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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "glass transparent conductive" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Superhydrophobic Transparent Glass Thin Films  

Glass used in building materials (curtain walls), windshields, goggles, glasses,optical lenses, and similar applications must be durable and transparent. To meetthis challenge, ORNL researchers have invented a method to produce ...

2

Transparent Conductive Nano-Composites  

Indium Tin Oxide, the most widely used commercial transparent conducting coating, has severe limitations such inflexibility, high processing ...

3

High quality transparent conducting oxide thin films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A transparent conducting oxide (TCO) film comprising: a TCO layer, and dopants selected from the elements consisting of Vanadium, Molybdenum, Tantalum, Niobium, Antimony, Titanium, Zirconium, and Hafnium, wherein the elements are n-type dopants; and wherein the transparent conducting oxide is characterized by an improved electron mobility of about 42 cm.sup.2/V-sec while simultaneously maintaining a high carrier density of .about.4.4e.times.10.sup.20 cm.sup.-3.

Gessert, Timothy A. (Conifer, CO); Duenow, Joel N. (Golden, CO); Barnes, Teresa (Evergreen, CO); Coutts, Timothy J. (Golden, CO)

2012-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

4

Flexible, Transparent, Conducting Nanotubes Advance ...  

conducting material, indium tin oxide (ITO). All of the indium component of ITO is exported from abroad. The continuously increasing cost of indium and its limited

5

Transparent Conducting Oxide Development for Electronics Applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We have employed both combinatorial composition spread and conventional single composition approaches to determine the relative roles of metals and oxygen stoichiometries on the opto-electronic properties of amorphous In-Zn-O (a-IZO) thin film transparent conductors. Two major results were found. First, that the optimization of conductivity in a-IZO is a coupled process with the best metals composition depending upon the oxygen content of the sputter gas. Second, that the electron mobility as a function of carrier concentration is given by a common curve for all a-IZO films independent of the metals composition.

Perkins, J. D.; Berry, J. H.; van Hest, M. F. A. M.; Cavendor, A. N.; Leenheer, A. J.; O'Hayre, R. P.; Ginley, D. S.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Improved Transparent Conducting Oxides Boost Performance of Thin...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

to electricity in solar cells by absorbing light within a specific wavelength. Today's thin-film solar cells could not function without transparent conducting oxides (TCOs)....

7

Thin?film conducting microgrids as transparent heat mirrors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new type of transparent heat mirror for solar?energy applications has been fabricated by chemically etching a Sn?doped In2O3 film to form a transparent conducting microgrid. For square openings 2.5 ?m on a side

John C. C. Fan; Frank J. Bachner; R. A. Murphy

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Fabrication of nano-hole array patterns on transparent conducting oxide layer using thermally curable nanoimprint lithography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A two-dimensional, periodic array of nano-sized holes was fabricated in an indium tin oxide (ITO) layer, deposited onto a glass substrate with nanoimprint lithography. As a result of a thermally curing imprint process, hole array patterns with a diameter ... Keywords: Indium tin oxide (ITO), Nanoimprint lithography (NIL), Patterned transparent electrode, Photonic crystals, Transparent conducting oxide (TCO) layer

Kyeong-Jae Byeon; Seon-Yong Hwang; Heon Lee

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Identification and design principles of low hole effective mass p-type transparent conducting oxides  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The development of high-performance transparent conducting oxides is critical to many technologies from transparent electronics to solar cells. Whereas n-type transparent conducting oxides are present in many devices, their ...

Hautier, Geoffroy

10

Electrochemical cell with high conductivity glass electrolyte  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A secondary electrochemical cell with sodium-sulfur or other molten reactants is provided with a ionically conductive glass electrolyte. The cell is contained within an electrically conductive housing with a first portion at negative potential and a second portion insulated therefrom at positive electrode potential. The glass electrolyte is formed into a plurality of elongated tubes and placed lengthwise within the housing. The positive electrode material, for instance sulfur, is sealed into the glass electrolyte tubes and is provided with an elongated axial current collector. The glass electrolyte tubes are protected by shield tubes or sheets that also define narrow annuli for wicking of the molten negative electrode material. 6 figs.

Nelson, P.A.; Bloom, I.D.; Roche, M.F.

1987-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

11

Electrochemical cell with high conductivity glass electrolyte  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A secondary electrochemical cell with sodium-sulfur or other molten reactants is provided with an ionically conductive glass electrolyte. The cell is contained within an electrically conductive housing with a first portion at negative potential and a second portion insulated therefrom at positive electrode potential. The glass electrolyte is formed into a plurality of elongated tubes and placed lengthwise within the housing. The positive electrode material, for instance sulfur, is sealed into the glass electrolyte tubes and is provided with an elongated axial current collector. The glass electrolyte tubes are protected by shield tubes or sheets that also define narrow annuli for wicking of the molten negative electrode material.

Nelson, P.A.; Bloom, I.D.; Roche, M.F.

1986-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

12

Towards High Performance p-Type Transparent Conducting Oxides  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

P-type transparent conductive oxides would have potential applications in photovoltaics, transparent electronics and organic opto-electronics. In this paper we present results on the synthesis of Cu2SrO2, a p-type transparent conducting oxide, by a chemical solution route as well as the conventional pulse laser deposition (PLD) method. For Cu2SrO2 by the chemical solution route, samples were made by spraying deposition on quartz substrates using an aqueous solution of Copper formate and Strontium acetate. Phase pure materials were obtained by an optimum two stage annealing sequence. This initial work led to the development of good quality homogeneous films by a related sol-gel approach. We have also used pulsed laser depostion (PLD) to deposit Cu2SrO2 and CuInO2 thin films on quartz substrates. We have obtained improved conductivities in the CuInO2 thin films over previously published work. We present details on the nature of the relationship of process parameters to the opto-electronic properties of the films.

Roy, B.; Ode, A.; Readey, D.; Perkins, J.; Parilla, P.; Teplin, C.; Kaydanova, T.; Miedaner, A.; Curtis, C.; Martinson, A.; Coutts, T.; Ginley, D.; Hosono, H.

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Combinatorial Exploration of Novel Transparent Conducting Oxide Materials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

High-throughput combinatorial approaches have been used for the discovery and optimization of transparent conducting oxide (TCO) materials for PV applications. We report on current investigations in In-Zn-O, In-Ti-O and In-Mo-O systems. The InZnO system is shown to be amorphous in the best conducting range with a conductivity of ~ 3000 ?-cm-1 for 50%-70% In/Zn. The amorphous InZnO films are very smooth (2..ANG.. rms). In-Ti-O is found to be an excellent high-mobility TCO with mobilities of greater than 80 cm2/v-sec and conductivities of more than 6000 ?-cm-1 for sputtered thin film materials.

Ginley, D. S.; van Hest, M. F. A. M.; Young, D.; Teplin, C. W.; Alleman, J. L.; Dabney, M. S.; Gedvilas, L. M.; Keyes, B. M.; To, B.; Perkins, J. D.; Taylor, M. P.; Readey, D.

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Transparent Conductive Coating Based on Carbon Nanotubes Using Electric Field Deposition Method  

SciTech Connect

The transparent conductive coating based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) had been fabricated using the electric field deposition method. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) results show a quite uniform CNTs on Corning glass substrates. Moreover the X-ray Diffraction (XRD) results shows the peak at around 25 deg. which proves the existence of CNT materials. The CNT thin films obtained with different deposition times have different transmittance coefficients at wavelength of 550 nm. I-V measurement results shows higher sheet resistance value which relates with bigger transmittance coefficients and vice versa.

Latununuwe, Altje [Physics of Electronic Materials Research Division, ITB, Jl. Ganesha No.10 Bandung (Indonesia); Department of Physics Education, Pattimura University, Jl. Ir.M.Putuhena Poka Ambon (Indonesia); Hattu, Nikmans [Chemistry Deparment, Pattimura University, Jl. Ir.M.Putuhena Poka Ambon (Indonesia); Setiawan, Andhy [Physics of Electronic Materials Research Division, ITB, Jl. Ganesha No.10 Bandung (Indonesia); Physics Department, Indonesia University of Education (UPI) Jl.Dr.Setiabudi No. 229, Bandung (Indonesia); Winata, Toto; Abdullah, Mikrajuddin; Darma, Yudi [Physics of Electronic Materials Research Division, ITB, Jl. Ganesha No.10 Bandung (Indonesia)

2010-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

15

Infra-red transparent glass as per ancient Indian text ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The test results revealed that new glass could be compared with Calcium Fluoride Glass. ... Optical Response of Laser Materials in High Radiation Environments.

16

Transparent electrical conducting films by activated reactive evaporation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Process and apparatus for producing transparent electrical conducting thin films by activated reactive evaporation is disclosed. Thin films of low melting point metals and alloys, such as indium oxide and indium oxide doped with tin, are produced by physical vapor deposition. The metal or alloy is vaporized by electrical resistance heating in a vacuum chamber, oxygen and an inert gas such as argon are introduced into the chamber, and vapor and gas are ionized by a beam of low energy electrons in a reaction zone between the resistance heater and the substrate. There is a reaction between the ionized oxygen and the metal vapor resulting in the metal oxide which deposits on the substrate as a thin film which is ready for use without requiring post deposition heat treatment. 1 fig.

Bunshah, R.; Nath, P.

1982-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

17

Transparent electrical conducting films by activated reactive evaporation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Process and apparatus for producing transparent electrical conducting thin films by activated reactive evaporation. Thin films of low melting point metals and alloys, such as indium oxide and indium oxide doped with tin, are produced by physical vapor deposition. The metal or alloy is vaporized by electrical resistance heating in a vacuum chamber, oxygen and an inert gas such as argon are introduced into the chamber, and vapor and gas are ionized by a beam of low energy electrons in a reaction zone between the resistance heater and the substrate. There is a reaction between the ionized oxygen and the metal vapor resulting in the metal oxide which deposits on the substrate as a thin film which is ready for use without requiring post deposition heat treatment.

Bunshah, Rointan (Los Angeles, CA); Nath, Prem (Troy, MI)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Transparent solar heat collector  

SciTech Connect

Infrared solar radiation is absorbed by a transparent converter glass for conversion of the infrared radiation into thermal energy. Liquid or air forms a transparent fluid medium that is conducted into heat transfer contact with the glass to carry the thermal energy away from the glass to a point of utilization. In one embodiment, the transparent converter glass consists of sintered particles of infrared absorptive glass located within a collector space formed within an all-glass panel. The panel includes glass walls extending outwardly of the walls forming the collector space. In a further embodiment, the transparent converter glass consists of elongated strips of infrared absorptive glass carried by support members so that the strips extend in a parallel, spaced-apart relation to form a venetian blind-like structure between glass panels. In a still further embodiment, the transparent converter glass consists of a slab of infrared absorptive glass extending vertically within a building structure to form a passageway for the flow of convectivelydriven air between the glass slab and two window panels forming a dry airspace therebetween. Instead of a thick unitary glass slab, smaller bricks of infrared absorptive glass are arranged to form courses of an internal wall within a building structure adjacent a glass window.

Deminet, C.

1980-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

19

Effect of Structure on P-type Conduction and Optical Transparency ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Effect of Structure on P-type Conduction and Optical Transparency of ... DC Arc Plasma Jet Growth of Large Area High Quality Freestanding ...

20

Precise Application of Transparent Conductive Oxide Coatings for Flat Panel Displays and Photovoltaic Cells  

Argonne has developed a new method for applying thin film coatings of transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) to large panel displays and photovoltaic (PV) cells.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "glass transparent conductive" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Large-scale, nonsubtractive patterning of transparent conducting oxides by ion bombardment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

While significant progress has been achieved in the fabrication and performance of transparent electronic devices, substantially less research effort has been devoted to transparent interconnects, despite their critical importance for transparent integrated circuitry. Here, we exploit the crystal disorder induced by Ar{sup +} ion bombardment to achieve efficient fabrication of electrically conductive patterns on indium oxide surfaces. The resulting ion-induced patterns are characterized by conductive atomic force microscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and four-point charge transport measurements. Massively parallel patterning is demonstrated over square centimeter areas with a patterned electrical conductivity of {approx}10{sup 4} S cm{sup -1}.

Sosa, Norma E.; Chen, Christopher; Liu Jun; Marks, Tobin J.; Hersam, Mark C.

2011-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

22

Flexible, transparent, and conductive film based on random networks of Ag nanowires  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flexible, transparent, and conductive films based on randomnetworks ofAg nanowireswere prepared by vacuum-filtratingmethod. The size of Ag nanowires prepared by hydrothermal method is uniform, with a relatively smaller diameter and a longer length, thereby ...

Shunhua Wang, Xu Zhang, Weiwei Zhao

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Transparent Conducting Contacts Based on Zinc Oxide Substitutionally Doped with Gallium: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) are a critical element in photovoltaic devices. This paper describes research on Ga:ZnO (a TCO candidate) using a high-throughput combinatorial approach.

Gorrie, C. W.; Reese, M.; Perkins, J. D.; Alleman, J. L.; Dabney M. S.; To, B.; Ginley, D. S.; Berry, J. J.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Modeling the Electrical Conductivity in Glass Melts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, The electrical resistivity of oxide melts is important for the design and operation of electric furnaces. The electrical properties of glass and slag ...

25

Method for producing high carrier concentration p-Type transparent conducting oxides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for producing transparent p-type conducting oxide films without co-doping plasma enhancement or high temperature comprising: a) introducing a dialkyl metal at ambient temperature and a saturated pressure in a carrier gas into a low pressure deposition chamber, and b) introducing NO alone or with an oxidizer into the chamber under an environment sufficient to produce a metal-rich condition to enable NO decomposition and atomic nitrogen incorporation into the formed transparent metal conducting oxide.

Li, Xiaonan (Evergreen, CO); Yan, Yanfa (Littleton, CO); Coutts, Timothy J. (Golden, CO); Gessert, Timothy A. (Conifer, CO); Dehart, Clay M. (Westminster, CO)

2009-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

26

Electronic Structure and Doping of P-Type Transparent Conducting Oxides: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) are a group of materials that are widely used in solar cells and other optoelectronic devices. Recently, Cu-containing p-type TCOs such as MII Cu2 O2 (MIII=Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba) and CuMIII O2 (MIII=Al, Ga, In) have been proposed. Using first-principles band structure methods, we have systematically studied the electronic and optical properties of these p-type transparent oxides. For MII Cu2 O2 , we predict that adding a small amount of Ca into Sr Cu2 O2 can increase the transparency and conductivity. For CuMIII O2 , we explained the doping and band gap anomalies in this system and proposed a new approach to search for bipolar dopable wide-gap materials.

Wei, S.-H.; Nie, X.; Zhang, S. B.

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Point defects and transport mechanisms in transparent conducting oxides of intermediate conductivity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and indium-tin oxide (ITO), would enable all-oxide and all-transparent electronics and optoelectronics [3-type TCO with properties (especially mobility) comparable to the best n-type TCOs, such as tin oxide Renewable Energy Laboratory. References [1] H. Kawazoe, M. Yasukawa, H. Hyodo, M. Kurita, H. Yanagi, H

Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R.

28

Improved Transparent Conducting Oxides Boost Performance of Thin-Film Solar Cells (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Today?s thin-film solar cells could not function without transparent conducting oxides (TCOs). TCOs act as a window, both protecting the cell and allowing light to pass through to the cell?s active layers. Until recently, TCOs were seen as a necessary, but static, layer of a thin-film photovoltaic (PV) cell. But a group of researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has identified a pathway to producing improved TCO films that demonstrate higher infrared transparency. To do so, they have modified the TCOs in ways that did not seem possible a few years ago.

Not Available

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

High quality ZnO:Al transparent conducting oxide films synthesized by pulsed filtered cathodic arc deposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aluminum-doped zinc oxide, ZnO:Al or AZO, is a well-known n-type transparent conducting oxide with great potential in a number of applications currently dominated by indium tin oxide (ITO). In this study, the optical and electrical properties of AZO thin films deposited on glass and silicon by pulsed filtered cathodic arc deposition are systematically studied. In contrast to magnetron sputtering, this technique does not produce energetic negative ions, and therefore ion damage can be minimized. The quality of the AZO films strongly depends on the growth temperature while only marginal improvements are obtained with post-deposition annealing. The best films, grown at a temperature of about 200?C, have resistivities in the low to mid 10-4 Omega cm range with a transmittance better than 85percent in the visible part of the spectrum. It is remarkable that relatively good films of small thickness (60 nm) can be fabricated using this method.

Anders, Andre; Lim, Sunnie H.N.; Yu, Kin Man; Andersson, Joakim; Rosen, Johanna; McFarland, Mike; Brown, Jeff

2009-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

30

Structure, ionic Conductivity and mobile Carrier Density in Fast Ionic Conducting Chalcogenide Glasses  

SciTech Connect

This thesis consists of six sections. The first section gives the basic research background on the ionic conduction mechanism in glass, polarization in the glass, and the method of determining the mobile carrier density in glass. The proposed work is also included in this section. The second section is a paper that characterizes the structure of MI + M{sub 2}S + (0.1 Ga{sub 2}S{sub 3} + 0.9 GeS{sub 2}) (M = Li, Na, K and Cs) glasses using Raman and IR spectroscopy. Since the ionic radius plays an important role in determining the ionic conductivity in glasses, the glass forming range for the addition of different alkalis into the basic glass forming system 0.1 Ga{sub 2}S{sub 3} + 0.9 GeS{sub 2} was studied. The study found that the change of the alkali radius for the same nominal composition causes significant structure change to the glasses. The third section is a paper that investigates the ionic conductivity of MI + M{sub 2}S + (0.1Ga{sub 2}S{sub 3} + 0.9 GeS{sub 2}) (M = Li, Na, K and Cs) glasses system. Corresponding to the compositional changes in these fast ionic conducting glasses, the ionic conductivity shows changes due to the induced structural changes. The ionic radius effect on the ionic conductivity in these glasses was investigated. The fourth section is a paper that examines the mobile carrier density based upon the measurements of space charge polarization. For the first time, the charge carrier number density in fast ionic conducting chalcogenide glasses was determined. The experimental impedance data were fitted using equivalent circuits and the obtained parameters were used to determine the mobile carrier density. The influence of mobile carrier density and mobility on the ionic conductivity was separated. The fifth section is a paper that studies the structures of low-alkali-content Na{sub 2}S + B{sub 2}S{sub 3} (x {le} 0.2) glasses by neutron and synchrotron x-ray diffraction. Similar results were obtained both in neutron and synchrotron x-ray diffraction experiments. The results provide direct structural evidence that doping B{sub 2}S{sub 3} with Na{sub 2}S creates a large fraction of tetrahedrally coordinated boron in the glass. The final section is the general conclusion of this thesis and the suggested future work that could be conducted to expand upon this research.

Wenlong Yao

2006-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

31

Synthesis of Oxidation-Resistant Cupronickel Nanowires for Transparent Conducting Nanowire Networks  

SciTech Connect

Nanowires of copper can be coated from liquids to create flexible, transparent conducting films that can potentially replace the dominant transparent conductor, indium tin oxide, in displays, solar cells, organic light-emitting diodes, and electrochromic windows. One issue with these nanowire films is that copper is prone to oxidation. It was hypothesized that the resistance to oxidation could be improved by coating copper nanowires with nickel. This work demonstrates a method for synthesizing copper nanowires with nickel shells as well as the properties of cupronickel nanowires in transparent conducting films. Time- and temperature-dependent sheet resistance measurements indicate that the sheet resistance of copper and silver nanowire films will double after 3 and 36 months at room temperature, respectively. In contrast, the sheet resistance of cupronickel nanowires containing 20 mol % nickel will double in about 400 years. Coating copper nanowires to a ratio of 2:1 Cu:Ni gave them a neutral gray color, making them more suitable for use in displays and electrochromic windows. These properties, and the fact that copper and nickel are 1000 times more abundant than indium or silver, make cupronickel nanowires a promising alternative for the sustainable, efficient production of transparent conductors.

Rathmall, Aaron [Duke University; Nguyen, Minh [Duke University; Wiley, Benjamin J [Duke University

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Application of Combinatorial Tools for Solar Cell Improvement -- New High Performance Transparent Conducting Oxides  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) can serve a variety of important functions in thin film photovoltaics such as transparent electrical contacts, antireflection coatings and chemical barriers. Two areas of particular interest are TCOs that can be deposited at low temperatures and TCOs with high carrier mobilities. We have employed combinatorial high-throughput approaches to investigate both these areas. Conductivities of s = 2500 W-1-cm-1 have been obtained for In-Zn-O (IZO) films deposited at 100 C and s > 5000 W-1-cm-1 for In-Ti-O (ITiO) and In-Mo-O (IMO) films deposited at 550 C. The highest mobility obtained was 83 cm2/V-sec for ITiO deposited at 550 C.

Perkins, J.; Taylor, M.; van Hest, M.; Teplin, C.; Alleman, J.; Dabney, M.; Gedvilas, L.; Keyes, B.; To, B.; Delahoy, A.; Guo, S.; Readey, D.; Ginley, D.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Application of Developed APCVD Transparent Conducting Oxides and Undercoat Technologies for Economical OLED Lighting  

SciTech Connect

Economics is a key factor for application of organic light emitting diodes (OLED) in general lighting relative to OLED flat panel displays that can handle high cost materials such as indium tin oxide (ITO) or Indium zinc oxide (IZO) as the transparent conducting oxide (TCO) on display glass. However, for OLED lighting to penetrate into general illumination, economics and sustainable materials are critical. The issues with ITO have been documented at the DOE SSL R&D and Manufacturing workshops for the last 5 years and the issue is being exacerbated by export controls from China (one of the major sources of elemental indium). Therefore, ITO is not sustainable because of the fluctuating costs and the United States (US) dependency on other nations such as China. Numerous alternatives to ITO/IZO are being evaluated such as Ag nanoparticles/nanowires, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and other metal oxides. Of these other metal oxides, doped zinc oxide has attracted a lot of attention over the last 10 years. The volume of zinc mined is a factor of 80,000 greater than indium and the US has significant volumes of zinc mined domestically, resulting in the ability for the US to be self-sufficient for this element that can be used in optoelectronic applications. The costs of elemental zinc is over 2 orders of magnitude less than indium, reflecting the relative abundance and availability of the elements. Arkema Inc. and an international primary glass manufacturing company, which is located in the United States, have developed doped zinc oxide technology for solar control windows. The genesis of this DOE SSL project was to determine if doped zinc oxide technology can be taken from the commodity based window market and translate the technology to OLED lighting. Thus, Arkema Inc. sought out experts, Philips Lighting, Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) and National Renewable Research Laboratories (NREL), in OLED devices and brought them into the project. This project had a clear focus on economics and the work plan focused both on doped ZnO process and OLED device structure that would be consistent with the new TCO. The team successfully made 6 inch OLEDs with a serial construction. More process development is required to optimize commercial OLED structures. Feasibility was demonstrated on two different light extraction technologies: 1/4 lambda refractive index matching and high-low-high band pass filter. Process development was also completed on the key precursors for the TCO, which are ready for pilot-plant scale-up. Subsequently, Arkema has developed a cost of ownership model that is consistent with DOE SSL R&D Manufacturing targets as outlined in the DOE SSL R&D Manufacturing 2010 report. The overall outcome of this project was the demonstration that doped zinc oxide can be used for OLED devices without a drop-off in performance while gaining the economic and sustainable benefits of a more readily available TCO. The broad impact of this project, is the facilitation of OLED lighting market penetration into general illumination, resulting in significant energy savings, decreased greenhouse emissions, with no environmental impact issues such as mercury found in Fluorescent technology. The primary objective of this project was to develop a commercially viable process for 'Substrates' (Substrate/ undercoat/ TCO topcoat) to be used in production of OLED devices (lamps/luminaries/modules). This project focused on using Arkema's recently developed doped ZnO technology for the Fenestration industry and applying the technology to the OLED lighting industry. The secondary objective was the use of undercoat technology to improve light extraction from the OLED device. In optical fields and window applications, technology has been developed to mitigate reflection losses by selecting appropriate thicknesses and refractive indices of coatings applied either below or above the functional layer of interest. This technology has been proven and implemented in the fenestration industry for more than 15 years. Successful completion of

Martin Bluhm; James Coffey; Roman Korotkov; Craig Polsz; Alexandre Salemi; Robert Smith; Ryan Smith; Jeff Stricker; Chen Xu; Jasmine Shirazi; George Papakonstantopulous; Steve Carson; Claudia Goldman; Soren Hartmann; Frank Jessen; Bianca Krogmann; Christoph Rickers; Manfred Ruske; Holger Schwab; Dietrich Bertram

2011-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

34

Application of Developed APCVD Transparent Conducting Oxides and Undercoat Technologies for Economical OLED Lighting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Economics is a key factor for application of organic light emitting diodes (OLED) in general lighting relative to OLED flat panel displays that can handle high cost materials such as indium tin oxide (ITO) or Indium zinc oxide (IZO) as the transparent conducting oxide (TCO) on display glass. However, for OLED lighting to penetrate into general illumination, economics and sustainable materials are critical. The issues with ITO have been documented at the DOE SSL R&D and Manufacturing workshops for the last 5 years and the issue is being exaserbated by export controls from China (one of the major sources of elemental indium). Therefore, ITO is not sustainable because of the fluctuating costs and the United States (US) dependency on other nations such as China. Numerous alternatives to ITO/IZO are being evaluated such as Ag nanoparticles/nanowires, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and other metal oxides. Of these other metal oxides, doped zinc oxide has attracted a lot of attention over the last 10 years. The volume of zinc mined is a factor of 80,000 greater than indium and the US has significant volumes of zinc mined domestically, resulting in the ability for the US to be self-sufficient for this element that can be used in optoelectonic applications. The costs of elemental zinc is over 2 orders of magnitude less than indium, reflecting the relative abundance and availablility of the elements. Arkema Inc. and an international primary glass manufacturing company, which is located in the United States, have developed doped zinc oxide technology for solar control windows. The genesis of this DOE SSL project was to determine if doped zinc oxide technology can be taken from the commodity based window market and translate the technology to OLED lighting. Thus, Arkema Inc. sought out experts, Philips Lighting, Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) and National Renewable Research Laboratories (NREL), in OLED devices and brought them into the project. This project had a clear focus on economics and the work plan focused both on doped ZnO process and OLED device structure that would be consistent with the new TCO. The team successfully made 6 inch OLEDs with a serial construction. More process development is required to optimize commercial OLED structures. Feasibility was demonstrated on two different light extraction technologies: 1/4 lambda refractive index matching and high-low-high band pass filter. Process development was also completed on the key precursors for the TCO, which are ready for pilot-plant scale-up. Subsequently, Arkema has developed a cost of ownership model that is consistent with DOE SSL R&D Manufacturing targets as outlined in the DOE SSL R&D Manufacturing 2010 report. The overall outcome of this project was the demonstration that doped zinc oxide can be used for OLED devices without a drop-off in performance while gaining the economic and sustainable benefits of a more readily available TCO. The broad impact of this project, is the facilitation of OLED lighting market penetration into general illumination, resulting in significant energy savings, decreased greenhouse emissions, with no environmental impact issues such as mercury found in Fluorescent technology.

Gary Silverman; Bluhm, Martin; Coffey, James; Korotkov, Roman; Polsz, Craig; Salemi, Alexandre; Smith, Robert; Smith, Ryan; Stricker, Jeff; Xu,Chen; Shirazi, Jasmine; Papakonstantopulous, George; Carson, Steve Philips Lighting GmbH Goldman, Claudia; Hartmann, Sören; Jessen, Frank; Krogmann, Bianca; Rickers, Christoph; Ruske, Manfred, Schwab, Holger; Bertram, Dietrich

2011-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

35

Application of Developed APCVD Transparent Conducting Oxides and Undercoat Technologies for Economical OLED Lighting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Economics is a key factor for application of organic light emitting diodes (OLED) in general lighting relative to OLED flat panel displays that can handle high cost materials such as indium tin oxide (ITO) or Indium zinc oxide (IZO) as the transparent conducting oxide (TCO) on display glass. However, for OLED lighting to penetrate into general illumination, economics and sustainable materials are critical. The issues with ITO have been documented at the DOE SSL R&D and Manufacturing workshops for the last 5 years and the issue is being exacerbated by export controls from China (one of the major sources of elemental indium). Therefore, ITO is not sustainable because of the fluctuating costs and the United States (US) dependency on other nations such as China. Numerous alternatives to ITO/IZO are being evaluated such as Ag nanoparticles/nanowires, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and other metal oxides. Of these other metal oxides, doped zinc oxide has attracted a lot of attention over the last 10 years. The volume of zinc mined is a factor of 80,000 greater than indium and the US has significant volumes of zinc mined domestically, resulting in the ability for the US to be self-sufficient for this element that can be used in optoelectronic applications. The costs of elemental zinc is over 2 orders of magnitude less than indium, reflecting the relative abundance and availability of the elements. Arkema Inc. and an international primary glass manufacturing company, which is located in the United States, have developed doped zinc oxide technology for solar control windows. The genesis of this DOE SSL project was to determine if doped zinc oxide technology can be taken from the commodity based window market and translate the technology to OLED lighting. Thus, Arkema Inc. sought out experts, Philips Lighting, Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) and National Renewable Research Laboratories (NREL), in OLED devices and brought them into the project. This project had a clear focus on economics and the work plan focused both on doped ZnO process and OLED device structure that would be consistent with the new TCO. The team successfully made 6 inch OLEDs with a serial construction. More process development is required to optimize commercial OLED structures. Feasibility was demonstrated on two different light extraction technologies: 1/4 lambda refractive index matching and high-low-high band pass filter. Process development was also completed on the key precursors for the TCO, which are ready for pilot-plant scale-up. Subsequently, Arkema has developed a cost of ownership model that is consistent with DOE SSL R&D Manufacturing targets as outlined in the DOE SSL R&D Manufacturing 2010 report. The overall outcome of this project was the demonstration that doped zinc oxide can be used for OLED devices without a drop-off in performance while gaining the economic and sustainable benefits of a more readily available TCO. The broad impact of this project, is the facilitation of OLED lighting market penetration into general illumination, resulting in significant energy savings, decreased greenhouse emissions, with no environmental impact issues such as mercury found in Fluorescent technology. The primary objective of this project was to develop a commercially viable process for 'Substrates' (Substrate/ undercoat/ TCO topcoat) to be used in production of OLED devices (lamps/luminaries/modules). This project focused on using Arkema's recently developed doped ZnO technology for the Fenestration industry and applying the technology to the OLED lighting industry. The secondary objective was the use of undercoat technology to improve light extraction from the OLED device. In optical fields and window applications, technology has been developed to mitigate reflection losses by selecting appropriate thicknesses and refractive indices of coatings applied either below or above the functional layer of interest. This technology has been proven and implemented in the fenestration industry for more than 15 years. Successful completion of

Martin Bluhm; James Coffey; Roman Korotkov; Craig Polsz; Alexandre Salemi; Robert Smith; Ryan Smith; Jeff Stricker; Chen Xu; Jasmine Shirazi; George Papakonstantopulous; Steve Carson; Claudia Goldman; Soren Hartmann; Frank Jessen; Bianca Krogmann; Christoph Rickers; Manfred Ruske; Holger Schwab; Dietrich Bertram

2011-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

36

Transparent and Conductive Carbon Nanotube Multilayer Thin Films Suitable as an Indium Tin Oxide Replacement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Transparent electrodes made from metal oxides suffer from poor flexibility and durability. Highly transparent and electrically conductive thin films based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were assembled as a potential indium tin oxide (ITO) replacement using layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly. The ultimate objective of this dissertation work is to produce CNT-based assemblies with sheet resistance below 100 Omega/sq and visible light transmission greater than 85 percent. The alternate deposition of positively charged poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) [PDDA] and CNTs stabilized with negatively charged deoxycholate (DOC) exhibit linear film growth and thin film properties can be precisely tuned. Ellipsometry, quartz crystal microbalance, and UV-vis were used to measure the growth of these films as a function of PDDA-CNT bilayers deposited, while TEM, SEM, and AFM were used to visualize the nanostructure of these films. Following a literature review describing potential ITO substitutes and LbL technology, the influence of CNT type on optoelectronic performance of LbL assemblies is described. Three different types of nanotubes were investigated: (1) multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), (2) few-walled carbon nanotubes (FWNT), and (3) purified single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). SWNTs produced the most transparent (>85 percent visible light transmittance) and electrically conductive (148 S/cm, 1.62 kOmega/sq) 20-bilayer films with a 41.6 nm thickness, while MWNT-based films are much thicker and more opaque. A 20-bilayer PDDA/(MWNT DOC) film is approximately 103 nm thick, with a conductivity of 36 S/cm and a transmittance of 30 percent. In an effort to improve both transparency and electrical conductivity, heat and acid treatments were studied. Heating films to 300 degree C reduced sheet resistance to 701 Omega/sq (618 S/cm conductivity, 38.4 nm thickness), with no change in transparency, owing to the removal of insulating component in the film. Despite improving conductivity, heating is not compatible with most plastic substrates, so acid doping was investigated as an alternate means to enhance properties. Exposing SWNT-based assemblies to HNO3 vapor reduced sheet resistance of a 10 BL film to 227 Omega/sq. Replacing SWNTs with double walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs) provided further reduction in sheet resistance due to the greater metallic of DWNT. A 5 BL DWNT film exhibited the lowest 104 Omega/sq sheet resistance (4200 S/cm conductivity, 22.9 nm thickness) with 84 percent transmittance after nitric acid treatment. DWNT-based assemblies maintained their low sheet resistance after repeated bending and also showed electrochemical stability relative to ITO. This work demonstrates the excellent optoelectronic performance, mechanical flexibility, and electrochemical stability of CNT-based assemblies, which are potentially useful as flexible transparent electrodes for a variety of flexible electronics.

Park, Yong Tae

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Conducting and Optical Properties of Transparent Conducting Indium-Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films by Sol-Gel Processing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Transparent conducting oxides were successfully prepared from mixed zinc nitrate hexahydrate and indium nitrate hydrate solutions in ethylene glycol using sol-gel technique. The In content in the film was varied (0, 2, 10, 20, 40, 75 and 100 atom %). Films were prepared by spin coating of the liquid precursors followed by thermal decomposition at 400° C after each layer. According to X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements, the pure ZnO and pure InO films (0 and at 100 % In) were crystalline as-deposited. The crystallinity was suppressed in mixed compositions such that the films with compositions between 10 and 75 at % were amorphous. All the films were transparent with the transmission cut-off frequency near 400 nm, which is characteristic of TCO materials. All as-deposited films were conductive with 0 and 100 atom % In having the lowest resistivities. The resistivity of all compositions were improved by post-deposition reducing anneal in pure Ar at 300° C. The lowest resistivity of 0.2 ?cm was obtained for the pure ZnO after Ar anneal. It was two-orders of magnitude higher than reported in the literature for the In-doped ZnO, which was attributed to the low processing temperature. The resistivities of as-deposited and annealed in Ar films were increased by consequent air anneal at 300° C.

Huang, S.; Kaydanova, T.; Miedaner, A.; Ginley, D.S.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Amorphous semiconducting and conducting transparent metal oxide thin films and production thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Metal oxide thin films and production thereof are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a metal oxide thin film may comprise introducing at least two metallic elements and oxygen into a process chamber to form a metal oxide. The method may also comprise depositing the metal oxide on a substrate in the process chamber. The method may also comprise simultaneously controlling a ratio of the at least two metallic elements and a stoichiometry of the oxygen during deposition. Exemplary amorphous metal oxide thin films produced according to the methods herein may exhibit highly transparent properties, highly conductive properties, and/or other opto-electronic properties.

Perkins, John (Boulder, CO); Van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria (Lakewood, CO); Ginley, David (Evergreen, CO); Taylor, Matthew (Golden, CO); Neuman, George A. (Holland, MI); Luten, Henry A. (Holland, MI); Forgette, Jeffrey A. (Hudsonville, MI); Anderson, John S. (Holland, MI)

2010-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

39

Improved Transparent Conducting Oxides for Photovoltaics: Final Research Report, 1 May 1999--31 December 2002  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This subcontract focused on next-generation transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) for improved PV performance. More specifically, there were two research foci: (1) improved Sn-based, n-type TCOs aimed at enhanced CdTe PV cell performance, and (2) novel Cu-based, p-type TCOs applicable to a variety of PV designs. The objective of the research under this subcontract was to identify, explore, evaluate, and develop future generations of photovoltaic technologies that can meet the long-term goal of producing low-cost electricity from sunlight.

Mason, T. O.; Chang, R. P. H.; Marks, T. J.; Poeppelmeier, K. R.

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Impacts of humidity and temperature on the performance of transparent conducting zinc oxide.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The impact of humidity and temperature on a zinc oxide based transparent conducting oxide (TCO) was assessed under accelerated aging conditions. An in situ electroanalytical method was used to monitor the electrical properties for a conducting zinc oxide under controlled atmospheric (humidity, temperature and irradiation) conditions. A review of thin film photovoltaic (PV) literature has shown one major failure mode of cells/modules is associated with the ingress of water into modules in the field. Water contamination has been shown to degrade the performance of the TCO in addition to corroding interconnects and other conductive metals/materials associated with the module. Water ingress is particularly problematic in flexible thin film PV modules since traditional encapsulates such as poly(ethyl vinyl acetate) (EVA) have high water vapor transmission rates. The accelerated aging studies of the zinc oxide based TCOs will allow acceleration factors and kinetic parameters to be determined for reliability purposes.

Granata, Jennifer E.; Yaklin, Melissa A.; Schneider, Duane Allen; Staiger, Chad Lynn; Norman, Kirsten

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "glass transparent conductive" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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41

Ingrain and grain boundary scattering effects on electron mobility of transparent conducting polycrystalline Ga-doped ZnO films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Transparent conducting polycrystalline Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) films with different thicknesses were deposited on glass substrates at a substrate temperature of 200 deg. C by ion-plating deposition with direct current arc-discharge. The dependences of crystal structure, electrical, and optical properties of the GZO films on thickness have been systematically studied. Optical response due to free electrons of the GZO films was characterized in the photon energy range from 0.73 to 3.8 eV by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). The free electron response was expressed by the simple Drude model combined with the Tauc-Lorentz model. From the SE analysis and the results of Hall measurements, electron effective mass, m{sup *}, and optical mobility, {mu}{sub opt}, of the GZO films were determined, based on the assumptions that the films are homogeneous and optically isotropic. By comparing the {mu}{sub opt} and Hall mobility, {mu}{sub Hall}, an indication on the effect of ingrain and grain boundary scattering limiting the electron mobility has been obtained. Moreover, the variation in scattering mechanism causing thickness dependence of {mu}{sub Hall} was correlated with the development of polycrystalline grain structure.

Yamada, Takahiro; Makino, Hisao; Yamamoto, Naoki; Yamamoto, Tetsuya [Materials Design Center, Research Institute, Kochi University of Technology, 185 Miyanokuchi, Tosayamada-cho, Kami-shi, Kochi 782-8502 (Japan)

2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

42

Structural stability of transparent conducting films assembled from length purified single-wall carbon nanotubes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) films show significant promise for transparent electronics applications that demand mechanical flexibility, but durability remains an outstanding issue. In this work, thin membranes of length purified single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are uniaxially and isotropically compressed by depositing them on prestrained polymer substrates. Upon release of the strain, the topography, microstructure, and conductivity of the films are characterized using a combination of optical/fluorescence microscopy, light scattering, force microscopy, electron microscopy, and impedance spectroscopy. Above a critical surface mass density, films assembled from nanotubes of well-defined length exhibit a strongly nonlinear mechanical response. The measured strain dependence reveals a dramatic softening that occurs through an alignment of the SWCNTs normal to the direction of prestrain, which at small strains is also apparent as an anisotropic increase in sheet resistance along the same direction. At higher strains, the membrane conductivities increase due to a compression-induced restoration of conductive pathways. Our measurements reveal the fundamental mode of elasto-plastic deformation in these films and suggest how it might be suppressed.

J. M. Harris; G. R. S. Iyer; D. O. Simien; J. A. Fagan; J. Y. Huh; J. Y. Chung; S. D. Hudson; J. Obrzut; J. F. Douglas; C. M. Stafford; E. K. Hobbie

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Thin Film Solar Cells with Light Trapping Transparent Conducting Oxide Layer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thin film solar cells, if film thickness is thinner than the optical absorption length, typically give lower cell performance. For the thinner structure, electric current loss due to light penetration can offset the electric current gain obtained from higher built-in electric field. Light trapping schemes can increase the effective optical absorption length and thus enhance the electric current for thinner solar cells. Here a new light trapping scheme based on light trapping transparent conducting oxide layer (LT-TCO) is proposed to enhance the performance of thin film solar cells. Three different configurations of integrating the LT-TCO layer in solar cells are proposed and evaluated. This research aims to develop the LT-TCO layer with surface texture and good conductivity by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique at low temperature. The LT-TCO layer is fabricated by PLD deposition of Al-doped ZnO to achieve multilayer films by tuning of oxygen pressure. The light trapping effect is examined by optical transmittance measurement and the surface texture is characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) technique. The conductivity of LT-TCO layer is measured by resistivity measurement. Thin film CdTe/CdS solar cells are fabricated by PLD technique to develop baseline solar cells for integration of LT-TCO layer. The as-deposited thin film solar cells show relatively low performance and are further processed with various post-deposition treatments to seek efficiency enhancement. The effects of different processes on cell performance are examined by electrical, optical, and microstructure studies. Air annealing of CdS layer and CdCl2 treatment of CdTe layer combined are found to yield the best cell performance. The fabrication issues that limit the cell performance are discussed and future optimizations in fabrication processes are suggested.

Lu, Tianlin

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Designing interlayers to improve the mechanical reliability of transparent conductive oxide coatings on flexible substrates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, we investigate the effect of interlayers on the mechanical properties of transparent conductive oxide (TCO) on flexible polymer substrates. Indium tin oxide (ITO), which is the most widely used TCO film, and Ti, which is the most widely used adhesive interlayer, are selected as the coating and the interlayer, respectively. These films are deposited on the polymer substrates using dc-magnetron sputtering to achieve varying thicknesses. The changes in the following critical factors for film cracking and delamination are analyzed: the internal stress ({sigma}{sup i}) induced in the coatings during deposition using a white light interferometer, the crystallinity using a transmission electron microscope, and the surface roughness of ITO caused by the interlayer using an atomic force microscope. The resistances to the cracking and delamination of ITO are evaluated using a fragmentation test. Our tests and analyses reveal the important role of the interlayers, which significantly reduce the compressive {sigma}{sup i} that is induced in the ITO and increase the resistance to the buckling delamination of the ITO. However, the relaxation of {sigma}{sup i} is not beneficial to cracking because there is less compensation for the external tension as {sigma}{sup i} further decreases. Based on these results, the microstructural control is revealed as a more influential factor than {sigma}{sup i} for improving crack resistance.

Kim, Eun-Hye; Yang, Chan-Woo; Park, Jin-Woo [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Negative oxygen ion formation in reactive magnetron sputtering processes for transparent conductive oxides  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reactive d.c. magnetron sputtering in Ar/O{sub 2} gas mixtures has been investigated with energy-resolved mass spectrometry. Different metal targets (Mg, Ti, Zn, In, InSn, and Sn), which are of importance for transparent conductive oxide thin film deposition, have been used to study the formation of negative ions, mainly high-energetic O{sup -}, which are supposed to induce radiation damage in thin films. Besides their energy distribution, the ions have been particularly investigated with respect to their intensity in comparison of the different target materials. To realize the comparability, various calibration factors had to be introduced. After their application, major differences in the negative ion production have been observed for the target materials. The intensity, especially of O{sup -}, differs by about two orders of magnitude. It is shown that this difference results almost exclusively from ions that gain their energy in the target sheath. Those may gain additional energy from the sputtering process or reflection at the target. Low-energetic negative ions are, however, less affected by changes of the target material. The results concerning O{sup -} formation are discussed in term of the sputtering rate from the target and are compared to models for negative ion formation.

Welzel, Thomas; Ellmer, Klaus [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Institut Solare Brennstoffe, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, D-14109 Berlin (Germany)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

46

Transparent conductive indium zinc oxide films prepared by pulsed plasma deposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Transparent conductive indium zinc oxide films were prepared by pulsed plasma deposition from a ceramic target (90 wt. % In{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 10 wt. % ZnO). The dependences of film properties upon the substrate temperature was investigated using characterization methods including x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscope, Hall measurement, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The films grown at room temperature had a rather smooth surface due to the amorphous structure, with a root mean square roughness of less than 1 nm. The atomic ratio of Zn/(Zn + In) in these films is 15.3 at. %, which is close to that in the target, and the chemical states of indium and zinc atoms were In{sup 3+} and Zn{sup 2+}, respectively. The films deposited on a substrate with a temperature of 200 Degree-Sign C exhibited polycrystalline structure and a preferred growth orientation along the (222) plane. Here the electrical properties were improved due to the better crystallinity, with the films exhibiting a minimum resistivity value of 4.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4}{Omega} cm, a maximum carrier mobility of 45 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1}, and an optical transmittance over 80% in the visible region.

Wan Runlai; Yang Ming; Zhou Qianfei; Zhang Qun [Department of Materials Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

47

Solution-Processable Transparent Conductive Hole Injection Electrode for OLED SSL  

SciTech Connect

An interconnected network of silver nanowires has been used as transparent anode in OLED devices. This layer was deposited by spin-coating and slot-die coating from an aqueous nanowire suspension. The sheet resistance of the film was 10ohms/sq with a transmission (including the glass substrate) of higher than 85%. The first phase of the project focused on the implementation of this nanowire layer with a hole-injection-layer (HIL) which has been developed at Plextronics and has been shown to provide good stability and efficiency in conventional OLED devices. We modified the HIL solution such that it coated reasonably well with suitable surface morphology so that actual devices can be manufactured. During the second phase we investigated the hole-injection and stability of hole-onlydevices. We determined that the use of the nanowire network as anode does not introduce an additional degradation mechanism since the observed device characteristics did not differ from those made with ITO anode. We then proceeded to make actual OLED devices with this nanowire / HIL stack and achieved device characteristics similar state-of-the-art OLED devices with a single junction. In order to gain traction with potential OLED manufacturers, we decided to contract Novaled to prepare large-area demonstrators for us. For these devices, we used an allevaporated stack, i.e. we did use Novaledâ??s HIL material instead of Plextronicsâ??. We successfully fabricated demonstrators with an area of 25cm2 with a double or triple junction stack. Minor stack optimizations were necessary to achieve efficacies and lifetime equivalent with ITO devices made with the same devices stack. Due to the reduced microcavity effect, the color of the emitted light is significantly more stable with respect to the viewing angle compared to ITO devices. This fact in conjunction with the promise of lower production cost due to the elimination of the ITO sputtering process and the direct patterning of the anode layer are the obvious advantages of this technology. The project has shown that this nanowire technology is a viable option to achieve OLED devices with good lifetime and efficiency and we are currently working with manufacturers to utilize this technology in a production setting.

None

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

48

Optically Transparent, Mechanically Durable, Nanostructured Superhydrophobic Surfaces Enabled by Spinodally Phase-Separated Glass Thin Films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Inspired by highly non-wetting natural biological surfaces (e.g., lotus leaves and water strider legs), artificial superhydrophobic surfaces that exhibit water droplet contact angles exceeding 150o have previously been constructed by utilizing various synthesis strategies.[ , , ] Such bio-inspired, water-repellent surfaces offer significant potential for numerous uses ranging from marine applications (e.g., anti-biofouling, anti-corrosion), anti-condensation (e.g., anti-icing, anti-fogging), membranes for selective separation (e.g., oil-water, gas-liquid), microfluidic systems, surfaces requiring reduced maintenance and cleaning, to applications involving glasses and optical materials.[ ] In addition to superhydrophobic attributes, for integration into device systems that have extended operational limits and overall improved performance, surfaces that also possess multifunctional characteristics are desired, where the functionality should match to the application-specific requirements.

Aytug, Tolga [ORNL; Christen, David K [ORNL; Hillesheim, Daniel A [ORNL; Hunter, Scott Robert [ORNL; Ivanov, Ilia N [ORNL; Jellison Jr, Gerald Earle [ORNL; Lupini, Andrew R [ORNL; Pennycook, Stephen J [ORNL; Trejo, Rosa M [ORNL; Winters, Kyle O. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Haynes, James A [ORNL; Simpson, John T [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Highly Transparent and Conducting ALD of Doped ZnO Thin Films ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... and Conducting ALD of Doped ZnO Thin Films for TCO Applications · Hybrid Aerogel/Nanorod Functional Materials for Energy and Sensing Applications.

50

Nuclear Spin Lattice Relaxation and Conductivity Studies of the Non-Arrhenius Conductivity Behavior in Lithium Fast Ion Conducting Sulfide Glasses  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As time progresses, the world is using up more of the planet's natural resources. Without technological advances, the day will eventually arrive when these natural resources will no longer be sufficient to supply all of the energy needs. As a result, society is seeing a push for the development of alternative fuel sources such as wind power, solar power, fuel cells, and etc. These pursuits are even occurring in the state of Iowa with increasing social pressure to incorporate larger percentages of ethanol in gasoline. Consumers are increasingly demanding that energy sources be more powerful, more durable, and, ultimately, more cost efficient. Fast Ionic Conducting (FIC) glasses are a material that offers great potential for the development of new batteries and/or fuel cells to help inspire the energy density of battery power supplies. This dissertation probes the mechanisms by which ions conduct in these glasses. A variety of different experimental techniques give a better understanding of the interesting materials science taking place within these systems. This dissertation discusses Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) techniques performed on FIC glasses over the past few years. These NMR results have been complimented with other measurement techniques, primarily impedance spectroscopy, to develop models that describe the mechanisms by which ionic conduction takes place and the dependence of the ion dynamics on the local structure of the glass. The aim of these measurements was to probe the cause of a non-Arrhenius behavior of the conductivity which has been seen at high temperatures in the silver thio-borosilicate glasses. One aspect that will be addressed is if this behavior is unique to silver containing fast ion conducting glasses. more specifically, this study will determine if a non-Arrhenius correlation time, {tau}, can be observed in the Nuclear Spin Lattice Relaxation (NSLR) measurements. If so, then can this behavior be modeled with a new single distribution of activation energies (DAE) to calculate the corresponding conductivity and relaxation rates as a function of temperature and frequency?

Benjamin Michael Meyer

2003-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

51

Photovoltaic devices comprising cadmium stannate transparent conducting films and method for making  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A photovoltaic device is disclosed having a substrate, a layer of Cd[sub 2]SnO[sub 4] disposed on said substrate as a front contact, a thin film comprising two or more layers of semiconductor materials disposed on said layer of Cd[sub 2]SnO[sub 4], and an electrically conductive film disposed on said thin film of semiconductor materials to form a rear electrical contact to said thin film. The device is formed by RF sputter coating a Cd[sub 2]SnO[sub 4] layer onto a substrate, depositing a thin film of semiconductor materials onto the layer of Cd[sub 2]SnO[sub 4], and depositing an electrically conductive film onto the thin film of semiconductor materials. 10 figs.

Wu, X.; Coutts, T.J.; Sheldon, P.; Rose, D.H.

1999-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

52

Photovoltaic devices comprising cadmium stannate transparent conducting films and method for making  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A photovoltaic device having a substrate, a layer of Cd.sub.2 SnO.sub.4 disposed on said substrate as a front contact, a thin film comprising two or more layers of semiconductor materials disposed on said layer of Cd.sub.2 SnO.sub.4, and an electrically conductive film disposed on said thin film of semiconductor materials to form a rear electrical contact to said thin film. The device is formed by RF sputter coating a Cd.sub.2 SnO.sub.4 layer onto a substrate, depositing a thin film of semiconductor materials onto the layer of Cd.sub.2 SnO.sub.4, and depositing an electrically conductive film onto the thin film of semiconductor materials.

Wu, Xuanzhi (Golden, CO); Coutts, Timothy J. (Lakewood, CO); Sheldon, Peter (Lakewood, CO); Rose, Douglas H. (Golden, CO)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Indium-Tin-Oxide-Based Transparent Conducting Layers for Highly Efficient Photovoltaic Devices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Additional hydrogen (H{sub 2}) annealing and subsequent electrochemical treatment are found to make tin-doped indium oxide (ITO)-based photoelectrodes suitable for highly efficient dye sensitized solar cells. The additional H{sub 2} annealing process recovered the electrical conductivity of the ITO film the same as its initial high conductivity, which enhanced the charge collecting property. Moreover, the employment of electrochemical oxidation of TiO{sub 2}/ITO photoelectrode improved the energy conversion efficiency of the ITO-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC), higher than that of a conventional FTO-based DSSC. Electrochemical impedance analysis showed that the H2 annealing process reduced the internal resistance of the cell, i.e., the resistance of the ITO and the Schottky barrier at the TiO{sub 2}/ITO interface were reduced, and that the electrochemical treatment recovered the diodelike characteristics of the DSSC by retarding back electron transfer from the photoelectrode to the electrolyte. The present work demonstrates that thermally and electrochemically modified ITO-based photoelectrode is another alternative to the conventionally used FTO-based photoelectrode.

Lee, S.; Noh, J. H.; Bae, S. T.; Cho, I. S.; Kim, J. Y.; Shin, H.; Lee, J. K.; Jung, H. S.; Hong, K. S.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Why MnIn{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel is not a transparent conducting oxide?  

SciTech Connect

The title compound has been synthesized by a citrate technique. The crystal structure has been investigated at room temperature from high-resolution neutron powder diffraction (NPD) data. It crystallizes in a cubic spinel structure, space group Fd3-bar m, Z=8, with a=9.0008(1) A at 295 K. It exhibits a crystallographic formula (Mn{sub 0.924(2)}In{sub 0.076(2)}){sub 8a}(In{sub 1.804(2)}Mn{sub 0.196(2)}){sub 16d}O{sub 4}, where 8a and 16d stand for the tetrahedral and octahedral sites of the spinel structure, respectively, with a slight degree of inversion, {lambda}=0.08. MnIn{sub 2}O{sub 4} shows antiferromagnetic interactions below T{sub N} Almost-Equal-To 40 K, due to the statistical distribution of Mn ions over the two available sites. Unlike the related MgIn{sub 2}O{sub 4} and CdIn{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinels, well known as transparent conducting oxides, MnIn{sub 2}O{sub 4} is not transparent and shows a poor conductivity ({sigma}=0.38 S cm{sup -1} at 1123 K): the presence of Mn ions, able to adopt mixed valence states, localizes the charges that, otherwise, would be delocalized in the spinel conduction band. - Graphical Abstract: From NPD data the crystallographic formula (Mn{sub 0.924(2)}In{sub 0.076(2)}){sub 8a}(In{sub 1.804(2)}Mn{sub 0.196(2)}){sub 16d}O{sub 4}, shows a slight degree of inversion, {lambda}=0.08 and a certain In deficiency. The presence of Mn ions, able to adopt mixed oxidation states, localize the charges that, otherwise, would be delocalized in the spinel conduction band; the presence of localized Mn{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 3+} ions provides the characteristic brown color. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Accurate structural determination from NPD data: inversion degree (8%), and In deficiency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bond-valence indicates Mn{sup 2+}-Mn{sup 3+} ions; edge-sharing octahedra contain 90% In{sup 3+}+10% Mn{sup 3+} cations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conductivity several orders of magnitude lower than those of MgIn{sub 2}O{sub 4} or CdIn{sub 2}O{sub 4}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Variability of Mn oxidation states cancels any electron-doping effect, emptying conduction band of mobile charge carriers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Curie-Weiss behavior confirming the determined charge distribution.

Martinez-Lope, M.J. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, C.S.I.C., Cantoblanco E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Retuerto, M. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, C.S.I.C., Cantoblanco E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Department of Chemistry, Rutgers State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8087 (United States); Calle, C. de la [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, C.S.I.C., Cantoblanco E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Porcher, Florence [Laboratoire Leon Brillouin, CEA/Saclay, 91191 Gif Sur Ivette Cedex, France. (France); Alonso, J.A., E-mail: ja.alonso@icmm.csic.es [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, C.S.I.C., Cantoblanco E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

55

Ionic conductivities of lithium phosphorus oxynitride glasses, polycrystals, and thin films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Various lithium phosphorus oxynitrides have been prepared in the form of glasses, polycrystals, and thin films. The structures of these compounds were investigated by X-ray and neutron diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The ac impedance measurements indicate a significant improvement of ionic conductivity as the result of incorporation of nitrogen into the structure. In the case of polycrystalline Li{sub 2.88}PO{sub 3.73}N{sub 0.14} with the {gamma}-Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} structure, the conductivity increased by several orders of magnitude on small addition of nitrogen. The highest conductivities in the bulk glasses and thin films were found to be 3.0 {times} 10{sup -7} and 8.9 {times} 10{sup -7} S{center_dot}cm{sup -1} at 25{degrees}C, respectively.

Wang, B.; Bates, J.B.; Chakoumakos, B.C.; Sales, B.C.; Kwak, B.S.; Zuhr, R.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Robertson, J.D. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Transparent conducting impurity-doped ZnO thin films prepared using oxide targets sintered by millimeter-wave heating  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The preparation of transparent conducting impurity-doped ZnO thin films by both pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and magnetron sputtering deposition (MSD) using impurity-doped ZnO targets sintered with a newly developed energy saving millimeter-wave (28 GHz) heating technique is described. Al-doped ZnO (AZO) and V-co-doped AZO (AZO:V) targets were prepared by sintering with various impurity contents for 30 min at a temperature of approximately 1250 degree sign C in an air or Ar gas atmosphere using the millimeter-wave heating technique. The resulting resistivity and its thickness dependence obtainable in thin films prepared by PLD using millimeter-wave-sintered AZO targets were comparable to those obtained in thin films prepared by PLD using conventional furnace-sintered AZO targets; a low resistivity on the order of 3x10{sup -4} {Omega} cm was obtained in AZO thin films prepared with an Al content [Al/(Al+Zn) atomic ratio] of 3.2 at. % and a thickness of 100 nm. In addition, the resulting resistivity and its spatial distribution on the substrate surface obtainable in thin films prepared by rf-MSD using a millimeter-wave-sintered AZO target were almost the same as those obtained in thin films prepared by rf-MSD using a conventional powder AZO target. Thin films prepared by PLD using millimeter-wave-sintered AZO:V targets exhibited an improved resistivity stability in a high humidity environment. Thin films deposited with a thickness of approximately 100 nm using an AZO:V target codoped with an Al content of 4 at. % and a V content [V/(V+Zn) atomic ratio] of 0.2 at. % were sufficiently stable when long-term tested in air at 90% relative humidity and 60 degree sign C.

Minami, Tadatsugu; Okada, Kenji; Miyata, Toshihiro; Nomoto, Juni-chi; Hara, Youhei; Abe, Hiroshi [Optoelectronic Device System R and D Center, Kanazawa Institute of Technology, 7-1 Ohgigaoka, Nonoichi, Ishikawa 921-8501 (Japan); Fuji Dempa Kogyo Co. Ltd., 26 Kasuminosato, Ami, Inashiki, Ibaragi 300-0315 (Japan)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

57

SUPERGLASS. Engineering field tests - Phase 3. Production, market planning, and product evaluation for a high-thermal-performance insulating glass design utilizing HEAT MIRROR transparent insulation. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

HEAT MIRROR transparent window insulation consists of a clear polyester film two mils (.002'') thick with a thin, clear low-emissivity (.15) coating deposited on one side by state-of-the-art vacuum deposition processes. This neutral-colored invisible coating reflects long-wave infrared energy (heat). When mounted by being stretched with a 1/2'' air-gap on each side of the film, the resulting unit reduces heat loss by 60% compared to dual insulating glass. Southwall Corporation produces HEAT MIRROR transparent insulation and markets it to manufacturers of sealed insulating glass (I.G.) units and window and building manufacturers who make their own I.G. These companies build and sell the SUPERGLASS sealed glazing units. Units made and installed in buildings by six customers were visited. These units were located in many geographic regions, including the Pacific Northwest, Rocky Mountains, New England, Southeast, and West Coast. As much as could be obtained of their history was recorded, as was their current condition and performance. These units had been in place from two weeks to over a year. All of the units were performing thermally very well, as measured by taking temperature profiles through them and through adjacent conventional I.G. units. Some units had minor visual defects (attributed to I.G. assembly techniques) which are discussed in detail. Overall occupant acceptance was enthusiastically positive. In addition to saving energy, without compromise of optical quality or appearance, the product makes rooms with large glazing areas comfortable to be in in cold weather. All defects observed were present when built; there appears to be no in-field degradation of quality at this time.

Tilford, C L

1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Glass Ion Exchange: One Century of "Tough" Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... ion-exchange to glass components such as pharmaceutical packaging, transparent lightweight armor, transparencies for private vehicles, trains and aircrafts, ...

59

The use of high glass temperature polymers in the production of transparent, structured surfaces using nanoimprint lithography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Polymers with high glass transition temperatures, fluorinated ethylene propylene copolymer (FEP) and poly(ethylene naphthalate) (PEN), have been used in imprint lithography as a protective support layer and as a secondary mould, to imprint superficial ... Keywords: Embossing, Nanoimprint lithography, Polymer Engineering

Christopher A. Mills; Javier G. Fernandez; Abdelhamid Errachid; Josep Samitier

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Low temperature deposition of transparent conducting oxide films: Comparison of different pulsed sputtering and arc plasma methods  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Electrochromically switched, gas-reservoir metal hydride devices with Electrochromically switched, gas-reservoir metal hydride devices with application to energy-efficient windows André Anders, Jonathan L. Slack, and Thomas J. Richardson Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Berkeley, California Abstract Proof-of-principle gas-reservoir MnNiMg electrochromic mirror devices have been investigated. In contrast to conventional electrochromic approaches, hydrogen is stored (at low concentration) in the gas volume between glass panes of the insulated glass units (IGUs). The elimination of a solid state ion storage layer simplifies the layer stack, enhances overall transmission, and reduces cost. The cyclic switching properties were demonstrated and system durability improved with the incorporation a thin Zr barrier layer between the MnNiMg layer

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "glass transparent conductive" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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61

Thin film ion conducting coating  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Durable thin film ion conducting coatings are formed on a transparent glass substrate by the controlled deposition of the mixed oxides of lithium:tantalum or lithium:niobium. The coatings provide durable ion transport sources for thin film solid state storage batteries and electrochromic energy conservation devices.

Goldner, Ronald B. (Lexington, MA); Haas, Terry (Sudbury, MA); Wong, Kwok-Keung (Watertown, MA); Seward, George (Arlington, MA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Mechanical Properties of Glass  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... moduli and Vicker's hardness, as well as high transparency in the UV/visible region, ... Ion Exchanged Mixed Glass Cullet Proppants for Stimulation of Oil and  ...

63

Effect of polymer-nanoparticle interactions on the glass transition dynamics and the conductivity mechanism in polyurethane titanium dioxide nanocomposites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report on the glass transition dynamics and the conductivity properties of a nanodielectric system composed of pre-synthesized TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles embedded in thermoplastic polyurethane. Increase of TiO{sub 2} loading results in enhanced segmental mobility of the composites and less steep temperature dependence, i.e., lower fragility index. The decrease in the fragility index and glass transition temperature is discussed based on the FTIR results. We observe different behavior of conductivity for temperatures above and below the glass transition temperature. At high temperatures the composites exhibit conductivity values more than 2 orders of magnitude higher than those in the pristine matrix. At the same time, at sub-Tg temperatures composites are characterized by superior electrical insulation properties compared to pristine matrix material. Such drastic temperature dependence of the conductivity/insulating ability of the flexible and light-weight, low-Tg composite material can be utilized in various applications including sensing and temperature switching materials.

Polyzos, Georgios [ORNL; Tuncer, Enis [ORNL; Agapov, Alexander L [ORNL; Stevens, Derrick [ORNL; Sokolov, Alexei P [ORNL; Kidder, Michelle [ORNL; Jacobs, [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH; Koerner, Hilmar [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH; Vaia, Richard [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH; More, Karren Leslie [ORNL; Sauers, Isidor [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Evaluation of the Thermal Performance for a Wire Mesh/Hollow Glass Microsphere Composite Structure as a Conduction Barrier  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An experimental investigation exploring the use of wire mesh/hollow glass microsphere combination for use as thermal insulation was conducted with the aim to conclude whether or not it represents a superior insulation technology to those on the market. Three primary variables, including number of wire mesh layers, filler material, and temperature dependence were studied using an apparatus that was part of L.I.C.H.E.N (LabVIEW Integrated Conduction Heat Experiment Network), a setup whose basic components allow three vertically stacked samples to be thermally and mechanically controlled. Knowing the temperature profile in the upper and lower samples allows for determination of thermal conductivity of the middle material through the use of Fourier?s law. The numbers of layers investigated were two, four, six, and eight, with each separated by a metallic liner. The filler materials included air, s15, s35 and s60HS 3MTM hollow glass microspheres. The experiments were conducted at four temperatures of 300, 330, 366, and 400K with an interface pressure of 20 Psi. The experimental results indicated the ?number of layers? used was the primary factor in determining the effective thermal conductivity value. The addition of hollow glass microspheres as filler material resulted in statistically insignificant changes in effective thermal conductivity. Increasing the number of wire mesh layers resulted in a corresponding increase in effective thermal conductivity of the insulation. Changes in temperature had little to no effect on thermal conductivity. The effective thermal conductivity values for the proposed insulation structure ranged from 0.22 to 0.65 W/m-K, the lowest of which came from the two layer case having air as filler material. The uncertainties associated with the experimental results fell between 10 to 20 percent in all but a few cases. In the best performing cases, when compared with existing insulation technologies, thermal conductivity was approximately 3 to 10 times higher than these methods of insulation. Thus, the proposed insulation scheme with hollow glass-sphere filler material does not represent superior technology, and would be deemed uncompetitive with those readily available in the insulation market.

Mckenna, Sean

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Transparent conductive nano-composites  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention, in one embodiment, provides a method of forming an organic electric device that includes providing a plurality of carbon nanostructures; and dispersing the plurality of carbon nanostructures in a polymeric matrix to provide a polymeric composite, wherein when the plurality of carbon nanostructures are present at a first concentration an interface of the plurality of carbon nanostructures and the polymeric matrix is characterized by charge transport when an external energy is applied, and when the plurality of carbon nanostructures are present at a second concentration the interface of the plurality of carbon nanostructures and the polymeric matrix are characterized by exciton dissociation when an external energy is applied, wherein the first concentration is less than the second concentration.

Geohegan, David Bruce; Ivanov, Ilia N; Puretzky, Alexander A; Jesse, Stephen; Hu, Bin; Garrett, Matthew; Zhao, Bin

2013-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

66

Transparent conductive nano-composites  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention, in one embodiment, provides a method of forming an organic electric device that includes providing a plurality of carbon nanostructures; and dispersing the plurality of carbon nanostructures in a polymeric matrix to provide a polymeric composite, wherein when the plurality of carbon nanostructures are present at a first concentration an interface of the plurality of carbon nanostructures and the polymeric matrix is characterized by charge transport when an external energy is applied, and when the plurality of carbon nanostructures are present at a second concentration the interface of the plurality of carbon nanostructures and the polymeric matrix are characterized by exciton dissociation when an external energy is applied, wherein the first concentration is less than the second concentration.

Geohegan, David Bruce (Knoxville, TN); Ivanov, Ilia N. (Knoxville, TN); Puretzky, Alexander A. (Knoxville, TN); Jesse, Stephen (Knoxville, TN); Hu, Bin (Knoxville, TN); Garrett, Matthew (Knoxville, TN); Zhao, Bin (Easley, SC)

2011-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

67

EFFECTS OF TRITIUM GAS EXPOSURE ON THE GLASS TRANSITION TEMPERATURE OF EPDM ELASTOMER AND ON THE CONDUCTIVITY OF POLYANILINE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Four formulations of EPDM (ethylene-propylene diene monomer) elastomer were exposed to tritium gas initially at one atmosphere and ambient temperature for between three and four months in closed containers. Material properties that were characterized include density, volume, mass, appearance, flexibility, and dynamic mechanical properties. The glass transition temperature was determined by analysis of the dynamic mechanical property data per ASTM standards. EPDM samples released significant amounts of gas when exposed to tritium, and the glass transition temperature increased by about 3 C. during the exposure. Effects of ultraviolet and gamma irradiation on the surface electrical conductivity of two types of polyaniline films are also documented as complementary results to planned tritium exposures. Future work will determine the effects of tritium gas exposure on the electrical conductivity of polyaniline films, to demonstrate whether such films can be used as a sensor to detect tritium. Surface conductivity was significantly reduced by irradiation with both gamma rays and ultraviolet light. The results of the gamma and UV experiments will be correlated with the tritium exposure results.

Clark, E; Marie Kane, M

2008-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

68

ANALYTICAL PLANS SUPPORTING THE SLUDGE BATCH 8 GLASS VARIABILITY STUDY BEING CONDUCTED BY ENERGYSOLUTIONS AND CUA'S VITREOUS STATE LABORATORY  

SciTech Connect

EnergySolutions (ES) and its partner, the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) of The Catholic University of America (CUA), are to provide engineering and technical services support to Savannah River Remediation, LLC (SRR) for ongoing operation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) flowsheet as well as for modifications to improve overall plant performance. SRR has requested via a statement of work that ES/VSL conduct a glass variability study (VS) for Sludge Batch 8. SRR issued a technical task request (TTR) asking that the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provide planning and data reduction support for the ES/VSL effort. This document provides two analytical plans for use by ES/VSL: one plan is to guide the measurement of the chemical composition of the study glasses while the second is to guide the measurement of the durability of the study glasses. The measurements generated by ES/VSL are to be provided to SRNL for data reduction and evaluation. SRNL is to review the results of its evaluation with ES/VSL and SRR. The results will subsequently be incorporated into a joint report with ES/VSL as a deliverable to SRR to support the processing of SB8 at DWPF.

Edwards, T.; Peeler, D.

2012-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

69

Analytical Plans Supporting The Sludge Batch 8 Glass Variability Study Being Conducted By Energysolutions And Cua's Vitreous State Laboratory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EnergySolutions (ES) and its partner, the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) of The Catholic University of America (CUA), are to provide engineering and technical services support to Savannah River Remediation, LLC (SRR) for ongoing operation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) flowsheet as well as for modifications to improve overall plant performance. SRR has requested via a statement of work that ES/VSL conduct a glass variability study (VS) for Sludge Batch 8. SRR issued a technical task request (TTR) asking that the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provide planning and data reduction support for the ES/VSL effort. This document provides two analytical plans for use by ES/VSL: one plan is to guide the measurement of the chemical composition of the study glasses while the second is to guide the measurement of the durability of the study glasses. The measurements generated by ES/VSL are to be provided to SRNL for data reduction and evaluation. SRNL is to review the results of its evaluation with ES/VSL and SRR. The results will subsequently be incorporated into a joint report with ES/VSL as a deliverable to SRR to support the processing of SB8 at DWPF.

Edwards, T. B.; Peeler, D. K.

2012-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

70

WIPP Nuclear Facilities Transparency  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Transparency Technologies Other Transparency Activities Sandia National Laboratories Cooperative Monitoring Center (CMC) in conjunction with WIPP is providing this Nuclear...

71

Novel transparent electrodes allow sustainable production of electronic devices  

SciTech Connect

A novel technique for fabricating inexpensive, transparent electrodes from common metals has been developed by engineers and scientists at Iowa State University and Ames Laboratory. They exhibit very high transparency and are very good electrical conductors. This is a combination of properties that is difficult to achieve with common materials. The most frequently used transparent electrode in today's high-technology devices (such as LCD screens) is indium tin oxide (ITO). While ITO performs well in these applications, the supply of indium is very limited. In addition, it is rapidly decreasing as consumer demand for flat-panel electronics is skyrocketing. According to a 2004 US Geological Survey report, as little as 14 years exploitation of known indium reserves remains. In addition to increasing prices, the dwindling supply of indium suggests its use is not sustainable for future generations of electronics enthusiasts. Solar cells represent another application where transparent electrodes are used. To make solar-energy collection economically feasible, all parts of solar photovoltaics must be made more efficient and cost-effective. Our novel transparent electrodes have the potential to do both. In addition, there is much interest in developing more efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly lighting. Incandescent light bulbs are very inefficient, because most of their energy consumption is wasted as heat. Fluorescent lighting is much more efficient but still uses mercury, an environmental toxin. An attractive alternative is offered by LEDs, which have very high efficiencies and long lifetimes, and do not contain mercury. If made bright enough, LED use for general lighting could provide a viable alternative. We have fabricated electrodes from more commonly available materials, using a technique that is cost effective and environmentally friendly. Most of today's electronic devices are made in specialized facilities equipped with low-particle-count clean-room facilities and multimillion-dollar equipment. On the other hand, the novel process we developed uses a method that makes use of polymer molds and standard deposition techniques in an ambient laboratory environment. The final structure consists of tall ribbons of metal (standing on edge) that are so thin that they do not block light but are very good conductors. The advantage of this design is that it avoids the competition between conductivity and transparency inherent in transparent oxide electrodes. By making the structure taller, conductivity can be increased without impacting transparency. We have measured both electrical conductivity and transparency for these structures. We performed two-wire electrical measurements to quantify the structures resistance using metal contacts deposited on each end. The total sample area was 4 x 4mm{sup 2}. We measured a resistance of structures with 40nm gold sidewalls of 7.3{Omega}, which is lower than that of ITO glass (which has a sheet resistance around 10O/square). We investigated the structures optical properties based on both specular- and total-transmission measurements. Specular transmission is measured by collecting the transmitted light at normal incidence, while total transmission is obtained by collecting transmitted light at normal incidence and diffracted light using an integrating sphere. Figure 3 shows the total transmission of a grating with 40nm gold or silver sidewalls on a glass substrate compared to that of ITO. Additionally, the transparency changes very little within 30{sup o} off normal incidence. This high visible-light transmission of our metal-patterned structures is very promising for their application as transparent electrodes, because most visible light was allowed to propagate through the patterned metallic/polymeric structures. Researchers in our group continue to refine the fabrication methods and are investigating methods to make large-scale structures for use in a variety of applications that require both transparency and high electrical conductivity. We are also applying these fab

Constant, Kristen

2010-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

72

Ag Nanowire Based Transparent Conductor for CIGS PV  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coated silver nanowires (AgNW) have been considered as a replacement for transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) in CIGS based photovoltaic devices. The advantages of AgNW over TCOs are discussed, and optical and electrical characteristics of AgNWs on glass are presented. Similarly fabricated AgNWs with varying sheet resistance on CIGS devices were tested against ITO transparent conductor controls. The CIGS was produced using a roll-to-roll technique on a flexible polymer substrate. Variations in the ZnO layer resistivity that are adjacent to the AgNW layer in the CIGS device were also tested. Device results indicate similar Jsc, but a reduced FF for cells made with the AgNWs, and Voc dependence on the resistivity of the coated AgNW and ZnO window layers. FF and Voc losses associated with the use of AgNWs are discussed.

Woods, L. M.; Wolk, J.; Smith, M.; Davande, H.; Ribelin, R. M.; Perkins, C. L.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

TRANSPARENCY RECYCLING PROGRAM PROCEDURES  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

TRANSPARENCY RECYCLING Don't throw out your used overhead transparencies! RECYCLE them for REUSE. It's Easy! Follow these simple procedures: 1.) COLLECT used transparencies to be recycled. 2.) SEPARATE the transparencies from ringed binders, plastic or paper folders, envelopes, and/or files. 3.) PLACE the transparencies (only) into an intra-laboratory mail envelope. 4.) SEND the envelope to: Terri Schneider, Building 201, 1D-10. Terri will prepare a

74

Structure glass technology : systems and applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Glass cannot compete with steel in terms of strength or durability, but it is the only structural material that offers the highly sought after qualities of translucency and transparency. The use of glass has evolved from ...

Leitch, Katherine K. (Katherine Kristen)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Radiation coloration resistant glass  

SciTech Connect

A radiation coloration resistant glass is disclosed which is used in a radiation environment sufficient to cause coloration in most forms of glass. The coloration resistant glass includes higher proportions by weight of water and has been found to be extremely resistant to color change when exposed to such radiation levels. The coloration resistant glass is free of cerium oxide and has more than about 0.5% by weight water content. Even when exposed to gamma radiation of more than 10.sup.7 rad, the coloration resistant glass does not lose transparency.

Tomozawa, Minoru (Troy, NY); Watson, E. Bruce (Troy, NY); Acocella, John (Troy, NY)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Transparent Cost Database | Transparent Cost Database  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hide data for this chart (-)Show data for this chart (+) Loading data... Transparent Cost Database Generation Showing: Historical Projections Year Published: Release mouse to...

77

Transparent Conductors and Barrier Layers for Thin Film Solar Cells:  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes the research undertaken to increase the efficiency of thin-film solar cells based on amorphous silicon in the so-called''superstrate structure'' (glass front surface/transparent electrically conductive oxide (TCO)/pin amorphous silicon/metal back electrode). The TCO layer must meet many requirements: high optical transparency in the wavelength region from about 350 to 900 nm, low electrical sheet resistance, stability during handling and deposition of the subsequent layers and during use, a textured (rough) surface to enhance optical absorption of red and near-infrared light, and low-resistance electrical contact to the amorphous silicon p-layer. Fluorine-doped tin oxide has been the TCO used in most commercial superstrate amorphous silicon cells. Fluorine-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:F) was later shown to be even more transparent than fluorine-doped tin oxide, as well as being more resistant to the strongly reducing conditions encountered during the deposition of amorphous silicon. Solar cells based on ZnO:F showed the expected higher currents, but the fill factors were lower than standard cells grown on tin oxide, resulting in no consistent improvement in efficiency. This problem was recently mitigated by using a new proprietary p/buffer layer combination developed at BP Solar.

Gordon, R. G.; Broomhall-Dillard, R.; Liu, X.; Pang, D.; Barton, J.

2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Bipolar resistive switching effect in Gd2O3 films for transparent memory application  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A transparent resistive random access memory based on ITO/Gd"2O"3/ITO capacitor structure is fabricated on glass substrate. The transparent memory exhibits reliable resistive switching for more than 1000 cycles, low operation voltage of -2V/+2V, and ... Keywords: Gadolinium oxide, Gd2O3, RRAM, Resistive memory, TRRAM, Transparent memory

Kou-Chen Liu; Wen-Hsien Tzeng; Kow-Ming Chang; Yi-Chun Chan; Chun-Chih Kuo

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Plasmonic graphene transparent conductors.  

SciTech Connect

Plasmonic graphene is fabricated using thermally assisted self-assembly of silver nanoparticles on graphene. The localized surface-plasmonic effect is demonstrated with the resonance frequency shifting from 446 to 495 nm when the lateral dimension of the Ag nanoparticles increases from about 50 to 150 nm. Finite-difference time-domain simulations are employed to confirm the experimentally observed light-scattering enhancement in the solar spectrum in plasmonic graphene and the decrease of both the plasmonic resonance frequency and amplitude with increasing graphene thickness. In addition, plasmonic graphene shows much-improved electrical conductance by a factor of 2-4 as compared to the original graphene, making the plasmonic graphene a promising advanced transparent conductor with enhanced light scattering for thin-film optoelectronic devices.

Xu, G.; Liu, J.; Wang, Q.; Hui, R.; Chen, Z.; Maroni, V. A.; Wu, J. (Materials Science Division); (Univ. Kansas)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Highly efficient blue organic light emitting devices with indium-free transparent anode on flexible substrates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Indium-free transparent conducting oxides may provide a lower cost solution for the transparent anode in flexible displays and energy efficient solid state lighting. We report herein a near room temperature sputtering process for generating an indium-free transparent conductive oxide (TCO) coating on a flexible substrate. Specifically, we deposited gallium-doped zinc oxide (GZO) uniformly over a 12” diameter area at room temperature on polyethylene terephthalate (PET). During deposition, the system heats to about 60oC due to the energetic sputtering conditions, without any noticeable damage to the PET substrate. The GZO films exhibit excellent physical, optical and electrical properties: roughness ~7 nm, transmittance >85% and resistivity ~ 10-3 ohm• cm. Phosphorescent blue organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) were fabricated on these substrates with comparable performance (16% external quantum efficiency and 33 lm/W power efficiency at 1mA/cm2) to that of devices fabricated on GZO (or ITO) deposited on glass substrates, suggesting flexible GZO/PET substrates may be used instead of high-cost and rigid ITO and glass for flexible displays and solid state lighting.

Wang, Liang; Swensen, James S.; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Matson, Dean W.; Bonham, Charles C.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Gaspar, Daniel J.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.

2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "glass transparent conductive" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Solar Glass Fact Sheet Harvard Green Campus Initiative  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solar Glass Fact Sheet Harvard Green Campus Initiative What is Solar Glass? Solar glass is a type electricity and the rest to let in light. Solar glass is not fully transparent, so it should not be used or patterned to minimize heat gain and control glare are ideal candidates. Solar glass can be made in different

Paulsson, Johan

82

Precise Application of Transparent Conductive Oxide Coatings ...  

... (Indium Tin Oxide) ... Argonne National Laboratory is a U.S. Department of Energy laboratory managed by UChicago Argonne, LLC January 2013 tdc_IN06076_0113_mn

83

Transparent Conductive Thin-Film Materials - Available ...  

Computers & Electronics; Enabled by the Office of Science. Security & Privacy | Contact PNNL. Last Update: February 2012 | Pacific Northwest ...

84

Highly Enriched Uranium Transparency Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Climate Research Center for Geospatial Analysis Program Highlights Index Highly Enriched Uranium Transparency Program EVS staff members helped to implement transparency and...

85

A transparent grid filesystem  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Existing data management solutions fail to adequately support data management needs at the inter-grid (interoperability) level. We describe a possible solution, a transparent grid filesystem, and consider in detail a challenging use case.

Brian Coghlan; Geoff Quigley; Soha Maad; Gabriele Pierantoni; John Ryan; Eamonn Kenny; David O'Callaghan

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

A Dictionary for Transparency  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There are many terms that are used in association with the U.S. Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) Transparency Project associated with the Mayak Fissile Materials Storage Facility. This is a collection of proposed definitions of these terms.

Kouzes, Richard T.

2001-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

87

The ethics of information transparency  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper investigates the ethics of information transparency (henceforth transparency). It argues that transparency is not an ethical principle in itself but a pro-ethical condition for enabling or impairing other ethical practices or principles. A ... Keywords: Computer ethics, Information transparency, Semantic information, Software design

Matteo Turilli; Luciano Floridi

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Optomechanically induced transparency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Coherent interaction of laser radiation with multilevel atoms and molecules can lead to quantum interference in the electronic excitation pathways. A prominent example observed in atomic three-level-systems is the phenomenon of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), in which a control laser induces a narrow spectral transparency window for a weak probe laser beam. The concomitant rapid variation of the refractive index in this spectral window can give rise to dramatic reduction of the group velocity of a propagating pulse of probe light. Dynamic control of EIT via the control laser enables even a complete stop, that is, storage, of probe light pulses in the atomic medium. Here, we demonstrate optomechanically induced transparency (OMIT)--formally equivalent to EIT--in a cavity optomechanical system operating in the resolved sideband regime. A control laser tuned to the lower motional sideband of the cavity resonance induces a dipole-like interaction of optical and mechanical degrees of freedom. Under these conditions, the destructive interference of excitation pathways for an intracavity probe field gives rise to a window of transparency when a two-photon resonance condition is met. As a salient feature of EIT, the power of the control laser determines the width and depth of the probe transparency window. OMIT could therefore provide a new approach for delaying, slowing and storing light pulses in long-lived mechanical excitations of optomechanical systems, whose optical and mechanical properties can be tailored in almost arbitrary ways in the micro- and nano-optomechanical platforms developed to date.

S. Weis; R. Riviere; S. Deleglise; E. Gavartin; O. Arcizet; A. Schliesser; T. J. Kippenberg

2010-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

89

Development of Advanced CdTe Solar Cells Based on High Temperature Corning Glass Substrates: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-10-373  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

NREL has developed advanced processes for CdTe solar cells, but because of the temperature limitations of conventional soda lime glass, many of these processes have not been transferred to manufacturing. Corning is developing high temperature substrate glasses that are believed to be manufacturable and will lead to lower $/watt modules costs. The purpose of this CRADA is to evaluate these glasses in the advanced NREL processes. In addition, the CRADA seeks to develop manufacturable processes for transparent conductive oxide layers based on cadmium stannate.

Barnes, T.

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Glass and Optical Materials - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ion Exchanged Mixed Glass Cullet Proppants for Stimulation of Oil and Natural Gas Bearing Shales · Modeling the Electrical Conductivity in Glass Melts.

91

Chemical Strengthening of Soda Lime Silicate Glass  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ion Exchanged Mixed Glass Cullet Proppants for Stimulation of Oil and Natural Gas Bearing Shales · Modeling the Electrical Conductivity in Glass Melts.

92

Transparent partial order reduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Partial Order Reduction (POR) techniques improve the basic model checking algorithm by reducing the numbers of states and transitions explored in verifying a property of the model. In the "ample set" POR framework for the verification of an LTL¿X ... Keywords: Invisibility, Model checking, Partial order reduction, Transparent, Verification

Stephen F. Siegel

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Glass Production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

40, pp. 162 - 186. Glass Production, Shortland, UEE 2009AINES Short Citation: Shortland 2009, Glass Production. UEE.Andrew, 2009, Glass Production. In Willeke Wendrich (ed. ),

Shortland, Andrew

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes as Transparent Electrodes for Photovoltaics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Transparent and electrically conductive coatings and films have a variety of uses in the fast-growing field of optoelectronic applications. Transparent electrodes typically include semiconductive metal oxides such as indium tin oxide (ITO), and conducting polymers such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), doped and stabilized with poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT/PSS). In recent years, Eikos, Inc. has conceived and developed technologies to deliver novel alternatives using single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT). These technologies offer products having a broad range of conductivity, excellent transparency, neutral color tone, good adhesion, abrasion resistance as well as mechanical robustness. Additional benefits include ease of ambient processing and patterning capability. This paper reports our recent findings on achieving 2.6% and 1.4% efficiencies on nonoptimized organic photovoltaic cells employing SWNT as a transparent electrode.

Weeks, C.; Peltola, J.; Levitsky, I.; Glatkowski, P.; van de Lagemaat, J.; Rumbles, G.; Barnes, T.; Coutts, T.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Aerogel: a transparent insulator for solar applications  

SciTech Connect

Aerogel is a transparent, low density, insulating material suitable for a variety of solar applications. Significant energy savings can be realized by using aerogel for a window glazing material. Other possible applications include solar collector covers, transparent insulating jackets for direct gain passive solar devices, and situations that require both transparency and good insulation. Because silica aerogel has a low density (2 to 10% solid), it has a thermal conductivity as low as 0.014 W/m/sup 0/K without evacuation, and if evacuated, lower than 0.006 W/m/sup 0/K. It provides a clear view with only slight coloring due to its weak and nearly isotropic scattering of light. This paper describes significant progress made in the past year at our laboratory in the development of aerogel. We have improved the transparency, developed new preparation methods using less toxic materials, and initiated successful experiments in drying alcogels at near ambient temperature. Optical transmission, light scattering, and electron microscopy data show that CO/sub 2/ supercritical drying of alcogels produces aerogels similar in quality to those produced by high temperature supercritical drying. These advances make the commercial production of aerogel much more feasible.

Hunt, A.J.; Russo, R.E.; Tewari, P.H.; Lofftus, K.D.

1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Correlation effects in nuclear transparency  

SciTech Connect

The Glauber approximation is used to calculate the contribution of nucleon correlations in high-energy {ital A}({ital e},{ital e}{prime}{ital N}) reactions. When the excitation energy of the residual nucleus is small, the increase of the nuclear transparency due to correlations between the struck nucleon and the other nucleons is mostly compensated by a decrease of the transparency due to the correlations between nondetected nucleons. We derive Glauber model predictions for nuclear transparency for the differential cross section when nuclear shell level excitations are measured. The role of correlations in color transparency is briefly discussed.

Frankfurt, L.L. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv 69978, Tel Aviv (Israel); Moniz, E.J. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics and Laboratory for Nuclear Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)]|[Institute for Theoretical Physics III, University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen (Germany); Sargsyan, M.M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv 69978, Tel Aviv (Israel)]|[Yerevan Physics Institute, Yerevan, 375036 (Armenia); Strikman, M.I. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)]|[St. Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina 188350 (Russian Federation)

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Towards on-Chip, Integrated Chalcogenide Glass Based Biochemical Sensors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper reviews ongoing progress in the development of novel on-chip planar molecular sensors in infrared-transparent chalcogenide glasses. We demonstrate on-chip cavity-enhanced refractometry and infrared absorption ...

Hu, Juejun

98

Methods | Transparent Cost Database  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Methods Methods Disclaimer The data gathered here are for informational purposes only. Inclusion of a report in the database does not represent approval of the estimates by DOE or NREL. Levelized cost calculations DO NOT represent real world market conditions. The calculation uses a single discount rate in order to compare technology costs only. About the Cost Database For emerging energy technologies, a variety of cost and performance numbers are cited in presentations and reports for present-day characteristics and potential improvements. Amid a variety of sources and methods for these data, the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's technology development programs determine estimates for use in program planning. The Transparent Cost Database collects program cost and performance

99

Transparent composite laminar structure, solar collector and method  

SciTech Connect

An improved transparent laminar structure useful as a window in a solar collector having an absorber characterized with a low absorption/emission ratio is described. The structure includes a glass substrate, a particularly defined infrared-reflecting (Irr) layer provided on a major surface of the substrate, and a solar reflection-reducing layer of polymethacrylate composition provided on the irr layer. Also described are an improved solar collector and method for collecting solar radiation, wherein the laminar structure is employed.

Silverstein, S.D.

1981-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

100

Glass electrolyte composition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An ionically conductive glass is disclosed for use as electrolyte in a high temperature electrochemical cell, particularly a cell with sodium anode and sulfur cathode. The glass includes the constituents Na/sub 2/O, ZrO/sub 2/, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and SiO/sub 2/ in selected proportions to be a single phase solid solution substantially free of crystalline regions and undissolved constituents. Other advantageous properties are an ionic conductivity in excess of 2 x 10/sup -3/ (ohm-cm)/sup -1/ at 300/sup 0/C and a glass transition temperature in excess of 500/sup 0/C.

Kucera, G.H.; Roche, M.F.

1985-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "glass transparent conductive" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

DWPF GLASS BEADS AND GLASS FRIT TRANSPORT DEMONSTRATION  

SciTech Connect

DWPF is considering replacing irregularly shaped glass frit with spherical glass beads in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) process to decrease the yield stress of the melter feed (a non-Newtonian Bingham Plastic). Pilot-scale testing was conducted on spherical glass beads and glass frit to determine how well the glass beads would transfer when compared to the glass frit. Process Engineering Development designed and constructed the test apparatus to aid in the understanding and impacts that spherical glass beads may have on the existing DWPF Frit Transfer System. Testing was conducted to determine if the lines would plug with the glass beads and the glass frit slurry and what is required to unplug the lines. The flow loop consisted of vertical and horizontal runs of clear PVC piping, similar in geometry to the existing system. Two different batches of glass slurry were tested: a batch of 50 wt% spherical glass beads and a batch of 50 wt% glass frit in process water. No chemicals such as formic acid was used in slurry, only water and glass formers. The glass beads used for this testing were commercially available borosilicate glass of mesh size -100+200. The glass frit was Frit 418 obtained from DWPF and is nominally -45+200 mesh. The spherical glass beads did not have a negative impact on the frit transfer system. The transferring of the spherical glass beads was much easier than the glass frit. It was difficult to create a plug with glass bead slurry in the pilot transfer system. When a small plug occurred from setting overnight with the spherical glass beads, the plug was easy to displace using only the pump. In the case of creating a man made plug in a vertical line, by filling the line with spherical glass beads and allowing the slurry to settle for days, the plug was easy to remove by using flush water. The glass frit proved to be much more difficult to transfer when compared to the spherical glass beads. The glass frit impacted the transfer system to the point that the test apparatus had to be disassembled to dislodge the plugs created in the system.

Adamson, D; Bradley Pickenheim, B

2008-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

102

2009 Annual Health Physics Report for the HEU Transparency Program  

SciTech Connect

During the 2009 calendar year, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) provided health physics support for the Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Transparency Program for external and internal radiation protection. LLNL also provided technical expertise related to BDMS radioactive sources and Russian radiation safety regulatory compliance. For the calendar year 2009, there were 159 person-trips that required dose monitoring of the U.S. monitors. Of the 159 person-trips, 149 person-trips were SMVs and 10 person-trips were Transparency Monitoring Office (TMO) trips. There were 4 monitoring visits by TMO monitors to facilities other than UEIE and 10 to UEIE itself. LLNL's Hazard Control Department laboratories provided the dosimetry services for the HEU Transparency monitors. In 2009, the HEU Transparency activities in Russia were conducted in a radiologically safe manner for the HEU Transparency monitors in accordance with the expectations of the HEU Transparency staff, NNSA and DOE. The HEU Transparency Program now has over fifteen years of successful experience in developing and providing health and safety support in meeting its technical objectives.

Radev, R

2010-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

103

2009 Annual Health Physics Report for the HEU Transparency Program  

SciTech Connect

During the 2009 calendar year, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) provided health physics support for the Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Transparency Program for external and internal radiation protection. LLNL also provided technical expertise related to BDMS radioactive sources and Russian radiation safety regulatory compliance. For the calendar year 2009, there were 159 person-trips that required dose monitoring of the U.S. monitors. Of the 159 person-trips, 149 person-trips were SMVs and 10 person-trips were Transparency Monitoring Office (TMO) trips. There were 4 monitoring visits by TMO monitors to facilities other than UEIE and 10 to UEIE itself. LLNL's Hazard Control Department laboratories provided the dosimetry services for the HEU Transparency monitors. In 2009, the HEU Transparency activities in Russia were conducted in a radiologically safe manner for the HEU Transparency monitors in accordance with the expectations of the HEU Transparency staff, NNSA and DOE. The HEU Transparency Program now has over fifteen years of successful experience in developing and providing health and safety support in meeting its technical objectives.

Radev, R

2010-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

104

2011 Annual Health Physics Report for the HEU transparency Program  

SciTech Connect

During the 2008 calendar year, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) provided health physics support for the Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Transparency Program for external and internal radiation protection. They also provided technical expertise related to BDMS radioactive sources and Russian radiation safety regulatory compliance. For the calendar year 2008, there were 158 person-trips that required dose monitoring of the U.S. monitors. Of the 158 person-trips, 148 person-trips were SMVs and 10 person-trips were Transparency Monitoring Office (TMO) trips. There were 6 monitoring visits by TMO monitors to facilities other than UEIE and 8 to UEIE itself. There were three monitoring visits (source changes) that were back-to-back with a total of 24 monitors. LLNL's Hazard Control Department laboratories provided the dosimetry services for the HEU Transparency monitors. In 2008, the HEU Transparency activities in Russia were conducted in a radiologically safe manner for the HEU Transparency monitors in accordance with the expectations of the HEU Transparency staff, NNSA and DOE. The HEU Transparency now has thirteen years of successful experience in developing and providing health and safety support in meeting its technical objectives.

Radev, R

2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

105

Synthesis and Characterization of Simultaneous Electronic and Ionic Conducting Block Copolymers for Lithium Battery Electrodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

that the non-conducting blocks have a high glass transitionthe glass transition temperature of the amorphous block. 72-

Patel, Shrayesh

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

TRANSPARENT COATINGS FOR SOLAR CELLS RESEARCH  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Todays solar cells are fabricated using metal oxide based transparent conductive coatings (TCC) or metal wires with optoelectronic performance exceeding that currently possible with Carbon Nanotube (CNT) based TCCs. The motivation for replacing current TCC is their inherent brittleness, high deposition cost, and high deposition temperatures; leading to reduced performance on thin substrates. With improved processing, application and characterization techniques Nanofiber and/or CNT based TCCs can overcome these shortcomings while offering the ability to be applied in atmospheric conditions using low cost coating processes At todays level of development, CNT based TCC are nearing commercial use in touch screens, some types of information displays (i.e. electronic paper), and certain military applications. However, the resistivity and transparency requirements for use in current commercial solar cells are more stringent than in many of these applications. Therefore, significant research on fundamental nanotube composition, dispersion and deposition are required to reach the required performance commanded by photovoltaic devices. The objective of this project was to research and develop transparent conductive coatings based on novel nanomaterial composite coatings, which comprise nanotubes, nanofibers, and other nanostructured materials along with binder materials. One objective was to show that these new nanomaterials perform at an electrical resistivity and optical transparency suitable for use in solar cells and other energy-related applications. A second objective was to generate new structures and chemistries with improved resistivity and transparency performance. The materials also included the binders and surface treatments that facilitate the utility of the electrically conductive portion of these composites in solar photovoltaic devices. Performance enhancement venues included: CNT purification and metallic tube separation techniques, chemical doping, CNT patterning and alignment, advances in commercial and research materials and field effect schemes. In addition, Eikos continued to develop improved efficiency coating materials and transfer methods suitable for batch and continuous roll-to-roll fabrication requirements. Finally, Eikos collaborated with NREL and the PV-community at large in fabricating and characterizing Invisicon���® enabled solar cells.

Glatkowski, P.J.; Landis, D.A.

2013-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

107

Ion-Exchanged Glass with High Damage Resistance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ion Exchanged Mixed Glass Cullet Proppants for Stimulation of Oil and Natural Gas Bearing Shales · Modeling the Electrical Conductivity in Glass Melts.

108

Understanding Structure of Glass from Its Response to External Stimuli  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ion Exchanged Mixed Glass Cullet Proppants for Stimulation of Oil and Natural Gas Bearing Shales · Modeling the Electrical Conductivity in Glass Melts.

109

Corrosion of Photomultiplier Tube Glasses in High Purity Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ion Exchanged Mixed Glass Cullet Proppants for Stimulation of Oil and Natural Gas Bearing Shales · Modeling the Electrical Conductivity in Glass Melts.

110

Fogged Glass by Biofilm Formation and Its Evaluation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ion Exchanged Mixed Glass Cullet Proppants for Stimulation of Oil and Natural Gas Bearing Shales · Modeling the Electrical Conductivity in Glass Melts.

111

Sol-GelGlasses  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sol-Gel Glasses Sol-Gel Glasses Manufacturing Technologies The Manufacturing Science & Technology Center conducts process development and scale-up of ceramic and glass materials prepared by the sol- gel process. Sol-gel processing uses solutions prepared at low temperature rather than high temperature powder processing to make materi- als with controlled properties. A precursor sol-gel solution (sol) is either poured into a mold and allowed to gel or is diluted and applied to a sub- strate by spinning, dipping, spraying, elec- trophoresis, inkjet printing or roll coating. Controlled drying of the wet gel results in either a ceramic or glass bulk part or a thin film on a glass, plastic, ceramic or metal substrate. Sol-gel derived materials have diverse applications in optics, electronics, energy, space, sensors and

112

Adhesion Strength Study of EVA Encapsulants on Glass Substrates  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An extensive peel-test study was conducted to investigate the various factors that may affect the adhesion strength of photovoltaic module encapsulants, primarily ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA), on glass substrates of various laminates based on a common configuration of glass/encapsulant/backfoil. The results show that"pure" or"absolute" adhesion strength of EVA-to-glass was very difficult to obtain because of tensile deformation of the soft, semi-elastic EVA layer upon pulling. A mechanically"strong enough" backing foil on the EVA was critical to achieving the"apparent" adhesion strength. Peel test method with a 90-degree-pull yielded similar results to a 180-degree-pull. The 90-degree-pull method better revealed the four stages of delamination failure of the EVA/backfoil layers. The adhesion strength is affected by a number of factors, which include EVA type, formulation, backfoil type and manufacturing source, glass type, and surface priming treatment on the glass surface or on the backfoil. Effects of the glass-cleaning method and surface texture are not obvious. Direct priming treatments used in the work did not improve, or even worsened, the adhesion. Aging of EVA by storage over~5 years reduced notably the adhesion strength. Lower adhesion strengths were observed for the blank (unformulated) EVA and non-EVA copolymers, such as poly(ethylene-co-methacrylate) (PEMA) or poly(ethylene-co-butylacrylate) (PEBA). Their adhesion strengths increased if the copolymers were cross-linked. Transparent fluoropolymer superstrates such as TefzelTM and DureflexTM films used for thin-film PV modules showed low adhesion strengths to the EVA at a level of~2 N/mm.

Pern, F. J.; Glick, S. H.

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Glass formation, ionic conductivity, and conductivity/viscosity decoupling, in LiAlCl{sub 4} + LiClO{sub 4} and LiAlCl{sub 4} + LiAlCl{sub 3}{center_dot}imide solutions  

SciTech Connect

As part of a search for chemically and electrochemically stable ambient temperature molten lithium salt systems the authors have investigated the properties of solutions of LiAlCl{sub 4} with various second components. In this paper they review the factors which determine the ambient temperature conductivity and report results for two systems, one of which satisfies the stability requirements although failing to provide the high conductivities which are needed for a successful ambient temperature Li battery electrolyte. These ionic solutions appear to be very fragile liquids. Evidence is found for a mixing incompatibility of polarizable and nonpolarizable components of binary melts.

Videa, M.; Angeli, C.A. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). Dept. of Chemistry] [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

1999-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

114

Highly ordered TiO2 macropore arrays as transparent photocatalysts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Highly ordered transparent TiO2 macropore arrays were synthesized via a simple glass-clamping method at room temperature. The as-synthesized TiO2 macropore arrays show high transmittance in the visible light region and can be used ...

Yuan Dong; Junfeng Chao; Zhong Xie; Xin Xu; Zhuoran Wang; Di Chen

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Optimization of Conductivity and Transparency in Amorphous In-Zn-O Transparent Conductors: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Amorphous mixed metal oxide TCOs are of increasing interest due to the excellent opto-electronic properties and smoothness (RRMS < 0.5 nm) obtained for sputtered films deposited at less than 100 ..deg..C. Here, we have investigated the combined materials phase space of oxygen stoichiometry and metals composition (In:Zn ratio) and made two key discoveries.

Perkins, J.; Berry, J.; van Hest, M.; Alleman, J.; Dabney, M.; Gedvilas, L.; Ginley, D. S.; Leenheer, A.; O'Hayre, R.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Semiconductor-Transparent Conductive Oxide (SC-TCO) Inorganic ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Improvements in PV energy conversion efficiency are anticipated through the ... size and spatial distribution within the heterojunction thus influencing the optical ... in High Porosity Graphitic Foam for Catalysis and Hydrogen Storage ... **

117

Transparent and Conducting Graphene-based Thin Films and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The possibility to describe the electrical and thermal transport in these ... properties of our films and optimizing their use in optoelectronic devices. ... Chemical Synthesis and Structural Analysis of Gd2O3 Nanoparticles for Optical Applications.

118

B9: Facile Synthesis of Transparent and Conductive Zinc Oxide ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

D11: Binary and Ternary Phase Diagram Studies of Thermal Energy Storage Materials ... for Use in 3-state and Non-volatile Memory FETs on Si and InGaAs substrates ... E9: Low-temperature Spin Spray Deposited Ferrite/Piezoelectric Thin Film .... of Core-shell Structured Multiferroic Nanocomposites for Energy Harvesting.

119

Ti-Doped Indium Tin Oxide Thin Films for Transparent Field-Effect Transistors: Control of Charge-Carrier Density and Crystalline Structure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Indium tin oxide (ITO) films are representative transparent conducting oxide media for organic light-emitting diodes, liquid crystal displays, and solar cell applications. Extending the utility of ITO films from passive electrodes to active channel layers in transparent field-effect transistors (FETs), however, has been largely limited because of the materials' high carrier density (>1 x 10{sup 20} cm{sup 03}), wide band gap, and polycrystalline structure. Here, we demonstrate that control over the cation composition in ITO-based oxide films via solid doping of titanium (Ti) can optimize the carrier concentration and suppress film crystallization. On 120 nm thick SiO{sub 2}/Mo (200 nm)/glass substrates, transparent n-type FETs prepared with 4 at % Ti-doped ITO films and fabricated via the cosputtering of ITO and TiO{sub 2} exhibited high electron mobilities of 13.4 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1}, a low subthreshold gate swing of 0.25 V decade{sup -1}, and a high I{sub on}/I{sub off} ratio of >1 x 10{sup 8}.

J Kim; K Ji; M Jang; H Yang; R Choi; J Jeong

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

120

Traditional Glasses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 1   Glass product types and applications...plates, cups, bowls, serving dishes Fiberglass Wool: insulation, filters Textile: plastic or rubber tire reinforcements, fabrics,

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "glass transparent conductive" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Glass Fibers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 14   Compositional ranges for insulation-type glasses...from materials melted in a cupola with coke as fuel, all iron oxide

122

Determination of Thermal Contact Conductance of Metal Tabs for Battery Ultrasonic Welding Process  

SciTech Connect

A new experimental apparatus and data analysis algorithm were used to determine the thermal contact conductance between 0.2-mm-thick pure aluminum battery tabs as a function of contact pressure from 3.6 to 14.4 MPa. Specimens were sandwiched between one optically transparent and one infrared (IR) transparent glass windows, and heated up from one side by an intense short pulse of flash light. The temperature transient on the other side was measured by an IR camera. In order to determine the thermal contact conductance, two experiment configurations having different number of Al specimen layers were used. Numerical heat conduction simulations showed that the thermal contact conductance strongly depended on the ratio of the maximum temperature rise between the two configurations. Moreover, this ratio was not sensitive to the uncertainties of other thermal properties. Through the simulation results, a simple correlation between the gap conductance and the ratio was established. Therefore, once the ratio of the temperature rise between two configurations was experimentally measured, the thermal contact conductance could be readily determined from the correlation. The new method was fast and robust. Most importantly, the data analysis algorithm improved the measurement accuracy by considerably reducing the uncertainties associated with the thermophysical properties of materials and measurement system.

Chen, Jian [ORNL; Zhang, Wei [ORNL; Yu, Zhenzhen [ORNL; Feng, Zhili [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Glass Surfaces and Water in Glasses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 9, 2012 ... Glass and Optical Materials: Glass Surfaces and Water in Glasses Program Organizers: Jincheng Du, University of North Texas; John Kieffer, ...

124

Sympathetic Electromagnetically-Induced-Transparency Laser ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Page 1. Sympathetic Electromagnetically-Induced-Transparency Laser Cooling of Motional Modes in an Ion Chain Y. Lin ...

2013-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

125

Highly Enriched Uranium Transparency Program | National Nuclear...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Highly Enriched Uranium Transparency Program | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy...

126

Fractography of Thermally Shocked Glass Cookware  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fractography of fractured glass cookware can be a time consuming process of putting ... to Conduct Thermal Shock Test on Refractories Using Steel Blocks.

127

Transparent electrode for optical switch  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates generally to optical switches and techniques for applying a voltage to an electro-optical crystal, and more particularly, to transparent electodes for an optical switch. System architectures for very large inertial confinement fusion (ICF) lasers require active optical elements with apertures on the order of one meter. Large aperture optical switches are needed for isolation of stages, switch-out from regenerative amplifier cavities and protection from target retroreflections.

Goldhar, J.; Henesian, M.A.

1984-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

128

Transparent Cost Database | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Transparent Cost Database Transparent Cost Database Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Transparent Cost Database Agency/Company /Organization: Department of Energy Partner: National Renewable Energy Laboratory Sector: Energy Focus Area: Renewable Energy, Solar, Transportation Topics: Baseline projection, Low emission development planning, -LEDS, Resource assessment, Technology characterizations Resource Type: Dataset, Lessons learned/best practices, Software/modeling tools User Interface: Website Web Application Link: en.openei.org/apps/TCDB/ Cost: Free OpenEI Keyword(s): Featured Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.org/content/united-states-transparent-cost-databa Language: English The Transparent Cost Database collects program cost and performance

129

Fabrication and Characterization of Conductive Glass Composites ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Creep Behavior of a Zirconium Diboride-silicon Carbide Composite at 1800°C · Environmental Effects on Nextel 610 and Nextel 720 Fibers and Their ...

130

Breaking the Thermal Conductivity Glass Limit  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High Thermal Energy Storage Density LiNO3-KNO3-NaNO2-KNO2 Quaternary Molten Salt System for Parabolic Trough Concentrating Solar Power Generation.

131

A Model of the Effect of Particle Shape on Observed Glass ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ion Exchanged Mixed Glass Cullet Proppants for Stimulation of Oil and Natural Gas Bearing Shales · Modeling the Electrical Conductivity in Glass Melts.

132

Optimization of transparent and reflecting electrodes for amorphous silicon solar cells. Final technical report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Transparent conducting fluorine doped zinc oxide was deposited as thin films on soda lime glass substrates by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (CVD) at substrate temperatures of 460 to 500 degrees C. The precursors diethylzinc, tetramethylethylenediamine and benzoyl fluoride were dissolved in xylene. This solution was nebulized ultrasonically and then flash vaporized by a carrier gas of nitrogen preheated to 150 degrees C. Ethanol was vaporized separately, and these vapors were then mixed to form a homogeneous vapor mixture. Good reproducibility was achieved using this new CVD method. Uniform thicknesses were obtained by moving the heated glass substrates through the deposition zone. The best electrically and optical properties were obtained when the precursor solution was aged for more than a week before use. The films were polycrystalline and highly oriented with the c-axis perpendicular to the substrate. More than 90% of the incorporated fluorine atoms were electrically active as n-type dopants. The electrical resistivity of the films was as low as 5 x 10/sup -4/ Omega cm. The mobility was about 45 cm ²/Vs. The electron concentration was up to 3 x 10 %sup20;/cm³. The optical absorption of the films was about 3-4% at a sheet resistance of 7 ohms/square. The diffuse transmittance was about 10% at a wavelength of 650 nm. Amorphous ilicon solar cells were deposited using the textured fluorine doped zinc oxide films as a front electrode. The short circuit current was increased over similar cells made with fluorine doped tin oxide, but the open circuit voltages and fill factors were reduced. The voltage was restored by overcoating the fluorine-doped zinc oxide with a thin layer of fluorine-doped tin oxide.

Gordon, R.G.; Kramer, K.; Liang, H.; Liu, X.; Pang, D.; Teff, D.

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Building Energy Transparency: A Framework for Implementing.....  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Transparency: A Framework for Implementing... Energy Rating & Disclosure Policy Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio Manager Login Facility owners and...

134

NIST Scientists Address 'Wrinkles' in Transparent Film ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

NIST Scientists Address 'Wrinkles' in Transparent Film Development. ... High on the wish list of the solar power industry is a cheap, flexible ...

2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

135

Glass and Optical Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

NMR Insight into Glass Formers and Modifiers · NMR Studies on Biomaterials and Bioactive Glasses · Non-Linear Optical Properties in Glasses.

136

NREL: Awards and Honors - PowerView Semi-Transparent Photovoltaic Module  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

PowerView(tm) Semi-Transparent Photovoltaic Module PowerView(tm) Semi-Transparent Photovoltaic Module Developers: Harrin Ullal, Ken Zweibel, and Bolko von Roedern, National Renewable Energy Laboratory; Robert S. Oswald and Frank Liu, BP Solar The PowerView(tm) module - a BP Solar commercial product - represents the coming of a new era in photovoltaics for buildings. Because it is semi-transparent, it can be used in lieu of architectural glass for many applications, particularly for those that call for sloped glazing, such as awnings, canopies, or slanted roofs. And because it is photovoltaics, the module uses sunlight to generate clean electricity to power a building's electrical needs. As testimony to the PowerView's utility BP Solar has already installed it on canopies of hundreds of its Connect stores -

137

Effect of infrared transparency on the heat transfer through windows: a clarification of the greenhouse effect  

SciTech Connect

The various radiative, convective, and conductive components of the net heat transfer are calculated and illustrated for various infrared transparencies of covers such as would be used in architectural, greenhouse, or solar collector windows. It is shown that in the limiting cases of infrared opacity and infrared transparency the relative contributions of the three modes of heat transfer are altered, but all contribute significantly. The radiation shielding arguments pertain to the analogous greenhouse effect in the atmosphere.

Silverstein, S.D.

1976-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

138

Refractory Glass Seals for SOFC  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

One of the critical challenges facing planar solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology is the need for reliable sealing technology. Seals must exhibit long-term stability and mechanical integrity in the high temperature SOFC environment during normal and transient operation. Several different approaches for sealing SOFC stacks are under development, including glass or glass-ceramic seals, metallic brazes, and compressive seals. Among glass seals, rigid glass-ceramics, self-healing glass, and composite glass approaches have been investigated under the SECA Core Technology Program. The U.S. Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed the refractory glass approach in light of the fact that higher sealing temperatures (e.g., 930-1000 degrees C) may enhance the ultimate in-service bulk strength and electrical conductivity of contact materials, as well as the bonding strength between contact materials and adjacent SOFC components, such as interconnect coatings and electrodes. This report summarizes the thermal, chemical, mechanical, and electrical properties of the refractory sealing glass.

Chou, Y. S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

"Sergey Brin is Batman": google's project glass and the instigation of computer adoption in popular culture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The emergence of Google Glass, a prototype for a transparent Heads-Up Display available for the everyday consumer, is the first public conceptualization of a mainstream augmented-reality wearable eye display. Google's promotional material frames Glass ... Keywords: augmented reality, batman, computer adoption, computer platform, discourse analysis, humanities, popular culture, user experience, wearable eye display

Isabel Pedersen; Doug Trueman

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

N-detection under transparent-scan  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We study the quality of test sequences under a test application scheme called transparent-scan as n -detection test sequences. We obtain transparent-scan sequences from combinational test sets. We show that for the same number of clock cycles ... Keywords: n-detection test sets, scan design, test generation

Irith Pomeranz

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "glass transparent conductive" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Electronic Durability of Flexible Transparent Films from Type-Specific Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The coupling between mechanical flexibility and electronic performance is evaluated for thin films of metallic and semiconducting single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) deposited on compliant supports. Percolated networks of type-purified SWCNTs are assembled as thin conducting coatings on elastic polymer substrates, and the sheet resistance is measured as a function of compression and cyclic strain through impedance spectroscopy. The wrinkling topography, microstructure and transparency of the films are independently characterized using optical microscopy, electron microscopy, and optical absorption spectroscopy. Thin films made from metallic SWCNTs show better durability as flexible transparent conductive coatings, which we attribute to a combination of superior mechanical performance and higher interfacial conductivity.

Harris, J; Iyer, S; Bernhardt, A; Huh, JY; Hudson, S; Fagan, J; Hobbie, E.

2011-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

142

A Metal That Becomes Transparent under Pressure | Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Under Pressure, Atoms Make Unlikely Alloys Under Pressure, Atoms Make Unlikely Alloys Slowing Down Near the Glass Transition New Light on Improving Engine Efficiencies The Crystal Structure of a Meta-stable Intermediate Particle in Virus Assembly Increasing Magnetic Response of Ferromagnetic Semiconductors under High Pressure Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed A Metal That Becomes Transparent under Pressure APRIL 20, 2009 Bookmark and Share Sodium clamped in a metallic rhenium gasket between diamond anvils. The photographs were taken through a diamond anvil under combined transmitted and reflected illumination. Sodium, a white metal at pressures below 1.1 Mbar (1 Mbar = 1 million atm), turns black at 1.3 Mbar and becomes

143

Microsoft PowerPoint - IPRC_Transparent_Phongikaroon  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Experimental Studies of Oxygen Sparging in Molten Salt Through a Transparent Furnace Experimental Studies of Oxygen Sparging in Molten Salt Through a Transparent Furnace Ryan W....

144

Transparent ion trap with integrated photodetector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fluorescence collection sets the efficiency of state detection and the rate of entanglement generation between remote trapped ion qubits. Despite efforts to improve light collection using various optical elements, solid angle capture is limited to ~10% for implementations that are scalable to many ions. We present an approach based on fluorescence detection through a transparent trap using an integrated photodetector, combining collection efficiency approaching 50% with scalability. We microfabricate transparent surface traps with indium tin oxide and verify stable trapping of single ions. The fluorescence from a cloud of ions is detected using a photodiode sandwiched with a transparent trap.

Amira M. Eltony; Shannon X. Wang; Gleb M. Akselrod; Peter F. Herskind; Isaac L. Chuang

2012-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

145

Transparent ion trap with integrated photodetector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fluorescence collection sets the efficiency of state detection and the rate of entanglement generation between remote trapped ion qubits. Despite efforts to improve light collection using various optical elements, solid angle capture is limited to ~10% for implementations that are scalable to many ions. We present an approach based on fluorescence detection through a transparent trap using an integrated photodetector, combining collection efficiency approaching 50% with scalability. We microfabricate transparent surface traps with indium tin oxide and verify stable trapping of single ions. The fluorescence from a cloud of ions is detected using a photodiode sandwiched with a transparent trap.

Eltony, Amira M; Akselrod, Gleb M; Herskind, Peter F; Chuang, Isaac L

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Thermo-mechanical Properties of Na2O-TiO2-SiO2 Glasses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ion Exchanged Mixed Glass Cullet Proppants for Stimulation of Oil and Natural Gas Bearing Shales · Modeling the Electrical Conductivity in Glass Melts.

147

Hydroxyls and Glass Surface Reactivity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Field Assisted Viscous Flow and Crystallization in a Sodium Aluminosilicate Glass · Glass Ceramics ... Terahertz Properties of Lithium Iron Phosphate Glasses.

148

Scientists produce transparent, light-harvesting material  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Transparent, light-harvesting material Transparent, light-harvesting material Scientists produce transparent, light-harvesting material The material could be used in development of transparent solar panels. November 3, 2010 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma physics and new materials. Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma physics and new materials. Contact James E. Rickman Communications Office (505) 665-9203

149

SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory - Transparent Batteries...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Transparent Batteries: Seeing Straight Through to the Future? By Stanford News Service July 25, 2011 It sounds like something out of a cheesy science fiction movie, but thanks to...

150

Scientists produce transparent, light-harvesting material  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

light-harvesting material The material could be used in development of transparent solar panels. November 3, 2010 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote...

151

Transparent Consistent Replication of Java RMI Objects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Java Remote Method Invocation (JRMI) specification simplifies the development of distributed Java applications, but provides little support to guarantee reliable, highly available operation. The Aroma System is middleware that transparently enhances ...

N. Narasimhan; L. E. Moser; P. M. Melliar-Smith

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Beyond transparency : collective engagement in sustainable design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For a timely answer to the question of sustainability, or how to provide for future generations, there needs to be shared accounting of our social and physical resources. Supply chain transparency makes it possible to map ...

Bonanni, Leonardo Amerigo, 1977-

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Glass rupture disk  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A frangible rupture disk and mounting apparatus for use in blocking fluid flow, generally in a fluid conducting conduit such as a well casing, a well tubing string or other conduits within subterranean boreholes. The disk can also be utilized in above-surface pipes or tanks where temporary and controllable fluid blockage is required. The frangible rupture disk is made from a pre-stressed glass with controllable rupture properties wherein the strength distribution has a standard deviation less than approximately 5% from the mean strength. The frangible rupture disk has controllable operating pressures and rupture pressures.

Glass, S. Jill (Albuquerque, NM); Nicolaysen, Scott D. (Albuquerque, NM); Beauchamp, Edwin K. (Albuquerque, NM)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Monitoring and analyzing waste glass compositions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device and method are described for determining the viscosity of a fluid, preferably molten glass. The apparatus and method use the velocity of rising bubbles, preferably helium bubbles, within the molten glass to determine the viscosity of the molten glass. The bubbles are released from a tube positioned below the surface of the molten glass so that the bubbles pass successively between two sets of electrodes, one above the other, that are continuously monitoring the conductivity of the molten glass. The measured conductivity will change as a bubble passes between the electrodes enabling an accurate determination of when a bubble has passed between the electrodes. The velocity of rising bubbles can be determined from the time interval between a change in conductivity of the first electrode pair and the second, upper electrode pair. The velocity of the rise of the bubbles in the glass melt is used in conjunction with other physical characteristics, obtained by known methods, to determine the viscosity of the glass melt fluid and, hence, glass quality. 2 figures.

Schumacher, R.F.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Monitoring and analyzing waste glass compositions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device and method for determining the viscosity of a fluid, preferably molten glass. The apparatus and method uses the velocity of rising bubbles, preferably helium bubbles, within the molten glass to determine the viscosity of the molten glass. The bubbles are released from a tube positioned below the surface of the molten glass so that the bubbles pass successively between two sets of electrodes, one above the other, that are continuously monitoring the conductivity of the molten glass. The measured conductivity will change as a bubble passes between the electrodes enabling an accurate determination of when a bubble has passed between the electrodes. The velocity of rising bubbles can be determined from the time interval between a change in conductivity of the first electrode pair and the second, upper electrode pair. The velocity of the rise of the bubbles in the glass melt is used in conjunction with other physical characteristics, obtained by known methods, to determine the viscosity of the glass melt fluid and, hence, glass quality.

Schumacher, Ray F. (Aiken, SC)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Metallic Glass II  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aug 8, 2013 ... Application of Metallic Glass for High Performance Si Solar Cell: ... of the metallic glasses during heating is dependent on the thermal stability of ...

157

DOE Glass Publications Portal  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

coated glass products. The Glass IOF is sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE) Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) which...

158

Bulk Metallic Glasses IX  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... of elements to form metallic-glass alloys] have resulted in the required cooling rate ... Bauschinger Effect in Metallic Glass Nanowires under Cyclic Loading.

159

Bulk Metallic Glasses XI  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jul 15, 2013 ... A Bulk Metallic Glass with Record-breaking Damage Tolerance ... Oxidation on the Surface Characteristics of Zr-based Bulk Metallic Glasses.

160

Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of these highly conducting and transparent electrodes in flexible, stretchable, foldable electronics8,9 . Graphene growth provides high-quality multilayer graphene samples interacting strongly with their substrates method to grow and transfer high-quality stretchable graphene films on a large scale using CVD on nickel

Kim, Philip

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "glass transparent conductive" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Fabrication of transparent ceramics using nanoparticles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of fabrication of a transparent ceramic using nanoparticles synthesized via organic acid complexation-combustion includes providing metal salts, dissolving said metal salts to produce an aqueous salt solution, adding an organic chelating agent to produce a complexed-metal sol, heating said complexed-metal sol to produce a gel, drying said gel to produce a powder, combusting said powder to produce nano-particles, calcining said nano-particles to produce oxide nano-particles, forming said oxide nano-particles into a green body, and sintering said green body to produce the transparent ceramic.

Cherepy, Nerine J; Tillotson, Thomas M; Kuntz, Joshua D; Payne, Stephen A

2012-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

162

Glass Cookware Safety  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Glass Cookware Safety Glass Cookware Safety Under the wrong conditions, glass cookware can crack, break or shatter. Glass cookware is tempered (heat resistant). However, there are many steps to follow to ensure safe use of glass cookware. Glass Cookware Steps: If the steps are not followed, glass cookware can shatter unexpectedly. shatters, (it looks as if it has exploded) If glass bakeware is chipped, cracked, or scratched, it's time for it to be retired from service. It is more likely to shatter! Don't take glass bakeware directly from the freezer to the oven, or vice versa. Allow the oven to fully preheat before putting glassware inside. Don't add liquid to glassware that is already hot. Cover the bottom of glass bakeware with liquid before cooking meat or vegetables.

163

Heat Conduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 2   Differential equations for heat conduction in solids...conduction in solids General form with variable thermal properties General form with constant thermal properties General form, constant properties, without heat

164

Process for forming transparent aerogel insulating arrays  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved supercritical drying process for forming transparent silica aerogel arrays is described. The process is of the type utilizing the steps of hydrolyzing and condensing aloxides to form alcogels. A subsequent step removes the alcohol to form aerogels. The improvement includes the additional step, after alcogels are formed, of substituting a solvent, such as CO/sub 2/, for the alcohol in the alcogels, the solvent having a critical temperature less than the critical temperature of the alcohol. The resulting gels are dried at a supercritical temperature for the selected solvent, such as CO/sub 2/, to thereby provide a transparent aerogel array within a substantially reduced (days-to-hours) time period. The supercritical drying occurs at about 40/sup 0/C instead of at about 270/sup 0/C. The improved process provides increased yields of large scale, structurally sound arrays. The transparent aerogel array, formed in sheets or slabs, as made in accordance with the improved process, can replace the air gap within a double glazed window, for example, to provide a substantial reduction in heat transfer. The thus formed transparent aerogel arrays may also be utilized, for example, in windows of refrigerators and ovens, or in the walls and doors thereof or as the active material in detectors for analyzing high energy elementary particles or cosmic rays.

Tewari, P.H.; Hunt, A.J.

1985-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

165

Transparent lithium-ion batteries , Sangmoo Jeongb  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Transparent lithium-ion batteries Yuan Yanga , Sangmoo Jeongb , Liangbing Hua , Hui Wua , Seok Woo in capillaries. Adv Mater 8:245­247. 24. Kim DK, et al. (2008) Spinel LiMn2O4 nanorods as lithium ion battery voltage window. For example, LiCoO2 and graphite, the most common cathode and anode in Li-ion batteries

Cui, Yi

166

Process for forming transparent aerogel insulating arrays  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved supercritical drying process for forming transparent silica aerogel arrays is described. The process is of the type utilizing the steps of hydrolyzing and condensing aloxides to form alcogels. A subsequent step removes the alcohol to form aerogels. The improvement includes the additional step, after alcogels are formed, of substituting a solvent, such as CO.sub.2, for the alcohol in the alcogels, the solvent having a critical temperature less than the critical temperature of the alcohol. The resulting gels are dried at a supercritical temperature for the selected solvent, such as CO.sub.2, to thereby provide a transparent aerogel array within a substantially reduced (days-to-hours) time period. The supercritical drying occurs at about 40.degree. C. instead of at about 270.degree. C. The improved process provides increased yields of large scale, structurally sound arrays. The transparent aerogel array, formed in sheets or slabs, as made in accordance with the improved process, can replace the air gap within a double glazed window, for example, to provide a substantial reduction in heat transfer. The thus formed transparent aerogel arrays may also be utilized, for example, in windows of refrigerators and ovens, or in the walls and doors thereof or as the active material in detectors for analyzing high energy elementry particles or cosmic rays.

Tewari, Param H. (Milpitas, CA); Hunt, Arlon J. (Oakland, CA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Overview of Russian HEU transparency issues  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. has signed an agreement with the Russian Federation for the purchase of 500 metric tons of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) taken from dismantled nuclear weapons. The HEU will be blended down to low-enriched uranium and will be transported to the U.S. to be used by fuel fabricators to make fuel for commercial nuclear power plants. Both the U.S. and Russia have been preparing to institute transparency measures to provide assurance that nonproliferation and arms control objectives specified in the agreement are met. This paper provides background information on the original agreement and on subsequent negotiations with the Russians, as well as discussion of technical aspects of developing transparency measures suited to the facilities and processes which are expected to be involved. Transparency has been defined as those agreed-upon measures which build confidence that arms control and non-proliferation objectives shared by the parties are met. Transparency is a departure from exhaustive, detailed arms control verification regimes of past agreements, which were based on a presumption of detecting transgressions as opposed to confirming compliance.

Kempf, C.R. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Bieniawski, A. [USDOE Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation, Washington, DC (United States)

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Transparency in complex dynamic food supply chains  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Food supply chains are increasingly complex and dynamic due to (i) increasing product proliferation to serve ever diversifying and globalising markets as a form of mass customisation with resulting global flows of raw materials, ingredients and products, ... Keywords: Consumer and governmental demands, Food supply chain, Governance, Information systems, Quality and safety standards, Transparency

J. H. Trienekens; P. M. Wognum; A. J. M. Beulens; J. G. A. J. van der Vorst

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Glass for low-cost photovoltaic solar arrays  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In photovoltaic systems, the encapsulant material that protects the solar cells should be highly transparent and very durable. Glass satisfies these two criteria and is considered a primary candidate for low-cost, photovoltaic encapsulation systems. In this report, various aspects of glass encapsulation are treated that are important for the designer of photovoltaic systems. Candidate glasses and available information defining the state of the art of glass encapsulation materials and processes for automated, high volume production of terrestrial photovoltaic devices and related applications are presented. The criteria for consideration of the glass encapsulation systems were based on the LSA (Low-cost Solar Array) Project goals for arrays: (a) a low degradation rate, (b) high reliability, (c) an efficiency greater than 10 percent, (d) a total array price less than $500/kW, and (e) a production capacity of 5 x 10/sup 5/ kW/yr. The glass design areas treated herein include the types of glass, sources and costs, physical properties and glass modifications, such as antireflection coatings. 78 references.

Bouquet, F.L.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Transparent selective illumination means suitable for use in optically activated electrical switches and optically activated electrical switches constructed using same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A planar transparent light conducting means and an improved optically activated electrical switch made using the novel light conducting means are disclosed. The light conducting means further comprise light scattering means on one or more opposite planar surfaces thereof to transmit light from the light conducting means into adjacent media and reflective means on other surfaces of the light conducting means not containing the light scattering means. The optically activated electrical switch comprises at least two stacked photoconductive wafers, each having electrodes formed on both surfaces thereof, and separated by the planar transparent light conducting means. The light scattering means on the light conducting means face surfaces of the wafers not covered by the electrodes to transmit light from the light conducting means into the photoconductive wafers to uniformly illuminate and activate the switch.

Wilcox, Russell B. (Oakland, CA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Soap Manufacturing TechnologyChapter 6 Transparent and Translucent Soaps  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Soap Manufacturing Technology Chapter 6 Transparent and Translucent Soaps Surfactants and Detergents eChapters Surfactants - Detergents Press Downloadable pdf of\tChapter 6 Transparent and Translucent Soaps from ...

172

PLUTONIUM SOLUBILITY IN HIGH-LEVEL WASTE ALKALI BOROSILICATE GLASS  

SciTech Connect

The solubility of plutonium in a Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) reference glass and the effect of incorporation of Pu in the glass on specific glass properties were evaluated. A Pu loading of 1 wt % in glass was studied. Prior to actual plutonium glass testing, surrogate testing (using Hf as a surrogate for Pu) was conducted to evaluate the homogeneity of significant quantities of Hf (Pu) in the glass, determine the most appropriate methods to evaluate homogeneity for Pu glass testing, and to evaluate the impact of Hf loading in the glass on select glass properties. Surrogate testing was conducted using Hf to represent between 0 and 1 wt % Pu in glass on an equivalent molar basis. A Pu loading of 1 wt % in glass translated to {approx}18 kg Pu per Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister, or about 10X the current allowed limit per the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (2500 g/m{sup 3} of glass or about 1700 g/canister) and about 30X the current allowable concentration based on the fissile material concentration limit referenced in the Yucca Mountain Project License Application (897 g/m{sup 3}3 of glass or about 600 g Pu/canister). Based on historical process throughput data, this level was considered to represent a reasonable upper bound for Pu loading based on the ability to provide Pu containing feed to the DWPF. The task elements included evaluating the distribution of Pu in the glass (e.g. homogeneity), evaluating crystallization within the glass, evaluating select glass properties (with surrogates), and evaluating durability using the Product Consistency Test -- Method A (PCT-A). The behavior of Pu in the melter was evaluated using paper studies and corresponding analyses of DWPF melter pour samples.The results of the testing indicated that at 1 wt % Pu in the glass, the Pu was homogeneously distributed and did not result in any formation of plutonium-containing crystalline phases as long as the glass was prepared under 'well-mixed' conditions. The incorporation of 1 wt % Pu in the glass did not adversely impact glass viscosity (as assessed using Hf surrogate) or glass durability. Finally, evaluation of DWPF glass pour samples that had Pu concentrations below the 897 g/m{sup 3} limit showed that Pu concentrations in the glass pour stream were close to targeted compositions in the melter feed indicating that Pu neither volatilized from the melt nor stratified in the melter when processed in the DWPF melter.

Marra, J.; Crawford, C.; Fox, K.; Bibler, N.

2011-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

173

Glass Working, Use and Discard  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the glass object, be it glass block or glass vessel. Thisglass would have been reheated and cast, probably into blocks

Nicholson, Paul

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

CNM Highlight: Quantum Dot-Induced Transparency  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Quantum Dot-Induced Transparency Quantum Dot-Induced Transparency Using rigorous and realistic numerical simulations, staff in the Nanophotonics and Theory and Modeling groups have recently demonstrated that a single semiconductor nanocrystal, or quantum dot, can cancel the scattering and absorption by a much larger metal nanostructure. Placing a quantum dot near a metal is known to strongly modify the rate at which the dot emits light. If the interaction between the dot and the metal is strong enough, scattering and absorption by the metal can be nearly eliminated at the quantum-dot resonance frequency, according to the simulations. This occurs even though the dot by itself simply absorbs light, and even though this absorption is nearly 100,000 times smaller than absorption by the metal nanostructure.

175

DRAFT Glass.indd  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

FAST FACTS FAST FACTS Glass technology provides a versatile method for safely managing a variety of wastes SRNL has studied the behavior in glass of nearly every element in the Periodic Table Overview Converting waste materials into a stable glass form is a highly effective way of treating and disposing of many types of waste, including some hazardous and radioactive wastes. Vitrifi cation - the immobilization of a material in glass - is

176

Analysis of Glass Breakage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Analysis of a Bucketwheel Stacker Reclaimer Structural Failure · Analysis of Glass Breakage · Analysis of Sealed, Integrated, Automotive Wheel Bearings.

177

Promoting NEPA Transparency and Public Engagement | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Promoting NEPA Transparency and Public Engagement Promoting NEPA Transparency and Public Engagement Promoting NEPA Transparency and Public Engagement June 3, 2011 - 1:14pm Addthis "NEPA is, at its core, a transparency statute," said Katie Scharf, Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) Deputy General Counsel, in opening a panel discussion on using information technology to support open government initiatives, engage the public, and add value to NEPA analysis. At the March 9, 2011, event - hosted by CEQ for Federal NEPA and legal staff - speakers promoted the benefits of enhancing transparency and offered practical implementation advice. Ms. Scharf asked the speakers to address why transparency is essential to the NEPA process and describe innovative approaches and achievements. NEPA's value, especially with regard to EISs, is based on transparency,

178

Assessing Transparency in Small Arms Exports: The Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer WEAPONS & MARKETS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Two main factors continue to hamper our understanding of international small arms and light weapons transfers: states ’ limited transparency and inadequate reporting practices. The July 2012 negotiations on an Arms Trade Treaty—during which states failed to approve the anticipated instrument— illustrated just how difficult it is to reach agreement on binding standards in both areas. This Research Note focuses on the Small Arms Trade Transparency Barometer. Introduced in the Small Arms Survey 2004, the annual Barometer is designed to encourage individual states to make public information about their transfers of small arms and light weapons, 1 their parts, accessories, and ammunition. 2 While the Transparency Barometer does not independently verify the accuracy of provided information, it evaluates the data and assesses changes in states ’ transparency over time. It relies on guidelines to evaluate the quantity, detail, and usefulness of the data, thereby promoting best practices. Each set of requirements contained in these categories has been fulfilled by at least one state, meaning that states can fulfil all the criteria set out in the Transparency Barometer guidelines.

unknown authors

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Using sputter coated glass to stabilize microstrip gas chambers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

By sputter coating a thin-layer of low-resistive, electronically-conductive glass on various substrates (including quartz and ceramics, thin-film Pestov glass), microstrip gas chambers (MSGC) of high gain stability, low leakage current, and a high rate capability can be fabricated. This design can make the choice of substrate less important, save the cost of ion-implantation, and use less glass material.

Gong, Wen G. (Albany, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Method of forming crystalline silicon devices on glass  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for fabricating single-crystal silicon microelectronic components on a silicon substrate and transferring same to a glass substrate. This is achieved by utilizing conventional silicon processing techniques for fabricating components of electronic circuits and devices on bulk silicon, wherein a bulk silicon surface is prepared with epitaxial layers prior to the conventional processing. The silicon substrate is bonded to a glass substrate and the bulk silicon is removed leaving the components intact on the glass substrate surface. Subsequent standard processing completes the device and circuit manufacturing. This invention is useful in applications requiring a transparent or insulating substrate, particularly for display manufacturing. Other applications include sensors, actuators, optoelectronics, radiation hard electronics, and high temperature electronics.

McCarthy, Anthony M. (Menlo Park, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "glass transparent conductive" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Transparent p-ZnO by oxidation of Zn-based compounds  

SciTech Connect

We report on the fabrication of ZnO:N by thermal oxidation of Zn-based compounds. In particular, we achieved p-type conductivity with carrier concentration in mid 1017 cm-3 range and mobility of {approx}10 cm2/Vs using sputter-deposited zinc nitride as starting material. The transmittance of p-ZnO:N in the whole visible spectrum is 70-80% making it very interesting for transparent electronics.

Kaminska, E.; Piotrowska, A.; Kowalczyk, E. [Institute of Electron Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Kossut, J. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); ERATO Semiconductor Spintronics (Poland); Przezdziecka, E.; Dobrowolski, W.; Dynowska, E.; Butkute, R.; Jakiela, R.; Aleszkiewicz, M.; Janik, E. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Barcz, A. [Institute of Electron Technology, Warsaw, (Poland); Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland)

2005-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

182

Transparent building-integrated PV modules. Phase 1: Comprehensive report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This Comprehensive Report encompasses the activities that have been undertaken by Kiss + Cathcart, Architects, in conjunction with Energy Photovoltaics, Incorporated (EPV), to develop a flexible patterning system for thin-film photovoltaic (PV) modules for building applications. There are two basic methods for increasing transparency/light transmission by means of patterning the PV film: widening existing scribe lines, or scribing a second series of lines perpendicular to the first. These methods can yield essentially any degree of light transmission, but both result in visible patterns of light and dark on the panel surface. A third proposed method is to burn a grid of dots through the films, independent of the normal cell scribing. This method has the potential to produce a light-transmitting panel with no visible pattern. Ornamental patterns at larger scales can be created using combinations of these techniques. Kiss + Cathcart, Architects, in conjunction with EPV are currently developing a complementary process for the large-scale lamination of thin-film PVs, which enables building integrated (BIPV) modules to be produced in sizes up to 48 in. x 96 in. Flexible laser patterning will be used for three main purposes, all intended to broaden the appeal of the product to the building sector: To create semitransparent thin-film modules for skylights, and in some applications, for vision glazing.; to create patterns for ornamental effects. This application is similar to fritted glass, which is used for shading, visual screening, graphics, and other purposes; and to allow BIPV modules to be fabricated in various sizes and shapes with maximum control over electrical characteristics.

NONE

1998-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

183

GRADIENT INDEX SPHERES BY THE SEQUENTIAL ACCRETION OF GLASS POWDERS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Department of Energy is seeking a method for fabricating mm-scale spheres having a refractive index that varies smoothly and continuously from the center to its surface [1]. The fabrication procedure must allow the creation of a range of index profiles. The spheres are to be optically transparent and have a refractive index differential greater than 0.2. The sphere materials can be either organic or inorganic and the fabrication technique must be capable of scaling to low cost production. Mo-Sci Corporation proposed to develop optical quality gradient refractive index (GRIN) glass spheres of millimeter scale (1 to 2 mm diameter) by the sequential accretion and consolidation of glass powders. Other techniques were also tested to make GRIN spheres as the powder-accretion method produced non-concentric layers and poor optical quality glass spheres. Potential ways to make the GRIN spheres were (1) by "coating" glass spheres (1 to 2 mm diameter) with molten glass in a two step process; and (2) by coating glass spheres with polymer layers.

MARIANO VELEZ

2008-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

184

Deformation and Void Structure in Glass  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Field Assisted Viscous Flow and Crystallization in a Sodium Aluminosilicate Glass · Glass Ceramics ... Terahertz Properties of Lithium Iron Phosphate Glasses.

185

Conductive Polymers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Electroluminescent devices such as light-emitting diodes (LED) and high-energy density batteries. These new polymers offer cost savings, weight reduction, ease of processing, and inherent rugged design compared to conventional semiconductor materials. The photovoltaic industry has grown more than 30% during the past three years. Lightweight, flexible solar modules are being used by the U.S. Army and Marine Corps for field power units. LEDs historically used for indicator lights are now being investigated for general lighting to replace fluorescent and incandescent lights. These so-called solid-state lights are becoming more prevalent across the country since they produce efficient lighting with little heat generation. Conductive polymers are being sought for battery development as well. Considerable weight savings over conventional cathode materials used in secondary storage batteries make portable devices easier to carry and electric cars more efficient and nimble. Secondary battery sales represent an $8 billion industry annually. The purpose of the project was to synthesize and characterize conductive polymers. TRACE Photonics Inc. has researched critical issues which affect conductivity. Much of their work has focused on production of substituted poly(phenylenevinylene) compounds. These compounds exhibit greater solubility over the parent polyphenylenevinylene, making them easier to process. Alkoxy substituted groups evaluated during this study included: methoxy, propoxy, and heptyloxy. Synthesis routes for production of alkoxy-substituted poly phenylenevinylene were developed. Considerable emphasis was placed on final product yield and purity.

Bohnert, G.W.

2002-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

186

Method for making glass  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is discussed for making better quality molten borosilicate glass in a glass melter, the glass having the desired viscosity and, preferably, also the desired resistivity so that the glass melt can be established effectively and the product of the glass melter will have the desired level of quality. The method includes the adjustment of the composition of the glass constituents that are fed into the melter in accordance with certain correlations that reliably predict the viscosity and resistivity from the melter temperature and the melt composition, then heating the ingredients to the melter's operating temperature until they melt and homogenize. The equations include the calculation of a non-bridging oxygen'' term from the numbers of moles of the various ingredients, and then the determination of the viscosity and resistivity from the operating temperature of the melter and the non-bridging oxygen term.

Jantzen, C.M.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

High Aspect Ratio Metallic Structures for Use as Transparent ...  

Metallic structures that can be used as transparent electrodes or to enhance the performance of solar ... more energy efficient ... indium tin oxide ...

188

Femtosecond laser processing of photovoltaic and transparent materials.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The photovoltaic semiconducting and transparent dielectric materials are of high interest in current industry. Femtosecond laser processing can be an effective technique to fabricate such… (more)

Ahn, Sanghoon

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Novel Synthesis and Processing Methods Enable Flexible, Transparent...  

Office of Science (SC) Website

Novel Synthesis and Processing Methods Enable Flexible, Transparent and Cheaper Solar Cells University of Illinois-Urbana Champaign Team's Research Funded by Office of...

190

DOE Policy on NEPA Process Transparency and Openness | Department...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

in Appendix B of the Department's NEPA implementing procedures, 10 C.F.R. Part 1021. DOE Policy on NEPA Process Transparency and Openness More Documents & Publications NEPA...

191

Graphene-CNT Hybrid Structure Based Transparent and Flexible ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present here our recent research efforts in developing all-graphene based cathode and anode structures as flexible and transparent field emission device.

192

GlassMelt&Sealing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Glass Melting and Sealing Glass Melting and Sealing Manufacturing Technologies The Manufacturing Science & Technology Center performs process development of glass and glass-ceramic-to-metal seals. Small batches of specialty glass can be melted from reagent grade oxide powders. Glass and glass-ceramic-to-metal seals are made in microprocessor controlled inert atmospheres and are checked for her- meticity after sealing. Sandia's extensive properties database of low melting solder glasses is used to aid in material and processing decisions when making glass-to-glass, ceramic-to-ceramic, and glass-to-ceramic seals. These seals are typically done in air at much lower tem- peratures than glass and glass-to-ceramic seals. Capabilities * Interface with designers and vendors to assure that the most appropriate materi-

193

About - Glass Publications Portal  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

from the repository at OSTI. The Glass Publications Portal is sponsored by the DOE Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Industrial Technologies Program. In...

194

TRANSPARENCY: Tracking Uranium under the U.S. / Russian HEU Purchase Agreement  

SciTech Connect

By the end of August, 2005, the Russia Federation delivered to the United States (U.S.) more than 7,000 metric tons (MT) of low enriched uranium (LEU) containing approximately 46 million SWU and 75,000 MT of natural uranium. This uranium was blended down from weapons-grade (nominally enriched to 90% {sup 235}U) highly enriched uranium (HEU) under the 1993 HEU Purchase Agreement that provides for the blend down of 500 MT HEU into LEU for use as fuel in commercial nuclear reactors. The HEU Transparency Program, under the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), monitored the conversion and blending of the more than 250 MT HEU used to produce this LEU. The HEU represents more than half of the 500 MT HEU scheduled to be blended down through the year 2013 and is equivalent to the elimination of more than 10,000 nuclear devices. The HEU Transparency Program has made considerable progress in its mission to develop and implement transparency measures necessary to assure that Russian HEU extracted from dismantled Russian nuclear weapons is blended down into LEU for delivery to the United States. U.S. monitor observations include the inventory of in process containers, observation of plant operations, nondestructive assay measurements to determine {sup 235}U enrichment, as well as the examination of Material Control and Accountability (MC&A) documents. During 2005, HEU Transparency Program personnel will conduct 24 Special Monitoring Visits (SMVs) to four Russian uranium processing plants, in addition to staffing a Transparency Monitoring Office (TMO) at one Russian site.

Benton, J B; Decman, D J; Leich, D A

2005-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

195

High-Intensity Plasma Glass Melter Final Technical Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the energy efficiency and reduced emissions that can be obtained with a dual torch DC plasma transferred arc-melting system. Plasmelt Glass Technologies, LLC was formed to solicit and execute the project, which utilize a full-scale test melter system. The system is similar to the one that was originally constructed by Johns Manville, but Plasmelt has added significant improvements to the torch design and melter system that has extended the original JM short torch lives. The original JM design has been shown to achieve melt rates 5 to 10 times faster than conventional gas or electric melting, with improved energy efficiency and reduced emissions. This project began on 7/28/2003 and ended 7/27/06. A laboratory scale melter was designed, constructed, and operated to conduct multiple experimental melting trials on various glass compositions. Glass quality was assessed. Although the melter design is generic and equally applicable to all sectors within the glass industry, the development of this melter has focused primarily on fiberglass with additional exploratory melting trials of frits, specialty, and minerals-melting applications. Throughput, energy efficiency, and glass quality have been shown to be heavily dependent on the selected glass composition. During this project, Plasmelt completed the proof-of-concept work in our Boulder, CO Lab to show the technical feasibility of this transferred-arc plasma melter. Late in the project, the work was focused on developing the processes and evaluating the economic viability of plasma melting aimed at the specific glasses of interest to specific client companies. Post project work is on going with client companies to address broader non-glass materials such as refractories and industrial minerals. Exploratory melting trials have been conducted on several glasses of commercial interest including: C-glass, E-glass, S-Glass, AR-Glass, B-glass, Lighting Glass, NE-Glass, and various frits. Exploratory melts of non-glassy materials, such as wollastonite, zirconium silicate, and alumino-silicate melts were successfully done indicating that plasma melting has potential application beyond glass. Experimental results were generated that show the high quality of plasma-melted fiberglass compositions, such as E-glass, can result in good fiberizing performance. Fiberizing performance and tensile strength data were achieved during the project to support this conclusion. High seed counts are a feature of the current lab scale melter and must be dealt with via other means, since fining work was outside the scope of this project.

Gonterman, J. Ronald; Weinstein, Michael A.

2006-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

196

Gravitational Lensing Characteristics of the Transparent Sun  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The transparent Sun is modeled as a spherically symmetric and centrally condensed gravitational lens using recent Standard Solar Model (SSM) data. The Sun's minimum focal length is computed to a refined accuracy of 23.5 +/- 0.1 AU, just beyond the orbit of Uranus. The Sun creates a single image of a distant point source visible to observers inside this minimum focal length and to observers sufficiently removed from the line connecting the source through the Sun's center. Regions of space are mapped where three images of a distant point source are created, along with their associated magnifications. Solar caustics, critical curves, and Einstein rings are computed and discussed. Extremely high gravitational lens magnifications exist for observers situated so that an angularly small, unlensed source appears near a three-image caustic. Types of radiations that might undergo significant solar lens magnifications as they can traverse the core of the Sun, including neutrinos and gravitational radiation, are discussed.

Bijunath Patla; Robert J. Nemiroff

2007-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

197

Gravitational Lensing Characteristics of the Transparent Sun  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The transparent Sun is modeled as a spherically symmetric and centrally condensed gravitational lens using recent Standard Solar Model (SSM) data. The Sun's minimum focal length is computed to a refined accuracy of 23.5 +/- 0.1 AU, just beyond the orbit of Uranus. The Sun creates a single image of a distant point source visible to observers inside this minimum focal length and to observers sufficiently removed from the line connecting the source through the Sun's center. Regions of space are mapped where three images of a distant point source are created, along with their associated magnifications. Solar caustics, critical curves, and Einstein rings are computed and discussed. Extremely high gravitational lens magnifications exist for observers situated so that an angularly small, unlensed source appears near a three-image caustic. Types of radiations that might undergo significant solar lens magnifications as they can traverse the core of the Sun, including neutrinos and gravitational radiation, are discusse...

Patla, Bijunath

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Modelling of heat transfer at glass/mould interface in press and blow forming processes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Numerical models may play an important role in the optimization of the quality of hollow-ware glass articles in glass industry. Due to the complexity of the phenomena involved a coupling between thermal and mechanical aspects is crucial. One of the key ... Keywords: Finite elements, Glass forming, Heat conduction, Heat transfer coefficient, Interface element, Press/blow process

Sébastien Grégoire; José M. A. César de Sá; Philippe Moreau; Dominique Lochegnies

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Graded Bioactive Glass and Glass/Ceramic Coatings for ...  

For Industry; For Researchers; Success Stories; About Us; Available Technologies. ... Graded Bioactive Glass and Glass/Ceramic Coatings for Metal Bone ...

200

Importance of glass and brass  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The importance of scientific instruments in the scientific revolution, especially brass and glass. Precise lenses and lens grinding, glass vessels for chemical experiments, the advances in astronomy, microscopy and many other areas due to glass...

Dugan, David

2004-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "glass transparent conductive" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Glass and glass-derivative seals for use in energy-efficient fuel cells and lamps  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

For solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), a series of 18 sealing glasses have been prepared and characterized. From the whole design space, several glasses were ''downselected'' and studied in detail to describe their behaviors in simulated fuel cell environments. One of the glasses was found to outperform all others, including the well-known G18 sealant developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The new glass composition showed lower bulk electrical conductivity, excellent sealing and wetting behavior when sealing under applied load, and qualitatively superior performance when exposed to wet hydrogen for 800 hours. Traditional melting was used to prepare all of the glasses that were studied in detail. The sol-gel approach was used to synthesize several compositions, but it was found that the glasses crystallized very rapidly during heating, precluding sealing. The glass characterization included measurements of the viscosity and thermal expansion of the glasses, as well as the thermal expansion of the partly crystalline glass ceramics. In addition, the wetting and sintering behavior of all glasses has been measured, as well as the crystallization behavior. The time and temperature at which crystalline phases form from the glasses has been determined for all of the glasses. Each glass ceramic contains at least two crystalline phases, and most of the crystalline phases have been positively identified. The body of fundamental data provides a platform for future developments for high temperature sealants, and the newly-developed glass compositions appear promising for large-scale testing. The second component of the work, focused on seals for higher-temperature discharge lighting, has focused on determining the phase relations in the yttria-alumina-silica system at various silica levels. Functional testing of one of the candidate sealants demonstrated that it performs well in current HID lighting applications. Further testing is required to evaluate its performance in next-generation lamps that operate at higher temperatures, but the baseline phase equilibria and crystallization behavior has been established for additional development. Again, traditional melting and sol-gel synthesis have been employed, and the sol-gel method was successful for preparing new phases that were discovered during the work. Four new phases have been identified and synthesized in pure form, from which full structure solutions were obtained as well as the anisotropic thermal expansion for each phase.

Scott Misture; Arun Varshineya; Matthew Hall; Sylvia DeCarr; Steve Bancheri

2005-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

202

Melter Glass Removal and Dismantlement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has been using vitrification processes to convert high-level radioactive waste forms into a stable glass for disposal in waste repositories. Vitrification facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) are converting liquid high-level waste (HLW) by combining it with a glass-forming media to form a borosilicate glass, which will ensure safe long-term storage. Large, slurry fed melters, which are used for this process, were anticipated to have a finite life (on the order of two to three years) at which time they would have to be replaced using remote methods because of the high radiation fields. In actuality the melters useable life spans have, to date, exceeded original life-span estimates. Initial plans called for the removal of failed melters by placing the melter assembly into a container and storing the assembly in a concrete vault on the vitrification plant site pending size-reduction, segregation, containerization, and shipment to appropriate storage facilities. Separate facilities for the processing of the failed melters currently do not exist. Options for handling these melters include (1) locating a facility to conduct the size-reduction, characterization, and containerization as originally planned; (2) long-term storing or disposing of the complete melter assembly; and (3) attempting to refurbish the melter and to reuse the melter assembly. The focus of this report is to look at methods and issues pertinent to size-reduction and/or melter refurbishment in particular, removing the glass as a part of a refurbishment or to reduce contamination levels (thus allowing for disposal of a greater proportion of the melter as low level waste).

Richardson, BS

2000-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

203

A Nested Approach to REDD+: Structuring Effective and Transparent Incentive  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

A Nested Approach to REDD+: Structuring Effective and Transparent Incentive A Nested Approach to REDD+: Structuring Effective and Transparent Incentive Mechanisms for REDD+ Implementation at Multiple Scales Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: A Nested Approach to REDD+: Structuring Effective and Transparent Incentive Mechanisms for REDD+ Implementation at Multiple Scales Agency/Company /Organization: Forest Carbon Portal Sector: Land Focus Area: Forestry Topics: Implementation, Policies/deployment programs Resource Type: Lessons learned/best practices Website: www.forestcarbonportal.com/resource/nested-approach-redd-structuring-e A Nested Approach to REDD+: Structuring Effective and Transparent Incentive Mechanisms for REDD+ Implementation at Multiple Scales Screenshot References: A Nested Approach to REDD+: Structuring Effective and Transparent Incentive Mechanisms for REDD+ Implementation at Multiple Scales[1]

204

MST: Organizations: Ceramic and Glass  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

formation and machining, to complete component fabrication and testing. Our Mission Our ceramic, glass, and glass-ceramic products meet customer needs in defense, energy,...

205

Expanded High-Level Waste Glass Property Data Development: Phase I  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two separate test matrices were developed as part if the EM-21 Glass Matrix Crucible Testing. The first matrix, developed using a single component-at-a-time design method and covering glasses of interest primarily to Hanford, is addressed in this data package. This data package includes methods and results from glass fabrication, chemical analysis of glass compositions, viscosity, electrical conductivity, liquidus temperature, canister centerline cooling, product consistency testing, and the toxicity characteristic leach procedure.

Schweiger, Michael J.; Riley, Brian J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Hrma, Pavel R.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Arrigoni, Benjamin M.; Lang, Jesse B.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Vienna, John D.; Raszewski, F. C.; Peeler, David K.; Edwards, Tommy B.; Best, D. R.; Reamer, Irene A.; Riley, W. T.; Simmons, P. T.; Workman, R. J.

2011-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

206

Tunable Infrared Absorption and Visible Transparency of ...  

parent conducting oxide (TCO), indium tin oxide (ITO).1 At ... and dye-sensitized solar cells, ... energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy ...

207

Verification and transparency in future arms control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Verification`s importance has changed dramatically over time, although it always has been in the forefront of arms control. The goals and measures of verification and the criteria for success have changed with the times as well, reflecting such factors as the centrality of the prospective agreement to East-West relations during the Cold War, the state of relations between the United States and the Soviet Union, and the technologies available for monitoring. Verification`s role may be declining in the post-Cold War period. The prospects for such a development will depend, first and foremost, on the high costs of traditional arms control, especially those associated with requirements for verification. Moreover, the growing interest in informal, or non-negotiated arms control does not allow for verification provisions by the very nature of these arrangements. Multilateral agreements are also becoming more prominent and argue against highly effective verification measures, in part because of fears of promoting proliferation by opening sensitive facilities to inspectors from potential proliferant states. As a result, it is likely that transparency and confidence-building measures will achieve greater prominence, both as supplements to and substitutes for traditional verification. Such measures are not panaceas and do not offer all that we came to expect from verification during the Cold war. But they may be the best possible means to deal with current problems of arms reductions and restraints at acceptable levels of expenditure.

Pilat, J.F.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Improving the Transparency of IAEA Safeguards Reporting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In 2008, the Standing Advisory Group on Safeguards Implementation (SAGSI) indicated that the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) Safeguards Implementation Report (SIR) has not kept pace with the evolution of safeguards and provided the IAEA with a set of recommendations for improvement. The SIR is the primary mechanism for providing an overview of safeguards implementation in a given year and reporting on the annual safeguards findings and conclusions drawn by the Secretariat. As the IAEA transitions to State-level safeguards approaches, SIR reporting must adapt to reflect these evolutionary changes. This evolved report will better reflect the IAEA's transition to a more qualitative and information-driven approach, based upon State-as-a-whole considerations. This paper applies SAGSI's recommendations to the development of multiple models for an evolved SIR and finds that an SIR repurposed as a 'safeguards portal' could significantly enhance information delivery, clarity, and transparency. In addition, this paper finds that the 'portal concept' also appears to have value as a standardized information presentation and analysis platform for use by Country Officers, for continuity of knowledge purposes, and the IAEA Secretariat in the safeguards conclusion process. Accompanying this paper is a fully functional prototype of the 'portal' concept, built using commercial software and IAEA Annual Report data.

Toomey, Christopher; Hayman, Aaron M.; Wyse, Evan T.; Odlaug, Christopher S.

2011-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

209

Disposition of actinides released from high-level waste glass  

SciTech Connect

A series of static leach tests was conducted using glasses developed for vitrifying tank wastes at the Savannah River Site to monitor the disposition of actinide elements upon corrosion of the glasses. In these tests, glasses produced from SRL 131 and SRL 202 frits were corroded at 90{degrees}C in a tuff groundwater. Tests were conducted using crushed glass at different glass surface area-to-solution volume (S/V) ratios to assess the effect of the S/V on the solution chemistry, the corrosion of the glass, and the disposition of actinide elements. Observations regarding the effects of the S/V on the solution chemistry and the corrosion of the glass matrix have been reported previously. This paper highlights the solution analyses performed to assess how the S/V used in a static leach test affects the disposition of actinide elements between fractions that are suspended or dissolved in the solution, and retained by the altered glass or other materials.

Ebert, W.L.; Bates, J.K.; Buck, E.C.; Gong, M.; Wolf, S.F.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Optimization of transparent and reflecting electrodes for amorphous-silicon solar cells. Final subcontract report, 1 May 1991--30 April 1994  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fluorine-doped zinc oxide was shown to have the lowest absorption loss of any of the known transparent conductors. An apparatus was constructed to deposit textured, transparent, conductive, fluorine-doped zinc oxide layers with uniform thickness over a 10 cm by 10 cm area, using inexpensive, high-productivity atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition. Amorphous silicon solar cells grown on these textured films show very high peak quantum efficiencies (over 90%). However, a significant contact resistance develops at the interface between the amorphous silicon and the zinc oxide. Transparent, conductive gallium-doped zinc oxide films were grown by APCVD at a low enough temperature (260{degree}C) to be deposited on amorphous silicon as a final conductive back contact to solar cells. A quantum-mechanical theory of bonding was developed and applied to some metal oxides; it forms a basis for understanding TCO structures and the stability of their interfaces with silicon.

Gordon, R.G.; Hu, J.; Lacks, D.; Musher, J.; Thornton, J.; Liang, H. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Damp-Heat Induced Degradation of Transparent Conducting Oxides for Thin-Film Solar Cells: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The stability of intrinsic and Al-doped single- and bi-layer ZnO for thin-film CuInGaSe2 solar cells, along with Al-doped Zn1-xMgxO alloy and Sn-doped In2O3 (ITO) and F-doped SnO2, was evaluated by direct exposure to damp heat (DH) at 85oC and 85% relative humidity. The results show that the DH-induced degradation rates followed the order of Al-doped ZnO and Zn1-xMgxO >> ITO > F:SnO2. The degradation rates of Al:ZnO were slower for films of higher thickness, higher substrate temperature in sputter-deposition, and with dry-out intervals. As inferred from the optical micro-imaging showing the initiation and propagation of degrading patterns and regions, the degradation behavior appears similar for all TCOs, despite the obvious difference in the degradation rate. A degradation mechanism is proposed to explain the temporal process involving thermal hydrolysis.

Pern, F. J.; Noufi, R.; Li, X.; DeHart, C.; To, B.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Stability Issues of Transparent Conducting Oxides (TCOs) for Thin-Film Photovoltaics (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Study of stability issues of TCOs for thin-film PV, including degradation of optical, electrical, and structural properties of TCOs in damp heat and required encapsulation to prevent moisture egress.

Pern, J.

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Application of CVD graphene in organic photovoltaics as transparent conducting electrodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Graphene, a hexagonal arrangement of carbon atoms forming a one-atom thick planar sheet, has gained much attention due to its remarkable physical properties. Apart from the micromechanical cleavage of highly ordered pyrolytic ...

Park, Hyesung, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Waste glass weathering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The weathering of glass is reviewed by examining processes that affect the reaction of commercial, historical, natural, and nuclear waste glass under conditions of contact with humid air and slowly dripping water, which may lead to immersion in nearly static solution. Radionuclide release data from weathered glass under conditions that may exist in an unsaturated environment are presented and compared to release under standard leaching conditions. While the comparison between the release under weathering and leaching conditions is not exact, due to variability of reaction in humid air, evidence is presented of radionuclide release under a variety of conditions. These results suggest that both the amount and form of radionuclide release can be affected by the weathering of glass.

Bates, J.K.; Buck, E.C.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

215

Bulk Metallic Glasses X  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jul 31, 2012 ... Aerospace and Spacecraft Applications for Bulk Metallic Glasses and Matrix Composites · Air Oxidation of a Binary Cu64.5Zr35.5 Bulk Metallic ...

216

Bulk Metallic Glasses VII  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sponsorship, The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society ... Air-Oxidation of a ( Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5)98Er2 Bulk Metallic Glass at 350-500oc · Anelastic ...

217

Terahertz Properties of Glasses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A review of advances in THz-TDS spectroscopy of selected glass families ... Field Assisted Viscous Flow and Crystallization in a Sodium Aluminosilicate ... Molecular Mechanisms of the Conversion Reaction in FeF2 Cathodes Exposed to Li in ...

218

Baseline LAW Glass Formulation Testing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The major objective of the baseline glass formulation work was to develop and select glass formulations that are compliant with contractual and processing requirements for each of the LAW waste streams. Other objectives of the work included preparation and characterization of glasses with respect to the properties of interest, optimization of sulfate loading in the glasses, evaluation of ability to achieve waste loading limits, testing to demonstrate compatibility of glass melts with melter materials of construction, development of glass formulations to support ILAW qualification activities, and identification of glass formulation issues with respect to contract specifications and processing requirements.

Kruger, Albert A. [USDOE Office of River Protection, Richland, WA (United States); Mooers, Cavin [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab.; Bazemore, Gina [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Pegg, Ian L. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Hight, Kenneth [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Lai, Shan Tao [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Buechele, Andrew [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Rielley, Elizabeth [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Gan, Hao [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Muller, Isabelle S. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Cecil, Richard [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab

2013-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

219

Dynamics of window glass fracture in explosions  

SciTech Connect

An exploratory study was conducted under the Architectural Surety Program to examine the possibility of modifying fracture of glass in the shock-wave environment associated with terrorist bombings. The intent was to explore strategies to reduce the number and severity of injuries resulting from those attacks. The study consisted of a series of three experiments at the Energetic Materials Research and Testing Center (EMRTC) of the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology at Socorro, NM, in which annealed and tempered glass sheets were exposed to blast waves at several different levels of overpressure and specific impulse. A preliminary assessment of the response of tempered glass to the blast environment suggested that inducing early failure would result in lowering fragment velocity as well as reducing the loading from the window to the structure. To test that possibility, two different and novel procedures (indentation flaws and spot annealing) were used to reduce the failure strength of the tempered glass while maintaining its ability to fracture into small cube-shaped fragments. Each experiment involved a comparison of the performance of four sheets of glass with different treatments.

Beauchamp, E.K.; Matalucci, R.V.

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Coulomb corrections and thermo-conductivity of a dense plasma  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We point out a confusion arising sometimes in using chemical potential in plasma with coulomb interactions. The results of our consideration are applied to discussion of nuclear reactions screening. Finally, we present a transparent derivation of thermal conductivity coefficient of degenerate electron gas.

Glazyrin, S I

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "glass transparent conductive" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Thin film method of conducting lithium-ions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li.sub.2 O--CeO.sub.2 --SiO.sub.2 system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications.

Zhang, Ji-Guang (Golden, CO); Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO)

1998-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

222

Thin film method of conducting lithium-ions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li{sub 2}O-CeO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications. 12 figs.

Zhang, J.G.; Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

1998-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

223

Copper and Transparent-Conductor Reflectarray Elements on Thin-Film Solar Cell Panels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This work addresses the integration of reflectarray antennas (RA) on thin film Solar Cell (SC) panels, as a mean to save real estate, weight, or cost in platforms such as satellites or transportable autonomous antenna systems. Our goal is to design a good RA unit cell in terms of phase response and bandwidth, while simultaneously achieving high optical transparency and low microwave loss, to preserve good SC and RA energy efficiencies, respectively. Since there is a trade-off between the optical transparency and microwave surface conductivity of a conductor, here both standard copper and transparent conductors are considered. The results obtained at the unit cell level demonstrates the feasibility of integrating RA on a thin-film SC, preserving for the first time good performance in terms of both SC and RA efficiency. For instance, measurement at X-band demonstrate families of cells providing a phase range larger than 270{\\deg} with average microwave loss of -2.45dB (resp. -0.25dB) and average optical transpa...

Dreyer, Philippe; Nicolay, Sylvain; Ballif, Christophe; Perruisseau-Carrier, Julien

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Graded index antireflective coatings for glass. Second annual report  

SciTech Connect

M.I.T. is conducting research which will lead to a process for forming broad band antireflective (AR) coatings on glass. Use of these coatings increases the extractable heat from flat-plate solar collectors by 30 to 50% compared with their performance under equivalent solar flux, surface temperature and ambient conditions without broad band AR coatings. Graded index surface films can virtually eliminate reflection losses if controlled properly. Graded index films on a borosilicate glass (Corning Glass Works No. 7740, Pyrex) has been demonstrated. While glass treated this way exhibited adequate optical properties, the glass itself, cannot be fabricated by the float glass process because of excessive working temperatures, and consequently is too expensive for solar applications. The objective of this work is to define glass compositions and processing steps which will result in graded index surface films (which exhibit broad band AR characteristics) on glasses which can be fabricated by the float glass process. The mechanism by which these graded index surface films are produced on glass surfaces consists of preferentially etching one phase from a phase separated glass. The film which remains consists of a porous structure in which the fraction of solid phase increases continuously from the free surface toward the bulk glass. Scattering effects are eliminated by limiting the size of the pore structure to dimensions which are substantially less than the wavelength of light. With this structure, the local index of refraction is proportional to the fraction of solid phase which is present. Characterizations are intended to define the microstructural and chemical nature of the surface film throughout its thickness. Progress is reported. (WHK)

Haggerty, J.S.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Comparison of the effect of outdoor exposure on the optical properties of solar mirrors and transparent encapsulant materials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The effects of outdoor exposure on solar mirrors and transparent encapsulant materials are assessed and compared. The encapsulant materials tested included glasses, polymers and silicones. Samples of the materials were placed on stationary exposure racks in six locations that represented urban, desert, oceanside and high altitude mountain areas. Samples were removed periodically for optical characterizations. The spectral hemispherical and diffuse reflectance of the mirror samples and the spectral hemispherical transmittance and diffuse reflectance of the encapsulant materials was measured. The relative normal hemispherical transmittance of the encapsulant materials was measured. Correlations between the glass and mirror data showed that the average diffuse reflectance losses were six times larger for the mirrors than for the glass samples. The average specular reflectance losses for the mirror samples were seven times as large as the average hemispherical transmittance losses for the glass samples. These correlations may enable one to predict the performance of mirrors made using the other encapsulant materials for superstrates. It was found that the urban and oceanside sites were the dirtiest, while the desert and mountain sites were the cleanest. Average specular reflectance losses varied from 4% at the cleanest site to 50% at the dirtiest site. The range in hemispherical transmittance losses for the encapsulant materials varied between 0% and 6%. At one site, the average daily specular reflectance losses were .04% for the mirror samples and average daily hemispherical transmittance losses were about .01% for the glass samples. The polymer materials degraded somewhat more rapidly than the glasses, and the silicones irreversible degraded too rapidly and severely to be useful for either photovoltaic or solar thermal applications.

Dake, L.S.; Lind, M.A.; Maag, C.R.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

The Transparent Cost Database (TCDB) | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

The Transparent Cost Database (TCDB) The Transparent Cost Database (TCDB) Home > Blogs > Graham7781's blog Graham7781's picture Submitted by Graham7781(2002) Super contributor 2 August, 2012 - 13:30 advanced vehicles electric generation NREL OpenEI renewables tcdb This new web application collects cost and performance estimates and makes it available to everyone to perform analysis. Utilities, policy makers, consumers, and academics can all take advantage of the app that makes electric generation, advanced vehicles, and renewable fuel technologies' performance estimates transparent and open. The Obama Administration has been committed to making data open and transparent. As part, the DOE developed the TCDB through a grant from DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The platform that hosts

227

Powerpedia - Using Technology to Increase Transparancy | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

- Using Technology to Increase Transparancy - Using Technology to Increase Transparancy Powerpedia - Using Technology to Increase Transparancy May 18, 2011 - 4:42pm Addthis The OCIO established a Department-wide wiki, Powerpedia, in early 2010 to help facilitate knowledge capture, collaboration, and increased efficiency. Leveraging many of the lessons learned from the intelligence community's Intellipedia effort, the Department implemented Powerpedia to increase the level of transparency and connect people and information together. Built on the same open source software underpinning Wikipedia, called MediaWiki, the Department is rapidly building a large corpus of information that is enabling the organization to "know what it knows". As of May 2011, Powerpedia has over 7,500 total pages and 45,000 page

228

Transparent Prices for Municipal Water: Impact of Pricing and...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Transparent Prices for Municipal Water: Impact of Pricing and Billing Practices on Residential Water Use Speaker(s): Sylvestre Gaudin Date: November 29, 2004 - 12:00pm Location:...

229

A Step toward Transparent Boundary Conditions for Meteorological Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Transparent boundary conditions for the linearized shallow water equations are constructed by incorporating the boundary conditions into equations that describe unidirectional waves. The shallow water equations are then discretized using a semi-...

A. McDonald

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Device Transparency: a New Model for Mobile Storage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper proposes a new storage model, device transparency, in which users view and manage their entire data collection from any of their devices, even from disconnected storage-limited devices holding only a subset of ...

Strauss, Jacob A.

231

Transparency demonstration of underground radiation and environmental monitoring  

SciTech Connect

One of the legacies of the nuclear weapon and nuclear power cycles has been the generation of large quantities of nuclear waste and fissile materials. As citizens of this planet, it is everyone's responsibility to provide for safe, secure, transparent, disposal of these waste nuclear materials. The Sandia Cooperative Monitoring Center sponsored a Transparency Monitoring Workshop where the use of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) was identified as a possible transparency demonstration test bed. Three experiments were conceived as jumpstart activities to showcase the effective use of the WIPP infrastructure as a Transparency Demonstration Test Bed. The three experiments were successfully completed and demonstrated at the International Atomic Energy Association sponsored International Conference on Geological Repositories held in Denver Colorado November 1999. The design and coordination of these efforts is the subject of this paper.

SCHOENEMAN,BARRY D.; HOFER,DENNIS

2000-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

232

Hot-electron refluxing enhanced relativistic transparency of overdense plasmas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new phenomenon of enhancing the relativistic transparency of overdense plasmas by the influence of hot-electron refluxing has been found via particle-in-cell simulations. When a p-polarized laser pulse, with intensity below the self-induced-transparency (SIT) threshold, obliquely irradiates a thin overdense plasma, the initially opaque plasma would become transparent after a time interval which linearly relies on the thickness of the plasma. This phenomenon can be interpreted by the influence of hot-electron refluxing. As the laser intensity is higher than the SIT threshold, the penetration velocity of the laser in the plasma is enhanced when the refluxing is presented. Simulation data with ion motion considered is also consistent with the assumption that hot-electron refluxing enhances transparency. These results have potential applications in laser shaping.

Yu, Yong; Chen, Zi-Yu; Wang, Jia-Xiang; Zhu, Wen-Jun

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Slip casting nano-particle powders for making transparent ceramics  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of making a transparent ceramic including the steps of providing nano-ceramic powders in a processed or unprocessed form, mixing the powders with de-ionized water, the step of mixing the powders with de-ionized water producing a slurry, sonifing the slurry to completely wet the powder and suspend the powder in the de-ionized water, separating very fine particles from the slurry, molding the slurry, and curing the slurry to produce the transparent ceramic.

Kuntz, Joshua D. (Livermore, CA); Soules, Thomas F. (Livermore, CA); Landingham, Richard Lee (Livermore, CA); Hollingsworth, Joel P. (Oakland, CA)

2011-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

234

Designing of transparency windows by quantum interference of wave packets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It has been shown that control over the design of single- or multimode-transparency windows can be achieved by control-probe quantum interferometry using two delayed phase-locked ultrashort pulses. We have investigated how single- or multimode-transparency windows can be designed by eliminating the absorption to a set of odd or even vibrational levels of a molecule covered by the spectral bandwidth of the pulses. Suppression of absorption can be achieved by controlling the quantum interference of two vibrational wave packets excited by these two pulses, leading to destructive interference of transition amplitudes for one set of vibrational levels even or odd. Simuntaneously the interference becomes constructive for the other set of odd or even vibrational levels, leading to absorption to these levels. Thus, a set of transparency windows is designed in between two absorption peaks at two consecutive odd (even) vibrational levels by eliminating absorption at even (odd) vibrational levels between two absorption peaks. If the spectral bandwidth of the pulse [full width at half maximum (FWHM)] is less than the energy difference between two consecutive absorption peaks, the pulse will be transmitted without absorption through the transparency window. However, for pulses with a larger spectral bandwidth (FWHM), a set of broad transparency windows will be generated and different bands of pulse frequencies will be transmitted through these windows. We have shown that coherent control of the design of transparency windows can be achieved by controlling pulse duration, carrier frequency, delay, and the phase difference of two ultrashort pulses.

Dastidar, Krishna Rai [Department of Spectroscopy, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Kolkata 700032 (India); Bhattacharjee, Anindita [1035 Aster Ave., Apt. 2131, Sunnyvale, California 94086 (United States)

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

235

Broadband light absorption enhancement in polymer photovoltaics using metal nanowall gratings as transparent electrodes  

SciTech Connect

The authors investigate light absorption in organic solar cells in which indium tin oxide (ITO) is replaced by a new metallic architecture (grating) as a transparent electrode. Different from typical metal nanowire gratings, our gratings consist of metal nanowalls with nanoscale footprint and (sub)microscale height [Adv. Mater. 23, 2469 (2011)], thus ensuring high optical transmittance and electrical conductivity. Simulations reveal that a broadband and polarization-insensitive light absorption enhancement is achieved via two mechanisms, when such silver nanowall gratings are employed in P3HT:PCBM based solar cells. Overall absorption enhanced by ~23% compared to a reference cell with ITO electrode.

Ye, Zhuo; Chaudhary, Sumit; Kuang, Ping; Ho, Kai-Ming

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

236

Nuclear waste repository transparency technology test bed demonstrations at WIPP  

SciTech Connect

Secretary of Energy, Bill Richardson, has stated that one of the nuclear waste legacy issues is ``The challenge of managing the fuel cycle's back end and assuring the safe use of nuclear power.'' Waste management (i.e., the back end) is a domestic and international issue that must be addressed. A key tool in gaining acceptance of nuclear waste repository technologies is transparency. Transparency provides information to outside parties for independent assessment of safety, security, and legitimate use of materials. Transparency is a combination of technologies and processes that apply to all elements of the development, operation, and closure of a repository system. A test bed for nuclear repository transparency technologies has been proposed to develop a broad-based set of concepts and strategies for transparency monitoring of nuclear materials at the back end of the fuel/weapons cycle. WIPP is the world's first complete geologic repository system for nuclear materials at the back end of the cycle. While it is understood that WIPP does not currently require this type of transparency, this repository has been proposed as realistic demonstration site to generate and test ideas, methods, and technologies about what transparency may entail at the back end of the nuclear materials cycle, and which could be applicable to other international repository developments. An integrated set of transparency demonstrations was developed and deployed during the summer, and fall of 1999 as a proof-of-concept of the repository transparency technology concept. These demonstrations also provided valuable experience and insight into the implementation of future transparency technology development and application. These demonstrations included: Container Monitoring Rocky Flats to WIPP; Underground Container Monitoring; Real-Time Radiation and Environmental Monitoring; Integrated level of confidence in the system and information provided. As the world's only operating deep geologic repository, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) offers a unique opportunity to serve as an international cooperative test bed for developing and demonstrating technologies and processes in a fully operational repository system setting. To address the substantial national security implications for the US resulting from the lack of integrated, transparent management and disposition of nuclear materials at the back-end of the nuclear fuel and weapons cycles, it is proposed that WIPP be used as a test bed to develop and demonstrate technologies that will enable the transparent and proliferation-resistant geologic isolation of nuclear materials. The objectives of this initiative are to: (1) enhance public confidence in safe, secure geologic isolation of nuclear materials; (2) develop, test, and demonstrate transparency measures and technologies for the back-end of nuclear fuel cycle; and (3) foster international collaborations leading to workable, effective, globally-accepted standards for the transparent monitoring of geological repositories for nuclear materials. Test-bed activities include: development and testing of monitoring measures and technologies; international demonstration experiments; transparency workshops; visiting scientist exchanges; and educational outreach. These activities are proposed to be managed by the Department of Energy/Carlsbad Area Office (DOE/CAO) as part of The Center for Applied Repository and Underground Studies (CARUS).

BETSILL,J. DAVID; ELKINS,NED Z.; WU,CHUAN-FU; MEWHINNEY,JAMES D.; AAMODT,PAUL

2000-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

237

Argonne Software Licensing: Glass Furnace Model (GFM)  

The Glass Furnace Model (GFM) The Glass Furnace Model (GFM) Version 4.0, a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) glass furnace simulation code was developed at Argonne ...

238

Glass-water Interactions - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Glass and Optical Materials: Glass-water Interactions ... Corrosion of Photomultiplier Tube Glasses in High Purity Water : Ruhil Dongol1; S. K. Sundaram1; Milind ...

239

NEPA Success Stories: Celebrating 40 Years of Transparency and Open Government  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

NEPA Success Stories: Celebrating 40 Years of Transparency and Open Government, Environmental Law Institute, 2010.

240

Nanostructured Transparent Conductors Have Potential for Thin-Film Photovoltaics (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Possible alternatives to transparent conductors show promise for enabling new processes and reducing costs.

Not Available

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "glass transparent conductive" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Optical Basicity and Nepheline Crystallization in High Alumina Glasses  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to find compositions that increase waste loading of high-alumina wastes beyond what is currently acceptable while avoiding crystallization of nepheline (NaAlSiO4) on slow cooling. Nepheline crystallization has been shown to have a large impact on the chemical durability of high-level waste glasses. It was hypothesized that there would be some composition regions where high-alumina would not result in nepheline crystal production, compositions not currently allowed by the nepheline discriminator. Optical basicity (OB) and the nepheline discriminator (ND) are two ways of describing a given complex glass composition. This report presents the theoretical and experimental basis for these models. They are being studied together in a quadrant system as metrics to explore nepheline crystallization and chemical durability as a function of waste glass composition. These metrics were calculated for glasses with existing data and also for theoretical glasses to explore nepheline formation in Quadrant IV (passes OB metric but fails ND metric), where glasses are presumed to have good chemical durability. Several of these compositions were chosen, and glasses were made to fill poorly represented regions in Quadrant IV. To evaluate nepheline formation and chemical durability of these glasses, quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and the Product Consistency Test were conducted. A large amount of quantitative XRD data is collected here, both from new glasses and from glasses of previous studies that had not previously performed quantitative XRD on the phase assemblage. Appendix A critically discusses a large dataset to be considered for future quantitative studies on nepheline formation in glass. Appendix B provides a theoretical justification for choice of the oxide coefficients used to compute the OB criterion for nepheline formation.

Rodriguez, Carmen P.; McCloy, John S.; Schweiger, M. J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Winschell, Abigail E.

2011-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

242

HLW Glass Waste Loadings  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

HLW HLW Glass Waste Loadings Ian L. Pegg Vitreous State Laboratory The Catholic University of America Washington, DC Overview Overview  Vitrification - general background  Joule heated ceramic melter (JHCM) technology  Factors affecting waste loadings  Waste loading requirements and projections  WTP DWPF  DWPF  Yucca Mountain License Application requirements on waste loading  Summary Vitrification  Immobilization of waste by conversion into a glass  Internationally accepted treatment for HLW  Why glass?  Amorphous material - able to incorporate a wide spectrum of elements over wide ranges of composition; resistant to radiation damage  Long-term durability - natural analogs Relatively simple process - amenable to nuclearization at large  Relatively simple process - amenable to nuclearization at large scale  There

243

Application of Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes as Transparent Electrodes in Cu(In,Ga)Se2-Based Solar Cells: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We present a new thin-film solar cell structure in which the traditional transparent conductive oxide electrode (ZnO) is replaced by a transparent conductive coating consisting of a network of bundled single-wall carbon nanotubes. Optical transmission properties of these coatings are presented in relation to their electrical properties (sheet resistance), along with preliminary solar cell results from devices made using CuIn1-xGaxSe2 thin-film absorber materials. Achieving an energy conversion efficiency of >12% and a quantum efficiency of {approx}80% demonstrate the feasibility of the concept. A discussion of the device structures will be presented considering the physical properties of the new electrodes comparing current-voltage results from the new solar cell structure and those from standard ZnO/CdS/Cu(In,Ga)Se2/Mo solar cells.

Contreras, M.; Barnes, T.; van de Lagemaat, J.; Rumbles, G.; Coutts, T. J.; Weeks, C.; Glatkowski, P.; Levitsky, I.; Peltola, J.

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Optimization of transparent and reflecting electrodes for amorphous silicon solar cells. Annual subcontract report, April 1, 1994--March 31, 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Transparent and reflecting electrodes are important parts of the structure of amorphous silicon solar cells. We report improved methods for depositing zinc oxide, deposition of tin nitride as a potential reflection-enhancing diffusion barrier between the a-Si and back metal electrodes. Highly conductive and transparent fluorine-doped zinc oxide was successfully produced on small areas by atmospheric pressure CVD from a less hazardous zinc precursor, zinc acetylacetonate. The optical properties measured for tin nitride showed that the back-reflection would be decreased if tin nitride were used instead of zinc oxide as a barrier layer over silver on aluminum. Niobium-doped titanium dioxide was produced with high enough electrical conductivity so that normal voltages and fill factors were obtained for a-Si cells made on it.

Gordon, R.G. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Infrared spectroscopy and hydrogen isotope geochemistry of hydrous silicate glasses  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The focus of this project is the combined appication of infrared spectroscopy and stable isotope geochemistry to the study of hydrogen-bearing species dissolved in silicate melts and glasses. We are conducting laboratory experiments aimed at determining the fractionation of D and H between melt species (OH and H{sub 2}O) and hydrous vapor and the diffusivities of these species in glasses and melts. Knowledge of these parameters is critical to understanding the behavior of hydrogen isotopes during igneous processes and hydrothermal processes. These results also could be valuable in application of glass technology to development of nuclear waste disposal strategies.

Epstein, S.; Stolper, E.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Versa Glass | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Zip 43220 Product Versa is manufacturing a new technology privacy glass in Ohio that is LEED and has cleantech properties References Versa Glass1 LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase...

247

TRANSPARENT HEAT MIRRORS FOR PASSIVE SOLAR HEATING APPLICATIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

deposition rates and production costs were reviewed todiscussion of heat mirror production cost Most of our effortcoating plastic film. Production costs for coating glass

Selkowitz, S.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Highly efficient blue organic light emitting device using indium-free transparent anode Ga:ZnO with scalability for large area coating  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The availability of economically-produced and environmentally-stable transparent conductive oxide (TCO) coatings is critical for the development of a variety of electronic devices requiring transparent electrodes. Such devices include liquid crystal display pixels and organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs),[1, 2] solar cell applications,[3, 4] and electrically heated windows.[5, 6] The materials fulfilling these requirements are usually wide band gap inorganic transparent conductive oxides (TCOs). Tin-doped indium oxide, or ITO, has traditionally been used for electronic TCO applications because of its low resistivity, high work function and transparency. Due to the increasing cost and limited supply of indium and its tendency to migrate in to the device, there has been increasing research interest to substitute ITO with an indium-free material. A number of alternative metal oxides and doped oxides have been evaluated as TCO materials with varying degrees of success.[7, 8] Among these alternatives to ITO, gallium-doped zinc oxide (GZO) [2, 9] and aluminium-doped zinc oxide (AZO) [10, 11] have drawn particular attention. These materials have been demonstrated to have resistivities and transparencies approaching those of the best ITO, low toxicity, and much lower materials cost. Although AZO is attractive as a TCO electrode material, GZO features a greater resistance to oxidation as a result of gallium’s greater electronegativity compared to Submitted to 2 aluminum.[12, 13

Wang, Liang (Frank); Matson, Dean W.; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Swensen, James S.; Bonham, Charles C.; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Berry, J. J.; Ginley, D. S.; Gaspar, Daniel J.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.

2010-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

249

Terahertz Properties of Lithium Iron Phosphate Glasses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Terahertz Properties of Lithium Iron Phosphate Glasses ... Field Assisted Viscous Flow and Crystallization in a Sodium Aluminosilicate Glass.

250

Highly Conductive Textured Molybdenum Doped Indium Oxide Thin Films  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We report on the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of Mo-doped indium oxide (IMO) films with mobilities of up to 125 cm2/Vsec. Films have been grown from targets with 1-4 wt.% molybdenum. The optimum electrical and optical properties were obtained with the 2% target and yielded a maximum conductivity of 3717 S/cm with mobilities of 99 cm2/V-sec on (100) yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) single crystal substrates. Films also exhibit greater than 90% transparency in the visible range. Compared to commercial indium tin oxide (ITO) films, these PLD-grown IMO films have similar conductivity but since they have substantially higher mobility they have a correspondingly lower carrier concentration. The lower carrier concentration should extend the infrared window of the transparency for films of the same conductivity. This may lead to improved performance in a number of applications requiring improved performance TCOs.

Warmsingh, C.; Yoshida, Y.; Readey, D.; Perkins, J.; Parilla, P.; Teplin, C.; Kaydanova, T.; Alleman, J.; Gedvilas, L.; Keyes, B.; Gessert, T.; Coutts, T.; Ginley, D.

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

2007 Annual Health Physics Report for the HEU Transparency Program  

SciTech Connect

During the 2007 calendar year, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) provided health physics support for the Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Transparency Program for external and internal radiation protection and technical expertise related to BDMS radioactive sources and Russian radiation safety regulatory compliance. For the calendar year 2007, there were 172 person-trips that required dose monitoring of the U.S. monitors. Of the 172 person-trips, 160 person-trips were SMVs and 12 person-trips were Transparency Monitoring Office (TMO) trips. There were 12 monitoring visits by TMO monitors to facilities other than UEIE and 10 to UEIE itself. There were two monitoring visits (source changes) that were back to back with 14 monitors. LLNL's Hazard Control Division laboratories provided the dosimetry services for the HEU Transparency monitors.

Radev, R

2008-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

252

Modeling of Glass Making Processes for Improved Efficiency  

SciTech Connect

The overall goal of this project was to develop a high-temperature melt properties database with sufficient reliability to allow mathematical modeling of glass melting and forming processes for improved product quality, improved efficiency and lessened environmental impact. It was initiated by the United States glass industry through the NSF Industry/University Center for Glass Research (CGR) at Alfred University [1]. Because of their important commercial value, six different types/families of glass were studied: container, float, fiberglass (E- and wool-types), low-expansion borosilicate, and color TV panel glasses. CGR member companies supplied production-quality glass from all six families upon which we measured, as a function of temperature in the molten state, density, surface tension, viscosity, electrical resistivity, infrared transmittance (to determine high temperature radiative conductivity), non-Newtonian flow behavior, and oxygen partial pres sure. With CGR cost sharing, we also studied gas solubility and diffusivity in each of these glasses. Because knowledge of the compositional dependencies of melt viscosity and electrical resistivity are extremely important for glass melting furnace design and operation, these properties were studied more fully. Composition variations were statistically designed for all six types/families of glass. About 140 different glasses were then melted on a laboratory scale and their viscosity and electrical resistivity measured as a function of temperature. The measurements were completed in February 2003 and are reported on here. The next steps will be (1) to statistically analyze the compositional dependencies of viscosity and electrical resistivity and develop composition-property response surfaces, (2) submit all the data to CGR member companies to evaluate the usefulness in their models, and (3) publish the results in technical journals and most likely in book form.

Thomas P. Seward III

2003-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

253

Microsoft PowerPoint - IPRC_Transparent_Phongikaroon  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Experimental Experimental Studies of Oxygen Sparging in Molten Salt Through a Transparent Furnace Experimental Studies of Oxygen Sparging in Molten Salt Through a Transparent Furnace Ryan W. Bezzant and Supathorn Phongikaroon Chemical Engineering Department and Nuclear Engineering Program University of Idaho, Idaho Falls Center for Advanced Energy Studies Michael F. Simpson Pyroprocessing Technology Department, Idaho National Laboratory Ryan W. Bezzant and Supathorn Phongikaroon Chemical Engineering Department and Nuclear Engineering Program University of Idaho, Idaho Falls Center for Advanced Energy Studies Michael F. Simpson Pyroprocessing Technology Department, Idaho National Laboratory Alternative Proposed Processes Chopped Fuel Uranium Metal Metal Waste Ceramic Waste Electrorefiner and Product Refinement Ion Exchange Zone Freezing High Purity Electrolyte High

254

Building Energy Transparency: A Framework for Implementing... Energy Rating  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Transparency: A Framework for Implementing... Transparency: A Framework for Implementing... Energy Rating & Disclosure Policy Secondary menu About us Press room Contact Us Portfolio Manager Login Facility owners and managers Existing buildings Commercial new construction Industrial energy management Small business Service providers Service and product providers Verify applications for ENERGY STAR certification Design commercial buildings Energy efficiency program administrators Commercial and industrial program sponsors Associations State and local governments Federal agencies Tools and resources Training In This Section Campaigns Commercial building design Communications resources Energy management guidance Financial resources Portfolio Manager Products and purchasing Recognition Research and reports Service and product provider (SPP) resources

255

Surface-Plasmon Enhanced Transparent Electrodes in Organic Photovoltaics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Random silver nanohole films were created through colloidal lithography techniques and metal vapor deposition. The transparent electrodes were characterized by uv-visible spectroscopy and incorporated into an organic solar cell. The test cells were evaluated for solar power-conversion efficiency and incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency. The incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency spectra displayed evidence that a nanohole film with 92 nm diameter holes induces surface-plasmon-enhanced photoconversion. The nanohole silver films demonstrate a promising route to removing the indium tin oxide transparent electrode that is ubiquitous in organic optoelectronics.

Reilly III, T. H.; van de Lagemaat, J.; Tenent, R. C.; Morfa, A. J.; Rowlen, K. L.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Reliability of chip on glass module fabricated with direct printing method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To investigate the effect of the sintering temperature on the electrical properties of a chip on glass (COG) module, a screen-printed conductive circuit was sintered at various temperatures, viz. 150, 200, 250 and 300^oC for 30min. An anisotropic conductive ... Keywords: Ag nanopaste, Anisotropic conductive film (ACF), Chip on glass (COG), Reliability, Screen-printing, Temperature-humidity test (THT)

Young-Chul Lee, Jong-Woong Kim, Yongil Kim, Seung-Boo Jung

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Conduction and Moisture Diffusion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 2   Equivalent physical quantities...conduction Temperature Temperature gradient Heat flux Heat conductivities Resistivities Electric conduction Electric potential Electric field intensity Current density Electric conductivities Resistivities Electrostatics Electric potential Electric field intensity Electric induction, electric...

258

Concrete Electrical Conductivity Test  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Concrete Electrical Conductivity Test. Description/Summary: ... Details. Type of software: Virtual concrete electrical conductivity test. Authors: ...

2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

259

Energy Saving Glass Lamination via Selective Radio Frequency Heating  

SciTech Connect

This project focused on advancing radio-frequency (RF) lamination technology closer to commercial implementation, in order to reduce the energy intensity of glass lamination by up to 90%. Lamination comprises a wide range of products including autoglass, architectural safety and innovative design glass, transparent armor (e.g. bullet proof glass), smart glass, mirrors, and encapsulation of photovoltaics. Lamination is also the fastest growing segment of glass manufacturing, with photovoltaics, architectural needs, and an anticipated transition to laminated side windows in vehicles. The state-of-the-art for glass lamination is to use autoclaves, which apply heat and uniform gas pressure to bond the laminates over the course of 1 to 18 hours. Laminates consist of layers of glass or other materials bonded with vinyl or urethane interlayers. In autoclaving, significant heat energy is lost heating the chamber, pressurized air, glass racks, and the glass. In RF lamination, the heat is generated directly in the vinyl interlayer, causing it to heat and melt quickly, in just 1 to 10 minutes, without significantly heating the glass or the equipment. The main purpose of this project was to provide evidence that low energy, rapid RF lamination quality met the same standards as conventionally autoclaved windows. The development of concepts for laminating curved glass with RF lamination was a major goal. Other primary goals included developing a stronger understanding of the lamination product markets described above, and to refine the potential benefits of commercial implementation. The scope of the project was to complete implementation concept studies in preparation for continuation into advanced development, pilot studies, and commercial implementation. The project consisted of 6 main tasks. The first dealt with lamination with poly-vinyl butyral (PVB) interlayers, which prior work had shown difficulties in achieving good quality laminates, working with Pilkington North America. The second task dealt with a study of current lamination processes in the various laminate industries, and development of concepts for integrating RF lamination into new or existing processes. The third task explored the use of a non-destructive technique for analyzing laminate adhesion with the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The fourth task focused on developing concepts for curved glass lamination using RF lamination. The fifth and sixth tasks together comprised an analysis of laminate product markets, ranking for applicability and commercialization potential, and the development of commercialization strategies for those products. In addition, throughout the project as new experimental data and conventional process data were obtained, the benefits analysis of RF lamination was refined. The goals of the project described above were achieved, positioning RF lamination for the next stage growth envisioned in the original Industrial Grand Challenge proposal. Working with Pilkington North America, lamination of flat autoglass with PVB was achieved, meeting all 16 stringent industry tests. In particular, PVB laminates made with RF lamination passed environmental tests including the high temperature, 120 C bake test, without significant formation of bubbles (defects). The adhesion of PVB to glass was measured using the pummel method. Adhesion values ranging from 1 to 7 out of 10 were obtained. The significant process parameters affecting the environmental and adhesion performance were identified through a designed experiment. Pre-lamination process variables including PVB storage humidity and the de-airing process (vacuum or nip rolling) were significant, as well as the level of pressure applied to the laminate during the RF process. Analysis of manufacturing with RF lamination equipment, based on the processes developed indicated that 3 RF presses could replace a typical auto-industry autoclave to achieve equal or greater throughput with possibly less capital cost and smaller footprint. Concepts for curved lamination identifying castable molds for

Allan, Shawn M.

2012-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

260

Energy Saving Glass Lamination via Selective Radio Frequency Heating  

SciTech Connect

This project focused on advancing radio-frequency (RF) lamination technology closer to commercial implementation, in order to reduce the energy intensity of glass lamination by up to 90%. Lamination comprises a wide range of products including autoglass, architectural safety and innovative design glass, transparent armor (e.g. bullet proof glass), smart glass, mirrors, and encapsulation of photovoltaics. Lamination is also the fastest growing segment of glass manufacturing, with photovoltaics, architectural needs, and an anticipated transition to laminated side windows in vehicles. The state-of-the-art for glass lamination is to use autoclaves, which apply heat and uniform gas pressure to bond the laminates over the course of 1 to 18 hours. Laminates consist of layers of glass or other materials bonded with vinyl or urethane interlayers. In autoclaving, significant heat energy is lost heating the chamber, pressurized air, glass racks, and the glass. In RF lamination, the heat is generated directly in the vinyl interlayer, causing it to heat and melt quickly, in just 1 to 10 minutes, without significantly heating the glass or the equipment. The main purpose of this project was to provide evidence that low energy, rapid RF lamination quality met the same standards as conventionally autoclaved windows. The development of concepts for laminating curved glass with RF lamination was a major goal. Other primary goals included developing a stronger understanding of the lamination product markets described above, and to refine the potential benefits of commercial implementation. The scope of the project was to complete implementation concept studies in preparation for continuation into advanced development, pilot studies, and commercial implementation. The project consisted of 6 main tasks. The first dealt with lamination with poly-vinyl butyral (PVB) interlayers, which prior work had shown difficulties in achieving good quality laminates, working with Pilkington North America. The second task dealt with a study of current lamination processes in the various laminate industries, and development of concepts for integrating RF lamination into new or existing processes. The third task explored the use of a non-destructive technique for analyzing laminate adhesion with the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The fourth task focused on developing concepts for curved glass lamination using RF lamination. The fifth and sixth tasks together comprised an analysis of laminate product markets, ranking for applicability and commercialization potential, and the development of commercialization strategies for those products. In addition, throughout the project as new experimental data and conventional process data were obtained, the benefits analysis of RF lamination was refined. The goals of the project described above were achieved, positioning RF lamination for the next stage growth envisioned in the original Industrial Grand Challenge proposal. Working with Pilkington North America, lamination of flat autoglass with PVB was achieved, meeting all 16 stringent industry tests. In particular, PVB laminates made with RF lamination passed environmental tests including the high temperature, 120 ���°C bake test, without significant formation of bubbles (defects). The adhesion of PVB to glass was measured using the pummel method. Adhesion values ranging from 1 to 7 out of 10 were obtained. The significant process parameters affecting the environmental and adhesion performance were identified through a designed experiment. Pre-lamination process variables including PVB storage humidity and the de-airing process (vacuum or nip rolling) were significant, as well as the level of pressure applied to the laminate during the RF process. Analysis of manufacturing with RF lamination equipment, based on the processes developed indicated that 3 RF presses could replace a typical auto-industry autoclave to achieve equal or greater throughput with possibly less capital cost and smaller footprint. Concepts for curved lamination id

Allan, Shawn M.; Baranova, Inessa; Poley, Joseph; Reis, Henrique

2012-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

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261

Development of Crystal-Tolerant High-Level Waste Glasses  

SciTech Connect

Twenty five glasses were formulated. They were batched from HLW AZ-101 simulant or raw chemicals and melted and tested with a series of tests to elucidate the effect of spinel-forming components (Ni, Fe, Cr, Mn, and Zn), Al, and noble metals (Rh2O3 and RuO2) on the accumulation rate of spinel crystals in the glass discharge riser of the high-level waste (HLW) melter. In addition, the processing properties of glasses, such as the viscosity and TL, were measured as a function of temperature and composition. Furthermore, the settling of spinel crystals in transparent low-viscosity fluids was studied at room temperature to access the shape factor and hindered settling coefficient of spinel crystals in the Stokes equation. The experimental results suggest that Ni is the most troublesome component of all the studied spinel-forming components producing settling layers of up to 10.5 mm in just 20 days in Ni-rich glasses if noble metals or a higher concentration of Fe was not introduced in the glass. The layer of this thickness can potentially plug the bottom of the riser, preventing glass from being discharged from the melter. The noble metals, Fe, and Al were the components that significantly slowed down or stopped the accumulation of spinel at the bottom. Particles of Rh2O3 and RuO2, hematite and nepheline, acted as nucleation sites significantly increasing the number of crystals and therefore decreasing the average crystal size. The settling rate of ?10-?m crystal size around the settling velocity of crystals was too low to produce thick layers. The experimental data for the thickness of settled layers in the glasses prepared from AZ-101 simulant were used to build a linear empirical model that can predict crystal accumulation in the riser of the melter as a function of concentration of spinel-forming components in glass. The developed model predicts the thicknesses of accumulated layers quite well, R2 = 0.985, and can be become an efficient tool for the formulation of the crystal-tolerant HLW glasses for higher waste loading. A physical modeling effort revealed that the Stokes and Richardson-Zaki equations can be used to adequately predict the accumulation rate of spinel crystals of different sizes and concentrations in the glass discharge riser of HLW melters. The determined shape factor for the glass beads was only 0.73% lower than the theoretical shape factor for a perfect sphere. The shape factor for the spinel crystals matched the theoretically predicted value to within 10% and was smaller than that of the beads, given the larger drag force caused by the larger surface area-to-volume ratio of the octahedral crystals. In the hindered settling experiments, both the glass bead and spinel suspensions were found to follow the predictions of the Richardson-Zaki equation with the exponent n = 3.6 and 2.9 for glass beads and spinel crystals, respectively.

Matyas, Josef; Vienna, John D.; Schaible, Micah J.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Arrigoni, Alyssa L.; Tate, Rachel M.

2010-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

262

Identification of transparent, compact, accurate and reliable linguistic fuzzy models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Transparency, accuracy, compactness and reliability all appear to be vital (even though somewhat contradictory) requirements when it comes down to linguistic fuzzy modeling. This paper presents a methodology for simultaneous optimization of these criteria ... Keywords: Complexity reduction, Fuzzy modeling, Interpretability of fuzzy systems

Andri Riid; Ennu Rüstern

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Transparent heat mirrors for passive solar heating applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Recent progress in the development of transparent heat mirror coatings for energy-efficient windows and passive solar applications is reviewed. It appears that cost-efficient coatings promising savings of 25 to 75%, depending upon application, may be available to window manufacturers and homeowners in the next one to three years. Performance, applications, and limitations are discussed.

Selkowitz, S.

1978-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Reaction Barrier Transparency for Cold Fusion with Deuterium and Hydrogen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An improved parametric representation of Coulomb barrier penetration is presented. These detailed calculations are improvements upon the conventionally used Gamow tunneling coefficient. This analysis yields a reaction barrier transparency (RBT) which may have singular ramifications for cold fusion, as well as significant consequences in a wide variety of fusion settings. 1.

Yeong E. Kim; Jin-hee Yoon; Alexander L. Zubarev; Mario Rabinowitz

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Transparent Accelerator Migration in a Virtualized GPU Environment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a framework to support transparent, live migration of virtual GPU accelerators in a virtualized execution environment. Migration is a critical capability in such environments because it provides support for fault tolerance, on-demand ... Keywords: GPU, Virtualization, OpenCL, Migration, VOCL

Shucai Xiao; Pavan Balaji; James Dinan; Qian Zhu; Rajeev Thakur; Susan Coghlan; Heshan Lin; Gaojin Wen; Jue Hong; Wu-chun Feng

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Electromagnetically induced transparency over spectral hole-burning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electromagnetically induced transparency over spectral hole-burning temperature in a rare the spectral hole-burning temperature. The transmission of the probe laser beam is increased by a factor of exp over the spectral hole-burning temperature in a rare-earth­doped solid represents important progress

Shahriar, Selim

267

Radiation-transparent windows, method for imaging fluid transfers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thin, x-ray-transparent window system for environmental chambers involving pneumatic pressures above 40 bar is presented. The window allows for x-ray access to such phenomena as fuel sprays injected into a pressurized chamber that mimics realistic internal combustion engine cylinder operating conditions.

Shu, Deming (Darien, IL); Wang, Jin (Burr Ridge, IL)

2011-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

268

Energy Saving Glass Lamination via Selective Radio Frequency Heating  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ceralink Inc. developed FastFuse™, a rapid, new, energy saving process for lamination of glass and composites using radio frequency (RF) heating technology. The Inventions and Innovations program supported the technical and commercial research and development needed to elevate the innovation from bench scale to a self-supporting technology with significant potential for growth. The attached report provides an overview of the technical and commerical progress achieved for FastFuse™ during the course of the project. FastFuse™ has the potential to revolutionize the laminate manufacturing industries by replacing energy intensive, multi-step processes with an energy efficient, single-step process that allows higher throughput. FastFuse™ transmits RF energy directly into the interlayer to generate heat, eliminating the need to directly heat glass layers and the surrounding enclosures, such as autoclaves or vacuum systems. FastFuse™ offers lower start-up and energy costs (up to 90% or more reduction in energy costs), and faster cycles times (less than 5 minutes). FastFuse™ is compatible with EVA, TPU, and PVB interlayers, and has been demonstrated for glass, plastics, and multi-material structures such as photovoltaics and transparent armor.

Shawn M. Allan; Patricia M. Strickland; Holly S. Shulman

2009-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

269

Glass Plates under Micro-indentation” Incorporation in Glass Ionomer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Effects of nanocrystalline calcium de?cient hydroxyapatite gnCDHAl incorporation in glass ..... K., Nishino, M., 2003. Toughness, bonding and ?uoride release.

270

DISCRETE TRANSPARENT BOUNDARY CONDITIONS FOR WIDE ANGLE PARABOLIC EQUATIONS IN UNDERWATER  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DISCRETE TRANSPARENT BOUNDARY CONDITIONS FOR WIDE ANGLE PARABOLIC EQUATIONS IN UNDERWATER ACOUSTICS "parabolic" equations (WAPEs) in underwater acoustics (assuming cylindrical symmetry). Existing the discretization of transparent bottom boundary conditions. In oceanography one wants to calculate the underwater

Ehrhardt, Matthias

271

Negative differential conductance in InAs wire based double quantum dot induced by a charged AFM tip  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We investigate the conductance of an InAs nanowire in the nonlinear regime in the case of low electron density where the wire is split into quantum dots connected in series. The negative differential conductance in the wire is initiated by means of a charged atomic force microscope tip adjusting the transparency of the tunneling barrier between two adjoining quantum dots. We confirm that the negative differential conductance arises due to the resonant tunneling between these two adjoining quantum dots. The influence of the transparency of the blocking barriers and the relative position of energy states in the adjoining dots on a decrease of the negative differential conductance is investigated in detail.

Zhukov, A. A., E-mail: azhukov@issp.ac.ru [Russian Academy of Science, Institute of Solid State Physics (Russian Federation); Volk, Ch.; Winden, A.; Hardtdegen, H.; Schaepers, Th. [Peter Gruenberg Institut (PGI-9) (Germany)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

272

WINDOW 5 Glass Library Update  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

WINDOW 6 or 7 Glass Library Update WINDOW 6 or 7 Glass Library Update Last update:12/09/13 07:26 PM Automatic IGDB Update Feature in WINDOW 6 and 7 The latest versions of WINDOW 6 and 7 have an automatic IGDB database update function in the Glass Library. When you first open the program, it checks to see if there is an IGDB version later than what you already have installed, and will notify you if there is an update. Then you can download and install the IGDB database, and click on the Update IGDB button in the Glass Library in order to start the automatic update. For older versions of WINDOW 6 and 7 without the automatic IGDB update function bullet How to Check the Current WINDOW5 IGDB Version bullet Updating the Glass Library bullet Problem Updating the Glass Library bullet Discontinued Records or Reused NFRC IDs

273

Corrosion testing of a plutonium-loaded lanthanide borosilicate glass made with Frit B.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Laboratory tests were conducted with a lanthanide borosilicate (LaBS) glass made with Frit B and added PuO2 (the glass is referred to herein as Pu LaBS-B glass) to measure the dependence of the glass dissolution rate on pH and temperature. These results are compared with the dependencies used in the Defense HLW Glass Degradation Model that was developed to account for HLW glasses in total system performance assessment (TSPA) calculations for the Yucca Mountain repository to determine if that model can also be used to represent the release of radionuclides from disposed Pu LaBS glass by using either the same parameter values that are used for HLW glasses or parameter values specific for Pu LaBS glass. Tests were conducted by immersing monolithic specimens of Pu LaBS-B glass in six solutions that imposed pH values between about pH 3.5 and pH 11, and then measuring the amounts of glass components released into solution. Tests were conducted at 40, 70, and 90 C for 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 days at low glass-surface-area-to-solution volume ratios. As intended, these test conditions maintained sufficiently dilute solutions that the impacts of solution feedback effects on the dissolution rates were negligible in most tests. The glass dissolution rates were determined from the concentrations of Si and B measured in the test solutions. The dissolution rates determined from the releases of Si and B were consistent with the 'V' shaped pH dependence that is commonly seen for borosilicate glasses and is included in the Defense HLW Glass Degradation Model. The rate equation in that model (using the coefficients determined for HLW glasses) provides values that are higher than the Pu LaBS-B glass dissolution rates that were measured over the range of pH and temperature values that were studied (i.e., an upper bound). Separate coefficients for the rate expression in acidic and alkaline solutions were also determined from the test results to model Pu LaBS-B glass dissolution directly. The releases of Gd, Hf, and Pu from the glass were also measured. The release of Pu was significantly less than Si at all temperatures and pH values (on a normalized basis). More Gd than Pu or Hf was released from the glass in acidic solutions, but more Pu than Gd or Hf was released in alkaline solutions. Almost all of the released Gd remained in solution in tests conducted in Teflon vessels, whereas about half of the released Pu and Hf became fixed to the Teflon. In tests conducted in Type 304L stainless steel vessels, most of the released Gd, Hf, and Pu became fixed to the steel. The aqueous concentrations of Gd, Hf, and Pu decreased from about 2 x 10{sup -5}, 2 x 10{sup -8}, and 1 x 10{sup -7} M in tests solutions near pH 3.7 to about 1 x 10{sup -9}, 8 x 10{sup -10}, and 1 x 10{sup -8} M in test solutions near pH 10.8, respectively, in the 90 C tests in Teflon vessels (the solutions were not filtered prior to analysis). Vapor hydration tests (VHTs) were conducted at 120 and 200 C with Pu LaBS-B glass and SRL 418 glass, which was made to represent the HLW glass that will be used to macro-encapsulate LaBS glass within the waste form. Some VHTs were conducted with specimens of Pu LaBS-B and SRL 418 glasses that were in contact to study the effect of the solution generated as HLW glass dissolves on the corrosion behavior of Pu LaBS-B glass. Other VHTs were conducted in which the glasses were not in contact. The Pu LaBS-B glass is more durable than the HLW glass under these accelerating test conditions, even when the glasses are in contact. The presence of the SRL 418 glass did not promote the dissolution of the Pu LaBS-B glass significantly. However, Gd, Hf, and Pu were detected in alteration phases formed on the Pu LaBS-B glass surface and in (or on) phases formed by SRL 418 glass degradation, such as analcime. This indicates that Gd, Hf, and Pu were transported from the LaBS glass, through the water film formed on the specimens, and to the SRL 418 glass during the test. The disposition of the PuO{sub 2} inclusion phases as the Pu LaBS-B glass dissolved was not det

Ebert, W. L.; Chemical Engineering

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

274

HEU Transparency Implementation Program and its Radiation Safety Program  

SciTech Connect

In February 1993, the Governments of the United States (U.S.) and the Russian Federation (R.F.) signed a bilateral Agreement for the U.S. purchase of low enriched uranium (LEU) derived from 500 metric tons (MT) of highly enriched uranium (HEU) resulting from the dismantlement of Russian nuclear weapons. The HEU Purchase Agreement serves important national security and nonproliferation policy imperatives for both countries since its implementation reduces the quantity of surplus Russian HEU that could be stolen and diverted for weapons use. In return, Russia receives much needed U.S. dollars over a 20-year delivery period. In 2001, Russia received over half a billion US dollars from the purchase of the LEU blended from 30 MT HEU. As part of this Agreement, transparency rights were agreed upon that provide confidence to both governments that the nonproliferation objectives of the Agreement are being fulfilled. While the U.S. Department of State, in concert with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) is responsible negotiating transparency rights associated with this nuclear material, the NNSA is responsible for implementing those rights. These rights allow U.S. and R.F., personnel (called ''monitors'') to visit the processing facilities and observe the steps for processing the HEU into fuel for nuclear reactors. In this fashion, the processing of HEU to LEU is made ''transparent.'' For DOE, there are three transparency objectives: (1) that the HEU is extracted from nuclear weapons, (2) that this same HEU is oxidized, and (3) that the HEU is blended into LEU. For MINATOM, the transparency objective is: (1) that the LEU is fabricated into fuel for commercial nuclear power reactors: The transparency is based on visits by designated transparency monitors (100 preapproved U.S. and Russian monitors) with specific rights to monitor and to access storage and processing areas to provide confidence that the nonproliferation goals of the agreement are met. The Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Transparency Implementation Program (TIP), within NNSA implements the transparency provisions of the bilateral agreement. It is constantly making progress towards meeting its objectives and gathering the information necessary to confirm that Russian weapons-usable HEU is being blended into LEU. Since the first shipment in 1995 through December 2001, a total of 141 MT of weapons-grade HEU, about 28% of the agreed total and equivalent to 5,650 nuclear weapons, was converted to LEU, further reducing the threat of this material returning back into nuclear weapons. In the year 2001, the LEU sold to electric utility customers for fuel was sufficient to supply the annual fuel needs for about 50 percent of the U.S. installed nuclear electrical power generation capacity. There are four primary uranium processing activities involved in converting HEU metal components extracted from dismantled nuclear weapons into fuel for power reactors: (1) Converting HEU metal to purified HEU oxide; (2) Converting purified HEU oxide to HEU hexafluoride; (3) Downblending HEU hexafluoride to LEU hexafluoride; and (4) Converting LEU hexafluoride into reactor fuel. The first three processes are currently being performed at four Russian nuclear processing facilities: Mayak Production Association (MPA), Electrochemical Plant (ECP), Siberian Chemical Enterprise (SChE), and Ural Electrochemical Integrated Plant (UEIP). Following the blending down of HEU, the LEU hexafluoride is loaded into industry, standard 30B cylinders at the downblending facilities and transported to St. Petersburg, Russia. From there the LEU is shipped by sea to the United States where it is converted into fuel to be used in nuclear power plants. There are six U.S. facilities processing LEU subject to the HEU purchase agreement: the Portsmouth uranium enrichment plant, Global Nuclear Fuel -America, Framatome-Lynchburg, Framatome-Richland, Westinghouse-Hematite, and Westinghouse Fuel Fabrication Facility.

Radev, R

2002-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

275

Highly conductive indium zinc oxide prepared by reactive magnetron cosputtering technique using indium and zinc metallic targets  

SciTech Connect

Zn-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} film is frequently deposited from an oxide target; but the use of metallic target is increasingly expected as preparing the film with comparable properties. This work aimed to prepare a highly conductive and transparent Zn-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin film on Corning Eagle{sup 2000} glass substrate by magnetron cosputtering method using indium and zinc targets. Structural characterization was performed using x-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The film had an amorphous structure when the film was prepared on an unheated substrate, but had an In{sub 2}O{sub 3} polycrystalline structure when the film was deposited on 150 and 300 deg. C substrates. The electrical properties of the film were greatly affected by annealing; the Zn-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} film had a low resistivity of 6.1x10{sup -4} {Omega} cm and an average transmittance of 81.7% when the film was deposited without substrate heating and followed a 600 deg. C annealing.

Tsai, T. K.; Chen, H. C.; Lee, J. H.; Huang, Y. Y.; Fang, J. S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Formosa University, Huwei, Yunlin 632, Taiwan (China); LinCo Technology, Taichung 407, Taiwan (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Formosa University, Huwei, Yunlin 632, Taiwan (China)

2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

276

Compositional threshold for Nuclear Waste Glass Durability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Within the composition space of glasses, a distinct threshold appears to exist that separates "good" glasses, i.e., those which are sufficiently durable, from "bad" glasses of a low durability. The objective of our research is to clarify the origin of this threshold by exploring the relationship between glass composition, glass structure and chemical durability around the threshold region.

Kruger, Albert A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Farooqi, Rahmatullah [Pohang Univ. of Science and Technology, (Korea, Republic of); Hrma, Pavel R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States), Pohang Univ. of Science and Technology, (Korea, Republic of)

2013-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

277

Method for heating a glass sheet  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for heating a glass sheet includes the steps of heating a glass sheet to a first predetermined temperature and applying microwave energy to the glass sheet to heat the glass sheet to at least a second predetermined temperature to allow the glass sheet to be formed. 5 figs.

Boaz, P.T.

1998-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

278

Method for heating a glass sheet  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for heating a glass sheet includes the steps of heating a glass sheet to a first predetermined temperature and applying microwave energy to the glass sheet to heat the glass sheet to at least a second predetermined temperature to allow the glass sheet to be formed.

Boaz, Premakaran Tucker (Livonia, MI)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Tesla: A Transparent, Extensible Session-Layer Framework for End-to-end Network Services  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Tesla: A Transparent, Extensible Session-Layer Framework for End-to-end Network Services by . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Arthur C. Smith Chairman, Department Committee on Graduate Students #12;2 #12;Tesla: A Transparent of these services, we describe Tesla, a transparent and extensible framework that allows session-layer services

280

TESLA: A Transparent, Extensible Session-Layer Architecture for End-to-end Network Services  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

TESLA: A Transparent, Extensible Session-Layer Architecture for End-to-end Network Services Jon describes TESLA, a transparent and extensible framework allowing session- layer services to be developed using a high-level flow- based abstraction. TESLA services can be deployed transparently using dynamic

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "glass transparent conductive" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Tesla: A Transparent, Extensible Session-Layer Framework for End-to-end Network Services  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Tesla: A Transparent, Extensible Session-Layer Framework for End-to-end Network Services by . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Arthur C. Smith Chairman, Department Committee on Graduate Students #12; 2 #12; Tesla: A Transparent of these services, we describe Tesla, a transparent and extensible framework that allows session-layer services

282

TESLA: A Transparent, Extensible Session-Layer Architecture for End-to-end Network Services  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

TESLA: A Transparent, Extensible Session-Layer Architecture for End-to-end Network Services Jon describes TESLA, a transparent and extensible framework allowing session- layer services to be developed using a high-level ¤ow- based abstraction. TESLA services can be deployed transparently using dynamic

283

POROUS WALL, HOLLOW GLASS MICROSPHERES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hollow Glass Microspheres (HGM) is not a new technology. All one has to do is go to the internet and Google{trademark} HGM. Anyone can buy HGM and they have a wide variety of uses. HGM are usually between 1 to 100 microns in diameter, although their size can range from 100 nanometers to 5 millimeters in diameter. HGM are used as lightweight filler in composite materials such as syntactic foam and lightweight concrete. In 1968 a patent was issued to W. Beck of the 3M{trademark} Company for 'Glass Bubbles Prepared by Reheating Solid Glass Particles'. In 1983 P. Howell was issued a patent for 'Glass Bubbles of Increased Collapse Strength' and in 1988 H. Marshall was issued a patent for 'Glass Microbubbles'. Now Google{trademark}, Porous Wall, Hollow Glass Microspheres (PW-HGMs), the key words here are Porous Wall. Almost every article has its beginning with the research done at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The Savannah River Site (SRS) where SRNL is located has a long and successful history of working with hydrogen and its isotopes for national security, energy, waste management and environmental remediation applications. This includes more than 30 years of experience developing, processing, and implementing special ceramics, including glasses for a variety of Department of Energy (DOE) missions. In the case of glasses, SRS and SRNL have been involved in both the science and engineering of vitreous or glass based systems. As a part of this glass experience and expertise, SRNL has developed a number of niches in the glass arena, one of which is the development of porous glass systems for a variety of applications. These porous glass systems include sol gel glasses, which include both xerogels and aerogels, as well as phase separated glass compositions, that can be subsequently treated to produce another unique type of porosity within the glass forms. The porous glasses can increase the surface area compared to 'normal glasses of a 1 to 2 order of magnitude, which can result in unique properties in areas such as hydrogen storage, gas transport, gas separations and purifications, sensors, global warming applications, new drug delivery systems and so on. One of the most interesting porous glass products that SRNL has developed and patented is Porous Wall, Hollow Glass Microspheres (PW-HGMs) that are being studied for many different applications. The European Patent Office (EPO) just recently notified SRS that the continuation-in-part patent application for the PW-HGMs has been accepted. The original patent, which was granted by the EPO on June 2, 2010, was validated in France, Germany and the United Kingdom. The microspheres produced are generally in the range of 2 to 100 microns, with a 1 to 2 micron wall. What makes the SRNL microspheres unique from all others is that the team in Figure 1 has found a way to induce and control porosity through the thin walls on a scale of 100 to 3000 {angstrom}. This is what makes the SRNL HW-HGMs one-of-a-kind, and is responsible for many of their unique properties and potential for various applications, including those in tritium storage, gas separations, H-storage for vehicles, and even a variety of new medical applications in the areas of drug delivery and MRI contrast agents. SRNL Hollow Glass Microspheres, and subsequent, Porous Wall, Hollow Glass Microspheres are fabricated using a flame former apparatus. Figure 2 is a schematic of the apparatus.

Sexton, W.

2012-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

284

Quinary metallic glass alloys  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

At least quinary alloys form metallic glass upon cooling below the glass transition temperature at a rate less than 10{sup 3}K/s. Such alloys comprise zirconium and/or hafnium in the range of 45 to 65 atomic percent, titanium and/or niobium in the range of 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, and aluminum and/or zinc in the range of 5 to 15 atomic percent. The balance of the alloy compositions comprise copper, iron, and cobalt and/or nickel. The composition is constrained such that the atomic percentage of iron is less than 10 percent. Further, the ratio of copper to nickel and/or cobalt is in the range of from 1:2 to 2:1. The alloy composition formula is: (Zr,Hf){sub a}(Al,Zn){sub b}(Ti,Nb){sub c}(Cu{sub x}Fe{sub y}(Ni,Co){sub z}){sub d} wherein the constraints upon the formula are: a ranges from 45 to 65 atomic percent, b ranges from 5 to 15 atomic percent, c ranges from 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, d comprises the balance, d{hor_ellipsis}y is less than 10 atomic percent, and x/z ranges from 0.5 to 2.

Lin, X.; Johnson, W.L.

1998-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

285

Quinary metallic glass alloys  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

At least quinary alloys form metallic glass upon cooling below the glass transition temperature at a rate less than 10.sup.3 K/s. Such alloys comprise zirconium and/or hafnium in the range of 45 to 65 atomic percent, titanium and/or niobium in the range of 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, and aluminum and/or zinc in the range of 5 to 15 atomic percent. The balance of the alloy compositions comprise copper, iron, and cobalt and/or nickel. The composition is constrained such that the atomic percentage of iron is less than 10 percent. Further, the ratio of copper to nickel and/or cobalt is in the range of from 1:2 to 2:1. The alloy composition formula is: (Zr,Hf).sub.a (Al,Zn).sub.b (Ti,Nb).sub.c (Cu.sub.x Fe.sub.y (Ni,Co).sub.z).sub.d wherein the constraints upon the formula are: a ranges from 45 to 65 atomic percent, b ranges from 5 to 15 atomic percent, c ranges from 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, d comprises the balance, d.multidot.y is less than 10 atomic percent, and x/z ranges from 0.5 to 2.

Lin, Xianghong (Pasadena, CA); Johnson, William L. (Pasadena, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Transparent Prices for Municipal Water: Impact of Pricing and Billing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Transparent Prices for Municipal Water: Impact of Pricing and Billing Transparent Prices for Municipal Water: Impact of Pricing and Billing Practices on Residential Water Use Speaker(s): Sylvestre Gaudin Date: November 29, 2004 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: John Busch Jr. Economic Research shows overwhelmingly that residential consumers do not pay much attention to price changes when they make decisions about water use. This weak price sensitivity is often attributed to the intrinsic nature of water as a necessity. However, a large part of water use is the result of choices that could easily be altered without affecting basic welfare. Economic theory points to at least two other reasons why consumers would not be responsive to price changes for water use: the fact that water bills constitute a small portion of their budgets, and the fact that price

287

Compound transparent ceramics and methods of preparation thereof  

SciTech Connect

According to one embodiment, a method for forming a composite transparent ceramic preform includes forming a first suspension of oxide particles in a first solvent which includes a first dispersant but does not include a gelling agent, adding the first suspension to a first mold of a desired shape, and uniformly curing the first suspension in the first mold until stable. The method also includes forming a second suspension of oxide particles in a second solvent which includes a second dispersant but does not include a gelling agent, adding the second suspension to the stable first suspension in a second mold of a desired shape encompassing the first suspension and the second suspension, and uniformly curing the second suspension in the second mold until stable. Other methods for forming a composite transparent ceramic preform are also described according to several other embodiments. Structures are also disclosed.

Hollingsworth, Joel P.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Soules, Thomas F.; Landingham, Richard L.

2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

288

2004 Annual Health Physics Report for the HEU Transparency Program  

SciTech Connect

During the 2004 calendar year, LLNL provided health physics support for the Highly Enriched Uranium Transparency Implementation Program (HEU-TIP) in external and internal radiation protection and technical expertise into matters related to BDMS radioactive sources and Russian radiation safety regulatory compliance. For the calendar year 2004, there were 200 person-trips that required dose monitoring of the U.S. monitors. Of the 200 person-trips, 183 person-trips were SMVs and 17 person-trips were Transparency Monitoring Office (TMO) trips. Eight person-trips from the SMV trips were continuation trips of TMO monitors to facilities other than UEIP. The LLNL Safety Laboratories' Division provided the dosimetry services for the HEU-TIP monitors.

Radev, R

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

2005 Annual Health Physics Report for HEU Transparency Program  

SciTech Connect

During the 2005 calendar year, LLNL provided health physics support for the Highly Enriched Uranium Transparency Program (HEU-TP) in external and internal radiation protection and technical expertise into matters related to BDMS radioactive sources and Russian radiation safety regulatory compliance. For the calendar year 2005, there were 161 person-trips that required dose monitoring of the U.S. monitors. Of the 161 person-trips, 149 person-trips were SMVs and 12 person-trips were Transparency Monitoring Office (TMO) trips. Additionally, there were 11 monitoring visits by TMO monitors to facilities other than UEIE and 3 to UEIE itself. There were two monitoring visits (source changes) that were back to back with 16 monitors. Each of these concurring visits were treated as single person-trips for dosimetry purposes. Counted individually, there were 191 individual person-visits in 2005. The LLNL Safety Laboratories Division provided the dosimetry services for the HEU-TP monitors.

Radev, R

2006-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

290

Glass Formulation Development for INEEL Sodium-Bearing Waste  

SciTech Connect

For about four decades, radioactive wastes have been collected and calcined from nuclear fuels reprocessing at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), formerly Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Over this time span, secondary radioactive wastes have also been collected and stored as liquid from decontamination, laboratory activities, and fuel-storage activities. These liquid wastes are collectively called sodium-bearing wastes (SBW). About 5.7 million liters of these wastes are temporarily stored in stainless steel tanks at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Vitrification is being considered as an immobilization step for SBW with a number of treatment and disposal options. A systematic study was undertaken to develop a glass composition to demonstrate direct vitrification of INEEL's SBW. The objectives of this study were to show the feasibility of SBW vitrification, not a development of an optimum formulation. The waste composition is relatively high in sodium, aluminum, and sulfur. A specific composition and glass property restrictions, discussed in Section 2, were used as a basis for the development. Calculations based on first-order expansions of selected glass properties in composition and some general tenets of glass chemistry led to an additive (fit) composition (68.69 mass % SiO{sub 2}, 14.26 mass% B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 11.31 mass% Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 3.08 mass% TiO{sub 2}, and 2.67 mass % Li{sub 2}O) that meets all property restrictions when melted with 35 mass % of SBW on an oxide basis, The glass was prepared using oxides, carbonates, and boric acid and tested to confirm the acceptability of its properties. Glass was then made using waste simulant at three facilities, and limited testing was performed to test and optimize processing-related properties and confirm results of glass property testing. The measured glass properties are given in Section 4. The viscosity at 1150 C, 5 Pa{center_dot}s, is nearly ideal for waste-glass processing in a standard liquid-fed joule-heated melter. The normalized elemental releases by 7-day PCT are all well below 1 g/m{sup 2}, which is a very conservative set point used in this study. The T{sub L}, ignoring sulfate formation, is less than the 1050 C limit. Based on these observations and the reasonable waste loading of 35 mass 0/0, the SBW glass was a prime candidate for further testing. Sulfate salt segregation was observed in all test melts formed from oxidized carbonate precursors. Melts fabricated using SBW simulants suggest that the sulfate-salt segregation seen in oxide and carbonate melts was much less of a problem. The cause for the difference is likely H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} fuming during the boil-down stage of wet-slurry processing. Additionally, some crucible tests with SBW simulant were conducted at higher temperatures (1250 C), which could increase the volatility of sulfate salts. The fate of sulfate during the melting process is still uncertain and should be the topic of future studies. The properties of the simulant glass confirmed those of the oxide and carbonate glass. Corrosion tests on Inconel 690 electrodes and K-3 refractory blocks conducted at INEEL suggest that the glass is not excessively corrosive. Based on the results of this study, the authors recommend that a glass made of 35% SBW simulant (on a mass oxide and halide basis) and 65% of the additive mix (either filled or raw chemical) be used in demonstrating the direct vitrification of INEEL SBW. It is further recommended that a study be conducted to determine the fate of sulfate during glass processing and the tolerance of the chosen melter technology to sulfate salt segregation and corrosivity of the melt.

J.D. Vienna; M.J. Schweiger; D.E. Smith; H.D. Smith; J.V. Crum; D.K. Peeler; I.A. Reamer; C.A. Musick; R.D. Tillotson

1999-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

291

Glass Formulation Development for INEEL Sodium-Bearing Waste  

SciTech Connect

For about four decades, radioactive wastes have been collected and calcined from nuclear fuels reprocessing at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), formerly Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Over this time span, secondary radioactive wastes have also been collected and stored as liquid from decontamination, laboratory activities, and fuel-storage activities. These liquid wastes are collectively called sodium-bearing wastes (SBW). About 5.7 million liters of these wastes are temporarily stored in stainless steel tanks at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Vitrification is being considered as an immobilization step for SBW with a number of treatment and disposal options. A systematic study was undertaken to develop a glass composition to demonstrate direct vitrification of INEEL's SBW. The objectives of this study were to show the feasibility of SBW vitrification, not a development of an optimum formulation. The waste composition is relatively high in sodium, aluminum, and sulfur. A specific composition and glass property restrictions, discussed in Section 2, were used as a basis for the development. Calculations based on first-order expansions of selected glass properties in composition and some general tenets of glass chemistry led to an additive (fit) composition (68.69 mass % SiO{sub 2}, 14.26 mass% B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 11.31 mass% Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 3.08 mass% TiO{sub 2}, and 2.67 mass % Li{sub 2}O) that meets all property restrictions when melted with 35 mass % of SBW on an oxide basis, The glass was prepared using oxides, carbonates, and boric acid and tested to confirm the acceptability of its properties. Glass was then made using waste simulant at three facilities, and limited testing was performed to test and optimize processing-related properties and confirm results of glass property testing. The measured glass properties are given in Section 4. The viscosity at 1150 C, 5 Pa{center_dot}s, is nearly ideal for waste-glass processing in a standard liquid-fed joule-heated melter. The normalized elemental releases by 7-day PCT are all well below 1 g/m{sup 2}, which is a very conservative set point used in this study. The T{sub L}, ignoring sulfate formation, is less than the 1050 C limit. Based on these observations and the reasonable waste loading of 35 mass 0/0, the SBW glass was a prime candidate for further testing. Sulfate salt segregation was observed in all test melts formed from oxidized carbonate precursors. Melts fabricated using SBW simulants suggest that the sulfate-salt segregation seen in oxide and carbonate melts was much less of a problem. The cause for the difference is likely H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} fuming during the boil-down stage of wet-slurry processing. Additionally, some crucible tests with SBW simulant were conducted at higher temperatures (1250 C), which could increase the volatility of sulfate salts. The fate of sulfate during the melting process is still uncertain and should be the topic of future studies. The properties of the simulant glass confirmed those of the oxide and carbonate glass. Corrosion tests on Inconel 690 electrodes and K-3 refractory blocks conducted at INEEL suggest that the glass is not excessively corrosive. Based on the results of this study, the authors recommend that a glass made of 35% SBW simulant (on a mass oxide and halide basis) and 65% of the additive mix (either filled or raw chemical) be used in demonstrating the direct vitrification of INEEL SBW. It is further recommended that a study be conducted to determine the fate of sulfate during glass processing and the tolerance of the chosen melter technology to sulfate salt segregation and corrosivity of the melt.

J.D. Vienna; M.J. Schweiger; D.E. Smith; H.D. Smith; J.V. Crum; D.K. Peeler; I.A. Reamer; C.A. Musick; R.D. Tillotson

1999-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

292

Three Successful Tests of Color Transparency and Nuclear Filtering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We review the theoretical formalism for hard exclusive processes in a nuclear medium. Theory suggests that these processes will show the very interesting phenomena of color transparency and nuclear filtering. The survival probability in nuclear media has also been predicted to show a scaling behavior at large momentum and large nuclear number. We show that all of these effects may have already been seen experimentally.

Pankaj Jain; John P. Ralston

1993-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

293

Correlated Quantum Memory: Manipulating Atomic Entanglement via Electromagnetically Induced Transparency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose a feasible scheme of quantum state storage and manipulation via electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in flexibly $united$ multi-ensembles of three-level atoms. For different atomic array configurations, one can properly steer the signal and the control lights to generate different forms of atomic entanglement within the framework of linear optics. These results shed new light on designing the versatile quantum memory devices by using, e.g., an atomic grid.

H. Jing; X. -J. Liu; M. -L. Ge; M. -S. Zhan

2004-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

294

Single step channeling in glass interior by femtosecond laser  

SciTech Connect

Channeling inside a transparent material, glass, by femtosecond laser was performed by using a single step process rather than hybrid processes that combine the laser irradiation with an additional tool or step to remove the material. Tightly focusing of a single femtosecond laser pulse using proper optical and laser processing parameters could induce the micro-explosion and could create voids inside transparent materials, and the effects of these parameters on the resultant feature geometry and channel length were studied. Understanding of the channel length variation at different locations from the specimen surface could enhance prediction capability. Taking into account of the laser, material, and lens properties, numerical models were developed to predict the absorption volume shape and size at different focusing depths below the surface of a specimen. These models will also be validated with the variation in feature and channel lengths inside the specimen obtained from the experiments. Spacing between adjacent laser pulses and laser parameters was varied to investigate effects of channel overlapping and its influence on long channel formation.

Kongsuwan, Panjawat; Wang Hongliang; Lawrence Yao, Y. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

295

Holder for rotating glass body  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device is provided for holding and centering a rotating glass body such as a rod or tube. The device includes a tubular tip holder which may be held in a lathe chuck. The device can utilize a variety of centering tips each adapted for a particular configuration, such as a glass O-ring joint or semi-ball joint.

Kolleck, Floyd W. (Clarendon Hills, IL)

1978-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

296

Method of determining glass durability  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for determining one or more leachate concentrations of one or more components of a glass composition in an aqueous solution of the glass composition by identifying the components of the glass composition, including associated oxides, determining a preliminary glass dissolution estimator, {Delta}G{sub p}, based upon the free energies of hydration for the component reactant species, determining an accelerated glass dissolution function, {Delta}G{sub a}, based upon the free energy associated with weak acid dissociation, {Delta}G{sub a}{sup WA}, and accelerated matrix dissolution at high pH, {Delta}G{sub a}{sup SB} associated with solution strong base formation, and determining a final hydration free energy, {Delta}G{sub f}. This final hydration free energy is then used to determine leachate concentrations for elements of interest using a regression analysis and the formula log{sub 10}(N C{sub i}(g/L))=a{sub i} + b{sub i}{Delta}G{sub f}. The present invention also includes a method to determine whether a particular glass to be produced will be homogeneous or phase separated. The present invention is also directed to methods of monitoring and controlling processes for making glass using these determinations to modify the feedstock materials until a desired glass durability and homogeneity is obtained. 4 figs.

Jantzen, C.M.; Pickett, J.B.; Brown, K.G.; Edwards, T.B.

1998-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

297

Method of determining glass durability  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for determining one or more leachate concentrations of one or more components of a glass composition in an aqueous solution of the glass composition by identifying the components of the glass composition, including associated oxides, determining a preliminary glass dissolution estimator, .DELTA.G.sub.p, based upon the free energies of hydration for the component reactant species, determining an accelerated glass dissolution function, .DELTA.G.sub.a, based upon the free energy associated with weak acid dissociation, .DELTA.G.sub.a.sup.WA, and accelerated matrix dissolution at high pH, .DELTA.G.sub.a.sup.SB associated with solution strong base formation, and determining a final hydration free energy, .DELTA.G.sub.f. This final hydration free energy is then used to determine leachate concentrations for elements of interest using a regression analysis and the formula log.sub.10 (N C.sub.i (g/L))=a.sub.i +b.sub.i .DELTA.G.sub.f. The present invention also includes a method to determine whether a particular glass to be produced will be homogeneous or phase separated. The present invention is also directed to methods of monitoring and controlling processes for making glass using these determinations to modify the feedstock materials until a desired glass durability and homogeneity is obtained.

Jantzen, Carol Maryanne (Aiken, SC); Pickett, John Butler (Aiken, SC); Brown, Kevin George (Augusta, GA); Edwards, Thomas Barry (Aiken, SC)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Unusually Stable Glasses May Benefit Drugs, Coatings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... glass is more apt to convert to a low-energy crystalline order ... to study how molecules diffuse during subsequent annealing of the two types of glass ...

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Lead phosphate glass compositions for optical components  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A lead phosphate glass to which has been added indium oxide or scandium oe to improve chemical durability and provide a lead phosphate glass with good optical properties.

Sales, Brian C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Boatner, Lynn A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Compositional Study of Neutron Detecting Glasses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The current study involves the production and characterization of glass with high concentrations of Gd2O3 in various oxide glass formers, and containing one of ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "glass transparent conductive" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Laboratory Equipment - Ace Glass UV Photochemistry Safety ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Specifications / Capabilities: UV Photchemistry Safety Cabinet Ace Glass Cat. Number 7836-20. ... Power Supply Ace Glass Cat. Number 7830-60. ...

2013-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

302

Glass science tutorial: Lecture No. 7, Waste glass technology for Hanford  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the details of the waste glass tutorial session that was held to promote knowledge of waste glass technology and how this can be used at the Hanford Reservation. Topics discussed include: glass properties; statistical approach to glass development; processing properties of nuclear waste glass; glass composition and the effects of composition on durability; model comparisons of free energy of hydration; LLW glass structure; glass crystallization; amorphous phase separation; corrosion of refractories and electrodes in waste glass melters; and glass formulation for maximum waste loading.

Kruger, A.A.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Database and Interim Glass Property Models for Hanford HLW Glasses  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to provide a methodology for an increase in the efficiency and a decrease in the cost of vitrifying high-level waste (HLW) by optimizing HLW glass formulation. This methodology consists in collecting and generating a database of glass properties that determine HLW glass processability and acceptability and relating these properties to glass composition. The report explains how the property-composition models are developed, fitted to data, used for glass formulation optimization, and continuously updated in response to changes in HLW composition estimates and changes in glass processing technology. Further, the report reviews the glass property-composition literature data and presents their preliminary critical evaluation and screening. Finally the report provides interim property-composition models for melt viscosity, for liquidus temperature (with spinel and zircon primary crystalline phases), and for the product consistency test normalized releases of B, Na, and Li. Models were fitted to a subset of the screened database deemed most relevant for the current HLW composition region.

Hrma, Pavel R.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Vienna, John D.; Cooley, Scott K.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Russell, Renee L.

2001-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

304

Integrated Disposal Facility FY2010 Glass Testing Summary Report  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was contracted by Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC to provide the technical basis for estimating radionuclide release from the engineered portion of the disposal facility (e.g., source term). Vitrifying the low-activity waste at Hanford is expected to generate over 1.6 × 105 m3 of glass (Puigh 1999). The volume of immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) at Hanford is the largest in the DOE complex and is one of the largest inventories (approximately 0.89 × 1018 Bq total activity) of long-lived radionuclides, principally 99Tc (t1/2 = 2.1 × 105), planned for disposal in a low-level waste (LLW) facility. Before the ILAW can be disposed, DOE must conduct a performance assessement (PA) for the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) that describes the long-term impacts of the disposal facility on public health and environmental resources. As part of the ILAW glass testing program PNNL is implementing a strategy, consisting of experimentation and modeling, in order to provide the technical basis for estimating radionuclide release from the glass waste form in support of future IDF PAs. The purpose of this report is to summarize the progress made in fiscal year (FY) 2010 toward implementing the strategy with the goal of developing an understanding of the long-term corrosion behavior of low-activity waste glasses. The emphasis in FY2010 was the completing an evaluation of the most sensitive kinetic rate law parameters used to predict glass weathering, documented in Bacon and Pierce (2010), and transitioning from the use of the Subsurface Transport Over Reactive Multi-phases to Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases computer code for near-field calculations. The FY2010 activities also consisted of developing a Monte Carlo and Geochemical Modeling framework that links glass composition to alteration phase formation by 1) determining the structure of unreacted and reacted glasses for use as input information into Monte Carlo calculations, 2) compiling the solution data and alteration phases identified from accelerated weathering tests conducted with ILAW glass by PNNL and Viteous State Laboratory/Catholic University of America as well as other literature sources for use in geochemical modeling calculations, and 3) conducting several initial calculations on glasses that contain the four major components of ILAW-Al2O3, B2O3, Na2O, and SiO2.

Pierce, Eric M.; Bacon, Diana H.; Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Windisch, Charles F.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Burton, Sarah D.; Serne, R Jeffrey; Mattigod, Shas V.

2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

305

Heat transfer simulation and thermal measurements of microfabricated x-ray transparent heater stages  

SciTech Connect

A microfabricated amorphous silicon nitride membrane-based nanocalorimeter is proposed to be suitable for an x-ray transparent sample platform with low power heating and built-in temperature sensing. In this work, thermal characterization in both air and vacuum are analyzed experimentally and via simulation. Infrared microscopy and thermoreflectance microscopy are used for thermal imaging of the sample area in air. While a reasonably large isothermal area is found on the sample area, the temperature homogeneity of the entire sample area is low, limiting use of the device as a heater stage in air or other gases. A simulation model that includes conduction, as well as radiation and convection heat loss, is presented with radiation and convection parameters determined experimentally. Simulated temperature distributions show that the homogeneity can be improved by using a thicker thermal conduction layer or reducing the pressure of the gas in the environment but neither are good solutions for the proposed use. A new simple design that has improved temperature homogeneity and a larger isothermal area while maintaining a thin thermal conduction layer is proposed and fabricated. This new design enables applications in transmission x-ray microscopes and spectroscopy setups at atmospheric pressure.

Baldasseroni, C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Queen, D. R.; Cooke, David W.; Hellman, F. [Department of Physics, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Maize, K.; Shakouri, A. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California 95064 (United States)

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

306

Feasibility Study of Using High-Temperature Raman Spectroscopy for On-Line Monitoring and Product Control of the Glass Vitrification Process  

SciTech Connect

A pulse-gating Raman spectroscopy setup was developed in this project. The setup was capable of performing in-situ high-temperature Raman measurements for glasses at temperatures as high as 1412 C. In the literature, high-temperature Raman measurements have only been performed on thin films of glass to minimize black-body radiation effects. The pulse-gating Raman setup allows making high-temperature measurements for bulk melts while effectively minimizing black-body radiation effects. A good correlation was found between certain Raman characteristic parameters and glass melt temperature for sodium silicate glasses measured in this project. Comparisons were made between the high-temperature Raman data from this study and literature data. The results suggest that an optimization of the pulse-gating Raman setup is necessary to further improve data quality (i.e., to obtain data with a higher signal-to-noise ratio). An W confocal Raman microspectrometer with continuous wave laser excitation using a 325 nm excitation line was evaluated selectively using a transparent silicate glass ad a deep-colored high-level waste glass in a bulk quantity. The data were successfully collected at temperatures as high as approximately 1500 C. The results demonstrated that the UV excitation line can be used for high-temperature Raman measurements of molten glasses without black-body radiation interference from the melt for both transparent and deep-color glasses. Further studies are needed to select the best laser system that can be used to develop high-temperature Raman glass databases.

Windisch, C.F. Jr.; Piepel, G.F.; Li, H.; Elliott, M.L.; Su, Y.

1999-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

307

Round-robin testing of a reference glass for low-activity waste forms  

SciTech Connect

A round robin test program was conducted with a glass that was developed for use as a standard test material for acceptance testing of low-activity waste glasses made with Hanford tank wastes. The glass is referred to as the low-activity test reference material (LRM). The program was conducted to measure the interlaboratory reproducibility of composition analysis and durability test results. Participants were allowed to select the methods used to analyze the glass composition. The durability tests closely followed the Product Consistency Test (PCT) Method A, except that tests were conducted at both 40 and 90 C and that parallel tests with a reference glass were not required. Samples of LRM glass that had been crushed, sieved, and washed to remove fines were provided to participants for tests and analyses. The reproducibility of both the composition and PCT results compare favorably with the results of interlaboratory studies conducted with other glasses. From the perspective of reproducibility of analysis results, this glass is acceptable for use as a composition standard for nonradioactive components of low-activity waste forms present at >0.1 elemental mass % and as a test standard for PCTS at 40 and 90 C. For PCT with LRM glass, the expected test results at the 95% confidence level are as follows: (1) at 40 C: pH = 9.86 {+-} 0.96; [B] = 2.30 {+-} 1.25 mg/L; [Na] = 19.7 {+-} 7.3 mg/L; [Si] = 13.7 {+-} 4.2 mg/L; and (2) at 90 C: pH = 10.92 {+-} 0.43; [B] = 26.7 {+-} 7.2 mg/L; [Na] = 160 {+-} 13 mg/L; [Si] = 82.0 {+-} 12.7 mg/L. These ranges can be used to evaluate the accuracy of PCTS conducted at other laboratories.

Ebert, W. L.; Wolf, S. F.

1999-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

308

GLASS COMPOSITION-TCLP RESPONSE MODEL FOR WASTE GLASSES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A first-order property model for normalized Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) release as a function of glass composition was developed using data collected from various studies. The normalized boron release is used to estimate the release of toxic elements based on the observation that the boron release represents the conservative release for those constituents of interest. The current TCLP model has two targeted application areas: (1) delisting of waste-glass product as radioactive (not mixed) waste and (2) designating the glass wastes generated from waste-glass research activities as hazardous or non-hazardous. This paper describes the data collection and model development for TCLP releases and discusses the issues related to the application of the model.

Kim, Dong-Sang; Vienna, John D.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Method for manufacturing glass frit  

SciTech Connect

A method of manufacturing a glass frit for use in the manufacture of uniform glass microspheres to serve as containers for laser fusion fuel to be exposed to laser energy which includes the formation of a glass gel which is then dried, pulverized, and very accurately sized to particles in a range of, for example, 125 to 149 micrometers. The particles contain an occluded material such as urea which expands when heated. The sized particles are washed, dried, and subjected to heat to control the moisture content prior to being introduced into a system to form microspheres.

Budrick, Ronald G. (Ann Arbor, MI); King, Frank T. (Hillsboro, OR); Nolen, Jr., Robert L. (Ann Arbor, MI); Solomon, David E. (Ann Arbor, MI)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Code of Conduct  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Governance » Governance » Ethics, Accountability » Code of Conduct Code of Conduct Helping employees recognize and resolve the ethics and compliance issues that may arise in their daily work. Contact Code of Conduct (505) 667-7506 Code of Conduct LANL is committed to operating in accordance with the highest standards of ethics and compliance and with its core values of service to our nation, ethical conduct and personal accountability, excellence in our work, and mutual respect and teamwork. LANL must demonstrate to customers and the public that the Laboratory is accountable for its actions and that it conducts business in a trustworthy manner. What is LANL's Code of Conduct? Charlie McMillan 1:46 Laboratory Director Charlie McMillan introduces the code LANL's Code of Conduct is designed to help employees recognize and

311

Conductance fluctuations in chaotic systems with tunnel barriers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Quantum effects are expected to disappear in the short-wavelength, semiclassical limit. As a matter of fact, recent investigations of transport through quantum chaotic systems have demonstrated the exponential suppression of the weak localization corrections to the conductance and of the Fano factor for shot-noise when the Ehrenfest time exceeds the electronic dwell time. On the other hand, conductance fluctuations, an effect of quantum coherence, retain their universal value in the limit of the ratio of Ehrenfest time over dwell time to infinity, when the system is ideally coupled to external leads. Motivated by this intriguing result we investigate conductance fluctuations through quantum chaotic cavities coupled to external leads via (tunnel) barriers of arbitrary transparency. Using the trajectory-based semiclassical theory of transport, we find a linear Ehrenfest time-dependence of the conductance variance showing a nonmonotonous, sinusoidal behavior as a function of the transperancy. Most notably, we find an increase of the conductance fluctuations with the Ehrenfest time, above their universal value, for the transparency less than 0.5. These results, confirmed by numerical simulations, show that, contrarily to the common wisdom, effects of quantum coherence may increase in the semiclassical limit, under special circumstances.

Daniel Waltner; Jack Kuipers; Philippe Jacquod; Klaus Richter

2011-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

312

Control of Test Conduct  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2 Revision 1 Effective June 2008 Control of Test Conduct Prepared by Electric Transportation Applications Prepared by: Date: Garrett P....

313

A framework and methodology for nuclear fuel cycle transparency.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A key objective to the global deployment of nuclear technology is maintaining transparency among nation-states and international communities. By providing an environment in which to exchange scientific and technological information regarding nuclear technology, the safe and legitimate use of nuclear material and technology can be assured. Many nations are considering closed or multiple-application nuclear fuel cycles and are subsequently developing advanced reactors in an effort to obtain some degree of energy self-sufficiency. Proliferation resistance features that prevent theft or diversion of nuclear material and reduce the likelihood of diversion from the civilian nuclear power fuel cycle are critical for a global nuclear future. IAEA Safeguards have been effective in minimizing opportunities for diversion; however, recent changes in the global political climate suggest implementation of additional technology and methods to ensure the prompt detection of proliferation. For a variety of reasons, nuclear facilities are becoming increasingly automated and will require minimum manual operation. This trend provides an opportunity to utilize the abundance of process information for monitoring proliferation risk, especially in future facilities. A framework that monitors process information continuously can lead to greater transparency of nuclear fuel cycle activities and can demonstrate the ability to resist proliferation associated with these activities. Additionally, a framework designed to monitor processes will ensure the legitimate use of nuclear material. This report describes recent efforts to develop a methodology capable of assessing proliferation risk in support of overall plant transparency. The framework may be tested at the candidate site located in Japan: the Fuel Handling Training Model designed for the Monju Fast Reactor at the International Cooperation and Development Training Center of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency.

McClellan, Yvonne; York, David L.; Inoue, Naoko (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki, Japan); Love, Tracia L.; Rochau, Gary Eugene

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Combined Experimental and Computational Approach to Predict the Glass-Water Reaction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of mineral and glass dissolution rates measured in laboratory experiments to predict the weathering of primary minerals and volcanic and nuclear waste glasses in field studies requires the construction of rate models that accurately describe the weathering process over geologic timescales. Additionally, the need to model the long-term behavior of nuclear waste glass for the purpose of estimating radionuclide release rates requires that rate models be validated with long-term experiments. Several long-term test methods have been developed to accelerate the glass-water reaction [drip test, vapor hydration test, product consistency test B, and pressurized unsaturated flow (PUF)], thereby reducing the duration required to evaluate long-term performance. Currently, the PUF test is the only method that mimics the unsaturated hydraulic properties expected in a subsurface disposal facility and simultaneously monitors the glass-water reaction. PUF tests are being conducted to accelerate the weathering of glass and validate the model parameters being used to predict long-term glass behavior. A one-dimensional reactive chemical transport simulation of glass dissolution and secondary phase formation during a 1.5-year-long PUF experiment was conducted with the Subsurface Transport Over Reactive Multiphases (STORM) code. Results show that parameterization of the computer model by combining direct bench scale laboratory measurements and thermodynamic data provides an integrated approach to predicting glass behavior over the length of the experiment. Over the 1.5-year-long test duration, the rate decreased from 0.2 to 0.01 g/(m2 day) based on B release for low-activity waste glass LAWA44. The observed decrease is approximately two orders of magnitude higher than the decrease observed under static conditions with the SON68 glass (estimated to be a decrease by four orders of magnitude) and suggests that the gel-layer properties are less protective under these dynamic conditions.

Pierce, Eric M.; Bacon, Diana H.

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Standard test methods for determining chemical durability of nuclear, hazardous, and mixed waste glasses and multiphase glass ceramics: The product consistency test (PCT)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1.1 These product consistency test methods A and B evaluate the chemical durability of homogeneous glasses, phase separated glasses, devitrified glasses, glass ceramics, and/or multiphase glass ceramic waste forms hereafter collectively referred to as “glass waste forms” by measuring the concentrations of the chemical species released to a test solution. 1.1.1 Test Method A is a seven-day chemical durability test performed at 90 ± 2°C in a leachant of ASTM-Type I water. The test method is static and conducted in stainless steel vessels. Test Method A can specifically be used to evaluate whether the chemical durability and elemental release characteristics of nuclear, hazardous, and mixed glass waste forms have been consistently controlled during production. This test method is applicable to radioactive and simulated glass waste forms as defined above. 1.1.2 Test Method B is a durability test that allows testing at various test durations, test temperatures, mesh size, mass of sample, leachant volume, a...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Glass in 21st Century  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 19, 2011 ... This presentation is an overview of the findings from the June 21-22, 2010 American Ceramic Society Leadership Summit ... Borosilicate Glasses: Steve W. Martin1; Randi Christensen1; Garrett Olson1; 1Iowa State University

317

Thermal insulation of window glass  

SciTech Connect

The thermal insulation of window glass can be increased by a factor of two using spray-on semiconductive SnO/sub 2/: Sb or IN/sub 2/O/sub 3/: Sn coatings. (auth)

Sievers, A.J.

1973-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Fast Crystals and Strong Glasses  

SciTech Connect

This talk describes new results on model colloid systems that provide insight into the behavior of fundamental problems in colloid physics, and more generally, for other materials as well. By visualizing the nucleation and growth of colloid crystals, we find that the incipient crystallites are much more disordered than expected, leading to a larger diversity of crystal morphologies. When the entropic contribution of these diverse morphologies is included in the free energy, we are able to describe the behavior very well, and can predict the nucleation rate surprisingly accurately. The talk also describes the glass transition in deformable colloidal particles, and will show that when the internal elasticity of the particles is included, the colloidal glass transition mimics that of molecular glass formers much more completely. These results also suggest that the elasticity at the scale of the fundamental unit, either colloid particle or molecule, determines the nature of the glass transition, as described by the "fragility."

Weitz, David [Harvard

2009-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

319

CONDUCT OF OPERATIONS (CO)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

CONDUCT OF OPERATIONS (CO) CONDUCT OF OPERATIONS (CO) OBJECTIVE TA-55 SST Facility NNSA ORR Implementation Plan 1 1 CO.1 The formality and discipline of operations is adequate to conduct work safely and programs are inplace to maintain this formality and discipline. (Core Requirement 13) Criteria 1. Programmatic elements of conduct of operations are in place for TA-55 SST operations. 2. The TA-55 SST operations personnel adequately demonstrate the principles of conduct ofoperations requirements during the shift performance period. Approach Record Reviews: Review procedures and other facility documents to verify compliance with conduct of operations principles. Interviews: Interview a sampling of the TA-55 SST associated personnel to validate their understanding of the conduct of operations principles (e.g., procedure usage,

320

First-order study of property/composition relationships for Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant glasses  

SciTech Connect

A first-order composition variability study (CVS-I) was conducted for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) program to preliminarily characterize the effects on key glass properties of variations i selected glass (waste and frit) components. The components selected were Si0{sub 2},B{sub 2}O{sub 3},A1{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ZrO{sub 2}, Na{sub 2}O,Li{sub 2}O,CaO,MgO, and Others (all remaining waste components). A glass composition region was selected for study based on the expected range of glass compositions and the results of a previous series of scoping and solubility studies. Then, a 23-glass statistically-designed mixture experiment was conducted and data obtained for viscosity, electrical conductivity, glass transition temperature, thermal expansion, crystallinity, and durability [Materials Characterization Center (MCC-1) 28-day leach test and the 7-day Product Consistency Test (PCT)]. These data were modeled using first-order functions of composition, and the models were used to investigate the effects of the components on glass and melt properties. The CVS-I data and models will also be used to support the second-order composition variability study (CVS-II).

Piepel, G.F.; Hrma, P.R.; Bates, S.O.; Schweiger, M.J.; Smith, D.E.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "glass transparent conductive" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

First-order study of property/composition relationships for Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant glasses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A first-order composition variability study (CVS-I) was conducted for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) program to preliminarily characterize the effects on key glass properties of variations i selected glass (waste and frit) components. The components selected were Si0[sub 2],B[sub 2]O[sub 3],A1[sub 2]O[sub 3], Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3], ZrO[sub 2], Na[sub 2]O,Li[sub 2]O,CaO,MgO, and Others (all remaining waste components). A glass composition region was selected for study based on the expected range of glass compositions and the results of a previous series of scoping and solubility studies. Then, a 23-glass statistically-designed mixture experiment was conducted and data obtained for viscosity, electrical conductivity, glass transition temperature, thermal expansion, crystallinity, and durability [Materials Characterization Center (MCC-1) 28-day leach test and the 7-day Product Consistency Test (PCT)]. These data were modeled using first-order functions of composition, and the models were used to investigate the effects of the components on glass and melt properties. The CVS-I data and models will also be used to support the second-order composition variability study (CVS-II).

Piepel, G.F.; Hrma, P.R.; Bates, S.O.; Schweiger, M.J.; Smith, D.E.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

BNFL Report Glass Formers Characterization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this task was to obtain powder property data on candidate glass former materials, sufficient to guide conceptual design and estimate the cost of glass former handling facilities as requested under Part B1 of BNFL Technical and Development Support. Twenty-nine glass forming materials were selected and obtained from vendors for the characterization of their physical properties, durability in caustic solution, and powder flow characteristics. A glass former was selected based on the characterization for each of the ten oxide classes required for Envelope A, B, and C mixtures. Three blends (A, B, and C) were prepared based on formulations provided by Vitreous State Laboratory and evaluated with the same methods employed for the glass formers. The properties obtained are presented in a series of attached Tables. It was determined that five of the ten glass formers, (kyanite, iron oxide, titania, zircon, and zinc oxide) have the potential to cause some level of solids f low problems. In addition, all of the blends may require consideration for their handling. A number of engineering considerations and recommendations were prepared based on the experimental findings, experience, and other process considerations. Recommendations for future testing are included. In conjunction with future work, it is recommended that a professional consultant be engaged to guide and assist with testing and design input.

Schumacher, R.F.

2000-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

323

BNFL Report Glass Formers Characterization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this task was to obtain powder property data on candidate glass former materials, sufficient to guide conceptual design and estimate the cost of glass former handling facilities as requested under Part B1 of BNFL Technical and Development Support. Twenty-nine glass forming materials were selected and obtained from vendors for the characterization of their physical properties, durability in caustic solution, and powder flow characteristics. A glass former was selected based on the characterization for each of the ten oxide classes required for Envelope A, B, and C mixtures. Three blends (A, B, and C) were prepared based on formulations provided by Vitreous State Laboratory and evaluated with the same methods employed for the glass formers. The properties obtained are presented in a series of attached Tables. It was determined that five of the ten glass formers, (kyanite, iron oxide, titania, zircon, and zinc oxide) have the potential to cause some level of solids f low problems. The problems might include arching or ratholing in the silo/hopper. In addition, all of the blends may require consideration for their handling.

Schumacher, R.F.

2000-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

324

Sintering behavior of lanthanide-containing glass-ceramic sealants for solid oxide fuel cells  

SciTech Connect

This article reports on the influence of different lanthanides (La, Nd, Gd and Yb) on sintering behavior of alkaline-earth aluminosilicate glass-ceramics sealants for their application in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). All the glasses have been prepared by melt-quench technique. The in situ follow up of sintering behavior of glass powders has been done by high temperature - environmental scanning electron microscope (HT-ESEM) and hot-stage microscope (HSM) while the crystalline phase evolution and assemblage has been analyzed by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All the glass compositions exhibit a glass-in-glass phase separation followed by two stage sintering resulting in well sintered glass powder compacts after heat treatment at 850 C for 1 h. Diopside (CaMgSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}) based phases constituted the major crystalline part in glass-ceramics followed by some minor phases. The increase in lanthanide content in glasses suppressed their tendency towards devitrification, thus, resulting in glass-ceramics with high amount of residual glassy phase (50-96 wt.%) which is expected to facilitate their self-healing behavior during SOFC operation. The electrical conductivity of the investigated glass-ceramics varied between (1.19 and 7.33) x 10{sup -7} S cm{sup -1} (750-800 C), and depended on the ionic field strength of lanthanide cations. Further experimentation with respect to the long term thermal and chemical stability of residual glassy phase under SOFC operation conditions along with high temperature viscosity measurements will be required in order to elucidate the potential of these glass-ceramics as self-healing sealants.

Goel, Ashutosh; Reddy, Allu Amarnath; Pascual, Maria J.; Gremillard, Laurent; Malchere, Annie; Ferreira, Jose M.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

HIGH ALUMINUM HLW (HIGH LEVEL WASTE ) GLASSES FOR HANFORDS WTP (WASTE TREATMENT PROJECT)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents the results of glass formulation development and melter testing to identify high waste loading glasses to treat high-Al high level waste (HLW) at Hanford. Previous glass formulations developed for this HLW had high waste loadings but their processing rates were lower that desired. The present work was aimed at improving the glass processing rate while maintaining high waste loadings. Glass formulations were designed, prepared at crucible-scale and characterized to determine their properties relevant to processing and product quality. Glass formulations that met these requirements were screened for melt rates using small-scale tests. The small-scale melt rate screening included vertical gradient furnace (VGF) and direct feed consumption (DFC) melter tests. Based on the results of these tests, modified glass formulations were developed and selected for larger scale melter tests to determine their processing rate. Melter tests were conducted on the DuraMelter 100 (DMIOO) with a melt surface area of 0.11 m{sup 2} and the DuraMelter 1200 (DMI200) HLW Pilot Melter with a melt surface area of 1.2 m{sup 2}. The newly developed glass formulations had waste loadings as high as 50 wt%, with corresponding Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration in the glass of 26.63 wt%. The new glass formulations showed glass production rates as high as 1900 kg/(m{sup 2}.day) under nominal melter operating conditions. The demonstrated glass production rates are much higher than the current requirement of 800 kg/(m{sup 2}.day) and anticipated future enhanced Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) requirement of 1000 kg/(m{sup 2}.day).

KRUGER AA; BOWAN BW; JOSEPH I; GAN H; KOT WK; MATLACK KS; PEGG IL

2010-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

326

Foam flow through a transparent rough-walled rock fracture  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an experimental study of nitrogen, water, and aqueous foam flow through a transparent replica of a natural rough-walled rock fracture with a hydraulic aperture of roughly 30 {mu}m. It is established that single-phase flow of both nitrogen and water is well described by analogy to flow between parallel plates. Inertial effects caused by fracture roughness become important in single-phase flow as the Reynolds number approaches 1. Foam exhibits effective control of gas mobility. Foam flow resistances are approximately 10 to 20 times greater than those of nitrogen over foam qualities spanning from 0.60 to 0.99 indicating effective gas-mobility control. Because previous studies of foam flow have focused mainly upon unfractured porous media, little information is available about foam flow mechanisms in fractured media. The transparency of the fracture allowed flow visualization and demonstrated that foam rheology in fractured media depends upon bubble shape and size. Changes in flow behavior are directly tied to transitions in bubble morphology.

Kovscek, A.; Tretheway, D.; Radke, C. [and others

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

An NDE Study of Impact Damage in Multi-Layered Transparent ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For both transparent and opaque protective systems, low velocity impact damage compromises the structural integrity and increases the likelihood of further ...

328

High conductance surge cable  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrical cable for connecting transient voltage surge suppressors to electrical power panels. A strip of electrically conductive foil defines a longitudinal axis, with a length of an electrical conductor electrically attached to the metallic foil along the longitudinal axis. The strip of electrically conductive foil and the length of an electrical conductor are covered by an insulating material. For impedance matching purposes, triangular sections can be removed from the ends of the electrically conductive foil at the time of installation. 6 figs.

Murray, M.M.; Wilfong, D.H.; Lomax, R.E.

1998-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

329

Effect of Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition on electrical and optical properties of lithium borate glasses  

SciTech Connect

The electrical and optical property of lithium borate glasses was investigated. It is observed that conductivity decreases while density and refractive index increases with the addition of Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Radiation length of glasses was determined and it is observed that radiation length decreases with the addition of Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

Gedam, R. S.; Ramteke, D. D. [Department of Applied physics, Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, Nagpur-440 010 (India)

2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

330

Natural analogues of nuclear waste glass corrosion.  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews and summarizes studies performed to characterize the products and processes involved in the corrosion of natural glasses. Studies are also reviewed and evaluated on how well the corrosion of natural glasses in natural environments serves as an analogue for the corrosion of high-level radioactive waste glasses in an engineered geologic disposal system. A wide range of natural and experimental corrosion studies has been performed on three major groups of natural glasses: tektite, obsidian, and basalt. Studies of the corrosion of natural glass attempt to characterize both the nature of alteration products and the reaction kinetics. Information available on natural glass was then compared to corresponding information on the corrosion of nuclear waste glasses, specifically to resolve two key questions: (1) whether one or more natural glasses behave similarly to nuclear waste glasses in laboratory tests, and (2) how these similarities can be used to support projections of the long-term corrosion of nuclear waste glasses. The corrosion behavior of basaltic glasses was most similar to that of nuclear waste glasses, but the corrosion of tektite and obsidian glasses involves certain processes that also occur during the corrosion of nuclear waste glasses. The reactions and processes that control basalt glass dissolution are similar to those that are important in nuclear waste glass dissolution. The key reaction of the overall corrosion mechanism is network hydrolysis, which eventually breaks down the glass network structure that remains after the initial ion-exchange and diffusion processes. This review also highlights some unresolved issues related to the application of an analogue approach to predicting long-term behavior of nuclear waste glass corrosion, such as discrepancies between experimental and field-based estimates of kinetic parameters for basaltic glasses.

Abrajano, T.A. Jr.; Ebert, W.L.; Luo, J.S.

1999-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

331

Thermally Conductive Graphite Foam  

oriented graphite planes, similar to high performance carbon fibers, which have been estimated to exhibit a thermal conductivity greater than 1700 ...

332

Research Conduct Policies  

Office of Science (SC) Website

Research Conduct Policies Basic Energy Sciences (BES) BES Home About Research Materials Sciences & Engineering (MSE) Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences (CSGB)...

333

Optimization of transparent and reflecting electrodes for amorphous silicon solar cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes work to improve the performance of solar cells by improving the electrical and optical properties of their transparent conducting oxides (TCO) layers. Boron-doped zinc-oxide films were deposited by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition in a laminar-flow reactor from diethyl zinc, tert-butanol, and diborane in the temperature range between 300[degrees]C and 420[degrees]C. When the deposition temperature was above 320[degrees]C, both doped and undoped films have highly oriented crystallites with their c-axes perpendicular to the substrate plane. Films deposited from 0.07% diethyl zinc and 2.4% tert-butanol have electron densities between 3.5 [times] 10[sup 20] cm[sup [minus]3] and 5.5 [times] 10[sup 20] cm[sup [minus]3], conductivities between 250 [Omega][sup [minus]1] and 2500 [Omega][sup [minus]1] and mobilities between 2.5 cm[sup 2]/V-s and 35.0 cm[sup 2]/V-s, depending on dopant concentration, film thickness, and deposition temperature. Optical measurements show that the maximum infrared reflectance of the doped films is close to 90%, compared to about 20% for undoped films. Film visible absorption and film conductivity were found to increase with film thickness. The ratio of conductivity to visible absorption coefficient for doped films was between 0.1 [Omega] and 1.1 [Omega][sup [minus]1]. The band gap of the film changes from 3.3 eV to 3.7 eV when the film is doped with 0.012% diborane.

Gordon, R.G. (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry)

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Electrically conductive diamond electrodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrically conductive diamond electrode and process for preparation thereof is described. The electrode comprises diamond particles coated with electrically conductive doped diamond preferably by chemical vapor deposition which are held together with a binder. The electrodes are useful for oxidation reduction in gas, such as hydrogen generation by electrolysis.

Swain, Greg (East Lansing, MI); Fischer, Anne (Arlington, VA),; Bennett, Jason (Lansing, MI); Lowe, Michael (Holt, MI)

2009-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

335

Combined Experimental and Computational Approach to Predict the Glass-Water Reaction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of mineral and glass dissolution rates measured in laboratory experiments to predict the weathering of primary minerals and volcanic and nuclear waste glasses in field studies requires the construction of rate models that accurately describe the weathering process over geologic time-scales. Additionally, the need to model the long-term behavior of nuclear waste glass for the purpose of estimating radionuclide release rates requires that rate models are validated with long-term experiments. Several long-term test methods have been developed to accelerate the glass-water reaction [drip test, vapor hydration test, product consistency test-B, and pressurized unsaturated flow (PUF)], thereby reducing the duration required to evaluate long-term performance. Currently, the PUF test is the only method that mimics the unsaturated hydraulic properties expected in a subsurface disposal facility and simultaneously monitors the glass-water reaction. PUF tests are being conducted to accelerate the weathering of glass and validate the model parameters being used to predict long-term glass behavior. A one-dimensional reactive chemical transport simulation of glass dissolution and secondary phase formation during a 1.5-year long PUF experiment was conducted with the subsurface transport over reactive multi-phases code. Results show that parameterization of the computer model by combining direct bench-scale laboratory measurements and thermodynamic data provides an integrated approach to predicting glass behavior over the length of the experiment. Over the 1.5-year long test duration, the rate decreased from 0.2 to 0.01 g/(m2 d) base on B release. The observed decrease is approximately two orders of magnitude higher than the decrease observed under static conditions with the SON68 glass (estimated to be a decrease by 4 orders of magnitude) and suggest the gel-layer properties are less protective under these dynamic conditions.

Pierce, Eric M [ORNL; Bacon, Diana [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Nuclear Transparency in 90 Degree c.m. Quasielastic A(p,2p) Reactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We summarize the results of two experimental programs at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron of BNL to measure the nuclear transparency of nuclei measured in the A(p,2p) quasielastic scattering process near 90 Deg .in the pp center of mass. The incident momenta varied from 5.9 to 14.4 GeV/c, corresponding to 4.8 nuclear transparency near 90 Deg. c.m., and the nuclear transparency for deuterons was studied. Second, we review the techniques used in an earlier experiment, E834, and show that the two experiments are consistent for the Carbon data. E834 also determines the nuclear transparencies for Li, Al, Cu, and Pb nuclei as well as for C. We find for both E850 and E834 that the A(p,2p) nuclear transparency, unlike that for A(e,e'p) nuclear transparency, is incompatible with a constant value versus energy as predicted by Glauber calculations. The A(p,2p) nuclear transparency for C and Al increases by a factor of two between 5.9 and 9.5 GeV/c incident proton momentum. At its peak the A(p,2p) nuclear transparency is about 80% of the constant A(e,e'p) nuclear transparency. Then the nuclear transparency falls back to the Glauber level again. This oscillating behavior is generally interpreted as an interplay between two components of the pN scattering amplitude; one short ranged and perturbative, and the other long ranged and strongly absorbed in the nuclear medium. We suggest a number of experiments for further studies of nuclear transparency effects.

J. Aclander; J. Alster; G. Asryan; Y. Averiche; D. S. Barton; V. Baturin; N. Buktoyarova; G. Bunce; A. S. Carroll; N. Christensen; H. Courant; S. Durrant; G. Fang; K. Gabriel; S. Gushue; K. J. Heller; S. Heppelmann; I. Kosonovsky; A. Leksanov; Y. I. Makdisi; A. Malki; I. Mardor; Y. Mardor; M. L. Marshak; D. Martel; E. Minina; E. Minor; I. Navon; H. Nicholson; A. Ogawa; Y. Panebratsev; E. Piasetzky; T. Roser; J. J. Russell; A. Schetkovsky; S. Shimanskiy; M. A. Shupe; S. Sutton; M. Tanaka; A. Tang; I. Tsetkov; J. Watson; C. White; J-Y. Wu; D. Zhalov

2004-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

337

HLW Glass Studies: Development of Crystal-Tolerant HLW Glasses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In our study, a series of lab-scale crucible tests were performed on designed glasses of different compositions to further investigate and simulate the effect of Cr, Ni, Fe, Al, Li, and RuO2 on the accumulation rate of spinel crystals in the glass discharge riser of the HLW melter. The experimental data were used to expand the compositional region covered by an empirical model developed previously (Matyᚠet al. 2010b), improving its predictive performance. We also investigated the mechanism for agglomeration of particles and impact of agglomerates on accumulation rate. In addition, the TL was measured as a function of temperature and composition.

Matyas, Josef; Huckleberry, Adam R.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Lang, Jesse B.; Owen, Antionette T.; Kruger, Albert A.

2012-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

338

Semi-transparent solar energy thermal storage device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A visually transmitting solar energy absorbing thermal storage module includes a thermal storage liquid containment chamber defined by an interior solar absorber panel, an exterior transparent panel having a heat mirror surface substantially covering the exterior surface thereof and associated top, bottom and side walls. Evaporation of the thermal storage liquid is controlled by a low vapor pressure liquid layer that floats on and seals the top surface of the liquid. Porous filter plugs are placed in filler holes of the module. An algicide and a chelating compound are added to the liquid to control biological and chemical activity while retaining visual clarity. A plurality of modules may be supported in stacked relation by a support frame to form a thermal storage wall structure.

McClelland, John F. (Ames, IA)

1986-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

339

Semi-transparent solar energy thermal storage device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A visually transmitting solar energy absorbing thermal storage module includes a thermal storage liquid containment chamber defined by an interior solar absorber panel, an exterior transparent panel having a heat mirror surface substantially covering the exterior surface thereof and associated top, bottom and side walls, Evaporation of the thermal storage liquid is controlled by a low vapor pressure liquid layer that floats on and seals the top surface of the liquid. Porous filter plugs are placed in filler holes of the module. An algicide and a chelating compound are added to the liquid to control biological and chemical activity while retaining visual clarity. A plurality of modules may be supported in stacked relation by a support frame to form a thermal storage wall structure.

McClelland, John F. (Ames, IA)

1985-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

340

Transparent Humidity Sensor Using Cross-Linked Polyelectrolyte Membrane  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes the fabrication of a porous cross-linked polyelectrolyte membrane and the characterization of its humidity sensitivity performance. Electrostatic self-assembly, combined with acid treatment, and post-deposition annealing produced the membrane. The fabrication process offers the ability to control the thickness of the membrane, as well as enabling the engineering of the humidity sensitivity properties. A transparent humidity sensor was fabricated by integrating the membrane between two parallel electrodes. In order to improve the moisture absorption and diffusion, both the polyelectrolyte layer and the electrode were made porous. The membrane was cross-linked to enhance the durability in high humid environments. Such a polyelectrolyte membrane showed high sensitivity to relative humidity variation over a range of 25%–99%. The see-through property of the structure adds extra features and benefits to the sensor.

Zhang, Q.; Smith, James R.; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Hua, Feng

2009-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "glass transparent conductive" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Hopping versus bulk conductivity in transparent oxides: 12CaO7Al2O3 J. E. Medvedevaa)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by the DOE supported NERSC. [1] G. Thomas, Nature (London) 398, 907 (1997); D. S. Ginley and C. Bright, MRS

Medvedeva, Julia E.

342

High quality ZnO:Al transparent conducting oxide films synthesized by pulsed filtered cathodic arc deposition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

currently dominated by indium tin oxide (ITO). In thismore established indium tin oxide (ITO). While ITO remains

Anders, Andre

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Infrared spectroscopy and hydrogen isotope geochemistry of hydrous silicate glasses. Progress report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The focus of this project is the combined appication of infrared spectroscopy and stable isotope geochemistry to the study of hydrogen-bearing species dissolved in silicate melts and glasses. We are conducting laboratory experiments aimed at determining the fractionation of D and H between melt species (OH and H{sub 2}O) and hydrous vapor and the diffusivities of these species in glasses and melts. Knowledge of these parameters is critical to understanding the behavior of hydrogen isotopes during igneous processes and hydrothermal processes. These results also could be valuable in application of glass technology to development of nuclear waste disposal strategies.

Epstein, S.; Stolper, E.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

An International Initiative on Long-Term Behavior of High-Level Nuclear Waste Glass  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nations using borosilicate glass as an immobilization material for radioactive waste have reinforced the importance of scientific collaboration to obtain a consensus on the mechanisms controlling the longterm dissolution rate of glass. This goal is deemed to be crucial for the development of reliable performance assessment models for geological disposal. The collaborating laboratories all conduct fundamental and/or applied research using modern materials science techniques. This paper briefly reviews the radioactive waste vitrification programs of the six participant nations and summarizes the current state of glass corrosion science, emphasizing the common scientific needs and justifications for on-going initiatives.

Gin, Stephane [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA); Abdelouas, Abdesselam [SUBATECH Laboratory (France); Criscenti, Louise J [Sandia National Laboratory (SNL); Ebert, William L [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Ferrand, K [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, SCK-CEN; Geisler, T [Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn, Bonn, Germany; Harrison, Michael T [National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL); Inagaki, Y [Kyushu University, Japan; Mitsui, S [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA); Mueller, K T [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Marra, James C [Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), Aiken, S.C.; Pantano, Carlo G [Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA; Pierce, Eric M [ORNL; Ryan, Joseph V [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Schofield, J M [AMEC, Harwell Oxford Didcot Oxfordshire, United Kingdom; Steefel, Carl I [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Vienna, John D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Investigation of Performance of SCN-1 Pure Glass as Sealant Used in SOFC  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As its name implies, self-healing glass seal has the potential of restoring its mechanical properties upon being reheated to stack operating temperature, even when it has experienced some cooling induced damage/crack at room temperature. Such a self-healing feature is desirable for achieving high seal reliability during thermal cycling. On the other hand, self-healing glass is also characterized by its low mechanical stiffness and high creep rate at the typical operating temperature of SOFCs. Therefore, from a design’s perspective, it is important to know the long term geometric stability and thermal mechanical behaviors of the self-healing glass under the stack operating conditions. These predictive capabilities will guide the design and optimization of a reliable sealing system that potentially utilizes self-healing glass as well as other ceramic seal components in achieving the ultimate goal of SOFC. In this report, we focused on predicting the effects of various generic seal design parameters on the stresses in the seal. For this purpose, we take the test cell used in the leakage test for compliant glass seals conducted in PNNL as our initial modeling geometry. The effect of the ceramic stopper on the geometry stability of the self-healing glass sealants is studied first. Then we explored the effect of various interfaces such as stopper and glass, stopper and PEN, as well stopper and IC plate, on the geometry stability and reliability of glass during the operating and cooling processes.

Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Flexible and transparent supercapacitor based on In2O3 nanowire/carbon nanotube heterogeneous films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Flexible and transparent supercapacitor based on In2O3 nanowire/carbon nanotube heterogeneous films; accepted 17 December 2008; published online 28 January 2009 In this paper, a supercapacitor galvanostatic measurements. In addition, to study the stability of flexible and transparent supercapacitor

Zhou, Chongwu

347

Conducting fiber compression tester  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention measures the resistance across a conductive fiber attached to a substrate place under a compressive load to determine the amount of compression needed to cause the fiber to fail. 3 figs.

DeTeresa, S.J.

1989-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

348

NSLS Conduct of Operations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Securing the X-Ray Tunnel (LS-OPS-0003) Qualified Search Personnel for NSLS Accelerators (LS-ESH-0009) General Procedures Caution Tags (LS-OPS-0004) Conduct of...

349

Cylindrical thermal contact conductance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermal contact conductance is highly important in a wide variety of applications, from the cooling of electronic chips to the thermal management of spacecraft. The demand for increased efficiency means that components need to withstand higher temperatures and heat transfer rates. Many situations call for contact heat transfer through nominally cylindrical interfaces, yet relatively few studies of contact conductance through cylindrical interfaces have been undertaken. This study presents a review of the experimental and theoretical investigations of the heat transfer characteristics of composite cylinders, presenting data available in open literature in comparison with relevant correlations. The present investigation presents a study of the thermal contact conductance of cylindrical interfaces. The experimental investigation of sixteen different material combinations offers an opportunity to develop predictive correlations of the contact conductance, in conjunction with an analysis of the interface pressure as a function of the thermal state of the individual cylindrical shells. Experimental results of the present study are compared with previously published conductance data and conductance models.

Ayers, George Harold

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Glass-like thermal transport in symmetry-broken clathrates.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present the quantitative interpretation for the glass-like behavior of thermal conductivities {kappa}(T) for type-I clathrate compounds involving off-centered guest ions. It is shown that the dipole-dipole interaction generated in cage/guest-ion systems is crucial to reproduce the characteristics of thermal conductivities for these symmetry-broken clathrates. The above scenario also explains well the difference of {kappa}(T) between the p-type and the n-type {beta}-BGS found recently by K. Suekuni et al.

Kanashita, E.; Nakayama, T.; Toyota Phys. Chem. Res. Inst.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

PHYSICAL AGING OF PLASTICIZED POLYMER GLASS. WH ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

PHYSICAL AGING OF PLASTICIZED POLYMER GLASS. WH Han and GB McKenna, Polymers Division, Building 224, Room ...

352

Graphene Reinforced Glass and Ceramic Matrix Composites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2013. Symposium, Ceramic Matrix Composites. Presentation Title, Graphene Reinforced Glass ...

353

Laboratory Waste Disposal HAZARDOUS GLASS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Laboratory Waste Disposal HAZARDOUS GLASS Items that could cut or puncture skin or trash- can liners. This waste stream must be boxed to protect custodial staff. It goes directly to the landfill lined cardboard box. Tape seams with heavy duty tape to contain waste. Limit weight to 20 lbs. Or

Sheridan, Jennifer

354

High-Temperature Viscosity of Commercial Glasses  

SciTech Connect

Arrhenius models were developed for glass viscosity within the processing temperature of six types of commercial glasses: low-expansion-borosilicate glasses, E glasses, fiberglass wool glasses, TV panel glasses, container glasses, and float glasses. Both local models (for each of the six glass types) and a global model (for the composition region of commercial glasses, i.e., the six glass types taken together) are presented. The models are based on viscosity data previously obtained with rotating spindle viscometers within the temperature range between 900 C and 1550 C; the viscosity varied from 1 Pa?s to 750 Pa?s. First-order models were applied to relate Arrhenius coefficients to the mass fractions of 15 components: SiO2, TiO2, ZrO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, B2O3, MgO, CaO, SrO, BaO, PbO, ZnO, Li2O, Na2O, K2O. The R2 is 0.98 for the global model and ranges from .097 to 0.99 for the six local models. The models are recommended for glasses containing 42 to 84 mass% SiO2 to estimate viscosities or temperatures at a constant viscosity for melts within both the temperature range from 1100 C to 1550 C and viscosity range from 5 to 400 Pa?s.

Hrma, Pavel R.

2006-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

355

DURABLE GLASS FOR THOUSANDS OF YEARS  

SciTech Connect

The durability of natural glasses on geological time scales and ancient glasses for thousands of years is well documented. The necessity to predict the durability of high level nuclear waste (HLW) glasses on extended time scales has led to various thermodynamic and kinetic approaches. Advances in the measurement of medium range order (MRO) in glasses has led to the understanding that the molecular structure of a glass, and thus the glass composition, controls the glass durability by establishing the distribution of ion exchange sites, hydrolysis sites, and the access of water to those sites. During the early stages of glass dissolution, a 'gel' layer resembling a membrane forms through which ions exchange between the glass and the leachant. The hydrated gel layer exhibits acid/base properties which are manifested as the pH dependence of the thickness and nature of the gel layer. The gel layer ages into clay or zeolite minerals by Ostwald ripening. Zeolite mineral assemblages (higher pH and Al{sup 3+} rich glasses) may cause the dissolution rate to increase which is undesirable for long-term performance of glass in the environment. Thermodynamic and structural approaches to the prediction of glass durability are compared versus Ostwald ripening.

Jantzen, C.

2009-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

356

U.S. transparency monitoring of HEU oxide conversion and blending to LEU hexafluoride at three Russian blending plants  

SciTech Connect

The down-blending of Russian highly enriched uranium (HEU) takes place at three Russian gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants. The fluorination of HEU oxide and down-blending of HEU hexafluoride began in 1994, and shipments of low enriched uranium (LEU) hexafluoride product to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) began in 1995 US transparency monitoring under the HEU Purchase Agreement began in 1996 and includes a permanent monitoring presence US transparency monitoring at these facilities is intended to provide confidence that HEU is received and down-blended to LEU for shipment to USEC The monitoring begins with observation of the receipt of HEU oxide shipments, including confirmation of enrichment using US nondestructive assay equipment The feeding of HEU oxide to the fluorination process and the withdrawal of HEU hexafluoride are monitored Monitoring is also conducted where the blending takes place and where shipping cylinders are filled with LEU product. A series of process and material accountancy documents are provided to US monitors.

Leich, D., LLNL

1998-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

357

AlGaInN-based light emitting diodes with a transparent p-contact based on thin ITO films  

SciTech Connect

A method for obtaining transparent conductive ITO (indium-tin oxide) films aimed for use in light emitting diodes of the blue spectral range is developed. The peak external quantum efficiency of light-emitting diodes with a p-contact based on the obtained films reaches 25%, while for similar light-emitting diodes with a standard semitransparent metal contact, it is <10%. An observed increase in the direct voltage drop from 3.15 to 3.37 V does not significantly affect the possibility of applying these films in light-emitting diodes since the optical power of light-emitting diodes with a transparent p-contact based on ITO films exceeds that of chips with metal semitransparent p-contacts with a working current of 20 mA by a factor of almost 2.5. Light-emitting diodes with p-contacts based on ITO films successfully withstand a pumping current that exceeds their calculated working current by a factor of 5 without the appearance of any signs of degradation.

Smirnova, I. P., E-mail: irina@quantum.ioffe.ru; Markov, L. K.; Pavlyuchenko, A. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Kukushkin, M. V. [ZAO Innovation Company 'TETIS' (Russian Federation)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

358

Measurement of Solute Diffusion Behavior in Fractured Waste Glass Media  

SciTech Connect

Determination of aqueous phase diffusion coefficients of solutes through fractured media is essential for understanding and modeling contaminants transport at many hazardous waste disposal sites. No methods for earlier measurements are available for the characterization of diffusion in fractured glass blocks. We report here the use of time-lag diffusion experimental method to assess the diffusion behavior of three different solutes (Cs, Sr and Pentafluoro Benzoic Acid or PFBA) in fractured, immobilized low activity waste (ILAW) glass forms. A fractured media time-lag diffusion experimental apparatus that allows the measurement of diffusion coefficients has been designed and built for this purpose. Use of time-lag diffusion method, a considerably easier experimental method than the other available methods, was not previously demonstrated for measuring diffusion in any fractured media. Hydraulic conductivity, porosity and diffusion coefficients of a solute were experimentally measured in fractured glass blocks using this method for the first time. Results agree with the range of properties reported for similar rock media earlier, indicating that the time-lag experimental method can effectively characterize the diffusion coefficients of fractured ILAW glass media.

Saripalli, Kanaka P.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Meyer, Philip D.

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Integrated Disposal Facility FY2011 Glass Testing Summary Report  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was contracted by Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC to provide the technical basis for estimating radionuclide release from the engineered portion of the disposal facility (e.g., source term). Vitrifying the low-activity waste at Hanford is expected to generate over 1.6 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3} of glass (Certa and Wells 2010). The volume of immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) at Hanford is the largest in the DOE complex and is one of the largest inventories (approximately 8.9 x 10{sup 14} Bq total activity) of long-lived radionuclides, principally {sup 99}Tc (t{sub 1/2} = 2.1 x 10{sup 5}), planned for disposal in a low-level waste (LLW) facility. Before the ILAW can be disposed, DOE must conduct a performance assessment (PA) for the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) that describes the long-term impacts of the disposal facility on public health and environmental resources. As part of the ILAW glass testing program PNNL is implementing a strategy, consisting of experimentation and modeling, in order to provide the technical basis for estimating radionuclide release from the glass waste form in support of future IDF PAs. The purpose of this report is to summarize the progress made in fiscal year (FY) 2011 toward implementing the strategy with the goal of developing an understanding of the long-term corrosion behavior of low-activity waste glasses.

Pierce, Eric M.; Bacon, Diana H.; Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Windisch, Charles F.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Burton, Sarah D.; Westsik, Joseph H.

2011-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

360

Final Technical Report CONDUCTIVE COATINGS FOR SOLAR CELLS USING CARBON NANOTUBES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

US Department of Energy (DOE) awarded a grant for Eikos Inc. to investigate the feasibility of developing and utilizing Transparent Conducting Coatings (TCCs) based on carbon nanotubes (CNT) for solar cell applications. Conventional solar cells today employ metal oxide based TCCs with both Electrical Resistivity (R) and Optical Transparency (T), commonly referred to as optoelectronic (RT) performance significantly higher than with those possible with CNT based TCCs available today. Transparent metal oxide based coatings are also inherently brittle requiring high temperature in vacuum processing and are thus expensive to manufacture. One such material is indium tin oxide (ITO). Global demand for indium has recently increased rapidly while supply has diminished causing substantial spikes in raw material cost and availability. In contrast, the raw material, carbon, needed for CNT fabrication is abundantly available. Transparent Conducting Coatings based on CNTs can overcome not only cost and availability constraints while also offering the ability to be applied by existing, low cost process technologies under ambient conditions. Processes thus can readily be designed both for rigid and flexible PV technology platforms based on mature spray or dip coatings for silicon based solar cells and continuous roll to roll coating processes for polymer solar applications.

Paul J Glatkowski; Jorma Peltola; Christopher Weeks; Mike Trottier; David Britz

2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "glass transparent conductive" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

GLASS FABRICATION AND PRODUCT CONSISTENCY TESTING OF LANTHANIDE BOROSILICATE FRIT X COMPOSITION FOR PLUTONIUM DISPOSITION  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE/EM) plans to conduct the Plutonium Disposition Project at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to disposition excess weapons-usable plutonium. A plutonium glass waste form is the preferred option for immobilization of the plutonium for subsequent disposition in a geologic repository. A reference glass composition (Lanthanide Borosilicate (LaBS) Frit B) was developed during the Plutonium Immobilization Program (PIP) to immobilize plutonium in the late 1990's. A limited amount of performance testing was performed on this baseline composition before efforts to further pursue Pu disposition via a glass waste form ceased. Recent FY05 studies have further investigated the LaBS Frit B formulation as well as development of a newer LaBS formulation denoted as LaBS Frit X. The objectives of this present task were to fabricate plutonium loaded LaBS Frit X glass and perform corrosion testing to provide near-term data that will increase confidence that LaBS glass product is suitable for disposal in the Yucca Mountain Repository. Specifically, testing was conducted in an effort to provide data to Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) personnel for use in performance assessment calculations. Plutonium containing LaBS glass with the Frit X composition with a 9.5 wt% PuO{sub 2} loading was prepared for testing. Glass was prepared to support Product Consistency Testing (PCT) at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The glass was thoroughly characterized using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) prior to performance testing. A series of PCTs were conducted at SRNL using quenched Pu Frit X glass with varying exposed surface areas. Effects of isothermal and can-in-canister heat treatments on the Pu Frit X glass were also investigated. Another series of PCTs were performed on these different heat-treated Pu Frit X glasses. Leachates from all these PCTs were analyzed to determine the dissolved concentrations of key elements. Acid stripping of leach vessels was performed to determine the concentration of the glass constituents that may have sorbed on the vessels during leach testing. Additionally, the leachate solutions were ultrafiltered to quantify colloid formation.

Marra, J

2006-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

362

Low-resistivity photon-transparent window attached to photo-sensitive silicon detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention comprises a combination of a low resistivity, or electrically conducting, silicon layer that is transparent to long or short wavelength photons and is attached to the backside of a photon-sensitive layer of silicon, such as a silicon wafer or chip. The window is applied to photon sensitive silicon devices such as photodiodes, charge-coupled devices, active pixel sensors, low-energy x-ray sensors and other radiation detectors. The silicon window is applied to the back side of a photosensitive silicon wafer or chip so that photons can illuminate the device from the backside without interference from the circuit printed on the frontside. A voltage sufficient to fully deplete the high-resistivity photosensitive silicon volume of charge carriers is applied between the low-resistivity back window and the front, patterned, side of the device. This allows photon-induced charge created at the backside to reach the front side of the device and to be processed by any circuitry attached to the front side. Using the inventive combination, the photon sensitive silicon layer does not need to be thinned beyond standard fabrication methods in order to achieve full charge-depletion in the silicon volume. In one embodiment, the inventive backside window is applied to high resistivity silicon to allow backside illumination while maintaining charge isolation in CCD pixels.

Holland, Stephen Edward (Hercules, CA)

2000-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

363

Observations of Nuclear Explosive Melt Glass Textures and Surface Areas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This memo report summarizes our current knowledge of the appearance of melt glass formed and subsequently deposited in the subsurface after an underground nuclear test. We have collected archived pictures and melt glass samples from a variety of underground nuclear tests that were conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) during the U.S. nuclear testing program. The purpose of our work is to better determine the actual variation in texture and surface area of the melt glass material. This study is motivated by our need to better determine the rate at which the radionuclides incorporated in the melt glass are released into the subsurface under saturated and partially saturated conditions. The rate at which radionuclides are released from the glass is controlled by the dissolution rate of the glass. Glass dissolution, in turn, is a strong function of surface area, glass composition, water temperature and water chemistry (Bourcier, 1994). This work feeds into an ongoing experimental effort to measure the change in surface area of analog glasses as a function of dissolution rate. The conclusions drawn from this study help bound the variation in the textures of analog glass samples needed for the experimental studies. The experimental work is a collaboration between Desert Research Institute (DRI) and Earth and Environmental Sciences-Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (EES-LLNL). On March 4, 1999 we hosted a meeting at LLNL to present and discuss our findings. The names of the attendees appear at the end of this memo. This memo report further serves to outline and summarize the conclusions drawn from our meeting. The United States detonated over 800 underground nuclear tests at the NTS between 1951 and 1992. In an effort to evaluate the performance of the nuclear tests, drill-back operations were carried out to retrieve samples of rock in the vicinity of the nuclear test. Drill-back samples were sent to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and analyzed for diagnostic purposes. As a result of these activities, a body of knowledge consisting of personal accounts, photos, reports and archived solid samples was gained regarding the physical nature of the melt glass that formed during an underground nuclear test. In this memo report, we summarize previously published reports, compile archived photos, document and describe melt glass samples and summarized discussions from former field engineers and radiochemists who had direct knowledge of drill-back samples. All the information presented in the report was gathered from unclassified sources. We have included as wide a variation of samples as we could document. Unfortunately, as part of the drill-back and diagnostic efforts, it was not common practice to photograph or physically describe the material returned to the surface.

Kersting, A B; Smith, D K

2006-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

364

Ion-Exchange Processes and Mechanisms in Glasses  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Leaching of alkalis from glass is widely recognized as an important mechanism in the initial stages of glass-water interactions. Pioneering experimental studies [1-3] nearly thirty-five years ago established that alkali (designated as M{sup +}) are lost to solution more rapidly than network-forming cations. The overall chemical reaction describing the process can be written as: {triple_bond}Si-O-M + H{sup +} {yields} {triple_bond}Si-OH + M{sup +} (1) or {triple_bond}Si-O-M + H{sub 3}O{sup +} {yields} {triple_bond}Si-OH + M{sup +} + H{sub 2}O. (2) Doremus and coworkers [4-7] fashioned a quantitative model where M{sup +} ions in the glass are exchanged for counter-diffusing H{sub 3}O{sup +} or H{sup +}. Subsequent investigations [8], which have relied heavily on reaction layer analysis, recognized the role of H{sub 2}O molecules in the alkali-exchange process, without minimizing the importance of charged hydrogen species. Beginning in the 1980s, however, interest in M{sup +}-H{sup +} exchange reactions in silicate glasses diminished considerably because important experimental observations showed that network hydrolysis and dissolution rates were principally controlled by the chemical potential difference between the glass and solution (chemical affinity) [9]. For nuclear waste glasses, formation of alteration products or secondary phases that remove important elements from solution, particularly Si, was found to have very large impacts on glass dissolution rates [10,11]. Consequently, recent work on glass/water interactions has focused on understanding this process and incorporating it into models [12]. The ion-exchange process has been largely ignored because it has been thought to be a short duration, secondary or tertiary process that had little or no bearing on long-term corrosion or radionuclide release rates from glasses [13]. The only significant effect identified in the literature that is attributed to alkali ion exchange is an increase in solution pH in static laboratory tests conducted at high surface area-to-volume ratios [14,15]. Renewed interest in alkali ion exchange reactions has come about because of interest in development of durable Na-rich silicate glasses for immobilization of low-activity waste (LAW) at Hanford, Washington [16] and high-level wastes in China [17]. In reactive transport simulations of a LAW glass disposed in a shallow subsurface facility, Chen, McGrail, and Engel [18] showed that ion-exchange reactions increased the radionuclide release rate by over two orders of magnitude when compared with simulations where ion exchange was excluded. Sheng, Luo, and Tang [17] conducted static tests in a simulated groundwater and showed that alkali ion exchange was the dominant release mechanism over a large temperature range. Although the significance of alkali ion exchange reactions in long-term disposal system performance has now been recognized, the fundamental processes and mechanisms controlling the exchange reactions are still remarkably poorly understood, especially with regard to how glass structure affects alkali ion exchange kinetics. Experimental studies of Na release from various simple silicate glasses are numerous [19-23]. However, in all previous studies of which we are aware, no attempt was made to distinguish between M{sup +} release through alkali exchange versus matrix dissolution. The release rate of alkali in all of the early work was convoluted by contributions from matrix dissolution, which dominates in dilute solutions. Also, none of the previous studies attempted to define the relationship, if any, between glass structure (composition) and the kinetics of the ion exchange reaction. The motivation behind this Environmental Management Science Project (EMSP) is to develop a better understanding of how glass structure impacts sodium ion exchange so that improved glasses can be developed. Development of low ion-exchange rate glasses may also permit engineers to use higher loadings in nuclear waste glasses, which would result in substantial savings in production and disposal costs.

McGrail, B.P.; Icenhower, J.P.; Darab, J.G.; Shuh, D.k.; Baer, D.R.; Shutthanandan, V.; Thevuthasan, S.; Engelhard, M.H.; Steele, J.L.; Rodriguez, E.A.; Liu, P.; Ivanov, K.E.; Booth, C.H.; Nachimuthu, P.

2001-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

365

CONDUCTING A RECORDS INVENTORY  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

PROCEDURE FOR CONDUCTING A RECORDS INVENTORY PROCEDURE FOR CONDUCTING A RECORDS INVENTORY Revision 1 10/31/07 Approved by: DOE Records Management Division, IM-23 PROCEDURE FOR CONDUCTING A RECORDS INVENTORY 1. GENERAL. A records inventory is compiling a descriptive list of each record series or system, including the location of the records and any other pertinent data. A records inventory is not a list of each document or each folder. 2. DEFINE THE RECORDS INVENTORY GOAL(S). The goals of a records inventory should be to: a. Gather information for scheduling purposes; b. Prepare for conversion to other media or to identify the volume of classified and/or permanent records in your organization's custody; and c. Identify any existing shortcomings, deficiencies, or problems with

366

Corrosion behavior of environmental assessment glass in product consistency tests of extended duration.  

SciTech Connect

We have conducted static dissolution tests to study the corrosion behavior of the Environmental Assessment (EA) glass, which is the benchmark glass for high-level waste glasses being produced at US Department of Energy facilities. These tests were conducted to evaluate the behavior of the EA glass under the same long-term and accelerated test conditions that are being used to evaluate the corrosion of waste glasses. Tests were conducted at 90 C in a tuff groundwater solution at glass surface area/solution volume (WV) ratios of about 2000 and 20,000 m{sup {minus}1}. The glass dissolved at three distinct dissolution rates in tests conducted at 2000 m{sup {minus}1}. Based on the release of boron, dissolution within the first seven days occurred at a rate of about 0.65 g/(m{sup 2} {center_dot} d). The rate between seven and 70 days decreased to 0.009 g/(m{sup 2} {center_dot} d). An increase in the dissolution rate occurred at longer times after the precipitation of zeolite phases analcime, gmelinite, and an aluminum silicate base. The dissolution rate after phase formation was about 0.18 g/(m{sup 2} {center_dot} d). The formation of the same zeolite alteration phases occurred after about 20 days in tests at 20,000 m{sup {minus}}. The average dissolution rate over the first 20 days was 0.5 g/(m{sup 2} {center_dot} d) and the rate after phase formation was about 0.20 g/(m{sup 2} {center_dot} d). An intermediate stage with a lower rate was not observed in tests at 20,000 m{sup {minus}1}. The corrosion behavior of EA glass is similar to that observed for other high-level waste glasses reacted under the same test conditions. The dissolution rate of EA glass is higher than that of other high-level waste glasses both in 7-day tests and after alteration phases form.

Bates, J.K.; Buck, E.C.; Ebert, W.L.; Luo, J.S.; Tam, S.W.

1998-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

367

Processing of Optically Translucent/Transparent Nitrides from ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the aim coupling good thermal conductivity with optical light transmission and emission, aluminum nitride with rare earth dopants (Gd2O3, Gd ,Dy etc.) ...

368

Standard Guide for Dry Lead Glass and Oil-Filled Lead Glass Radiation Shielding Window Components for Remotely Operated Facilities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Standard Guide for Dry Lead Glass and Oil-Filled Lead Glass Radiation Shielding Window Components for Remotely Operated Facilities

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

GLASS FABRICATION AND PRODUCT CONSISTENCY TESTING OF LANTHANIDE BOROSHILICATE FRIT X COMPOSITION FOR PLUTONIUM DISPOSITION  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE/EM) plans to conduct the Plutonium Disposition Project at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to disposition excess weapons-usable plutonium. A plutonium glass waste form is the preferred option for immobilization of the plutonium for subsequent disposition in a geologic repository. A reference glass composition (Lanthanide Borosilicate (LaBS) Frit B) was developed during the Plutonium Immobilization Program (PIP) to immobilize plutonium in the late 1990's. A limited amount of performance testing was performed on this baseline composition before efforts to further pursue Pu disposition via a glass waste form ceased. Recent FY05 studies have further investigated the LaBS Frit B formulation as well as development of a newer LaBS formulation denoted as LaBS Frit X. The objectives of this present task were to fabricate plutonium loaded LaBS Frit X glass and perform corrosion testing to provide near-term data that will increase confidence that LaBS glass product is suitable for disposal in the Yucca Mountain Repository. Specifically, testing was conducted in an effort to provide data to Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) personnel for use in performance assessment calculations. Plutonium containing LaBS glass with the Frit X composition with a 9.5 wt% PuO{sub 2} loading was prepared for testing. Glass was prepared to support Product Consistency Testing (PCT) at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The glass was thoroughly characterized using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) prior to performance testing. A series of PCTs were conducted at SRNL using quenched Pu Frit X glass with varying exposed surface areas. Effects of isothermal and can-in-canister heat treatments on the Pu Frit X glass were also investigated. Another series of PCTs were performed on these different heat-treated Pu Frit X glasses. Leachates from all these PCTs were analyzed to determine the dissolved concentrations of key elements. Acid stripping of leach vessels was performed to determine the concentration of the glass constituents that may have sorbed on the vessels during leach testing. Additionally, the leachate solutions were ultrafiltered to quantify colloid formation. Characterization of the quenched Pu Frit X glass prior to testing revealed that some crystalline plutonium oxide was present in the glass. The crystalline particles had a disklike morphology and likely formed via coarsening of particles in areas compositionally enriched in plutonium. Similar results had also been observed in previous Pu Frit B studies. Isothermal 1250 C heat-treated Pu Frit X glasses showed two different crystalline phases (PuO{sub 2} and Nd{sub 2}Hf{sub 2}O{sub 7}), as well as a peak shift in the XRD spectra that is likely due to a solid solution phase PuO{sub 2}-HfO{sub 2} formation. Micrographs of this glass showed a clustering of some of the crystalline phases. Pu Frit X glass subjected to the can-in-canister heating profile also displayed the two PuO{sub 2} and Nd{sub 2}Hf{sub 2}O{sub 7} phases from XRD analysis. Additional micrographs indicate crystalline phases in this glass were of varying forms (a spherical PuO{sub 2} phase that appeared to range in size from submicron to {approx}5 micron, a dendritic-type phase that was comprised of mixed lanthanides and plutonium, and a minor phase that contained Pu and Hf), and clustering of the phases was also observed.

Marra, J

2006-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

370

Lithium ion conducting electrolytes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH.sub.3 CN) succinnonitrile (CH.sub.2 CN).sub.2, and tetraglyme (CH.sub.3 --O--CH.sub.2 --CH.sub.2 --O--).sub.2 (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg.sup.+2 cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100.degree. C. conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone.

Angell, C. Austen (Tempe, AZ); Liu, Changle (Tempe, AZ)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Lithium ion conducting electrolytes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates generally to highly conductive alkali-metal ion non-crystalline electrolyte systems, and more particularly to novel and unique molten (liquid), rubbery, and solid electrolyte systems which are especially well suited for use with high current density electrolytic cells such as primary and secondary batteries.

Angell, Charles Austen (Mesa, AZ); Liu, Changle (Midland, MI); Xu, Kang (Montgomery Village, MD); Skotheim, Terje A. (Tucson, AZ)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Transparent heat mirrors for solar-energy applications  

SciTech Connect

Transparent heat-mirror films, which transmit solar radiation but reflect ir thermal radiation, have potentially important applications in solar/thermal/electric conversion, solar heating, solar photovoltaic conversion, and window insulation. We have used rf sputtering to prepare two types of films: TiO/sub 2//Ag/TiO/sub 2/ and Sn-doped In/sub 2/O/sub 3/. To characterize the properties of heat-mirror films for solar-energy collection, we define the parameters ..cap alpha../sub eff/, the effective solar absorptivity, and epsilon/sub eff/, the effective ir emissivity. For our Sn-doped In/sub 2/O/sub 3/ films, ..cap alpha../sub eff//epsilon/sub eff/ is comparable to the values of ..cap alpha../epsilon reported for the leading selective absorbers. Even higher values of ..cap alpha../sub eff//epsilon/sub eff/ are obtained for the TiO/sub 2//Ag/TiO/sub 2/ films.

Fan, J.C.C.; Bachner, F.J.

1976-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

ATTRIBUTES AND THRESHOLDS IN MEASUREMENTS FOR TRANSPARENCY INITIATIVES  

SciTech Connect

The collection of programs broadly termed Transparency Initiatives frequently involves physics measurements that are applied to items with sensitive or classified properties. The inability or reluctance to perform quantitative measurements, in the safeguards tradition, to such items, and then to expose the results to international examination, has impelled development of an attributes approach to measurements, following the philosophy if it looks like a duck, walks like a duck and quacks like a duck, call it a duck, This approach avoids certain of the classification issues that would otherwise be associated with such measurements. Use of the attributes approach, however, continues to pose problems of interpretation, in light of the need to establish numerical thresholds whereby data obtained from the measurements can be evaluated to determine whether the attribute is present. In this paper we examine the foundations of the attributes approach and the steps used to determine appropriate attributes and thresholds, using examples from contemporary threat-reduction initiatives where possible. Implications for the detector technologies used in the measurements will be discussed, as will the characteristics of so-called information barriers intended to prevent inadvertent release of sensitive information during attributes measurements.

M. W. JOHNSON

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Colour transparency: a novel test of QCD in nuclear interactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Colour transparency is a cute and indispensable property of QCD as the gauge theory of strong interaction. CT tests of QCD consist of production of the perturbative small-sized hadronic state and measuring the strngth of its non-perturbative diffraction nteraction in a nuclear matter. The energy depenednce of the final- state interaction in a nuclear matter probes a dynamical evolution from the perturbative small-sized state to the full-sized nonperturbative hadron. QCD observables of CT experiments correspond to a novel mechanism of scanning of hadronic wave functions from the large nonperturbative to the small perturbative size. In these lectures, which are addressed to experimentalists and theorists, I discuss the principle ideas of CT physics and the physics potential of the hadron and electron facilities in the > 10 GeV energy range. The special effort was made to present the material in the pedagigical and self-consistent way, with an emphasis on the underlying rich quantum-mechanical interference phenomena.

N. N. Nikolaev

1993-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

375

Recirculation bubbler for glass melter apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gas bubbler device provides enhanced recirculation of molten glass within a glass melter apparatus. The bubbler device includes a tube member disposed within a pool of molten glass contained in the melter. The tube member includes a lower opening through which the molten glass enters and upper slots disposed close to (above or below) the upper surface of the pool of molten glass and from which the glass exits. A gas (air) line is disposed within the tube member and extends longitudinally thereof. A gas bubble distribution device, which is located adjacent to the lower end of the tube member and is connected to the lower end of the gas line, releases gas through openings therein so as to produce gas bubbles of a desired size in the molten glass and in a distributed pattern across the tube member.

Guerrero, Hector (Evans, GA); Bickford, Dennis (Folly Beach, SC)

2007-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

376

Melting Hanford LAW into Iron-Phosphate Glass in a CCIM  

SciTech Connect

A vitrification test has been conducted using the cold crucible induction melter (CCIM) test system at the Idaho National Laboratory. The test was conducted to demonstrate the vitrification of a Hanford low activity waste (LAW) that contains relatively large amounts of sulfate and sodium, compared to other radioactive Hanford waste streams. The high sulfate content limits the potential loading of this waste stream in conventional borosilicate glass, so this test demonstrated how this waste stream could be vitrified in an iron-phosphate glass that can tolerate higher levels of sulfate.

Nick Soelberg; Sharna Rossberg

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Testing of Large-Scale ICV Glasses with Hanford LAW Simulant  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary glass compositions for immobilizing Hanford low-activity waste (LAW) by the in-container vitrification (ICV) process were initially fabricated at crucible- and engineering-scale, including simulants and actual (radioactive) LAW. Glasses were characterized for vapor hydration test (VHT) and product consistency test (PCT) responses and crystallinity (both quenched and slow-cooled samples). Selected glasses were tested for toxicity characteristic leach procedure (TCLP) responses, viscosity, and electrical conductivity. This testing showed that glasses with LAW loading of 20 mass% can be made readily and meet all product constraints by a far margin. Glasses with over 22 mass% Na2O can be made to meet all other product quality and process constraints. Large-scale testing was performed at the AMEC, Geomelt Division facility in Richland. Three tests were conducted using simulated LAW with increasing loadings of 12, 17, and 20 mass% Na2O. Glass samples were taken from the test products in a manner to represent the full expected range of product performance. These samples were characterized for composition, density, crystalline and non-crystalline phase assemblage, and durability using the VHT, PCT, and TCLP tests. The results, presented in this report, show that the AMEC ICV product with meets all waste form requirements with a large margin. These results provide strong evidence that the Hanford LAW can be successfully vitrified by the ICV technology and can meet all the constraints related to product quality. The economic feasibility of the ICV technology can be further enhanced by subsequent optimization.

Hrma, Pavel R.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Vienna, John D.; Matyas, Josef; Smith, Donald E.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Yeager, John D.

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Lid heater for glass melter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of a glass melter having a lid electrode for heating the glass melt radiantly. The electrode comprises a series of INCONEL 690 tubes running above the melt across the melter interior and through the melter walls and having nickel cores inside the tubes beginning where the tubes leave the melter interior and nickel connectors to connect the tubes electrically in series. An applied voltage causes the tubes to generate heat of electrical resistance for melting frit injected onto the melt. The cores limit heat generated as the current passes through the walls of the melter. Nickel bus connection to the electrical power supply minimizes heat transfer away from the melter that would occur if standard copper or water-cooled copper connections were used between the supply and the INCONEL 690 heating tubes.

Phillips, T.D.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

379

"S" Glass Manufacturing Technology Transfer  

SciTech Connect

A glass-ceramic-to metal sealing technology patented by Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (SNLA) was developed by MRC-Mound for use in the manufacture of weapon components. Successful implementation attracted increasingly widespread weapon use of this technology. "S-glass" manufacturing technology was transferred to commercial vendors to ensure that weapons production schedules would be met in the coming years. Such transfer also provided sources of this fledgling technology for the Department of Defense (DOD), aerospace and other commercial uses. The steps involved in the technology transfer are described, from the initial cooperative development work of Sandia and Mound scientists and technologists to the final phase of qualifying commercial vendors for component manufacture.

Buckner, Dean, A.; McCollister, Howard, L.

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Lid heater for glass melter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A glass melter having a lid electrode for heating the glass melt radiantly. The electrode comprises a series of INCONEL 690 tubes running above the melt across the melter interior and through the melter walls and having nickel cores inside the tubes beginning where the tubes leave the melter interior and nickel connectors to connect the tubes electrically in series. An applied voltage causes the tubes to generate heat of electrical resistance for melting frit injected onto the melt. The cores limit heat generated as the current passes through the walls of the melter. Nickel bus connection to the electrical power supply minimizes heat transfer away from the melter that would occur if standard copper or water-cooled copper connections were used between the supply and the INCONEL 690 heating tubes. 3 figures.

Phillips, T.D.

1993-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "glass transparent conductive" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Low Temperature Proton Conductivity  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and and MEAs at Freezing Temperatures Thomas A. Zawodzinski, Jr. Case Western Reserve University Cleveland, Ohio 2 Freezing Fuel Cells: Impact on MEAS Below 0 o C *Transport processes/motions slow down: questions re: lower conductivity,water mobility etc *Residual water will have various physical effects in different portions of the MEA questions re: durability of components 3 3 'States' of Water in Proton Conductors ? Freezing (bulk), bound freezable, bound non freezable water states claimed based on DSC * Freezing water more mobile, allegedly important for high conductivity Analysis common for porous systems Does the presence of these states matter? Why? 4 'State of Water' in PEMs At T < 0 o C *'Liquid-like' water freezes *'Non-freezing' fraction: water of solvation at pore

382

Oxygen ion conducting materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

Vaughey, John (Elmhurst, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL); Wang, Xiaoping (Downers Grove, IL); Carter, J. David (Bolingbrook, IL)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Conduction cooled tube supports  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In boilers, process tubes are suspended by means of support studs that are in thermal contact with and attached to the metal roof casing of the boiler and the upper bend portions of the process tubes. The support studs are sufficiently short that when the boiler is in use, the support studs are cooled by conduction of heat to the process tubes and the roof casing thereby maintaining the temperature of the stud so that it does not exceed 1400.degree. F.

Worley, Arthur C. (Mt. Tabor, NJ); Becht, IV, Charles (Morristown, NJ)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Progress toward bridging from atomistic to continuum modeling to predict nuclear waste glass dissolution.  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes research performed for the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Subcontinuum and Upscaling Task. The work conducted focused on developing a roadmap to include molecular scale, mechanistic information in continuum-scale models of nuclear waste glass dissolution. This information is derived from molecular-scale modeling efforts that are validated through comparison with experimental data. In addition to developing a master plan to incorporate a subcontinuum mechanistic understanding of glass dissolution into continuum models, methods were developed to generate constitutive dissolution rate expressions from quantum calculations, force field models were selected to generate multicomponent glass structures and gel layers, classical molecular modeling was used to study diffusion through nanopores analogous to those in the interfacial gel layer, and a micro-continuum model (K{mu}C) was developed to study coupled diffusion and reaction at the glass-gel-solution interface.

Zapol, Peter (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Bourg, Ian (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories, Berkeley, CA); Criscenti, Louise Jacqueline; Steefel, Carl I. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories, Berkeley, CA); Schultz, Peter Andrew

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Measurement of nuclear transparency from A(e,e'[pi]?) reactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The color transparency phenomenon refers to the suppression of final-state interactions of a hadron propagating through the nuclear medium at large momentum transfer when the hadron is produced with small transverse size. ...

Clasie, Benjamin Michael Patrick

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Transparent, near-infrared organic photovoltaic solar cells for window and energy-scavenging applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We fabricate near-infrared absorbing organic photovoltaics that are highly transparent to visible light. By optimizing near-infrared optical-interference, we demonstrate power efficiencies of 1.3±0.1% with simultaneous ...

Lunt, Richard R.

387

Transparent yttrium aluminium garnet obtained by spark plasma sintering of lyophilized gels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lyophilized YAG gel, synthesized by the coprecipitation technique, has been sintered to transparency by spark plasma sintering method at 1500°C. Whereas conventionally dried gels show large agglomerates, over 1 µm, powders from lyophilized ...

M. Suárez; A. Fernández; J. L. Menéndez; R. Torrecillas

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Determination of Semi-Transparent Cirrus Cloud Temperature from Infrared Radiances: Application to METEOSAT  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of simultaneous infrared measurements to derive the temperature and emissivity of semi-transparent cirrus clouds is experimentally investigated. Results from the NASA/CONVAIR-990 Winter Experiment Program, 1977 (WEP) are discussed. It is ...

Gerard Szejwach

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

GC Commits to Transparency on Nuclear Waste Fund Fee Adequacy Decisions |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

GC Commits to Transparency on Nuclear Waste Fund Fee Adequacy GC Commits to Transparency on Nuclear Waste Fund Fee Adequacy Decisions GC Commits to Transparency on Nuclear Waste Fund Fee Adequacy Decisions February 26, 2010 - 3:17pm Addthis Consistent with the Administration's commitment to transparency, DOE General Counsel Scott Blake Harris has decided that all future determinations as to the adequacy of the Nuclear Waste Fund fee will be made available to the public on DOE's website shortly after DOE makes a determination. The report relied upon in determining fee adequacy for 2008, the most recent year for which DOE has made a determination, is available here: (2008 Fee Adequacy Letter Report). Addthis Related Articles DOE Completes Annual Determination of the Adequacy of the Nuclear Waste Fund Fee Department of Energy Files Motion to Withdraw Yucca Mountain License

390

The new geospatial tools: global transparency enhancing safeguards verification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper focuses on the importance and potential role of the new, freely available, geospatial tools for enhancing IAEA safeguards and how, together with commercial satellite imagery, they can be used to promote 'all-source synergy'. As additional 'open sources', these new geospatial tools have heralded a new era of 'global transparency' and they can be used to substantially augment existing information-driven safeguards gathering techniques, procedures, and analyses in the remote detection of undeclared facilities, as well as support ongoing monitoring and verification of various treaty (e.g., NPT, FMCT) relevant activities and programs. As an illustration of how these new geospatial tools may be applied, an original exemplar case study provides how it is possible to derive value-added follow-up information on some recent public media reporting of a former clandestine underground plutonium production complex (now being converted to a 'Tourist Attraction' given the site's abandonment by China in the early 1980s). That open source media reporting, when combined with subsequent commentary found in various Internet-based Blogs and Wikis, led to independent verification of the reporting with additional ground truth via 'crowdsourcing' (tourist photos as found on 'social networking' venues like Google Earth's Panoramio layer and Twitter). Confirmation of the precise geospatial location of the site (along with a more complete facility characterization incorporating 3-D Modeling and visualization) was only made possible following the acquisition of higher resolution commercial satellite imagery that could be correlated with the reporting, ground photos, and an interior diagram, through original imagery analysis of the overhead imagery.

Pabian, Frank Vincent [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

391

Method for heating, forming and tempering a glass sheet  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for heating, forming and tempering a glass sheet is disclosed including the steps of heating at least one glass sheet to at least a first predetermined temperature, applying microwave energy to the glass sheet to heat the glass sheet to at least a second predetermined temperature, forming the glass sheet to a predetermined configuration, and cooling an outer surface of the glass sheet to at least a third predetermined temperature to temper the glass sheet. 2 figs.

Boaz, P.T.; Sitzman, G.W.

1998-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

392

TESLA: A Transparent, Extensible Session-Layer Architecture for End-to-end Network Services  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes TESLA, a transparent and extensible framework allowing session-layer services to be developed using a high-level flow-based abstraction. TESLA services can be deployed transparently using dynamic library interposition and can be composed by chaining event handlers in a graph structure. We show how TESLA can be used to implement several session-layer services including encryption, SOCKS, application-controlled routing, flow migration, and traffic rate shaping, all with acceptably low performance degradation

Jon Salz; Alex C. Snoeren; Hari Balakrishnan

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

A novel upgrade path for transparent optical networks based on wavelength reuse  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Passive optical networks (PONs) provide an economical method of delivering a wide variety of services to a small number of customers. Using optical fibre amplifiers, PONs can be aggregated to form transparent optical networks (TONs) serving a very large ... Keywords: WDM TON upgrade, dynamic allocation, effective bandwidth per user, high bandwidth services, optical fibre amplifiers, optical fibre networks, optical filters, passive optical networks, passive routing, telecommunication network routing, transparent optical networks, upgrade path, upstream direction, wavelength division multiplexing, wavelength reuse

V. Tandon; M. Wilby; F. Burton

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Crystallization kinetics and spectroscopic investigations on Tb{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+} codoped glass ceramics containing CaF{sub 2} nanocrystals  

SciTech Connect

Transparent Tb{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+} codoped oxyfluoride glass ceramics containing CaF{sub 2} nanocrystals were prepared by melt quenching and subsequent heat treatment. Crystallization kinetics of CaF{sub 2} nanocrystals was investigated by differential scanning calorimetric method. The average apparent activation energy E{sub a} of the crystallization was {approx}498 kJ/mol. Moreover, the value of the Avrami exponent n was 1.01. These results suggest that the crystallization mechanism of CaF{sub 2} is a diffusion controlled growth process of needles and plates of finite long dimensions. X-ray diffraction patterns and transmission electron microscopy image confirmed the CaF{sub 2} nanocrystals in the glass ceramic. Ultraviolet (UV) and visible emission spectra of the as-made glass and the glass ceramic with an excitation of a 974 nm laser diode were recorded at room temperature. An intense UV emission at 381 nm was observed in the glass ceramic. The origin of the enhancement of the emission at 381 nm was investigated using spectroscopic technique and Judd-Ofelt analysis. The enhancement of the emission at 381 nm could be attributed to the change of the ligand field of Tb{sup 3+} ions due to the incorporation of some Tb{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+} ions into CaF{sub 2} nanocrystals in the glass ceramic.

Huang Lihui; Qin Guanshi; Arai, Yusuke; Jose, Rajan; Suzuki, Takenobu; Ohishi, Yasutake; Yamashita, Tatsuya; Akimoto, Yusuke [Research Center for Advanced Photon Technology, Toyota Technological Institute, 2-12-1 Hisakata, Tempaku-ku, Nagoya 468-8511 (Japan); Research Center for Advanced Photon Technology, Toyota Technological Institute, 2-12-1 Hisakata, Tempaku-ku, Nagoya 468-8511, Japan and Toyota Central R and D Labs., Inc., 41-1 Yokomichi, Nagakute, Aichi, 480-1192 (Japan); Toyota Central R and D Labs., Inc., 41-1 Yokomichi, Nagakute, Aichi, 480-1192 (Japan)

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Normal Conducting CLIC Technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The CLIC (Compact Linear Collider) multi?lateral study group based at CERN is studying the technology for an electron?positron linear collider with a centre?of?mass energy up to 5 TeV. In contrast to the International Linear Collider (ILC) study which has chosen to use super?conducting cavities with accelerating gradients in the range of 30–40 MV/m to obtain centre?of?mass collision energies of 0.5–1 TeV

Erk Jensen; CLIC Study Team

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

A History of the Theories of Glass Structure: Can We Really Believe ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Field Assisted Viscous Flow and Crystallization in a Sodium Aluminosilicate Glass · Glass Ceramics ... Terahertz Properties of Lithium Iron Phosphate Glasses.

397

Process for preparing improved silvered glass mirrors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Glass mirrors having improved weathering properties are prepared by an improvement in the process for making the mirrors. The glass surface after it has been cleaned but before it is silvered, is contacted with a solution of lanthanide rare earths in addition to a sensitization solution of tin or palladium. The addition of the rare earths produces a mirror which has increased resistance to delamination of the silver from the glass surface in the presence of water.

Buckwalter, C.Q. Jr.

1980-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

398

Glass Property Data and Models for Estimating High-Level Waste Glass Volume  

SciTech Connect

This report describes recent efforts to develop glass property models that can be used to help estimate the volume of high-level waste (HLW) glass that will result from vitrification of Hanford tank waste. The compositions of acceptable and processable HLW glasses need to be optimized to minimize the waste-form volume and, hence, to save cost. A database of properties and associated compositions for simulated waste glasses was collected for developing property-composition models. This database, although not comprehensive, represents a large fraction of data on waste-glass compositions and properties that were available at the time of this report. Glass property-composition models were fit to subsets of the database for several key glass properties. These models apply to a significantly broader composition space than those previously publised. These models should be considered for interim use in calculating properties of Hanford waste glasses.

Vienna, John D.; Fluegel, Alexander; Kim, Dong-Sang; Hrma, Pavel R.

2009-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

399

Pitfalls of Transparency: Lessons Learned from the Milford Flats Fire  

SciTech Connect

The Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) consists of a network of 29 radiation and weather monitoring stations located over a 160,000-km2 area of southern Nevada, southwestern Utah, and southeastern California. The program provides stakeholders with a hands-on role in the monitoring for airborne radioactivity that could result from ongoing or past activities on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The CEMP’s mission includes provisions for the transparency of the monitoring data as well as public accessibility to these data. This is accomplished through direct stakeholder participation, public outreach, and near real-time uploads of monitoring data to a publicly accessible web site located at http://cemp.dri.edu/. In early July 2007, a lightning strike ignited a wildfire just outside the city of Milford in southeastern Utah. This fire, named the Milford Flats Fire, grew rapidly and eventually became the largest wildfire in recorded history in the state, burning approximately 567 square miles. At about the same time, the pressurized ion chamber (PIC) located at the CEMP station in Milford began reporting average exposure rates that ranged from four to seven times normal for the area. Initially, it was believed that elevated readings could be a result of gamma-emitting radon progeny released by the fire and transported in smoke plumes. The U.S. Department of Energy issued a press release offering this as a possible first explanation, and the release received a great amount of attention, particularly in the state of Utah, where concerns were expressed that the fire could be causing re-suspension of radionuclides associated with fallout from past nuclear testing at the NTS. Subsequent analyses of particulate air filter samples obtained from the Milford station, as well as an examination of the data reported by the PIC, the timing of the incident, and diagnostic testing on the PIC, showed that the abnormal gamma readings were a result of instrument malfunction. WM2008 Conference, February 24-28, 2008, Phoenix, AZ This paper will review the data from the PIC and the analytical results of air filter samples collected at Milford, and present lessons learned from the Milford Flats Fire Incident on providing real-time access to monitoring data for the public.

T. Hartwell; D. Shafer; J. Tappen; G. McCurdy; B. Hurley; D. Farmer

2008-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

400

Highly conductive electrolyte composites and method of fabrication thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrolyte composite is manufactured by pressurizing a mixture of ionically conductive glass and an ionically conductive compound at between 12,000 and 24,000 pounds per square inch to produce a pellet. The resulting pellet is then sintered at relatively lower temperatures (800{degrees}C--1200{degrees}C), for example 1000{degrees}C, than are typically required (1400{degrees}C) when fabricating single constituent ceramic electrolytes. The resultant composite is 100 percent conductive at 250{degrees}C with conductivity values of 2.5 to 4 {times} 10{sup {minus}2} (ohm-cm){sup {minus}1}. The matrix exhibits chemical stability against sodium for 100 hours at 250 to 300{degrees}C.

Hash, M.C.; Bloom, I.D.

1990-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "glass transparent conductive" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Prestressed glass, aezoelectric electrical power source  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrical power source which comprises a body of prestressed glass having a piezoelectric transducer supported on the body in direct mechanical coupling therewith.

Newson, Melvin M. (Albuquerque, NM)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Carbon Emissions: Stone, Clay, and Glass Industry  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Energy-Related Carbon Emissions for Selected Stone, Clay, and Glass Industries, 1994. The cement and lime manufacturing industries emit almost half of ...

403

Bulk Metallic Glasses VIII - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aug 2, 2010 ... Sponsorship, The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society .... The Oxidation Behavior of an FeCo-Based Bulk Metallic Glass at 600 - 700C.

404

Nanocrystal Formation in Glasses - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Nanocrystal Formation in Glasses ... copper have been treated in hydrogen atmospheres to form nanocrystals imbedded in a glassy matrix.

405

Carbon Emissions: Stone, Clay, and Glass Industry  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Stone et al. Industries Energy-Related Carbon Emissions for the Stone, Clay, and Glass Industry by Source, 1994. Three sources, coal, natural gas, and electricity, account for...

406

Mechanical Properties of Thin Film Metallic Glass  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Because of these and other properties, thin film metallic-glasses (TFMGs) are a promising structural material for fabricating the next generation of micro- and ...

407

Nepheline Crystallization in Nuclear Waste Glasses: Progress ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, One significant limitation to waste loading in glass for Hanford defense wastes is the commonly high Al concentrations. The primary concern is ...

408

Lithiated Glass Scintillating-Particle Neutron Detector  

developed from glass that has been loaded with a high concentration of lithium-6, a neutron-absorbing material. A scintillating material in the form ...

409

Lithiated Glass Scintillating-Particle Neutron Detector ...  

... ORNL invention uses a matrix material developed from glass that has been loaded with a high concentration of lithium-6, a neutron-absorbing ...

410

Advanced Characterization Techniques of Glasses - Programmaster ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 8, 2012 ... Many researchers rely on NMR of glass-forming cations to understand network structure, often in combination with other experimental and ...

411

B42: Cathode Ray Tube Glasses in Glass Ceramics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A10: Mechanical Properties and Weld-Ability of Laser Welded Metal Bellows ..... J5: Electrical Conductivity of Diesel-Biodiesel Blends Evaluated by the ...

412

Storage and disposal of radioactive waste as glass in canisters  

SciTech Connect

A review of the use of waste glass for the immobilization of high-level radioactive waste glass is presented. Typical properties of the canisters used to contain the glass, and the waste glass, are described. Those properties are used to project the stability of canisterized waste glass through interim storage, transportation, and geologic disposal.

Mendel, J.E.

1978-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Properties of Glass-Ceramics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 21   Maximum use temperatures of selected glass-ceramics...9608 Corning 1000 1830 â?¦ LAS I â?¦ 1000 1830 46% SiC fiber-reinforced composite LAS II (Nb) â?¦ 1100 2010 46% SiC fiber-reinforced composite LAS III (Nb,Zr) â?¦ 1200 2190 46% SiC fiber-reinforced composite LAS-type â?¦ 1200â??1300 2190â??2370 â?¦ Cordierite 9606 Corning 1100 2010 Creep over 900 °C (1650 °F)...

414

Enhanced Thermal Conductivity Oxide Fuels  

SciTech Connect

the purpose of this project was to investigate the feasibility of increasing the thermal conductivity of oxide fuels by adding small fractions of a high conductivity solid phase.

Alvin Solomon; Shripad Revankar; J. Kevin McCoy

2006-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

415

Specialty Cellular Glass Products and Their Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cellular glass products are composed of hermetically-sealed cells containing gases which exhibit no extracellular diffusion. As such, these products are impermeable to liquids and gases. FOAMGLAS® blocks have long been used as fireproof thermal insulation, especially in low temperature applications where condensation and subsequent ice formation in insulation can cause significant reduction in insulating value. Recently, specialty compositions have been developed in the borosilicate and boroaluminosilicate fields which exhibit a high degree of resistance to corrosion by aggressive chemicals as well. One product, sold as PENNGUARDTM block by Pennwalt Corporation, is used as a liner for chimneys where acid corrosion had previously caused substantial maintenance problems. The product is also used as an insulative, acid-resistant liner in numerous chemical processes. A more refractory foam called FOAMSID®12 insulation has been developed for use in extremely corrosive environments at elevated temperatures. One such field of application, the Alcoa Smelting Process, involves the use of molten salts which tend to impregnate materials which are porous to either salt vapors or to the liquid phase. Such impregnation of ordinary insulating materials causes a significant increase in heat transfer rates. FOAMSID®-12 blocks, with their unique properties of light weight, high strength, impermeability, and low thermal conductivity offer an opportunity for industrial energy conservation which did not previously exist.

Rostoker, D.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Ancient Glass: A Literature Search and its Role in Waste Management  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

When developing a performance assessment model for the long-term disposal of immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) glass, it is desirable to determine the durability of glass forms over very long periods of time. However, testing is limited to short time spans, so experiments are performed under conditions that accelerate the key geochemical processes that control weathering. Verification that models currently being used can reliably calculate the long term behavior ILAW glass is a key component of the overall PA strategy. Therefore, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was contracted by Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC to evaluate alternative strategies that can be used for PA source term model validation. One viable alternative strategy is the use of independent experimental data from archaeological studies of ancient or natural glass contained in the literature. These results represent a potential independent experiment that date back to approximately 3600 years ago or 1600 before the current era (bce) in the case of ancient glass and 106 years or older in the case of natural glass. The results of this literature review suggest that additional experimental data may be needed before the result from archaeological studies can be used as a tool for model validation of glass weathering and more specifically disposal facility performance. This is largely because none of the existing data set contains all of the information required to conduct PA source term calculations. For example, in many cases the sediments surrounding the glass was not collected and analyzed; therefore having the data required to compare computer simulations of concentration flux is not possible. This type of information is important to understanding the element release profile from the glass to the surrounding environment and provides a metric that can be used to calibrate source term models. Although useful, the available literature sources do not contain the required information needed to simulate the long-term performance of nuclear waste glasses in a near-surface or deep geologic repositories. The information that will be required include 1) experimental measurements to quantify the model parameters, 2) detailed analyses of altered glass samples, and 3) detailed analyses of the sediment surrounding the ancient glass samples.

Strachan, Denis M.; Pierce, Eric M.

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Lessons learned from reactive transport modeling of a low-activity waste glass disposal system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A set of reactive chemical transport calculations were conducted with the Subsurface Transport Over Reactive Multiphases (STORM) code to evaluate the long-term performance of a representative low-activity waste glass in a shallow subsurface disposal ... Keywords: chemical transport, low-level waste, numerical model, unsaturated flow, vadose zone

Diana H. Bacon; B. Peter McGrail

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

SRNL POROUS WALL GLASS MICROSPHERES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has developed a new medium for storage of hydrogen and other gases. This involves fabrication of thin, Porous Walled, Hollow Glass Microspheres (PW-HGMs), with diameters generally in the range of 1 to several hundred microns. What is unique about the glass microballons is that porosity has been induced and controlled within the thin, one micron thick walls, on the scale of 10 to several thousand Angstroms. This porosity results in interesting properties including the ability to use these channels to fill the microballons with special absorbents and other materials, thus providing a contained environment even for reactive species. Gases can now enter the microspheres and be retained on the absorbents, resulting in solid-state and contained storage of even reactive species. Also, the porosity can be altered and controlled in various ways, and even used to filter mixed gas streams within a system. SRNL is involved in about a half dozen different programs involving these PW-HGMs and an overview of some of these activities and results emerging are presented.

Wicks, G; Leung Heung, L; Ray Schumacher, R

2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

419

Comparison of TCLP and long-term PCT performance on low-level mixed waste glasses  

SciTech Connect

The Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is currently investigating technologies for conversion of low-level mixed waste (LLMW) into a form suitable for permanent disposal. Vitrification is one of the preferred technologies since it is capable of consistently producing a durable, leach resistant wasteform, while simultaneously minimizing disposal volumes. Since vitrification of LLMW is a relatively new concept, final wasteform specifications have not been developed. The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) has developed the Product Consistency Test (PCI), which is a 7-day leaching procedure for glass. Comparison indicates that both tests have merit where LLMW glasses are concerned. The TCLP is an important test for determining the release of metals and for allowing the wasteform to be delisted while the PCT is more useful for determining consistent production of durable glass. It is a better indicator of the behavior of glass in disposal site conditions. Most aggressive leaching of common oxide glasses occurs under caustic rather than acidic conditions, therefore it is necessary to perform both tests. Further tests will be conducted using additional glass compositions and variations in the TCLP and the PCT.

Cicero, C.A.; Andrews, M.K.; Bickford, D.F.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Process for Converting Waste Glass Fiber into Value Added Products, Final Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nature of the Event: Technology demonstration. The project successfully met all of its technical objectives. Albacem has signed an exclusive licensing agreement with Vitro Minerals Inc., a specialty minerals company, to commercialize the Albacem technology (website: www.vitrominerals.com). Location: The basic research for the project was conducted in Peoria, Illinois, and Atlanta, Georgia, with third-party laboratory verification carried out in Ontario, Canada. Pilot-scale trials (multi-ton) were conducted at a facility in South Carolina. Full-scale manufacturing facilities have been designed and are scheduled for construction by Vitro Minerals during 2006 at a location in the Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina tri-state area. The Technology: This technology consists of a process to eliminate solid wastes generated at glass fiber manufacturing facilities by converting them to value-added materials (VCAS Pozzolans) suitable for use in cement and concrete applications. This technology will help divert up to 250,000 tpy of discarded glass fiber manufacturing wastes into beneficial use applications in the concrete construction industry. This technology can also be used for processing glass fiber waste materials reclaimed from monofills at manufacturing facilities. The addition of take-back materials and reclamation from landfills can help supply over 500,000 tpy of glass fiber waste for processing into value added products. In the Albacem process, waste glass fiber is ground to a fine powder that effectively functions as a reactive pozzolanic admixture for use in portland ce¬ment-based building materials and products, such as concrete, mortars, terrazzo, tile, and grouts. Because the waste fiber from the glass manufacturing industry is vitreous, clean, and low in iron and alkalis, the resulting pozzolan is white in color and highly consistent in chemical composition. This white pozzolan, termed VCAS Pozzolan (for Vitreous Calcium-Alumino-Silicate). is especially suited for white concrete applications where it imparts desirable benefits such as increased long-term strength and improved long-term durability of concrete products. Two U.S. patents entitled have been issued to Albacem covering the technology. Third-party validation testing has confirmed that the pozzolanic product is an excellent, high performance material that conforms to a ASTM standards and improves the strength and durability of concrete. Currently, there are no known significant competing technologies to process glass fiber manufacturing by-products and con¬vert them into value-added products. Most glass fiber-forming and fabrication wastes continue to be disposed in landfills at significant costs and with associated negative environmental impact. It is estimated that in a typical glass fiber manufactur¬ing facility, 10-20% by weight of the processed glass material is sent for dis¬posal to a landfill. Today, supplementary ce¬menting materials or mineral admixtures are key to achieving strong and durable concrete. Recovered materials such as coal fly ash, ground granulated blast furnace slag and silica fume are widely accepted and used in concrete all over the world, espe¬cially in the construction of “high performance” structures such as massive dams, bridges, subway tunnels, etc. These min¬eral admixtures are not suitable for white concrete and light-colored architectural concrete applications. Converting waste glass fibers into a high performance white pozzolan would allow white concrete producers to gain from the same durability benefits currently realized by gray concrete producers. Description of the Benefit: Albacem’s technology will enable the glass fiber industry to eliminate nearly 100% of its glass fiber produc¬tion waste streams by converting them into viable value-added products. With this technology, the glass industry can prevent the landfilling of about 250,000 tons of waste glass fiber annually. Glass manufacturers will realize improved production efficiency by reducing process costs through the elimination of solid was

Hemmings, Raymond T.

2005-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "glass transparent conductive" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Gated Conductance of Thin Indium Tin Oxide - The Simplest Transistor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Transistors are the fundamental building block of modern electronic devices. So far, all transistors are based on various types of semiconductor junctions. The most common bipolar-junction transistors and metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors contain p-n junctions to control the current, depending on applied biases across the junctions. Thin-film transistors need metal-semiconductor junctions for injecting and extracting electrons from their channels. Here, by coating a heavily-doped thin indium-tin-oxide (ITO) film through a shadow mask onto a biopolymer chitosan/ITO/glass substrate, we can have a high-performance junctionless transparent organic-inorganic hybrid thin film transistor. This could be the simplest transistor in the world, to our knowledge, not only in its structure, but also its fabrication process. In addition, the device performance is found to be greatly enhanced using a reinforced chitosan/SiO2 hybrid bilayer dielectric stack. Our results clearly show that this architecture can...

Jiang, Jie; Sun, Jia; Dou, Wei; Zhang, Qing

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Development of Bulk Metallic Glasses with High Plasticity Using the ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Air-Oxidation of a (Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5)98Er2 Bulk Metallic Glass at 350-500oc · Anelastic Deformation of a Metallic Glass · Anisotropy in Metallic Glasses.

423

Load relaxation studies of a metallic glass  

SciTech Connect

Experimental results of load relaxation studies of a commercial metallic glass as a function of temperature are reported. The data suggest that metallic glasses exhibit deformation behavior with flow laws similar to those governing plastic deformation in crystalline solids. The lack of appreciable work hardening in annealed material and the identification of an anelastic component are also indicated by the experimental observations. (GHT)

Hadnagy, T.D.; Krenisky, D.J.; Ast, D.G.; Li, C.Y.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Viscous Glass Sealants for SOFC Applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Two series of silicate glasses that contain gallium as the primary critical component have been identified and optimized for viscous sealing of solid oxide fuel cells operating from 650 to 850°C. Both series of glass sealants crystallize partially upon heat treatment and yield multiphase microstructures that allow viscous flow at temperatures as low as 650°C. A fully amorphous sealant was also developed by isolating, synthesizing and testing a silicate glass of the same composition as the remnant glassy phase in one of the two glass series. Of ~40 glasses tested for longer than 500 hours, a set of 5 glasses has been further tested for up to 1000h in air, wet hydrogen, and against both yttria-stabilized zirconia and aluminized stainless steel. In some cases the testing times reached 2000h. The reactivity testing has provided new insight into the effects of Y, Zr, and Al on bulk and surface crystallization in boro-gallio-silicate glasses, and demonstrated that at least 5 of the newly-developed glasses are viable viscous sealants.

Scott Misture

2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

425

Direct conversion of halogen-containing wastes to borosilicate glass  

SciTech Connect

Glass has become a preferred waste form worldwide for radioactive wastes: however, there are limitations. Halogen-containing wastes can not be converted to glass because halogens form poor-quality waste glasses. Furthermore, halides in glass melters often form second phases that create operating problems. A new waste vitrification process, the Glass Material Oxidation and dissolution System (GMODS), removes these limitations by converting halogen-containing wastes into borosilicate glass and a secondary, clean, sodium-halide stream.

Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.; Rudolph, J.C.

1996-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

426

Method for heating and forming a glass sheet  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for heating and forming a glass sheet includes the steps of heating a glass sheet to at least a first predetermined temperature, applying microwave energy to the glass sheet to heat the glass sheet to at least a second predetermined temperature, cooling an outer surface of the glass sheet to at least a third predetermined temperature and forming the glass sheet using forming rollers to a predetermined configuration.

Boaz, Premakaran Tucker (Livonia, MI)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Decontamination processes for waste glass canisters  

SciTech Connect

The process which will be used to decontaminate waste glass canisters at the Savannah River Plant consists of: decontamination (slurry blasting); rinse (high-pressure water); and spot decontamination (high-pressure water plus slurry). No additional waste will be produced by this process because glass frit used in decontamination will be mixed with the radioactive waste and fed into the glass melter. Decontamination of waste glass canisters with chemical and abrasive blasting techniques was investigated. The ability of a chemical technique with HNO/sub 3/-HF and H/sub 2/C/sub 2/O/sub 4/ to remove baked-on contamination was demonstrated. A correlation between oxide removal and decontamination was observed. Oxide removal and, thus, decontamination by abrasive blasting techniques with glass frit as the abrasive was proposed and demonstrated.

Rankin, W.N.

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Bioactive Glass Scaffolds for Bone Regeneration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Bioactive Glass Scaffolds for Bioactive Glass Scaffolds for Bone Regeneration Bioactive Glass Scaffolds for Bone Regeneration Print Wednesday, 28 September 2011 00:00 Natural materials are renowned for their unique combination of outstanding mechanical properties and exquisite microstructure. For example, bone, cork, and wood are porous biological materials with high specific stiffness (stiffness per unit weight) and specific strength. The outstanding mechanical properties of these materials are attributed to their anisotropic structures, which have optimized strength-to-density and stiffness-to-density ratios. Working at ALS Beamline 8.3.2, researchers from Berkeley Lab and the Imperial College London have created bioactive glass scaffolds that mirror nature's efficient materials. The three-dimensional glass scaffold is as porous as trabecular bone, has a compressive strength comparable to that of cortical bone, and a strength-to-porosity ratio higher than any previously reported scaffolds.

429

Titanium sealing glasses and seals formed therefrom  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Alkaline-earth lanthanoborate sealing-glass compositions containing CaO, La.sub.2 O.sub.3, B.sub.2 O.sub.3, TiO.sub.2 and Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 in various combinations of mole-% are provided. These sealing-glass compositions are useful for forming hermetic glass-to-metal seals with titanium and titanium alloys that have a high aqueous durability for component or device applications requiring exposure to moisture, water or body fluids. Particular applications of the titanium sealing-glass compositions include forming glass-to-metal seals for lithium batteries and implanted biomedical devices (e.g. batteries, pacemakers, defibrillators, pumps).

Brow, Richard K. (Albuquerque, NM); McCollister, Howard L. (Albuquerque, NM); Phifer, Carol C. (Albuquerque, NM); Day, Delbert E. (Rolla, MO)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Glass heat pipe evacuated tube solar collector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A glass heat pipe is adapted for use as a solar energy absorber in an evacuated tube solar collector and for transferring the absorbed solar energy to a working fluid medium or heat sink for storage or practical use. A capillary wick is formed of granular glass particles fused together by heat on the inside surface of the heat pipe with a water glass binder solution to enhance capillary drive distribution of the thermal transfer fluid in the heat pipe throughout the entire inside surface of the evaporator portion of the heat pipe. Selective coatings are used on the heat pipe surface to maximize solar absorption and minimize energy radiation, and the glass wick can alternatively be fabricated with granular particles of black glass or obsidian.

McConnell, Robert D. (Lakewood, CO); Vansant, James H. (Tracy, CA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Gaseous Sulfate Solubility in Glass: Experimental Method  

SciTech Connect

Sulfate solubility in glass is a key parameter in many commercial glasses and nuclear waste glasses. This report summarizes key publications specific to sulfate solubility experimental methods and the underlying physical chemistry calculations. The published methods and experimental data are used to verify the calculations in this report and are expanded to a range of current technical interest. The calculations and experimental methods described in this report will guide several experiments on sulfate solubility and saturation for the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Enhanced Waste Glass Models effort. There are several tables of sulfate gas equilibrium values at high temperature to guide experimental gas mixing and to achieve desired SO3 levels. This report also describes the necessary equipment and best practices to perform sulfate saturation experiments for molten glasses. Results and findings will be published when experimental work is finished and this report is validated from the data obtained.

Bliss, Mary

2013-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

432

Heat capacity at the glass transition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A fundamental problem of glass transition is to explain the jump of heat capacity at the glass transition temperature $T_g$ without asserting the existence of a distinct solid glass phase. This problem is also common to other disordered systems, including spin glasses. We propose that if $T_g$ is defined as the temperature at which the liquid stops relaxing at the experimental time scale, the jump of heat capacity at $T_g$ follows as a necessary consequence due to the change of system's elastic, vibrational and thermal properties. In this picture, we discuss time-dependent effects of glass transition, and identify three distinct regimes of relaxation. Our approach explains widely observed logarithmic increase of $T_g$ with the quench rate and the correlation of heat capacity jump with liquid fragility.

Kostya Trachenko; Vadim Brazhkin

2010-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

433

Chalcogenide Glasses Developed for Optical Micro-sensor Devices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... In the sensor field, chalcogenide glasses are well established membranes or thin ... Ion Exchanged Mixed Glass Cullet Proppants for Stimulation of Oil and ...

434

Anomalous Adsorption of Ultrafast Laser Irradiation in Glass ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Anomalous Adsorption of Ultrafast Laser Irradiation in Glass ... and is driven by the stress induced by absorption of ultrafast light in glass.

435

Cost model for a small glass manufacturing enterprise.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The cost model developed is for small, glass-manufacturing enterprises to help themdetermine their product costs. It estimates the direct cost in glass manufacturing such as… (more)

Gopisetti, Swetha.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding Title Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-5022E Year...

437

Thermal Performance Impacts of Center-of-Glass Deflections in...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Impacts of Center-of-Glass Deflections in Installed Insulating Glazing Units Title Thermal Performance Impacts of Center-of-Glass Deflections in Installed Insulating Glazing...

438

Oxidation Behavior of Metallic Glass - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, M. Bulk Metallic Glasses, Nanocrystalline Materials, and ... Application of Metallic Glass for High Performance Si Solar Cell: Oxidation Behavior of ...

439

Fabrication of Bulk Metallic Glass Foams via Severe Plastic ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, M. Bulk Metallic Glasses, Nanocrystalline Materials, and ... Application of Metallic Glass for High Performance Si Solar Cell: Oxidation Behavior of ...

440

Bulk Metallic Glass Composites Fabricated within the Supercooled ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the present work, lightweight magnesium base Bulk Metallic Glass Composites ... Application of Metallic Glass for High Performance Si Solar Cell: Oxidation ...

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441

Ion Exchanged Mixed Glass Cullet Proppants for Stimulation of Oil ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Glass and Optical Materials. Presentation Title, Ion Exchanged Mixed Glass Cullet Proppants for Stimulation of Oil and Natural Gas Bearing Shales.

442

M. Bulk Metallic Glasses, Nanocrystalline Materials, and Ultrafine ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Age Hardening of 7075 Alloy Processed by High-pressure Sliding (HPS) ... Atomic Structure and its Change during Glass Transition of Metallic Glasses.

443