Sample records for glazings glazing type

  1. Thermal insulated glazing unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, S.E.; Arasteh, D.K.; Hartmann, J.L.

    1988-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved insulated glazing unit is provided which can attain about R5 to about R10 thermal performance at the center of the glass while having dimensions about the same as those of a conventional double glazed insulated glazing unit. An outer glazing and inner glazing are sealed to a spacer to form a gas impermeable space. One or more rigid, non-structural glazings are attached to the inside of the spacer to divide the space between the inner and outer glazings to provide insulating gaps between glazings of from about 0.20 inches to about 0.40 inches. One or more glazing surfaces facing each thermal gap are coated with a low emissivity coating. Finally, the thermal gaps are filled with a low conductance gas such as krypton gas. 2 figs.

  2. Thermal insulated glazing unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Selkowitz, Stephen E. (Piedmont, CA); Arasteh, Dariush K. (Oakland, CA); Hartmann, John L. (Seattle, WA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved insulated glazing unit is provided which can attain about R5 to about R10 thermal performance at the center of the glass while having dimensions about the same as those of a conventional double glazed insulated glazing unit. An outer glazing and inner glazing are sealed to a spacer to form a gas impermeable space. One or more rigid, non-structural glazings are attached to the inside of the spacer to divide the space between the inner and outer glazings to provide insulating gaps between glazings of from about 0.20 inches to about 0.40 inches. One or more glazing surfaces facing each thermal gap are coated with a low emissivity coating. Finally, the thermal gaps are filled with a low conductance gas such as krypton gas.

  3. Spectrally selective glazings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spectrally selective glazing is window glass that permits some portions of the solar spectrum to enter a building while blocking others. This high-performance glazing admits as much daylight as possible while preventing transmission of as much solar heat as possible. By controlling solar heat gains in summer, preventing loss of interior heat in winter, and allowing occupants to reduce electric lighting use by making maximum use of daylight, spectrally selective glazing significantly reduces building energy consumption and peak demand. Because new spectrally selective glazings can have a virtually clear appearance, they admit more daylight and permit much brighter, more open views to the outside while still providing the solar control of the dark, reflective energy-efficient glass of the past. This Federal Technology Alert provides detailed information and procedures for Federal energy managers to consider spectrally selective glazings. The principle of spectrally selective glazings is explained. Benefits related to energy efficiency and other architectural criteria are delineated. Guidelines are provided for appropriate application of spectrally selective glazing, and step-by-step instructions are given for estimating energy savings. Case studies are also presented to illustrate actual costs and energy savings. Current manufacturers, technology users, and references for further reading are included for users who have questions not fully addressed here.

  4. Technology reviews: Glazing systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuman, J.; Rubinstein, F.; Papamichael, K.; Beltran, L.; Lee, E.S.; Selkowitz, S.

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a representative review of existing, emerging, and future technology options in each of five hardware and systems areas in envelope and lighting technologies: lighting systems, glazing systems, shading systems, daylighting optical systems, and dynamic curtain wall systems. The term technology is used here to describe any design choice for energy efficiency, ranging from individual components to more complex systems to general design strategies. The purpose of this task is to characterize the state of the art in envelope and lighting technologies in order to identify those with promise for advanced integrated systems, with an emphasis on California commercial buildings. For each technology category, the following activities have been attempted to the extent possible: Identify key performance characteristics and criteria for each technology; determine the performance range of available technologies; identify the most promising technologies and promising trends in technology advances; examine market forces and market trends; and develop a continuously growing in-house database to be used throughout the project. A variety of information sources have been used in these technology characterizations, including miscellaneous periodicals, manufacturer catalogs and cut sheets, other research documents, and data from previous computer simulations. We include these different sources in order to best show the type and variety of data available, however publication here does not imply our guarantee of these data. Within each category, several broad classes are identified, and within each class we examine the generic individual technologies that fag into that class.

  5. Integrating automated shading and smart glazings with daylight controls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, Stephen; Lee, Eleanor

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Automated Shading and Smart Glazings with Daylight Controlsdaylighting, controls, smart glazing, shading, fielddeveloping switchable “smart glazings” for over a decade and

  6. Long term experience with semi-conductive glaze high voltage post insulators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, A.C.; Maney, J.W.; Szilagyi, Z. (Lapp Insulator Co., LeRoy, NY (US))

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Insulators using semi-conductive glaze have long been known for their superior contamination performance. Early glazes for this type however were not stable and successful use of semi-conductive glazed porcelain insulators was delayed many years until tin-antimony oxide glazes were developed. Service experience of eighteen years is now available for line and station post insulators with this type of glaze. Based on this experience, the aging characteristics of tin-antimony oxide semi-conductive glazes are described and quantified. Several different applications of these insulators are also described.

  7. Establishing the value of advanced glazings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, E; Selkowitz, S.

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Numerous glazing technologies are under development worldwide to improve the performance of building facades. High-performance glazings can provide substantial energy and related environmental benefits, but often at greatly increased first cost when compared to conventional design solutions. To increase market viability, we discuss strategies to reduce the actual and owner-perceived costs associated with developing and producing advanced window systems, specifically switchable electrochromic glazings, and we also suggest marketing strategies designed to appeal to early adopter and mainstream purchasers. These strategies may be applicable to a broad range of advanced glazing materials.

  8. Visual quality assessment of electrochromic and conventional glazings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moeck, M.; Lee, E.S.; Rubin, M.D.; Sullivan, R.; Selkowitz, S.E.

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Variable transmission, ``switchable`` electrochromic glazings are compared to conventional static glazings using computer simulations to assess the daylighting quality of a commercial office environment where paper and computer tasks are performed. RADIANCE simulations were made for a west-facing commercial office space under clear and overcast sky conditions. This visualization tool was used to model different glazing types, to compute luminance and illuminance levels, and to generate a parametric set of photorealistic images of typical interior views at various times of the day and year. Privacy and visual display terminal (VDT) visibility is explored. Electrochromic glazings result in a more consistent glare-free daylit environment compared to their static counterparts. However, if the glazing is controlled to minimize glare or to maintain low interior daylight levels for critical visual tasks (e.g, VDT), occupants may object to the diminished quality of the outdoor view due to its low transmission (Tv = 0.08) during those hours. RADIANCE proved to be a very powerful tool to better understand some of the design tradeoffs of this emerging glazing technology. The ability to draw specific conclusions about the relative value of different technologies or control strategies is limited by the lack of agreed upon criteria or standards for lighting quality and visibility.

  9. Seismic behavior of structural silicone glazing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zarghamee, M.S.; Schwartz, T.A. [Simpson Gumpertz and Heger Inc., Arlington, MA (United States); Gladstone, M. [Dow Corning Corp., Fremont, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In seismic events, glass curtain walls undergo racking deformation, while the flat glass lites do not rack due to their high shear stiffness. If the glass curtain wall is not isolated from the building frame by specifically designed connections that accommodate relative motion, seismic racking motion of the building frame will demand significant resiliency of the sealant that secures the glass to the curtain wall framing. In typical four-sided structural silicone glazing systems used in buildings with unbraced moment frames, the magnitude of seismic racking is likely to stress the sealants significantly beyond the sealant design strength. In this paper, the extent of the expected seismic racking motion, the behavior of the structural silicone glazing when subjected to the expected racking motion, and the field performance of a building with four-sided structural silicone glazing during the Northridge earthquake are discussed. The details of a curtain wall design concept consisting of shop-glazed subframes connected to the building frame and the connections that accommodate seismic motion of the subframe relative to the building frame is developed. Specific recommendations are made for the design of the four-sided structural silicone glazing systems for seismic loads.

  10. Durability of Polymeric Glazing and Absorber Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jorgensen, G.; Terwilliger, K.; Bingham, C.; Milbourne, M.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Solar Heating and Lighting Program has set the goal of reducing the cost of solar water heating systems by at least 50%. An attractive approach to such large cost reduction is to replace glass and metal parts with less-expensive, lighter-weight, more-integrated polymeric components. The key challenge with polymers is to maintain performance and assure requisite durability for extended lifetimes. The objective of this task is to quantify lifetimes through measurement of the optical and mechanical stability of candidate polymeric glazing and absorber materials. Polycarbonate sheet glazings, as proposed by two industry partners, have been tested for resistance to UV radiation with three complementary methods. Incorporation of a specific 2-mil thick UV-absorbing screening layer results in glazing lifetimes of at least 15 years; improved screens promise even longer lifetimes. Proposed absorber materials were tested for creep and embrittlement under high temperature, and appear adequate for planned ICS absorbers.

  11. Integrating automated shading and smart glazings with daylight controls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, Stephen; Lee, Eleanor

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Effect of Venetian Blinds on Daylight Photoelectric Controland Smart Glazings with Daylight Controls Stephen Selkowitzwith the outdoors and daylight to enhance the quality of the

  12. Durability of Polymeric Glazing and Absorber Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jorgensen, G.; Terwilliger, K.; Bingham, C.; Lindquist, C.; Milbourne, M.

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Solar Heating and Lighting Program has set the goal of reducing the cost of solar water heating systems by at least 50%. An attractive approach to such large cost reduction is to replace glass and metal parts with less-expensive, lighter-weight, more-integrated polymeric components. The key challenge with polymers is to maintain performance and assure requisite durability for extended lifetimes. We have begun evaluation of several new UV-screened polycarbonate sheet glazing constructions. This has involved interactions with several major polymer industry companies to obtain improved candidate samples. Proposed absorber materials were tested for UV resistance, and appear adequate for unglazed ICS absorbers.

  13. Fourier analysis of conductive heat transfer for glazed roofing materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roslan, Nurhana Lyana; Bahaman, Nurfaradila; Almanan, Raja Noorliyana Raja; Ismail, Razidah [Faculty of Computer and Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Zakaria, Nor Zaini [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    For low-rise buildings, roof is the most exposed surface to solar radiation. The main mode of heat transfer from outdoor via the roof is conduction. The rate of heat transfer and the thermal impact is dependent on the thermophysical properties of roofing materials. Thus, it is important to analyze the heat distribution for the various types of roofing materials. The objectives of this paper are to obtain the Fourier series for the conductive heat transfer for two types of glazed roofing materials, namely polycarbonate and polyfilled, and also to determine the relationship between the ambient temperature and the conductive heat transfer for these materials. Ambient and surface temperature data were collected from an empirical field investigation in the campus of Universiti Teknologi MARA Shah Alam. The roofing materials were installed on free-standing structures in natural ventilation. Since the temperature data are generally periodic, Fourier series and numerical harmonic analysis are applied. Based on the 24-point harmonic analysis, the eleventh order harmonics is found to generate an adequate Fourier series expansion for both glazed roofing materials. In addition, there exists a linear relationship between the ambient temperature and the conductive heat transfer for both glazed roofing materials. Based on the gradient of the graphs, lower heat transfer is indicated through polyfilled. Thus polyfilled would have a lower thermal impact compared to polycarbonate.

  14. Chromogenic switchable glazing: Towards the development of the smart window

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lampert, C.M.

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The science and technology of chromogenic materials for switchable glazings in building applications is discussed. These glazings can be used for dynamic control of solar and visible energy. Currently many researchers and engineers are involved with the development of products in this field. A summary of activities in Japan, Europe, Australia, USA and Canada is made. The activities of the International Energy Agency are included. Both non-electrically activated and electrically activated glazings are discussed. Technologies covered in the first category are photochromics, and thermochromics and thermotropics. A discussion of electrically activated chromogenic glazings includes dispersed liquid crystals, dispersed particles and electrochromics. A selection of device structures and performance characteristics are compared. A discussion of transparent conductors is presented. Technical issues concerning large-area development of smart windows are discussed.

  15. Glazing materials for solar and architectural applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lampert, C.M. [ed.

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes five collaborative research projects on glazings performed by participants in Subtask C of IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Programme (SHC) Task 10, Materials Research and Testing. The projects include materials characterization, optical and thermal measurements, and durability testing of several types of new glazings Three studies were completed on electrochromic and dispersed liquid crystals for smart windows, and two were completed for low-E coatings and transparent insulation materials for more conventional window and wall applications. In the area of optical switching materials for smart windows, the group developed more uniform characterization parameters that are useful to determine lifetime and performance of electrochromics. The detailed optical properties of an Asahi (Japan) prototype electrochromic window were measured in several laboratories. A one square meter array of prototype devices was tested outdoors and demonstrated significant cooling savings compared to tinted static glazing. Three dispersed liquid crystal window devices from Taliq (USA) were evaluated. In the off state, these liquid crystal windows scatter light greatly. When a voltage of about 100 V ac is applied, these windows become transparent. Undyed devices reduce total visible light transmittance by only .25 when switched, but this can be increased to .50 with the use of dyed liquid crystals. A wide range of solar-optical and emittance measurements were made on low-E coated glass and plastic. Samples of pyrolytic tin oxide from Ford glass (USA) and multilayer metal-dielectric coatings from Interpane (Germany) and Southwall (USA) were evaluated. In addition to optical characterization, the samples were exposure-tested in Switzerland. The thermal and optimal properties of two different types of transparent insulation materials were measured.

  16. Highly Insulating Glazing Systems using Non-Structural Center Glazing Layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohler, Christian; Arasteh, Dariush; Goudey, Howdy; Kohler, Christian

    2008-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Three layer insulating glass units with two low-e coatings and an effective gas fill are known to be highly insulating, with center-of-glass U-factors as low as 0.57 W/m{sup 2}-K (0.10 Btu/h-ft{sup 2}- F). Such units have historically been built with center layers of glass or plastic which extend all the way through the spacer system. This paper shows that triple glazing systems with non-structural center layers which do not create a hermetic seal at the edge have the potential to be as thermally efficient as standard designs, while potentially removing some of the production and product integration issues that have discouraged the use of triples.

  17. Espinosa Glaze Polychrome Bowl New Mexico Cultural Assets Digital Repository

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maccabe, Barney

    Espinosa Glaze Polychrome Bowl NM CADRe New Mexico Cultural Assets Digital Repository and e for Advanced Research Computing; thomas@phys.unm.edu) Led by the University of New Mexico Maxwell Museum of Anthropology (MMA), the New Mexico Cultural Assets Digital Repository and efacility is being established

  18. Flexible edge seal for vacuum insulating glazing units

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bettger, Kenneth J.; Stark, David H.

    2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A flexible edge seal is provided for a vacuum insulating glazing unit having a first glass pane and a second glass pane spaced-apart from the first. The edge seal comprises a seal member formed of a hermetically bondable material and having a first end, a second end and a center section disposed therebetween. The first end is hermetically bondable to a first glass pane. The second end is hermetically bondable to a second glass pane. The center section comprises a plurality of convolutes.

  19. International Symposium on Daylighting Buildings (IEA SHC TASK 31) Integrating Automated Shading and Smart Glazings with Daylight

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Symposium on Daylighting Buildings (IEA SHC TASK 31) Integrating Automated Shading and Smart Glazings with Daylight Controls Stephen Selkowitz Eleanor Lee Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Keywords: daylighting, controls, smart glazing, shading, field testing, IEA31 1. INTRODUCTION Most

  20. Durability of Polymeric Glazing Materials for Solar Applications: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jorgensen, G.; Brunold, S.; Carlsson, B.; Heck, M.; Kohl, M.; Moller, K.

    2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The economic viability of solar collector systems for domestic hot water (DHW) generation is strongly linked to the cost of such systems. Installation and hardware costs must be reduced by 50% to allow significant market penetration[1]. An attractive approach to cost reduction is to replace glass and metal parts with less expensive, lighter-weight polymeric components. Weight reduction decreases the cost of shipping, handling, and installation. The use of polymeric materials also allows the benefits and cost savings associated with well established manufacturing processes, along with savings associated with improved fastening, reduced part count, and overall assembly refinements. A key challenge is to maintain adequate system performance and assure requisite durability for extended lifetimes. Results of preliminary and ongoing screening tests for a large number of candidate polymeric glazing materials are presented. Based on these results, two specific glazings are selected to demonstrate how a service lifetime methodology can be applied to accurately predict the optical performance of these materials during in-service use.

  1. Rapid field testing of low-emittance coated glazings for product verification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffith, Brent; Kohler, Christian; Goudey, Howdy; Turler, Daniel; Arasteh, Dariush

    1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper analyzes prospects for developing a test device suitable for field verification of the types of low-emittance (low-e) coatings present on high-performance window products. Test devices are currently available that can simply detect the presence of low-e coatings and that can measure other important characteristics of high-performance windows, such as the thickness of glazing layers or the gap in dual glazings. However, no devices have yet been developed that can measure gas concentrations or distinguish among types of coatings. This paper presents two optical methods for verification of low-e coatings. The first method uses a portable, fiber-optic spectrometer to characterize spectral reflectances from 650 to 1,100 nm for selected surfaces within an insulated glazing unit (IGU). The second method uses an infrared-light-emitting diode and a phototransistor to evaluate the aggregate normal reflectance of an IGU at 940 nm. Both methods measure reflectance in the near (solar) infrared spectrum and are useful for distinguishing between regular and spectrally selective low-e coatings. The infrared-diode/phototransistor method appears promising for use in a low-cost, hand-held field test device.

  2. Chemical vapour deposition of thermochromic vanadium dioxide thin films for energy efficient glazing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warwick, Michael E.A. [Department of Chemistry, University College London, Christopher Ingold Laboratories, 20 Gordon Street, London, WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom); UCL Energy Institute, Central House, 14 Upper Woburn Place, London, WC1H 0NN (United Kingdom); Binions, Russell, E-mail: r.binions@qmul.ac.uk [School of Engineering and Materials Science, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vanadium dioxide is a thermochromic material that undergoes a semiconductor to metal transitions at a critical temperature of 68 °C. This phase change from a low temperature monoclinic structure to a higher temperature rutile structure is accompanied by a marked change in infrared reflectivity and change in resistivity. This ability to have a temperature-modulated film that can limit solar heat gain makes vanadium dioxide an ideal candidate for thermochromic energy efficient glazing. In this review we detail the current challenges to such glazing becoming a commercial reality and describe the key chemical vapour deposition technologies being employed in the latest research. - Graphical abstract: Schematic demonstration of the effect of thermochromic glazing on solar radiation (red arrow represents IR radiation, black arrow represents all other solar radiation). - Highlights: • Vanadium dioxide thin films for energy efficient glazing. • Reviews chemical vapour deposition techniques. • Latest results for thin film deposition for vanadium dioxide.

  3. Energy Performance and Comfort Level in High Rise and Highly Glazed Office Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bayraktar, M.; Perino, M.; Yilmaz, A. Z.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal and visual comfort in buildings play a significant role on occupants' performance but on the other hand achieving energy savings and high comfort levels can be a quite difficult task especially in high rise buildings with highly glazed...

  4. Energy Performance and Comfort Level in High Rise and Highly Glazed Office Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bayraktar, M.; Perino, M.; Yilmaz, A. Z.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal and visual comfort in buildings play a significant role on occupants' performance but on the other hand achieving energy savings and high comfort levels can be a quite difficult task especially in high rise buildings with highly glazed...

  5. Dynamic measurement of heat loss coefficients through Trombe wall glazing systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Trombe wall presents a unique opportunity to measure the heat-loss coefficient through the glazing system because the wall itself can be used as a heat meter. Since the instantaneous heat flux through the outer wall surface can be determined, the heat loss coefficient at night can be calculated by dividing by the wall surface-to-ambient temperature difference. This technique has been used to determine heat-loss coefficients for Los Alamos test rooms during the winter of 1980-1981. Glazing systems studied include single and double glazing both with and without night insulation used in conjunction with a flat black paint, and both single and double glazing used in conjunction with a selective surface.

  6. Simulation of complex glazing products; from optical data measurements to model based predictive controls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohler, Christian

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Complex glazing systems such as venetian blinds, fritted glass and woven shades require more detailed optical and thermal input data for their components than specular non light-redirecting glazing systems. Various methods for measuring these data sets are described in this paper. These data sets are used in multiple simulation tools to model the thermal and optical properties of complex glazing systems. The output from these tools can be used to generate simplified rating values or as an input to other simulation tools such as whole building annual energy programs, or lighting analysis tools. I also describe some of the challenges of creating a rating system for these products and which factors affect this rating. A potential future direction of simulation and building operations is model based predictive controls, where detailed computer models are run in real-time, receiving data for an actual building and providing control input to building elements such as shades.

  7. A cost and benefit analysis of future end-of-life vehicle glazing recycling in France: a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and aluminum, and not minor wastes such as glazing (Gerrard and Kandlikar 2007). The new recycling target (95 and polluted with organic material. The treatment and recycling of glass does however become difficult1 A cost and benefit analysis of future end-of- life vehicle glazing recycling in France

  8. The optimal thermo-optical properties and energy saving potential of adaptive glazing technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Favoino, Fabio; Overend, Mauro; Jin, Quian

    2015-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    is plotted in Fig. 2 by a black dashed line. 142 143 Fig 2. Tvis and g-value of smart glazing technologies compared to commercially available static DGUs. 144 3. The ideal adaptive glazed façade 145 An ideal adaptive façade can be defined as a façade... are identified. Of these one of the most important 24 findings is that a unique optimized technology, varying its thermo-optical properties between a limited number 25 of states could be effective in different climates and orientations. 26 Keywords: smart...

  9. IEA-SHC Task 27: Environmental Performance Assessment of glazing and windows: context, overview, main concerns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IEA-SHC Task 27: Environmental Performance Assessment of glazing and windows: context, overview, environmental quality criteria will just widen the actual scope of the technical assessment of building products. The first question is a double one : Who will use environmental criteria related to the building products

  10. Finding best practices for automotive glazing recycling: a network optimization model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    : a network optimization model," Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. Xx, 2013 DOI : 10.1016/J.JCLEPRO.2013.02.022 hal-00796046,version1-1Mar2013 Author manuscript, published in "Journal of Cleaner Production (2013 for transport glazing from store s to treatment unit r Unit cost for treatment in unit r Production coefficient

  11. Recovery Act: Electrochromic Glazing Technology: Improved Performance, Lower Price

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burdis, Mark; Sbar, Neil

    2012-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The growing dependency of the US on energy imports and anticipated further increases in energy prices reinforce the concerns about meeting the energy demand in the future and one element of a secure energy future is conservation. It is estimated that the buildings sector represents 40% of the US's total energy consumption. And buildings produce as much as one third of the greenhouse gas emissions primarily through fossil fuel usage during their operational phase. A significant fraction of this energy usage is simply due to inefficient window technology. Electrochromic (EC) windows allow electronic control of their optical properties so that the transparency to light can be adjusted from clear to dark. This ability to control the amount of solar energy allowed into the building can be advantageously used to minimize lighting, heating and air conditioning costs. Currently, the penetration of EC windows into the marketplace is extremely small, and consequently there is a huge opportunity for energy savings if this market can be expanded. In order to increase the potential energy savings it is necessary to increase the quantity of EC windows in operation. Additionally, any incremental improvement in the energy performance of each window will add to the potential energy savings. The overall goals of this project were therefore to improve the energy performance and lower the cost of dynamic (EC) smart windows for residential and commercial building applications. This project is obviously of benefit to the public by addressing two major areas: lowering the cost and improving the energy performance of EC glazings. The high level goals for these activities were: (i) to improve the range between the clear and the tinted state, (ii) reduce the price of EC windows by utilizing lower cost materials, (iii) lowering the U-Value1 SAGE Electrochromics Inc. is the only company in the US which has a track record of producing EC windows, and presently has a small operational factory in Faribault MN which is shipping products throughout the world. There is a much larger factory currently under construction close by. This project was targeted specifically to address the issues outlined above, with a view to implementation on the new high volume manufacturing facility. Each of the Tasks which were addressed in this project is relatively straightforward to implement in this new facility and so the benefits of the work will be realized quickly. , and (iv) ensure the proposed changes have no detrimental effect to the proven durability of the window. The research described here has helped to understand and provide solutions to several interesting and previously unresolved issues of the technology as well as make progress in areas which will have a significant impact on energy saving. In particular several materials improvements have been made, and tasks related to throughput and yield improvements have been completed. All of this has been accomplished without any detrimental effect on the proven durability of the SageGlass EC device. The project was divided into four main areas: 1. Improvement of the Properties of the EC device by material enhancements (Task 2); 2. Reduce the cost of production by improving the efficiency and yields of some key manufacturing processes (Task 3); 3. Further reduce the cost by significant modifications to the structure of the device (Task 4); 4. Ensure the durability of the EC device is not affected by any of the changes resulting from these activities (Task 5). A detailed description of the activities carried out in these areas is given in the following report, along with the aims and goals of the work. We will see that we have completed Tasks 2 and 3 fully, and the durability of the resulting device structure has been unaffected. Some of Task 4 was not carried out because of difficulties with integrating the installation of the required targets into the production coater due to external constraints not related to this project. We will also see that the durability of the devices produced as a result of this work was

  12. Exploring the possibility of low temperature glazing in faience from the Djoser Step Pyramid through compositional analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whisenant, Lawrence A

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Egyptian faience, a glazed, non-clay based ceramic material, is found throughout Egypt in a time range pre-dating the Predynastic Period (5500 - 3100 BCE) and extending well beyond the Roman Period (30 BCE - 641 CE). One ...

  13. Exposure of Polymeric Glazing Materials Using NREL's Ultra-Accelerated Weathering System (UAWS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bingham, C.; Jorgensen, G.; Wylie, A.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NREL's Ultra-Accelerated Weathering System (UAWS) selectively reflects and concentrates natural sunlight ultraviolet irradiance below 475 nm onto exposed samples to provide accelerated weathering of materials while keeping samples within realistic temperature limits. This paper will explain the design and implementation of the UAWS which allow it to simulate the effect of years of weathering in weeks of exposure. Exposure chamber design and instrumentation will be discussed for both a prototype UAWS used to test glazing samples as well as a commercial version of UAWS. Candidate polymeric glazing materials have been subjected to accelerated exposure testing at a light intensity level of up to 50 UV suns for an equivalent outdoor exposure in Miami, FL exceeding 15 years. Samples include an impact modified acrylic, fiberglass, and polycarbonate having several thin UV-screening coatings. Concurrent exposure is carried out for identical sample sets at two different temperatures to allow thermal effects to be quantified along with resistance to UV.

  14. The significance of bolts in the thermal performance of curtain-wall frames for glazed facades

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffith, B.; Finlayson, E.; Yazdanian, M.; Arasteh, D.K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Curtain walls are assemblies of glazings and metal frames that commonly form the exterior glass facades of commercial buildings. Evaluating the thermal performance of the bolts that hold curtain wall glazings in place is necessary to accurately rate the overall thermal performance of curtain walls. Using laboratory tests and computer simulations, the authors assessed the thermal performance of several different configurations of bolts and glazings. Curtain-wall samples were tested at an infrared thermography laboratory. Experimental results were compared to two-dimensional simulations approximating the thermal effect of the bolts using the parallel path and the isothermal planes calculation methods. It is concluded that stainless steel bolts minimally affect curtain-wall thermal performance ({approximately}18%) when spaced at least 230 mm apart, which is the industry standard. Performance is increasingly compromised when there is less than 230 mm between bolts or when steel bolts are used. The authors also show that the isothermal planes method of approximating curtain wall thermal performance can be used with two-dimensional heat transfer software typical of that used in the window industry to give conservative results for the thermal bridging effect caused by bolts.

  15. Thermal performance analysis of an electrochromic vacuum glazing with low emittance coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Yueping; Hyde, Trevor; Hewitt, Neil [Centre for Sustainable Technologies, School of the Built Environment, University of Ulster, Newtownabbey, BT37 0QB N. Ireland (United Kingdom); Eames, Philip C. [Centre for Research in Renewable Energy Science and Technology, University of Loughborough (United Kingdom); Norton, Brian [Dublin Energy Lab, Dublin Institute of Technology, Aungier Street, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal performance of an electrochromic (EC) vacuum glazing (VG) was modelled under ASTM standard winter conditions. The EC VG comprised three 0.5 m by 0.5 m glass panes with a 0.12 mm wide evacuated space between two 4 mm thick panes sealed contiguously by a 6 mm wide indium based edge seal with either one or two low-emittance (low-e) coatings supported by a 0.32 mm diameter square pillar grid spaced at 25 mm. The third glass pane on which the 0.1 mm thick EC layer was deposited was sealed to the evacuated glass unit. The whole unit was rebated by 10 mm within a solid wood frame. The low-e coating absorbed 10% of solar energy incident on it. With the EC VG installed with the EC component facing the outdoor environment, for an incident solar radiation of 300 W m{sup -2}, simulations demonstrated that when the EC layer is opaque for winter conditions, the temperature of the inside glass pane is higher than the indoor air temperature, due to solar radiation absorbed by the low-e coatings and the EC layer, the EC VG is a heat source with heat transferred from the glazing to the interior environment. When the emittance was lower to 0.02, the outdoor and indoor glass pane temperatures of the glazing with single and two low-e coatings are very close to each other. For an insolation of 1000 W m{sup -2}, the outdoor glass pane temperature exceeds the indoor glass pane temperature, consequentially the outdoor glass pane transfers heat to the indoor glass pane. (author)

  16. Filament-strung stand-off elements for maintaining pane separation in vacuum insulating glazing units

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bettger, Kenneth J; Stark, David H

    2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A vacuum insulating glazing unit (VIGU) comprises first and second panes of transparent material, first and second anchors, a plurality of filaments, a plurality of stand-off elements, and seals. The first and second panes of transparent material have edges and inner and outer faces, are disposed with their inner faces substantially opposing one another, and are separated by a gap having a predetermined height. The first and second anchors are disposed at opposite edges of one pane of the VIGU. Each filament is attached at one end to the first anchor and at the other end to the second anchor, and the filaments are collectively disposed between the panes substantially parallel to one another. The stand-off elements are affixed to each filament at predetermined positions along the filament, and have a height substantially equal to the predetermined height of the gap such that the each stand-off element touches the inner surfaces of both panes. The seals are disposed about the edges of the panes, enclosing the stand-off elements within a volume between the panes from which the atmosphere may be evacuated to form a partial vacuum.

  17. Science and technology of building seals, sealants, glazing, and waterproofing: Seventh volume

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klosowski, J.M. [ed.

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This book captures papers from the Charles J. Parise Seventh Symposium on the Science and Technology of Building Seals. Sealants, Glazing, and Waterproofing. The overriding theme behind the papers is durability. This topic is fundamental to all users and specifiers of sealants. The first set of papers in this book addresses the topic of stress and fatigue. Joint designs vary from the square section to exaggerated hour-glass shapes. The joint designs are factors in the longevity of a sealant in the joint. The available work on accelerated weathering tests and how that relates to the damage caused by real weathering is summarized. Acrylic latex sealants can come in many qualities and some can be formulated to have properties that approach and in some cases match some of the chemically curing sealants. The unique sealant applications in roofs and doing the old fashion listing of the performance needed for each application is addressed. Destruction of a joint can be more than a failed sealant. It can be a fine sealant in a joint that is picked clean by birds. Destruction of weather protection offered by sealant, the diagnosis of the cause and solutions, especially in EIFS systems, was discussed in several papers. The esthetic concerns of fluid migration from sealants and sealant staining potential were addressed. Relative to sealant testing, the paper of work done at V.P.I. on adhesion testing is a landmark paper. Papers on finite element analysis are presented. These show where the stress concentration starts and maximizes in various joint designs and provides the basis for better joint design and better joint geometry. There is a concluding series of papers that address the adhesion of waterproofing membranes; firestopping from a latex viewpoint; polysulfide sealants for chemical containment; and a final paper looks at the myriad of places sealants are used in modern buildings and spaceframe structures.

  18. INCREASING YIELDS AND BROADENING MARKETS: PROCESS INNOVATIONS IN THE MANUFACTURING OF ENERGY-SAVING WINDOW GLAZINGS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Burdis; Neil Sbar

    2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this project was to develop and implement advanced thin film process technology which would significantly improve the manufacturability of both static and dynamic high performance energy saving coatings for windows. The work done has been aimed at improvements to the process that will result in increases in yield, and this was divided into four main areas, dealing with improvements in substrate preparation methods, reductions in the incidence of problems caused by particulate contamination, use of in-situ optical monitoring to improve process control, and overall system integration to enable simplified, and therefore lower cost operation. Significant progress has been made in each of the areas. In the area of substrate preparation, the enhanced washing techniques which have been developed, in combination with a new inspection technique, have resulted in significant reductions in the number of EC devices which are rejected because of substrate problems. Microscopic inspection of different defects in electrochromic devices showed that many were centered on particles. As a result, process improvements aimed at reducing the incidence of particles throughout the entire process have been implemented. As a result, the average number of defects occurring per unit area has been significantly reduced over the period of this project. The in-situ monitoring techniques developed during this project have become an indispensable part of the processing for EC devices. The deposition of several key layers is controlled as a result of in-situ monitoring, and this has facilitated significant improvements in uniformity and repeatability. Overall system integration has progressed to the stage where the goal of a closed-loop monitoring and control system in within reach, and it is anticipated that this will be achieved during the scale-up phase. There has been a clear increase in the yield occurring over the period of this project (Sept 1999 to September 2003), which is attributable to a range of process improvements implemented as a result of this work. It is anticipated that the yield will increase further as a result of these ongoing programs. The manufacturability of these advanced glazing systems has also been significantly improved, by a variety of different measures such as in-situ monitoring, system integration, and measurements taken to reduce the incidence of defects caused by contamination. It is therefore anticipated that the transfer of this performance to the new coating equipment to be introduced during scale-up to the first manufacturing plant will be reasonably straightforward.

  19. Highly Insulating Glazing Systems using Non-Structural Center Glazing Layers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arasteh, Dariush

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    low as 0.57 W/m 2 -K (0.10 Btu/h-ft 2 -°F). Such units havevalues Btu/h-ft 2 -°F), windows relatedA 0.57 W/m 2 -K (0.10 Btu/h-ft 2 -°F) window is targeted as

  20. Simulation of complex glazing products; from optical data measurements to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in buildings and homes are responsible for about 4% of the total annual energy consumption in the US (Apte 2006). This energy consumption is related to heating, cooling and lighting in homes, offices and other buildings to the environment. The energy consumption associated with static windows can also be reduced by incorporating

  1. Hot Skillet Edamame [6] Sauted w/ a Garlic Hoisin Glaze

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Southern California, University of

    Herb Dressing Spinach Artichoke Dip [9] Served w/ Crispy Pita Chips & Fresh Crudités Beer Battered Onion Rings [8] Crispy Beer Battered Onion Rings, Creamy Herb Dipping Sauce Grilled Vegetable Quesadilla, Parmesan French Fries, Herb Butter Featured Pairing: Rutherford Cabernet [9] Beer Battered Fish & Chips [14

  2. Technology Advancements to Lower Costs of Electrochromic Window Glazing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Burdis; Neil Sbar

    2008-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    An Electrochromic (EC) Window is a solar control device that can electronically regulate the flow of sunlight and heat. In the case of the SageGlass{reg_sign} EC window, this property derives from a proprietary all-ceramic, intrinsically durable thin-film stack applied to an inner surface of a glass double-pane window. As solar irradiation and temperatures change, the window can be set to an appropriate level of tint to optimize the comfort and productivity of the occupants as well as to minimize building energy usage as a result of HVAC and lighting optimization. The primary goal of this project is to replace certain batch processes for EC thin film deposition resulting in a complete in-line vacuum process that will reduce future capital and labor coats, while increasing throughput and yields. This will require key technology developments to replace the offline processes. This project has enabled development of the next generation of electrochromic devices suitable for large-scale production. Specifically, the requirements to produce large area devices cost effectively require processes amenable to mass production, using a variety of different substrate materials, having minimal handling and capable of being run at high yield. The present SageGlass{reg_sign} production process consists of two vacuum steps separated by an atmospheric process. This means that the glass goes through several additional handling steps, including venting and pumping down to go from vacuum to atmosphere and back, which can only serve to introduce additional defects associated with such processes. The aim of this project therefore was to develop a process which would eliminate the need for the atmospheric process. The overall project was divided into several logical tasks which would result in a process ready to be implemented in the present SAGE facility. Tasks 2 and 3 were devoted to development and the optimization of a new thin film material process. These tasks are more complicated than would be expected, as it has been determined in the past that there are a number of interactions between the new material and the layers beneath, which have an important effect on the behavior of the device. The effects of these interactions needed to be understood in order for this task to be successful. Tasks 4 and 5 were devoted to production of devices using the novel technology developed in the previous tasks. In addition, characterization tests were required to ensure the devices would perform adequately as replacements for the existing technology. Each of these tasks has been achieved successfully. In task 2, a series of potential materials were surveyed, and ranked in order of desirability. Prototype device structures were produced and characterized in order to do this. This satisfied the requirements for Task 2. From the results of this relatively extensive survey, the number of candidate materials was reduced to one or two. Small devices were made in order to test the functionality of such samples, and a series of optimization experiments were carried out with encouraging results. Devices were fabricated, and some room temperature cycling carried out showing that there are no fundamental problems with this technology. This series of achievements satisfied the requirements for Tasks 3 and 4. The results obtained from Task 3 naturally led to scale-up of the process, so a large cathode was obtained and installed in a spare slot in the production coater, and a series of large devices fabricated. In particular, devices with dimensions of 60-inch x 34-inch were produced, using processes which are fully compatible with mass production. Testing followed, satisfying the requirements for Task 5. As can be seen from this discussion, all the requirements of the project have therefore been successfully achieved. The devices produced using the newly developed technology showed excellent optical properties, often exceeding the performance of the existing technology, equivalent durability results, and promise a significantly simplified manufacturing approach, the

  3. Fabricate-on-Demand Vacuum Insulating Glazings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently20,000 Russian NuclearandJunetrackEllen|JulyR--FOIA SupportDOE's FY3 CurrentFY55FY 20163

  4. Fabricate-on-Demand Vacuum Insulating Glazings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy Chinaof EnergyImpactOnSTATEMENT OF DAVID GEISEREnergy1 of 3 PPG developed and

  5. Highly Insulating Glazing Systems using Non-Structural Center Glazing Dariush Arasteh, Howdy Goudey, and Christian Kohler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    units with two low-e coatings and an effective gas fill are known to be highly insulating, with center technological routes have emerged: - Aerogel is a micro-porous insulating material currently under R&D worldwide

  6. 2.1E Supplement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winkelmann, F.C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    GLAZING Introduction Electrochromic Switchable GlazingsP r o g r a m . T h e electrochromic glazing entries i n theGLAZING Introduction Electrochromic Switchable Glazings

  7. Advanced Interactive Facades - Critical Elements for Future Green Buildings?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, Stephen; Aschehoug, Oyvind; Lee, Eleanor S.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    design changes, e.g. smart glazings could allow smallerof electrochromic smart glazings with coatings that

  8. The thermal performance of fixed and variable selective transmitters in commercial architecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bartovics, William A

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A parametric model is developed for use in evaluating the relative thermal and lighting performance of a variety of existing and proposed types of commercial glazing materials. The glazing materials considered are divided ...

  9. Performance of High-Performance Glazing in IECC Compliant Building Simulation Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhopadhyay, J.; Haberl, J. S.

    windows with evacuated or low-conductance gas-filled gaps (Carmody et al. 2004), and aerogel windows to reduce the heat loss (V-factor) of windows (Hartman et al. 1987). Technologies to reduce solar heat gain include improvements to existing low...-E coatings, light redirecting layers, and self-shading windows (Apte et al. 2003). More recent developments include investigating advanced fac;ade systems which are designed to manage energy flows, view and comfort (Carmody et aI., 2004...

  10. Impact of Different Glazing Systems on Cooling Load of a Detached Residential Building at Bhubaneswar, India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sahoo, P. K.; Sahoo, R.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ] and passive solar ventilation [Hamdy and Firky, 1998]. Impact of windows on thermal comfort and passive cooling is addressed by Chaiyapinunt et al. [2005] and Lyons et al. [1999]. Studies related to space cooling load characteristics in residential... load are investigated and analyzed using Design Builder simulation program [DesignBuilder, 2009]. The weather conditions and a detached residential building in the tropical Bhubaneswar are used in the simulation study. The premise of this study is...

  11. Standard Test Method for Shear Strength of Fusion Bonded Polycarbonate Aerospace Glazing Material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 This test method determines the shear yield strength Fsy and shear ultimate strength Fsu of fusion bonds in polycarbonate by applying torsional shear loads to the fusion-bond line. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  12. Performance of High-Performance Glazing in IECC Compliant Building Simulation Model 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhopadhyay, J.; Haberl, J. S.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    windows with evacuated or low-conductance gas-filled gaps (Carmody et al. 2004), and aerogel windows to reduce the heat loss (V-factor) of windows (Hartman et al. 1987). Technologies to reduce solar heat gain include improvements to existing low-E.../12-04, [CDROM]. College Station, TX: Energy Systems Laboratory, Texas A&M University. Hartman, J., M.Rubin, and D. Arasteh. 1987. Thermal and solar-optical properties of silica aerogel for use in insulated windows. Proceedings of the 12th - 138 ? ESL-PA-06...

  13. Improving the Thermal Performance of Single Glazed Windows using Translucent Granular Aerogel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mark Dowson; David Harrison; Salmaan Craig; Zachary Gill

    This paper is made available in accordance with Taylor & Francis publisher policies. Please cite the original published version only using the following reference:

  14. Analysis of improved fenestration for code-compliant residential buildings in hot and humid climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhopadhyay, Jaya

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    investigates the use of optimal glazing types, which, for future applications, could be specified in the code to reduce annual net energy consumption to zero. Results show that combinations of low-E and double pane, clear-glazed windows, which... in accurately determining the effectiveness of the glazing option used. In this particular study, the use of the WINDOW-5.2 program is highly recommended especially for high performance windows (i.e., low-E glazing). Finally, a discussion...

  15. Integrating advanced facades into high performance buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that the emergence of smart glazings will ultimately fillswitchable coating. These “smart glazings” can change solarfor use in buildings. Smart glazings can be divided into two

  16. Advanced fenestration systems for improved daylight performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, S.; Lee, E.S.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    technology for dynamic, smart glazings has the potential toSwitchable Glazing: Towards the Development of the Smart

  17. Building Technologies Program - 1995 Annual Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, S.E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrochromic switchable glazings, or "smart windows," canIn many glazing ap- plications, the smart window will have a

  18. Application of Target Value Design to Energy Efficiency Investments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Hyun Woo

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar Heat Gain Coefficient Glazing Visible Transmittance Glazing Ratio Lighting HVAC Window Overhangs Wall Insulation/Mass Lighting Power Density

  19. Ferro Corporation: Industrial Energy Assessment Identifies $210,000 in Savings Opportunities for Glaze and Coatings Manufacturer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Industrial Technologies Program's BestPractices case study based on a comprehensive plant assessment conducted at the Ferro Corporation by ITP's Industrial Assessment Center in conjunction with The Society of the Plastics Industry, Inc.

  20. LBNL 2011 Inter-Laboratory Comparison for Laboratories Submitting Specular Data to the International Glazings Database (IGDB)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jonsson, Jacob

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LBNL 2011 Inter-Laboratory Comparison for Laboratories2%. As an organizing entity LBNL aims to educate and helppreviously employed at LBNL, organized a sample selection

  1. Fenestration of Today and Tomorrow: A State-of-the-Art Review and Future Research Opportunities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petter Jelle, Bjorn

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    C.M. Lampert, ”Smart switchable glazing for solar energy andglazing; Vacuum glazing; Smart window; Electrochromic0.61 W/(m 2 K). Vacuum glazing, smart windows, solar cell

  2. Fenestration of Today and Tomorrow: A State-of-the-Art Review and Future Research Opportunities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petter Jelle, Bjorn

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cell glazing; Aerogel; Low-emissivity coating; Low-e; WindowWindows using aerogels and no low-e coatings can alreadya suspended coating glazing product and an aerogel glazing

  3. State-of-the-Art Highly Insulating Window Frames - Research and Market Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gustavsen, Arild

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    through vacuum and electrochromic vacuum glazed windows,technologies, such as an electrochromic vacuum glazedof rebate depth on an electrochromic vacuum glazed window.

  4. Daylight metrics and energy savings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mardaljevic, John

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mardaljevic and A. Nabil. Electrochromic glazing and facadeoptimiza- tion of electrochromic operations for occupantmodulating materials (e.g. electrochromic glazing), blinds,

  5. A fast-switching light-writable and electric-erasable negative photoelectrochromic cell based on Prussian blue films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    glazing in response to illumina- tion, with promising applications in smart windows, sunglasses and light

  6. Fenestration of Today and Tomorrow: A State-of-the-Art Review and Future Opportunities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) and 0.30 W/(m2 K), which was from a suspended coating glazing product and an aerogel glazing product-cleaning glazing, low-emissivity coatings and spacers were also reviewed, thus also representing possibilities and solutions, electrochromic windows and aerogel glazing seem to have the largest potential for improving

  7. Impact of Fixed Exterior Shading on Daylighting: A Case Study of the David Brower Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zelenay, Krystyna

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to-wall ratio, electrochromic glazing, etc. considered? 5.shading systems, switchable electrochromic and thermochromic

  8. Performance of Solar Facade Components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    glazing (i.e., electrochromic, gasochromic and thermochromic devices, thermotropic and other dispersed

  9. Energy and Buildings 1264 (2000) 1-10 This work was supported by the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Switchable or "smart" glazings, which have optical properties that vary in response to some control condition

  10. Fenestration of Today and Tomorrow: A State-of-the-Art Review and Future Research Opportunities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petter Jelle, Bjorn

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    17 3.3.2. Electrochromic Vacuumthe visible transmittance. Electrochromic vaccum glazing andglazing; Smart window; Electrochromic window; Solar cell

  11. AN EMPIRICAL METHOD FOR ESTIMATING THE THERMAL RADIANCE OF CLEAR SKIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdahl, Paul

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    from the covers of solar collectors and the exposed surfacesof heat loss from solar collector glazings, and building

  12. To be presented at the 2000 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, August 20-25, 2000, Pacific Grove, CA and to be published in the Proceedings.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that can be dynamically controlled. "Smart windows" incorpo- rating electrochromic glazings could reduce National Laboratory ABSTRACT Electrochromic glazings promise to be the next major advance in energy to the visual environment with unshaded 38%-glazing. Cooling loads were not measured, but previous build- ing

  13. Method and apparatus for filling thermal insulating systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arasteh, D.K.

    1992-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for filling insulated glazing units is disclosed. The method utilizes a vacuum chamber in which the insulated glazing units are placed. The insulated glazing units and vacuum chamber are evacuated simultaneously. The units are then refilled with a low conductance gas such as Krypton while the chamber is simultaneously refilled with air. 3 figs.

  14. The Visual Computer manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paquette, Eric

    such as ice of sufficient thickness, or icicles. These tech- niques deal with ice crystals while glaze ice of the icicles growth, and the fourth creates the surface. In addition, the approach allows the creation of glaze model- ing · Icicle · Ice modeling · Glaze ice 1 Introduction In movies, as in video games, modeling

  15. Singapore's Zero-Energy Building's daylight monitoring system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grobe, Lars; Wittkopf, Stephen; Pandey, Anupama Rana; Xiaoming, Yang; Seng, Ang Kian; Scartezzini, Jean-Louis; Selkowitz, Stephen

    2010-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A setup to monitor the daylighting performance of different glazing types in Singapore is presented. The glazing is installed in the facade of four dedicated testing chambers in BCAA's Zero Energy Building in Singapore. These test rooms are equipped with sensors that both record illuminances on the work plane, and luminances as seen by occupants. The physical and logical design of the monitoring system is presented. Criteria to assess the daylighting performance are introduced, and initial results of the work in progress are presented.

  16. IPCC WGIII Assessment Reprot: Chapter 6. Mitigation Options in Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Urge-Vorsatz, D.; Levine, M. D.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    • Shading devices • Multiple glazing layers, low-emissivity coatings • Spectrally selective windows • Electrochromic and thermochromic glazing – The rate of exchange of inside and outside air • In cold climates, air leakage can cause >1/2 of heat loss..., 2005 Co-benefits of GHG Mitigation 3. Improved quality of life and comfort #0;? Improved thermal comfort - Fewer cold surfaces such as windows #0;? Reduced level of outdoor noise infiltration and indoor pollution from outdoors - Triple glazed windows...

  17. Efficient solar cooling: first ever non-tracking solar collectors powering a double effect absorption chiller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poiry, Heather Marie

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    R. (1980) “Solar collectors for low and intermediateSystem Using Double- glazed Collectors." Applied Thermal40: Heat loss in thermal watts from the collectors to the

  18. UConn LEEDs the Way on Green Case Study for the NCAA's First LEED Athletic Facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holsinger, Kent

    Envelope (Higher Insulation Levels) · Window Glazing ­ Increased Natural Lighting, Reduced Solar Heat Certification #12;Smart & Sustainable Growth Next Steps · Continue to Apply UConn Sustainable Design

  19. Simulation for Pre-Visualizing and Tuning Lighting Controller Behavior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radke, Rich

    daylighting and lighting control algorithms for a given space. Keywords: smart buildings, smart lighting, glazing, and shading devices have been decided. This prevents the early exploration of lighting

  20. MEDIA ADVISORY For Immediate Release: Media Contacts:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    some of the latest energy-saving features and technology, including a ductless heat pump, heat pump water heater, efficient lighting, triple-glazed windows, foam sheathing...

  1. Rules of thumb for passive solar heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rules of thumb are given for passive solar systems for: (1) sizing solar glazing for 219 cities, (2) sizing thermal storage mass, and (3) building orientation.

  2. Plant Physiology: Manipulating Plant Growth with Solar Radiation Dennis Decoteau, Ph.D.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Decoteau, Dennis R.

    Plant Physiology: Manipulating Plant Growth with Solar Radiation Dennis Decoteau, Ph.D. Department. Greenhouse Glazing & Solar Radiation Transmission Workshop, October 1998 © CCEA, Center for Controlled

  3. A characterization of the nonresidential fenestration market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shehabi, Arman; Eley, Charles; Arasteh, Dariush; Degens, Phil

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PGM Glass Used for Nonresidential Curtain Wall/Storefront/PGM Glass Used for Nonresidential Curtain Wall/Storefront/glass). Fabricators provide glazing systems for curtain walls,

  4. CX-003748: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    low-emissivity storm windows and retrofit glazing systems to significantly improve the energy efficiency of both existing residential and commercial buildings. DOCUMENT(S)...

  5. Soiling of building envelope surfaces and its effect on solar reflectance Part I: Analysis of roofing product databases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sleiman, Mohamad

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    coating on clay roofing tiles. Philosophical Magazine. 90:metal and glazes applied to tiles. Metal. Can be shaped tomaterial. Shingle, slate, or tile. Pieces that fit together

  6. Nomadic and domestic: dwelling on the edge of Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Joel Eric

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    what allows the house to store both passive solar energy andhouse, 129   Figure 23: Integrating the stove and pishin wall, 133   Figure 24: Glazing permits passive

  7. A Comparative Evaluation of Three Situational Judgment Test Response Formats: Additional Assessment of Construct-related Validity, Subgroup Differences, Susceptibility to Response Distortion, Test-taker Reactions, and Internal Psychometric Properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Craig Douglas

    2014-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    on Situational Judgment Test Response Formats (Glaze, Jarrett, Arthur, Schurig, & Taylor, 2011)……….................................5 Mean Data………………………….……………...……………………6 Construct-related Validity……………………………..……..…………6 Subgroup Differences... …………….…………………………....….....…8 Response Distortion………………………………………………..….10 Present Study……….………………………………………………...………….11 Construct-related Validity: Alternative Explanation of Glaze et al.’s (2011) Results………………………………………...………12 Hypothesis 1...

  8. November 23, 2004 Mark Walker

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and existing commercial buildings. Several months ago Charlie Grist provided me with preliminary savings estimates for various high performance glazing options in both new and existing commercial buildings performance windows/glazing systems in commercial buildings. Sincerely, Gary Curtis The West Wall Group #12;

  9. Ice nucleation and overseeding of ice in volcanic clouds A. J. Durant,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, William I.

    that such ``overseeded'' volcanic clouds will exhibit enhanced ice crystal concentrations and smaller average ice crystal nucleation in volcanic plumes and clouds affects dynamics [Glaze et al., 1997; Herzog et al., 1998; Mastin- porting water to the stratosphere [Glaze et al., 1997] and these fluxes depend in part on the microphysics

  10. USING OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY TO EXAMINE THE SUBSURFACE MORPHOLOGY OF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barton, Jennifer K.

    : (1) a homogeneous glassy phase; (2) a liquid­liquid phase separated state; and (3) a crystallizedUSING OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY TO EXAMINE THE SUBSURFACE MORPHOLOGY OF CHINESE GLAZES M of their glazes. The images revealed unique phase assemblage modes in different samples. The results suggest

  11. Presented at the 1998 ASHRAE Winter Meeting, January 17-21, 1998, San Francisco, CA, and published in the proceedings.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for the thermal bridging effect caused by bolts. Introduction Exterior glass facades known as curtain walls of Bolts in the Thermal Performance of Curtain-Wall Frames for Glazed Facades Brent Griffith, Elizabeth in the Thermal Performance of Curtain-Wall Frames for Glazed Facades Brent Griffith, Elizabeth Finlayson

  12. UNC Charlotte PORTAL Building Trade Package Base Bid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelly, Scott David

    Alternate #2 Fire rated glass curtain wall system Alternate #3 Access control system/ card readers Alternate #1 Office curtains/ double glazing Alternate #2 Fire rated glass curtain wall systemUNC Charlotte PORTAL Building Trade Package Base Bid Alternate #1 Office curtains/ double glazing

  13. Colomban_EMRSOARTF.doc Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing 79 (2004) 167-170

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    /macro-spectroscopy allows for a non-destructive remote analysis: body and glaze, crystalline and amorphous phases can phases on cooling, raw materials are almost fully molten to produce a glass or a glaze, but small crystals (cooling in many glasses. Different materials

  14. THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF MANAGED WINDOW SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, S. E.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    plus .35 m2 K/W (2 hr ft 2 F/Btu) for single-glazing, and52 m2 -K/W (2 hr-ft 2 - F/Btu) for double-glazing, assumingthan .85 m -K/W (5 hr-ftL-F/Btu) diminish rapidly and would

  15. How A Neurologically Integrated Approach Which Teaches Sound-Symbol Correspondence and Legible Letter Formations Impacts At-Risk First Graders

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, Donita J.; Sundberg, M. L.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cookies. On the day they learned “c” for cat, the teacher brought cat cookies with glaze and frosting. The students were asked to decorate their cookie to match the picture of the cat. Additional summer school activities included coloring pictures...

  16. A prototype with a 5-meter span, built in January 2013. Afterwards, the mechanical strength of the construction was determined by destructive testing.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langendoen, Koen

    of the construction was determined by destructive testing. With this smart and simple solution for connecting, connects the indoors to the outdoors and adds a modern, luxurious feel. Moreover, good double glazing has

  17. SMALL PLATES TODAY'S SOUP 5

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Jeff

    baba ganoush EGG SALAD 9 Nature's Farm Smart Eggs · lettuce · Bothwell cheddar · celery · onions #12 back ribs house miso chili glaze fresh slaw rice CHICKEN 19 chicken breast mashed potatoes

  18. CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY OF FLUID ARGON UNDER PRESSURE GABRIEL JOSEPH HANNA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    of five living generations. It is a wonderful thing to have people to belong to; especially such smart and fun people as they are. Ronnie Crum, in particular, whose eyes never glaze over when I talk about

  19. CX-100035: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Exclusion Determination CX-100035: Categorical Exclusion Determination Fabricate-on-Demand Vacuum Insulating Glazings CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6 Date: 08132014 Location(s):...

  20. Where Is Lead Found? Paint in many homes built before 1978 may contain lead.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    in lead crystal or lead-glazed pottery may contain lead. Where Is Lead Most Likely to Be a Hazard on toys and furniture -- especially if antique or imported -- may contain lead. · Food or liquids stored

  1. Analysis of the Benefits of Photovoltaic in High Rise Commercial Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sylvester, K. E.; Haberl, J. S.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    further, recent studies have integrated photovoltaic glazed window systems into the building shell. To understand the relationship between photovoltaic windows, energy use and human satisfaction, this paper presents a study of the effects of photovoltaic...

  2. Abstract 3-4 SAND99-0634

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuerschbach, Phillip

    is introduced which is fabricated out of modular sections of polycarbonate glazed into a Unistrut metal frame for secondary contain- ment design. The Unistrut/polycarbonate shield framing concept is presented including..............................................................13 3 Results of Preliminary Polycarbonate Impact Test

  3. Daylighting Application and Effectiveness in Industrial Facilities 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCowan, B.; Birleanu, D.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    artificial lighting became available, most older industrial buildings had their daylighting features boarded over. With modern glazing systems and sophisticated designs that minimize glare issues, daylighting for industrial buildings is making a strong...

  4. ap case study: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    wine had a pH of 3.8, which would have greatly contributed to the solubilization of metals from the glaze. We conducted a test in which commercial red wine of similar pH and...

  5. action-oriented case study: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    wine had a pH of 3.8, which would have greatly contributed to the solubilization of metals from the glaze. We conducted a test in which commercial red wine of similar pH and...

  6. assessment case studies: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    wine had a pH of 3.8, which would have greatly contributed to the solubilization of metals from the glaze. We conducted a test in which commercial red wine of similar pH and...

  7. auxin-transport case study: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    wine had a pH of 3.8, which would have greatly contributed to the solubilization of metals from the glaze. We conducted a test in which commercial red wine of similar pH and...

  8. assessment case study: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    wine had a pH of 3.8, which would have greatly contributed to the solubilization of metals from the glaze. We conducted a test in which commercial red wine of similar pH and...

  9. abbreviated case studies: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    wine had a pH of 3.8, which would have greatly contributed to the solubilization of metals from the glaze. We conducted a test in which commercial red wine of similar pH and...

  10. arpi case study: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    wine had a pH of 3.8, which would have greatly contributed to the solubilization of metals from the glaze. We conducted a test in which commercial red wine of similar pH and...

  11. agreements case study: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    wine had a pH of 3.8, which would have greatly contributed to the solubilization of metals from the glaze. We conducted a test in which commercial red wine of similar pH and...

  12. arabidopsis case studies: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    wine had a pH of 3.8, which would have greatly contributed to the solubilization of metals from the glaze. We conducted a test in which commercial red wine of similar pH and...

  13. Analysis of the Benefits of Photovoltaic in High Rise Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sylvester, K. E.; Haberl, J. S.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    further, recent studies have integrated photovoltaic glazed window systems into the building shell. To understand the relationship between photovoltaic windows, energy use and human satisfaction, this paper presents a study of the effects of photovoltaic...

  14. Daylighting Application and Effectiveness in Industrial Facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCowan, B.; Birleanu, D.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    during the industrial revolution, architects utilized various daylighting strategies such as window walls, skylighting, monitors, etc. However, glazing technologies were primitive compared with our modern choices, When more efficient and effective...

  15. Analysis of improved fenestration for code-compliant residential buildings in hot and humid climates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhopadhyay, Jaya

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    -efficient fenestration products for residential buildings in both heating and cooling climates. Prominent among these options is the emergence of low-E coatings which are usually ultra-thin, heat-reflecting, metalized optical coatings applied to one or more surfaces... coated glazing immensely alters glazing properties. Low-E coatings applied to the outer surface of the inner pane of double pane fenestration help to retain heat trapped within the envelope, and hence is preferred for heating dominated climates (Johnson...

  16. Cooling Energy and Cost Savings with Daylighting in a Hot and Humid Climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arasteh, D.; Johnson, R.; Selkowitz, S.; Connell, D.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (including glazing) was %eld constant at values consistent with ASHRAE 90 standards. Since the thermal conductance of the glazing (single or dou- ble) exceeds the maximum U , as the glass area increases, the conductance 0% the opaque wall is reduced...- ing to a saturation of useful daylight and no sig- nificant further savings in electric lighting energy. This daylight saturation effect begins at effective apertures between 0.10 and 0.25 for typ- ical curtain wall designs in a perimeter zone...

  17. doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/SSP.124-126.1221 Nano Structured Silica Aerogel films by Dip-Coating Process.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deogdo Heo; Youngjei Oh; Byungsei Jun

    The optimum values of the porosity, pore size and transmittance of the coating layer were investigated to give the lower thermal conductivity of the smart glazing. The porosity of the aerogel film is 90%, and the pores with 50micron size are uniformly distributed through the film. The transmittance and thermal conductivity of smart glazing with 500 µm thickness is at about 80 % in the visible range(380-780nm) and 0.15 W/(m.K) respectively. 1.

  18. Measurements and Comparisons of Sunlighted and North-Lighted Atriums on Two Office Buildings in Dallas, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Molinelli, J. F.; Kim, K.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . This glazing reduces noise transmission into the perimeter offices, but also affects the trans- mission of daylight into the offices. The south side off ices also have wide balconies for cir- culation passing east to west between them and the atrium.... 'These could reflect some daylight into the southside offices, but they are carpeted, and have leafy Ereen plants in planters on the railing. These two treatments coupled with the glazing that separates the offices cuts down on daylight transmission...

  19. Desiccant cooling using unglazed transpired solar collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.A. (National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)); Wipke, K. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States))

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of unglazed solar collectors for desiccant regeneration in a solid desiccant cooling cycle was investigated because these collectors are lower in cost than conventional glazed flat-plate collectors. Using computer models, the performance of a desiccant cooling ventilation cycle integrated with either unglazed transpired collectors or conventional glazed flat-plate collectors was obtained. We found that the thermal performance of the unglazed system was lower than the thermal performance of the glazed system because the unglazed system could not take advantage of the heat of adsorption released during the dehumidification process. For a 3-ton cooling system, although the area required for the unglazed collector was 69% more than that required for the glazed collector, the cost of the unglazed collector array was 44% less than the cost of the glazed collector array. The simple payback period of the unglazed system was half of the payback period of the glazed collector when compared to an equivalent gas-fired system. Although the use of unglazed transpired collectors makes economic sense, some practical considerations may limit their use in desiccant regeneration. 8 refs.

  20. Reducing residential cooling requirements through the use of electrochromic windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, R.; Rubin, M.; Selkowitz, S.

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the results of a study investigating the energy performance of electrochromic windows in a prototypical residential building under a variety of state switching control strategies. We used the DOE-2.1E energy simulation program to analyze the annual cooling energy and peak demand as a function of glazing type, size, and electrochromic control strategy. A single-story ranch-style home located in the cooling-dominated locations of Miami, FL and Phoenix, AZ was simulated. Electrochromic control strategies analyzed were based on incident total solar radiation, space cooling load, and outside air temperature. Our results show that an electrochromic material with a high reflectance in the colored state provides the best performance for all control strategies. On the other hand, electrochromic switching using space cooling load provides the best performance for all the electrochromic materials. The performance of the incident total solar radiation control strategy varies as a function of the values of solar radiation which trigger the bleached and colored states of the electrochromic (setpoint range); i.e., required cooling decreases as the setpoint range decreases; also, performance differences among electrochromics increases. The setpoint range of outside air temperature control of electrochromics must relate to the ambient weather conditions prevalent in a particular location. If the setpoint range is too large, electrochromic cooling performance is very poor. Electrochromics compare favorably to conventional low-E clear glazings that have high solar heat gain coefficients that are used with overhangs. However, low-E tinted glazings with low solar heat gain coefficients can outperform certain electrochromics. Overhangs should be considered as a design option for electrochromics whose state properties do not change significantly between bleached and colored states.

  1. Methodology of CO{sub 2} emission evaluation in the life cycle of office building facades

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taborianski, Vanessa Montoro; Prado, Racine T.A., E-mail: racine.prado@poli.usp.br

    2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The construction industry is one of the greatest sources of pollution because of the high level of energy consumption during its life cycle. In addition to using energy while constructing a building, several systems also use power while the building is operating, especially the air-conditioning system. Energy consumption for this system is related, among other issues, to external air temperature and the required internal temperature of the building. The facades are elements which present the highest level of ambient heat transfer from the outside to the inside of tall buildings. Thus, the type of facade has an influence on energy consumption during the building life cycle and, consequently, contributes to buildings' CO{sub 2} emissions, because these emissions are directly connected to energy consumption. Therefore, the aim is to help develop a methodology for evaluating CO{sub 2} emissions generated during the life cycle of office building facades. The results, based on the parameters used in this study, show that facades using structural glazing and uncolored glass emit the most CO{sub 2} throughout their life cycle, followed by brick facades covered with compound aluminum panels or ACM (Aluminum Composite Material), facades using structural glazing and reflective glass and brick facades with plaster coating. On the other hand, the typology of facade that emits less CO{sub 2} is brickwork and mortar because its thermal barrier is better than structural glazing facade and materials used to produce this facade are better than brickwork and ACM. Finally, an uncertainty analysis was conducted to verify the accuracy of the results attained. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We develop a methodology for evaluating CO{sub 2} emissions generated during the life cycle of office building facades. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This methodology is based in LCA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We use an uncertainty analysis to verify the accuracy of the results attained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study three typologies of facades. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Facades using structural glazing and uncolored glass emit the most CO{sub 2} throughout their life cycle.

  2. A characterization of the nonresidential fenestration market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shehabi, Arman; Eley, Charles; Arasteh, Dariush; Degens, Phil

    2002-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to characterize the nonresidential fenestration market in order to better understand market barriers to, and opportunities for, energy-efficient fenestration products. In particular, the goal is to: (1) Better understand how glazing products flow between industry groups. (2) Identify major decision makers directing the product flow. (3) Understand industry trends for certain technologies or products. (4) Characterize the role of energy codes and standards in influencing industry trends. (5) Assess the impact of product testing and certification programs on the industry. The U.S. glass industry is a $27 billion enterprise with both large producers and small firms playing pivotal roles in the industry. While most sectors of the glass industry have restructured and consolidated in the past 20 years, the industry still employs 150,000 workers. Nonresidential glazing accounts for approximately 18% of overall U.S. glass production. In 1999, nonresidential glazing was supplied to approximately 2.2 billion ft{sup 2} of new construction and additions. That same year, nonresidential glazing was also supplied to approximately 1.1 billion ft{sup 2} of remodeling construction. With an industry this large and complex, it is to be expected that many market participants can influence fenestration selection. If market barriers to the selection of high performance fenestration products are better understood, then the U. S. Department of Energy (USDOE), the Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (NEEA), and others can develop programs and policies that promote greater energy efficiency in commercial glazing products.

  3. The energy performance of electrochromic windows in heating-dominated geographic locations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, R.; Lee, E.S.; Rubin, M.; Selkowitz, S.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the results of a study investigating the energy performance of electrochromic windows in heating-dominated geographic locations under a variety of state-switching control strategies. The authors used the DOE-2.1E energy simulation program to analyze the annual heating, cooling and lighting energy use and performance as a function of glazing type, size, and electrochromic control strategy. They simulated a prototypical commercial office building module located in Madison, Wisconsin. Control strategies analyzed were based on daylight illuminance, incident total solar radiation, and space cooling load. The results show that overall energy performance is best if the electrochromic is left in its clear or bleached state during the heating season, but controlled during the cooling season using daylight illuminance as a control strategy. Even in such heating dominated locations as madison, there is still a well-defined cooling season when electrochromic switching will be beneficial. However, having the electrochromic remain in its bleached state during the winter season may result in glare and visual comfort problems for occupants much in the same way as conventional glazings.

  4. A review of electrochromic window performance factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Selkowitz, S.E.; Rubin, M.; Lee, E.S.; Sullivan, R.; Finlayson, E.; Hopkins, D.

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance factors which will influence the market acceptance of electrochromic windows are reviewed. A set of data representing the optical properties of existing and foreseeable electrochromic window devices was generated. The issue of reflective versus absorbing electrochromics was explored. This data was used in the DOE 2.1 building energy model to calculate the expected energy savings compared to conventional glazings. The effects of several different control strategies were tested. Significant energy and peak electric demand benefits were obtained for some electrochromic types. Use of predictive control algorithms to optimize cooling control may result in greater energy savings. Initial economic results considering annual savings, cooling equipment cost savings, and electrochromic window costs are presented. Calculations of thermal and visual comfort show additional benefits from electrochromics but more work is needed to quantify their importance. The design freedom and aesthetic possibilities of these dynamic glazings should provide additional market benefits, but their impact is difficult to assess at this time. Ultimately, a full assessment of the market viability of electrochromics must consider the impacts of all of these issues.

  5. Development of fast response electrochromic devices on polymeric substrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antinucci, M.; Ferriolo, A. [Conphoebus, Catania (Italy)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrochromic devices have been widely studied in the past years for their very promising application in large-area glazing, smart windows, high contrast displays, automotive glazing. The development of full solid-state electrochromic (EC) devices on polymeric substrate is underway within a CEC BRITE-EURAM project (Project ``FREDOPS``, BE-4137) carried out by four industries, two universities and two research centers from Belgium, Denmark, France and Italy. Specific goal of the project is to develop a Fast Response Electrochromic Device On Polymeric Substrate (FREDOPS); in order to satisfy the required range of specifications in terms of fast response, long term performance and high contrast ratio, several systems based on different materials have been tested. The full cells consist of an electrochromic material layer and a counter-electrode, inserted between two PET/ITO layers and separated by a polymeric electrolyte. Different types of polymeric electrolytes, counter electrodes and electrochromic layers have been developed, studied and checked. Full devices have been assembled using different combinations. Voltammetric and spectrophotometric measurements have been executed to check the electrochromic behavior of the developed layers in half and full cells. Comparison of the electrochromic performances of different materials based cells has led to the rejection of several solutions due to poor performance and incompatibilities between layers. The present paper discusses these results in order to indicate the best foreseen solutions.

  6. A stock water solar heating system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nydahl, J.; Carlson, B.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on the progress in the development of an inexpensive but rugged solar system to heat stock water. Insulation encased in fiber reinforced concrete is the main structural component for the collector and the partition between the unheated stock tank and the heated section. A fully wetted, drain-back collector was designed to produce a high optical efficiency and to permit its water passage to be opened for cleaning. A unique double-glazed design is used in which the inner glazing is a film with a large thermal expansion coefficient. This causes a significant drop in the stagnation temperatures since a single glazed configuration is approached at high temperatures. The collector and the partially covered insulated tank prevented freezing, and held the average water temperature at 6.4 C (44 F) during the day while the mean daily ambient temperature was {minus}5.4 C (22 F) over a nine day test.

  7. Passive solar construction handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levy, E.; Evans, D.; Gardstein, C.

    1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many of the basic elements of passive solar design are reviewed. The unique design constraints presented in passive homes are introduced and many of the salient issues influencing design decisions are described briefly. Passive solar construction is described for each passive system type: direct gain, thermal storage wall, attached sunspace, thermal storage roof, and convective loop. For each system type, important design and construction issues are discussed and case studies illustrating designed and built examples of the system type are presented. Construction details are given and construction and thermal performance information is given for the materials used in collector components, storage components, and control components. Included are glazing materials, framing systems, caulking and sealants, concrete masonry, concrete, brick, shading, reflectors, and insulators. The Load Collector Ratio method for estimating passive system performance is appended, and other analysis methods are briefly summarized. (LEW)

  8. Energy Use and Design Options for Texas State Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katipamula, S.; O'Neal, D. L.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    standard restricts the total glazing to 50% of the exterior wall area, lighting levels to 1.5 W/sf, has higher summer and lower winter set point temperatures and requires a heat pump for heating - there was a 36% reduction in annual energy consumption... restrict the total glazing to 50% of the exterior wall area, lighting levels to 1.5 W/sf, require a heat pump for heating, and have higher summer and lower winter set point temperatures than the base buildings, there were savings of 60% in the annual energy...

  9. Glass-coating and cleaning system to prevent carbon deposition on coke oven walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takahira, Takuya; Ando, Takeshi; Kasaoka, Shizuki; Yamauchi, Yutaka [Kawasaki Steel Corp., Mizushima, Kurashiki (Japan). Mizushima Works

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The new technology for protecting the coking chamber bricks from damage by hard-pushing is described. The technology consists of the glass coating on the wall bricks and a wall cleaner to blow deposited carbon. For the glass coating, a specially developed glaze is sprayed onto the wall bricks by a spraying device developed to completely spray one coking chamber in a few minutes. The wall cleaner is installed on a pusher ram in the facility to automatically blow air at a sonic speed during coke pushing. The life of the glazed layer is estimated to be over two years.

  10. Los Alamos passive test cell results for the 1981-82 winter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarland, R.D.; Hedstrom, J.C.; Balcomb, J.D.; Moore, S.W.

    1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report covers Los Alamos test cell operation during the winter of 1981-82 including comparisons with the 1980-81 winter. Extensive data have been taken and computer-analyzed to determine performance parameters such as efficiency, solar savings fraction, and discomfort index. The data from different test cells are directly comparable because each has similar heating-load coefficient and collector area. Configurations include direct gain, unvented Trombe walls, water wall, phase-change wall, and sunspaces. Strategies for reducing heat loss include selective surfaces, two types of improved glazing systems, a heat pipe system, and convection suppression baffles. Significant differences in both auxiliary heat and comfort were observed among the various system types. The results are useful, not only for direct system comparisons, but also to provide data for validation of computer simulation programs. Availability of hourly data is described.

  11. Energy performance analysis of prototype electrochromic windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, R.; Rubin, M.; Selkowitz, S.

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the results of a study investigating the energy performance of three newly developed prototype electrochromic devices. The DOE-2.1 E energy simulation program was used to analyze the annual cooling, lighting, and total electric energy use and peak demand as a function of window type and size. The authors simulated a prototypical commercial office building module located in the cooling-dominated locations of Phoenix, AZ and Miami, FL. Heating energy use was also studied in the heating-dominated location of Madison, WI. Daylight illuminance was used to control electrochromic state-switching. Two types of window systems were analyzed; i.e., the outer pane electrochromic glazing was combined with either a conventional low-E or a spectrally selective inner pane. The properties of the electrochromic glazings are based on measured data of new prototypes developed as part of a cooperative DOE-industry program. The results show the largest difference in annual electric energy performance between the different window types occurs in Phoenix and is about 6.5 kWh/m{sup 2} floor area (0.60 kWh/ft{sup 2}) which can represent a cost of about $.52/m{sup 2} ($.05/ft{sup 2}) using electricity costing $.08/kWh. In heating-dominated locations, the electrochromic should be maintained in its bleached state during the heating season to take advantage of beneficial solar heat gain which would reduce the amount of required heating. This also means that the electrochromic window with the largest solar heat gain coefficient is best.

  12. Window shopping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Best, D.

    1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The author addresses the energy efficiency of windows and describes changes and new products available in this consumer information article. Experiments currently being done by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), Bonneville Power Authority and the Washington State Energy Office show that some of these superwindows collect more energy from the sun than they let escape from inside the home. One type of window in current production is the low-E (low-emissivity) and the IGUs (insulated glass units). Low-E techniques include glazing of the glass with various materials including polyester and metallic coatings. Other measures include filling the airspace in double pane windows with argon, aerogel or by creating a vacuum in the airspace. Another factor the author considers is ultraviolet light protection.

  13. Award Types

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternativeOperationalAugust AugustInstruments on theAward Types Types of

  14. Completed April 30, 2004. LBNL-54966. The Energy-Savings Potential of Electrochromic Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    " as the number one top priority. Smart windows include chromogenic glazings that can be reversibly switched from century [1]. Window industry executives identified a new generation of dynamic, responsive "Smart Windows and optical properties that can be dynamically controlled. "Smart windows" incorporating electrochromic

  15. Submitted October 2, 2003, accepted December 19, 2003 and published in Energy and Buildings 36 (2004) 503-513. LBNL-52198.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Spectrally selective glazings are beginning to penetrate the commercial sector as well. Despite, responsive "Smart Windows" as the number one top priority. The emerging concept of the window. These façade systems include smart windows and shading systems such as motorized shades, switchable

  16. From Here the Beginning is Hard to Find: Stories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lang, Jameelah Jafaar

    2010-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    and does not ask what anyone wants or say please. She points to the menu with a glazed fingernail and says, “We wil have the first five appetizers, thre large meat platers, lamb, chicken, beef, tea, coffe, an extra order of bread.” The plates come out...

  17. Ideal light concentrators with reflector gaps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winston, Roland (Chicago, IL)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cylindrical or trough-like radiant energy concentration and collection device is provided. The device includes an energy absorber, a glazing enveloping the absorber and a reflective wall. The ideal contour of the reflective wall is determined with reference to a virtual absorber and not the actual absorber cross section.

  18. C . .A Science_Service Peature ? TU.3Y THE YiEATHER 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meteorological Society, t e l l s about_: THE ICE STORM The ice storm, known i n England o.s glazed frost, i, when overwhelming accumulations of ice, i n combination with a gale af wind, . bring great devastation is the ice storm confined t o the northern states, f o r it is by no means unknown i n the south, though

  19. Singapore's Zero-Energy Building's Daylight Monitoring System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-3708E Singapore's Zero-Energy Building's Daylight Monitoring System Author(s), L. Grobe; S thereof or The Regents of the University of California. #12;Singapore's Zero-Energy Building's daylight, 94720 California, USA 1. Abstract A setup to monitor the daylighting performance of different glazing

  20. The DOE Slide Rule: An Energy Conservation Estimating Tool for Homebuilders

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winter, S.; Tuluca, A.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    How much insulation should be placed in the ceiling of a home? Which furnace is the best investment? Is reflective glazing a marketable option? The DOE slide rules and accompanying guides are designed to help answer such questions by providing a way...

  1. Ideal light concentrators with reflector gaps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winston, R.

    1980-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A cylindrical or trough-like radiant energy concentration and collection device is provided. The device includes an energy absorber, a glazing enveloping the absorber and a reflective wall. The ideal contour of the reflective wall is determined with reference to a virtual absorber and not the actual absorber cross section.

  2. Innovative Faade Systems for Low-energy Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Innovative Façade Systems for Low-energy Commercial Buildings Eleanor Lee, Stephen Selkowitz abstract Glazing and façade systems have very large impacts on all aspects of commercial building for commercial buildings to significantly reduce energy and demand, helping to move us toward our goal of net

  3. Coed y Brenin Visitor Centre Coed y Brenin is a centre

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -glazed, reducing heat loss by 50%. Good, natural ventilation provided by windows and skylights. Wood fuel heating ­ innovative and inviting, the centre benefits from sustainable features and a secure heating supply, ensuring of under-floor heating and hot water to the visitor centre. Water Supply A private borehole supplies water

  4. SOLAR HEAT GAIN THROUGH FENESTRATION SYSTEMS CONTAINING SHADING: SUMMARY OF PROCEDURES FOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SOLAR HEAT GAIN THROUGH FENESTRATION SYSTEMS CONTAINING SHADING: SUMMARY OF PROCEDURES that with a drastic simplifying assumption these methods can be used to calculate system solar-optical properties and solar heat gain coefficients for arbitrary glazing systems, while requiring limited data about

  5. SOLAR HEAT GAIN THROUGH FENESTRATION SYSTEMS CONTAINING SHADING: PROCEDURES FOR ESTIMATING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SOLAR HEAT GAIN THROUGH FENESTRATION SYSTEMS CONTAINING SHADING: PROCEDURES FOR ESTIMATING that with a drastic simplifying assumption these methods can be used to calculate system solar-optical properties and solar heat gain coefficients for arbitrary glazing systems, while requiring limited data about

  6. The Five-Phase Method for Simulating Complex Fenestration with Radiance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    series of illuminance or luminance result V = View matrix, relating outgoing directions on window the sun luminance (no sky luminance) Ssun = Direct sun matrix containing the radiance and position of the luminance contributions that are used in the five-phase for a space with clear glazing. E3ph - Eds-3ph + Eds

  7. Utility and economic benefits of electrochromic smart windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warner, J.L.; Reilly, M.S.; Selkowitz, S.E.; Arasteh, D.K. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Ander, G.D. [Southern California Edison Co., Rosemead, CA (United States)

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Windows have very significant direct and indirect impacts on building energy consumption, load shape, and peak demand. Electrochromic switchable glazings can potentially provide substantial reductions in all aspects of cooling and lighting electricity usage. This study explores the potential benefits of electrochromics in comparison to other currently available and emerging glazing technologies. These effects are explored in office buildings in several climates as a function of window size, orientation, and building operating characteristics. The DOE-2 building energy simulation program was used to model the performances of these dynamic coatings, accounting for both thermal and daylighting impacts. Very substantial savings are demonstrated compared to conventional glazings, but specific impacts on component and total energy consumption, peak demand, and HVAC system sizing vary widely among the options analyzed. In a hot, sunny climate, simple payback periods of three to ten years were calculated. Electrochromic glazings appear to represent a very important future building design option that will allow architects and engineers a high degree of design freedom to meet occupant needs, while minimizing operating costs to building owners and providing a new and important electricity demand control option for utilities. Utility demand-side management programs can accelerate the market penetration of electrochromics by offering incentives to reduce net first cost and payback periods.

  8. Visual and energy performance of switchable windows with antireflection coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jonsson, Andreas; Roos, Arne [Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this project was to investigate how the visual appearance and energy performance of switchable or smart windows can be improved by using antireflective coatings. For this study clear float glass, low-e glass and electrochromic glass were treated with antireflection (AR) coatings. Such a coating considerably increases the transmittance of solar radiation in general and the visible transmittance in particular. For switchable glazing based on absorptive electrochromic layers in their dark state it is necessary to use a low-emissivity coating on the inner pane of a double glazed window in order to reject the absorbed heat. In principle all surfaces can be coated with AR coatings, and it was shown that a thin AR coating on the low-e surface neither influences the thermal emissivity nor the U-value of the glazing. The study showed that the use of AR coatings in switchable glazing significantly increases the light transmittance in the transparent state. It is believed that this is important for a high level of user acceptance of such windows. (author)

  9. Cost Effectiveness for Solar Control Film for Residential Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Taqi, H. H.; Maheshwari, G. P.; Alasseri, R.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For the existing housing, retrofitting single or double glazed clear glass window with solar films can be an effective measure to reduce their peak power demand, and large scale application of the same on national level can be an effective tool...

  10. Benefits of the International Residential Code's Maximum Solar heat Gain Coefficient Requirement for Windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stone, G. A.; DeVito, E. M.; Nease, N. H.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Texas adopted in its residential building energy code a maximum 0.40 solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) for fenestration (e.g., windows, glazed doors and skylights)-a critical driver of cooling energy use, comfort and peak demand. An analysis...

  11. The Future of Material Science & Engineering A Polymer Industry Perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Mo

    Polymers6 We're We've Been US Production of Synthetic Polymers (semi-log scale) DuPont, 1994 Hollywood Insulation Phenol-Formaldehyde Electrical Housings ~10y 1920s Antifreeze Polysulfide Rubber Rocket Fuel ~10y 1920s Rubber Substitute IR, SBR, NBR, etc. Tires & Rubber goods ~ 5y 1920s Coatings PMA, PMMA Glazing

  12. Structural foam-core panels in Northwest HUD-code manufactured housing: A preliminary assessment of opportunities and obstacles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durfee, D.L.; Lee, A.D.; Onisko, S.A.

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This investigation of structural foam-core panels (foam panels) in manufactured housing was initiated during the Super Good Cents (SGC) program. The SGC program limited allowable glazing area because of the relatively high thermal losses associated with most windows. Due to their superior thermal performance, foam panels appeared to be a viable option to allow increased glazing area without compromising the thermal integrity of the wall. With the inception of the Manufactured-Housing Acquisition Program (MAP), however, the focus of this study has shifted. MAP permits unlimited glazing area if expensive, super-efficient, vinyl-framed, argon-gas-filled, low-emissivity coated windows are installed. Although MAP permits unlimited glazing area, a foam panel wall could allow the use of less expensive windows, larger window area, or less insulation and still provide the required thermal performance for the building. Bonneville contracted with the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to investigate the feasibility of using foam panels in HUD-code manufactured housing. This study presents the results from a product and literature search. The potential barriers and benefits to the use of foam panels are determined from a regional survey of the HUD-code manufacturers and foam panel producers.

  13. Interaction potentials for alumina and molecular dynamics simulations of amorphous and liquid alumina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Southern California, University of

    Interaction potentials for alumina and molecular dynamics simulations of amorphous and liquid for preventing crystalliza- tion and giving chemical stability and durability to a glaze, for instance. Due been identified.4 A review of these crystal structures and their pre- cursors can be found in the work

  14. doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/SSP.124-126.1221 Nano Structured Silica Aerogel films by Dip-Coating Process.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deogdo Heo; Youngjei Oh; Byungsei Jun

    The optimum values of the porosity, pore size and transmittance of the coating layer were investigated to give the lower thermal conductivity of the smart glazing. The porosity of the aerogel film is 90%, and the pores with 50micron size are uniformly distributed through the film. The transmittance

  15. Solar Heat Gain through a Skylight in a Light Well J. H. Klems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    " area AV and the thermal (or "rough opening") area AT are projected areas in the plane of the envelope section of the building envelope surface: W AV SHGC()EDN cos SHGC D (Ed Er ) AT U T (1) where the "vision interior space between the actual glazing elements and the aperture in the envelope defined

  16. UNC Charlotte PORTAL Building Trade Package Base Bid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelly, Scott David

    glazing Alternate #2 Fire rated glass curtain wall system Alternate #3 Access control system/ cardUNC Charlotte PORTAL Building Trade Package Base Bid Alternate #1 Office curtains/ double readers Alternate #4 Add café area wall finishes Alternate #5 Add café area casework Prefered

  17. ENTRY LOBBY ENERGY EFFICIENCY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Escher, Christine

    ENTRY LOBBY ENERGY EFFICIENCY Clerestory windows provide natural day-lighting.· Exterior roof SUSTAINABILITY FEATURES #12;ADMINISTRATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY High performance window glazing· minimizes heat gain. Skylights provide natural day-lighting.· High-efficiency lighting reduces energy· costs and heat gain

  18. Interior Light Level Measurements Appendix F -Interior Light Level Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Appendix F ­ Interior Light Level Measurements #12;F.1 Appendix F - Interior Light Level. A potential concern is that a lower VT glazing may increase electric lighting use to compensate for lost qualify and quantify a representative loss of daylighting, and therefore electric lighting use

  19. Integrating Acclimated Kinetic Envelopes into Sustainable Building Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Jialiang

    2014-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    /IESNA Illuminating Engineering Society of North America IRB Institutional Review Board LEED Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design LBNL Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory LPD lighting power density NREL National Renewable Energy Laboratory....11. Retractable roof of the High Court of Justice and Supreme Court (Foster+Partners, 2012) ................................................................ 33 Figure 2.12. Examples of electrochromic glazing by LBNL (Lee, DiBartolomeo, xiii...

  20. NCSCTL Statement of Work Revision Level: 03 Revision Date: 10/21/13 Page 1 of 3 The following Statement of Work is set forth between

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ___________________________________Country On this date: MM/DD/YY For the following work: Testing of the collector to the Solar(company name for Certifying Solar Collectors (Glazed Liquid Based Collectors only) 1.3.2. ISO 17025 1.3.3. Those mandated Statement of Work is set forth between: North Carolina Solar Center North Carolina State University 1101

  1. Solar collector apparatus having increased energy rejection during stagnation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, S.W.

    1981-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    An active solar collector having increased energy rejection during stagnation is disclosed. The collector's glazing is brought into substantial contact with absorber during stagnation to increase re-emittance and thereby to maintan lower temperatures when the collector is not in operation.

  2. The Public Hall of Residence is located in Ferrol town centre, at Magdalena district to be precise. It is easily

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraguela, Basilio B.

    The Public Hall of Residence is located in Ferrol town centre, at Magdalena district to be precise. It is easily accesible to both Esteiro and Serantes campuses. The Magdalena district is an example of rational. This district preserves eighteenthcentury houses, with wrought iron balconies on stone corbels and glazed white

  3. United States Department of the Interior, J. A. Krug, Secretary Fish and Wildlife Service, Albert M. Day, Director

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Anabiosis V. Preparation for Freezing VI. Methods of Freezing a. General b. Comparison of Methods c. Blast. Aboard Ship VII. Glazing and Surface Protection VIII. Packaging IX. Effect of Freezing a. General b. On Organisms x. Changes in Storage a. General b. Effect of Temperature on Changes o. Desiocation in Storage d

  4. NFRC Interlaboratory Comparison on Optical Properties Jacob C. Jonsson and Michael Rubin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    standards with international standards. In the solar range, NFRC 300 refers to ASTM E903 (currently of the International Glazing Database (IGDB). NFRC 302 specifies that submitters of optical data participated in an ILC conducted by some other reputable independent organization. What does it mean

  5. A U G U S T 2 0 1 4 Upcoming events!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abolmaesumi, Purang

    beautiful front patio to showcase the play Salt Water Moon & Photographer Karen Taylor had her guests seated lunch Grilled vegetable, black bean & corn chili Orange glazed duck wings Whiskey BBQ pulled pork Crispy paninis Fresh local yellow beans Roasted garlic & thyme, potato hash Assorted salads Local peach pies $18

  6. Accelerated ageing of solar control IGUs EN1279-3 compared to climate cabinet, CliSim

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    glazing. The influence of the dimensions of the IGU with regard to the gas leakage rate was also tested System description Glass ­ outer 4 mm SKN 172 ­ Cool Lite Glass ­ inner 4 mm float G6 Cavity 16 mm Spacer Swiss spacer Outer sealing Fenzi Butyl Fenzi Corner connection 4 pieces of plastic Desiccant Phonosorb

  7. Electrochromic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allemand, Pierre M. (Tucson, AZ); Grimes, Randall F. (Ann Arbor, MI); Ingle, Andrew R. (Tucson, AZ); Cronin, John P. (Tucson, AZ); Kennedy, Steve R. (Tuscon, AZ); Agrawal, Anoop (Tucson, AZ); Boulton, Jonathan M. (Tucson, AZ)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrochromic device is disclosed having a selective ion transport layer which separates an electrochemically active material from an electrolyte containing a redox active material. The devices are particularly useful as large area architectural and automotive glazings due to there reduced back reaction.

  8. Experimental Investigation on Thermal Properties of a Steel-jacketed Steam Heating Pipeline with Vacuum Insulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Na, W.; Zou, P.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Vacuum insulation panel [J]. Vacuum. v46,1995: 839?842 [4] R. E. COLLINS, T. M. SIMKO. Current status of the science and technology of vacuum glazing [J]. Solar Energy. V62, 1998(3):189?213 [5] Douglas M. Smith, Alok Maskar, Ulrich Boes. Aerogel...

  9. Laser welding and post weld treatment of modified 9Cr-1MoVNb steel.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Z. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

    2012-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Laser welding and post weld laser treatment of modified 9Cr-1MoVNb steels (Grade P91) were performed in this preliminary study to investigate the feasibility of using laser welding process as a potential alternative to arc welding methods for solving the Type IV cracking problem in P91 steel welds. The mechanical and metallurgical testing of the pulsed Nd:YAG laser-welded samples shows the following conclusions: (1) both bead-on-plate and circumferential butt welds made by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser show good welds that are free of microcracks and porosity. The narrow heat affected zone has a homogeneous grain structure without conventional soft hardness zone where the Type IV cracking occurs in conventional arc welds. (2) The laser weld tests also show that the same laser welder has the potential to be used as a multi-function tool for weld surface remelting, glazing or post weld tempering to reduce the weld surface defects and to increase the cracking resistance and toughness of the welds. (3) The Vicker hardness of laser welds in the weld and heat affected zone was 420-500 HV with peak hardness in the HAZ compared to 240 HV of base metal. Post weld laser treatment was able to slightly reduce the peak hardness and smooth the hardness profile, but failed to bring the hardness down to below 300 HV due to insufficient time at temperature and too fast cooling rate after the time. Though optimal hardness of weld made by laser is to be determined for best weld strength, methods to achieve the post weld laser treatment temperature, time at the temperature and slow cooling rate need to be developed. (4) Mechanical testing of the laser weld and post weld laser treated samples need to be performed to evaluate the effects of laser post treatments such as surface remelting, glazing, re-hardening, or tempering on the strength of the welds.

  10. An Exploratory Energy Analysis of Electrochromic Windows in Small and Medium Office Buildings - Simulated Results Using EnergyPlus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belzer, David B.

    2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Building Technologies Program (BTP) has had an active research program in supporting the development of electrochromic (EC) windows. Electrochromic glazings used in these windows have the capability of varying the transmittance of light and heat in response to an applied voltage. This dynamic property allows these windows to reduce lighting, cooling, and heating energy in buildings where they are employed. The exploratory analysis described in this report examined three different variants of EC glazings, characterized by the amount of visible light and solar heat gain (as measured by the solar heat gain coefficients [SHGC] in their “clear” or transparent states). For these EC glazings, the dynamic range of the SHGC’s between their “dark” (or tinted) state and the clear state were: (0.22 - 0.70, termed “high” SHGC); (0.16 - 0.39, termed “low” SHGC); and (0.13 - 0.19; termed “very low” SHGC). These glazings are compared to conventional (static) glazing that meets the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004 energy standard for five different locations in the U.S. All analysis used the EnergyPlus building energy simulation program for modeling EC windows and alternative control strategies. The simulations were conducted for a small and a medium office building, where engineering specifications were taken from the set of Commercial Building Benchmark building models developed by BTP. On the basis of these simulations, total source-level savings in these buildings were estimated to range between 2 to 7%, depending on the amount of window area and building location.

  11. Zero Energy Windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arasteh, Dariush; Selkowitz, Steve; Apte, Josh; LaFrance, Marc

    2006-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Windows in the U.S. consume 30 percent of building heating and cooling energy, representing an annual impact of 4.1 quadrillion BTU (quads) of primary energy. Windows have an even larger impact on peak energy demand and on occupant comfort. An additional 1 quad of lighting energy could be saved if buildings employed effective daylighting strategies. The ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} program has made standard windows significantly more efficient. However, even if all windows in the stock were replaced with today's efficient products, window energy consumption would still be approximately 2 quads. However, windows can be ''net energy gainers'' or ''zero-energy'' products. Highly insulating products in heating applications can admit more useful solar gain than the conductive energy lost through them. Dynamic glazings can modulate solar gains to minimize cooling energy needs and, in commercial buildings, allow daylighting to offset lighting requirements. The needed solutions vary with building type and climate. Developing this next generation of zero-energy windows will provide products for both existing buildings undergoing window replacements and products which are expected to be contributors to zero-energy buildings. This paper defines the requirements for zero-energy windows. The technical potentials in terms of national energy savings and the research and development (R&D) status of the following technologies are presented: (1) Highly insulating systems with U-factors of 0.1 Btu/hr-ft{sup 2}-F; (2) Dynamic windows: glazings that modulate transmittance (i.e., change from clear to tinted and/or reflective) in response to climate conditions; and (3) Integrated facades for commercial buildings to control/ redirect daylight. Market transformation policies to promote these technologies as they emerge into the marketplace are then described.

  12. Electrochromic windows for commercial buildings: Monitored results from a full-scale testbed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Eleanor S.; DiBartolomeo, Dennis L.; Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrochromic glazings promise to be the next major advance in energy-efficient window technology, helping to transform windows and skylights from an energy liability to an energy source for the nation's building stock. Monitored results from a full-scale demonstration of large-area electrochromic windows are given. The test consisted of two side-by-side, 3.7x4.6-m, office-like rooms. In each room, five 62x173-cm lower electrochromic windows and five 62x43-cm upper electrochromic windows formed a large window wall. The window-to-exterior-wall ratio (WWR) was 0.40. The southeast-facing electrochromic windows had an overall visible transmittance (Tv) range of Tv=0.11-0.38 and were integrated with a dimmable electric lighting system to provide constant work plane illuminance and to control direct sun. Daily lighting use from the automated electrochromic window system decreased by 6 to 24% compared to energy use with static, low-transmission (Tv =0.11), unshaded windows in overcast to cle ar sky winter conditions in Oakland, California. Daily lighting energy use increased as much as 13% compared to lighting energy use with static windows that had Tv=0.38. Even when lighting energy savings were not obtainable, the visual environment produced by the electrochromic windows, indicated by well-controlled window and room luminance levels, was significantly improved for computer-type tasks throughout the day compared to the visual environment with unshaded 38%-glazing. Cooling loads were not measured, but previous building energy simulations indicate that additional savings could be achieved. To ensure visual and thermal comfort, electrochromics require occasional use of interior or exterior shading systems when direct sun is present. Other recommendations to improve electrochromic materials and controls are noted along with some architectural constraints.

  13. Assignment Types UTS LIBRARY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    University of Technology, Sydney

    Assignment Types UTS LIBRARY February 2013 Academic Writing Guide Part 2 ­ Assignment Types: This section outlines the basic types of written assignments, providing structural elements and examples. #12;2 II. Assignment Types 1. Essay Writing

  14. Types of Costs Types of Cost Estimates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boisvert, Jeff

    · Types of Costs · Types of Cost Estimates · Methods to estimate capital costs MIN E 408: Mining% accuracy. ­ 2-5% of pre-production capital Types of Cost Estimates #12;3. Definitive ­ Based on definitive-even $ Production Level Fixed Cost Break-even $ Production Level Cost-Revenue Relationships · Capital Costs (or

  15. Types of Commissioning

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Several commissioning types exist to address the specific needs of equipment and systems across both new and existing buildings. The following commissioning types provide a good overview.

  16. Types of Costs Types of Cost Estimates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boisvert, Jeff

    05-1 · Types of Costs · Types of Cost Estimates · Methods to estimate capital costs MIN E 408-Revenue Relationships · Capital Costs (or first cost or capital investment): ­ Expenditures made to acquire or develop capital assets ­ Three main classes of capital costs: 1. Depreciable Investment: · Investment allocated

  17. Solar Energy Windows and Smart IR Switchable Building Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCarny, James; Kornish, Brian

    2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The three building envelope functions with the largest impact on the energy usage are illumination, energy flux and energy production. In general, these three functions are addressed separately in the building design. A step change toward a zero-energy building can be achieved with a glazing system that combines these three functions and their control into a single unit. In particular, significant value could be realized if illumination into the building is dynamically controlled such that it occurs during periods of low load on the grid (e.g., morning) to augment illumination supplied by interior lights and then to have that same light diverted to PV energy production and the thermal energy rejected during periods of high load on the grid. The objective of this project is to investigate the feasibility of a glazing unit design that integrates these three key functions (illumination and energy flux control, and power production) into a single module.

  18. A new Energy Saving method of manufacturing ceramic products from waste glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haun Labs

    2002-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This final report summarizes the activities of the DOE Inventions and Innovations sponsored project, ''A New Energy Saving Method of Manufacturing Ceramic Products from Waste Glass.'' The project involved an innovative method of lowering energy costs of manufacturing ceramic products by substituting traditional raw materials with waste glass. The processing method is based on sintering of glass powder at {approx}750 C to produce products which traditionally require firing temperatures of >1200 C, or glass-melting temperatures >1500 C. The key to the new method is the elimination of previous processing problems, which have greatly limited the use of recycled glass as a ceramic raw material. The technology is aligned with the DOE-OIT Glass Industry Vision and Roadmap, and offers significant energy savings and environmental benefits compared to current technologies. A U.S. patent (No. 6,340,650) covering the technology was issued on January 22, 2002. An international PCT Patent Application is pending with designations made for all PCT regions and countries. The goal of the project was to provide the basis for the design and construction of an energy-efficient manufacturing plant that can convert large volumes of waste glass into high-quality ceramic tile. The main objectives of the project were to complete process development and optimization; construct and test prototype samples; and conduct market analysis and commercialization planning. Two types of ceramic tile products were targeted by the project. The first type was developed during the first year (Phase I) to have a glazed-like finish for applications where slip resistance is not critical, such as wall tile. The processing method optimized in Phase I produces a glossy surface with a translucent appearance, without the extra glazing steps required in traditional tile manufacturing. The second type of product was developed during the second year (Phase II). This product was designed to have an unglazed appearance for applications requiring slip resistance, such as floor tile. The coarser matte finish of this product type was produced by modifying the basic process to include crystalline fillers and partial crystallization of the glass. Additional details of the project results are discussed in Section III.

  19. A medium-rise 1970’s maternity hospital in the east of England: resilience and adaptation to climate change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Short, C. Alan; Giridharan, Renganathan; Lomas, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    .Thomas’s tower on the Thames and Oxford’s John Radcliffe Hospital. The essential framed, glazed treatment is consistent. Writing particularly of F.R.S.Yorke, YRM’S founder and an important publicist for modern architecture, Worsley wrote,” it was the rise... a huge barrier to achieving adaptation of the public non-domestic building stock, unfortunate given that the NHS Retained Estate would seem to be a particularly promising place to implement a public sector adaptation scheme...

  20. Light-scattering studies of silica aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, A.J.

    1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to its combination of transparency and low thermal conductivity, aerogel holds considerable promise for use as insulating window materials for residential and commercial applications. This paper reports on the preliminary investigation of the optical and scattering properties of silica aerogels. It briefly describes the properties of aerogels important for window glazing applications. The optical properties are then described, followed by a discussion of the scattering measurements and their interpretation.

  1. Solar space and water heating system at Stanford University Central Food Services Building. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This active hydronic domestic hot water and space heating system was 840 ft/sup 2/ of single-glazed, liquid, flat plate collectors and 1550 gal heat storage tanks. The following are discussed: energy conservation, design philosophy, operation, acceptance testing, performance data, collector selection, bidding, costs, economics, problems, and recommendations. An operation and maintenance manual and as-built drawings are included in appendices. (MHR)

  2. Proceedings of the 5th ISES Europe Solar Conf., Freiburg (2004), vol. 2 591 Solar utilisation in low-energy buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gieseler, Udo D. J.

    and Solar Energy Walter-Flex-Str. 3, D-57068 Siegen, Germany http://nesa1.uni-siegen.de, e-mail: heidt@physik.uni-siegen.de Abstract For low-energy buildings, passive solar gains can contribute significantly to the heat bal- ance losses, the energy flux through the glazing of windows is denoted as "passive solar gains". In low-energy

  3. Comparison of Simulation Methods for Evaluating Improved Fenestration Using the DOE-2.1E Building Energy Simulation Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhopadhyay, J.; Haberl, J. S.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    - performance glazing technology pushed researchers at LBNL to develop new and more sophisticated algorithms for fenestration simulation software (Arasteh et al. 1998). Research by Rubin (1982a, 1982b) and later Arasteh et al. (1989) played a key role... performance of fenestration systems under realistic conditions and compared the results with those obtained from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories (LBNL) simulation models (Klems 1989; Klems et al. 1995). DOE-2.1e gives several options...

  4. The Future of Passive Solar in Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wulfinghoff, D. R.

    . For illumination, there are glazing units which would \\~sually be smaller and more numerous, and these might also include thermal shutters, light diffusers, and devices for distributing the light. Passive solar cannot be characterized by clearly established.... components. Thermal mass, if carefully designed, may cost little more than the HOW MUCH DOES PASSIVE SOLAR COST? marginal cost of the materials. The big unknown is the ultimate cost of effective The cost elements of passive solar sunlight control devices...

  5. Molded polymer solar water heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourne, Richard C.; Lee, Brian E.

    2004-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A solar water heater has a rotationally-molded water box and a glazing subassembly disposed over the water box that enhances solar gain and provides an insulating air space between the outside environment and the water box. When used with a pressurized water system, an internal heat exchanger is integrally molded within the water box. Mounting and connection hardware is included to provide a rapid and secure method of installation.

  6. Energy Efficiency/ Renewable Energy (EE/RE) Projects in Texas Public Schools 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J.; Kim, H.; Mukhopadhyay, J.; Baltazar, J. C.; Do, S.; Kim, K.; Lewis, C.; Yazdani, B.; Yarborough, J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy Systems Lab, under contract from EPA, modeled 18 different ee/re measures for schools throughout Texas, by climate zone. • It assumed a 79,430 sq. ft. 1-story primary school in the modeling • Looked at both retrofitting and new... Texas climate zones used in the modeling Energy Systems Laboratory p. 9 18 EE/RE Measures Envelope • Increased Roof Insulation • Decreased Glazing U-Value • Decreased Infiltration • Decreased Lighting Power Density • Occupancy Sensor...

  7. Monday, March 12, 2007 MARS VOLCANISM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    Monday, March 12, 2007 MARS VOLCANISM 2:30 p.m. Crystal Ballroom B Chairs: J. E. Bleacher M. H to the northeast. 2:45 p.m. Baloga S. M. * Glaze L. S. Time-Dependent Levee Growth for Mars Lava Flows [#1276, for very cold climate, sulfur dioxide glaciers and liquid sulfur dioxide runoff. 4:00 p.m. Johnson S. S

  8. 9 Scionce Service Feature Released on r e c e i p t

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ICE STORhl OF FEBRUARY 21-23,1922. Five years ago lower Michigan s u f f e r e d t h e worst i c e THE WZ'EATH'ER 7 Mailed February 16,4927 By Dr. Charles F. Brooks of C l a r k University THE MICHIGAPJ Michigan i t southern Michigan 2 t o 4 inchas of rain f e l l and was converted I n t o glaze. Tho 1 2 t o

  9. Performance Evaluation of a Hot-Humid Climate Community

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osser, R.; Kerrigan, P.

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Project Home Again is a development in New Orleans, LA created to provide new homes to victims of Hurricane Katrina. Building Science Corporation acted as a consultant for the project, advocating design strategies for durability, flood resistance, occupant comfort, and low energy use while maintaining cost effectiveness. These techniques include the use of high density spray foam insulation, LoE3 glazing, and supplemental dehumidification to maintain comfortable humidity levels without unnecessary cooling.

  10. Solar space and water heating system installed at Charlottesville, Virginia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greer, Charles R.

    1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The solar energy system located at David C. Wilson Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Charlottesville, Virginia, consists of 88 single glazed, Sunworks Solector copper base plate collector modules; hot water coils in the hot air ducts; a domestic hot water (DHW) preheat tank; a 3,000 gallon concrete urethane-insulated storage tank and other miscellaneous components. This report includes extracts from the site files, specifications, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions.

  11. Passive solar in China: traditional and new

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.; Balcomb, S.A.

    1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors' observations of a tradition of passive solar architecture in northern China are described. Tendencies for modern buildings to depart from this tradition are noted. Major passive solar research programs are discussed and experimental buildings are illustrated. It is concluded that the Chinese could realize a major advantage by combining their strong tradition of passive solar architecture with modern insulation methods and improved glazing systems.

  12. Types of Reuse

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The following provides greater detail regarding the types of reuse pursued for LM sites. It should be noted that many actual reuses combine several types of the uses listed below.

  13. Integral collector storage system with heat exchange apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rhodes, Richard O.

    2004-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to an integral solar energy collector storage systems. Generally, an integral collector storage system includes a tank system, a plurality of heat exchange tubes with at least some of the heat exchange tubes arranged within the tank system, a first glazing layer positioned over the tank system and a base plate positioned under the tank system. In one aspect of the invention, the tank system, the first glazing layer an the base plate each include protrusions and a clip is provided to hold the layers together. In another aspect of the invention, the first glazing layer and the base plate are ribbed to provide structural support. This arrangement is particularly useful when these components are formed from plastic. In yet another aspect of the invention, the tank system has a plurality of interconnected tank chambers formed from tubes. In this aspect, a supply header pipe and a fluid return header pipe are provided at a first end of the tank system. The heat exchange tubes have inlets coupled to the supply header pipe and outlets coupled to the return header pipe. With this arrangement, the heat exchange tubes may be inserted into the tank chambers from the first end of the tank system.

  14. QUEENSLAND UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY CENTRE FOR MEDICAL, HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL PHYSICS SCHOOL OF PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL SCIENCES MODIFICATION OF ATRIUM DESIGN TO IMPROVE THERMAL AND DAYLIGHTING PERFORMANCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ashley Mabb; Centre For Medical; Environmental Physics

    The inclusion of a central court or atrium within a building is a popular design due to its aesthetic, open appearance. The greater penetration of natural light aids in the reduction in use of artificial lighting during the day. Care must be taken to balance the solar heat gain against the daylight penetration. This balance is critical for the reduction of the electrical energy load of the building, whilst maintaining a high level of comfort for the occupants. In the tropics modifications to atrium building designs are necessary to diminish high elevation direct solar heat gain. Traditionally, shading the window apertures or lowering the transmission through the glazing was used. These solutions limit the view and reduce the light level. The use of angular selective glazing upon atria allows the rejection of high elevation direct sunlight whilst redirecting and therefore improving low elevation skylight penetration. Tilted angular selective glazing used upon adjoining spaces to atria help vertical light in the atrium well to be redirected horizontally deep into the space. These effects reduce overheating which would normally restrict the use of atria in warmer environments as well as improve illumination penetration into adjoining spaces.

  15. Experimental study of a fiber absorber-suppressor modified Trombe wall

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choudhury, D; Birkebak, R C

    1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental study has been conducted to ascertain the effects of introducing fiber bed absorbers on Trombe wall passive solar collectors. Two identical, Trombe wall passive solar units were constructed that incorporate the basic components of masonry collector-storage walls: glazings, masonry and thermal insulation. Both units were extensively instrumented with thermocouples and heat flux transducers. Ambient temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and insolation are also measured. In the first part of the study the two Trombe wall units were tested with a single glass cover. The thermal performance of both units was found to be virtually identical. In the second part of the study a single cover Trombe wall unit was compared with a double cover unit and the latter was found to have higher air gap and masonry wall temperatures and heat fluxes. In the final phase of the experiment, an absorbing, scattering and emitting fiberglass-like material was placed in the air gap of the single gazed wall. Tests were conducted to compare the solar-thermal performance, heat loss and gain characteristics between the units with and without the fiber absorber-suppressor. This experiment showed that the fiber bed served to decouple the wall at night from its exterior environment and to reduce the heat losses. The modified Trombe wall with the fiber absorber-suppressor out-performed the double glazed Trombe wall system by approximately ten percent gain in useable thermal energy. Also, the fiber bed eliminates one glazing thereby reducing system cost as well.

  16. Typed Self-Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Matt

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    type T y[O]. The operator IsIs is self-applicative, in thatargument t is any of Is[O] or IsIs, and otherwise behavesproof constant introduced by IsIs proves that the type of t

  17. Your Guide to Diabetes: Type 1 and Type 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rau, Don C.

    Your Guide to Diabetes: Type 1 and Type 2 National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse #12;#12;Your Guide to Diabetes: Type 1 and Type 2 #12;#12;Contents Learn about Diabetes ............................................................ 1 What is diabetes? .............................................................. 2 What

  18. Fejer-type inequalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitroi, F C

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this paper is to present some new Fejer-type results for convex functions. Improvements of Young's inequality (the arithmetic-geometric mean inequality) and other applications to special means are pointed as well.

  19. Document Type: Subject Terms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Major, Arkady

    Title: Authors: Source: Document Type: Subject Terms: Abstract: Full Text Word Count: ISSN at creating team results. In fact, it's priceless. Managers in Western corporations have received a lifetime

  20. Electrochromic properties of nickel oxide thin films prepared by the sol-gel method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miki, Takeshi; Yoshimura, Kazuki; Tai, Yutaka; Tazawa, Masato; Jin, P.; Tanemura, Sakae [National Industrial Research Inst., Nagoya (Japan). Multifunctional Material Science Dept.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently electrochromic (EC) device has been attractive as a smart glazing to control heating, cooling and lighting loads of buildings and housing. Among various electrochromic materials, nickel oxide is one of the typical anode type materials. Here, the electrochromic nickel oxide films were prepared onto transparent conducting film on glass substrate by the sol-gel method using an ethylene glycol solution of nickel nitrate hexahydrate. The films produced by the dip-coating method and calcined at 250, 300 and 350 C. The formed films were characterized by their electrochromic behavior in cyclic voltammetry. The formed films showed electrochromic behavior in 1M KOH aqueous solution as electrolytic solution. The cyclic voltammograms were recorded up to 100 cycles for each film. The anodic peak of the coloration reaction appeared at approximately +400 mV, while the cathodic peak of the bleaching reaction occurred at about +200 mV vs. Ag/AgCl. Both the anodic peak and the cathodic peak increased with an increase of the cyclic numbers in voltammograms, whereas these peaks at 100 cycles decreased with an increase of the calcination temperature of nickel oxide films. The calcination gave great influence on the other electrochromic behaviors of nickel oxide films.

  1. Solar passive ceiling system. Final report. [Passive solar heating system with venetian blind reflectors and latent heat storage in ceiling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, A.R.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The construction of a 1200 square foot building, with full basement, built to be used as a branch library in a rural area is described. The primary heating source is a passive solar system consisting of a south facing window system. The system consists of: a set of windows located in the south facing wall only, composed of double glazed units; a set of reflectors mounted in each window which reflects sunlight up to the ceiling (the reflectors are similar to venetian blinds); a storage area in the ceiling which absorbs the heat from the reflected sunlight and stores it in foil salt pouches laid in the ceiling; and an automated curtain which automatically covers and uncovers the south facing window system. The system is totally passive and uses no blowers, pumps or other active types of heat distribution equipment. The building contains a basement which is normally not heated, and the north facing wall is bermed four feet high around the north side.

  2. Technology reviews: Dynamic curtain wall systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuman, J.; Rubinstein, F.; Papamichael, K.; Beltran, L.; Lee, E.S.; Selkowitz, S.

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a representative review of existing, emerging, and future technology options in each of five hardware and systems areas in envelope and lighting technologies: lighting systems, glazing systems, shading systems, daylighting optical systems, and dynamic curtain wall systems. The term technology is used here to describe any design choice for energy efficiency, ranging from individual components to more complex systems to general design strategies. The purpose of this task is to characterize die state of the art in envelope and lighting technologies in order to identify those with promise for advanced integrated systems, with an emphasis on California commercial buildings. For each technology category, the following activities have been attempted to the extent possible: Identify key performance characteristics and criteria for each technology. Determine the performance range of available technologies. Identify the most promising technologies and promising trends in technology advances. Examine market forces and market trends. Develop a continuously growing in-house database to be used throughout the project. A variety of information sources have been used in these technology characterizations, including miscellaneous periodicals, manufacturer catalogs and cut sheets, other research documents, and data from previous computer simulations. We include these different sources in order to best show the type and variety of data available, however publication here does not imply our guarantee of these data. Within each category, several broad classes are identified, and within each class we examine the generic individual technologies that fall into that class.

  3. Technology reviews: Daylighting optical systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuman, J.; Rubinstein, F.; Papamichael, K.; Beltran, L.; Lee, E.S.; Selkowitz, S.

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a representative review of existing, emerging, and future technology options in each of five hardware and systems areas in envelope and lighting technologies: lighting systems, glazing systems, shading systems, daylighting optical systems, and dynamic curtain wall systems. The term technology is used here to describe any design choice for energy efficiency, ranging from individual components to more complex systems to general design strategies. The purpose of this task is to characterize the state of the art in envelope and lighting technologies in order to identify those with promise for advanced integrated systems, with an emphasis on California commercial buildings. For each technology category, the following activities have been attempted to the extent possible: Identify key performance characteristics and criteria for each technology. Determine the performance range of available technologies. Identify the most promising technologies and promising trends in technology advances. Examine market forces and market trends.Develop a continuously growing in-house database to be used throughout the project. A variety of information sources have been used in these technology characterizations, including miscellaneous periodicals, manufacturer catalogs and cut sheets, other research documents, and data from previous computer simulations. We include these different sources in order to best show the type and variety of data available, however publication here does not imply our guarantee of these data. Within each category, several broad classes are identified, and within each class we examine the generic individual technologies that fall into that class.

  4. Technology reviews: Shading systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuman, J.; Rubinstein, F.; Papamichael, K.; Beltran, L.; Lee, E.S.; Selkowitz, S.

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a representative review of existing, emerging, and future technology options in each of five hardware and systems areas in envelope and lighting technologies: lighting systems, glazing systems, shading systems, daylighting optical systems, and dynamic curtain wall systems. The term technology is used here to describe any design choice for energy efficiency, ranging from individual components to more complex systems to general design strategies. The purpose of this task is to characterize the state of the art in envelope and lighting technologies in order to identify those with promise for advanced integrated systems, with an emphasis on California commercial buildings. For each technology category, the following activities have been attempted to the extent possible: Identify key performance characteristics and criteria for each technology. Determine the performance range of available technologies. Identify the most promising technologies and promising trends in technology advances. Examine market forces and market trends. Develop a continuously growing in-house database to be used throughout the project. A variety of information sources have been used in these technology characterizations, including miscellaneous periodicals, manufacturer catalogs and cut sheets, other research documents, and data from previous computer simulations. We include these different sources in order to best show the type and variety of data available, however publication here does not imply our guarantee of these data. Within each category, several broad classes are identified, and within each class we examine the generic individual technologies that fall into that class.

  5. Process for forming transparent aerogel insulating arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tewari, P.H.; Hunt, A.J.

    1985-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved supercritical drying process for forming transparent silica aerogel arrays is described. The process is of the type utilizing the steps of hydrolyzing and condensing aloxides to form alcogels. A subsequent step removes the alcohol to form aerogels. The improvement includes the additional step, after alcogels are formed, of substituting a solvent, such as CO/sub 2/, for the alcohol in the alcogels, the solvent having a critical temperature less than the critical temperature of the alcohol. The resulting gels are dried at a supercritical temperature for the selected solvent, such as CO/sub 2/, to thereby provide a transparent aerogel array within a substantially reduced (days-to-hours) time period. The supercritical drying occurs at about 40/sup 0/C instead of at about 270/sup 0/C. The improved process provides increased yields of large scale, structurally sound arrays. The transparent aerogel array, formed in sheets or slabs, as made in accordance with the improved process, can replace the air gap within a double glazed window, for example, to provide a substantial reduction in heat transfer. The thus formed transparent aerogel arrays may also be utilized, for example, in windows of refrigerators and ovens, or in the walls and doors thereof or as the active material in detectors for analyzing high energy elementary particles or cosmic rays.

  6. Process for forming transparent aerogel insulating arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tewari, Param H. (Milpitas, CA); Hunt, Arlon J. (Oakland, CA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved supercritical drying process for forming transparent silica aerogel arrays is described. The process is of the type utilizing the steps of hydrolyzing and condensing aloxides to form alcogels. A subsequent step removes the alcohol to form aerogels. The improvement includes the additional step, after alcogels are formed, of substituting a solvent, such as CO.sub.2, for the alcohol in the alcogels, the solvent having a critical temperature less than the critical temperature of the alcohol. The resulting gels are dried at a supercritical temperature for the selected solvent, such as CO.sub.2, to thereby provide a transparent aerogel array within a substantially reduced (days-to-hours) time period. The supercritical drying occurs at about 40.degree. C. instead of at about 270.degree. C. The improved process provides increased yields of large scale, structurally sound arrays. The transparent aerogel array, formed in sheets or slabs, as made in accordance with the improved process, can replace the air gap within a double glazed window, for example, to provide a substantial reduction in heat transfer. The thus formed transparent aerogel arrays may also be utilized, for example, in windows of refrigerators and ovens, or in the walls and doors thereof or as the active material in detectors for analyzing high energy elementry particles or cosmic rays.

  7. Dust around Type Ia supernovae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Lifan

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dust around Type Ia supernovae Lifan Wang 1,2 LawrenceIa. Subject headings: Supernovae: General, Dust, Extinctionline) bands for Type Ia supernovae. (a), upper panel, shows

  8. Wolter type i LAMAR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Catura, R.C.; Joki, E.G.

    1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Observational objectives for the LAMAR and their influence on the instrument design are discussed. It is concluded that the most important design parameter is the angular resolution of the LAMAR modules since it so strongly influences sensitivity, optical identifications, source confusion, spectral resolution for objective gratings and the ability to resolve small extended sources. A high resolution Wolter Type I LAMAR module is described, its hardware status discussed, and the performance of a LAMAR observatory presented. A promising technique for enhancing the reflectivity of Wolter Type I X-ray optics in a selected bandpass at high energy has been investigated and the performance of the LAMAR module, utilizing this method, has been calculated.

  9. Rappels: 4) Piles Types abstraits de donnes (Abstract Data Type)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamel, Sylvie

    Rappels: 4) Piles #12;Types abstraits de données (Abstract Data Type) IFT2015, A2009, Sylvie Hamel Université de Montréal 1Piles Type de données Un ensemble de valeurs Un ensemble d'opérations Structure de Université de Montréal 2Piles #12;Type abstrait de données PILE (§4.2) Garde en mémoire des objets

  10. Postdoc Appointment Types

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible forPortsmouth/Paducah Project Office Press ReleasesPost-Closure BenefitsAppointment Types

  11. Rappels: 4) Piles Types abstraits de donnes (Abstract Data Type)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamel, Sylvie

    Rappels: 4) Piles Types abstraits de données (Abstract Data Type) IFT2015, A2009, Sylvie Hamel Université de Montréal 1Piles Type de données Un ensemble de valeurs Un ensemble d'opérations Structure de Université de Montréal 2Piles Type abstrait de données PILE (§4.2) Garde en mémoire des objets arbitraires

  12. Mechanism design with approximate types

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Zeyuan Allen

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In mechanism design, we replace the strong assumption that each player knows his own payoff type exactly with the more realistic assumption that he knows it only approximately: each player i only knows that his true type ...

  13. Types of Farming in Texas.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bonnen, C. A.

    1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    .......... .......-.----------------------. 8 Labor -..-.....-----...------------------------------------------------. 9 Land Tenure .--.----....---....--------------------------------- 9 Number and Size of Farms ....----...----.-._--------- 10 Capital... -------------...-------.---------------------------- 21 Hogs -......-....--------------------------------------------------- 22 Poultry .-.---.-.....--.-..------.---------------------------------- 22 Horses and Mules ---..-....---..--..------------------------ 23 Types of Farming and Type-of-farming...

  14. Tornado type wind turbines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, Cheng-Ting (Ames, IA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A tornado type wind turbine has a vertically disposed wind collecting tower with spaced apart inner and outer walls and a central bore. The upper end of the tower is open while the lower end of the structure is in communication with a wind intake chamber. An opening in the wind chamber is positioned over a turbine which is in driving communication with an electrical generator. An opening between the inner and outer walls at the lower end of the tower permits radially flowing air to enter the space between the inner and outer walls while a vertically disposed opening in the wind collecting tower permits tangentially flowing air to enter the central bore. A porous portion of the inner wall permits the radially flowing air to interact with the tangentially flowing air so as to create an intensified vortex flow which exits out of the top opening of the tower so as to create a low pressure core and thus draw air through the opening of the wind intake chamber so as to drive the turbine.

  15. A dependent nominal type theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheney, James

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nominal abstract syntax is an approach to representing names and binding pioneered by Gabbay and Pitts. So far nominal techniques have mostly been studied using classical logic or model theory, not type theory. Nominal extensions to simple, dependent and ML-like polymorphic languages have been studied, but decidability and normalization results have only been established for simple nominal type theories. We present a LF-style dependent type theory extended with name-abstraction types, prove soundness and decidability of beta-eta-equivalence checking, discuss adequacy and canonical forms via an example, and discuss extensions such as dependently-typed recursion and induction principles.

  16. On the asymptotic homotopy type of inductive limit Type ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    In this note we exhibit large classes of (projeetionless) stable, nuclear C*- algebras whose asymptotic homotopy type is determined by K-theoretical data.

  17. Type of Space Bulb Type #/House Fixture Style Greenhouse #

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    Type of Space Bulb Type #/House Fixture Style Greenhouse # 1 Lu 430/Lu 400 24 White box style 2 Lu No bulbs 0 N/A Seed harvest room F32 T8/TL 841 90 bulbs VIGS Room F032 /741/ECO 60 bulbs Chamber Model Bulb

  18. Development and testing of a photometric method to identify non-operating solar hot water systems in field settings.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Hongbo (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Vorobieff, Peter V. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Menicucci, David (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Mammoli, Andrea A. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Carlson, Jeffrey J.

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of experimental tests of a concept for using infrared (IR) photos to identify non-operational systems based on their glazing temperatures; operating systems have lower glazing temperatures than those in stagnation. In recent years thousands of new solar hot water (SHW) systems have been installed in some utility districts. As these numbers increase, concern is growing about the systems dependability because installation rebates are often based on the assumption that all of the SHW systems will perform flawlessly for a 20-year period. If SHW systems routinely fail prematurely, then the utilities will have overpaid for grid-energy reduction performance that is unrealized. Moreover, utilities are responsible for replacing energy for loads that failed SHW system were supplying. Thus, utilities are seeking data to quantify the reliability of SHW systems. The work described herein is intended to help meet this need. The details of the experiment are presented, including a description of the SHW collectors that were examined, the testbed that was used to control the system and record data, the IR camera that was employed, and the conditions in which testing was completed. The details of the associated analysis are presented, including direct examination of the video records of operational and stagnant collectors, as well as the development of a model to predict glazing temperatures and an analysis of temporal intermittency of the images, both of which are critical to properly adjusting the IR camera for optimal performance. Many IR images and a video are presented to show the contrast between operating and stagnant collectors. The major conclusion is that the technique has potential to be applied by using an aircraft fitted with an IR camera that can fly over an area with installed SHW systems, thus recording the images. Subsequent analysis of the images can determine the operational condition of the fielded collectors. Specific recommendations are presented relative to the application of the technique, including ways to mitigate and manage potential sources of error.

  19. Focused R&D For Electrochromic Smart Windowsa: Significant Performance and Yield Enhancements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Burdis; Neil Sbar

    2003-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    There is a need to improve the energy efficiency of building envelopes as they are the primary factor governing the heating, cooling, lighting and ventilation requirements of buildings--influencing 53% of building energy use. In particular, windows contribute significantly to the overall energy performance of building envelopes, thus there is a need to develop advanced energy efficient window and glazing systems. Electrochromic (EC) windows represent the next generation of advanced glazing technology that will (1) reduce the energy consumed in buildings, (2) improve the overall comfort of the building occupants, and (3) improve the thermal performance of the building envelope. ''Switchable'' EC windows provide, on demand, dynamic control of visible light, solar heat gain, and glare without blocking the view. As exterior light levels change, the window's performance can be electronically adjusted to suit conditions. A schematic illustrating how SageGlass{reg_sign} electrochromic windows work is shown in Figure I.1. SageGlass{reg_sign} EC glazings offer the potential to save cooling and lighting costs, with the added benefit of improving thermal and visual comfort. Control over solar heat gain will also result in the use of smaller HVAC equipment. If a step change in the energy efficiency and performance of buildings is to be achieved, there is a clear need to bring EC technology to the marketplace. This project addresses accelerating the widespread introduction of EC windows in buildings and thus maximizing total energy savings in the U.S. and worldwide. We report on R&D activities to improve the optical performance needed to broadly penetrate the full range of architectural markets. Also, processing enhancements have been implemented to reduce manufacturing costs. Finally, tests are being conducted to demonstrate the durability of the EC device and the dual pane insulating glass unit (IGU) to be at least equal to that of conventional windows.

  20. New approaches for modeling type Ia supernovae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zingale, Michael; Almgren, Ann S.; Bell, John B.; Day, Marcus S.; Rendleman, Charles A.; Woosley, Stan

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    runaway in Type Ia supernovae: How to run away? oIgnition in Type Ia Supernovae. II. A Three- dimensionalnumber modeling of type Ia supernovae. I. hydrodynamics.

  1. Energy Analysis and Energy Conservation Options for the Supreme Court and Attorney General Buildings Final Report, Prepared for the Energy Efficiency Division, Texas Public Utility Commission 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farzad, M.; O'Neal, D. L.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , and electric energy for base buildings and buildings with California standards. Because the California standards restrict the total glazing to 50% of the exterior wall area, lighting levels to 1.5 w/sf and requires a heat pump for heating, the average total... of heat pumps. Appendix D provides the cooling and heating peak load components of each building as well as system monthly loads for each floor. Implementing the California standards would reduce the Energy Use Index for the buildings. However...

  2. Elements for an Atlas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bell, Samantha J.

    2009-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    could hear, even in the safety of the law. Now, the clink of ice in a cold glass is too much to bear. The shriek of the snow melting, slicing off the roof, causes panic in my bones. The mailman?s casual walk is enough to make me sweat. Night... trained yourself to hate eating. You watched people?s faces glaze over as they crunched a salty potato chip. You witnessed creamy glee when the lids of ice-cream containers were peeled back, smooth and clean as vanilla. You watched the licks of the lips...

  3. Analysis of the Energy Savings Potential in K-5 Schools in Hot and Humid Climates: Application of High Performance Measures and Renewable Energy Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Im, P.; Haberl, J.

    -08-05 of the building. Since the DOE-2 simulation program is not capable of simulating solar thermal and PV systems, the F-Chart and PV F-Chart program were used to calculate the hot water and the electricity generation from a solar thermal and PV system... measures were applied to the target building. Those measures include: increased glazing U-value, VFD application for the HVAC system, cold deck reset, variable speed for pumps, high-efficiency boiler, skylights, and the application of solar thermal...

  4. Stability, Wear Resistance, and Microstructure of Iron, Cobalt and Nickel-based Hardfacing Alloys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atamert, Serdar

    1989-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal Arc Welding (MMA) 12 2.7.1.2 Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) Process 13 2.7.2 Hardening of Metal Surfaces by Laser Processing 14 2.7.2.1 Laser Oadding 15 2.7.3 Comparison of Surfacing Processes and Harfacing Process Selection 17 2.8 Summary 17 2... . Process techniques include laser alloying, laser cladding, laser melt/particle injection, transformation hardening and laser glazing.m The main advantage of using laser heating is that the surface can be heated with minimal heat transport into the bulk...

  5. Benefits of the International Residential Code's Maximum Solar heat Gain Coefficient Requirement for Windows 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stone, G. A.; DeVito, E. M.; Nease, N. H.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    upgrade cost for all low solar gain low-e glazed products. However, our experience suggests that a good estimate of the average upgrade cost for low solar gain low-e is less than a $1.50 per square foot of window area. This price has been..., Oregon and Washington back in 1996 were less than $2 per square foot. Similarly, a 1995 study by the Washington State Energy Office [M. Lubliner & T. Ossinger, ?Pricing of Energy Efficient Windows in the Pacific Northwest?], found the cost to upgrade...

  6. Freezing Fish and Shellfish.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nickelson, Ranzell; Reddell, Annette

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    dry, tough product as well as speed up the oxidation process. This also can be prevented by wrapping or glazing the product to prevent moisture from evaporating. Frost-free freezers can remove a con siderable amount of moisture from a product in a... may not be back to normal opera tion within 1 to 2 days, use dry ice to keep the temperature below freezing and to prevent spoilage of frozen seafgod. Fifty pounds of dry ice in a 20- cubic-foot home freezer should hold the tempera ture below...

  7. Simulating the Daylight Performance of Complex Fenestration Systems Using Bidirectional Scattering Distribution Functions within Radiance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, Gregory; Mistrick, Ph.D., Richard; Lee, Eleanor; McNeil, Andrew; Jonsson, Ph.D., Jacob

    2011-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe two methods which rely on bidirectional scattering distribution functions (BSDFs) to model the daylighting performance of complex fenestration systems (CFS), enabling greater flexibility and accuracy in evaluating arbitrary assemblies of glazing, shading, and other optically-complex coplanar window systems. Two tools within Radiance enable a) efficient annual performance evaluations of CFS, and b) accurate renderings of CFS despite the loss of spatial resolution associated with low-resolution BSDF datasets for inhomogeneous systems. Validation, accuracy, and limitations of the methods are discussed.

  8. Electrochromic material and electro-optical device using same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cogan, Stuart F. (Sudbury, MA); Rauh, R. David (Newton, MA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An oxidatively coloring electrochromic layer of composition M.sub.y CrO.sub.2+x (0.33.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.2.0 and x.ltoreq.2) where M=Li, Na or K with improved transmittance modulation, improved thermal and environmental stability, and improved resistance to degradation in organic liquid and polymeric electrolytes. The M.sub.y CrO.sub.2+x provides complementary optical modulation to cathodically coloring materials in thin-film electrochromic glazings and electrochromic devices employing polymeric Li.sup.+ ion conductors.

  9. Electrochromic material and electro-optical device using same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cogan, S.F.; Rauh, R.D.

    1992-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    An oxidatively coloring electrochromic layer of composition M[sub y]CrO[sub 2+x] (0.33[le]y[le]2.0 and x[le]2) where M=Li, Na or K with improved transmittance modulation, improved thermal and environmental stability, and improved resistance to degradation in organic liquid and polymeric electrolytes. The M[sub y]CrO[sub 2+x] provides complementary optical modulation to cathodically coloring materials in thin-film electrochromic glazings and electrochromic devices employing polymeric Li[sup +] ion conductors. 12 figs.

  10. Application issues for large-area electrochromic windows incommercial buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Eleanor S.; DiBartolomeo, D.L.

    2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Projections of performance from small-area devices to large-area windows and enterprise marketing have created high expectations for electrochromic glazings. As a result, this paper seeks to precipitate an objective dialog between material scientists and building-application scientists to determine whether actual large-area electrochromic devices will result in significant performance benefits and what material improvements are needed, if any, to make electrochromics more practical for commercial building applications. Few in-situ tests have been conducted with large-area electrochromic windows applied in buildings. This study presents monitored results from a full-scale field test of large-area electrochromic windows to illustrate how this technology will perform in commercial buildings. The visible transmittance (Tv) of the installed electrochromic ranged from 0.11 to 0.38. The data are limited to the winter period for a south-east-facing window. The effect of actual device performance on lighting energy use, direct sun control, discomfort glare, and interior illumination is discussed. No mechanical system loads were monitored. These data demonstrate the use of electrochromics in a moderate climate and focus on the most restrictive visual task: computer use in offices. Through this small demonstration, we were able to determine that electrochromic windows can indeed provide unmitigated transparent views and a level of dynamic illumination control never before seen in architectural glazing materials. Daily lighting energy use was 6-24 percent less compared to the 11 percent-glazing, with improved interior brightness levels. Daily lighting energy use was 3 percent less to 13 percent more compared to the 38 percent-glazing, with improved window brightness control. The electrochromic window may not be able to fulfill both energy-efficiency and visual comfort objectives when low winter direct sun is present, particularly for computer tasks using cathode-ray tube (CRT) displays. However, window and architectural design as well as electrochromic control options are suggested as methods to broaden the applicability of electrochromics for commercial buildings. Without further modification, its applicability is expected to be limited during cold winter periods due to its slow switching speed.

  11. Experience on Commissioning of Heating/Cooling System and Thermal/Air Quality Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hokoi, S.; Miura, H.; Huang, Y.; Nakahara, N.; Iwamae, A.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    are 100 mm (GW 10 K) and 145 mm (85 mm GW and 60 mm styrol-sponge), respectively. Figure 2 shows the structure of the floor. Low-E pair glasses, whose overall heat transfer coefficient is 2.7 W/m2K, glaze all windows and the solar transmittance is 0... of the water temperature is easy while water flow rate is difficult. 5.5 Usage of Resident 1) design intent and commissioned items: solar shading is controlled by suitably operating the electrically driven blind installed on the outside, which also serves...

  12. Energy technologies evaluation for the EDD Los Angeles Building. Summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study evaluated the feasibility of potential energy efficiency measures (EEM`s) for the proposed EDD office building located at 5401 Crenshaw in Los Angeles, CA. The 26,748 ft{sup 2} single-story building is currently in the final design phase. Key building energy features include uninsulated exterior concrete block walls, R19 insulated roof, glazing on north and east orientations only, multiple air source rooftop packaged heat pumps, and electric resistance water heaters. For this project, DEG evaluated seven potential EEM`s from both performance and 30 year life cycle cost (LCC) perspectives.

  13. The Benefit of Lean Techniques Interfaced with Modular Construction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Douthit, Colin

    2013-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    to interview Marc Butler. He is the Owner of J.R. Butler, Inc., a glass and glazing contractor located in Denver, Colorado. J.R. Butler manufactures and installs unitized curtain wall. Marc is a valuable resource because he uses Lean principles in his... provides relief from the elements, wind, and dust. Also, the work is being done in an ergonomic position. When putting together glass curtain wall in the field the glazier is frequently in awkward positions that may lead to imperfect seals around...

  14. Secondary Containment Design for a High Speed Centrifuge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, K.W.

    1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Secondary containment for high speed rotating machinery, such as a centrifuge, is extremely important for operating personnel safety. Containment techniques can be very costly, ungainly and time consuming to construct. A novel containment concept is introduced which is fabricated out of modular sections of polycarbonate glazed into a Unistrut metal frame. A containment study for a high speed centrifuge is performed which includes the development of parameters for secondary containment design. The Unistrut/polycarbonate shield framing concept is presented including design details and proof testing procedures. The economical fabrication and modularity of the design indicates a usefulness for this shielding system in a wide variety of containment scenarios.

  15. Standard specification for architectural flat glass clad polycarbonate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 This specification covers the quality requirements for cut sizes of glass clad polycarbonate (GCP) for use in buildings as security, detention, hurricane/cyclic wind-resistant, and blast and ballistic-resistant glazing applications. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  16. Amity Elementary School, Boise, Idaho. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design, predicted system performance, operation and maintenance instructions, and wiring and piping schematic diagrams for the recently installed active/passive solar space and hot water system for the Amity Elementary School in Boise, Idaho, are presented. 370 sq. ft. of single-glazed Solecor collectors supply the domestic hot water system and 1830 sq. ft. of collectors are utilized in the space heating system. Tanks provide hot water storage. The earth-covered school building contains 51,400 gross sq. ft. Component specifications are included. (WHK)

  17. Effect of plants on sunspace passive solar heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Best, E.D.; McFarland, R.D.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of plants on sunspace thermal performance is investigated, based on experiments done in Los Alamos using two test rooms with attached sunspaces, which were essentially identical except for the presence of plants in one. Performance is related to plant transpiration, evaporation from the soil, condensation on the glazing and the absorbtance of solar energy by the lightweight leaves. Performance effects have been quantified by measurements of auxiliary heat consumption in the test rooms and analyzed by means of energy balance calculations. A method for estimating the transpiration rate is presented.

  18. Regular Type III and Type N Approximate Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Philip Downes; Paul MacAllevey; Bogdan Nita; Ivor Robinson

    2001-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    New type III and type N approximate solutions which are regular in the linear approximation are shown to exist. For that, we use complex transformations on self-dual Robinson-Trautman metrics rather then the classical approach. The regularity criterion is the boundedness and vanishing at infinity of a scalar obtained by saturating the Bel-Robinson tensor of the first approximation by a time-like vector which is constant with respect to the zeroth approximation.

  19. P-type gallium nitride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rubin, Michael (Berkeley, CA); Newman, Nathan (Montara, CA); Fu, Tracy (Berkeley, CA); Ross, Jennifer (Pleasanton, CA); Chan, James (Berkeley, CA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several methods have been found to make p-type gallium nitride. P-type gallium nitride has long been sought for electronic devices. N-type gallium nitride is readily available. Discovery of p-type gallium nitride and the methods for making it will enable its use in ultraviolet and blue light-emitting diodes and lasers. pGaN will further enable blue photocathode elements to be made. Molecular beam epitaxy on substrates held at the proper temperatures, assisted by a nitrogen beam of the proper energy produced several types of p-type GaN with hole concentrations of about 5.times.10.sup.11 /cm.sup.3 and hole mobilities of about 500 cm.sup.2 /V-sec, measured at 250.degree. K. P-type GaN can be formed of unintentionally-doped material or can be doped with magnesium by diffusion, ion implantation, or co-evaporation. When applicable, the nitrogen can be substituted with other group III elements such as Al.

  20. P-type gallium nitride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rubin, M.; Newman, N.; Fu, T.; Ross, J.; Chan, J.

    1997-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Several methods have been found to make p-type gallium nitride. P-type gallium nitride has long been sought for electronic devices. N-type gallium nitride is readily available. Discovery of p-type gallium nitride and the methods for making it will enable its use in ultraviolet and blue light-emitting diodes and lasers. pGaN will further enable blue photocathode elements to be made. Molecular beam epitaxy on substrates held at the proper temperatures, assisted by a nitrogen beam of the proper energy produced several types of p-type GaN with hole concentrations of about 5{times}10{sup 11} /cm{sup 3} and hole mobilities of about 500 cm{sup 2} /V-sec, measured at 250 K. P-type GaN can be formed of unintentionally-doped material or can be doped with magnesium by diffusion, ion implantation, or co-evaporation. When applicable, the nitrogen can be substituted with other group III elements such as Al. 9 figs.

  1. Type Ia Supernova Explosion Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. Hillebrandt; J. C. Niemeyer

    2000-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Because calibrated light curves of Type Ia supernovae have become a major tool to determine the local expansion rate of the Universe and also its geometrical structure, considerable attention has been given to models of these events over the past couple of years. There are good reasons to believe that perhaps most Type Ia supernovae are the explosions of white dwarfs that have approached the Chandrasekhar mass, M_ch ~ 1.39 M_sun, and are disrupted by thermonuclear fusion of carbon and oxygen. However, the mechanism whereby such accreting carbon-oxygen white dwarfs explode continues to be uncertain. Recent progress in modeling Type Ia supernovae as well as several of the still open questions are addressed in this review. Although the main emphasis will be on studies of the explosion mechanism itself and on the related physical processes, including the physics of turbulent nuclear combustion in degenerate stars, we also discuss observational constraints.

  2. Effect of switching control strategies on the energy performance of electrochromic windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, R.; Lee, E.S.; Papamichael, K.; Rubin, M.; Selkowitz, S. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Building Technologies Program

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the results of a study investigating the energy performance of electrochromic windows under a variety of state-switching control strategies. The authors used the DOE-2.1E energy simulation program to analyze the annual cooling, lighting, and total electricity use and peak demand as a function of glazing type, size, and electrochromic control strategy. They simulated a prototypical commercial office building module located in the cooling-dominated location of Blythe, California. Control strategies analyzed were based on daylight illuminance, incident total solar radiation, and space cooling load. Their results show that when a daylighting strategy is used to reduce electrical lighting requirements, control algorithms based on daylight illuminance results in the best overall annual energy performance. If daylighting is not a design option, controls based on space cooling load yield the best performance through solar heat gain reduction. The performance of the incident total solar radiation control strategies varies as a function of the values of solar radiation which trigger the bleached and colored states of the electrochromic (setpoint range); for small to moderate window sizes which result in small to moderate solar gains, a large setpoint-range was best since it provides increased illuminance for daylighting without much cooling penalty; for larger window sizes, which provide adequate daylight, a small setpoint-range was best to reduce unwanted solar heat gains and the consequential increased cooling requirement. Of particular importance is the fact that reduction in peak electric demand was found to be independent of the type of control strategy used for electrochromic switching. This is because the electrochromics are generally in their most colored state under peak conditions, and the mechanism used for achieving such a state is not important.

  3. Country Scotland Type Single malt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Izzard, Rob

    Country Scotland Type Single malt Distillery Aberfeldy Region Highlands Age 12 years ABV 40% Cask, the perfume characteristics become more spicy, with a bitter hint of Seville oranges in a decidedly dry finish. Drying citrus/oak with a gentle spiciness, held in a warm embrace of cigar smoke, and a little vanilla

  4. Country Scotland Type Single malt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Izzard, Rob

    Country Scotland Type Single malt Distillery Jura Region Island Name Prophecy ABV 46 Cask French airport Notes Limited annual release: 10,000 bottles only. Nose Some peat, aniseed, oily, dry, pungent, dried hay, and anise round things out. Palate Smoky and dry, a muscular, powerful Jura with notes

  5. Automatic Utterance Type Detection Using Suprasegmental Features 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright, Helen

    that different types of utterances have different suprasegmental characteristics. The categorisation of these utterance types is based on the theory of conversation games and consists of 12 move types (e.g. reply to a question, wh-question, acknowledgement...

  6. Tridiagonal pairs of Krawtchouk type

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ito, Tatsuro

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Let $K$ denote an algebraically closed field with characteristic 0 and let $V$ denote a vector space over $K$ with finite positive dimension. Let $A,A^*$ denote a tridiagonal pair on $V$ with diameter $d$. We say that $A,A^*$ has Krawtchouk type whenever the sequence $\\lbrace d-2i\\rbrace_{i=0}^d$ is a standard ordering of the eigenvalues of $A$ and a standard ordering of the eigenvalues of $A^*$. Assume $A,A^*$ has Krawtchouk type. We show that there exists a nondegenerate symmetric bilinear form $$ on $V$ such that $= $ and $= $ for $u,v\\in V$. We show that the following tridiagonal pairs are isomorphic: (i) $A,A^*$; (ii) $-A,-A^*$; (iii) $A^*,A$; (iv) $-A^*,-A$. We give a number of related results and conjectures.

  7. Abstract DNA-type systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diederik Aerts; Marek Czachor

    2005-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    An abstract DNA-type system is defined by a set of nonlinear kinetic equations with polynomial nonlinearities that admit soliton solutions associated with helical geometry. The set of equations allows for two different Lax representations: A von Neumann form and a Darboux-covariant Lax pair. We explain why non-Kolmogorovian probability models occurring in soliton kinetics are naturally associated with chemical reactions. The most general known characterization of soliton kinetic equations is given and a class of explicit soliton solutions is discussed. Switching between open and closed states is a generic behaviour of the helices. The effect does not crucially depend on the order of nonlinearity (i.e. types of reactions), a fact that may explain why simplified models possess properties occuring in realistic systems. We explain also why fluctuations based on Darboux transformations will not destroy the dynamics but only switch between a finite number of helical structures.

  8. Niger Delta play types, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akinpelu, A.O. [Chevron Nigeria Limited, Lagos (Nigeria)

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Exploration databases can be more valuable when sorted by play type. Play specific databases provide a system to organize E & P data used in evaluating the range of values of parameters for reserve estimation and risk assessment. It is important both in focusing the knowledge base and in orienting research effort. A play in this context is any unique combination of trap, reservoir and source properties with the right dynamics of migration and preservation that results in hydrocarbon accumulation. This definitions helps us to discriminate the subtle differences found with these accumulation settings. About 20 play types were identified around the Niger Delta oil province in Nigeria. These are grouped into three parts: (1) The proven plays-constituting the bulk of exploration prospects in Nigeria today. (2) The unproven or semi-proven plays usually with some successes recorded in a few tries but where knowledge is still inadequate. (3) The unproven or analogous play concept. These are untested but geologically sound ideas which may or may not have been tried elsewhere. With classification and sub grouping of these play types into specific databases, intrinsic attributes and uniqueness of each of them with respect to the four major risk elements and the eight parameters for reserve estimation can be better understood.

  9. Performance of a multifunctional PV/T hybrid solar window

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidsson, Henrik; Perers, Bengt; Karlsson, Bjoern [Energy and Building Design, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, SE 221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A building-integrated multifunctional PV/T solar window has been developed and evaluated. It is constructed of PV cells laminated on solar absorbers placed in a window behind the glazing. To reduce the cost of the solar electricity, tiltable reflectors have been introduced in the construction to focus radiation onto the solar cells. The reflectors render the possibility of controlling the amount of radiation transmitted into the building. The insulated reflectors also reduce the thermal losses through the window. A model for simulation of the electric and hot water production was developed. The model can perform yearly energy simulations where different features such as shading of the cells or effects of the glazing can be included or excluded. The simulation can be run with the reflectors in an active, up right, position or in a passive, horizontal, position. The simulation program was calibrated against measurements on a prototype solar window placed in Lund in the south of Sweden and against a solar window built into a single family house, Solgaarden, in Aelvkarleoe in the central part of Sweden. The results from the simulation shows that the solar window annually produces about 35% more electric energy per unit cell area compared to a vertical flat PV module. (author)

  10. Solar skylight

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adamson, James C. (Osprey La., Rumson, NJ 07760)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A reflective shutter rotates within a skylight housing in such a fashion as to control solar energy thereby providing a combination of heating, lighting, and ventilation. The skylight housing has three faces: a glazed southern face, a glazed northern face, and an open downwardly oriented face to the interior of the structure. Counter-weighted pivot arms support the shutter at either end causing the center of rotation to pass through the center of gravity. The shutter has three basic positions: In the first position, during the winter day, the shutter closes off the northern face, allowing solar energy to enter directly into the supporting structure providing heat gain and daylighting. In the second position, during the winter night, the shutter closes off the open face to the interior, providing insulation between the structure and the skylight housing. In the third position, during the non-heating season, the shutter closes off the southern face blocking unwanted heat gain but allowing diffuse northern light to penetrate for daylighting. In this last position, a means is provided for ventilating by natural convection. The apparatus can be operated either manually or by motor.

  11. Evaluation of integrated wall systems incorporating electrochromic windows [Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sbar, Neil L.

    2001-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Billions of dollars are spent annually in the U.S. on energy lost through the use of inefficient windows. Even wall systems with advanced static glazings and moveable shading devices are not optimal because they can't effectively respond to changing solar conditions. Electrochromic (EC) smart windows can dynamically control the amount of solar light and heat entering a building. The energy saving performance of fully dynamic wall systems containing EC windows was compared with that of static systems using the DOE 2.1E building simulation program. Total costs for different scenarios were computed. SAGE demonstrated the capability to produce double pane EC windows in which the transmittance repeatedly varied between 2-58%. Relative impact of EC glazings in buildings compared to static is 10-20% energy savings across all climatic regions investigated. Significant life cycle cost savings are predicted for SAGE's EC windows when compared to conventional solar control windows over an estimated product lifetime of 20 years.

  12. Tips for Daylighting with Windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, Alastair; Selkowitz, Stephen

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    These guidelines provide an integrated approach to the cost-effective design of perimeter zones in new commercial buildings and existing building retrofits. They function as a quick reference for building designers, through a set of easy steps and rules-of-thumb, emphasizing “how-to” practical details. References are given to more detailed sources of information, should the reader wish to go further. The design method used in this document emphasizes that building decisions should be made within the context of the whole building as a single functioning system rather than as an assembly of distinct parts. This integrated design approach looks at the ramifications of each individual system decision on the whole building. For example, the decision on glazing selection will have an effect on lighting, mechanical systems, and interior design. Therefore, the entire design team should participate and influence this glazing decision—which typically rests with the architect alone. The benefit of an integrated design approach is a greater chance of success towards long-term comfort and sustained energy savings in the building.

  13. Coaxial extrusion conversion concept for polymeric flat plate solar collectors. Final technical report, September 30, 1978-December 31, 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rhodes, R.O.; Chapman, N.J.; Chao, K.C.; Sorenson, K.F.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study investigated materials and processes for fundamental improvements in flat-plate solar collector cost and performance. The goal was to develop a process for direct conversion of inexpensive raw materials into a completed solar collector unit, without labor intensive assembly operations. It was thought that materials carefully matched to the process and end-use environment would substantially reduce collector costs, as compared to conventional industry practice. The project studied the feasibility of a cost-effective, glazed solar collector, with low labor input, utilizing a coaxial extrusion of compatible polymeric materials. This study evaluated all considered materials for the desired application. In addition, there was a trial extrusion of the leading candidate glazing and absorber materials, which resulted in successfully performing a coaxial extrusion of one cell. At the time the study was conducted, there were no materials available that met the necessary requirements for the specified utilization. It was recommended that, if potentially compatible materials become available, further investigation into the suitability of those materials be researched. Then, if a suitable material was found, proceeding into Phase II would be recommended.

  14. Effects of accelerated weathering on architectural laminated glass in a windstorm environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Behr, R.A.; Minor, J.E.; Kremer, P.A. [Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States). Graduate Center for Materials Research

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental study was conducted to assess the serviceability and ultimate limit state behavior of a fully glazed architectural laminated glass system under accelerated weathering conditions. Glazed specimens included heat-strengthened laminated glass with a low-emissivity, metallic solar coating on one glass surface next to the polyvinyl butyral interlayer. The laminated glass units were anchored to the aluminum curtain wall frame with a perimeter anchor bead of medium-modulus structural silicone sealant. Accelerated weathering was performed in a manner similar to the provisions of ASTM E773-88 and E774-92. All specimens (weathered and unweathered) were then subjected to a severe windstorm simulation test, i.e., windborne missile impacts followed by an extensive positive/negative pressure spectrum. Results indicated that the accelerated weathering had demonstrable effects on both the PVB laminated glass and the structural silicone anchor bead. However, complete resistance to glass fallout during the pressure spectrum was achieved when the inboard glass ply remained unbroken after completion of the windborne missile impacts.

  15. Materials aspects of solar energy use in buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, S.W.; McFarland, R.D.

    1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advances in materials for solar energy utilization have the potential to produce large performance improvements (both present and future concepts) in use of solar energy or conservation. Because approximately 26 quads of the total national energy budget of 75 quads is consumed by buildings, solar and conservation improvements can have a large effect on our overall energy consumption. There have been a large number of materials research programs funded through the Department of Energy (DOE) in an attempt to expand the use of solar energy. These materials programs have covered the areas of sealants and gaskets, insulations, glazings, glazing-surface treatments, polymers, selective absorber surfaces, phase-change storage, and heat mirrors. In addition to developing the materials, a large effort has been directed toward determining the reliability and durability of solar materials. The present state of the art and status of these solar materials are discussed. Although much progress has been made in recent years, many improvements are still needed. For many of the more routine materials, simple cost reductions or durability improvements would suffice. For the more advanced concepts of controlling energy flow into or out of buildings, basic materials research remains a necessity. There are a large number of potentially viable concepts that appear promising but have not yet been developed into usable materials.

  16. DOE-2 supplement: Version 2.1E

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winkelmann, F.C.; Birdsall, B.E.; Buhl, W.F.; Ellington, K.L.; Erdem, A.E. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Hirsch, J.J.; Gates, S. [Hirsch (James J.) and Associates, Camarillo, CA (United States)

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This publication updates the DOE-2 Supplement form version 2.1D to version to 2.1E. It contains detailed discussions and instructions for using the features and enhancements introduced into the 2.1B, 2.1C, 2.1D, and 2.1E versions of the program. The building description section contains information on input functions in loads and systems, hourly report frequencies, saving files of hourly output for post processing, sharing hourly report data among program modules, the metric option, and input macros and general library features. The loads section contains information on sunspaces, sunspace modeling, window management and solar radiation, daylighting, trombe walls, fixed shades, fins and overhangs, shade schedules, self shades, heat distribution from lights, the Sherman-Grimsrud infiltrations method. terrain and height modification to wind speed, floor multipliers and interior wall types, improved exterior infrared radiation loss calculation, improved outside air film conductance calculation, window library, window frames, and switchable glazing. The systems section contains information on energy end use and meters, powered induction units, a packaged variable volume -- variable temperature system, a residential variable volume -- variable temperature system, air source heat pump enhancements, water loop heat pump enhancements, variable speed electric heat pump, gas heat pumps, hot water heaters, evaporative cooling, total gas solid-desiccant systems, add on desiccant cooling, water cooled condensers, evaporative precoolers outside air economizer control, optimum fan start, heat recovery from refrigerated case work, night ventilation, baseboard heating, moisture balance calculations, a residential natural ventilation algorithm, improved cooling coil model, system sizing and independent cooling and heating sizing ratios. The plant section contains information on energy meters, gas fired absorption chillers, engine driven compressor chillers, and ice energy storage.

  17. hal00270574, Testing Data Types Implementations from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    is data type abstraction, testing a concrete implementation raises the issue of the gap betweenhal­00270574, version 1 ­ 6 Apr 2008 Testing Data Types Implementations from Algebraic Speci#12.legall@ibisc.univ-evry.fr Abstract. Algebraic speci#12;cations of data types provide a natural basis for testing data types

  18. XML Document XML Document Types and Validation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weber, Gregory D.

    XML Document Types and Validation IIM-I340 Objectives XML Document Types and Validation IIM-I340 April, 2010 #12;XML Document Types and Validation IIM-I340 Objectives Learning Objectives Understand: The need for validation Two ways to specify validity: Document Type Definitions (DTDs) XML Schemas #12;XML

  19. Wheel-type magnetic refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, John A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure is directed to a wheel-type magnetic refrigerator capable of cooling over a large temperature range. Ferromagnetic or paramagnetic porous materials are layered circumferentially according to their Curie temperature. The innermost layer has the lowest Curie temperature and the outermost layer has the highest Curie temperature. The wheel is rotated through a magnetic field perpendicular to the axis of the wheel and parallel to its direction of rotation. A fluid is pumped through portions of the layers using inner and outer manifolds to achieve refrigeration of a thermal load.

  20. Wheel-type magnetic refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, J.A.

    1982-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure is directed to a wheel-type magnetic refrigerator capable of cooling over a large temperature range. Ferromagnetic or paramagnetic porous materials are layered circumferentially according to their Curie temperature. The innermost layer has the lowest Curie temperature and the outermost layer has the highest Curie temperature. The wheel is rotated through a magnetic field perpendicular to the axis of the wheel and parallel to its direction of rotation. A fluid is pumped through portions of the layers using inner and outer manifolds to achieve refrigeration of a thermal load.

  1. Wheel-type magnetic refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, J.A.

    1983-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure is directed to a wheel-type magnetic refrigerator capable of cooling over a large temperature range. Ferromagnetic or paramagnetic porous materials are layered circumferentially according to their Curie temperature. The innermost layer has the lowest Curie temperature and the outermost layer has the highest Curie temperature. The wheel is rotated through a magnetic field perpendicular to the axis of the wheel and parallel to its direction of rotation. A fluid is pumped through portions of the layers using inner and outer manifolds to achieve refrigeration of a thermal load. 7 figs.

  2. Hydrogen in Type Ic Supernovae?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Branch; David J. Jeffery; Timothy R. Young; E. Baron

    2006-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    By definition, a Type Ic supernova (SN Ic) does not have conspicuous lines of hydrogen or helium in its optical spectrum. SNe Ic usually are modelled in terms of the gravitational collapse of bare carbon-oxygen cores. We consider the possibility that the spectra of ordinary (SN 1994I-like) SNe Ic have been misinterpreted, and that SNe Ic eject hydrogen. An absorption feature usually attributed to a blend of Si II 6355 and C II 6580 may be produced by H-alpha. If SN 1994I-like SNe Ic eject hydrogen, the possibility that hypernova (SN 1998bw-like) SNe Ic, some of which are associated with gamma-ray bursts, also eject hydrogen should be considered. The implications of hydrogen for SN Ic progenitors and explosion models are briefly discussed.

  3. Proof and Definition in Logic and Type Theory Proof and Definition in Logic and Type Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adams, Robin

    Proof and Definition in Logic and Type Theory Proof and Definition in Logic and Type Theory Robin questions. #12;Proof and Definition in Logic and Type Theory Definition and Proof Definition and proof -- but they are not in predicate logic or type theory. #12;Proof and Definition in Logic and Type Theory Methods of Definition

  4. Archive Reference Buildings by Building Type: Supermarket

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the reference buildings for new construction commercial buildings, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is...

  5. Archive Reference Buildings by Building Type: Warehouse

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the reference buildings for new construction commercial buildings, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is...

  6. New approaches for modeling type Ia supernovae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zingale, Michael; Almgren, Ann S.; Bell, John B.; Day, Marcus S.; Rendleman, Charles A.; Woosley, Stan

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ich and J. Stein. On the thermonuclear runaway in Type IaSmall-Scale Stability of Thermonuclear Flames o in Type IaS. E. Woosley. The thermonuclear explosion of chandrasekhar

  7. Double field theory of type II strings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hohm, Olaf

    We use double field theory to give a unified description of the low energy limits of type IIA and type IIB superstrings. The Ramond-Ramond potentials fit into spinor representations of the duality group O(D, D) and ...

  8. Ideal bandpasses for type Ia supernova cosmology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, Tamara M.; Schmidt, Brian P.; Kim, Alex G.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    diversity of type Ia Supernovae, in preparation. Kim, A.error in measurements of supernovae depends on a periodicABSTRACT To use type Ia supernovae as standard candles for

  9. Overload permit rules applicable to H-type and HS-type bridges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Litchfield, Stephen Charles

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document defines standards for issuing permits for overweight vehicles crossing standard H-type and HS-type Texas highway bridges. A general formula and a bridge specific formula have been developed for simple spans of both bridge types...

  10. Rates and progenitors of type Ia supernovae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood-Vasey, William Michael

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Supernovae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Supernovae Found 5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . .1.2 Non-Type Ia Supernovae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3

  11. Fuzzy Typing for Document Management Alison HUETTNER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Dekai

    Fuzzy Typing for Document Management Alison HUETTNER Clairvoyance Corporation 5301 Fifth Avenue method of document analysis and management, based on a combination of techniques from NLP and fuzzy logic typing for document management. The fuzzy typing approach is general in scope and can be applied to many

  12. Nucleosynthesis in Type Ia Supernovae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Nomoto; K. Iwamoto; N. Nakasato; F. -K. Thielemann; F. Brachwitz; T. Tsujimoto; Y. Kubo; N. Kishimoto

    1997-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Among the major uncertainties involved in the Chandrasekhar mass models for Type Ia supernovae are the companion star of the accreting white dwarf (or the accretion rate that determines the carbon ignition density) and the flame speed after ignition. We present nucleosynthesis results from relatively slow deflagration (1.5 - 3 % of the sound speed) to constrain the rate of accretion from the companion star. Because of electron capture, a significant amount of neutron-rich species such as ^{54}Cr, ^{50}Ti, ^{58}Fe, ^{62}Ni, etc. are synthesized in the central region. To avoid the too large ratios of ^{54}Cr/^{56}Fe and ^{50}Ti/^{56}Fe, the central density of the white dwarf at thermonuclear runaway must be as low as \\ltsim 2 \\e9 \\gmc. Such a low central density can be realized by the accretion as fast as $\\dot M \\gtsim 1 \\times 10^{-7} M_\\odot yr^{-1}$. These rapidly accreting white dwarfs might correspond to the super-soft X-ray sources.

  13. Type Ia Supernova Carbon Footprints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, R C; Aragon, C; Antilogus, P; Bailey, S; Baltay, C; Bongard, S; Buton, C; Canto, A; Childress, M; Chotard, N; Copin, Y; Fakhouri, H K; Gangler, E; Hsiao, E Y; Kerschhaggl, M; Kowalski, M; Loken, S; Nugent, P; Paech, K; Pain, R; Pecontal, E; Pereira, R; Perlmutter, S; Rabinowitz, D; Rigault, M; Rubin, D; Runge, K; Scalzo, R; Smadja, G; Tao, C; Weaver, B A; Wu, C; Brown, P J; Milne, P A

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present convincing evidence of unburned carbon at photospheric velocities in new observations of 5 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) obtained by the Nearby Supernova Factory. These SNe are identified by examining 346 spectra from 124 SNe obtained before +2.5 d relative to maximum. Detections are based on the presence of relatively strong C II 6580 absorption "notches" in multiple spectra of each SN, aided by automated fitting with the SYNAPPS code. Four of the 5 SNe in question are otherwise spectroscopically unremarkable, with ions and ejection velocities typical of SNe Ia, but spectra of the fifth exhibits high-velocity (v > 20,000 km/s) Si II and Ca II features. On the other hand, the light curve properties are preferentially grouped, strongly suggesting a connection between carbon-positivity and broad band light curve/color behavior: Three of the 5 have relatively narrow light curves but also blue colors, and a fourth may be a dust-reddened member of this family. Accounting for signal-to-noise and phase, we ...

  14. n-Linear Algebra of type II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy; Florentin Smarandache

    2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This book is a continuation of the book n-linear algebra of type I and its applications. Most of the properties that could not be derived or defined for n-linear algebra of type I is made possible in this new structure: n-linear algebra of type II which is introduced in this book. In case of n-linear algebra of type II we are in a position to define linear functionals which is one of the marked difference between the n-vector spaces of type I and II. However all the applications mentioned in n-linear algebras of type I can be appropriately extended to n-linear algebras of type II. Another use of n-linear algebra (n-vector spaces) of type II is that when this structure is used in coding theory we can have different types of codes built over different finite fields whereas this is not possible in the case of n-vector spaces of type I. Finally in the case of n-vector spaces of type II, we can obtain n-eigen values from distinct fields; hence, the n-characteristic polynomials formed in them are in distinct different fields. An attractive feature of this book is that the authors have suggested 120 problems for the reader to pursue in order to understand this new notion. This book has three chapters. In the first chapter the notion of n-vector spaces of type II are introduced. This chapter gives over 50 theorems. Chapter two introduces the notion of n-inner product vector spaces of type II, n-bilinear forms and n-linear functionals. The final chapter suggests over a hundred problems. It is important that the reader is well-versed not only with linear algebra but also n-linear algebra of type I.

  15. STORAGE OPERATORS and -POSITIVE TYPES in TTR TYPE Karim NOUR 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nour, Karim

    STORAGE OPERATORS and -POSITIVE TYPES in TTR TYPE SYSTEM Karim NOUR 1 LAMA - Equipe de Logique the notion of storage operator to simulate "call by value" in the "call by name" strategy. J.L. Krivine has for the storage operators in AF2 type system. This paper studies the -positive types (the universal second order

  16. Curvature invariants in type-III spacetimes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Pravda

    1999-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of paper [1] are generalized for vacuum type-III solutions with, in general, a non-vanishing cosmological constant Lambda. It is shown that all curvature invariants containing derivatives of the Weyl tensor vanish if a type-III spacetime admits a non-expanding and non-twisting null geodesic congruence. A non-vanishing curvature invariant containing first derivatives of the Weyl tensor is found in the case of type-III spacetime with expansion or twist.

  17. Turbulent Combustion in Type Ia Supernova Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. K. Roepke; W. Hillebrandt

    2006-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We review the astrophysical modeling of type Ia supernova explosions and describe numerical methods to implement numerical simulations of these events. Some results of such simulations are discussed.

  18. Convolution type operators on locally compact groups

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shtein--~erg, Convolution Type Operators on Locally Compact Groups [in Russian],. Manuscript Deposited in the All-Union Institute of Scientific and Technical ...

  19. Type B Accident Investigation, Subcontractor Employee Personal...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    February 18, 2003, at the East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee Type B Accident Investigation, Subcontractor Employee Personal Protective Equipment Ignition Incident...

  20. Archived Reference Building Type: Primary school

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed before 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary ofbuilding types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  1. Archived Reference Building Type: Primary school

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed in or after 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  2. Repairing Type Errors in Functional Programs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McAdam, Bruce J

    Type systems for programming languages can be used by compilers to reject programs which are found to be unsound and which may, therefore, fail to execute successfully. When a program is rejected the programmer must repair it so that it can be type...

  3. Multiparty Asynchronous Session Types Kohei Honda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gay, Simon

    Multiparty Asynchronous Session Types Kohei Honda Queen Mary, University of London kohei 2005; Honda et al. 1998; Bonelli and Compagnoni 2008), higher- order processes (Mostrous and Yoshida. 2006, 2007; WS-CDL; Sparkes 2006; Honda et al. 2007a). A basic observation underlying session types

  4. Testing Type Class Laws Johan Jeuring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    ]. Instances of Monad should satisfy the following laws: return a>>=k k a m >>=return m m >>=(x k x>>=h) (m>>=k)>>=hTesting Type Class Laws Johan Jeuring Patrik Jansson Cl´audio Amaral Technical Report UU-CS-2012.089 3508 TB Utrecht The Netherlands #12;Testing Type Class Laws Johan Jeuring Utrecht University and Open

  5. Archived Reference Building Type: Outpatient health care

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed in or after 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  6. Archived Reference Building Type: Outpatient health care

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed before 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary ofbuilding types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  7. Archived Reference Building Type: Strip mall

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed in or after 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  8. Archived Reference Building Type: Strip mall

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed before 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary ofbuilding types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  9. WASTE DESCRIPTION TYPE OF PROJECT POUNDS REDUCED,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minimization/ Volume Reduction 0 Solid Radioactive Waste $2,168 $0 $2,168 Vial Crusher for glass vialsWASTE DESCRIPTION TYPE OF PROJECT POUNDS REDUCED, REUSED, RECYCLED OR CONSERVED IN 2004 WASTE TYPE DESCRIPTION DETAILS * Automotive Waste Substitution 510 Hazardous Waste $1,020 $1,000 $1,000 Aqueous Solvent

  10. WASTE DESCRIPTION TYPE OF PROJECT POUNDS REDUCED,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    labeled chemicals Waste Minimization/ Volume Reduction 0 Solid Radioactive Waste $2,168 $3,795 $2,168 VialWASTE DESCRIPTION TYPE OF PROJECT POUNDS REDUCED, REUSED, RECYCLED OR CONSERVED IN 2003 WASTE TYPE DESCRIPTION DETAILS * Radioactive Waste Source Reduction 1,500 Radioactive Waste $6,000 $2,500 $6,000 Waste

  11. Archived Reference Building Type: Medium office

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed in or after 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  12. Archived Reference Building Type: Medium office

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed before 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary ofbuilding types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  13. Archived Reference Building Type: Secondary school

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed in or after 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  14. Project Name Project Number Tagging Type

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Project Name Project Number Primary Tagging Type Secondary Tagging Type Fish Species Tagging/ Secondary Legal Driver (BiOp, MOA, Accord, etc.) Tagging Purpose Funded Entity Tagging Location Retrieval CWT Recovery Project 2010-036-00 CWT PIT Chinook, coho retrieval, analysis, address PSMFC sampling

  15. Archived Reference Building Type: Secondary school

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the commercial reference building models for existing buildings constructed before 1980, organized by building type and location. A summary ofbuilding types and climate zones is available for reference. Current versions are also available.

  16. Serum markers for type II diabetes mellitus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Metz, Thomas O; Qian, Wei-Jun; Jacobs, Jon M; Polpitiya, Ashoka D; Camp, II, David G; Smith, Richard D

    2014-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for identifying persons with increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus utilizing selected biomarkers described hereafter either alone or in combination. The present invention allows for broad based, reliable, screening of large population bases and provides other advantages, including the formulation of effective strategies for characterizing, archiving, and contrasting data from multiple sample types under varying conditions.

  17. Names and Binding in Type Theory 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schöpp, Ulrich

    Names and name-binding are useful concepts in the theory and practice of formal systems. In this thesis we study them in the context of dependent type theory. We propose a novel dependent type theory with primitives for the explicit handling...

  18. ROOM AIR CONDITIONER WALL MOUNTED type

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kleinfeld, David

    SPLIT TYPE ROOM AIR CONDITIONER WALL MOUNTED type Reciprocating Compressor Models Indoor unit.6 - 11.4 ----- MOISTURE REMOVAL ( / hr) 2.0 1.8 2.7 2.7 4.3 3 AIR CIRCULATION - Hi (m / hr) 800 800 1

  19. Interannual Variations of Arctic Cloud Types

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hochberg, Michael

    Sciences #12;Changes in Arctic Climate What is the role of cloud cover in Arctic climate change? What is the Cloud Radiative Effect (CRE) in the Arctic? #12;CRE depends on season, cloud type CRE ­ whether clouds specifically chosen to include nighttime obs Total cloud cover and nine cloud types: - High cloud (cirriform

  20. 3, 46714700, 2003 Different type of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    of the effect of different type of aerosols on UV-B radiation from measurements during EARLINET D. S. Balis1 , V properties and changes in cloud cover (Zerefos et al., 2001; WMO25 2003). Due to the combined involvementACPD 3, 4671­4700, 2003 Different type of aerosols and UV-B radiation D. S. Balis et al. Title Page

  1. Fully Reflexive Intensional Type Analysis in Type Erasure Semantics # Bratin Saha Valery Trifonov Zhong Shao

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trifonov, Valery

    Fully Reflexive Intensional Type Analysis in Type Erasure Semantics # Bratin Saha Valery Trifonov Zhong Shao Department of Computer Science Yale University {saha,trifonov,shao}@cs.yale.edu Abstract

  2. Improving Type Ia Supernova Standard Candle Cosmology Measurements Using Observations of Early-Type Host Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyers, Joshua Evan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Host Galaxies of Type Ia Supernovae Introduction SN Ia Hosts109 C HAPTER 1 Cosmology, Type Ia Supernovae and HostGalaxies Observations of supernovae have played a role in

  3. Theoretical cosmic Type Ia supernova rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Valiante; F. Matteucci; S. Recchi; F. Calura

    2009-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this work is the computation of the cosmic Type Ia supernova rates at very high redshifts (z>2). We adopt various progenitor models in order to predict the number of explosions in different scenarios for galaxy formation and to check whether it is possible to select the best delay time distribution model, on the basis of the available observations of Type Ia supernovae. We also computed the Type Ia supernova rate in typical elliptical galaxies of different initial luminous masses and the total amount of iron produced by Type Ia supernovae in each case. It emerges that: it is not easy to select the best delay time distribution scenario from the observational data and this is because the cosmic star formation rate dominates over the distribution function of the delay times; the monolithic collapse scenario predicts an increasing trend of the SN Ia rate at high redshifts whereas the predicted rate in the hierarchical scheme drops dramatically at high redshift; for the elliptical galaxies we note that the predicted maximum of the Type Ia supernova rate depends on the initial galactic mass. The maximum occurs earlier (at about 0.3 Gyr) in the most massive ellipticals, as a consequence of downsizing in star formation. We find that different delay time distributions predict different relations between the Type Ia supernova rate per unit mass at the present time and the color of the parent galaxies and that bluer ellipticals present higher supernova Type Ia rates at the present time.

  4. Electrochromic Windows: Process and Fabrication Improvements for Lower Total Costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Burdis; Neil Sbar

    2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall goal with respect to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is to achieve significant national energy savings through maximized penetration of EC windows into existing markets so that the largest cumulative energy reduction can be realized. The speed with which EC windows can be introduced and replace current IGU's (and current glazings) is clearly a strong function of cost. Therefore, the aim of this project was to investigate possible improvements to the SageGlass{reg_sign} EC glazing products to facilitate both process and fabrication improvements resulting in lower overall costs. The project was split into four major areas dealing with improvements to the electrochromic layer, the capping layer, defect elimination and general product improvements. Significant advancements have been made in each of the four areas. These can be summarized as follows: (1) Plasma assisted deposition for the electrochromic layer was pursued, and several improvements made to the technology for producing a plasma beam were made. Functional EC devices were produced using the new technology, but there are still questions to be answered regarding the intrinsic properties of the electrochromic films produced by this method. (2) The capping layer work was successfully implemented into the existing SageGlass{reg_sign} product, thereby providing a higher level of transparency and somewhat lower reflectivity than the 'standard' product. (3) Defect elimination is an ongoing effort, but this project spurred some major defect reduction programs, which led to significant improvements in yield, with all the implicit benefits afforded. In particular, major advances were made in the development of a new bus bar application process aimed at reducing the numbers of 'shorts' developed in the finished product, as well as making dramatic improvements in the methods used for tempering the glass, which had previously been seen to produce a defect which appeared as a pinhole. (4) Improvements have also been made to the overall product to enhance the appearance and market acceptability. These include: (i) increasing the active electrochromic area to enable window manufacturers to install the SageGlass{reg_sign} IGU's into a variety of different framing systems, (ii) implementing a Pb free solder system for the electrical interconnections, (iii) development of a wire routing scheme to allow installation of SageGlass{reg_sign} units into a variety of different framing systems. This project has advanced the development of electrochromic glazing significantly, thereby advancing the introduction of the product and all the benefits of such a technology.

  5. State-of-the-Art Highly Insulating Window Frames - Research and Market Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gustavsen, Arild; Jelle, Bjorn Petter; Arasteh, Dariush; Kohler, Christian

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document reports the findings of a market and research review related to state-of-the-art highly insulating window frames. The market review focuses on window frames that satisfy the Passivhaus requirements (window U-value less or equal to 0.8 W/m{sup 2}K ), while other examples are also given in order to show the variety of materials and solutions that may be used for constructing window frames with a low thermal transmittance (U-value). The market search shows that several combinations of materials are used in order to obtain window frames with a low U-value. The most common insulating material seems to be Polyurethane (PUR), which is used together with most of the common structural materials such as wood, aluminum, and PVC. The frame research review also shows examples of window frames developed in order to increase the energy efficiency of the frames and the glazings which the frames are to be used together with. The authors find that two main tracks are used in searching for better solutions. The first one is to minimize the heat losses through the frame itself. The result is that conductive materials are replaced by highly thermal insulating materials and air cavities. The other option is to reduce the window frame area to a minimum, which is done by focusing on the net energy gain by the entire window (frame, spacer and glazing). Literature shows that a window with a higher U-value may give a net energy gain to a building that is higher than a window with a smaller U-value. The net energy gain is calculated by subtracting the transmission losses through the window from the solar energy passing through the windows. The net energy gain depends on frame versus glazing area, solar factor, solar irradiance, calculation period and U-value. The frame research review also discusses heat transfer modeling issues related to window frames. Thermal performance increasing measures, surface modeling, and frame cavity modeling are among the topics discussed. The review shows that the current knowledge gives the basis for improving the calculation procedures in the calculation standards. At the same time it is room for improvement within some areas, e.g. to fully understand the natural convection effects inside irregular vertical frame cavities (jambs) and ventilated frame cavities.

  6. Empirical assessment of a prismatic daylight-redirecting window film in a full-scale office testbed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thanachareonkit, Anothai; Lee, Eleanor S.; McNeil, Andrew

    2013-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Daylight redirecting systems with vertical windows have the potential to offset lighting energy use in deep perimeter zones. Microstructured prismatic window films can be manufactured using low-cost, roll-to-roll fabrication methods and adhered to the inside surface of existing windows as a retrofit measure or installed as a replacement insulating glass unit in the clerestory portion of the window wall. A clear film patterned with linear, 50-250 micrometer high, four-sided asymmetrical prisms was fabricated and installed in the south-facing, clerestory low-e, clear glazed windows of a full-scale testbed facility. Views through the film were distorted. The film was evaluated in a sunny climate over a two-year period to gauge daylighting and visual comfort performance. The daylighting aperture was small (window-towall ratio of 0.18) and the lower windows were blocked off to isolate the evaluation to the window film. Workplane illuminance measurements were made in the 4.6 m (15 ft) deep room furnished as a private office. Analysis of discomfort glare was conducted using high dynamic range imaging coupled with the evalglare software tool, which computes the daylight glare probability and other metrics used to evaluate visual discomfort. The window film was found to result in perceptible levels of discomfort glare on clear sunny days from the most conservative view point in the rear of the room looking toward the window. Daylight illuminance levels at the rear of the room were significantly increased above the reference window condition, which was defined as the same glazed clerestory window but with an interior Venetian blind (slat angle set to the cut-off angle), for the equinox to winter solstice period on clear sunny days. For partly cloudy and overcast sky conditions, daylight levels were improved slightly. To reduce glare, the daylighting film was coupled with a diffusing film in an insulating glazing unit. The diffusing film retained the directionality of the redirected light spreading it within a small range of outgoing angles. This solution was found to reduce glare to imperceptible levels while retaining for the most part the illuminance levels achieved solely by the daylighting film.

  7. High-performance commercial building facades

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Eleanor; Selkowitz, Stephen; Bazjanac, Vladimir; Inkarojrit, Vorapat; Kohler, Christian

    2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study focuses on advanced building facades that use daylighting, sun control, ventilation systems, and dynamic systems. A quick perusal of the leading architectural magazines, or a discussion in most architectural firms today will eventually lead to mention of some of the innovative new buildings that are being constructed with all-glass facades. Most of these buildings are appearing in Europe, although interestingly U.S. A/E firms often have a leading role in their design. This ''emerging technology'' of heavily glazed fagades is often associated with buildings whose design goals include energy efficiency, sustainability, and a ''green'' image. While there are a number of new books on the subject with impressive photos and drawings, there is little critical examination of the actual performance of such buildings, and a generally poor understanding as to whether they achieve their performance goals, or even what those goals might be. Even if the building ''works'' it is often dangerous to take a design solution from one climate and location and transport it to a new one without a good causal understanding of how the systems work. In addition, there is a wide range of existing and emerging glazing and fenestration technologies in use in these buildings, many of which break new ground with respect to innovative structural use of glass. It is unclear as to how well many of these designs would work as currently formulated in California locations dominated by intense sunlight and seismic events. Finally, the costs of these systems are higher than normal facades, but claims of energy and productivity savings are used to justify some of them. Once again these claims, while plausible, are largely unsupported. There have been major advances in glazing and facade technology over the past 30 years and we expect to see continued innovation and product development. It is critical in this process to be able to understand which performance goals are being met by current technology and design solutions, and which ones need further development and refinement. The primary goal of this study is to clarify the state-of-the-art of the performance of advanced building facades so that California building owners and designers can make informed decisions as to the value of these building concepts in meeting design goals for energy efficiency, ventilation, productivity and sustainability.

  8. Data mining for structure type prediction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tibbetts, Kevin (Kevin Joseph)

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Determining the stable structure types of an alloy is critical to determining many properties of that material. This can be done through experiment or computation. Both methods can be expensive and time consuming. Computational ...

  9. CHARACTERIZATION OF SIALON-TYPE MATERIALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spencer, P.N.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    an Economical Refractory Material", Industrial Heating, 50-of Sialon-Type Materials Newman Spencer Lawrence BerkeleyEXPERIHENTAL PROCEDURES A. The Material L Ml H2 M3 and M4 B.

  10. Operations and Maintenance for Major Equipment Types

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Equipment lies at the heart of all operations and maintenance (O&M) activities. This equipment varies greatly across the Federal sector in age, size, type, model, condition, etc.

  11. Renewable Energy Opportunities by Renovation Type

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Renewable energy opportunities should be considered and identified in the earliest stages of Federal project planning and the team should assess the renewable energy options based on the type of...

  12. Nested Refinement Types for JavaScript /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chugh, Ravi

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Semantic Sub- typing with an SMT Solver. In InternationalNikolaj Bjørner. Z3: An Efficient SMT solver. In Tools andBy carefully coordinating SMT-based logical implication with

  13. Genomic analysis of control of cell type

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frampton, Garrett M

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In mammalian development, a single fertilized egg grows into a complex organism, comprised of organs and tissues made up of hundreds of different specialized cell types. All of these cells contain the same genome, but ...

  14. The BMW Algebras of Type Dn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Arjeh M; Wales, David B

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Birman-Murakami-Wenzl algebra (BMW algebra) of type Dn is shown to be free over the quotient of a polynomial algebra of dimension (2^n+1)n!!-(2^(n-1)+1)n! where n!! is the product of the first n odd integers. The Brauer algebra of type Dn is a homomorphic ring image and is also semisimple and free of the same dimesion, but over a different ring. A rewrite system for the Brauer algebra is used in upper bounding the dimension of the BMW algebra. As a consequence or our results, the generalized Temperley-Lieb algebra of type Dn is a subalgebra of the BMW algebra of the same type.

  15. Trace element geochemistry of ordinary chondrite chondrules: the type I/type II chondrule dichotomy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacquet, Emmanuel; Gounelle, Matthieu

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report trace element concentrations of silicate phases in chondrules from LL3 ordinary chondrites Bishunpur and Semarkona. Results are similar to previously reported data for carbonaceous chondrites, with rare earth element (REE) concentrations increasing in the sequence olivine ~ 10 K/h) than type I chondrules. Appreciable Na concentrations (3-221 ppm) are measured in olivine from both chondrule types; type II chondrules seem to have behaved as closed systems, which may require chondrule formation in the vicinity of protoplanets or planetesimals. At any rate, higher solid concentrations in type II chondrule forming regions may explain the higher oxygen fugacities they record compared to type I chondrules. Type I and type II chondrules formed in different environments and the correlation between high solid concentrations and/or oxygen fugacities with rapid cooling rates is a key constraint that chondrule formation models must account for.

  16. Detection of interlayer communication using type curves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tiefenthal, Sven A.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with the adjacent formation through type curve analysis. The response caused by the essentially infinite acting producing zone alone can be filtered out using desuperposition. The remaining response is the "deviation function" caused by the leaking fault. Type.... TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS. LIST OF TABLES . V1 . viii LIST OF FIGURES. . . . . IX INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND THEORY Infinite Acting Reservoir. Linear Discontinuities. Fault Parameterization. . . . 8 9...

  17. A threshold type Cerenkov radiation detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winningham, John David

    1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A THRESHOLD TYPE CERENKOV RADIATION DETECTOR A Thesis By JOHN DAVID WINNINGHAN Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of NASTER OF SCIENCE May, 1965 Ha/or Sub...)ect: Physics A THRESHOLD TYPE CERENKOV RADIATION DETECTOR A Thesis By JOHN DAVID WINNINGHAM Approved as to style and content by: 3 v (Chairman of Committee) j' ) Heqd of Department) (Member) (Member) May, 1965 i. '. 11648 ACKNOWLEDGEIKNTS I wish...

  18. SN Typing for the SDSS SN Survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rivers, Elizabeth S.; /Wellesley Coll. /SLAC

    2005-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In the fall of 2004 the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) 2.5m telescope scanned the southern equatorial stripe for approximately 20 nights over the space of two months. Light curves for over four dozen supernovae (SNe) were collected over time using five colored filters ugriz that together had a range of approximately 3000{angstrom} to 10500{angstrom}. 22 SNe were spectroscopically confirmed with follow-up observation. Using the data obtained in the Fall 2004 campaign, preparations are now being made for the Supernova Survey of the SDSS II, a three-year extension of the original project. One main goal of the Supernova Survey will be to identify and study type Ia SNe of up to redshift {approx}0.4, the intermediate ''redshift desert'', as well as enabling further study of other types of SNe including type 1b/c and peculiar SNe. Most of the SNe found will not have spectra taken, due to time and cost constraints. Thus it would be advantageous to be able to robustly type SNe solely from the light curves obtained by the SDSS telescope prior to, or even without ever obtaining a spectrum. Using light curves of well-observed SNe templates were constructed for comparison with unknown SNe in order to photometrically type them.

  19. Fiber-type dosimeter with improved illuminator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, R.J.

    1985-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A single-piece, molded plastic, Cassigrainian-type condenser arrangement is incorporated in a tubular-shaped personal pocket dosimeter of the type which combines an ionization chamber with an optically-read fiber electrometer to provide improved illumination of the electrometer fiber. The condenser routes incoming light from one end of the dosimeter tubular housing around a central axis charging pin assembly and focuses the light at low angles to the axis so that it falls within the acceptance angle of the electrometer fiber objective lens viewed through an eyepiece lens disposed in the opposite end of the dosimeter. This results in improved fiber illumination and fiber image contrast.

  20. Transformations of $W$-Type Entangled States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. K?nta?; S. Turgut

    2010-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The transformations of $W$-type entangled states by using local operations assisted with classical communication are investigated. For this purpose, a parametrization of the $W$-type states which remains invariant under local unitary transformations is proposed and a complete characterization of the local operations carried out by a single party is given. These are used for deriving the necessary and sufficient conditions for deterministic transformations. A convenient upper bound for the maximum probability of distillation of arbitrary target states is also found.

  1. Uniqueness theorems for equations of Keldysh Type

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas H. Otway

    2010-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A fundamental result that characterizes elliptic-hyperbolic equations of Tricomi type, the uniqueness of classical solutions to the open Dirichlet problem, is extended to a large class of elliptic-hyperbolic equations of Keldysh type. The result implies the non-existence of classical solutions to the closed Dirichlet problem for this class of equations. A uniqueness theorem is also proven for a mixed Dirichlet-Neumann problem. A generalized uniqueness theorem for the adjoint operator leads to the existence of distribution solutions to the closed Dirichlet problem in a special case.

  2. Cytophotometric studies of schiff-type reagents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aviles-Rios, Norman D

    1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    : oc, ttscl, ::toca, cl 96lfttf, AEPMGIX j) t I" Absorption P aks Prom Cells Stained, by and. by Schiff-type Reagents in Peulgsn chiff 8 Heave t 1 and PAS Hsactions Absorption Peaks After Stainin Hsaction Feul en Acriflavins-S02 Bismarelc... stxain mice. Table XIX He&, DR Values in House Liver parenchymal Cells after staining with Schiff-type Reagents in FeulEen Hoactionl Ilesn Standard. Standard Standard Deviation . rror in j~ Deviation in ; of of I'lean liean Gismarclk brown Y 802 3...

  3. Platinum-barium-type L zeolite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buss, W.C.; Hughes, T.R.

    1987-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described of reforming hydrocarbons comprising contacting the hydrocarbons with a catalyst comprising: (a) a type L zeolite; (b) at least one Group VIII metal; and (c) an alkaline earth metal selected from the group consisting of barium, strontium and calcium. A method is described of dehydrocyclizing acyclic hydrocarbons comprising contacting the hydrocarbons with a catalyst comprising: (a) a type L zeolite (b) at least one Group VIII metal; and (c) an alkaline earth metal selected from the group consisting of barium, strontium and calcium.

  4. Types of Utility Energy Service Contracts

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Several types of contracts are used as utility energy service contracts (UESCs). Many agency sites procure electricity services under a contract with the local utility, and most of these contracts have provisions that can also cover energy efficiency projects. Agencies not covered by such agreements may enter contracts with the utility for the sole purpose of implementing energy projects.

  5. FOOD PRESERVATION SERIES types of potatoes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FOOD PRESERVATION SERIES Potato types of potatoes hOW TO STORE PotatoMichigan-grown potatoes and make excellent mashed potatoes. yield FOOD SAFETY TIPS One pound 3 medium potatoes. 3 cups peeled canner load of 9 pints 50 pounds 18 ­ 22 quarts Purchase potatoes that are firm and do not have bruises

  6. Reference Buildings by Building Type: Small Hotel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In addition to the ZIP file for each building type, you can directly view the "scorecard" spreadsheet that summarizes the inputs and results for each location. This Microsoft Excel spreadsheet is also included in the ZIP file. For version 1.4, only the IDF file is included.

  7. Reference Buildings by Building Type: Large Hotel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In addition to the ZIP file for each building type, you can directly view the "scorecard" spreadsheet that summarizes the inputs and results for each location. This Microsoft Excel spreadsheet is also included in the ZIP file. For version 1.4, only the IDF file is included.

  8. RECYCLING PROGRAM TYPE LOCATION ALLOWED NOT ALLOWED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miami, University of

    RECYCLING PROGRAM TYPE LOCATION ALLOWED NOT ALLOWED Batteries, toner, ink cartridges & cell phones and recycling is an important part of that effort. Below is a guide to on-campus recycling at RSMAS: Visit http://www.rsmas.miami.edu/msgso/ for map of recycling bin locations. NOTE: This is not an exhaustive list. If unauthorized items are found

  9. Type-Logical Hyperedge Replacement Grammars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Type-Logical and Hyperedge Replacement Grammars Draft Richard Moot LaBRI (CNRS), INRIA Bordeaux SW2009 #12;CONTENTS 1 Introduction 1 2 Hyperedge Replacement Grammars 3 2.1 Hypergraphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2.2 Hyperedge Replacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.3 Hyperedge

  10. Fiber type, meal frequency and colonic cytokinetics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jianhu

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of dietary fiber type (cellulose, pectin or oat bran) and meal frequency (gorge or nibble) on colonic short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), in vivo colonic pH and epithelial cell proliferation were examined in male Sprague-Dawley rats...

  11. Graduate Assistant Stipend Enhancement Project Proposal Type

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karonis, Nicholas T.

    1 Graduate Assistant Stipend Enhancement Project Proposal Type The Graduate Assistant Stipend Strategic Plan. Goals The Graduate Assistant Stipend Enhancement project consists of two programs: the Great. Fundamentally, the project seeks to increase the number of graduate students who receive assistantships

  12. Data Management Plan Types of Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tam, Tin-Yau

    Data Management Plan Types of Data The research described herein will lead to the discovery of new will be followed by electrochemistry, Raman spectroscopy and optical spectroscopy. All data will be stored electronically in word processing documents. Data Standards All data will be stored in an electronic format

  13. Life without the Terminal Type Lutz Schroder

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schröder, Lutz

    Life without the Terminal Type Lutz Schr¨oder BISS, Department of Computer Science, Bremen University Abstract. We introduce a method of extending arbitrary categories by a terminal object and apply closed except for the lack of a terminal object have a universal full extension to a cartesian closed

  14. Life without the Terminal Type Lutz Schroder

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schröder, Lutz

    Life without the Terminal Type Lutz Schroder BISS, Department of Computer Science, Bremen University Abstract. We introduce a method of extending arbitrary categories by a terminal object and apply closed except for the lack of a terminal object have a universal full extension to a cartesian closed

  15. Models of Type Ia Supernova Explosions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. C. Niemeyer; M. Reinecke; W. Hillebrandt

    2002-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Type Ia supernovae have become an indispensable tool for studying the expansion history of the universe, yet our understanding of the explosion mechanism is still incomplete. We describe the variety of discussed scenarios, sketch the most relevant physics, and report recent advances in multidimensional simulations of Chandrasekhar mass white dwarf explosions.

  16. Models of Type Ia Supernova Explosions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niemeyer, J C; Hillebrandt, W

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Type Ia supernovae have become an indispensable tool for studying the expansion history of the universe, yet our understanding of the explosion mechanism is still incomplete. We describe the variety of discussed scenarios, sketch the most relevant physics, and report recent advances in multidimensional simulations of Chandrasekhar mass white dwarf explosions.

  17. Deforestation of Functional Programs through Type Inference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kent, University of

    Deforestation of Functional Programs through Type Inference Olaf Chitil Lehrstuhl f¨ur Informatik II, RWTH Aachen, Germany chitil@informatik.rwth-aachen.de Abstract. Deforestation optimises structures. Short cut deforestation is a deforestation method which is based on a single, local

  18. Submitted to: TYPES 2009 Post-Proceedings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luo, Zhaohui

    semantics (TOS for short) to prove meta-theoretic properties of type theories, including strong normalisation, Church-Rosser and subject reduction. In this paper, using the TOS approach, we study the meta that for dependent record kinds as found in, e.g., [CPT05]. We shall study the meta-theory by taking the TOS approach

  19. Interannual Variations of Arctic Cloud Types

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hochberg, Michael

    Declining September sea-ice extent #12;Clouds & Changes in Arctic Climate What is the role of cloud cover in Arctic climate change? What is the Cloud Radiative Effect (CRE) in the Arctic? #12;CRE Defined CRE nighttime obs Total cloud cover and nine cloud types: - High cloud (cirriform) - Middle Clouds: Altocumulus

  20. Problem Type Problem Type Description Air Conditioning Air conditioner not working, leaking, etc

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tennessee, University of

    Problem Type Problem Type Description Air Conditioning Air conditioner not working, leaking, etc, Microfridges Doors and Hardware Door repair/replace Lock, latch or hinge repair, key stuck; Lost or stolen key, repair or replace Shades/Blinds Window treatment - repair or replace Washer/Dryer Washer/Dryer repair

  1. Aspen Ecology in the MixedAspen Ecology in the Mixed Conifer TypeConifer Type

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aspen Ecology in the MixedAspen Ecology in the Mixed Conifer TypeConifer Type Wayne D. Shepperd Colorado State University Fort Collins, CO Aspen Ecology in the MixedAspen Ecology in the Mixed Conifer disturbances to meet the desired objective #12;Aspen in Mixed Conifer ForestsAspen in Mixed Conifer Forests

  2. New Type-2 Rule Ranking Indices for Designing Parsimonious Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Logic Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aickelin, Uwe

    rules can be effectively selected to construct parsimonious type-2 fuzzy models while the system processing [7][8], traffic forecasting [9], mobile robot control [10], pattern recognition [11] [12FLS mod- elling. As a matter of fact, even in type-I fuzzy logic system (FLS) modelling, developing

  3. New Type-2 Rule Ranking Indices for Designing Parsimonious Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Logic Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Granada, Universidad de

    rules can be effectively selected to construct parsimonious type-2 fuzzy models while the system processing [7][8], traffic forecasting [9], mobile robot control [10], pattern recognition [11FLS mod- elling. As a matter of fact, even in type-1 fuzzy logic system (FLS) modelling, developing

  4. Turbulence-Flame Interactions in Type Ia Supernovae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aspden, Andrew J; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, MS 50A-1148, Berkeley, CA 94720 (Authors 1, 2 & 3); Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (Author 4); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (Author 5)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Interactions in Type Ia Supernovae A. J. Aspden 1 , J. B.involved in type Ia supernovae (SN Ia) requires the use of ?generated by RT in type Ia supernovae should obey Bolgiano-

  5. Near-term improvements in parabolic troughs: an economic and performance assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, R.; Murphy, L.M.

    1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Improved parabolic-trough concentrating collectors will result from better design, improved fabrication techniques, and the development and utilization of improved materials. This analysis qualifies the performance potential of various parabolic-trough component improvements from a systems viewpoint and uses these performance data to determine the worth of each improvement on an economic basis. The improvements considered are evacuated receivers, silvered-glass reflectors, improved receiver, selective coatings, higher optical accuracy concentrations, and higher transmittance receiver glazings. Upper-bound costs for each improvement are provided as well as estimates of the increased solar system rates of return that are made possible by these improvements. The performance and economic potential of some of these improvements are shown to be substantial, especially at higher collector operating temperatures.

  6. Solar space heating installed at Kansas City, Kansas. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The solar energy system was constructed with the new 48,800 square feet warehouse to heat the warehouse area of about 39,000 square feet while the auxiliary energy system heats the office area of about 9800 square feet. The building is divided into 20 equal units, and each has its own solar system. The modular design permits the flexibility of combining multiple units to form offices or warehouses of various size floor areas as required by a tenant. Each unit has 20 collectors which are mounted in a single row. The collectors, manufactured by Solaron Corporation, are double glazed flat plate collectors with a gross area of 7800 ft/sup 2/. Air is heated either through the collectors or by the electric resistance duct coils. No freeze protection or storage is required for this system. Extracts from the site files, specifications, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  7. The impact of different climates on window and skylight design for daylighting and passive cooling and heating in residential buildings: A comparative study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Sallal, K.A.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The study aims to explore the effect of different climates on window and skylight design in residential buildings. The study house is evaluated against climates that have design opportunities for passive systems, with emphasis on passive cooling. The study applies a variety of methods to evaluate the design. It has found that earth sheltering and night ventilation have the potential to provide 12--29% and 25--77% of the cooling requirements respectively for the study house in the selected climates. The reduction of the glazing area from 174 ft{sup 2} to 115 ft{sup 2} has different impacts on the cooling energy cost in the different climates. In climates such Fresno and Tucson, one should put the cooling energy savings as a priority for window design, particularly when determining the window size. In other climates such as Albuquerque, the priority of window design should be first given to heating savings requirements.

  8. Impact of the Implementation of the 2000/2001 IECC on Residential Energy Use in Texas: Analysis of Residential Energy Savings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Im, P.; Culp, C.; Ahmad, M.; Malhotra, M.; Haberl, J. S.; Yazdani, B.; Mukhopadhyay, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    parameters (tabs: CONS1 and CONS2) include the material properties and U-values for the different components, the glazing properties, and the window-to-wall area ratio. For both the code and pre-code run, the total window area is either 13.8% or 20.6....4 units of windows) 20.6% (24.9 units of windows) 1.11 0.87 0.714 0.66 80% 80% Notes: 1. Window area: Assume average window size is 3x5. Total window area for east Texas house: 3x5x16.4 =246 ft2 Total wall area for east Texas house: 50.5 (length of house...

  9. Standard practice for fluorescent liquid penetrant testing using the Solvent-Removable process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 This practice covers procedures for fluorescent penetrant examination utilizing the solvent-removable process. It is a nondestructive testing method for detecting discontinuities that are open to the surface, such as cracks, seams, laps, cold shuts, laminations, isolated porosity, through leaks, or lack of fusion and is applicable to in-process, final, and maintenance examination. It can be effectively used in the examination of nonporous, metallic materials, both ferrous and nonferrous, and of nonmetallic materials such as glazed or fully densified ceramics and certain nonporous plastics and glass. 1.2 This practice also provides a reference: 1.2.1 By which a fluorescent penetrant examination solvent-removable process recommended or required by individual organizations can be reviewed to ascertain its applicability and completeness. 1.2.2 For use in the preparation of process specifications dealing with the fluorescent solvent-removable liquid penetrant examination of materials and parts. Agreement by...

  10. Standard practice for visible penetrant testing using the Water-Washable process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 This practice describes procedures for visible liquid penetrant examination utilizing the water-washable process. It is a nondestructive practice for detecting discontinuities that are open to the surface such as cracks, seams, laps, cold shuts, laminations, isolated porosity, through leaks or lack of fusion and is applicable to in-process, final, and maintenance examination. This practice can be effectively used in the examination of nonporous, metallic materials, both ferrous and nonferrous, and of nonmetallic materials such as glazed or fully densified ceramics, and certain nonporous plastics, and glass. 1.2 This practice also provides the following references: 1.2.1 A reference by which visible penetrant examination procedures using the water-washable process can be reviewed to ascertain their applicability and completeness. 1.2.2 For use in the preparation of process specifications dealing with the visible, water-washable liquid penetrant examination of materials and parts. Agreement between the u...

  11. Standard practice for fluorescent liquid penetrant testing using the hydrophilic Post-Emulsification process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 This practice covers procedures for fluorescent penetrant examination utilizing the hydrophilic post-emulsification process. It is a nondestructive testing method for detecting discontinuities that are open to the surface such as cracks, seams, laps, cold shuts, laminations, isolated porosity, through leaks, or lack of fusion and is applicable to in-process, final, and maintenance examination. It can be effectively used in the examination of nonporous, metallic materials, both ferrous and nonferrous, and of nonmetallic materials such as glazed or fully densified ceramics and certain nonporous plastics and glass. 1.2 This practice also provides a reference: 1.2.1 By which a fluorescent penetrant examination hydrophilic post-emulsification process recommended or required by individual organizations can be reviewed to ascertain their applicability and completeness. 1.2.2 For use in the preparation of process specifications dealing with the fluorescent penetrant examination of materials and parts using the...

  12. Standard practice for visible penetrant testing using Solvent-Removable process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 This practice covers procedures for visible penetrant examination utilizing the solvent-removable process. It is a nondestructive testing method for detecting discontinuities that are open to the surface such as cracks, seams, laps, cold shuts, laminations, isolated porosity, through leaks, or lack of fusion and is applicable to in-process, final, and maintenance examination. It can be effectively used in the examination of nonporous, metallic materials, both ferrous and nonferrous, and of nonmetallic materials such as glazed or fully densified ceramics and certain nonporous plastics and glass. 1.2 This practice also provides a reference: 1.2.1 By which a visible penetrant examination method using the solvent-removable process recommended or required by individual organizations can be reviewed to ascertain its applicability and completeness. 1.2.2 For use in the preparation of process specifications dealing with the visible, solvent-removable liquid penetrant examination of materials and parts. Agreeme...

  13. Standard practice for liquid penetrant examination for general industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 This practice covers procedures for penetrant examination of materials. Penetrant testing is a nondestructive testing method for detecting discontinuities that are open to the surface such as cracks, seams, laps, cold shuts, shrinkage, laminations, through leaks, or lack of fusion and is applicable to in-process, final, and maintenance testing. It can be effectively used in the examination of nonporous, metallic materials, ferrous and nonferrous metals, and of nonmetallic materials such as nonporous glazed or fully densified ceramics, as well as certain nonporous plastics, and glass. 1.2 This practice also provides a reference: 1.2.1 By which a liquid penetrant examination process recommended or required by individual organizations can be reviewed to ascertain its applicability and completeness. 1.2.2 For use in the preparation of process specifications and procedures dealing with the liquid penetrant testing of parts and materials. Agreement by the customer requesting penetrant inspection is strongly ...

  14. Electrochromic device with a polymer ionic conductor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Y.; Gu, P.; Tang, J. [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China). Dept. of Optical Engineering

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrochromic material is one which can undergo a reversible color change on the exertion of an external electric field. This can be used for large-area glazings of future buildings, automobiles, aircrafts, etc. Transmittance control of the smart windows can be useful to reduce lighting, heating and cooling energy loads. The optical and electrochromic properties of tungsten oxide films deposited by e-beam evaporation were investigated. A laminated structure device was prepared. The as-deposited tungsten oxide film was used as the electrochromic film. A solid polymer electrolyte PPG-PMMA-LiClO{sub 4} was used as an ionic conductor. Spectrophotometric measurements show that the luminous transmittance of the device can be modulated between about 60% and 15%.

  15. Passive marketable products project. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steele, R.S.; Huntley, D.M.; Low, D.

    1982-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal Technology Corporation contracted to undertake and manage a demonstration project leading to the commercialization of a passive solar product known as the Insulating Curtain Wall. The product was initially developed by Thermal Technology Corporation to provide a system to insulate mass walls in passive systems, improving their performance by reducing thermal losses. All testing, prior to commencement of this project, by Thermal Technology Corporation and, independently, by Los Alamos Scientific Laboratories, was restricted to mass wall applications. Before commercialization of the product for direct gain glazings and residential sliding glass doors, then, it was imperative that responsible field testing, as well as independent testing, be performed to assess accurate thermal and mechanical performance for those applications. Specifically, this report addresses itself to the results of four major efforts undertaken to accomplish the objectives of the project: (1) design pilot production line, (2) engineering field testing, (3) final product evaluation, and (4) commercialization plan.

  16. Impact of the Implementation of the 2000/2001 IECC on Residential Energy Use in Texas: Analysis of Residential Energy Savings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Im, P.; Culp, C.; Ahmad, M.; Malhotra, M.; Haberl, J. S.; Yazdani, B.; Mukhopadhyay, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    parameters (tabs: CONS1 and CONS2) include the material properties and U-values for the different components, the glazing properties, and the window-to-wall area ratio. For both the code and pre-code run, the total window area is either 13.8% or 20.6....4 units of windows) 20.6% (24.9 units of windows) 1.11 0.87 0.714 0.66 80% 80% Notes: 1. Window area: Assume average window size is 3x5. Total window area for east Texas house: 3x5x16.4 =246 ft2 Total wall area for east Texas house: 50.5 (length of house...

  17. Measure Guideline: Energy-Efficient Window Performance and Selection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carmody, J.; Haglund, K.

    2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides guidelines for the selection of energy-efficient windows in new and existing residential construction in all US climate zones. It includes information on window products, their attributes and performance. It provides cost/benefit information on window energy savings as well as information on non-energy benefits such as thermal comfort and reduced HVAC demands. The document also provides information on energy impacts of design decisions such as window orientation, total glazing area and shading devices and conditions. Information on resources for proper window installation is included as well. This document is for builders, homeowners, designers and anyone making decisions about selecting energy efficient window. It is intended to complement other Building America information and efforts.

  18. A Segmented, Enriched N-type Germanium Detector for Neutrinoless...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Publications A Segmented, Enriched N-type Germanium Detector for Neutrinoless Double Beta-Decay Experiments. A Segmented, Enriched N-type Germanium Detector for Neutrinoless...

  19. An automated tool for three types of saturated hydraulic conductivity...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    automated tool for three types of saturated hydraulic conductivity laboratory measurements. An automated tool for three types of saturated hydraulic conductivity laboratory...

  20. A Segmented, Enriched N-type Germanium Detector for Neutrinoless...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Segmented, Enriched N-type Germanium Detector for Neutrinoless Double Beta-Decay Experiments. A Segmented, Enriched N-type Germanium Detector for Neutrinoless Double Beta-Decay...

  1. Hardy–Sobolev Type Inequalities with Sharp Constants in Carnot ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    nonlinear case p = 2. We also obtain a sharp inequality of Hardy–Sobolev type. Keywords Hardy type inequalities·Carnot groups·Carnot–Carathéodory spaces·.

  2. Type B Accident Investigation of the Subcontractor Employee Injuries...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Type B Accident Investigation of the Subcontractor Employee Injuries from a November 15, 2000, Fall Accident at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Type B Accident Investigation of...

  3. Type B Accident Investigation of the August 22, 2000, Injury...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Type B Accident Investigation of the August 22, 2000, Injury Resulting From Violent Exothermic Chemical Reaction at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, X-701B Site Type B...

  4. Identification of soybean proteins from a single cell type: The...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    soybean proteins from a single cell type: The root hair. Identification of soybean proteins from a single cell type: The root hair. Abstract: Root hairs are a terminally...

  5. Gauge Orbit Types for Generalized Connections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian Fleischhack

    2000-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Different versions for defining Ashtekar's generalized connections are investigated depending on the chosen smoothness category for the paths and graphs -- the label set for the projective limit. Our definition covers the analytic case as well as the case of webs. Then the orbit types of the generalized connections are determined for compact structure groups. The stabilizer of a connection is homeomorphic to the holonomy centralizer, i.e. the centralizer of its holonomy group, and the homeomorphism class of the gauge orbit is completely determined by the holonomy centralizer. Furthermore, the stabilizers of two connections are conjugate in the gauge group if and only if their holonomy centralizers are conjugate in the structure group. Finally, the gauge orbit type of a connection is defined to be the conjugacy class of its holonomy centralizer equivalently to the standard definition via stabilizers.

  6. Anisotropic criteria for the type of superconductivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kogan, Vladimir G [Ames Laboratory; Prozorov, Ruslan [Ames Laboratory

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The classical criterion for classification of superconductors as type I or type II based on the isotropic Ginzburg-Landau theory is generalized to arbitrary temperatures for materials with anisotropic Fermi surfaces and order parameters. We argue that the relevant quantity for this classification is the ratio of the upper and thermodynamic critical fields Hc2/Hc, rather than the traditional ratio of the penetration depth and the coherence length ?/?. Even in the isotropic case, Hc2/Hc coincides with 2??/? only at the critical temperature Tc and they differ as T decreases, the long-known fact. Anisotropies of Fermi surfaces and order parameters may amplify this difference and render false the criterion based on the value of ?=?/?.

  7. 2Cosmic Bar Graphs Galaxy Type

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in the cluster are spirals? Problem 2 ­ Gamma-ray bursts happen about once each day. The bar graph to the right there are 160 total galaxies, the fraction of spirals is 137/160 = 0.86, or equivalently 86%. Problem 2 ­ Gamma-ray2Cosmic Bar Graphs 0 20 40 60 80 100 S E SB I Galaxy Type Number 0 200 400 600 800 1000 FB SB Burst

  8. Halanay type inequalities on time scales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ad\\ivar, Murat

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper aims to introduce Halanay type inequalities on time scales. By means of these inequalities we derive new global stability conditions for nonlinear dynamic equations on time scales. Giving several examples we show that beside generalization and extension to q-difference case, our results also provide improvements for the existing theory regarding differential and difference inequalites, which are the most important particular cases of dynamic inequalities on time scales.

  9. Nonperturbative Type I-I' String Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shyamoli Chaudhuri

    2005-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a nonperturbative framework for the O(32) type I open and closed string theory. The short distance degrees of freedom are bosonic and fermionic hermitian matrices belonging respectively to the adjoint and fundamental representations of the special unitary group SU(N). We identify a closed matrix algebra at finite N which corresponds to the Lorentz, gauge, and supersymmetry algebras of the large N continuum limit. The planar reduction of our matrix theory coincides with the low energy spacetime effective action of the d=10 type I O(32) unoriented open and closed string theory. We show that matrix T-duality transformations can yield a nonperturbative framework for the T-dual type I' closed string theory with 32 D8branes. We show further that under a strong-weak coupling duality transformation the large N reduced action coincides with the low energy spacetime effective action of the d=10 heterotic string, an equivalence at leading order in the inverse string tension and with either gauge group Spin(32)/Z2 or E8xE8. Our matrix formalism has the potential of providing a nonperturbative framework encapsulating all of the weak coupling limits of M theory.

  10. Evaluation of control strategies for different smart window combinations using computer simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jonsson, Andreas; Roos, Arne [Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Several studies have shown that the use of switchable windows could lower the energy consumption of buildings. Since the main function of windows is to provide daylight and visual contact with the external world, high visible transmittance is needed. From an energy perspective it is always best to have the windows in their low-transparent state whenever there are cooling needs, but this is generally not preferable from a daylight and visual contact point of view. Therefore a control system, which can be based on user presence, is needed in connection with switchable windows. In this study the heating and cooling needs of the building, using different control mechanisms were evaluated. This was done for different locations and for different combinations of switchable windows, using electrochromic glazing in combination with either low-e or solar control glazing. Four control mechanisms were investigated; one that only optimizes the window to lower the need for heating and cooling, one that assumes that the office is in use during the daytime, one based on user presence and one limiting the perpendicular component of the incident solar irradiation to avoid glare and too strong daylight. The control mechanisms were compared using computer simulations. A simplified approach based on the balance temperature concept was used instead of performing complete building simulations. The results show that an occupancy-based control system is clearly beneficial and also that the best way to combine the panes in the switchable window differs depending on the balance temperature of the building and on the climate. It is also shown that it can be beneficial to have different window combinations for different orientations. (author)

  11. Sol-gel deposited electrochromic films for electrochromic smart window glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oezer, N. [Istanbul Univ. (Turkey). Faculty of Science; Lampert, C.M. [Star Science (United States); Rubin, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Div.

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrochromic windows offer the ability to dynamically change the transmittance of a glazing. With the appropriate sensor and controls, this smart window can be used for energy regulation and glare control for a variety of glazing applications. The most promising are building and automotive applications. This work covers the use of sol-gel deposition processes to make active films for these windows. The sol-gel process offers a low-capital investment for the deposition of these active films. Sol-gel serves as an alternative to more expensive vacuum deposition processes. The sol-gel process utilizes solution coating followed by a hydrolysis and condensation. In this investigation the authors report on tungsten oxide and nickel oxide films made by the sol-gel process for electrochromic windows. The properties of the sol-gel films compare favorably to those of films made by other techniques. A typical laminated electrochromic window consists of two glass sheets coated with transparent conductors, which are coated with the active films. The two sheets are laminated together with an ionically conductive polymer. The range of visible transmission modulation of the tungsten oxide was 60% and for the nickel oxide was 20%. The authors used the device configuration of glass/SnO{sub 2}:F/W0{sub 3}/polymer/Li{sub Z}NiO{sub x}H{sub y}/SnO{sub 2}:F glass to test the films. The nickel oxide layer had a low level of lithiation and possibly contained a small amount of water. Lithiated oxymethylene-linked poly(ethylene oxide) was used as the laminating polymer. Commercially available SnO{sub 2}:F/glass (LOF-Tec glass) was used as the transparent conducting glass. The authors found reasonable device switching characteristics which could be used for devices.

  12. Passive solar heating and natural cooling of an earth-integrated design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, P.R.; Shapira, H.B.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research is being designed with innovative features that will greatly reduce its energy consumption for heating, cooling, and lighting. A reference design has been studied and the effects of extending the overhang during summer and fall, varying glazing area, employing RIB, and reducing internal heat by natural lighting have been considered. The use of RIB and the extendable overhang increases the optimum window glazing area and the solar heating fraction. A mass-storage wall which will likely be included in the final design has also been considered. A figure of merit for commercial buildings is the total annual energy consumption per unit area of floor space. A highly efficient office building in the Oak Ridge area typically uses 120 to 160 kWhr/m/sup 2/. The Joint Institute reference design with natural lighting, an annual average heat pump coefficient of performance (COP) equal to 1.8, RIB, and the extendable overhang uses 71 kWhr/m/sup 2/. This figure was determined from NBSLD simulations corrected for the saving from RIB. The internal heat energy from lighting and equipment used in the simulation was 1653 kWhrs/month (high natural lighting case) which is much lower than conventional office buildings. This value was adopted because only a portion of the building will be used as office space and efforts will be made to keep internal heat generation low. The mass-storage wall and ambient air cooling will reduce energy consumption still further. The combined savings of the innovative features in the Joint Institute building are expected to result in a very energy efficient design. The building will be instrumented to monitor its performance and the measured data will provide a means of evaluating the energy-saving features. The efficiency of the design will be experimentally verified over the next several years.

  13. Chemical reaction model for oil and gas generation from type 1 and type 2 kerogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braun, R.L.; Burnham, A.K.

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A global model for the generation of oil and gas from petroleum source rocks is presented. The model consists of 13 chemical species and 10 reactions, including an alternate-pathway mechanism for kerogen pyrolysis. Reaction rate parameters and stoichiometry coefficients determined from a variety of pyrolysis data are given for both type I and type II kerogen. Use of the chemical reaction model is illustrated for typical geologic conditions.

  14. The Hubble Constant from Type Ia Supernovae in Early-Type Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tom Richtler; Georg Drenkhahn

    1999-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe) are the best standard candles available today in spite of an appreciable intrinsic variation of their luminosities at maximum phase, and of probably non-uniform progenitors. For an unbiased use of type Ia SNe as distance indicators it is important to know accurately how the decline rate and colour at maximum phase correlate with the peak brightness. In order to calibrate the Hubble diagram of type Ia SNe, i.e. to derive the Hubble constant, one needs to determine the absolute brightness of nearby type Ia SNe. Globular cluster systems of early type Ia host galaxies provide suitable distance indicators. We discuss how Ia SNe can be calibrated and explain the method of Globular Cluster Luminosity Functions (GCLFs). At present, the distance to the Fornax galaxy cluster is most important for deriving the Hubble constant. Our present data indicate a Hubble constant of H_0=72+-4 km/s/Mpc. As an appendix, we summarise what is known about absolute magnitudes of Ia's in late-type galaxies.

  15. Type Policy Title Here Effective Date: [Insert Date

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salzman, Daniel

    Type Policy Title Here Effective Date: [Insert Date] Policy Statement [Type Statement Text Here] Reason(s) for the Policy [Type Reason Text Here] Primary Guidance to Which This Policy Responds [Type Primary Policy Here ­ If there is NOT a Primary Policy indicate that] Responsible University Office

  16. Type II Seesaw at LHC: the Roadmap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alejandra Melfo; Miha Nemevsek; Fabrizio Nesti; Goran Senjanovic; Yue Zhang

    2012-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    In this Letter we revisit the type-II seesaw mechanism based on the addition of a weak triplet scalar to the standard model. We perform a comprehensive study of its phenomenology at the LHC energies, complete with the electroweak precision constraints. We pay special attention to the doubly-charged component, object of collider searches for a long time, and show how the experimental bound on its mass depends crucially on the particle spectrum of the theory. Our study can be used as a roadmap for future complete LHC studies.

  17. Type II Seesaw at LHC: the Roadmap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melfo, Alejandra; Nesti, Fabrizio; Senjanovic, Goran; Zhang, Yue

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this Letter we revisit the type-II seesaw mechanism based on the addition of a weak triplet scalar to the standard model. We perform a comprehensive study of its phenomenology at the LHC energies, complete with the electroweak precision constraints. We pay special attention to the doubly-charged component, object of collider searches for a long time, and show how the experimental bound on its mass depends crucially on the particle spectrum of the theory. Our study can be used as a roadmap for future complete LHC studies.

  18. Dynamics of Bianchi type I elastic spacetimes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simone Calogero; J. Mark Heinzle

    2007-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the global dynamical behavior of spatially homogeneous solutions of the Einstein equations in Bianchi type I symmetry, where we use non-tilted elastic matter as an anisotropic matter model that naturally generalizes perfect fluids. Based on our dynamical systems formulation of the equations we are able to prove that (i) toward the future all solutions isotropize; (ii) toward the initial singularity all solutions display oscillatory behavior; solutions do not converge to Kasner solutions but oscillate between different Kasner states. This behavior is associated with energy condition violation as the singularity is approached.

  19. Types of Fuel Cells | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2,EHSS A-Zandofpoint motional StarkFuel Cells » Types

  20. Systems of Hess-Appel'rot type

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vladimir Dragovic; Borislav Gajic

    2006-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We construct higher-dimensional generalizations of the classical Hess-Appel'rot rigid body system. We give a Lax pair with a spectral parameter leading to an algebro-geometric integration of this new class of systems, which is closely related to the integration of the Lagrange bitop performed by us recently and uses Mumford relation for theta divisors of double unramified coverings. Based on the basic properties satisfied by such a class of systems related to bi-Poisson structure, quasi-homogeneity, and conditions on the Kowalevski exponents, we suggest an axiomatic approach leading to what we call the "class of systems of Hess-Appel'rot type".

  1. Job Types | National Nuclear Security Administration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |Is Your Home as Ready for(SC) Jetting into theJieJobTypes |

  2. Property:CompanyType | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroupPerfectenergyInformationProjectAffiliated CompaniesCompanyType Jump

  3. Property:Incentive/Type | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon »ApplDsc Jump to: navigation,Type

  4. Property:DIA/Type | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation,PillarPublicationType Jump to:CoolingTowerWaterUseWinterGrossDIA/TopicSocial

  5. Property:DeviceType | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation,PillarPublicationType JumpDOEInvolve Jump to:DeploymentSector Jump

  6. Property:Document type | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation,PillarPublicationType JumpDOEInvolve Jumpallowed values for this property

  7. Types of Lighting in Commercial Buildings - Introduction

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013,Iowa"Dakota"YearProductionShaleInput

  8. MEMORANDUM TO: FILE TYPE OF OPERATION

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA group currentBradleyTableSelling CorpNewCF INDUSTRIES,L? .-IGYS IDCSTE 1TYPE OF

  9. Types of Insulation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreakingMayDepartmentTest forTechnologiesTribalInjury at the Hanford SiteTypes of

  10. Property:ProjectType | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I GeothermalPotentialBiopowerSolidGenerationMethod Jump to: navigation, search PropertyStartProjectType Jump

  11. Property:Technology Type | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I GeothermalPotentialBiopowerSolidGenerationMethod Jump to:This property isType" Showing 25 pages using

  12. Type C: Caldera Resource | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTown of Ladoga, IndianaTurtle Airships JumpType B: Andesitic Volcanic Resource

  13. Type:Epoch | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTown of Ladoga, IndianaTurtle Airships JumpType B: Andesitic VolcanicF:Epoch Jump

  14. Probing Cosmological Isotropy With Type IA Supernovae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bengaly, C A P; Alcaniz, J S

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the validity of the Cosmological Principle by mapping the cosmological parameters $H_0$ and $q_0$ through the celestial sphere. In our analysis, performed in a low-redshift regime to follow a model-independent approach, we use two compilations of type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia), namely the Union2.1 and the JLA datasets. Firstly, we show that the angular distributions for both SNe Ia datasets are statistically anisotropic at high confidence level ($p$-value $<$ 0.0001), in particular the JLA sample. Then we find that the cosmic expansion and acceleration are mainly of dipolar type, with maximal anisotropic expansion [acceleration] pointing towards $(l,b) \\simeq (326^{\\circ},12^{\\circ})$ [$(l,b) \\simeq (174^{\\circ},27^{\\circ})$], and $(l,b) \\simeq (58^{\\circ},-60^{\\circ})$ [$(l,b) \\simeq (225^{\\circ},51^{\\circ})$] for the Union2.1 and JLA data, respectively. Secondly, we use a geometrical method to test the hypothesis that the non-uniformly distributed SNe Ia events could introduce anisotropic imp...

  15. Simultaneous acquisition of differing image types

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Demos, Stavros G

    2012-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A system in one embodiment includes an image forming device for forming an image from an area of interest containing different image components; an illumination device for illuminating the area of interest with light containing multiple components; at least one light source coupled to the illumination device, the at least one light source providing light to the illumination device containing different components, each component having distinct spectral characteristics and relative intensity; an image analyzer coupled to the image forming device, the image analyzer decomposing the image formed by the image forming device into multiple component parts based on type of imaging; and multiple image capture devices, each image capture device receiving one of the component parts of the image. A method in one embodiment includes receiving an image from an image forming device; decomposing the image formed by the image forming device into multiple component parts based on type of imaging; receiving the component parts of the image; and outputting image information based on the component parts of the image. Additional systems and methods are presented.

  16. Type Ia Supernova Explosion: Gravitationally Confined Detonation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tomasz Plewa; Alan Calder; Don Lamb

    2004-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a new mechanism for Type Ia supernova explosions in massive white dwarfs. The proposed scenario follows from relaxing the assumption of symmetry in the model and involves a detonation created in an unconfined environment. The explosion begins with an essentially central ignition of stellar material initiating a deflagration. This deflagration results in the formation of a buoyantly-driven bubble of hot material that reaches the stellar surface at supersonic speeds. The bubble breakout forms a strong pressure wave that laterally accelerates fuel-rich outer stellar layers. This material, confined by gravity to the white dwarf, races along the stellar surface and is focused at the location opposite to the point of the bubble breakout. These streams of nuclear fuel carry enough mass and energy to trigger a detonation just above the stellar surface. The flow conditions at that moment support a detonation that will incinerate the white dwarf and result in an energetic explosion. The stellar expansion following the deflagration redistributes stellar mass in a way that ensures production of intermediate mass and iron group elements consistent with observations. The ejecta will have a strongly layered structure with a mild amount of asymmetry following from the early deflagration phase. This asymmetry, combined with the amount of stellar expansion determined by details of the evolution (principally the energetics of deflagration, timing of detonation, and structure of the progenitor), can be expected to create a family of mildly diverse Type Ia supernova explosions.

  17. Dark matter ignition of type Ia supernovae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bramante, Joseph

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent studies of low redshift type Ia supernovae (SNIa) indicate that half explode from less than Chandrasekhar mass white dwarfs, implying ignition must proceed from something besides the canonical criticality of Chandrasekhar mass SNIa progenitors. We show that $0.1-10$ PeV mass asymmetric dark matter, with imminently detectable nucleon scattering interactions, can accumulate to the point of self-gravitation in a white dwarf and collapse, shedding gravitational potential energy by scattering off nuclei, thereby heating the white dwarf and igniting the flame front that precedes SNIa. We combine data on SNIa masses with data on the ages of SNIa-adjacent stars. This combination reveals a $ 3 \\sigma$ inverse correlation between SNIa masses and ignition ages, which could result from increased capture of dark matter in 1.4 versus 1.1 solar mass white dwarfs. Future studies of SNIa in galactic centers will provide additional tests of dark-matter-induced type Ia ignition. Remarkably, both bosonic and fermionic SNI...

  18. The Sizes of Early-type Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joachim Janz; Thorsten Lisker

    2008-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In this letter we present a study of the size luminosity relation of 475 early-type galaxies in the Virgo Cluster with Sloan Digital Sky Survey imaging data. The analysis of our homogeneous, model-independent data set reveals that giant and dwarf early-type galaxies do not form one common sequence in this relation. The dwarfs seem to show weak or no dependence on luminosity, and do not fall on the extension of the rather steep relation of the giants. Under the assumption that the light profile shape varies continuously with magnitude, a curved relation of size and magnitude would be expected. While the galaxies do roughly follow this trend overall, we find that the dwarf galaxies are significantly larger and the low-luminosity giants are significantly smaller than what is predicted. We come to the conclusion that in this scaling relation there is not one common sequence from dwarfs to giants, but a dichotomy which can not be resolved by varying profile shapes. The comparison of our data to a semi-analytic model supports the idea of a physical origin of this dichotomy.

  19. Function: GTP:-`type/gradedmonom` -define a type 'gradedmonom' Calling Sequence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ablamowicz, Rafal

    :with(Clifford):with(GTP): > type(e1 &t e1,gradedmonom),type(Pi*(e1we2 &t e1 &t e2),gradedmonom); Cliplus has been loaded Id &t e1 Id &t e2 Id &t e1we2 e1 &t Id e1 &t e1 e1 &t e2 e1 &t e1we2, , , , , , , ,[:= e2 &t Id e2 &t e1 e2 &t e2 e2 &t e1we2 e1we2 &t Id e1we2 &t e1 e1we2 &t e2, , , , , , , e1we2 &t e1we2] > map

  20. Phases of a Type Ia supernova explosion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. C. Niemeyer

    1998-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    In the framework of the Chandrasekhar mass white dwarf model for Type Ia supernovae, various stages of the explosion are described in terms of the burning regimes of the thermonuclear flame front. In the early flamelet regime following the ``smoldering'' phase prior to the explosion, the flame is sufficiently thin and fast to remain laminar on small scales. As the white dwarf density declines, the thermal flame structure becomes subject to penetration by turbulent eddies, and it enters the ``distributed burning'' regime. A specific control parameter for this transition is proposed. Furthermore, we outline an argument for the coincidence of the transition between burning regimes with the onset of a deflagration-detonation-transition (DDT) in the late phase of the explosion.

  1. Boost type PWM HVDC transmission system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ooi, B.T.; Wang, X. (McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

    1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports that conventional HVdc is built around the mercury arc rectifier or the thyristor which requires line commutation. The advances of fast, high power GTO's and future devices such as MCT's with turn off capabilities, are bringing PWM techniques within the range of HVdc applications. By combining PWM techniques to the boost type bridge topology, one has an alternate system of HVdc Transmission. On the ac side, the converter station has active controls over: the voltage amplitude, the voltage angle and the frequency. On the dc side, parallel connections facilitate multi-terminal load sharing by simple local controls so that redundant communication channels are not required. Bidirectional power through each station is accomplished by the reversal of the direction of dc current flow. These claims have been substantiated by experimental results from laboratory size multi-terminal models.

  2. Supporting dependently typed functional programming with proof automation and testing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilson, Sean

    2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Dependent types can be used to capture useful properties about programs at compile time. However, developing dependently typed programs can be difficult in current systems. Capturing interesting program properties usually ...

  3. Archive Reference Buildings by Building Type: Primary school

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the reference buildings for new construction commercial buildings, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is...

  4. UNIT TYPE MILITARY PROVIDES IIT PROVIDES (Navy/Marines)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heller, Barbara

    UNIT TYPE MILITARY PROVIDES IIT PROVIDES Naval (Navy/Marines) 4 year­Type 1 Full tuition and fees. Room and board* for all 4 years. Navy (Must be currently enlisted personnel) STA-21 Seaman to Admiral

  5. Archive Reference Buildings by Building Type: Stand-alone retail

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the reference buildings for new construction commercial buildings, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is...

  6. Archive Reference Buildings by Building Type: Small office

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the reference buildings for new construction commercial buildings, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is...

  7. Archive Reference Buildings by Building Type: Large office

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Here you will find past versions of the reference buildings for new construction commercial buildings, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is...

  8. Archive Reference Buildings by Building Type: Fast food

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the reference buildings for new construction commercial buildings, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is...

  9. Archive Reference Buildings by Building Type: Strip mall

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the reference buildings for new construction commercial buildings, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is...

  10. Space Issues in Compiling with Intersection and Union Types

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ]. Furthermore, types that survive through the back end can be used to support run-time operations such as garbage collection [Tol94] and run-time type dispatch [Mor95]. The bene#12;ts of using a TIL

  11. Archive Reference Buildings by Building Type: Secondary school

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you will find past versions of the reference buildings for new construction commercial buildings, organized by building type and location. A summary of building types and climate zones is...

  12. Visualizing Buoyant Burning Bubbles in Type Ia Supernovae at...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Burning in Supernovae Buoyant Burning Bubbles in Type Ia Supernovae bubble-s.jpeg Flame ignition in type Ia supernovae leads to isolated bubbles of burning buoyant fluid. As a...

  13. Could there be a hole in type Ia supernovae?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasen, Daniel; Nugent, Peter; Thomas, R.C.; Wang, Lifan

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlight: The Physics of Supernovae. Pro- ceedings of the EThere Be A Hole In Type l a Supernovae? Daniel Kasen, Peterscenario, Type l a Supernovae (SNe la) arise from a white

  14. Principal Typings for Explicit Substitutions Daniel Lima Ventura1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kamareddine, Fairouz

    Principal Typings for Explicit Substitutions Calculi Daniel Lima Ventura1 , Mauricio Ayala-Rinc´on1, Scotland UK {ventura,ayala}@mat.unb.br, fairouz@macs.hw.ac.uk Abstract. Having principal typings (for short

  15. BMW ALGEBRA, QUANTIZED COORDINATE ALGEBRA AND TYPE C SCHURWEYL DUALITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sydney, University of

    BMW ALGEBRA, QUANTIZED COORDINATE ALGEBRA AND TYPE C SCHUR­WEYL DUALITY JUN HU Abstract. We prove enveloping algebra of type C 6 3. BMW algebras and a generalized FRT construction 9 4. A comparison of two

  16. Algebraic theory of type-and-effect systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammar, Ohad

    2014-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a general semantic account of Gifford-style type-and-effect systems. These type systems provide lightweight static analyses annotating program phrases with the sets of possible computational effects they may ...

  17. Type B Accident Investigation, Response to the 24 Command Wildland...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Type B Accident Investigation, Response to the 24 Command Wildland Fire on the Hanford Site, June 27-July 1, 2000 Type B Accident Investigation, Response to the 24 Command Wildland...

  18. application type nda: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Probability Updating Genetic Algorithms Mutation Selection Evolutionary Population Exploration Branching DiffusionGenetic type particle methods: An introduction with applications...

  19. Nonminimal coupling and Bianchi type-I cosmologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Accioly, A.J.; Vaidya, A.N.; Som, M.M.

    1983-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Bianchi type-I exact solutions are obtained in two models involving nonminimal coupling of gravitation and other fields.

  20. Type-level module aliases: independent and equal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garrigue, Jacques

    . ­ Through nested structures, it allows for hierarchical design of libraries. ­ Sharing of types allows library) #12;Garrigue & White -- Type-level module aliases 9 The re-built hierarchy: SML/NJ ­ SML out of the specification. #12;Garrigue & White -- Type-level module aliases 10 A packed library

  1. Alexandria Digital Earth ProtoType The Alexandria Digital Earth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Janée, Greg

    Alexandria Digital Earth ProtoType The Alexandria Digital Earth Prototype System Terence Smith Greg Janée James Frew Anita Coleman #12;Alexandria Digital Earth ProtoType 2Smith et al. / JCDL 2001 / 2x Earth ProtoType 3Smith et al. / JCDL 2001 / 2x-Jun-2001 Core System (inherited from ADL) Components

  2. Ecosystem type affects interpretation of soil nematode community measures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neher, Deborah A.

    Ecosystem type affects interpretation of soil nematode community measures D.A. Neher a,*, J. Wu b understanding of performance among major ecosystem types is necessary before nematode community indices can and agricultural ecosystems; (2) compare nematode community composition among and within ecosystem types and report

  3. Machine Learning and Inference Laboratory Semantic and Syntactic Attribute Types

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michalski, Ryszard S.

    Reports Machine Learning and Inference Laboratory Semantic and Syntactic Attribute Types in AQ University #12;2 SEMANTIC AND SYNTACTIC ATTRIBUTE TYPES IN AQ LEARNING Ryszard S. Michalski* and Janusz and syntactic attribute types in AQ learning, explains their relationships and provides their classifications

  4. Type-Based Termination, Inflationary Fixed-Points, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abel, Andreas

    Type-Based Termination, Inflationary Fixed-Points, and Mixed Inductive-Coinductive Types Andreas Science (FICS 2012) ETAPS 2012, Tallinn, Estonia 24 March 2012 Andreas Abel (LMU) Type-Based Termination AIM XV 1 / 1 #12;Introduction Aspects of Termination What the talk is about: foundational approach

  5. Partial Order Semantics of Types of Nets Robert Lorenz1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Desel, Jörg

    Partial Order Semantics of Types of Nets Robert Lorenz1 , Gabriel Juh´as2 , and Sebastian Mauser3 1 of types of nets. Types of nets are a parametric definition of Petri nets originally developed for a general presentation of the synthesis of Petri nets from (step) transition systems. Partial order

  6. Polymorphic CSP Type Checking Ping Gao and Robert Esser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Esser, Robert

    Polymorphic CSP Type Checking Ping Gao and Robert Esser Concurrent and Real­time Systems Laboratory@cs.adelaide.edu.au Abstract Communicating Sequential Processes (CSP) is a lan­ guage used to describe and reason about between a conventional functional lan­ guage type checker and a type checker for the CSP language

  7. Rates and Progenitors of Type Ia Supernovae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    William Michael Wood-Vasey

    2005-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The remarkable uniformity of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) has allowed astronomers to use them as distance indicators to measure the properties and expansion history of the Universe. However, SNe Ia exhibit intrinsic variation in both their spectra and observed brightness. To reduce these systematic uncertainties, we need a deeper understanding of the observed variations in SNe Ia. Toward this end, the Nearby Supernova Factory (SNfactory) has been designed to discover hundreds of SNe Ia in a systematic and automated fashion and study them in detail. A prototype run of the SNfactory search pipeline conducted from 2002 to 2003 discovered 83 SNe at a final rate of 12 SNe/month. A large, homogeneous search of this scale offers an excellent opportunity to measure the rate of SNe Ia. This dissertation presents a new method for analyzing the true sensitivity of a multi-epoch supernova search and finds a SN Ia rate from $z\\sim0.01$--0.1 of $r_V = 4.26 (+1.39 -1.93) (+0.10 - 0.10)$ SNe Ia/yr/Mpc$^3$ from a preliminary analysis of a subsample of the SNfactory prototype search. Several unusual supernovae were found in the course of the SNfactory prototype search. One in particular, SN 2002ic, was the first SN Ia to exhibit convincing evidence for a circumstellar medium and offers valuable insight into the progenitors of SNe Ia.

  8. EPICS Version 4 - Implementing Complex Data Types

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marty Kraimer,; John dalesio

    2012-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Through phase 1 and phase 2 SBIR grants, s fully functional I/O Controller and communication protocol for version 4 of EPICS is completed. This new software architecture provides a flexible and extendible architecture. Version 4 is implemented fully in Java. The performance metrics look promising. The final portion of phase 2 is to optimize the communication mechanisms. Subsequent work on different aspects of this are required to provide a viable solutions in various areas. Version 3 of EPICS is able to provide a platform for implementing channel based control, because the channel and attributes for time stamping, alarm, display and control were narrow, well defined, and complete. To extend EPICS functionality beyond this, it is necessary to define attributes needed for archive data, array, image data, and directory services. The proper handling of several array types enables the development of middle layer servers such as orbit and bump control in accelerators. Phase 1 should produce a well defined, reviewed, and agreed upon definition of the metadata required for these services. A Phase 2 grant would provide tools that implemented archiving, general array, imaging, and directory applications.

  9. GUTs on Compact Type IIB Orientifolds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blumenhagen, Ralph; /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; Braun, Volker; /Dublin Inst.; Grimm, Thomas W.; /Bonn U.; Weigand, Timo; /SLAC

    2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We systematically analyze globally consistent SU(5) GUT models on intersecting D7-branes in genuine Calabi-Yau orientifolds with O3- and O7-planes. Beyond the well-known tadpole and K-theory cancellation conditions there exist a number of additional subtle but quite restrictive constraints. For the realization of SU(5) GUTs with gauge symmetry breaking via U(1)Y flux we present two classes of suitable Calabi-Yau manifolds defined via del Pezzo transitions of the elliptically fibred hypersurface P{sub 1,1,1,6,9}[18] and of the Quintic P{sub 1,1,1,1,1}[5], respectively. To define an orientifold projection we classify all involutions on del Pezzo surfaces. We work out the model building prospects of these geometries and present five globally consistent string GUT models in detail, including a 3-generation SU(5) model with no exotics whatsoever. We also realize other phenomenological features such as the 10 10 5{sub H} Yukawa coupling and comment on the possibility of moduli stabilization, where we find an entire new set of so-called swiss-cheese type Calabi-Yau manifolds. It is expected that both the general constrained structure and the concrete models lift to F-theory vacua on compact Calabi-Yau fourfolds.

  10. Axion inflation in type II string theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grimm, Thomas W. [Physikalisches Institut der Universitaet Bonn, Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany) and Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2008-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Inflationary models driven by a large number of axion fields are discussed in the context of type IIB compactifications with N=1 supersymmetry. The inflatons arise as the scalar modes of the R-R two-forms evaluated on vanishing two-cycles in the compact geometry. The vanishing cycles are resolved by small two-volumes or NS-NS B fields which sit together with the inflatons in the same supermultiplets. String world sheets wrapping the vanishing cycles correct the metric of the R-R inflatons. They can help to generate kinetic terms close to the Planck scale and a mass hierarchy between the axions and their nonaxionic partners during inflation. At small string coupling, D-brane corrections are subleading in the metric of the R-R inflatons. However, an axion potential can be generated by D1 instantons or gaugino condensates on D5-branes. Models with a sufficiently large number of axions admit regions of chaotic inflation which can stretch over the whole axion field range for potentials from gaugino condensates. These models could allow for a possibly detectable amount of gravitational waves with tensor to scalar ratio as high as r<0.14.

  11. EARLY EMISSION FROM TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabinak, Itay; Waxman, Eli [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Livne, Eli, E-mail: itay.rabinak@weizmann.ac.il [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2012-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A unique feature of deflagration-to-detonation (DDT) white dwarf explosion models of supernovae of type Ia is the presence of a strong shock wave propagating through the outer envelope. We consider the early emission expected in such models, which is produced by the expanding shock-heated outer part of the ejecta and precedes the emission driven by radioactive decay. We expand on earlier analyses by considering the modification of the pre-detonation density profile by the weak shocks generated during the deflagration phase, the time evolution of the opacity, and the deviation of the post-shock equation of state from that obtained for radiation pressure domination. A simple analytic model is presented and shown to provide an acceptable approximation to the results of one-dimensional numerical DDT simulations. Our analysis predicts a {approx}10{sup 3} s long UV/optical flash with a luminosity of {approx}1 to {approx}3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 39} erg s{sup -1}. Lower luminosity corresponds to faster (turbulent) deflagration velocity. The luminosity of the UV flash is predicted to be strongly suppressed at t > t{sub drop} {approx} 1 hr due to the deviation from pure radiation domination.

  12. The Outermost Ejecta of Type Ia Supernovae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masaomi Tanaka; Paolo A. Mazzali; Stefano Benetti; Ken'ichi Nomoto; Nancy Elias-Rosa; Rubina Kotak; Giuliano Pignata; Vallery Stanishev; Stephan Hachinger

    2007-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The properties of the highest velocity ejecta of normal Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are studied via models of very early optical spectra of 6 SNe. At epochs earlier than 1 week before maximum, SNe with a rapidly evolving Si II 6355 line velocity (HVG) have a larger photospheric velocity than SNe with a slowly evolving Si II 6355 line velocity (LVG). Since the two groups have comparable luminosities, the temperature at the photosphere is higher in LVG SNe. This explains the different overall spectral appearance of HVG and LVG SNe. However, the variation of the Ca II and Si II absorptions at the highest velocities (v >~ 20,000 km/s) suggests that additional factors, such as asphericity or different abundances in the progenitor white dwarf, affect the outermost layers. The C II 6578 line is marginally detected in 3 LVG SNe, suggesting that LVG undergo less intense burning. The carbon mass fraction is small, only less than 0.01 near the photosphere, so that he mass of unburned C is only <~ 0.01 Msun. Radioactive 56Ni and stable Fe are detected in both LVG and HVG SNe. Different Fe-group abundances in the outer layers may be one of the reasons for spectral diversity among SNe Ia at the earliest times. The diversity among SNe Ia at the earliest phases could also indicate an intrinsic dispersion in the width-luminosity relation of the light curve.

  13. Possibility of n-type and p-type carrier coupling in the excitonic enhancement model of superconducting mechanism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, K.W. (Kansas Univ., Lawrence, KS (USA). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy); Ching, W.Y. (Missouri Univ., Kansas City, MO (USA). Dept. of Physics)

    1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors discuss the possibility of both n-type and p-type carrier coupling in the excitonic enhancement model (EEM) for high temperature superconductivity. It is argued that p-type quasi-particles will generally lead to a higher T{sub c} than the n-type. The differences between EEM model and other exciton-related models are illuminated by the corresponding Feynman diagrams for the carrier coupling.

  14. Behavior of type 304 and type 316 austenitic stainless in 55% lithium bromide heavy brine environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Itzhak, D.; Elias, O. (Ben-Gurion Univ., Beer-Sheva (Israel). Dept. of Materials Engineering)

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cylindrical tensile specimens of AISI type 304 (UNS S30400) and type 316 (UNS S31600) stainless steels (SS) were tested under constant-load conditions in 55% lithium bromide (LiBr) heavy brines at temperatures of 120 C and 140 C. Elongation and open-circuit potential (OCP) were recorded during the tensile test. Potentiodynamic polarization measurements were conducted, and the failed surface fractures were examined by scanning electron microscopy. The tested SS were subjected to stress corrosion under the test environments. Sensitivity was affected strongly by pH values. In LiBr brine of pH = 11.6, the passivation processes were more effective than in brine of pH = 6 [approximately] 8. Because of effective passivation behavior in brine of pH = 11.6, lower values of [delta]l[sub 0] were measured, indicating lower dislocation relaxation processes and high resistance to stress corrosion cracking.

  15. Constraining Cosmic Evolution of Type Ia Supernovae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foley, Ryan J.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Aguilera, C.; Becker, A.C.; Blondin, S.; Challis, P.; Clocchiatti, A.; Covarrubias, R.; Davis, T.M.; Garnavich, P.M.; Jha, S.; Kirshner, R.P.; Krisciunas, K.; Leibundgut, B.; Li, W.; Matheson, T.; Miceli, A.; Miknaitis, G.; Pignata, G.; Rest, A.; Riess, A.G.; /UC, Berkeley, Astron. Dept. /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs. /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept. /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /Chile U., Catolica /Bohr Inst. /Notre Dame U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Texas A-M /European Southern Observ. /NOAO, Tucson /Fermilab /Chile U., Santiago /Harvard U., Phys. Dept. /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci. /Johns Hopkins U. /Res. Sch. Astron. Astrophys., Weston Creek /Stockholm U. /Hawaii U. /Illinois U., Urbana, Astron. Dept.

    2008-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the first large-scale effort of creating composite spectra of high-redshift type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) and comparing them to low-redshift counterparts. Through the ESSENCE project, we have obtained 107 spectra of 88 high-redshift SNe Ia with excellent light-curve information. In addition, we have obtained 397 spectra of low-redshift SNe through a multiple-decade effort at Lick and Keck Observatories, and we have used 45 ultraviolet spectra obtained by HST/IUE. The low-redshift spectra act as a control sample when comparing to the ESSENCE spectra. In all instances, the ESSENCE and Lick composite spectra appear very similar. The addition of galaxy light to the Lick composite spectra allows a nearly perfect match of the overall spectral-energy distribution with the ESSENCE composite spectra, indicating that the high-redshift SNe are more contaminated with host-galaxy light than their low-redshift counterparts. This is caused by observing objects at all redshifts with similar slit widths, which corresponds to different projected distances. After correcting for the galaxy-light contamination, subtle differences in the spectra remain. We have estimated the systematic errors when using current spectral templates for K-corrections to be {approx}0.02 mag. The variance in the composite spectra give an estimate of the intrinsic variance in low-redshift maximum-light SN spectra of {approx}3% in the optical and growing toward the ultraviolet. The difference between the maximum-light low and high-redshift spectra constrain SN evolution between our samples to be < 10% in the rest-frame optical.

  16. SHOCK BREAKOUT FROM TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piro, Anthony L.; Chang, Philip; Weinberg, Nevin N., E-mail: tpiro@astro.berkeley.ed, E-mail: pchang@astro.berkeley.ed, E-mail: nweinberg@astro.berkeley.ed [Astronomy Department and Theoretical Astrophysics Center, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The mode of explosive burning in Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) remains an outstanding problem. It is generally thought to begin as a subsonic deflagration, but this may transition into a supersonic detonation (the delayed detonation transition, DDT). We argue that this transition leads to a breakout shock, which would provide the first unambiguous evidence that DDTs occur. Its main features are a hard X-ray flash (approx20 keV) lasting approx10{sup -2} s with a total radiated energy of approx10{sup 40} erg, followed by a cooling tail. This creates a distinct feature in the visual light curve, which is separate from the nickel decay. This cooling tail has a maximum absolute visual magnitude of M{sub V} approx -9 to -10 at approx1 day, which depends most sensitively on the white dwarf radius at the time of the DDT. As the thermal diffusion wave moves in, the composition of these surface layers may be imprinted as spectral features, which would help to discern between SN Ia progenitor models. Since this feature should accompany every SNe Ia, future deep surveys (e.g., m = 24) will see it out to a distance of approx80 Mpc, giving a maximum rate of approx60 yr{sup -1}. Archival data sets can also be used to study the early rise dictated by the shock heating (at approx20 days before maximum B-band light). A similar and slightly brighter event may also accompany core bounce during the accretion-induced collapse to a neutron star, but with a lower occurrence rate.

  17. P-type and N-type multi-gate polycrystalline silicon vertical thin film transistors based on low-temperature technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    is obtained. P-type and N-type vertical TFTs have shown symmetric electrical characteristics. DifferentP-type and N-type multi-gate polycrystalline silicon vertical thin film transistors based on low) ABSTRACT P-type and N-type multi-gate vertical thin film transistors (vertical TFTs) have been fabricated

  18. Types of contracts and agreements guide. Part 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this volume is to be helpful in providing a comprehensive introduction to a wide variety of contract types and agreements, including a consideration of small purchase procedures and multiyear procurement. In both format and content, it is designed to help those persons who influence the determination of the types of contracts and agreements to be employed in acquiring goods and services for the Department of Energy. Information is presented on selecting and negotiating types of contract compensation arrangements; fixed-price type contract compensation arrangements, including small purchases and multiyear procurement; cost-reimbursement type contract compensation arrangements; other types of contract compensation agreements; and basic agreements and basic ordering agreements. (LCL)

  19. HI in Low-Luminosity Early-Type Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tom Oosterloo; Raffaella Morganti; Elaine Sadler

    1998-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the properties of the HI in low-luminosity early-type galaxies. The morphology of the HI is more regular than that of the HI in many more-luminous early-type galaxies. The HI is always distributed in a disk and is more centrally concentrated. The central HI surface densities are higher than in luminous early-type galaxies and are high enough for star formation to occur.

  20. Type B Accident Investigation Board Report on the November 1...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    B Accident Investigation Board Report on the November 1, 1999, Construction Injury at the Monticello Mill Tailings Remedial Action Site, Monticello, Utah Type B Accident...

  1. Rangeland Risk Management for Texans: Types of Risk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Larry D.; Hanselka, C. Wayne

    2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Types of risk associated with range ecosystems include climatic, biological, financial and political risks. These risks are explained so that managers can know how to handle them....

  2. Types of Cost Estimates - DOE Directives, Delegations, and Requirement...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CURRENT DOE G 430.1-1 Chp 4, Types of Cost Estimates by John Makepeace Functional areas: Procurement, Project Management The chapter describes the estimates required on...

  3. Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    220 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per...

  4. Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    220 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per...

  5. Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  6. Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    134 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  7. Table 33. Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    - - - - - - - - - - - - See footnotes at end of table. 33. Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 116 Energy Information...

  8. Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per...

  9. Table 33. Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 33. Oxygenated Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  10. Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    134 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  11. Type A Accident Investigation of the March 16, 2000, Plutonium...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Multiple Intake Event at the Plutonium Facility, Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico Type A Accident Investigation of the March 16, 2000, Plutonium-238 Multiple Intake...

  12. Type B Accident Investigation Report on the Exertional Heat Illnesses...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat Illnesses during SPOTC 2006 at the National Training Center in Albuquerque, New Mexico, July 13, 2006 Type B Accident Investigation Report on the Exertional Heat...

  13. Type B Accident Investigation Board Report Subcontractor Radioactive...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Decommissioning (D&D) Project arrived at the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF). Upon arrival, an incoming radiological survey was performed. Type B...

  14. Polymorphic Typing of Variables and References GEOFFREY SMITH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Geoffrey

    Polymorphic Typing of Variables and References GEOFFREY SMITH Florida International University reflect the views of the National Science Foundation. Authors' addresses: G. Smith, School of Computer

  15. Type A Accident Investigation of the June 21, 2001, Drilling...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    A Accident Investigation of the June 21, 2001, Drilling Rig Operator Injury at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, August 2001 Type A Accident Investigation of the June 21,...

  16. Type A Accident Investigation Board Report on the February 20...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    February 20, 1996, Fall Fatality at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex Transuranic Storage Area - Retrieval Enclosure, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Type A Accident...

  17. Approximating K-means-type clustering via semidefinite programming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiming Peng

    2005-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Apr 22, 2005 ... Approximating K-means-type clustering via semidefinite ... Abstract: One of the fundamental clustering problems is to assign $n$ points into $k$ ...

  18. A New 'Geothermal Play Type' Catalog: Streamlining Exploration...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Exploration Decision Making Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: A New 'Geothermal Play Type' Catalog: Streamlining Exploration...

  19. assisting type regional: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Assistant Job Type: ASU GRA Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: , statistics, qualitative, and semi-qualitative research methodologies is desired. Excellent...

  20. Type B Accident Investigation Board Report on the October 15...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    on the October 15, 2001, Grout Injection Operator Injury at the Cold Test Pit South, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Type B Accident Investigation Board...

  1. Type B Accident Investigation Report of the October 28, 2004...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    of the October 28, 2004, Burn Injuries Sustained During an Office of Secure Transportation Joint Training Exercise at Fort Hunter-Liggett, CA Type B Accident Investigation Report...

  2. Type B Accident Investigation Board Report of the September 29...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    at the Separations Process Research Unit (SPRU), Building H2 Demolition, in Niskayuna, New, York Type B Accident Investigation Board Report of the September 29, 2010,...

  3. PROTON INDUCED SWELLING IN TYPE 316 STAINLESS STEEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srivastava, A.K.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    McDonald, Void Formation in Proton- and Nicke1- Irradiatedowned rights. o -iii- PROTON INDUCED SWELLING IN TYPE 316I. II. Introduction Proton Damage Processes A. B.

  4. COLLOQUIUM: Type II Solar Radio Bursts: From Fundamental Plasma...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Auditorium COLLOQUIUM: Type II Solar Radio Bursts: From Fundamental Plasma Physics to Space Weather Research Professor Iver Cairns University of Sydney - School of Physics For...

  5. Geographic Area Month Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Excluding Taxes) - Continued Geographic Area Month Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Sales to End Users Sales for Resale Sales to End Users Sales for Resale...

  6. RNA Type III Secretion Signals that require Hfq. | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    that require Hfq. RNA Type III Secretion Signals that require Hfq. Abstract: effector proteins from the bacterium to a host cell; however, the secretion signal is poorly...

  7. Hypoelliptic heat kernel inequalities on H-type groups

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eldredge, Nathaniel Gilbert Bartsch

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hypoelliptic heat kernel inequalities on the HeisenbergHypoelliptic heat kernel inequalities on Lie groups. PhDHypoelliptic heat kernel inequalities on H-type groups A

  8. Towards a regular type N vacuum gravitational field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. V. Ivanov

    1999-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    An exact twisting type N vacuum solution is found. It has regular gauge and curvature invariants and decays to flat spacetime for big retarded times.

  9. Type B Accident Investigation of the July 12, 2007, Forklift...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    2, 2007, Forklift and Pedestrian Accident at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, PortsmouthPaducah Project Office Type B Accident Investigation of the July 12, 2007, Forklift and...

  10. Type B Accident Investigation on the February 17, 2004, Personal...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Investigation of the July 12, 2007, Forklift and Pedestrian Accident at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, PortsmouthPaducah Project Office Type B Accident Investigation...

  11. Type Ia Supernova Hubble Residuals and Host-Galaxy Properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, A. G.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    magnitudes of type Ia supernovae from multi-band lightsuch an analysis on the supernovae of the Nearby Supernovaheadings: distance scale, supernovae: general 1 Physics

  12. K-corrections and spectral templates of Type Ia supernovae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsiao, E. Y.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    templates of Type Ia supernovae E. Y. Hsiao 1 , A. Conleyobservations of low-redshift supernovae are less a?ected byobservations, stars: supernovae Department of Physics and

  13. Type A Investigation - Subcontractor Fatality at the Savannah...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    2, 2002, Worker Fall from ShoringScaffolding Structure at the Savannah River Site Tritium Extraction Facility Construction Site Type A Accident Investigation Board Report on...

  14. Type B Accident Investigation Board Report, May 8, 2004, Exothermic...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Report, May 8, 2004, Exothermic Metal Reactor Event During Sodium Transfer Activities, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee Type B Accident Investigation Board...

  15. Characterization of nitrogen compound types in hydrotreated Paraho shale oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holmes, S.A.; Latham, D.R.

    1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Results from the separation and characterization of nitrogen compound types in hydrotreated Paraho shale oil samples were obtained. Two samples of Paraho shale oil were hydrotreated by Chevron Research Company such that one sample contained about 0.05 wt. percent nitrogen and the other sample contained about 0.10 wt. percent nitrogen. A separation method concentrate specific nitrogen compound types was developed. Characterization of the nitrogen types was accomplished by infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, potentiometric titration, and elemental analysis. The distribution of nitrogen compound types in both samples and in the Paraho crude shale oil is compared.

  16. Type B Accident Investigation At Washington Closure Hanford,...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Fall Injury on July 1, 2009, At The 336 Building, Hanford Site, Washington Type B Accident Investigation At Washington Closure Hanford, LLC, Employee Fall Injury on July 1,...

  17. Type B Accident Investigation Board Report on the September 7...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Accident Investigation Board Report on the September 7, 2001, Burn Accident at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Building 9210 Type B Accident Investigation Board Report on the...

  18. Type B Accident Investigation of the Arc Flash at Brookhaven...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Arc Flash at Brookhaven National Laboratory, April 14, 2006 Type B Accident Investigation of the Arc Flash at Brookhaven National Laboratory, April 14, 2006 February 10, 2006 An...

  19. Type B Accident Investigation Board Report of the Brookhaven...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    National Laboratory Employee Injury at Building 1005H on October 9, 2009 Type B Accident Investigation Board Report of the Brookhaven National Laboratory Employee Injury at...

  20. Type B Accident Investigation Board Report of the Bechtel Jacobs...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    at the K-25 Building, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee Type B Accident Investigation Board Report of the Bechtel Jacobs Company, LLC Employee Fall Injury on...

  1. Complement receptor type 2conjugated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levin, Judith G.

    Complement receptor type 2­conjugated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles [CR2-Fc-SPIO] Kam: Complement receptor type 2­conjugated gold/superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles Abbreviated name: CR2, and oligodendroglial cells. SPIO nanoparticles are sometimes modified with dextran, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG

  2. Formal Type Soundness for Cyclone's Region System Dan Grossman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hicks, Michael

    collector. To support separate compilation, Cyclone requires programmers to write some explicit regionFormal Type Soundness for Cyclone's Region System Dan Grossman Greg Morrisett Trevor Jim Mike Hicks Yanling Wang James Cheney November 2001 Abstract Cyclone is a polymorphic, type-safe programming language

  3. Well-Typed Programs Can’t Be Blamed 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadler, Philip; Findler, Robert Bruce

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce the blame calculus, which adds the notion of blame from Findler and Felleisen’s contracts to a system similar to Siek and Taha’s gradual types and Flanagan’s hybrid types. We characterise where positive and ...

  4. COMPUTER GENERATION OF TYPE CURVES SUBMITIED TO THE DEPARTMENTOF PETROLEUMENGINEERING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    COMPUTER GENERATION OF TYPE CURVES A REPORT SUBMITIED TO THE DEPARTMENTOF PETROLEUMENGINEERING data. This paper presents some previously published type curves and the computer programs that were between two parallel sealing faults. The governing equations for these curves are derived. The computer

  5. A Uniform Type Structure for Secure Information KOHEI HONDA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Honda, Kohei

    A Uniform Type Structure for Secure Information Flow KOHEI HONDA Queen Mary, University of London . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Author's address: K. Honda, Department of Computer Science, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile. TBD, No. TDB, Month Year, Pages 1­83. #12;2 · Kohei Honda and Nobuko Yoshida 2.5 Linear/Affine Typing

  6. Peptide and protein biomarkers for type 1 diabetes mellitus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Qibin; Metz, Thomas O.

    2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for identifying persons with increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes mellitus, or having type I diabetes mellitus, utilizing selected biomarkers described herein either alone or in combination. The present disclosure allows for broad based, reliable, screening of large population bases. Also provided are arrays and kits that can be used to perform such methods.

  7. Learning Active Basis Models by EM-Type Algorithms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Ying Nian

    Learning Active Basis Models by EM-Type Algorithms Zhangzhang Si1, Haifeng Gong1,2, Song-Chun Zhu1, and scales as latent variables into the image generation process, and learn the template by EM-type scheme for learning image templates of object categories where the learning is not fully supervised. We

  8. Distribution and Abstract Types in Emerald N. Hutchinson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Black, Andrew P.

    Distribution and Abstract Types in Emerald A. Black N. Hutchinson E. Jul H. Levy L. CarterEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, VOL. SE-13. NO. 1, JANUARY 1987 65 Distribution and Abstract Types-Emerald is an object-based language for programming distributed subsystems and applications. Its novel features include

  9. Nickel Bubble Expansion in Type Ia Supernovae: Adiabatic Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chih-Yueh Wang

    2008-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents hydrodynamical and radiation-hydrodynamical simulations of the nickel bubble effect in Type Ia supernovae, comparison of results to self-similar solutions, and application to observations of Type Ia supernova remnants, with a particular emphasis on Tycho's SNR.

  10. Termination of algebraic type systems: the syntactic approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Raamsdonk, Femke

    Termination of algebraic type systems: the syntactic approach Gilles Barthe and Femke van Raamsdonk applications in proof­checking. A natural question in this field concerns the termination or strong normalisation of such systems and is as follows: given a terminating type system T and a terminating rewriting

  11. Type-Based Termination of Functional Programs Andreas Abel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abel, Andreas

    Type-Based Termination of Functional Programs Andreas Abel Department of Computer Science Ludwig Timmendorfer Strand, Germany Andreas Abel (LMU Munich) Type-Based Termination KPS'07 1 / 21 #12;Introduction Termination Question: Will the run of a program eventually halt? Undecidable for Turing-complete programming

  12. Type-Inference Based Short Cut Deforestation (nearly) without Inlining

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kent, University of

    Type-Inference Based Short Cut Deforestation (nearly) without Inlining -- Work in Progress -- Olaf@informatik.rwth-aachen.de Abstract Deforestation optimises a functional program by transforming it into another one that does not create certain intermediate data structures. In [Chi99] we presented a type-inference based deforestation

  13. Type-Inference Based Short Cut Deforestation (nearly) without Inlining

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kent, University of

    Type-Inference Based Short Cut Deforestation (nearly) without Inlining Olaf Chitil Lehrstuhl f¨ur Informatik II, RWTH Aachen, Germany chitil@informatik.rwth-aachen.de Abstract. Deforestation optimises structures. Our type-inference based deforestation algorithm performs extensive inlining, but only limited

  14. Vortex pinning by inhomogeneities in type-II superconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapman, Jon

    Vortex pinning by inhomogeneities in type-II superconductors S.J. Chapman #3;y G. Richardson zx of a curvilinear vortex in an inhomogeneous type-II superconducting material in the limit as the vortex core radius of the superconducting electrons acts as a pinning potential for the vortex, so that vortices will be attracted

  15. Harold Schnitzer Diabetes Health Center Type 1 Diabetes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapman, Michael S.

    Harold Schnitzer Diabetes Health Center Type 1 Diabetes Support Group Our support group is dedicated to adults of all ages (16 years and older) with type 1 diabetes. Each month most our time Schnitzer Diabetes Health Center will also present a short diabetes-related topic to get the discussion

  16. Harold Schnitzer Diabetes Health Center Type 1 Diabetes Support Group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapman, Michael S.

    Harold Schnitzer Diabetes Health Center Type 1 Diabetes Support Group Our support group is dedicated to adults of all ages (16 years and older) with type 1 diabetes. Each month most our time will be for sharing and a professional from our diabetes center will present a short diabetes-related topic

  17. Harold Schnitzer Diabetes Health Center Type 1 Diabetes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapman, Michael S.

    Harold Schnitzer Diabetes Health Center Type 1 Diabetes Support Group 2014 Our support group is dedicated to adults of all ages (16 years and older) with type 1 diabetes. Each month most our time Schnitzer Diabetes Health Center will also present a short diabetes-related topic to get the discussion

  18. An Effective Theory of Type Refinements Yitzhak Mandelbaum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harper, Robert

    is an ordinary ML-style type system, which confers standard properties on program behavior. The second level to express and enforce properties of the execution behavior of programs. Conventional type systems of specifying program properties. However, there remain many properties which, while apparent at compile

  19. Relationship of SBS-symptoms and ventilation system type in office buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seppanen, O.; Fisk, W.J.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SBS-SYMPTOMS AND VENTILATION SYSTEM TYPE IN OFFICE BUILDINGSSBS-SYMPTOMS AND VENTILATION SYSTEM TYPE IN OFFICE BUILDINGSabout the associations of ventilation system types in office

  20. Survey gives clues to origin of Type Ia supernovae | EurekAlert! Science News

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ... to origin of Type Ia supernovae ... Type Ia supernovae still not understood despite their ... s behind the Type Ia supernovae they use to measure distances ...