National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for global aerosol products

  1. Evaluating Global Aerosol Models and Aerosol and Water Vapor Properties Near Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, David, D.; Ferrare, Richard, A.

    2011-07-06

    The 'Evaluating Global Aerosol Models and Aerosol and Water Vapor Properties Near Clouds' project focused extensively on the analysis and utilization of water vapor and aerosol profiles derived from the ARM Raman lidar at the Southern Great Plains ARM site. A wide range of different tasks were performed during this project, all of which improved quality of the data products derived from the lidar or advanced the understanding of atmospheric processes over the site. These activities included: upgrading the Raman lidar to improve its sensitivity; participating in field experiments to validate the lidar aerosol and water vapor retrievals; using the lidar aerosol profiles to evaluate the accuracy of the vertical distribution of aerosols in global aerosol model simulations; examining the correlation between relative humidity and aerosol extinction, and how these change, due to horizontal distance away from cumulus clouds; inferring boundary layer turbulence structure in convective boundary layers from the high-time-resolution lidar water vapor measurements; retrieving cumulus entrainment rates in boundary layer cumulus clouds; and participating in a field experiment that provided data to help validate both the entrainment rate retrievals and the turbulent profiles derived from lidar observations.

  2. GLOBAL AEROSOL EFFECT RETRIEVAL FROM PASSIVE HYPERSPECTRAL MEASUREMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graaf, Martin de

    that can be detected using UV reflectance measurements. Since the aerosol extinction optical thickness any instrument, or a combination of instruments, that measures UV, visible and SWIR reflectancesGLOBAL AEROSOL EFFECT RETRIEVAL FROM PASSIVE HYPERSPECTRAL MEASUREMENTS M. de Graaf1,2 , L. G

  3. Global distribution and climate forcing of marine organic aerosol: 1. Model improvements and evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meskhidze, N.; Xu, J.; Gantt, Brett; Zhang, Yang; Nenes, Athanasios; Ghan, Steven J.; Liu, Xiaohong; Easter, Richard C.; Zaveri, Rahul A.

    2011-11-23

    Marine organic aerosol emissions have been implemented and evaluated within the National Center of Atmospheric Research (NCAR)'s Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's 7-mode Modal Aerosol Module (MAM-7). Emissions of marine primary organic aerosols (POA), phytoplanktonproduced isoprene- and monoterpenes-derived secondary organic aerosols (SOA) and methane sulfonate (MS{sup -}) are shown to affect surface concentrations of organic aerosols in remote marine regions. Global emissions of submicron marine POA is estimated to be 7.9 and 9.4 Tg yr{sup -1}, for the Gantt et al. (2011) and Vignati et al. (2010) emission parameterizations, respectively. Marine sources of SOA and particulate MS{sup -} (containing both sulfur and carbon atoms) contribute an additional 0.2 and 5.1 Tg yr{sup -1}, respectively. Widespread areas over productive waters of the Northern Atlantic, Northern Pacific, and the Southern Ocean show marine-source submicron organic aerosol surface concentrations of 100 ngm{sup -3}, with values up to 400 ngm{sup -3} over biologically productive areas. Comparison of long-term surface observations of water insoluble organic matter (WIOM) with POA concentrations from the two emission parameterizations shows that despite revealed discrepancies (often more than a factor of 2), both Gantt et al. (2011) and Vignati et al. (2010) formulations are able to capture the magnitude of marine organic aerosol concentrations, with the Gantt et al. (2011) parameterization attaining better seasonality. Model simulations show that the mixing state of the marine POA can impact the surface number concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). The largest increases (up to 20 %) in CCN (at a supersaturation (S) of 0.2 %) number concentration are obtained over biologically productive ocean waters when marine organic aerosol is assumed to be externally mixed with sea-salt. Assuming marine organics are internally-mixed with sea-salt provides diverse results with increases and decreases in the concentration of CCN over different parts of the ocean. The sign of the CCN change due to the addition of marine organics to seasalt aerosol is determined by the relative significance of the increase in mean modal diameter due to addition of mass, and the decrease in particle hygroscopicity due to compositional changes in marine aerosol. Based on emerging evidence for increased CCN concentration over biologically active surface ocean areas/periods, our study suggests that treatment of sea spray in global climate models (GCMs) as an internal mixture of marine organic aerosols and sea-salt will likely lead to an underestimation in CCN number concentration.

  4. Production Mechanism, Number Concentration, Size Distribution, Chemical Composition, and Optical Properties of Sea Spray Aerosols Workshop, Summer 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meskhidze, Nicholas [NCSU] [NCSU

    2013-10-21

    The objective of this workshop was to address the most urgent open science questions for improved quantification of sea spray aerosol-radiation-climate interactions. Sea spray emission and its influence on global climate remains one of the most uncertain components of the aerosol-radiation-climate problem, but has received less attention than other aerosol processes (e.g. production of terrestrial secondary organic aerosols). Thus, the special emphasis was placed on the production flux of sea spray aerosol particles, their number concentration and chemical composition and properties.

  5. Global production through 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foreman, N.E.

    1996-12-01

    Two companion studies released recently should provide great food for thought among geo-political strategists and various national governments. If predictions contained in these Petroconsultants studies of oil and gas production trends for the next 10 years are realized, there will be great repercussions for net exporters and importers, alike. After analyzing and predicting trends within each of the world`s significant producing nations for the 1996--2005 period, the crude oil and condensate report concludes tat global production will jump nearly 24%. By contrast, worldwide gas output will leap 40%. The cast of characters among producers and exporters that will benefit from these increases varies considerably for each fuel. On the oil side, Russia and the OPEC members, particularly the Persian Gulf nations, will be back in the driver`s seat in terms of affecting export and pricing patterns. On the gas side, the leading producers will be an interesting mix of mostly non-OPEC countries. The reemergence of Persian Gulf oil producers, coupled with an anticipated long-term decline among top non-OPEC producing nations should present a sobering picture to government planners within large net importers, such as the US. They are likely to find themselves in much the same supply trap as was experienced in the 1970s, only this time the dependence on foreign oil supplies will be much worse. Gas supplies will not be similarly constrained, and some substitution for oil is probable. Here, two articles, ``World oil industry is set for transition`` and ``Worldwide gas surges forward in next decade,`` present a summary of the findings detailed in Petroconsultants` recent studies.

  6. Observations of Secondary Organic Aerosol Production and Soot Aging under Atmospheric Conditions Using a Novel Environmental Aerosol Chamber 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glen, Crystal

    2012-02-14

    of the processes leading to SOA production under ambient gaseous and particulate concentrations as well as the impact these aerosol types have on climate is poorly understood. Although the majority of atmospheric aerosols scatter radiation either directly...

  7. Assessing the Effects of Anthropogenic Aerosols on Pacific Storm Track Using a Multiscale Global Climate Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yuan; Wang, Minghuai; Zhang, Renyi; Ghan, Steven J.; Lin, Yun; Hu, Jiaxi; Pan, Bowen; Levy, Misti; Jiang, Jonathan; Molina, Mario J.

    2014-05-13

    Atmospheric aerosols impact weather and global general circulation by modifying cloud and precipitation processes, but the magnitude of cloud adjustment by aerosols remains poorly quantified and represents the largest uncertainty in estimated forcing of climate change. Here we assess the impacts of anthropogenic aerosols on the Pacific storm track using a multi-scale global aerosol-climate model (GCM). Simulations of two aerosol scenarios corresponding to the present day and pre-industrial conditions reveal long-range transport of anthropogenic aerosols across the north Pacific and large resulting changes in the aerosol optical depth, cloud droplet number concentration, and cloud and ice water paths. Shortwave and longwave cloud radiative forcing at the top of atmosphere are changed by - 2.5 and + 1.3 W m-2, respectively, by emission changes from pre-industrial to present day, and an increased cloud-top height indicates invigorated mid-latitude cyclones. The overall increased precipitation and poleward heat transport reflect intensification of the Pacific storm track by anthropogenic aerosols. Hence, this work provides for the first time a global perspective of the impacts of Asian pollution outflows from GCMs. Furthermore, our results suggest that the multi-scale modeling framework is essential in producing the aerosol invigoration effect of deep convective clouds on the global scale.

  8. Organic Aerosol Component (OACOMP) Value-Added Product Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fast, J; Zhang, Q; Tilp, A; Shippert, T; Parworth, C; Mei, F

    2013-08-23

    Significantly improved returns in their aerosol chemistry data can be achieved via the development of a value-added product (VAP) of deriving OA components, called Organic Aerosol Components (OACOMP). OACOMP is primarily based on multivariate analysis of the measured organic mass spectral matrix. The key outputs of OACOMP are the concentration time series and the mass spectra of OA factors that are associated with distinct sources, formation and evolution processes, and physicochemical properties.

  9. Intercomparison and evaluation of global aerosol microphysical properties among AeroCom models of a range of complexity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ridley, David Andrew

    Many of the next generation of global climate models will include aerosol schemes which explicitly simulate the microphysical processes that determine the particle size distribution. These models enable aerosol optical ...

  10. Evaluating Global Aerosol Models and Aerosol and Water Vapor Properties Near Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard A. Ferrare; David D. Turner

    2011-09-01

    Project goals: (1) Use the routine surface and airborne measurements at the ARM SGP site, and the routine surface measurements at the NSA site, to continue our evaluations of model aerosol simulations; (2) Determine the degree to which the Raman lidar measurements of water vapor and aerosol scattering and extinction can be used to remotely characterize the aerosol humidification factor; (3) Use the high temporal resolution CARL data to examine how aerosol properties vary near clouds; and (4) Use the high temporal resolution CARL and Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) data to quantify entrainment in optically thin continental cumulus clouds.

  11. Global observations of desert dust and biomass burning aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graaf, Martin de

    and desert dust observations from GOME and SCIAMACHY · Conclusions and Outlook #12; · Absorbing Aerosol Transfer Model Solar zenith angle = 30° Viewing zenith angle = 0° Surface albedo = 5% #12;Reflectance at TOA with absorbing aerosols Doubling-Adding KNMI Radiative Transfer Model Solar zenith angle = 30

  12. REPRESENTING AEROSOLS IN GLOBAL MODELS: FROM MICROMETERS TO MEGAMETERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    mainly from gas-to- particle conversion of low-volatility gaseous species, mainly sulfuric acid to represent aerosol processes and forcing "on-line" in climate models in order to capture the feedbacks

  13. Global observations and spectral characteristics of desert dust and biomass burning aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graaf, Martin de

    the advantage of monitoring of the global atmosphere. The disadvantage is often a poor spacial reso- lution quantity, but a radiation difference in the UV. Its main advantages are its insensitivity to scattering in climate physics today is the effect of aerosols on the global energy budget. The amount and sign

  14. On modification of global warming by sulfate aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, J.F.B.; Johns, T.C.

    1997-02-01

    There is increasing evidence that the response of climate to increasing greenhouse gases may be modified by accompanying increases in sulfate aerosols. In this study, the patterns of response in the surface climatology of a coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model forced by increases in carbon dioxide alone is compared with those obtained by increasing carbon dioxide and aerosol forcing. The simulations are run from early industrial times using the estimated historical forcing and continued to the end of the twenty-first century assuming a nonintervention emissions scenario for greenhouse gases and aerosols. The comparison is made for the period 2030-2050 when the aerosol forcing is a maximum. In winter, the cooling due to aerosols merely tends to reduce the response to carbon dioxide, whereas in summer, it weakens the monsoon circulations and reverses some of the changes in the hydrological cycle on increasing carbon dioxide. This response is in some respects similar to that found in simulations with changed orbital parameters, as between today and the middle Holocene. The hydrological response in the palaeosimulations is supported by palaeoclimatic reconstructions. The results of changes in aerosol concentrations of the magnetic projected in the scenarios would have a major effect on regional climate, especially over Europe and Southeast Asia. 74 refs., 12 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. On the characteristics of aerosol indirect effect based on dynamic regimes in global climate models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, S.; Wang, M.; Ghan, S. J.; Ding, A.; Wang, H.; Zhang, K.; Neubauer, D.; Lohmann, U.; Ferrachat, S.; Takeamura, T.; et al

    2015-09-02

    Aerosol-cloud interactions continue to constitute a major source of uncertainty for the estimate of climate radiative forcing. The variation of aerosol indirect effects (AIE) in climate models is investigated across different dynamical regimes, determined by monthly mean 500 hPa vertical pressure velocity (?500), lower-tropospheric stability (LTS) and large-scale surface precipitation rate derived from several global climate models (GCMs), with a focus on liquid water path (LWP) response to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations. The LWP sensitivity to aerosol perturbation within dynamic regimes is found to exhibit a large spread among these GCMs. It is in regimes of strong large-scale ascendmore »(?500 ?1) and low clouds (stratocumulus and trade wind cumulus) where the models differ most. Shortwave aerosol indirect forcing is also found to differ significantly among different regimes. Shortwave aerosol indirect forcing in ascending regimes is as large as that in stratocumulus regimes, which indicates that regimes with strong large-scale ascend are as important as stratocumulus regimes in studying AIE. It is further shown that shortwave aerosol indirect forcing over regions with high monthly large-scale surface precipitation rate (> 0.1 mm d?1) contributes the most to the total aerosol indirect forcing (from 64 to nearly 100 %). Results show that the uncertainty in AIE is even larger within specific dynamical regimes than that globally, pointing to the need to reduce the uncertainty in AIE in different dynamical regimes.« less

  16. Variablity among electronic cigarettes in the pressure drop, airflow rate, and aerosol production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Talbot, Prue

    2013-01-01

    on the Ruyan e-cigarette cartridge and inhaled aerosol (pp.drop, length of time cartridges lasted, and production ofdevice that aerosolizes cartridge fluid which is in turn

  17. FY 2011 Second Quarter: Demonstration of New Aerosol Measurement Verification Testbed for Present-Day Global Aerosol Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koch, D

    2011-03-20

    The regional-scale Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is being used by a DOE Earth System Modeling (ESM) project titled “Improving the Characterization of Clouds, Aerosols and the Cryosphere in Climate Models” to evaluate the performance of atmospheric process modules that treat aerosols and aerosol radiative forcing in the Arctic. We are using a regional-scale modeling framework for three reasons: (1) It is easier to produce a useful comparison to observations with a high resolution model; (2) We can compare the behavior of the CAM parameterization suite with some of the more complex and computationally expensive parameterizations used in WRF; (3) we can explore the behavior of this parameterization suite at high resolution. Climate models like the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) being used within the Community Earth System Model (CESM) will not likely be run at mesoscale spatial resolutions (10–20 km) until 5–10 years from now. The performance of the current suite of physics modules in CAM5 at such resolutions is not known, and current computing resources do not permit high-resolution global simulations to be performed routinely. We are taking advantage of two tools recently developed under PNNL Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) projects for this activity. The first is the Aerosol Modeling Testbed (Fast et al., 2011b), a new computational framework designed to streamline the process of testing and evaluating aerosol process modules over a range of spatial and temporal scales. The second is the CAM5 suite of physics parameterizations that have been ported into WRF so that their performance and scale dependency can be quantified at mesoscale spatial resolutions (Gustafson et al., 2010; with more publications in preparation).

  18. Role of ammonia chemistry and coarse mode aerosols in global climatological inorganic aerosol distributions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, Keith

    , the aerosolassociated water depends on the composition of the #12;3 particles, which is determined by gas in a three dimensional chemical transport model to understand the roles of ammonia chemistry and natural precursors among modeled aerosol species selfconsistently with ambient relative humidity and natural

  19. Gas-phase products and secondary aerosol yields from the ozonolysis of ten different terpenes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Allen

    Gas-phase products and secondary aerosol yields from the ozonolysis of ten different terpenes Anita to examine the gas-phase oxidation product and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) yields from these reactions spectrometer (PTR-MS) was used to monitor the evolution of gas-phase products, identified by their mass

  20. Predicted change in global secondary organic aerosol concentrations in response to future climate, emissions, and land use change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heald, C. L.; Henze, D. K.; Horowitz, L. W.; Feddema, Johannes J.; Lamarque, J. F.; Guenther, A.; Hess, P. G.; Vitt, F.; Seinfeld, J. H.; Goldstein, A. H.; Fung, I.

    2008-03-01

    The sensitivity of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) concentration to changes in climate and emissions is investigated using a coupled global atmosphere-land model driven by the year 2100 IPCC A1B scenario predictions. The Community Atmosphere Model...

  1. Evaluating Clouds, Aerosols, and their Interactions in Three Global Climate Models using COSP and Satellite Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ban-Weiss, George; Jin, Ling; Bauer, S.; Bennartz, Ralph; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Kai; Ming, Yi; Guo, Huan; Jiang, Jonathan

    2014-09-23

    Accurately representing aerosol-cloud interactions in global climate models is challenging. As parameterizations evolve, it is important to evaluate their performance with appropriate use of observations. In this work we compare aerosols, clouds, and their interactions in three climate models (AM3, CAM5, ModelE) to MODIS satellite observations. Modeled cloud properties were diagnosed using the CFMIP Observations Simulator Package (COSP). Cloud droplet number concentrations (N) were derived using the same algorithm for both satellite-simulated model values and observations. We find that aerosol optical depth tau simulated by models is similar to observations. For N, AM3 and CAM5 capture the observed spatial pattern of higher values in near-coast versus remote ocean regions, though modeled values in general are higher than observed. In contrast, ModelE simulates lower N in most near-coast versus remote regions. Aerosol- cloud interactions were computed as the sensitivity of N to tau for marine liquid clouds off the coasts of South Africa and Eastern Asia where aerosol pollution varies in time. AM3 and CAM5 are in most cases more sensitive than observations, while the sensitivity for ModelE is statistically insignificant. This widely used sensitivity could be subject to misinterpretation due to the confounding influence of meteorology on both aerosols and clouds. A simple framework for assessing the N – tau sensitivity at constant meteorology illustrates that observed sensitivity can change from positive to statistically insignificant when including the confounding influence of relative humidity. Satellite simulated values of N were compared to standard model output and found to be higher with a bias of 83 cm-3.

  2. Global Distribution and Climate Forcing of Marine Organic Aerosol - Part 2: Effects on Cloud Properties and Radiative Forcing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gantt, Brett; Xu, Jun; Meskhidze, N.; Zhang, Yang; Nenes, Athanasios; Ghan, Steven J.; Liu, Xiaohong; Easter, Richard C.; Zaveri, Rahul A.

    2012-07-25

    A series of simulations with the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) with a 7-mode Modal Aerosol Model were conducted to assess the changes in cloud microphysical properties and radiative forcing resulting from marine organic aerosols. Model simulations show that the anthropogenic aerosol indirect forcing (AIF) predicted by CAM5 is decreased in absolute magnitude by up to 0.09 Wm{sup -2} (7 %) when marine organic aerosols are included. Changes in the AIF from marine organic aerosols are associated with small global increases in low-level incloud droplet number concentration and liquid water path of 1.3 cm{sup -3} (1.5 %) and 0.22 gm{sup -2} (0.5 %), respectively. Areas especially sensitive to changes in cloud properties due to marine organic aerosol include the Southern Ocean, North Pacific Ocean, and North Atlantic Ocean, all of which are characterized by high marine organic emission rates. As climate models are particularly sensitive to the background aerosol concentration, this small but non-negligible change in the AIF due to marine organic aerosols provides a notable link for ocean-ecosystem marine low-level cloud interactions and may be a candidate for consideration in future earth system models.

  3. A model of global net ecosystem production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Potter, C.S.; Matson, P.A. (NASA-Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (United States)); Field, C.B.; Randerson, J. (Carnegie Institution of Washington, Stanford, CA (United States)); Vitousek, P.M.; Mooney, H.A. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States))

    1993-06-01

    We present an ecosystem modeling approach to resolve global climate and edaphic controls on seasonal NEP patterns. Global remote sensing, climate and land surface data sets are used as inputs to drive a terrestrial carbon cycle model at 1[degrees]lat/lon resolution. monthly net primary productivity (NPP) is calculated using surface radiation and NDVI to determine photosynthesis, which is subsequently adjusted by temperature, water and nitrogen stress factors. Total nitrogen availability is coupled to net mineralization rates from litter soil carbon pools. Soil respiration and NPP balance one another globally at around 60 Gt C yr[sup [minus]1]. The seasonal amplitude of global NEP is 1.2 Gt C. Although substantial month-to-month variation is observed for tropical forest areas, seasonal amplitude is driven globally by boreal and temperate forest ecosystems between 650 and 30[degrees] N latitude.

  4. Aerosols and their influence on radiation partitioning and savanna productivity in northern Australia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kanniah, K. D.; Beringer, J.; Tapper, N. J.; Long, Charles N.

    2010-05-01

    We investigated the effect of aerosols and clouds on the Net Ecosystem Productivity (NEP) of savannas in northern Australia using aerosol optical depth, clouds and radiation data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site in Darwin and carbon flux data measured from eddy covariance techniques from a site at Howard Springs, 35km southeast of Darwin. Generally we found that the concentration of aerosols in this region was relatively low than observed at other sites, therefore the proportion of diffuse radiation reaching the earths surface was only ~ 30%. As a result, we observed only a modest change in carbon uptake under aerosol laden skies and there was no significant difference for dry season Radiation Use Efficiency (RUE) between clear sky, aerosols or thin clouds. On the other hand thick clouds in the wet season produce much more diffuse radiation than aerosols or thin clouds and therefore the initial canopy quantum efficiency was seen to increase 45 and 2.5 times more than under thin clouds and aerosols respectively. The normalized carbon uptake under thick clouds is 57% and 50% higher than under aerosols and thin clouds respectively even though the total irradiance received under thick clouds was reduced 59% and 50% than under aerosols and thin clouds respectively. However, reduction in total irradiance decreases the mean absolute carbon uptake as much as 22% under heavy cloud cover compared to thin clouds or aerosols. Thus, any increase in aerosol concentration or cloud cover that can enhance the diffuse component may have large impacts on productivity in this region.

  5. Aerosol Optical Depth Value-Added Product Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koontz, A; Hodges, G; Barnard, J; Flynn, C; Michalsky, J

    2013-03-17

    This document describes the process applied to retrieve aerosol optical depth (AOD) from multifilter rotating shadowband radiometers (MFRSR) and normal incidence multifilter radiometers (NIMFR) operated at the ARM Climate Research Facility’s ground-based facilities.

  6. Global fish production and climate change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brander, K.M.

    2007-12-11

    Current global fisheries production of {approx}160 million tons is rising as a result of increases in aquaculture production. A number of climate-related threats to both capture fisheries and aquaculture are identified, but there is low confidence in predictions of future fisheries production because of uncertainty over future global aquatic net primary production and the transfer of this production through the food chain to human consumption. Recent changes in the distribution and productivity of a number of fish species can be ascribed with high confidence to regional climate variability, such as the El Nino-Southern Oscillation. Future production may increase in some high-latitude regions because of warming and decreased ice cover, but the dynamics in low-latitude regions are giverned by different processes, and production may decline as a result of reduced vertical mixing of the water column and, hence, reduced recycling of nutrients. There are strong interactions between the effects of fishing and the effects of climate because fishing reduces the age, size, and geographic diversity of populations and the biodiversity of marine ecosystems, making both more sensitive to additional stresses such as climate change. Inland fisheries are additionally threatened by changes in precipiation and water management. The frequency and intensity of extreme climate events is likely to have a major impact on future fisheries production in both inland and marine systems. Reducing fishing mortality in the majority of fisheries, which are currently fully exploited or overexploited, is the pricipal feasible means of reducing the impacts of climate change.

  7. Products and Mechanisms of Ozone Reactions with Oleic Acid for Aerosol Particles Having Core-Shell Morphologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Products and Mechanisms of Ozone Reactions with Oleic Acid for Aerosol Particles Having Core of oleic acid aerosol particles with ozone are studied below 1% relative humidity. The particles have inert of the organic layer is monitored with increasing ozone exposure by using an aerosol mass spectrometer

  8. Intercomparison and Evaluation of Global Aerosol Microphysical Properties among AeroCom Models of a Range of Complexity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mann, G. W.; Carslaw, K. S.; Reddington, C. L.; Pringle, K. J.; Schulz, M.; Asmi, A.; Spracklen, D. V.; Ridley, D. A.; Woodhouse, M. T.; Lee, L. A.; Zhang, Kai; Ghan, Steven J.; Easter, Richard C.; Liu, Xiaohong; Stier, P.; Lee, Y. H.; Adams, P. J.; Tost, H.; Lelieveld, J.; Bauer, S.; Tsigaridis, Kostas; van Noije, T.; Strunk, A.; Vignati, E.; Bellouin, N.; Dalvi, M.; Johnson, C. E.; Bergman, T.; Kokkola, H.; Von Salzen, Knut; Yu, Fangqun; Luo, Gan; Petzold, A.; Heintzenberg, J.; Clarke, A. D.; Ogren, J. A.; Gras, J.; Baltensperger, Urs; Kaminski, U.; Jennings, S. G.; O'Dowd, C. D.; Harrison, R. M.; Beddows, D. C.; Kulmala, M.; Viisanen, Y.; Ulevicius, V.; Mihalopoulos, Nikos; Zdimal, V.; Fiebig, M.; Hansson, H. C.; Swietlicki, E.; Henzing, J. S.

    2014-05-13

    Many of the next generation of global climate models will include aerosol schemes which explicitly simulate the microphysical processes that determine the particle size distribution. These models enable aerosol optical properties and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations to be determined by fundamental aerosol processes, which should lead to a more physically based simulation of aerosol direct and indirect radiative forcings. This study examines the global variation in particle size distribution simulated by twelve global aerosol microphysics models to quantify model diversity and to identify any common biases against observations. Evaluation against size distribution measurements from a new European network of aerosol supersites shows that the mean model agrees quite well with the observations at many sites on the annual mean, but there are some seasonal biases common to many sites. In particular, at many of these European sites, the accumulation mode number concentration is biased low during winter and Aitken mode concentrations tend to be overestimated in winter and underestimated in summer. At high northern latitudes, the models strongly underpredict Aitken and accumulation particle concentrations compared to the measurements, consistent with previous studies that have highlighted the poor performance of global aerosol models in the Arctic. In the marine boundary layer, the models capture the observed meridional variation in the size distribution, which is dominated by the Aitken mode at high latitudes, with an increasing concentration of accumulation particles with decreasing latitude. Considering vertical profiles, the models reproduce the observed peak in total particle concentrations in the upper troposphere due to new particle formation, although modelled peak concentrations tend to be biased high over Europe. Overall, the results suggest that most global aerosol microphysics models simulate the global variation of the particle size distribution with a good degree of skill, but some models are in poor agreement with the observations. Further work is required to better constrain size-resolved primary and secondary particle number sources, and an improved understanding of nucleation and growth (e.g. the role of nitrate and secondary organics) will improve the fidelity of simulated particle size distributions.

  9. The AeroCom Evaluation and Intercomparison of Organic Aerosol in Global Models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tsigaridis, Kostas [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Center for Climate Systems Research; NASA Goddard Inst. for Space Studies, New York, NY (United States); Daskalakis, N. [Univ. of Crete, Heraklion (Greece). Environmental Chemical Processes Lab.; Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas, Patras (Greece); Inst. of Chemical Engineering; Kanakidou, M. [Univ. of Crete, Heraklion (Greece). Environmental Chemical Processes Lab.; ; Adams, P. J. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Dept. of Engineering and Public Policy; Artaxo, Paulo [Univ. of Sao Paulo (Brazil). Dept of Applied Physics; Bahadur, R. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States). Scripps Inst. of Oceanography; Balkanski, Y. [Lab. des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Bauer, S. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Center for Climate Systems Research; NASA Goddard Inst. for Space Studies, New York, NY (United States); Bellouin, N. [Met Office Hadley Centre, Exeter (United Kingdom); Benedetti, Angela [ECMWF, Reading (United Kingdom); Bergman, T. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Kuopio (Finland); Berntsen, T. [Univ. of Oslo (Norway). Dept. of Geosciences; CICERO, Oslo (Norway); Beukes, J. P. [North-West Univ., Potchestroom (South Africa). Environmental Sciences and Management; Bian, Huisheng [Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore County, MD (United States). Joint Center for Environmental Technology; Carslaw, K. S. [Univ. of Leeds (United Kingdom). School of Earth and Environment; Chin, M. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States); Curci, Gabriele [Univ. of L'Aquila (Italy). Dept of Physics CETEMPS; Diehl, Thomas [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and Universities Space Research Association, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Easter, Richard C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ghan, Steven J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gong, S. [Meteorological Service of Canada, Toronto (Canada). Air Quality Research Branch; Hodzic, Alma [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Hoyle, Christopher R. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Swiss Federal Inst. for Forest Snow and Landscape Research (WSL) - Inst. for Snow and Avalanche Research (SLF), Davos (Switzerland); Iversen, T. [ECMWF, Reading (United Kingdom); Univ. of Oslo (Norway). Dept. of Geosciences; Norwegian Meteorological Inst., Oslo (Norway); Jathar, S. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Jimenez, J. L. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry; Kaiser, J. W. [ECMWF, Reading (United Kingdom); King's College London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geography; Max Planck Society, Mainz (Germany). Max Planck Inst. for Chemistry, Dept. of Atmospheric Chemistry; ; Kirkevag, A. [Norwegian Meteorological Inst., Oslo (Norway); Koch, Dorothy [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Center for Climate Systems Research; NASA Goddard Inst. for Space Studies, New York, NY (United States); Kokkola, H. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Kuopio (Finland); Lee, Y. H. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Lin, G. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Science; Liu, Xiaohong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Luo, Gan [State Univ. of New York (SUNY), Albany, NY (United States); Ma, Xiaoyan [Environment Canada, Victoria, BC (Canada); Mann, G. W. [Univ. of Leeds (United Kingdom). National Centre for Atmospheric Science and School of Earth and Environment; Mihalopoulos, Nikos [Univ. of Crete, Heraklion (Greece). Environmental Chemical Processes Lab.; Morcrette, J. -J. [ECMWF, Reading (United Kingdom); Muller, J. F. [Belgian Inst. for Space Aeronomy, Brussels (Belgium); Myhre, G. [Center for International Climate and Environmental Research (CICERO), Oslo (Norway)

    2014-01-01

    This paper evaluates the current status of global modeling of the organic aerosol (OA) occurrence in the troposphere and analyzes the differences calculated between models as well as between models and observations. Thirty-one global chemistry/transport and general circulation models have participated in this intercomparison, in the framework of AeroCom phase II. The simulation of OA varies greatly between models in terms of the magnitude of primary emissions, secondary OA (SOA) formation, the number of OA species used (2 to 62), the complexity of OA parameterizations (gas-particle partitioning, chemical aging, multiphase chemistry, aerosol microphysics), and the OA physical, chemical and optical properties. The diversity of the global OA simulation results has increased since earlier AeroCom experiments, mainly due to the increasing complexity of the SOA parameterization in models, and the implementation of new, highly uncertain, OA sources. Diversity of over an order of magnitude exists in the modeled vertical distribution of OA that deserves a dedicated future study. Furthermore, although the OA/OC ratio depends on OA sources and atmospheric processing and is important for model evaluation against OA and OC observations, it is resolved only by few global models. The median global primary OA source strength is 56 Tg a-1 (range 34 - 144 Tg a-1) and the median secondary OA source strength (natural and anthropogenic) is 19 Tg a-1 (range 13-121 Tg a-1). Among the models that take into account the semi-volatile SOA nature, the median source is calculated to be 51 Tg a-1 (range 16-121 Tg a-1), much larger than the median value of the models that calculate SOA in a more simplistic way (19 Tg a-1; range 13-20 Tg a-1, with one model at 37 Tg a-1). The median atmospheric burden of OA is 1.4 Tg (24 models in the range of 0.6-2.0 Tg and 4 between 2.4-3.8 Tg) with a median OA lifetime of 5.4 days (range 3.8-9.6 days). In models that reported both OA and sulfate burdens, the median value of the OA/sulfate burden ratio of is calculated to be 0.77; 13 models calculate a ratio lower than 1, and 9 models higher than 1. For 26 models that reported OA deposition fluxes, the median wet removal is 70 Tg a-1 (range 28-209 Tg a-1), which is on average 85% of the total OA deposition.

  10. AERONET: The Aerosol Robotic Network

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    AERONET collaboration provides globally distributed observations of spectral aerosol optical Depth (AOD), inversion products, and precipitable water in diverse aerosol regimes. Aerosol optical depth data are computed for three data quality levels: Level 1.0 (unscreened), Level 1.5 (cloud-screened), and Level 2.0 (cloud screened and quality-assured). Inversions, precipitable water, and other AOD-dependent products are derived from these levels and may implement additional quality checks.[Copied from http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov/new_web/system_descriptions.html

  11. Global product development : a framework for organizational diagnosis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martínez, Víctor Takahiro Endo

    2008-01-01

    The main purpose of this thesis is to present an approach for analyzing product development organizations in a globalizing world. The fragmentation and distribution of several product development activities in the global ...

  12. Global observations of UV-absorbing aerosols from ERS-2/GOME Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graaf, Martin de

    Absorbing Aerosol Index ­ Theory GOME AAI results Conclusions & Outlook #12; Absorbing Aerosol Index Solar zenith angle = 30° Viewing zenith angle = 0° Surface albedo = 5% #12; Reflectance at TOA with absorbing aerosols Doubling-Adding KNMI Radiative Transfer Model Solar zenith angle = 30° Viewing zenith

  13. The AeroCom evaluation and intercomparison of organic aerosol in global models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tsigaridis, K.; Daskalakis, N.; Kanakidou, M.; Adams, P. J.; Artaxo, P.; Bahadur, R.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S. E.; Bellouin, N.; Benedetti, A.; et al

    2014-10-15

    This paper evaluates the current status of global modeling of the organic aerosol (OA) in the troposphere and analyzes the differences between models as well as between models and observations. Thirty-one global chemistry transport models (CTMs) and general circulation models (GCMs) have participated in this intercomparison, in the framework of AeroCom phase II. The simulation of OA varies greatly between models in terms of the magnitude of primary emissions, secondary OA (SOA) formation, the number of OA species used (2 to 62), the complexity of OA parameterizations (gas-particle partitioning, chemical aging, multiphase chemistry, aerosol microphysics), and the OA physical, chemicalmore »and optical properties. The diversity of the global OA simulation results has increased since earlier AeroCom experiments, mainly due to the increasing complexity of the SOA parameterization in models, and the implementation of new, highly uncertain, OA sources. Diversity of over one order of magnitude exists in the modeled vertical distribution of OA concentrations that deserves a dedicated future study. Furthermore, although the OA / OC ratio depends on OA sources and atmospheric processing, and is important for model evaluation against OA and OC observations, it is resolved only by a few global models. The median global primary OA (POA) source strength is 56 Tg a–1 (range 34–144 Tg a?1) and the median SOA source strength (natural and anthropogenic) is 19 Tg a–1 (range 13–121 Tg a?1). Among the models that take into account the semi-volatile SOA nature, the median source is calculated to be 51 Tg a–1 (range 16–121 Tg a?1), much larger than the median value of the models that calculate SOA in a more simplistic way (19 Tg a–1; range 13–20 Tg a–1, with one model at 37 Tg a?1). The median atmospheric burden of OA is 1.4 Tg (24 models in the range of 0.6–2.0 Tg and 4 between 2.0 and 3.8 Tg), with a median OA lifetime of 5.4 days (range 3.8–9.6 days). In models that reported both OA and sulfate burdens, the median value of the OA/sulfate burden ratio is calculated to be 0.77; 13 models calculate a ratio lower than 1, and 9 models higher than 1. For 26 models that reported OA deposition fluxes, the median wet removal is 70 Tg a–1 (range 28–209 Tg a?1), which is on average 85% of the total OA deposition. Fine aerosol organic carbon (OC) and OA observations from continuous monitoring networks and individual field campaigns have been used for model evaluation. At urban locations, the model–observation comparison indicates missing knowledge on anthropogenic OA sources, both strength and seasonality. The combined model–measurements analysis suggests the existence of increased OA levels during summer due to biogenic SOA formation over large areas of the USA that can be of the same order of magnitude as the POA, even at urban locations, and contribute to the measured urban seasonal pattern. Global models are able to simulate the high secondary character of OA observed in the atmosphere as a result of SOA formation and POA aging, although the amount of OA present in the atmosphere remains largely underestimated, with a mean normalized bias (MNB) equal to –0.62 (–0.51) based on the comparison against OC (OA) urban data of all models at the surface, –0.15 (+0.51) when compared with remote measurements, and –0.30 for marine locations with OC data. The mean temporal correlations across all stations are low when compared with OC (OA) measurements: 0.47 (0.52) for urban stations, 0.39 (0.37) for remote stations, and 0.25 for marine stations with OC data. The combination of high (negative) MNB and higher correlation at urban stations when compared with the low MNB and lower correlation at remote sites suggests that knowledge about the processes that govern aerosol processing, transport and removal, on top of their sources, is important at the remote stations. There is no clear change in model skill with increasing model complexity with regard to OC or OA mass concentration. As a

  14. The AeroCom Evaluation and Intercomparison of Organic Aerosol in Global Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsigaridis, Kostas; Daskalakis, N.; Kanakidou, M.; Adams, P. J.; Artaxo, Paulo; Bahadur, R.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S.; Bellouin, N.; Benedetti, Angela; Bergman, T.; Berntsen, T.; Beukes, J. P.; Bian, Huisheng; Carslaw, K. S.; Chin, M.; Curci, Gabriele; Diehl, Thomas; Easter, Richard C.; Ghan, Steven J.; Gong, S.; Hodzic, Alma; Hoyle, Christopher R.; Iversen, T.; Jathar, S.; Jimenez, J. L.; Kaiser, J. W.; Kirkevag, A.; Koch, Dorothy; Kokkola, H.; Lee, Y. H.; Lin, G.; Liu, Xiaohong; Luo, Gan; Ma, Xiaoyan; Mann, G. W.; Mihalopoulos, Nikos; Morcrette, J. -J.; Muller, J. F.; Myhre, G.; Myriokefalitakis, S.; Ng, Nga L.; O'Donell, D.; Penner, J. E.; Pozzoli, L.; Pringle, K. J.; Russell, Lynn; Schulz, M.; Sciare, J.; Seland, O.; Shindell, Drew; Sillman, S.; Skeie, R. B.; Spracklen, D. V.; Stavrakou, T.; Steenrod, Stephen D.; Takemura, T.; Tiitta, P.; Tilmes, S.; Tost, H.; van Noije, T.; van Zyl, P. G.; von Salzen, Knut; Yu, Fangqun; Wang, Zaizi; Wang, Zhilli; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Xiaoye

    2014-10-15

    This paper evaluates the current status of global modeling of the organic aerosol (OA) occurrence in the troposphere and analyzes the differences calculated between models as well as between models and observations. Thirty-one global chemistry/transport and general circulation models have participated in this intercomparison, in the framework of AeroCom phase II. The simulation of OA varies greatly between models in terms of the magnitude of primary emissions, secondary OA (SOA) formation, the number of OA species used (2 to 62), the complexity of OA parameterizations (gas-particle partitioning, chemical aging, multiphase chemistry, aerosol microphysics), and the OA physical, chemical and optical properties. The diversity of the global OA simulation results has increased since earlier AeroCom experiments, mainly due to the increasing complexity of the SOA parameterization in models, and the implementation of new, highly uncertain, OA sources. Diversity of over an order of magnitude exists in the modeled vertical distribution of OA that deserves a dedicated future study. Furthermore, although the OA/OC ratio depends on OA sources and atmospheric processing and is important for model evaluation against OA and OC observations, it is resolved only by few global models. The median global primary OA source strength is 56 Tg a-1 (range 34 - 144 Tg a-1) and the median secondary OA source strength (natural and anthropogenic) is 19 Tg a-1 (range 13-121 Tg a-1). Among the models that take into account the semi-volatile SOA nature, the median source is calculated to be 51 Tg a-1 (range 16-121 Tg a-1), much larger than the median value of the models that calculate SOA in a more simplistic way (19 Tg a-1; range 13-20 Tg a-1, with one model at 37 Tg a-1). The median atmospheric burden of OA is 1.4 Tg (24 models in the range of 0.6-2.0 Tg and 4 between 2.4-3.8 Tg) with a median OA lifetime of 5.4 days (range 3.8-9.6 days). In models that reported both OA and sulfate burdens, the median value of the OA/sulfate burden ratio of is calculated to be 0.77; 13 models calculate a ratio lower than 1, and 9 models higher than 1. For 26 models that reported OA deposition fluxes, the median wet removal is 70 Tg a-1 (range 28-209 Tg a-1), which is on average 85% of the total OA deposition.

  15. Global and regional modeling of clouds and aerosols in the marine boundary layer during VOCALS: the VOCA intercomparison

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wyant, M. C.; Bretherton, Christopher S.; Wood, Robert; Carmichael, Gregory; Clarke, A. D.; Fast, Jerome D.; George, R.; Gustafson, William I.; Hannay, Cecile; Lauer, Axel; et al

    2015-01-09

    A diverse collection of models are used to simulate the marine boundary layer in the southeast Pacific region during the period of the October–November 2008 VOCALS REx (VAMOS Ocean Cloud Atmosphere Land Study Regional Experiment) field campaign. Regional models simulate the period continuously in boundary-forced free-running mode, while global forecast models and GCMs (general circulation models) are run in forecast mode. The models are compared to extensive observations along a line at 20° S extending westward from the South American coast. Most of the models simulate cloud and aerosol characteristics and gradients across the region that are recognizably similar tomore »observations, despite the complex interaction of processes involved in the problem, many of which are parameterized or poorly resolved. Some models simulate the regional low cloud cover well, though many models underestimate MBL (marine boundary layer) depth near the coast. Most models qualitatively simulate the observed offshore gradients of SO2, sulfate aerosol, CCN (cloud condensation nuclei) concentration in the MBL as well as differences in concentration between the MBL and the free troposphere. Most models also qualitatively capture the decrease in cloud droplet number away from the coast. However, there are large quantitative intermodel differences in both means and gradients of these quantities. Many models are able to represent episodic offshore increases in cloud droplet number and aerosol concentrations associated with periods of offshore flow. Most models underestimate CCN (at 0.1% supersaturation) in the MBL and free troposphere. The GCMs also have difficulty simulating coastal gradients in CCN and cloud droplet number concentration near the coast. The overall performance of the models demonstrates their potential utility in simulating aerosol–cloud interactions in the MBL, though quantitative estimation of aerosol–cloud interactions and aerosol indirect effects of MBL clouds with these models remains uncertain.« less

  16. Global and regional modeling of clouds and aerosols in the marine boundary layer during VOCALS: the VOCA intercomparison

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wyant, M. C.; Bretherton, Christopher S.; Wood, Robert; Carmichael, Gregory; Clarke, A. D.; Fast, Jerome D.; George, R.; Gustafson, William I.; Hannay, Cecile; Lauer, Axel; Lin, Yanluan; Morcrette, J. -J.; Mulcahay, Jane; Saide, Pablo; Spak, S. N.; Yang, Qing

    2015-01-01

    A diverse collection of models are used to simulate the marine boundary layer in the southeast Pacific region during the period of the October–November 2008 VOCALS REx (VAMOS Ocean Cloud Atmosphere Land Study Regional Experiment) field campaign. Regional models simulate the period continuously in boundary-forced free-running mode, while global forecast models and GCMs (general circulation models) are run in forecast mode. The models are compared to extensive observations along a line at 20° S extending westward from the South American coast. Most of the models simulate cloud and aerosol characteristics and gradients across the region that are recognizably similar to observations, despite the complex interaction of processes involved in the problem, many of which are parameterized or poorly resolved. Some models simulate the regional low cloud cover well, though many models underestimate MBL (marine boundary layer) depth near the coast. Most models qualitatively simulate the observed offshore gradients of SO2, sulfate aerosol, CCN (cloud condensation nuclei) concentration in the MBL as well as differences in concentration between the MBL and the free troposphere. Most models also qualitatively capture the decrease in cloud droplet number away from the coast. However, there are large quantitative intermodel differences in both means and gradients of these quantities. Many models are able to represent episodic offshore increases in cloud droplet number and aerosol concentrations associated with periods of offshore flow. Most models underestimate CCN (at 0.1% supersaturation) in the MBL and free troposphere. The GCMs also have difficulty simulating coastal gradients in CCN and cloud droplet number concentration near the coast. The overall performance of the models demonstrates their potential utility in simulating aerosol–cloud interactions in the MBL, though quantitative estimation of aerosol–cloud interactions and aerosol indirect effects of MBL clouds with these models remains uncertain.

  17. Effect of Terrestrial and Marine Organic Aerosol on Regional and Global Climate: Model Development, Application, and Verification with Satellite Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meskhidze, Nicholas; Zhang, Yang; Kamykowski, Daniel

    2012-03-28

    In this DOE project the improvements to parameterization of marine primary organic matter (POM) emissions, hygroscopic properties of marine POM, marine isoprene derived secondary organic aerosol (SOA) emissions, surfactant effects, new cloud droplet activation parameterization have been implemented into Community Atmosphere Model (CAM 5.0), with a seven mode aerosol module from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)���¢��������s Modal Aerosol Model (MAM7). The effects of marine aerosols derived from sea spray and ocean emitted biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) on microphysical properties of clouds were explored by conducting 10 year CAM5.0-MAM7 model simulations at a grid resolution 1.9�������°��������2.5�������° with 30 vertical layers. Model-predicted relationship between ocean physical and biological systems and the abundance of CCN in remote marine atmosphere was compared to data from the A-Train satellites (MODIS, CALIPSO, AMSR-E). Model simulations show that on average, primary and secondary organic aerosol emissions from the ocean can yield up to 20% increase in Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) at 0.2% Supersaturation, and up to 5% increases in droplet number concentration of global maritime shallow clouds. Marine organics were treated as internally or externally mixed with sea salt. Changes associated with cloud properties reduced (absolute value) the model-predicted short wave cloud forcing from -1.35 Wm-2 to -0.25 Wm-2. By using different emission scenarios, and droplet activation parameterizations, this study suggests that addition of marine primary aerosols and biologically generated reactive gases makes an important difference in radiative forcing assessments. All baseline and sensitivity simulations for 2001 and 2050 using global-through-urban WRF/Chem (GU-WRF) were completed. The main objective of these simulations was to evaluate the capability of GU-WRF for an accurate representation of the global atmosphere by exploring the most accurate configuration of physics options in GWRF for global scale modeling in 2001 at a horizontal grid resolution of 1�������° x 1�������°. GU-WRF model output was evaluated using observational datasets from a variety of sources including surface based observations (NCDC and BSRN), model reanalysis (NCEP/ NCAR Reanalysis and CMAP), and remotely-sensed data (TRMM) to evaluate the ability of GU-WRF to simulate atmospheric variables at the surface as well as aloft. Explicit treatment of nanoparticles produced from new particle formation in GU-WRF/Chem-MADRID was achieved by expanding particle size sections from 8 to 12 to cover particles with the size range of 1.16 nm to 11.6 �������µm. Simulations with two different nucleation parameterizations were conducted for August 2002 over a global domain at a 4�������º by 5�������º horizontal resolution. The results are evaluated against field measurement data from the 2002 Aerosol Nucleation and Real Time Characterization Experiment (ANARChE) in Atlanta, Georgia, as well as satellite and reanalysis data. We have also explored the relationship between ���¢��������clean marine���¢������� aerosol optical properties and ocean surface wind speed using remotely sensed data from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) on board the CALIPSO satellite and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) on board the AQUA satellite. Detailed data analyses

  18. Evaluating aerosol direct radiative effects on global terrestrial ecosystem carbon dynamics from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhuang, Qianlai

    loading normally induces lower solar energy arriving at the land surface whereas plant photosynthesis of diffuse solar radiation for plant carbon uptake. Comparing with direct-beam solar radiation, diffuse solar to quantify aerosol effects on downward solar radiation. Simulations with and without considering the aerosol

  19. Sensitivity of global-scale climate change attribution results to inclusion of fossil fuel black carbon aerosol - article no. L14701

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, G.S.; Jones, A.; Roberts, D.L.; Stott, P.A.; Williams, K.D.

    2005-07-16

    It is likely that greenhouse gas emissions caused most of the global mean warming observed during the 20th century, and that sulphate aerosols counteracted this warming to some extent, by reflecting solar radiation to space and thereby cooling the planet. However, the importance of another aerosol, namely black carbon, could be underestimated. Here we include fossil fuel black carbon aerosol in a detection and attribution analysis with greenhouse gas and sulphate aerosols. We find that most of the warming of the 20th Century is attributable to changes in greenhouse gases offset by net aerosol cooling. However the pattern of temperature change due to black carbon is currently indistinguishable from the sulphate aerosol pattern of temperature change. The attribution of temperature change due to greenhouse gases is not sensitive to the inclusion of black carbon. We can be confident about the overall attribution of total aerosols, but less so about the contributions of black carbon emissions to 20th century climate change. This work presents no evidence that black carbon aerosol forcing outweighed the cooling due to sulphate aerosol.

  20. Unattended Monitoring of HEU Production in Gaseous Centrifuge Enrichment Plants using Automated Aerosol Collection and Laser-based Enrichment Assay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Bushaw, Bruce A.

    2010-08-11

    Nuclear power is enjoying rapid growth as government energy policies and public demand shift toward low carbon energy production. Pivotal to the global nuclear power renaissance is the development and deployment of robust safeguards instrumentation that allows the limited resources of the IAEA to keep pace with the expansion of the nuclear fuel cycle. Undeclared production of highly enriched uranium (HEU) remains a primary proliferation concern for modern gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs), due to their massive separative work unit (SWU) processing power and comparably short cascade equilibrium timescale. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is developing an unattended safeguards instrument, combining continuous aerosol particulate collection with uranium isotope assay, to provide timely detection of HEU production within a GCEP. This approach is based on laser vaporization of aerosol particulates, followed by laser spectroscopy to characterize the uranium enrichment level. Our prior investigation demonstrated single-shot detection sensitivity approaching the femtogram range and relative isotope ratio uncertainty better than 10% using gadolinium as a surrogate for uranium. In this paper we present measurement results on standard samples containing traces of depleted, natural, and low enriched uranium, as well as measurements on aerodynamic size uranium particles mixed in background materials (e.g., dust, minerals, soils). Improvements and optimizations in the detection electronics, signal timing, calibration, and laser alignment have lead to significant improvements in detection sensitivity and enrichment accuracy, contributing to an overall reduction in the false alarm probability. The sample substrate media was also found to play a significant role in facilitating laser-induced vaporization and the production of energetic plasma conditions, resulting in ablation optimization and further improvements in the isotope abundance sensitivity.

  1. Simulated aerosol key optical properties over global scale using an aerosol transport model coupled with a new type of dynamic core

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Xiquan

    effects: (a) a direct effect in which aerosol particles scatter and absorb the solar and thermal radiation Atmospheric aerosols greatly impact the Earth's climate in many ways, and to date, not all of them are well

  2. Global Forest Products Trade by Ed Pepke, EFI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    change policies: escalation of wood energy production, consumption and trade 3. Globalization of forest Lacey Act Amendment f. EU renewable (wood) energy policies Forests, Markets, Policy & PracticeGlobal Forest Products Trade by Ed Pepke, EFI Forests, Markets, Policy & Practice Shanghai, China

  3. Global Biofuel Production and Food Security: Implications for Asia Pacific

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Global Biofuel Production and Food Security: Implications for Asia Pacific 56th AARES Annual Conference Fremantle, Western Australia 7-10 February 2012 William T. Coyle #12;Global Biofuel Production and Food Security: Making the Connection --Past analysis and the evidence about biofuels and spiking

  4. Reactive processing of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in aqueous aerosol mimics: Surface tension depression and secondary organic products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Zhi; Sareen, Neha; McNeill, V Faye

    2011-01-01

    The reactive uptake of carbonyl-containing volatile organic compounds (cVOCs) by aqueous atmospheric aerosols is a likely source of particulate organic material. The aqueous-phase secondary organic products of some cVOCs are surface-active. Therefore, cVOC uptake can lead to organic film formation at the gas-aerosol interface and changes in aerosol surface tension. We examined the chemical reactions of two abundant cVOCs, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, in water and aqueous ammonium sulfate (AS) solutions mimicking tropospheric aerosols. Secondary organic products were identified using Aerosol Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (Aerosol-CIMS), and changes in surface tension were monitored using pendant drop tensiometry. Hemiacetal oligomers and aldol condensation products were identified using Aerosol-CIMS. A hemiacetal sulfate ester was tentatively identified in the formaldehyde-AS system. Acetaldehyde depresses surface tension to 65(\\pm2) dyn/cm in pure water and 62(\\pm1) dyn/cm in AS solutions. Surface t...

  5. ARM - PI Product - Aerosol Retrievals from ARM SGP MFRSR Data

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska OutreachCalendar NSA Related LinksOxides ofProductsASRC RSS Data

  6. Evaluating inter-continental transport of fine aerosols:(2) Global health impact Junfeng Liu a,*,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mauzerall, Denise

    health on the Eurasian continent and would also benefit public health in the United States. Ó 2009.5 to be nearly 380 thousand (K) in 2000. Approximately half of these deaths occur in the Indian subcontinent (IN), mostly due to aerosols transported from Africa and the Middle East (ME). Approximately 90K deaths

  7. YEAR PROGRESS REPORT TITLE: Global Modeling of Tropospheric Aerosols and Their Contribution to Climate Variation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Livermore, CA 94550 GOALS The goals of this project are (1) to study is about 0.23×10-4 cm3 in stratus off the west coast of southern Africa to about 20×10-3 cm3 in thin susceptibility, cloud frequency as well as the incoming solar radiation. We found that biomass aerosols acting

  8. Multiday production of condensing organic aerosol mass in urban and forest outflow

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lee-Taylor, J.; Hodzic, A.; Madronich, S.; Aumont, B.; Camredon, M.; Valorso, R.

    2014-07-03

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production in air masses containing either anthropogenic or biogenic (terpene-dominated) emissions is investigated using the explicit gas-phase chemical mechanism generator GECKO-A. Simulations show several-fold increases in SOA mass continuing for several days in the urban outflow, even as the initial air parcel is diluted into the regional atmosphere. The SOA mass increase in the forest outflow is more modest (?50%) and of shorter duration (1–2 days). The production in the urban outflow stems from continuing oxidation of gas-phase precursors which persist in equilibrium with the particle phase, and can be attributed to multigenerational reaction products ofmore »both aromatics and alkanes. In particular we find large contributions from substituted maleic anhydrides and multi-substituted peroxide-bicyclic alkenes. The results show that the predicted production is a robust feature of our model even under changing atmospheric conditions, and contradict the notion that SOA undergoes little mass production beyond a short initial formation period. The results imply that anthropogenic aerosol precursors could influence the chemical and radiative characteristics of the atmosphere over an extremely wide region, and that SOA measurements near precursor sources may routinely underestimate this influence.« less

  9. GLOBAL OPTIMIZATION OF ENERGY AND PRODUCTION IN PROCESS INDUSTRIES: A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neumaier, Arnold

    produces filtered water for consumption in the various mill departments, and so the production rateGLOBAL OPTIMIZATION OF ENERGY AND PRODUCTION IN PROCESS INDUSTRIES: A GENETIC ALGORITHM APPLICATION a genetic algorithm is developed and applied for the optimal assignment of all the production sections

  10. Global Optimization Algorithms for Training Product Unit Neural

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neumaier, Arnold

    Global Optimization Algorithms for Training Product Unit Neural Networks A Ismaily and APDepartment of Computer Science, University of Pretoria, South Africa, engel@driesie.cs.up.ac.za Abstract Product unitsĆciently learn higher-order combinations of inputs. Training product unit networks using local optimization

  11. Multiday production of condensing organic aerosol mass in urban and forest outflow

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lee-Taylor, J.; Hodzic, A.; Madronich, S.; Aumont, B.; Camredon, M.; Valorso, R.

    2015-01-16

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production in air masses containing either anthropogenic or biogenic (terpene-dominated) emissions is investigated using the explicit gas-phase chemical mechanism generator GECKO-A. Simulations show several-fold increases in SOA mass continuing for multiple days in the urban outflow, even as the initial air parcel is diluted into the regional atmosphere. The SOA mass increase in the forest outflow is more modest (~50%) and of shorter duration (1–2 days). The multiday production in the urban outflow stems from continuing oxidation of gas-phase precursors which persist in equilibrium with the particle phase, and can be attributed to multigenerational reaction productsmore »of both aromatics and alkanes, especially those with relatively low carbon numbers (C4–15). In particular we find large contributions from substituted maleic anhydrides and multi-substituted peroxide-bicyclic alkenes. The results show that the predicted production is a robust feature of our model even under changing atmospheric conditions and different vapor pressure schemes, and contradict the notion that SOA undergoes little mass production beyond a short initial formation period. The results imply that anthropogenic aerosol precursors could influence the chemical and radiative characteristics of the atmosphere over an extremely wide region, and that SOA measurements near precursor sources may routinely underestimate this influence.« less

  12. Sensitivity of Tropospheric Chemical Composition to Halogen-Radical Chemistry Using a Fully Coupled Size-Resolved Multiphase Chemistry-Global Climate System: Halogen Distributions, Aerosol Composition, and Sensitivity of Climate-Relevant Gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, M.; Keene, W. C.; Easter, Richard C.; Sander, Rolf; Liu, Xiaohong; Kerkweg, A.; Erickson, D.

    2014-04-07

    Observations and model studies suggest a significant but highly non-linear role for halogens, primarily Cl and Br, in multiphase atmospheric processes relevant to tropospheric chemistry and composition, aerosol evolution, radiative transfer, weather, and climate. The sensitivity of global atmospheric chemistry to the production of marine aerosol and the associated activation and cycling of inorganic Cl and Br was tested using a size-resolved multiphase coupled chemistry/global climate model (National Center for Atmospheric Research’s Community Atmosphere Model (CAM); v3.6.33). Simulation results showed strong meridional and vertical gradients in Cl and Br species. The simulation reproduced most available observations with reasonable confidence permitting the formulation of potential mechanisms for several previously unexplained halogen phenomena including the enrichment of Br- in submicron aerosol, and the presence of a BrO maximum in the polar free troposphere. However, simulated total volatile Br mixing ratios were generally high in the troposphere. Br in the stratosphere was lower than observed due to the lack of long-lived organobromine species in the simulation. Comparing simulations using chemical mechanisms with and without reactive Cl and Br species demonstrated a significant temporal and spatial sensitivity of primary atmospheric oxidants (O3, HOx, NOx), CH4, and non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC’s) to halogen cycling. Simulated O3 and NOx were globally lower (65% and 35%, respectively, less in the planetary boundary layer based on median values) in simulations that included halogens. Globally, little impact was seen in SO2 and non-sea-salt SO42- processing due to halogens. Significant regional differences were evident: The lifetime of nss-SO42- was extended downwind of large sources of SO2. The burden and lifetime of DMS (and its oxidation products) were lower by a factor of 5 in simulations that included halogens, versus those without, leading to a 20% reduction in nss-SO42- in the southern hemisphere planetary boundary layer based on median values.

  13. Global Markets for Verified Legal Wood Products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    wood products (FSC, PEFC) Retailers interested in corporate social responsibility (CSR) and protecting reputation, starting in 1990s. FSC and PEFC certification standards developed, which include independent 3rd, PEFC) Major international companies, such as WalMart or IKEA, now require suppliers to be able

  14. The contribution of fungal spores and bacteria to regional and global aerosol number and ice nucleation immersion freezing rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spracklen, D. V.

    Primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs) may play an important role in aerosol–climate interactions, in particular by affecting ice formation in mixed phase clouds. However, the role of PBAPs is poorly understood because ...

  15. Supplemental Information : Secondary Organic Aerosol Production from Modern Diesel Engine Emissions, Shar Samy and1 Barbara Zielinska2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    Supplemental Information : Secondary Organic Aerosol Production from Modern Diesel Engine Emissions emissions. For more detail on compositional and toxicity changes produced from further29 diesel engine use of Final Mass 05/16/05 D-3, Diesel in Dark with ozone 9:15 11.5 15:30 11 -0.5 0.0 05/17/05 D-3, Diesel

  16. griculture must be transformed. Although global food production is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lehmann, Johannes

    `greenmanures',theeconomiccostof producingfoodinthiswayandtheneteffecton greenhouse-gasemissions6 .Inaddition,farming genetically modified crops is widely thoughtA griculture must be transformed. Although global food production is increasing, today's farming, food security (people's access to food and the qual- ity of that food), human health, and economic

  17. The Statistical Evolution of Multiple Generations of Oxidation Products in the Photochemical Aging of Chemically Reduced Organic Aerosol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, Kevin R.; Smith, Jared D.; Kessler, Sean; Kroll, Jesse H.

    2011-10-03

    The heterogeneous reaction of hydroxyl radicals (OH) with squalane and bis(2-ethylhexyl) sebacate (BES) particles are used as model systems to examine how distributions of reactionproducts evolve during the oxidation of chemically reduced organic aerosol. A kinetic model of multigenerational chemistry, which is compared to previously measured (squalane) and new(BES) experimental data, reveals that it is the statistical mixtures of different generations of oxidation products that control the average particle mass and elemental composition during thereaction. The model suggests that more highly oxidized reaction products, although initially formed with low probability, play a large role in the production of gas phase reaction products.In general, these results highlight the importance of considering atmospheric oxidation as a statistical process, further suggesting that the underlying distribution of molecules could playimportant roles in aerosol formation as well as in the evolution of key physicochemical properties such as volatility and hygroscopicity.

  18. Computing global offensive alliances in Cartesian product graphs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yero, Ismael G

    2012-01-01

    A global offensive alliance in a graph $G$ is a set $S$ of vertices with the property that every vertex not belonging to $S$ has at least one more neighbor in $S$ than it has outside of $S$. The global offensive alliance number of $G$, $\\gamma_o(G)$, is the minimum cardinality of a global offensive alliance in $G$. A set $S$ of vertices of a graph $G$ is a dominating set for $G$ if every vertex not belonging to $S$ has at least one neighbor in $S$. The domination number of $G$, $\\gamma(G)$, is the minimum cardinality of a dominating set of $G$. In this work we obtain closed formulas for the global offensive alliance number of several families of Cartesian product graphs, we also prove that $\\gamma_o(G\\square H)\\ge \\frac{\\gamma(G)\\gamma_o(H)}{2}$ for any graphs $G$ and $H$ and we show that if $G$ has an efficient dominating set, then $\\gamma_o(G\\square H)\\ge \\gamma(G)\\gamma_o(H).$ Moreover, we present a Vizing-like conjecture for the global offensive alliance number and we prove it for several families of grap...

  19. Ultraclean Two-Stage Aerosol Reactor for Production of Oxide-Passivated Silicon Nanoparticles for Novel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atwater, Harry

    voltage of this transistor. In a normal write/read/erase cycle, information is written by charge injection, and lower power dis- sipation. However, unless the nanoparticles are uniform in size, den- sity as an aerosol by pyrolysis of silane3 or disilane4 or by thermal evaporation of Si.5 In studies of Si

  20. Risks to global biodiversity from fossil-fuel production exceed those from biofuel production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale, Virginia H; Parish, Esther S; Kline, Keith L

    2015-01-01

    Potential global biodiversity impacts from near-term gasoline production are compared to biofuel, a renewable liquid transportation fuel expected to substitute for gasoline in the near term (i.e., from now until c. 2030). Petroleum exploration activities are projected to extend across more than 5.8 billion ha of land and ocean worldwide (of which 3.1 billion is on land), much of which is in remote, fragile terrestrial ecosystems or off-shore oil fields that would remain relatively undisturbed if not for interest in fossil fuel production. Future biomass production for biofuels is projected to fall within 2.0 billion ha of land, most of which is located in areas already impacted by human activities. A comparison of likely fuel-source areas to the geospatial distribution of species reveals that both energy sources overlap with areas with high species richness and large numbers of threatened species. At the global scale, future petroleum production areas intersect more than double the area and higher total number of threatened species than future biofuel production. Energy options should be developed to optimize provisioning of ecosystem services while minimizing negative effects, which requires information about potential impacts on critical resources. Energy conservation and identifying and effectively protecting habitats with high-conservation value are critical first steps toward protecting biodiversity under any fuel production scenario.

  1. Increasing global agricultural production by reducing ozone damages via methane emission controls and ozone-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mauzerall, Denise

    Increasing global agricultural production by reducing ozone damages via methane emission controls demonstrate the significant potential to sustainably improve global agricultural production by decreasing O3 degradation poses a major challenge for agricultural production. Because surface ozone (O3) has a significant

  2. Potential Direct and Indirect Effects of Global Cellulosic Biofuel Production on Greenhouse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Potential Direct and Indirect Effects of Global Cellulosic Biofuel Production on Greenhouse Gas on recycled paper #12;1 Potential Direct and Indirect Effects of Global Cellulosic Biofuel Production. Melillo*, John M. Reilly§ , and Sergey Paltsev§ Abstract The production of cellulosic biofuels may have

  3. Supply Chain Networks with Global Outsourcing and Quick-Response Production Under Demand and Cost Uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    Supply Chain Networks with Global Outsourcing and Quick-Response Production Under Demand and Cost framework for supply chain networks with global outsourcing and quick-response production under demand, and multiple demand markets. Using variational inequality theory, we formulate the governing equilibrium

  4. Supply Chain Networks with Global Outsourcing and Quick-Response Production Under Demand and Cost Uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    Supply Chain Networks with Global Outsourcing and Quick-Response Production Under Demand and Cost and computational framework for supply chain networks with global outsourcing and quick-response production under demand and cost uncertainty. Our model considers multiple off-shore suppliers, multiple manufacturers

  5. Mixed financial trend for global forest products sector continues Written by PricewaterhouseCoopers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    annual Global Forest, Paper and Packaging Industry Survey the three top regions in terms of return the industry's 10 - 12% target range. "The global forest, paper and packaging products sector continues forest and paper industry, and author of the PwC survey. "Mills with the lowest production cost

  6. Global and regional evolution of short-lived radiatively-active gases and aerosols in the Representative Concentration Pathways

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamarque, J.-F.; Kyle, G. Page; Meinshausen, Malte; Riahi, Keywan; Smith, Steven J.; Van Vuuren, Detlef; Conley, Andrew; Vitt, Francis

    2011-08-05

    In this paper, we discuss the results of 2000-2100 simulations with a chemistry-climate model, focusing on the changes in atmospheric composition (troposphere and stratosphere) following the emissions associated with the Representative Concentration Pathways. We show that tropospheric ozone is projected to decrease (RCP3PD and RCP4.5) or increase (RCP8.5) between 2000 and 2100. Surface ozone in 2100 is projected to change little compared from 2000 conditions, a much-reduced impact from the projections based on the A2 scenario. Aerosols are projected to strongly decrease in the 21st century, a reflection of their projected decrease in emissions. Similarly, sulfate deposition is projected to strongly decrease. However, nitrogen deposition is projected to increase over certain regions because of the projected increase NH3 emissions.

  7. Direct Aerosol Forcing Uncertainty

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mccomiskey, Allison

    Understanding sources of uncertainty in aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF), the difference in a given radiative flux component with and without aerosol, is essential to quantifying changes in Earth's radiation budget. We examine the uncertainty in DRF due to measurement uncertainty in the quantities on which it depends: aerosol optical depth, single scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, solar geometry, and surface albedo. Direct radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface as well as sensitivities, the changes in DRF in response to unit changes in individual aerosol or surface properties, are calculated at three locations representing distinct aerosol types and radiative environments. The uncertainty in DRF associated with a given property is computed as the product of the sensitivity and typical measurement uncertainty in the respective aerosol or surface property. Sensitivity and uncertainty values permit estimation of total uncertainty in calculated DRF and identification of properties that most limit accuracy in estimating forcing. Total uncertainties in modeled local diurnally averaged forcing range from 0.2 to 1.3 W m-2 (42 to 20%) depending on location (from tropical to polar sites), solar zenith angle, surface reflectance, aerosol type, and aerosol optical depth. The largest contributor to total uncertainty in DRF is usually single scattering albedo; however decreasing measurement uncertainties for any property would increase accuracy in DRF. Comparison of two radiative transfer models suggests the contribution of modeling error is small compared to the total uncertainty although comparable to uncertainty arising from some individual properties.

  8. Direct Aerosol Forcing Uncertainty

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mccomiskey, Allison

    2008-01-15

    Understanding sources of uncertainty in aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF), the difference in a given radiative flux component with and without aerosol, is essential to quantifying changes in Earth's radiation budget. We examine the uncertainty in DRF due to measurement uncertainty in the quantities on which it depends: aerosol optical depth, single scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, solar geometry, and surface albedo. Direct radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface as well as sensitivities, the changes in DRF in response to unit changes in individual aerosol or surface properties, are calculated at three locations representing distinct aerosol types and radiative environments. The uncertainty in DRF associated with a given property is computed as the product of the sensitivity and typical measurement uncertainty in the respective aerosol or surface property. Sensitivity and uncertainty values permit estimation of total uncertainty in calculated DRF and identification of properties that most limit accuracy in estimating forcing. Total uncertainties in modeled local diurnally averaged forcing range from 0.2 to 1.3 W m-2 (42 to 20%) depending on location (from tropical to polar sites), solar zenith angle, surface reflectance, aerosol type, and aerosol optical depth. The largest contributor to total uncertainty in DRF is usually single scattering albedo; however decreasing measurement uncertainties for any property would increase accuracy in DRF. Comparison of two radiative transfer models suggests the contribution of modeling error is small compared to the total uncertainty although comparable to uncertainty arising from some individual properties.

  9. Advanced skills required for engineering leaders in global product development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ayubi, Harry H

    2011-01-01

    Observations from first hand experience on the Boeing 787 Program during development of perhaps the most important and exciting new commercial airplane in recent history has identified opportunities to enhance the global ...

  10. Supporting Information for: A Global Comparison of National Biodiesel Production Potentials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    -specific vegetable oil production for feedstock i, country j FAO 2005 Units = metric tons APj Aggregate vegetable oil production for country j FAO 2005 Units = metric tons PEOij Potential exports of processed vegetable oilSupporting Information for: A Global Comparison of National Biodiesel Production Potentials Matt

  11. GLOBAL OPTIMIZATION OF MULTIPHASE FLOW NETWORKS IN OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johansen, Tor Arne

    1 GLOBAL OPTIMIZATION OF MULTIPHASE FLOW NETWORKS IN OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION SYSTEMS MSc. Hans, NTNU, Trondheim, Norway Abstract A mathematical program for finding the optimal oil production rates in an oil production system is developed. Each well may be manipulated by injecting lift gas and adjusting

  12. Trends in End-Use Industries to Shape Growth in Global Forest Products Market, According to a New Report by Global Industry Analysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , such as origin of raw materials, and manufacturing process. Globalization offers several benefits to the industry technologically improved products. Globalization has also brought about a gradual change, with sourcing of raw materials shifting to emerging forest producing regions. Demand for forest products is also determined

  13. Oil platforms off California are among the most productive marine fish habitats globally

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Love, Milton

    Oil platforms off California are among the most productive marine fish habitats globally Jeremy T (received for review June 20, 2014) Secondary (i.e., heterotrophic or animal) production is a main pathway. We found that oil and gas platforms off the coast of California have the highest secondary fish

  14. Global Simulation of Bioenergy Crop Productivity: Analytical framework and Case Study for Switchgrass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nair, S. Surendran [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)] [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Nichols, Jeff A. {Cyber Sciences} [ORNL; Post, Wilfred M [ORNL] [ORNL; Wang, Dali [ORNL] [ORNL; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL] [ORNL; Kline, Keith L [ORNL] [ORNL; Wei, Yaxing [ORNL] [ORNL; Singh, Nagendra [ORNL] [ORNL; Kang, Shujiang [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary global assessments of the deployment potential and sustainability aspects of biofuel crops lack quantitative details. This paper describes an analytical framework capable of meeting the challenges associated with global scale agro-ecosystem modeling. We designed a modeling platform for bioenergy crops, consisting of five major components: (i) standardized global natural resources and management data sets, (ii) global simulation unit and management scenarios, (iii) model calibration and validation, (iv) high-performance computing (HPC) modeling, and (v) simulation output processing and analysis. A case study with the HPC- Environmental Policy Integrated Climate model (HPC-EPIC) to simulate a perennial bioenergy crop, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and global biomass feedstock analysis on grassland demonstrates the application of this platform. The results illustrate biomass feedstock variability of switchgrass and provide insights on how the modeling platform can be expanded to better assess sustainable production criteria and other biomass crops. Feedstock potentials on global grasslands and within different countries are also shown. Future efforts involve developing databases of productivity, implementing global simulations for other bioenergy crops (e.g. miscanthus, energycane and agave), and assessing environmental impacts under various management regimes. We anticipated this platform will provide an exemplary tool and assessment data for international communities to conduct global analysis of biofuel biomass feedstocks and sustainability.

  15. Phase partitioning and volatility of secondary organic aerosol components formed from ?-pinene ozonolysis and OH oxidation: the importance of accretion products and other low volatility compounds

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lopez-Hilfiker, F. D.; Mohr, C.; Ehn, M.; Rubach, F.; Kleist, E.; Wildt, J.; Mentel, Th. F.; Carrasquillo, A.; Daumit, K.; Hunter, J.; et al

    2015-02-18

    We measured a large suite of gas and particle phase multi-functional organic compounds with a Filter Inlet for Gases and AEROsols (FIGAERO) coupled to a high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-CIMS) developed at the University of Washington. The instrument was deployed on environmental simulation chambers to study monoterpene oxidation as a secondary organic aerosol (SOA) source. We focus here on results from experiments utilizing an ionization method most selective towards acids (acetate negative ion proton transfer), but our conclusions are based on more general physical and chemical properties of the SOA. Hundreds of compounds were observed in both gasmore »and particle phases, the latter being detected upon temperature programmed thermal desorption of collected particles. Particulate organic compounds detected by the FIGAERO HR-ToF-CIMS are highly correlated with, and explain at least 25–50% of, the organic aerosol mass measured by an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS). Reproducible multi-modal structures in the thermograms for individual compounds of a given elemental composition reveal a significant SOA mass contribution from large molecular weight organics and/or oligomers (i.e. multi-phase accretion reaction products). Approximately 50% of the HR-ToF-CIMS particle phase mass is associated with compounds having effective vapor pressures 4 or more orders of magnitude lower than commonly measured monoterpene oxidation products. The relative importance of these accretion-type and other extremely low volatility products appears to vary with photochemical conditions. We present a desorption temperature based framework for apportionment of thermogram signals into volatility bins. The volatility-based apportionment greatly improves agreement between measured and modeled gas–particle partitioning for select major and minor components of the SOA, consistent with thermal decomposition during desorption causing the conversion of lower volatility components into the detected higher volatility compounds.« less

  16. Phase partitioning and volatility of secondary organic aerosol components formed from ?-pinene ozonolysis and OH oxidation: the importance of accretion products and other low volatility compounds

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lopez-Hilfiker, F. D.; Mohr, C.; Ehn, M.; Rubach, F.; Kleist, E.; Wildt, J.; Mentel, Th. F.; Carrasquillo, A. J.; Daumit, K. E.; Hunter, J. F.; et al

    2015-07-16

    We measured a large suite of gas- and particle-phase multi-functional organic compounds with a Filter Inlet for Gases and AEROsols (FIGAERO) coupled to a high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-CIMS) developed at the University of Washington. The instrument was deployed on environmental simulation chambers to study monoterpene oxidation as a secondary organic aerosol (SOA) source. We focus here on results from experiments utilizing an ionization method most selective towards acids (acetate negative ion proton transfer), but our conclusions are based on more general physical and chemical properties of the SOA. Hundreds of compounds were observed in both gas andmore »particle phases, the latter being detected by temperature-programmed thermal desorption of collected particles. Particulate organic compounds detected by the FIGAERO–HR-ToF-CIMS are highly correlated with, and explain at least 25–50 % of, the organic aerosol mass measured by an Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS). Reproducible multi-modal structures in the thermograms for individual compounds of a given elemental composition reveal a significant SOA mass contribution from high molecular weight organics and/or oligomers (i.e., multi-phase accretion reaction products). Approximately 50 % of the HR-ToF-CIMS particle-phase mass is associated with compounds having effective vapor pressures 4 or more orders of magnitude lower than commonly measured monoterpene oxidation products. The relative importance of these accretion-type and other extremely low volatility products appears to vary with photochemical conditions. We present a desorption-temperature-based framework for apportionment of thermogram signals into volatility bins. The volatility-based apportionment greatly improves agreement between measured and modeled gas-particle partitioning for select major and minor components of the SOA, consistent with thermal decomposition during desorption causing the conversion of lower volatility components into the detected higher volatility compounds.« less

  17. Marine aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saltzman, ES

    2009-01-01

    proper- ties found in the marine boundary layer over theand R. E. Larson (1994), Marine boundary layer measurementsand T. Hoffmann (2002), Marine aerosol formation from

  18. Industrialization and manufacturing steps within the Global Product Lifecycle context

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    lead-times, reduction of time to market, reduction of costs, mass customization demands, more complex steps within the Product Life cycle Management (PLM) context. Initially, PLM was focused almost Systems. New Challenges, New Approaches Springer (Ed.) (2012) 400-408" DOI : 10

  19. Stratospheric Albedo Modification by Aerosol Injection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katz, J I

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews and develops the proposal, widely discussed but not examined in detail, to use stratospheric aerosols to increase the Earth's albedo to Solar radiation in order to control climate change. The potential of this method has been demonstrated by the "natural experiments" of volcanic injection of sulfate aerosols into the stratosphere that led to subsequent observed global cooling. I consider several hygroscopic oxides as possible aerosol materials in addition to oxides of sulfur. Aerosol chemistry, dispersion and transport have been the subject of little study and are not understood, representing a significant scientific risk. Even the optimal altitude of injection and aerosol size distribution are poorly known. Past attention focused on guns and airplanes as means of lofting aerosols or their chemical precursors, but large sounding rockets are cheap, energetically efficient, can be designed to inject aerosols at any required altitude, and involve little technical risk. Sophisticated, mass-opti...

  20. Climatic effects of different aerosol types in China simulated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. GU

    2006-01-01

    P. Shettle (1991), Atmospheric Aero- sols—Global ClimatologyEffects of stratospheric aero- sols and preliminarytypes, such as volcanic aero- sols, desert aerosols, or

  1. he Impact of Primary Marine Aerosol on Atmospheric Chemistry, Radiation and Climate: A CCSM Model Development Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keene, William C.; Long, Michael S.

    2013-05-20

    This project examined the potential large-scale influence of marine aerosol cycling on atmospheric chemistry, physics and radiative transfer. Measurements indicate that the size-dependent generation of marine aerosols by wind waves at the ocean surface and the subsequent production and cycling of halogen-radicals are important but poorly constrained processes that influence climate regionally and globally. A reliable capacity to examine the role of marine aerosol in the global-scale atmospheric system requires that the important size-resolved chemical processes be treated explicitly. But the treatment of multiphase chemistry across the breadth of chemical scenarios encountered throughout the atmosphere is sensitive to the initial conditions and the precision of the solution method. This study examined this sensitivity, constrained it using high-resolution laboratory and field measurements, and deployed it in a coupled chemical-microphysical 3-D atmosphere model. First, laboratory measurements of fresh, unreacted marine aerosol were used to formulate a sea-state based marine aerosol source parameterization that captured the initial organic, inorganic, and physical conditions of the aerosol population. Second, a multiphase chemical mechanism, solved using the Max Planck Institute for Chemistryâ??s MECCA (Module Efficiently Calculating the Chemistry of the Atmosphere) system, was benchmarked across a broad set of observed chemical and physical conditions in the marine atmosphere. Using these results, the mechanism was systematically reduced to maximize computational speed. Finally, the mechanism was coupled to the 3-mode modal aerosol version of the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model (CAM v3.6.33). Decadal-scale simulations with CAM v.3.6.33, were run both with and without reactive-halogen chemistry and with and without explicit treatment of particulate organic carbon in the marine aerosol source function. Simulated results were interpreted (1) to evaluate influences of marine aerosol production on the microphysical properties of aerosol populations and clouds over the ocean and the corresponding direct and indirect effects on radiative transfer; (2) atmospheric burdens of reactive halogen species and their impacts on O3, NOx, OH, DMS, and particulate non-sea-salt SO42-; and (3) the global production and influences of marine-derived particulate organic carbon. The model reproduced major characteristics of the marine aerosol system and demonstrated the potential sensitivity of global, decadal-scale climate metrics to multiphase marine-derived components of Earthâ??s troposphere. Due to the combined computational burden of the coupled system, the currently available computational resources were the limiting factor preventing the adequate statistical analysis of the overall impact that multiphase chemistry might have on climate-scale radiative transfer and climate.

  2. Global Timber and Wood Products Market Update -a news brief from Wood Resources International LLC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Global Timber and Wood Products Market Update - a news brief from Wood Resources International LLC to be the major destination for Latin American wood chips, reports the Wood Resource Quarterly In late 2011 wood chips from only three countries: Vietnam, Indonesia and Australia, who together shipped 1

  3. Climate change and the socioeconomics of global food production: A quantitative analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rambaut, Andrew

    1 Climate change and the socioeconomics of global food production: A quantitative analysis of how, Andrew J. Dougill and Piers M. Forster August 2010 Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy Working Paper No. 29 #12;2 The Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy (CCCEP) was established

  4. Global Indirect Effects of U.S. Corn Ethanol Production: A Review of the Evidence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

    change issues at the Center for Energy Research and Development (CERD), Nigeria from 1991-1996. HeGlobal Indirect Effects of U.S. Corn Ethanol Production: A Review of the Evidence Energy security to gasoline over the next few decades. Specifically, the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA

  5. Atmospheric aerosol light scattering and polarization peculiarities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patlashenko, Zh I

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers environmental problems of natural and anthropogenic atmospheric aerosol pollution and its global and regional monitoring. Efficient aerosol investigations may be achieved by spectropolarimetric measurements. Specifically second and fourth Stokes parameters spectral dependencies carry information on averaged refraction and absorption indexes and on particles size distribution functions characteristics.

  6. The effects of potential changes in United States beef production on global grazing systems and greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Yaoqi

    and greenhouse gas emissions Jerome Dumortier1 , Dermot J Hayes2 , Miguel Carriquiry2 , Fengxia Dong3 , Xiaodong in the U.S. causes a net increase in GHG emissions on a global scale. We couple a global agricultural production in the United States. The effects on emissions from agricultural production (i.e., methane

  7. Global

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (Journalvivo Low-Dose Low LETUseful LinksGlass Stronger thanGlenn T.4Global

  8. Satellite observations of the seasonal cycles of absorbing aerosols in Africa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graaf, Martin de

    Satellite observations of the seasonal cycles of absorbing aerosols in Africa related to monsoon of aerosol emissions from the wet surface. 1. Introduction The main aerosol types occurring over Africa Africa can be characterized using Absorbing Aerosol Index (AAI) data from Global Ozone Monitoring

  9. Modelling estimation on the impacts of global warming on rice production in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Futang

    1997-12-31

    In this paper, based on the validation and sensitivity analyses of two rice growth models (ORYZA1 and DRISIC--Double Rice Cropping Simulation Model for China), and their joining with global warming scenarios projected by GCMs (GFDL, UKMO-H, MPI and DKRZ OPYC, DKRZ LSG, respectively), the modelling experiments were carried out on the potential impacts of global warming on rice production in China. The results show that although there are the some features for each rice cropping patterns because of different models and estimated methods, the rice production for all cropping patterns in China will trend to decrease with different degrees. In average, early, middle and later rice production, as well as, double-early and double-later rice production in different areas of China will decrease 3.7%, 10.5% and 10.4%, as well as, 15.9% and 14.4%, respectively. It do illustrates that the advantage effects induced by elevated CO{sub 2} concentration on photosynthesis does not compensate the adverse effects of temperature increase. Thus, it is necessary to adjusting rice cropping patterns, cultivars and farming techniques to the global warming timely.

  10. Laboratory Studies of Processing of Carbonaceous Aerosols by Atmospheric Oxidants/Hygroscopicity and CCN Activity of Secondary & Processed Primary Organic Aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziemann, P.J.; Arey, J.; Atkinson, R.; Kreidenweis, S.M.; Petters, M.D.

    2012-06-13

    The atmosphere is composed of a complex mixture of gases and suspended microscopic aerosol particles. The ability of these particles to take up water (hygroscopicity) and to act as nuclei for cloud droplet formation significantly impacts aerosol light scattering and absorption, and cloud formation, thereby influencing air quality, visibility, and climate in important ways. A substantial, yet poorly characterized component of the atmospheric aerosol is organic matter. Its major sources are direct emissions from combustion processes, which are referred to as primary organic aerosol (POA), or in situ processes in which volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are oxidized in the atmosphere to low volatility reaction products that subsequent condense to form particles that are referred to as secondary organic aerosol (SOA). POA and VOCs are emitted to the atmosphere from both anthropogenic and natural (biogenic) sources. The overall goal of this experimental research project was to conduct laboratory studies under simulated atmospheric conditions to investigate the effects of the chemical composition of organic aerosol particles on their hygroscopicity and cloud condensation nucleation (CCN) activity, in order to develop quantitative relationships that could be used to more accurately incorporate aerosol-cloud interactions into regional and global atmospheric models. More specifically, the project aimed to determine the products, mechanisms, and rates of chemical reactions involved in the processing of organic aerosol particles by atmospheric oxidants and to investigate the relationships between the chemical composition of organic particles (as represented by molecule sizes and the specific functional groups that are present) and the hygroscopicity and CCN activity of oxidized POA and SOA formed from the oxidation of the major classes of anthropogenic and biogenic VOCs that are emitted to the atmosphere, as well as model hydrocarbons. The general approach for this project was to carry out reactions of representative anthropogenic and biogenic VOCs and organic particles with ozone (O3), and hydroxyl (OH), nitrate (NO3), and chlorine (Cl) radicals, which are the major atmospheric oxidants, under simulated atmospheric conditions in large-volume environmental chambers. A combination of on-line and off-line analytical techniques were used to monitor the chemical and physical properties of the particles including their hygroscopicity and CCN activity. The results of the studies were used to (1) improve scientific understanding of the relationships between the chemical composition of organic particles and their hygroscopicity and CCN activity, (2) develop an improved molecular level theoretical framework for describing these relationships, and (3) establish a large database that is being used to develop parameterizations relating organic aerosol chemical properties and SOA sources to particle hygroscopicity and CCN activity for use in regional and global atmospheric air quality and climate models.

  11. A Study of Cloud Processing of Organic Aerosols Using Models and CHAPS Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ervens, Barbara

    2012-01-17

    The main theme of our work has been the identification of parameters that mostly affect the formation and modification of aerosol particles and their interaction with water vapor. Our detailed process model studies led to simplifications/parameterizations of these effects that bridge detailed aerosol information from laboratory and field studies and the need for computationally efficient expressions in complex atmospheric models. One focus of our studies has been organic aerosol mass that is formed in the atmosphere by physical and/or chemical processes (secondary organic aerosol, SOA) and represents a large fraction of atmospheric particulate matter. Most current models only describe SOA formation by condensation of low volatility (or semivolatile) gas phase products and neglect processes in the aqueous phase of particles or cloud droplets that differently affect aerosol size and vertical distribution and chemical composition (hygroscopicity). We developed and applied models of aqueous phase SOA formation in cloud droplets and aerosol particles (aqSOA). Placing our model results into the context of laboratory, model and field studies suggests a potentially significant contribution of aqSOA to the global organic mass loading. The second focus of our work has been the analysis of ambient data of particles that might act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) at different locations and emission scenarios. Our model studies showed that the description of particle chemical composition and mixing state can often be greatly simplified, in particular in aged aerosol. While over the past years many CCN studies have been successful performed by using such simplified composition/mixing state assumptions, much more uncertainty exists in aerosol-cloud interactions in cold clouds (ice or mixed-phase). Therefore we extended our parcel model that describes warm cloud formation by ice microphysics and explored microphysical parameters that determine the phase state and lifetime of Arctic mixed-phase clouds.

  12. A Sustainable Forest Products Industry is a Business and a Consumer Issue: PricewaterhouseCoopers Global home

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    issues do so at their peril," says Bruce McIntyre, leader of PwC's Forest, Paper and Packaging industryA Sustainable Forest Products Industry is a Business and a Consumer Issue: PricewaterhouseCoopers Global home close window A Sustainable Forest Products Industry is a Business and a Consumer Issue

  13. Aerosol Characterization Data from the Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Project (ACE-Asia)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Aerosol Characterization Experiments (ACE) were designed to increase understanding of how atmospheric aerosol particles affect the Earth's climate system. These experiments integrated in-situ measurements, satellite observations, and models to reduce the uncertainty in calculations of the climate forcing due to aerosol particles and improve the ability of models to predict the influences of aerosols on the Earth's radiation balance. ACE-Asia was the fourth in a series of experiments organized by the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) Program (A Core Project of the International Geosphere Biosphere Program). The Intensive Field Phase for ACE-Asia took place during the spring of 2001 (mid-March through early May) off the coast of China, Japan and Korea. ACE-Asia pursued three specific objectives: 1) Determine the physical, chemical, and radiative properties of the major aerosol types in the Eastern Asia and Northwest Pacific region and investigate the relationships among these properties. 2) Quantify the physical and chemical processes controlling the evolution of the major aerosol types and in particular their physical, chemical, and radiative properties. 3) Develop procedures to extrapolate aerosol properties and processes from local to regional and global scales, and assess the regional direct and indirect radiative forcing by aerosols in the Eastern Asia and Northwest Pacific region [Edited and shortened version of summary at http://data.eol.ucar.edu/codiac/projs?ACE-ASIA]. The Ace-Asia collection contains 174 datasets.

  14. Do biomass burning aerosols intensify drought in equatorial Asia during El Nińo?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tosca, M. G; Randerson, J. T; Zender, C. S; Flanner, M. G; Rasch, P. J

    2010-01-01

    fication of drought-induced biomass burning in Indonesiavariability in global biomass burning emissions from 1997 toChemistry and Physics Do biomass burning aerosols intensify

  15. Two Hundred Fifty Years of Aerosols and Climate: The End of the Age of Aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Steven J.; Bond, Tami C.

    2014-01-20

    Carbonaceous and sulfur aerosols have a substantial global and regional influence on climate in addition to their impact on health and ecosystems. The magnitude of this influence has changed substantially over the past and is expected to continue to change into the future. An integrated picture of the changing climatic influence of black carbon, organic carbon and sulfate over the period 1850 through 2100, focusing on uncertainty, is presented using updated historical inventories and a coordinated set of emission projections. While aerosols have had a substantial impact on climate over the past century, by the end of the 21st century aerosols will likely be only a minor contributor to radiative forcing due to increases in greenhouse gas forcing and a global decrease in pollutant emissions. This outcome is even more certain under a successful implementation of a policy to limit greenhouse gas emissions as low-carbon energy technologies that do not emit appreciable aerosol or SO2 are deployed.

  16. Monuments for capital : the production of urban centralities for a global economy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruthenberg, Yaacov Eyal

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: Monument, CBD, Office tower, Podium, Global economy, China. The Central Business District (CBD) is the monument of the regional urban condition. A monument, which is expressive of financial competence and global ...

  17. Creating ladders out of chains : China's technological development in a world of global production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuller, Douglas Brian

    2005-01-01

    With the advent of economic globalization, the terms of debate over the political and social conditions necessary to foster development in the Global South have shifted. Examining technological development, one important ...

  18. Globally Distributed Engineering Teams in Computational Fluid Dynamics and in Product Development 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Susanne R.

    2010-10-12

    Globally distributed engineering teams are a reality in globally operating companies. However, research on teams is often done by psychologists, with a focus on general team building and working processes, and seldom on engineering teams...

  19. A review of Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA) formation from isoprene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kroll, Jesse

    Recent field and laboratory evidence indicates that the oxidation of isoprene, (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene, C[subscript 5]H[subscript 8]) forms secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Global biogenic emissions of isoprene (600 Tg ...

  20. Aerosol mobility size spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Jian (Port Jefferson, NY); Kulkarni, Pramod (Port Jefferson Station, NY)

    2007-11-20

    A device for measuring aerosol size distribution within a sample containing aerosol particles. The device generally includes a spectrometer housing defining an interior chamber and a camera for recording aerosol size streams exiting the chamber. The housing includes an inlet for introducing a flow medium into the chamber in a flow direction, an aerosol injection port adjacent the inlet for introducing a charged aerosol sample into the chamber, a separation section for applying an electric field to the aerosol sample across the flow direction and an outlet opposite the inlet. In the separation section, the aerosol sample becomes entrained in the flow medium and the aerosol particles within the aerosol sample are separated by size into a plurality of aerosol flow streams under the influence of the electric field. The camera is disposed adjacent the housing outlet for optically detecting a relative position of at least one aerosol flow stream exiting the outlet and for optically detecting the number of aerosol particles within the at least one aerosol flow stream.

  1. CHILLING CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT GLOBAL WARMING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    CHILLING CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT GLOBAL WARMING: GREENHOUSE GASES, AEROSOLS, RADIATIVE FORCING dioxide increase: sources, mixing ratio, forcing Global temperature change Climate sensitivity and time;#12;ATMOSPHERIC RADIATION Energy per area per time Power per area Unit: Watt per square meter W m-2 #12;GLOBAL

  2. Total aerosol effect: forcing or radiative flux perturbation?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lohmann, Ulrike; Storelvmo, Trude; Jones, Andy; Rotstayn, Leon; Menon, Surabi; Quaas, Johannes; Ekman, Annica; Koch, Dorothy; Ruedy, Reto

    2009-09-25

    Uncertainties in aerosol forcings, especially those associated with clouds, contribute to a large extent to uncertainties in the total anthropogenic forcing. The interaction of aerosols with clouds and radiation introduces feedbacks which can affect the rate of rain formation. Traditionally these feedbacks were not included in estimates of total aerosol forcing. Here we argue that they should be included because these feedbacks act quickly compared with the time scale of global warming. We show that for different forcing agents (aerosols and greenhouse gases) the radiative forcings as traditionally defined agree rather well with estimates from a method, here referred to as radiative flux perturbations (RFP), that takes these fast feedbacks and interactions into account. Thus we propose replacing the direct and indirect aerosol forcing in the IPCC forcing chart with RFP estimates. This implies that it is better to evaluate the total anthropogenic aerosol effect as a whole.

  3. Systems integration for global sustainability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    footprinting of global biofuel production. Appl. Energy 112,tion research because biofuel production and consumption as90% of the global biofuel production of 105 billion liters

  4. Solid aerosol generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prescott, D.S.; Schober, R.K.; Beller, J.

    1992-03-17

    An improved solid aerosol generator used to produce a gas borne stream of dry, solid particles of predetermined size and concentration is disclosed. The improved solid aerosol generator nebulizes a feed solution of known concentration with a flow of preheated gas and dries the resultant wet heated aerosol in a grounded, conical heating chamber, achieving high recovery and flow rates. 2 figs.

  5. Improved solid aerosol generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prescott, D.S.; Schober, R.K.; Beller, J.

    1988-07-19

    An improved solid aerosol generator used to produce a gas borne stream of dry, solid particles of predetermined size and concentration. The improved solid aerosol generator nebulizes a feed solution of known concentration with a flow of preheated gas and dries the resultant wet heated aerosol in a grounded, conical heating chamber, achieving high recovery and flow rates. 2 figs.

  6. Electrically Driven Technologies for Radioactive Aerosol Abatement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David W. DePaoli; Ofodike A. Ezekoye; Costas Tsouris; Valmor F. de Almeida

    2003-01-28

    The purpose of this research project was to develop an improved understanding of how electriexecy driven processes, including electrocoalescence, acoustic agglomeration, and electric filtration, may be employed to efficiently treat problems caused by the formation of aerosols during DOE waste treatment operations. The production of aerosols during treatment and retrieval operations in radioactive waste tanks and during thermal treatment operations such as calcination presents a significant problem of cost, worker exposure, potential for release, and increased waste volume.

  7. Chemistry of ?-pinene and naphthalene oxidation products generated in a Potential Aerosol Mass (PAM) chamber as measured by acetate chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chhabra, P. S.; Lambe, A. T.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Stark, H.; Jayne, J. T.; Onasch, T. B.; Davidovits, P.; Kimmel, J. R.; Worsnop, D. R.

    2014-07-01

    Recent developments in high resolution, time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometry (HR-ToF-CIMS) have made possible the direct detection of atmospheric organic compounds in real-time with high sensitivity and with little or no fragmentation, including low volatility, highly oxygenated organic vapors that are precursors to secondary organic aerosol formation. Here, for the first time, we examine gas-phase O3 and OH oxidation products of ?-pinene and naphthalene formed in the PAM flow reactor with an HR-ToF-CIMS using acetate reagent ion chemistry. Integrated OH exposures ranged from 1.2 × 1011 to 9.7 × 1011 molec cm?3 s, corresponding to approximately 1.0 to 7.5 daysmore »of equivalent atmospheric oxidation. Measured gas-phase organic acids are similar to those previously observed in environmental chamber studies. For both precursors, we find that acetate-CIMS spectra capture both functionalization (oxygen addition) and fragmentation (carbon loss) as a function of OH exposure. The level of fragmentation is observed to increase with increased oxidation. We present a method that estimates vapor pressures of organic molecules using the measured O/C ratio, H/C ratio, and carbon number for each compound detected by the CIMS. The predicted condensed-phase SOA average acid yields and O/C and H/C ratios agree within uncertainties with previous AMS measurements and ambient CIMS results. While acetate reagent ion chemistry is used to selectively measure organic acids, in principle this method can be applied to additional reagent ion chemistries depending on the application.« less

  8. Impacts of aerosol-cloud interactions on past and future changes in tropospheric composition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unger, N.; Menon, S.; Shindell, D. T.; Koch, D. M.

    2009-02-02

    The development of effective emissions control policies that are beneficial to both climate and air quality requires a detailed understanding of all the feedbacks in the atmospheric composition and climate system. We perform sensitivity studies with a global atmospheric composition-climate model to assess the impact of aerosols on tropospheric chemistry through their modification on clouds, aerosol-cloud interactions (ACI). The model includes coupling between both tropospheric gas-phase and aerosol chemistry and aerosols and liquid-phase clouds. We investigate past impacts from preindustrial (PI) to present day (PD) and future impacts from PD to 2050 (for the moderate IPCC A1B scenario) that embrace a wide spectrum of precursor emission changes and consequential ACI. The aerosol indirect effect (AIE) is estimated to be -2.0 Wm{sup -2} for PD-PI and -0.6 Wm{sup -2} for 2050-PD, at the high end of current estimates. Inclusion of ACI substantially impacts changes in global mean methane lifetime across both time periods, enhancing the past and future increases by 10% and 30%, respectively. In regions where pollution emissions increase, inclusion of ACI leads to 20% enhancements in in-cloud sulfate production and {approx}10% enhancements in sulfate wet deposition that is displaced away from the immediate source regions. The enhanced in-cloud sulfate formation leads to larger increases in surface sulfate across polluted regions ({approx}10-30%). Nitric acid wet deposition is dampened by 15-20% across the industrialized regions due to ACI allowing additional re-release of reactive nitrogen that contributes to 1-2 ppbv increases in surface ozone in outflow regions. Our model findings indicate that ACI must be considered in studies of methane trends and projections of future changes to particulate matter air quality.

  9. Effect of Hydrophobic Primary Organic Aerosols on Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation from Ozonolysis of ?-Pinene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Chen; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Alexander, M. Lizabeth; Thornton, Joel A.; Madronich, Sasha; Ortega, John V.; Zelenyuk, Alla; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Laskin, Alexander; Maughan, A. D.

    2007-10-16

    Semi-empirical secondary organic aerosol (SOA) models typically assume a well-mixed organic aerosol phase even in the presence of hydrophobic primary organic aerosols (POA). This assumption significantly enhances the modeled SOA yields as additional organic mass is made available to absorb greater amounts of oxidized secondary organic gases than otherwise. We investigate the applicability of this critical assumption by measuring SOA yields from ozonolysis of ?-pinene (a major biogenic SOA precursor) in a smog chamber in the absence and in the presence of dioctyl phthalate (DOP) and lubricating oil seed aerosol. These particles serve as surrogates for urban hydrophobic POA. The results show that these POA did not enhance the SOA yields. If these results are found to apply to other biogenic SOA precursors, then the semi-empirical models used in many global models would predict significantly less biogenic SOA mass and display reduced sensitivity to anthropogenic POA emissions than previously thought.

  10. Climate implications of carbonaceous aerosols: An aerosol microphysical study using the GISS/MATRIX climate model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauer, Susanne E.; Menon, Surabi; Koch, Dorothy; Bond, Tami; Tsigaridis, Kostas

    2010-04-09

    Recently, attention has been drawn towards black carbon aerosols as a likely short-term climate warming mitigation candidate. However the global and regional impacts of the direct, cloud-indirect and semi-direct forcing effects are highly uncertain, due to the complex nature of aerosol evolution and its climate interactions. Black carbon is directly released as particle into the atmosphere, but then interacts with other gases and particles through condensation and coagulation processes leading to further aerosol growth, aging and internal mixing. A detailed aerosol microphysical scheme, MATRIX, embedded within the global GISS modelE includes the above processes that determine the lifecycle and climate impact of aerosols. This study presents a quantitative assessment of the impact of microphysical processes involving black carbon, such as emission size distributions and optical properties on aerosol cloud activation and radiative forcing. Our best estimate for net direct and indirect aerosol radiative forcing change is -0.56 W/m{sup 2} between 1750 and 2000. However, the direct and indirect aerosol effects are very sensitive to the black and organic carbon size distribution and consequential mixing state. The net radiative forcing change can vary between -0.32 to -0.75 W/m{sup 2} depending on these carbonaceous particle properties. Assuming that sulfates, nitrates and secondary organics form a coating shell around a black carbon core, rather than forming a uniformly mixed particles, changes the overall net radiative forcing from a negative to a positive number. Black carbon mitigation scenarios showed generally a benefit when mainly black carbon sources such as diesel emissions are reduced, reducing organic and black carbon sources such as bio-fuels, does not lead to reduced warming.

  11. Institutions, public policy and the product life cycle : the globalization of biomanufacturing and implications for Massachusetts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reynolds, Elisabeth B

    2010-01-01

    Globalization has brought about a major shift in our understanding of how companies organize themselves and how they compete. The fragmentation of firms in their scope and structure, the vertical disintegration of firms ...

  12. Limited effect of anthropogenic nitrogen oxides on secondary organic aerosol formation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zheng, Y.; Unger, N.; Hodzic, A.; Emmons, L.; Knote, C.; Tilmes, S.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Yu, P.

    2015-12-08

    Globally, secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is mostly formed from emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by vegetation, but it can be modified by human activities as demonstrated in recent research. Specifically, nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) have been shown to play a critical role in the chemical formation of low volatility compounds. We have updated the SOA scheme in the global NCAR (National Center for Atmospheric Research) Community Atmospheric Model version 4 with chemistry (CAM4-chem) by implementing a 4-product volatility basis set (VBS) scheme, including NOx-dependent SOA yields and aging parameterizations. Small differences are found for themore »no-aging VBS and 2-product schemes; large increases in SOA production and the SOA-to-OA ratio are found for the aging scheme. The predicted organic aerosol amounts capture both the magnitude and distribution of US surface annual mean measurements from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) network by 50 %, and the simulated vertical profiles are within a factor of 2 compared to aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) measurements from 13 aircraft-based field campaigns across different regions and seasons. We then perform sensitivity experiments to examine how the SOA loading responds to a 50 % reduction in anthropogenic nitric oxide (NO) emissions in different regions. We find limited SOA reductions of 0.9–5.6, 6.4–12.0 and 0.9–2.8 % for global, southeast US and Amazon NOx perturbations, respectively. The fact that SOA formation is almost unaffected by changes in NOx can be largely attributed to a limited shift in chemical regime, to buffering in chemical pathways (low- and high-NOx pathways, O3 versus NO3-initiated oxidation) and to offsetting tendencies in the biogenic versus anthropogenic SOA responses.« less

  13. McDonnell Academy Global Energy and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Venkat

    in Solar Energy, Clean Coal Combustion, Distributed Energy Production, Integrated Assessment, Energy include those for clean coal utilization; aerosol science and engineering; energy and environmental issues

  14. Home Page > Business > Industrial > Global Trade Of Wood Chips Down 26% In 2009 As Pulpmills Reduce Production Worldwide, Reports Wood Resources International

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Check Correct All Grammar Errors And Enhance Your Writing. Try Now! www.Grammarly.com Free TradingHome Page > Business > Industrial > Global Trade Of Wood Chips Down 26% In 2009 As Pulpmills Reduce Production Worldwide, Reports Wood Resources International Global Trade Of Wood Chips Down 26% In 2009

  15. Conference for Biomass and Energy, Copenhagen, 1996 published by Elsevier BIOMASS ENERGY PRODUCTION: THE GLOBAL POTENTIAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keeling, Stephen L.

    9th Conference for Biomass and Energy, Copenhagen, 1996 ­ published by Elsevier 1 BIOMASS ENERGY disturbance of the natural global carbon cycle. The "carbon-neutral" renewable energy carrier biomass seems of biomass for energy purposes. The CEBM comprises a biospheric part being based on the "Osnabrück Biosphere

  16. Implementing marine organic aerosols into the GEOS-Chem model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gantt, B.; Johnson, M. S.; Crippa, M.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Meskhidze, N.

    2015-03-17

    Marine-sourced organic aerosols (MOAs) have been shown to play an important role in tropospheric chemistry by impacting surface mass, cloud condensation nuclei, and ice nuclei concentrations over remote marine and coastal regions. In this work, an online marine primary organic aerosol emission parameterization, designed to be used for both global and regional models, was implemented into the GEOS-Chem (Global Earth Observing System Chemistry) model. The implemented emission scheme improved the large underprediction of organic aerosol concentrations in clean marine regions (normalized mean bias decreases from -79% when using the default settings to -12% when marine organic aerosols are added). Modelmore »predictions were also in good agreement (correlation coefficient of 0.62 and normalized mean bias of -36%) with hourly surface concentrations of MOAs observed during the summertime at an inland site near Paris, France. Our study shows that MOAs have weaker coastal-to-inland concentration gradients than sea-salt aerosols, leading to several inland European cities having >10% of their surface submicron organic aerosol mass concentration with a marine source. The addition of MOA tracers to GEOS-Chem enabled us to identify the regions with large contributions of freshly emitted or aged aerosol having distinct physicochemical properties, potentially indicating optimal locations for future field studies.« less

  17. Global Aerosol Health Impacts: Quantifying Uncertainties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selin, Noelle E.

    Atmospheric fine particulate matter <2.5 ?m (PM2.5) can cause cardiovasculatory and respiratory damages and mortalities. Assessing population exposure to and damages from PM2.5 is important for policy, but measurement ...

  18. 5.12 Ocean-Derived Aerosol and Its Climate Impacts PK Quinn and TS Bates, NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, Seattle, WA, USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    5.12 Ocean-Derived Aerosol and Its Climate Impacts PK Quinn and TS Bates, NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, Seattle, WA, USA Published by Elsevier Ltd. 5.12.1 Introduction 317 5.12.2 Ocean-Derived Aerosol Production Mechanisms 317 5.12.3 Radiative Effects of Ocean-Derived Aerosol 319 5.12.3.1 Aerosol

  19. The economic impact of global climate and tropospheric oxone on world agricultural production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Xiaodu

    2005-01-01

    The objective of my thesis is to analyze the economic impact on agriculture production from changes in climate and tropospheric ozone, and related policy interventions. The analysis makes use of the Emissions Prediction ...

  20. ARM: 10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

    1998-03-01

    10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

  1. ARM: 1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

    2004-10-01

    1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

  2. ARM: 10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

    10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

  3. ARM: 1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

    1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

  4. Aerosol source term in high pressure melt ejection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brockmann, J.E.; Tarbell, W.W.

    1984-11-01

    Pressurized ejection of melt from a reactor pressure vessel has been identified as an important element of a severe reactor accident. Copious aerosol production is observed when thermitically generated melts pressurized with nitrogen or carbon dioxide to 1.3 to 17 MPa are ejected into an air atmosphere. Aerosol particle size distributions measured in the tests have modes of about 0.5, 5, and > 10 ..mu..m. Mechanisms leading to formation of these multimodal size distributions are suggested. This aerosol is a potentially important fission product source term that has not been considered in previous severe accident analyses.

  5. ARM Cloud Aerosol Precipitation Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsicloudden Documentation Data Management Facility PlotsProducts (VAP) VAP38 ARM6Aerosol

  6. A RAPID SPECTROSCOPIC TECHNIQUE FOR DETERMINING THE POTENTIAL ALPHA ENERGY CONCENTRATION OF RADON DECAY PRODUCTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Revzan, K.L.

    2013-01-01

    Comparison of the Attachment the Decay Products of Radon-220and Radon-222 to Monodispersed Aerosols,". :! _. Aerosol.Kusnetz H.L. , 1956, "Radon Daughters in Mine Atmosphers.

  7. Limited effect of anthropogenic nitrogen oxides on Secondary Organic Aerosol formation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zheng, Y.; Unger, N.; Hodzic, A.; Emmons, L.; Knote, C.; Tilmes, S.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Yu, P.

    2015-08-28

    Globally, secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is mostly formed from emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by vegetation, but can be modified by human activities as demonstrated in recent research. Specifically, nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) have been shown to play a critical role in the chemical formation of low volatility compounds. We have updated the SOA scheme in the global NCAR Community Atmospheric Model version 4 with chemistry (CAM4-chem) by implementing a 4-product Volatility Basis Set (VBS) scheme, including NOx-dependent SOA yields and aging parameterizations. The predicted organic aerosol amounts capture both the magnitude and distribution ofmore »US surface annual mean measurements from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) network by 50 %, and the simulated vertical profiles are within a factor of two compared to Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) measurements from 13 aircraft-based field campaigns across different region and seasons. We then perform sensitivity experiments to examine how the SOA loading responds to a 50 % reduction in anthropogenic nitric oxide (NO) emissions in different regions. We find limited SOA reductions of 0.9 to 5.6, 6.4 to 12.0 and 0.9 to 2.8 % for global, the southeast US and the Amazon NOx perturbations, respectively. The fact that SOA formation is almost unaffected by changes in NOx can be largely attributed to buffering in chemical pathways (low- and high-NOx pathways, O3 versus NO3-initiated oxidation) and to offsetting tendencies in the biogenic versus anthropogenic SOA responses.« less

  8. Experiments related to the resuspension of aerosols during hydrogen burns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, L.S.; Guay, K.P.

    1987-01-01

    We have performed seven ''add-on'' experiments in two large combustion facilities to investigate the capability of hydrogen burns to remove simulated structural and fission product aerosols previously deposited on small metal discs that have surfaces prototypical of those found in nuclear reactor containments. Our results suggest that hydrogen combustion provides an especially effective mechanism for removal (and, presumably, resuspension) of sedimented aerosols produced in a hypothetical nuclear reactor core-degradation or core-melting accident. The presence of condensing steam does not seem to assure adhesion of sedimented aerosols during hydrogen burns. Differences are exhibited between different surfaces as well as between types of aerosol. In-depth studies will be required to assess the impact exposure of sedimented aerosols to hydrogen burns might have on the radiological source term.

  9. Forest biomes are major reserves for terrestrial carbon, and major components of global primary productivity.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malhi, Yadvinder

    (World Energy Council, Nature 390, p. 215) and increasing at a rate of about 0·1 Gt year­1 primary productivity. The carbon balance of forests is determined by a number of component processes in the carbon balance of each biome are also reviewed, and the evidence for a carbon sink in each forest biome

  10. Implementing marine organic aerosols into the GEOS-Chem model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gantt, B.; Johnson, M. S.; Crippa, M.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Meskhidze, N.

    2014-09-09

    Marine organic aerosols (MOA) have been shown to play an important role in tropospheric chemistry by impacting surface mass, cloud condensation nuclei, and ice nuclei concentrations over remote marine and coastal regions. In this work, an online marine primary organic aerosol emission parameterization, designed to be used for both global and regional models, was implemented into the GEOS-Chem model. The implemented emission scheme improved the large underprediction of organic aerosol concentrations in clean marine regions (normalized mean bias decreases from -79% when using the default settings to -12% when marine organic aerosols are added). Model predictions were also in goodmore »agreement (correlation coefficient of 0.62 and normalized mean bias of -36%) with hourly surface concentrations of MOA observed during the summertime at an inland site near Paris, France. Our study shows that MOA have weaker coastal-to-inland concentration gradients than sea-salt aerosols, leading to several inland European cities having > 10% of their surface submicron organic aerosol mass concentration with a marine source. The addition of MOA tracers to GEOS-Chem enabled us to identify the regions with large contributions of freshly-emitted or aged aerosol having distinct physicochemical properties, potentially indicating optimal locations for future field studies.« less

  11. The Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) Science Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berkowitz, CM; Berg, LK; Cziczo, DJ; Flynn, CJ; Kassianov, EI; Fast, JD; Rasch, PJ; Shilling, JE; Zaveri, RA; Zelenyuk, A; Ferrare, RA; Hostetler, CA; Cairns, B; Russell, PB; Ervens, B

    2011-07-27

    The Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) field campaign will provide a detailed set of observations with which to (1) perform radiative and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) closure studies, (2) evaluate a new retrieval algorithm for aerosol optical depth (AOD) in the presence of clouds using passive remote sensing, (3) extend a previously developed technique to investigate aerosol indirect effects, and (4) evaluate the performance of a detailed regional-scale model and a more parameterized global-scale model in simulating particle activation and AOD associated with the aging of anthropogenic aerosols. To meet these science objectives, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility will deploy the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) and the Mobile Aerosol Observing System (MAOS) on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, for a 12-month period starting in the summer of 2012 in order to quantify aerosol properties, radiation, and cloud characteristics at a location subject to both clear and cloudy conditions, and clean and polluted conditions. These observations will be supplemented by two aircraft intensive observation periods (IOPs), one in the summer and a second in the winter. Each IOP will deploy one, and possibly two, aircraft depending on available resources. The first aircraft will be equipped with a suite of in situ instrumentation to provide measurements of aerosol optical properties, particle composition and direct-beam irradiance. The second aircraft will fly directly over the first and use a multi-wavelength high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) and scanning polarimeter to provide continuous optical and cloud properties in the column below.

  12. RACORO aerosol data processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elisabeth Andrews

    2011-10-31

    The RACORO aerosol data (cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), condensation nuclei (CN) and aerosol size distributions) need further processing to be useful for model evaluation (e.g., GCM droplet nucleation parameterizations) and other investigations. These tasks include: (1) Identification and flagging of 'splash' contaminated Twin Otter aerosol data. (2) Calculation of actual supersaturation (SS) values in the two CCN columns flown on the Twin Otter. (3) Interpolation of CCN spectra from SGP and Twin Otter to 0.2% SS. (4) Process data for spatial variability studies. (5) Provide calculated light scattering from measured aerosol size distributions. Below we first briefly describe the measurements and then describe the results of several data processing tasks that which have been completed, paving the way for the scientific analyses for which the campaign was designed. The end result of this research will be several aerosol data sets which can be used to achieve some of the goals of the RACORO mission including the enhanced understanding of cloud-aerosol interactions and improved cloud simulations in climate models.

  13. Black carbon contribution to global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chylek, P.; Johnson, B.; Kou, L.; Wong, J.

    1996-12-31

    Before the onset of industrial revolution the only important source of black carbon in the atmosphere was biomass burning. Today, black carbon production is divided between the biomass and fossil fuel burning. Black carbon is a major agent responsible for absorption of solar radiation by atmospheric aerosols. Thus black carbon makes other aerosols less efficient in their role of reflecting solar radiation and cooling the earth-atmosphere system. Black carbon also contributes to the absorption of solar radiation by clouds and snow cover. The authors present the results of black carbon concentrations measurements in the atmosphere, in cloud water, in rain and snow melt water collected during the 1992--1996 time period over the southern Nova Scotia. Their results are put into the global and historical perspective by comparing them with the compilation of past measurements at diverse locations and with their measurements of black carbon concentrations in the Greenland and Antarctic ice cores. Black carbon contribution to the global warming is estimated, and compared to the carbon dioxide warming, using the radiative forcing caused by the black carbon at the top of the atmosphere.

  14. FY 2011 Third Quarter Report Estimate of Historical Aerosol Direct and Indirect Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koch, D

    2011-06-22

    The global and annual mean aerosol direct and indirect effects estimated from Community Earth System Model (CESM) simulations are -0.06 W m-2 and -1.39 W m-2, respectively.

  15. Formation of ozone and growth of aerosols in young smoke plumes from biomass burning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarado, Matthew James

    2008-01-01

    The combustion of biomass is a major source of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. Regional and global-scale models of atmospheric chemistry and climate take estimates for these emissions and arbitrarily "mix" them into ...

  16. Determination of particulate lead using aerosol mass spectrometry: MILAGRO/MCMA-2006 observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salcedo, D.

    We report the first measurements of particulate lead (Pb) from Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometers, which were deployed in and around Mexico City during the Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations ...

  17. Global climate change and maize production in Spain: Risk assessment and impacts of weather on yields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feijoo, M.L.; Mestre, F.; Iglesias, A.; Rosenzweig, C.

    1996-12-31

    The study evaluates the potential effect of climate change on maize production in Spain, combining climate models, a crop productivity model, a decision support system and a yield-response model. The study was carried out for two agricultural regions that include the largest areas of Spain where maize is grown as a high input crop. The paper combines the output from a crop model with different techniques of analysis. The scenarios used in this study were generated from the output of two General Circulation Models (GCMs): the Goddard Institute for Space Studies model (GISS) and the Canadian Climate Change Model (CCCM). The study also includes a preliminary evaluation of the potential changes in monetary returns taking into account the possible variability of grain yields and prices, using mean-Gini stochastic dominance (MGSD). A yield response model was estimated using simulated data from the crop model. Weather variables are included. Typically, temperature and precipitation are the only weather variables included in these models. However, solar radiation is another important climate factor for plant growth and development and were included in the yield response model.

  18. Cloud/Aerosol Parameterizations: Application and Improvement of General Circulation Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Penner, Joyce

    2012-06-30

    One of the biggest uncertainties associated with climate models and climate forcing is the treatment of aerosols and their effects on clouds. The effect of aerosols on clouds can be divided into two components: The first indirect effect is the forcing associated with increases in droplet concentrations; the second indirect effect is the forcing associated with changes in liquid water path, cloud morphology, and cloud lifetime. Both are highly uncertain. This project applied a cloud-resolving model to understand the response of clouds under a variety of conditions to changes in aerosols. These responses are categorized according to the large-scale meteorological conditions that lead to the response. Meteorological conditions were sampled from various fields, which, together with a global aerosol model determination of the change in aerosols from present day to pre-industrial conditions, was used to determine a first order estimate of the response of global cloud fields to changes in aerosols. The response of the clouds in the NCAR CAM3 GCM coupled to our global aerosol model were tested by examining whether the response is similar to that of the cloud resolving model and methods for improving the representation of clouds and cloud/aerosol interactions were examined.

  19. Investigating ice nucleation in cirrus clouds with an aerosol-enabled Multiscale Modeling Framework

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Chengzhu; Wang, Minghuai; Morrison, H.; Somerville, Richard C.; Zhang, Kai; Liu, Xiaohong; Li, J-L F.

    2014-11-06

    In this study, an aerosol-dependent ice nucleation scheme [Liu and Penner, 2005] has been implemented in an aerosol-enabled multi-scale modeling framework (PNNL MMF) to study ice formation in upper troposphere cirrus clouds through both homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation. The MMF model represents cloud scale processes by embedding a cloud-resolving model (CRM) within each vertical column of a GCM grid. By explicitly linking ice nucleation to aerosol number concentration, CRM-scale temperature, relative humidity and vertical velocity, the new MMF model simulates the persistent high ice supersaturation and low ice number concentration (10 to 100/L) at cirrus temperatures. The low ice numbermore »is attributed to the dominance of heterogeneous nucleation in ice formation. The new model simulates the observed shift of the ice supersaturation PDF towards higher values at low temperatures following homogeneous nucleation threshold. The MMF models predict a higher frequency of midlatitude supersaturation in the Southern hemisphere and winter hemisphere, which is consistent with previous satellite and in-situ observations. It is shown that compared to a conventional GCM, the MMF is a more powerful model to emulate parameters that evolve over short time scales such as supersaturation. Sensitivity tests suggest that the simulated global distribution of ice clouds is sensitive to the ice nucleation schemes and the distribution of sulfate and dust aerosols. Simulations are also performed to test empirical parameters related to auto-conversion of ice crystals to snow. Results show that with a value of 250 ?m for the critical diameter, Dcs, that distinguishes ice crystals from snow, the model can produce good agreement to the satellite retrieved products in terms of cloud ice water path and ice water content, while the total ice water is not sensitive to the specification of Dcs value.« less

  20. Investigating ice nucleation in cirrus clouds with an aerosol-enabled Multiscale Modeling Framework

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Chengzhu; Wang, Minghuai; Morrison, H.; Somerville, Richard C.; Zhang, Kai; Liu, Xiaohong; Li, J-L F.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, an aerosol-dependent ice nucleation scheme [Liu and Penner, 2005] has been implemented in an aerosol-enabled multi-scale modeling framework (PNNL MMF) to study ice formation in upper troposphere cirrus clouds through both homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation. The MMF model represents cloud scale processes by embedding a cloud-resolving model (CRM) within each vertical column of a GCM grid. By explicitly linking ice nucleation to aerosol number concentration, CRM-scale temperature, relative humidity and vertical velocity, the new MMF model simulates the persistent high ice supersaturation and low ice number concentration (10 to 100/L) at cirrus temperatures. The low ice number is attributed to the dominance of heterogeneous nucleation in ice formation. The new model simulates the observed shift of the ice supersaturation PDF towards higher values at low temperatures following homogeneous nucleation threshold. The MMF models predict a higher frequency of midlatitude supersaturation in the Southern hemisphere and winter hemisphere, which is consistent with previous satellite and in-situ observations. It is shown that compared to a conventional GCM, the MMF is a more powerful model to emulate parameters that evolve over short time scales such as supersaturation. Sensitivity tests suggest that the simulated global distribution of ice clouds is sensitive to the ice nucleation schemes and the distribution of sulfate and dust aerosols. Simulations are also performed to test empirical parameters related to auto-conversion of ice crystals to snow. Results show that with a value of 250 ?m for the critical diameter, Dcs, that distinguishes ice crystals from snow, the model can produce good agreement to the satellite retrieved products in terms of cloud ice water path and ice water content, while the total ice water is not sensitive to the specification of Dcs value.

  1. A Physically Based Framework for Modelling the Organic Fractionation of Sea Spray Aerosol from Bubble Film Langmuir Equilibria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burrows, Susannah M.; Ogunro, O.; Frossard, Amanda; Russell, Lynn M.; Rasch, Philip J.; Elliott, S.

    2014-12-19

    The presence of a large fraction of organic matter in primary sea spray aerosol (SSA) can strongly affect its cloud condensation nuclei activity and interactions with marine clouds. Global climate models require new parameterizations of the SSA composition in order to improve the representation of these processes. Existing proposals for such a parameterization use remotely-sensed chlorophyll-a concentrations as a proxy for the biogenic contribution to the aerosol. However, both observations and theoretical considerations suggest that existing relationships with chlorophyll-a, derived from observations at only a few locations, may not be representative for all ocean regions. We introduce a novel framework for parameterizing the fractionation of marine organic matter into SSA based on a competitive Langmuir adsorption equilibrium at bubble surfaces. Marine organic matter is partitioned into classes with differing molecular weights, surface excesses, and Langmuir adsorption parameters. The classes include a lipid-like mixture associated with labile dissolved organic carbon (DOC), a polysaccharide-like mixture associated primarily with semi-labile DOC, a protein-like mixture with concentrations intermediate between lipids and polysaccharides, a processed mixture associated with recalcitrant surface DOC, and a deep abyssal humic-like mixture. Box model calculations have been performed for several cases of organic adsorption to illustrate the underlying concepts. We then apply the framework to output from a global marine biogeochemistry model, by partitioning total dissolved organic carbon into several classes of macromolecule. Each class is represented by model compounds with physical and chemical properties based on existing laboratory data. This allows us to globally map the predicted organic mass fraction of the nascent submicron sea spray aerosol. Predicted relationships between chlorophyll-\\textit{a} and organic fraction are similar to existing empirical parameterizations, but can vary between biologically productive and non-productive regions, and seasonally within a given region. Major uncertainties include the bubble film thickness at bursting and the variability of organic surfactant activity in the ocean, which is poorly constrained. In addition, marine colloids and cooperative adsorption of polysaccharides may make important contributions to the aerosol, but are not included here. This organic fractionation framework is an initial step towards a closer linking of ocean biogeochemistry and aerosol chemical composition in Earth system models. Future work should focus on improving constraints on model parameters through new laboratory experiments or through empirical fitting to observed relationships in the real ocean and atmosphere, as well as on atmospheric implications of the variable composition of organic matter in sea spray.

  2. Quantifying Aerosol Direct Effects from Broadband Irradiance and Spectral Aerosol Optical Depth Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Creekmore, Torreon N.; Joseph, Everette; Long, Charles N.; Li, Siwei

    2014-05-16

    We outline a methodology using broadband and spectral irradiances to quantify aerosol direct effects on the surface diffuse shortwave (SW) irradiance. Best Estimate Flux data span a 13 year timeframe at the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program’s Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. Screened clear-sky irradiances and aerosol optical depth (AOD), for solar zenith angles ? 65°, are used to estimate clear-sky diffuse irradiances. We validate against detected clear-sky observations from SGP’s Basic Radiation System (BRS). BRS diffuse irradiances were in accordance with estimates, producing a root-mean-square error and mean bias errors of 4.0 W/m2 and -1.4 W/m2, respectively. Absolute differences show 99% of estimates within ±10 W/m2 (10%) of the mean BRS observations. Clear-sky diffuse estimates are used to derive quantitative estimates of aerosol radiative effects, represented as the aerosol diffuse irradiance (ADI). ADI is the contribution of diffuse SW to global SW, attributable to scattering of atmospheric transmission by natural plus anthropogenic aerosols. Estimated slope for the ADI as a function of AOD indicates an increase of ~22 W/m2 in diffuse SW for every 0.1 increase in AOD. Such significant increases in the diffuse fraction could possibly increase photosynthesis. Annual mean ADI is 28.2 W/m2, and heavy aerosol loading at SGP provides up to a maximum increase of 120 W/m2 in diffuse SW over background conditions. With regard to seasonal variation, the mean diffuse forcings are 17.2, 33.3, 39.0, and 23.6 W/m2 for winter, spring, summer, and fall, respectively.

  3. Prediction of global solar irradiance based on time series analysis: Application to solar thermal power plants energy production planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Luis; Marchante, Ruth; Cony, Marco; Zarzalejo, Luis F.; Polo, Jesus; Navarro, Ana

    2010-10-15

    Due to strong increase of solar power generation, the predictions of incoming solar energy are acquiring more importance. Photovoltaic and solar thermal are the main sources of electricity generation from solar energy. In the case of solar thermal energy plants with storage energy system, its management and operation need reliable predictions of solar irradiance with the same temporal resolution as the temporal capacity of the back-up system. These plants can work like a conventional power plant and compete in the energy stock market avoiding intermittence in electricity production. This work presents a comparisons of statistical models based on time series applied to predict half daily values of global solar irradiance with a temporal horizon of 3 days. Half daily values consist of accumulated hourly global solar irradiance from solar raise to solar noon and from noon until dawn for each day. The dataset of ground solar radiation used belongs to stations of Spanish National Weather Service (AEMet). The models tested are autoregressive, neural networks and fuzzy logic models. Due to the fact that half daily solar irradiance time series is non-stationary, it has been necessary to transform it to two new stationary variables (clearness index and lost component) which are used as input of the predictive models. Improvement in terms of RMSD of the models essayed is compared against the model based on persistence. The validation process shows that all models essayed improve persistence. The best approach to forecast half daily values of solar irradiance is neural network models with lost component as input, except Lerida station where models based on clearness index have less uncertainty because this magnitude has a linear behaviour and it is easier to simulate by models. (author)

  4. Challenges in the New Millennium: Product Discovery and Design, Enterprise and Supply Chain Optimization, Global Life Cycle Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    Optimization, Global Life Cycle Assessment Ignacio E. Grossmann Department of Chemical Engineering, Carnegie, and Global Life Cycle Assessment. We provide a brief review of the progress that has been made in these areas, Enterprise and Supply Chain Optimization, and Global Life Cycle Assessment as major themes for future

  5. Aerosol collection characteristics of ambient aerosol samplers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ortiz, Carlos A

    1978-01-01

    when the sampler is not in operation, both as functions of particle size and wind speed. Wind velocity was a major cause of bias for the four samplers when collecting aerosol particles & 10 um. Characteristic curves were very similar for the 0. 38 m... x 0. 38 m ( 15" x 15") Hi-Vol and the 0. 29 m x 0. 36 m (11&" x 14") Hi-Vol. At 28 um and wind speeds of 2, 8, and 24 km/hr, sampling effectiveness values respectively were 70, 43, and 43 percent for the 0. 38 m x 0. 38 m Hi-Vol and 81, 56, and 43...

  6. Aerosol specification in single-column CAM5

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lebassi-Habtezion, B.; Caldwell, P.

    2014-11-17

    The ability to run a global climate model in single-column mode is very useful for testing model improvements because single-column models (SCMs) are inexpensive to run and easy to interpret. A major breakthrough in Version 5 of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) is the inclusion of prognostic aerosol. Unfortunately, this improvement was not coordinated with the SCM version of CAM5 and as a result CAM5-SCM initializes aerosols to zero. In this study we explore the impact of running CAM5-SCM with aerosol initialized to zero (hereafter named Default) and test three potential fixes. The first fix is to use CAM5'smore »prescribed aerosol capability, which specifies aerosols at monthly climatological values. The second method is to prescribe aerosols at observed values. The third approach is to fix droplet and ice crystal numbers at prescribed values. We test our fixes in four different cloud regimes to ensure representativeness: subtropical drizzling stratocumulus (based on the DYCOMS RF02 case study), mixed-phase Arctic stratocumulus (using the MPACE-B case study), tropical shallow convection (using the RICO case study), and summertime mid-latitude continental convection (using the ARM95 case study). Stratiform cloud cases (DYCOMS RF02 and MPACE-B) were found to have a strong dependence on aerosol concentration, while convective cases (RICO and ARM95) were relatively insensitive to aerosol specification. This is perhaps expected because convective schemes in CAM5 do not currently use aerosol information. Adequate liquid water content in the MPACE-B case was only maintained when ice crystal number concentration was specified because the Meyers et al. (1992) deposition/condensation ice nucleation scheme used by CAM5 greatly overpredicts ice nucleation rates, causing clouds to rapidly glaciate. Surprisingly, predicted droplet concentrations for the ARM95 region in both SCM and global runs were around 25 cm?3, which is much lower than observed. This finding suggests that CAM5 has problems capturing aerosol effects in this climate regime.« less

  7. Maritime Aerosol Network as a component of Aerosol Robotic A. Smirnov,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maritime Aerosol Network as a component of Aerosol Robotic Network A. Smirnov,1,2 B. N. Holben,2 I of the Maritime Aerosol Network (MAN), which has been developed as a component of the Aerosol Robotic Network), Maritime Aerosol Network as a component of Aerosol Robotic Network, J. Geophys. Res., 114, D06204, doi:10

  8. Aerosol Observing System (AOS) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jefferson, A

    2011-01-17

    The Aerosol Observing System (AOS) is a suite of in situ surface measurements of aerosol optical and cloud-forming properties. The instruments measure aerosol properties that influence the earth’s radiative balance. The primary optical measurements are those of the aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients as a function of particle size and radiation wavelength and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) measurements as a function of percent supersaturation. Additional measurements include those of the particle number concentration and scattering hygroscopic growth. Aerosol optical measurements are useful for calculating parameters used in radiative forcing calculations such as the aerosol single-scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, mass scattering efficiency, and hygroscopic growth. CCN measurements are important in cloud microphysical models to predict droplet formation.

  9. Aerosol absorp+on from space M. de Graaf IMAU, 19 April 2013 Frasca+ 20111020T18:15:41

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graaf, Martin de

    IMAU, 19 April 2013 Global annual mean Earth's energy budget for March 2000 ­ May 2004 (Wm2(radio)metry Cloud modelling Results Outlook #12; Aerosol absorp+on from

  10. The impact of atmospheric aerosols on trace metal chemistry in open ocean surface seawater 3. Lead

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maring, H.B.; Duce, R.A. )

    1990-04-15

    Atmospheric aerosols collected at Enewetak Atoll in the tropical North Pacific were exposed to seawater in laboratory experiments to assess the impact of atmospheric aerosols on lead chemistry in surface seawater. The net atmospheric flux of soluble lead to the ocean is between 16 and 32 pmol cm{sup {minus}2}/yr at Enewetak. The stable lead isotopic composition of soluble aerosol lead indicates that it is of anthropogenic origin. Anthropogenic aerosol lead from Central and North America appears to be less soluble and/or to dissolve less rapidly than that from Asia. Dissolved organic matter and possibly lower pH appear to increase the nonaluminosilicate aerosol lead solubility and/or dissolution rate. The isotopic composition of lead in air, seawater and dry deposition suggests that after deposition in the ocean, nonaluminosilicate particulate lead can be reinjected into the atmosphere during sea salt aerosol production.

  11. ARM: 10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sivaraman, Chitra; Flynn, Connor

    2010-12-15

    10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

  12. ARM: 10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sivaraman, Chitra; Flynn, Connor

    10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

  13. Distinguishing Aerosol Impacts on Climate Over the Past Century

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koch, Dorothy; Menon, Surabi; Del Genio, Anthony; Ruedy, Reto; Alienov, Igor; Schmidt, Gavin A.

    2008-08-22

    Aerosol direct (DE), indirect (IE), and black carbon-snow albedo (BAE) effects on climate between 1890 and 1995 are compared using equilibrium aerosol-climate simulations in the Goddard Institute for Space Studies General Circulation Model coupled to a mixed layer ocean. Pairs of control(1890)-perturbation(1995) with successive aerosol effects allow isolation of each effect. The experiments are conducted both with and without concurrent changes in greenhouse gases (GHG's). A new scheme allowing dependence of snow albedo on black carbon snow concentration is introduced. The fixed GHG experiments global surface air temperature (SAT) changed -0.2, -1.0 and +0.2 C from the DE, IE, and BAE. Ice and snow cover increased 1.0% from the IE and decreased 0.3% from the BAE. These changes were a factor of 4 larger in the Arctic. Global cloud cover increased by 0.5% from the IE. Net aerosol cooling effects are about half as large as the GHG warming, and their combined climate effects are smaller than the sum of their individual effects. Increasing GHG's did not affect the IE impact on cloud cover, however they decreased aerosol effects on SAT by 20% and on snow/ice cover by 50%; they also obscure the BAE on snow/ice cover. Arctic snow, ice, cloud, and shortwave forcing changes occur mostly during summer-fall, but SAT, sea level pressure, and long-wave forcing changes occur during winter. An explanation is that aerosols impact the cryosphere during the warm-season but the associated SAT effect is delayed until winter.

  14. Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Microscopic aerosol particles in the atmosphere contain carbonaceous components from mineral dust and combustion...

  15. Monitoring biomass burning and aerosol loading and transport from a geostationary satellite perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prins, E.M.; Menzel, W.P.

    1996-12-31

    The topic of this paper is the use of geostationary operational environmental satellites (GOES) to monitor trends in biomass burning and aerosol production and transport in South America and through the Western Hemisphere. The GOES Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm (ABBA) was developed to provide diurnal information concerning fires in South America; applications demonstrating the ability to document long-term trends in fire activity are described. Analyses of imagery collected by GOES-8 is described; six biomass burning seasons in South America revealed many examples of large-scale smoke transport extending over several million square kilometers. Four major transport regimes were identified. Case studies throughout South America, Canada, the United States, Mexico, Belize, and Guatemala have successfully demonstrated the improved capability of GOES-8 for fire and smoke monitoring in various ecosystems. Global geostationary fire monitoring will be possible with the launch of new satellites. 12 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Electrospray neutralization process and apparatus for generation of nano-aerosol and nano-structured materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bailey, Charles L. (Cross Junction, VA); Morozov, Victor (Manassas, VA); Vsevolodov, Nikolai N. (Kensington, MD)

    2010-08-17

    The claimed invention describes methods and apparatuses for manufacturing nano-aerosols and nano-structured materials based on the neutralization of charged electrosprayed products with oppositely charged electrosprayed products. Electrosprayed products include molecular ions, nano-clusters and nano-fibers. Nano-aerosols can be generated when neutralization occurs in the gas phase. Neutralization of electrospan nano-fibers with molecular ions and charged nano-clusters may result in the formation of fibrous aerosols or free nano-mats. Nano-mats can also be produced on a suitable substrate, forming efficient nano-filters.

  17. Speciation of Fe in ambient aerosol and cloudwater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siefert, L. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    1996-08-15

    Atmospheric iron (Fe) is thought to play an important role in cloudwater chemistry (e.g., S(IV) oxidation, oxidant production, etc.), and is also an important source of Fe to certain regions of the worlds oceans where Fe is believed to be a rate-limiting nutrient for primary productivity. This thesis focuses on understanding the chemistry, speciation and abundance of Fe in cloudwater and aerosol in the troposphere, through observations of Fe speciation in the cloudwater and aerosol samples collected over the continental United States and the Arabian Sea. Different chemical species of atmospheric Fe were measured in aerosol and cloudwater samples to help assess the role of Fe in cloudwater chemistry.

  18. The oceanic cycle and global atmospheric budget of carbonyl sulfide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiss, P.S.

    1994-12-31

    A significant portion of stratospheric air chemistry is influenced by the existence of carbonyl sulfide (COS). This ubiquitous sulfur gas represents a major source of sulfur to the stratosphere where it is converted to sulfuric acid aerosol particles. Stratospheric aerosols are climatically important because they scatter incoming solar radiation back to space and are able to increase the catalytic destruction of ozone through gas phase reactions on particle surfaces. COS is primarily formed at the surface of the earth, in both marine and terrestrial environments, and is strongly linked to natural biological processes. However, many gaps in the understanding of the global COS cycle still exist, which has led to a global atmospheric budget that is out of balance by a factor of two or more, and a lack of understanding of how human activity has affected the cycling of this gas. The goal of this study was to focus on COS in the marine environment by investigating production/destruction mechanisms and recalculating the ocean-atmosphere flux.

  19. Aerosol Observing System Upgraded

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B L O O D S TA I N P A T T E R N A NA LY S IDOE Office2 Aerosol

  20. There is evidence of a widespread reduction in solar radiation at the earth's surface, often referred to as global

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allan, Richard P.

    to increases in aerosols, by-products in the combustion of fossil fuels, especially coal. This is backed up". Following acid rain concerns in the 1980s, pollution acts helped to reduce this aerosol pollution in some

  1. Atmospheric Aerosols Aging Involving Organic Compounds and Impacts on Particle Properties 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiu, Chong

    2013-02-01

    In the first part of this dissertation, we study the aging of soot, a representative type of primary aerosols, in the presence of OH-initiated oxidation products of toluene. Monodisperse soot particles are introduced into an environmental chamber...

  2. Overview of the 2010 Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cziczo, Daniel James

    Substantial uncertainties still exist in the scientific understanding of the possible interactions between urban and natural (biogenic) emissions in the production and transformation of atmospheric aerosol and the resulting ...

  3. Crp Is a Global Regulator of Antibiotic Production in Streptomyces Chan Gao,a Hindra,a David Mulder,b Charles Yin,a and Marie A. Elliota

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elliot, Marie A.

    , Elliot MA. 2012. Crp is a global regulator of antibiotic production in Streptomyces. mBio 3(6):e00407 the original author and source are credited. Address correspondence to Marie A. Elliot, melliot

  4. Effects of Ocean Ecosystem on Marine Aerosol-Cloud Interaction

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Meskhidze, Nicholas; Nenes, Athanasios

    2010-01-01

    Using satellite data for the surface ocean, aerosol optical depth (AOD), and cloud microphysical parameters, we show that statistically significant positive correlations exist between ocean ecosystem productivity, the abundance of submicron aerosols, and cloud microphysical properties over different parts of the remote oceans. The correlation coefficient for remotely sensed surface chlorophyll a concentration ([Chl- a ]) and liquid cloud effective radii over productive areas of the oceans varies between ? 0.2 and ? 0.6 . Special attention is given to identifying (and addressing) problems from correlation analysis used in the previousmore »studies that can lead to erroneous conclusions. A new approach (using the difference between retrieved AOD and predicted sea salt aerosol optical depth, AOD diff ) is developed to explore causal links between ocean physical and biological systems and the abundance of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in the remote marine atmosphere. We have found that over multiple time periods, 550?nm AOD diff (sensitive to accumulation mode aerosol, which is the prime contributor to CCN) correlates well with [Chl- a ] over the productive waters of the Southern Ocean. Since [Chl- a ] can be used as a proxy of ocean biological productivity, our analysis demonstrates the role of ocean ecology in contributing CCN, thus shaping the microphysical properties of low-level marine clouds. « less

  5. Global Statistics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crow, Ben D

    2006-01-01

    of Globalization: Statistics Weiss, L. (1997). "of Globalization: Statistics Milanovic, B. (1999). Truethe focus of global statistics, particularly in relation to

  6. Aerosol source term in high-pressure-melt ejection. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brockmann, J.E.; Tarbell, W.W.

    1983-01-01

    Pressurized ejection of melt from a reactor pressure vessel has been identified as an important element of a severe reactor accident. Copious aerosol production is observed when thermitically generated melts pressurized with nitrogen or carbon dioxide to 1.3 to 17 MPa are ejected into an air atmosphere. Aerosol particle size distributions measured in the tests have modes of about 0.5, 5, and > 10..mu..m. Mechanisms leading to formation of these multimodal size distributions are suggested. This aerosol is a potentially important fission product source term which has not been considered in previous severe accident analyses.

  7. eDPS Aerosol Collection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venzie, J.

    2015-10-13

    The eDPS Aerosol Collection project studies the fundamental physics of electrostatic aerosol collection for national security applications. The interpretation of aerosol data requires understanding and correcting for biases introduced from particle genesis through collection and analysis. The research and development undertaken in this project provides the basis for both the statistical correction of existing equipment and techniques; as well as, the development of new collectors and analytical techniques designed to minimize unwanted biases while improving the efficiency of locating and measuring individual particles of interest.

  8. Parameterizations of Cloud Microphysics and Indirect Aerosol Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2014-05-19

    1. OVERVIEW Aerosols and especially their effect on clouds are one of the key components of the climate system and the hydrological cycle [Ramanathan et al., 2001]. Yet, the aerosol effect on clouds remains largely unknown and the processes involved not well understood. A recent report published by the National Academy of Science states "The greatest uncertainty about the aerosol climate forcing - indeed, the largest of all the uncertainties about global climate forcing - is probably the indirect effect of aerosols on clouds [NRC, 2001]." The aerosol effect on clouds is often categorized into the traditional "first indirect (i.e., Twomey)" effect on the cloud droplet sizes for a constant liquid water path [Twomey, 1977] and the "semi-direct" effect on cloud coverage [e.g., Ackerman et al., 2000]. Enhanced aerosol concentrations can also suppress warm rain processes by producing a narrow droplet spectrum that inhibits collision and coalescence processes [e.g., Squires and Twomey, 1961; Warner and Twomey, 1967; Warner, 1968; Rosenfeld, 1999]. The aerosol effect on precipitation processes, also known as the second type of aerosol indirect effect [Albrecht, 1989], is even more complex, especially for mixed-phase convective clouds. Table 1 summarizes the key observational studies identifying the microphysical properties, cloud characteristics, thermodynamics and dynamics associated with cloud systems from high-aerosol continental environments. For example, atmospheric aerosol concentrations can influence cloud droplet size distributions, warm-rain process, cold-rain process, cloud-top height, the depth of the mixed phase region, and occurrence of lightning. In addition, high aerosol concentrations in urban environments could affect precipitation variability by providing an enhanced source of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Hypotheses have been developed to explain the effect of urban regions on convection and precipitation [van den Heever and Cotton, 2007 and Shepherd, 2005]. Recently, a detailed spectral-bin microphysical scheme was implemented into the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) model. Atmospheric aerosols are also described using number density size-distribution functions. A spectral-bin microphysical model is very expensive from a computational point of view and has only been implemented into the 2D version of the GCE at the present time. The model is tested by studying the evolution of deep tropical clouds in the west Pacific warm pool region and summertime convection over a mid-latitude continent with different concentrations of CCN: a low "clean" concentration and a high "dirty" concentration. The impact of atmospheric aerosol concentration on cloud and precipitation will be investigated. 2. MODEL DESCRIPTION AND CASE STUDIES 2.1 GCE MODEL The model used in this study is the 2D version of the GCE model. Modeled flow is anelastic. Second- or higher-order advection schemes can produce negative values in the solution. Thus, a Multi-dimensional Positive Definite Advection Transport Algorithm (MPDATA) has been implemented into the model. All scalar variables (potential temperature, water vapor, turbulent coefficient and all five hydrometeor classes) use forward time differencing and the MPDATA for advection. Dynamic variables, u, v and w, use a second-order accurate advection scheme and a leapfrog time integration (kinetic energy semi-conserving method). Short-wave (solar) and long-wave radiation as well as a subgrid-scale TKE turbulence scheme are also included in the model. Details of the model can be found in Tao and Simpson (1993) and Tao et al. (2003). 2.2 Microphysics (Bin Model) The formulation of the explicit spectral-bin microphysical processes is based on solving stochastic kinetic equations for the size distribution functions of water droplets (cloud droplets and raindrops), and six types of ice particles: pristine ice crystals (columnar and plate-like), snow (dendrites and aggregates), graupel and frozen drops/hail. Each type is described by a special size distribution function containing 33 categories (bin

  9. The MESSy aerosol submodel MADE3 (v2.0b): description and a box model test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaiser, J. C.; Hendricks, J.; Righi, M.; Riemer, Nicole; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Metzger, S.; Aquila, Valentino

    2014-06-17

    We introduce MADE3 (Modal Aerosol Dynamics for Europe, adapted for global applications, version 3), an aerosol dynamics submodel for application in a global chemistry general circulation model, that builds on the predecessor aerosol submodels MADE and MADE-in. The main new features of MADE3 are the explicit representation of coarse particle interactions with fine particles and gases, and the inclusion of the hydrochloric acid (HCl)/chloride (Cl􀀀) partitioning between the gas and condensed phases. The aerosol size distribution is represented in the new model as a superposition of nine lognormal modes: one for fully soluble particles, one for insoluble particles, and one for mixed particles in each of three size ranges (Aitken, accumulation, and coarse mode size ranges). In order to assess MADE3’s performance we compare it to its predecessor MADE and to the much more detailed particle-resolved aerosol model PartMC-MOSAIC in a box model application. MADE3 and MADE results are very similar, except when the aerosol is dominated by sea spray particles. In such cases, Cl􀀀 concentrations are lower in MADE3 than in MADE due to the HCl/Cl􀀀 partitioning. Additionally, the aerosol nitrate concentration is higher in MADE3 due to the uptake on coarse particles. MADE3 and PartMCMOSAIC show substantial differences in the fine particle size distributions (sizes . 2?m) that could be relevant when simulating climate effects on a global scale. Nevertheless, the agreement between MADE3 and PartMC-MOSAIC is very good when it comes to coarse particle size distribution, and also in terms of aerosol composition. Considering these results and the well-established ability of MADE in reproducing observed aerosol loadings and composition, MADE3 seems suitable for application within a global model.

  10. Aerosol penetration through transport lines 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dileep, V.R.

    1996-01-01

    It is very important to minimize the losses in aerosol transport systems for the Continuous Air Monitors (CAM) to have a prompt and a meaningful alarm and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) also Currently mandates continuous emissions...

  11. Aerosol reactor production of uniform submicron powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flagan, Richard C. (Pasadena, CA); Wu, Jin J. (Pasadena, CA)

    1991-02-19

    A method of producing submicron nonagglomerated particles in a single stage reactor includes introducing a reactant or mixture of reactants at one end while varying the temperature along the reactor to initiate reactions at a low rate. As homogeneously small numbers of seed particles generated in the initial section of the reactor progress through the reactor, the reaction is gradually accelerated through programmed increases in temperature along the length of the reactor to promote particle growth by chemical vapor deposition while minimizing agglomerate formation by maintaining a sufficiently low number concentration of particles in the reactor such that coagulation is inhibited within the residence time of particles in the reactor. The maximum temperature and minimum residence time is defined by a combination of temperature and residence time that is necessary to bring the reaction to completion. In one embodiment, electronic grade silane and high purity nitrogen are introduced into the reactor and temperatures of approximately 770.degree. K. to 1550.degree. K. are employed. In another embodiment silane and ammonia are employed at temperatures from 750.degree. K. to 1800.degree. K.

  12. Production of polystyrene particles via aerosolization 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norasetthekul, Somchintana

    1995-01-01

    at high temperature studied by Chiang and Prud'homme, a uniform PS concentration within droplets was likely in our case. As solvent evaporates, van der Waals forces and subsequent entanglement of polymer chains causes solidification. The PS-benzene phase...

  13. ARM - Evaluation Product - Aerosol Modeling Testbed

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments? WeDatastreamstps DocumentationAtlanticENA Contacts ENA Related Links

  14. ARM - Evaluation Product - Organic Aerosol Component VAP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments? WeDatastreamstps DocumentationAtlanticENA Contacts ENAProductsHSRLProductsMultispectral

  15. ARM - PI Product - Direct Aerosol Forcing Uncertainty

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska OutreachCalendar NSA RelatedInhibition (CIN)

  16. ARM - PI Product - Niamey Aerosol Optical Depths

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska OutreachCalendar NSAProductsMerged and corrected 915

  17. Past and Future Effects of Ozone on Net Primary Production and Carbon Sequestration Using a Global Biogeochemical Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Felzer, Benjamin Seth.

    Exposure of plants to ozone inhibits photosynthesis and therefore reduces vegetation production and carbon sequestration. Simulations with the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM) for the historical period (1860-1995) show ...

  18. Nanomaterials from Aerosols Aerosols are suspensions of liquid or solid particles in a gas. Aerosol particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beaucage, Gregory

    changes which are evidenced by changes in the temperature of the oceans and rapid melting of the polar and glacial ice packs. Of pollution sources, aerosols represent the least understood and could potentially

  19. Chemical and Physical Characteristics of Diesel Aerosol | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Physical Characteristics of Diesel Aerosol Chemical and Physical Characteristics of Diesel Aerosol 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: University of Minnesota...

  20. The China-in-Global Energy Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qi, T.

    The China-in-Global Energy Model (C-GEM) is a global Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model that captures the interaction of production, consumption and trade among multiple global regions and sectors – including five ...

  1. Investigation of warm-cloud microphysics using a multi-component cloud model: Interactive effects of the aerosol spectrum. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zahn, S.G.

    1993-12-01

    Clouds, especially low, warm, boundary-layer clouds, play an important role in regulating the earth's climate due to their significant contribution to the global albedo. The radiative effects of individual clouds are controlled largely by cloud microstructure, which is itself sensitive to the concentration and spectral distribution of the atmospheric aerosol. Increases in aerosol particle concentrations from anthropogenic activity could result in increased cloud albedo and global cloudiness, increasing the amount of reflected solar radiation. However, the effects of increased aerosol particle concentrations could be offset by the presence of giant or ultragiant aerosol particles. A one-dimensional, multi-component microphysical cloud model has been used to demonstrate the effects of aerosol particle spectral variations on the microstructure of warm clouds. Simulations performed with this model demonstrate that the introduction of increased concentrations of giant aerosol particles has a destabilizing effect on the cloud microstructure. Also, it is shown that warm-cloud microphysical processes modify the aerosol particle spectrum, favoring the generation of the largest sized particles via the collision-coalescence process. These simulations provide further evidence that the effect of aerosol particles on cloud microstructure must be addressed when considering global climate forecasts.

  2. Toxicity of atmospheric aerosols on marine phytoplankton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    address: Center for Atmospheric Chemistry Study, Departmenttween phytoplankton, atmospheric chemistry, and climate areno. 12 ? 4601– 4605 CHEMISTRY Atmospheric aerosol deposition

  3. Globalization Nationalized

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mazlish, Bruce

    Globalism and globalization have been seen as competitors to other allegiances, namely regionalism and nationalism. A look at recent efforts at reconceptualizing global history in China, Korea and the U.S., however, suggests ...

  4. Aerosol indirect effects -- general circulation model intercomparison and evaluation with satellite data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quaas, Johannes; Ming, Yi; Menon, Surabi; Takemura, Toshihiko; Wang, Minghuai; Penner, Joyce E.; Gettelman, Andrew; Lohmann, Ulrike; Bellouin, Nicolas; Boucher, Olivier; Sayer, Andrew M.; Thomas, Gareth E.; McComiskey, Allison; Feingold, Graham; Hoose, Corinna; Kristjansson, Jon Egill; Liu, Xiaohong; Balkanski, Yves; Donner, Leo J.; Ginoux, Paul A.; Stier, Philip; Feichter, Johann; Sednev, Igor; Bauer, Susanne E.; Koch, Dorothy; Grainger, Roy G.; Kirkevag, Alf; Iversen, Trond; Seland, Oyvind; Easter, Richard; Ghan, Steven J.; Rasch, Philip J.; Morrison, Hugh; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Iacono, Michael J.; Kinne, Stefan; Schulz, Michael

    2009-04-10

    Aerosol indirect effects continue to constitute one of the most important uncertainties for anthropogenic climate perturbations. Within the international AEROCOM initiative, the representation of aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions in ten different general circulation models (GCMs) is evaluated using three satellite datasets. The focus is on stratiform liquid water clouds since most GCMs do not include ice nucleation effects, and none of the model explicitly parameterizes aerosol effects on convective clouds. We compute statistical relationships between aerosol optical depth (Ta) and various cloud and radiation quantities in a manner that is consistent between the models and the satellite data. It is found that the model-simulated influence of aerosols on cloud droplet number concentration (Nd) compares relatively well to the satellite data at least over the ocean. The relationship between Ta and liquid water path is simulated much too strongly by the models. It is shown that this is partly related to the representation of the second aerosol indirect effect in terms of autoconversion. A positive relationship between total cloud fraction (fcld) and Ta as found in the satellite data is simulated by the majority of the models, albeit less strongly than that in the satellite data in most of them. In a discussion of the hypotheses proposed in the literature to explain the satellite-derived strong fcld - Ta relationship, our results indicate that none can be identified as unique explanation. Relationships similar to the ones found in satellite data between Ta and cloud top temperature or outgoing long-wave radiation (OLR) are simulated by only a few GCMs. The GCMs that simulate a negative OLR - Ta relationship show a strong positive correlation between Ta and fcld The short-wave total aerosol radiative forcing as simulated by the GCMs is strongly influenced by the simulated anthropogenic fraction of Ta, and parameterisation assumptions such as a lower bound on Nd. Nevertheless, the strengths of the statistical relationships are good predictors for the aerosol forcings in the models. An estimate of the total short-wave aerosol forcing inferred from the combination of these predictors for the modelled forcings with the satellite-derived statistical relationships yields a global annual mean value of -1.5+-0.5 Wm-2. An alternative estimate obtained by scaling the simulated clear- and cloudy-sky forcings with estimates of anthropogenic Ta and satellite-retrieved Nd - Ta regression slopes, respectively, yields a global annual mean clear-sky (aerosol direct effect) estimate of -0.4+-0.2 Wm-2 and a cloudy-sky (aerosol indirect effect) estimate of -0.7+-0.5 Wm-2, with a total estimate of -1.2+-0.4 Wm-2.

  5. 4, 20552088, 2004 Aerosol-ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 4, 2055­2088, 2004 Aerosol-ozone correlations during dust transport episodes P. Bonasoni et al and Physics Discussions Aerosol-ozone correlations during dust transport episodes P. Bonasoni1 , P.bonasoni@isac.cnr.it) 2055 #12;ACPD 4, 2055­2088, 2004 Aerosol-ozone correlations during dust transport episodes P. Bonasoni

  6. Aerosol Optical Depth Retrieval by Neural Networks Ensemble with Adaptive Cost Function

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Obradovic, Zoran

    and warming the atmosphere. Therefore, the accurate prediction of aerosols composition and their concentration (AERONET) is global remote sensing network of about 540 ground-based radiometers that retrieve AOD several as ground truth when validating retrieval quality of various satellite- based AOD retrieval algorithms [4

  7. CHARACTERIZING THE INFLUENCE OF ANTHROPOGENIC EMISSIONS AND TRANSPORT VARIABILITY ON SULFATE AEROSOL CONCENTRATIONS AT MAUNA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierce, Jeffrey

    confirmed that anthropogenic pollutants from Asian sources can be transported long distances with important implications for future air quality and global climate change. Located in the remote Pacific Ocean (19.54°N, obtained at MLO by the University of Hawaii at Manoa. Daily filter samples of total aerosol concentrations

  8. Estimates of global, regional, and national annual CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil-fuel burning, hydraulic cement production, and gas flaring: 1950--1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boden, T.A.; Marland, G.; Andres, R.J.

    1995-12-01

    This document describes the compilation, content, and format of the most comprehensive C0{sub 2}-emissions database currently available. The database includes global, regional, and national annual estimates of C0{sub 2} emissions resulting from fossil-fuel burning, cement manufacturing, and gas flaring in oil fields for 1950--92 as well as the energy production, consumption, and trade data used for these estimates. The methods of Marland and Rotty (1983) are used to calculate these emission estimates. For the first time, the methods and data used to calculate CO, emissions from gas flaring are presented. This C0{sub 2}-emissions database is useful for carbon-cycle research, provides estimates of the rate at which fossil-fuel combustion has released C0{sub 2} to the atmosphere, and offers baseline estimates for those countries compiling 1990 C0{sub 2}-emissions inventories.

  9. Hyperspectral Aerosol Optical Depths from TCAP Flights

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shinozuka, Yohei; Johnson, Roy R.; Flynn, Connor J.; Russell, P. B.; Schmid, Beat; Redemann, Jens; Dunagan, Stephen; Kluzek, Celine D.; Hubbe, John M.; Segal-Rosenheimer, Michal; Livingston, J. M.; Eck, T.; Wagener, Richard; Gregory, L.; Chand, Duli; Berg, Larry K.; Rogers, Ray; Ferrare, R. A.; Hair, John; Hostetler, Chris A.; Burton, S. P.

    2013-11-13

    4STAR (Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research), the world’s first hyperspectral airborne tracking sunphotometer, acquired aerosol optical depths (AOD) at 1 Hz during all July 2012 flights of the Two Column Aerosol Project (TCAP). Root-mean square differences from AERONET ground-based observations were 0.01 at wavelengths between 500-1020 nm, 0.02 at 380 and 1640 nm and 0.03 at 440 nm in four clear-sky fly-over events, and similar in ground side-by-side comparisons. Changes in the above-aircraft AOD across 3-km-deep spirals were typically consistent with integrals of coincident in situ (on DOE Gulfstream 1 with 4STAR) and lidar (on NASA B200) extinction measurements within 0.01, 0.03, 0.01, 0.02, 0.02, 0.02 at 355, 450, 532, 550, 700, 1064 nm, respectively, despite atmospheric variations and combined measurement uncertainties. Finer vertical differentials of the 4STAR measurements matched the in situ ambient extinction profile within 14% for one homogeneous column. For the AOD observed between 350-1660 nm, excluding strong water vapor and oxygen absorption bands, estimated uncertainties were ~0.01 and dominated by (then) unpredictable throughput changes, up to +/-0.8%, of the fiber optic rotary joint. The favorable intercomparisons herald 4STAR’s spatially-resolved high-frequency hyperspectral products as a reliable tool for climate studies and satellite validation.

  10. Real time infrared aerosol analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Stanley A. (Countryside, IL); Reedy, Gerald T. (Bourbonnais, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL)

    1990-01-01

    Apparatus for analyzing aerosols in essentially real time includes a virtual impactor which separates coarse particles from fine and ultrafine particles in an aerosol sample. The coarse and ultrafine particles are captured in PTFE filters, and the fine particles impact onto an internal light reflection element. The composition and quantity of the particles on the PTFE filter and on the internal reflection element are measured by alternately passing infrared light through the filter and the internal light reflection element, and analyzing the light through infrared spectrophotometry to identify the particles in the sample.

  11. Global change and the value of biodiversity for new product research. Final project report, September 1, 1995--August 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, R.D.; Sedjo, R.A.

    1997-06-01

    A number of biologists believe that human activities are causing species extinctions at alarming rates. The only precedents, they claim, are to be found in the mass extinctions associated with a handful of apocalyptic volcanic eruptions and/or meteorite strikes distributed over geological time scales. Slowing the rates of greenhouse gas emissions, natural habitat destruction, and other factors that are believed to be inducing modem extinctions could be very expensive, however. It is natural to ask, then, what is the value of preserving biodiversity. One (although admittedly, among many) argument frequently made is that biodiversity is a source of new industrial, agricultural, and, particularly, pharmaceutical products. Natural organisms, it is argued, are great repositories of genetic information. Wild species, in their struggle to capture prey, escape predators, resist infection, and enhance reproductive success have evolved chemical mechanisms more elaborate and inventive than those synthetic chemists can now create. If these chemical mechanisms could be adapted and refined for human use, they could be of great value. There has, therefore, been considerable interest among natural scientists and conservation advocates in {open_quotes}biodiversity prospecting{close_quotes} the search for new commercial products among naturally occurring organisms-as both a mechanism and an argument for preserving biodiversity. In recent years economists and others have attempted to estimate the value of biodiversity for use in new product development. These studies vary considerably in their data, methods, and estimates. The Simpson, Sedjo and Reid and Polasky and Solow papers differ from previous work in that they focus on what is arguably the economically relevant issue: what is the value of biodiversity on the margin.

  12. Spent fuel sabotage aerosol test program :FY 2005-06 testing and aerosol data summary.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregson, Michael Warren; Brockmann, John E.; Nolte, O. (Fraunhofer institut fur toxikologie und experimentelle Medizin, Germany); Loiseau, O. (Institut de radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, France); Koch, W. (Fraunhofer institut fur toxikologie und experimentelle Medizin, Germany); Molecke, Martin Alan; Autrusson, Bruno (Institut de radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, France); Pretzsch, Gunter Guido (Gesellschaft fur anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Germany); Billone, M. C. (Argonne National Laboratory, USA); Lucero, Daniel A.; Burtseva, T. (Argonne National Laboratory, USA); Brucher, W (Gesellschaft fur anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Germany); Steyskal, Michele D.

    2006-10-01

    This multinational, multi-phase spent fuel sabotage test program is quantifying the aerosol particles produced when the products of a high energy density device (HEDD) interact with and explosively particulate test rodlets that contain pellets of either surrogate materials or actual spent fuel. This program has been underway for several years. This program provides source-term data that are relevant to some sabotage scenarios in relation to spent fuel transport and storage casks, and associated risk assessments. This document focuses on an updated description of the test program and test components for all work and plans made, or revised, primarily during FY 2005 and about the first two-thirds of FY 2006. It also serves as a program status report as of the end of May 2006. We provide details on the significant findings on aerosol results and observations from the recently completed Phase 2 surrogate material tests using cerium oxide ceramic pellets in test rodlets plus non-radioactive fission product dopants. Results include: respirable fractions produced; amounts, nuclide content, and produced particle size distributions and morphology; status on determination of the spent fuel ratio, SFR (the ratio of respirable particles from real spent fuel/respirables from surrogate spent fuel, measured under closely matched test conditions, in a contained test chamber); and, measurements of enhanced volatile fission product species sorption onto respirable particles. We discuss progress and results for the first three, recently performed Phase 3 tests using depleted uranium oxide, DUO{sub 2}, test rodlets. We will also review the status of preparations and the final Phase 4 tests in this program, using short rodlets containing actual spent fuel from U.S. PWR reactors, with both high- and lower-burnup fuel. These data plus testing results and design are tailored to support and guide, follow-on computer modeling of aerosol dispersal hazards and radiological consequence assessments. This spent fuel sabotage--aerosol test program, performed primarily at Sandia National Laboratories, with support provided by both the U.S. Department of Energy and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, had significant inputs from, and is strongly supported and coordinated by both the U.S. and international program participants in Germany, France, and the U.K., as part of the international Working Group for Sabotage Concerns of Transport and Storage Casks, WGSTSC.

  13. Potential Land Use Implications of a Global Biofuels Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gurgel, Angelo C.

    In this paper we investigate the potential production and implications of a global biofuels industry. We

  14. Stratospheric Aerosol Geoengineering ALAN ROBOCK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robock, Alan

    hydrologic responses, whitening of the skies, reduction of solar power, and impacts of diffuse radiation Project, conducting climate model experiments with standard stratospheric aerosol in- jection scenarios, which stated that ``It is extremely likely that human in- fluence has been the dominant cause

  15. Global climate feedbacks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manowitz, B.

    1990-10-01

    The important physical, chemical, and biological events that affect global climate change occur on a mesoscale -- requiring high spatial resolution for their analysis. The Department of Energy has formulated two major initiatives under the US Global Change Program: ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurements), and CHAMMP (Computer Hardware Advanced Mathematics and Model Physics). ARM is designed to use ground and air-craft based observations to document profiles of atmospheric composition, clouds, and radiative fluxes. With research and models of important physical processes, ARM will delineate the relationships between trace gases, aerosol and cloud structure, and radiative transfer in the atmosphere, and will improve the parameterization of global circulation models. The present GCMs do not model important feedbacks, including those from clouds, oceans, and land processes. The purpose of this workshop is to identify such potential feedbacks, to evaluate the uncertainties in the feedback processes (and, if possible, to parameterize the feedback processes so that they can be treated in a GCM), and to recommend research programs that will reduce the uncertainties in important feedback processes. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases.

  16. Aerosol-cloud Interactions from Urban, Regional, to Global Scales 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yuan

    2013-07-30

    &M University help me tackle several technical problems. Special thanks go to Jiwen Fan from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, who offered me substantial helps during my visit to PNNL. I also benefits a lot from the collaboration with Minghuai Wang from... PNNL to analyze the results from the super-parameterized climate model. I also want to extend my gratitude to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration fellowship program, which provided me a three-year funding support. vii TABLE...

  17. Overview of the 2010 Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaveri, Rahul A.; Shaw, William J.; Cziczo, D. J.; Schmid, Beat; Ferrare, R.; Alexander, M. L.; Alexandrov, Mikhail; Alvarez, R. J.; Arnott, W. P.; Atkinson, D.; Baidar, Sunil; Banta, Robert M.; Barnard, James C.; Beranek, Josef; Berg, Larry K.; Brechtel, Fred J.; Brewer, W. A.; Cahill, John F.; Cairns, Brian; Cappa, Christopher D.; Chand, Duli; China, Swarup; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Dubey, Manvendra K.; Easter, Richard C.; Erickson, Matthew H.; Fast, Jerome D.; Floerchinger, Cody; Flowers, B. A.; Fortner, Edward; Gaffney, Jeffrey S.; Gilles, Mary K.; Gorkowski, K.; Gustafson, William I.; Gyawali, Madhu S.; Hair, John; Hardesty, Michael; Harworth, J. W.; Herndon, Scott C.; Hiranuma, Naruki; Hostetler, Chris A.; Hubbe, John M.; Jayne, J. T.; Jeong, H.; Jobson, Bertram T.; Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Kleinman, L. I.; Kluzek, Celine D.; Knighton, B.; Kolesar, K. R.; Kuang, Chongai; Kubatova, A.; Langford, A. O.; Laskin, Alexander; Laulainen, Nels S.; Marchbanks, R. D.; Mazzoleni, Claudio; Mei, F.; Moffet, Ryan C.; Nelson, Danny A.; Obland, Michael; Oetjen, Hilke; Onasch, Timothy B.; Ortega, Ivan; Ottaviani, M.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Prather, Kimberly A.; Radney, J. G.; Rogers, Ray; Sandberg, S. P.; Sedlacek, Art; Senff, Christoph; Senum, Gunar; Setyan, Ari; Shilling, John E.; Shrivastava, ManishKumar B.; Song, Chen; Springston, S. R.; Subramanian, R.; Suski, Kaitlyn; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Volkamer, Rainer M.; Wallace, Hoyt A.; Wang, J.; Weickmann, A. M.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Zelenyuk, Alla; Zhang, Qi

    2012-08-22

    Substantial uncertainties still exist in the scientific understanding of the possible interactions between urban and natural (biogenic) emissions in the production and transformation of atmospheric aerosol and the resulting impact on climate change. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program's Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) carried out in June 2010 in Central Valley, California, was a comprehensive effort designed to improve this understanding. The primary objective of the field study was to investigate the evolution of secondary organic and black carbon aerosols and their climate-related properties in the Sacramento urban plume as it was routinely transported into the forested Sierra Nevada foothills area. Urban aerosols and trace gases experienced significant physical and chemical transformations as they mixed with the reactive biogenic hydrocarbons emitted from the forest. Two heavily-instrumented ground sites - one within the Sacramento urban area and another about 40 km to the northeast in the foothills area - were set up to characterize the evolution of meteorological variables, trace gases, aerosol precursors, aerosol size, composition, and climate-related properties in freshly polluted and 'aged' urban air. On selected days, the DOE G-1 aircraft was deployed to make similar measurements upwind and across the evolving Sacramento plume in the morning and again in the afternoon. The NASA B-200 aircraft, carrying remote sensing instruments, was also deployed to characterize the vertical and horizontal distribution of aerosols and aerosol optical properties within and around the plume. This overview provides: a) the scientific background and motivation for the study, b) the operational and logistical information pertinent to the execution of the study, c) an overview of key observations and initial results from the aircraft and ground-based sampling platforms, and d) a roadmap of planned data analyses and focused modeling efforts that will facilitate the integration of new knowledge into improved representations of key aerosol processes in climate models.

  18. DO AEROSOLS CHANGE CLOUD COVER AND AFFECT CLIMATE?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    IN MEXICO CITY BASIN Light scattering by aerosols decreases absorption of solar radiation. #12;AEROSOLS;AEROSOL INFLUENCES ON CLIMATE AND CLIMATE CHANGE #12;DMS #12;AEROSOL IN MEXICO CITY BASIN #12;AEROSOL AS SEEN FROM SPACE Fire plumes from southern Mexico transported north into Gulf of Mexico. #12;CLOUD

  19. Linearity of Climate Response to Increases in Black Carbon Aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahajan, Salil [ORNL; Evans, Katherine J [ORNL; Hack, James J [ORNL; Truesdale, John [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)

    2013-01-01

    The impact of absorbing aerosols on global climate are not completely understood. Here, we present results of idealized experiments conducted with the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM4) coupled to a slab ocean model (CAM4-SOM) to simulate the climate response to increases in tropospheric black carbon aerosols (BC) by direct and semi-direct effects. CAM4-SOM was forced with 0, 1x, 2x, 5x and 10x an estimate of the present day concentration of BC while maintaining their estimated present day global spatial and vertical distribution. The top of the atmosphere (TOA) radiative forcing of BC in these experiments is positive (warming) and increases linearly as the BC burden increases. The total semi-direct effect for the 1x experiment is positive but becomes increasingly negative for higher BC concentrations. The global average surface temperature response is found to be a linear function of the TOA radiative forcing. The climate sensitivity to BC from these experiments is estimated to be 0.42 K $\\textnormal W^{-1} m^{2}$ when the semi-direct effects are accounted for and 0.22 K $\\textnormal W^{-1} m^{2}$ with only the direct effects considered. Global average precipitation decreases linearly as BC increases, with a precipitation sensitivity to atmospheric absorption of 0.4 $\\%$ $\\textnormal W^{-1} \\textnormal m^{2}$ . The hemispheric asymmetry of BC also causes an increase in southward cross-equatorial heat transport and a resulting northward shift of the inter-tropical convergence zone in the simulations at a rate of 4$^{\\circ}$N $\\textnormal PW^{-1}$. Global average mid- and high-level clouds decrease, whereas the low-level clouds increase linearly with BC. The increase in marine stratocumulus cloud fraction over the south tropical Atlantic is caused by increased BC-induced diabatic heating of the free troposphere.

  20. Emission, oxidation, and secondary organic aerosol formation of volatile organic compounds as observed at Chebogue Point,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Allen

    acid, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, tentatively identified formic acid and hydroxyacetone organic aerosol production. We clearly show these compounds do not originate from local sources. We also show these compounds match the oxidation products of isoprene observed in smog chamber studies, and we

  1. Examination of the Effects of Sea Salt Aerosols on Southeast Texas Ozone and Secondary Organic Aerosol 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benoit, Mark David

    2013-02-06

    of this research is to examine sea salt aerosols and their impact on polluted environments. Sea salt aerosols act as Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) as well as providing a surface for heterogeneous reactions. Such reactions have implications for trace gases...

  2. Sources and composition of submicron organic mass in marine aerosol particles: Marine Aerosol Organic Mass Composition

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Frossard, Amanda A.; Russell, Lynn M.; Burrows, Susannah M.; Elliott, Scott M.; Bates, Timothy S.; Quinn, Patricia K.

    2014-11-26

    Recent studies have proposed a variety of interpretations of the sources and composition of atmospheric marine aerosol particles (aMA) based on a range of physical and chemical measurements collected during open-ocean research cruises. To investigate the processes that affect marine organic particles, this study uses the characteristic functional group composition (from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy) of aMAP from five ocean regions to show that: (i) The organic functional group composition of aMAP that can be identified as atmospheric primary marine (ocean-derived) aerosol (aPMA) is 65±12% hydroxyl, 21±9% alkane, 6±6% amine, and 7±8% carboxylic acid functional groups. Contributions from photochemicalmore »reactions add carboxylic acid groups (15%-25%), shipping effluent in seawater and ship emissions add additional alkane groups (up to 70%), and coastal emissions mix in alkane and carboxylic acid groups from coastal pollution sources. (ii) The organic composition of aPMA is nearly identical to model generated primary marine aerosol particles (gPMA) from bubbled seawater (55% hydroxyl, 32% alkane, and 13% amine functional groups), indicating that its overall functional group composition is the direct consequence of the organic constituents of the seawater source. (iii) While the seawater organic functional group composition was nearly invariant across all three ocean regions studied, the gPMA alkane group fraction increased with chlorophyll-a concentrations (r = 0.79). gPMA from productive seawater had a larger fraction of alkane functional groups (35%) compared to gPMA from non-productive seawater (16%), likely due to the presence of surfactants in productive seawater that stabilize the bubble film and lead to preferential drainage of the more soluble (lower alkane group fraction) organic components. gPMA has a hydroxyl group absorption peak location characteristic of monosaccharides and disaccharides, where the seawater OM hydroxyl group peak location is closer to that of polysaccharides. This may result from the larger saccharides preferentially remaining in the seawater during gPMA and aPMA production« less

  3. Sources and composition of submicron organic mass in marine aerosol particles: Marine Aerosol Organic Mass Composition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frossard, Amanda A. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States). Scripps Inst. of Oceanography; Russell, Lynn M. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States). Scripps Inst. of Oceanography; Burrows, Susannah M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Atmospheric Science and Global Change Div. (ASGC); Elliott, Scott M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bates, Timothy S. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Seattle, WA (United States). Pacific Marine Environmental Lab. (PMEL); Quinn, Patricia K. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Seattle, WA (United States). Pacific Marine Environmental Lab. (PMEL)

    2014-11-26

    Recent studies have proposed a variety of interpretations of the sources and composition of atmospheric marine aerosol particles (aMA) based on a range of physical and chemical measurements collected during open-ocean research cruises. To investigate the processes that affect marine organic particles, this study uses the characteristic functional group composition (from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy) of aMAP from five ocean regions to show that: (i) The organic functional group composition of aMAP that can be identified as atmospheric primary marine (ocean-derived) aerosol (aPMA) is 65±12% hydroxyl, 21±9% alkane, 6±6% amine, and 7±8% carboxylic acid functional groups. Contributions from photochemical reactions add carboxylic acid groups (15%-25%), shipping effluent in seawater and ship emissions add additional alkane groups (up to 70%), and coastal emissions mix in alkane and carboxylic acid groups from coastal pollution sources. (ii) The organic composition of aPMA is nearly identical to model generated primary marine aerosol particles (gPMA) from bubbled seawater (55% hydroxyl, 32% alkane, and 13% amine functional groups), indicating that its overall functional group composition is the direct consequence of the organic constituents of the seawater source. (iii) While the seawater organic functional group composition was nearly invariant across all three ocean regions studied, the gPMA alkane group fraction increased with chlorophyll-a concentrations (r = 0.79). gPMA from productive seawater had a larger fraction of alkane functional groups (35%) compared to gPMA from non-productive seawater (16%), likely due to the presence of surfactants in productive seawater that stabilize the bubble film and lead to preferential drainage of the more soluble (lower alkane group fraction) organic components. gPMA has a hydroxyl group absorption peak location characteristic of monosaccharides and disaccharides, where the seawater OM hydroxyl group peak location is closer to that of polysaccharides. This may result from the larger saccharides preferentially remaining in the seawater during gPMA and aPMA production

  4. Aerosol Science and Technology, 43:641652, 2009 Copyright American Association for Aerosol Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aerosol Science and Technology, 43:641­652, 2009 Copyright © American Association for Aerosol Differential Mobility Analyzer for Measurement of the Irreversibility of the Hygroscopic Growth Factor T is the irreversibility of the hygroscopic growth fac- tor of aerosol particles. The instrument uses the hysteresis

  5. Shortwave aerosol radiative forcing over cloud-free oceans from Terra: 1. Angular models for aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christopher, Sundar A.

    Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) data to obtain near surface wind speed. The new aerosol ADMs are built to obtain aerosol properties within a Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) footprint and Special as functions of near-surface ocean wind speed and MODIS aerosol optical depth at 0.55 mm (t0.55). Among the new

  6. Aerosol indirect effects ? general circulation model intercomparison and evaluation with satellite data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quaas, Johannes; Ming, Yi; Menon, Surabi; Takemura, Toshihiko; Wang, Minghuai; Penner, Joyce E.; Gettelman, Andrew; Lohmann, Ulrike; Bellouin, Nicolas; Boucher, Olivier; Sayer, Andrew M.; Thomas, Gareth E.; McComiskey, Allison; Feingold, Graham; Hoose, Corinna; Kristansson, Jon Egill; Liu, Xiaohong; Balkanski, Yves; Donner, Leo J.; Ginoux, Paul A.; Stier, Philip; Grandey, Benjamin; Feichter, Johann; Sednev, Igor; Bauer, Susanne E.; Koch, Dorothy; Grainger, Roy G.; Kirkevag, Alf; Iversen, Trond; Seland, Oyvind; Easter, Richard; Ghan, Steven J.; Rasch, Philip J.; Morrison, Hugh; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Iacono, Michael J.; Kinne, Stefan; Schulz, Michael

    2010-03-12

    Aerosol indirect effects continue to constitute one of the most important uncertainties for anthropogenic climate perturbations. Within the international AEROCOM initiative, the representation of aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions in ten different general circulation models (GCMs) is evaluated using three satellite datasets. The focus is on stratiform liquid water clouds since most GCMs do not include ice nucleation effects, and none of the model explicitly parameterises aerosol effects on convective clouds. We compute statistical relationships between aerosol optical depth ({tau}{sub a}) and various cloud and radiation quantities in a manner that is consistent between the models and the satellite data. It is found that the model-simulated influence of aerosols on cloud droplet number concentration (N{sub d}) compares relatively well to the satellite data at least over the ocean. The relationship between {tau}{sub a} and liquid water path is simulated much too strongly by the models. This suggests that the implementation of the second aerosol indirect effect mainly in terms of an autoconversion parameterisation has to be revisited in the GCMs. A positive relationship between total cloud fraction (f{sub cld}) and {tau}{sub a} as found in the satellite data is simulated by the majority of the models, albeit less strongly than that in the satellite data in most of them. In a discussion of the hypotheses proposed in the literature to explain the satellite-derived strong f{sub cld} - {tau}{sub a} relationship, our results indicate that none can be identified as a unique explanation. Relationships similar to the ones found in satellite data between {tau}{sub a} and cloud top temperature or outgoing long-wave radiation (OLR) are simulated by only a few GCMs. The GCMs that simulate a negative OLR - {tau}{sub a} relationship show a strong positive correlation between {tau}{sub a} and f{sub cld} The short-wave total aerosol radiative forcing as simulated by the GCMs is strongly influenced by the simulated anthropogenic fraction of {tau}{sub a}, and parameterization assumptions such as a lower bound on N{sub d}. Nevertheless, the strengths of the statistical relationships are good predictors for the aerosol forcings in the models. An estimate of the total short-wave aerosol forcing inferred from the combination of these predictors for the modelled forcings with the satellite-derived statistical relationships yields a global annual mean value of -1.5 {+-} 0.5 Wm{sup -2}. In an alternative approach, the radiative flux perturbation due to anthropogenic aerosols can be broken down into a component over the cloud-free portion of the globe (approximately the aerosol direct effect) and a component over the cloudy portion of the globe (approximately the aerosol indirect effect). An estimate obtained by scaling these simulated clear- and cloudy-sky forcings with estimates of anthropogenic {tau}{sub a} and satellite-retrieved Nd - {tau}{sub a} regression slopes, respectively, yields a global, annual-mean aerosol direct effect estimate of -0.4 {+-} 0.2 Wm{sup -2} and a cloudy-sky (aerosol indirect effect) estimate of -0.7 {+-} 0.5 Wm{sup -2}, with a total estimate of -1.2 {+-} 0.4 Wm{sup -2}.

  7. Researchers Model Impact of Aerosols Over California

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Impact of Aerosols Over California Research may clarify the effectiveness of regional pollution controls May 28, 2013 | Tags: Climate Research, Hopper Contact: Linda Vu,...

  8. Aerosol Retrieval Using Remote-sensed Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yueqing

    2012-01-01

    4.1.2 Baltimore and the DRAGONaround Baltimore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.4component aerosol 1 for Baltimore-Washington region on June

  9. Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    they can have either cooling or warming effects. Lighter-colored organic carbon particles cool regions of the planet by scattering sunlight back into space. Other aerosol particles...

  10. Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on high-resolution scanning transmission x-ray images obtained at the ALS have revealed chemical reactions on and in atmospheric aerosol particles that caused particle growth...

  11. Production

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Algae production R&D focuses on exploring resource use and availability, algal biomass development and improvements, characterizing algal biomass components, and the ecology and engineering of cultivation systems.

  12. Center for Innovation in GLOBAL HEALTH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kay, Mark A.

    Center for Innovation in GLOBAL HEALTH Conversations in Global Health Thursday, April 9, 2015 5 in integrated and innovative delivery, finding creative new ways to ensure solutions and products get and the Duke Global Health Institute. Sponsored by the Center for Innovation in Global Health (CIGH). The event

  13. Unintended consequences of atmospheric injection of sulphate aerosols.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brady, Patrick Vane; Kobos, Peter Holmes; Goldstein, Barry

    2010-10-01

    Most climate scientists believe that climate geoengineering is best considered as a potential complement to the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions, rather than as an alternative to it. Strong mitigation could achieve the equivalent of up to -4Wm{sup -2} radiative forcing on the century timescale, relative to a worst case scenario for rising CO{sub 2}. However, to tackle the remaining 3Wm{sup -2}, which are likely even in a best case scenario of strongly mitigated CO{sub 2} releases, a number of geoengineering options show promise. Injecting stratospheric aerosols is one of the least expensive and, potentially, most effective approaches and for that reason an examination of the possible unintended consequences of the implementation of atmospheric injections of sulphate aerosols was made. Chief among these are: reductions in rainfall, slowing of atmospheric ozone rebound, and differential changes in weather patterns. At the same time, there will be an increase in plant productivity. Lastly, because atmospheric sulphate injection would not mitigate ocean acidification, another side effect of fossil fuel burning, it would provide only a partial solution. Future research should aim at ameliorating the possible negative unintended consequences of atmospheric injections of sulphate injection. This might include modeling the optimum rate and particle type and size of aerosol injection, as well as the latitudinal, longitudinal and altitude of injection sites, to balance radiative forcing to decrease negative regional impacts. Similarly, future research might include modeling the optimum rate of decrease and location of injection sites to be closed to reduce or slow rapid warming upon aerosol injection cessation. A fruitful area for future research might be system modeling to enhance the possible positive increases in agricultural productivity. All such modeling must be supported by data collection and laboratory and field testing to enable iterative modeling to increase the accuracy and precision of the models, while reducing epistemic uncertainties.

  14. global warming itself. Moreover, the mere prospect of geo-engineering is a profound indictment of decades of failed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winickoff, David

    global warming itself. Moreover, the mere prospect of geo- engineering is a profound indictment as solar radiation manage- ment (SRM), would aim to reduce global warming by spray- ing aerosols of geoengineering research acknowledge the many risks involved. The physical risks include possible shifts in global

  15. Extending the physicochemical characterization of aerosol particles in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zauscher, Melanie Dorothy

    2012-01-01

    Combustion Aerosol, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 11 (Based Receptor Modeling, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics,Aerosols, Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, 22 (1-2), 19-39.

  16. Building America Webinar: Sealing of Home Enclosures with Aerosol...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Sealing of Home Enclosures with Aerosol Particles Building America Webinar: Sealing of Home Enclosures with Aerosol Particles This webinar was presented by research team Building...

  17. The Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghan, Steve

    2014-03-24

    Research projects like the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign, or ISDAC, increase our knowledge of atmospheric aerosol particles and cloud physics.

  18. ARM - Field Campaign - Aerosol and Cloud Experiments in the Eastern...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    horizontal variabilities of aerosol, trace gases, cloud, drizzle, and atmospheric thermodynamics are critically needed for understanding and quantifying the budget of MBL aerosol,...

  19. The Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Ghan, Steve

    2014-06-12

    Research projects like the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign, or ISDAC, increase our knowledge of atmospheric aerosol particles and cloud physics.

  20. THE INFLUENCE OF BENZENE AS A TRACE REACTANT IN TITAN AEROSOL ANALOGS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trainer, Melissa G.; Sebree, Joshua A.; Heidi Yoon, Y.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    2013-03-20

    Benzene has been detected in Titan's atmosphere by Cassini instruments, with concentrations ranging from sub-ppb in the stratosphere to ppm in the ionosphere. Sustained levels of benzene in the haze formation region could signify that it is an important reactant in the formation of Titan's organic aerosol. To date, there have not been laboratory investigations to assess the influence of benzene on aerosol properties. We report a laboratory study on the chemical composition of organic aerosol formed from C{sub 6}H{sub 6}/CH{sub 4}/N{sub 2} via far ultraviolet irradiation (120-200 nm). The compositional results are compared to those from aerosol generated by a more ''traditional Titan'' mixture of CH{sub 4}/N{sub 2}. Our results show that even a trace amount of C{sub 6}H{sub 6} (10 ppm) has significant impact on the chemical composition and production rates of organic aerosol. There are several pathways by which photolyzed benzene may react to form larger molecules, both with and without the presence of CH{sub 4}, but many of these reaction mechanisms are only beginning to be explored for the conditions at Titan. Continued work investigating the influence of benzene in aerosol growth will advance understanding of this previously unstudied reaction system.

  1. Going Global: Tight Oil Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1Markets See full Genealogy of Major

  2. Aerosol specification in single-column Community Atmosphere Model version 5

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lebassi-Habtezion, B.; Caldwell, P. M.

    2015-03-27

    Single-column model (SCM) capability is an important tool for general circulation model development. In this study, the SCM mode of version 5 of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) is shown to handle aerosol initialization and advection improperly, resulting in aerosol, cloud-droplet, and ice crystal concentrations which are typically much lower than observed or simulated by CAM5 in global mode. This deficiency has a major impact on stratiform cloud simulations but has little impact on convective case studies because aerosol is currently not used by CAM5 convective schemes and convective cases are typically longer in duration (so initialization is less important).more »By imposing fixed aerosol or cloud-droplet and crystal number concentrations, the aerosol issues described above can be avoided. Sensitivity studies using these idealizations suggest that the Meyers et al. (1992) ice nucleation scheme prevents mixed-phase cloud from existing by producing too many ice crystals. Microphysics is shown to strongly deplete cloud water in stratiform cases, indicating problems with sequential splitting in CAM5 and the need for careful interpretation of output from sequentially split climate models. Droplet concentration in the general circulation model (GCM) version of CAM5 is also shown to be far too low (~ 25 cm?3) at the southern Great Plains (SGP) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site.« less

  3. Assessing historical global sulfur emission patterns for the period 1850--1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lefohn, A.S.; Husar, J.D.; Husar, R.B.; Brimblecombe, P.

    1996-07-19

    Anthropogenic sulfur dioxide emissions from energy-producing and metal production activities have become an important factor in better understanding the relationship between humans and the environment. Concerns about (1) acid rain effects on the environment and (2) anthropogenic aerosols affecting possible global change have prompted interest in the transformation and fate of sulfur in the environment. One step in assessing the importance of sulfur emissions is the development of a reliable regional emission inventory of sulfur as a function of time. The objective of this research effort was to create a homogeneous database for historical sulfur emission estimates for the world. The time from 1850--1990 was selected to include the period of industrialization form the time the main production of fuels and minerals began until the most recent year for which complete production data exist. This research effort attempts to correct some of the deficiencies associated with previous global sulfur emission estimates by (1) identifying those production activities that resulted in sulfur emissions by country and (2) calculating historical emission trends by country across years. An important component of this study was the comparison of the sulfur emission results with those of previous studies.

  4. Assessing regional scale predictions of aerosols, marine stratocumulus, and their interactions during VOCALS-REx using WRF-Chem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang Q.; Lee Y.; Gustafson Jr., W. I.; Fast, J. D.; Wang, H.; Easter, R. C.; Morrison, H.; Chapman, E. G.; Spak, S. N.; Mena-Carrasco, M. A.

    2011-12-02

    This study assesses the ability of the recent chemistry version (v3.3) of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-Chem) model to simulate boundary layer structure, aerosols, stratocumulus clouds, and energy fluxes over the Southeast Pacific Ocean. Measurements from the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx) and satellite retrievals (i.e., products from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES), and GOES-10) are used for this assessment. The Morrison double-moment microphysics scheme is newly coupled with interactive aerosols in the model. The 31-day (15 October-16 November 2008) WRF-Chem simulation with aerosol-cloud interactions (AERO hereafter) is also compared to a simulation (MET hereafter) with fixed cloud droplet number concentrations in the microphysics scheme and simplified cloud and aerosol treatments in the radiation scheme. The well-simulated aerosol quantities (aerosol number, mass composition and optical properties), and the inclusion of full aerosol-cloud couplings lead to significant improvements in many features of the simulated stratocumulus clouds: cloud optical properties and microphysical properties such as cloud top effective radius, cloud water path, and cloud optical thickness. In addition to accounting for the aerosol direct and semi-direct effects, these improvements feed back to the simulation of boundary-layer characteristics and energy budgets. Particularly, inclusion of interactive aerosols in AERO strengthens the temperature and humidity gradients within the capping inversion layer and lowers the marine boundary layer (MBL) depth by 130 m from that of the MET simulation. These differences are associated with weaker entrainment and stronger mean subsidence at the top of the MBL in AERO. Mean top-of-atmosphere outgoing shortwave fluxes, surface latent heat, and surface downwelling longwave fluxes are in better agreement with observations in AERO, compared to the MET simulation. Nevertheless, biases in some of the simulated meteorological quantities (e.g., MBL temperature and humidity) and aerosol quantities (e.g., underestimations of accumulation mode aerosol number) might affect simulated stratocumulus and energy fluxes over the Southeastern Pacific, and require further investigation. The well-simulated timing and outflow patterns of polluted and clean episodes demonstrate the model's ability to capture daily/synoptic scale variations of aerosol and cloud properties, and suggest that the model is suitable for studying atmospheric processes associated with pollution outflow over the ocean. The overall performance of the regional model in simulating mesoscale clouds and boundary layer properties is encouraging and suggests that reproducing gradients of aerosol and cloud droplet concentrations and coupling cloud-aerosol-radiation processes are important when simulating marine stratocumulus over the Southeast Pacific.

  5. EMSP Final Report: Electrically Driven Technologies for Radioactive Aerosol Abatement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DePaoli, D.W.

    2003-01-22

    The purpose of this research project was to develop an improved understanding of how electrically driven processes, including electrocoalescence, acoustic agglomeration, and electric filtration, may be employed to efficiently treat problems caused by the formation of aerosols during DOE waste treatment operations. The production of aerosols during treatment and retrieval operations in radioactive waste tanks and during thermal treatment operations such as calcination presents a significant problem of cost, worker exposure, potential for release, and increased waste volume. There was anecdotal evidence in the literature that acoustic agglomeration and electrical coalescence could be used together to change the size distribution of aerosol particles in such a way as to promote easier filtration and less frequent maintenance of filtration systems. As such, those electrically driven technologies could potentially be used as remote technologies for improved treatment; however, existing theoretical models are not suitable for prediction and design. To investigate the physics of such systems, and also to prototype a system for such processes, a collaborative project was undertaken between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the University of Texas at Austin (UT). ORNL was responsible for the larger-scale prototyping portion of the project, while UT was primarily responsible for the detailed physics in smaller scale unit reactors. It was found that both electrical coalescence and acoustic agglomeration do in fact increase the rate of aggregation of aerosols. Electrical coalescence requires significantly less input power than acoustic agglomeration, but it is much less effective in its ability to aggregate/coalesce aerosols. The larger-scale prototype showed qualitatively similar results as the unit reactor tests, but presented more difficulty in interpretation of the results because of the complex multi-physics coupling that necessarily occur in all larger-scale system tests. An additional finding from this work is that low-amplitude oscillation may provide an alternative, non-invasive, non-contact means of controlling settling and/or suspension of solids. Further investigation would be necessary to evaluate its utility for radioactive waste treatment applications. This project did not uncover a new technology for radioactive waste treatment. While it may be possible that an efficient electrically driven technology for aerosol treatment could be developed, it appears that other technologies, such as steel and ceramic HEPA filters, can suitably solve this problem. If further studies are to be undertaken, additional fundamental experimentation and modeling is necessary to fully capture the physics; in addition, larger-scale tests are needed to demonstrate the treatment of flowing gas streams through the coupling of acoustic agglomeration with electrocoalescence.

  6. Improving Bulk Microphysics Parameterizations in Simulations of Aerosol Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yuan; Fan, Jiwen; Zhang, Renyi; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Franklin, Charmaine N.

    2013-06-05

    To improve the microphysical parameterizations for simulations of the aerosol indirect effect (AIE) in regional and global climate models, a double-moment bulk microphysical scheme presently implemented in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is modified and the results are compared against atmospheric observations and simulations produced by a spectral bin microphysical scheme (SBM). Rather than using prescribed aerosols as in the original bulk scheme (Bulk-OR), a prognostic doublemoment aerosol representation is introduced to predict both the aerosol number concentration and mass mixing ratio (Bulk-2M). The impacts of the parameterizations of diffusional growth and autoconversion and the selection of the embryonic raindrop radius on the performance of the bulk microphysical scheme are also evaluated. Sensitivity modeling experiments are performed for two distinct cloud regimes, maritime warm stratocumulus clouds (SC) over southeast Pacific Ocean from the VOCALS project and continental deep convective clouds (DCC) in the southeast of China from the Department of Energy/ARM Mobile Facility (DOE/AMF) - China field campaign. The results from Bulk-2M exhibit a much better agreement in the cloud number concentration and effective droplet radius in both the SC and DCC cases with those from SBM and field measurements than those from Bulk-OR. In the SC case particularly, Bulk-2M reproduces the observed drizzle precipitation, which is largely inhibited in Bulk-OR. Bulk-2M predicts enhanced precipitation and invigorated convection with increased aerosol loading in the DCC case, consistent with the SBM simulation, while Bulk-OR predicts the opposite behaviors. Sensitivity experiments using four different types of autoconversion schemes reveal that the autoconversion parameterization is crucial in determining the raindrop number, mass concentration, and drizzle formation for warm 2 stratocumulus clouds. An embryonic raindrop size of 40 ?m is determined as a more realistic setting in the autoconversion parameterization. The saturation adjustment employed in calculating condensation/evaporation in the bulk scheme is identified as the main factor responsible for the large discrepancies in predicting cloud water in the SC case, suggesting that an explicit calculation of diffusion growth with predicted supersaturation is necessary for further improvements of the bulk microphysics scheme. Lastly, a larger rain evaporation rate below cloud is found in the bulk scheme in comparison to the SBM simulation, which could contribute to a lower surface precipitation in the bulk scheme.

  7. Carbonaceous Aerosol Study Using Advanced Particle Instrumentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qi, Li

    2010-01-01

    6 6.1 Introduction Biomass combustion emissions contributeEmissions of trace gases and aerosols during the open combustion of biomassbiomass burning work explored the evolution of organic aerosol emissions as a function of modified combustion efficiency with correlations drawn between levoglucosan emissions

  8. Optimal Estimation Retrieval Aerosol Microphysical Properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oxford, University of

    ) the validation of this algorithm on the basis of synthetic extinction data, and (3) application of the new algorithm to SAGE II measurements of stratospheric background aerosol. The validation results indicate that the new method is able to retrieve the particle size of typical background aerosols reasonably well

  9. Global Predictions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swyden, Courtney

    2006-01-01

    stream_source_info Global Predictions.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 7503 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Global Predictions.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Every morning... drought index is based on a daily water balance, where a drought factor is calculated with precipitation and soil moisture,? Srinivasan said. Global Predictions Story by Courtney Swyden Global Predictions Lab uses advanced technologies to forecast...

  10. Clouds and climate: Unraveling a key piece of global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seinfeld, J.H.

    2000-02-01

    Federal policy decisions relating to mitigation of greenhouse gas and other emissions have the potential to exert an enormous impact on industries in which chemical engineers play a prominent role. Many in these industries keep close watch on the development of scientific understanding associated with predictions of global climate change. The authors review one of the most critical, and most uncertain, pieces of the climate puzzle, the role of aerosols and clouds in the global energy balance.

  11. Global Supply Chains and Wage Inequality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Costinot, Arnaud

    A salient feature of globalization in recent decades is the emergence of "global supply chains" in which different countries specialize in different stages of a sequential production process. In Costinot, Vogel and Wang ...

  12. Pathways of sulfate enhancement by natural and anthropogenic mineral aerosols in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Xin [Peking Univ., Beijing (China); Song, Yu [Peking Univ., Beijing (China); Zhao, Chun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Li, Mengmeng [Peking Univ., Beijing (China); Zhu, Tong [Peking Univ., Beijing (China); Zhang, Qiang [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Zhang, Xiaoye [Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, CMA, Beijing (China)

    2014-12-27

    China, the world’s largest consumer of coal, emits approximately 30 million tons of sulfur dioxide (SO?) per year. SO? is subsequently oxidized to sulfate in the atmosphere. However, large gaps exist between model-predicted and measured sulfate levels in China. Long-term field observations and numerical simulations were integrated to investigate the effect of mineral aerosols on sulfate formation. We found that mineral aerosols contributed a nationwide average of approximately 22% to sulfate production in 2006. The increased sulfate concentration was approximately 2 ?g m?ł in the entire China. In East China and the Sichuan Basin, the increments reached 6.3 ?g m?ł and 7.3 ?g m?ł, respectively. Mineral aerosols led to faster SO? oxidation through three pathways. First, more SO? was dissolved as cloud water alkalinity increased due to water-soluble mineral cations. Sulfate production was then enhanced through the aqueous-phase oxidation of S(IV) (dissolved sulfur in oxidation state +4). The contribution to the national sulfate production was 5%. Second, sulfate was enhanced through S(IV) catalyzed oxidation by transition metals. The contribution to the annual sulfate production was 8%, with 19% during the winter that decreased to 2% during the summer. Third, SO? reacts on the surface of mineral aerosols to produce sulfate. The contribution to the national average sulfate concentration was 9% with 16% during the winter and a negligible effect during the summer. The inclusion of mineral aerosols does resolve model discrepancies with sulfate observations in China, especially during the winter. These three pathways, which are not fully considered in most current chemistry-climate models, will significantly impact assessments regarding the effects of aerosol on climate change in China.

  13. AEROSOL PARTICLE COLLECTOR DESIGN STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R

    2007-09-27

    A computational evaluation of a particle collector design was performed to evaluate the behavior of aerosol particles in a fast flowing gas stream. The objective of the work was to improve the collection efficiency of the device while maintaining a minimum specified air throughput, nominal collector size, and minimal power requirements. The impact of a range of parameters was considered subject to constraints on gas flow rate, overall collector dimensions, and power limitations. Potential improvements were identified, some of which have already been implemented. Other more complex changes were identified and are described here for further consideration. In addition, fruitful areas for further study are proposed.

  14. MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for research, independent policy analysis, and public education in global environmental change. It seeks centers at MIT: the Center for Global Change Science (CGCS) and the Center for Energy and Environmental, and environmental effects. In turn, the greenhouse gas and atmospheric aerosol assumptions underlying climate

  15. AEROSOL ABSORPTION IN CLOUDY SCENES USING PASSIVE SATELLITE INSTRUMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graaf, Martin de

    AEROSOL ABSORPTION IN CLOUDY SCENES USING PASSIVE SATELLITE INSTRUMENTS M. de Graaf, L.G. Tilstra information has become available from active space-based sensors and some dedicated field campaigns on aerosol-absorption, is the Absorbing Aerosol Index (AAI), which can indicate absorbing aerosols overlying clouds. The AAI is available

  16. FY 2011 4th Quarter Metric: Estimate of Future Aerosol Direct and Indirect Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koch, D

    2011-09-21

    The global and annual mean aerosol direct and indirect effects, relative to 1850 conditions, estimated from CESM simulations are 0.02 W m-2 and -0.39 W m-2, respectively, for emissions in year 2100 under the IPCC RCP8.5 scenario. The indirect effect is much smaller than that for 2000 emissions because of much smaller SO2 emissions in 2100; the direct effects are small due to compensation between warming by black carbon and cooling by sulfate.

  17. An Aerosol Condensation Model for Sulfur Trioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grant, K E

    2008-02-07

    This document describes a model for condensation of sulfuric acid aerosol given an initial concentration and/or source of gaseous sulfur trioxide (e.g. fuming from oleum). The model includes the thermochemical effects on aerosol condensation and air parcel buoyancy. Condensation is assumed to occur heterogeneously onto a preexisting background aerosol distribution. The model development is both a revisiting of research initially presented at the Fall 2001 American Geophysical Union Meeting [1] and a further extension to provide new capabilities for current atmospheric dispersion modeling efforts [2]. Sulfuric acid is one of the most widely used of all industrial chemicals. In 1992, world consumption of sulfuric acid was 145 million metric tons, with 42.4 Mt (mega-tons) consumed in the United States [10]. In 2001, of 37.5 Mt consumed in the U.S., 74% went into producing phosphate fertilizers [11]. Another significant use is in mining industries. Lawuyi and Fingas [7] estimate that, in 1996, 68% of use was for fertilizers and 5.8% was for mining. They note that H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} use has been and should continue to be very stable. In the United States, the elimination of MTBE (methyl tertiary-butyl ether) and the use of ethanol for gasoline production are further increasing the demand for petroleum alkylate. Alkylate producers have a choice of either a hydrofluoric acid or sulfuric acid process. Both processes are widely used today. Concerns, however, over the safety or potential regulation of hydrofluoric acid are likely to result in most of the growth being for the sulfuric acid process, further increasing demand [11]. The implication of sulfuric acid being a pervasive industrial chemical is that transport is also pervasive. Often, this is in the form of oleum tankers, having around 30% free sulfur trioxide. Although sulfuric acid itself is not a volatile substance, fuming sulfuric acid (referred to as oleum) is [7], the volatile product being sulfur trioxide. Sulfate aerosols and mist may form in the atmosphere on tank rupture. From chemical spill data from 1990-1996, Lawuyi02 and Fingas [7] prioritize sulfuric acid as sixth most serious. During this period, they note 155 spills totaling 13 Mt, out of a supply volume of 3700 Mt. Lawuyi and Fingas [7] summarize information on three major sulfuric acid spills. On 12 February 1984, 93 tons of sulfuric acid were spilled when 14 railroad cars derailed near MacTier, Parry Sound, Ontario. On 13 December 1978, 51 railroad cars derailed near Springhill, Nova Scotia. One car, containing 93% sulfuric acid, ruptured, spilling nearly its entire contents. In July 1993, 20 to 50 tons of fuming sulfuric acid spilled at the General Chemical Corp. plant in Richmond, California, a major industrial center near San Francisco. The release occurred when oleum was being loaded into a nonfuming acid railroad tank car that contained only a rupture disk as a safety device. The tank car was overheated and this rupture disk blew. The resulting cloud of sulfuric acid drifted northeast with prevailing winds over a number of populated areas. More than 3,000 people subsequently sought medical attention for burning eyes, coughing, headaches, and nausea. Almost all were treated and released on the day of the spill. By the day after the release, another 5,000 people had sought medical attention. The spill forced the closure of five freeways in the region as well as some Bay Area Rapid Transit System stations. Apart from corrosive toxicity, there is the additional hazard that the reactions of sulfur trioxide and sulfuric acid vapors with water are extremely exothermic [10, 11]. While the vapors are intrinsically denser than air, there is thus the likelihood of strong, warming-induced buoyancy from reactions with ambient water vapor, water-containing aerosol droplets, and wet environmental surface. Nordin [12] relates just such an occurrence following the Richmond, CA spill, with the plume observed to rise to 300 m. For all practical purposes, sulfur trioxide was the constituent released from the heated tank

  18. Postdoctoral Fellow: Aerosol Technology The Volckens Research Group, spanning the Departments of Mechanical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and NIEHS) focused on the development of new sensors for aerosol and air quality monitoring, and air non-discrimination and affirmative action. The Office of Equal Opportunity is located in 101 Student Services. Colorado State University is committed to providing a safe and productive learning and living

  19. Studying trends in biomass burning aerosol using the Absorbing Aerosol Index derived from GOME, SCIAMACHY, and GOME-2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tilstra, Gijsbert

    Studying trends in biomass burning aerosol using the Absorbing Aerosol Index derived from GOME the resulting time series, we use tropospheric NO2 data as a reference in the regions dominated by biomass sensitive to desert dust aerosols (DDA) and biomass burning aerosols (BBA). See Figure 1. The AAI

  20. Aerosol, Cloud, and Climate: From Observation to Model (457th Brookhaven Lecture)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Wang, Jian [Ph.D., Environmental Sciences Department

    2010-09-01

    In the last 100 years, the Earth has warmed by about 1şF, glaciers and sea ice have been melting more quickly than previously, especially during the past decade, and the level of the sea has risen about 6-8 inches worldwide. Scientists have long been investigating this phenomenon of ?global warming,? which is believed to be at least partly due to the increased carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in the air from burning fossil fuels. Funded by DOE, teams of researchers from BNL and other national labs have been gathering data in the U.S. and internationally to build computer models of climate and weather to help in understanding general patterns, causes, and perhaps, solutions. Among many findings, researchers observed that atmospheric aerosols, minute particles in the atmosphere, can significantly affect global energy balance and climate. Directly, aerosols scatter and absorb sunlight. Indirectly, increased aerosol concentration can lead to smaller cloud droplets, changing clouds in ways that tend to cool global climate and potentially mask overall warming from man-made CO2.

  1. Aerosol, Cloud, and Climate: From Observation to Model (457th Brookhaven Lecture)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jian (Ph.D., Environmental Sciences Department) [Ph.D., Environmental Sciences Department

    2010-05-12

    In the last 100 years, the Earth has warmed by about 1şF, glaciers and sea ice have been melting more quickly than previously, especially during the past decade, and the level of the sea has risen about 6-8 inches worldwide. Scientists have long been investigating this phenomenon of “global warming,” which is believed to be at least partly due to the increased carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in the air from burning fossil fuels. Funded by DOE, teams of researchers from BNL and other national labs have been gathering data in the U.S. and internationally to build computer models of climate and weather to help in understanding general patterns, causes, and perhaps, solutions. Among many findings, researchers observed that atmospheric aerosols, minute particles in the atmosphere, can significantly affect global energy balance and climate. Directly, aerosols scatter and absorb sunlight. Indirectly, increased aerosol concentration can lead to smaller cloud droplets, changing clouds in ways that tend to cool global climate and potentially mask overall warming from man-made CO2.

  2. Global energy and global precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Global energy and global precipitation or Why doesn't precipitation increase as Clausias expect precipitation to increase at the same rate. · Rest of this brief talk is to show you why Heat Flux (S) 20 W/m2 Atmospheric heating from precipitation LP Atmosphere has small heat capacity. So

  3. CARES: Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study Science Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaveri, RA; Shaw, WJ; Cziczo, DJ

    2010-05-27

    Carbonaceous aerosol components, which include black carbon (BC), urban primary organic aerosols (POA), biomass burning aerosols, and secondary organic aerosols (SOA) from both urban and biogenic precursors, have been previously shown to play a major role in the direct and indirect radiative forcing of climate. The primary objective of the CARES 2010 intensive field study is to investigate the evolution of carbonaceous aerosols of different types and their effects on optical and cloud formation properties.

  4. Climatological simulations of ozone and atmospheric aerosols in the Greater Cairo region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steiner, A. L.; Tawfik, A. B.; Shalaby, A.; Zakey, A. S.; Abdel Wahab, M. M.; Salah, Z.; Solmon, F.; Sillman, S.; Zaveri, Rahul A.

    2014-04-16

    An integrated chemistry-climate model (RegCM4-CHEM) simulates present-day climate, ozone and tropospheric aerosols over Egypt with a focus on Greater Cairo (GC) region. The densley populated GC region is known for its severe air quality issues driven by high levels of anthropogenic pollution in conjuction with natural sources such as dust and agricultural burning events. We find that current global emission inventories underestimate key pollutants such as nitrogen oxides and anthropogenic aerosol species. In the GC region, average-ground-based NO2 observations of 40-60 ppb are substantially higher than modeled estimates (5-10 ppb), likely due to model grid resolution, improper boundary layer representation, and poor emissions inventories. Observed ozone concentrations range from 35 ppb (winter) to 80 ppb (summer). The model reproduces the seasonal cycle fairly well, but modeled summer ozone is understimated by approximately 15 ppb and exhibits little interannual variability. For aerosols, springtime dust events dominate the seasonal aerosol cycle. The chemistry-climate model captures the springtime peak aerosol optical depth (AOD) of 0.7-1 but is slightly greater than satellite-derived AOD. Observed AOD decreases in the summer and increases again in the fall due to agricultural burning events in the Nile Delta, yet the model underestimates this fall observed AOD peak, as standard emissions inventories underestimate this burning and the resulting aerosol emissions. Our comparison of modeled gas and particulate phase atmospheric chemistry in the GC region indicates that improved emissions inventories of mobile sources and other anthropogenic activities are needed to improve air quality simulations in this region.

  5. A reanalysis of carbonyl sulfide as a source of stratospheric background sulfur aerosol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chin, M.; Davis, D.D. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)] [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1995-05-20

    The authors present an analysis of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) in the earth`s atmosphere, with the objective being to assess its role in the formation of sulfate aerosols in the stratosphere. They review the amount of OCS in the atmosphere, its distribution between the troposphere and stratosphere, the estimated source term for emission to the atmosphere, and from one-dimensional model calculations infer a stratospheric lifetime to photochemical reactions of ten years. Calculations infer a sulfur production rate from OCS oxidation which is a factor of 2 to 5 less than recent sulfur aerosol estimates would infer. They discuss a number of possible explanations for the discrepancy.

  6. Characterizing Aerosol Distributions and Optical Properties Using the NASA Langley High Spectral Resolution Lidar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hostetler, Chris; Ferrare, Richard

    2013-02-14

    The objective of this project was to provide vertically and horizontally resolved data on aerosol optical properties to assess and ultimately improve how models represent these aerosol properties and their impacts on atmospheric radiation. The approach was to deploy the NASA Langley Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) and other synergistic remote sensors on DOE Atmospheric Science Research (ASR) sponsored airborne field campaigns and synergistic field campaigns sponsored by other agencies to remotely measure aerosol backscattering, extinction, and optical thickness profiles. Synergistic sensors included a nadir-viewing digital camera for context imagery, and, later in the project, the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP). The information from the remote sensing instruments was used to map the horizontal and vertical distribution of aerosol properties and type. The retrieved lidar parameters include profiles of aerosol extinction, backscatter, depolarization, and optical depth. Products produced in subsequent analyses included aerosol mixed layer height, aerosol type, and the partition of aerosol optical depth by type. The lidar products provided vertical context for in situ and remote sensing measurements from other airborne and ground-based platforms employed in the field campaigns and was used to assess the predictions of transport models. Also, the measurements provide a data base for future evaluation of techniques to combine active (lidar) and passive (polarimeter) measurements in advanced retrieval schemes to remotely characterize aerosol microphysical properties. The project was initiated as a 3-year project starting 1 January 2005. It was later awarded continuation funding for another 3 years (i.e., through 31 December 2010) followed by a 1-year no-cost extension (through 31 December 2011). This project supported logistical and flight costs of the NASA sensors on a dedicated aircraft, the subsequent analysis and archival of the data, and the presentation of results in conferences, workshops, and publications. DOE ASR field campaigns supported under this project included - MAX-Mex /MILAGRO (2006) - TexAQS 2006/GoMACCS (2006) - CHAPS (2007) - RACORO (2009) - CARE/CalNex (2010) In addition, data acquired on HSRL airborne field campaigns sponsored by other agencies were used extensively to fulfill the science objectives of this project and the data acquired have been made available to other DOE ASR investigators upon request.

  7. A New WRF-Chem Treatment for Studying Regional Scale Impacts of Cloud-Aerosol Interactions in Parameterized Cumuli

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berg, Larry K.; Shrivastava, ManishKumar B.; Easter, Richard C.; Fast, Jerome D.; Chapman, Elaine G.; Liu, Ying

    2015-01-01

    A new treatment of cloud-aerosol interactions within parameterized shallow and deep convection has been implemented in WRF-Chem that can be used to better understand the aerosol lifecycle over regional to synoptic scales. The modifications to the model to represent cloud-aerosol interactions include treatment of the cloud dropletnumber mixing ratio; key cloud microphysical and macrophysical parameters (including the updraft fractional area, updraft and downdraft mass fluxes, and entrainment) averaged over the population of shallow clouds, or a single deep convective cloud; and vertical transport, activation/resuspension, aqueous chemistry, and wet removal of aerosol and trace gases in warm clouds. Thesechanges have been implemented in both the WRF-Chem chemistry packages as well as the Kain-Fritsch cumulus parameterization that has been modified to better represent shallow convective clouds. Preliminary testing of the modified WRF-Chem has been completed using observations from the Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS) as well as a high-resolution simulation that does not include parameterized convection. The simulation results are used to investigate the impact of cloud-aerosol interactions on the regional scale transport of black carbon (BC), organic aerosol (OA), and sulfate aerosol. Based on the simulations presented here, changes in the column integrated BC can be as large as -50% when cloud-aerosol interactions are considered (due largely to wet removal), or as large as +35% for sulfate in non-precipitating conditions due to the sulfate production in the parameterized clouds. The modifications to WRF-Chem version 3.2.1 are found to account for changes in the cloud drop number concentration (CDNC) and changes in the chemical composition of cloud-drop residuals in a way that is consistent with observations collected during CHAPS. Efforts are currently underway to port the changes described here to WRF-Chem version 3.5, and it is anticipated that they will be included in a future public release of WRF-Chem.

  8. Plenia Locatel Group: Globalizing from Venezuela

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gibson, Cyrus

    2009-05-01

    In 2009 the founders and top executives of Plenia Locatel Group, a retail business in Venezuela specializing in health care products and services, were planning a global

  9. Group Report: Connections between Aerosol Properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    effect and causes surface warming. Absorption of solar or thermal radiation within the atmospheric column-influencing constituents (such as green- house gases) by this process, anthropogenic aerosols can contribute to climate

  10. Aerosol Condensational Growth in Cloud Formation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geng, Jun

    2010-10-12

    A code for the quasi-stationary solution of the coupled heat and mass transport equations for aerosols in a finite volume was developed. Both mass and heat are conserved effectively in the volume, which results in a ...

  11. The Availability and Price of Petroleum and Petroleum Products...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1.3-million-bbld decline in global stocks in November and December, global surplus crude oil production capacity remains low and unplanned global supply disruptions remain...

  12. Aerosol remote sensing in polar regions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tomasi, Claudio; Kokhanovsky, Alexander A.; Lupi, Angelo; Ritter, Christoph; Smirnov, Alexander; O'Neill, Norman T.; Stone, Robert S.; Holben, Brent N.; Nyeki, Stephan; Wehrli, Christoph; et al

    2015-01-01

    Multi-year sets of ground-based sun-photometer measurements conducted at 12 Arctic sites and 9 Antarctic sites were examined to determine daily mean values of aerosol optical thickness ?(?) at visible and near-infrared wavelengths, from which best-fit values of Ĺngström's exponent ? were calculated. Analysing these data, the monthly mean values of ?(0.50 ?m) and ? and the relative frequency histograms of the daily mean values of both parameters were determined for winter–spring and summer–autumn in the Arctic and for austral summer in Antarctica. The Arctic and Antarctic covariance plots of the seasonal median values of ? versus ?(0.50 ?m) showed: (i)more »a considerable increase in ?(0.50 ?m) for the Arctic aerosol from summer to winter–spring, without marked changes in ?; and (ii) a marked increase in ?(0.50 ?m) passing from the Antarctic Plateau to coastal sites, whereas ? decreased considerably due to the larger fraction of sea-salt aerosol. Good agreement was found when comparing ground-based sun-photometer measurements of ?(?) and ? at Arctic and Antarctic coastal sites with Microtops measurements conducted during numerous AERONET/MAN cruises from 2006 to 2013 in three Arctic Ocean sectors and in coastal and off-shore regions of the Southern Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans, and the Antarctic Peninsula. Lidar measurements were also examined to characterise vertical profiles of the aerosol backscattering coefficient measured throughout the year at Ny-Ĺlesund. Satellite-based MODIS, MISR, and AATSR retrievals of ?(?) over large parts of the oceanic polar regions during spring and summer were in close agreement with ship-borne and coastal ground-based sun-photometer measurements. An overview of the chemical composition of mode particles is also presented, based on in-situ measurements at Arctic and Antarctic sites. Fourteen log-normal aerosol number size-distributions were defined to represent the average features of nuclei, accumulation and coarse mode particles for Arctic haze, summer background aerosol, Asian dust and boreal forest fire smoke, and for various background austral summer aerosol types at coastal and high-altitude Antarctic sites. The main columnar aerosol optical characteristics were determined for all 14 particle modes, based on in-situ measurements of the scattering and absorption coefficients. Diurnally averaged direct aerosol-induced radiative forcing and efficiency were calculated for a set of multimodal aerosol extinction models, using various Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function models over vegetation-covered, oceanic and snow-covered surfaces. These gave a reliable measure of the pronounced effects of aerosols on the radiation balance of the surface–atmosphere system over polar regions.« less

  13. Aerosol remote sensing in polar regions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomasi, Claudio; Kokhanovsky, Alexander A.; Lupi, Angelo; Ritter, Christoph; Smirnov, Alexander; O'Neill, Norman T.; Stone, Robert S.; Holben, Brent N.; Nyeki, Stephan; Mazzola, Mauro; Lanconelli, Christian; Vitale, Vito; Stebel, Kerstin; Aaltonen, Veijo; de Leeuw, Gerrit; Rodriguez, Edith; Herber, Andreas B.; Radionov, Vladimir F.; Zielinski, Tymon; Petelski, Tomasz; Sakerin, Sergey M.; Kabanov, Dmitry M.; Xue, Yong; Mei, Linlu; Istomina, Larysa; Wagener, Richard; McArthur, Bruce; Sobolewski, Piotr S.; Kivi, Rigel; Courcoux, Yann; Larouche, Pierre; Broccardo, Stephen; Piketh, Stuart J.

    2015-01-01

    Multi-year sets of ground-based sun-photometer measurements conducted at 12 Arctic sites and 9 Antarctic sites were examined to determine daily mean values of aerosol optical thickness ?(?) at visible and near-infrared wavelengths, from which best-fit values of Ĺngström's exponent ? were calculated. Analysing these data, the monthly mean values of ?(0.50 ?m) and ? and the relative frequency histograms of the daily mean values of both parameters were determined for winter–spring and summer–autumn in the Arctic and for austral summer in Antarctica. The Arctic and Antarctic covariance plots of the seasonal median values of ? versus ?(0.50 ?m) showed: (i) a considerable increase in ?(0.50 ?m) for the Arctic aerosol from summer to winter–spring, without marked changes in ?; and (ii) a marked increase in ?(0.50 ?m) passing from the Antarctic Plateau to coastal sites, whereas ? decreased considerably due to the larger fraction of sea-salt aerosol. Good agreement was found when comparing ground-based sun-photometer measurements of ?(?) and ? at Arctic and Antarctic coastal sites with Microtops measurements conducted during numerous AERONET/MAN cruises from 2006 to 2013 in three Arctic Ocean sectors and in coastal and off-shore regions of the Southern Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans, and the Antarctic Peninsula. Lidar measurements were also examined to characterise vertical profiles of the aerosol backscattering coefficient measured throughout the year at Ny-Ĺlesund. Satellite-based MODIS, MISR, and AATSR retrievals of ?(?) over large parts of the oceanic polar regions during spring and summer were in close agreement with ship-borne and coastal ground-based sun-photometer measurements. An overview of the chemical composition of mode particles is also presented, based on in-situ measurements at Arctic and Antarctic sites. Fourteen log-normal aerosol number size-distributions were defined to represent the average features of nuclei, accumulation and coarse mode particles for Arctic haze, summer background aerosol, Asian dust and boreal forest fire smoke, and for various background austral summer aerosol types at coastal and high-altitude Antarctic sites. The main columnar aerosol optical characteristics were determined for all 14 particle modes, based on in-situ measurements of the scattering and absorption coefficients. Diurnally averaged direct aerosol-induced radiative forcing and efficiency were calculated for a set of multimodal aerosol extinction models, using various Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function models over vegetation-covered, oceanic and snow-covered surfaces. These gave a reliable measure of the pronounced effects of aerosols on the radiation balance of the surface–atmosphere system over polar regions.

  14. Aerosol fabrication methods for monodisperse nanoparticles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jiang, Xingmao; Brinker, C Jeffrey

    2014-10-21

    Exemplary embodiments provide materials and methods for forming monodisperse particles. In one embodiment, the monodisperse particles can be formed by first spraying a nanoparticle-containing dispersion into aerosol droplets and then heating the aerosol droplets in the presence of a shell precursor to form core-shell particles. By removing either the shell layer or the nanoparticle core of the core-shell particles, monodisperse nanoparticles can be formed.

  15. Development of plutonium aerosol fractionation system 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mekala, Malla R.

    1993-01-01

    DEVELOPMENT OF A PLUTONIUM AEROSOL FRACTIONATION SYSTEM A Thesis by MALLA R. MEKALA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August... 1993 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering DEVELOPMENT OP A PLUTONIUM AEROSOL FRACTIONATION SYSTEM A Thesis by MALLA R. MEKALA Approved as to style and content by: A. R. McFarland (Chair of Committee) N. K. Anand (Mer toer) (', & C. B...

  16. WRF-Chem Simulations of Aerosols and Anthropogenic Aerosol Radiative Forcing in East Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Yi; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Meigen; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2014-08-01

    This study aims to provide a first comprehensive evaluation of WRF-Chem for modeling aerosols and anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing (RF) over East Asia. Several numerical experiments were conducted from November 2007 to December 2008. Comparison between model results and observations shows that the model can generally reproduce the observed spatial distributions of aerosol concentration, aerosol optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA) from measurements at different sites, including the relatively higher aerosol concentration and AOD over East China and the relatively lower AOD over Southeast Asia, Korean, and Japan. The model also depicts the seasonal variation and transport of pollutions over East Asia. Particulate matter of 10 um or less in the aerodynamic diameter (PM10), black carbon (BC), sulfate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+) concentrations are higher in spring than other seasons in Japan due to the pollutant transport from polluted area of East Asia. AOD is high over Southwest and Central China in winter, spring and autumn and over North China in summer while is low over South China in summer due to monsoon precipitation. SSA is lowest in winter and highest in summer. The model also captures the dust events at the Zhangye site in the semi-arid region of China. Anthropogenic aerosol RF is estimated to range from -5 to -20 W m-2 over land and -20 to -40 W m-2 over ocean at the top of atmosphere (TOA), 5 to 30 W m-2 in the atmosphere (ATM) and -15 to -40 W m-2 at the bottom (BOT). The warming effect of anthropogenic aerosol in ATM results from BC aerosol while the negative aerosol RF at TOA is caused by scattering aerosols such as SO4 2-, NO3 - and NH4+. Positive BC RF at TOA compensates 40~50% of the TOA cooling associated with anthropogenic aerosol.

  17. Project Overview: Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS): Proposed Summer 2007 ASP Field Campaign

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berkowitz, Carl M.; Berg, Larry K.; Ogren, J. A.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Ferrare, Richard

    2006-05-18

    This white paper presents the scientific motivation and preliminary logistical plans for a proposed ASP field campaign to be carried out in the summer of 2007. The primary objective of this campaign is to use the DOE Gulfstream-1 aircraft to make measurements characterizing the chemical, physical and optical properties of aerosols below, within and above large fields of fair weather cumulus and to use the NASA Langley Research Center’s High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) to make independent measurements of aerosol backscatter and extinction profiles in the vicinity of these fields. Separate from the science questions to be addressed by these observations will be information to add in the development of a parameterized cumulus scheme capable of including multiple cloud fields within a regional or global scale model. We will also be able to compare and contrast the cloud and aerosol properties within and outside the Oklahoma City plume to study aerosol processes within individual clouds. Preliminary discussions with the Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC) science team have identified overlap between the science questions posed for the CLASIC Intensive Operation Period (IOP) and the proposed ASP campaign, suggesting collaboration would benefit both teams.

  18. Long-term impacts of aerosols on the vertical development of clouds and precipitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Zhanqing; Niu, F.; Fan, Jiwen; Liu, Yangang; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Ding, Yanni

    2011-12-01

    Aerosol has complex effects on clouds and precipitation that may augment or offset each other contingent upon a variety of variables. As a result, its long-term impact on climate is largely unknown. Using 10 years of the US Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) measurements, strong aerosol effects of climatologically significance are detected. With increasing total aerosol number concentration (condensation nucleus, CN) measured near the ground, both cloud top height and precipitation change systematically for mix-phase clouds of warm-base (cloud base <1km) and cold-top (above the freezing level), but not for pure liquid and ice clouds. Cloud thickness can increase systematically with the CN concentration by up to a factor of 2. The response of precipitation to CN depends on cloud liquid water path (LWP). As CN increases, rain occurs more frequently for high LWP but less frequently for low LWP. Such strong signals of aerosol long-term impact on cloud and precipitation have not been reported and have significant implications for climate change studies, especially concerning regional and global climate change induced by pollution.

  19. Aerosol-cloud radiative effects from passive satellite instruments Mar%n de Graaf

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graaf, Martin de

    Satellite measurements of absorbing aerosols Reflectance Difference Method Cloud modelling Results Outlook Aerosol-Radiation Interac. Aerosol-Cloud Interac. Total anthropogenic Solar irradiance #12;Absorbing aerosols: SCIAMACHY Results Outlook #12;SCIAMACHY on ESA's Environmetal Satellite: ENVISAT Polar orbi

  20. Relative humidity and its effect on aerosol optical depth in the vicinity of convective clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Altaratz, O

    The hygroscopic growth of aerosols is controlled by the relative humidity (RH) and changes the aerosols' physical and hence optical properties. Observational studies of aerosol–cloud interactions evaluate the aerosol ...

  1. Global warming, global research, and global governing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Preining, O.

    1997-12-31

    The anticipated dangers of Global Warming can be mitigated by reducing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations, especially CO{sub 2}. To reach acceptable, constant levels within the next couple of centuries it might be necessary to accept stabilization levels higher than present ones, The annual CO{sub 2} emissions must be reduced far below today`s values. This is a very important result of the models discussed in the 1995 IPCC report. However, any even very modest scenario for the future must take into account a substantial increase in the world population which might double during the 21st century, There is a considerable emission reduction potential of the industrialized world due to efficiency increase, However, the demand for energy services by the growing world population will, inspite of the availability of alternative energy resources, possibly lead to a net increase in fossil fuel consumption. If the climate models are right, and the science community believes they are, we will experience a global warming of the order of a couple of degrees over the next century; we have to live with it. To be prepared for the future it is essential for us to use new research techniques embracing not only the familiar fields of hard sciences but also social, educational, ethical and economic aspects, We must find a way to build up the essential intellectual capacities needed to deal with these kinds of general problems within all nations and all societies. But this is not Although, we also have to find the necessary dynamical and highly flexible structures for a global governing using tools such as the environmental regime. The first step was the Framework Convention On Climate Change, UN 1992; for resolution of questions regarding implementations the Conference of the Parties was established.

  2. Study of Mechanisms of Aerosol Indirect Effects on Glaciated Clouds: Progress during the Project Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-10-18

    This 3-year project has studied how aerosol pollution influences glaciated clouds. The tool applied has been an 'aerosol-cloud model'. It is a type of Cloud-System Resolving Model (CSRM) modified to include 2-moment bulk microphysics and 7 aerosol species, as described by Phillips et al. (2009, 2013). The study has been done by, first, improving the model and then performing sensitivity studies with validated simulations of a couple of observed cases from ARM. These are namely the Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) over the tropical west Pacific and the Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC) over Oklahoma. During the project, sensitivity tests with the model showed that in continental clouds, extra liquid aerosols (soluble aerosol material) from pollution inhibited warm rain processes for precipitation production. This promoted homogeneous freezing of cloud droplets and aerosols. Mass and number concentrations of cloud-ice particles were boosted. The mean sizes of cloud-ice particles were reduced by the pollution. Hence, the lifetime of glaciated clouds, especially ice-only clouds, was augmented due to inhibition of sedimentation and ice-ice aggregation. Latent heat released from extra homogeneous freezing invigorated convective updrafts, and raised their maximum cloud-tops, when aerosol pollution was included. In the particular cases simulated in the project, the aerosol indirect effect of glaciated clouds was twice than of (warm) water clouds. This was because glaciated clouds are higher in the troposphere than water clouds and have the first interaction with incoming solar radiation. Ice-only clouds caused solar cooling by becoming more extensive as a result of aerosol pollution. This 'lifetime indirect effect' of ice-only clouds was due to higher numbers of homogeneously nucleated ice crystals causing a reduction in their mean size, slowing the ice-crystal process of snow production and slowing sedimentation. In addition to the known indirect effects (glaciation, riming and thermodynamic), new indirect effects were discovered and quantified due to responses of sedimentation, aggregation and coalescence in glaciated clouds to changing aerosol conditions. In summary, the change in horizontal extent of the glaciated clouds ('lifetime indirect effects'), especially of ice-only clouds, was seen to be of higher importance in regulating aerosol indirect effects than changes in cloud properties ('cloud albedo indirect effects').

  3. Chemical Composition and Sources of Coastal Marine Aerosol Particles during the 2008 VOCALS-REx Campaign

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Y.- N.; Springston, S.; Jayne, John T.; Wang, Jian; Hubbe, John M.; Senum, Gunnar I.; Kleinman, Lawrence I.; Daum, Peter H.

    2014-05-23

    The chemical composition of aerosol particles (Dp 1.5 ?m) was measured over the southeast Pacific Ocean during the VAMOS (Variability of the American Monsoon Systems) Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-Rex) between 16 October and 15 November 2008 using the US Department of Energy (DOE) G-1 aircraft. The objective of these flights was to gain an understanding of the sources and evolution of these aerosols, and of how they interact with the marine stratus cloud layer that prevails in this region of the globe. Our measurements showed that the marine boundary layer (MBL) aerosol mass was dominated by non-sea-salt SO2?4, followed by Na+, Cl?, Org (total organics), NH+4 , and NO?3 , in decreasing order of importance; CH3SO?3 (MSA), Ca2+, and K+ rarely exceeded their limits of detection. Aerosols were strongly acidic with a NH+4 to SO2?4 equivalents ratio typically < 0.3. Sea-salt aerosol (SSA) particles, represented by NaCl, exhibited Cl? deficits caused by both HNO3 and H2SO4, but for the most part were externally mixed with particles, mainly SO2?4. SSA contributed only a small fraction of the total accumulation mode particle number concentration. It was inferred that all aerosol species (except SSA) were of predominantly continental origin because of their strong land-to-sea concentration gradient. Comparison of relative changes in median values suggests that (1) an oceanic source of NH3 is present between 72° W and 76° W, (2) additional organic aerosols from biomass burns or biogenic precursors were emitted from coastal regions south of 31° S, with possible cloud processing, and (3) free tropospheric (FT) contributions to MBL gas and aerosol concentrations were negligible. The very low levels of CH3SO?3 observed as well as the correlation between SO2?4 and NO?3 (which is thought primarily anthropogenic) suggest a limited contribution of DMS to SO2?4 aerosol production during VOCALS.

  4. Old and new sinks in the global nitrogen cycle Bernhard Wehrli (wehrli@eawag.ch)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Einat, Aharonov

    > 15% of global food production - hydroelectricity ~20% of total - rate of dam construction 360 to 170

  5. An Elementary Theory of Global Supply Chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Costinot, Arnaud

    This article develops an elementary theory of global supply chains. We consider a world economy with an arbitrary number of countries, one factor of production, a continuum of intermediate goods and one final good. Production ...

  6. Aerosol Science and Technology, 48:803812, 2014 Copyright C American Association for Aerosol Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aerosol Science and Technology, 48:803­812, 2014 Copyright C American Association for Aerosol of particle growth in the atmosphere, and many properties of the resulting mixed particles depend on organic. In this article, analytic equations are derived p(;d) for condensational growth in a continuously mixed flow

  7. Aerosol Science and Technology, 45:244261, 2011 Copyright American Association for Aerosol Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aerosol Science and Technology, 45:244­261, 2011 Copyright © American Association for Aerosol University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA The hygroscopic phase transitions and growth factors of mixed chemical composition on phase transitions. The hygroscopic growth factors of the mixed particles were

  8. Aerosol Science and Technology, 38:12061222, 2004 Copyright c American Association for Aerosol Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jimenez, Jose-Luis

    to Combustion-Generated Soot Aerosols as a Function of Fuel Equivalence Ratio Jay G. Slowik,1 K. Stainken,1 Paul factor, size, and fractal dimension of soot aerosol particles generated in a propane/O2 flame were on the fuel equivalence ratio. Type 1: for propane/O2), dva was nearly constant and independent

  9. Global Solutions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid you not findGeoscience/EnvironmentGlobal Security Global Security

  10. Global Warming

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (Journalvivo Low-Dose Low LETUseful LinksGlass StrongerGlobalOn1 Global

  11. Spent fuel sabotage test program, characterization of aerosol dispersal : interim final report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregson, Michael Warren; Brockmann, John E.; Loiseau, Olivier (Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, France); Klennert, Lindsay A.; Nolte, Oliver (Fraunhofer Institut fur Toxikologie und Experimentelle Medizin, Germany); Molecke, Martin Alan; Autrusson, Bruno A. (Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, France); Koch, Wolfgang (Fraunhofer Institut fur Toxikologie und Experimentelle Medizin, Germany); Pretzsch, Gunter Guido (Gesellschaft fur Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Germany); Brucher, Wenzel (Gesellschaft fur Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Germany); Steyskal, Michele D.

    2008-03-01

    This multinational, multi-phase spent fuel sabotage test program is quantifying the aerosol particles produced when the products of a high energy density device (HEDD) interact with and explosively particulate test rodlets that contain pellets of either surrogate materials or actual spent fuel. This program provides source-term data that are relevant to plausible sabotage scenarios in relation to spent fuel transport and storage casks and associated risk assessments. We present details and significant results obtained from this program from 2001 through 2007. Measured aerosol results include: respirable fractions produced; amounts, nuclide content, and produced particle size distributions and morphology; measurements of volatile fission product species enhanced sorption--enrichment factors onto respirable particles; and, status on determination of the spent fuel ratio, SFR, needed for scaling studies. Emphasis is provided on recent Phase 3 tests using depleted uranium oxide pellets plus non-radioactive fission product dopants in surrogate spent fuel test rodlets, plus the latest surrogate cerium oxide results and aerosol laboratory supporting calibration work. The DUO{sub 2}, CeO{sub 2}, plus fission product dopant aerosol particle results are compared with available historical data. We also provide a status review on continuing preparations for the final Phase 4 in this program, tests using individual short rodlets containing actual spent fuel from U.S. PWR reactors, with both high- and lower-burnup fuel. The source-term data, aerosol results, and program design have been tailored to support and guide follow-on computer modeling of aerosol dispersal hazards and radiological consequence assessments. This spent fuel sabotage, aerosol test program was performed primarily at Sandia National Laboratories, with support provided by both the U.S. Department of Energy and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This program has significant input from, and is cooperatively supported and coordinated by both the U.S. and international program participants in Germany, France, and others, as part of the International Working Group for Sabotage Concerns of Transport and Storage Casks (WGSTSC).

  12. Non-intrusive characterization of heat transfer fluid aerosol formation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krishna, Kiran

    2001-01-01

    in process equipment. Predictive models relating the aerosol formation distances, aerosol droplet size, and volume concentrations to bulk liquid pressure, temperature, fluid properties, leak size and ambient conditions are developed. These models will be used...

  13. The seasonality of aerosol properties in Big Bend National Park 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Christopher Lee

    2007-04-25

    ), to characterize the seasonal variability of the Big Bend regions aerosol optical properties. Mass extinction efficiencies and relative humidity scattering enhancement factors were calculated for both externally and internally mixed aerosol populations for all size...

  14. Apparatus for rapid measurement of aerosol bulk chemical composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Yin-Nan E.; Weber, Rodney J.; Orsini, Douglas

    2006-04-18

    An apparatus for continuous on-line measurement of chemical composition of aerosol particles with a fast time resolution is provided. The apparatus includes an enhanced particle size magnifier for producing activated aerosol particles and an enhanced collection device which collects the activated aerosol particles into a liquid stream for quantitative analysis by analytical means. Methods for on-line measurement of chemical composition of aerosol particles are also provided, the method including exposing aerosol carrying sample air to hot saturated steam thereby forming activated aerosol particles; collecting the activated aerosol particles by a collection device for delivery as a jet stream onto an impaction surface; and flushing off the activated aerosol particles from the impaction surface into a liquid stream for delivery of the collected liquid stream to an analytical instrument for quantitative measurement.

  15. Apparatus for rapid measurement of aerosol bulk chemical composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Yin-Nan E. (East Setauket, NY); Weber, Rodney J. (Atlanta, GA)

    2003-01-01

    An apparatus and method for continuous on-line measurement of chemical composition of aerosol particles with a fast time resolution are provided. The apparatus includes a modified particle size magnifier for producing activated aerosol particles and a collection device which collects the activated aerosol particles into a liquid stream for quantitative analysis by analytical methods. The method provided for on-line measurement of chemical composition of aerosol particles includes exposing aerosol carrying sample air to hot saturated steam thereby forming activated aerosol particles; collecting the activated aerosol particles by a collection device for delivery as a jet stream onto an impaction surface; flushing off the activated aerosol particles from the impaction surface into a liquid stream for delivery of the collected liquid stream to an analytical instrument for quantitative measurement.

  16. Global Assessment of Hydrogen Technologies – Tasks 3 & 4 Report Economic, Energy, and Environmental Analysis of Hydrogen Production and Delivery Options in Select Alabama Markets: Preliminary Case Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fouad, Fouad H.; Peters, Robert W.; Sisiopiku, Virginia P.; Sullivan Andrew J.; Gillette, Jerry; Elgowainy, Amgad; Mintz, Marianne

    2007-12-01

    This report documents a set of case studies developed to estimate the cost of producing, storing, delivering, and dispensing hydrogen for light-duty vehicles for several scenarios involving metropolitan areas in Alabama. While the majority of the scenarios focused on centralized hydrogen production and pipeline delivery, alternative delivery modes were also examined. Although Alabama was used as the case study for this analysis, the results provide insights into the unique requirements for deploying hydrogen infrastructure in smaller urban and rural environments that lie outside the DOE’s high priority hydrogen deployment regions. Hydrogen production costs were estimated for three technologies – steam-methane reforming (SMR), coal gasification, and thermochemical water-splitting using advanced nuclear reactors. In all cases examined, SMR has the lowest production cost for the demands associated with metropolitan areas in Alabama. Although other production options may be less costly for larger hydrogen markets, these were not examined within the context of the case studies.

  17. AEROSOL-PRECIPITATION INTERACTIONS IN THE SOUTHERN APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AEROSOL-PRECIPITATION INTERACTIONS IN THE SOUTHERN APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS A Thesis by GINGER MARIE of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS May 2011 Department of Geography and Planning #12;AEROSOL-PRECIPITATION and Graduate Studies #12;Copyright by Ginger Marie Kelly 2011 All Rights Reserved #12;iv ABSTRACT AEROSOL-PRECIPITATION

  18. ATMOSPHERIC AND OCEANIC SCIENCE LETTERS, 2013, VOL. 6, NO. 1, 39-43 Effects of Clouds and Aerosols on Surface Radiation Budget Inferred from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Xiquan

    of Atmospheric Physics, NUIST, Nanjing 210044, China 3 Global Change and Earth System Science (GCESS), Beijing Radiative Effects (AREs) are 12.7, ­37.6, and ­24.9 W m­2 , indicating that aerosols have LW warming impact have much stronger LW warming effect and SW cooling effect on the surface radiation budget than AREs

  19. Modeling aerosol growth by aqueous chemistry in nonprecipitating stratiform cloud

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Easter, Richard C.

    2010-07-29

    A new microphysics module based on a two-dimensional (2D) joint size distribution function representing both interstitial and cloud particles is developed and applied to studying aerosol processing in non-precipitating stratocumulus clouds. The module is implemented in a three-dimensional dynamical framework of a large-eddy simulation (LES) model and in a trajectory ensemble model (TEM). Both models are used to study the modification of sulfate aerosol by the activation - aqueous chemistry - resuspension cycle in shallow marine stratocumulus clouds. The effect of particle mixing and different size-distribution representations on modeled aerosol processing are studied in a comparison of the LES and TEM simulations with the identical microphysics treatment exposes and a comparison of TEM simulations with a 2D fixed and moving bin microphysics. Particle mixing which is represented in LES and neglected in the TEM leads to the mean relative per particle dry mass change in the TEM simulations being about 30% lower than in analogous subsample of LES domain. Particles in the final LES spectrum are mixed in from different “parcels”, some of which have experienced longer in-cloud residence times than the TEM parcels, all of which originated in the subcloud layer, have. The mean relative per particle dry mass change differs by 14% between TEM simulations with fixed and moving bin microphysics. Finally, the TEM model with the moving bin microphysics is used to evaluate assumptions about liquid water mass partitioning among activated cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) of different dry sizes. These assumptions are used in large-scale models to map the bulk aqueous chemistry sulfate production, which is largely proportional to the liquid water mass, to the changes in aerosol size distribution. It is shown that the commonly used assumptions that the droplet mass is independent of CCN size or that the droplet mass is proportional to the CCN size to the third power do not perform well in the considered case. The explicitly predicted water partitioning indicates that the mean mass of droplets participating in the models aqueous chemistry calculations is proportional to the dry CCN size.

  20. Review: Global Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    introduction to global climate change, the greenhouseReview: Global Climate Change: A Primer By Orrin H PilkeyPilkey, Keith C. Global Climate Change: a primer. Durham,

  1. Aerodynamic Focusing Of High-Density Aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruiz, D. E.; Fisch, Nathaniel

    2014-02-24

    High-density micron-sized particle aerosols might form the basis for a number of applications in which a material target with a particular shape might be quickly ionized to form a cylindrical or sheet shaped plasma. A simple experimental device was built in order to study the properties of high-density aerosol focusing for 1#22; m silica spheres. Preliminary results recover previous findings on aerodynamic focusing at low densities. At higher densities, it is demonstrated that the focusing properties change in a way which is consistent with a density dependent Stokes number.

  2. Flattening coefficient of aerosols collected on treated slides 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olan-Figueroa, Excel

    1981-01-01

    was found to be 1. 338, and for DOP, 1. 354. There is no apparent variation of F with particle diameter for aerosols in the 2. 7-29. 1 um range. The slightly lower value of F for oleic acid suggests that the contact angle of oleic acid with respect... monodisoerse aerosols in the 1. 5 to 50 um diameter range, the vibratino j et monodisperse aerosol generator has been used. The monodisperse aerosols generated by this device can be considered as an "aerosol standard" since the size and concentration...

  3. Near real time vapor detection and enhancement using aerosol adsorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Novick, V.J.; Johnson, S.A.

    1999-08-03

    A vapor sample detection method is described where the vapor sample contains vapor and ambient air and surrounding natural background particles. The vapor sample detection method includes the steps of generating a supply of aerosol that have a particular effective median particle size, mixing the aerosol with the vapor sample forming aerosol and adsorbed vapor suspended in an air stream, impacting the suspended aerosol and adsorbed vapor upon a reflecting element, alternatively directing infrared light to the impacted aerosol and adsorbed vapor, detecting and analyzing the alternatively directed infrared light in essentially real time using a spectrometer and a microcomputer and identifying the vapor sample. 13 figs.

  4. Organic aerosol components observed in Northern Hemispheric datasets from Aerosol Mass Spectrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kroll, Jesse

    In this study we compile and present results from the factor analysis of 43 Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) datasets (27 of the datasets are reanalyzed in this work). The components from all sites, when taken together, ...

  5. Aerosols released during large-scale integral MCCI tests in the ACE Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fink, J.K.; Thompson, D.H.; Spencer, B.W.; Sehgal, B.R.

    1992-04-01

    As part of the internationally sponsored Advanced Containment Experiments (ACE) program, seven large-scale experiments on molten core concrete interactions (MCCIs) have been performed at Argonne National Laboratory. One of the objectives of these experiments is to collect and characterize all the aerosols released from the MCCIs. Aerosols released from experiments using four types of concrete (siliceous, limestone/common sand, serpentine, and limestone/limestone) and a range of metal oxidation for both BWR and PWR reactor core material have been collected and characterized. Release fractions were determined for UO{sup 2}, Zr, the fission-products: BaO, SrO, La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CeO{sub 2}, MoO{sub 2}, Te, Ru, and control materials: Ag, In, and B{sub 4}C. Release fractions of UO{sub 2} and the fission products other than Te were small in all tests. However, release of control materials was significant.

  6. Aerosols released during large-scale integral MCCI tests in the ACE Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fink, J.K.; Thompson, D.H.; Spencer, B.W. ); Sehgal, B.R. )

    1992-01-01

    As part of the internationally sponsored Advanced Containment Experiments (ACE) program, seven large-scale experiments on molten core concrete interactions (MCCIs) have been performed at Argonne National Laboratory. One of the objectives of these experiments is to collect and characterize all the aerosols released from the MCCIs. Aerosols released from experiments using four types of concrete (siliceous, limestone/common sand, serpentine, and limestone/limestone) and a range of metal oxidation for both BWR and PWR reactor core material have been collected and characterized. Release fractions were determined for UO{sup 2}, Zr, the fission-products: BaO, SrO, La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CeO{sub 2}, MoO{sub 2}, Te, Ru, and control materials: Ag, In, and B{sub 4}C. Release fractions of UO{sub 2} and the fission products other than Te were small in all tests. However, release of control materials was significant.

  7. Engineering change in global climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, S.H.

    1996-12-31

    {open_quotes}With increased public focus on global warming and in the wake of the intense heat waves, drought, fires, and super-hurricanes that occurred in 1988 and 1989, interest in geoengineering has surged,{close_quotes} says Stephen H. Schneider, professor of biological science at Stanford University in Stanford, California. One scheme set forth in a National Research Council report proposes using 16-inch naval guns to fire aerosol shells into the stratosphere in hopes of offsetting {open_quotes}the radiative effects of increasing carbon dioxide,{close_quotes} Schneider says. Schneider, however, would prefer that we {open_quotes}seek measures that can cure our global {open_quote}addiction{close_quote} to polluting practices.{close_quotes} Rather than playing God, he says we should {open_quotes}stick to being human and pursue problem - solving methods currently within our grasp.{close_quotes} Such strategies include efforts to promote energy efficiency and reduce our reliance on automobiles.

  8. LAI, fAPAR and fCover CYCLOPES global products derived1 from VEGETATION. Part 1: Principles of the algorithm2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    description of the VEGETATION sensors, radiometric calibration19 process, based on vicarious desertic targets24 red, near infrared and short wave infrared bands used to the remaining cloud free observations25 and climate modelling, resource evaluation (water, agriculture or forest3 production). Surface process models

  9. J. Aerosol Sci. Vol. 31, No. 11, pp. 1283}1298, 2000 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    methods are adapted for the production of aerosols of hematite ( -Fe O ), corundum ( -Al O ), mullite, which is the precursor solvent for mullite and silica, thermally decomposes to yield several gases-insoluble mineral dust. Common electrolytes are (NH ) SO and NH NO , which originate from anthropogenic energy

  10. Results from simulated upper-plenum aerosol transport and aerosol resuspension experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, A.L.; Pattison, W.L.

    1984-01-01

    Recent calculational results published as part of the Battelle-Columbus BMI-2104 source term study indicate that, for some LWR accident sequences, aerosol deposition in the reactor primary coolant system (PCS) can lead to significant reductions in the radionuclide source term. Aerosol transport and deposition in the PCS have been calculated in this study using the TRAP-MELT 2 computer code, which was developed at Battelle-Columbus; the status of validation of the TRAP-MELT 2 code has been described in an Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) report. The objective of the ORNL TRAP-MELT Validation Project, which is sponsored by the Fuel Systems Behavior Research Branch of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, is to conduct simulated reactor-vessel upper-plenum aerosol deposition and transport tests. The results from these tests will be used in the ongoing effort to validate TRAP-MELT 2. The TRAP-MELT Validation Project includes two experimental subtasks. In the Aerosol Transport Tests, aerosol transport in a vertical pipe is being studied; this geometry was chosen to simulate aerosol deposition and transport in the reactor-vessel upper-plenum. To date, four experiments have been performed; the results from these tests are presented in this paper. 7 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. INTRODUCTION Atmospheric aerosol particles influence the Earth's

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wunderle, Stefan

    , scattering, and absorbing solar electromagnetic radiation and by modifying cloud properties due to their roleINTRODUCTION Atmospheric aerosol particles influence the Earth's radiation budget by reflecting to maximum cover a region once in the daytime. In contrary, up-to-date geostationary instruments like

  12. Experimental study of nuclear workplace aerosol samplers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parulian, Antony

    1995-01-01

    consists of an inlet-elbow, a transport line, and a EL-900 CAM prototype manufactured by EG&G. Results show that only 12% of 10 []m aerodynamic diameter (AD) aerosol particles penetrate through the complete sampling system when it is operated at flow rate...

  13. A new aerosol collector for quasi on-line analysis of particulate organic matter: the Aerosol Collection Module (ACM) and first applications with a GC/MS-FID

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hohaus, T.

    In many environments organic matter significantly contributes to the composition of atmospheric aerosol particles influencing its properties. Detailed chemical characterization of ambient aerosols is critical in order to ...

  14. Modeling the global emission, transport and deposition of trace elements associated with mineral dust

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Y.; Mahowald, N.; Scanza, R.; Journet, E.; Desboeufs, K.; Albani, S.; Kok, J.; Zhuang, G.; Chen, Y.; Cohen, D. D.; et al

    2014-12-17

    Trace element deposition from desert dust has important impacts on ocean primary productivity. In this study, emission inventories for 8 elements, which are primarily of soil origin, Mg, P, Ca, Mn, Fe, K, Al, and Si were determined based on a global mineral dataset and a soils dataset. Datasets of elemental fractions were used to drive the desert dust model in the Community Earth System Model (CESM) in order to simulate the elemental concentrations of atmospheric dust. Spatial variability of mineral dust elemental fractions was evident on a global scale, particularly for Ca. Simulations of global variations in the Camore »/ Al ratio, which typically ranged from around 0.1 to 5.0 in soil sources, were consistent with observations, suggesting this ratio to be a good signature for dust source regions. The simulated variable fractions of chemical elements are sufficiently different that estimates of deposition should include elemental variations, especially for Ca, Al and Fe. The model results have been evaluated with observational elemental aerosol concentration data from desert regions and dust events in non-dust regions, providing insights into uncertainties in the modeling approach. The ratios between modeled and observed elemental fractions ranged from 0.7 to 1.6 except for 3.4 and 3.5 for Mg and Mn, respectivly. Using the soil data base improved the correspondence of the spatial hetereogeneity in the modeling of several elements (Ca, Al and Fe) compared to observations. Total and soluble dust associated element fluxes into different ocean basins and ice sheets regions have been estimated, based on the model results. Annual inputs of soluble Mg, P, Ca, Mn, Fe and K associated with dust using mineral dataset were 0.28 Tg, 16.89 Gg, 1.32 Tg, 22.84 Gg, 0.068 Tg, and 0.15 Tg to global oceans and ice sheets.« less

  15. Impact of Emissions, Chemistry, and Climate on Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide: 100-year Predictions from a Global Chemistry-Climate Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of methane and the production of CO2, ozone, and sulfate aerosols and thus affects climate, while, producing formaldehyde (CH2O) and then carbon monoxide. This methane reaction, in combination with R1

  16. The Global Energy Challenge

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Crabtree, George

    2010-01-08

    The expected doubling of global energy demand by 2050 challenges our traditional patterns of energy production, distribution and use.   The continued use of fossil fuels raises concerns about supply, security, environment and climate.  New routes are needed for the efficient conversion of energy from chemical fuel, sunlight, and heat to electricity or hydrogen as an energy carrier and finally to end uses like transportation, lighting, and heating. Opportunities for efficient new energy conversion routes based on nanoscale materials will be presented, with emphasis on the sustainable energy technologies they enable.

  17. Direct and semidirect aerosol effects of Southern African biomass burning aerosol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakaeda, Naoko; Wood, Robert; Rasch, Philip J.

    2011-06-21

    The direct and semi-direct radiative effects of biomass burning aerosols from Southern African fires during July-October are investigated using 20 year runs of the Community Atmospheric Model (CAM) coupled to a slab ocean model. The aerosol optical depth is constrained using observations in clear skies from MODIS and for aerosol layers above clouds from CALIPSO. Over the ocean, where the absorbing biomass burning aerosol layers are primarily located above cloud, negative top of atmosphere (TOA) semi-direct radiative effects associated with increased low cloud cover dominate over a weaker positive all-sky direct radiative effect (DRE). In contrast, over the land where the aerosols are often below or within cloud layers, reductions in cloud liquid water path (LWP) lead to a positive semi-direct radiative effect that dominates over a near-zero DRE. Over the ocean, the cloud response can be understood as a response to increased lower tropospheric stability (LTS) which is caused both by aerosol absorptive warming in overlying layers and surface cooling in response to direct aerosol forcing. The ocean cloud changes are robust to changes in the cloud parameterization (removal of the hard-wired dependence of clouds on LTS), suggesting that they are physically realistic. Over land where cloud cover changes are minimal, decreased LWP is consistent with weaker convection driven by increased static stability. Over the entire region the overall TOA radiative effect from the biomass burning aerosols is almost zero due to opposing effects over the land and ocean. However, the surface forcing is strongly negative requiring a reduction in precipitation. This is primarily realized through reductions in convective precipitation on both the southern and northern flanks of the convective precipitation region spanning the equatorial rainforest and the ITCZ in the southern Sahel. The changes are consistent with the low-level aerosol forced cooling pattern. The results highlight the importance of semi-direct radiative effects and precipitation responses for determining the climatic effects of aerosols in the African region.

  18. MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change Russia's Role in the Kyoto Protocol, and environmental effects. In turn, the greenhouse gas and atmospheric aerosol assumptions underlying climate://mit.edu/globalchange/ Printed on recycled paper #12;Russia's Role in the Kyoto Protocol A. Bernarda , S. Paltsevb , J. Reillyb

  19. Using beryllium-7 to assess cross-tropopause1 transport in global models2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Hongyu

    1 Using beryllium-7 to assess cross-tropopause1 transport in global models2 3 Hongyu Liu1 , David B, MA13 14 Short Title: Beryllium-7 and cross-tropopause transport15 Index Terms: 0368 Troposphere Initiative (GMI) modeling framework the29 utility of cosmogenic beryllium-7 (7 Be), a natural aerosol tracer

  20. Overview of 2007 ANL progress for conversion of HEU- based Mo-99 production as part of the U.S. global threat reduction--conversion program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vandegrift, George F.; Bakel, Allen J.; Thomas, Justin W.

    2008-07-15

    ANL effort is divided into five areas: (1) cooperation with Argentina to demonstrate the use of LEU-foil targets in alkaline-based processes, (2) cooperation with Indonesia in converting their HEU-based Cintichem process to LEU-foil targets, (3) technical assistance to two potential U.S. domestic suppliers (MURR and BWTX), (4) responding to the National Academies Study, and (5) participation in the IAEA CRP for Indigenous Mo-99 production. This paper presents highlights of these activities. A short description of how the dose emitted by spent HEU target material compared to spent fuel is also included. (author)

  1. Overview of 2007 ANL progress for conversion of HEU-based Mo-99 production as part of the U.S. Global Threat Reduction--Conversion program.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vandegrift, G. F.; Bakel, A. J.; Thomas, J. W.

    2007-01-01

    ANL effort is divided into five areas: (1) cooperation with Argentina to demonstrate the use of LEU-foil targets in alkaline-based processes, (2) cooperation with Indonesia in converting their HEU-based Cintichem process to LEU-foil targets, (3) technical assistance to two potential U.S. domestic suppliers (MURR and BWTX), (4) responding to the National Academies Study, and (5) participation in the IAEA CRP for Indigenous Mo-99 production. This paper presents highlights of these activities. A short description of how the dose emitted by spent HEU target material compared to spent fuel is also included.

  2. The Contribution of Biomass to Emissions Mitigation under a Global Climate Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winchester, N.

    What will large-scale global bioenergy production look like? We investigate this question by developing a detailed representation of bioenergy in a global economy-wide model. We develop a scenario with a global carbon ...

  3. Climate Engineering with Stratospheric Aerosols and Associated Engineering Parameters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kravitz, Benjamin S.

    2013-02-12

    Climate engineering with stratospheric aerosols, an idea inspired by large volcaniceruptions, could cool the Earth’s surface and thus alleviate some of the predicted dangerous impacts of anthropogenic climate change. However, the effectiveness of climate engineering to achieve a particular climate goal, and any associated side effects, depend on certain aerosol parameters and how the aerosols are deployed in the stratosphere. Through the examples of sulfate and black carbon aerosols, this paper examines "engineering" parameters-aerosol composition, aerosol size, and spatial and temporal variations in deployment-for stratospheric climate engineering. The effects of climate engineering are sensitive to these parameters, suggesting that a particle could be found ordesigned to achieve specific desired climate outcomes. This prospect opens the possibility for discussion of societal goals for climate engineering.

  4. Aerosol Retrievals from ARM SGP MFRSR Data

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Alexandrov, Mikhail

    2008-01-15

    The Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) makes precise simultaneous measurements of the solar direct normal and diffuse horizontal irradiances at six wavelengths (nominally 415, 500, 615, 673, 870, and 940 nm) at short intervals (20 sec for ARM instruments) throughout the day. Time series of spectral optical depth are derived from these measurements. Besides water vapor at 940 nm, the other gaseous absorbers within the MFRSR channels are NO2 (at 415, 500, and 615 nm) and ozone (at 500, 615, and 670 nm). Aerosols and Rayleigh scattering contribute atmospheric extinction in all MFRSR channels. Our recently updated MFRSR data analysis algorithm allows us to partition the spectral aerosol optical depth into fine and coarse modes and to retrieve the fine mode effective radius. In this approach we rely on climatological amounts of NO2 from SCIAMACHY satellite retrievals and use daily ozone columns from TOMS.

  5. Aerosol Retrievals from ARM SGP MFRSR Data

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Alexandrov, Mikhail

    The Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) makes precise simultaneous measurements of the solar direct normal and diffuse horizontal irradiances at six wavelengths (nominally 415, 500, 615, 673, 870, and 940 nm) at short intervals (20 sec for ARM instruments) throughout the day. Time series of spectral optical depth are derived from these measurements. Besides water vapor at 940 nm, the other gaseous absorbers within the MFRSR channels are NO2 (at 415, 500, and 615 nm) and ozone (at 500, 615, and 670 nm). Aerosols and Rayleigh scattering contribute atmospheric extinction in all MFRSR channels. Our recently updated MFRSR data analysis algorithm allows us to partition the spectral aerosol optical depth into fine and coarse modes and to retrieve the fine mode effective radius. In this approach we rely on climatological amounts of NO2 from SCIAMACHY satellite retrievals and use daily ozone columns from TOMS.

  6. Global hydrological cycle response to rapid and slow global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuang, Zhiming

    Global hydrological cycle response to rapid and slow global warming and Jiaxu Zhang #12;· Anthropogenic global warming causes "robust" changes in the global in the global hydrological cycle due to anthropogenic global warming Atmospheric radiative

  7. Design of Aerosol Face Masks for Children Using Computerized 3D Face Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kimmel, Ron

    seal to the child's face, and thus may minimize aerosol leakage and dead space. Key words: inhaled supplied with valved aerosol hold- ing chambers used for aerosol therapy. (Adapted with per- mission from

  8. Integrated decision support model for global sourcing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mroczkowski, Victor A. (Victor Adam)

    2008-01-01

    Over the last decade, the U.S. aircraft industry has experienced increasing levels of international integration as companies seek to access global talent and resources, cut production costs, spread financial risk, and ...

  9. ARM Aerosol Working Group Meeting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsicloudden Documentation Data Management Facility PlotsProducts (VAP) VAP Update1Report

  10. ARM Aerosol Working Group Meeting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsicloudden Documentation Data Management Facility PlotsProducts (VAP) VAP Update1Report

  11. ARM Aerosol Working Group Meeting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsicloudden Documentation Data Management Facility PlotsProducts (VAP) VAP Update1Reportof

  12. Review: engineering particles using the aerosol-through-plasma method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, Jonathan; Luhrs, Claudia C; Richard, Monique

    2009-01-01

    For decades, plasma processing of materials on the nanoscale has been an underlying enabling technology for many 'planar' technologies, particularly virtually every aspect of modern electronics from integrated-circuit fabrication with nanoscale elements to the newest generation of photovoltaics. However, it is only recent developments that suggest that plasma processing can be used to make 'particulate' structures of value in fields, including catalysis, drug delivery, imaging, higher energy density batteries, and other forms of energy storage. In this paper, the development of the science and technology of one class of plasma production of particulates, namely, aerosol-through-plasma (A-T-P), is reviewed. Various plasma systems, particularly RF and microwave, have been used to create nanoparticles of metals and ceramics, as well as supported metal catalysts. Gradually, the complexity of the nanoparticles, and concomitantly their potential value, has increased. First, unique two-layer particles were generated. These were postprocessed to create unique three-layer nanoscale particles. Also, the technique has been successfully employed to make other high-value materials, including carbon nanotubes, unsupported graphene, and spherical boron nitride. Some interesting plasma science has also emerged from efforts to characterize and map aerosol-containing plasmas. For example, it is clear that even a very low concentration of particles dramatically changes plasma characteristics. Some have also argued that the local-thermodynamic-equilibrium approach is inappropriate to these systems. Instead, it has been suggested that charged- and neutral-species models must be independently developed and allowed to 'interact' only in generation terms.

  13. Formation mechanisms and quantification of organic nitrates in atmospheric aerosol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew Waite

    2010-01-01

    and J. Viidanoja, Atmospheric chemistry of c 3 -c 6organic nitrates, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 9 (4),organic aerosol yields, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics

  14. Challenge the future 1 Observations of aerosol-cloud-radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graaf, Martin de

    -road Industrial coal Residential solid fuel Biofuel cooking Biofuel heating Coal Open Burning Agricultural fields causes Differences in: · cloud properties · cloud fraction and location · aerosol properties · smoke

  15. Extending the physicochemical characterization of aerosol particles in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zauscher, Melanie Dorothy

    2012-01-01

    W. T. (1997).Emissions from Smoldering Combustion of BiomassCombustion generated aerosols, including emissions from diesel and gasoline engines, biomass and

  16. Relating Secondary Organic Aerosol Characteristics with Cloud Condensation Nuclei Activity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Xiaochen

    2013-01-01

    by V and Ni from heavy oil combustion: Anthropogenic sourcesgeneration from heavy fuel oil (HFO) as an alternative toengines operating with heavy fuel oils. Journal of Aerosol

  17. The Radiative Role of Free Tropospheric Aerosols and Marine Clouds...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: The Radiative Role of Free Tropospheric Aerosols and Marine Clouds over the Central North Atlantic Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Radiative Role...

  18. Can reducing black carbon emissions counteract global warming?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tami C. Bond; Haolin Sun

    2005-08-15

    Field measurements and model results have recently shown that aerosols may have important climatic impacts. One line of inquiry has investigated whether reducing climate-warming soot or black carbon aerosol emissions can form a viable component of mitigating global warming. Black carbon is produced by poor combustion, from our example hard coal cooking fires for and industrial pulverized coal boilers. The authors review and acknowledge scientific arguments against considering aerosols and greenhouse gases in a common framework, including the differences in the physical mechanisms of climate change and relevant time scales. It is argued that such a joint consideration is consistent with the language of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Results from published climate-modeling studies are synthesized to obtain a global warming potential for black carbon relative to that of CO{sub 2} (680 on a 100 year basis). This calculation enables a discussion of cost-effectiveness for mitigating the largest sources of black carbon. It is found that many emission reductions are either expensive or difficult to enact when compared with greenhouse gases, particularly in Annex I countries. Finally, a role for black carbon in climate mitigation strategies is proposed that is consistent with the apparently conflicting arguments raised during the discussion. Addressing these emissions is a promising way to reduce climatic interference primarily for nations that have not yet agreed to address greenhouse gas emissions and provides the potential for a parallel climate agreement. 31 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Final Report for �¢����Cloud-Aerosol Physics in Super-Parameterized Atmospheric Regional Climate Simulations (CAP-SPARCS)�¢��� (DE-SC0002003) for 8/15/2009 through 8/14/2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynn M. Russell; Richard C.J. Somerville

    2012-11-05

    Improving the representation of local and non-local aerosol interactions in state-of-the-science regional climate models is a priority for the coming decade (Zhang, 2008). With this aim in mind, we have combined two new technologies that have a useful synergy: (1) an aerosol-enabled regional climate model (Advanced Weather Research and Forecasting Model with Chemistry WRF-Chem), whose primary weakness is a lack of high quality boundary conditions and (2) an aerosol-enabled multiscale modeling framework (PNNL Multiscale Aerosol Climate Model (MACM)), which is global but captures aerosol-convection-cloud feedbacks, and thus an ideal source of boundary conditions. Combining these two approaches has resulted in an aerosol-enabled modeling framework that not only resolves high resolution details in a particular region, but crucially does so within a global context that is similarly faithful to multi-scale aerosol-climate interactions. We have applied and improved the representation of aerosol interactions by evaluating model performance over multiple domains, with (1) an extensive evaluation of mid-continent precipitation representation by multiscale modeling, (2) two focused comparisons to transport of aerosol plumes to the eastern United States for comparison with observations made as part of the International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation (ICARTT), with the first being idealized and the second being linked to an extensive wildfire plume, and (3) the extension of these ideas to the development of a new approach to evaluating aerosol indirect effects with limited-duration model runs by �¢����nudging�¢��� to observations. This research supported the work of one postdoc (Zhan Zhao) for two years and contributed to the training and research of two graduate students. Four peer-reviewed publications have resulted from this work, and ground work for a follow-on project was completed.

  20. Global carbon budget 2014

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Peters, G. P.; Ciais, P.; Friedlingstein, P.; Jones, S. D.; Sitch, S.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; et al

    2015-05-08

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates, consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissionsmore »from fossil fuel combustion and cement production (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover-change (some including nitrogen–carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1?;, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2004–2013), EFF was 8.9 ± 0.4 GtC yr?ą,ELUC 0.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr?ą, GATM 4.3 ± 0.1 GtC yr?ą, SOCEAN 2.6 ± 0.5 GtC yr?ą, and SLAND 2.9 ± 0.8 GtC yr?ą. For year 2013 alone, EFF grew to 9.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr?ą, 2.3% above 2012, continuing the growth trend in these emissions, ELUC was 0.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr?ą, GATM was 5.4 ± 0.2 GtC yr?ą, SOCEAN was 2.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr?ą, and SLAND was 2.5 ± 0.9 GtC yr?ą. GATM was high in 2013, reflecting a steady increase in EFF and smaller and opposite changes between SOCEAN and SLAND compared to the past decade (2004–2013). The global atmospheric CO2 concentration reached 395.31 ± 0.10 ppm averaged over 2013. We estimate that EFF will increase by 2.5% (1.3–3.5%) to 10.1 ± 0.6 GtC in 2014 (37.0 ± 2.2 GtCO2 yr?ą), 65% above emissions in 1990, based on projections of world gross domestic product and recent changes in the carbon intensity of the global economy. From this projection of EFF and assumed constant ELUC for 2014, cumulative emissions of CO2 will reach about 545 ± 55 GtC (2000 ± 200 GtCO2) for 1870–2014, about 75% from EFF and 25% from ELUC. This paper documents changes in the methods and data sets used in this new carbon budget compared with previous publications of this living data set (Le Quéré et al., 2013, 2014). All observations presented here can be downloaded from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (doi:10.3334/CDIAC/GCP_2014).« less

  1. Development and Characterization of a Thermodenuder for Aerosol Volatility Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Timothy Onasch

    2009-09-09

    This SBIR Phase I project addressed the critical need for improved characterization of carbonaceous aerosol species in the atmosphere. The proposed work focused on the development of a thermodenuder (TD) system capable of systematically measuring volatility profiles of primary and secondary organic aerosol species and providing insight into the effects of absorbing and nonabsorbing organic coatings on particle absorption properties. This work provided the fundamental framework for the generation of essential information needed for improved predictions of ambient aerosol loadings and radiative properties by atmospheric chemistry models. As part of this work, Aerodyne Research, Inc. (ARI) continued to develop and test, with the final objective of commercialization, an improved thermodenuder system that can be used in series with any aerosol instrument or suite of instruments (e.g., aerosol mass spectrometers-AMS, scanning mobility particle sizers-SMPS, photoacoustic absorption spectrometers-PAS, etc.) to obtain aerosol chemical, physical, and optical properties as a function of particle volatility. In particular, we provided the proof of concept for the direct coupling of our improved TD design with a full microphysical model to obtain volatility profiles for different organic aerosol components and to allow for meaningful comparisons between different TD-derived aerosol measurements. In a TD, particles are passed through a heated zone and a denuding (activated charcoal) zone to remove semi-volatile material. Changes in particle size, number concentration, optical absorption, and chemical composition are subsequently detected with aerosol instrumentation. The aerosol volatility profiles provided by the TD will strengthen organic aerosol emission inventories, provide further insight into secondary aerosol formation mechanisms, and provide an important measure of particle absorption (including brown carbon contributions and identification, and absorption enhancements due to coatings on soot particles). The successfully completed Phase I project included construction of a prototype design for the TD with detailed physical modeling, testing with laboratory and ambient aerosol particles, and the initiation of a detailed microphysical model of the aerosol particles passing through the TD to extract vapor pressure distributions. The objective of the microphysical model is to derive vapor pressure distributions (i.e. vapor pressure ranges, including single chemical compounds, mixtures of known compounds, and complex ‘real-world’ aerosols, such as SOA, and soot particles with absorbing and nonabsorbing coatings) from TD measurements of changes in particle size, mass, and chemical composition for known TD temperatures and flow rates (i.e. residence times). The proposed Phase II project was designed to optimize several TD systems for different instrument applications and to combine the hardware and modeling into a robust package for commercial sales.

  2. High biofuel production of Botryococcus braunii using optimized cultivation strategies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    release from agro-biofuel production negates global warmingcultivation and biofuel production (www.lyxia.com).engineering for biofuel production: towards affordable

  3. Evaluation of source-term data for plutonium aerosolization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haschke, J.M.

    1992-07-01

    Relevant data are reviewed and evaluated in an effort to define the time dependence and maximum value of the source term for plutonium aerosolization during a fuel fire. The rate of plutonium oxidation at high temperatures is a major determinant of the time dependence. Analysis of temperature-time data for oxidation of plutonium shows that the rate is constant (0.2 g PUO{sub 2}/cm{sup 2} of metal surface per min) and independent of temperature above 500{degrees}C. Total mass and particle distributions are derived for oxide products formed by reactions of plutonium metal and hydride. The mass distributions for products of all metal-gas reactions are remarkably similar with approximately 0.07 mass% of the oxide particles having geometric diameters {le} 10 {mu}m. In comparison, 25 mass% of the oxide formed by the PuH{sub 2}+O{sub 2} reaction is in this range. Experimental values of mass fractions released during oxidation are evaluated and factors that alter the release fraction are discussed.

  4. Absorbing Aerosol Index (AAI) The residue method for the detection of aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graaf, Martin de

    and calculation Main sensitivities of residue Problems with the residue Conclusions and outlook #12;#12;o = 380 scattering and absorption #12;#12;#12;Nadir View Solar zenith angle = 45o Residue = 3.5 Rayleigh atmosphere View Solar zenith angle = 45o Residue = -1.0 Rayleigh atmosphere, As = 0.16 Scattering aerosol layer

  5. AEROSOL CHEMICAL COMPOSITION CHARACTERIZATION AT THE ARM SOUTHERN GREAT PLAINS (SGP) SITE USING AN AEROSOL CHEMICAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) was integrated into the Aerosol Observing System (AOS) at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) SGP site in Oklahoma in Nov 2010. This instrument has been measuring concentrations of sulfate, ammonium, nitrate of oxygenated OA with minor contributions from hydrocarbon-like OA, indicating that the OA at the SGP site

  6. Aerosol Science and Technology, 39:6883, 2005 Copyright c American Association for Aerosol Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Coffman5 1 Finnish Meteorological Institute, Air Quality Research, Sahaajankatu, Helsinki, Finland 2¨ais¨al¨a Foundation (Finland), and the 100th Anniversary Foundation of Helsingin Sanomat (Finland). Address, 00880 Helsinki, Finland. E-mail: aki.virkkula@fmi.fi properties of aerosols depend on the wavelength

  7. Aerosol Science and Technology, 38:555573, 2004 Copyright c American Association for Aerosol Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jimenez, Jose-Luis

    from motor vehicles are a significant source of fine particulate matter (PM) and gaseous pollutants of their emission. This work uses an Aero- dyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) to provide size instrumentation, was deployed on the Aero- dyne Research Inc. (ARI) mobile laboratory, which was used to "chase

  8. Techniques for Minimizing Aerosols (aerosols are a common source of laboratoryacquired infections)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Hue Sun

    " pipettes to avoid blowing out the last drop Drain pipettes gently with the tip against the inner wall glass rod to crack the glass, allow time for air to seep into the ampoule and gently remove the top than glass (less likely to break which generates aerosols) Source: Adapted from

  9. Aerosol Science and Technology, 43:486501, 2009 Copyright American Association for Aerosol Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    a NOAA research vessel during the Texas Air Quality Study 2006/Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition for glutaric acid in mixed glutaric acid/NH4HSO4 test aerosols was 0.22 ng collected mass, which corresponds min­1. During TexAQS 2006/GoMACCS, signals well above the detection limit were observed at a number

  10. Measurements of aerosol vertical profiles and optical properties during INDOEX

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , and the Kaashidhoo Climate Observatory (KCO) in the Maldives. Sun photometers were used to provide aerosol optical depths (AOD) needed to calibrate the MPL. This study focuses on the height distribution and optical trajectories, radiosonde profiles of temperature and humidity, and aerosol concentration and optical

  11. SCIAMACHY'S ABSORBING AEROSOL INDEX AND THE CONSEQUENCES OF INSTRUMENT DEGRADATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graaf, Martin de

    SCIAMACHY'S ABSORBING AEROSOL INDEX AND THE CONSEQUENCES OF INSTRUMENT DEGRADATION L. G. Tilstra1- itoring the Absorbing Aerosol Index (AAI) [1] measured by the satellite instrument SCIAMACHY [2]. We find. This we conclude from straightforward calculation of the effect of instrument degradation based

  12. Organic Aerosol Formation Downwind from the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    Organic Aerosol Formation Downwind from the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Nicole ONeill - ATOC 3500 and aerosol composition of air over the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. · The lightest chemicals in the oil evaporated within hours, as scientists expected them to do. What they didn't expect

  13. Carbonaceous aerosol particles from common vegetation in the Grand Canyon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hallock, K.A.; Mazurek, M.A. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Cass, G.R. (California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Engineering Science)

    1992-05-01

    The problem of visibility reduction in the Grand Canyon due to fine organic aerosol particles in the atmosphere has become an area of increased environmental concern. Aerosol particles can be derived from many emission sources. In this report, we focus on identifying organic aerosols derived from common vegetation in the Grand Canyon. These aerosols are expected to be significant contributors to the total atmospheric organic aerosol content. Aerosol samples from living vegetation were collected by resuspension of surface wax and resin components liberated from the leaves of vegetation common to areas of the Grand Canyon. The samples were analyzed using high-resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Probable identification of compounds was made by comparison of sample spectra with National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) mass spectral references and positive identification of compounds was made when possible by comparison with authentic standards as well as NIST references. Using these references, we have been able to positively identify the presence of n-alkane and n-alkanoic acid homolog series in the surface waxes of the vegetation sampled. Several monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and diterpenes were identified also as possible biogenic aerosols which may contribute to the total organic aerosol abundance leading to visibility reduction in the Grand Canyon.

  14. Supplementary Material1 Characterization of Organic Aerosol Produced during2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    mass spectra of a dominant type (coal) of ambient aerosol in Shanghai using2 ATOFMS (m/z from 1501 Supplementary Material1 Characterization of Organic Aerosol Produced during2 Pulverized Coal diagram of combustion process of a single coal particle5 6 #12;3 10 100 10 3 10 4 10 5 Oxygen/coal ratio

  15. Effects of operating conditions on a heat transfer fluid aerosol 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sukmarg, Passaporn

    2000-01-01

    fluids are used as hot liquids at elevated pressures. If loss of containment does occur, the liquid will leak under pressure and may disperse as a fine aerosol mist. Though it has been recognized that aerosol mists can explode, very little is known about...

  16. Effects of aerosols on deep convective cumulus clouds 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Jiwen

    2009-05-15

    in the droplet size. Ice processes are more sensitive to the changes of aerosol chemical properties than the warm rain processes. The most noticeable effect of increasing aerosol number concentrations is an increase of CDNC and cloud water content but a decrease...

  17. Flood or Drought: How Do Aerosols Affect Precipitation?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel, Rosenfeld

    Flood or Drought: How Do Aerosols Affect Precipitation? Daniel Rosenfeld,1 * Ulrike Lohmann,2 and the initiation of precipitation. Large concentrations of human-made aerosols have been reported to both decrease hand, heavily polluted clouds evaporate much of their water before precipitation can occur, if they can

  18. Global Warming Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schofield, Jeremy

    Global Warming Observations: 1. Global temperature has been gradually rising in recent years #15 in range 8000 12000 nm { CFC's, methane and N 2 O important for global warming even though concentra- tions in concentration of \\greenhouse gases" like CO 2 What determines global temperature? Energy budget of earth: 1

  19. Global Health Seminar Series

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klein, Ophir

    Bay Area Global Health Seminar Series Moving beyond millennium targets in global health: The challenges of investing in health and universal health coverage Although targets can help to focus global health efforts, they can also detract attention from deeper underlying challenges in global health

  20. Study of Aerosol Indirect Effects in China

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effect PhotovoltaicsStructure andChallenge | Department,Aerosol Indirect Effects in

  1. Chemical distribution in high-solids paint overspray aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D'Arcy, J.B.; Chan, T.L. )

    1990-03-01

    The chemical composition of high-solids basecoat paint overspray aerosols was determined as a function of particle size. Detailed information on the chemical composition of the overspray aerosols is important in health hazard evaluation since the composition and distribution within the airborne particles may differ significantly from the bulk paint material. This study was conducted in a typical down-draft paint booth equipped with air-atomized spray painting equipment. A fixed paint target was used to simulate typical overspray generation conditions and the aerosols were collected isokinetically with a seven-stage cascade impactor for size-fractionated analysis. The overspray aerosol from six paints consisted of organic paint binders with varying amounts of inorganic species as pigments or luster enhancers. These overspray aerosols had mass median aerodynamic diameters (MMAD) ranging from 2.9 to 9.7 microns. The size-fractionated paint samples collected on the impaction stages were analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry on a scanning electron microscope (SEM-EDXRS) to identify the metallic elements. Atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determine the mass distribution of aluminum and iron as indicators of nonuniform distribution. Three of the aerosols containing aluminum were found to have bimodal distributions with most aluminum distributions having cumulative MMADs larger than the total aerosol. Iron in the aerosols was bimodal for three of the paints with all samples having an overall iron MMAD less than or equal to the overspray aerosol MMAD. Analysis using ultraviolet spectrometry revealed that the organic compounds present in the size-fractionated particulate samples consisted of a single, polydispersed mode with an MMAD similar to that of the total overspray aerosol.

  2. Seasonal and diurnal variations of submicron organic aerosol in Tokyo observed using the Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jimenez, Jose-Luis

    with carbon monoxide (CO) and fragments of aliphatic and oxygenated organic compounds in the AMS mass spectra. Combustion-related organic aerosol (combustion OA) is defined as the primary organic aerosol (POA) fraction the combustion OA and the background OA from the total OA. The combustion OA and excess OA show good correlation

  3. ARM: 10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Newsom, Rob; Goldsmith, John

    1998-03-01

    10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

  4. ARM: 1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

    2004-10-01

    1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

  5. ARM: 2-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sivaraman, Chitra; Flynn, Connor

    2004-10-01

    2-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

  6. ARM: 10-second Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

    2004-10-01

    10-second Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

  7. Investigation of Aerosol Sources, Lifetime and Radiative Forcing through Multi-Instrument Data Assimilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubin, Juli Irene

    2012-01-01

    of the various radiative mechanims associated with aerosolof the various radiative mechanims associated with aerosol

  8. Analysis of reflectance spectra of UV-absorbing aerosol scenes measured by SCIAMACHY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graaf, Martin de

    Analysis of reflectance spectra of UV-absorbing aerosol scenes measured by SCIAMACHY M. de Graaf,1 of reflectance spectra of UV-absorbing aerosol scenes measured by SCIAMACHY, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D02206, doi aerosol (DDA) and biomass burning aerosol (BBA) scenes over oceans are presented, measured by the space

  9. UNDERSTANDING THE INFLUENCES OF ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOLS ON CLIMATE AND CLIMATE CHANGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    remarks #12;DMS #12;AEROSOL IN MEXICO CITY BASIN #12;AEROSOL IN MEXICO CITY BASIN Light scattering by aerosols decreases absorption of solar radiation. #12;AEROSOLS AS SEEN FROM SPACE Fire plumes from southern Mexico transported north into Gulf of Mexico. #12;CLOUD BRIGHTENING BY SHIP TRACKS Satellite photo off

  10. A geostatistical data fusion technique for merging remote sensing and groundbased observations of aerosol optical thickness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michalak, Anna M.

    that aerosols contrib- ute significantly to reflected solar radiation (the aerosol direct effect) and modify of aerosols in climate and atmospheric chemistry. To date, however, there have been only limited attempts of the growing concentrations of CO2 and other greenhouse gases. Although the radiative forcing of aerosols

  11. ARM: 10-second Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

    10-second Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

  12. ARM: 10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

    10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

  13. ARM: 2-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sivaraman, Chitra; Flynn, Connor

    2-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

  14. ARM: 1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

    1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

  15. North American and Global Forest Products Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ­ A housing bubble or one in the making? · Industrial timbers are booming due to fracking and oil exploration

  16. Changing Global Petroleum Product Trade Flows

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1 Table 1.101 (Million Short6RUBUFFALOfor the

  17. Changing Global Petroleum Product Trade Flows

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices1 Table 1.101 (Million Short6RUBUFFALOfor the4 ©

  18. CARES Helps Explain Secondary Organic Aerosols

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Zaveri, Rahul

    2014-06-02

    What happens when urban man-made pollution mixes with what we think of as pristine forest air? To know more about what this interaction means for the climate, the Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study, or CARES, field campaign was designed in 2010. The sampling strategy during CARES was coordinated with CalNex 2010, another major field campaign that was planned in California in 2010 by the California Air Resources Board (CARB), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the California Energy Commission (CEC). "We found two things. When urban pollution mixes with forest pollutions we get more secondary organic aerosols," said Rahul Zaveri, FCSD scientist and project lead on CARES. "SOAs are thought to be formed primarily from forest emissions but only when they interact with urban emissions. The data is saying that there will be climate cooling over the central California valley because of these interactions." Knowledge gained from detailed analyses of data gathered during the CARES campaign, together with laboratory experiments, is being used to improve existing climate models.

  19. Asthmatic responses to airborne acid aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ostro, B.D.; Lipsett, M.J.; Wiener, M.B.; Selner, J.C. )

    1991-06-01

    Controlled exposure studies suggest that asthmatics may be more sensitive to the respiratory effects of acidic aerosols than individuals without asthma. This study investigates whether acidic aerosols and other air pollutants are associated with respiratory symptoms in free-living asthmatics. Daily concentrations of hydrogen ion (H+), nitric acid, fine particulates, sulfates and nitrates were obtained during an intensive air monitoring effort in Denver, Colorado, in the winter of 1987-88. A panel of 207 asthmatics recorded respiratory symptoms, frequency of medication use, and related information in daily diaries. We used a multiple regression time-series model to analyze which air pollutants, if any, were associated with health outcomes reported by study participants. Airborne H+ was found to be significantly associated with several indicators of asthma status, including moderate or severe cough and shortness of breath. Cough was also associated with fine particulates, and shortness of breath with sulfates. Incorporating the participants' time spent outside and exercise intensity into the daily measure of exposure strengthened the association between these pollutants and asthmatic symptoms. Nitric acid and nitrates were not significantly associated with any respiratory symptom analyzed. In this population of asthmatics, several outdoor air pollutants, particularly airborne acidity, were associated with daily respiratory symptoms.

  20. CARES Helps Explain Secondary Organic Aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaveri, Rahul

    2014-03-28

    What happens when urban man-made pollution mixes with what we think of as pristine forest air? To know more about what this interaction means for the climate, the Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study, or CARES, field campaign was designed in 2010. The sampling strategy during CARES was coordinated with CalNex 2010, another major field campaign that was planned in California in 2010 by the California Air Resources Board (CARB), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the California Energy Commission (CEC). "We found two things. When urban pollution mixes with forest pollutions we get more secondary organic aerosols," said Rahul Zaveri, FCSD scientist and project lead on CARES. "SOAs are thought to be formed primarily from forest emissions but only when they interact with urban emissions. The data is saying that there will be climate cooling over the central California valley because of these interactions." Knowledge gained from detailed analyses of data gathered during the CARES campaign, together with laboratory experiments, is being used to improve existing climate models.

  1. Modeling the global emission, transport and deposition of trace elements associated with mineral dust

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Y.; Mahowald, N.; Scanza, R. A.; Journet, E.; Desboeufs, K.; Albani, S.; Kok, J. F.; Zhuang, G.; Chen, Y.; Cohen, D. D.; et al

    2015-10-12

    Trace element deposition from desert dust has important impacts on ocean primary productivity, the quantification of which could be useful in determining the magnitude and sign of the biogeochemical feedback on radiative forcing. However, the impact of elemental deposition to remote ocean regions is not well understood and is not currently included in global climate models. In this study, emission inventories for eight elements primarily of soil origin, Mg, P, Ca, Mn, Fe, K, Al, and Si are determined based on a global mineral data set and a soil data set. The resulting elemental fractions are used to drive themore »desert dust model in the Community Earth System Model (CESM) in order to simulate the elemental concentrations of atmospheric dust. Spatial variability of mineral dust elemental fractions is evident on a global scale, particularly for Ca. Simulations of global variations in the Ca / Al ratio, which typically range from around 0.1 to 5.0 in soils, are consistent with observations, suggesting that this ratio is a good signature for dust source regions. The simulated variable fractions of chemical elements are sufficiently different; estimates of deposition should include elemental variations, especially for Ca, Al and Fe. The model results have been evaluated with observations of elemental aerosol concentrations from desert regions and dust events in non-dust regions, providing insights into uncertainties in the modeling approach. The ratios between modeled and observed elemental fractions range from 0.7 to 1.6, except for Mg and Mn (3.4 and 3.5, respectively). Using the soil database improves the correspondence of the spatial heterogeneity in the modeling of several elements (Ca, Al and Fe) compared to observations. Total and soluble dust element fluxes to different ocean basins and ice sheet regions have been estimated, based on the model results. The annual inputs of soluble Mg, P, Ca, Mn, Fe and K associated with dust using the mineral data set are 0.30 Tg, 16.89 Gg, 1.32 Tg, 22.84 Gg, 0.068 Tg, and 0.15 Tg to global oceans and ice sheets.« less

  2. Global Focus Microscope The Global Health Challenge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . To address this need, we developed the Global Focus Microscope (GFM): a portable, battery- powered, inverted digi- tal images, the Global Focus Microscope comes with shelf for an iPhone 4. Figure 1. From left to right: Malaria parasites imaged at 1000x in bright field mode, tuberculosis imaged at 400x in bright

  3. Fire aerosol experiment and comparisons with computer code predictions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregory, W.S.; Nichols, B.D.; White, B.W.; Smith, P.R.; Leslie, I.H.; Corkran, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory, in cooperation with New Mexico State University, has carried on a series of tests to provide experimental data on fire-generated aerosol transport. These data will be used to verify the aerosol transport capabilities of the FIRAC computer code. FIRAC was developed by Los Alamos for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. It is intended to be used by safety analysts to evaluate the effects of hypothetical fires on nuclear plants. One of the most significant aspects of this analysis deals with smoke and radioactive material movement throughout the plant. The tests have been carried out using an industrial furnace that can generate gas temperatures to 300/degree/C. To date, we have used quartz aerosol with a median diameter of about 10 ..mu..m as the fire aerosol simulant. We also plan to use fire-generated aerosols of polystyrene and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). The test variables include two nominal gas flow rates (150 and 300 ft/sup 3//min) and three nominal gas temperatures (ambient, 150/degree/C, and 300/degree/C). The test results are presented in the form of plots of aerosol deposition vs length of duct. In addition, the mass of aerosol caught in a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter during the tests is reported. The tests are simulated with the FIRAC code, and the results are compared with the experimental data. 3 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  4. GCM parameterization of radiative forcing by Pinatubo aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lacis, A.A.; Mishchenko, M.I.

    1996-12-31

    This paper addresses the question of whether the general circulation model (GCM) parameterization of volcanic aerosol forcing can be adequately described in terms of just two physical aerosol parameters: (1) the aerosol column optical thickness and (2) the effective radius of the aerosol size distribution. Data recorded from the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo in the Philippines in June 1991 was analyzed to attempt to answer this question. The spatial distribution of the particle size showed considerable variability and was found to increase steadily following the eruption. The time evolution of the Pinatubo aerosol particle size distribution as derived from satellite data differed significantly, particularly in the early phases of the eruption, from that assumed in the initial GCM simulation of the Pinatubo eruption. A bimodal distribution was used to examine the possibility that the actual size distribution of the volcanic aerosol was multimodal. However, results suggested that in most cases the aerosol size distribution was essentially monomodal in nature. Results from the radiative model used in the calculations are also presented. 11 refs., 6 figs.

  5. The Radiative Role of Free Tropospheric Aerosols and Marine Clouds over the Central North Atlantic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazzoleni, Claudio; Kumar, Sumit; Wright, Kendra; Kramer, Louisa; Mazzoleni, Lynn; Owen, Robert; Helmig, Detlev

    2014-12-09

    The scientific scope of the project was to exploit the unique location of the Pico Mountain Observatory (PMO) located in the summit caldera of the Pico Volcano in Pico Island in the Azores, for atmospheric studies. The observatory, located at 2225m a.s.l., typically samples free tropospheric aerosols laying above the marine low-level clouds and long-range transported from North America. The broad purpose of this research was to provide the scientific community with a better understanding of fundamental physical processes governing the effects of aerosols on radiative forcing and climate; with the ultimate goal of improving our abilities to understand past climate and to predict future changes through numerical models. The project was 'exploratory' in nature, with the plan to demonstrate the feasibility of deploying for the first time, an extensive aerosol research package at PMO. One of the primary activities was to test the deployment of these instruments at the site, to collect data during the 2012 summer season, and to further develop the infrastructure and the knowledge for performing novel research at PMO in follow-up longer-term aerosol-cloud studies. In the future, PMO could provide an elevated research outpost to support the renewed DOE effort in the Azores that was intensified in 2013 with the opening of the new sea-level ARM-DOE Eastern North Atlantic permanent facility at Graciosa Island. During the project period, extensive new data sets were collected for the planned 2012 season. Thanks to other synergistic activities and opportunities, data collection was then successfully extended to 2013 and 2014. Highlights of the scientific findings during this project include: a) biomass burning contribute significantly to the aerosol loading in the North Atlantic free troposphere; however, long-range transported black carbon concentrations decreased substantially in the last decade. b) Single black carbon particles – analyzed off-line at the electron microscope – were often very compacted, suggesting cloud processing and exhibiting different optical properties from fresh emissions. In addition, black carbon was found to be sometimes mixed with mineral dust, affecting its optical properties and potential forcing. c) Some aerosols collected at PMO acted as ice nuclei, potentially contributing to cirrus cloud formation during their transport in the upper free troposphere. Identified good ice nuclei were often mineral dust particles. d) The free tropospheric aerosols studied at PMO have relevance to low level marine clouds due, for example, to synoptic subsidence entraining free tropospheric aerosols into the marine boundary layer. This has potentially large consequences on cloud condensation nuclei concentrations and compositions in the marine boundary layer; therefore, having an effect on the marine stratus clouds, with potentially important repercussions on the radiative forcing. The scientific products of this project currently include contributions to two papers published in the Nature Publishing group (Nature Communications and Scientific Reports), one paper under revision for Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, one in review in Geophysical Research Letters and one recently submitted to Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussion. In addition, four manuscripts are in advanced state of preparation. Finally, twenty-eight presentations were given at international conferences, workshops and seminars.

  6. Inverse modelling of cloud-aerosol interactions - Part 2: Sensitivity tests on liquid phase clouds using a Markov chain Monte Carlo based simulation approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Partridge, D. G; Vrugt, J. A; Tunved, P.; Ekman, A. M. L; Struthers, H.; Sorooshian, A.

    2012-01-01

    Seinfeld, J. H. : Aerosol, cloud drop concentration closureof aerosol composition on cloud droplet size distribution –aerosol properties on warm cloud droplet activation, At-

  7. The Global Brain is Neither Global nor a Brain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rocha, Luis

    The Global Brain is Neither Global nor a Brain Adaptive Webs for Heterarchies Luis Mateus Rocha-organism or a global brain? The Global Brain Is Neither Global nor a Brain #12;!Disembodied Brain Disembodied brains on symbol-matter requirements for open-ended evolution) The Global Brain Is Neither Global Nor a Brain #12

  8. Aerosol penetration through a seismically loaded shear wall

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrar, C.R.; Girrens, S.P.

    1992-05-01

    An experimental study was performed to measure the aerosol penetration through a reinforced concrete shear wall after simulated seismic damage. Static load-cycle testing, to stress levels sufficient to induce visible shear cracking, was used to simulate the earthquake loading. Air permeability tests were performed both before and after the simulated seismic loading damaged the structure. Aerosol penetration measurements were conducted on the cracked shear wall structure using 0.10 {mu}m monodisperse particles. The measured aerosol number penetration through the cracked shear wall was 0.5%. 7 refs.

  9. Aerosol penetration through a seismically loaded shear wall

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrar, C.R.; Girrens, S.P.

    1992-01-01

    An experimental study was performed to measure the aerosol penetration through a reinforced concrete shear wall after simulated seismic damage. Static load-cycle testing, to stress levels sufficient to induce visible shear cracking, was used to simulate the earthquake loading. Air permeability tests were performed both before and after the simulated seismic loading damaged the structure. Aerosol penetration measurements were conducted on the cracked shear wall structure using 0.10 {mu}m monodisperse particles. The measured aerosol number penetration through the cracked shear wall was 0.5%. 7 refs.

  10. Before House Subcommittee on Africa, Global Health, Global Human...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    House Subcommittee on Africa, Global Health, Global Human Rights, and International Organizations, Committee on Foreign Affairs Before House Subcommittee on Africa, Global Health,...

  11. Cows Causing Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hacker, Randi

    2008-08-06

    Broadcast Transcript: Remember when President Reagan blamed trees for air pollution? Well now the Japanese are blaming cows for global warming. Apparently, the methane emissions from burping cows account for 5% of all global greenhouse gases. Simple...

  12. Review: Globalization of Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tennant, Matthew Aaron

    2009-01-01

    Review: Globalization of Water: Sharing the Planet’sAshok K. Globalization of Water: Sharing the Planet’s140) liters of virtual water (p. 15). This is one of the

  13. Globalization of biopharmaceutical manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pande, Rachna

    2011-01-01

    The biomanufacturing industry is changing due to increasing globalization. However, it is changing differently from other high tech industries like software/ semiconductor/ automobiles. In this study we use global ...

  14. Mexico City Aerosol Analysis During Milagro Using High Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometry at the Urban Supersite (T0) - Part 1: Fine Particle Composition and Organic Source Apportionment.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aiken, A. C.

    Submicron aerosol was analyzed during the MILAGRO field campaign in March 2006 at the T0 urban supersite in Mexico City with a High-Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and complementary instrumentation. Positive ...

  15. Microscopic Characterization of Carbonaceous Aerosol Particle Aging in the Outflow from Mexico City

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moffet, R. C.; Henn, T. R.; Tivanski, A. V.; Hopkins, R. J.; Desyaterik, Y.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Tyliszczak, T.; Fast, J.; Barnard, J.; Shutthanandan, V.; Cliff, S.S.; Perry, K. D.; Laskin, A.; Gilles, M. K.

    2009-09-16

    This study was part of the Megacities Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) field campaign conducted in Mexico City Metropolitan Area during spring 2006. The physical and chemical transformations of particles aged in the outflow from Mexico City were investigated for the transport event of 22 March 2006. A detailed chemical analysis of individual particles was performed using a combination of complementary microscopy and micro-spectroscopy techniques. The applied techniques included scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) coupled with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS) and computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (CCSEM/EDX). As the aerosol plume evolves from the city center, the organic mass per particle increases and the fraction of carbon-carbon double bonds (associated with elemental carbon) decreases. Organic functional groups enhanced with particle age include: carboxylic acids, alkyl groups, and oxygen bonded alkyl groups. At the city center (T0) the most prevalent aerosol type contained inorganic species (composed of sulfur, nitrogen, oxygen, and potassium) coated with organic material. At the T1 and T2 sites, located northeast of T0 (~;;29 km and ~;;65 km, respectively), the fraction of homogenously mixed organic particles increased in both size and number. These observations illustrate the evolution of the physical mixing state and organic bonding in individual particles in a photochemically active environment.

  16. Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    particles remain in the atmosphere can have a huge impact on the global climate. Measurements based on high-resolution scanning transmission x-ray images obtained at the ALS...

  17. CHILLING CONSIDERATIONS GLOBAL WARMING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    CHILLING CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING GLOBAL WARMING Stephen E. Schwartz http IS INCREASING Global carbon dioxide concentration over the last thousand years Polar ice cores #12;Mann et al 1000-1850) 1998 THE TEMPERATURE'S RISING #12;GLOBAL ANNUAL TEMPERATURE ANOMALY, 1880-2008 0.8 0.6 0.4 0

  18. SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE GLOBAL WARMING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE FOR GLOBAL WARMING Stephen E. Schwartz Jefferson's Ferry Public Affairs century. The warmest year of the millennium was 1998. #12;EVIDENCE OF GLOBAL WARMING OTHER THAN SURFACE TEMPERATURE ANOMALY The global ocean has warmed significantly since the late 1940s: more than half

  19. Carbon Dioxide & Global Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miami, University of

    Carbon Dioxide & Global Warming University of MiaMi rosenstiel sChool of Marine anD atMospheriC s , organic carbon, and other chemicals that contribute to global warming in a variety of studies. DownCienCe 4600 rickenbacker Causeway Miami, florida 33149 http://www.rsmas.miami.edu the Chemistry of Global

  20. Global Information Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keromytis, Angelos D.

    Global Information Technologies: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications Felix B. Tan in the United States of America by Information Science Reference (an imprint of IGI Global) 701 E. Chocolate (an imprint of IGI Global) 3 Henrietta Street Covent Garden London WC2E 8LU Tel: 44 20 7240 0856 Fax

  1. Meteorology as Infrastructural Globalism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwards, Paul N.

    the history of a global governance institution, the World Me- teorological Organization (WMO), from its (from the 1967 inauguration of the Intelsat system) and global environmental monitoring (from the UN Confer- ence on the Human Environment, 1972). Throughout, Hewson sees global governance institutions

  2. GLOBAL TAXONOMY INITIATIVE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grant, Taran

    #12;THE GLOBAL TAXONOMY INITIATIVE: Using Systematic Inventories to Meet Country and Regional Needs (COP) to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) has endorsed a GlobalTaxonomy Initiative (GTI workshop, The Global Taxonomy Initiative: Shortening the Distance between Discovery and Delivery, made

  3. Aerosol mass spectrometry systems and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fergenson, David P.; Gard, Eric E.

    2013-08-20

    A system according to one embodiment includes a particle accelerator that directs a succession of polydisperse aerosol particles along a predetermined particle path; multiple tracking lasers for generating beams of light across the particle path; an optical detector positioned adjacent the particle path for detecting impingement of the beams of light on individual particles; a desorption laser for generating a beam of desorbing light across the particle path about coaxial with a beam of light produced by one of the tracking lasers; and a controller, responsive to detection of a signal produced by the optical detector, that controls the desorption laser to generate the beam of desorbing light. Additional systems and methods are also disclosed.

  4. Diesel Aerosol Sampling in the Atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Kittelson; Jason Johnson; Winthrop Watts; Qiang Wei; Marcus Drayton; Dwane Paulsen; Nicolas Bukowiecki

    2000-06-19

    The University of Minnesota Center for Diesel Research along with a research team including Caterpillar, Cummins, Carnegie Mellon University, West Virginia University (WVU), Paul Scherrer Institute in Switzerland, and Tampere University in Finland have performed measurements of Diesel exhaust particle size distributions under real-world dilution conditions. A mobile aerosol emission laboratory (MEL) equipped to measure particle size distributions, number concentrations, surface area concentrations, particle bound PAHs, as well as CO 2 and NO x concentrations in real time was built and will be described. The MEL was used to follow two different Cummins powered tractors, one with an older engine (L10) and one with a state-of-the-art engine (ISM), on rural highways and measure particles in their exhaust plumes. This paper will describe the goals and objectives of the study and will describe representative particle size distributions observed in roadway experiments with the truck powered by the ISM engine.

  5. Inorganic aerosols responses to emission changes in Yangtze River Delta, China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, Xinyi; Li, Juan; Fu, Joshua S.; Gao, Yang; Huang, Kan; Zhuang, Guoshun

    2014-05-15

    China announced the Chinese National Ambient Air Quality standards (CH-NAAQS) on Feb. 29th, 2012, and PM2.5 is for the very first time included in the standards as a criteria pollutant. In order to probe into PM2.5 pollution over Yangtze River Delta, which is one of the major urban clusters hosting more than 80 million people in China, the integrated MM5/CMAQ modeling system is applied for a full year simulation to examine the PM2.5 concentration and seasonality, and also the inorganic aerosols responses to precursor emission changes. Both simulation and observation demonstrated that, inorganic aerosols have substantial contributions to PM2.5 over YRD, ranging from 37.1% in November to 52.8% in May. Nocturnal production of nitrate (NO3-) through heterogeneous hydrolysis of N2O5 was found significantly contribute to high NO3-concentration throughout the year. We also found that in winter NO3- was even increased under nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission reduction due to higher production of N2O5 from the excessive ozone (O3) introduced by attenuated titration, which further lead to increase of ammonium (NH4+) and sulfate (SO42-), while other seasons showed decrease response of NO3-. Sensitivity responses of NO3- under anthropogenic VOC emission reduction was examined and demonstrated that in urban areas over YRD, NO3- formation was actually VOC sensitive due to the O3-involved nighttime chemistry of N2O5, while a reduction of NOx emission may have counter-intuitive effect by increasing concentrations of inorganic aerosols.

  6. Observational Insights into Aerosol Formation from Isoprene David R. Worton,*,,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Allen

    , Ronald C. Cohen, John H. Seinfeld, and Allen H. Goldstein,$ Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management, Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, United States Aerosol Dynamics Inc., Berkeley, California 94710, United States § Department of Environmental Sciences

  7. Toward a Minimal Representation of Aerosols in Climate Models...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    carbon (BC) with other aerosol components, merging of the MAM7 fine dust and fine sea salt modes into the accumulation mode, merging of the MAM7 coarse dust and coarse sea salt...

  8. ris-r-1075(en) Quantitative Measurement of Aerosol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and implications of deposition of potentially hazardous aerosol directly onto hu- mans. This state, beta doses from skin deposition to individuals in areas of Russia, where dry deposition of Chernobyl

  9. Experimental and numerical studies of aerosol penetration through screens 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Tae Won

    2009-05-15

    for one particular type of screen would collapse to a single curve if the collection efficiency is expressed in terms of non-dimensional parameters. Correlations characterizing the aerosol deposition process on different types of screens were developed...

  10. Aerosol-Cloud interactions : a new perspective in precipitation enhancement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gunturu, Udaya Bhaskar

    2010-01-01

    Increased industrialization and human activity modified the atmospheric aerosol composition and size-distribution during the last several decades. This has affected the structure and evolution of clouds, and precipitation ...

  11. Aerosol optical hygroscopicity measurements during the 2010 CARES campaign

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atkinson, D. B.

    Measurements of the effect of water uptake on particulate light extinction or scattering made at two locations during the 2010 Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) study around Sacramento, CA are ...

  12. On the relationship between stratospheric aerosols and nitrogen dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, M.J.; Langford, A.O.; O'Leary, T.J.; Arpag, K.; Miller, H.L.; Proffitt, M.H.; Sanders, R.W.; Solomon, S. (Aeronomy Laboratory, NOAA, Boulder, CO (United States) Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (United States))

    1993-06-18

    The authors report measurements of stratospheric column abundances of nitrogen dioxide above the Colorado mountains during Jan, Feb, and Mar 1992, following the arrival of the aerosol loading injected by Mt. Pinatubo. The column abundance data was correlated with concurrent lidar measurements which provided vertical aerosol profiles at the same site. Chemical reactions within polar stratospheric clouds have been shown to play a major role in ozone chemistry in the polar regions, and one could ask whether such clouds at mid latitudes could play a similar role. The sulfur dioxide loading due to the volcanic eruption provides an abrupt increase in sulfuric acid aerosol surface area in mid latitude areas, providing a convenient test of this question. Column NO[sub 2] densities are observed to fall, but also found to saturate at a certain stratospheric aerosol density.

  13. Persistent sensitivity of Asian aerosol to emissions of nitrogen oxides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kharol, S. K.

    We use a chemical transport model and its adjoint to examine the sensitivity of secondary inorganic aerosol formation to emissions of precursor trace gases from Asia. Sensitivity simulations indicate that secondary inorganic ...

  14. Technical Note: On the use of nudging for aerosol–climate model intercomparison studies

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, K.; Wan, H.; Liu, X.; Ghan, S. J.; Kooperman, G. J.; Ma, P.-L.; Rasch, P. J.; Neubauer, D.; Lohmann, U.

    2014-08-26

    Nudging as an assimilation technique has seen increased use in recent years in the development and evaluation of climate models. Constraining the simulated wind and temperature fields using global weather reanalysis facilitates more straightforward comparison between simulation and observation, and reduces uncertainties associated with natural variabilities of the large-scale circulation. On the other hand, the forcing introduced by nudging can be strong enough to change the basic characteristics of the model climate. In the paper we show that for the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5), due to the systematic temperature bias in the standard model and the sensitivity ofmore »simulated ice formation to anthropogenic aerosol concentration, nudging towards reanalysis results in substantial reductions in the ice cloud amount and the impact of anthropogenic aerosols on long-wave cloud forcing. In order to reduce discrepancies between the nudged and unconstrained simulations, and meanwhile take the advantages of nudging, two alternative experimentation methods are evaluated. The first one constrains only the horizontal winds. The second method nudges both winds and temperature, but replaces the long-term climatology of the reanalysis by that of the model. Results show that both methods lead to substantially improved agreement with the free-running model in terms of the top-of-atmosphere radiation budget and cloud ice amount. The wind-only nudging is more convenient to apply, and provides higher correlations of the wind fields, geopotential height and specific humidity between simulation and reanalysis. Results from both CAM5 and a second aerosol–climate model ECHAM6-HAM2 also indicate that compared to the wind-and-temperature nudging, constraining only winds leads to better agreement with the free-running model in terms of the estimated shortwave cloud forcing and the simulated convective activities. This suggests nudging the horizontal winds but not temperature is a good strategy for the investigation of aerosol indirect effects since it provides well-constrained meteorology without strongly perturbing the model's mean climate.« less

  15. Cloud-Driven Changes in Aerosol Optical Properties - Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogren, John A.; Sheridan, Patrick S.; Andrews, Elisabeth

    2007-09-30

    The optical properties of aerosol particles are the controlling factors in determining direct aerosol radiative forcing. These optical properties depend on the chemical composition and size distribution of the aerosol particles, which can change due to various processes during the particles’ lifetime in the atmosphere. Over the course of this project we have studied how cloud processing of atmospheric aerosol changes the aerosol optical properties. A counterflow virtual impactor was used to separate cloud drops from interstitial aerosol and parallel aerosol systems were used to measure the optical properties of the interstitial and cloud-scavenged aerosol. Specifically, aerosol light scattering, back-scattering and absorption were measured and used to derive radiatively significant parameters such as aerosol single scattering albedo and backscatter fraction for cloud-scavenged and interstitial aerosol. This data allows us to demonstrate that the radiative properties of cloud-processed aerosol can be quite different than pre-cloud aerosol. These differences can be used to improve the parameterization of aerosol forcing in climate models.

  16. Cloud Scavenging Effects on Aerosol Radiative and Cloud-nucleating Properties - Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogren, John A.; Sheridan, Patrick S.; Andrews, Elisabeth

    2009-03-05

    The optical properties of aerosol particles are the controlling factors in determining direct aerosol radiative forcing. These optical properties depend on the chemical composition and size distribution of the aerosol particles, which can change due to various processes during the particles’ lifetime in the atmosphere. Over the course of this project we have studied how cloud processing of atmospheric aerosol changes the aerosol optical properties. A counterflow virtual impactor was used to separate cloud drops from interstitial aerosol and parallel aerosol systems were used to measure the optical properties of the interstitial and cloud-scavenged aerosol. Specifically, aerosol light scattering, back-scattering and absorption were measured and used to derive radiatively significant parameters such as aerosol single scattering albedo and backscatter fraction for cloud-scavenged and interstitial aerosol. This data allows us to demonstrate that the radiative properties of cloud-processed aerosol can be quite different than pre-cloud aerosol. These differences can be used to improve the parameterization of aerosol forcing in climate models.

  17. MODIS Global Cloud-Top Pressure and Amount Estimation: Algorithm Description and Results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baum, Bryan A.

    MODIS Global Cloud-Top Pressure and Amount Estimation: Algorithm Description and Results W. PAUL measurements for deriving global and regional cloud properties. MODIS has spectral coverage combined the capability for global cloud property retrievals. MODIS operational cloud products are derived globally

  18. Investigations of cloud altering effects of atmospheric aerosols using a new mixed Eulerian-Lagrangian aerosol model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steele, Henry Donnan, 1974-

    2004-01-01

    Industry, urban development, and other anthropogenic influences have substantially altered the composition and size-distribution of atmospheric aerosol particles over the last century. This, in turn, has altered cloud ...

  19. Climatic effects of 1950–2050 changes in US anthropogenic aerosols – Part 1: Aerosol trends and radiative forcing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leibensperger, Eric Michael

    We use the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model combined with the GISS general circulation model to calculate the aerosol direct and indirect (warm cloud) radiative forcings from US anthropogenic sources over the 1950–2050 ...

  20. South America Becomes a Global Player in the Forest, Paper and Packaging Sector Global home

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - South America is becoming a major global player in the forest, paper and packaging industry, according, especially pulp, and as a growing market for forest, paper and packaging products. South America possesses and the latest processing technologies, have built strong wood product and pulp industries. Data from Resource

  1. Testing for the Possible Influence of Unknown Climate Forcings upon Global Temperature Increases from 1950-2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Bruce T.; Knight, Jeff R.; Ringer, Mark A.; Yoon, Jin-Ho; Cherchi, Annalisa

    2012-10-15

    Global-scale variations in the climate system over the last half of the twentieth century, including long-term increases in global-mean near-surface temperatures, are consistent with concurrent human-induced emissions of radiatively active gases and aerosols. However, such consistency does not preclude the possible influence of other forcing agents, including internal modes of climate variability or unaccounted for aerosol effects. To test whether other unknown forcing agents may have contributed to multidecadal increases in global-mean near-surface temperatures from 1950 to 2000, data pertaining to observed changes in global-scale sea surface temperatures and observed changes in radiatively active atmospheric constituents are incorporated into numerical global climate models. Results indicate that the radiative forcing needed to produce the observed long-term trends in sea surface temperatures—and global-mean near-surface temperatures—is provided predominantly by known changes in greenhouse gases and aerosols. Further, results indicate that less than 10% of the long-term historical increase in global-mean near-surface temperatures over the last half of the twentieth century could have been the result of internal climate variability. In addition, they indicate that less than 25%of the total radiative forcing needed to produce the observed long-term trend in global-mean near-surface temperatures could have been provided by changes in net radiative forcing from unknown sources (either positive or negative). These results, which are derived from simple energy balance requirements, emphasize the important role humans have played in modifying the global climate over the last half of the twentieth century.

  2. Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment: Science and Operations Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kotamarthi, VR

    2010-06-21

    The Ganges Valley region is one of the largest and most rapidly developing sections of the Indian subcontinent. The Ganges River, which provides the region with water needed for sustaining life, is fed primarily by snow and rainfall associated with Indian summer monsoons. Impacts of changes in precipitation patterns, temperature, and the flow of the snow-fed rivers can be immense. Recent satellite-based measurements have indicated that the upper Ganges Valley has some of the highest persistently observed aerosol optical depth values. The aerosol layer covers a vast region, extending across the Indo-Gangetic Plain to the Bay of Bengal during the winter and early spring of each year. The persistent winter fog in the region is already a cause of much concern, and several studies have been proposed to understand the economic, scientific, and societal dimensions of this problem. During the INDian Ocean EXperiment (INDOEX) field studies, aerosols from this region were shown to affect cloud formation and monsoon activity over the Indian Ocean. This is one of the few regions showing a trend toward increasing surface dimming and enhanced mid-tropospheric warming. Increasing air pollution over this region could modify the radiative balance through direct, indirect, and semi-indirect effects associated with aerosols. The consequences of aerosols and associated pollution for surface insolation over the Ganges Valley and monsoons, in particular, are not well understood. The proposed field study is designed for use of (1) the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) to measure relevant radiative, cloud, convection, and aerosol optical characteristics over mainland India during an extended period of 9–12 months and (2) the G-1 aircraft and surface sites to measure relevant aerosol chemical, physical, and optical characteristics in the Ganges Valley during a period of 6–12 weeks. The aerosols in this region have complex sources, including burning of coal, biomass, and biofuels; automobile emissions; and dust. The extended AMF deployment will enable measurements under different regimes of the climate and aerosol abundance—in the wet monsoon period with low aerosol loading; in the dry, hot summer with aerosols dispersed throughout the atmospheric column; and in the cool, dry winter with aerosols confined mostly to the boundary later and mid-troposphere. Each regime, in addition, has its own distinct radiative and atmospheric dynamic drivers. The aircraft operational phase will assist in characterizing the aerosols at times when they have been observed to be at the highest concentrations. A number of agencies in India will collaborate with the proposed field study and provide support in terms of planning, aircraft measurements, and surface sites. The high concentration of aerosols in the upper Ganges Valley, together with hypotheses involving several possible mechanisms with direct impacts on the hydrologic cycle of the region, gives us a unique opportunity to generate data sets that will be useful both in understanding the processes at work and in providing answers regarding the effects of aerosols on climate in a region where the perturbation is the highest.

  3. (Managing the global environment)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rayner, S.F.

    1989-10-03

    The conference was stimulated by concern that policy makers increasingly have to make environmental management decisions in the absence of solidly established scientific consensus about ecological processes and the consequences of human actions. Often, as in the case of climate change, some decisions may have to be made in the absence of information that is desirable but may not be available for years to come, if ever. Six topics were identified as running throughout the Congress. These were: the epistemology and history of the sciences or disciplines concerned with the environment, including the scientific basis of rationality and modes of dealing with uncertainty and complexity; the social, economic, and institutional conditions for the production of knowledge bearing on the environment, including the politics of research and the improvement of scientific data; the structuring and institutionalization of expert assessments on national and international levels, including the global distribution of expertise; the means of establishing scientific information, the role of the media in transmitting and processing knowledge about the environment, and the organization of public environmental debate; and decision making and management under conditions of uncertainty; and, finally the relationship between science and ethics. 13 refs.

  4. Parameterization of urban sub-grid scale processes in global atmospheric chemistry models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    such as meteorology. Effective emissions may be ŇagedÓ emissions of primary pollutants or actual production the potential interaction of local pollution policies with greenhouse gas control measures. This paper focuses (methane and ozone). Also, aerosols resulting from SOx and NOx emission

  5. A new WRF-Chem treatment for studying regional-scale impacts of cloud processes on aerosol and trace gases in parameterized cumuli

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Berg, L. K.; Shrivastava, M.; Easter, R. C.; Fast, J. D.; Chapman, E. G.; Liu, Y.; Ferrare, R. A.

    2015-02-24

    A new treatment of cloud effects on aerosol and trace gases within parameterized shallow and deep convection, and aerosol effects on cloud droplet number, has been implemented in the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) version 3.2.1 that can be used to better understand the aerosol life cycle over regional to synoptic scales. The modifications to the model include treatment of the cloud droplet number mixing ratio; key cloud microphysical and macrophysical parameters (including the updraft fractional area, updraft and downdraft mass fluxes, and entrainment) averaged over the population of shallow clouds, or a single deep convectivemore »cloud; and vertical transport, activation/resuspension, aqueous chemistry, and wet removal of aerosol and trace gases in warm clouds. These changes have been implemented in both the WRF-Chem chemistry packages as well as the Kain–Fritsch (KF) cumulus parameterization that has been modified to better represent shallow convective clouds. Testing of the modified WRF-Chem has been completed using observations from the Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS). The simulation results are used to investigate the impact of cloud–aerosol interactions on regional-scale transport of black carbon (BC), organic aerosol (OA), and sulfate aerosol. Based on the simulations presented here, changes in the column-integrated BC can be as large as –50% when cloud–aerosol interactions are considered (due largely to wet removal), or as large as +40% for sulfate under non-precipitating conditions due to sulfate production in the parameterized clouds. The modifications to WRF-Chem are found to account for changes in the cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) and changes in the chemical composition of cloud droplet residuals in a way that is consistent with observations collected during CHAPS. Efforts are currently underway to port the changes described here to the latest version of WRF-Chem, and it is anticipated that they will be included in a future public release of WRF-Chem.« less

  6. Design of an Unattended Environmental Aerosol Sampling and Analysis System for Gaseous Centrifuge Enrichment Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Munley, John T.; Alexander, M. L.

    2011-07-19

    The resources of the IAEA continue to be challenged by the rapid, worldwide expansion of nuclear energy production. Gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) represent an especially formidable dilemma to the application of safeguard measures, as the size and enrichment capacity of GCEPs continue to escalate. During the early part of the 1990's, the IAEA began to lay the foundation to strengthen and make cost-effective its future safeguard regime. Measures under Part II of 'Programme 93+2' specifically sanctioned access to nuclear fuel production facilities and environmental sampling by IAEA inspectors. Today, the Additional Protocol grants inspection and environmental sample collection authority to IAEA inspectors at GCEPs during announced and low frequency unannounced (LFUA) inspections. During inspections, IAEA inspectors collect environmental swipe samples that are then shipped offsite to an analytical laboratory for enrichment assay. This approach has proven to be an effective deterrence to GCEP misuse, but this method has never achieved the timeliness of detection goals set forth by IAEA. Furthermore it is questionable whether the IAEA will have the resources to even maintain pace with the expansive production capacity of the modern GCEP, let alone improve the timeliness in reaching current safeguards conclusions. New safeguards propositions, outside of familiar mainstream safeguard measures, may therefore be required that counteract the changing landscape of nuclear energy fuel production. A new concept is proposed that offers rapid, cost effective GCEP misuse detection, without increasing LFUA inspection access or introducing intrusive access demands on GCEP operations. Our approach is based on continuous onsite aerosol collection and laser enrichment analysis. This approach mitigates many of the constraints imposed by the LFUA protocol, reduces the demand for onsite sample collection and offsite analysis, and overcomes current limitations associated with the in-facility misuse detection devices. Onsite environmental sample collection offers the ability to collect fleeting uranium hexafluoride emissions before they are lost to the ventilation system or before they disperse throughout the facility, to become deposited onto surfaces that are contaminated with background and historical production material. Onsite aerosol sample collection, combined with enrichment analysis, provides the unique ability to quickly detect stepwise enrichment level changes within the facility, leading to a significant strengthening of facility misuse deterence. We report in this paper our study of several GCEP environmental sample release scenarios and simulation results of a newly designed aerosol collection and particle capture system that is fully integrated with the Laser Ablation, Absorbance Ratio Spectrometry (LAARS) uranium particle enrichment analysis instrument that was developed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  7. Large Enhancement in the Heterogeneous Oxidation Rate of Organic Aerosols by Hydroxyl Radicals in the Presence of Nitric Oxide.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richards-Henderson, NK; Goldstein, AH; Wilson, KR

    2015-01-01

    Heterogeneous Reaction of Hydroxyl Radicals with Sub-Micronof Organic Aerosols by Hydroxyl Radicals in the Presence ofin an aerosol exposed to hydroxyl radicals (OH) is thought

  8. Effects on precipitation, clouds, and temperature from long-range transport of idealized aerosol plumes in WRF-Chem simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Zhan; Pritchard, Michael S; Russell, Lynn M

    2012-01-01

    on intense convective precipitation in the northeastern US,aerosols on regional precipitation over East Asia, J.of aerosols on surface precipitation from clouds: An attempt

  9. Urban-scale impacts on the global-scale composition and climate effects of anthropogenic aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Jason Blake

    2010-01-01

    A reduced form meta model has been produced to simulate the effects of physical, chemical, and meteorological processing of highly reactive trace species in hypothetical urban areas, which is capable of efficiently simulating ...

  10. Global impact of smoke aerosols from landscape fires on climate and the Hadley circulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tosca, M. G; Randerson, J. T; Zender, C. S

    2013-01-01

    on stand age in a boreal forest fire chronosequence, J.released from peat and forest fires in Indonesia duringevidence of smoke from forest fires inhibiting rainfall,

  11. Posters Cloud Parameterizations in Global Climate Models: The Role of Aerosols

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeedingProgram Guidelines This document outlines the majorL.Posters Posters5139113

  12. Engineering the global ecosystem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stringfellow, William T.; Jain, Ravi

    2010-01-01

    of humans deliberately engineering agricultural landscapes.010-0302-8 EDITORIAL Engineering the global ecosystemtale about human explorers engineering the ecosystem of Mars

  13. The Availability and Price of Petroleum and Petroleum Products...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    impact demand for petroleum products. Together with robust levels of current global crude oil production, and the potential for additional Iranian exports in 2016, oil prices...

  14. AEROSOLS AND CLIMATE THE SCIENTIFIC BASIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    to address two major pollutants that have an impact on warming: black soot and tropospheric ozone. Both the industrial period. #12;GLOBAL CARBON DIOXIDE OVER THE INDUSTRIAL PERIOD 360 340 320 300 280 CO2MixingRatio,µmol/mol(air. D. Keeling ICE CORES SIPLE STATION ANTARCTICA MAUNA LOA HAWAII #12;GREENHOUSE GAS MIXING RATIOS

  15. Practical application of in situ aerosol measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O`Hern, T.J.; Rader, D.J.

    1993-09-01

    The use of in situ, real-time measurement techniques permits the characterization of airborne droplets and particles under conditions where traditional sampling methods can fail. For example, sampling method rely on the ability to sample and transport particles without biasing the properties of interest, and often are not applicable in harsh environment. Although in situ methods offer unique opportunities in these cases, these techniques introduce new concerns and must be used carefully if accurate measurement are to be made. Several in situ measurement techniques are reviewed here. As the field is rapidly evolving, the discussion is limited to those techniques which: (1) are commercially available, (2) provide real-time output, (3) measure the aerosol size distribution. Discussion is divided between single particle counters (which provide a flux-based or temporal measurement) and ensemble techniques (which provide a concentration-based or spatial measurement). Specific techniques discussed include phase Doppler, Mie scattering, and Fraunhofer diffraction, and commercial instruments based on these techniques.

  16. Scale-free Universal Spectrum for Atmospheric Aerosol Size Distribution for Davos, Mauna Loa and Izana

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. M. Selvam

    2014-08-14

    Atmospheric flows exhibit fractal fluctuations and inverse power law form for power spectra indicating an eddy continuum structure for the selfsimilar fluctuations. A general systems theory for fractal fluctuations developed by the author is based on the simple visualisation that large eddies form by space-time integration of enclosed turbulent eddies, a concept analogous to Kinetic Theory of Gases in Classical Statistical Physics. The ordered growth of atmospheric eddy continuum is in dynamical equilibrium and is associated with Maximum Entropy Production. The model predicts universal (scale-free) inverse power law form for fractal fluctuations expressed in terms of the golden mean. Atmospheric particulates are held in suspension in the fractal fluctuations of vertical wind velocity. The mass or radius (size) distribution for homogeneous suspended atmospheric particulates is expressed as a universal scale-independent function of the golden mean, the total number concentration and the mean volume radius. Model predicted spectrum is in agreement (within two standard deviations on either side of the mean) with total averaged radius size spectra for the AERONET (aerosol inversions) stations Davos and Mauna Loa for the year 2010 and Izana for the year 2009 daily averages. The general systems theory model for aerosol size distribution is scale free and is derived directly from atmospheric eddy dynamical concepts. At present empirical models such as the log normal distribution with arbitrary constants for the size distribution of atmospheric suspended particulates are used for quantitative estimation of earth-atmosphere radiation budget related to climate warming/cooling trends. The universal aerosol size spectrum will have applications in computations of radiation balance of earth-atmosphere system in climate models.

  17. Economic and Production Impacts of the 2009 California Film and Television Tax Credit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Appelbaum, Lauren D; Tilly, Chris; Huang, Juliet

    2012-01-01

    July). Film flight: Lost production and its economic impactM. M. (2006). Hollywood movie production industry: FloatingThe global success of production tax incentives and the

  18. Mechanisms of aerosol-forced AMOC variability in a state of the art climate model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    with a new state-of-the-art Earth system model. Anthropogenic aerosols have previously been highlighted anthropogenic aerosols force a strengthening of the AMOC by up to 20% in our state-of-the-art Earth system model

  19. Investigation of the aerosol-cloud interaction using the WRF framework 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Guohui

    2009-05-15

    In this dissertation, a two-moment bulk microphysical scheme with aerosol effects is developed and implemented into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to investigate the aerosol-cloud interaction. Sensitivities ...

  20. CHASER: An Innovative Satellite Mission Concept to Measure the Effects of Aerosols on Clouds and Climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenfeld, Daniel

    The formation of cloud droplets on aerosol particles, technically known as the activation of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), is the fundamental process driving the interactions of aerosols with clouds and precipitation. ...

  1. Secondary organic aerosol formation from fossil fuel sources contribute majority of summertime organic mass at Bakersfield

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Ronald C.

    Secondary organic aerosol formation from fossil fuel sources contribute majority of summertime organic aerosol formation from fossil fuel sources contribute majority of summertime organic mass is fossil fuel combustion from gasoline- and diesel- powered vehicles and other industrial activities (e

  2. Investigation of the optical and cloud forming properties of pollution, biomass burning, and mineral dust aerosols 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Yong Seob

    2006-08-16

    that were observed during this period. The predicted cloud condensation nuclei concentrations were used in a cloud model to determine the impact of the different aerosol types on the expected cloud droplet concentration. RH-dependent aerosol extinction...

  3. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of aerosol in a u-shaped steam generator tube 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Longmire, Pamela

    2009-05-15

    To quantify primary side aerosol retention, an Eulerian/Lagrangian approach was used to investigate aerosol transport in a compressible, turbulent, adiabatic, internal, wall-bounded flow. The ARTIST experimental project ...

  4. Variability of aerosol parameters over Kanpur, northern India R. P. Singh,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Ramesh P.

    Variability of aerosol parameters over Kanpur, northern India R. P. Singh,1 Sagnik Dey, S. N Dynamics: Remote sensing; KEYWORDS: aerosol, remote sensing, Ganga basin Citation: Singh, R. P., S. Dey, S

  5. The impact of pathological ventilation on aerosol deposition : imaging, insight and intervention

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenblatt, Elliot (Elliot Eliyahu)

    2015-01-01

    Aerosol therapies are often used to treat lung diseases in which ventilation is distributed heterogeneously throughout the lung. As therapeutic aerosols are transported by the inhaled air, it is likely that deposition is ...

  6. Climate effects of seasonally varying Biomass Burning emitted Carbonaceous Aerosols (BBCA)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeong, Gill-Ran

    The climate impact of the seasonality of Biomass Burning emitted Carbonaceous Aerosols (BBCA) is studied using an aerosol-climate model coupled with a slab ocean model in a set of 60-year long simulations, driven by BBCA ...

  7. CARES: Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study Operations Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaveri, RA; Shaw, WJ; Cziczo, DJ

    2010-07-12

    The CARES field campaign is motivated by the scientific issues described in the CARES Science Plan. The primary objectives of this field campaign are to investigate the evolution and aging of carbonaceous aerosols and their climate-affecting properties in the urban plume of Sacramento, California, a mid-size, mid-latitude city that is located upwind of a biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emission region. Our basic observational strategy is to make comprehensive gas, aerosol, and meteorological measurements upwind, within, and downwind of the urban area with the DOE G-1 aircraft and at strategically located ground sites so as to study the evolution of urban aerosols as they age and mix with biogenic SOA precursors. The NASA B-200 aircraft, equipped with the High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL), digital camera, and the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP), will be flown in coordination with the G-1 to characterize the vertical and horizontal distribution of aerosols and aerosol optical properties, and to provide the vertical context for the G-1 and ground in situ measurements.

  8. ExxonMobil Global Energy Management System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roberto, F.

    2009-01-01

    For many years, ExxonMobil has undertaken voluntary actions to improve efficiency in our operations and in customer use of our products. Our Global Energy Management System (GEMS) is an important initiative that is having a positive impact at each...

  9. AWEA Small Wind Turbine Global Market Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leu, Tzong-Shyng "Jeremy"

    and pushes the total installed capacity in the u.S. to 100 MW.2 Half of this 100-MW milestone capacity came networks, defining new market niches, and scaling up production. u.S. installed capacity increased by 15 Displaced Carbon Dioxide 17 Building-Mounted Turbines 17 Manufacturing 18 The Global Market 21 Solar

  10. A Global Assessment of Manufacturing: Economic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gutowski, Timothy

    Tools and Production Technology, Technische Universit¨at, Braunschweig D-38106, Germany Annu. RevA Global Assessment of Manufacturing: Economic Development, Energy Use, Carbon Emissions, and the Potential for Energy Efficiency and Materials Recycling Timothy G. Gutowski,1 Julian M. Allwood,3 Christoph

  11. Sources and composition of submicron organic mass in marine aerosol particles

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Frossard, Amanda A.; Russell, Lynn M.; Burrows, Susannah M.; Elliott, Scott M.; Bates, Timothy S.; Quinn, Patricia K.

    2014-11-27

    Recent studies have proposed a variety of interpretations of the sources and composition of atmospheric marine aerosol particles (aMA) based on a range of physical and chemical measurements collected during open-ocean research cruises. To investigate the processes that affect marine organic particles, this study uses the characteristic functional group composition (from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy) of aMAP from five ocean regions to show that: (i) The organic functional group composition of aMAP that can be identified as atmospheric primary marine (ocean-derived) aerosol (aPMA) is 65±12% hydroxyl, 21±9% alkane, 6±6% amine, and 7±8% carboxylic acid functional groups. Contributions from photochemicalmore »reactions add carboxylic acid groups (15%-25%), shipping effluent in seawater and ship emissions add additional alkane groups (up to 70%), and coastal emissions mix in alkane and carboxylic acid groups from coastal pollution sources. (ii) The organic composition of aPMA is nearly identical to model generated primary marine aerosol particles (gPMA) from bubbled seawater (55% hydroxyl, 32% alkane, and 13% amine functional groups), indicating that its overall functional group composition is the direct consequence of the organic constituents of the seawater source. (iii) While the seawater organic functional group composition was nearly invariant across all three ocean regions studied, the gPMA alkane group fraction increased with chlorophyll-a concentrations (r = 0.79). gPMA from productive seawater had a larger fraction of alkane functional groups (35%) compared to gPMA from non-productive seawater (16%), likely due to the presence of surfactants in productive seawater that stabilize the bubble film and lead to preferential drainage of the more soluble (lower alkane group fraction) organic components. gPMA has a hydroxyl group absorption peak location characteristic of monosaccharides and disaccharides, where the seawater OM hydroxyl group peak location is closer to that of polysaccharides. This may result from the larger saccharides preferentially remaining in the seawater during gPMA and aPMA production« less

  12. Sources and Composition of Submicron Organic Mass in Marine Aerosol Particles

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Frossard, Amanda; Russell, Lynn; Burrows, Susannah M.; Elliott, Scott; Bates, Timothy S.; Quinn, P. K.

    2014-11-27

    Recent studies have proposed a variety of interpretations of the sources and composition of atmospheric marine aerosol particles (aMAP) based on a range of physical and chemical measurements collected during open-ocean research cruises. To investigate the processes that affect marine organic particles, this study uses the characteristic functional group composition (from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy) of aMAP from five ocean regions to show that: (i) The organic functional group composition of aMAP that can be identified as atmospheric primary marine (ocean-derived) aerosol (aPMA) is 65±12% hydroxyl, 21±9% alkane, 6±6% amine, and 7±8% carboxylic acid functional groups. Contributions from photochemical reactions add carboxylic acid groups (15%-25%), shipping effluent in seawater and ship emissions add additional alkane groups (up to 70%), and coastal emissions mix in alkane and carboxylic acid groups from coastal pollution sources. (ii) The organic composition of aPMA is nearly identical to model generated primary marine aerosol particles (gPMA) from bubbled seawater (55% hydroxyl, 32% alkane, and 13% amine functional groups), indicating that its overall functional group composition is the direct consequence of the organic constituents of the seawater source. (iii) While the seawater organic functional group composition was nearly invariant across all three ocean regions studied, the gPMA alkane group fraction increased with chlorophyll-a concentrations (r = 0.79). gPMA from productive seawater had a larger fraction of alkane functional groups (35%) compared to gPMA from non-productive seawater (16%), likely due to the presence of surfactants in productive seawater that stabilize the bubble film and lead to preferential drainage of the more soluble (lower alkane group fraction) organic components. gPMA has a hydroxyl group absorption peak location characteristic of monosaccharides and disaccharides, where the seawater OM hydroxyl group peak location is closer to that of polysaccharides. This may result from the larger saccharides preferentially remaining in the seawater during gPMA and aPMA production

  13. Sources and composition of submicron organic mass in marine aerosol particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frossard, Amanda A.; Russell, Lynn M.; Burrows, Susannah M.; Elliott, Scott M.; Bates, Timothy S.; Quinn, Patricia K.

    2014-11-27

    Recent studies have proposed a variety of interpretations of the sources and composition of atmospheric marine aerosol particles (aMA) based on a range of physical and chemical measurements collected during open-ocean research cruises. To investigate the processes that affect marine organic particles, this study uses the characteristic functional group composition (from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy) of aMAP from five ocean regions to show that: (i) The organic functional group composition of aMAP that can be identified as atmospheric primary marine (ocean-derived) aerosol (aPMA) is 65±12% hydroxyl, 21±9% alkane, 6±6% amine, and 7±8% carboxylic acid functional groups. Contributions from photochemical reactions add carboxylic acid groups (15%-25%), shipping effluent in seawater and ship emissions add additional alkane groups (up to 70%), and coastal emissions mix in alkane and carboxylic acid groups from coastal pollution sources. (ii) The organic composition of aPMA is nearly identical to model generated primary marine aerosol particles (gPMA) from bubbled seawater (55% hydroxyl, 32% alkane, and 13% amine functional groups), indicating that its overall functional group composition is the direct consequence of the organic constituents of the seawater source. (iii) While the seawater organic functional group composition was nearly invariant across all three ocean regions studied, the gPMA alkane group fraction increased with chlorophyll-a concentrations (r = 0.79). gPMA from productive seawater had a larger fraction of alkane functional groups (35%) compared to gPMA from non-productive seawater (16%), likely due to the presence of surfactants in productive seawater that stabilize the bubble film and lead to preferential drainage of the more soluble (lower alkane group fraction) organic components. gPMA has a hydroxyl group absorption peak location characteristic of monosaccharides and disaccharides, where the seawater OM hydroxyl group peak location is closer to that of polysaccharides. This may result from the larger saccharides preferentially remaining in the seawater during gPMA and aPMA production

  14. Global biofuel drive raises risk of eviction for African farmers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    alternatives to oil, global biofuel production trebled between 2003 and 2007 and is forecast to double again to the research, said that the allocation of land for biofuel production by government projects or wealthy have forced millions into poverty. Dr Molony said: "The threat that increased biofuel production poses

  15. Global Change Sustainability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tipple, Brett

    Global Change and Sustainability Center The GCSC is an inclusionary and interdisciplinary hub that promotes, coordinates, and conducts local to global environmental- and sustainability-related research to complex environmental and sustainability issues and challenges. 2012 Annual Report #12;1GCSC 2012 ANNUAL

  16. CHALLENGE TO ARM AND ASP Determine aerosol radiative forcings at ARM site(s).

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    aerosol optical thickness is 0.1: 3 W m-2 cooling. ~50 km Drone Radiometers AMF DIRECT DETERMINATION

  17. Characterization of Pre-Commercial Gasoline Engine Particulates Through Advanced Aerosol Methods

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Advanced aerosol analysis methods were used to examine particulates from single cylinder test engines running on gasoline and ethanol blends.

  18. International conference on the role of the polar regions in global change: Proceedings. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weller, G.; Wilson, C.L.; Severin, B.A.B.

    1991-12-01

    The International Conference on the Role of the Polar Regions in Global Change took place on the campus of the University of Alaska Fairbanks on June 11--15, 1990. The goal of the conference was to define and summarize the state of knowledge on the role of the polar regions in global change, and to identify gaps in knowledge. To this purpose experts in a wide variety of relevant disciplines were invited to present papers and hold panel discussions. While there are numerous conferences on global change, this conference dealt specifically with polar regions which occupy key positions in the global system. These two volumes of conference proceedings include papers on (1) detection and monitoring of change; (2) climate variability and climate forcing; (3) ocean, sea ice, and atmosphere interactions and processes; (4) effects on biota and biological feedbacks; (5) ice sheet, glacier and permafrost responses and feedbacks; (6) paleoenvironmental studies; and, (7) aerosols and trace gases.

  19. International conference on the role of the polar regions in global change: Proceedings. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weller, G.; Wilson, C.L.; Severin, B.A.B.

    1991-12-01

    The International Conference on the Role of the Polar Regions in Global Change took place on the campus of the University of Alaska Fairbanks on June 11--15, 1990. The goal of the conference was to define and summarize the state of knowledge on the role of the polar regions in global change, and to identify gaps in knowledge. To this purpose experts in a wide variety of relevant disciplines were invited to present papers and hold panel discussions. While there are numerous conferences on global change, this conference dealt specifically with the polar regions which occupy key positions in the global system. These two volumes of conference proceedings include papers on (1) detection and monitoring of change; (2) climate variability and climate forcing; (3) ocean, sea ice, and atmosphere interactions and processes; and (4) effects on biota and biological feedbacks; (5) ice sheet, glacier and permafrost responses and feedbacks, (6) paleoenvironmental studies; and, (7) aerosol and trace gases.

  20. Influences of emission sources and meteorology on aerosol chemistry in a polluted urban environment: results from DISCOVER-AQ California

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Young, D. E.; Kim, H.; Parworth, C.; Zhou, S.; Zhang, X.; Cappa, C. D.; Seco, R.; Kim, S.; Zhang, Q.

    2015-12-15

    The San Joaquin Valley (SJV) in California experiences persistent air quality problems associated with elevated particulate matter (PM) concentrations due to anthropogenic emissions, topography, and meteorological conditions. Thus it is important to unravel the various sources and processes that affect the physico-chemical properties of PM in order to better inform pollution abatement strategies and improve parameterizations in air quality models. more »Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and an Ionicon Proton Transfer Reaction Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS) as part of the NASA Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ) campaign. The average submicron aerosol (PM1) concentration was 31.0 ?g m?3 and the total mass was dominated by organic aerosols (OA, 55 %), followed by ammonium nitrate (35 %). High PM pollution events were commonly associated with elevated OA concentrations, mostly from primary sources. Organic aerosols had average atomic oxygen-to-carbon (O / C), hydrogen-to-carbon (H / C), and nitrogen-to-carbon (N / C) ratios of 0.42, 1.70, and 0.017, respectively. Six distinct sources of organic aerosol were identified from positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis of the AMS data: hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA; 9 % of total OA; O / C = 0.09) associated with local traffic, cooking OA (COA; 28 % of total OA; O / C = 0.19) associated with food cooking activities, two biomass burning OAs (BBOA1; 13 % of total OA; O / C = 0.33 and BBOA2; 20 % of total OA; O / C = 0.60) most likely associated with residential space heating from wood combustion, and semi-volatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA; 16 % of total OA; O / C = 0.63) and low volatility oxygenated OA (LV-OOA; 24 % of total OA; O / C = 0.90) formed via chemical reactions in the atmosphere. Large differences in aerosol chemistry at Fresno were observed between the current campaign (winter 2013) and a~previous wintertime campaign (winter 2010), most notably that PM1 concentrations were nearly three times higher in 2013 than in 2010. These variations were attributed to differences in the meteorological conditions, which influenced primary emissions and secondary aerosol formation. In particular, COA and BBOA concentrations were greater in 2013 than 2010, where colder temperatures in 2013 likely resulted in increased biomass burning activities. The influence from a nighttime formed residual layer that mixed down in the morning was found to be much more intense in 2013 than 2010, leading to sharp increases in ground-level concentrations of secondary aerosol species including nitrate, sulfate, and OOA, in the morning between 08:00 to 12:00 PST. This is an indication that nighttime chemistry might also be higher in 2013. As solar radiation was stronger in 2013 the higher nitrate and OOA concentrations in 2013 could also be partly due to greater photochemical production of secondary aerosol species. The greater solar radiation and larger range in temperature in 2013 also likely led to both SV-OOA and LV-OOA being observed in 2013 whereas only a single OOA factor was identified in 2010.« less

  1. Toxicity of atmospheric aerosols on marine phytoplankton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    fertilization on carbon sequestration in the Southern Ocean.production, and carbon sequestration (4–7). In areas whereproductivity and carbon sequestration and thus influence

  2. On the relationships between primary, net community, and export production in subtropical gyres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brix, H; Gruber, N; Karl, D M; Bates, N R

    2006-01-01

    models for particle export ratio. Global Biogeochemicalof particulate matter export in the North Paci?c Subtropicalclimate change on marine export production. Global Biogeo-

  3. Trends in aerosol optical properties over the Bohai Rim in Northeast China from 2004 to 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeng, Ning

    Trends in aerosol optical properties over the Bohai Rim in Northeast China from 2004 to 2010 al., 2004). However, the spatial and temporal contributions of aerosol optical properties and aerosol of this growth is driven by new industry that consumes substantially more coal and fossil fuel in the region

  4. Uncertainty and interpretation of aerosol remote sensing due to vertical inhomogeneity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , and aerosol column number density. Monomodal aerosol size distribution is assumed. The Cost Function (CF radiance data at the TOA have been created assuming either one or two layers of aerosols using the vector is affected by the radiative forcing associated with various sources, including total solar irradiance

  5. Mixtures of pollution, dust, sea salt, and volcanic aerosol during ACE-Asia: Radiative properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    was dominated by marine, polluted, volcanic, and dust aerosols. Average total light scattering coefficients (sspMixtures of pollution, dust, sea salt, and volcanic aerosol during ACE-Asia: Radiative properties). Aerosol hygroscopicity ranged from deliquescent with hysteresis (marine frequently and polluted variably

  6. Experience with Aerosol Generation During Rotary Mode Core Sampling in the Hanford Single Shell Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SCHOFIELD, J.S.

    2000-01-24

    This document provides data on aerosol concentrations in tank head spaces, total mass of aerosols in the tank head space and mass of aerosols sent to the exhauster during Rotary Mode Core Sampling from November 1994 through June 1999. A decontamination factor for the RMCS exhauster filter housing is calculated based on operation data.

  7. Atmospheric aerosols in Amazonia and land use change: from natural biogenic to biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atmospheric aerosols in Amazonia and land use change: from natural biogenic to biomass burning in Central Amazonia (TT34 North of Manaus) and at a heavily biomass burning impacted site in south-refractory PM1 aerosol loading at TT34, while biomass burning aerosols at PVH shows a 93% content of organic

  8. AEROSOL-CLOUD INTERACTIONS CONTROL OF EARTH RADIATION AND LATENT HEAT RELEASE BUDGETS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel, Rosenfeld

    AEROSOL-CLOUD INTERACTIONS CONTROL OF EARTH RADIATION AND LATENT HEAT RELEASE BUDGETS D. ROSENFELD simulations show that cloud development is strongly mod- ulated by the impact of cloud-aerosol interactions on precipitation forming processes. New insights into the mechanisms by which aerosols dominate the cloud cover

  9. Aerosols and Clouds: In Cahoots to Change Climate

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Berg, Larry

    2014-06-02

    Key knowledge gaps persist despite advances in the scientific understanding of how aerosols and clouds evolve and affect climate. The Two-Column Aerosol Project, or TCAP, was designed to provide a detailed set of observations to tackle this area of unknowns. Led by PNNL atmospheric scientist Larry Berg, ARM's Climate Research Facility was deployed in Cape Cod, Massachusetts for the 12-month duration of TCAP, which came to a close in June 2013. "We are developing new tools to look at particle chemistry, like our mass spectrometer used in TCAP that can tell us the individual chemical composition of an aerosol," said Berg. "Then, we'll run our models and compare it with the data that we have to make sure we're getting correct answers and make sure our climate models are reflecting the best information."

  10. Aerosols and Clouds: In Cahoots to Change Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berg, Larry

    2014-03-29

    Key knowledge gaps persist despite advances in the scientific understanding of how aerosols and clouds evolve and affect climate. The Two-Column Aerosol Project, or TCAP, was designed to provide a detailed set of observations to tackle this area of unknowns. Led by PNNL atmospheric scientist Larry Berg, ARM's Climate Research Facility was deployed in Cape Cod, Massachusetts for the 12-month duration of TCAP, which came to a close in June 2013. "We are developing new tools to look at particle chemistry, like our mass spectrometer used in TCAP that can tell us the individual chemical composition of an aerosol," said Berg. "Then, we'll run our models and compare it with the data that we have to make sure we're getting correct answers and make sure our climate models are reflecting the best information."

  11. Method for sealing remote leaks in an enclosure using an aerosol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Modera, Mark P. (Piedmont, CA); Carrie, Francois R. (Lyons, FR)

    1999-01-01

    The invention is a method and device for sealing leaks remotely by means of injecting a previously prepared aerosol into the enclosure being sealed according to a particular sealing efficiency defined by the product of a penetration efficiency and a particle deposition efficiency. By using different limits in the relationship between penetration efficiency and flowrate, the same method according the invention can be used for coating the inside of an enclosure. Specifically the invention is a method and device for preparing, transporting, and depositing a solid phase aerosol to the interior surface of the enclosure relating particle size, particle carrier flow rate, and pressure differential, so that particles deposited there can bridge and substantially seal each leak, with out providing a substantial coating at inside surfaces of the enclosure other than the leak. The particle size and flow parameters can be adjusted to coat the interior of the enclosure (duct) without substantial plugging of the leaks depending on how the particle size and flowrate relationships are chosen.

  12. Simulating land use change in China from a global perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palmer, Paul

    drivers of population growth and socio-economic development to agricultural yield changes and alternative productivity and stable relationships with global food suppliers are important determinants of food security

  13. Final Project Report - ARM CLASIC CIRPAS Twin Otter Aerosol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John A. Ogren

    2010-04-05

    The NOAA/ESRL/GMD aerosol group made three types of contributions related to airborne measurements of aerosol light scattering and absorption for the Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC) in June 2007 on the Twin Otter research airplane operated by the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS). GMD scientists served as the instrument mentor for the integrating nephelometer and particle soot absorption photometer (PSAP) on the Twin Otter during CLASIC, and were responsible for (1) instrument checks/comparisons; (2) instrument trouble shooting/repair; and (3) data quality control (QC) and submittal to the archive.

  14. Thermophoretic separation of aerosol particles from a sampled gas stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Postma, A.K.

    1984-09-07

    This disclosure relates to separation of aerosol particles from gas samples withdrawn from within a contained atmosphere, such as containment vessels for nuclear reactors or other process equipment where remote gaseous sampling is required. It is specifically directed to separation of dense aerosols including particles of any size and at high mass loadings and high corrosivity. The United States Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract DE-AC06-76FF02170 between the US Department of Energy and Westinghouse Electric Corporation.

  15. Thermophoretic separation of aerosol particles from a sampled gas stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Postma, Arlin K. (Halfway, OR)

    1986-01-01

    A method for separating gaseous samples from a contained atmosphere that includes aerosol particles uses the step of repelling particles from a gas permeable surface or membrane by heating the surface to a temperature greater than that of the surrounding atmosphere. The resulting thermophoretic forces maintain the gas permeable surface clear of aerosol particles. The disclosed apparatus utilizes a downwardly facing heated plate of gas permeable material to combine thermophoretic repulsion and gravity forces to prevent particles of any size from contacting the separating plate surfaces.

  16. A global warning for global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paepe, R.

    1996-12-31

    The problem of global warming is a complex one not only because it is affecting desert areas such as the Sahel leading to famine disasters of poor rural societies, but because it is an even greater threat to modern well established industrial societies. Global warming is a complex problem of geographical, economical and societal factors together which definitely are biased by local environmental parameters. There is an absolute need to increase the knowledge of such parameters, especially to understand their limits of variance. The greenhouse effect is a global mechanism which means that in changing conditions at one point of the Earth, it will affect all other regions of the globe. Industrial pollution and devastation of the forest are quoted as similar polluting anthropogenic activities in far apart regions of the world with totally different societies and industrial compounds. The other important factor is climatic cyclicity which means that droughts are bound to natural cycles. These natural cycles are numerous as is reflected in the study of geo-proxydata from several sequential geological series on land, ice and deepsea. Each of these cycles reveals a drought cycle which occasionally interfere at the same time. It is believed that the present drought might well be a point of interference between the natural cycles of 2,500 and 1,000 years and the man induced cycle of the last century`s warming up. If the latter is the only cycle involved, man will be able to remediate. If not, global warming will become even more disastrous beyond the 21st century.

  17. Technical Note: On the use of nudging for aerosol-climate model intercomparison studies

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, K.; Wan, H.; Liu, X.; Ghan, S. J.; Kooperman, G. J.; Ma, P.-L.; Rasch, P. J.

    2014-04-24

    Nudging is an assimilation technique widely used in the development and evaluation of climate models. Constraining the simulated wind and temperature fields using global weather reanalysis facilitates more straightforward comparison between simulation and observation, and reduces uncertainties associated with natural variabilities of the large-scale circulation. On the other hand, the forcing introduced by nudging can be strong enough to change the basic characteristics of the model climate. In the paper we show that for the Community Atmosphere Model version 5, due to the systematic temperature bias in the standard model and the sensitivity of simulated ice formation to anthropogenic aerosolmore »concentration, nudging towards reanalysis results in substantial reductions in the ice cloud amount and the impact of anthropogenic aerosols on longwave cloud forcing. In order to reduce discrepancies between the nudged and unconstrained simulations and meanwhile take the advantages of nudging, two alternative experimentation methods are evaluated. The first one constrains only the horizontal winds. The second method nudges both winds and temperature, but replaces the long-term climatology of the reanalysis by that of the model. Results show that both methods lead to substantially improved agreement with the free-running model in terms of the top-of-atmosphere radiation budget and cloud ice amount. The wind-only nudging is more convenient to apply, and provides higher correlations of the wind fields, geopotential height and specific humidity between simulation and reanalysis. This suggests nudging the horizontal winds but not temperature is a good strategy for the investigation of aerosol indirect effects through ice clouds, since it provides well-constrained meteorology without strongly perturbing the model's mean climate.« less

  18. Technical Note: On the Use of Nudging for Aerosol-Climate Model Intercomparison Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Kai; Wan, Hui; Liu, Xiaohong; Ghan, Steven J.; Kooperman, G. J.; Ma, Po-Lun; Rasch, Philip J.; Neubauer, David; Lohmann, U.

    2014-08-26

    Nudging is an assimilation technique widely used in the development and evaluation of climate models. Con- straining the simulated wind and temperature fields using global weather reanalysis facilitates more straightforward comparison between simulation and observation, and reduces uncertainties associated with natural variabilities of the large-scale circulation. On the other hand, the artificial forcing introduced by nudging can be strong enough to change the basic characteristics of the model climate. In the paper we show that for the Community Atmosphere Model version 5, due to the systematic temperature bias in the standard model and the relatively strong sensitivity of homogeneous ice nucleation to aerosol concentration, nudging towards reanalysis results in substantial reductions in the ice cloud amount and the impact of anthropogenic aerosols on longwave cloud forcing. In order to reduce discrepancies between the nudged and unconstrained simulations and meanwhile take the advantages of nudging, two alternative experimentation methods are evaluated. The first one constrains only the horizontal winds. The second method nudges both winds and temperature, but replaces the long-term climatology of the reanalysis by that of the model. Results show that both methods lead to substantially improved agreement with the free-running model in terms of the top-of-atmosphere radiation budget and cloud ice amount. The wind-only nudging is more convenient to apply, and provides higher correlations of the wind fields, geopotential height and specific humidity between simulation and reanalysis. This suggests that nudging the horizontal winds but not temperature is a good strategy, especially for studies that involve both warm and cold clouds.

  19. ARM: 10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sivaraman, Chitra; Flynn, Connor

    2010-12-15

    10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

  20. ARM: 10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sivaraman, Chitra; Flynn, Connor

    10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol scattering ratio and backscattering coefficient profiles, from first Ferrare algorithm

  1. Global Cool Cities Alliance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is currently supporting the Global Cool Cities Alliance (GCCA), a non-profit organization that works with cities, regions, and national governments to speed the...

  2. Global Energy Management System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eidt, B. D.

    2005-01-01

    commitment to Stanford University's Global Climate and Energy Project (GCEP). The overarching goal of this program is the accelerated development of commercially viable energy technologies that can substantially reduce greenhouse gas emissions on a...

  3. The Global Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chatzivasileiadis, Spyros; Andersson, Göran

    2012-01-01

    This paper puts forward the vision that a natural future stage of the electricity network could be a grid spanning the whole planet and connecting most of the large power plants in the world: this is the "Global Grid". The main driving force behind the Global Grid will be the harvesting of remote renewable sources, and its key infrastructure element will be the high capacity long transmission lines. Wind farms and solar power plants will supply load centers with green power over long distances. This paper focusses on the introduction of the concept, showing that a globally interconnected network can be technologically feasible and economically competitive. We further highlight the multiple opportunities emerging from a global electricity network such as smoothing the renewable energy supply and electricity demand, reducing the need for bulk storage, and reducing the volatility of the energy prices. We also discuss possible investment mechanisms and operating schemes. Among others, we envision in such a system...

  4. KRFTWRK – Global Human Electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prohaska, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    Power Network 2.1.1 Virtual Power Plants The Global Powernetwork, based on "Virtual Power Plants", called "VPP". A "participant runs a virtual human power plant. Per every "

  5. Global Research Collaborations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    i Global Research Collaborations Merrill Series on The Research Mission..........................................................................................................9 Director, North America Office, German Research Foundation (Deutsch Forschungsgemeinschaft, DFG) International Research Collaboration: Just Nice to Have or Necessary? Panel 1: Research Administrators Prem

  6. Solar thermal aerosol flow reaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weimer, Alan W.; Dahl, Jaimee K.; Pitts, J. Roland; Lewandowski, Allan A.; Bingham, Carl; Tamburini, Joseph R.

    2005-03-29

    The present invention provides an environmentally beneficial process using concentrated sunlight to heat radiation absorbing particles to carry out highly endothermic gas phase chemical reactions ultimately resulting in the production of hydrogen or hydrogen synthesis gases.

  7. The 7. global warming international conference and expo: Abstracts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-12-31

    This conference was held April 1--3, 1996 in Vienna, Austria. The purpose of this conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on global warming. Topics of interest include the following: global and regional natural resource management; energy, transportation, minerals and natural resource management; industrial technology and greenhouse gas emission; strategies for the mitigation of greenhouse gas emission; greenhouse gas production/utilization and carbon budgets; strategies for promoting the understanding of global change; international policy strategy and economics; and global warming and public health. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  8. Lubricating Oil Dominates Primary Organic Aerosol Emissions from Motor Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Allen

    Lubricating Oil Dominates Primary Organic Aerosol Emissions from Motor Vehicles David R. Worton to "fresh" lubricating oil. The gas chromatography retention time data indicates that the cycloalkane ring with lubricating oil being the dominant source from both gasoline and diesel-powered vehicles, with an additional

  9. Reduction of photosynthetically active radiation under extreme stratospheric aerosol loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerstl, S.A.W.; Zardecki, A.

    1981-08-01

    The recently published hypothesis that the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinctions might be caused by an obstruction of sunlight is tested by model calculations. First we compute the total mass of stratospheric aerosols under normal atmospheric conditions for four different (measured) aerosol size distributions and vertical profiles. For comparison, the stratospheric dust masses after four volcanic eruptions are also evaluated. Detailed solar radiative transfer calculations are then performed for artificially increased aerosol amounts until the postulated darkness scenario is obtained. Thus we find that a total stratospheric aerosol mass between 1 and 4 times 10/sup 1/ g is sufficient to reduce photosynthesis to 10/sup -3/ of normal. We also infer from this result tha the impact of a 0.4- to 3-km-diameter asteroid or a close encounter with a Halley-size comet may deposit that amount of particulates into the stratosphere. The darkness scenario of Alvarez et al. is thus shown to be a possible extinction mechanism, even with smaller size asteroids of comets than previously estimated.

  10. Detection of UV-absorbing aerosols using GOME and SCIAMACHY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graaf, Martin de

    using GOME and SCIAMACHY · Conclusions and Outlook #12;Last step: Only positive residues are considered-Adding KNMI Radiative Transfer Model Solar zenith angle = 30° Viewing zenith angle = 0° Surface albedo = 5% #12; Reflectance at TOA with absorbing aerosols Doubling-Adding KNMI Radiative Transfer Model Solar

  11. The coupling of winds, aerosols and chemistry in Titan's atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hourdin, Chez Frédéric

    REVIEW The coupling of winds, aerosols and chemistry in Titan's atmosphere BY SEBASTIEN LEBONNOIS 1'Ae´ronomie, IPSL, CNRS, BP3, 91371 Verrie`res le Buisson, France The atmosphere of Titan is a complex system, where the observed atmospheric structure of Titan's lower atmosphere (mainly in the stratosphere and troposphere

  12. Soft ionization of thermally evaporated hypergolic ionic liquid aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    University of California; ERC, Incorporated, Edwards Air Force Base; Air Force Research Laboratory, Edwards Air Force Base; National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center; Koh, Christine J.; Liu, Chen-Lin; Harmon, Christopher W.; Strasser, Daniel; Golan, Amir; Kostko, Oleg; Chambreau, Steven D.; L.Vaghjiani, Ghanshyam; Leone, Stephen R.

    2012-03-16

    Isolated ion pairs of a conventional ionic liquid, 1-Ethyl-3-Methyl-Imidazolium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([Emim+][Tf2N?]), and a reactive hypergolic ionic liquid, 1- Butyl-3-Methyl-Imidazolium Dicyanamide ([Bmim+][Dca?]), are generated by vaporizing ionic liquid submicron aerosol particles for the first time; the vaporized species are investigated by dissociative ionization with tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light, exhibiting clear intact cations, Emim+ and Bmim+, presumably originating from intact ion pairs. Mass spectra of ion pair vapor from an effusive source of the hypergolic ionic liquid show substantial reactive decomposition due to the internal energy of the molecules emanating from the source. Photoionization efficiency curves in the near threshold ionization region of isolated ion pairs of [Emim+][Tf2N?] ionic liquid vapor are compared for an aerosol source and an effusive source, revealing changes in the appearance energy due to the amount of internal energy in the ion pairs. The aerosol source has a shift to higher threshold energy (~;;0.3 eV), attributed to reduced internal energy of the isolated ion pairs. The method of ionic liquid submicron aerosol particle vaporization, for reactive ionic liquids such as hypergolic species, is a convenient, thermally ?cooler? source of isolated intact ion pairs in the gas phase compared to effusive sources.

  13. Soft ionization of thermally evaporated hypergolic ionic liquid aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    University of California; ERC, Incorporated, Edwards Air Force Base; Air Force Research Laboratory, Edwards Air Force Base; National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center; Institute of Chemistry, Hebrew University; Koh, Christine J.; Liu, Chen-Lin; Harmon, Christopher W.; Strasser, Daniel; Golan, Amir; Kostko, Oleg; Chambreau, Steven D.; Vaghjiani, Ghanshyam L.; Leone, Stephen R.

    2011-07-19

    Isolated ion pairs of a conventional ionic liquid, 1-Ethyl-3-Methyl-Imidazolium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([Emim+][Tf2N?]), and a reactive hypergolic ionic liquid, 1-Butyl-3-Methyl-Imidazolium Dicyanamide ([Bmim+][Dca?]), are generated by vaporizing ionic liquid submicron aerosol particles for the first time; the vaporized species are investigated by dissociative ionization with tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light, exhibiting clear intact cations, Emim+ and Bmim+, presumably originating from intact ion pairs. Mass spectra of ion pair vapor from an effusive source of the hypergolic ionic liquid show substantial reactive decomposition due to the internal energy of the molecules emanating from the source. Photoionization efficiency curves in the near threshold ionization region of isolated ion pairs of [Emim+][Tf2N?]ionic liquid vapor are compared for an aerosol source and an effusive source, revealing changes in the appearance energy due to the amount of internal energy in the ion pairs. The aerosol source has a shift to higher threshold energy (~;;0.3 eV), attributed to reduced internal energy of the isolated ion pairs. The method of ionic liquid submicron aerosol particle vaporization, for reactive ionic liquids such as hypergolic species, is a convenient, thermally ?cooler? source of isolated intact ion pairs in the gas phase compared to effusive sources.

  14. DIESEL AEROSOL SAMPLING METHODOLOGY -CRC E-43 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    ) was to develop Diesel aerosol sampling methods for the laboratory that would produce particle size distributions used to evaluate and select basic options, or to perform feasibility studies or preliminary assessments, and dilution with ambient air. A small amount of these nuclei mode particles contain solid ash from lube oil

  15. DISSERTATION THE OPTICAL, CHEMICAL, AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF AEROSOLS AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierce, Jeffrey

    AND GASES EMITTED BY THE LABORATORY COMBUSTION OF WILDLAND FUELS Biomass burning is a major source of trace Laboratory at Missoula Experiment. Emission factors are presented as a function of modified combustion efficiency (MCE), a measure of the fire combustion conditions. The emissions of many trace gas and aerosol

  16. Black carbon aerosols and the third polar ice cap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menon, Surabi; Koch, Dorothy; Beig, Gufran; Sahu, Saroj; Fasullo, John; Orlikowski, Daniel

    2010-04-15

    Recent thinning of glaciers over the Himalayas (sometimes referred to as the third polar region) have raised concern on future water supplies since these glaciers supply water to large river systems that support millions of people inhabiting the surrounding areas. Black carbon (BC) aerosols, released from incomplete combustion, have been increasingly implicated as causing large changes in the hydrology and radiative forcing over Asia and its deposition on snow is thought to increase snow melt. In India BC emissions from biofuel combustion is highly prevalent and compared to other regions, BC aerosol amounts are high. Here, we quantify the impact of BC aerosols on snow cover and precipitation from 1990 to 2010 over the Indian subcontinental region using two different BC emission inventories. New estimates indicate that Indian BC emissions from coal and biofuel are large and transport is expected to expand rapidly in coming years. We show that over the Himalayas, from 1990 to 2000, simulated snow/ice cover decreases by {approx}0.9% due to aerosols. The contribution of the enhanced Indian BC to this decline is {approx}36%, similar to that simulated for 2000 to 2010. Spatial patterns of modeled changes in snow cover and precipitation are similar to observations (from 1990 to 2000), and are mainly obtained with the newer BC estimates.

  17. Source Attribution of Light Absorbing Aerosol in Arctic Snow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Source Attribution of Light Absorbing Aerosol in Arctic Snow (Preliminary analysis of 2008 Biomass/poll. Factor: all data Pollution factor: depth data #12;2009 Data set for receptor modeling with limited analytes Factor 1: biomass Factor 2: pollution Factor 3: marine Factor 4: biomass #12;Factor

  18. Design of high efficiency blowers for future aerosol applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chadha, Raman

    2007-04-25

    High efficiency air blowers to meet future portable aerosol sampling applications were designed, fabricated, and evaluated. A Centrifugal blower was designed to achieve a flow rate of 100 L/min (1.67 x 10^-3 m^3/s) and a pressure rise of WC " 4...

  19. Aerosol Synthesis and Growth Mechanism of Magnetic Iron Nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    rapidly over the past decades, such as mechanical milling, spray drying, sol-gel, sonochemistry, etcAerosol Synthesis and Growth Mechanism of Magnetic Iron Nanoparticles D. Kim1,a , E.S. Vasilieva2,b, evaporated and transported by carrier gas flow to the preliminary heated tubular furnace for decomposition

  20. Field Trial of an Aerosol-Based Enclosure Sealing Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrington, Curtis; Springer, David

    2015-09-01

    This report presents the results from several demonstrations of a new method for sealing building envelope air leaks using an aerosol sealing process developed by the Western Cooling Efficiency Center at UC Davis. The process involves pressurizing a building while applying an aerosol sealant to the interior. As air escapes through leaks in the building envelope, the aerosol particles are transported to the leaks where they collect and form a seal that blocks the leak. Standard blower door technology is used to facilitate the building pressurization, which allows the installer to track the sealing progress during the installation and automatically verify the final building tightness. Each aerosol envelope sealing installation was performed after drywall was installed and taped, and the process did not appear to interrupt the construction schedule or interfere with other trades working in the homes. The labor needed to physically seal bulk air leaks in typical construction will not be replaced by this technology. However, this technology is capable of bringing the air leakage of a building that was built with standard construction techniques and HERS-verified sealing down to levels that would meet DOE Zero Energy Ready Homes program requirements. When a developer is striving to meet a tighter envelope leakage specification, this technology could greatly reduce the cost to achieve that goal by providing a simple and relatively low cost method for reducing the air leakage of a building envelope with little to no change in their common building practices.

  1. AEROSOLS AND CLOUDS IN CHEMICAL TRANSPORT MODELS AND CLIMATE MODELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Earth's climate system. Clouds are highly reflective in the solar spectrum, yet strongly absorbingAEROSOLS AND CLOUDS IN CHEMICAL TRANSPORT MODELS AND CLIMATE MODELS Ulrike Lohmann1 and Stephen E Forum: Perturbed Clouds in the Climate System, Frankfurt, Germany March 2-7, 2008 Environmental Sciences

  2. CLouds and Aerosol Radiative Interaction and Forcing Investigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graaf, Martin de

    Radiative Interaction and Forcing Investigation Version 1.0 Date March 2012 Status Final #12;#12;CLARIFI, by absorbing and scattering solar radiation, and more importantly, by modifying cloud propertiesCLARIFI CLouds and Aerosol Radiative Interaction and Forcing Investigation M. de Graaf, L

  3. Halophilic Archaea determined from geothermal steam vent aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelley, Scott

    Halophilic Archaea determined from geothermal steam vent aerosols Dean G. Ellis, Richard W. Bizzoco Hydrothermal vents, known as `fumaroles', are ubiq- uitous features of geothermal areas. Although their geology contained halophilic Archaea closely related to the Haloarcula spp. found in non-geothermal salt mats

  4. LESSONS LEARNED IN AEROSOL MONITORING WITH THE RASA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forrester, Joel B.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Carty, Fitz; Comes, Laura; Eslinger, Paul W.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Haas, Derek A.; Hayes, James C.; Kirkham, Randy R.; Lepel, Elwood A.; Litke, Kevin E.; Miley, Harry S.; Morris, Scott J.; Schrom, Brian T.; Van Davelaar, Peter; Woods, Vincent T.

    2011-09-14

    The Radionuclide Aerosol Sampler/Analyzer (RASA) is an automated aerosol collection and analysis system designed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in the 1990's and is deployed in several locations around the world as part of the International Monitoring System (IMS) required under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The RASA operates unattended, save for regularly scheduled maintenance, iterating samples through a three-step process on a 24-hour interval. In its 15-year history, much has been learned from the operation and maintenance of the RASA that can benefit engineering updates or future aerosol systems. On 11 March 2011, a 9.0 magnitude earthquake and tsunami rocked the eastern coast of Japan, resulting in power loss and cooling failures at the Daiichi nuclear power plants in Fukushima Prefecture. Aerosol collections were conducted with the RASA in Richland, WA. We present a summary of the lessons learned over the history of the RASA, including lessons taken from the Fukushima incident, regarding the RASA IMS stations operated by the United States.

  5. Variability of Aerosol Optical Properties from Long-term

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delene, David J.

    aerosols and overestimates absorption due to suspended particles by about 20-30%. Green L E D Opal Glas s O Photometer · Principle of operation is to measure the change in light transmission through a filter on which light extinction and light scattering. · Instrument exhibits a significant response to nonabsorbing

  6. Impact of anthropogenic absorbing aerosols on clouds and precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Impact of anthropogenic absorbing aerosols on clouds and precipitation: A review of recent and precipitation: A review of recent progresses Chien Wang Massachusetts Institute of Technology, E19-439K, 77 atmospheric circulation, and hence clouds and precipitation. Recent studies have suggested that the changes

  7. IMPACT OF AEROSOLS ON CONVECTIVE CLOUDS AND PRECIPITATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeng, Ning

    IMPACT OF AEROSOLS ON CONVECTIVE CLOUDS AND PRECIPITATION Wei-Kuo Tao,1 Jen-Ping Chen,2 Zhanqing Li effects on clouds could further extend to precipitation, both through the formation of cloud particles mechan- isms behind these effects, in particular, the ones connected to precipitation, are not yet well

  8. CLOUD DROPLET NUCLEATION AND ITS CONNECTION TO AEROSOL PROPERTIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    influence the earth's radiation balance and climate directly, by scanering shortwave (solar) radiation in the earth radiation budget over the industrial period. exerting a radiative forcing that is of comparable. Keywords - Climate. aerosols. clouds, radiation INTRODUcnON In recent years awareness has increased

  9. Modeling aerosols and their interactions with shallow cumuli during the 2007 CHAPS field study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shrivastava, ManishKumar B.; Berg, Larry K.; Fast, Jerome D.; Easter, Richard C.; Laskin, Alexander; Chapman, Elaine G.; Gustafson, William I.; Liu, Ying; Berkowitz, Carl M.

    2013-02-07

    The Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to simulate relationships between aerosols and clouds in the vicinity of Oklahoma City during the June 2007 Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS). The regional scale simulation completed using 2 km horizontal grid spacing evaluates four important relationships between aerosols and shallow cumulus clouds observed during CHAPS. First, the model reproduces the trends of higher nitrate volume fractions in cloud droplet residuals compared to interstitial non-activated aerosols, as measured using the Aerosol Mass Spectrometer. Comparing simulations with cloud chemistry turned on and off, we show that nitric acid vapor uptake by cloud droplets explains the higher nitrate content of cloud droplet residuals. Second, as documented using an offline code, both aerosol water and other inorganics (OIN), which are related to dust and crustal emissions, significantly affect predicted aerosol optical properties. Reducing the OIN content of wet aerosols by 50% significantly improves agreement of model predictions with measurements of aerosol optical properties. Third, the simulated hygroscopicity of aerosols is too high as compared to their hygroscopicity derived from cloud condensation nuclei and particle size distribution measurements, indicating uncertainties associated with simulating size-dependent chemical composition and treatment of aerosol mixing state within the model. Fourth, the model reasonably represents the observations of the first aerosol indirect effect where pollutants in the vicinity of Oklahoma City increase cloud droplet number concentrations and decrease the droplet effective radius. While previous studies have often focused on cloud-aerosol interactions in stratiform and deep convective clouds, this study highlights the ability of regional-scale models to represent some of the important aspects of cloud-aerosol interactions associated with fields of short-lived shallow cumuli.

  10. Comment on "Global Genetic Change Tracks Global Climate Warming in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodríguez, Miguel Ángel

    Comment on "Global Genetic Change Tracks Global Climate Warming in Drosophila subobscura" Francisco in response to global warming. However, that conclusion is not adequately buttressed by their data, because that chromosomal inversion polymorphisms of Drosophila subobscura are evolving in response to global warming. (2

  11. Chemical composition of dust storms in Beijing and implications for the mixing of mineral aerosol with pollution aerosol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    with pollution aerosol on the pathway Yele Sun,1 Guoshun Zhuang,1,2,3 Ying Wang,1 Xiujuan Zhao,1,4 Jie Li,5 Zifa direction could be seen as the ``polluted'' pathway and the north-northwesterly direction as the relatively ``less-polluted'' one. Dust storms not only delivered large amounts of mineral elements but also carried

  12. Observed high-altitude warming and snow cover retreat over Tibet and the Himalayas enhanced by black carbon aerosols

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xu, Y.; Ramanathan, V.; Washington, W. M.

    2015-07-10

    Himalayan mountain glaciers and the snowpack over the Tibetan Plateau provide the headwater of several major rivers in Asia. In-situ observations of snow cover fraction since the 1960s suggest that the snow pack in the region have retreated significantly, accompanied by a surface warming of 2–2.5 °C observed over the peak altitudes (5000 m). Using a high-resolution ocean–atmosphere global climate model and an observationally constrained black carbon (BC) aerosol forcing, we attribute the observed altitude dependence of the warming trends as well as the spatial pattern of reductions in snow depths and snow cover fraction to various anthropogenic factors. Atmore »the Tibetan Plateau altitudes, the increase of atmospheric CO2 concentration exerted a warming of 1.7 °C, BC 1.3 °C where as cooling aerosols cause about 0.7 °C cooling, bringing the net simulated warming consistent with the anomalously large observed warming. We therefore conclude that BC together with CO2 has contributed to the snow retreat trends. Especially, BC increase is the major factor in the strong elevation dependence of the observed surface warming. The atmospheric warming by BC as well as its surface darkening of snow are coupled with the positive snow albedo feedbacks to account for the disproportionately large role of BC in high-elevation regions. These findings reveal that BC impact needs to be properly accounted for in future regional climate projections, in particular on high-altitude cryosphere.« less

  13. Coal mine methane global review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-07-01

    This is the second edition of the Coal Mine Methane Global Overview, updated in the summer of 2008. This document contains individual, comprehensive profiles that characterize the coal and coal mine methane sectors of 33 countries - 22 methane to market partners and an additional 11 coal-producing nations. The executive summary provides summary tables that include statistics on coal reserves, coal production, methane emissions, and CMM projects activity. An International Coal Mine Methane Projects Database accompanies this overview. It contains more detailed and comprehensive information on over two hundred CMM recovery and utilization projects around the world. Project information in the database is updated regularly. This document will be updated annually. Suggestions for updates and revisions can be submitted to the Administrative Support Group and will be incorporate into the document as appropriate.

  14. US forests and global change - precolonization to the 21st century

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zerbe, J.I.

    1997-12-31

    The forests of the United States and manufacture of products from raw materials produced in the forests are significant for the international global economy and for amelioration of threatening global climate change. This paper explores the conditions of the forests as a result of changing anthropogenic influences, and how these conditions might impact on global change.

  15. The China-in-Global Energy Model Tianyu Qi, Niven Winchester, Da Zhang,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of production, consumption and trade among multiple global regions and sectors ­ including five energyThe China-in-Global Energy Model Tianyu Qi, Niven Winchester, Da Zhang, Xiliang Zhang and Valerie J to communicate research results and improve public understanding of global environment and energy challenges

  16. GLOBAL WARMING THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    GLOBAL WARMING THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT AND YOUR FAMILY'S CONTRIBUTION TO IT Stephen E. Schwartz://www.grida.no/climate/ipcc_tar/wg1/ #12;EVIDENCE OF GLOBAL WARMING OTHER THAN SURFACE TEMPERATURE ANOMALY The global ocean has warmed latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. #12;MORE EVIDENCE OF GLOBAL WARMING OTHER THAN SURFACE TEMPERATURE

  17. Characterization of a real-time tracer for Isoprene Epoxydiols-derived Secondary Organic Aerosol (IEPOX-SOA) from aerosol mass spectrometer measurements

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hu, W. W.; Campuzano-Jost, P.; Palm, B. B.; Day, D. A.; Ortega, A. M.; Hayes, P. L.; Krechmer, J. E.; Chen, Q.; Kuwata, M.; Liu, Y. J.; et al

    2015-04-16

    Substantial amounts of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) can be formed from isoprene epoxydiols (IEPOX), which are oxidation products of isoprene mainly under low-NO conditions. Total IEPOX-SOA, which may include SOA formed from other parallel isoprene low-NO oxidation pathways, was quantified by applying Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) to aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) measurements. The IEPOX-SOA fractions of OA in multiple field studies across several continents are summarized here and show consistent patterns with the concentration of gas-phase IEPOX simulated by the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model. During the SOAS study, 78% of IEPOX-SOA is accounted for the measured molecular tracers, making itmore »the highest level of molecular identification of an ambient SOA component to our knowledge. Enhanced signal at C5H6O+ (m/z 82) is found in PMF-resolved IEPOX-SOA spectra. To investigate the suitability of this ion as a tracer for IEPOX-SOA, we examine fC5H6O ( fC5H6O = C5H6O+/OA) across multiple field, chamber and source datasets. A background of ~ 1.7 ± 0.1‰ is observed in studies strongly influenced by urban, biomass-burning and other anthropogenic primary organic aerosol (POA). Higher background values of 3.1 ± 0.8‰ are found in studies strongly influenced by monoterpene emissions. The average laboratory monoterpene SOA value (5.5 ± 2.0‰) is 4 times lower than the average for IEPOX-SOA (22 ± 7‰). Locations strongly influenced by isoprene emissions under low-NO levels had higher fC5H6O (~ 6.5 ± 2.2‰ on average) than other sites, consistent with the expected IEPOX-SOA formation in those studies. fC5H6O in IEPOX-SOA is always elevated (12–40‰) but varies substantially between locations, which is shown to reflect large variations in its detailed molecular composition. The low fC5H6O (< 3‰) observed in non IEPOX-derived isoprene-SOA indicates that this tracer ion is specifically enhanced from IEPOX-SOA, and is not a tracer for all SOA from isoprene. We introduce a graphical diagnostic to study the presence and aging of IEPOX-SOA as a "triangle plot" of fCO2 vs. fC5H6O. Finally, we develop a simplified method to estimate ambient IEPOX-SOA mass concentrations, which is shown to perform well compared to the full PMF method. The uncertainty of the tracer method is up to a factor of ~ 2 if the fC5H6O of the local IEPOX-SOA is not available. When only unit mass resolution data is available, as with the aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM), all methods may perform less well because of increased interferences from other ions at m/z 82. This study clarifies the strengths and limitations of the different AMS methods for detection of IEPOX-SOA and will enable improved characterization of this OA component.« less

  18. Aerosol Spray Synthesis of Porous Molybdenum Sulfide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suslick, Kenneth S.

    catalyst in the petroleum industry.[3] MoS2 has a layered structure with a repeating motif of S, the desulfurization activity of MoS2 is greatly affected by the synthetic technique employed in its production the desulfurization properties. MATERIALS · Ammonium tetrathiomolybdate (NH4)2MoS4 from Aldrich (99.97%); used

  19. Long-term impacts of aerosols on vertical development of cloud and precipitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Z.; Liu Y.; Niu, F.; Fan, J.; Rosenfeld, D.; Ding, Y.

    2011-11-13

    Aerosols alter cloud density and the radiative balance of the atmosphere. This leads to changes in cloud microphysics and atmospheric stability, which can either suppress or foster the development of clouds and precipitation. The net effect is largely unknown, but depends on meteorological conditions and aerosol properties. Here, we examine the long-term impact of aerosols on the vertical development of clouds and rainfall frequencies, using a 10-year dataset of aerosol, cloud and meteorological variables collected in the Southern Great Plains in the United States. We show that cloud-top height and thickness increase with aerosol concentration measured near the ground in mixed-phase clouds-which contain both liquid water and ice-that have a warm, low base. We attribute the effect, which is most significant in summer, to an aerosol-induced invigoration of upward winds. In contrast, we find no change in cloud-top height and precipitation with aerosol concentration in clouds with no ice or cool bases. We further show that precipitation frequency and rain rate are altered by aerosols. Rain increases with aerosol concentration in deep clouds that have a high liquid-water content, but declines in clouds that have a low liquid-water content. Simulations using a cloud-resolving model confirm these observations. Our findings provide unprecedented insights of the long-term net impacts of aerosols on clouds and precipitation.

  20. A framework for developing, manufacturing, and sourcing trucks & equipment in a global fluid management industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Awwad, Ghassan Samir

    2009-01-01

    Selecting and executing the optimal strategy for developing new products is a non trivial task, especially for low volume, high complexity products in a highly volatile global industry such as Fluid Management. At Fluid ...