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to PHS-funded research Equal Employment Opportunity Plans Persons wishing to review GE Global Reasearch's EEOP should contact the GEGR Recruiting Manager: Megan Magee, GRC...

  13. Global Material Security | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    The mission of the Office of Global Material Security (GMS) is to help partner countries secure and account for nuclear weapons, weapons-useable nuclear and radiological materials, ...

  14. United Nations Environment Programme: Global Environment Outlook...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    more than 500 different variables, as national, subregional, regional and global statistics or as geospatial data sets (maps), covering themes like Freshwater, Population,...

  15. Temperature | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    C Property:Combustion Intake Air Temperature F Property:FirstWellTemp G Property:GeochemReservoirTemp Property:GeofluidTemp M Property:MeanReservoirTemp R...

  16. High-Temperature Superconductivity

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Peter Johnson

    2010-01-08

    Like astronomers tweaking images to gain a more detailed glimpse of distant stars, physicists at Brookhaven National Laboratory have found ways to sharpen images of the energy spectra in high-temperature superconductors ? materials that carry electrical c

  17. Low temperature cryoprobe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sungaila, Z.F.

    1988-04-12

    A portable, hand held probe usable within a small confine to produce a point source of nitrogen or helium at a relatively constant temperatures of 77 degrees Kelvin, is discussed. 3 figs.

  18. Penrose Well Temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christopherson, Karen

    2013-03-15

    Penrose Well Temperatures Geothermal waters have been encountered in several wells near Penrose in Fremont County, Colorado. Most of the wells were drilled for oil and gas exploration and, in a few cases, production. This ESRI point shapefile utilizes data from 95 wells in and around the Penrose area provided by the Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission (COGCC) database at http://cogcc.state.co.us/ . Temperature data from the database were used to calculate a temperature gradient for each well. This information was then used to estimate temperatures at various depths. Projection: UTM Zone 13 NAD27 Extent: West -105.224871 East -105.027633 North 38.486269 South 38.259507 Originators: Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission (COGCC) Karen Christopherson

  19. Low temperature reactive bonding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Bionta, Richard M. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    The joining technique requires no external heat source and generates very little heat during joining. It involves the reaction of thin multilayered films deposited on faying surfaces to create a stable compound that functions as an intermediate or braze material in order to create a high strength bond. While high temperatures are reached in the reaction of the multilayer film, very little heat is generated because the films are very thin. It is essentially a room temperature joining process.

  20. Temperature measuring device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bible, Don W. (Clinton, TN); Sohns, Carl W. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1999-01-01

    Systems and methods are described for a wireless instrumented silicon wafer that can measure temperatures at various points and transmit those temperature readings to an external receiver. The device has particular utility in the processing of semiconductor wafers, where it can be used to map thermal uniformity on hot plates, cold plates, spin bowl chucks, etc. without the inconvenience of wires or the inevitable thermal perturbations attendant with them.

  1. High temperature pressure gauge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Echtler, J. Paul (Pittsburgh, PA); Scandrol, Roy O. (Library, PA)

    1981-01-01

    A high temperature pressure gauge comprising a pressure gauge positioned in fluid communication with one end of a conduit which has a diaphragm mounted in its other end. The conduit is filled with a low melting metal alloy above the diaphragm for a portion of its length with a high temperature fluid being positioned in the remaining length of the conduit and in the pressure gauge.

  2. High Temperature Aqueous Chemistry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Accurate knowledge of aqueous chemistry at high temperatures and pressures is important in many applications including nuclear waste disposal and energy extraction. Sandia's Defense Waste Management Programs is equipped with a state-of-the-art hydrothermal experimental system that allows us to obtain high quality kinetic and equilibrium data at temperatures and pressures of interest up to 600 o C and 1,000 bars (100 MPa). This state-of-the-art hydrothermal experimental system includes the

  3. Fact #638: August 30, 2010 Average Expenditure for a New Car Declines in Relation to Family Earnings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Although the average expenditure for a new car has increased from 1967 to 2009, family earnings have also been on the rise. For this period, new car expenditures went from $3,216 to $23,186, while...

  4. Table 16. Recoverable Coal Reserves and Average Recovery Percentage at Producing Underground Coal Mines by State and Mining Method,

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Recoverable Coal Reserves and Average Recovery Percentage at Producing Underground Coal Mines by State and Mining Method, 2013 (million short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2013 Table 16. Recoverable Coal Reserves and Average Recovery Percentage at Producing Underground Coal Mines by State and Mining Method, 2013 (million short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2013 Continuous 1 Conventional and Other 2 Longwall 3 Total

  5. "Variable","Average Absolute Percent Differences","Percent of Projections Over- Estimated"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Annual Energy Outlook Retrospective Review, 2014" "Variable","Average Absolute Percent Differences","Percent of Projections Over- Estimated" "Gross Domestic Product" "Real Gross Domestic Product (Average Cumulative Growth)* (Table 2)",0.9204312786,45.77777778 "Petroleum" "Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil (Constant $) (Table 3a)",37.71300779,17.33333333 "Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil

  6. TRENDS 1991: A compendium of data on global change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boden, T.A.; Sepanski, R.J.; Stoss, F.W.

    1991-12-01

    This document is a source of frequently used global-change data. This second issue of the Trends series expands the coverage of sites recording atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and methane (CH{sub 4}), and it updates records reported in the first issue. New data for other trace atmospheric gases have been included in this issue; historical data on nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}) from ice cores, modern records of atmospheric concentrations of chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-11 and CFC-12) and N{sub 2}O, and estimates of global estimates of CFC-11 and CFC-12. The estimates for global and national CO{sub 2} emissions from the burning of fossil fuels, the production of cement, and gas flaring have been revised and updated. Regional CO{sub 2} emission estimates have been added, and long-term temperature records have been updated and expanded. Data records are presented in four- to six-page formats, each dealing with a specific site, region, or emissions species. The data records include tables and graphs; discussion of methods for collecting, measuring, and reporting the data; trends in the data; and references to literature that provides further information. All data appearing in the document are available on digital media from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center.

  7. Scaling of lower hybrid current drive with temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harvey, R.W. ); McCoy, M.G. ); Ram, A.K.; Bers, A. ); Fuchs, V. )

    1992-06-01

    The 3-D Fokker-Planck/quasilinear code (CQL3D) is used to study the temperature scaling of lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) in the JET and JT-60 experiments. An offset-linear increase of current drive efficiency is obtained as a function of volume average temperature {l angle}T{sub e}{r angle} up to {approximately} 2.5, and reduced rate of efficiency increase is found at higher temperatures. The LHCD results indicate some fast wave/LH current drive synergy in the JET LH/FW experiments; however, code results discussed here show that synergy is not due to TTMP damping of the fast wave.

  8. Global vegetation model diversity and the risks of climate-driven ecosystem shifts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin

    2013-11-08

    Climate change is modifying global biogeochemical cycles, and is expected to exert increasingly large effects in the future. How these changes will in turn affect and interact with the structure and function of particular ecosystems is unclear, however, both because of scientific uncertainties and the very diversity of global vegetation models in use. Writing in Environmental Research Letters, Warszawski et al. (1) aggregate results from a group of models, across a range of emissions scenarios and climate data, to investigate these risks. Although the models frequently disagree about which specific regions are at risk, they consistently predict a greater chance of ecosystem restructuring with more warming; this risk roughly doubles between 2 and 3 C increases in global mean temperature. The innovative work of Warszawski et al. represents an important first step towards fully consistent multi-model, multi-scenario assessments of the future risks to global ecosystems.

  9. Global Material Security | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Global Material Security Global Material Security NNSA Provides Tajikistan Specialized Vehicles to Transport Radiological Materials NNSA Program Manager Nick Cavellero, right, and NRSA Director of the Department of Information and International Relations Ilkhom Mirsaidov, left, with two specialized vehicles purchased by NNSA for

  10. Molecular basis of the structural stability of a Top7-based scaffold at extreme pH and temperature conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soares, Thereza A.; Boschek, Curt B.; Apiyo, David O.; Baird, Cheryl L.; Straatsma, TP

    2010-07-01

    The development of stable scaffolds that can tolerate environmental extremes has an immense potential for applications in industry and defense. Recently, we have engineered an eight-residue loop into the de novo designed Top7 protein, which specifically binds the glycoprotein CD4. The robust properties of the Top7, coupled with the ease in production, make it a robust scaffold to design novel functionalities for use under extreme environmental conditions. In the present work, a series of explicit-solvent molecular dynamics simulations are reported which investigates the effect of mutations and extreme conditions of temperature and pH on the structure, stability, and dynamics of the native and engineered Top7. These simulations indicate that i. The structural dynamics of the engineered and native Top7 in solution are equivalent under corresponding conditions of pH and temperature. Ensemble-averaged structures of the native and engineered Top7 maintain the overall tertiary structure pattern, albeit with loss of helical content when at low pH and high-temperature conditions. Mutations of residues E43A, D46A, E67A, E69A, EA81A along the ?-helices of the engineered Top7 did not lead to significant changes in the native fold under pH 2 and 400 K, suggesting that the helices can accommodate varying sequences. iii. The anti-parallel ?-sheet is the structural core responsible for the stability of the native and engineered Top7 and is well maintained under extreme pH and temperature conditions. These findings indicate that the insertion of an eight-residue loop into the structure of Top7 does not adversely affect the global fold or the structural stability of the Top7 scaffold.

  11. Global warming and the regions in the Middle East

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvi, S.H.; Elagib, N.

    1996-12-31

    The announcement of NASA scientist James Hansen made at a United States Senate`s hearing in June 1988 about the onset of global warming ignited a whirlwind of public concern in United States and elsewhere in the world. Although the temperature had shown only a slight shift, its warming has the potential of causing environmental catastrophe. According to atmosphere scientists, the effect of higher temperatures will change rainfall patterns--some areas getting drier, some much wetter. The phenomenon of warming in the Arabian Gulf region was first reported by Alvi for Bahrain and then for Oman. In the recent investigations, the authors have found a similar warming in other regions of the Arabian Gulf and in several regions of Sudan in Africa. The paper will investigate the observed data on temperature and rainfall of Seeb in Oman, Bahrain, International Airport in Kuwait as index stations for the Arabian Gulf and Port Sudan, Khartoum and Malakal in the African Continent of Sudan. Based on various statistical methods, the study will highlight a drying of the regions from the striking increase in temperature and decline of rainfall amount. Places of such environmental behavior are regarded as desertifying regions. Following Hulme and Kelly, desertification is taken to mean land degradation in dryland regions, or the permanent decline in the potential of the land to support biological activity, and hence human welfare. The paper will also, therefore, include the aspect of desertification for the regions under consideration.

  12. Structural Design Feasibility Study for the Global Climate Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewin,K.F.; Nagy, J.

    2008-12-01

    Neon, Inc. is proposing to establish a Global Change Experiment (GCE) Facility to increase our understanding of how ecological systems differ in their vulnerability to changes in climate and other relevant global change drivers, as well as provide the mechanistic basis for forecasting ecological change in the future. The experimental design was initially envisioned to consist of two complementary components; (A) a multi-factor experiment manipulating CO{sub 2}, temperature and water availability and (B) a water balance experiment. As the design analysis and cost estimates progressed, it became clear that (1) the technical difficulties of obtaining tight temperature control and maintaining elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide levels within an enclosure were greater than had been expected and (2) the envisioned study would not fit into the expected budget envelope if this was done in a partially or completely enclosed structure. After discussions between NEON management, the GCE science team, and Keith Lewin, NEON, Inc. requested Keith Lewin to expand the scope of this design study to include open-field exposure systems. In order to develop the GCE design to the point where it can be presented within a proposal for funding, a feasibility study of climate manipulation structures must be conducted to determine design approaches and rough cost estimates, and to identify advantages and disadvantages of these approaches including the associated experimental artifacts. NEON, Inc requested this design study in order to develop concepts for the climate manipulation structures to support the NEON Global Climate Experiment. This study summarizes the design concepts considered for constructing and operating the GCE Facility and their associated construction, maintenance and operations costs. Comparisons and comments about experimental artifacts, construction challenges and operational uncertainties are provided to assist in selecting the final facility design. The overall goal of this report is to provide a cost and technological basis for selection of the appropriate GCE Facility design.

  13. High temperature thermometric phosphors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allison, S.W.; Cates, M.R.; Boatner, L.A.; Gillies, G.T.

    1999-03-23

    A high temperature phosphor consists essentially of a material having the general formula LuPO{sub 4}:Dy{sub x},Eu{sub y} wherein: 0.1 wt % {<=} x {<=} 20 wt % and 0.1 wt % {<=} y {<=} 20 wt %. The high temperature phosphor is in contact with an article whose temperature is to be determined. The article having the phosphor in contact with it is placed in the environment for which the temperature of the article is to be determined. The phosphor is excited by a laser causing the phosphor to fluoresce. The emission from the phosphor is optically focused into a beam-splitting mirror which separates the emission into two separate emissions, the emission caused by the dysprosium dopant and the emission caused by the europium dopant. The separated emissions are optically filtered and the intensities of the emission are detected and measured. The ratio of the intensity of each emission is determined and the temperature of the article is calculated from the ratio of the intensities of the separate emissions. 2 figs.

  14. High temperature thermometric phosphors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allison, Stephen W.; Cates, Michael R.; Boatner, Lynn A.; Gillies, George T.

    1999-03-23

    A high temperature phosphor consists essentially of a material having the general formula LuPO.sub.4 :Dy.sub.(x),Eu.sub.y) wherein: 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.20 wt % and 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.20 wt %. The high temperature phosphor is in contact with an article whose temperature is to be determined. The article having the phosphor in contact with it is placed in the environment for which the temperature of the article is to be determined. The phosphor is excited by a laser causing the phosphor to fluoresce. The emission from the phosphor is optically focused into a beam-splitting mirror which separates the emission into two separate emissions, the emission caused by the dysprosium dopant and the emission caused by the europium dopent. The separated emissions are optically filtered and the intensities of the emission are detected and measured. The ratio of the intensity of each emission is determined and the temperature of the article is calculated from the ratio of the intensities of the separate emissions.

  15. California Wintertime Precipitation in Regional and Global Climate Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caldwell, P M

    2009-04-27

    In this paper, wintertime precipitation from a variety of observational datasets, regional climate models (RCMs), and general circulation models (GCMs) is averaged over the state of California (CA) and compared. Several averaging methodologies are considered and all are found to give similar values when model grid spacing is less than 3{sup o}. This suggests that CA is a reasonable size for regional intercomparisons using modern GCMs. Results show that reanalysis-forced RCMs tend to significantly overpredict CA precipitation. This appears to be due mainly to overprediction of extreme events; RCM precipitation frequency is generally underpredicted. Overprediction is also reflected in wintertime precipitation variability, which tends to be too high for RCMs on both daily and interannual scales. Wintertime precipitation in most (but not all) GCMs is underestimated. This is in contrast to previous studies based on global blended gauge/satellite observations which are shown here to underestimate precipitation relative to higher-resolution gauge-only datasets. Several GCMs provide reasonable daily precipitation distributions, a trait which doesn't seem tied to model resolution. GCM daily and interannual variability is generally underpredicted.

  16. Satellite remote sensing of global rainfall using passive microwave radiometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferriday, J.G.

    1994-12-31

    Global rainfall over land and ocean is estimated using measurements of upwelling microwaves by a satellite passive microwave radiometer. Radiative transfer calculations through a cloud model are used to parameterize an inversion technique for retrieving rain rates from brightness temperatures measured by the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I). The rainfall retrieval technique is based on the interaction between multi-spectral microwave radiances and millimeter sized liquid and frozen hydrometeors distributed in the satellite`s field of view. The rain rate algorithm is sensitive to both hydrometeor emission and scattering while being relatively insensitive to extraneous atmospheric and surface effects. Separate formulations are used over ocean and land to account for different background microwave characteristics and the algorithm corrects for inhomogeneous distributions of rain rates within the satellite`s field of view. Estimates of instantaneous and climate scale rainfall are validated through comparisons with modeled clouds, surface radars, rain gauges and alternative satellite estimates. The accuracy of the rainfall estimates is determined from a combination of validation comparisons, theoretical sampling error calculations, and modeled sensitivity to variations in atmospheric and surface radiative properties. An error budget is constructed for both instantaneous rain rates and climate scale global estimates. At a one degree resolution, the root mean square errors in instantaneous rain rate estimates are 13% over ocean and 20% over land. The root mean square errors in global rainfall totals over a four month period are found to be 46% over ocean and 63% over land. Global rainfall totals are computed on a monthly scale for a three year period from 1987 to 1990. The time series is analyzed for climate scale rainfall distribution and variability.

  17. High temperature lubricating process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, Robert W. (Livermore, CA); Shell, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1982-01-01

    It has been difficult to provide adaquate lubrication for load bearing, engine components when such engines are operating in excess of about 475.degree. C. The present invention is a process for providing a solid lubricant on a load bearing, solid surface (14), such as in an engine (10) being operated at temperatures in excess of about 475.degree. C. The process comprises contacting and maintaining steps. A gas phase (42) is provided which includes at least one component reactable in a temperature dependent reaction to form a solid lubricant. The gas phase is contacted with the load bearing surface. The load bearing surface is maintained at a temperature which causes reaction of the gas phase component and the formation of the solid lubricant. The solid lubricant is formed directly on the load bearing surface. The method is particularly suitable for use with ceramic engines.

  18. Temperature profile detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tokarz, R.D.

    1983-10-11

    Disclosed is a temperature profile detector shown as a tubular enclosure surrounding an elongated electrical conductor having a plurality of meltable conductive segments surrounding it. Duplicative meltable segments are spaced apart from one another along the length of the enclosure. Electrical insulators surround these elements to confine molten material from the segments in bridging contact between the conductor and a second electrical conductor, which might be the confining tube. The location and rate of growth of the resulting short circuits between the two conductors can be monitored by measuring changes in electrical resistance between terminals at both ends of the two conductors. Additional conductors and separate sets of meltable segments operational at differing temperatures can be monitored simultaneously for measuring different temperature profiles. 8 figs.

  19. Temperature initiated passive cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1994-11-01

    A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature. 1 fig.

  20. Temperature initiated passive cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, Charles W.

    1994-01-01

    A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature.