Sample records for global atmospheric gases

  1. atmospheric greenhouse gases: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    GASES BACKGROUND CiteSeer Summary: The Earths climate depends on the amount of solar radiation received and the atmospheric abundance of clouds and greenhouse gases. The...

  2. Atmospheric Trace Gases from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    CDIAC products are indexed and searchable through a customized interface powered by ORNL's Mercury search engine. Products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, models, etc. and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Some of the collections may also be included in the CDIAC publication, Trends Online: A Compendium of Global Change Data. Most data sets, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. The collections under the CDIAC heading of Atmospheric Trace Gases include: Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide, Atmospheric Methane, Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide, Atmospheric Hydrogen, Isotopes in Greenhouse Gases, Radionuclides, Aerosols, and Other Trace Gases.

  3. An analytical inversion method for determining regional and global emissions of greenhouse gases: Sensitivity studies and application to halocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stohl, A.

    A new analytical inversion method has been developed to determine the regional and global emissions of long-lived atmospheric trace gases. It exploits in situ measurement data from three global networks and builds on ...

  4. Global and regional emissions of HFC-125 (CHF[subscript 2]CF[subscript 3]) from in situ and air archive atmospheric observations at AGAGE and SOGE observatories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Doherty, S.

    High-frequency, in situ observations from the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) and System for Observation of halogenated Greenhouse gases in Europe (SOGE) networks for the period 1998 to 2008, combined ...

  5. Sulfuryl fluoride in the global atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muhle, J.

    The first calibrated high-frequency, high-precision, in situ atmospheric and archived air measurements of the fumigant sulfuryl fluoride (SO[subscript 2]F[subscript 2]) have been made as part of the Advanced Global Atmospheric ...

  6. Human effects on the global atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnston, H.S.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This review considers whether human activities can significantly change important functions of the global atmosphere by altering the amount or distribution of certain trace species. It deals with three specific topics: stratopheric ozone, the role of species other than carbon dioxide on the greenhouse effect, and certain recently recognized atmospheric consequences of a large scale nuclear war. 64 references, 10 figures, 2 tables.

  7. atmospheric global electric: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    global atmospheric iron cycle, and combustion this paper. Key Words aerosol deposition, climate change, deserts Abstract Atmospheric inputs of iron sources of iron are...

  8. Earth is warm because of "greenhouse gases" in atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Callender, Craig

    " properties of carbon dioxide, water. #12;Early 20th century, scientists realized that if CO2 content changed "Calculation shows that doubling or tripling the amount of the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere increases

  9. Simultaneous gas-chromatographic determination of four toxic gases generally present in combustion atmospheres. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Endecott, B.R.; Sanders, D.C.; Chaturvedi, A.K.

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurement of combustion gases produced by burning aircraft cabin materials poses a continuing limitation for smoke toxicity research. Since toxic effects of gases depend on both their concentrations and duration of exposures, frequent atmosphere sampling is necessary to define the concentration-time curve. A gas chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous analyses of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and hydrogen cyanide (HCN). The method utilized an MTI M200 dual-column gas chromatograph (GC) equipped with 4-m molecular sieve-5A and 8-m PoraPlot-U capillary columns and two low-volume, high-sensitivity thermal conductivity detectors. Detectability (ppm)/retention times (seconds) for the gases were: CO (100/28); H2S (50/26); SO2 (125/76); HCN (60/108). The method was effective for determining these gases in mixtures and in the combustion atmospheres generated by burning wool (CO, HCN, and H2S) and modacrylic (CO and HCN) fabrics. Common atmospheric gaseous or combustion products (oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, water vapor, and other volatiles) did not interfere with the analyses. However, filtration of the combustion atmospheres was necessary to prevent restriction of the GC sampling inlet by smoke particulates. The speed, sensitivity, and selectivity of this method make it suitable for smoke toxicity research and for evaluating performance of passenger protective breathing equipment.

  10. ARM - Amount of Greenhouse Gases in the Global Atmosphere

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearchSOLICITATIONIMODI FICATION OF

  11. A simple method to estimate entropy of atmospheric gases from their action

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kennedy, Ivan R; Rose, Michael T; Crossan, Angus N

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A convenient model for estimating the total entropy ({\\Sigma}Si) of atmospheric gases based on physical action is proposed. This realistic approach is fully consistent with statistical mechanics, but uses the properties of translational, rotational and vibrational action to partition the entropy. When all sources of action are computed as appropriate non-linear functions, the total input of thermal energy ({\\Sigma}SiT) required to sustain a chemical system at specific temperatures (T) and pressures (p) can be estimated, yielding results in close agreement with published experimental third law values. Thermodynamic properties of gases including enthalpy, Gibbs energy and Helmholtz energy can be easily calculated from simple molecular and physical properties. We propose that these values for entropy are employed both chemically for reactions and physically for computing atmospheric profiles, the latter based on steady state heat flow equilibrating thermodynamics with gravity. We also predict that this applicati...

  12. Atmospheric carbon dioxide and the global carbon cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trabalka, J R [ed.

    1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This state-of-the-art volume presents discussions on the global cycle of carbon, the dynamic balance among global atmospheric CO2 sources and sinks. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual papers. (ACR)

  13. Clathrate hydrates as a sink of noble gases in Titan's atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, C; Ballenegger, V; Picaud, Sylvain

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We use a statistical thermodynamic approach to determine the composition of clathrate hydrates which may form from a multiple compound gas whose composition is similar to that of Titan's atmosphere. Assuming that noble gases are initially present in this gas phase, we calculate the ratios of xenon, krypton and argon to species trapped in clathrate hydrates. We find that these ratios calculated for xenon and krypton are several orders of magnitude higher than in the coexisting gas at temperature and pressure conditions close to those of Titan's present atmosphere at ground level. Furthermore we show that, by contrast, argon is poorly trapped in these ices. This trapping mechanism implies that the gas-phase is progressively depleted in xenon and krypton when the coexisting clathrate hydrates form whereas the initial abundance of argon remains almost constant. Our results are thus compatible with the deficiency of Titan's atmosphere in xenon and krypton measured by the {\\it Huygens} probe during its descent on J...

  14. Global Research Alliance on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating AGeothermal/Exploration <Glacial EnergyEnergyGlobal Green

  15. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center-A for atmospheric trace gases: FY 1993 activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cushman, R.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center; Stoss, F.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center]|[Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment, and Resources Center

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the course of a fiscal year, Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) distributes thousands of specialty publications-numeric data packages (NDPs), computer model packages (CMPs), technical reports, public communication publications, newsletters, article reprints, and reference books-in response to requests for information related to global environmental issues, primarily those pertaining to climate change. CDIAC`s staff also provide technical responses to specific inquiries related to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), other trace gases, and climate. Hundreds of referrals to other researchers, policy analysts, information specialists, or organizations are also facilitated by CDIAC`s staff. This report provides an account of the activities accomplished by CDIAC (including World Data Center-A for Atmospheric Trace Gases) during the period October 1, 1992, to September 30, 1993. An organizational overview of CDIAC and its staff is supplemented by a detailed description of inquiries received and CDIAC`s response to those inquiries. An analysis and description of the preparation and distribution of NDPS, CMPS, technical reports, newsletters, fact sheets, specialty publications, and reprints are provided. Comments and descriptions of CDIAC`s information management systems, professional networking, and special bilateral agreements are also presented.

  16. Changes in atmospheric gases during isobaric storage of beef packaged pre- and post-rigor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoermann, Karen Lee

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of C mmittee o-Chairman o Committee !, ' '2s r Mem er Member H d fop t ~t August 1980 ABSTRACT Changes in Atmospheric Gases During Isobaric Storage of Beef Packaged Pre- and Post-Rigor. (August 1980) Karen Lee Hoermann, B. S. , Texas ASM... and support. Thanks are g1ven to Don Bernard, David Hill, Karen Tanksley, and Julie Vrana for the1r assistance 1n the analysis of the samples. For his statist1cal expertise, the author thanks Dr. Iti. C. Parr for h1s help in analysis of variance and covari...

  17. Production of stable, non-thermal atmospheric pressure rf capacitive plasmas using gases other than helium or neon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Park, Jaeyoung; Henins, Ivars

    2005-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention enables the production of stable, steady state, non-thermal atmospheric pressure rf capacitive .alpha.-mode plasmas using gases other than helium and neon. In particular, the current invention generates and maintains stable, steady-state, non-thermal atmospheric pressure rf .alpha.-mode plasmas using pure argon or argon with reactive gas mixtures, pure oxygen or air. By replacing rare and expensive helium with more readily available gases, this invention makes it more economical to use atmospheric pressure rf .alpha.-mode plasmas for various materials processing applications.

  18. Optimal Estimation of the Surface Fluxes of Chloromethanes Using a 3-D Global Atmospheric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (CH2Cl2), chloroform (CHCl3), and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), are chlorine-containing gases concentrations of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. The Center for Global Change Science at MIT

  19. The Global Anthropogenic Lead Experiment Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Einat, Aharonov

    The Global Anthropogenic Lead Experiment Ed Boyle Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences Reuer Rick Kayser Boyle Lab, arriving in Rio at the end of EN 367 #12;The Global Anthropogenic Lead Experiment · Lead is a volatile element and it is emitted by high temperature industrial activities (smelting

  20. Clathrate hydrates as a sink of noble gases in Titan's atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Thomas; O. Mousis; V. Ballenegger; S. Picaud

    2007-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We use a statistical thermodynamic approach to determine the composition of clathrate hydrates which may form from a multiple compound gas whose composition is similar to that of Titan's atmosphere. Assuming that noble gases are initially present in this gas phase, we calculate the ratios of xenon, krypton and argon to species trapped in clathrate hydrates. We find that these ratios calculated for xenon and krypton are several orders of magnitude higher than in the coexisting gas at temperature and pressure conditions close to those of Titan's present atmosphere at ground level. Furthermore we show that, by contrast, argon is poorly trapped in these ices. This trapping mechanism implies that the gas-phase is progressively depleted in xenon and krypton when the coexisting clathrate hydrates form whereas the initial abundance of argon remains almost constant. Our results are thus compatible with the deficiency of Titan's atmosphere in xenon and krypton measured by the {\\it Huygens} probe during its descent on January 14, 2005. However, in order to interpret the subsolar abundance of primordial Ar also revealed by {\\it Huygens}, other processes that occurred either during the formation of Titan or during its evolution must be also invoked.

  1. Oil and gas exploration system and method for detecting trace amounts of hydrocarbon gases in the atmosphere

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wamsley, Paula R. (Littleton, CO); Weimer, Carl S. (Littleton, CO); Nelson, Loren D. (Evergreen, CO); O'Brien, Martin J. (Pine, CO)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An oil and gas exploration system and method for land and airborne operations, the system and method used for locating subsurface hydrocarbon deposits based upon a remote detection of trace amounts of gases in the atmosphere. The detection of one or more target gases in the atmosphere is used to indicate a possible subsurface oil and gas deposit. By mapping a plurality of gas targets over a selected survey area, the survey area can be analyzed for measurable concentration anomalies. The anomalies are interpreted along with other exploration data to evaluate the value of an underground deposit. The system includes a differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system with a spectroscopic grade laser light and a light detector. The laser light is continuously tunable in a mid-infrared range, 2 to 5 micrometers, for choosing appropriate wavelengths to measure different gases and avoid absorption bands of interference gases. The laser light has sufficient optical energy to measure atmospheric concentrations of a gas over a path as long as a mile and greater. The detection of the gas is based on optical absorption measurements at specific wavelengths in the open atmosphere. Light that is detected using the light detector contains an absorption signature acquired as the light travels through the atmosphere from the laser source and back to the light detector. The absorption signature of each gas is processed and then analyzed to determine if a potential anomaly exists.

  2. Carbon dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center: A for Atmospheric trace gases. Annual progress report, FY 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burtis, M.D. [comp.] [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment and Resources Center; Cushman, R.M.; Boden, T.A.; Jones, S.B.; Nelson, T.R.; Stoss, F.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the activities and accomplishments made by the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center-A for Atmospheric Trace Gases during the fiscal year 1994. Topics discussed in this report include; organization and staff, user services, systems, communications, Collaborative efforts with China, networking, ocean data and activities of the World Data Center-A.

  3. ATMOSPHERIC CO2 A GLOBAL LIMITING RESOURCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    Carbondioxideatmosphericburden,PgC Land use Fossil CO2 from land use emissions ­ not fossil fuel combustion ­ was the dominant CO2 Comparison of CO2 mixing ratio from fossil fuel combustion and land use changes 400 380 360 340 cores 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 Forcing,Wm -2 #12;ATMOSPHERIC CO2 EMISSIONS Time series 1700

  4. DEFRA Global Atmosphere Dept | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovationinConcentratingEnergyCoosaPageEnergy InformationDEFRA Global

  5. atmosphere gcm implications: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    gases, and sulfate aerosols are predicted to raise global temperatures via the "greenhouse effect" (IPCC, 1996), growing emissions of SO2Interactions Among Emissions, Atmospheric...

  6. atmospheric aerosol emissions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    gases, and sulfate aerosols are predicted to raise global temperatures via the "greenhouse effect" (IPCC, 1996), growing emissions of SO2Interactions Among Emissions, Atmospheric...

  7. Phase relation between global temperature and atmospheric carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stallinga, Peter

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary ingredient of Anthropogenic Global Warming hypothesis is the assumption that atmospheric carbon dioxide variations are the cause for temperature variations. In this paper we discuss this assumption and analyze it on basis of bi-centenary measurements and using a relaxation model which causes phase shifts and delays.

  8. What are greenhouse gases? Many chemical compounds in the atmosphere act as

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Michigan State University, 2 Michigan State University Extension Climate Change and Agriculture Fact Sheet greenhouse gases carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide over the past 2000 years. Data are from ice core

  9. Discriminating robust and non-robust atmospheric circulation responses to global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Discriminating robust and non-robust atmospheric circulation responses to global warming Michael response to global warming in a set of atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs) is investigated. The global-warmed climate is forced by a global pattern of warmed ocean surface temperatures

  10. atmosphere-sea hydro-ecological model: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Information Sciences Websites Summary: Oscillation (ENSO) or the greenhouse gases global warming effect. The models can possibly run on variousOASIS 2.0 Ocean Atmosphere...

  11. An investigation of the sub-grid variability of trace gases and aerosols for global climate modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qian, Yun; Gustafson, William I.; Fast, Jerome D.

    2010-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    One fundamental property and limitation of grid based models is their inability to identify spatial details smaller than the grid cell size. While decades of work have gone into developing sub-grid treatments for clouds and land surface processes in climate models, the quantitative understanding of sub-grid processes and variability for aerosols and their precursors is much poorer. In this study, WRF-Chem is used to simulate the trace gases and aerosols over central Mexico during the 2006 MILAGRO field campaign, with multiple spatial resolutions and emission/terrain scenarios. Our analysis focuses on quantifying the sub-grid variability (SGV) of trace gases and aerosols within a typical global climate model grid cell, i.e. 75x75 km2. Our results suggest that a simulation with 3-km horizontal grid spacing adequately reproduces the overall transport and mixing of trace gases and aerosols downwind of Mexico City, while 75-km horizontal grid spacing is insufficient to represent local emission and terrain-induced flows along the mountain ridge, subsequently affecting the transport and mixing of plumes from nearby sources. Therefore, the coarse model grid cell average may not correctly represent aerosol properties measured over polluted areas. Probability density functions (PDFs) for trace gases and aerosols show that secondary trace gases and aerosols, such as O3, sulfate, ammonium, and nitrate, are more likely to have a relatively uniform probability distribution (i.e. smaller SGV) over a narrow range of concentration values. Mostly inert and long-lived trace gases and aerosols, such as CO and BC, are more likely to have broad and skewed distributions (i.e. larger SGV) over polluted regions. Over remote areas, all trace gases and aerosols are more uniformly distributed compared to polluted areas. Both CO and O3 SGV vertical profiles are nearly constant within the PBL during daytime, indicating that trace gases are very efficiently transported and mixed vertically by turbulence. But, simulated horizontal variability indicates that trace gases and aerosols are not well mixed horizontally in the PBL. During nighttime the SGV for trace gases is maximum at the surface, and quickly decreases with height. Unlike the trace gases, the SGV of BC and secondary aerosols reaches a maximum at the PBL top during the day. The SGV decreases with distance away from the polluted urban area, has a more rapid decrease for long-lived trace gases and aerosols than for secondary ones, and is greater during daytime than nighttime. The SGV of trace gases and aerosols is generally larger than for meteorological quantities. Emissions can account for up to 50% of the SGV over urban areas such as Mexico City during daytime for less-reactive trace gases and aerosols, such as CO and BC. The impact of emission spatial variability on SGV decays with altitude in the PBL and is insignificant in the free troposphere. The emission variability affects SGV more significantly during daytime (rather than nighttime) and over urban (rather than rural or remote) areas. The terrain, through its impact on meteorological fields such as wind and the PBL structure, affects dispersion and transport of trace gases and aerosols and their SGV.

  12. Global budget of methanol: Constraints from atmospheric observations Daniel J. Jacob,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Qinbin

    Global budget of methanol: Constraints from atmospheric observations Daniel J. Jacob,1 Brendan D of atmospheric methanol to examine the consistency between observed atmospheric concentrations and current of methanol in the model is 7 days; gas-phase oxidation by OH accounts for 63% of the global sink, dry

  13. Atmospheric Environment 42 (2008) 30763086 Scavenging of soluble gases by evaporating and growing cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elperin, Tov

    and condensation of a cloud droplet in the presence of soluble gases. It is assumed that gas absorption we performed numerical analysis of simultaneous heat and mass transfer during evaporation into account thermal effect of gas absorption. It was shown that nonlinear behavior of different parameters

  14. Atmospheric photochemistry, surface features, and potential biosignature gases of terrestrial exoplanets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Renyu, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The endeavor to characterize terrestrial exoplanets warrants the study of chemistry in their atmospheres. Here I present a comprehensive one-dimensional photochemistry-thermochemistry model developed from the ground up for ...

  15. ATMOSPHERIC CO2 --A GLOBAL LIMITING RESOURCE: HOW MUCH FOSSIL CARBON CAN WE BURN?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of emissions from fossil fuel combustion. An increase in atmospheric CO2 would enhance Earth's naturalATMOSPHERIC CO2 -- A GLOBAL LIMITING RESOURCE: HOW MUCH FOSSIL CARBON CAN WE BURN? S. E. Schwartz, NY www.bnl.gov ABSTRACT Carbon dioxide (CO2) is building up in the atmosphere, largely because

  16. Response of the Zonal Mean Atmospheric Circulation to El Nio versus Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Gang

    Response of the Zonal Mean Atmospheric Circulation to El Niño versus Global Warming JIAN LU Pacific. The hydrological impacts of global warming also exhibit distinct patterns over the subtropics response to global warming: 1) The increase in static stability of the subtropical and midlatitude

  17. Modeling the barotropic response of the global ocean to atmospheric wind and pressure forcing -comparisons with observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modeling the barotropic response of the global ocean to atmospheric wind and pressure forcing] A global simulation of the ocean response to atmospheric wind and pressure forcing has been run during the barotropic response of the global ocean to atmospheric wind and pressure forcing - comparisons

  18. Estimation of methane and carbon dioxide surface fluxes using a 3-D global atmospheric chemical transport model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yu-Han, 1973-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methane (CH?) and carbon dioxide (CO?) are the two most radiatively important greenhouse gases attributable to human activity. Large uncertainties in their source and sink magnitudes currently exist. We estimate global ...

  19. Transition metal-catalyzed oxidation of atmospheric sulfur: Global implications for the sulfur budget

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander, Becky

    processes, volca- noes) or produced within the atmosphere by oxidation of re- duced sulfur speciesTransition metal-catalyzed oxidation of atmospheric sulfur: Global implications for the sulfur importance of sulfate production by Fe(III)- and Mn(II)-catalyzed oxidation of S(IV) by O2. We scale

  20. Atmospheric Moisture Transports from Ocean to Land and Global Energy Flows in Reanalyses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fasullo, John

    Atmospheric Moisture Transports from Ocean to Land and Global Energy Flows in Reanalyses KEVIN E energy and hydrological cycles from eight current atmospheric reanalyses and their depiction of changes over time. A brief evaluation of the water and energy cycles in the latest version of the NCAR climate

  1. Response of global soil consumption of atmospheric methane to changes in atmospheric climate and nitrogen deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhuang, Qianlai

    Soil consumption of atmospheric methane plays an important secondary role in regulating the atmospheric CH4 budget, next to the dominant loss mechanism involving reaction with the hydroxyl radical (OH). Here we used a ...

  2. Perfluorocarbons in the global atmosphere: tetrafluoromethane, hexafluoroethane, and octafluoropropane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muhle, J.

    We present atmospheric baseline growth rates from the 1970s to the present for the long-lived, strongly infrared-absorbing perfluorocarbons (PFCs) tetrafluoromethane (CF4), hexafluoroethane (C2F6), and octafluoropropane ...

  3. Global impact of fossil fuel combustion on atmospheric NO x Larry W. Horowitz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacob, Daniel J.

    Global impact of fossil fuel combustion on atmospheric NO x Larry W. Horowitz Advanced Study University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (email djj@io.harvard.edu) #12; Abstract. Fossil fuel combustion of fossil fuel combustion on the global distribution of NO x . In the model, we tag fossil fuel NO x and its

  4. Global impact of fossil fuel combustion on atmospheric NOx Larry W. Horowitz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacob, Daniel J.

    Global impact of fossil fuel combustion on atmospheric NOx Larry W. Horowitz Advanced Study Program, MA 02138 (email djj@io.harvard.edu) #12;Abstract. Fossil fuel combustion is the largest global source-dimensional model of tropospheric chemistry and transport to study the impact of fossil fuel combustion

  5. Fiscal Year 1998 Annual Report, Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, World Data Center -- A for Atmospheric Trace Gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cushman, R.M.; Boden, T.A.; Hook, L.A.; Jones, S.B.; Kaiser, D.P.; Nelson, T.R.

    1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Once again, the most recent fiscal year was a productive one for the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), as well as a year for change. The FY 1998 in Review section in this report summarizes quite a few new and updated data and information products, and the ''What's Coming in FY 1999'' section describes our plans for this new fiscal year. During FY 1998, CDIAC began a data-management system for AmeriFlux, a long-term study of carbon fluxes between the terrestrial biosphere of the Western Hemisphere and the atmosphere. The specific objectives of AmeriFlux are to establish an infrastructure for guiding, collecting, synthesizing, and disseminating long-term measurements of CO{sub 2}, water, and energy exchange from a variety of ecosystems; collect critical new information to help define the current global CO{sub 2} budget; enable improved predictions of future concentrations of atmospheric CO{sub 2}; and enhance understanding of carbon fluxes. Net Ecosystem Production (NEP), and carbon sequestration in the terrestrial biosphere. The data-management system, available from CDIAC'S AmeriFlux home page (http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/programs/ameriflux/ ) is intended to provide consistent, quality-assured, and documented data across all AmeriFlux sites in the US, Canada, Costa Rica, and Brazil. It is being developed by Antoinette Brenkert and Tom Boden, with assistance from Susan Holladay (who joined CDIAC specifically to support the AmeriFlux data-management effort).

  6. Description of Atmospheric Conditions at the Pierre Auger Observatory using the Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abreu, P.; /Lisbon, IST; Aglietta, M.; /Turin U. /INFN, Turin; Ahlers, M.; /Wisconsin U., Madison; Ahn, E.J.; /Fermilab; Albuquerque, I.F.M.; /Sao Paulo U.; Allard, D.; /APC, Paris; Allekotte, I.; /Buenos Aires, CONICET; Allen, J.; /New York U.; Allison, P.; /Ohio State U.; Almela, A.; /Natl. Tech. U., San Nicolas /Buenos Aires, CONICET; Alvarez Castillo, J.; /Mexico U., ICN /Santiago de Compostela U.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric conditions at the site of a cosmic ray observatory must be known for reconstructing observed extensive air showers. The Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) is a global atmospheric model predicated on meteorological measurements and numerical weather predictions. GDAS provides altitude-dependent profiles of the main state variables of the atmosphere like temperature, pressure, and humidity. The original data and their application to the air shower reconstruction of the Pierre Auger Observatory are described. By comparisons with radiosonde and weather station measurements obtained on-site in Malargue and averaged monthly models, the utility of the GDAS data is shown.

  7. Trend analysis from 1970 to 2008 and model evaluation of EDGARv4 global gridded anthropogenic mercury emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muntean, Marilena

    The Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) provides a time-series of man-made emissions of greenhouse gases and short-lived atmospheric pollutants from 1970 to 2008. Mercury is included in EDGARv4.tox1, ...

  8. Impact of emissions, chemistry, and climate on atmospheric carbon monoxide : 100-year predictions from a global chemistry-climate model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chien.; Prinn, Ronald G.

    The possible trends for atmospheric carbon monoxide in the next 100 yr have been illustrated using a coupled atmospheric chemistry and climate model driven by emissions predicted by a global economic development model. ...

  9. The Tropical Atmospheric El Nio Signal in Satellite Precipitation Data and a Global Climate Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) ABSTRACT Aspects of the tropical atmospheric response to El Niño related to the global energy and water and the Advanced Micro- wave Scanning Radiometer-E and simulations from the Goddard Institute for Space Studies are highly correlated, but anomalies in stratiform­convective rainfall partitioning in the two datasets

  10. International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Programme global emissions inventory activity: Sulfur emissions from volcanoes, current status

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benkovitz, C.M.

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sulfur emissions from volcanoes are located in areas of volcanic activity, are extremely variable in time, and can be released anywhere from ground level to the stratosphere. Previous estimates of global sulfur emissions from all sources by various authors have included estimates for emissions from volcanic activity. In general, these global estimates of sulfur emissions from volcanoes are given as global totals for an ``average`` year. A project has been initiated at Brookhaven National Laboratory to compile inventories of sulfur emissions from volcanoes. In order to complement the GEIA inventories of anthropogenic sulfur emissions, which represent conditions circa specific years, sulfur emissions from volcanoes are being estimated for the years 1985 and 1990.

  11. CHAPTER 7. THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT We examine in this chapter the role played by atmospheric gases in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacob, Daniel J.

    113 CHAPTER 7. THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT We examine in this chapter the role played by atmospheric of the surface known as the greenhouse effect. As we will see, trapping of terrestrial radiation by naturally accumulated in the atmosphere over the past decades and added to the greenhouse effect (Figure 7-1). Figure 7

  12. aerosol precursor gases: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    sunlight 11 GREENHOUSE GASES GREENHOUSE GASES BACKGROUND CiteSeer Summary: The Earths climate depends on the amount of solar radiation received and the atmospheric abundance of...

  13. Is the basinwide warming in the North Atlantic Ocean related to atmospheric carbon dioxide and global warming?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chunzai

    to atmospheric carbon dioxide and global warming? Chunzai Wang1 and Shenfu Dong1,2 Received 31 January 2010 is controversial. Some studies argued that the warming is due to global warming in association with the secular sea surface temperature. Here we show that both global warming and AMO variability make a contribution

  14. Long-Range Atmospheric Transport of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: A Global 3-D Model Analysis Including Evaluation of Arctic Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friedman, Carey

    We use the global 3-D chemical transport model GEOS-Chem to simulate long-range atmospheric transport of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). To evaluate the model’s ability to simulate PAHs with different volatilities, ...

  15. COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH: CONTINUOUS DYNAMIC GRID ADAPTATION IN A GLOBAL ATMOSPHERIC MODEL: APPLICATION AND REFINEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prusa, Joseph

    2012-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This project had goals of advancing the performance capabilities of the numerical general circulation model EULAG and using it to produce a fully operational atmospheric global climate model (AGCM) that can employ either static or dynamic grid stretching for targeted phenomena. The resulting AGCM combined EULAG�s advanced dynamics core with the �physics� of the NCAR Community Atmospheric Model (CAM). Effort discussed below shows how we improved model performance and tested both EULAG and the coupled CAM-EULAG in several ways to demonstrate the grid stretching and ability to simulate very well a wide range of scales, that is, multi-scale capability. We leveraged our effort through interaction with an international EULAG community that has collectively developed new features and applications of EULAG, which we exploited for our own work summarized here. Overall, the work contributed to over 40 peer- reviewed publications and over 70 conference/workshop/seminar presentations, many of them invited.

  16. Global energy and water balance: Characteristics from finite-volume atmospheric model of the IAP/LASG (FAMIL1)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhou, Linjiong; Bao, Qing; Liu, Yimin; Wu, Guoxiong; Wang, Wei-Chyung; Wang, Xiaocong; He, Bian; Yu, Haiyang; Li, Jiandong

    2015-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper documents version 1 of the Finite-volume Atmospheric Model of the IAP/LASG (FAMIL1), which has a flexible horizontal resolution up to a quarter of 1°. The model, currently running on the ‘‘Tianhe 1A’’ supercomputer, is the atmospheric component of the third-generation Flexible Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land climate System model (FGOALS3) which will participate in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6). In addition to describing the dynamical core and physical parameterizations of FAMIL1, this paper describes the simulated characteristics of energy and water balances and compares them with observational/reanalysis data. The comparisons indicate that the model simulates well the seasonalmore »and geographical distributions of radiative fluxes at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface, as well as the surface latent and sensible heat fluxes. A major weakness in the energy balance is identified in the regions where extensive and persistent marine stratocumulus is present. Analysis of the global water balance also indicates realistic seasonal and geographical distributions with the global annual mean of evaporation minus precipitation being approximately 10?? mm d?ą. We also examine the connections between the global energy and water balance and discuss the possible link between the two within the context of the findings from the reanalysis data. Finally, the model biases as well as possible solutions are discussed.« less

  17. The new GFDL global atmosphere and land model AM2/LM2: Evaluation with prescribed SST simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bretherton, Chris

    _____________________________________________________________________________ 1 The members of the GFDL Global Atmospheric Model Development Team include Jeffrey L. Anderson+ , V@ , P. C. D. Milly# , Mary J. Nath+ , Jeffrey J. Ploshay+ , V. Ramaswamy+ , M. Daniel Schwarzkopf sensible and latent heat storage, groundwater storage, and stomatal resistance. The performance

  18. COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH: CONTINUOUS DYNAMIC GRID ADAPTATION IN A GLOBAL ATMOSPHERIC MODEL: APPLICATION AND REFINEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gutowski, William J.; Prusa, Joseph M.; Smolarkiewicz, Piotr K.

    2012-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This project had goals of advancing the performance capabilities of the numerical general circulation model EULAG and using it to produce a fully operational atmospheric global climate model (AGCM) that can employ either static or dynamic grid stretching for targeted phenomena. The resulting AGCM combined EULAG's advanced dynamics core with the "physics" of the NCAR Community Atmospheric Model (CAM). Effort discussed below shows how we improved model performance and tested both EULAG and the coupled CAM-EULAG in several ways to demonstrate the grid stretching and ability to simulate very well a wide range of scales, that is, multi-scale capability. We leveraged our effort through interaction with an international EULAG community that has collectively developed new features and applications of EULAG, which we exploited for our own work summarized here. Overall, the work contributed to over 40 peer-reviewed publications and over 70 conference/workshop/seminar presentations, many of them invited. 3a. EULAG Advances EULAG is a non-hydrostatic, parallel computational model for all-scale geophysical flows. EULAG's name derives from its two computational options: EULerian (flux form) or semi-LAGrangian (advective form). The model combines nonoscillatory forward-in-time (NFT) numerical algorithms with a robust elliptic Krylov solver. A signature feature of EULAG is that it is formulated in generalized time-dependent curvilinear coordinates. In particular, this enables grid adaptivity. In total, these features give EULAG novel advantages over many existing dynamical cores. For EULAG itself, numerical advances included refining boundary conditions and filters for optimizing model performance in polar regions. We also added flexibility to the model's underlying formulation, allowing it to work with the pseudo-compressible equation set of Durran in addition to EULAG's standard anelastic formulation. Work in collaboration with others also extended the demonstrated range of validity of soundproof models, showing that they are more broadly applicable than some had previously thought. Substantial testing of EULAG included application and extension of the Jablonowski-Williamson baroclinic wave test - an archetype of planetary weather - and further analysis of multi-scale interactions arising from collapse of temperature fronts in both the baroclinic wave test and simulations of the Held-Suarez idealized climate. These analyses revealed properties of atmospheric gravity waves not seen in previous work and further demonstrated the ability of EULAG to simulate realistic behavior over several orders of magnitude of length scales. Additional collaborative work enhanced capability for modeling atmospheric flows with adaptive moving meshes and demonstrated the ability of EULAG to move into petascale computing. 3b. CAM-EULAG Advances We have developed CAM-EULAG in collaboration with former project postdoc, now University of Cape Town Assistant Professor, Babatunde Abiodun. Initial study documented good model performance in aqua-planet simulations. In particular, we showed that the grid adaptivity (stretching) implemented in CAM-EULAG allows higher resolution in selected regions without causing anomalous behavior such as spurious wave reflection. We then used the stretched-grid version to analyze simulated extreme precipitation events in West Africa, comparing the precipitation and event environment with observed behavior. The model simulates fairly well the spatial scale and the interannual and intraseasonal variability of the extreme events, although its extreme precipitation intensity is weaker than observed. In addition, both observations and the simulations show possible forcing of extreme events by African easterly waves. 3c. Other Contributions Through our collaborations, we have made contributions to a wide range of outcomes. For research focused on terrestrial behavior, these have included (1) upwind schemes for gas dynamics, (2) a nonlinear perspective on the dynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation, (3) numerical realism of thermal co

  19. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory interests and capabilities for research on the ecological effects of global climatic and atmospheric change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amthor, J.S.; Houpis, J.L.; Kercher, J.R.; Ledebuhr, A.; Miller, N.L.; Penner, J.E.; Robison, W.L.; Taylor, K.E.

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has interests and capabilities in all three types of research that must be conducted in order to understand and predict effects of global atmospheric and climatic (i.e., environmental) changes on ecological systems and their functions (ecosystem function is perhaps most conveniently defined as mass and energy exchange and storage). These three types of research are: (1) manipulative experiments with plants and ecosystems; (2) monitoring of present ecosystem, landscape, and global exchanges and pools of energy, elements, and compounds that play important roles in ecosystem function or the physical climate system, and (3) mechanistic (i.e., hierarchic and explanatory) modeling of plant and ecosystem responses to global environmental change. Specific experimental programs, monitoring plans, and modeling activities related to evaluation of ecological effects of global environmental change that are of interest to, and that can be carried out by LLNL scientists are outlined. Several projects have the distinction of integrating modeling with empirical studies resulting in an Integrated Product (a model or set of models) that DOE or any federal policy maker could use to assess ecological effects. The authors note that any scheme for evaluating ecological effects of atmospheric and climatic change should take into account exceptional or sensitive species, in particular, rare, threatened, or endangered species.

  20. A scalable high-order discontinuous Galerkin method for global atmospheric modeling Hae-Won Choia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nair, Ramachandran D.

    system model will require a highly scalable and accurate flux-form formulation of atmospheric dynamics supercomputers. 1. INTRODUCTION The future evolution of the Community Climate System Model (CCSM) into an Earth

  1. Upward Shift of the Atmospheric General Circulation under Global Warming: Theory and Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Martin Simran

    Many features of the general circulation of the atmosphere shift upward in response to warming in simulations of climate change with both general circulation models (GCMs) and cloud-system-resolving models. The importance ...

  2. Scientific Final Report: COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH: CONTINUOUS DYNAMIC GRID ADAPTATION IN A GLOBAL ATMOSPHERIC MODEL: APPLICATION AND REFINEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William J. Gutowski; Joseph M. Prusa, Piotr K. Smolarkiewicz

    2012-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This project had goals of advancing the performance capabilities of the numerical general circulation model EULAG and using it to produce a fully operational atmospheric global climate model (AGCM) that can employ either static or dynamic grid stretching for targeted phenomena. The resulting AGCM combined EULAG's advanced dynamics core with the 'physics' of the NCAR Community Atmospheric Model (CAM). Effort discussed below shows how we improved model performance and tested both EULAG and the coupled CAM-EULAG in several ways to demonstrate the grid stretching and ability to simulate very well a wide range of scales, that is, multi-scale capability. We leveraged our effort through interaction with an international EULAG community that has collectively developed new features and applications of EULAG, which we exploited for our own work summarized here. Overall, the work contributed to over 40 peer-reviewed publications and over 70 conference/workshop/seminar presentations, many of them invited.

  3. The safe use of low temperature liquefied gases 1. Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Ralph R.

    dioxide TABLE 1 Property Oxygen (O2) Nitrogen (N2) Argon (Ar) Helium (He) Carbon dioxide (CO2) Molecular.1 Objective 1.2 Gases considered and typical uses 2. Properties of low temperature liquefied atmospheric gases of BOC low temperature liquefied gases information on their properties, the hazards associated

  4. Development of an atmospheric aerosol model for studies of global budgets and effects of airborne particulate material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giorgi, F.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A microphysics-removal atmospheric aerosol model (AAM) is developed for use in general circulation models (GCMs) to study global budgets and effects of particulate material. In this model the particle population is composed of a set of log-normal modes whose time evolution due to microphysical processes is described via prognostic equations for an appropriate number of moments of the particle-size distribution. Detailed parameterizations of particle coagulation, sedimentation, dry deposition, and wet removal are developed and implemented into the AAM. The AAM is incorporated into a GCM and is applied to two types of studies: (1) characteristics of the particle wet and dry removal processes, and (2) climatic impact of massive particulate injections following a global nuclear war, with emphasis on the sensitivity of the simulated effects to the inclusion of particle microphysics. Results are discussed.

  5. Partial support for the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Core Project Office

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prinn, Ronald G.

    2001-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    IGAC provides an international framework for the planning, coordination, and execution of atmospheric--biospheric research with emphasis on projects which require resources beyond the capabilities of any single nation. The development of chemical emission inventories by IGAC scientists, the development and intercomparison under IGAC leadership of existing chemical transport models, the analysis of data gathered during IGAC-sponsored field campaigns, etc., has provided new scientific information essential to the development of the discipline.

  6. Development of an atmospheric aerosol model for studies of global budgets and effects of airborne particulate material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giorgi, F.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A microphysics-removal Atmospheric Aerosol Model (AAM) is developed for use in General Circulation Models (GCM) to study global budgets and effects of particulate material. In this model the particle population is assumed to be composed of a set of log-normal modes whose time evolution due to microphysical processes is described via prognostic equations for an appropriate number of moments of the particle size distribution. This newly devised technique, by making use of a small number of prognostic equations for the aerosol variables and utilizing optimized numerical procedures, renders the model computationally efficient, hence particularly suitable for use in complex 3D GCMs. Detailed parameterizations of particle coagulation, sedimentation, dry deposition, and wet removal are incorporated into the AAM.

  7. How well do we know northern land cover? Comparison of four global vegetation and wetland products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Laurence C.

    Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer data (GLCC.AVHRR), (2) the Global Land Cover Classification.AVHRR database underestimates evergreen needleleaf forest in favor of mixed forest; and (3) at high latitudes impacts of climate change on land- atmosphere exchanges of energy, water, carbon and green- house gases [e

  8. Seeded optical breakdown of molecular and noble gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polynkin, Pavel; Scheller, Maik; Moloney, Jerome V. [College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona 1630 E. University Blvd., Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States)

    2012-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We report experimental results on the dual laser-pulse plasma excitation in various gases at atmospheric pressure. Dilute plasma channels generated through filamentation of ultraintense femtosecond laser pulses in air, argon, and helium are densified through the application of multi-Joule nanosecond heater pulses. Optical breakdown in atomic gases can be achieved for considerably longer delays between femtosecond and nanosecond pulses compared to that in molecular gases. The densification of the seed channel in molecular gases is always accompanied by its fragmentation into discrete bubbles, while in atomic gases the densified channel remains smooth and continuous.

  9. Summary Much attention is focused today on predicting how plants will respond to anticipated changes in atmospheric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ehleringer, Jim

    isotope ratio, global change, intercellular carbon dioxide. Gases released by volcanoes, including H2S, NH that are eventually removed from solution by carbonate pre- cipitation. In addition, photosynthesis removed CO2 from are the processes resulting in long-term removal of carbon from the atmosphere to the lithosphere. Although

  10. The NASA Aura satellite houses four instruments to study atmospheric ozone. The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) onboard the satellite provides global total column ozone (TCO) and in combination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Anne

    iii ABSTRACT The NASA Aura satellite houses four instruments to study atmospheric ozone. The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) onboard the satellite provides global total column ozone (TCO) and in combination with other instruments tropospheric ozone residual (TOR) can be derived. In this study, the trajectory

  11. Hourly global and diffuse radiation of Lagos, Nigeria-correlation with some atmospheric parameters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chendo, M.A.C.; Maduekwe, A.A.L. (Univ. of Lagos, Akoka (Nigeria))

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The influence of four climatic parameters on the hourly diffuse fraction in Lagos, Nigeria, has been studied. Using data for two years, new correlations were established. The standard error of the Liu and Jordan-type equation was reduced by 12.83% when solar elevation, ambient temperature, and relative humidity were used together as predictor variables for the entire data set. Ambient temperature and relative humidity proved to be very important variables for predicting the diffuse fraction of the solar radiation passing through the humid atmosphere of the coastal and tropic city of Lagos. Seasonal analysis carried out with the data showed improvements on the standard errors for the new seasonal correlations. In the case of the dry season, the improvement was 18.37%, whole for the wet season, this was 12.37%. Comparison with existing correlations showed that the performance of the one parameter model (namely K[sub t]), of Orgill and Hollands and Reindl, Beckman, and Duffie were very different from the Liu and Jordan-type model obtained for Lagos.

  12. Cows Causing Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hacker, Randi

    2008-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Broadcast Transcript: Remember when President Reagan blamed trees for air pollution? Well now the Japanese are blaming cows for global warming. Apparently, the methane emissions from burping cows account for 5% of all global greenhouse gases. Simple...

  13. Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulprathipanja, Santi (Hoffman Estates, IL); Kulkarni, Sudhir S. (Hoffman Estates, IL)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Polar gases such as hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide and ammonia may be separated from nonpolar gases such as methane, nitrogen, hydrogen or carbon dioxide by passing a mixture of polar and nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The use of such membranes as exemplified by polyethylene glycol and silicon rubber composited on polysulfone will permit greater selectivity accompanied by a high flux rate in the separation process.

  14. Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulprathipanja, S.

    1986-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases may be effected by passing a mixture of nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The porous support is pretreated prior to casting of the mixture thereon by contact with a polyhydric alcohol whereby the pores of the support are altered, thus adding to the increased permeability of the polar gas.

  15. Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulprathipanja, Santi (Hoffman Estates, IL)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases may be effected by passing a mixture of nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The porous support is pretreated prior to casting of the mixture thereon by contact with a polyhydric alcohol whereby the pores of the support are altered, thus adding to the increased permeability of the polar gas.

  16. Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulprathipanja, S.; Kulkarni, S.S.

    1986-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Polar gases such as hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide and ammonia may be separated from nonpolar gases such as methane, nitrogen, hydrogen or carbon dioxide by passing a mixture of polar and nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The use of such membranes as exemplified by polyethylene glycol and silicon rubber composited on polysulfone will permit greater selectivity accompanied by a high flux rate in the separation process.

  17. Simulations of greenhouse trace gases using the Los Alamos chemical tracer model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kao, C.Y.J.; Morz, E. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Tie, X. (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, San Diego, CA (United States))

    1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Through three-dimensional global model studies on atmospheric composition and transport, we are improving our quantitative understanding of the origins and behavior of trace gases that affect Earth's radiative energy balance and climate. We will focus, in this paper, on the simulations of three individual trace gases including CFC-11, methyl chloroform, and methane. We first used our chemical tracer model to study the global distribution and trend of chemically inert CFC-11 observed by the Atmospheric Lifetime Experiment. The results show that the model has the ability to reproduce the time-series of the observations. The purpose of this CFC-11 simulation was to test the transport of the model. We then used to model introduce methyl chloroform into the atmosphere according to the known emission patterns and iteratively varied OH fields so that the observed concentrations of methyl chloroform from the observations could be simulated well. The rationale behind this approach is that the reaction with OH is the dominant sink for metyl chloroform and the transport of the model has been tested in the previous CFC-11 study. Finally, using the inferred OH distributions, we conducted a steady-state simulation to reproduce the current methane distribution. The general agreement between the modeled an observed methane surface concentrations has laid a foundation for the simulation of the transient increase of methane.

  18. Simulations of greenhouse trace gases using the Los Alamos chemical tracer model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kao, C.Y.J.; Morz, E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Tie, X. [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Through three-dimensional global model studies on atmospheric composition and transport, we are improving our quantitative understanding of the origins and behavior of trace gases that affect Earth`s radiative energy balance and climate. We will focus, in this paper, on the simulations of three individual trace gases including CFC-11, methyl chloroform, and methane. We first used our chemical tracer model to study the global distribution and trend of chemically inert CFC-11 observed by the Atmospheric Lifetime Experiment. The results show that the model has the ability to reproduce the time-series of the observations. The purpose of this CFC-11 simulation was to test the transport of the model. We then used to model introduce methyl chloroform into the atmosphere according to the known emission patterns and iteratively varied OH fields so that the observed concentrations of methyl chloroform from the observations could be simulated well. The rationale behind this approach is that the reaction with OH is the dominant sink for metyl chloroform and the transport of the model has been tested in the previous CFC-11 study. Finally, using the inferred OH distributions, we conducted a steady-state simulation to reproduce the current methane distribution. The general agreement between the modeled an observed methane surface concentrations has laid a foundation for the simulation of the transient increase of methane.

  19. Global Warming Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schofield, Jeremy

    Global Warming Observations: 1. Global temperature has been gradually rising in recent years #15 in range 8000 12000 nm { CFC's, methane and N 2 O important for global warming even though concentra- tions in concentration of \\greenhouse gases" like CO 2 What determines global temperature? Energy budget of earth: 1

  20. Eddy covariance flux measurements of pollutant gases in urban Mexico City

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Velasco, Erik

    Eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements of the atmosphere/surface exchange of gases over an urban area are a direct way to improve and evaluate emissions inventories, and, in turn, to better understand urban atmospheric ...

  1. Where do California's greenhouse gases come from?

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Fischer, Marc

    2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Last March, more than two years after California passed legislation to slash greenhouse gas emissions 25 percent by 2020, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory scientist Marc Fischer boarded a Cessna loaded with air monitoring equipment and crisscrossed the skies above Sacramento and the Bay Area. Instruments aboard the aircraft measured a cocktail of greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide from fossil fuel use, methane from livestock and landfills, CO2 from refineries and power plants, traces of nitrous oxide from agriculture and fuel use, and industrially produced other gases like refrigerants. The flight was part of the Airborne Greenhouse Gas Emissions Survey, a collaboration between Berkeley Lab, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the University of California, and UC Davis to pinpoint the sources of greenhouse gases in central California. The survey is intended to improve inventories of the states greenhouse gas emissions, which in turn will help scientists verify the emission reductions mandated by AB-32, the legislation enacted by California in 2006.

  2. Greenhouse Gases | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Greenhouse Gases Greenhouse Gases Executive Order 13514 requires Federal agencies to inventory and manage greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to meet Federal goals and mitigate climate...

  3. Atmospheric three-dimensional inverse modeling of regional industrial emissions and global oceanic uptake of carbon tetrachloride

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiao, X.

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) has substantial stratospheric ozone depletion potential and its consumption is controlled under the Montreal Protocol and its amendments. We implement a Kalman filter using atmospheric CCl4 ...

  4. QUESTIONS ABOUT GLOBAL WARMING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    QUESTIONS ABOUT GLOBAL WARMING ĄIS IT REAL? ĄIS IT IMPORTANT? ĄWHAT IS IT DUE TO? ĄHOW MUCH MORE in the atmosphere, giving Earth its temperate climate. Global Atmosphere, Global Warming GLOBAL TEMPERATURE TREND IS THIS CARBON DIOXIDE COMING FROM? Other sources are home heating and electric power production. WE ARE ALL

  5. Long range global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rolle, K.C.; Pulkrabek, W.W.; Fiedler, R.A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Platteville, WI (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper explores one of the causes of global warming that is often overlooked, the direct heating of the environment by engineering systems. Most research and studies of global warming concentrate on the modification that is occurring to atmospheric air as a result of pollution gases being added by various systems; i.e., refrigerants, nitrogen oxides, ozone, hydrocarbons, halon, and others. This modification affects the thermal radiation balance between earth, sun and space, resulting in a decrease of radiation outflow and a slow rise in the earth`s steady state temperature. For this reason the solution to the problem is perceived as one of cleaning up the processes and effluents that are discharged into the environment. In this paper arguments are presented that suggest, that there is a far more serious cause for global warming that will manifest itself in the next two or three centuries; direct heating from the exponential growth of energy usage by humankind. Because this is a minor contributor to the global warming problem at present, it is overlooked or ignored. Energy use from the combustion of fuels and from the output of nuclear reactions eventually is manifest as warming of the surroundings. Thus, as energy is used at an ever increasing rate the consequent global warming also increases at an ever increasing rate. Eventually this rate will become equal to a few percent of solar radiation. When this happens the earth`s temperature will have risen by several degrees with catastrophic results. The trends in world energy use are reviewed and some mathematical models are presented to suggest future scenarios. These models can be used to predict when the global warming problem will become undeniably apparent, when it will become critical, and when it will become catastrophic.

  6. WELL KNOWN . . . TO A FEW PEOPLE: ATTRIBUTION OF EXCESS ATMOSPHERIC CO2 AND RESULTING GLOBAL TEMPERATURE CHANGE TO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    century the major source of incremental atmospheric CO2 was not FF emissions but emissions from so to deforestation. LUC CO2 emissions have been a substantial fraction of anthropogenic CO2 emissions throughout the industrial period and even at present are about a third as great as FF emissions. Cumulative LUC CO2

  7. atmospheric deposition microbial: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mercury in the Global Atmosphere: Chemistry, deposition, and land-atmosphere interactions Environmental Management and Restoration Websites Summary: Mercury in the Global...

  8. atmospheric deposition nutrient: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mercury in the Global Atmosphere: Chemistry, deposition, and land-atmosphere interactions Environmental Management and Restoration Websites Summary: Mercury in the Global...

  9. An estimate of monthly global emissions of anthropogenic CO2: Impact on the seasonal cycle of atmospheric CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoffman, Forrest M.

    An estimate of monthly global emissions of anthropogenic CO2: Impact on the seasonal cycle of anthropogenic CO2 are presented. Approximating the seasonal CO2 emission cycle using a 2-harmonic Fourier series with regions of strong anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Citation: Erickson, D. J., III, R. T. Mills, J. Gregg, T. J

  10. atmospheres pressure mixed: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Utilization Websites Summary: Aircraft Performance: Atmospheric Pressure FAA Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge Chap 10 12 - 21% Oxygen - 1% other gases (argon,...

  11. atmospheric pressure: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Utilization Websites Summary: Aircraft Performance: Atmospheric Pressure FAA Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge Chap 10 12 - 21% Oxygen - 1% other gases (argon,...

  12. atmospheric pressure hf: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Utilization Websites Summary: Aircraft Performance: Atmospheric Pressure FAA Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge Chap 10 12 - 21% Oxygen - 1% other gases (argon,...

  13. atmospheric pressure photoionization: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Utilization Websites Summary: Aircraft Performance: Atmospheric Pressure FAA Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge Chap 10 12 - 21% Oxygen - 1% other gases (argon,...

  14. atmospheric pressure argon: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Utilization Websites Summary: Aircraft Performance: Atmospheric Pressure FAA Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge Chap 10 12 - 21% Oxygen - 1% other gases (argon,...

  15. atmospheric pressure nitrogen: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Utilization Websites Summary: Aircraft Performance: Atmospheric Pressure FAA Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge Chap 10 12 - 21% Oxygen - 1% other gases (argon,...

  16. atmospheric pressure direct: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Utilization Websites Summary: Aircraft Performance: Atmospheric Pressure FAA Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge Chap 10 12 - 21% Oxygen - 1% other gases (argon,...

  17. atmospheric pressure cvd: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Utilization Websites Summary: Aircraft Performance: Atmospheric Pressure FAA Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge Chap 10 12 - 21% Oxygen - 1% other gases (argon,...

  18. atmospheric pressure glow: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Utilization Websites Summary: Aircraft Performance: Atmospheric Pressure FAA Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge Chap 10 12 - 21% Oxygen - 1% other gases (argon,...

  19. atmospheric pressure photoionisation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Utilization Websites Summary: Aircraft Performance: Atmospheric Pressure FAA Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge Chap 10 12 - 21% Oxygen - 1% other gases (argon,...

  20. atmospheric pressure microdischarge: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Utilization Websites Summary: Aircraft Performance: Atmospheric Pressure FAA Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge Chap 10 12 - 21% Oxygen - 1% other gases (argon,...

  1. atmospheric pressure cell: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Utilization Websites Summary: Aircraft Performance: Atmospheric Pressure FAA Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge Chap 10 12 - 21% Oxygen - 1% other gases (argon,...

  2. atmospheric pressure maldi: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Utilization Websites Summary: Aircraft Performance: Atmospheric Pressure FAA Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge Chap 10 12 - 21% Oxygen - 1% other gases (argon,...

  3. atmospheric gas annual: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Geosciences Websites Summary: -solid waste for CO2 mitigation and reduction of greenhouse effect gases into the atmosphere. ? 2008 ElsevierCarbonation of alkaline paper mill...

  4. atmospheric gas analyzer: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Geosciences Websites Summary: -solid waste for CO2 mitigation and reduction of greenhouse effect gases into the atmosphere. ? 2008 ElsevierCarbonation of alkaline paper mill...

  5. atmospheric emissions produced: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Geosciences Websites Summary: -solid waste for CO2 mitigation and reduction of greenhouse effect gases into the atmosphere. ? 2008 ElsevierCarbonation of alkaline paper mill...

  6. atmospheric tritium gas: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Geosciences Websites Summary: -solid waste for CO2 mitigation and reduction of greenhouse effect gases into the atmosphere. ? 2008 ElsevierCarbonation of alkaline paper mill...

  7. Chapter 46. Ultracold Quantum Gases Ultracold Quantum Gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of strongly interacting Fermi gases is important for the modeling of neutron stars. Cold atomic gases allow potential of the gas. Away from resonance another length scale comes into play, the scattering length a

  8. Global Simulations of Ice nucleation and Ice Supersaturation with an Improved Cloud Scheme in the Community Atmosphere Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gettelman, A.; Liu, Xiaohong; Ghan, Steven J.; Morrison, H.; Park, Sungsu; Conley, Andrew; Klein, Stephen A.; Boyle, James; Mitchell, David; Li, J-L F.

    2010-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A process-based treatment of ice supersaturation and ice-nucleation is implemented in the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Atmosphere Model (CAM). The new scheme is designed to allow (1) supersaturation with respect to ice, (2) ice nucleation by aerosol particles and (3) ice cloud cover consistent with ice microphysics. The scheme is implemented with a 4-class 2 moment microphysics code and is used to evaluate ice cloud nucleation mechanisms and supersaturation in CAM. The new model is able to reproduce field observations of ice mass and mixed phase cloud occurrence better than previous versions of the model. Simulations indicate heterogeneous freezing and contact nucleation on dust are both potentially important over remote areas of the Arctic. Cloud forcing and hence climate is sensitive to different formulations of the ice microphysics. Arctic radiative fluxes are sensitive to the parameterization of ice clouds. These results indicate that ice clouds are potentially an important part of understanding cloud forcing and potential cloud feedbacks, particularly in the Arctic.

  9. Emissions Of Greenhouse Gases From Rice Agriculture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Aslam K. Khalil

    2009-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This project produced detailed data on the processes that affect methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice agriculture and their inter-relationships. It defines the shifting roles and potential future of these gases in causing global warming and the benefits and tradeoffs of reducing emissions. The major results include: 1). Mechanisms and Processes Leading to Methane Emissions are Delineated. Our experiments have tested the standard model of methane emissions from rice fields and found new results on the processes that control the flux. A mathematical mass balance model was used to unravel the production, oxidation and transport of methane from rice. The results suggested that when large amounts of organic matter are applied, the additional flux that is observed is due to both greater production and reduced oxidation of methane. 2). Methane Emissions From China Have Been Decreasing Over the Last Two Decades. We have calculated that methane emissions from rice fields have been falling in recent decades. This decrease is particularly large in China. While some of this is due to reduced area of rice agriculture, the bigger effect is from the reduction in the emission factor which is the annual amount of methane emitted per hectare of rice. The two most important changes that cause this decreasing emission from China are the reduced use of organic amendments which have been replaced by commercial nitrogen fertilizers, and the increased practice of intermittent flooding as greater demands are placed on water resources. 3). Global Methane Emissions Have Been Constant For More Than 20 Years. While the concentrations of methane in the atmosphere have been leveling off in recent years, our studies show that this is caused by a near constant total global source of methane for the last 20 years or more. This is probably because as some anthropogenic sources have increased, others, such as the rice agriculture source, have fallen. Changes in natural emissions appear small. 4). Nitrous Oxide Emissions From Rice Fields Increase as Methane Emissions Drop. Inundated conditions favor anaerobic methane production with high emission rates and de-nitrification resulting in modest nitrous oxide emissions. Under drier conditions such as intermittent flooding, methane emissions fall and nitrous oxide emissions increase. Increased nitrogen fertilizer use increases nitrous oxide emissions and is usually accompanied by reduced organic matter applications which decreases methane emissions. These mechanisms cause a generally inverse relationship between methane and nitrous oxide emissions. Reduction of methane from rice agriculture to control global warming comes with tradeoffs with increased nitrous oxide emissions. 5). High Spatial Resolution Maps of Emissions Produced. Maps of methane and nitrous oxide emissions at a resolution of 5 min × 5 min have been produced based on the composite results of this research. These maps are necessary for both scientific and policy uses.

  10. Benchmark experiments with global climate models applicable to extra-solar gas giant planets in the shallow atmosphere approximation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bending, V L; Kolb, U

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The growing field of exoplanetary atmospheric modelling has seen little work on standardised benchmark tests for its models, limiting understanding of the dependence of results on specific models and conditions. With spatially resolved observations as yet difficult to obtain, such a test is invaluable. Although an intercomparison test for models of tidally locked gas giant planets has previously been suggested and carried out, the data provided were limited in terms of comparability. Here, the shallow PUMA model is subjected to such a test, and detailed statistics produced to facilitate comparison, with both time means and the associated standard deviations displayed, removing the time dependence and providing a measure of the variability. Model runs have been analysed to determine the variability between resolutions, and the effect of resolution on the energy spectra studied. Superrotation is a robust and reproducible feature at all resolutions.

  11. How are greenhouse gases related to agriculture? Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide occur

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    levels are causing Earth's average global temperature to rise. Consequently, we experience changes States. How will climate change affect Michigan field crop agriculture? Global warming is likely to bring naturally in the atmosphere and keep the Earth warm, allowing us to survive on Earth. Over the last 200

  12. Global projections for anthropogenic reactive nitrogen emissions to the atmosphere: an assessment of scenarios in the scientific literature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Vuuren, Detlef; Bouwman, Lex; Smith, Steven J.; Dentener, Frank

    2011-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Most long-term scenarios of global N emissions are produced by Integrated Assessment Models in the context of climate change assessment. The scenarios indicate that N emissions are likely to increase in the next decades, followed by a stabilization or decline. Critical factors for future N emissions are the development of the underlying drivers (especially fertilizer use, animal husbandry, transport and power generation), air pollution control policy and climate policy. The new scenarios made for climate change assessment, the Representative Concentration Pathways - RCPs, are not representative of the range of possible N-emission projections. A more focused development of scenarios for air pollution may improve the relevance and quality of the scenarios.

  13. Thermodynamics of sustaining gases in the roughness of submerged superhydrophobic surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neelesh A. Patankar

    2015-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Rough surfaces submerged in a liquid can remain almost dry if the liquid does not fully wet the roughness and gases are sustained in roughness grooves. Such partially dry surfaces can help reduce drag or enhance boiling. Gases sustained in roughness grooves would be composed of air and the vapor phase of the liquid itself. The thermodynamics of sustaining vapor was considered in a prior work [Patankar, Soft Matter, 2010, 6:1613]. Here, the thermodynamics of sustaining gases (e.g. air) is considered. Governing equations are presented along with a solution methodology to determine a critical condition to sustain gases. The critical roughness scale to sustain gases is estimated for different degrees of saturation of gases dissolved in the liquid. It is shown that roughness spacings of less than a micron are essential to sustain gases on surfaces submerged in water at atmospheric pressure. This is consistent with prior empirical data.

  14. atmospheric nitrogen dioxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Introduction Greenhouse gas emissions have been identified as the major source of global warming. Among the greenhouse gases emitted1 Clathrate hydrate equilibrium data for...

  15. Institutionalizing Unsustainability: The Paradox of Global Climate Governance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevenson, Hayley

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    results in 4° C global warming, sea level rise, specieslevels of greenhouse gases are responsible for incremental global warming.levels as that of the developing countries, the world would not today have faced the threat of global warming.

  16. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the sixth annual report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases. It covers emissions over the period 1990--1996, with preliminary estimates of emissions for 1997. Chapter one summarizes some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect. Important recent developments in global climate change activities are discussed, especially the third Conference of the Parties to the Framework Convention on Climate Change, which was held in December of 1997 in Kyoto, Japan. Chapters two through five cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons and related gases, respectively. Chapter six describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes. Six appendices are included in the report. 96 refs., 38 tabs.

  17. Method for introduction of gases into microspheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hendricks, Charles D. (Livermore, CA); Koo, Jackson C. (San Ramon, CA); Rosencwaig, Allan (Danville, CA)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing small hollow glass spheres filled with a gas by introduction of the gas during formation of the hollow glass spheres. Hollow glass microspheres having a diameter up to about 500.mu. with both thin walls (0.5 to 4.mu.) and thick walls (5 to 20.mu.) that contain various fill gases, such as Ar, Kr, Xe, Br, DT, H.sub.2, D.sub.2, He, N.sub.2, Ne, CO.sub.2, etc. in the interior thereof, can be produced by the diffusion of the fill gas or gases into the microsphere during the formation thereof from a liquid droplet of glass-forming solution. This is accomplished by filling at least a portion of the multiple-zone drop-furnace used in producing hollow microspheres with the gas or gases of interest, and then taking advantage of the high rate of gaseous diffusion of the fill gas through the wall of the gel membrane before it transforms into a glass microsphere as it is processed in the multiple-zone furnace. Almost any gas can be introduced into the inner cavity of a glass microsphere by this method during the formation of the microsphere provided that the gas is diffused into the gel membrane or microsphere prior to its transformation into glass. The process of this invention provides a significant savings of time and related expense of filling glass microspheres with various gases. For example, the time for filling a glass microballoon with 1 atmosphere of DT is reduced from about two hours to a few seconds.

  18. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Annual Report 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LR Roeder

    2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Importance of Clouds and Radiation for Climate Change: The Earth’s surface temperature is determined by the balance between incoming solar radiation and thermal (or infrared) radiation emitted by the Earth back to space. Changes in atmospheric composition, including greenhouse gases, clouds, and aerosols, can alter this balance and produce significant climate change. Global climate models (GCMs) are the primary tool for quantifying future climate change; however, there remain significant uncertainties in the GCM treatment of clouds, aerosol, and their effects on the Earth’s energy balance. In 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science created the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program to address scientific uncertainties related to global climate change, with a specific focus on the crucial role of clouds and their influence on the transfer of radiation in the atmosphere. To reduce these scientific uncertainties, the ARM Program uses a unique twopronged approach: • The ARM Climate Research Facility, a scientific user facility for obtaining long-term measurements of radiative fluxes, cloud and aerosol properties, and related atmospheric characteristics in diverse climate regimes; and • The ARM Science Program, focused on the analysis of ACRF and other data to address climate science issues associated with clouds, aerosols, and radiation, and to improve GCMs. This report provides an overview of each of these components and a sample of achievements for each in fiscal year (FY) 2008.

  19. Control of pollutants in flue gases and fuel gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 2.2 Flue gases and fuel gases: combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, incineration and other and gasification technologies for heat and power . . . . . . . . 2-3 2.4 Waste incineration and waste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3 3.3 Formation of sulphur compounds during combustion and gasification . 3-5 3.4 Emission

  20. Carbonaceous adsorbent regeneration and halocarbon displacement by hydrocarbon gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Senum, G.I.; Dietz, R.N.

    1994-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention describes a process for regeneration of halocarbon bearing carbonaceous adsorbents through which a carbonaceous adsorbent is contacted with hydrocarbon gases, preferably propane, butane and pentane at near room temperatures and at atmospheric pressure. As the hydrocarbon gases come in contact with the adsorbent, the hydrocarbons displace the halocarbons by physical adsorption. As a result of using this process, the halocarbon concentration and the hydrocarbon eluant is increased thereby allowing for an easier recovery of pure halocarbons. By using the process of this invention, carbonaceous adsorbents can be regenerated by an inexpensive process which also allows for subsequent re-use of the recovered halocarbons. 8 figures.

  1. Carbonaceous adsorbent regeneration and halocarbon displacement by hydrocarbon gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Senum, Gunnar I. (Patchogue, NY); Dietz, Russell N. (Patchogue, NY)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention describes a process for regeneration of halocarbon bearing carbonaceous adsorbents through which a carbonaceous adsorbent is contacted with hydrocarbon gases, preferably propane, butane and pentane at near room temperatures and at atmospheric pressure. As the hydrocarbon gases come in contact with the adsorbent, the hydrocarbons displace the halocarbons by physical adsorption. As a result of using this process, the halocarbon concentration and the hydrocarbon eluant is increased thereby allowing for an easier recovery of pure halocarbons. By using the process of this invention, carbonaceous adsorbents can be regenerated by an inexpensive process which also allows for subsequent re-use of the recovered halocarbons.

  2. Quantifying emissions of greenhouse gases from South Asia through a targeted measurement campaign

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ganesan, Anita Lakshmi

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methane (CH 4 ), nitrous oxide (N20) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) are powerful greenhouse gases with global budgets that are well-known but regional distributions that are not adequately constrained for the purposes of ...

  3. Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program was suspended May 2011. It was a mechanism by which corporations, government agencies, individuals, voluntary organizations, etc., could report to the Energy Information Administration, any actions taken that have or are expected to reduce/avoid emissions of greenhouse gases or sequester carbon.

  4. Method for removing acid gases from a gaseous stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gorin, Everett (San Rafael, CA); Zielke, Clyde W. (McMurray, PA)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a process for hydrocracking a heavy aromatic polynuclear carbonaceous feedstock containing reactive alkaline constituents to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels boiling below about 475.degree. C. at atmospheric pressure by contacting the feedstock with hydrogen in the presence of a molten metal halide catalyst, thereafter separating a gaseous stream containing hydrogen, at least a portion of the hydrocarbon fuels and acid gases from the molten metal halide and regenerating the molten metal halide, thereby producing a purified molten metal halide stream for recycle to the hydrocracking zone, an improvement comprising; contacting the gaseous acid gas, hydrogen and hydrocarbon fuels-containing stream with the feedstock containing reactive alkaline constituents to remove acid gases from the acid gas containing stream. Optionally at least a portion of the hydrocarbon fuels are separated from gaseous stream containing hydrogen, hydrocarbon fuels and acid gases prior to contacting the gaseous stream with the feedstock.

  5. Welcome to Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology: Editorial

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldenburg, C.M.; Maroto-Valer, M.M.

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This editorial introduces readers and contributors to a new online journal. Through the publication of articles ranging from peer-reviewed research papers and short communications, to editorials and interviews on greenhouse gas emissions science and technology, this journal will disseminate research results and information that address the global crisis of anthropogenic climate change. The scope of the journal includes the full spectrum of research areas from capture and separation of greenhouse gases from flue gases and ambient air, to beneficial utilization, and to sequestration in deep geologic formations and terrestrial (plant and soil) systems, as well as policy and technoeconomic analyses of these approaches.

  6. atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Utilization Websites Summary: Aircraft Performance: Atmospheric Pressure FAA Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge Chap 10 12 - 21% Oxygen - 1% other gases (argon,...

  7. International conference on the role of the polar regions in global change: Proceedings. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weller, G.; Wilson, C.L.; Severin, B.A.B. [eds.

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The International Conference on the Role of the Polar Regions in Global Change took place on the campus of the University of Alaska Fairbanks on June 11--15, 1990. The goal of the conference was to define and summarize the state of knowledge on the role of the polar regions in global change, and to identify gaps in knowledge. To this purpose experts in a wide variety of relevant disciplines were invited to present papers and hold panel discussions. While there are numerous conferences on global change, this conference dealt specifically with the polar regions which occupy key positions in the global system. These two volumes of conference proceedings include papers on (1) detection and monitoring of change; (2) climate variability and climate forcing; (3) ocean, sea ice, and atmosphere interactions and processes; and (4) effects on biota and biological feedbacks; (5) ice sheet, glacier and permafrost responses and feedbacks, (6) paleoenvironmental studies; and, (7) aerosol and trace gases.

  8. International conference on the role of the polar regions in global change: Proceedings. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weller, G.; Wilson, C.L.; Severin, B.A.B. [eds.

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The International Conference on the Role of the Polar Regions in Global Change took place on the campus of the University of Alaska Fairbanks on June 11--15, 1990. The goal of the conference was to define and summarize the state of knowledge on the role of the polar regions in global change, and to identify gaps in knowledge. To this purpose experts in a wide variety of relevant disciplines were invited to present papers and hold panel discussions. While there are numerous conferences on global change, this conference dealt specifically with polar regions which occupy key positions in the global system. These two volumes of conference proceedings include papers on (1) detection and monitoring of change; (2) climate variability and climate forcing; (3) ocean, sea ice, and atmosphere interactions and processes; (4) effects on biota and biological feedbacks; (5) ice sheet, glacier and permafrost responses and feedbacks; (6) paleoenvironmental studies; and, (7) aerosols and trace gases.

  9. Decontamination of combustion gases in fluidized bed incinerators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leon, Albert M. (Mamaroneck, NY)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sulfur-containing atmospheric pollutants are effectively removed from exit gas streams produced in a fluidized bed combustion system by providing a fluidized bed of particulate material, i.e. limestone and/or dolomite wherein a concentration gradient is maintained in the vertical direction. Countercurrent contacting between upwardly directed sulfur containing combustion gases and descending sorbent particulate material creates a concentration gradient across the vertical extent of the bed characterized in progressively decreasing concentration of sulfur, sulfur dioxide and like contaminants upwardly and decreasing concentration of e.g. calcium oxide, downwardly. In this manner, gases having progressively decreasing sulfur contents contact correspondingly atmospheres having progressively increasing concentrations of calcium oxide thus assuring optimum sulfur removal.

  10. Improved correlations for retrograde gases 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crogh, Arne

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three correlations for retrograde gases have been developed. First, a correlation was developed that relates the composition of a retrograde gas-condensate mixture at any depletion stage to the composition at its dew point ...

  11. Guidance Document CompressedGases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    electricity. Oxygen by itself does not burn, but it will support or accelerate combustion of flammable the regulator is completely closed. 3. When possible use flammable and reactive gases in a fume hood. Certain

  12. Feasibility of reconstructing paleoatmospheric records of selected alkanes, methyl halides, and sulfur gases from Greenland ice cores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saltzman, Eric

    , and sulfur gases from Greenland ice cores M. Aydin,1 M. B. Williams,1 and E. S. Saltzman1 Received 7-lived atmospheric trace gases were measured in 25 ice core samples from Summit, Greenland. Samples were selected. The CH3Br results are consistent with previous observations of ``excess'' CH3Br in Greenland firn air

  13. TRENDS 1991: A compendium of data on global change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boden, T.A.; Sepanski, R.J.; Stoss, F.W. (eds.)

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is a source of frequently used global-change data. This second issue of the Trends series expands the coverage of sites recording atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and methane (CH{sub 4}), and it updates records reported in the first issue. New data for other trace atmospheric gases have been included in this issue; historical data on nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}) from ice cores, modern records of atmospheric concentrations of chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-11 and CFC-12) and N{sub 2}O, and estimates of global estimates of CFC-11 and CFC-12. The estimates for global and national CO{sub 2} emissions from the burning of fossil fuels, the production of cement, and gas flaring have been revised and updated. Regional CO{sub 2} emission estimates have been added, and long-term temperature records have been updated and expanded. Data records are presented in four- to six-page formats, each dealing with a specific site, region, or emissions species. The data records include tables and graphs; discussion of methods for collecting, measuring, and reporting the data; trends in the data; and references to literature that provides further information. All data appearing in the document are available on digital media from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center.

  14. Visualizing Storms from NCAR's Atmosphere Model at NERSC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmosphere Model Visualizing Storms from NCAR's Atmosphere Model CCSM-sprabhat.png Global warming will likely change the statistics of tropical cyclones and hurricanes. In this...

  15. On detecting biospheres from thermodynamic disequilibrium in planetary atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krissansen-Totton, Joshua; Catling, David C

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric chemical disequilibrium has been proposed as a method for detecting extraterrestrial biospheres from exoplanet observations. Chemical disequilibrium is potentially a generalized biosignature since it makes no assumptions about particular biogenic gases or metabolisms. Here, we present the first rigorous calculations of the thermodynamic chemical disequilibrium in the atmospheres of Solar System planets, in which we quantify the difference in Gibbs free energy of an observed atmosphere compared to that of all the atmospheric gases reacted to equilibrium. The purely gas phase disequilibrium in Earth's atmosphere, as measured by this available Gibbs free energy, is not unusual by Solar System standards and smaller than that of Mars. However, Earth's atmosphere is in contact with a surface ocean, which means that gases can react with water, and so a multiphase calculation that includes aqueous species is required. We find that the disequilibrium in Earth's atmosphere-ocean system (in joules per mole o...

  16. Global climatic change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houghton, R.A.; Woodwell, G.M.

    1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reviews the climatic effects of trace gases such as carbon dioxide and methane. It discusses the expected changes from the increases in trace gases and the extent to which the expected changes can be found in the climate record and in the retreat of glaciers. The use of ice cores in correlating atmospheric composition and climate is discussed. The response of terrestrial ecosystems as a biotic feedback is discussed. Possible responses are discussed, including reduction in fossil-fuel use, controls on deforestation, and reforestation. International aspects, such as the implications for developing nations, are addressed.

  17. Global and Regional Solutions Directorate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Homes, Christopher C.

    at Pacific NW National Lab (PNNL) ­ Founding Director Joint Global Change Research Institute (PNNL/UMd) ­ ALD (PNNL) ­ Environmental and Health Sciences Directorate; Emerging Technologies ­ Chief Scientist ­ Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program ­ Director ­ PNNL Global Studies Program ­ Other (PNNL): Center

  18. Comparing the effects of greenhouse gas emissions on global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eckaus, Richard S.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Policies dealing with global warming require a measure of the effects of the emissions of greenhouse gases that create different magnitudes of instantaneous radiative forcing and have different lifetimes. The Global Warming ...

  19. Global Carbon Budget from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Global Carbon Project (GCP) was established in 2001 in recognition of the scientific challenge and critical importance of the carbon cycle for Earth's sustainability. The growing realization that anthropogenic climate change is a reality has focused the attention of the scientific community, policymakers and the general public on the rising concentration of greenhouse gases, especially carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere, and on the carbon cycle in general. Initial attempts, through the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and its Kyoto Protocol, are underway to slow the rate of increase of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. These societal actions require a scientific understanding of the carbon cycle, and are placing increasing demands on the international science community to establish a common, mutually agreed knowledge base to support policy debate and action. The Global Carbon Project is responding to this challenge through a shared partnership between the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP), the International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change (IHDP), the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) and Diversitas. This partnership constitutes the Earth Systems Science Partnership (ESSP). This CDIAC collection includes datasets, images, videos, presentations, and archived data from previous years.

  20. Atmospheric optical calibration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hulstrom, Roland L. (Bloomfield, CO); Cannon, Theodore W. (Golden, CO)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio, and precipitable water vapor determined on a real-time basis for optical and pressure measurements are also used to generate a computer spectral model and for correcting actual performance response of a photovoltaic device to standard atmospheric optical condition response on a real-time basis as the device is being tested in actual outdoor conditions.

  1. Atmospheric optical calibration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hulstrom, R.L.; Cannon, T.W.

    1988-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio, and precipitable water vapor determined on a real-time basis for optical and pressure measurements are also used to generate a computer spectral model and for correcting actual performance response of a photovoltaic device to standard atmospheric optical condition response on a real-time basis as the device is being tested in actual outdoor conditions. 7 figs.

  2. atmospheric pb emissions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere such as CO2, CH4, N2O and CFCs. The CO2 emissions Montes-Hernandez, German 19 Measurement of the Cross Section for...

  3. Computer modeling of the global warming effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Washington, W.M. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The state of knowledge of global warming will be presented and two aspects examined: observational evidence and a review of the state of computer modeling of climate change due to anthropogenic increases in greenhouse gases. Observational evidence, indeed, shows global warming, but it is difficult to prove that the changes are unequivocally due to the greenhouse-gas effect. Although observational measurements of global warming are subject to ``correction,`` researchers are showing consistent patterns in their interpretation of the data. Since the 1960s, climate scientists have been making their computer models of the climate system more realistic. Models started as atmospheric models and, through the addition of oceans, surface hydrology, and sea-ice components, they then became climate-system models. Because of computer limitations and the limited understanding of the degree of interaction of the various components, present models require substantial simplification. Nevertheless, in their present state of development climate models can reproduce most of the observed large-scale features of the real system, such as wind, temperature, precipitation, ocean current, and sea-ice distribution. The use of supercomputers to advance the spatial resolution and realism of earth-system models will also be discussed.

  4. atmospheric gases final: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    it back down to the Earth. This phenomenon, called the greenhouse. Without the greenhouse effect, the Earth's average surface temperature would be about 60 Fahrenheit 13 The...

  5. atmospheric trace gases: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    it back down to the Earth. This phenomenon, called the greenhouse. Without the greenhouse effect, the Earth's average surface temperature would be about 60 Fahrenheit 29...

  6. A Biomass-based Model to Estimate the Plausibility of Exoplanet Biosignature Gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seager, S; Hu, R

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biosignature gas detection is one of the ultimate future goals for exoplanet atmosphere studies. We have created a framework for linking biosignature gas detectability to biomass estimates, including atmospheric photochemistry and biological thermodynamics. The new framework is intended to liberate predictive atmosphere models from requiring fixed, Earth-like biosignature gas source fluxes. New biosignature gases can be considered with a check that the biomass estimate is physically plausible. We have validated the models on terrestrial production of NO, H2S, CH4, CH3Cl, and DMS. We have applied the models to propose NH3 as a biosignature gas on a "cold Haber World," a planet with a N2-H2 atmosphere, and to demonstrate why gases such as CH3Cl must have too large of a biomass to be a plausible biosignature gas on planets with Earth or early-Earth-like atmospheres orbiting a Sun-like star. To construct the biomass models, we developed a functional classification of biosignature gases, and found that gases (such...

  7. Atmospheric histories and global emissions of the anthropogenic hydrofluorocarbons HFC-365mfc, HFC-245fa, HFC-227ea, and HFC-236fa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rigby, Matthew

    We report on ground-based atmospheric measurements and emission estimates of the four anthropogenic hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) HFC-365mfc (CH[subscript 3]CF[subscript 2]CH[subscript 2]CF[subscript 3], 1,1,1,3,3-pentafluorobutane), ...

  8. The extreme nonlinear optics of gases and femtosecond optical filamentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milchberg, H. M.; Chen, Y.-H.; Cheng, Y.-H.; Jhajj, N.; Palastro, J. P.; Rosenthal, E. W.; Varma, S.; Wahlstrand, J. K.; Zahedpour, S. [Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Under certain conditions, powerful ultrashort laser pulses can form greatly extended, propagating filaments of concentrated high intensity in gases, leaving behind a very long trail of plasma. Such filaments can be much longer than the longitudinal scale over which a laser beam typically diverges by diffraction, with possible applications ranging from laser-guided electrical discharges to high power laser propagation in the atmosphere. Understanding in detail the microscopic processes leading to filamentation requires ultrafast measurements of the strong field nonlinear response of gas phase atoms and molecules, including absolute measurements of nonlinear laser-induced polarization and high field ionization. Such measurements enable the assessment of filamentation models and make possible the design of experiments pursuing applications. In this paper, we review filamentation in gases and some applications, and discuss results from diagnostics developed at Maryland for ultrafast measurements of laser-gas interactions.

  9. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) is required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to prepare a report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases for the period 1987--1990, with annual updates thereafter. This report is the fifth annual update, covering national emissions over the period 1989--1995, with preliminary estimates of emissions for 1996. The estimates contained in this report have been revised from those in last year`s report. Emissions estimates for carbon dioxide are reported in metric tons of carbon; estimates for other gases are reported in metric tons of gas. Chapter 1 of this report briefly recapitulates some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect and discusses important recent developments in global climate change activities. Chapter 2 through 6 cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons, and criteria pollutants, respectively. Chapter 7 describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes. Five appendixes are included with this report. 216 refs., 11 figs., 38 tabs.

  10. A New Two-Moment Bulk Stratiform Cloud Microphysics Scheme in the Community Atmosphere Model, Version 3 (CAM3). Part II: Single-Column and Global Results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gettelman, Andrew

    on climate by modifying the cloud radiative properties, that is, indirect aerosol effects (Twomey 1977 as the hydrological cycle. Thus, clouds are critical in maintaining the global energy balance. For example change (Bony et al. 2006). The effects of aerosols on cloud particles may also have a significant impact

  11. Oxygen buffering of Kilauea volcanic gases and the oxygen fugacity of Kilauea basalt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerlach, T.M. (Geological Survey, Vancouver, WA (United States))

    1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Volcanic gases collected during episode 1 of the Puu Oo eruption along the east rift zone of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, have uniform C-O-H-S-Cl-F compositions that are sharply depleted in CO[sub 2]. The CO[sub 2]-poor gases are typical of Type II volcanic gases (GERLACH and GRAEBER, 1985) and were emitted from evolved magma stored for a prolonged period of time in the east rift zone after releasing CO[sub 2]-rich gases during an earlier period of temporary residence in the summit magma chamber. The samples are remarkably free of contamination by atmospheric gases and meteoric water. Thermodynamic evaluation of the analytical data shows that the episode 1 gases have equilibrium compositions appropriate for temperatures between 935 and 1032[degrees]C. Open- and closed-system equilibrium models of species distributions for the episode 1 gases show unequivocally that coexisting lavas buffered the gas oxygen fugacities during cooling. These models indicate that the F[sub o[sub 2

  12. The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature version 2.1 (MEGAN2.1): an extended and updated framework for modeling biogenic emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guenther, A. B.

    The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature version 2.1 (MEGAN2.1) is a modeling framework for estimating fluxes of biogenic compounds between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere using simple mechanistic ...

  13. Testing for the Possible Influence of Unknown Climate Forcings upon Global Temperature Increases from 1950-2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Bruce T.; Knight, Jeff R.; Ringer, Mark A.; Yoon, Jin-Ho; Cherchi, Annalisa

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Global-scale variations in the climate system over the last half of the twentieth century, including long-term increases in global-mean near-surface temperatures, are consistent with concurrent human-induced emissions of radiatively active gases and aerosols. However, such consistency does not preclude the possible influence of other forcing agents, including internal modes of climate variability or unaccounted for aerosol effects. To test whether other unknown forcing agents may have contributed to multidecadal increases in global-mean near-surface temperatures from 1950 to 2000, data pertaining to observed changes in global-scale sea surface temperatures and observed changes in radiatively active atmospheric constituents are incorporated into numerical global climate models. Results indicate that the radiative forcing needed to produce the observed long-term trends in sea surface temperatures—and global-mean near-surface temperatures—is provided predominantly by known changes in greenhouse gases and aerosols. Further, results indicate that less than 10% of the long-term historical increase in global-mean near-surface temperatures over the last half of the twentieth century could have been the result of internal climate variability. In addition, they indicate that less than 25%of the total radiative forcing needed to produce the observed long-term trend in global-mean near-surface temperatures could have been provided by changes in net radiative forcing from unknown sources (either positive or negative). These results, which are derived from simple energy balance requirements, emphasize the important role humans have played in modifying the global climate over the last half of the twentieth century.

  14. Summary Elevated concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide ([CO2]) and tropospheric ozone ([O3]) have the poten-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Summary Elevated concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide ([CO2]) and tropospheric ozone ([O3 gases (greenhouse gases) altered by human activities (IPCC 2007), only carbon dioxide (CO2 vegeta- tion properties affect local and regional climate, as well as how atmospheric forcing

  15. 2, 921942, 2002 Global ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 2, 921­942, 2002 Global ozone forecasting H. J. Eskes et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Geophysical Society 2002 Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions Global ozone forecasting based on ERS-2 July 2002 Correspondence to: H. J. Eskes (eskes@knmi.nl) 921 #12;ACPD 2, 921­942, 2002 Global ozone

  16. Impact of Geoengineering Schemes on the Global Hydrological Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bala, G; Duffy, P; Taylor, K

    2007-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The rapidly rising CO{sub 2} level in the atmosphere has led to proposals of climate stabilization via 'Geoengineering' schemes that would mitigate climate change by intentionally reducing the solar radiation incident on earth's surface. In this paper, we address the impact of these climate stabilization schemes on the global hydrological cycle, using equilibrium simulations from an atmospheric general circulation model coupled to a slab ocean model. We show that insolation reductions sufficient to offset global-scale temperature increases lead to a decrease in the intensity of the global hydrologic cycle. This occurs because solar forcing is more effective in driving changes in global mean evaporation than is CO{sub 2} forcing of a similar magnitude. In the model used here, the hydrologic sensitivity, defined as the percentage change in global mean precipitation per degree warming, is 2.4% for solar forcing, but only 1.5% for CO{sub 2} forcing. Although other models and the climate system itself may differ quantitatively from this result, the conclusion can be understood based on simple considerations of the surface energy budget and thus is likely to be robust. Compared to changing temperature by altering greenhouse gas concentrations, changing temperature by varying insolation results in larger changes in net radiative fluxes at the surface; these are compensated by larger changes in latent and sensible heat fluxes. Hence the hydrological cycle is more sensitive to temperature adjustment via changes in insolation than changes in greenhouse gases. This implies that an alteration in solar forcing might offset temperature changes or hydrological changes from greenhouse warming, but could not cancel both at once.

  17. SUBTASK 7.2 GLOBAL WARMING AND GREEHOUSE GASES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaroslav Solc; Kurt Eylands; Jaroslav Solc Jr.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Evaluation of current climatic trends and reconstruction of paleoclimatic conditions for Devils Lake have been conducted based on diatom-inferred salinity for the last 2000 years. The 3-year cross-disciplinary research, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) was carried out by the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) and St. Croix Watershed Research Station (SCWRS) at the Science Museum of Minnesota. The results indicate that frequent climatic fluctuations resulting in alternating periods of drought and wet conditions are typical for the northern Great Plains and suggest that the severity and length of extremes exceeded those on modern record. Devils Lake has experienced five fresh periods and two minor freshening periods in the last 2000 years. Transitions between fresh and saline periods have been relatively fast, representing lake level changes that have been similar to those observed in the last 150 years. From 0 to 1070 A.D., Devils Lake showed more variable behavior, with fresh phases centered at 200, 500, 700, and 1000 A.D. From 1070 A.D. to present, Devils Lake was generally saline, experiencing two minor freshening periods at 1305-1315 and 1800-1820 A.D and the major current freshening from 1960 A.D. to present.

  18. Constraining the Influence of Natural Variability to Improve Estimates of Global Aerosol Indirect Effects in a Nudged Version of the Community Atmosphere Model 5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kooperman, G. J.; Pritchard, M. S.; Ghan, Steven J.; Wang, Minghuai; Somerville, Richard C.; Russell, Lynn

    2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural modes of variability on many timescales influence aerosol particle distributions and cloud properties such that isolating statistically significant differences in cloud radiative forcing due to anthropogenic aerosol perturbations (indirect effects) typically requires integrating over long simulations. For state-of-the-art global climate models (GCM), especially those in which embedded cloud-resolving models replace conventional statistical parameterizations (i.e. multi-scale modeling framework, MMF), the required long integrations can be prohibitively expensive. Here an alternative approach is explored, which implements Newtonian relaxation (nudging) to constrain simulations with both pre-industrial and present-day aerosol emissions toward identical meteorological conditions, thus reducing differences in natural variability and dampening feedback responses in order to isolate radiative forcing. Ten-year GCM simulations with nudging provide a more stable estimate of the global-annual mean aerosol indirect radiative forcing than do conventional free-running simulations. The estimates have mean values and 95% confidence intervals of -1.54 ± 0.02 W/m2 and -1.63 ± 0.17 W/m2 for nudged and free-running simulations, respectively. Nudging also substantially increases the fraction of the world’s area in which a statistically significant aerosol indirect effect can be detected (68% and 25% of the Earth's surface for nudged and free-running simulations, respectively). One-year MMF simulations with and without nudging provide global-annual mean aerosol indirect radiative forcing estimates of -0.80 W/m2 and -0.56 W/m2, respectively. The one-year nudged results compare well with previous estimates from three-year free-running simulations (-0.77 W/m2), which showed the aerosol-cloud relationship to be in better agreement with observations and high-resolution models than in the results obtained with conventional parameterizations.

  19. Industrial Gases as a Vehicle for Competitiveness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dale, J. R.

    -based separation technology was developing to offer an alternative to cryogenic separation for those instances when neither high purity or cryogenic properties were required by the application. It resulted in gas of lower than 99.9995%, "five-nines", purity...INDUSTRIAL GASES AS A VEHICLE FOR COMPETITIVENESS James R. Dale, Director, Technology Programs, Airco Industrial Gases Division, The BOC Group, Inc., Murray Hill, New Jersey ABSTRACT Industrial gases are produced using compressed air...

  20. Sandia National Laboratories: Global Climate & Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rates of Second Key Atmospheric Component On May 1, 2013, in Analysis, Capabilities, Climate, CRF, Energy, Facilities, Global Climate & Energy, Modeling & Analysis, News, News &...

  1. Kinetics programs for simulation of tropospheric photochemistry on the global scale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, S.; Kao, C.Y.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (US); Turco, R.P.; Zhao, X.P. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (US). Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The study of tropospheric kinetics underlies global change because key greenhouse gases are photochemically active. Modeling of tropospheric chemistry on a global scale is essential because some indirect greenhouse gases are short-lived and interact in a non-linear fashion. It is also extremely challenging, however; the global change grid is extensive in both the physical and temporal domains, and critical lower atmospheric species include the organics and their oxidized derivatives, which are numerous. Several types of optimization may be incorporated into kinetics modules to enhance their ability to simulate the complete lower atmospheric gas phase chemical system. (1) The photochemical integrator can be accelerated by avoiding matrix and iterative solutions and by establishing families. Accuracy and mass conservation are sacrificed in the absence of iteration, but atom balancing is restorable post hoc. (2) Chemistry can be arranged upon the massive grid to exploit parallel processing, and solutions to its continuity equations can be automated to permit experimentation with species and reaction lists or family definitions. Costs in programming effort will be incurred in these cases. (3) Complex hydrocarbon decay sequences can be streamlined either through structural lumping methods descended from smog investigations, which require considerable calibration, or by defining surrogates for classes of compounds, with a loss in constituent detail. From among the available options, the most advantageous permutations will vary with the specific nature of any eventual global scale study, and there is likely to be demand for many approaches. Tracer transport codes serve as a foundation upon which tropospheric chemistry packages will be tested. Encroachment of the NO{sub x} sphere of influence upon tropical rain forests and the upper free troposphere are two examples of specific problems to which full three-dimensional chemical simulations might be applied.

  2. Particle entanglement in rotating gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu Zhao; Fan Heng [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we investigate the particle entanglement in two-dimensional (2D) weakly interacting rotating Bose and Fermi gases. We find that both particle localization and vortex localization can be indicated by particle entanglement. We also use particle entanglement to show the occurrence of edge reconstruction of rotating fermions. The different properties of condensate phase and vortex liquid phase of bosons can be reflected by particle entanglement and in vortex liquid phase we construct the same trial wave function with that in [Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 120405 (2001)] from the viewpoint of entanglement to relate the ground state with quantum Hall state. Finally, the relation between particle entanglement and interaction strength is studied.

  3. Granular gases under extreme driving

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. Kang; J. Machta; E. Ben-Naim

    2010-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We study inelastic gases in two dimensions using event-driven molecular dynamics simulations. Our focus is the nature of the stationary state attained by rare injection of large amounts of energy to balance the dissipation due to collisions. We find that under such extreme driving, with the injection rate much smaller than the collision rate, the velocity distribution has a power-law high energy tail. The numerically measured exponent characterizing this tail is in excellent agreement with predictions of kinetic theory over a wide range of system parameters. We conclude that driving by rare but powerful energy injection leads to a well-mixed gas and constitutes an alternative mechanism for agitating granular matter. In this distinct nonequilibrium steady-state, energy cascades from large to small scales. Our simulations also show that when the injection rate is comparable with the collision rate, the velocity distribution has a stretched exponential tail.

  4. REMOVAL PROCESSES OF VOLCANIC ASH PARTICLES FROM THE ATMOSPHERE Gregg J.S. Bluth and William I. Rose, Michigan Technological University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bluth, Gregg

    . Rose, Michigan Technological University INTRODUCTION The use of satellite techniques provides valuable and liquids) -the atmosphere (water/ice, dust, sea salt, gases) -products from volcano-atmosphere reactions with coating of water or ice; parti

  5. Global Statistics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crow, Ben D

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1996). Globalization in Question: International Economy andGlobalization; Justice; Poverty; Underground Economy; United

  6. Infrared absorption spectra, radiative efficiencies, and global warming potentials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Infrared absorption spectra, radiative efficiencies, and global warming potentials absorption spectra, radiative efficiencies, and global warming potentials of perfluorocarbons: Comparison. (1995) and combined with atmospheric lifetimes from the literature to determine global warming

  7. Carbonation of alkaline paper mill waste to reduce CO2 greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montes-Hernandez, German

    Carbonation of alkaline paper mill waste to reduce CO2 greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere of anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere such as CO2, CH4, N2O and CFCs. The CO2 emissions to reflect, adsorb and emit the solar energy. However, the continuous emissions of CO2 into the atmosphere

  8. Ris Energy Report 5 Global drivers for transformation of energy systems 3 Global drivers for transformation of energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of greenhouse gases has brought a new political rationale for the development of more climate-friendly energy in the global energy market of rapidly-expanding national economies, notably China and India. TogetherRisř Energy Report 5 Global drivers for transformation of energy systems 3 Global drivers

  9. Atmospheric Neutrinos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas K. Gaisser

    2006-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is a brief overview of the theory and experimental data of atmospheric neutrino production at the fiftieth anniversary of the experimental discovery of neutrinos.

  10. Dynamics of a geothermal field traced by noble gases: Cerro Prieto, Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazor, E. (Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot, Israel); Truesdell, A.H.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Noble gases have been measured mass spectrometrically in samples collected during 1977 from producing wells at Cerro Prieto. Positive correlations between concentrations of radiogenic (He, /sup 40/Ar) and atmospheric noble gases (Ne, Ar, and Kr) suggest the following dynamic model: the geothermal fluids originated from meteoric water penetrated to more than 2500 m depth (below the level of first boiling) and mixed with radiogenic helium and argon-40 formed in the aquifer rocks. Subsequently, small amounts of steam were lost by a Raleigh process (0 to 3%) and mixing with shallow cold water occurred (0 to 30%). Noble gases are sensitive tracers of boiling in the initial stages of 0 to 3% steam separation and complement other tracers, such as Cl or temperature, which are effective only beyond this range.

  11. ARM Carbon Cycle Gases Flasks at SGP Site

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Biraud, Sebastien

    Data from flasks are sampled at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program ARM, Southern Great Plains Site and analyzed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NOAA, Earth System Research Laboratory ESRL. The SGP site is included in the NOAA Cooperative Global Air Sampling Network. The surface samples are collected from a 60 m tower at the ARM SGP Central Facility, usually once per week in the afternoon. The aircraft samples are collected approximately weekly from a chartered aircraft, and the collection flight path is centered over the tower where the surface samples are collected. The samples are collected by the ARM and LBNL Carbon Project.

  12. ARM Carbon Cycle Gases Flasks at SGP Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biraud, Sebastien

    2013-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Data from flasks are sampled at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program ARM, Southern Great Plains Site and analyzed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NOAA, Earth System Research Laboratory ESRL. The SGP site is included in the NOAA Cooperative Global Air Sampling Network. The surface samples are collected from a 60 m tower at the ARM SGP Central Facility, usually once per week in the afternoon. The aircraft samples are collected approximately weekly from a chartered aircraft, and the collection flight path is centered over the tower where the surface samples are collected. The samples are collected by the ARM and LBNL Carbon Project.

  13. Trends and inferred emissions of atmospheric high molecular weight perfluorocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ivy, Diane Jean

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric observations and atmospheric observation-based global emission estimates are presented for the five high molecular weight perfluorocarbons (PFCs): decafluorobutane (C 4 F 1 0 ), dodecafluoropentane (C5 F1 2 ), ...

  14. An Infrared Spectral Database for Detection of Gases Emitted...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Database for Detection of Gases Emitted by Biomass Burning. An Infrared Spectral Database for Detection of Gases Emitted by Biomass Burning. Abstract: We report the construction of...

  15. Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gases | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gases Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gases Mission The team establishes an energy conservation program, as deemed appropriate for LM operations...

  16. Light Collection in Liquid Noble Gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKinsey, Dan [Yale University

    2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid noble gases are increasingly used as active detector materials in particle and nuclear physics. Applications include calorimeters and neutrino oscillation experiments as well as searches for neutrinoless double beta decay, direct dark matter, muon electron conversion, and the neutron electric dipole moment. One of the great advantages of liquid noble gases is their copious production of ultraviolet scintillation light, which contains information about event energy and particle type. I will review the scintillation properties of the various liquid noble gases and the means used to collect their scintillation light, including recent advances in photomultiplier technology and wavelength shifters.

  17. Global Biogeochemistry Models and Global Carbon Cycle Research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Covey, C; Caldeira, K; Guilderson, T; Cameron-Smith, P; Govindasamy, B; Swanston, C; Wickett, M; Mirin, A; Bader, D

    2005-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The climate modeling community has long envisioned an evolution from physical climate models to ''earth system'' models that include the effects of biology and chemistry, particularly those processes related to the global carbon cycle. The widely reproduced Box 3, Figure 1 from the 2001 IPCC Scientific Assessment schematically describes that evolution. The community generally accepts the premise that understanding and predicting global and regional climate change requires the inclusion of carbon cycle processes in models to fully simulate the feedbacks between the climate system and the carbon cycle. Moreover, models will ultimately be employed to predict atmospheric concentrations of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases as a function of anthropogenic and natural processes, such as industrial emissions, terrestrial carbon fixation, sequestration, land use patterns, etc. Nevertheless, the development of coupled climate-carbon models with demonstrable quantitative skill will require a significant amount of effort and time to understand and validate their behavior at both the process level and as integrated systems. It is important to consider objectively whether the currently proposed strategies to develop and validate earth system models are optimal, or even sufficient, and whether alternative strategies should be pursued. Carbon-climate models are going to be complex, with the carbon cycle strongly interacting with many other components. Off-line process validation will be insufficient. As was found in coupled atmosphere-ocean GCMs, feedbacks between model components can amplify small errors and uncertainties in one process to produce large biases in the simulated climate. The persistent tropical western Pacific Ocean ''double ITCZ'' and upper troposphere ''cold pole'' problems are examples. Finding and fixing similar types of problems in coupled carbon-climate models especially will be difficult, given the lack of observations required for diagnosis and validation of biogeochemical processes.

  18. Atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLuckey, S.A.; Glish, G.L.

    1989-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    An atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source that can be used in combination with an analytical instrument which operates at high vacuum, such as a mass spectrometer. The atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source comprises a chamber with at least one pair of electrodes disposed therein, an inlet for a gaseous sample to be analyzed and an outlet communicating with an analyzer which operates at subatmospheric pressure. The ionization chamber is maintained at a pressure below atmospheric pressure, and a voltage difference is applied across the electrodes to induce a glow discharge between the electrodes, so that molecules passing through the inlet are ionized by the glow discharge and directed into the analyzer. The ionization source accepts the sample under atmospheric pressure conditions and processes it directly into the high vacuum instrument, bridging the pressure gap and drawing off unwanted atmospheric gases. The invention also includes a method for analyzing a gaseous sample using the glow discharge ionization source described above. 3 figs.

  19. 6, 48974927, 2006 A global emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    aerosol causes atmospheric warming through the direct aerosol effect, i.e. the trans- mission of absorbedACPD 6, 4897­4927, 2006 A global emission inventory of carbon aerosol for 1860­1997 C. Junker and C a Creative Commons License. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions A global emission inventory

  20. atmospheric aerosol characteristics: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Size Distribution Physics (arXiv) Summary: Atmospheric flows exhibit selfsimilar fractal spacetime fluctuations manifested as the fractal geometry to global cloud cover...

  1. atmospheric aerosol aggregates: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Size Distribution Physics (arXiv) Summary: Atmospheric flows exhibit selfsimilar fractal spacetime fluctuations manifested as the fractal geometry to global cloud cover...

  2. atmospheric aerosol processes: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Size Distribution Physics (arXiv) Summary: Atmospheric flows exhibit selfsimilar fractal spacetime fluctuations manifested as the fractal geometry to global cloud cover...

  3. atmospheric aerosol size: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Size Distribution Physics (arXiv) Summary: Atmospheric flows exhibit selfsimilar fractal spacetime fluctuations manifested as the fractal geometry to global cloud cover...

  4. affect atmospheric aerosols: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Size Distribution Physics (arXiv) Summary: Atmospheric flows exhibit selfsimilar fractal spacetime fluctuations manifested as the fractal geometry to global cloud cover...

  5. atmospheric aerosol characterisation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Size Distribution Physics (arXiv) Summary: Atmospheric flows exhibit selfsimilar fractal spacetime fluctuations manifested as the fractal geometry to global cloud cover...

  6. atmospheric aerosols apports: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Size Distribution Physics (arXiv) Summary: Atmospheric flows exhibit selfsimilar fractal spacetime fluctuations manifested as the fractal geometry to global cloud cover...

  7. aerosol atmospheric interactions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Size Distribution Physics (arXiv) Summary: Atmospheric flows exhibit selfsimilar fractal spacetime fluctuations manifested as the fractal geometry to global cloud cover...

  8. atmospheric aerosol samples: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Size Distribution Physics (arXiv) Summary: Atmospheric flows exhibit selfsimilar fractal spacetime fluctuations manifested as the fractal geometry to global cloud cover...

  9. atmospheric aerosol properties: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Size Distribution Physics (arXiv) Summary: Atmospheric flows exhibit selfsimilar fractal spacetime fluctuations manifested as the fractal geometry to global cloud cover...

  10. atmospheric aerosol optical: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Size Distribution Physics (arXiv) Summary: Atmospheric flows exhibit selfsimilar fractal spacetime fluctuations manifested as the fractal geometry to global cloud cover...

  11. atmospheric dispersion study: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Websites Summary: -resting global circulation of air masses is the unequal distribution of solar heat flux to the earth surface. In general, the atmospheric motion is...

  12. atmospheric composition change: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of this century (IPCC 2007). 12;Figure 1: The "greenhouse" effect When radiative energy becomes absorbedGlobal Atmospheric Change and Animal Populations By: Edward B. Mondor...

  13. atmospheric sulphur dioxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    carbon dioxide CERN Preprints Summary: The primary ingredient of Anthropogenic Global Warming hypothesis is the assumption that atmospheric carbon dioxide variations are the cause...

  14. atmospheric sulfur dioxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    carbon dioxide CERN Preprints Summary: The primary ingredient of Anthropogenic Global Warming hypothesis is the assumption that atmospheric carbon dioxide variations are the cause...

  15. Denitrification of combustion gases. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, R.T.

    1980-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for treating waste combustion gas to remove the nitrogen oxygen gases therefrom is disclosed wherein the waste gas is first contacted with calcium oxide which absorbs and chemically reacts with the nitrogen oxide gases therein at a temperature from about 100/sup 0/ to 430/sup 0/C. The thus reacted calcium oxide (now calcium nitrate) is then heated at a temperature range between about 430/sup 0/ and 900/sup 0/C, resulting in regeneration of the calcium oxide and production of the decomposition gas composed of nitrogen and nitrogen oxide gas. The decomposition gases can be recycled to the calcium oxide contacting step to minimize the amount of nitrogen oxide gases in the final product gas.

  16. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Voluntary Reporting Program for greenhouse gases is part of an attempt by the U.S. Government to develop innovative, low-cost, and nonregulatory approaches to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. It is one element in an array of such programs introduced in recent years as part of the effort being made by the United States to comply with its national commitment to stabilize emissions of greenhouse gases under the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions of greenhouse gases.

  17. Photochemistry in Terrestrial Exoplanet Atmospheres II: H2S and SO2 Photochemistry in Anoxic Atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Renyu; Bains, William

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sulfur gases are common components in the volcanic and biological emission on Earth, and are expected to be important input gases for atmospheres on terrestrial exoplanets. We study the atmospheric composition and the spectra of terrestrial exoplanets with sulfur compounds (i.e., H2S and SO2) emitted from their surfaces. We use a comprehensive one-dimensional photochemistry model and radiative transfer model to investigate the sulfur chemistry in atmospheres ranging from reducing to oxidizing. The most important finding is that both H2S and SO2 are chemically short-lived in virtually all types of atmospheres on terrestrial exoplanets, based on models of H2, N2, and CO2 atmospheres. This implies that direct detection of surface sulfur emission is unlikely, as their surface emission rates need to be extremely high (>1000 times Earth's volcanic sulfur emission) for these gases to build up to a detectable level. We also find that sulfur compounds emitted from the surface lead to photochemical formation of element...

  18. Biological production of products from waste gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, James L. (Fayetteville, AR)

    2002-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are designed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, and carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various products, such as organic acids, alcohols, hydrogen, single cell protein, and salts of organic acids by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified.

  19. Atmospheric science and power production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randerson, D. (ed.)

    1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the third in a series of scientific publications sponsored by the US Atomic Energy Commission and the two later organizations, the US Energy Research and Development Adminstration, and the US Department of Energy. The first book, Meteorology and Atomic Energy, was published in 1955; the second, in 1968. The present volume is designed to update and to expand upon many of the important concepts presented previously. However, the present edition draws heavily on recent contributions made by atmospheric science to the analysis of air quality and on results originating from research conducted and completed in the 1970s. Special emphasis is placed on how atmospheric science can contribute to solving problems relating to the fate of combustion products released into the atmosphere. The framework of this book is built around the concept of air-quality modeling. Fundamentals are addressed first to equip the reader with basic background information and to focus on available meteorological instrumentation and to emphasize the importance of data management procedures. Atmospheric physics and field experiments are described in detail to provide an overview of atmospheric boundary layer processes, of how air flows around obstacles, and of the mechanism of plume rise. Atmospheric chemistry and removal processes are also detailed to provide fundamental knowledge on how gases and particulate matter can be transformed while in the atmosphere and how they can be removed from the atmosphere. The book closes with a review of how air-quality models are being applied to solve a wide variety of problems. Separate analytics have been prepared for each chapter.

  20. Global climate change and the mitigation challenge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank Princiotta [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division

    2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, especially carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), have led to increasing atmospheric concentrations, very likely the primary cause of the 0.8{sup o}C warming the Earth has experienced since the Industrial Revolution. With industrial activity and population expected to increase for the rest of the century, large increases in greenhouse gas emissions are projected, with substantial global additional warming predicted. This paper examines forces driving CO{sub 2} emissions, a concise sector-by-sector summary of mitigation options, and research and development (R&D) priorities. To constrain warming to below approximately 2.5{sup o}C in 2100, the recent annual 3% CO{sub 2} emission growth rate needs to transform rapidly to an annual decrease rate of from 1 to 3% for decades. Furthermore, the current generation of energy generation and end-use technologies are capable of achieving less than half of the emission reduction needed for such a major mitigation program. New technologies will have to be developed and deployed at a rapid rate, especially for the key power generation and transportation sectors. Current energy technology research, development, demonstration, and deployment (RDD&D) programs fall far short of what is required. 20 refs., 18 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. DISTRIBUTION OF CO{sub 2} IN SATURN'S ATMOSPHERE FROM CASSINI/CIRS INFRARED OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abbas, M. M.; LeClair, A. [NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Woodard, E.; Young, M.; Stanbro, M. [University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Flasar, F. M.; Achterberg, R. K.; Bjoraker, G.; Brasunas, J.; Jennings, D. E. [NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kunde, V. G., E-mail: Mian.M.Abbas@nasa.gov, E-mail: Andre.C.LeClair@nasa.gov, E-mail: eaw0009@uah.edu, E-mail: mcs0001@uah.edu, E-mail: youngmm@uah.edu, E-mail: f.m.flasar@nasa.gov, E-mail: virgil.g.kunde@gsfc.nasa.gov [University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Collaboration: and the Cassini/CIRS team

    2013-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper focuses on the CO{sub 2} distribution in Saturn's atmosphere based on analysis of infrared spectral observations of Saturn made by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer aboard the Cassini spacecraft. The Cassini spacecraft was launched in 1997 October, inserted in Saturn's orbit in 2004 July, and has been successfully making infrared observations of Saturn, its rings, Titan, and other icy satellites during well-planned orbital tours. The infrared observations, made with a dual Fourier transform spectrometer in both nadir- and limb-viewing modes, cover spectral regions of 10-1400 cm{sup –1}, with the option of variable apodized spectral resolutions from 0.53 to 15 cm{sup –1}. An analysis of the observed spectra with well-developed radiative transfer models and spectral inversion techniques has the potential to provide knowledge of Saturn's thermal structure and composition with global distributions of a series of gases. In this paper, we present an analysis of a large observational data set for retrieval of Saturn's CO{sub 2} distribution utilizing spectral features of CO{sub 2} in the Q-branch of the ?{sub 2} band, and discuss its possible relationship to the influx of interstellar dust grains. With limited spectral regions available for analysis, due to low densities of CO{sub 2} and interference from other gases, the retrieved CO{sub 2} profile is obtained as a function of a model photochemical profile, with the retrieved values at atmospheric pressures in the region of ?1-10 mbar levels. The retrieved CO{sub 2} profile is found to be in good agreement with the model profile based on Infrared Space Observatory measurements with mixing ratios of ?4.9 × 10{sup –10} at atmospheric pressures of ?1 mbar.

  2. CLIMATICALLY-ACTIVE GASES IN THE EASTERN BOUNDARY UPWELLING AND OXYGEN MINIMUM ZONE (OMZ) SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garbe, Christoph S.

    -atmosphere CO2 fluxes is between 20 and 30%, and could be much higher in the EBUS-OMZ. Off Peru, very few in global ocean-atmosphere CO2 fluxes is between 20 and 30%, and could be much higher in the EBUS-OMZ. Off (VCD) can be extracted from satellite spectrometers. The accuracy of these VCDs need to be highly

  3. Predicting and mitigating the global warming potential of agro-ecosystems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Predicting and mitigating the global warming potential of agro-ecosystems S. Lehugera 1 , B and methane are the main biogenic greenhouse gases (GHG) con-2 tributing to the global warming potential (GWP to design productive16 agro-ecosystems with low global warming impact.17 Keywords18 Global warming potential

  4. Joint CO2 and CH4 accountability for global warming Kirk R. Smitha,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silver, Whendee

    the causes of global warming, because the amount of global warming occurring at any time is ac- tually dueJoint CO2 and CH4 accountability for global warming Kirk R. Smitha,1,2 , Manish A. Desaia,1 for global warming is its current annual emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs)*. The second most common

  5. Energy and global warming impacts of HFC refrigerants and emerging technologies: TEWI-III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sand, J.R.; Fischer, S.K.; Baxter, V.D.

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of hydrofluorocarbons (BFCs) which were developed as alternative refrigerants and insulating foam blowing agents to replace chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) is now being affected by scientific investigations of greenhouse warming and questions about the effects of refrigerants and blowing agents on global warming. A Total Equivalent Warming Impact (TEWI) assessment analyzes the environmental affects of these halogenated working fluids in energy consuming applications by combining a direct effect resulting from the inadvertent release of HFCs to the atmosphere with an indirect effect resulting from the combustion of fossil fuels needed to provide the energy to operate equipment using these compounds as working fluids. TEWI is a more balanced measure of environmental impact because it is not based solely on the global warming potential (GWP) of the working fluid. It also shows the environmental benefit of efficient technologies that result in less CO{sub 2} generation and eventual emission to the earth`s atmosphere. The goal of TEWI is to assess total global warming impact of all the gases released to the atmosphere, including CO{sub 2} emissions from energy conversion. Alternative chemicals and technologies have been proposed as substitutes for HFCs in the vapor-compression cycle for refrigeration and air conditioning and for polymer foams in appliance and building insulations which claim substantial environmental benefits. Among these alternatives are: (1) Hydrocarbon (HC) refrigerants and blowing agents which have zero ozone depleting potential and a negligible global warming potential, (2) CO{sub 2} as a refrigerant and blowing agent, (3) Ammonia (NH{sub 3}) vapor compression systems, (4) Absorption chiller and heat pumping cycles using ammonia/water or lithium bromide/water, and (5) Evacuated panel insulations. This paper summarizes major results and conclusions of the detailed final report on the TEWI-111 study.

  6. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the fourth Energy Information Administration (EIA) annual report on US emissions of greenhouse gases. This report presents estimates of US anthropogenic (human-caused) emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and several other greenhouse gases for 1988 through 1994. Estimates of 1995 carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and halocarbon emissions are also provided, although complete 1995 estimates for methane are not yet available. Emissions of carbon dioxide increased by 1.9% from 1993 to 1994 and by an additional 0.8% from 1994 to 1995. Most carbon dioxide emissions are caused by the burning of fossil fuels for energy consumption, which is strongly related to economic growth, energy prices, and weather. The US economy grew rapidly in 1994 and slowed in 1995. Estimated emissions of methane increased slightly in 1994, as a result of a rise in emissions from energy and agricultural sources. Estimated nitrous oxide emissions increased by 1.8% in 1995, primarily due to increased use of nitrogen fertilizers and higher output of chemicals linked to nitrous oxide emissions. Estimated emissions of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and perfluorocarbons (PFCs), which are known to contribute to global warming, increased by nearly 11% in 1995, primarily as a result of increasing substitution for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). With the exception of methane, the historical emissions estimates presented in this report are only slightly revised from those in last year`s report.

  7. HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY ENE-47.153 Greenhouse gases andGreenhouse gases and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    in gas turbinecombustion in gas turbine HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY ENE-47.153 Effect of COEffect-depleting gases ·· COCO22 removal for gas purificationremoval for gas purification ·· COCO22 removal for greenhouse gas emissions reductionremoval for greenhouse gas emissions reduction ·· Other greenhouse gases

  8. Global Atmospheric Change and Animal Populations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , and oil, produces both primary pollutants (those directly produced from fossil fuel combustion; e produced from fossil fuel combustion that undergo secondary chemical reactions to form pollutants; e Dioxide (CO2) A direct result of fossil fuel combustion, CO2 is arguably the most important greenhouse gas

  9. Climate Impacts of Atmospheric Sulfate and Black Carbon Aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qian, Yun; Song, Qingyuan; Menon, Surabi; Yu, Shaocai; Liu, Shaw C.; Shi, Guangyu; Leung, Lai R.; Luo, Yunfeng

    2008-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Although the global average surface temperature has increased by about 0.6°C during the last century (IPCC, 2001), some regions such as East Asia, Eastern North America, and Western Europe have cooled rather than warmed during the past decades (Jones, 1988; Qian and Giorgi, 2000). Coherent changes at the regional scale may reflect responses to different climate forcings that need to be understood in order to predict the future net climate response at the global and regional scales under different emission scenarios. Atmospheric aerosols play an important role in global climate change (IPCC 2001). They perturb the earth’s radiative budget directly by scattering and absorbing solar and long wave radiation, and indirectly by changing cloud reflectivity, lifetime, and precipitation efficiency via their role as cloud condensation nuclei. Because aerosols have much shorter lifetime (days to weeks) compared to most greenhouse gases, they tend to concentrate near their emission sources and distribute very unevenly both in time and space. This non-uniform distribution of aerosols, in conjunction with the greenhouse effect, may lead to differential net heating in some areas and net cooling in others (Penner et al. 1994). Sulfate aerosols come mainly from the oxidation of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emitted from fossil fuel burning. Black carbon aerosols are directly emitted during incomplete combustion of biomass, coal, and diesel derived sources. Due to the different optical properties, sulfate and black carbon affect climate in different ways. Because of the massive emissions of sulfur and black carbon that accompany the rapid economic expansions in East Asia, understanding the effects of aerosols on climate is particularly important scientifically and politically in order to develop adaptation and mitigation strategies.

  10. An advanced open-path atmospheric pollution monitor for large areas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, L.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Large amounts of toxic waste materials, generated in manufacturing fuel for nuclear reactors, are stored in tanks buried over large areas at DOE sites. Flammable and hazardous gases are continually generated by chemical reactions in the waste materials. To prevent explosive concentrations of these gases, the gases are automatically vented to the atmosphere when the pressure exceeds a preset value. Real-time monitoring of the atmosphere above the tanks with automatic alarming is needed to prevent exposing workers to unsafe conditions when venting occurs. This project is to design, develop, and test an atmospheric pollution monitor which can measure concentrations of DOE-specified and EPA-specified hazardous gases over ranges as long as 4km. A CO{sub 2} laser to measure absorption spectra and to determine the distance over which the measurements are made, is combined with an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) to measure thermal emission spectra.

  11. Integrating chemistry into 3D climate models: Detailed kinetics in the troposphere and stratosphere of a global climate model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kao, C.Y.J.; Elliott, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Earth and Environmental Sciences Div.; Turco, R.P.; Zhao, X. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The motivation for the project is to create the first complete, three-dimensional climate model that enfolds atmospheric photochemistry. The LANL chemical global climate model (GCM) not only distributes the trace greenhouse gases and modifies their concentrations within the detailed photochemical web, but also permits them to influence the radiation field and so force their own transport. Both atmospheric chemistry and fluid dynamics are nonlinear and zonally asymmetric phenomena. They can only be adequately modeled in three dimensions on the global grid. The kinetics-augmented GCM is the only program within the atmospheric community capable of investigating interaction involving chemistry and transport. The authors have conducted case studies of timely three-dimensional chemistry issues. Examples include ozone production from biomass burning plumes, kinetic feedbacks in zonally asymmetric transport phenomena with month- to year-long time scales, and volcano sulfate aerosols with respect to their potential effects on tropospheric ozone depletion.

  12. Stationary light in cold atomic gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gor Nikoghosyan; Michael Fleischhauer

    2009-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss stationary light created by a pair of counter-propagating control fields in Lambda-type atomic gases with electromagnetically induced transparency for the case of negligible Doppler broadening. In this case the secular approximation used in the discussion of stationary light in hot vapors is no longer valid. We discuss the quality of the effective light-trapping system and show that in contrast to previous claims it is finite even for vanishing ground-state dephasing. The dynamics of the photon loss is in general non exponential and can be faster or slower than in hot gases.

  13. Investigation of feasibility of injecting power plant waste gases for enhanced coalbed methane recovery from low rank coals in Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saugier, Luke Duncan

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) may be to blame for a gradual rise in the average global temperature. The state of Texas emits more CO2 than any other state in the U.S., and a large fraction of emissions are ...

  14. Globalization Nationalized

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mazlish, Bruce

    Globalism and globalization have been seen as competitors to other allegiances, namely regionalism and nationalism. A look at recent efforts at reconceptualizing global history in China, Korea and the U.S., however, suggests ...

  15. The dynamic response of high Arctic glaciers to global warming and their contribution to sea-level rise

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lam, J.K.W. [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom). Scott Polar Research Inst.; Dowdeswell, J.A. [Univ. of Wales (United Kingdom)

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Simulations with General Circulation Models have indicated that global warming will be enhanced at high latitudes. Regions in the high Arctic are highly sensitive to increased concentrations of greenhouse gases, with an amplified theoretical rise of 8--14 C predicted to take place in winter and a negligible rise of 2 C in summer. Wetter conditions in these regions are quite plausible with global warming due to warmer sea surface temperatures, melting of sea ice and a greater moisture holding capacity of the atmosphere. Recent observations show a marked increase in precipitation in the high Arctic regions during the past decades, particularly in the winters. The notion of whether the increased melting of snow due to global warming would be offset by increased snowfall is investigated in this study. To make reliable predictions of the response of high Arctic glaciers to global warming and hence their contribution to sea-level rise, a numerical model has been developed to investigate the interactions of the glaciers with climate change induced by global warming. The model is a one-dimensional numerical ice-flow model coupled with a surface balance model. Accumulation and ablation at the glacier surface are determined by the surface balance model using an energy balance approach.

  16. Laboratory Studies of Processing of Carbonaceous Aerosols by Atmospheric Oxidants/Hygroscopicity and CCN Activity of Secondary & Processed Primary Organic Aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziemann, P.J.; Arey, J.; Atkinson, R.; Kreidenweis, S.M.; Petters, M.D.

    2012-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The atmosphere is composed of a complex mixture of gases and suspended microscopic aerosol particles. The ability of these particles to take up water (hygroscopicity) and to act as nuclei for cloud droplet formation significantly impacts aerosol light scattering and absorption, and cloud formation, thereby influencing air quality, visibility, and climate in important ways. A substantial, yet poorly characterized component of the atmospheric aerosol is organic matter. Its major sources are direct emissions from combustion processes, which are referred to as primary organic aerosol (POA), or in situ processes in which volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are oxidized in the atmosphere to low volatility reaction products that subsequent condense to form particles that are referred to as secondary organic aerosol (SOA). POA and VOCs are emitted to the atmosphere from both anthropogenic and natural (biogenic) sources. The overall goal of this experimental research project was to conduct laboratory studies under simulated atmospheric conditions to investigate the effects of the chemical composition of organic aerosol particles on their hygroscopicity and cloud condensation nucleation (CCN) activity, in order to develop quantitative relationships that could be used to more accurately incorporate aerosol-cloud interactions into regional and global atmospheric models. More specifically, the project aimed to determine the products, mechanisms, and rates of chemical reactions involved in the processing of organic aerosol particles by atmospheric oxidants and to investigate the relationships between the chemical composition of organic particles (as represented by molecule sizes and the specific functional groups that are present) and the hygroscopicity and CCN activity of oxidized POA and SOA formed from the oxidation of the major classes of anthropogenic and biogenic VOCs that are emitted to the atmosphere, as well as model hydrocarbons. The general approach for this project was to carry out reactions of representative anthropogenic and biogenic VOCs and organic particles with ozone (O3), and hydroxyl (OH), nitrate (NO3), and chlorine (Cl) radicals, which are the major atmospheric oxidants, under simulated atmospheric conditions in large-volume environmental chambers. A combination of on-line and off-line analytical techniques were used to monitor the chemical and physical properties of the particles including their hygroscopicity and CCN activity. The results of the studies were used to (1) improve scientific understanding of the relationships between the chemical composition of organic particles and their hygroscopicity and CCN activity, (2) develop an improved molecular level theoretical framework for describing these relationships, and (3) establish a large database that is being used to develop parameterizations relating organic aerosol chemical properties and SOA sources to particle hygroscopicity and CCN activity for use in regional and global atmospheric air quality and climate models.

  17. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 3 Earth's Modern Atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Feifei

    contact with high energy solar radiation · Thermopause is at 480km · High temperature, but not "hot--composition, temperature, and function. · List and describe the components of the modern atmosphere, giving their relative%), and others (1%). · Variable Gases: Water Vapor (H2O) (0 to 4%), CO2 (0.038%). · 4Less: Odorless, Colorless

  18. Unstructured Adaptive Mesh MOL Solvers for Atmospheric Reacting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utah, University of

    . Achieving high resolution in air pollution models is a difficult challenge because of the large number for the next generation of air pollution models in order to "capture important smaller scale atmospheric in understanding the complex processes which lead to the formation of pollutants such as greenhouse gases, acid

  19. Optimal Eigenanalysis for the Treatment of Aerosols in the Retrieval of Atmospheric Composition from Transmission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Optimal Eigenanalysis for the Treatment of Aerosols in the Retrieval of Atmospheric Composition contributions of aerosols and gases to the total attenuation of radiation through the atmosphere has been a new scheme to account for the spectral variation of the aerosol extinction in the inversion of 1 #12

  20. Trends `91: A compendium of data on global change---highlights

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boden, T.A.; Sepanski, R.J.; Stoss, F.W. [eds.

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been prompted to produce the series Trends, a concise inventory of data in response to heightened concern about global environmental issues, in particular climate changes induced by the greenhouse effect. This report contains extracts from Trends `91 to illustrate the content, style, and presentation of data contained in the full 700-page report. This report includes a listing of the investigators contributing data for Trends `91. In addition, it contains the abstract, foreword, and acknowledgments, as well as the introduction and a sample data record from each of the reports`s five chapters. The chapters are ``Atmospheric CO{sub 2},`` ``Atmospheric CH{sub 4},`` ``Other Trace Gases,`` ``CO{sub 2} Emissions,`` and ``Temperature.`` Appendix A provides information about CDIAC and its activities related to global environmental issues. Appendix B lists the contents of the full report. An order form for obtaining a free copy of Trends `91 is found in Appendix C.

  1. Trends '91: A compendium of data on global change---highlights

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boden, T.A.; Sepanski, R.J.; Stoss, F.W. (eds.)

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been prompted to produce the series Trends, a concise inventory of data in response to heightened concern about global environmental issues, in particular climate changes induced by the greenhouse effect. This report contains extracts from Trends '91 to illustrate the content, style, and presentation of data contained in the full 700-page report. This report includes a listing of the investigators contributing data for Trends '91. In addition, it contains the abstract, foreword, and acknowledgments, as well as the introduction and a sample data record from each of the reports's five chapters. The chapters are Atmospheric CO[sub 2],'' Atmospheric CH[sub 4],'' Other Trace Gases,'' CO[sub 2] Emissions,'' and Temperature.'' Appendix A provides information about CDIAC and its activities related to global environmental issues. Appendix B lists the contents of the full report. An order form for obtaining a free copy of Trends '91 is found in Appendix C.

  2. ANNOUNCEMENT Project Atmospheric Brown Cloud (ABC) 2006 TRAINING SCHOOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Ronald C.

    composition, radiative effects and transport of atmospheric aerosols and related atmospheric pollutanANNOUNCEMENT Project Atmospheric Brown Cloud (ABC) 2006 TRAINING SCHOOL Project ABC Science consequences of the haze involve regional and global climate change, impacts on ecosystem, the water cycle

  3. Atmospheric Aerosols Workshop | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmospheric Aerosols Workshop Atmospheric Aerosols Workshop EMSL Science Theme Advisory Panel Workshop - Atmospheric Aerosol Chemistry, Climate Change, and Air Quality. Baer DR, BJ...

  4. Method for enhancing microbial utilization rates of gases using perfluorocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turick, Charles E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of enhancing the bacterial reduction of industrial gases using perfluorocarbons (PFCs) is disclosed. Because perfluorocarbons (PFCs) allow for a much greater solubility of gases than water does, PFCs have the potential to deliver gases in higher concentrations to microorganisms when used as an additive to microbial growth media thereby increasing the rate of the industrial gas conversion to economically viable chemicals and gases.

  5. Method for enhancing microbial utilization rates of gases using perfluorocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turick, C.E.

    1997-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of enhancing the bacterial reduction of industrial gases using perfluorocarbons (PFCs) is disclosed. Because perfluorocarbons (PFCs) allow for a much greater solubility of gases than water does, PFCs have the potential to deliver gases in higher concentrations to microorganisms when used as an additive to microbial growth media thereby increasing the rate of the industrial gas conversion to economically viable chemicals and gases. 3 figs.

  6. Atmospheric Aerosol Systems | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science Themes Atmospheric Aerosol Systems Overview Atmospheric Aerosol Systems Biosystem Dynamics & Design Energy Materials & Processes Terrestrial & Subsurface Ecosystems...

  7. New fluorescence techniques for detecting noble gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitaker, T.J.; Cannon, B.D.; Bushaw, B.A.

    1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two new concepts for detecting noble gases are reported. Both techniques involve formation of the long-lived 1s/sup 5/ metastable state of noble gases. The first technique utilizes the photon-burst method and should be capable of isotopically selective detection at extremely small relative abundances. The second concept incorporates a shelving technique that stores noble gas atoms in the metastable state and then pumps these atoms to a higher excited state that radiatively cascades to the ground state, emitting vacuum ultraviolet (vuv) photons. A significant advantage is that AlGaAs diode lasers can be used for the techniques rather than continuous wave cw dye lasers. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  8. Lesson Summary Students will use models of Earth's atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    to learn about the causes and effects of global warming, the better prepared we may be to deal of human actions. Global warming refers to the rise in temperatures at Earth's surface and lower atmosphere are contributing to global warming. The danger in this warming is that it could disrupt Earth's climate patterns

  9. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States, 1987--1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) is required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to prepare a report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases for the period 1987--1992, with annual updates thereafter. This is the third annual update report,covering national emissions over the period 1987--1993, with preliminary estimates of US carbon dioxide and halocarbon emissions for 1994. Calculating national aggregate emissions(or ``national inventories``) of greenhouse gases is a recently developed form of intellectual endeavor. Greenhouse gas emissions are rarely measured directly or reported to statistical agencies. Thus, to prepare emissions inventories usually requires inferring emissions indirectly from information collected for other purposes. Both the available information and the inferences drawn may be of varying reliability. Chapter 1 of this report briefly recapitulates some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect and discusses important recent developments in global climate change activities. Chapters 2 through 6 cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons, and criteria pollutants, respectively. Chapter 7 describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes.

  10. Methane emission by termites: Impacts on the self-cleansing mechanisms of the atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mugedo, J.Z.A. [Maseno Univ. College (Kenya)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Termites are reported to emit large quantities of methane, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen and dimethyl sulfide. The emission of other trace gases, namely C{sub 2} to C{sub 10} hydrocarbons, is also documented. We have carried out, both in the field and in the laboratory, measurements of methane emissions by Macrotermes subhyalinus (Macrotermitinae), Trinervitermes bettonianus (Termitinae), and unidentified Cubitermes and Microcerotermes species. Measured CH{sub 4} field flux rates ranged from 3.66 to 98.25g per m{sup 2} of termite mound per year. Laboratory measurements gave emission rates that ranged from 14.61 to 165.05 mg CH{sub 4} per termite per year. Gaseous production in all species sampled varied both within species and from species to species. Recalculated global emission of methane from termites was found to be 14.0 x 10{sup 12} g CH{sub 4}, per year. From our study, termites contribution to atmospheric methane content is between 1.11% and 4.25% per year. This study discusses the greenhouse effects as well as photochemical disposal of methane in the lower atmosphere in the tropics and the impacts on the chemistry of HO{sub x} systems and CL{sub x} cycles.

  11. Glass Membrane For Controlled Diffusion Of Gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shelby, James E. (Alfred Station, NY); Kenyon, Brian E. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2001-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A glass structure for controlled permeability of gases includes a glass vessel. The glass vessel has walls and a hollow center for receiving a gas. The glass vessel contains a metal oxide dopant formed with at least one metal selected from the group consisting of transition metals and rare earth metals for controlling diffusion of the gas through the walls of the glass vessel. The vessel releases the gas through its walls upon exposure to a radiation source.

  12. Scanning electron microscopy of cold gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santra, Bodhaditya

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultracold quantum gases offer unique possibilities to study interacting many-body quantum systems. Probing and manipulating such systems with ever increasing degree of control requires novel experimental techniques. Scanning electron microscopy is a high resolution technique which can be used for in situ imaging, single site addressing in optical lattices and precision density engineering. Here, we review recent advances and achievements obtained with this technique and discuss future perspectives.

  13. The Marginal Damage Costs of Different Greenhouse Gases: An Application of FUND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waldhoff, Stephanie T.; Anthoff, David; Rose, Steven K.; Tol, Richard

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We use FUND 3.8 to estimate the social cost of four greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and sulphur hexafluoride emissions. The damage potential for each gas—the ratio of the social cost of the non-carbon dioxide greenhouse gas to the social cost of carbon dioxide—is also estimated. The damage potentials are compared to several metrics, focusing in particular on the global warming potentials, which are frequently used to measure the trade-off between gases in the form of carbon dioxide equivalents. We find that damage potentials could be significantly higher than global warming potentials. This finding implies that previous papers have underestimated the relative importance of reducing non-carbon dioxide greenhouse gas emissions from an economic damage perspective. We show results for a range of sensitivity analyses: carbon dioxide fertilization on agriculture productivity, terrestrial feedbacks, climate sensitivity, discounting, equity weighting, and socioeconomic and emissions scenarios. The sensitivity of the results to carbon dioxide fertilization is a primary focus as it is an important element of climate change that has not been considered in much of the previous literature. We estimate that carbon dioxide fertilization has a large positive impact that reduces the social cost of carbon dioxide with a much smaller effect on the other greenhouse gases. As a result, our estimates of the damage potentials of methane and nitrous oxide are much higher compared to estimates that ignore carbon dioxide fertilization. As a result, our base estimates of the damage potential for methane and nitrous oxide that include carbon dioxide fertilization are twice their respective global warming potentials. Our base estimate of the damage potential of sulphur hexafluoride is similar to the one previous estimate, both almost three times the global warming potential.

  14. Development of a Scalable Global Discontinuous

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tufo III, Henry M.

    by building the model in the High Order Method Modeling Environment (HOMME) developed at the National Center, scalability, and the ability to handle complex geometries. However, a major disadvantage of SE atmosphericDevelopment of a Scalable Global Discontinuous Galerkin Atmospheric Model J.M. Dennis, R.D. Nair

  15. c

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaehne, Bernd

    been inadequate. Whether evaluating the global occurrence of trace gases in the atmosphere, or of wind-generat

  16. Pressurized release of liquefied fuel gases (LNG and LPG). Topical report, May 1993-February 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atallah, S.; Janardhan, A.

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is an important contribution to the behavior of pressurized liquefied gases when accidentally released into the atmosphere. LNG vehicle fueling stations and LPG storage facilities operate at elevated pressures. Accidental releases could result in rainout and the formation of an aerosol in the vapor cloud. These factors must be considered when estimating the extent of the hazard zone of the vapor cloud using a heavier-than-air gas dispersion model such as DEGADIS (or its Windows equivalent DEGATEC). The DOS program PREL has been incorporated in the Windows program LFGRISK.

  17. Mechanistic, sensitivity, and uncertainty studies of the atmospheric oxidation of dimethylsulfide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lucas, Donald David, 1969-

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The global-scale emissions and reactivity of dimethylsulfide (CH3SCH3, DMS) make it an integral component in the atmospheric sulfur cycle. DMS is rapidly oxidized in the atmosphere by a complex gas-phase mechanism involving ...

  18. Global energy and global precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    terms) Atmosphere Net top of atmosphere incoming flux (N) 1 W/m2 Net surface flux (Rs) 100 W/m2 Sensible fluxes must sum to zero. Thus: S+LP+N-Rs=0 So LP=Rs-N-S 80 W/m2 (convert to Kg/m2/day by scaling by ~ 0? Atmosphere Change in Net top of atmosphere incoming flux ( N) 4 W/m2 Change in Net surface flux ( Rs) 1 W/m2

  19. Purchase, Delivery, and Storage of Gases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)IntegratedSpeedingTechnicalPurchase, Delivery, and Storage of Gases Print ALS users

  20. INTRODUCTIONTOTHE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ? #12;WHAT ISTHE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE? #12;#12;1-D MODEL ATMOSPHERE · Averaged over space and time · GoodINTRODUCTIONTOTHE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE D. Shaun Bloomfield Trinity College Dublin #12;OUTLINE · What is the solar atmosphere? · How is the solar atmosphere observed? · What structures exist and how do they evolve

  1. advanced open-path atmospheric: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    interface Geosciences Websites Summary: is driven? 12;Global Climate Change: Greenhouse Effect How the atmosphere-ocean-land system is driven? 12;Greenhouse Effect How the...

  2. Method for controlling corrosion in thermal vapor injection gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sperry, John S. (Houston, TX); Krajicek, Richard W. (Houston, TX)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improvement in the method for producing high pressure thermal vapor streams from combustion gases for injection into subterranean oil producing formations to stimulate the production of viscous minerals is described. The improvement involves controlling corrosion in such thermal vapor gases by injecting water near the flame in the combustion zone and injecting ammonia into a vapor producing vessel to contact the combustion gases exiting the combustion chamber.

  3. The greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs Danish consumption and emissions, 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs and SF6 Danish consumption and emissions, 2007 Tomas Sander Poulsen AND EMISSION OF F-GASES 7 1.1.1 Consumption 7 1.1.2 Emission 7 1.1.3 Trends in total GWP contribution from F 21 4 EMISSION OF F-GASES 23 4.1.1 Emissions of HFCs from refrigerants 23 4.1.2 Emissions of HFCs from

  4. Theory of ultracold atomic Fermi gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giorgini, Stefano; Pitaevskii, Lev P.; Stringari, Sandro [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trento and CNR-INFM BEC Center, I-38050 Povo, Trento (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trento and CNR-INFM BEC Center, I-38050 Povo, Trento, Italy and Kapitza Institute for Physical Problems, ul. Kosygina 2, 117334 Moscow (Russian Federation); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trento and CNR-INFM BEC Center, I-38050 Povo, Trento (Italy)

    2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The physics of quantum degenerate atomic Fermi gases in uniform as well as in harmonically trapped configurations is reviewed from a theoretical perspective. Emphasis is given to the effect of interactions that play a crucial role, bringing the gas into a superfluid phase at low temperature. In these dilute systems, interactions are characterized by a single parameter, the s-wave scattering length, whose value can be tuned using an external magnetic field near a broad Feshbach resonance. The BCS limit of ordinary Fermi superfluidity, the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of dimers, and the unitary limit of large scattering length are important regimes exhibited by interacting Fermi gases. In particular, the BEC and the unitary regimes are characterized by a high value of the superfluid critical temperature, on the order of the Fermi temperature. Different physical properties are discussed, including the density profiles and the energy of the ground-state configurations, the momentum distribution, the fraction of condensed pairs, collective oscillations and pair-breaking effects, the expansion of the gas, the main thermodynamic properties, the behavior in the presence of optical lattices, and the signatures of superfluidity, such as the existence of quantized vortices, the quenching of the moment of inertia, and the consequences of spin polarization. Various theoretical approaches are considered, ranging from the mean-field description of the BCS-BEC crossover to nonperturbative methods based on quantum Monte Carlo techniques. A major goal of the review is to compare theoretical predictions with available experimental results.

  5. New Materials for Capturing Carbon Dioxide from Combustion Gases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to APS Science Highlights rss feed New Materials for Capturing Carbon Dioxide from Combustion Gases April 9, 2014 Bookmark and Share The SIFSIX materials in order of increasing...

  6. adjacente dos gases: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    nature Le Roy, Robert J. 437 Classical disordered ground states: Super-ideal gases and stealth and equi-luminous materials Chemistry Websites Summary: Classical disordered...

  7. Finalize Historic National Program to Reduce Greenhouse Gases...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Finalize Historic National Program to Reduce Greenhouse Gases and Improve Fuel Economy for Cars and Trucks Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Finalize...

  8. The origin of hydrothermal and other gases in the Kenya Rift Valley

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darling, W.G. [British Geological Survey, Wallingford (United Kingdom)] [British Geological Survey, Wallingford (United Kingdom); Griesshaber, E. [Max-Planck Institut fuer Chemie, Mainz (Germany)] [Max-Planck Institut fuer Chemie, Mainz (Germany); Andrews, J.N. [Univ. of Reading (United Kingdom)] [and others] [Univ. of Reading (United Kingdom); and others

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Kenya Rift Valley (KRV) is part of a major continental rift system from which much outgassing is presently occurring. Previous research on gases in the KRV has tended to concentrate on their geothermal implications; the present paper is an attempt to broaden the interpretation by consideration of new data including helium and carbon isotope analyses from a wide cross-section of sites. In order to do this, gases have been divided into categories dependent on origin. N{sub 2} and noble gases are for the most part atmospherically derived, although their relative concentrations may be altered from ASW ratios by various physical processes. Reduced carbon (CH{sub 4} and homologues) appears to be exclusively derived from the shallow crust, with thermogenic {delta}{sup 13}C values averaging -25{per_thousand} PDB for CH{sub 4}. H{sub 2} is likely also to be crustally formed. CO{sub 2}, generally a dominant constituent, has a narrow {delta}{sup 13}C range averaging -3.7{per_thousand} PDB, and is likely to be derived with little modification from the upper mantle. Consideration of the ratio C/{sup 3}He supports this view in most cases. Sulphur probably also originates there. Ratios of {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He reach a MORB-like maximum of 8.0 R/R{sub A} and provide the best indication of an upper mantle source of gases beneath the KRV. A correlation between {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He and the hydrocarbon parameter log (C{sub 1}/{Sigma}C{sub 2-4}) appears to be primarily temperature related. The highest {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios in spring waters are associated with basalts, perhaps because of the leaching of basalt glasses. There may be a structural control on {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios in the KRV as a whole.

  9. A study of the abundance and {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C ratio of atmospheric carbon dioxide and oceanic carbon in relation to the global carbon cycle. Final technical report, February 15, 1990--July 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keeling, C.D.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Knowledge can be gained about the fluxes and storage of carbon in natural systems and their relation to climate by detecting temporal and spatial patterns in atmospheric CO{sub 2}. When patterns in its {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C isotopic ratio are included in the analysis, there is also a basis for distinguishing organic and inorganic processes. The authors systematically measured the concentration and {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C ratio of atmospheric CO{sub 2} to produce time series data essential to reveal these temporal and spatial patterns. To pursue the significance of these patterns further, the result also involved measurements of inorganic carbon in sea water and of CO{sub 2} in air near growing land plants. The study was coordinated with a study of the same title concurrently funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF). The study called for continued atmospheric measurements at an array of ten stations from the Arctic Basin to the South Pole. Air was collected in flasks brought back to the laboratory for analysis, except at Mauna Loa. Observatory, Hawaii, where continuous measurements were also carried out.

  10. Study of the Martian upper atmosphere using radio tracking data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mazarico, Erwan Matías Alexandre, 1981-

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the first in situ observations of the Martian atmosphere were made by the twin Viking landers, we have learned considerably more about its composition, dynamics and variability. Not only did the new data on global ...

  11. Uncertainty in Greenhouse Emissions and Costs of Atmospheric Stabilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webster, Mort D.

    We explore the uncertainty in projections of emissions, and costs of atmospheric stabilization applying the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis model, a computable general equilibrium model of the global economy. ...

  12. 12.003 Physics of Atmospheres and Oceans, Fall 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marshall, John C.

    The laws of classical mechanics and thermodynamics are used to explore how the properties of fluids on a rotating Earth manifest themselves in, and help shape, the global patterns of atmospheric winds, ocean currents, and ...

  13. Contributions of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and the ARM Climate Research Facility to the U.S. Climate Change Science Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SA Edgerton; LR Roeder

    2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Earth’s surface temperature is determined by the balance between incoming solar radiation and thermal (or infrared) radiation emitted by the Earth back to space. Changes in atmospheric composition, including greenhouse gases, clouds, and aerosols can alter this balance and produce significant climate change. Global climate models (GCMs) are the primary tool for quantifying future climate change; however, there remain significant uncertainties in the GCM treatment of clouds, aerosol, and their effects on the Earth’s energy balance. The 2007 assessment (AR4) by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports a substantial range among GCMs in climate sensitivity to greenhouse gas emissions. The largest contributor to this range lies in how different models handle changes in the way clouds absorb or reflect radiative energy in a changing climate (Solomon et al. 2007). In 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science created the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program within the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) to address scientific uncertainties related to global climate change, with a specific focus on the crucial role of clouds and their influence on the transfer of radiation in the atmosphere. To address this problem, BER has adopted a unique two-pronged approach: * The ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF), a scientific user facility for obtaining long-term measurements of radiative fluxes, cloud and aerosol properties, and related atmospheric characteristics in diverse climate regimes. * The ARM Science Program, focused on the analysis of ACRF data to address climate science issues associated with clouds, aerosols, and radiation, and to improve GCMs. This report describes accomplishments of the BER ARM Program toward addressing the primary uncertainties related to climate change prediction as identified by the IPCC.

  14. Strategies to Address Global Warming Is Sundance Kid a Criminal?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    Strategies to Address Global Warming & Is Sundance Kid a Criminal? Jim Hansen In my opinion, it is still feasible to solve the global warming problem before we pass tipping points that would guarantee ppm yields global warming about 2°C (3.6°F) above the preindustrial level. Such a level of atmospheric

  15. Carbon Dioxide, Global Warming, and Michael Crichton's "State of Fear"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rust, Bert W.

    Carbon Dioxide, Global Warming, and Michael Crichton's "State of Fear" Bert W. Rust Mathematical- tioned the connection between global warming and increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide by pointing out of these plots to global warming have spilled over to the real world, inviting both praise [4, 17] and scorn [15

  16. Infrared absorption spectra, radiative efficiencies, and global warming potentials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Infrared absorption spectra, radiative efficiencies, and global warming potentials of newly.mdpi.com/journal/atmosphere Article Infrared Absorption Spectra, Radiative Efficiencies, and Global Warming Potentials of Newly of 600­1730 cm-1 . These spectra are then used to calculate the radiative efficiencies and global warming

  17. Global warming potentials and radiative efficiencies of halocarbons and related

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Global warming potentials and radiative efficiencies of halocarbons and related compounds 7A=E472C43AD.A0794E 0794E:CA27C725 AD383CADE64E7 #12;1 Global Warming Potentials and Radiative of REs and global39 warming potentials (GWPs) for these compounds, mostly employing atmospheric lifetimes

  18. Finite Temperature Gases of Fermionic Strings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shyamoli Chaudhuri

    2005-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that in the absence of a Ramond-Ramond sector both the type IIA and type IIB free string gases have a thermal instability due to low temperature tachyon modes. The gas of free IIA strings undergoes a thermal duality transition into a gas of free IIB strings at the self-dual temperature. The free heterotic string gas is a tachyon-free ensemble with gauge symmetry SO(16)$\\times$SO(16) in the presence of a timelike Wilson line background. It exhibits a holographic duality relation undergoing a self-dual phase transition with positive free energy and positive specific heat. The type IB open and closed string ensemble is related by thermal duality to the type I' string ensemble. We identify the order parameter for the Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition from a low temperature gas of short open strings to a high temperature long string phase at or below T_C. Note Added (Sep 2005).

  19. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program, required by Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, records the results of voluntary measures to reduce, avoid, or sequester greenhouse gas emissions. In 1998, 156 US companies and other organizations reported to the Energy information Administration that, during 1997, they had achieved greenhouse gas emission reductions and carbon sequestration equivalent to 166 million tons of carbon dioxide, or about 2.5% of total US emissions for the year. For the 1,229 emission reduction projects reported, reductions usually were measured by comparing an estimate of actual emissions with an estimate of what emissions would have been had the project not been implemented.

  20. Exploring the Deep... Ocean-Atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright, Dawn Jeannine

    Climate oscillations 97 #12;Storing energy To understand how solar radiation affects large-scale processes), and biosphere (living organisms) that are driven by solar energy. The ocean and the atmosphere have the greatest on the others. To fully understand the dynamics of our climate, we must examine the global energy balance

  1. Images reveal that atmospheric particles can undergo liquidliquid phase separations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Images reveal that atmospheric particles can undergo liquid­liquid phase separations Yuan Youa Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352; e aerosol particles contains both organic material and inorganic salts. As the relative humidity cycles

  2. Continuous cryopump with a method for removal of solidified gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, L.W.; Herman, H.

    1988-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved cryopump for the removal of gases from a high vacuum, comprising a cryopanel incorporating honeycomb structure, refrigerant means thermally connected to the cryopanel, and a rotatable channel moving azimuthally around an axis located near the center of the cryopanel, removing gases adsorbed within the honeycomb structure by subliming them and conducting them outside the vacuum vessel. 4 figs.

  3. AMIII Termodinamica dos Gases Ideais 17 de Janeiro de 2002

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Natário, José

    AMIII ­ Termodinâ??amica dos Gases Ideais 17 de Janeiro de 2002 N moles de um gâ??as ideal em equil dos gases ideais). A Primeira Lei da Termodinâ??amica afirma que existe uma funâ?şcâ?ťao E : M # R, dita pela Segunda Lei da Termodinâ??amica. 2 #12;

  4. Biological Removal of Siloxanes from Landfill and Digester Gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biological Removal of Siloxanes from Landfill and Digester Gases: Opportunities and Challenges S U) presents challenges for using landfill and digester gases as energy fuels because of the formation volatilize from waste at landfills and wastewater treatment plants (1). As a result, biogas produced

  5. Measurement of transient nonlinear refractive index in gases using xenon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milchberg, Howard

    Measurement of transient nonlinear refractive index in gases using xenon supercontinuum single measurement of ultrafast high field processes using modest energy lasers, with pump and probe pulses totaling) and instrument resolution. The ultrafast nonlinear Kerr effect in glass, and in Ar, N2, and N2O gases is measured

  6. Microsoft Word - GM Maryland Revised Sup-Pre-final-EA 9-6-2011...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Greenhouse gases (GHG) are components of the atmosphere that contribute to the greenhouse effect and global warming. Some GHG occur naturally in the atmosphere, while others...

  7. NCCC at the PSDF Draft EA 5-21-2014

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    components of the atmosphere that are generally considered as contributing to the greenhouse effect and global warming. Some greenhouse gases occur naturally in the atmosphere,...

  8. Global change: Acronyms and abbreviations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodard, C.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Stoss, F.W. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment and Resources Center

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This list of acronyms and abbreviations is compiled to provide the user with a ready reference to dicipher the linguistic initialisms and abridgements for the study of global change. The terms included in this first edition were selected from a wide variety of sources: technical reports, policy documents, global change program announcements, newsletters, and other periodicals. The disciplinary interests covered by this document include agriculture, atmospheric science, ecology, environmental science, oceanography, policy science, and other fields. In addition to its availability in hard copy, the list of acronyms and abbreviations is available in DOS-formatted diskettes and through CDIAC`s anonymous File Transfer Protocol (FTP) area on the Internet.

  9. Role of ammonia chemistry and coarse mode aerosols in global climatological inorganic aerosol distributions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luo, Chao; Zender, Charles S; Bian, Huisheng; Metzger, Swen

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    times of tropospheric aerosols inferred from a global three-sional simulation of 210Pb aerosols. Journal of Geophysicalof sulfate and nitrate aerosol. Atmospheric Environ- ment

  10. Measuring non-condensable gases in steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doornmalen, J. P. C. M. van; Kopinga, K., E-mail: k.kopinga@tue.nl [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In surgery, medical devices that are used should be sterilized. To obtain surface steam sterilization conditions, not only in the sterilizer chamber itself but also in the loads to be sterilized, the amount of non-condensable gases (NCGs), for instance air, should be very low. Even rather small fractions of NCGs (below 1 %) seriously hamper steam penetration in porous materials or devices with hollow channels (e.g., endoscopes). A recently developed instrument which might detect the presence of residual NCGs in a reliable and reproducible way is the 3M{sup TM} Electronic Test System (ETS). In this paper, a physical model is presented that describes the behavior of this instrument. This model has been validated by experiments in which known fractions of NCGs were introduced in a sterilizer chamber in which an ETS was placed. Despite several approximations made in the model, a good agreement is found between the model predictions and the experimental results. The basic principle of the ETS, measuring the heat transfer by condensation on a cooled surface, permits a very sensitive detection of NCGs in harsh environments like water vapor at high temperatures and pressures. Our model may serve to develop adapted and optimized versions of this instrument for use outside the field of sterilization, e.g., in heat exchangers based on steam condensation.

  11. Cryogenic method for measuring nuclides and fission gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perdue, P.T.; Haywood, F.F.

    1980-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A cryogenic method is provided for determining airborne gases and particulates from which gamma rays are emitted. A special dewar counting vessel is filled with the contents of the sampling flask which is immersed in liquid nitrogen. A vertically placed sodium-iodide or germanium-lithium gamma-ray detector is used. The device and method are of particular use in measuring and identifying the radioactive noble gases including emissions from coal-fired power plants, as well as fission gases released or escaping from nuclear power plants.

  12. Predicting tropospheric ozone and hydroxyl radical in a global, three-dimensional, chemistry, transport, and deposition model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atherton, C.S.

    1995-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Two of the most important chemically reactive tropospheric gases are ozone (O{sub 3}) and the hydroxyl radical (OH). Although ozone in the stratosphere is a necessary protector against the sun`s radiation, tropospheric ozone is actually a pollutant which damages materials and vegetation, acts as a respiratory irritant, and is a greenhouse gas. One of the two main sources of ozone in the troposphere is photochemical production. The photochemistry is initiated when hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide (CO) react with nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x} = NO + NO{sub 2}) in the presence of sunlight. Reaction with the hydroxyl radical, OH, is the main sink for many tropospheric gases. The hydroxyl radical is highly reactive and has a lifetime on the order of seconds. Its formation is initiated by the photolysis of tropospheric ozone. Tropospheric chemistry involves a complex, non-linear set of chemical reactions between atmospheric species that vary substantially in time and space. To model these and other species on a global scale requires the use of a global, three-dimensional chemistry, transport, and deposition (CTD) model. In this work, I developed two such three dimensional CTD models. The first model incorporated the chemistry necessary to model tropospheric ozone production from the reactions of nitrogen oxides with carbon monoxide (CO) and methane (CH{sub 4}). The second also included longer-lived alkane species and the biogenic hydrocarbon isoprene, which is emitted by growing plants and trees. The models` ability to predict a number of key variables (including the concentration of O{sub 3}, OH, and other species) were evaluated. Then, several scenarios were simulated to understand the change in the chemistry of the troposphere since preindustrial times and the role of anthropogenic NO{sub x} on present day conditions.

  13. Modeling the Exchanges of Energy, Water, and Carbon Between Continents and the Atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

    , for example, increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide. Until the early 1980s, global atmospheric generalModeling the Exchanges of Energy, Water, and Carbon Between Continents and the Atmosphere P. J varying data of land surface properties were assembled from ecological and geo- graphical surveys

  14. The second virial coefficient of the major atmospheric gases at low temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Claitor, Lilburn Carroll

    1948-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    were determined by Hoist and Hamburger (14). The measurement of second virial coeffi- cient was almost incidental to the1r experiments in deter- mination of dew points of these mixtures. Their data are presented in Tables X, XI, and XII... 0. 2741 0. 00261 3. 56 0. 00386 3. 70 0. 00511 3. 28 0. 00578 3. 34 Average TABLE XII NITROGEN-ARGON, VOLUMETRIC DATA OF HOLST AND HAMBURGER 75. 7 per cent Argon Pre s sure, mm. Hg PV, Relative Pr. Reduced Density RT ? PV T 90. 18o...

  15. Precise Measurement of the Absolute Yield of Fluorescence Photons in Atmospheric Gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ave, M.; /Karlsruhe, Inst. Technol.; Bohacova, M.; /Chicago U., EFI; Daumiller, K.; /Karlsruhe, Inst. Technol.; Di Carlo, P.; /INFN, Aquila; Di Giulio, C.; /INFN, Rome; Luis, P.Facal San; /Chicago U., EFI; Gonzales, D.; /Karlsruhe U., EKP; Hojvat, C.; /Fermilab; Horandel, J.R.; /Nijmegen U., IMAPP; Hrabovsky, M.; /Palacky U.; Iarlori, M.; /INFN, Aquila /Karlsruhe, Inst. Technol.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have performed a measurement of the absolute yield of fluorescence photons at the Fermilab Test Beam. A systematic uncertainty at 5% level was achieved by the use of Cherenkov radiation as a reference calibration light source. A cross-check was performed by an independent calibration using a laser light source. A significant improvement on the energy scale uncertainty of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays is expected.

  16. From source to sea: spatial and temporal fluxes of the greenhouse gases N2O, CO2 and CH4 in the river Tay catchment 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harley, James Fraser

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    River networks act as a link between components of the terrestrial landscape, such as soils and groundwater, with the atmosphere and oceans, and are now believed to contribute significantly to global budgets of carbon ...

  17. Atmospheric Transport of Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, T.V.

    2003-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of atmospheric transport and diffusion calculations is to provide estimates of concentration and surface deposition from routine and accidental releases of pollutants to the atmosphere. This paper discusses this topic.

  18. Viscosities of natural gases at high pressures and high temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viswanathan, Anup

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Estimation of viscosities of naturally occurring petroleum gases provides the information needed to accurately work out reservoir-engineering problems. Existing models for viscosity prediction are limited by data, especially at high pressures...

  19. Studying coherence in ultra-cold atomic gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Daniel E. (Daniel Edward)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis will discuss the study of coherence properties of ultra-cold atomic gases. The atomic systems investigated include a thermal cloud of atoms, a Bose-Einstein condensate and a fermion pair condensate. In each ...

  20. The Release of Trapped Gases from Amorphous Solid Water Films...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    I. Top-Down" Crystallization-Induced Crack Propagation Probed The Release of Trapped Gases from Amorphous Solid Water Films: I. Top-Down" Crystallization-Induced Crack Propagation...

  1. Low-Value Waste Gases as an Energy Source 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waibel, R. T.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Waste gases with potentially useful fuel value are generated at any number of points in refineries, chemical plants and other industrial and commercial sites. The higher quality streams have been utilized successfully in fuel systems for years...

  2. Method for monitoring stack gases for uranium activity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beverly, C.R.; Ernstberger, E.G.

    1985-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for monitoring the stack gases of a purge cascade of gaseous diffusion plant for uranium activity. A sample stream is taken from the stack gases and contacted with a volume of moisture-laden air for converting trace levels of uranium hexafluoride, if any, in the stack gases into particulate uranyl fluoride. A continuous strip of filter paper from a supply roll is passed through this sampling stream to intercept and gather any uranyl fluoride in the sampling stream. This filter paper is then passed by an alpha scintillation counting device where any radioactivity on the filter paper is sensed so as to provide a continuous monitoring of the gas stream for activity indicative of the uranium content in the stack gases. 1 fig.

  3. Helium Isotopes in Geothermal and Volcanic Gases of the Western...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Helium Isotopes in Geothermal and Volcanic Gases of the Western United States, II. Long...

  4. Helium Isotopes In Geothermal And Volcanic Gases Of The Western...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Helium Isotopes In Geothermal And Volcanic Gases Of The Western United States, I, Regional Variability And Magmatic Origin Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd...

  5. Geochemical Data on Waters, Gases, Scales, and Rocks from the...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Geochemical Data on Waters, Gases, Scales, and Rocks from the Dixie Valley Region, Nevada (1996-1999)...

  6. Low-Value Waste Gases as an Energy Source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waibel, R. T.

    Waste gases with potentially useful fuel value are generated at any number of points in refineries, chemical plants and other industrial and commercial sites. The higher quality streams have been utilized successfully in fuel systems for years...

  7. Radio-frequency spectroscopy of ultracold atomic Fermi gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schirotzek, Andre

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents experiments investigating the phase diagram of ultracold atomic Fermi gases using radio-frequency spectroscopy. The tunability of many experimental parameters including the temperature, the interparticle ...

  8. Method of producing pyrolysis gases from carbon-containing materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mudge, Lyle K. (Richland, WA); Brown, Michael D. (West Richland, WA); Wilcox, Wayne A. (Kennewick, WA); Baker, Eddie G. (Richland, WA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A gasification process of improved efficiency is disclosed. A dual bed reactor system is used in which carbon-containing feedstock materials are first treated in a gasification reactor to form pyrolysis gases. The pyrolysis gases are then directed into a catalytic reactor for the destruction of residual tars/oils in the gases. Temperatures are maintained within the catalytic reactor at a level sufficient to crack the tars/oils in the gases, while avoiding thermal breakdown of the catalysts. In order to minimize problems associated with the deposition of carbon-containing materials on the catalysts during cracking, a gaseous oxidizing agent preferably consisting of air, oxygen, steam, and/or mixtures thereof is introduced into the catalytic reactor at a high flow rate in a direction perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the reactor. This oxidizes any carbon deposits on the catalysts, which would normally cause catalyst deactivation.

  9. Method for monitoring stack gases for uranium activity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beverly, Claude R. (Paducah, KY); Ernstberger, Harold G. (Paducah, KY)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for monitoring the stack gases of a purge cascade of a gaseous diffusion plant for uranium activity. A sample stream is taken from the stack gases and contacted with a volume of moisture-laden air for converting trace levels of uranium hexafluoride, if any, in the stack gases into particulate uranyl fluoride. A continuous strip of filter paper from a supply roll is passed through this sampling stream to intercept and gather any uranyl fluoride in the sampling stream. This filter paper is then passed by an alpha scintillation counting device where any radioactivity on the filter paper is sensed so as to provide a continuous monitoring of the gas stream for activity indicative of the uranium content in the stack gases.

  10. active trace gases: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 94, NO. D13, PAGES 16,417-16,421,NOVEMBER 20, 1989 Greenhouse Effect of Chlorofluorocarbons and Other Trace Gases Environmental Sciences and Ecology...

  11. How atmospheric ice forms | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    atmospheric ice forms How atmospheric ice forms Released: September 08, 2014 New insights into atmospheric ice formation could improve climate models This study advances our...

  12. Atmospheric Pressure Reactor System | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmospheric Pressure Reactor System Atmospheric Pressure Reactor System The atmospheric pressure reactor system is designed for testing the efficiency of various catalysts for the...

  13. CO2 Concentration Global warming is a hot topic these days. One of the factors that may explain increases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carriquiry, Alicia

    CO2 Concentration Global warming is a hot topic these days. One of the factors that may explain increases in global temperatures is the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere. Is there a relationship between the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and global temperatures? Data Collection

  14. Process for the removal of acid forming gases from exhaust gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA); Liu, David K. (San Pablo, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Exhaust gases are treated to remove NO or NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2 by contacting the gases with an aqueous emulsion or suspension of yellow phosphorus preferably in a wet scrubber. The pressure is not critical, and ambient pressures are used. Hot water temperatures are best, but economics suggest about 50.degree. C. are attractive. The amount of yellow phosphorus used will vary with the composition of the exhaust gas, less than 3% for small concentrations of NO, and 10% or higher for concentrations above say 1000 ppm. Similarly, the pH will vary with the composition being treated, and it is adjusted with a suitable alkali. For mixtures of NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2, alkalis that are used for flue gas desulfurization are preferred. With this process, 100% of the by-products created are usable, and close to 100% of the NO or NO and SO.sub.2 can be removed in an economic fashion.

  15. Process for the removal of acid forming gases from exhaust gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, S.G.; Liu, D.K.

    1992-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Exhaust gases are treated to remove NO or NO[sub x] and SO[sub 2] by contacting the gases with an aqueous emulsion or suspension of yellow phosphorus preferably in a wet scrubber. The pressure is not critical, and ambient pressures are used. Hot water temperatures are best, but economics suggest about 50 C is attractive. The amount of yellow phosphorus used will vary with the composition of the exhaust gas, less than 3% for small concentrations of NO, and 10% or higher for concentrations above say 1000 ppm. Similarly, the pH will vary with the composition being treated, and it is adjusted with a suitable alkali. For mixtures of NO[sub x] and SO[sub 2], alkalis that are used for flue gas desulfurization are preferred. With this process, 100% of the by-products created are usable, and close to 100% of the NO or NO[sub x] and SO[sub 2] can be removed in an economic fashion. 9 figs.

  16. Chapter 4 The Gaseous State Chemistry of Gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ihee, Hyotcherl

    .15 V = V0[1+(t/273.15oC)] Kelvin T = 273.15 + t(Celsius) #12;Boyle's Law · The stirling engine, a heatChapter 4 The Gaseous State NO2 #12;AIR #12;Chemistry of Gases SO3 .. corrosive gas SO2...burning) ~1760 Charle The definition of the Temperature All gases expand with increasing temperature by the same

  17. Biological production of ethanol from waste gases with Clostridium ljungdahlii

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, James L. (Fayetteville, AR)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products is disclosed. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various product, such as organic acids, alcohols H.sub.2, SCP, and salts of organic acids by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified.

  18. Climate Sciences: Atmospheric Thermodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, Lynn

    1 Climate Sciences: Atmospheric Thermodynamics Instructor: Lynn Russell, NH343 http://aerosol.ucsd.edu/courses.html Text: Curry & Webster Atmospheric Thermodynamics Ch1 Composition Ch2 Laws Ch3 Transfers Ch12 Energy Climate Sciences: Atmospheric Thermodynamics Instructor: Lynn Russell, NH343 http

  19. Characterization of particles entrained in the effluent gases of an 18-inch AFBC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, R.J.; Childers, E.E.; Chidester, G.E.

    1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This experimental investigation was directed at measurements of the mass loading and size distribution of the particles entrained in the effluent gases of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) 18-inch, atmospheric pressure fluidized-bed combustor (AFBC). This information was required to aid in the continuing characterization of the AFBC, and to assess the efficiency or performance of an associated cleanup device. The particle-laden flow from the AFBC was introduced into a prototype granular-bed filter (GBF) designed for hot gas cleanup. In order to assess the efficiency of the GBF for particle removal, the mass loading and size distribution of particles contained in the cleaned gas emerging from the GBF were also determined. The effluent gases exit the AFBC at a nominal 1500/sup 0/F and a heavy particle loading (>1 g/scm). These conditions represent a harsh sampling environment. Filter samples obtained by extractive sampling formed the basis of the experimental information. Gravimetric and Coulter counter analyses were performed on each sample to provide mass loading and particle size data, respectively. Mass loadings of particles, as determined from filter samples collected at the inlet and outlet of the GBF, indicated particle removal efficiencies of about 80%. No significant variation in the particle removal efficiency was observed. Analysis of collected particulate samples showed no significant preferential removal of particles as a function of particle size. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Climate Change: The Role of Particles and Gases (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Menon, Surabi

    2011-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Summer Lecture Series 2008: A member of the Atmospheric Sciences Department in the Environmental Energy Technologies Division (EETD), Surabi Menon's work focuses on the human contribution to increasing impacts of climate change. Her talk will focus on what humans can do about the effects of global warming by examining anthropogenic influences on climate and future anticipated impacts, using a climate model and her own observations.

  1. Impact of rising greenhouse gases on mid-latitude storm tracks and associated hydroclimate variability and change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seager, Richard

    2014-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Project Summary This project aimed to advance physical understanding of how and why the mid-latitude jet streams and storm tracks shift in intensity and latitude in response to changes in radiative forcing with an especial focus on rising greenhouse gases. The motivation, and much of the work, stemmed from the importance that these mean and transient atmospheric circulation systems have for hydroclimate. In particular drying and expansion of the subtropical dry zones has been related to a poleward shift of the mid-latitude jets and storm tracks. The work involved integrated assessment of observation and model projections as well as targeted model simulations.

  2. Implementation of global energy sustainability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grob, G.R. [CMDC, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The term energy sustainability emerged from the UN Conference on Environment and Development in Rio 1992, when Agenda 21 was formulated and the Global Energy Charter proclaimed. Emission reductions, total energy costing, improved energy efficiency, and sustainable energy systems are the four fundamental principles of the charter. These principles can be implemented in the proposed financial, legal, technical, and education framework. Much has been done in many countries toward the implementation of the Global Energy Charter, but progress has not been fast enough to ease the disastrous effects of the too many ill-conceived energy systems on the environment, climate, and health. Global warming is accelerating, and pollution is worsening, especially in developing countries with their hunger for energy to meet the needs of economic development. Asian cities are now beating all pollution records, and greenhouse gases are visibly changing the climate with rising sea levels, retracting glaciers, and record weather disasters. This article presents why and how energy investments and research money have to be rechanneled into sustainable energy, rather than into the business-as-usual of depleting, unsustainable energy concepts exceeding one trillion dollars per year. This largest of all investment sectors needs much more attention.

  3. Greenhouse gases and agriculture. Book chapter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, R.B.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Agriculture ranks third in its contribution to Earth's anthropogenically enhanced greenhouse effect. (Energy use and production and chlorofluorocarbons are ranked first and second, respectively.) Specifically, greenhouse gas sources and sinks are increased, and sinks are decreased, by conversion of land to agricultural use, using fertilizers, cultivating paddy rice, producing other plant and animal crops, and by creating and managing animal and plant wastes. However, some of these same activities increase greenhouse gas sinks and decrease greenhouse gas sources so the net effects are not obvious. The paper identifies the agricultural inputs, outputs, and wastes that alter atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxides, and discusses agriculture's net impact on greenhouse gas fluxes.

  4. The Great Season Climatic Oscillation and the Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boucenna, Ahmed

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present earth warming up is often explained by the atmosphere gas greenhouse effect. This explanation is in contradiction with the thermodynamics second law. The warming up by greenhouse effect is quite improbable. It is cloud reflection that gives to the earth s ground its 15 degres C mean temperature. Since the reflection of the radiation by gases is negligible, the role of the atmosphere greenhouse gases in the earth warming up by earth radiation reflection loses its importance. We think that natural climatic oscillations contribute more to earth climatic disturbances. The oscillation that we hypothesize to exist has a long period (800 to 1000 years). The glacier melting and regeneration cycles lead to variations in the cold region ocean water density and thermal conductibility according to their salinity. These variations lead one to think about a macro climate oscillating between maximum hot and minimum cold temperatures. This oscillation is materialized by the passages of the planet through hot, mil...

  5. Terrestrial Planet Atmospheres. The Moon's Sodium Atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, Frederick M.

    ;Origins of Atmospheres · Outgassing ­ Volcanoes expel water, CO2, N2, H2S, SO2 removed by the Fme convecFon reaches deserts #12;Water and Ice Clouds #12;H2SO4

  6. Global Health Research | 2 Global Health Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rambaut, Andrew

    Global Health Research | 2 Global Health Research Supporting researchers in low- and middle-income countries to carry out health- related research within their own countries. Gl bal Health #12;3 | Global Health Research #12;Global Health Research | 4 We are a global charitable foundation dedicated

  7. Atmospheric heat redistribution and collapse on tidally locked rocky planets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wordsworth, Robin

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric collapse is likely to be of fundamental importance to tidally locked rocky exoplanets but remains understudied. Here, general results on the heat transport and stability of tidally locked terrestrial-type atmospheres are reported. First, the problem is modeled with an idealized 3D general circulation model (GCM) with gray gas radiative transfer. It is shown that over a wide range of parameters the atmospheric boundary layer, rather than the large-scale circulation, is the key to understanding the planetary energy balance. Through a scaling analysis of the interhemispheric energy transfer, theoretical expressions for the day-night temperature difference and surface wind speed are created that reproduce the GCM results without tuning. Next, the GCM is used with correlated-k radiative transfer to study heat transport for two real gases (CO2 and CO). For CO2, empirical formulae for the collapse pressure as a function of planetary mass and stellar flux are produced, and critical pressures for atmospher...

  8. PHOTOCHEMISTRY IN TERRESTRIAL EXOPLANET ATMOSPHERES. II. H{sub 2}S AND SO{sub 2} PHOTOCHEMISTRY IN ANOXIC ATMOSPHERES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu Renyu; Seager, Sara; Bains, William, E-mail: hury@mit.edu [Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2013-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Sulfur gases are common components in the volcanic and biological emission on Earth, and are expected to be important input gases for atmospheres on terrestrial exoplanets. We study the atmospheric composition and the spectra of terrestrial exoplanets with sulfur compounds (i.e., H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}) emitted from their surfaces. We use a comprehensive one-dimensional photochemistry model and radiative transfer model to investigate the sulfur chemistry in atmospheres ranging from reducing to oxidizing. The most important finding is that both H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2} are chemically short-lived in virtually all types of atmospheres on terrestrial exoplanets, based on models of H{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, and CO{sub 2} atmospheres. This implies that direct detection of surface sulfur emission is unlikely, as their surface emission rates need to be extremely high (>1000 times Earth's volcanic sulfur emission) for these gases to build up to a detectable level. We also find that sulfur compounds emitted from the surface lead to photochemical formation of elemental sulfur and sulfuric acid in the atmosphere, which would condense to form aerosols if saturated. For terrestrial exoplanets in the habitable zone of Sun-like stars or M stars, Earth-like sulfur emission rates result in optically thick haze composed of elemental sulfur in reducing H{sub 2}-dominated atmospheres for a wide range of particle diameters (0.1-1 {mu}m), which is assumed as a free parameter in our simulations. In oxidized atmospheres composed of N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}, optically thick haze, composed of elemental sulfur aerosols (S{sub 8}) or sulfuric acid aerosols (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}), will form if the surface sulfur emission is two orders of magnitude more than the volcanic sulfur emission of Earth. Although direct detection of H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2} by their spectral features is unlikely, their emission might be inferred by observing aerosol-related features in reflected light with future generation space telescopes.

  9. BERNHARD WEHRLI he global river system acts as a gigantic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wehrli, Bernhard

    and dissolved substances, but this pipeline is leaking carbon dioxide to the atmosphere at surprisingly high a flux of this greenhouse gas that is larger than previ- ously estimated and dominated by hotspot regions stations that measure the global distribution and variability of atmospheric CO2 concen- trations. This top

  10. Fluid clathrate system for continuous removal of heavy noble gases from mixtures of lighter gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gross, Kenneth C. (Bolingbrook, IL); Markun, Francis (Joliet, IL); Zawadzki, Mary T. (South Bend, IN)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for separation of heavy noble gas in a gas volume. An apparatus and method have been devised which includes a reservoir containing an oil exhibiting a clathrate effect for heavy noble gases with a reservoir input port and the reservoir is designed to enable the input gas volume to bubble through the oil with the heavy noble gas being absorbed by the oil exhibiting a clathrate effect. The gas having reduced amounts of heavy noble gas is output from the oil reservoir, and the oil having absorbed heavy noble gas can be treated by mechanical agitation and/or heating to desorb the heavy noble gas for analysis and/or containment and allow recycling of the oil to the reservoir.

  11. Fluid clathrate system for continuous removal of heavy noble gases from mixtures of lighter gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gross, K.C.; Markun, F.; Zawadzki, M.T.

    1998-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for separation of heavy noble gas in a gas volume. An apparatus and method have been devised which includes a reservoir containing an oil exhibiting a clathrate effect for heavy noble gases with a reservoir input port and the reservoir is designed to enable the input gas volume to bubble through the oil with the heavy noble gas being absorbed by the oil exhibiting a clathrate effect. The gas having reduced amounts of heavy noble gas is output from the oil reservoir, and the oil having absorbed heavy noble gas can be treated by mechanical agitation and/or heating to desorb the heavy noble gas for analysis and/or containment and allow recycling of the oil to the reservoir. 6 figs.

  12. Realization of effective super Tonks-Girardeau gases via strongly attractive one-dimensional Fermi gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Shu; Yin Xiangguo; Guan Liming [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Guan Xiwen [Department of Theoretical Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Batchelor, M. T. [Department of Theoretical Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Mathematical Sciences Institute, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A significant feature of the one-dimensional super Tonks-Girardeau gas is its metastable gas-like state with a stronger Fermi-like pressure than for free fermions which prevents a collapse of atoms. This naturally suggests a way to search for such strongly correlated behavior in systems of interacting fermions in one dimension. We thus show that the strongly attractive Fermi gas without polarization can be effectively described by a super Tonks-Girardeau gas composed of bosonic Fermi pairs with attractive pair-pair interaction. A natural description of such super Tonks-Girardeau gases is provided by Haldane generalized exclusion statistics. In particular, they are equivalent to ideal particles obeying more exclusive statistics than Fermi-Dirac statistics.

  13. Process for removing hydrogen sulfide from gases particularly coal pyrolysis gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ritter, H.; Herpers, E.T.

    1985-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen sulfide is first removed by ammoniacal liquor from coke oven gas in the bottom part of a gas scrubber. In the top part of the scrubber, two consecutively-arranged fine scrubbing stages remove hydrogen sulfide by treating the gases, in the upper stage, with a caustic soda solution or a caustic potash solution. Beneath the upper scrubbing stage is the second fine scrubbing stage fed with a subflow of an aqueous carbonate solution collecting at the outlet of the upper fine scrubbing stage and a subflow of cooled, regenerated carbonate solution discharged from the hydrogen-sulfide/hydrogen-cyanide stripper. From the hydrogen-sulfide/hydrogen-cyanide stripper, a second subflow is admixed with coal liquor for removing fixed ammonia therefrom in a separator. The separator produces water vapor with carbon dioxide vapors that are delivered to the hydrogen-sulfide/hydrogen-cyanide stripper for regenerating the aqueous carbonate washing solution.

  14. Process for the removal of acid forming gases from exhaust gases and production of phosphoric acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA); Liu, David K. (San Pablo, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Exhaust gases are treated to remove NO or NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2 by contacting the gases with an aqueous emulsion or suspension of yellow phosphorous preferably in a wet scrubber. The addition of yellow phosphorous in the system induces the production of O.sub.3 which subsequently oxidizes NO to NO.sub.2. The resulting NO.sub.2 dissolves readily and can be reduced to form ammonium ions by dissolved SO.sub.2 under appropriate conditions. In a 20 acfm system, yellow phosphorous is oxidized to yield P.sub.2 O.sub.5 which picks up water to form H.sub.3 PO.sub.4 mists and can be collected as a valuable product. The pressure is not critical, and ambient pressures are used. Hot water temperatures are best, but economics suggest about 50.degree. C. The amount of yellow phosphorus used will vary with the composition of the exhaust gas, less than 3% for small concentrations of NO, and 10% or higher for concentrations above say 1000 ppm. Similarly, the pH will vary with the composition being treated, and it is adjusted with a suitable alkali. For mixtures of NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2, alkalis that are used for flue gas desulfurization are preferred. With this process, better than 90% of SO.sub.2 and NO in simulated flue gas can be removed. Stoichiometric ratios (P/NO) ranging between 0.6 and 1.5 were obtained.

  15. Understanding Global Capitalism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robinson, William I.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    sociology; globalization; political economy; development;economy fueled through 700 billion dollars injected into globalizationGlobalization Studies, also called CGS. I would economy and

  16. Atmospheric Neutrinos at Super-Kamiokande

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Scholberg; for the Super-Kamiokande Collaboration

    1999-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1998, the Super-Kamiokande announced evidence for the observation of neutrino oscillations based on measurements of the atmospheric neutrino flux. This paper presents the updated results for fully and partially-contained events with 736 days of data, as well as upward-going muon results and a global analysis. Preliminary interpretations of the results in terms of various two-flavor oscillation hypotheses are presented.

  17. Global Emissions of Terpenoid VOCs from Terrestrial Vegetation in the Last Millennium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Acosta Navarro, J. C.; Smolander, S.; Struthers, H.; Zorita, E.; Ekman, A. M.; Kaplan, J. O.; Guenther, Alex B.; Arneth, A.; Riipinen, I.

    2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigated the millennial variability of global BVOC emissions by using two independent numerical models: The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN), for isoprene, monoterpene and sesquiterpene and Lund-Potsdam-Jena General Ecosystem Simulator (LPJ8 GUESS), for isoprene and monoterpenes. We found the millennial trends of global isoprene emissions to be mostly affected by land cover and atmospheric carbon dioxide changes, whereas monoterpene and sesquiterpene emission were dominated by temperature change. Isoprene emissions declined substantially in regions with large and rapid land cover change. In addition, isoprene emission sensitivity to drought proved to have signicant short term global effects. By the end of the past millennium MEGAN isoprene emissions were 634 TgC yr-1 (13% and 19% less than during during 1750-1850 and 1000- 15 1200, respectively) and LPJ-GUESS emissions were 323 TgC yr-1 (15% and 20% less than during 1750-1850 and 1000-1200, respectively). Monoterpene emissions were 89 TgC yr-1 (10% and 6% higher than during 1750-1850 and 1000-1200, respectively) in MEGAN, and 24 TgC yr-1 (2% higher and 5% 19 20 less than during 1750-1850 and 1000-1200, respectively) in LPJ-GUESS. MEGAN sesquiterpene emissions were 36 TgC yr-1 (10% and 4% higher than during1750-1850 and 1000-1200, respectively). Although both models capture similar We investigated the millennial variability of global BVOC emissions by using two independent numerical models: The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN), for isoprene, monoterpene and sesquiterpene and Lund-Potsdam-Jena General Ecosystem Simulator (LPJ8GUESS), for isoprene and monoterpenes. We found the millennial trends ofglobal isoprene emissions to be mostly a*ected by land cover and atmospheric carbon dioxide changes, whereas monoterpene and sesquiterpene emission were dominated by temperature change. Isoprene emissions declined substantially in regions with large and rapid land cover change. In addition, isoprene emission sensitivity to drought proved to have signifcant short term global effects. By the end of the past millennium MEGAN isoprene emissions were 634 TgC yr-1 (13% and 19% less than during during 1750-1850 and 1000- 1200, respectively) and LPJ-GUESS emissions were 323 TgC yr-1 (15% and 16 17 20% less than during 1750-1850 and 1000-1200, respectively). Monoterpene emissions were 89 TgC yr-1 (10% and 6% higher than during 1750-1850 and 18 1000-1200, respectively) in MEGAN, and 24 TgC yr-1 (2% higher and 5% less than during 1750-1850 and 1000-1200, respectively) in LPJ-GUESS. MEGAN sesquiterpene emissions were 36 TgC yr-1 (10% and 4% higher than during1750-1850 and 1000-1200, respectively). Although both models capture similar emission trends, the magnitude of the emissions are different. This highlights the importance of building better constraints on VOC emissions from terrestrial vegetation.emission trends, the magnitude of the emissions are different. This highlights the importance of building better constraints on VOC emissions from terrestrial vegetation.

  18. Evaluation of exposures of hospital employees to anesthetic gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lambeth, J.D.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hospital employees who work in hospital operating and recovery rooms are often exposed to a number of anesthetic gases. There is evidence to support the belief that such exposures have led to higher rates of miscarriages and spontaneous abortions of pregnancies among women directly exposed to these gases than among women not exposed. Most of the studies assessing exposure levels were conducted prior to the widespread use of scavenging systems. Air sampling was conducted in hospital operatories and recovery rooms of three large hospitals to assess the current exposure levels in these areas and determine the effectiveness of these systems in reducing exposures to fluoride-containing anesthetic gases. It was determined that recovery-room personnel are exposed to levels of anesthesia gases that often approach and exceed the recommended Threshold Limit Value-Time Weighted Average (TLV-TWA) of 2.0 ppm. Recovery-room personnel do not have the protection from exposure provided by scavenging systems in operating rooms. Operating-room personnel were exposed to anesthesia gas levels above the TLV-TWA only when patients were masked, or connected and disconnected from the scavenging systems. Recovery-room personnel also need to be protected from exposure to anesthesia gases by a scavenging system.

  19. Climate Effects of Global Land Cover Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibbard, S G; Caldeira, K; Bala, G; Phillips, T; Wickett, M

    2005-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    There are two competing effects of global land cover change on climate: an albedo effect which leads to heating when changing from grass/croplands to forest, and an evapotranspiration effect which tends to produce cooling. It is not clear which effect would dominate in a global land cover change scenario. We have performed coupled land/ocean/atmosphere simulations of global land cover change using the NCAR CAM3 atmospheric general circulation model. We find that replacement of current vegetation by trees on a global basis would lead to a global annual mean warming of 1.6 C, nearly 75% of the warming produced under a doubled CO{sub 2} concentration, while global replacement by grasslands would result in a cooling of 0.4 C. These results suggest that more research is necessary before forest carbon storage should be deployed as a mitigation strategy for global warming. In particular, high latitude forests probably have a net warming effect on the Earth's climate.

  20. Global Warming

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8,Dist.NewofGeothermal Heat Pump Basics31/2007 TeppeiProgramsGlobal1

  1. Academy for Global Engagement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Academy for Global Engagement 2013-2014 Global Fellows #12;Meredith Gore and Wildlife #12;Global Research Interests · risk percepHon and public support and Agricultural Engineering #12;Global Research Interests · catalyHc conversion of biomass

  2. global warming's six indias

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haller, Gary L.

    global warming's six indias: An Audience Segmentation Analysis #12;Global Warming's Six Indias 1............................................................................................................................................20 2. Global Warming Beliefs and Attitudes................................................................................ 21 Knowledge about global warming varies widely by group

  3. SurfaceSurface--AtmosphereAtmosphere Interactions on Venus: A ReviewInteractions on Venus: A Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Treiman, Allan H.

    CycleReactions with S gases: Sulfur Cycle · OCS, H2S abundances increase with depth · oxidation products;Reactions with S gases: Sulfur CycleReactions with S gases: Sulfur Cycle · SO2 is removed from lower

  4. EMSL - Atmospheric Aerosol Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    scienceatmospheric The Atmospheric Aerosol Systems Science Theme focuses on understanding the chemistry, physics and molecular-scale dynamics of aerosols for model...

  5. Atmospheric Neutrino Fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas K. Gaisser

    2005-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Starting with an historical review, I summarize the status of calculations of the flux of atmospheric neutrinos and how they compare to measurements.

  6. Separating hydrogen from coal gasification gases with alumina membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Egan, B.Z. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Fain, D.E.; Roettger, G.E.; White, D.E. (Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (USA))

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Synthesis gas produced in coal gasification processes contains hydrogen, along with carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, water, nitrogen, and other gases, depending on the particular gasification process. Development of membrane technology to separate the hydrogen from the raw gas at the high operating temperatures and pressures near exit gas conditions would improve the efficiency of the process. Tubular porous alumina membranes with mean pore radii ranging from about 9 to 22 {Angstrom} have been fabricated and characterized. Based on hydrostatic tests, the burst strength of the membranes ranged from 800 to 1600 psig, with a mean value of about 1300 psig. These membranes were evaluated for separating hydrogen and other gases. Tests of membrane permeabilities were made with helium, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide. Measurements were made at room temperature in the pressure range of 15 to 589 psi. Selected membranes were tested further with mixed gases simulating a coal gasification product gas. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  7. “Hard probes” of strongly-interacting atomic gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nishida, Yusuke [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate properties of an energetic atom propagating through strongly interacting atomic gases. The operator product expansion is used to systematically compute a quasiparticle energy and its scattering rate both in a spin-1/2 Fermi gas and in a spinless Bose gas. Reasonable agreement with recent quantum Monte Carlo simulations even at a relatively small momentum k/kF > 1.5 indicates that our large-momentum expansions are valid in a wide range of momentum. We also study a differential scattering rate when a probe atom is shot into atomic gases. Because the number density and current density of the target atomic gas contribute to the forward scattering only, its contact density (measure of short-range pair correlation) gives the leading contribution to the backward scattering. Therefore, such an experiment can be used to measure the contact density and thus provides a new local probe of strongly interacting atomic gases.

  8. Removal of sulfur and nitrogen containing pollutants from discharge gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Joubert, James I. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxides of sulfur and of nitrogen are removed from waste gases by reaction with an unsupported copper oxide powder to form copper sulfate. The resulting copper sulfate is dissolved in water to effect separation from insoluble mineral ash and dried to form solid copper sulfate pentahydrate. This solid sulfate is thermally decomposed to finely divided copper oxide powder with high specific surface area. The copper oxide powder is recycled into contact with the waste gases requiring cleanup. A reducing gas can be introduced to convert the oxide of nitrogen pollutants to nitrogen.

  9. Methods, systems, and devices for deep desulfurization of fuel gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Liyu (Richland, WA); King, David L. (Richland, WA); Liu, Jun (Richland, WA); Huo, Qisheng (Richland, WA)

    2012-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A highly effective and regenerable method, system and device that enables the desulfurization of warm fuel gases by passing these warm gasses over metal-based sorbents arranged in a mesoporous substrate. This technology will protect Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalysts and other sulfur sensitive catalysts, without drastic cooling of the fuel gases. This invention can be utilized in a process either alone or alongside other separation processes, and allows the total sulfur in such a gas to be reduced to less than 500 ppb and in some instances as low as 50 ppb.

  10. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases under Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992: General Guidelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Because of concerns with the growing threat of global climate change from increasing emissions of greenhouse gases, Congress authorized a voluntary program for the public to report achievements in reducing those gases. This document offers guidance on recording historic and current greenhouse gas emissions, emissions reductions, and carbon sequestration. Under the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) reporters will have the opportunity to highlight specific achievements. If you have taken actions to lessen the greenhouse gas effect, either by decreasing greenhouse gas emissions or by sequestering carbon, the Department of Energy (DOE) encourages you to report your achievements under this program. The program has two related, but distinct parts. First, the program offers you an opportunity to report your annual emissions of greenhouse gases. Second, the program records your specific projects to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase carbon sequestration. Although participants in the program are strongly encouraged to submit reports on both, reports on either annual emissions or emissions reductions and carbon sequestration projects will be accepted. These guidelines and the supporting technical documents outline the rationale for the program and approaches to analyzing emissions and emissions reduction projects. Your annual emissions and emissions reductions achievements will be reported.

  11. Habitability of waterworlds: runaway greenhouses, atmospheric expansion and multiple climate states of pure water atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldblatt, Colin

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are four different stable climate states for pure water atmospheres, as might exist on so-called "waterworlds". I map these as a function of solar constant for planets ranging in size from Mars size to 10 Earth-mass. The states are: globally ice covered (Tsnet absorption of sunlight. Across the range of planet sizes, I account for the atmospheres expanding to high altitudes as they warm. The emitting and absorbing surfaces (optical depth of unity) move to high altitude, making their area larger than the planet surfa...

  12. The global carbon dioxide budget

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sundquist, E.T. (Geological Survey, Woods Hole, MA (United States))

    1993-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The increase in atmospheric CO[sub 2] levels during the last deglaciation was comparable in magnitude to the recent historical increase. However, global CO[sub 2] budgets for these changes reflect fundamental differences in rates and in sources and sinks. The modern oceans are a rapid net CO[sub 2] sink, whereas the oceans were a gradual source during the deglaciation. Unidentified terrestrial CO[sub 2] sinks are important uncertainties in both the deglacial and recent CO[sub 2] budgets. The deglacial CO[sub 2] budget represents a complexity of long-term dynamic behavior that is not adequately addressed by current models used to forecast future atmospheric CO[sub 2] levels.

  13. Computational study of atmospheric transfer radiation on an equatorial tropical desert (La Tatacoa, Colombia)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delgado-Correal, Camilo; Castańo, Gabriel

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiative transfer models explain and predict interaction between solar radiation and the different elements present in the atmosphere, which are responsible for energy attenuation. In Colombia there have been neither measurements nor studies of atmospheric components such as gases and aerosols that can cause turbidity and pollution. Therefore satellite images cannot be corrected radiometrically in a proper way. When a suitable atmospheric correction is carried out, loss of information is avoided, which may be useful for discriminating image land cover. In this work a computational model was used to find radiative atmospheric attenuation (300 1000nm wavelength region) on an equatorial tropical desert (La Tatacoa, Colombia) in order to conduct an adequate atmospheric correction.

  14. A theoretical framework for volcanic degassing chemistry in a comparative planetology perspective and implications for planetary atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    gases dominated by H2O. This simple pattern broadly mirrors the atmospheres of Venus- Earth of extra-solar planets. Volatile abundances within the planetary body interiors also matter but they play a secondary role. Furthermore, our analysis shows that any difference in redox conditions prevailing during

  15. Atmospheric Dynamics II Instructor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AT602 Atmospheric Dynamics II 2 credits Instructor: David W. J. Thompson davet: An Introduction to Dynamic Meteorology, 5th Edition, Academic Press (recommended) · Marshall, J., and Plumb, R. A., 2008: Atmosphere, Ocean, and Climate Dynamics: An Introductory Text, Academic Press. · Vallis, G. K

  16. Atmospheric Thermodynamics Composition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, Lynn

    1 Atmospheric Thermodynamics Ch1 Composition Ch2 Laws Ch3 Transfers Ch12 EnergyBalance Ch4 Water Ch Sciences: Atmospheric Thermodynamics Instructor: Lynn Russell, NH343 http #12;2 Review from Ch. 1 · Thermodynamic quantities · Composition · Pressure · Density · Temperature

  17. Global Cooling: Effect of Urban Albedo on Global Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari, Hashem; Menon, Surabi; Rosenfeld, Arthur

    2007-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    In many urban areas, pavements and roofs constitute over 60% of urban surfaces (roof 20-25%, pavements about 40%). The roof and the pavement albedo can be increased by about 0.25 and 0.10, respectively, resulting in a net albedo increase for urban areas of about 0.1. Many studies have demonstrated building cooling-energy savings in excess of 20% upon raising roof reflectivity from an existing 10-20% to about 60%. We estimate U.S. potential savings in excess of $1 billion (B) per year in net annual energy bills. Increasing albedo of urban surfaces can reduce the summertime urban temperature and improve the urban air quality. Increasing the urban albedo has the added benefit of reflecting more of the incoming global solar radiation and countering the effect of global warming. We estimate that increasing albedo of urban areas by 0.1 results in an increase of 3 x 10{sup -4} in Earth albedo. Using a simple global model, the change in air temperature in lowest 1.8 km of the atmosphere is estimated at 0.01K. Modelers predict a warming of about 3K in the next 60 years (0.05K/year). Change of 0.1 in urban albedo will result in 0.01K global cooling, a delay of {approx}0.2 years in global warming. This 0.2 years delay in global warming is equivalent to 10 Gt reduction in CO2 emissions.

  18. AER1301: KINETIC THEORY OF GASES Assignment #1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Groth, Clinton P. T.

    AER1301: KINETIC THEORY OF GASES Assignment #1 1. A hypersonic wind tunnel is contructed so such that the mean free path, , is given by the expression = 16µ 5 1 2RT , where R is the ideal gas constant and p space and the length of each side of the cube is 4v. (a) Obtain an expression for the normalized

  19. AER1301: KINETIC THEORY OF GASES Assignment #1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Groth, Clinton P. T.

    AER1301: KINETIC THEORY OF GASES Assignment #1 1. A hypersonic wind tunnel is contructed so spheres during collisions such that the mean free path, #21;, is given by the expression #21; = 16#22; 5 of the cube is 4v Ć . (a) Obtain an expression for the normalized velocity distribution function, f(v). (b

  20. AER1301: KINETIC THEORY OF GASES Assignment #4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Groth, Clinton P. T.

    - equilibrium cases, up to second order. (b) Derive an expression for the non-conservative form of the kineticAER1301: KINETIC THEORY OF GASES Assignment #4 1. Consider a monatomic gas with one translational by the relaxation time approx- imation. Neglecting external forces, the conserved form of the kinetic equation

  1. AER1301: KINETIC THEORY OF GASES Assignment #4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Groth, Clinton P. T.

    AER1301: KINETIC THEORY OF GASES Assignment #4 1. Consider a monatomic gas with one translational by the relaxation time approx- imation. Neglecting external forces, the conserved form of the kinetic equation function, in both the equilibrium and non- equilibrium cases, up to second order. (b) Derive an expression

  2. Ozone-depleting substances and the greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ozone-depleting substances and the greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs and SF6 Danish consumption contribution to the debate on environmental policy in Denmark. #12;3 Contents 1 SUMMARY 5 1.1 OZONE OZONE-DEPLETING SUBSTANCES 19 3.1 IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 19 3.1.1 CFCs 19 3.1.2 Tetrachloromethane 19 3

  3. Nature of superfluidity in ultracold Fermi gases near Feshbach resonances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stajic, Jelena; Levin, K. [James Franck Institute and Department of Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Milstein, J.N.; Holland, M.J. [JILA, University of Colorado and National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Chen Qijin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Chiofalo, M.L. [Classe di Scienze and INFM, Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavelieri 7, I-56126 Pisa (Italy)

    2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the superfluid state of atomic Fermi gases using a BCS-Bose-Einstein-condensation crossover theory. Our approach emphasizes noncondensed fermion pairs which strongly hybridize with their (Feshbach-induced) molecular boson counterparts. These pairs lead to pseudogap effects above T{sub c} and non-BCS characteristics below. We discuss how these effects influence the experimental signatures of superfluidity.

  4. INTRODUCTION Insects exchange respiratory gases through a complex network of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Socha, Jake

    3409 INTRODUCTION Insects exchange respiratory gases through a complex network of tracheal tubes through the tracheal system using diffusion alone (Krogh, 1920a; Weis-Fogh, 1964), many species are known to augment gas exchange using convection (Buck, 1962; Miller, 1966a). Two general mechanisms are recognized

  5. Higher Dimensional Coulomb Gases and Renormalized Energy Functionals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -Louis Lions, Paris, F-75005 France & Courant Institute, New York University, 251 Mercer st, NY NY 10012, USAHigher Dimensional Coulomb Gases and Renormalized Energy Functionals N. Rougerie and S. Serfaty extract the next to leading order term in the ground state energy, beyond the mean-field limit. We show

  6. Use of low temperature blowers for recirculation of hot gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maru, H.C.; Forooque, M.

    1982-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus is described for maintaining motors at low operating temperatures during recirculation of hot gases in fuel cell operations and chemical processes such as fluidized bed coal gasification. The apparatus includes a means for separating the hot process gas from the motor using a secondary lower temperature gas, thereby minimizing the temperature increase of the motor and associated accessories.

  7. Noble gases and radiocarbon in natural gas hydrates Gisela Winckler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aeschbach-Hertig, Werner

    Noble gases and radiocarbon in natural gas hydrates Gisela Winckler Lamont-Doherty Earth 2001; published 24 May 2002. [1] In samples of pure natural gas hydrates from Hydrate Ridge, Cascadia ones preferentially incorporated into the gas hydrate structure. The hydrate methane is devoid of 14 C

  8. The electrodeless discharge at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laroussi, M.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently the generation and applications of atmospheric pressure plasmas received increased interest in the plasma research community. Applications such as the surface modification of materials, and the decontamination of matter have been under investigation. In this context, the authors introduce a new means of generating an atmospheric pressure discharge, which is suitable for use in the above-mentioned applications, and in the treatment of undesirable or polluting gases, such as VOC's. This device is a capacitively coupled discharge. It is basically made of a non-conducting tube with two independent loops of wire wrapped around it, and separated by a distance d. A stable discharge is generated inside the tube when an AC voltage of few hundred volts to few kilovolts, at a frequency of few kilohertz, is applied between the loops. One end of the tube is completely open to the outside air, and a seed gas (generally a noble gas such as Helium) is introduced in the tube. The plasma generated with this method is weakly ionized, cold, and is maintained by a relatively low input power (few tens of watts, depending on the size of the tube). In this paper, the discharge electrical characteristics, its radiation emission characteristics, and the measurement of relevant plasma parameters will be presented.

  9. Oceanic Trace Gases Numeric Data Packages from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    CDIAC products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, models, etc. and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Most data sets or packages, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. CDIAC lists the following numeric data packages under the broad heading of Oceanic Trace Gases: Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained during the R/V Ronald H. Brown Repeat Hydrography Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean: CLIVAR CO2 Section A16S_2005 ( 01/11/05 - 022405) • Determination of Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Parameters during the R/V Nathaniel B. Palmer Cruise in the Southern Indian Ocean (WOCE Section S04I, 050396 - 070496) • Inorganic Carbon, Nutrient, and Oxygen Data from the R/V Ronald H. Brown Repeat Hydrography Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean: CLIVAR CO2 Section A16N_2003a (060403 – 081103) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Maurice Ewing Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A17, 010494 - 032194) • Global Ocean Data Analysis Project GLODAP: Results and Data • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Knorr Cruises in the North Atlantic Ocean on WOCE Sections AR24 (1102 – 120596) and A24, A20, and A22 (053097 – 090397) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic and Chemical Data Obtained During the Nine R/V Knorr Cruises Comprising the Indian Ocean CO2 Survey (WOCE Sections I8SI9S, I9N, I8NI5E, I3, I5WI4, I7N, I1, I10, and I2; 120 194 – 012296) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Meteor Cruise 28/1 in the South Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A8, 032994 - 051294) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Knorr Cruise 138-3, -4, and -5 in the South Pacific Ocean (WOCE Sections P6E, P6C, and P6W, 050292 - 073092) • Global Distribution of Total Inorganic Carbon and Total Alkalinity below the deepest winter mixed layer depths • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V John V. Vickers Cruise in the Pacific Ocean (WOCE Section P13, NOAA CGC92 Cruise, 080492 – 102192) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Hesperides Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A5, 071492 - 081592) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Thomas G. Thompson Cruise in the Pacific Ocean (WOCE Section P10, 100593 – 111093) • The International Intercomparison Exercise of Underway fCO2 Systems during the R/V Meteor Cruise 36/1 in the North Atlantic Ocean • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained during the R/V Meteor Cruise 22/5 in the South Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A10, Dec. 1992-Jan, 1993) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained in the South Pacific Ocean (WOCE Sections P16A/P17A, P17E/P19S, and P19C, R/V Knorr , Oct. 1992-April 1993) • Surface Water and Atmospheric Underway Carbon Data Obtained During the World Ocean Circulation Experiment Indian Ocean Survey Cruises (R/V Knorr, Dec. 1994 – Jan, 1996) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Akademik Ioffe Cruise in the South Pacific Ocean (WOCE Section S4P, Feb.-April 1992) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Thomas Washington Cruise TUNES-1 in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean (WOCE section P17C) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Thomas Washington Cruise TUNES-3 in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean (WOCE section P16C) • Carbon-14 Measurements in Surface Water CO2 from the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans, 1965-1994 • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During R/V Meteor Cruise 18/1 in the North Atlantic Ocean (WOCE Section A1E) • Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained in the Central South Pacific Ocean (WOCE Sections P17S and P16S) during the TUNES-2 Expedition of the R/V Th

  10. Mechanisms for Tropical Tropospheric Circulation Change in Response to Global Warming*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Shang-Ping

    Mechanisms for Tropical Tropospheric Circulation Change in Response to Global Warming* JIAN MA change in global warming is studied by comparing the response of an atmospheric general circulation model globally in response to SST warming. A diagnostic framework is developed based on a linear baroclinic model

  11. Strongly interacting Fermi gases : non-equilibrium dynamics and dimensional crossover

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sommer, Ariel T. (Ariel Tjodolv)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments using ultracold atomic gases address fundamental problems in many-body physics. This thesis describes experiments on strongly-interacting gases of fermionic atoms, with a focus on non-equilibrium physics and ...

  12. Steam Production from Waste Stack Gases in a Carbon Black Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Istre, R. I.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    gases to produce steam has two very important rewards - energy conservation and pollution abatement. Energy conservation is achieved by using waste gases in place of fuel oil to produce the steam required by the various plants. Pollution abatement is due...

  13. Carbon Dynamics in Aquatic Ecosystems in Response to Elevated Atmospheric CO2 and Altered Nutrients Availability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Chao

    2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Aquatic ecosystems will experience altered inorganic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous availability in the future due to elevated atmospheric CO2, stronger stratification and anthropogenic activities. Despite its importance in modulating global...

  14. ARM - Field Campaign - Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa- PolarizationgovCampaignsSummer Single Column Model IOP

  15. PNNL: Atmospheric Sciences & Global Change Search for Staff

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for RenewableSpeedingBiomass and4/26/11:Tel.:162 Prepared forStevenControl of

  16. Global Atmospheric Pollution Forum Air Pollutant Emission Inventory | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdfGetec AG Contracting Jump to:Echo, Maryland:Glenwillow, Ohio:| OpenIowa:

  17. System for trapping and storing gases for subsequent chemical reduction to solids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogel, John S. (San Jose, CA); Ognibene, Ted J. (Oakland, CA); Bench, Graham S. (Livermore, CA); Peaslee, Graham F. (Holland, MI)

    2009-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for quantitatively reducing oxide gases. A pre-selected amount of zinc is provided in a vial. A tube is provided in the vial. The zinc and the tube are separated. A pre-selected amount of a catalyst is provided in the tube. Oxide gases are injected into the vial. The vial, tube, zinc, catalyst, and the oxide gases are cryogenically cooled. At least a portion of the vial, tube, zinc, catalyst, and oxide gases are heated.

  18. MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Policy of Global Change 77 Massachusetts Avenue MIT E40-428 Cambridge MA 02139-4307 (USA) Location: One Amherst Street, Cambridge Building E40, Room 428 Massachusetts Institute of Technology Access: Phone: (617-and-trade system for greenhouse gases, and if and when that happens the system of CAFE regulation of vehicle design

  19. Studies with a laboratory atmospheric fluidized bed combustor system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orndorff, W.W.; Su, Shi; Napier, J. [Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green, KY (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Growing public concerns over acid rain and municipal solid waste problems have created interest in the development of atmospheric fluidized bed combustion systems. A computer controlled 12-inch laboratory atmospheric fluidized bed combustor (AFBC) system has been developed at Western Kentucky University. On-line analysis by gas chromatography, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, and mass spectrometry (MS) allows extensive analysis of the flux gases. Laboratory experiments with a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) interfaced with FTIR and MS systems are used to screen fuel blends for runs in the AFBC system. Current experiments being conducted include co-firing blends of refuse derived fuels with coal and extended burns with coals containing different levels of chlorine.

  20. Effect of furnace atmosphere on E-glass foaming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Dutton, Bryan C.; Hrma, Pavel R.; Pilon, Laurent

    2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of furnace atmosphere on E-glass foaming generated in crucible has been studied with a specific goal to understand the impact of increased water content on foaming in oxy-fired furnaces. E-glass foams were generated in a fused-quartz crucible located in a quartz window furnace equipped with video recording. The present study showed that humidity in the furnace atmosphere destabilizes foam, while other gases have little effect on foam stability. This study suggests that the higher foaming in oxy-fired furnace compared to air-fired is caused by the effect of water on early sulfate decomposition, promoting more efficient refining gas generation from sulfate (known as “dilution effect”).

  1. Title of Document: INTERACTION OF INTENSE SHORT LASER PULSES WITH GASES OF NANOSCALE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anlage, Steven

    ABSTRACT Title of Document: INTERACTION OF INTENSE SHORT LASER PULSES WITH GASES OF NANOSCALE-cluster interaction. #12;INTERACTION OF INTENSE SHORT LASER PULSES WITH GASES OF NANOSCALE ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR., Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering We study the interaction of intense laser pulses with gases

  2. Process for separation of CO/sub 2/ from CO/sub 2/-containing gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linde, G.

    1985-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    For separating CO/sub 2/ from CO/sub 2/-containing gases, especially stack gases and/or blast furnace gases, dimethylformamide is employed as a physical scrubbing medium to ensure high CO/sub 2/ purity. After absorption of CO/sub 2/, the DMF is regenerated and returned into the scrubbing stage. Dimethylformamide is utilized as the scrubbing medium.

  3. Atmospheric Science: An introductory survey 1. Introduction to the atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Folkins, Ian

    Sound Convergence Zone #12;Terrain effects #12;Von Karman vortex streets #12;Atmosphere in Earth system

  4. Emissions of Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases From the Production and Use of Transportation Fuels and Electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CO2 GREENHOUSE GASES FROM THE PRODUCTION AND USE OF TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND ELECTRICITYCO2 GREENHOUSE GASES FROM THE PRODUCTION AND USE OF TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND ELECTRICITY

  5. A Community Atmosphere Model with Superparameterized Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randall, David; Branson, Mark; Wang, Minghuai; Ghan, Steven J.; Craig, Cheryl; Gettelman, A.; Edwards, Jim

    2013-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1999, National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) scientists Wojciech Grabowski and Piotr Smolarkiewicz created a "multiscale" atmospheric model in which the physical processes associated with clouds were represented by running a simple high-resolution model within each grid column of a lowresolution global model. In idealized experiments, they found that the multiscale model produced promising simulations of organized tropical convection, which other models had struggled to produce. Inspired by their results, Colorado State University (CSU) scientists Marat Khairoutdinov and David Randall created a multiscale version of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM). They removed the cloud parameterizations of the CAM, and replaced them with Khairoutdinov's high-resolution cloud model. They dubbed the embedded cloud model a "super-parameterization," and the modified CAM is now called the "SP-CAM." Over the next several years, many scientists, from many institutions, have explored the ability of the SP-CAM to simulate tropical weather systems, the day-night changes of precipitation, the Asian and African monsoons, and a number of other climate processes. Cristiana Stan of the Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Interactions found that the SP-CAM gives improved results when coupled to an ocean model, and follow-on studies have explored the SP-CAM's utility when used as the atmospheric component of the Community Earth System Model. Much of this research has been performed under the auspices of the Center for Multiscale Modeling of Atmospheric Processes, a National Science Foundation (NSF) Science and Technology Center for which the lead institution is CSU.

  6. Studies of dynamical processes affecting global climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keller, C.; Cooper, D.; Eichinger, W. [and others

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The main objective was, by a combined theoretical and observational approach, to develop improved models of dynamic processes in the oceans and atmosphere and to incorporate them into large climate codes, chiefly in four main areas: numerical physics, chemistry, water vapor, and ocean-atmosphere interactions. Main areas of investigation included studies of: cloud parameterizations for global climate codes, Lidar and the planetary boundary layer, chemistry, climate variability using coupled ocean-atmospheric models, and numerical physical methods. This project employed a unique approach that included participation of a number of University of California faculty, postdoctoral fellows and graduate students who collaborated with Los Alamos research staff on specific tasks, thus greatly enhancing the research output. Overall accomplishments during the sensing of the atmospheric planetary were: (1) first two- and three-dimensional remote sensing of the atmospheric planetary boundary layer using Lidars, (2) modeling of 20-year cycle in both pressure and sea surface temperatures in North Pacific, (3) modeling of low frequency internal variability, (4) addition of aerosols to stratosphere to simulate Pinatubo effect on ozone, (5) development of fast, comprehensive chemistry in the troposphere for urban pollution studies, (6) new prognostic cloud parameterization in global atmospheric code remedied problems with North Pacific atmospheric circulation and excessive equatorial precipitation, (7) development of a unique aerosol analysis technique, the aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS), which allows real-time analysis of the size and chemical composition of individual aerosol particles, and (8) numerical physics applying Approximate Inertial Manifolds to ocean circulation. 14 refs., 6 figs.

  7. Sources for Global Climate Change Information (updated: March 17, 2011) The following information is provided for those who wish to learn more about this issue. These

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howat, Ian M.

    of the role of greenhouse gases in maintaining Earth's energy balance, and the role of additional of Global Climate Change on the United States (NRC, 2008) http://www.ostp.gov/galleriesINSTC Reports/Scientific Assessment of the Effects of Global Change on the United States.pdf (copy this into browser) http

  8. Surface OceanLower Atmosphere Processes Geophysical Research Series 187

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kohfeld, Karen

    , British Columbia, Canada Andy Ridgwell Bristol Research Initiative for the Dynamic Global Environment251 Surface Ocean­Lower Atmosphere Processes Geophysical Research Series 187 Copyright 2009, and processes have been identified that have improved our understanding of the modern and future carbon cycle

  9. Introduction In the past two centuries, atmospheric methane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haak, Hein

    of methane in the atmosphere is controlled by oxidation, mainly in chemical reaction with the hydroxyl by the combination of pre-industrial methane concentration levels from ice cores and bottom-up estimates based important terms in the global methane budget. Anthropogenic source estimates are mainly based on socio

  10. Atmosphere-soil-stream greenhouse gas fluxes from peatlands 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dinsmore, Kerry J.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Peatlands cover approximately 2-3% of the world’s land area yet represent approximately a third of the worlds estimated total soil carbon pool. They therefore play an important role in regulating global atmospheric CO2 and CH4 concentrations...

  11. Nonequilibrium atmospheric secondary organic aerosol formation and growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dabdub, Donald

    to a reduction in visibility (2). On a global scale, airborne particles scatter solar radiation and can act as cloud condensation (CCN) and ice nuclei (IN), influencing the radiative balance of the atmosphere (3, 4 roles in air quality, health effects, vis- ibility, and climate. Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) formed

  12. Article Atmospheric Science Entrainment-mixing parameterization in shallow cumuli

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ohta, Shigemi

    an important role in global radiation budget [1­4]. Turbulent entrainment-mixing processes in cumulus clouds are critical to cloud­climate feedbacks, evaluation of aerosol indirect effects, and precipitationArticle Atmospheric Science Entrainment-mixing parameterization in shallow cumuli and effects

  13. Deglaciation and latest Pleistocene and early Holocene glacier readvances on the Alaska Peninsula: Records of rapid climate change due to transient changes in solar intensity and atmospheric CO sub 2 content

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pinney, D.S.; Beget, J.E.

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Geologic mapping near Windy Creek, Katmai National Park, identified two sets of glacial deposits postdating late-Wisconsin Iliuk moraines and separated from them by volcaniclastic deposits laid down under ice-free conditions. Radiocarbon dating of organic material incorporated in the younger Katolinat till and in adjacent peat and lake sediments suggests that alpine glaciers on the northern Alaska Peninsula briefly expanded between ca. 8500 and 10,000 years B.P. Stratigraphic relationships and radiocarbon dates suggest an age for the older Ukak drift near the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary between ca. 10,000 and 12,000 years B.P. The authors suggest that rapid deglaciation following deposition of the Iliuk drift occurred ca. 13,000-12,000 years B.P. in response to large increases in global atmospheric greenhouse gas content, including C02. Short-term decreases in these concentrations, as recorded in polar ice cores, may be linked with brief periods of glacier expansion during the latest Pleistocene and early Holocene. A transient episode of low solar intensity may also have occurred during parts of the early Holocene. Rapid environmental changes and glacial fluctuations on the Alaska Peninsula may have been in response to transient changes in the concentration of atmospheric greenhouse gases and solar intensity.

  14. Zonal mean atmospheric distribution of sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) A. B. Burgess,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oxford, University of

    Zonal mean atmospheric distribution of sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) A. B. Burgess,1 R. G. Grainger,1 in the SF6 loading with time is observed globally (0.30 ± 0.025 pptv yrŔ1 ). This is compared against atmospheric distribution of sulphur hexafluoride (SF6), Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L07809, doi:10.1029/ 2005GL

  15. Three Dimensional Adaptive Mesh Refinement on a Spherical Shell for Atmospheric Models with Lagrangian Coordinates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jablonowski, Christiane

    Three Dimensional Adaptive Mesh Refinement on a Spherical Shell for Atmospheric Models for Atmospheric Research 1. Introduction One of the most important advances needed in global climate models of this project is a parallel adaptive grid library, which is currently under development at the University

  16. A new model of cosmogenic production of radiocarbon 14 C in the atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Usoskin, Ilya G.

    A new model of cosmogenic production of radiocarbon 14 C in the atmosphere Gennady A. Kovaltsov the results of full new calculation of radiocarbon 14 C production in the Earth atmosphere, using a numerical of cosmic ray heavier nuclei. The mean contribution of solar energetic particles to the global 14 C

  17. Greening the terrestrial biosphere: simulated feedbacks on atmospheric heat and energy circulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cowling, Sharon A.

    Greening the terrestrial biosphere: simulated feedbacks on atmospheric heat and energy circulation on atmospheric exchange of heat and moisture. Our CONTROL simulation had a mean global net primary production (NPP) of 56.3 GtCyr-1 which is half that of our scenario value of 115.1 GtCyr-1 . LAI and latent energy

  18. Atmospheric dispersion in mountain valleys and basins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allwine, K.J.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary goal of the research is to further characterize and understand dispersion in valley and basin atmospheres. A secondary, and related goal, is to identify and understand the dominant physical processes governing this dispersion. This has been accomplished through a review of the current literature, and analyses of recently collected data from two field experiments. This work should contribute to an improved understanding of material transport in the atmospheric boundary layer. It was found that dispersion in a freely draining valley (Brush Creek valley, CO) atmosphere is much greater than in an enclosed basin (Roanoke, VA) atmosphere primarily because of the greater wind speeds moving past the release point and the greater turbulence levels. The development of a cold air pool in the Roanoke basin is the dominant process governing nighttime dispersion in the basin, while the nighttime dispersion in the Brush Creek valley is dominated by turbulent diffusion and plume confinement between the valley sidewalls. The interaction between valley flows and above ridgetops flows is investigated. A ventilation rate'' of material transport between the valley and above ridgetop flows is determined. This is important in regional air pollution modeling and global climate modeling. A simple model of dispersion in valleys, applicable through a diurnal cycle, is proposed.

  19. Atmospheric dispersion in mountain valleys and basins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allwine, K.J.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary goal of the research is to further characterize and understand dispersion in valley and basin atmospheres. A secondary, and related goal, is to identify and understand the dominant physical processes governing this dispersion. This has been accomplished through a review of the current literature, and analyses of recently collected data from two field experiments. This work should contribute to an improved understanding of material transport in the atmospheric boundary layer. It was found that dispersion in a freely draining valley (Brush Creek valley, CO) atmosphere is much greater than in an enclosed basin (Roanoke, VA) atmosphere primarily because of the greater wind speeds moving past the release point and the greater turbulence levels. The development of a cold air pool in the Roanoke basin is the dominant process governing nighttime dispersion in the basin, while the nighttime dispersion in the Brush Creek valley is dominated by turbulent diffusion and plume confinement between the valley sidewalls. The interaction between valley flows and above ridgetops flows is investigated. A ``ventilation rate`` of material transport between the valley and above ridgetop flows is determined. This is important in regional air pollution modeling and global climate modeling. A simple model of dispersion in valleys, applicable through a diurnal cycle, is proposed.

  20. Clostridium stain which produces acetic acid from waste gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, James L. (2207 Tall Oaks Dr., Fayetteville, AR 72703)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration.

  1. Apparatus for the plasma destruction of hazardous gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kang, Michael (Los Alamos, NM)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A plasma cell for destroying hazardous gases. An electric-discharge cell having an electrically conducting electrode onto which an alternating high-voltage waveform is impressed and a dielectric barrier adjacent thereto, together forming a high-voltage electrode, generates self-terminating discharges throughout a volume formed between this electrode and a grounded conducting liquid electrode. The gas to be transformed is passed through this volume. The liquid may be flowed, generating thereby a renewable surface. Moreover, since hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids may be formed from destruction of various chlorofluorocarbons in the presence of water, a conducting liquid may be selected which will neutralize these corrosive compounds. The gases exiting the discharge region may be further scrubbed if additional purification is required.

  2. Apparatus for the plasma destruction of hazardous gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kang, M.

    1995-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A plasma cell for destroying hazardous gases is described. An electric-discharge cell having an electrically conducting electrode onto which an alternating high-voltage waveform is impressed and a dielectric barrier adjacent thereto, together forming a high-voltage electrode, generates self-terminating discharges throughout a volume formed between this electrode and a grounded conducting liquid electrode. The gas to be transformed is passed through this volume. The liquid may be flowed, generating thereby a renewable surface. Moreover, since hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids may be formed from destruction of various chlorofluorocarbons in the presence of water, a conducting liquid may be selected which will neutralize these corrosive compounds. The gases exiting the discharge region may be further scrubbed if additional purification is required. 4 figs.

  3. Clostridium strain which produces acetic acid from waste gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, J.L.

    1997-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration. 4 figs.

  4. Etching process of silicon dioxide with nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamakawa, Koji; Hori, Masaru; Goto, Toshio; Den, Shoji; Katagiri, Toshirou; Kano, Hiroyuki [Department of Quantum Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-Cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Nagoya University, Furo-Cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Department of Quantum Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-Cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Department of Engineering, Katagiri Engineering Co., Ltd., Minamikase Saiwai-ku, Kawasaki 661-8661 (Japan); NU-EcoEngineering Co., Ltd., Ooaza, Kurozasa Aza, Umazutsumi, Miyoshi-cho, Nishikamo-gun, Aichi 470-0201 (Japan)

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ultrahigh etch rate (14 {mu}m/min) of SiO{sub 2} and a high selectivity of SiO{sub 2}/Si over 200 were achieved using a microwave-excited nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma source employing He, NF{sub 3}, and H{sub 2}O gases, which have been developed for application to microelectromechanical systems and other bionanotechnology fields. In order to clarify the etching mechanism, two diagnostic methods have been performed: (1) imaging of plasma emission with an intensified charge-coupled device camera, and (2) absorption measurements using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The etching characteristics are discussed in relation to the spatial distributions of the species involved. The etch rate depended considerably on the distance between the plasma and the substrate. Some radicals generated from the feed gases reached the substrate directly, while other radicals recombined into different species, which reached the substrate. An abundance of HF molecules were produced through a reaction between radicals generated by the atmospheric pressure discharge of NF{sub 3} and H{sub 2}O. From these measurements, it has been found that the HF molecules generated played a role in producing the high etch rate of SiO{sub 2} and high etch selectivity of SiO{sub 2}/Si.

  5. Atmospheric-pressure plasma decontamination/sterilization chamber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Herrmann, Hans W. (Los Alamos, NM); Selwyn, Gary S. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An atmospheric-pressure plasma decontamination/sterilization chamber is described. The apparatus is useful for decontaminating sensitive equipment and materials, such as electronics, optics and national treasures, which have been contaminated with chemical and/or biological warfare agents, such as anthrax, mustard blistering agent, VX nerve gas, and the like. There is currently no acceptable procedure for decontaminating such equipment. The apparatus may also be used for sterilization in the medical and food industries. Items to be decontaminated or sterilized are supported inside the chamber. Reactive gases containing atomic and metastable oxygen species are generated by an atmospheric-pressure plasma discharge in a He/O.sub.2 mixture and directed into the region of these items resulting in chemical reaction between the reactive species and organic substances. This reaction typically kills and/or neutralizes the contamination without damaging most equipment and materials. The plasma gases are recirculated through a closed-loop system to minimize the loss of helium and the possibility of escape of aerosolized harmful substances.

  6. Wave Speed in the Macroscopic Extended Model for Ultrarelativistic Gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Borghero; F. Demontis; S. Pennisi

    2010-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    An exact macroscopic extended model for ultrarelativistic gases, with an arbitrary number of moments, is present in the literature. Here we exploit equations determining wave speeds for that model. We find interesting results; for example, the whole system for their determination can be divided into independent subsystems and some, but not all, wave speeds are expressed by rational numbers. Moreover, the extraordinary property that these wave speeds for the macroscopic model are the same of those in the kinetic model, is proved.

  7. Pulse Radiolysis of Gases H atom yields, OH reactions,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PULSE RADIOLYSIS OP GASES H atom yields, OH reactions, and kinetics of H2S systems Ole John Nielsen, M, in the reaction OH + OH + M · H2O2 + M. 3) In the H2S systems the HS extinction coefficient determined: k(H + H2S · H2 + HS) = 4-6 x 108 M ^ s " 1 k(HS + HS · products) = (1.9 ± 0.1) x io1 0 M ^ s " 1

  8. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Analysis of Simulated Headspace Gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlsbad Field Office

    2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for headspace gases distributes sample gases of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for analysis. Participating measurement facilities (i.e., fixed laboratories, mobile analysis systems, and on-line analytical systems) are located across the United States. Each sample distribution is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements performed for transuranic (TRU) waste characterization. The primary documents governing the conduct of the PDP are the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD) (DOE/CBFO-94-1012) and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) contained in the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (NM4890139088-TSDF) issued by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The WAP requires participation in the PDP; the PDP must comply with the QAPD and the WAP. This plan implements the general requirements of the QAPD and the applicable requirements of the WAP for the Headspace Gas (HSG) PDP. Participating measurement facilities analyze blind audit samples of simulated TRU waste package headspace gases according to the criteria set by this PDP Plan. Blind audit samples (hereafter referred to as PDP samples) are used as an independent means to assess each measurement facility’s compliance with the WAP quality assurance objectives (QAOs). To the extent possible, the concentrations of VOC analytes in the PDP samples encompass the range of concentrations anticipated in actual TRU waste package headspace gas samples. Analyses of headspace gases are required by the WIPP to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements. These analyses must be performed by measurement facilities that have demonstrated acceptable performance in this PDP. These analyses are referred to as WIPP analyses and the TRU waste package headspace gas samples on which they are performed are referred to as WIPP samples in this document. Participating measurement facilities must analyze PDP samples using the same procedures used for routine waste characterization analyses of WIPP samples.

  9. Chemical production from industrial by-product gases: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyke, S.E.; Moore, R.H.

    1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The potential for conservation of natural gas is studied and the technical and economic feasibility and the implementation of ventures to produce such chemicals using carbon monoxide and hydrogen from byproduct gases are determined. A survey was performed of potential chemical products and byproduct gas sources. Byproduct gases from the elemental phosphorus and the iron and steel industries were selected for detailed study. Gas sampling, preliminary design, market surveys, and economic analyses were performed for specific sources in the selected industries. The study showed that production of methanol or ammonia from byproduct gas at the sites studied in the elemental phosphorus and the iron and steel industries is technically feasible but not economically viable under current conditions. Several other applications are identified as having the potential for better economics. The survey performed identified a need for an improved method of recovering carbon monoxide from dilute gases. A modest experimental program was directed toward the development of a permselective membrane to fulfill that need. A practical membrane was not developed but further investigation along the same lines is recommended. (MCW)

  10. Thermodynamic analysis and experimental study of the effect of atmospheric pressure on the ice point

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harvey, A. H. [Thermophysical Properties Division National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado (United States)] [Thermophysical Properties Division National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado (United States); McLinden, M. O. [Thermophysical Properties Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado (United States)] [Thermophysical Properties Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado (United States); Tew, W. L. [Sensor Science Division National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland (United States)] [Sensor Science Division National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland (United States)

    2013-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a detailed thermodynamic analysis of the temperature of the ice point as a function of atmospheric pressure. This analysis makes use of accurate international standards for the properties of water and ice, and of available high-accuracy data for the Henry's constants of atmospheric gases in liquid water. The result is an ice point of 273.150 019(5) K at standard atmospheric pressure, with higher ice-point temperatures (varying nearly linearly with pressure) at lower pressures. The effect of varying ambient CO{sub 2} concentration is analyzed and found to be significant in comparison to other uncertainties in the model. The thermodynamic analysis is compared with experimental measurements of the temperature difference between the ice point and the triple point of water performed at elevations ranging from 145 m to 4302 m, with atmospheric pressures from 101 kPa to 60 kPa.

  11. Effect of Terrestrial and Marine Organic Aerosol on Regional and Global Climate: Model Development, Application, and Verification with Satellite Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meskhidze, Nicholas; Zhang, Yang; Kamykowski, Daniel

    2012-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    In this DOE project the improvements to parameterization of marine primary organic matter (POM) emissions, hygroscopic properties of marine POM, marine isoprene derived secondary organic aerosol (SOA) emissions, surfactant effects, new cloud droplet activation parameterization have been implemented into Community Atmosphere Model (CAM 5.0), with a seven mode aerosol module from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)���¢��������s Modal Aerosol Model (MAM7). The effects of marine aerosols derived from sea spray and ocean emitted biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) on microphysical properties of clouds were explored by conducting 10 year CAM5.0-MAM7 model simulations at a grid resolution 1.9�������°��������2.5�������° with 30 vertical layers. Model-predicted relationship between ocean physical and biological systems and the abundance of CCN in remote marine atmosphere was compared to data from the A-Train satellites (MODIS, CALIPSO, AMSR-E). Model simulations show that on average, primary and secondary organic aerosol emissions from the ocean can yield up to 20% increase in Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) at 0.2% Supersaturation, and up to 5% increases in droplet number concentration of global maritime shallow clouds. Marine organics were treated as internally or externally mixed with sea salt. Changes associated with cloud properties reduced (absolute value) the model-predicted short wave cloud forcing from -1.35 Wm-2 to -0.25 Wm-2. By using different emission scenarios, and droplet activation parameterizations, this study suggests that addition of marine primary aerosols and biologically generated reactive gases makes an important difference in radiative forcing assessments. All baseline and sensitivity simulations for 2001 and 2050 using global-through-urban WRF/Chem (GU-WRF) were completed. The main objective of these simulations was to evaluate the capability of GU-WRF for an accurate representation of the global atmosphere by exploring the most accurate configuration of physics options in GWRF for global scale modeling in 2001 at a horizontal grid resolution of 1�������° x 1�������°. GU-WRF model output was evaluated using observational datasets from a variety of sources including surface based observations (NCDC and BSRN), model reanalysis (NCEP/ NCAR Reanalysis and CMAP), and remotely-sensed data (TRMM) to evaluate the ability of GU-WRF to simulate atmospheric variables at the surface as well as aloft. Explicit treatment of nanoparticles produced from new particle formation in GU-WRF/Chem-MADRID was achieved by expanding particle size sections from 8 to 12 to cover particles with the size range of 1.16 nm to 11.6 �������µm. Simulations with two different nucleation parameterizations were conducted for August 2002 over a global domain at a 4�������º by 5�������º horizontal resolution. The results are evaluated against field measurement data from the 2002 Aerosol Nucleation and Real Time Characterization Experiment (ANARChE) in Atlanta, Georgia, as well as satellite and reanalysis data. We have also explored the relationship between ���¢��������clean marine���¢������� aerosol optical properties and ocean surface wind speed using remotely sensed data from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) on board the CALIPSO satellite and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) on board the AQUA satellite. Detailed data analyses

  12. Exploiting simultaneous observational constraints on mass and absorption to estimate the global direct radiative forcing of black carbon and brown carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwarz, J. P.

    Atmospheric black carbon (BC) is a leading climate warming agent, yet uncertainties on the global direct radiative forcing (DRF) remain large. Here we expand a global model simulation (GEOS-Chem) of BC to include the ...

  13. Global Health Seminar Series

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klein, Ophir

    Bay Area Global Health Seminar Series Moving beyond millennium targets in global health: The challenges of investing in health and universal health coverage Although targets can help to focus global health efforts, they can also detract attention from deeper underlying challenges in global health

  14. Climate impacts of energy technologies depend on emissions timing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwards, Morgan Rae

    Energy technologies emit greenhouse gases with differing radiative efficiencies and atmospheric lifetimes. Standard practice for evaluating technologies, which uses the global warming potential (GWP) to compare the integrated ...

  15. CO2 Sequestration short course | OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    public's interest and concern over the impact of atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs) on global warming and related climate change patterns, the course is a timely discussion of...

  16. Mercury in the Global Atmosphere: Chemistry, deposition, and land-atmosphere interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selin, Noelle Eckley

    climate scientists can learn from Hg pollution oror Coauthors/collaborators: D.J. Jacob, E. M. Sunderland. Conn) #12;A science and policy challengeA science and policy challenge Mercury in polar bear fur up 5, 2006; Selin and Jacob, 2008] #12;Policy challenges across temporal scales Use source

  17. Computer support to run models of the atmosphere. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fung, I.

    1996-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This research is focused on a better quantification of the variations in CO{sub 2} exchanges between the atmosphere and biosphere and the factors responsible for these exchangers. The principal approach is to infer the variations in the exchanges from variations in the atmospheric CO{sub 2} distribution. The principal tool involves using a global three-dimensional tracer transport model to advect and convect CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere. The tracer model the authors used was developed at the Goddard institute for Space Studies (GISS) and is derived from the GISS atmospheric general circulation model. A special run of the GCM is made to save high-frequency winds and mixing statistics for the tracer model.

  18. Dynamics of Atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Read, Peter L.

    transfer ­ Solar heating of surface, and atmosphere via dust absorption ­ Infrared CO2 band cooling (especially around 667 cm-1) ­ nonLTE near-infrared heating of CO2 and nonLTE cooling effects above ~60-80 km. Baroclinic waves, scales, heat and momentum transport, seasonal occurrence. Qualitative treatment

  19. Laboratory for Atmospheric and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    . Along with this growth came a new building on campus and a new name: the Laboratory for Atmospheric of the Sun to the outermost fringes of the solar system. With LASP's continuing operations role in the planet traditional and stable approach based on federal agency funding of research grant

  20. Estimation of mass transport parameters of gases for quantifying CH{sub 4} oxidation in landfill soil covers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Im, J.; Moon, S.; Nam, K.; Kim, Y.-J. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.Y. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: jaeykim@snu.ac.kr

    2009-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Methane (CH{sub 4}), which is one of the most abundant anthropogenic greenhouse gases, is produced from landfills. CH{sub 4} is biologically oxidized to carbon dioxide, which has a lower global warming potential than methane, when it passes through a cover soil. In order to quantify the amount of CH{sub 4} oxidized in a landfill cover soil, a soil column test, a diffusion cell test, and a mathematical model analysis were carried out. In the column test, maximum oxidation rates of CH{sub 4} (V{sub max}) showed higher values in the upper part of the column than those in the lower part caused by the penetration of O{sub 2} from the top. The organic matter content in the upper area was also higher due to the active microbial growth. The dispersion analysis results for O{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} in the column are counter-intuitive. As the upward flow rate of the landfill gas increased, the dispersion coefficient of CH{sub 4} slightly increased, possibly due to the effect of mechanical dispersion. On the other hand, as the upward flow rate of the landfill gas increased, the dispersion coefficient of O{sub 2} decreased. It is possible that the diffusion of gases in porous media is influenced by the counter-directional flow rate. Further analysis of other gases in the column, N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}, may be required to support this hypothesis, but in this paper we propose the possibility that the simulations using the diffusion coefficient of O{sub 2} under the natural condition may overestimate the penetration of O{sub 2} into the soil cover layer and consequently overestimate the oxidation of CH{sub 4}.

  1. Global terrestrial biogeochemistry: Perturbations, interactions, and time scales

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braswell, B.H. Jr.

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Global biogeochemical processes are being perturbed by human activity, principally that which is associated with industrial activity and expansion of urban and agricultural complexes. Perturbations have manifested themselves at least since the beginning of the 19th Century, and include emissions of CO{sub 2} and other pollutants from fossil fuel combustion, agricultural emissions of reactive nitrogen, and direct disruption of ecosystem function through land conversion. These perturbations yield local impacts, but there are also global consequences that are the sum of local-scale influences. Several approaches to understanding the global-scale implications of chemical perturbations to the Earth system are discussed. The lifetime of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere is an important concept for understanding the current and future commitment to an altered atmospheric heat budget. The importance of the terrestrial biogeochemistry relative to the lifetime of excess CO{sub 2} is demonstrated using dynamic, aggregated models of the global carbon cycle.

  2. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Analysis of Simulated Headspace Gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlsbad Field Office

    2007-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for headspace gases distributes blind audit samples in a gas matrix for analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Participating measurement facilities (i.e., fixed laboratories, mobile analysis systems, and on-line analytical systems) are located across the United States. Each sample distribution is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements performed for transuranic (TRU) waste characterization. The primary documents governing the conduct of the PDP are the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD) (DOE/CBFO-94-1012) and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) contained in the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (NM4890139088-TSDF) issued by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The WAP requires participation in the PDP; the PDP must comply with the QAPD and the WAP. This plan implements the general requirements of the QAPD and the applicable requirements of the WAP for the Headspace Gas (HSG) PDP. Participating measurement facilities analyze blind audit samples of simulated TRU waste package headspace gases according to the criteria set by this PDP Plan. Blind audit samples (hereafter referred to as PDP samples) are used as an independent means to assess each measurement facility’s compliance with the WAP quality assurance objectives (QAOs). To the extent possible, the concentrations of VOC analytes in the PDP samples encompass the range of concentrations anticipated in actual TRU waste package headspace gas samples. Analyses of headspace gases are required by the WIPP to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements. These analyses must be performed by measurement facilities that have demonstrated acceptable performance in this PDP. These analyses are referred to as WIPP analyses and the TRU waste package headspace gas samples on which they are performed are referred to as WIPP samples in this document. Participating measurement facilities must analyze PDP samples using the same procedures used for routine waste characterization analyses of WIPP samples.

  3. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Analysis of Simulated Headspace Gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlsbad Field Office

    2007-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for headspace gases distributes blind audit samples in a gas matrix for analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Participating measurement facilities (i.e., fixed laboratories, mobile analysis systems, and on-line analytical systems) are located across the United States. Each sample distribution is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements performed for transuranic (TRU) waste characterization. The primary documents governing the conduct of the PDP are the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD) (DOE/CBFO-94-1012) and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) contained in the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (NM4890139088-TSDF) issued by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The WAP requires participation in the PDP; the PDP must comply with the QAPD and the WAP. This plan implements the general requirements of the QAPD and the applicable requirements of the WAP for the Headspace Gas (HSG) PDP. Participating measurement facilities analyze blind audit samples of simulated TRU waste package headspace gases according to the criteria set by this PDP Plan. Blind audit samples (hereafter referred to as PDP samples) are used as an independent means to assess each measurement facility’s compliance with the WAP quality assurance objectives (QAOs). To the extent possible, the concentrations of VOC analytes in the PDP samples encompass the range of concentrations anticipated in actual TRU waste package headspace gas samples. Analyses of headspace gases are required by the WIPP to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements. These analyses must be performed by measurement facilities that have demonstrated acceptable performance in this PDP. These analyses are referred to as WIPP analyses and the TRU waste package headspace gas samples on which they are performed are referred to as WIPP samples in this document. Participating measurement facilities must analyze PDP samples using the same procedures used for routine waste characterization analyses of WIPP samples.

  4. Direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaplan, R.D.; Foral, M.J.

    1992-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Amoco oil Company, has investigated the direct, non-catalytic conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuels (particularly methanol) via partial oxidation. The primary hydrocarbon feed used in these studies was natural gas. This report describes work completed in the course of our two-year project. In general we determined that the methanol yields delivered by this system were not high enough to make it economically attractive. Process variables studied included hydrocarbon feed composition, oxygen concentration, temperature and pressure effects, residence time, reactor design, and reactor recycle.

  5. Prospecting by sampling and analysis of airborne particulates and gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is claimed for prospecting by sampling airborne particulates or gases at a ground position and recording wind direction values at the time of sampling. The samples are subsequently analyzed to determine the concentrations of a desired material or the ratios of the desired material to other identifiable materials in the collected samples. By comparing the measured concentrations or ratios to expected background data in the vicinity sampled, one can select recorded wind directions indicative of the upwind position of the land-based source of the desired material.

  6. Two-phase compressibility factors for retrograde gases 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rayes, Daniel George

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . K. , M Cain, W. D. , Jr. and Jennings, J. W. : "An Improved Method for the Determination of the Reservoir Specific Gravity for Retrograde Gases, " JPT (July 1989) 747-752. 7. Craft, B. C. and Hawkins, M. F. : A li P 1 m R rv ir En ine rin...). Variable Mean Standard Deviation Minimum Maximum H2S CO2 N2 CI C2 C3 IC4 NC4 IC5 NC5 C6 C7+ M. W. C7+ S. G. C7+ 1, 01840 0. 00997 0. 02545 0. 01840 0. 73233 0. 07584 0. 03948 0. 00859 0. 01482 0. 00611 0. 00637 0. 00857 0. 05404...

  7. Separation of gases through gas enrichment membrane composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swedo, R.J.; Kurek, P.R.

    1988-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin film composite membranes having as a permselective layer a film of a homopolymer of certain vinyl alkyl ethers are useful in the separation of various gases. Such homopolymers have a molecular weight of greater than 30,000 and the alkyl group of the vinyl alkyl monomer has from 4 to 20 carbon atoms with branching within the alkyl moiety at least at the carbon atom bonded to the ether oxygen or at the next adjacent carbon atom. These membranes show excellent hydrolytic stability, especially in the presence of acidic or basic gaseous components.

  8. Separation of gases through gas enrichment membrane composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swedo, Raymond J. (Mt. Prospect, IL); Kurek, Paul R. (Schaumburg, IL)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin film composite membranes having as a permselective layer a film of a homopolymer of certain vinyl alkyl ethers are useful in the separation of various gases. Such homopolymers have a molecular weight of greater than 30,000 and the alkyl group of the vinyl alkyl monomer has from 4 to 20 carbon atoms with branching within the alkyl moiety at least at the carbon atom bonded to the ether oxygen or at the next adjacent carbon atom. These membranes show excellent hydrolytic stability, especially in the presence of acidic or basic gaseous components.

  9. EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells, Wisconsin:DeploymentSite Name: Email: Terminal2,7,7,of Greenhouse Gases

  10. SIO 217a Atmospheric and Climate Sciences I: Atmospheric Thermodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, Lynn

    SIO 217a Atmospheric and Climate Sciences I: Atmospheric Thermodynamics Course Syllabus and Lecture Schedule Instructor: Lynn Russell, 343 NH, 534-4852, lmrussell@ucsd.edu Text: Thermodynamics of Atmospheres of Thermodynamics (Work, Heat, First Law, Second Law, Heat Capacity, Adiabatic Processes) 5-Oct F Hurricane Example

  11. New Directions: A facelift for the picture of the global energy balance Earth's climate is largely regulated by the global energy balance,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischlin, Andreas

    New Directions: A facelift for the picture of the global energy balance Earth's climate is largely regulated by the global energy balance, which considers the energy flows within the climate system a perturbation of this energy balance, through a modification of the energy flows in the polluted atmosphere

  12. Setup for in situ investigation of gases and gas/solid interfaces by soft x-ray emission and absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benkert, A., E-mail: andreas.benkert@kit.edu, E-mail: l.weinhardt@kit.edu [Institute for Photon Science and Synchrotron Radiation, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-v.-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Universität Würzburg, Experimentelle Physik VII, Am Hubland, 97074 Würzburg (Germany); Gemeinschaftslabor für Nanoanalytik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Blum, M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), 4505 Maryland Parkway, Nevada 89154-4003 (United States) [Department of Chemistry, University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), 4505 Maryland Parkway, Nevada 89154-4003 (United States); Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Meyer, F. [Universität Würzburg, Experimentelle Physik VII, Am Hubland, 97074 Würzburg (Germany)] [Universität Würzburg, Experimentelle Physik VII, Am Hubland, 97074 Würzburg (Germany); Wilks, R. G. [Solar Energy Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany)] [Solar Energy Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Yang, W. [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)] [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Bär, M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), 4505 Maryland Parkway, Nevada 89154-4003 (United States) [Department of Chemistry, University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), 4505 Maryland Parkway, Nevada 89154-4003 (United States); Solar Energy Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Insitut für Physik und Chemie, Brandenburgische Technische Universität Cottbus-Senftenberg, Konrad-Wachsmann-Allee 1, 03046 Cottbus (Germany); and others

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a novel gas cell designed to study the electronic structure of gases and gas/solid interfaces using soft x-ray emission and absorption spectroscopies. In this cell, the sample gas is separated from the vacuum of the analysis chamber by a thin window membrane, allowing in situ measurements under atmospheric pressure. The temperature of the gas can be regulated from room temperature up to approximately 600?°C. To avoid beam damage, a constant mass flow can be maintained to continuously refresh the gaseous sample. Furthermore, the gas cell provides space for solid-state samples, allowing to study the gas/solid interface for surface catalytic reactions at elevated temperatures. To demonstrate the capabilities of the cell, we have investigated a TiO{sub 2} sample behind a mixture of N{sub 2} and He gas at atmospheric pressure.

  13. Instantaneous and efficient surface wave excitation of a low pressure gas or gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Levy, Donald J. (Berkeley, CA); Berman, Samuel M. (San Francisco, CA)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for instantaneously ionizing and continuously delivering energy in the form of surface waves to a low pressure gas or mixture of low pressure gases, comprising a source of rf energy, a discharge container, (such as a fluorescent lamp discharge tube), an rf shield, and a coupling device responsive to rf energy from the source to couple rf energy directly and efficiently to the gas or mixture of gases to ionize at least a portion of the gas or gases and to provide energy to the gas or gases in the form of surface waves. The majority of the rf power is transferred to the gas or gases near the inner surface of the discharge container to efficiently transfer rf energy as excitation energy for at least one of the gases. The most important use of the invention is to provide more efficient fluorescent and/or ultraviolet lamps.

  14. Pluto's Atmosphere Does Not Collapse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olkin, C B; Borncamp, D; Pickles, A; Sicardy, B; Assafin, M; Bianco, F B; Buie, M W; de Oliveira, A Dias; Gillon, M; French, R G; Gomes, A Ramos; Jehin, E; Morales, N; Opitom, C; Ortiz, J L; Maury, A; Norbury, M; Ribas, F B; Smith, R; Wasserman, L H; Young, E F; Zacharias, M; Zacharias, N

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Combining stellar occultation observations probing Pluto's atmosphere from 1988 to 2013 and models of energy balance between Pluto's surface and atmosphere, we conclude that Pluto's atmosphere does not collapse at any point in its 248-year orbit. The occultation results show an increasing atmospheric pressure with time in the current epoch, a trend present only in models with a high thermal inertia and a permanent N2 ice cap at Pluto's north rotational pole.

  15. Process for recovery of sulfur from acid gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Towler, Gavin P. (Kirkbymoorside, GB2); Lynn, Scott (Pleasant Hill, CA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Elemental sulfur is recovered from the H.sub.2 S present in gases derived from fossil fuels by heating the H.sub.2 S with CO.sub.2 in a high-temperature reactor in the presence of a catalyst selected as one which enhances the thermal dissociation of H.sub.2 S to H.sub.2 and S.sub.2. The equilibrium of the thermal decomposition of H.sub.2 S is shifted by the equilibration of the water-gas-shift reaction so as to favor elemental sulfur formation. The primary products of the overall reaction are S.sub.2, CO, H.sub.2 and H.sub.2 O. Small amounts of COS, SO.sub.2 and CS.sub.2 may also form. Rapid quenching of the reaction mixture results in a substantial increase in the efficiency of the conversion of H.sub.2 S to elemental sulfur. Plant economy is further advanced by treating the product gases to remove byproduct carbonyl sulfide by hydrolysis, which converts the COS back to CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 S. Unreacted CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 S are removed from the product gas and recycled to the reactor, leaving a gas consisting chiefly of H.sub.2 and CO, which has value either as a fuel or as a chemical feedstock and recovers the hydrogen value from the H.sub.2 S.

  16. Self-pulsing of hollow cathode discharge in various gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qin, Y.; He, F., E-mail: hefeng@bit.edu.cn; Jiang, X. X.; Ouyang, J. T., E-mail: jtouyang@bit.edu.cn [School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Xie, K. [School of Aerospace Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we investigate the self-pulsing phenomenon of cavity discharge in a cylindrical hollow cathode in various gases including argon, helium, nitrogen, oxygen, and air. The current-voltage characteristics of the cavity discharge, the waveforms of the self-pulsing current and voltage as well as the repetition frequency were measured. The results show that the pulsing frequency ranges from a few to tens kilohertz and depends on the averaged current and the pressure in all gases. The pulsing frequency will increase with the averaged current and decrease with the pressure. The rising time of the current pulse is nearly constant in a given gas or mixture. The self-pulsing does not depend on the external ballast but is affected significantly by the external capacitor in parallel with the discharge cell. The low-current self-pulsing in hollow cathode discharge is the mode transition between Townsend and glow discharges. It can be described by the charging-discharging process of an equivalent circuit consisting of capacitors and resistors.

  17. Dark resonances for ground state transfer of molecular quantum gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manfred J. Mark; Johann G. Danzl; Elmar Haller; Mattias Gustavsson; Nadia Bouloufa; Olivier Dulieu; Houssam Salami; Tom Bergeman; Helmut Ritsch; Russell Hart; Hanns-Christoph Nägerl

    2008-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    One possible way to produce ultracold, high-phase-space-density quantum gases of molecules in the rovibronic ground state is given by molecule association from quantum-degenerate atomic gases on a Feshbach resonance and subsequent coherent optical multi-photon transfer into the rovibronic ground state. In ultracold samples of Cs_2 molecules, we observe two-photon dark resonances that connect the intermediate rovibrational level |v=73,J=2> with the rovibrational ground state |v=0,J=0> of the singlet $X^1\\Sigma_g^+$ ground state potential. For precise dark resonance spectroscopy we exploit the fact that it is possible to efficiently populate the level |v=73,J=2> by two-photon transfer from the dissociation threshold with the stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) technique. We find that at least one of the two-photon resonances is sufficiently strong to allow future implementation of coherent STIRAP transfer of a molecular quantum gas to the rovibrational ground state |v=0,J=0>.

  18. Differential atmospheric tritium sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Griesbach, O.A.; Stencel, J.R.

    1987-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    An atmospheric tritium sampler is provided which uses a carrier gas comprised of hydrogen gas and a diluting gas, mixed in a nonexplosive concentration. Sample air and carrier gas are drawn into and mixed in a manifold. A regulator meters the carrier gas flow to the manifold. The air sample/carrier gas mixture is pulled through a first moisture trap which adsorbs water from the air sample. The moisture then passes through a combustion chamber where hydrogen gas in the form of H/sub 2/ or HT is combusted into water. The manufactured water is transported by the air stream to a second moisture trap where it is adsorbed. The air is then discharged back into the atmosphere by means of a pump.

  19. Differential atmospheric tritium sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Griesbach, Otto A. (Langhorne, PA); Stencel, Joseph R. (Skillman, NJ)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An atmospheric tritium sampler is provided which uses a carrier gas comprised of hydrogen gas and a diluting gas, mixed in a nonexplosive concentration. Sample air and carrier gas are drawn into and mixed in a manifold. A regulator meters the carrier gas flow to the manifold. The air sample/carrier gas mixture is pulled through a first moisture trap which adsorbs water from the air sample. The mixture then passes through a combustion chamber where hydrogen gas in the form of H.sub.2 or HT is combusted into water. The manufactured water is transported by the air stream to a second moisture trap where it is adsorbed. The air is then discharged back into the atmosphere by means of a pump.

  20. Globalization of biopharmaceutical manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pande, Rachna

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The biomanufacturing industry is changing due to increasing globalization. However, it is changing differently from other high tech industries like software/ semiconductor/ automobiles. In this study we use global ...

  1. Global Environmental Course Title

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takada, Shoji

    : Environmental discourses, Environment and development in Africa, Environmental conservation and Ainu people Department Global Environmental Studies Room Course Title Frontier of Sustainability Science Instructor Akihisa MORI, Global Environmental Studies Satoshi KONISHI, Institute of Advanced

  2. Nonsingular static global string

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. A. Sen; N. Banerjee

    2000-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A new solution for the spacetime outside the core of a U(1) static global string has been presented which is nonsingular. This is the first example of a nonsingular spacetime around a static global string.}}

  3. Review: Globalization of Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tennant, Matthew Aaron

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Review: Globalization of Water: Sharing the Planet’sAshok K. Globalization of Water: Sharing the Planet’s140) liters of virtual water (p. 15). This is one of the

  4. Wind-driven changes in Southern Ocean residual circulation, ocean carbon reservoirs and atmospheric CO[subscript 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lauderdale, Jonathan M.

    The effect of idealized wind-driven circulation changes in the Southern Ocean on atmospheric CO[subscript 2] and the ocean carbon inventory is investigated using a suite of coarse-resolution, global coupled ocean circulation ...

  5. Introduction The Atmospheric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    it is hoped that this species can be retrieved from ACE. Carbon tetrachloride Since the discovery of the ozone has had an impact. The first near global distribution of carbon tetrachloride [1] was obtained from ACE occultation measurements (see below). Low altitude carbon tetrachloride VMRs (volume mixing ratios

  6. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter (PM) and Secondary PM Precursor Gases in Mexico City

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Charles E. Kolb

    2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was one of three collaborating grants designed to understand the atmospheric chemistry and aerosol particle microphysics impacting air quality in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and its urban plume. The overall effort, titled MCMA- 2006, focused on: 1) the primary emissions of fine particles and precursor gases leading to photochemical production of atmospheric oxidants and secondary aerosol particles and 2) the measurement and analysis of secondary oxidants and secondary fine particular matter (PM) production, with particular emphasis on secondary organic aerosol (SOA). MCAM-2006 pursued it goals through three main activities: 1) performance and publication of detailed analyses of extensive MCMA trace gas and fine PM measurements made by the collaborating groups and others during earlier MCMA field campaigns in 2002 and 2003; 2) deployment and utilization of extensive real-time trace gas and fine PM instrumentation at urban and downwind MCMA sites in support of the MAX-Mex/MILAGRO field measurements in March, 2006; and, 3) analyses of the 2006 MCMA data sets leading to further publications that are based on new data as well as insights from analysis and publication of the 2002/2003 field data. Thirteen archival publications were coauthored with other MCMA-2003 participants. Documented findings included a significantly improved speciated emissions inventory from on-road vehicles, a greatly enhanced understanding of the sources and atmospheric loadings of volatile organic compounds, a unique analysis of the high fraction of ambient formaldehyde from primary emission sources, a much more extensive knowledge of the composition, size distributions and atmospheric mass loadings of both primary and secondary fine PM, including the fact that the rate of MCMA SOA production greatly exceeded that predicted by current atmospheric models, and evaluations of significant errors that can arise from standard air quality monitors for ozone and nitrogen dioxide. Deployment of the Aerodyne mobile laboratory, equipped with instruments from five collaborating laboratories, at the T0 urban supersite, four downwind sites and the Tula industrial area yielded unique trace gas and fine PM data sets during the March 2006 MAXMex/MILAGRO campaign. In addition, on-road measurements as the mobile laboratory moved between sites provided extensive data on 2006 MCMA fleet averaged vehicle emissions. Analyses of 2006 data sets have yielded the identification of a close correlation between the rate of production of SOA and “Odd Oxygen” (O3 + NO2) and primary organic PM with CO in the MCMA urban plume, a more sophisticated understanding of the interplay between nitrogen oxide speciation and ozone production, the identification of significant vehicular emission sources of HCN and CH3CN (usually associated with biomass burning), characterization of the aging of primary carbonaceous PM, and updated 2006 MCMA fleet on-road trace gas and fine PM emissions. Results from analyses of 2002/2003 and 2006 emissions and ambient measurements have conveyed to Mexican air quality managers who are using these data to devise and assess air quality management strategies. All data sets and published analyses are available to DOE/ASP researchers evaluating the impact of urban emissions on regional climate.

  7. Final report on activities and findings under DOE grant “Interactive Photochemistry in Earth System Models to Assess Uncertainty in Ozone and Greenhouse Gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prather, Michael J. [UCI

    2014-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric chemistry controls the abundances and hence climate forcing of important greenhouse gases including N2O, CH4, HFCs, CFCs, and O3. Attributing climate change to human activities requires, at a minimum, accurate models of the chemistry and circulation of the atmosphere that relate emissions to abundances. This DOE-funded research provided realistic, yet computationally optimized and affordable, photochemical modules to the Community Earth System Model (CESM) that augment the CESM capability to explore the uncertainty in future stratospheric-tropospheric ozone, stratospheric circulation, and thus the lifetimes of chemically controlled greenhouse gases from climate simulations. To this end, we have successfully implemented Fast-J (radiation algorithm determining key chemical photolysis rates) and Linoz v3.0 (linearized photochemistry for interactive O3, N2O, NOy and CH4) packages in LLNL-CESM and for the first time demonstrated how change in O2 photolysis rate within its uncertainty range can significantly impact on the stratospheric climate and ozone abundances. From the UCI side, this proposal also helped LLNL develop a CAM-Superfast Chemistry model that was implemented for the IPCC AR5 and contributed chemical-climate simulations to CMIP5.

  8. Is Magnetic Topology Important for Heating the Solar Atmosphere?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parnell, C E; Threlfall, J; Edwards, S J

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetic fields permeate the entire solar atmosphere weaving an extremely complex pattern on both local and global scales. In order to understand the nature of this tangled web of magnetic fields, its magnetic skeleton, which forms the boundaries between topologically distinct flux domains, may be determined. The magnetic skeleton consists of null points, separatrix surfaces, spines and separators. The skeleton is often used to clearly visualize key elements of the magnetic configuration, but parts of the skeleton are also locations where currents and waves may collect and dissipate. In this review, the nature of the magnetic skeleton on both global and local scales, over solar cycle time scales, is explained. The behaviour of wave pulses in the vicinity of both nulls and separators is discussed and so too is the formation of current layers and reconnection at the same features. Each of these processes leads to heating of the solar atmosphere, but collectively do they provide enough heat, spread over a wide e...

  9. Volcanic activity can have a profound effect on the Earth's atmosphere and environment across many spatial and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robock, Alan

    . Fink (Eds.) 117 Earth's Deep Interior: Mineral Physics and Tomography From the Atomic to the Global and the atmosphere will find this work an important resource. Volcanism and the Earth's Atmosphere Alan Robock IUGG Volumes Maurice Ewing Volumes Mineral Physics Volumes #12;105 New Perspectives on the Earth

  10. Chapter 2: Sources and Deposition of Trace Metals 2.1 Main Sources of Atmospheric Pollution...............................................7

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Short, Daniel

    5 Chapter 2: Sources and Deposition of Trace Metals 2.1 Main Sources of Atmospheric Pollution distances causing regional or global pollution. Fig. 2.1: Sources of trace metals in the environment. Contamination of the atmosphere by pollutant trace metals affects the environment directly through its impact

  11. Loschmidt echo in one-dimensional interacting Bose gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lelas, K.; Seva, T.; Buljan, H. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, University of Split, Rudjera Boskovica BB, 21000 Split (Croatia); Department of Physics, University of Zagreb, Bijenicka c. 32, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We explore Loschmidt echo in two regimes of one-dimensional interacting Bose gases: the strongly interacting Tonks-Girardeau (TG) regime, and the weakly interacting mean-field regime. We find that the Loschmidt echo of a TG gas decays as a Gaussian when small (random and time independent) perturbations are added to the Hamiltonian. The exponent is proportional to the number of particles and the magnitude of a small perturbation squared. In the mean-field regime the Loschmidt echo shows richer behavior: it decays faster for larger nonlinearity, and the decay becomes more abrupt as the nonlinearity increases; it can be very sensitive to the particular realization of the noise potential, especially for relatively small nonlinearities.

  12. Photolysis of water for production of fuel gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eror, N.G.; Blakemore, J.S.

    1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To better understand the role of the semiconductor electrode in the photocatalytic decomposition of water to form hydrogen and other fuel gases, researchers characterized the defect structure of a number of large-band-gap semiconductor electrode materials. The defect structure of SrTiO/sub 3/ samples has been related to photoelectrochemical cell response, leading to a signficant improvement in the understanding of how electrode properties influence cell performance. Although the large band gap of these materials severely restricts their ability to use the solar spectrum, they are more resistant to photocorrosion than lower-band-gap materials. This band gap has been reduced somewhat in lanthanum-doped SrTiO/sub 3/ samples without compromising photostability or requiring a bias voltage for water decomposition.

  13. Finite-size energy of non-interacting Fermi gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin Gebert

    2014-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We prove the asymptotics of the difference of the ground-state energies of two non-interacting $N$-particle Fermi gases on the half line of length $L$ in the thermodynamic limit up to order $1/L$. We are particularly interested in subdominant terms proportional to $1/L$, called finite-size energy. In the nineties Affleck and co-authors [Aff97, ZA97, AL94] claimed that the finite-size energy equals the decay exponent occuring in Anderson's orthogonality catastrophe. It turns out that the finite-size energy depends on the details of the thermodynamic limit and typically also includes a linear term in the scattering phase shift.

  14. Free Energies of Dilute Bose gases: upper bound

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jun Yin

    2010-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We derive a upper bound on the free energy of a Bose gas system at density $\\rho$ and temperature $T$. In combination with the lower bound derived previously by Seiringer \\cite{RS1}, our result proves that in the low density limit, i.e., when $a^3\\rho\\ll 1$, where $a$ denotes the scattering length of the pair-interaction potential, the leading term of $\\Delta f$ the free energy difference per volume between interacting and ideal Bose gases is equal to $4\\pi a (2\\rho^2-[\\rho-\\rhoc]^2_+)$. Here, $\\rhoc(T)$ denotes the critical density for Bose-Einstein condensation (for the ideal gas), and $[\\cdot ]_+$ $=$ $\\max\\{\\cdot, 0\\}$ denotes the positive part.

  15. Elliptic flow and nearly perfect fluidity in dilute Fermi gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Schaefer

    2010-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    In this contribution we summarize recent progress in understanding the shear viscosity of strongly correlated dilute Fermi gases. We discuss predictions from kinetic theory, and show how these predictions can be tested using recent experimental data on elliptic flow. We find agreement between theory and experiments in the high temperature regime $T\\gg T_F$, where $T_F$ is the the temperature where quantum degeneracy effects become important. In the low temperature regime, $T\\sim T_F$, the strongest constraints on the shear viscosity come from experimental studies of the damping of collective modes. These experiments indicate that $\\eta/s\\lsim 0.5\\hbar/k_B$, where $\\eta$ is the shear viscosity and $s$ is the entropy density.

  16. Light pulse in {Lambda}-type cold-atom gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei Ran; Deng Youjin; Chen Shuai; Chen Zengbing; Pan Jianwei [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Zhao Bo [Institute for Theoretical physics, University of Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information of the Austrian Academy of Science, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the behavior of the light pulse in {Lambda}-type cold-atom gases with two counter-propagating control lights with equal strength by directly simulating the dynamic equations and exploring the dispersion relation. Our analysis shows that, depending on the length L{sub 0} of the stored wave packet and the decay rate {gamma} of ground-spin coherence, the recreated light can behave differently. For long L{sub 0} and/or large {gamma}, a stationary light pulse is produced, while two propagating light pulses appear for short L{sub 0} and/or small {gamma}. In the {gamma}{yields}0 limit, the light always splits into two propagating pulses for a sufficiently long time. This scenario agrees with a recent experiment [Y.-W. Lin et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 213601 (2009)] where two propagating light pulses are generated in laser-cooled cold-atom ensembles.

  17. Fuel cell stack with internal manifolds for reactant gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schnacke, Arthur W. (Schenectady, NY)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel cell stack includes a plurality of plate-like fuel cells arranged along an axis generally parallel to cell thickness with electrically conductive separator plates between each pair of cells. A plurality of axial manifolds are provided at opposite sides of the stack in outer marginal portions beyond the edges of electrodes and electrolyte tiles. Sealing rings prevent cross-leakage of oxidant fuel gases through use of pairs of outwardly extending lips from opposite tile surfaces bonded to first and second electrode frames respectively. The frames provide transition between electrode edges and manifold perimeters. The pairs of extension lips are sealingly bonded together through an electrically insulative sealing ring with wedge shaped fastening members.

  18. Fuel cell stack with internal manifolds for reactant gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schnacke, A.W.

    1983-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel cell stack includes a plurality of plate-like fuel cells arranged along an axis generally parallel to cell thickness with electrically conductive separator plates between each pair of cells. A plurality of axial manifolds are provided at opposite sides of the stack in outer marginal portions beyond the edges of electrodes and electrolyte tiles. Sealing rings prevent cross-leakage of oxidant fuel gases through use of pairs of outwardly extending lips from opposite tile surfaces bonded to first and second electrode frames respectively. The frames provide transition between electrode edges and manifold perimeters. The pairs of extension lips are sealingly bonded together through an electrically insulative sealing ring with wedge shaped fastening members.

  19. Advanced intercomparison study with different optical sensing technologies -- FTIR, UV-DOAS and conventional point sensor measurements of atmospheric gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ropertz, A.; Lamp, T.; Weber, K.; Mueller, M.; Haren, G. van

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In summer 1998 a measurement campaign was performed at the lake Baldeney See in the south of the city of Essen in Germany. Two major goals should be achieved: First the intercomparison of several different remote sensing systems in real field measurements and second the determination of the ambient air quality level during summer with respect to a complex orographic and climatological situation which is intensely used as an recreational area. The evaluation of the remote sensing data in combination with the meteorological data results in a conclusive estimation of the air quality. But it also shows several effects concerning the concentration analysis such as the need of calibration correction for the different systems. This paper refers to the results of the intercomparison of the remote sensing systems open-path FTIR and DOAS and some interesting features of the nitrogen dioxide and ozone concentration results like secondary ozone peak concentration during night time. Moreover the open-path FTIR results of a SF6-tracer experiment are presented.

  20. The emissions of gases from abandoned mines: role of atmospheric pressure changes and air temperature on the surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    pressure were monitored. Gas flow can be influenced mainly by the temperature difference between external pressure influences gas flow in the coal mines, which can be considered as closed systems. Modelling has confirmed the differential pressure value measured that exceeds friction losses. Key words Mine gas emission

  1. New formulae to evaluate the atmospheric layers of precipitable water and gases, applicable in solar radiation computing models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    in solar radiation computing models V. B0103descu Energetica, Centrale Electrice, Polytechn. Inst irradiance. In this context, the relatively low density of solar radiation recording stations favoured measurements. Reviews and classifications of the main calculations procedures of solar radiation have been

  2. Integrated Study of MFRSR-derived Parameters of Atmospheric Aerosols and Trace Gases Over the ARM CART Site Extended Facili...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn Other NewsSpin andInterim Data

  3. Is There Still Time to Avoid `Dangerous Anthropogenic Interference' with Global Climate?*#

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    curve', measuring both the pulse of Nature and a steadily rising human impact on atmospheric composition's temperature, with rapid global warming over the past 30 years, is now passing through the peak level infrastructure that may be built within a decade will make it impractical to keep further global warming under 1

  4. On the non-linear response of the ocean thermohaline circulation to global deforestation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Renssen, Hans

    On the non-linear response of the ocean thermohaline circulation to global deforestation H. Renssen-dimensional coupled atmosphere-sea-ice- ocean-vegetation model to study the transient effect of global deforestation deforestation, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(2), 1061, doi:10.1029/ 2002GL016155, 2003. 1. Introduction [2] It has

  5. Climatic Impact of Global-Scale Deforestation: Radiative versus Nonradiative Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haak, Hein

    Climatic Impact of Global-Scale Deforestation: Radiative versus Nonradiative Processes EDOUARD L­ocean­atmosphere GCM is used to explore the biogeophysical impact of large-scale deforestation on surface climate that the surface albedo increase owing to deforestation has a cooling effect of 21.36 K globally. On the other hand

  6. ARM - Atmospheric Heat Budget

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearchSOLICITATIONIMODI FICATION OFMaterialsAnnual Reports27,ListAtmospheric Heat

  7. ARM - Atmospheric Pressure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearchSOLICITATIONIMODI FICATION OFMaterialsAnnual Reports27,ListAtmospheric

  8. Atmospheric PSF Interpolation

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem Not Found Item Not Found The itemAIR SEPARATION BYAbrasion andArticle)Atmospheric

  9. Design Editorial Globalization and Internationalism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papalambros, Panos

    ; especially, the development of an increasingly integrated global economy marked especially by free tradeJournal of Mechanical Design Editorial Globalization and Internationalism There has always been and Strabo, but to Friedman's empirical observations of globalization. According to Wikipedia, "globalization

  10. A General Systems Theory for Atmospheric Flows and Atmospheric Aerosol Size Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. M. Selvam

    2011-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric flows exhibit selfsimilar fractal spacetime fluctuations manifested as the fractal geometry to global cloud cover pattern and inverse power law form for power spectra of meteorological parameters such as windspeed, temperature, rainfall etc. Inverse power law form for power spectra indicate long-range spacetime correlations or non-local connections and is a signature of selforganised criticality generic to dynamical systems in nature such as river flows, population dynamics, heart beat patterns etc. The author has developed a general systems theory which predicts the observed selforganised criticality as a signature of quantumlike chaos in dynamical systems. The model predictions are (i) The fractal fluctuations can be resolved into an overall logarithmic spiral trajectory with the quasiperiodic Penrose tiling pattern for the internal structure. (ii) The probability distribution represents the power (variance) spectrum for fractal fluctuations and follows universal inverse power law form incorporating the golden mean. Such a result that the additive amplitudes of eddies when squared represent probability distribution is observed in the subatomic dynamics of quantum systems such as the electron or photon. Therefore the irregular or unpredictable fractal fluctuations exhibit quantumlike chaos. (iii) Atmospheric aerosols are held in suspension by the vertical velocity distribution (spectrum). The atmospheric aerosol size spectrum is derived in terms of the universal inverse power law characterizing atmospheric eddy energy spectrum. Model predicted spectrum is in agreement with the following two experimentally determined atmospheric aerosol data sets, (i) SAFARI 2000 CV-580 Aerosol Data, Dry Season 2000 (CARG) (ii) World Data Centre Aerosols data sets for the three stations Ny {\\AA}lesund, Pallas and Hohenpeissenberg.

  11. Title of Dissertation: HIGH POWER NONLINEAR PROPAGATION OF LASER PULSES IN TENUOUS GASES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anlage, Steven

    ABSTRACT Title of Dissertation: HIGH POWER NONLINEAR PROPAGATION OF LASER PULSES IN TENUOUS GASES AND PLASMA CHANNELS Jianzhou Wu, Doctor of Philosophy, 2005 Dissertation Directed By: Professor Thomas M PROPAGATION OF LASER PULSES IN TENUOUS GASES AND PLASMA CHANNELS By Jianzhou Wu Dissertation submitted

  12. Monte Carlo Simulation of Radiation in Gases with a NarrowBand Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dufresne, Jean-Louis

    , France (\\Phi) now at the Institute of Energy and Power Plant Technology, TH Darmstadt, 64287 DarmstadtMonte Carlo Simulation of Radiation in Gases with a Narrow­Band Model and a Net is used for simulation of radiative heat transfers in non­gray gases. The proposed procedure is based

  13. Abstract--Airborne pollution and explosive gases threaten human health and occupational safety, therefore generating high

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mason, Andrew

    Abstract--Airborne pollution and explosive gases threaten human health and occupational safety and a thumb-drive sized prototype system. I. INTRODUCTION xposure to air pollution consistently ranks among to occupational safety as energy demands rise. Airborne pollutants and explosive gases vary in both time and space

  14. Permeation of Gases in Polymers: Parameter Identification and Nonlinear Regression Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scheichl, Robert

    Permeation of Gases in Polymers: Parameter Identification and Nonlinear Regression Analysis Robert at PARAOPE, Heidelberg, June 30th, 2004 #12;Overview · Permeation of gases in polymers ­ Application areas for diffusion in polymers ­ Description of the experimental device ­ Mathematical model · Parameter

  15. Heavy noble gases in solar wind delivered by Genesis mission Alex Meshik a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    measured in the Genesis solar wind collectors generally agree with the less precise values obtained fromHeavy noble gases in solar wind delivered by Genesis mission Alex Meshik a, , Charles Hohenberg knowledge of the isotopic composition of the heavy noble gases in solar wind and, by inference, the Sun

  16. Preserving noble gases in a convecting mantle Helge M. Gonnermann1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhopadhyay, Sujoy

    of a processed and out- gassed lower-mantle source, residues of mantle melting10,11 , depleted in uranium and mixing of noble-gas-depleted slabs dilutes the concentrations of noble gases in the mantle, thereby melt, which forms the ocean crust and leaves the residual mantle severely depleted of noble gases

  17. Bose-Einstein condensates in 85 Rb gases at higher densities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glyde, Henry R.

    Bose-Einstein condensates in 85 Rb gases at higher densities A. R. Sakhel, J. L. DuBois, and H. R August 2002; published 31 December 2002 The Bose-Einstein condensation in trapped gases of 85 Rb find that there is a significant depletion of the condensate at T 0 K, for example, 25% at na3 10 2

  18. Localization of Bogoliubov quasiparticles in interacting Bose gases with correlated disorder P. Lugan1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ) in a weakly interacting Bose gas of chemical potential µ subjected to a disordered potential V . We introduce-Einstein condensates [40­48], interacting Bose gases at equilibrium [26, 49­72], strongly interacting Fermi gases [73 behaviors can be found in various situa- tions. For instance, weak repulsive interactions in a Bose gas

  19. Fluidized bed pyrolysis of bitumen-impregnated sandstone at sub-atmospheric conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fletcher, J.V.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.

    1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A 15.2 cm diameter fluidized bed reactor was designed, built, and operated to study the pyrolysis of oil sands at pressures slightly less than atmospheric. Fluidizing gas flow through the reactor was caused by reducing the pressure above the bed with a gas pump operating in the vacuum mode. Pyrolysis energy was supplied by a propane burner, and the hot propane combustion gases were used for fluidization. The fluidized bed pyrolysis at reduced pressure using combustion gases allowed the reactor to be operated at significantly lower temperatures than previously reported. At 450{degree}, over 80% of the bitumen fed was recovered as a liquid product, and the spent sand contained less than 1% coke. The liquid product recovery system, by design, yielded three liquid streams with distinctly different properties.

  20. Fluidized bed pyrolysis of bitumen-impregnated sandstone at sub-atmospheric conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fletcher, J.V.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A 15.2 cm diameter fluidized bed reactor was designed, built, and operated to study the pyrolysis of oil sands at pressures slightly less than atmospheric. Fluidizing gas flow through the reactor was caused by reducing the pressure above the bed with a gas pump operating in the vacuum mode. Pyrolysis energy was supplied by a propane burner, and the hot propane combustion gases were used for fluidization. The fluidized bed pyrolysis at reduced pressure using combustion gases allowed the reactor to be operated at significantly lower temperatures than previously reported. At 450[degree], over 80% of the bitumen fed was recovered as a liquid product, and the spent sand contained less than 1% coke. The liquid product recovery system, by design, yielded three liquid streams with distinctly different properties.

  1. Implications of "peak oil" for atmospheric CO2 and climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kharecha, P A

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Peaking of global oil production may have a large effect on future atmospheric CO2 amount and climate change, depending upon choices made for subsequent energy sources. We suggest that, if estimates of oil and gas reserves by the Energy Information Administration are realistic, it is feasible to keep atmospheric CO2 from exceeding approximately 450 ppm, provided that future exploitation of the huge reservoirs of coal and unconventional fossil fuels incorporates carbon capture and sequestration. Existing coal-fired power plants, without sequestration, must be phased out before mid-century to achieve this limit on atmospheric CO2. We also suggest that it is important to "stretch" oil reserves via energy efficiency, thus avoiding the need to extract liquid fuels from coal or unconventional fossil fuels. We argue that a rising price on carbon emissions is probably needed to keep CO2 beneath the 450 ppm ceiling.

  2. atmospheres thin atmospheres: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to optical depth perturbations. In Earth-type atmospheres sustained planetary greenhouse effect with a stable ground surface temperature can only exist at a particular...

  3. Method of recovering sulfur from the hydrogen sulfide contained in coke oven gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laufhutte, D.

    1985-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Ammonia and hydrogen sulfide are washed out of the coke oven gas and stripped from the wash liquor in the form of gases and fumes or vapors. The ammonia is decomposed in a nickel catalyzer and a small part of the decomposition gases is supplied directly to a combustion furnace, while the larger part of the combustion gases is first cooled and freed from condensate, and only then supplied to the combustion furnace. In the combustion furnace, the proportion of H/sub 2/S/SO/sub 2/ needed for the Claus process is adjusted by a partial combustion of the decomposition gases. The gases from the combustion furnace are then processed in the Claus plant to sulfur.

  4. INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS &INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS &INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS & THE GLOBAL ECONOMYTHE GLOBAL ECONOMYTHE GLOBAL ECONOMY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krylov, Anna I.

    GLOBAL ECONOMYTHE GLOBAL ECONOMY This major offers students rigorous interdisciplinary training 331: The Global Economy 2030 -- Examination of key ideas from economics, demography and technology. Guest lecturers illuminate possible conditions of the global economy in 2030. IR 454: International

  5. Falsification Of The Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse Effects Within The Frame Of Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerlich, Gerhard

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The atmospheric greenhouse effect, an idea that authors trace back to the traditional works of Fourier 1824, Tyndall 1861 and Arrhenius 1896 and is still supported in global climatology essentially describes a fictitious mechanism in which a planetary atmosphere acts as a heat pump driven by an environment that is radiatively interacting with but radiatively equilibrated to the atmospheric system. According to the second law of thermodynamics such a planetary machine can never exist. Nevertheless, in almost all texts of global climatology and in a widespread secondary literature it is taken for granted that such mechanism is real and stands on a firm scientific foundation. In this paper the popular conjecture is analyzed and the underlying physical principles are clarified. By showing that (a) there are no common physical laws between the warming phenomenon in glass houses and the fictitious atmospheric greenhouse effects, (b) there are no calculations to determine an average surface temperature of a planet, ...

  6. Sandia National Laboratories: atmospheric chemistry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and atmospheric chemistry that is expected to benefit auto and engine manufacturers, oil and gas utilities, and other industries that employ combustion models. A paper...

  7. Feasibility of reconstructing paleoatmospheric records of selected alkanes, methyl halides, and sulfur gases from Greenland ice cores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aydin, M.; Williams, M. B; Saltzman, E. S

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    firn and ice at Summit, Greenland, J. Geophys. Res. , 98,AL. : TRACE GASES IN GREENLAND ICE CORE ¨ . Andreae Kettle,and sulfur gases from Greenland ice cores M. Aydin, 1 M. B.

  8. Emissions of Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases From the Production and Use of Transportation Fuels and Electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EMISSIONS OF NON-CO2 GREENHOUSE GASES FROM THE PRODUCTION AND USE OF TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND ELECTRICITYEMISSIONS OF NON-CO2 GREENHOUSE GASES FROM THE PRODUCTION AND USE OF TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND ELECTRICITY

  9. Engineering the global ecosystem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stringfellow, William T.; Jain, Ravi

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of humans deliberately engineering agricultural landscapes.010-0302-8 EDITORIAL Engineering the global ecosystemtale about human explorers engineering the ecosystem of Mars

  10. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Science Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ackerman, T

    2004-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has matured into one of the key programs in the U.S. Climate Change Science Program. The ARM Program has achieved considerable scientific success in a broad range of activities, including site and instrument development, atmospheric radiative transfer, aerosol science, determination of cloud properties, cloud modeling, and cloud parameterization testing and development. The focus of ARM science has naturally shifted during the last few years to an increasing emphasis on modeling and parameterization studies to take advantage of the long time series of data now available. During the next 5 years, the principal focus of the ARM science program will be to: Maintain the data record at the fixed ARM sites for at least the next five years. Improve significantly our understanding of and ability to parameterize the 3-D cloud-radiation problem at scales from the local atmospheric column to the global climate model (GCM) grid square. Continue developing techniques to retrieve the properties of all clouds, with a special focus on ice clouds and mixed-phase clouds. Develop a focused research effort on the indirect aerosol problem that spans observations, physical models, and climate model parameterizations. Implement and evaluate an operational methodology to calculate broad-band heating rates in the atmospheric columns at the ARM sites. Develop and implement methodologies to use ARM data more effectively to test atmospheric models, both at the cloud-resolving model scale and the GCM scale. Use these methodologies to diagnose cloud parameterization performance and then refine these parameterizations to improve the accuracy of climate model simulations. In addition, the ARM Program is actively developing a new ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) that will be available for short deployments (several months to a year or more) in climatically important regions. The AMF will have much of the same instrumentation as the remote facilities at ARM's Tropical Western Pacific and the North Slope of Alaska sites. Over time, this new facility will extend ARM science to a much broader range of conditions for model testing.

  11. ELSEVIER AtmosphericResearch 38 (1995) 207-235 ATMOSPHERIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moelders, Nicole

    ELSEVIER AtmosphericResearch 38 (1995) 207-235 ATMOSPHERIC RESEARCH On the parameterization of ice and water substance mixing ratio fields were only strongly altered by turning off the ice phase of these schemes includes ice processes. But in mid- latitudes and also in tropics the ice phase is an important

  12. ATMOSPHERIC ELSEVIER AtmosphericResearch 44 (1997) 231-241

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reading, University of

    ATMOSPHERIC RESEARCH ELSEVIER AtmosphericResearch 44 (1997) 231-241 Error analysis of backscatter;accepted 14 February 1997 Abstract Ice sphere backscatter has been calculated using both Mie theory as a reasonable approximation for rv 1997 Elsevier Science B.V. 1. Introduction Cirrus clouds play

  13. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter (PM) and Secondary PM Precursor Gases in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luisa T. Molina, Rainer Volkamer, Benjamin de Foy, Wenfang Lei, Miguel Zavala, Erik Velasco; Mario J. Molina

    2008-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was one of three collaborating grants funded by DOE/ASP to characterize the fine particulate matter (PM) and secondary PM precursors in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during the MILAGRO Campaign. The overall effort of MCMA-2006, one of the four components, focused on i) examination of the primary emissions of fine particles and precursor gases leading to photochemical production of atmospheric oxidants and secondary aerosol particles; ii) measurement and analysis of secondary oxidants and secondary fine PM production, with particular emphasis on secondary organic aerosol (SOA), and iii) evaluation of the photochemical and meteorological processes characteristic of the Mexico City Basin. The collaborative teams pursued the goals through three main tasks: i) analyses of fine PM and secondary PM precursor gaseous species data taken during the MCMA-2002/2003 campaigns and preparation of publications; ii) planning of the MILAGRO Campaign and deployment of the instrument around the MCMA; and iii) analysis of MCMA-2006 data and publication preparation. The measurement phase of the MILAGRO Campaign was successfully completed in March 2006 with excellent participation from the international scientific community and outstanding cooperation from the Mexican government agencies and institutions. The project reported here was led by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology/Molina Center for Energy and the Environment (MIT/MCE2) team and coordinated with DOE/ASP-funded collaborators at Aerodyne Research Inc., University of Colorado at Boulder and Montana State University. Currently 24 papers documenting the findings from this project have been published. The results from the project have improved significantly our understanding of the meteorological and photochemical processes contributing to the formation of ozone, secondary aerosols and other pollutants. Key findings from the MCMA-2003 include a vastly improved speciated emissions inventory from on-road vehicles: the MCMA motor vehicles produce abundant amounts of primary PM, elemental carbon, particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and a wide range of air toxics; the feasibility of using eddy covariance techniques to measure fluxes of volatile organic compounds in an urban core and a valuable tool for validating local emissions inventory; a much better understanding of the sources and atmospheric loadings of volatile organic compounds; the first spectroscopic detection of glyoxal in the atmosphere; a unique analysis of the high fraction of ambient formaldehyde from primary emission sources; characterization of ozone formation and its sensitivity to VOCs and NOx; a much more extensive knowledge of the composition, size distribution and atmospheric mass loadings of both primary and secondary fine PM, including the fact that the rate of MCMA SOA production greatly exceeded that predicted by current atmospheric models; evaluations of significant errors that can arise from standard air quality monitors for O3 and NO2; and the implementation of an innovative Markov Chain Monte Carlo method for inorganic aerosol modeling as a powerful tool to analyze aerosol data and predict gas phase concentrations where these are unavailable. During the MILAGRO Campaign the collaborative team utilized a combination of central fixed sites and a mobile laboratory deployed throughout the MCMA to representative urban and boundary sites to measure trace gases and fine particles. Analysis of the extensive 2006 data sets has confirmed the key findings from MCMA-2002/2003; additionally MCMA-2006 provided more detailed gas and aerosol chemistry and wider regional scale coverage. Key results include an updated 2006 emissions inventory; extension of the flux system to measure fluxes of fine particles; better understanding of the sources and apportionment of aerosols, including contribution from biomass burning and industrial sources; a comprehensive evaluation of metal containing particles in a complex urban environment; identification of a close correlation between

  14. Environmental assessment for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program: Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Policastro, A.J.; Pfingston, J.M.; Maloney, D.M.; Wasmer, F.; Pentecost, E.D.

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is aimed at supplying improved predictive capability of climate change, particularly the prediction of cloud-climate feedback. The objective will be achieved by measuring the atmospheric radiation and physical and meteorological quantities that control solar radiation in the earth`s atmosphere and using this information to test global climate and related models. The proposed action is to construct and operate a Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) research site in the southern Great Plains as part of the Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program whose objective is to develop an improved predictive capability of global climate change. The purpose of this CART research site in southern Kansas and northern Oklahoma would be to collect meteorological and other scientific information to better characterize the processes controlling radiation transfer on a global scale. Impacts which could result from this facility are described.

  15. Izvestiya, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics, Vol. 37, No. 3, 2001, pp. 314319. Translated from Izvestiya AN. Fizika Atmosfery i Okeana, Vol. 37, No. 3, 2001, pp. 339345. Original Russian Text Copyright 2001 by Kashin, Kamenogradskii, Grechko, Dzhola, Pobe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and, thus, in changes of the earth's climate. That is why, at present, there are different (first © 2001 by åAIK "Nauka /Interperiodica" (Russia). INTRODUCTION An increase in the content of greenhouse gases (CO2, H2O, CH4, N2O, and others) results in changes of the radiative properties of the atmosphere

  16. Globalization: Ecological Consequences of Global-Scale Connectivity in People,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    11 Globalization: Ecological Consequences of Global-Scale Connectivity in People, Resources of the global mineral aerosol load (Tanaka & Chiba, 2006). #12;The Systemic Dimension of Globalization212 of Agriculture ­ Agricultural Research Service, Las Cruces, New Mexico USA 1. Introduction Globalization

  17. Space Science : Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Robert E.

    Space Science : Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect Part-5a Solar + Earth Spectrum IR Absorbers Grey Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect #12;Radiation: Solar and Earth Surface B"(T) Planck Ideal Emission Integrate at the carbon cycle #12;However, #12;Greenhouse Effect is Complex #12;PLANETARY ENERGY BALANCE G+W fig 3-5

  18. global warming's six americas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haller, Gary L.

    Energy Sources 17 Subsidies for Fossil Fuel and Renewable Energy Industries 18 Support for a Carbon Tax and Costs of Reducing Fossil Fuel Use and Global Warming 8 The Alarmed 9 The Concerned 10 The Cautious 11 the spring and fall of 2012. Perceived Benefits and Costs of Reducing Fossil Fuel Use and Global Warming

  19. Global Change Sustainability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tipple, Brett

    Global Change and Sustainability Center The GCSC is an inclusionary and interdisciplinary hub that promotes, coordinates, and conducts local to global environmental- and sustainability-related research to complex environmental and sustainability issues and challenges. 2012 Annual Report #12;1GCSC 2012 ANNUAL

  20. Global Development Our Responsibility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of expertise cover urgent global issues such as food production, energy supply, climate change, biodiversity e ort to address urgent global issues particularly a ecting developing countries e.g. climate change of Communication, 2012 · Project Leader: Karin Nilsson · Graphic Design: Viktor Wrange & Michael Kvick Cover Photo

  1. CHILLING CONSIDERATIONS GLOBAL WARMING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    (millionsofsquarekilometers) 30 20 10 MELTING OF GREENLAND ICE CAP Satellite determination of maximum extent of glacial melt Complete melt of the Greenland ice sheet would raise the level of the global ocean 23 feet. ASAN Steffen IS INCREASING Global carbon dioxide concentration over the last thousand years Polar ice cores #12;Mann et al

  2. 2D Coulomb Gases and the Renormalized Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandier, Etienne

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the statistical mechanics of classical two-dimensional "Coulomb gases" with general potential and arbitrary \\beta, the inverse of the temperature. Such ensembles also correspond to random matrix models in some particular cases. The formal limit case \\beta=\\infty corresponds to "weighted Fekete sets" and also falls within our analysis. It is known that in such a system points should be asymptotically distributed according to a macroscopic "equilibrium measure," and that a large deviations principle holds for this, as proven by Ben Arous and Zeitouni. By a suitable splitting of the Hamiltonian, we connect the problem to the "renormalized energy" W, a Coulombian interaction for points in the plane introduced in our prior work, which is expected to be a good way of measuring the disorder of an infinite configuration of points in the plane. By so doing, we are able to examine the situation at the microscopic scale, and obtain several new results: a next order asymptotic expansion of the partition function...

  3. Noble gases in the howardites Bholghati and Kapoeta

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swindle, T.D. (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (USA)); Garrison, D.H.; Hohenberg, C.M.; Nichols, R.H.; Olinger, C.T. (Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (USA)); Goswami, J.N. (Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad (India))

    1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Analyses of noble gases in whole rock samples of the howardites Bholghati and Kapoeta and grain-size separates of Kapoeta yield evidence for excesses of the Xe isotopes {sup 129}Xe, {sup 131}Xe, {sup 132}Xe, {sup 134}Xe, and {sup 136}Xe in a low-temperature component, similar to lunar excess fission Xe. Such a component may be able to provide chronometric information if the relative abundances of radioactive progenitors ({sup 129}I, {sup 244}Pu, and {sup 238}U) can be determined, but the isotopic spectra we obtain are not sufficiently precise to do so. Eucritic clast BH-5 in Bholghati contains Xe produced in situ by the decay of {sup 244}Pu. Calculated fission Xe retention ages are 30-70 Ma after the formation of the solar system, consistent with the apparent presence of {sup 146}Sm decay products. Both the clast and the matrix of Bholghati have K-Ar ages of about 2 Ga, suggesting a common thermal event at least that recently.

  4. In-Situ Microbial Conversion of Sequestered Greenhouse Gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, A R; Mukhopadhyay, M; Balin, D F

    2012-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of the project are to use microbiological in situ bioconversion technology to convert sequestered or naturally-occurring greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide, into methane and other useful organic compounds. The key factors affecting coal bioconversion identified in this research include (1) coal properties, (2) thermal maturation and coalification process, (3) microbial population dynamics, (4) hydrodynamics (5) reservoir conditions, and (6) the methodology of getting the nutrients into the coal seams. While nearly all cultures produced methane, we were unable to confirm sustained methane production from the enrichments. We believe that the methane generation may have been derived from readily metabolized organic matter in the coal samples and/or biosoluble organic material in the coal formation water. This raises the intriguing possibility that pretreatment of the coal in the subsurface to bioactivate the coal prior to the injection of microbes and nutrients might be possible. We determined that it would be more cost effective to inject nutrients into coal seams to stimulate indigenous microbes in the coal seams, than to grow microbes in fermentation vats and transport them to the well site. If the coal bioconversion process can be developed on a larger scale, then the cost to generate methane could be less than $1 per Mcf

  5. Ch4. Atmosphere and Surface Energy Balances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Feifei

    ;Energy Pathways #12;Solar radiation transfer in the atmosphere Solar radiation Reflection Atmosphere or performing any work. #12;Solar radiation transfer in the atmosphere Solar radiation Reflection Transmission or water. #12;Solar radiation transfer in the atmosphere Solar radiation Reflection Transmission Atmosphere

  6. Formation of ozone and growth of aerosols in young smoke plumes from biomass burning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarado, Matthew James

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The combustion of biomass is a major source of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. Regional and global-scale models of atmospheric chemistry and climate take estimates for these emissions and arbitrarily "mix" them into ...

  7. Scale-free Universal Spectrum for Atmospheric Aerosol Size Distribution for Davos, Mauna Loa and Izana

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. M. Selvam

    2014-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric flows exhibit fractal fluctuations and inverse power law form for power spectra indicating an eddy continuum structure for the selfsimilar fluctuations. A general systems theory for fractal fluctuations developed by the author is based on the simple visualisation that large eddies form by space-time integration of enclosed turbulent eddies, a concept analogous to Kinetic Theory of Gases in Classical Statistical Physics. The ordered growth of atmospheric eddy continuum is in dynamical equilibrium and is associated with Maximum Entropy Production. The model predicts universal (scale-free) inverse power law form for fractal fluctuations expressed in terms of the golden mean. Atmospheric particulates are held in suspension in the fractal fluctuations of vertical wind velocity. The mass or radius (size) distribution for homogeneous suspended atmospheric particulates is expressed as a universal scale-independent function of the golden mean, the total number concentration and the mean volume radius. Model predicted spectrum is in agreement (within two standard deviations on either side of the mean) with total averaged radius size spectra for the AERONET (aerosol inversions) stations Davos and Mauna Loa for the year 2010 and Izana for the year 2009 daily averages. The general systems theory model for aerosol size distribution is scale free and is derived directly from atmospheric eddy dynamical concepts. At present empirical models such as the log normal distribution with arbitrary constants for the size distribution of atmospheric suspended particulates are used for quantitative estimation of earth-atmosphere radiation budget related to climate warming/cooling trends. The universal aerosol size spectrum will have applications in computations of radiation balance of earth-atmosphere system in climate models.

  8. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1984 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 3. Atmospheric sciences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elderkin, C.E.

    1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goals of atmospheric research at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) are to assess, describe, and predict the nature and fate of atmospheric contaminants and to study the impacts of contaminants on local, regional, and global climates. The contaminants being investigated are those resulting from the development and use of conventional resources (coal, gas, oil, and nuclear power) as well as alternative energy sources. The description of the research is organized into 3 sections: (1) Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT); (2) Boundary Layer Meteorology; and (3) Dispersion, Deposition, and Resuspension of Atmospheric Contaminants. Separate analytics have been done for each of the sections and are indexed and contained in the EDB. (MDF)

  9. Reassessing thermodynamic and dynamic constraints on global wind power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Makarieva, A M; Nefiodov, A V; Sheil, D; Nobre, A D; Li, B L

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze the determinants of the power output of moist atmospheric air. It is shown to be represented as a sum of terms with different physical meanings and uncertainties. We demonstrate that using a thermodynamic approach to constrain the global power output as a whole, e.g. by considering the entropy budget (Lalibert\\'e et al., 2015), results in a loss of information concerning the rate of kinetic energy generation. We discuss why it is important to find dynamic constraints on wind power and emphasize the role of condensation in the generation of atmospheric circulation.

  10. Modeling Atmospheric Aerosols V. Rao Kotamarthi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modeling Atmospheric Aerosols V. Rao Kotamarthi and Yan Feng Climate Research Section Environmental Science Division Argonne National Laboratory #12;Outline Atmospheric Aerosols and gas phase heterogeneous reactions Regional Scales and Atmospheric Aerosols Regional Scale Aerosols: Ganges Valley Aerosol

  11. Global warming, bad weather, insurance losses and the global economy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Low, N.C. [UOB Life Assurance Ltd., Singapore (Singapore); Shen, S. [Global Warming International Center, Woodridge, IL (United States)

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Global warming causes extremely bad weather in the near term. The impact on the insurance industry is described. Why global warming in the near term causes very bad weather is explained. The continuing trend of very bad weather and the future impact on the insurance industry is explored. How very bad weather can affect the global financial market is explained. Taking a historical view of the development of the modern economy, the authors describe in the near term the impact of global warming on the global economy. The long term impact of global warming on the global economy and the human race is explored. Opportunities presented by global warming are described.

  12. Spatio-temporal theory of lasing action in optically-pumped rotationally excited molecular gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chua, Song-Liang

    We investigate laser emission from optically-pumped rotationally excited molecular gases confined in a metallic cavity. To this end, we have developed a theoretical framework able to accurately describe, both in the spatial ...

  13. Field-driven dynamics of dilute gases, viscous liquids and polymer chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohan, Aruna, 1981-

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis is concerned with the exploration of field-induced dynamical phenomena arising in dilute gases, viscous liquids and polymer chains. The problems considered herein pertain to the slip-induced motion of a rigid, ...

  14. Fact #825: June 16, 2014 Tier 3 Non-Methane Organic Gases Plus...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    organic gases (NMOG) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) that new light vehicles with gasoline engines are allowed to produce for model years 2017 to 2025. These standards apply to a...

  15. Evolution and stability of shock waves in dissipative gases characterized by activated inelastic collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sirmas, Nick

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Previous experiments have revealed that shock waves driven through dissipative gases may become unstable, for example, in granular gases, and in molecular gases undergoing strong relaxation effects. The mechanisms controlling these instabilities are not well understood. We successfully isolated and investigated this instability in the canonical problem of piston driven shock waves propagating into a medium characterized by inelastic collision processes. We treat the standard model of granular gases, where particle collisions are taken as inelastic with constant coefficient of restitution. The inelasticity is activated for sufficiently strong collisions. Molecular dynamic simulations were performed for 30,000 particles. We find that all shock waves investigated become unstable, with density non-uniformities forming in the relaxation region. The wavelength of these fingers is found comparable to the characteristic relaxation thickness. Shock Hugoniot curves for both elastic and inelastic collisions were obtaine...

  16. Biological sweetening of energy gases mimics in biotrickling filters Marc Fortuny a,c

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in energy-rich gases such as biogas from anaerobic digesters which may contain H2S concentrations exceeding: Hydrogen sulfide; Gas sweetening; Biotrickling filter; Desulfurization; Fuel gas; Biogas 1. Introduction

  17. Method and apparatus for separating mixtures of gases using an acoustic wave

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Geller, Drew A.; Swift, Gregory W.; Backhaus, Scott N.

    2004-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermoacoustic device separates a mixture of gases. An elongated duct is provided with first and second ends and has a length that is greater than the wavelength of sound in the mixture of gases at a selected frequency, and a diameter that is greater than a thermal penetration depth in the mixture of gases. A first acoustic source is located at the first end of the duct to generate acoustic power at the selected frequency. A plurality of side branch acoustic sources are spaced along the length of the duct and are configured to introduce acoustic power into the mixture of gases so that a first gas is concentrated at the first end of the duct and a second gas is concentrated at the second end of the duct.

  18. Quantum Cattaneo wave equation for ultra-short laser pulses interaction with electron and nucleon gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marciak-Kozlowska, J

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper the quantum Cattaneo wave equation for ultra-short laser pulses interaction with medium is obtained . The explicit formulae for electron and nucleon gases are presented

  19. Quantum coherence and magnetism in bosonic and fermionic gases of ultracold atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jo, Gyu-Boong

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, two sets of experimental studies in bosonic and fermionic gases are described. In the first part of the thesis, itinerant ferromagnetism was studied in a strongly interacting Fermi gas of ultracold atoms. ...

  20. Quantum Cattaneo wave equation for ultra-short laser pulses interaction with electron and nucleon gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J Marciak-Kozlowska; Miroslaw Kozlowski

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper the quantum Cattaneo wave equation for ultra-short laser pulses interaction with medium is obtained . The explicit formulae for electron and nucleon gases are presented