National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for glass methodological details

  1. Innovative Methodology Efficient Estimation of Detailed Single-Neuron Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    ) and propose a simple statistical method for automatically building large, detailed compartmental models of single neurons, circumvent- ing some of the traditional complexities in building these models "by hand, the knowledge that passive properties of neurons are accurately described by the cable equation (Baldi et al

  2. HIERARCHICAL METHODOLOGY FOR MODELING HYDROGEN STORAGE SYSTEMS PART II: DETAILED MODELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hardy, B; Donald L. Anton, D

    2008-12-22

    There is significant interest in hydrogen storage systems that employ a media which either adsorbs, absorbs or reacts with hydrogen in a nearly reversible manner. In any media based storage system the rate of hydrogen uptake and the system capacity is governed by a number of complex, coupled physical processes. To design and evaluate such storage systems, a comprehensive methodology was developed, consisting of a hierarchical sequence of models that range from scoping calculations to numerical models that couple reaction kinetics with heat and mass transfer for both the hydrogen charging and discharging phases. The scoping models were presented in Part I [1] of this two part series of papers. This paper describes a detailed numerical model that integrates the phenomena occurring when hydrogen is charged and discharged. A specific application of the methodology is made to a system using NaAlH{sub 4} as the storage media.

  3. Glass Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shortland, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    40, pp. 162 - 186. Glass Production, Shortland, UEE 2009AINES Short Citation: Shortland 2009, Glass Production. UEE.Andrew, 2009, Glass Production. In Willeke Wendrich (ed. ),

  4. Glass Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shortland, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Late Bronze Age glasses. Journal of Archaeological Science781 - 789. Turner, W.E.S. 1954 Studies in ancient glassesand glass making processes. Part I: Crucibles and melting

  5. Glass balls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    There is a building with 100 floors in it, and glass balls, and an integer k with the following property. If one drops a glass ball from the floor number k or higher, ...

  6. MELTING OF GLASS BATCH: MODEL FOR MULTIPLE OVERLAPPING GAS-EVOLVING...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: MELTING OF GLASS BATCH: MODEL FOR MULTIPLE OVERLAPPING GAS-EVOLVING REACTIONS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: MELTING OF GLASS BATCH: MODEL FOR MULTIPLE...

  7. Methodology for Fine Art formulation applied to investment casting moulds 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ibrahim, Ahmad Rashdi Yan

    This research concerns the development of a methodology for formulation in Fine Art, Design and Craft practice. The methodology is applied to the choosing of formulations for bronze and glass investments casting moulds ...

  8. Rare Earth Phosphate Glass and Glass-Ceramic Proton Conductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2010-01-01

    Phosphate Glass and Glass-Ceramic Proton Conductors Hannah.phosphate glasses and glass-ceramics were investigated. Therare earth phosphate ceramics, glasses, and glass-ceramics

  9. Thermal Analysis of Waste Glass Batches: Effect of Batch Makeup...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Book: Thermal Analysis of Waste Glass Batches: Effect of Batch Makeup on Gas-Evolving Reactions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Thermal Analysis of Waste Glass Batches:...

  10. ITP Glass: Glass Industry of the Future: Energy and Environmental...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ITP Glass: Industrial Glass Bandwidth Analysis Final Report, August 2007 ITP Glass: A Clear Vision for a Bright Future ITP Glass: Glass Industry Technology Roadmap; April 2002...

  11. Through a glass darkly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, James E

    2012-01-01

    Closeup Through a glass darklyThrough a glass darkly James E. Hall Keywords: AKAP2; AQP0;Medicine Closeup Through a glass darkly GLUT1 Glucose

  12. Graded-Refractive-Index Glass-based Antireflective Coatings:...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Graded-Refractive-Index Glass-based Antireflective Coatings: BroadbandOmnidirectional Light Harvesting and Self-Cleaning Characteristics Citation Details In-Document Search Title:...

  13. Communication: The simplified generalized entropy theory of glass...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Communication: The simplified generalized entropy theory of glass-formation in polymer melts Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on...

  14. condmat/9801215 Crossovers in the Two Dimensional Ising Spin Glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roma "La Sapienza", Università di

    cond­mat/9801215 v2 26 Jan 1998 Crossovers in the Two Dimensional Ising Spin Glass of extensive computer simulations we analyze in detail the two dimen­ sional \\SigmaJ Ising spin glass with ferromagnetic next­nearest­neighbor interactions. We found a crossover from ferromagnetic to ``spin glass'' like

  15. Detailed balance and entanglement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rocco Duvenhage; Machiel Snyman

    2015-03-27

    We study a connection between quantum detailed balance, which is a concept of importance in statistical mechanics, and entanglement. We also explore how this connection fits into thermofield dynamics.

  16. NEWS & VIEWS Glass dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weeks, Eric R.

    NEWS & VIEWS Glass dynamics Diverging views on glass transition Gregory B. mc.mckenna@ttu.edu T he glass transition is one of the most intriguing phenomena in the world of soft condensed matter. Despite decades of study, many aspects of the behaviour of glass-forming liquids remain elusive

  17. Glass-silicon column

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, Conrad M.

    2003-12-30

    A glass-silicon column that can operate in temperature variations between room temperature and about 450.degree. C. The glass-silicon column includes large area glass, such as a thin Corning 7740 boron-silicate glass bonded to a silicon wafer, with an electrode embedded in or mounted on glass of the column, and with a self alignment silicon post/glass hole structure. The glass/silicon components are bonded, for example be anodic bonding. In one embodiment, the column includes two outer layers of silicon each bonded to an inner layer of glass, with an electrode imbedded between the layers of glass, and with at least one self alignment hole and post arrangement. The electrode functions as a column heater, and one glass/silicon component is provided with a number of flow channels adjacent the bonded surfaces.

  18. Position Summary Employee Details

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ullrich, Paul

    Position Summary Employee Details Employee First Name: Employee Last Name: Open Position Employee Eligible: (FLSA) Non-Exempt Employee Relations Unit: (Bargaining Unit) 99 Representation: Uncovered Salary on existing operations. Maintain all records related to user accounts, directory structures, disaster recovery

  19. ITP Glass: Industrial Glass Bandwidth Analysis Final Report,...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Industrial Glass Bandwidth Analysis Final Report, August 2007 ITP Glass: Industrial Glass Bandwidth Analysis Final Report, August 2007 industrialbandwidth.pdf More Documents &...

  20. PNL vitrification technology development project glass formulation strategy for LLW vitrification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, D.; Hrma, P.R.; Westsik, J.H. Jr.

    1996-03-01

    This Glass Formulation Strategy describes development approaches to optimize glass compositions for Hanford`s low-level waste vitrification between now and the projected low-level waste facility start-up in 2005. The objectives of the glass formulation task are to develop optimized glass compositions with satisfactory long-term durability, acceptable processing characteristics, adequate flexibility to handle waste variations, maximize waste loading to practical limits, and to develop methodology to respond to further waste variations.

  1. Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Glass Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pellegrino, Joan L.

    2002-04-01

    This detailed report benchmarks the energy and environmental characteristics of the key technologies used in the major processes of the glass industry.

  2. Detailed Income Statement Descriptions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submit theCovalent BondingMeeting |Design CompetitionsFuelof 12 Detailed Income

  3. ARM - Detailed Experiment Description

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments? WeDatastreamstps Documentation DataDatastreamsxsacrcwrhiDatastreamsxsaprrhiAlaskaDefensiveDetailed

  4. 1992 CBECS Detailed Tables

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0ProvedDecade Year-0Cubic Monthly Actual Data10) Model1991Detailed

  5. Glass Working, Use and Discard

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicholson, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Beck, Horace C. 1934 Glass before 1500 BC. Ancient Egypt7 - 21. Cooney, John 1960 Glass sculpture in ancient Egypt.Journal of Glass Studies 2, pp. 10 - 43. 1976 Glass.

  6. MECS 2006- Glass

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint for Glass (NAICS 3272, 327993) Sector with Total Energy Input, October 2012 (MECS 2006)

  7. DWPF Glass Melter Technology Manual: Volume 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iverson, D.C.

    1993-12-31

    This document details information about the design of a glass melter to be used at the Defense Waste Processing Facility located at the Savannah River Plant. Information contained in this document consists solely of a machine drawing and parts list and purchase orders with specifications of equipment used in the development of the melter.

  8. DWPF Glass Melter Technology Manual: Volume 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iverson, D.C.

    1993-12-31

    This document details information about the design of a glass melter to be used at the Defense Waste Processing Facility located at the Savannah River Site. Topics discussed include: Information collected during testing, equipment, materials, design basis, feed tubes, and an evaluation of the performance of various components. Information is conveyed using many diagrams and photographs.

  9. Oxynitride glass production procedure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weidner, Jerry R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Schuetz, Stanley T. (Idaho Falls, ID); O'Brien, Michael H. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1991-01-01

    The invention is a process for the preparation of high quality oxynitride glasses without resorting to high pressures. Nitrogen-containing compounds such as Si.sub.3 N.sub.4 are first encapsulated in a low melting temperature glass. Particles of the encapsulated nitrogen-containing compound are mixed with other oxide glass-formers and melted in an atmosphere of flowing nitrogen and in the presence of buffering gas to form the oxynitride glass. Glasses containing up to 15 at % nitrogen have been prepared by this method.

  10. Final Report - Glass Formulation Development and DM10 Melter Testing with ORP LAW Glasses, VSL-09R1510-2, Rev. 0, dated 6/12/09

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, Albert A.; Pegg, I. L.; Matlack, K. S.; Joseph, I.; Muller, I. S.; Gong, W.

    2013-11-13

    The principal objective of the work described in this Final Report is to extend the glass formulation methodology developed in the earlier work by development of acceptable glass compositions for four LAW compositions specified by ORP that cover the range of sulfate to sodium and potassium to sodium ratios expected in Hanford LAW. The glass formulations were designed to exclude titanium and iron as glass former additives, while tin and vanadium as glass former additives were evaluated for beneficial effects in increasing waste loading in the glasses. This was accomplished through a combination of crucible-scale tests and tests on the DM10 melter system. This melter is the most efficient melter platform for screening glass compositions over a wide range of sulfate concentrations and therefore was selected for the present tests. The current tests provide information on melter processing characteristics and off-gas data, including sulfur incorporation and partitioning.

  11. Diamond turning of glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blackley, W.S.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01

    A new research initiative will be undertaken to investigate the critical cutting depth concepts for single point diamond turning of brittle, amorphous materials. Inorganic glasses and a brittle, thermoset polymer (organic glass) are the principal candidate materials. Interrupted cutting tests similar to those done in earlier research are Ge and Si crystals will be made to obtain critical depth values as a function of machining parameters. The results will provide systematic data with which to assess machining performance on glasses and amorphous materials

  12. HLW Glass Waste Loadings

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    HLW Glass Waste Loadings Ian L. Pegg Vitreous State Laboratory The Catholic University of America Washington, DC Overview Overview Vitrification - general background Joule...

  13. ITP Glass: Glass Industry Technology Roadmap; April 2002

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Glass is a unique material that has been produced for thousands of years. The glass industry's products are an integral part of the American economy and everyday life. Glass products are used in food and beverage packaging, lighting, communications, etc.

  14. Rare Earth Phosphate Glass and Glass-Ceramic Proton Conductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2010-01-01

    300-500°C. Doping rare earth phosphate glasses with Ce, andRare Earth Phosphate Glass and Glass-Ceramic Protonconductivity of alkaline-earth doped rare earth phosphate

  15. Rare Earth Phosphate Glass and Glass-Ceramic Proton Conductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Jonghe, Lutgard C.; Ray, Hannah L.; Wang, Ruigang

    2008-12-03

    The structure and conductivity of cerium and lanthanum phosphate glasses and glass-ceramics were investigated. The effects of varying the metal to phosphate ratio in the glasses, doping LaP3O9 glasses with Ce, and recrystallization of CeP3O9 glasses, on the glasses' microstructure and total conductivity were investigated using XRD, SEM, and AC impedance techniques. Strong increases in conductivity occurred when the glasses were recrystallized: the conductivity of a cerium metaphosphate glass increased conductivity after recrystallization from 10-7.5 S/cm to 10-6 S/cm at 400oC.

  16. The art of glass blowing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dugan, David; Macfarlane, Alan

    2004-08-23

    Alan Macfarlane talks to Tony Cummins, one of the last traditional glass blowers, as he demonstrates his art and the making of a flat glass object in an old glass house near Birmingham....

  17. Glass Furnace Combustion and Melting Research Facility.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Connors, John J.; McConnell, John F.; Henry, Vincent I.; MacDonald, Blake A.; Gallagher, Robert J.; Field, William B.; Walsh, Peter M.; Simmons, Michael C.; Adams, Michael E.; Leadbetter, James M.; Tomasewski, Jack W.; Operacz, Walter J.; Houf, William G.; Davis, James W.; Marvin, Bart G.; Gunner, Bruce E.; Farrell, Rick G.; Bivins, David P.; Curtis, Warren; Harris, James E.

    2004-08-01

    The need for a Combustion and Melting Research Facility focused on the solution of glass manufacturing problems common to all segments of the glass industry was given high priority in the earliest version of the Glass Industry Technology Roadmap (Eisenhauer et al., 1997). Visteon Glass Systems and, later, PPG Industries proposed to meet this requirement, in partnership with the DOE/OIT Glass Program and Sandia National Laboratories, by designing and building a research furnace equipped with state-of-the-art diagnostics in the DOE Combustion Research Facility located at the Sandia site in Livermore, CA. Input on the configuration and objectives of the facility was sought from the entire industry by a variety of routes: (1) through a survey distributed to industry leaders by GMIC, (2) by conducting an open workshop following the OIT Glass Industry Project Review in September 1999, (3) from discussions with numerous glass engineers, scientists, and executives, and (4) during visits to glass manufacturing plants and research centers. The recommendations from industry were that the melting tank be made large enough to reproduce the essential processes and features of industrial furnaces yet flexible enough to be operated in as many as possible of the configurations found in industry as well as in ways never before attempted in practice. Realization of these objectives, while still providing access to the glass bath and combustion space for optical diagnostics and measurements using conventional probes, was the principal challenge in the development of the tank furnace design. The present report describes a facility having the requirements identified as important by members of the glass industry and equipped to do the work that the industry recommended should be the focus of research. The intent is that the laboratory would be available to U.S. glass manufacturers for collaboration with Sandia scientists and engineers on both precompetitive basic research and the solution of proprietary glass production problems. As a consequence of the substantial increase in scale and scope of the initial furnace concept in response to industry recommendations, constraints on funding of industrial programs by DOE, and reorientation of the Department's priorities, the OIT Glass Program is unable to provide the support for construction of such a facility. However, it is the present investigators' hope that a group of industry partners will emerge to carry the project forward, taking advantage of the detailed furnace design presented in this report. The engineering, including complete construction drawings, bill of materials, and equipment specifications, is complete. The project is ready to begin construction as soon as the quotations are updated. The design of the research melter closely follows the most advanced industrial practice, firing by natural gas with oxygen. The melting area is 13 ft x 6 ft, with a glass depth of 3 ft and an average height in the combustion space of 3 ft. The maximum pull rate is 25 tons/day, ranging from 100% batch to 100% cullet, continuously fed, with variable batch composition, particle size distribution, and raft configuration. The tank is equipped with bubblers to control glass circulation. The furnace can be fired in three modes: (1) using a single large burner mounted on the front wall, (2) by six burners in a staggered/opposed arrangement, three in each breast wall, and (3) by down-fired burners mounted in the crown in any combination with the front wall or breast-wall-mounted burners. Horizontal slots are provided between the tank blocks and tuck stones and between the breast wall and skewback blocks, running the entire length of the furnace on both sides, to permit access to the combustion space and the surface of the glass for optical measurements and sampling probes. Vertical slots in the breast walls provide additional access for measurements and sampling. The furnace and tank are to be fully instrumented with standard measuring equipment, such as flow meters, thermocouples, continuous gas composition

  18. Defense HLW Glass Degradation Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Strachan

    2004-10-20

    The purpose of this report is to document the development of a model for calculating the release rate for radionuclides and other key elements from high-level radioactive waste (HLW) glasses under exposure conditions relevant to the performance of the repository. Several glass compositions are planned for the repository, some of which have yet to be identified (i.e., glasses from Hanford and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory). The mechanism for glass dissolution is the same for these glasses and the glasses yet to be developed for the disposal of DOE wastes. All of these glasses will be of a quality consistent with the glasses used to develop this report.

  19. 2003 CBECS Detailed Tables: Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Tables 2003 CBECS Detailed Tables most recent available Released: September 2008 Building Characteristics | Consumption & Expenditures | End-Use Consumption In the 2003 CBECS,...

  20. Glass, Brian 1 BRIAN DANIEL GLASS, M.A.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maddox, W. Todd

    Glass, Brian 1 BRIAN DANIEL GLASS, M.A. University Department of Psychology, A8000 The University of Texas at Austin Austin, TX 78712 (512) 232-2883 e-mail: glass@mail.utexas.edu EDUCATION 2006 ­ Cognitive include: Designing and constructing experiments, statistical #12;Glass, Brian 2 analysis, manuscript

  1. Glass, Brian 1 BRIAN DANIEL GLASS, M.A.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maddox, W. Todd

    Glass, Brian 1 BRIAN DANIEL GLASS, M.A. University Department of Psychology, A8000 The University Making, The University of Texas at Austin #12;Glass, Brian 2 Duties include: Designing and constructing, constructing, and running experiments, statistical analysis. JOURNAL PUBLICATIONS Glass, B. D., Chotibut, T

  2. Glass, Brian 1 BRIAN DANIEL GLASS, M.A.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maddox, W. Todd

    Glass, Brian 1 BRIAN DANIEL GLASS, M.A. University Department of Psychology, A8000 The University of Categorization and Decision Making, The University of Texas at Austin #12;Glass, Brian 2 Duties include: Programming, constructing, and running experiments, statistical analysis. JOURNAL PUBLICATIONS Glass, B. D

  3. Glass electrolyte composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kucera, G.H.; Roche, M.F.

    1985-01-08

    An ionically conductive glass is disclosed for use as electrolyte in a high temperature electrochemical cell, particularly a cell with sodium anode and sulfur cathode. The glass includes the constituents Na/sub 2/O, ZrO/sub 2/, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and SiO/sub 2/ in selected proportions to be a single phase solid solution substantially free of crystalline regions and undissolved constituents. Other advantageous properties are an ionic conductivity in excess of 2 x 10/sup -3/ (ohm-cm)/sup -1/ at 300/sup 0/C and a glass transition temperature in excess of 500/sup 0/C.

  4. EXELFS of Metallic Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ito, Y.; Alamgir, F.M.; Schwarz, R.B.; Jain, H.; Williams, D.B.

    1999-11-30

    The feasibility of using extended energy-loss fine structure (EXELFS) obtained from {approximately}1 nm regions of metallic glasses to study their short-range order has been examined. Ionization edges of the metallic glasses in the electron energy-loss spectrum (EELS) have been obtained from PdNiP bulk metallic glass and Ni{sub 2}P polycrystalline powder in a transmission electron microscope. The complexity of EXELFS analysis of L- and M-ionization edges of heavy elements (Z>22, i.e. Ni and Pd) is addressed by theoretical calculations using an ab initio computer code, and its results are compared with the experimental data.

  5. Baseline LAW Glass Formulation Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, Albert A. [USDOE Office of River Protection, Richland, WA (United States); Mooers, Cavin [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab.; Bazemore, Gina [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Pegg, Ian L. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Hight, Kenneth [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Lai, Shan Tao [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Buechele, Andrew [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Rielley, Elizabeth [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Gan, Hao [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Muller, Isabelle S. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Cecil, Richard [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab

    2013-06-13

    The major objective of the baseline glass formulation work was to develop and select glass formulations that are compliant with contractual and processing requirements for each of the LAW waste streams. Other objectives of the work included preparation and characterization of glasses with respect to the properties of interest, optimization of sulfate loading in the glasses, evaluation of ability to achieve waste loading limits, testing to demonstrate compatibility of glass melts with melter materials of construction, development of glass formulations to support ILAW qualification activities, and identification of glass formulation issues with respect to contract specifications and processing requirements.

  6. Super ionic conductive glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Susman, Sherman (Park Forest, IL); Volin, Kenneth J. (Fort Collins, CO)

    1984-01-01

    An ionically conducting glass for use as a solid electrolyte in a power or secondary cell containing an alkali metal-containing anode and a cathode separated by an alkali metal ion conducting glass having an ionic transference number of unity and the general formula: A.sub.1+x D.sub.2-x/3 Si.sub.x P.sub.3-x O.sub.12-2x/3, wherein A is a network modifier for the glass and is an alkali metal of the anode, D is an intermediate for the glass and is selected from the class consisting of Zr, Ti, Ge, Al, Sb, Be, and Zn and X is in the range of from 2.25 to 3.0. Of the alkali metals, Na and Li are preferred and of the intermediate, Zr, Ti and Ge are preferred.

  7. DWPF GLASS BEADS AND GLASS FRIT TRANSPORT DEMONSTRATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adamson, D; Bradley Pickenheim, B

    2008-11-24

    DWPF is considering replacing irregularly shaped glass frit with spherical glass beads in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) process to decrease the yield stress of the melter feed (a non-Newtonian Bingham Plastic). Pilot-scale testing was conducted on spherical glass beads and glass frit to determine how well the glass beads would transfer when compared to the glass frit. Process Engineering Development designed and constructed the test apparatus to aid in the understanding and impacts that spherical glass beads may have on the existing DWPF Frit Transfer System. Testing was conducted to determine if the lines would plug with the glass beads and the glass frit slurry and what is required to unplug the lines. The flow loop consisted of vertical and horizontal runs of clear PVC piping, similar in geometry to the existing system. Two different batches of glass slurry were tested: a batch of 50 wt% spherical glass beads and a batch of 50 wt% glass frit in process water. No chemicals such as formic acid was used in slurry, only water and glass formers. The glass beads used for this testing were commercially available borosilicate glass of mesh size -100+200. The glass frit was Frit 418 obtained from DWPF and is nominally -45+200 mesh. The spherical glass beads did not have a negative impact on the frit transfer system. The transferring of the spherical glass beads was much easier than the glass frit. It was difficult to create a plug with glass bead slurry in the pilot transfer system. When a small plug occurred from setting overnight with the spherical glass beads, the plug was easy to displace using only the pump. In the case of creating a man made plug in a vertical line, by filling the line with spherical glass beads and allowing the slurry to settle for days, the plug was easy to remove by using flush water. The glass frit proved to be much more difficult to transfer when compared to the spherical glass beads. The glass frit impacted the transfer system to the point that the test apparatus had to be disassembled to dislodge the plugs created in the system.

  8. The Seduction of the Glass Box

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ackerly, Katie

    2013-01-01

    Visual, and Spatial Effects of Glass, New York: PrincetonBauten, Perspektiven (Glass Architects: Concepts, Buildings,Taking a Second Look: Glass Pavilion at Broadfield House in

  9. Glass blowing on a wafer level

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eklund, E. Jesper; Shkel, Andrei M.

    2007-01-01

    E. Shelby, Introduction to Glass Science and Technology. :Properties of Corning Glasses [Online]. Available: http://1981. [15] R. H. Doremus, Glass Science. New York: Wiley,

  10. Methodological Research Future Work

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolfe, Patrick J.

    Outline Background Methodological Research Results Future Work New Dataset 1878 PCA for 1000 rmfs Background Methodological Research Results Future Work New Dataset 1878 PCA for 1000 rmfs Background Quasar Analysis Future Work Doubly-intractable Distribution Other Calibration Uncertainty New Dataset

  11. Glass | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,Executive CompensationEnergyGet Current: Switch onDepartment2GlassGlass

  12. Architecture BA (Hons) Key details

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Painter, Kevin

    Architecture BA (Hons) Key details Duration: 4 years (honours degree) Delivery type: Day Intake in the subject of Architecture, including a portfolio of Design, Technical and Theoretical courses covering all aspects of Architectural Theory and Practice. The course has been designed with reference to the RIBA

  13. DOE Systems Engineering Methodology

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Systems Engineering Methodology (SEM) In-Stage Assessment Process Guide Version 3 September 2002 U.S. Department of Energy Office of the Chief Information Officer In-Stage...

  14. The Color Glass Condensate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Gelis; E. Iancu; J. Jalilian-Marian; R. Venugopalan

    2010-02-01

    We provide a broad overview of the theoretical status and phenomenological applications of the Color Glass Condensate effective field theory describing universal properties of saturated gluons in hadron wavefunctions that are extracted from deeply inelastic scattering and hadron-hadron collision experiments at high energies.

  15. Canada: Automobile Innovation Fund - Program Detail & Criteria...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Canada: Automobile Innovation Fund - Program Detail & Criteria Canada: Automobile Innovation Fund - Program Detail & Criteria Information from the Canadian Embassy Canada:...

  16. The effect of chromium oxide on the properties of simulated nuclear waste glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vojtech, O.; Sussmilch, J.; Urbanec, Z.

    1996-02-01

    A study of the effect of chromium on the properties of selected glasses was performed in the frame of a Contract between Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories and Nuclear Research Institute, ReZ. In the period from July 1994 to June 1995 two borosilicate glasses of special composition were prepared according to the PNL procedure and their physical and structural characteristics of glasses were studied. This Final Report contains a vast documentation on the properties of all glasses studied. For the preparation of the respective technology more detailed study of physico-chemical properties and crystallinity of investigated systems would be desirable.

  17. Production of glass or glass-ceramic to metal seals with the application of pressure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kelly, M.D.; Kramer, D.P.

    1985-01-04

    In a process for preparing a glass or glass-ceramic to metal seal comprising contacting the glass with the metal and heat-treating the glass and metal under conditions whereby the glass to metal seal is effected and, optionally, the glass is converted to a glass-ceramic, an improvement comprises carrying out the heat-treating step using hot isostatic pressing.

  18. Analytical Plan for Roman Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strachan, Denis M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Mueller, Karl T.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Olszta, Matthew J.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Heeren, Ronald M.

    2011-01-01

    Roman glasses that have been in the sea or underground for about 1800 years can serve as the independent “experiment” that is needed for validation of codes and models that are used in performance assessment. Two sets of Roman-era glasses have been obtained for this purpose. One set comes from the sunken vessel the Iulia Felix; the second from recently excavated glasses from a Roman villa in Aquileia, Italy. The specimens contain glass artifacts and attached sediment or soil. In the case of the Iulia Felix glasses quite a lot of analytical work has been completed at the University of Padova, but from an archaeological perspective. The glasses from Aquileia have not been so carefully analyzed, but they are similar to other Roman glasses. Both glass and sediment or soil need to be analyzed and are the subject of this analytical plan. The glasses need to be analyzed with the goal of validating the model used to describe glass dissolution. The sediment and soil need to be analyzed to determine the profile of elements released from the glass. This latter need represents a significant analytical challenge because of the trace quantities that need to be analyzed. Both pieces of information will yield important information useful in the validation of the glass dissolution model and the chemical transport code(s) used to determine the migration of elements once released from the glass. In this plan, we outline the analytical techniques that should be useful in obtaining the needed information and suggest a useful starting point for this analytical effort.

  19. A generalized detailed balance relation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Ruelle

    2015-10-28

    Given a system $M$ in a thermal bath we obtain a generalized detailed balance relation for the ratio $r=\\pi_\\tau(K\\to J)/\\pi_\\tau(J\\to K)$ of the transition probabilities $M:J\\to K$ and $M:K\\to J$ in time $\\tau$. We assume an active bath, containing solute molecules in metastable states. These molecules may react with $M$ and the transition $J\\to K$ occurs through different channels $\\alpha$ involving different reactions with the bath. We find that $r=\\sum p^\\alpha r^\\alpha$, where $p^\\alpha$ is the probability that channel $\\alpha$ occurs, and $r^\\alpha$ depends on the amount of heat (more precisely enthalpy) released to the bath in channel $\\alpha$.

  20. Glass Property Models and Constraints for Estimating the Glass...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    increases in waste loading in HLW and LAW glasses are possible over current system planning estimates. The data (although limited in some cases) were evaluated to determine a...

  1. Mixed polyanion glass cathodes: Iron phosphate vanadate glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kercher, Andrew K [ORNL; Ramey, Joanne Oxendine [ORNL; Carroll, Kyler J [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Kiggans Jr, James O [ORNL; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL; Meisner, Roberta [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Boatner, Lynn A [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Mixed polyanion (MP) glasses have been investigated for use as cathodes in lithium ion batteries. MP glass cathodes are similar in composition to theoretically promising crystalline polyanionic (CP) cathodes (e.g., lithium cobalt phosphate, lithium manganese silicate), but with proper polyanion substitution, they can be designed to overcome the key shortcomings of CP cathodes, such as poor electrical conductivity and irreversible phase changes. Iron phosphate/vanadate glasses were chosen as a first demonstration of the MP glass concept. Polyanion substitution with vanadate was shown to improve the intercalation capacity of an iron phosphate glass from almost zero to full theoretical capacity. In addition, the MP glass cathodes also exhibited an unexpected second high-capacity electrochemical reaction. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) of cathodes from cells having different states of charge suggested that this second electrochemical reaction is a glass-state conversion reaction. With a first demonstration established, MP glass materials utilizing an intercalation and/or glass-state conversion reaction are promising candidates for future high-energy cathode research.

  2. ITP Glass: Glass Industry of the Future: Energy and Environmental...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    remove air pollutants through the use of aqueous media, filters, and precipitators. Air pollution control technologies used in the glass industry commonly transfer...

  3. PRECIPITATION DOWNSCALING: METHODOLOGIES AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi

    PRECIPITATION DOWNSCALING: METHODOLOGIES AND HYDROLOGIC APPLICATIONS Efi Foufoula-Georgiou St/or other information. #12;PREMISES OF STATISTICAL DOWNSCALING Precipitation exhibits space-time variability) There is a substantial evidence to suggest that despite the very complex patterns of precipitation

  4. Glass Ceiling or Glass Elevator: Are Voters Biased in Favor of Women Candidates in California Elections?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abney, Ronni Marie; Peterson, Rolfe Daus

    2011-01-01

    10.2202/1944-4370.1103 Abney and Peterson: Glass Ceilingor Glass Elevator Table 7A. Positive Gender Bias ModelAbney and Peterson: Glass Ceiling or Glass Elevator Huddy,

  5. Weihai Blue Star Glass Holding Co Ltd aka Shandong Lanxing Glass...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Blue Star Glass Holding Co Ltd aka Shandong Lanxing Glass Group Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Weihai Blue Star Glass Holding Co Ltd (aka Shandong Lanxing Glass Group Co...

  6. Detailed Course Module Description | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Detailed Course Module Description Detailed Course Module Description This document lists the course modules for building science courses offered at Cornell's Collaborator...

  7. Electronic structure of metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oelhafen, P.; Lapka, R.; Gubler, U.; Krieg, J.; DasGupta, A.; Guentherodt, H.J.; Mizoguchi, T.; Hague, C.; Kuebler, J.; Nagel, S.R.

    1981-01-01

    This paper is organized in six sections and deals with (1) the glassy transition metal alloys, their d-band structure, the d-band shifts on alloying and their relation to the alloy heat of formation (..delta..H) and the glass forming ability, (2) the glass to crystal phase transition viewed by valence band spectroscopy, (3) band structure calculations, (4) metallic glasses prepared by laser glazing, (5) glassy normal metal alloys, and (6) glassy hydrides.

  8. Method for heating a glass sheet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boaz, P.T.

    1998-07-21

    A method for heating a glass sheet includes the steps of heating a glass sheet to a first predetermined temperature and applying microwave energy to the glass sheet to heat the glass sheet to at least a second predetermined temperature to allow the glass sheet to be formed. 5 figs.

  9. The GLASS CHAIR Edited by Manuel Heitor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

    The GLASS CHAIR Edited by Manuel Heitor IST Press, 2000 #12;Collaborative Design of... The GLASS the glass chair, but also for the numerous discussions on glass production processes. And last · Carmo Valente Chapter 4. GLASS: BEAUTY WITH STRENGTH Sushil Kumar Mendiratta Chapter 5. The IDEA

  10. Method for heating a glass sheet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boaz, Premakaran Tucker (Livonia, MI)

    1998-01-01

    A method for heating a glass sheet includes the steps of heating a glass sheet to a first predetermined temperature and applying microwave energy to the glass sheet to heat the glass sheet to at least a second predetermined temperature to allow the glass sheet to be formed.

  11. Pipeline ADC Design Methodology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Scaling vs. R. Figure 4.8 Pipeline ADC Structures. Figure2.4 A Pipelined ADC. Figure 3.1 Pipeline ADC Transfer Curve.Modes (b) data latency in pipeline ADC Figure 3.3 Detailed

  12. Color Glass Condensate and Glasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francois Gelis

    2010-09-06

    In this talk, I review the Color Glass Condensate theory of gluon saturation, and its application to the early stages of heavy ion collisions.

  13. The development and application of the use of encased voids within the body of glass artefacts as a means of drawing and expression 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flavell, Maurice Raymond

    2001-01-01

    This practice-led thesis is based on a study of the use of encased voids or bubbles in glass. The study is grounded in practice and draws out through antecedents in philosophy, psychology and epistemology, a methodology ...

  14. POROUS WALL, HOLLOW GLASS MICROSPHERES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sexton, W.

    2012-06-30

    Hollow Glass Microspheres (HGM) is not a new technology. All one has to do is go to the internet and Google{trademark} HGM. Anyone can buy HGM and they have a wide variety of uses. HGM are usually between 1 to 100 microns in diameter, although their size can range from 100 nanometers to 5 millimeters in diameter. HGM are used as lightweight filler in composite materials such as syntactic foam and lightweight concrete. In 1968 a patent was issued to W. Beck of the 3M{trademark} Company for 'Glass Bubbles Prepared by Reheating Solid Glass Particles'. In 1983 P. Howell was issued a patent for 'Glass Bubbles of Increased Collapse Strength' and in 1988 H. Marshall was issued a patent for 'Glass Microbubbles'. Now Google{trademark}, Porous Wall, Hollow Glass Microspheres (PW-HGMs), the key words here are Porous Wall. Almost every article has its beginning with the research done at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The Savannah River Site (SRS) where SRNL is located has a long and successful history of working with hydrogen and its isotopes for national security, energy, waste management and environmental remediation applications. This includes more than 30 years of experience developing, processing, and implementing special ceramics, including glasses for a variety of Department of Energy (DOE) missions. In the case of glasses, SRS and SRNL have been involved in both the science and engineering of vitreous or glass based systems. As a part of this glass experience and expertise, SRNL has developed a number of niches in the glass arena, one of which is the development of porous glass systems for a variety of applications. These porous glass systems include sol gel glasses, which include both xerogels and aerogels, as well as phase separated glass compositions, that can be subsequently treated to produce another unique type of porosity within the glass forms. The porous glasses can increase the surface area compared to 'normal glasses of a 1 to 2 order of magnitude, which can result in unique properties in areas such as hydrogen storage, gas transport, gas separations and purifications, sensors, global warming applications, new drug delivery systems and so on. One of the most interesting porous glass products that SRNL has developed and patented is Porous Wall, Hollow Glass Microspheres (PW-HGMs) that are being studied for many different applications. The European Patent Office (EPO) just recently notified SRS that the continuation-in-part patent application for the PW-HGMs has been accepted. The original patent, which was granted by the EPO on June 2, 2010, was validated in France, Germany and the United Kingdom. The microspheres produced are generally in the range of 2 to 100 microns, with a 1 to 2 micron wall. What makes the SRNL microspheres unique from all others is that the team in Figure 1 has found a way to induce and control porosity through the thin walls on a scale of 100 to 3000 {angstrom}. This is what makes the SRNL HW-HGMs one-of-a-kind, and is responsible for many of their unique properties and potential for various applications, including those in tritium storage, gas separations, H-storage for vehicles, and even a variety of new medical applications in the areas of drug delivery and MRI contrast agents. SRNL Hollow Glass Microspheres, and subsequent, Porous Wall, Hollow Glass Microspheres are fabricated using a flame former apparatus. Figure 2 is a schematic of the apparatus.

  15. BASF's Energy Survey Methodology 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Theising, T. R.

    2005-01-01

    Methodology Thomas R. Theising BASF Corporation operates several dozen manufacturing Sites within NAFTA and periodically conducts Energy Surveys at each Site. Although these manufacturing sites represent a variety of industries, BASF has found success.... The discovery phase is the ?Energy Survey? itself. These Surveys involve plant personnel from various functions within Site operations. BASF applies the Pareto Principle in a variety of fashions: 20% of the operation consumes 80% of the energy, lets focus...

  16. Software Function Allocation Methodology 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Neal, Michael Ralph

    1988-01-01

    ABSTRACT Software Function Allocation Methodology. (May 1988) Michael Ralph O'Neal, B. S. , Texas A&M University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. William Lively Modern distributed computer systems are very powerful and useful; they also offer new... software system designers with a thorough and flexible method to allocate software functions among the hardware components of a distributed computer system. Software designers select and rank relevant Design Parameters, analyze how well different...

  17. Detailed methodology of geospatial fire behavior analyses for the Savannah River Site.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hollingsworth, LaWen; Kurth, Laurie

    2010-11-19

    Three data sources were utilized to compare and contrast fire behavior modeling outputs (Table 1) from FlamMap for the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina.

  18. Aspects of the mechanics of metallic glasses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henann, David Lee

    2011-01-01

    Metallic glasses are amorphous materials that possess unique mechanical properties, such as high tensile strengths and good fracture toughnesses. Also, since they are amorphous, metallic glasses exhibit a glass transition, ...

  19. Efficient Breach Theory Through the Looking Glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adler, Barry E.

    2007-01-01

    in Wonderland and Through the Looking Glass (Signet 1960).Theory Through the Looking Glass such an award a put by theTheory Through the Looking Glass Consider also the hoary

  20. Glass blowing on a wafer level

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eklund, E. Jesper; Shkel, Andrei M.

    2007-01-01

    Wafer-Level Micro-Glass-Blowing UCI Of?ce of Technology176, 2005. [3] ——, Glass Blowing on a Wafer Scale (Expandedmodels. EKLUND AND SHKEL: GLASS BLOWING ON A WAFER LEVEL [5

  1. Quinary metallic glass alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, X.; Johnson, W.L.

    1998-04-07

    At least quinary alloys form metallic glass upon cooling below the glass transition temperature at a rate less than 10{sup 3}K/s. Such alloys comprise zirconium and/or hafnium in the range of 45 to 65 atomic percent, titanium and/or niobium in the range of 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, and aluminum and/or zinc in the range of 5 to 15 atomic percent. The balance of the alloy compositions comprise copper, iron, and cobalt and/or nickel. The composition is constrained such that the atomic percentage of iron is less than 10 percent. Further, the ratio of copper to nickel and/or cobalt is in the range of from 1:2 to 2:1. The alloy composition formula is: (Zr,Hf){sub a}(Al,Zn){sub b}(Ti,Nb){sub c}(Cu{sub x}Fe{sub y}(Ni,Co){sub z}){sub d} wherein the constraints upon the formula are: a ranges from 45 to 65 atomic percent, b ranges from 5 to 15 atomic percent, c ranges from 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, d comprises the balance, d{hor_ellipsis}y is less than 10 atomic percent, and x/z ranges from 0.5 to 2.

  2. Quinary metallic glass alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, Xianghong (Pasadena, CA); Johnson, William L. (Pasadena, CA)

    1998-01-01

    At least quinary alloys form metallic glass upon cooling below the glass transition temperature at a rate less than 10.sup.3 K/s. Such alloys comprise zirconium and/or hafnium in the range of 45 to 65 atomic percent, titanium and/or niobium in the range of 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, and aluminum and/or zinc in the range of 5 to 15 atomic percent. The balance of the alloy compositions comprise copper, iron, and cobalt and/or nickel. The composition is constrained such that the atomic percentage of iron is less than 10 percent. Further, the ratio of copper to nickel and/or cobalt is in the range of from 1:2 to 2:1. The alloy composition formula is: (Zr,Hf).sub.a (Al,Zn).sub.b (Ti,Nb).sub.c (Cu.sub.x Fe.sub.y (Ni,Co).sub.z).sub.d wherein the constraints upon the formula are: a ranges from 45 to 65 atomic percent, b ranges from 5 to 15 atomic percent, c ranges from 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, d comprises the balance, d.multidot.y is less than 10 atomic percent, and x/z ranges from 0.5 to 2.

  3. Waste Package Component Design Methodology Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.C. Mecham

    2004-07-12

    This Executive Summary provides an overview of the methodology being used by the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) to design waste packages and ancillary components. This summary information is intended for readers with general interest, but also provides technical readers a general framework surrounding a variety of technical details provided in the main body of the report. The purpose of this report is to document and ensure appropriate design methods are used in the design of waste packages and ancillary components (the drip shields and emplacement pallets). The methodology includes identification of necessary design inputs, justification of design assumptions, and use of appropriate analysis methods, and computational tools. This design work is subject to ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description''. The document is primarily intended for internal use and technical guidance for a variety of design activities. It is recognized that a wide audience including project management, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and others are interested to various levels of detail in the design methods and therefore covers a wide range of topics at varying levels of detail. Due to the preliminary nature of the design, readers can expect to encounter varied levels of detail in the body of the report. It is expected that technical information used as input to design documents will be verified and taken from the latest versions of reference sources given herein. This revision of the methodology report has evolved with changes in the waste package, drip shield, and emplacement pallet designs over many years and may be further revised as the design is finalized. Different components and analyses are at different stages of development. Some parts of the report are detailed, while other less detailed parts are likely to undergo further refinement. The design methodology is intended to provide designs that satisfy the safety and operational requirements of the YMP. Four waste package configurations have been selected to illustrate the application of the methodology during the licensing process. These four configurations are the 21-pressurized water reactor absorber plate waste package (21-PWRAP), the 44-boiling water reactor waste package (44-BWR), the 5 defense high-level radioactive waste (HLW) DOE spent nuclear fuel (SNF) codisposal short waste package (5-DHLWDOE SNF Short), and the naval canistered SNF long waste package (Naval SNF Long). Design work for the other six waste packages will be completed at a later date using the same design methodology. These include the 24-boiling water reactor waste package (24-BWR), the 21-pressurized water reactor control rod waste package (21-PWRCR), the 12-pressurized water reactor waste package (12-PWR), the 5 defense HLW DOE SNF codisposal long waste package (5-DHLWDOE SNF Long), the 2 defense HLW DOE SNF codisposal waste package (2-MC012-DHLW), and the naval canistered SNF short waste package (Naval SNF Short). This report is only part of the complete design description. Other reports related to the design include the design reports, the waste package system description documents, manufacturing specifications, and numerous documents for the many detailed calculations. The relationships between this report and other design documents are shown in Figure 1.

  4. Electronic Survey Methodology Page 1 Electronic Survey Methodology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nonnecke, Blair

    Electronic Survey Methodology Page 1 Electronic Survey Methodology: A Case Study in Reaching Hard, Maryland preece@umbc.edu 2002 © Andrews, Nonnecke and Preece #12;Electronic Survey Methodology Page 2 Conducting Research on the Internet: Electronic survey Design, Development and Implementation Guidelines

  5. Laboratory Waste Disposal HAZARDOUS GLASS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    Laboratory Waste Disposal HAZARDOUS GLASS Items that could cut or puncture skin or trash- can without any treatment. Hazardous Glass and Plastic: Items that can puncture, cut or scratch if disposed a significant hazard. Bags of misc. plasticware that has been autoclaved to remove bio contamination. Syringe

  6. Method of determining glass durability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jantzen, C.M.; Pickett, J.B.; Brown, K.G.; Edwards, T.B.

    1998-12-08

    A process is described for determining one or more leachate concentrations of one or more components of a glass composition in an aqueous solution of the glass composition by identifying the components of the glass composition, including associated oxides, determining a preliminary glass dissolution estimator, {Delta}G{sub p}, based upon the free energies of hydration for the component reactant species, determining an accelerated glass dissolution function, {Delta}G{sub a}, based upon the free energy associated with weak acid dissociation, {Delta}G{sub a}{sup WA}, and accelerated matrix dissolution at high pH, {Delta}G{sub a}{sup SB} associated with solution strong base formation, and determining a final hydration free energy, {Delta}G{sub f}. This final hydration free energy is then used to determine leachate concentrations for elements of interest using a regression analysis and the formula log{sub 10}(N C{sub i}(g/L))=a{sub i} + b{sub i}{Delta}G{sub f}. The present invention also includes a method to determine whether a particular glass to be produced will be homogeneous or phase separated. The present invention is also directed to methods of monitoring and controlling processes for making glass using these determinations to modify the feedstock materials until a desired glass durability and homogeneity is obtained. 4 figs.

  7. Method of determining glass durability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jantzen, Carol Maryanne (Aiken, SC); Pickett, John Butler (Aiken, SC); Brown, Kevin George (Augusta, GA); Edwards, Thomas Barry (Aiken, SC)

    1998-01-01

    A process for determining one or more leachate concentrations of one or more components of a glass composition in an aqueous solution of the glass composition by identifying the components of the glass composition, including associated oxides, determining a preliminary glass dissolution estimator, .DELTA.G.sub.p, based upon the free energies of hydration for the component reactant species, determining an accelerated glass dissolution function, .DELTA.G.sub.a, based upon the free energy associated with weak acid dissociation, .DELTA.G.sub.a.sup.WA, and accelerated matrix dissolution at high pH, .DELTA.G.sub.a.sup.SB associated with solution strong base formation, and determining a final hydration free energy, .DELTA.G.sub.f. This final hydration free energy is then used to determine leachate concentrations for elements of interest using a regression analysis and the formula log.sub.10 (N C.sub.i (g/L))=a.sub.i +b.sub.i .DELTA.G.sub.f. The present invention also includes a method to determine whether a particular glass to be produced will be homogeneous or phase separated. The present invention is also directed to methods of monitoring and controlling processes for making glass using these determinations to modify the feedstock materials until a desired glass durability and homogeneity is obtained.

  8. Refractory Glass Seals for SOFC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, Y. S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2011-07-01

    One of the critical challenges facing planar solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology is the need for reliable sealing technology. Seals must exhibit long-term stability and mechanical integrity in the high temperature SOFC environment during normal and transient operation. Several different approaches for sealing SOFC stacks are under development, including glass or glass-ceramic seals, metallic brazes, and compressive seals. Among glass seals, rigid glass-ceramics, self-healing glass, and composite glass approaches have been investigated under the SECA Core Technology Program. The U.S. Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed the refractory glass approach in light of the fact that higher sealing temperatures (e.g., 930-1000 degrees C) may enhance the ultimate in-service bulk strength and electrical conductivity of contact materials, as well as the bonding strength between contact materials and adjacent SOFC components, such as interconnect coatings and electrodes. This report summarizes the thermal, chemical, mechanical, and electrical properties of the refractory sealing glass.

  9. Methodology to remediate a mixed waste site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berry, J.B.

    1994-08-01

    In response to the need for a comprehensive and consistent approach to the complex issue of mixed waste management, a generalized methodology for remediation of a mixed waste site has been developed. The methodology is based on requirements set forth in the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and incorporates ``lessons learned`` from process design, remediation methodologies, and remediation projects. The methodology is applied to the treatment of 32,000 drums of mixed waste sludge at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site. Process technology options are developed and evaluated, first with regard to meeting system requirements and then with regard to CERCLA performance criteria. The following process technology options are investigated: (1) no action, (2) separation of hazardous and radioactive species, (3) dewatering, (4) drying, and (5) solidification/stabilization. The first two options were eliminated from detailed consideration because they did not meet the system requirements. A quantitative evaluation clearly showed that, based on system constraints and project objectives, either dewatering or drying the mixed waste sludge was superior to the solidification/stabilization process option. The ultimate choice between the drying and the dewatering options will be made on the basis of a technical evaluation of the relative merits of proposals submitted by potential subcontractors.

  10. Lead phosphate glass compositions for optical components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sales, Brian C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Boatner, Lynn A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1987-01-01

    A lead phosphate glass to which has been added indium oxide or scandium oe to improve chemical durability and provide a lead phosphate glass with good optical properties.

  11. Glass Ceramic Formulation Data Package

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; McCloy, John S.; Vienna, John D.; Chung, Chul-Woo

    2012-06-17

    A glass ceramic waste form is being developed for treatment of secondary waste streams generated by aqueous reprocessing of commercial used nuclear fuel (Crum et al. 2012b). The waste stream contains a mixture of transition metals, alkali, alkaline earths, and lanthanides, several of which exceed the solubility limits of a single phase borosilicate glass (Crum et al. 2009; Caurant et al. 2007). A multi-phase glass ceramic waste form allows incorporation of insoluble components of the waste by designed crystallization into durable heat tolerant phases. The glass ceramic formulation and processing targets the formation of the following three stable crystalline phases: (1) powellite (XMoO4) where X can be (Ca, Sr, Ba, and/or Ln), (2) oxyapatite Yx,Z(10-x)Si6O26 where Y is alkaline earth, Z is Ln, and (3) lanthanide borosilicate (Ln5BSi2O13). These three phases incorporate the waste components that are above the solubility limit of a single-phase borosilicate glass. The glass ceramic is designed to be a single phase melt, just like a borosilicate glass, and then crystallize upon slow cooling to form the targeted phases. The slow cooling schedule is based on the centerline cooling profile of a 2 foot diameter canister such as the Hanford High-Level Waste canister. Up to this point, crucible testing has been used for glass ceramic development, with cold crucible induction melter (CCIM) targeted as the ultimate processing technology for the waste form. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) will conduct a scaled CCIM test in FY2012 with a glass ceramic to demonstrate the processing behavior. This Data Package documents the laboratory studies of the glass ceramic composition to support the CCIM test. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) measured melt viscosity, electrical conductivity, and crystallization behavior upon cooling to identify a processing window (temperature range) for melter operation and cooling profiles necessary to crystallize the targeted phases in the waste form.

  12. Investigating surety methodologies for cognitive systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caudell, Thomas P. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Peercy, David Eugene; Mills, Kristy; Caldera, Eva

    2006-11-01

    Advances in cognitive science provide a foundation for new tools that promise to advance human capabilities with significant positive impacts. As with any new technology breakthrough, associated technical and non-technical risks are involved. Sandia has mitigated both technical and non-technical risks by applying advanced surety methodologies in such areas as nuclear weapons, nuclear reactor safety, nuclear materials transport, and energy systems. In order to apply surety to the development of cognitive systems, we must understand the concepts and principles that characterize the certainty of a system's operation as well as the risk areas of cognitive sciences. This SAND report documents a preliminary spectrum of risks involved with cognitive sciences, and identifies some surety methodologies that can be applied to potentially mitigate such risks. Some potential areas for further study are recommended. In particular, a recommendation is made to develop a cognitive systems epistemology framework for more detailed study of these risk areas and applications of surety methods and techniques.

  13. A Topological Glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jean-Pierre Eckmann

    2007-04-07

    We propose and study a model with glassy behavior. The state space of the model is given by all triangulations of a sphere with $n$ nodes, half of which are red and half are blue. Red nodes want to have 5 neighbors while blue ones want 7. Energies of nodes with different numbers of neighbors are supposed to be positive. The dynamics is that of flipping the diagonal of two adjacent triangles, with a temperature dependent probability. We show that this system has an approach to a steady state which is exponentially slow, and show that the stationary state is unordered. We also study the local energy landscape and show that it has the hierarchical structure known from spin glasses. Finally, we show that the evolution can be described as that of a rarefied gas with spontaneous generation of particles and annihilating collisions.

  14. Beyond bolts : architectural details, construction, meaning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weber, Peter Dominic

    1991-01-01

    An architectural Detail is a small piece of the whole, yet it has the power to characterize and define the entire building. Details tell us what a building is; they are fundamental to the life and personality of a space. ...

  15. Reinforced glass beamsReinforced glass beamsg Auteur Dr. Christian LOUTER 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reinforced glass beamsReinforced glass beamsg EDCE Auteur Dr. Christian LOUTER 1 ENAC/EDCE 2011In contemporary architecture glass is increasinglyIn contemporary architecture glass is increasingly applied for structural components such as beamsapplied for structural components such as beams. However glass

  16. Glass Membrane For Controlled Diffusion Of Gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shelby, James E. (Alfred Station, NY); Kenyon, Brian E. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2001-05-15

    A glass structure for controlled permeability of gases includes a glass vessel. The glass vessel has walls and a hollow center for receiving a gas. The glass vessel contains a metal oxide dopant formed with at least one metal selected from the group consisting of transition metals and rare earth metals for controlling diffusion of the gas through the walls of the glass vessel. The vessel releases the gas through its walls upon exposure to a radiation source.

  17. BNFL Report Glass Formers Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schumacher, R.F.

    2000-07-27

    The objective of this task was to obtain powder property data on candidate glass former materials, sufficient to guide conceptual design and estimate the cost of glass former handling facilities as requested under Part B1 of BNFL Technical and Development Support. Twenty-nine glass forming materials were selected and obtained from vendors for the characterization of their physical properties, durability in caustic solution, and powder flow characteristics. A glass former was selected based on the characterization for each of the ten oxide classes required for Envelope A, B, and C mixtures. Three blends (A, B, and C) were prepared based on formulations provided by Vitreous State Laboratory and evaluated with the same methods employed for the glass formers. The properties obtained are presented in a series of attached Tables. It was determined that five of the ten glass formers, (kyanite, iron oxide, titania, zircon, and zinc oxide) have the potential to cause some level of solids f low problems. The problems might include arching or ratholing in the silo/hopper. In addition, all of the blends may require consideration for their handling.

  18. BNFL Report Glass Formers Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schumacher, R.F.

    2000-07-27

    The objective of this task was to obtain powder property data on candidate glass former materials, sufficient to guide conceptual design and estimate the cost of glass former handling facilities as requested under Part B1 of BNFL Technical and Development Support. Twenty-nine glass forming materials were selected and obtained from vendors for the characterization of their physical properties, durability in caustic solution, and powder flow characteristics. A glass former was selected based on the characterization for each of the ten oxide classes required for Envelope A, B, and C mixtures. Three blends (A, B, and C) were prepared based on formulations provided by Vitreous State Laboratory and evaluated with the same methods employed for the glass formers. The properties obtained are presented in a series of attached Tables. It was determined that five of the ten glass formers, (kyanite, iron oxide, titania, zircon, and zinc oxide) have the potential to cause some level of solids f low problems. In addition, all of the blends may require consideration for their handling. A number of engineering considerations and recommendations were prepared based on the experimental findings, experience, and other process considerations. Recommendations for future testing are included. In conjunction with future work, it is recommended that a professional consultant be engaged to guide and assist with testing and design input.

  19. Spent fuel management fee methodology and computer code user's manual.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engel, R.L.; White, M.K.

    1982-01-01

    The methodology and computer model described here were developed to analyze the cash flows for the federal government taking title to and managing spent nuclear fuel. The methodology has been used by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to estimate the spent fuel disposal fee that will provide full cost recovery. Although the methodology was designed to analyze interim storage followed by spent fuel disposal, it could be used to calculate a fee for reprocessing spent fuel and disposing of the waste. The methodology consists of two phases. The first phase estimates government expenditures for spent fuel management. The second phase determines the fees that will result in revenues such that the government attains full cost recovery assuming various revenue collection philosophies. These two phases are discussed in detail in subsequent sections of this report. Each of the two phases constitute a computer module, called SPADE (SPent fuel Analysis and Disposal Economics) and FEAN (FEe ANalysis), respectively.

  20. HIGH-LEVEL WASTE GLASS FORMULATION MODEL SENSITIVITY STUDY 2009 GLASS FORMULATION MODEL VERSUS 1996 GLASS FORMULATION MODEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BELSHER JD; MEINERT FL

    2009-12-07

    This document presents the differences between two HLW glass formulation models (GFM): The 1996 GFM and 2009 GFM. A glass formulation model is a collection of glass property correlations and associated limits, as well as model validity and solubility constraints; it uses the pretreated HLW feed composition to predict the amount and composition of glass forming additives necessary to produce acceptable HLW glass. The 2009 GFM presented in this report was constructed as a nonlinear optimization calculation based on updated glass property data and solubility limits described in PNNL-18501 (2009). Key mission drivers such as the total mass of HLW glass and waste oxide loading are compared between the two glass formulation models. In addition, a sensitivity study was performed within the 2009 GFM to determine the effect of relaxing various constraints on the predicted mass of the HLW glass.

  1. Introduction and Motivation Structural Model for Laminated Glass Beams Conclusions and Outlook of Laminated Glass Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Introduction and Motivation Structural Model for Laminated Glass Beams Conclusions and Outlook 1 #12;Introduction and Motivation Structural Model for Laminated Glass Beams Conclusions and Outlook Outline 1 Introduction and Motivation 2 Structural Model for Laminated Glass Beams 3 Conclusions

  2. Health Dialog Systems Methodological Review 1 Methodological Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bickmore, Timothy

    Health Dialog Systems Methodological Review 1 Methodological Review: Health Dialog Systems special issue on Dialog Systems for Health Communication Corresponding author: Timothy W. Bickmore, Massachusetts 02115 bickmore@ccs.neu.edu Phone: (617) 373-5477 FAX: 617-812-2589 #12;Health Dialog Systems

  3. PREDICTION OF DELAM INATION IN WIND TURBINE BLADE STRUCTURAL DETAILS John F. Mandell, Douglas S. Cairns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in Reference 3, available on the Sandia web site www.sandia.gov/Renewable_Energy/Wind_Energy/. DELAMINATION1 PREDICTION OF DELAM INATION IN WIND TURBINE BLADE STRUCTURAL DETAILS John F. Mandell, Douglas S materials structures such as wind turbine blades. Design methodologies to prevent such failures have

  4. Nano-structured self-cleaning superhydrophobic glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Jin Yeol

    2010-01-01

    5. Optically transparent glass with vertically alignedcomposition of biosoluble glass fiber” Korean ApplicationS. Jin, “Optically Transparent Glass with Vertically Aligned

  5. Micro-Continuum Modeling of Nuclear Waste Glass Corrosion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steefel, Carl

    2014-01-01

    21. Grambow, B. (2006). Nuclear waste glasses – How durable?Continuum Modeling of Nuclear Waste Glass Corrosion AugustContinuum Modeling of Nuclear Waste Glass Corrosion Prepared

  6. Investigation of Glass Transition Temperature of Binary Tellurite Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chippy, L.; Unnithan, C. Harikuttan [Solid State Physics Laboratory, D.B. College, Sasthamcotta, Kollam, Kerala-690 521 (India); Jayakumar, S. [MSM College, Kayamkulam, Kerala (India)

    2011-10-20

    Five series of binary Tellurite glass samples containing Sb{sub 2}O{sub 4}, WO{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}O and ZnO{sub 2} are studied in terms of the variation of glass transition temperature (T{sub g}). It is seen that Tg increases as Tellurite concentration decreases in the case of glasses containing metal oxides Sb{sub 2}O{sub 4} WO{sub 3}, and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} while T{sub g} shows a decreasing trend with that of Na{sub 2}O and ZnO and the corresponding changes in the network structure are accounted to possible extent. The structural variations are analyzed using the concept of electronegativity.

  7. HLW Glass Studies: Development of Crystal-Tolerant HLW Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matyas, Josef; Huckleberry, Adam R.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Lang, Jesse B.; Owen, Antionette T.; Kruger, Albert A.

    2012-04-02

    In our study, a series of lab-scale crucible tests were performed on designed glasses of different compositions to further investigate and simulate the effect of Cr, Ni, Fe, Al, Li, and RuO2 on the accumulation rate of spinel crystals in the glass discharge riser of the HLW melter. The experimental data were used to expand the compositional region covered by an empirical model developed previously (Matyᚠet al. 2010b), improving its predictive performance. We also investigated the mechanism for agglomeration of particles and impact of agglomerates on accumulation rate. In addition, the TL was measured as a function of temperature and composition.

  8. Contact details: School of Architecture, BCU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birmingham, University of

    Contact details: School of Architecture, BCU Dr. Richard Coles, Co investigator Richard Economic Fabric This work package investigated opportunities and barriers to achieving sustainable is to be sustainable in the widest sense. Contact details: Centre for Urban and Regional Studies, U0B Dr. Austin Barber

  9. Detailed Building Reconstruction With Shape Templates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schindler, Konrad

    Detailed Building Reconstruction With Shape Templates Konrad Schindler 1 and Joachim Bauer 2 1, Austria bauer@vrvis.at Abstract: We present a model-based method for detailed automatic building reconstruction from images. The method starts with recovering a coarse building model consisting of the main

  10. Horava-Lifshitz gravity with detailed balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniele Vernieri; Thomas P. Sotiriou

    2012-12-18

    Horava-Lifshitz gravity with "detailed balance" but without the projectability assumption is discussed. It is shown that detailed balance is quite efficient in limiting the proliferation of couplings in Horava-Lifshitz gravity, and that its implementation without the projectability assumption leads to a theory with sensible dynamics. However, the (bare) cosmological constant is restricted to be large and negative.

  11. Honours APPLICATION UG 2. CONTACT DETAILS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Du, Jie

    of Sydney student number: Citizenship: Australian citizen New Zealand citizen Australian permanent resident.e. not an Australian citizen, permanent resident or New Zealand citizen) Title: Gender: Family Name: Given names school/unit/discipline for further details. #12;4. HONOURS DETAILS Majors in science subject area(s) (if

  12. Glass Transition in Confined Geometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simon Lang; Vitalie Botan; Martin Oettel; David Hajnal; Thomas Franosch; Rolf Schilling

    2010-08-23

    Extending mode-coupling theory, we elaborate a microscopic theory for the glass transition of liquids confined between two parallel flat hard walls. The theory contains the standard MCT equations in bulk and in two dimensions as limiting cases and requires as input solely the equilibrium density profile and the structure factors of the fluid in confinement. We evaluate the phase diagram as a function of the distance of the plates for the case of a hard sphere fluid and obtain an oscillatory behavior of the glass transtion line as a result of the structural changes related to layering.

  13. Additive Manufacturing of Optically Transparent Glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klein, John

    We present a fully functional material extrusion printer for optically transparent glass. The printer is composed of scalable modular elements able to operate at the high temperatures required to process glass from a molten ...

  14. The Huge, Blue, Jesus Glass Statue

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robbins, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Later, I found a huge, blue, glass statue of Jesus stuffedOF CALIFORNIA RIVERSIDE The Huge, Blue, Jesus Glass Statue Aeyes as RED And wrote down BLUE for your hair. I had to fix

  15. Structure glass technology : systems and applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leitch, Katherine K. (Katherine Kristen)

    2005-01-01

    Glass cannot compete with steel in terms of strength or durability, but it is the only structural material that offers the highly sought after qualities of translucency and transparency. The use of glass has evolved from ...

  16. EFFECT OF GLASS-BATCH MAKEUP ON...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    rate of heat-transfer from molten glass to the batch blanket and the kinetics of various chemical reactions and phase transitions jointly control the batch- to-glass conversion...

  17. High-level waste borosilicate glass: A compendium of corrosion characteristics. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cunnane, J.C.; Bates, J.K.; Bradley, C.R.

    1994-03-01

    The objective of this document is to summarize scientific information pertinent to evaluating the extent to which high-level waste borosilicate glass corrosion and the associated radionuclide release processes are understood for the range of environmental conditions to which waste glass may be exposed in service. Alteration processes occurring within the bulk of the glass (e.g., devitrification and radiation-induced changes) are discussed insofar as they affect glass corrosion.This document is organized into three volumes. Volumes I and II represent a tiered set of information intended for somewhat different audiences. Volume I is intended to provide an overview of waste glass corrosion, and Volume 11 is intended to provide additional experimental details on experimental factors that influence waste glass corrosion. Volume III contains a bibliography of glass corrosion studies, including studies that are not cited in Volumes I and II. Volume I is intended for managers, decision makers, and modelers, the combined set of Volumes I, II, and III is intended for scientists and engineers working in the field of high-level waste.

  18. Incorporating Cold Cap Behavior in a Joule-heated Waste Glass Melter Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varija Agarwal; Donna Post Guillen

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, an overview of Joule-heated waste glass melters used in the vitrification of high level waste (HLW) is presented, with a focus on the cold cap region. This region, in which feed-to-glass conversion reactions occur, is critical in determining the melting properties of any given glass melter. An existing 1D computer model of the cold cap, implemented in MATLAB, is described in detail. This model is a standalone model that calculates cold cap properties based on boundary conditions at the top and bottom of the cold cap. Efforts to couple this cold cap model with a 3D STAR-CCM+ model of a Joule-heated melter are then described. The coupling is being implemented in ModelCenter, a software integration tool. The ultimate goal of this model is to guide the specification of melter parameters that optimize glass quality and production rate.

  19. Property-Composition-Temperature Modeling of Waste Glass Melt Data Subject to a Randomization Restriction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Cooley, Scott K.

    2008-10-01

    Properties such as viscosity and electrical conductivity of glass melts are functions of melt temperature as well as glass composition. When measuring such a property for several glasses, the property is typically measured at several temperatures for one glass, then at several temperatures for the next glass, and so on. This data-collection process involves a restriction on randomization, which is referred to as split-plot experiment. The split-plot data structure must be accounted for in developing property-composition-temperature models and the corresponding uncertainty equations for model predictions. Instead of ordinary least squares (OLS) regression methods, generalized least squares (GLS) regression methods using restricted maximum likelihood (REML) estimation must be used. This article describes the methodology for developing property-composition-temperature models and corresponding prediction uncertainty equations using the GLS/REML regression approach. Viscosity data collected on 197 simulated nuclear waste glasses are used to illustrate the GLS/REML methods for developing a viscosity-composition-temperature model and corresponding equations for model prediction uncertainties. The correct results using GLS/REML regression are compared to the incorrect results obtained using OLS regression.

  20. Glass Transition and the Coulomb Gap in Electron Glasses M. Muller and L. B. Ioffe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Müller, Markus

    Glass Transition and the Coulomb Gap in Electron Glasses M. Mu¨ller and L. B. Ioffe Department December 2004) We establish the connection between the presence of a glass phase and the appearance correlations in a systematic way, we show that in the case of strong disorder a continuous glass transition

  1. Civil Engineering BEng (Hons) Key details

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Painter, Kevin

    Civil Engineering BEng (Hons) Key details Duration: Full-time: 4 years (BEng Hons) Delivery type engineering disciplines of Structures, Geotechnics, Water Engineering and Transportation Engineering civil or structural engineers. After graduation, students are equipped to work for consultants

  2. Residential Composting Intern Position Position Details

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Royer, Dana

    Residential Composting Intern Position Position Details The dining composting intern positions during Orientation week to set up the composting programs and stay through Senior Week to finish composting program. The interns will report to Sustainability Coordinator Jen Kleindienst. Requirements

  3. Heating-induced glass-glass and glass-liquid transformations in computer simulations of water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiu, Janet; Giovambattista, Nicolas [Department of Physics, Brooklyn College of the City University of New York, Brooklyn, New York 11210 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Brooklyn College of the City University of New York, Brooklyn, New York 11210 (United States); Starr, Francis W. [Department of Physics, Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connecticut 06459 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connecticut 06459 (United States)

    2014-03-21

    Water exists in at least two families of glassy states, broadly categorized as the low-density (LDA) and high-density amorphous ice (HDA). Remarkably, LDA and HDA can be reversibly interconverted via appropriate thermodynamic paths, such as isothermal compression and isobaric heating, exhibiting first-order-like phase transitions. We perform out-of-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of glassy water using the ST2 model to study the evolution of LDA and HDA upon isobaric heating. Depending on pressure, glass-to-glass, glass-to-crystal, glass-to-vapor, as well as glass-to-liquid transformations are found. Specifically, heating LDA results in the following transformations, with increasing heating pressures: (i) LDA-to-vapor (sublimation), (ii) LDA-to-liquid (glass transition), (iii) LDA-to-HDA-to-liquid, (iv) LDA-to-HDA-to-liquid-to-crystal, and (v) LDA-to-HDA-to-crystal. Similarly, heating HDA results in the following transformations, with decreasing heating pressures: (a) HDA-to-crystal, (b) HDA-to-liquid-to-crystal, (c) HDA-to-liquid (glass transition), (d) HDA-to-LDA-to-liquid, and (e) HDA-to-LDA-to-vapor. A more complex sequence may be possible using lower heating rates. For each of these transformations, we determine the corresponding transformation temperature as function of pressure, and provide a P-T “phase diagram” for glassy water based on isobaric heating. Our results for isobaric heating dovetail with the LDA-HDA transformations reported for ST2 glassy water based on isothermal compression/decompression processes [Chiu et al., J. Chem. Phys. 139, 184504 (2013)]. The resulting phase diagram is consistent with the liquid-liquid phase transition hypothesis. At the same time, the glass phase diagram is sensitive to sample preparation, such as heating or compression rates. Interestingly, at least for the rates explored, our results suggest that the LDA-to-liquid (HDA-to-liquid) and LDA-to-HDA (HDA-to-LDA) transformation lines on heating are related, both being associated with the limit of kinetic stability of LDA (HDA)

  4. Generalized Entropy Theory of Glass Formation in Polymer Melts with Specific Interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wen-Sheng Xu; Karl F. Freed

    2015-03-21

    Chemical structure has been long recognized to greatly influence polymer glass formation, but a general molecular theory that predicts how chemical structure determines the properties of glass-forming polymers has been slow to develop. While the generalized entropy theory (GET) explains the influence of various molecular details on polymer glass formation, the application of the GET has heretofore been limited to the use of the simplest polymer model in which all united atom groups within the monomers of a species interact with a common monomer averaged van der Waals energy. However, energetic heterogeneities are ubiquitous within the monomers of real polymers, and their implications for polymer glass formation remain to be investigated theoretically. This paper uses an extension of the GET to explore the influence of energetic heterogeneities within monomers upon the nature of polymer glass formation. The present paper focuses on establishing general trends for the variation of characteristic properties of glass formation, such as the isobaric fragility parameter $m_P$ and the glass transition temperature $T_g$, with molecular details, such as the specific interactions and chain stiffness. Our computations confirm that the previously used model with monomer averaged interactions correctly captures general trends in the variation of $m_P$ and $T_g$ with various molecular parameters. More importantly, adjustment of the energetic heterogeneities within monomers alone are shown to provide an efficient mechanism for tailoring the properties of glass-forming polymers. The variations of polymer properties along iso-fragility and iso-$T_g$ lines are illustrated as important design tools for exhibiting the combined influence of specific interactions and chain stiffness.

  5. Thermal healing of realistic flaws in glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zaccaria, Marco; Overend, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    in glass plates.â? Proc. Glass processing days, Tampere, Finland. 447 Anunmana, C., Anusavice, K. J., Mecholsky, J.J., (2009). â??Residual stress in glass: 448 indentation crack and fractography approaches.â? Dent.Mater., 40(11), 1453-1458. 449 ASTM...

  6. Do cathedral glasses flow? Edgar Dutra Zanottoa)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levi, Anthony F. J.

    simple concepts of physics to demonstrate that typical window glasses, which contain K2O­Na2O­CaO­MgO­Al2 for glass to flow and deform at ordinary temperatures, using calculated viscosity curves for several modern of Physics Teachers. I. INTRODUCTION Is glass a liquid or is it not? While teaching materials science

  7. Glass Frit Clumping And Dusting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steimke, J. L.

    2013-09-26

    DWPF mixes a slurry of glass frit (Frit 418) and dilute (1.5 wt%) formic acid solution with high level waste in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME). There would be advantages to introducing the frit in a non-slurry form to minimize water addition to the SME, however, adding completely dry frit has the potential to generate dust which could clog filters or condensers. Prior testing with another type of frit, Frit 320, and using a minimal amount of water reduced dust generation, however, the formation of hard clumps was observed. To examine options and behavior, a TTQAP [McCabe and Stone, 2013] was written to initiate tests that would address these concerns. Tests were conducted with four types of glass frit; Frit 320, DWPF Frit 418, Bekeson Frit 418 and Multi-Aspirator Frit 418. The last two frits are chemically identical to DWPF Frit 418 but smaller particles were removed by the respective vendors. Test results on Frit Clumping and Dusting are provided in this report. This report addresses the following seven questions. Short answers are provided below with more detailed answers to follow. 1. Will the addition of a small amount of water, 1.5 wt%, to dry DWPF Frit 418 greatly reduce the dust generation during handling at DWPF? a. Yes, a small scale test showed that adding a little water to the frit greatly reduced dust generation during handling. 2. Will the addition of small amounts of water to the frit cause clumping that will impair frit handling at DWPF? a. No, not with Frit 418. Although clumps were observed to form when 1.5 wt% water was mixed with DWPF Frit 418, then compressed and air-dried overnight, the clumps were easily crushed and did not form the hardened material noted when Frit 320 was tested. 3. What is the measured size distribution of dust generated when dry frit is handled? (This affects the feasibility and choice of processing equipment for removing the dust generating fraction of the frit before it is added to the SME.) a. The size distribution for the dust removed from fresh DWPF Frit 418 while it was being shaken in a small scale LabRAM test was measured. The median size on a volume basis was 7.6 ?m and 90% of the frit particles were between 1.6 and 28 ?m. The mass of dust collected using this test protocol was much less than 1% of the original frit. 4. Can the dust be removed in a small number of processing steps and without the larger frit particles continuing to spall additional dust sized particles? a. Test results using a LabRAM were inconclusive. The LaRAM performs less efficient particle size separation than the equipment used by Bekeson and Multi-Aspirator. 5. What particle size of frit is expected to create a dust problem? a. The original criterion for creating a dusting problem was those particle sizes that were readily suspended when being shaken. For that criterion calculations and Microtrac size analyses indicated that particles smaller than 37 ?m are likely dust generators. Subsequently a more sophisticated criterion for dust problem was considered, particle sizes that would become suspended in the air flow patterns inside the SME and possibly plug the condenser. That size may be larger than 37 ?m but has not yet been determined. 6. If particles smaller than 37 ?m are removed will bulk dust generation be eliminated? a. Video-taped tests were performed using three gallons each of three types of frit 418, DWPF frit, Bekeson frit and Multi-Aspirator frit. Frit was poured through air from a height of approximately eight feet into a container half filled with water. Pouring Bekeson frit or Multi-Aspirator frit generated markedly less visible dust, but there was still a significant amount, which still has the potential of causing a dust problem. 7. Can completely dry frit be poured into the SME without having dust plug the condenser at the top of the vessel? a. Because of the complexity of air currents inside the SME and the difficulty of defensible size scaling a more prototypical test will be required to answer this question. We recommend construction of a full scale

  8. Application of piezoelectric macro-fiber-composite actuators to the suppression of noise transmission through curved glass plates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Novakova, Katerina; Vaclavik, Jan; 10.1109/TUFFC.2012.2420

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the possibility of increasing the acoustic transmission loss of sound transmitted through planar or curved glass shells using attached piezoelectric macro fiber composite (MFC) actuators shunted by active circuits with a negative capacitance. The key features that control the sound transmission through the curved glass shells are analyzed using an analytical approximative model. A detailed analysis of the particular arrangement of MFC actuators on the glass shell is performed using a finite element method (FEM) model. The FEM model takes into account the effect of a flexible frame that clamps the glass shell at its edges. A method is presented for the active control of the Young's modulus and the bending stiffness coefficient of the composite sandwich structure that consists of a glass plate and the attached piezoelectric MFC actuator. The predictions of the acoustic transmission loss frequency dependencies obtained by the FEM model are compared with experimental data. The results indicate...

  9. DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY BUSINESS CASE METHODOLOGY GUIDE & WORKBOOK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, Ken; Lawrie, Sean; Hart, Adam; Vlahoplus, Chris

    2014-09-01

    Performance advantages of the new digital technologies are widely acknowledged, but it has proven difficult for utilities to derive business cases for justifying investment in these new capabilities. Lack of a business case is often cited by utilities as a barrier to pursuing wide-scale application of digital technologies to nuclear plant work activities. The decision to move forward with funding usually hinges on demonstrating actual cost reductions that can be credited to budgets and thereby truly reduce O&M or capital costs. Technology enhancements, while enhancing work methods and making work more efficient, often fail to eliminate workload such that it changes overall staffing and material cost requirements. It is critical to demonstrate cost reductions or impacts on non-cost performance objectives in order for the business case to justify investment by nuclear operators. This Business Case Methodology approaches building a business case for a particular technology or suite of technologies by detailing how they impact an operator in one or more of the three following areas: Labor Costs, Non-Labor Costs, and Key Performance Indicators (KPIs). Key to those impacts will be identifying where the savings are “harvestable,” meaning they result in an actual reduction in headcount and/or cost. The report consists of a Digital Technology Business Case Methodology Guide and an accompanying spreadsheet workbook that will enable the user to develop a business case.

  10. SUMMARY REPORT FOR THE ANALYSIS OF THE SLUDGE BATCH 6 (MACROBATCH 7) DWPF POUR STREAM GLASS SAMPLE FOR CANISTER S03472

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, F.

    2012-01-23

    In order to comply with the Waste Acceptance Specifications in Sludge Batch 6 (Macrobatch 7), Savannah River National Laboratory personnel performed characterization analyses on the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) pour stream glass sample collected while filling canister S03472. This report summarizes results of the characterization, which indicate that the DWPF produced glass that is significantly more durable than the Environmental Assessment glass. Results and further details are documented in 'Analysis of DWPF Sludge Batch 6 (Macrobatch 7) Pour Stream Glass Samples,' SRNL-STI-2011-00555.

  11. Development of Vitrification Process and Glass Formulation for Nuclear Waste Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petitjean, V.; Fillet, C.; Boen, R.; Veyer, C.; Flament, T.

    2002-02-26

    The vitrification of high-level waste is the internationally recognized standard to minimize the impact to the environment resulting from waste disposal as well as to minimize the volume of conditioned waste to be disposed of. COGEMA has been vitrifying high-level waste industrially for over 20 years and is currently operating three commercial vitrification facilities based on a hot metal crucible technology, with outstanding records of safety, reliability and product quality. To further increase the performance of vitrification facilities, CEA and COGEMA have been developing the cold crucible melter technology since the beginning of the 1980s. This type of melter is characterized by a virtually unlimited equipment service life and a great flexibility in dealing with various types of waste and allowing development of high temperature matrices. In complement of and in parallel with the vitrification process, a glass formulation methodology has been developed by the CEA in order to tailor matrices for the wastes to be conditioned while providing the best adaptation to the processing technology. The development of a glass formulation is a trade-off between material properties and qualities, technical feasibility, and disposal safety criteria. It involves non-radioactive and radioactive laboratories in order to achieve a comprehensive matrix qualification. Several glasses and glass ceramics have thus been studied by the CEA to be compliant with industrial needs and waste characteristics: glasses or other matrices for a large spectrum of fission products, or for high contents of specifics elements such as sodium, phosphate, iron, molybdenum, or actinides. New glasses or glass-ceramics designed to minimize the final wasteform volume for solutions produced during the reprocessing of high burnup fuels or to treat legacy wastes are now under development and take benefit from the latest CEA hot-laboratories and technology development. The paper presents the CEA state-of-the-art in developing matrices or glasses and provides several examples.

  12. Glass needs for a growing photovoltaics industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burrows, Keith; Fthenakis, Vasilis

    2015-01-01

    With the projected growth in photovoltaics, the demand for glass for the solar industry will far exceed the current supply, and thousands of new float-glass plants will have to be built to meet its needs over the next 20 years. Such expansion will provide an opportunity for the solar industry to obtain products better suited to their needs, such as low-iron glass and borosilicate glass at the lowest possible price. While there are no significant technological hurdles that would prevent the flat glass industry from meeting the solar industry’s projected needs, to do so will require advance planning and substantial investments.

  13. Glass needs for a growing photovoltaics industry

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Burrows, Keith; Fthenakis, Vasilis

    2014-10-18

    With the projected growth in photovoltaics, the demand for glass for the solar industry will far exceed the current supply, and thousands of new float-glass plants will have to be built to meet its needs over the next 20 years. Such expansion will provide an opportunity for the solar industry to obtain products better suited to their needs, such as low-iron glass and borosilicate glass at the lowest possible price. While there are no significant technological hurdles that would prevent the flat glass industry from meeting the solar industry’s projected needs, to do so will require advance planning and substantialmore »investments.« less

  14. Glass needs for a growing photovoltaics industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burrows, Keith; Fthenakis, Vasilis

    2014-10-18

    With the projected growth in photovoltaics, the demand for glass for the solar industry will far exceed the current supply, and thousands of new float-glass plants will have to be built to meet its needs over the next 20 years. Such expansion will provide an opportunity for the solar industry to obtain products better suited to their needs, such as low-iron glass and borosilicate glass at the lowest possible price. While there are no significant technological hurdles that would prevent the flat glass industry from meeting the solar industry’s projected needs, to do so will require advance planning and substantial investments.

  15. A multilayer approach to fabricate bioactive glass coatings on Ti alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gomez-Vega, J.M.; Saiz, E.; Tomsia, A.P.; Marshall, G.W.; Marshall, S.J.

    1998-12-01

    Glasses in the system Si-Ca-Na-Mg-P-K-O with thermal expansion coefficients close to that of Ti6Al4V were used to coat the titanium alloy by a simple enameling technique. Firings were done in air at temperatures between 800 and 840 C and times up to 1 minute. Graded compositions were obtained by firing multilayered glass coatings. Hydroxyapatite (HA) particles were mixed with the glass powder and the mixture was placed on the outer surface of the coatings to render them more bioactive. Coatings with excellent adhesion to the substrate and able to form apatite when immersed in a simulated body fluid (SBF) can be fabricated by this methodology.

  16. Characterization of Savannah River Plant waste glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plodinec, M J

    1985-01-01

    The objective of the glass characterization programs at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) is to ensure that glass containing Savannah River Plant high-level waste can be permanently stored in a federal repository, in an environmentally acceptable manner. To accomplish this objective, SRL is carrying out several experimental programs, including: fundamental studies of the reactions between waste glass and water, particularly repository groundwater; experiments in which candidate repository environments are simulated as accurately as possible; burial tests of simulated waste glass in candidate repository geologies; large-scale tests of glass durability; and determination of the effects of process conditions on glass quality. In this paper, the strategy and current status of each of these programs is discussed. The results indicate that waste packages containing SRP waste glass will satisfy emerging regulatory criteria.

  17. Recirculation bubbler for glass melter apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guerrero, Hector (Evans, GA); Bickford, Dennis (Folly Beach, SC)

    2007-06-05

    A gas bubbler device provides enhanced recirculation of molten glass within a glass melter apparatus. The bubbler device includes a tube member disposed within a pool of molten glass contained in the melter. The tube member includes a lower opening through which the molten glass enters and upper slots disposed close to (above or below) the upper surface of the pool of molten glass and from which the glass exits. A gas (air) line is disposed within the tube member and extends longitudinally thereof. A gas bubble distribution device, which is located adjacent to the lower end of the tube member and is connected to the lower end of the gas line, releases gas through openings therein so as to produce gas bubbles of a desired size in the molten glass and in a distributed pattern across the tube member.

  18. Pressurized heat treatment of glass ceramic

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kramer, D.P.

    1984-04-19

    A method of producing a glass-ceramic having a specified thermal expansion value is disclosed. The method includes the step of pressurizing the parent glass material to a predetermined pressure during heat treatment so that the glass-ceramic produced has a specified thermal expansion value. Preferably, the glass-ceramic material is isostatically pressed. A method for forming a strong glass-ceramic to metal seal is also disclosed in which the glass-ceramic is fabricated to have a thermal expansion value equal to that of the metal. The determination of the thermal expansion value of a parent glass material placed in a high-temperature environment is also used to determine the pressure in the environment.

  19. Regional issue identification and assessment: study methodology. First annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The overall assessment methodologies and models utilized for the first project under the Regional Issue Identification and Assessment (RIIA) program are described. Detailed descriptions are given of the methodologies used by lead laboratories for the quantification of the impacts of an energy scenario on one or more media (e.g., air, water, land, human and ecology), and by all laboratories to assess the regional impacts on all media. The research and assessments reflected in this document were performed by the following national laboratories: Argonne National Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; and Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This report contains five chapters. Chapter 1 briefly describes the overall study methodology and introduces the technical participants. Chapter 2 is a summary of the energy policy scenario selected for the RIIA I study and Chapter 3 describes how this scenario was translated into a county-level siting pattern of energy development. The fourth chapter is a detailed description of the individual methodologies used to quantify the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of the scenario while Chapter 5 describes how these impacts were translated into comprehensive regional assessments for each Federal Region.

  20. 1999 Commercial Building Characteristics--Detailed Tables--Principal...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Principal Building Activities > Detailed Tables-Principal Building Activities Complete Set of 1999 CBECS Detailed Tables Detailed Tables-Principal Building Activities Table B1....

  1. 1999 Commercial Building Characteristics--Detailed Tables--Year...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Constructed > Detailed Tables-Year Constructed Complete Set of 1999 CBECS Detailed Tables Detailed Tables-Year Constructed Table B8. Year Constructed, Number of Buildings...

  2. Calibration methodology for proportional counters applied to yield measurements of a neutron burst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarifeño-Saldivia, Ariel E-mail: atarisal@gmail.com; Pavez, Cristian; Soto, Leopoldo; Center for Research and Applications in Plasma Physics and Pulsed Power, P4, Santiago; Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Andres Bello, Republica 220, Santiago ; Mayer, Roberto E.

    2014-01-15

    This paper introduces a methodology for the yield measurement of a neutron burst using neutron proportional counters. This methodology is to be applied when single neutron events cannot be resolved in time by nuclear standard electronics, or when a continuous current cannot be measured at the output of the counter. The methodology is based on the calibration of the counter in pulse mode, and the use of a statistical model to estimate the number of detected events from the accumulated charge resulting from the detection of the burst of neutrons. The model is developed and presented in full detail. For the measurement of fast neutron yields generated from plasma focus experiments using a moderated proportional counter, the implementation of the methodology is herein discussed. An experimental verification of the accuracy of the methodology is presented. An improvement of more than one order of magnitude in the accuracy of the detection system is obtained by using this methodology with respect to previous calibration methods.

  3. Lid heater for glass melter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, T.D.

    1993-12-14

    A glass melter having a lid electrode for heating the glass melt radiantly. The electrode comprises a series of INCONEL 690 tubes running above the melt across the melter interior and through the melter walls and having nickel cores inside the tubes beginning where the tubes leave the melter interior and nickel connectors to connect the tubes electrically in series. An applied voltage causes the tubes to generate heat of electrical resistance for melting frit injected onto the melt. The cores limit heat generated as the current passes through the walls of the melter. Nickel bus connection to the electrical power supply minimizes heat transfer away from the melter that would occur if standard copper or water-cooled copper connections were used between the supply and the INCONEL 690 heating tubes. 3 figures.

  4. Melter Glass Removal and Dismantlement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richardson, BS

    2000-10-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has been using vitrification processes to convert high-level radioactive waste forms into a stable glass for disposal in waste repositories. Vitrification facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) are converting liquid high-level waste (HLW) by combining it with a glass-forming media to form a borosilicate glass, which will ensure safe long-term storage. Large, slurry fed melters, which are used for this process, were anticipated to have a finite life (on the order of two to three years) at which time they would have to be replaced using remote methods because of the high radiation fields. In actuality the melters useable life spans have, to date, exceeded original life-span estimates. Initial plans called for the removal of failed melters by placing the melter assembly into a container and storing the assembly in a concrete vault on the vitrification plant site pending size-reduction, segregation, containerization, and shipment to appropriate storage facilities. Separate facilities for the processing of the failed melters currently do not exist. Options for handling these melters include (1) locating a facility to conduct the size-reduction, characterization, and containerization as originally planned; (2) long-term storing or disposing of the complete melter assembly; and (3) attempting to refurbish the melter and to reuse the melter assembly. The focus of this report is to look at methods and issues pertinent to size-reduction and/or melter refurbishment in particular, removing the glass as a part of a refurbishment or to reduce contamination levels (thus allowing for disposal of a greater proportion of the melter as low level waste).

  5. Color Glass Condensate and Glasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Gelis

    2012-11-26

    We review the Color Glass Condensate effective theory, that describes the gluon content of a high energy hadron or nucleus, in the saturation regime. The emphasis is put on applications to high energy heavy ion collisions. After describing initial state factorization, we discuss the Glasma phase, that precedes the formation of an equilibrated quark-gluon plasma. We end this review with a presentation of recent developments in the study of the isotropization and thermalization of the quark-gluon plasma.

  6. Detailed Programme, Next Generation Energy and Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Twente, Universiteit

    Detailed Programme, Next Generation Energy and Resources The duration of the full graduate program Next Generation Energy and Resources is in principle 6 years. Depending on prior courses, trainings representation of the graduate program Next Generation Energy and Resources Year 1 - 2 Compulsory courses (30 EC

  7. Fashion Marketing & Retailing BA (Hons) Key details

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Painter, Kevin

    Fashion Marketing & Retailing BA (Hons) Key details Duration: Full-time: 3 years (BA) / 4 years (BA Hons) Delivery type: Day Intake date: September Fees: 54000 AED per year Overview Our Fashion Marketing and Retailing programme confidently prepares students for a career within the marketing and retailing industry

  8. Chemical Engineering BEng (Hons) Key details

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Painter, Kevin

    Chemical Engineering BEng (Hons) Key details Duration: Full-time: 3 years (BEng) / 4 years (BEng Hons) Delivery type: Day Intake date: September Fees: 58000 AED per year Overview Chemical engineering successful and thriving types of business in the world. Chemical engineers play a vital role in achieving

  9. Property Loss / Damage Report Damage Loss Details

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ponce, V. Miguel

    Property Loss / Damage Report Damage Loss Details Date & Time of Damage / Loss: Type of damage / loss: Location - specific address / room: Project / Grant associated with damage / loss - grant Police: When was damage / loss first discovered - BY WHOM: Pictures available or attached? Was personal

  10. Psychology with Management BSc (Hons) Key details

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Painter, Kevin

    Psychology with Management BSc (Hons) Key details Duration: Full-time: 4 years Delivery type: Day% Psychology with 25% Business and Management modules. Psychology modules cover a range of core approaches to psychology as well as research design and analysis and applied specialist topics. The curriculum is based

  11. Detailed balance analysis of nanophotonic solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Shanhui

    Detailed balance analysis of nanophotonic solar cells Sunil Sandhu, Zongfu Yu, and Shanhui Fan-voltage characteristic modeling of nanophotonic solar cells. This approach takes into account the intrinsic material non-idealities, and is useful for determining the theoretical limit of solar cell efficiency for a given structure. Our approach

  12. Contact Details Journeying Beyond Breast Cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Espinosa, Horacio D.

    Home About Contact Details Facebook Search Journeying Beyond Breast Cancer making sense of the cancer experience Feeds: Posts Comments Cancer-fighting fountain pen May 20, 2009 by JBBC A research team be used both as a research tool in the development of next-generation cancer treatments

  13. Business Management BA / MA (Hons) Key details

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Painter, Kevin

    Business Management BA / MA (Hons) Key details Duration: Full-time: 3 years (BA) / 4 years (MSc Management degree programme follows a number of guiding principles that mirror the values of managers of leading organisations and reflect current business management thinking. In the first two years of all

  14. Automotive Engineering BEng (Hons) Key details

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Painter, Kevin

    Automotive Engineering BEng (Hons) Key details Duration: Full-time: 3 years (BEng) / 4 years (BEng programme, but allows students in the later years to specialise in subjects relating to automotive technology. Automotive engineering continues to be a major employer of professional engineers, owing

  15. Method for heating, forming and tempering a glass sheet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boaz, P.T.; Sitzman, G.W.

    1998-10-27

    A method for heating, forming and tempering a glass sheet is disclosed including the steps of heating at least one glass sheet to at least a first predetermined temperature, applying microwave energy to the glass sheet to heat the glass sheet to at least a second predetermined temperature, forming the glass sheet to a predetermined configuration, and cooling an outer surface of the glass sheet to at least a third predetermined temperature to temper the glass sheet. 2 figs.

  16. Method for heating, forming and tempering a glass sheet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boaz, Premakaran Tucker (Livonia, MI); Sitzman, Gary W. (Walled Lake, MI)

    1998-01-01

    A method for heating, forming and tempering a glass sheet including the steps of heating at least one glass sheet to at least a first predetermined temperature, applying microwave energy to the glass sheet to heat the glass sheet to at least a second predetermined temperature, forming the glass sheet to a predetermined configuration, and cooling an outer surface of the glass sheet to at least a third predetermined temperature to temper the glass sheet.

  17. Manufacturing laser glass by continuous melting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, J H; Suratwala, T; krenitsky, S; Takeuchi, K

    2000-07-01

    A novel, continuous melting process is being used to manufacture meter-sized plates of laser glass at a rate 20-times faster, 5-times cheaper, and with 2-3 times better optical quality than with previous one-at-a-time, ''discontinuous'' technology processes. This new technology for manufacturing laser glass, which is arguably the most difficult continuously-melted optical material ever produced, comes as a result of a $60 million, six-year joint R&D program between government and industry. The glasses manufactured by the new continuous melting process are Nd-doped phosphate-based glasses and are marketed under the product names LG-770 (Schott Glass Technologies) and LHG-8 (Hoya Corporation USA). With this advance in glass manufacturing technology, it is now possible to construct high-energy, high-peak-power lasers for use in fusion energy development, national defense, and basic physics research that would have been impractical to build using the old melting technology. The development of continuously melted laser glass required technological advances that have lead to improvements in the manufacture of other optical glass products as well. For example, advances in forming, annealing, and conditioning steps of the laser glass continuous melting process are now being used in manufacture of other large-size optical glasses.

  18. Office of River Protection Advanced Low-Activity Waste Glass Research and Development Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peeler, David K.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Vienna, John D.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Piepel, Gregory F.

    2015-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection (ORP) has initiated and leads an integrated Advanced Waste Glass (AWG) program to increase the loading of Hanford tank wastes in glass while meeting melter lifetime expectancies and process, regulatory, and product performance requirements. The integrated ORP program is focused on providing a technical, science-based foundation for making key decisions regarding the successful operation of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) facilities in the context of an optimized River Protection Project (RPP) flowsheet. The fundamental data stemming from this program will support development of advanced glass formulations, key product performance and process control models, and tactical processing strategies to ensure safe and successful operations for both the low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste vitrification facilities. These activities will be conducted with the objective of improving the overall RPP mission by enhancing flexibility and reducing cost and schedule. The purpose of this advanced LAW glass research and development plan is to identify the near-term, mid-term, and longer-term research and development activities required to develop and validate advanced LAW glasses, property-composition models and their uncertainties, and an advanced glass algorithm to support WTP facility operations, including both Direct Feed LAW and full pretreatment flowsheets. Data are needed to develop, validate, and implement 1) new glass property-composition models and 2) a new glass formulation algorithm. Hence, this plan integrates specific studies associated with increasing the Na2O and SO3/halide concentrations in glass, because these components will ultimately dictate waste loadings for LAW vitrification. Of equal importance is the development of an efficient and economic strategy for 99Tc management. Specific and detailed studies are being implemented to understand the fate of Tc throughout the WTP flowsheet and the underlying mechanisms that dictate its partitioning between streams within the LAW vitrification facility. These studies are aimed at increasing the single-pass Tc retention in glass and the potential use of high-temperature mineral phases to capture Tc. The Tc-bearing mineral phases would be thermally stable and resistant to Tc release during feed melting reactions or they could serve as alternative waste forms. The LAW glass research and development is focused on reducing the total volume of LAW glass produced and minimizing the impact of (or potentially eliminating) the need for recycle.

  19. Kinetic model for quartz and spinel dissolution during melting of high-level-waste glass batch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pokorny, Richard; Rice, Jarrett A.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2013-07-24

    The dissolution of quartz particles and the growth and dissolution of crystalline phases during the conversion of batch to glass potentially affects both the glass melting process and product quality. Crystals of spinel exiting the cold cap to molten glass below can be troublesome during the vitrification of iron-containing high-level wastes. To estimate the distribution of quartz and spinel fractions within the cold cap, we used kinetic models that relate fractions of these phases to temperature and heating rate. Fitting the model equations to data showed that the heating rate, apart from affecting quartz and spinel behavior directly, also affects them indirectly via concurrent processes, such as the formation and motion of bubbles. Because of these indirect effects, it was necessary to allow one kinetic parameter (the pre-exponential factor) to vary with the heating rate. The resulting kinetic equations are sufficiently simple for the detailed modeling of batch-to-glass conversion as it occurs in glass melters. The estimated fractions and sizes of quartz and spinel particles as they leave the cold cap, determined in this study, will provide the source terms needed for modeling the behavior of these solid particles within the flow of molten glass in the melter.

  20. Human Factors Considerations in New Nuclear Power Plants: Detailed Analysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    OHara,J.; Higgins, J.; Brown, W.; Fink, R.

    2008-02-14

    This Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) sponsored study has identified human-performance issues in new and advanced nuclear power plants. To identify the issues, current industry developments and trends were evaluated in the areas of reactor technology, instrumentation and control technology, human-system integration technology, and human factors engineering (HFE) methods and tools. The issues were organized into seven high-level HFE topic areas: Role of Personnel and Automation, Staffing and Training, Normal Operations Management, Disturbance and Emergency Management, Maintenance and Change Management, Plant Design and Construction, and HFE Methods and Tools. The issues where then prioritized into four categories using a 'Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table' methodology based on evaluations provided by 14 independent subject matter experts. The subject matter experts were knowledgeable in a variety of disciplines. Vendors, utilities, research organizations and regulators all participated. Twenty issues were categorized into the top priority category. This Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) technical report provides the detailed methodology, issue analysis, and results. A summary of the results of this study can be found in NUREG/CR-6947. The research performed for this project has identified a large number of human-performance issues for new control stations and new nuclear power plant designs. The information gathered in this project can serve as input to the development of a long-term strategy and plan for addressing human performance in these areas through regulatory research. Addressing human-performance issues will provide the technical basis from which regulatory review guidance can be developed to meet these challenges. The availability of this review guidance will help set clear expectations for how the NRC staff will evaluate new designs, reduce regulatory uncertainty, and provide a well-defined path to new nuclear power plant licensing.

  1. CHEMICAL LABORATORY SAFETY AND METHODOLOGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Northern British Columbia, University of

    CHEMICAL LABORATORY SAFETY AND METHODOLOGY MANUAL August 2013 #12;ii Emergency Numbers UNBC Prince-Emergency Numbers UNBC Prince George Campus Chemstores 6472 Chemical Safety 6472 Radiation Safety 6472 Biological the safe use, storage, handling, waste and emergency management of chemicals on the University of Northern

  2. ARM PROCESSES AND MODELING METHODOLOGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ARM PROCESSES AND MODELING METHODOLOGY Benjamin Melamed Rutgers University Faculty of Management Department of MSIS 94 Rockafeller Rd. Piscataway, NJ 08854 melamed@rbs.rutgers.edu ABSTRACT ARM (Auto innovation sequences, ARM processes admit dependent innovation sequences as well, so long

  3. Detailed balance in Horava-Lifshitz gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gianluca Calcagni

    2010-02-04

    We study Horava-Lifshitz gravity in the presence of a scalar field. When the detailed balance condition is implemented, a new term in the gravitational sector is added in order to maintain ultraviolet stability. The four-dimensional theory is of a scalar-tensor type with a positive cosmological constant and gravity is nonminimally coupled with the scalar and its gradient terms. The scalar field has a double-well potential and, if required to play the role of the inflation, can produce a scale-invariant spectrum. The total action is rather complicated and there is no analog of the Einstein frame where Lorentz invariance is recovered in the infrared. For these reasons it may be necessary to abandon detailed balance. We comment on open problems and future directions in anisotropic critical models of gravity.

  4. Current status of the GLASS code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hootman, H.E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Honeck, H.C. [Computer Application Technology, Inc., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1991-12-31

    This paper summarizes the current status of the Generalized Lattice Analysis SubSystem (GLASS) computer code and its supporting cross section libraries. GLASS was developed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in the early 1970`s. The GLASS code has been instrumental in supporting safe Heavy Water Reactor (HWR) operations and predicting material production at SRS for more than 20 years. The Department of Energy Office of New Production Reactors (ONPR) program has chosen to use the GLASS code for the design of the HWR option of the New Production Reactor (NPR). A substantial body of validation calculations have been performed and additional validation calculations will be performed to qualify the new GLASS multigroup cross section libraries derived from the ENDF/B-5 and 6 nuclear data files. Several improvements to the code are in progress. Many other improvements are planned to bring GLASS up to modern physics and compute technology.

  5. Glass and Glass Products (2010 MECS) | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (Journalvivo Low-Dose Low LETUseful LinksGlass Stronger than Steel Stories

  6. Glass Property Data and Models for Estimating High-Level Waste Glass Volume

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vienna, John D.; Fluegel, Alexander; Kim, Dong-Sang; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2009-10-05

    This report describes recent efforts to develop glass property models that can be used to help estimate the volume of high-level waste (HLW) glass that will result from vitrification of Hanford tank waste. The compositions of acceptable and processable HLW glasses need to be optimized to minimize the waste-form volume and, hence, to save cost. A database of properties and associated compositions for simulated waste glasses was collected for developing property-composition models. This database, although not comprehensive, represents a large fraction of data on waste-glass compositions and properties that were available at the time of this report. Glass property-composition models were fit to subsets of the database for several key glass properties. These models apply to a significantly broader composition space than those previously publised. These models should be considered for interim use in calculating properties of Hanford waste glasses.

  7. Process for preparing improved silvered glass mirrors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buckwalter, C.Q. Jr.

    1980-01-28

    Glass mirrors having improved weathering properties are prepared by an improvement in the process for making the mirrors. The glass surface after it has been cleaned but before it is silvered, is contacted with a solution of lanthanide rare earths in addition to a sensitization solution of tin or palladium. The addition of the rare earths produces a mirror which has increased resistance to delamination of the silver from the glass surface in the presence of water.

  8. 68 Glass Technology Vol. 45 No. 2 April 2004 Proc. VII Symp. on Crystallisation in Glasses and Liquids, Sheffield, 69 July 2003 Proc. VII Symp. on Crystallisation in Glasses and Liquids, Sheffield, 69 July 2003 Glass Technol., 2004, 45, 6870

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheffield, University of

    68 Glass Technology Vol. 45 No. 2 April 2004 Proc. VII Symp. on Crystallisation in Glasses and Liquids, Sheffield, 6­9 July 2003 Proc. VII Symp. on Crystallisation in Glasses and Liquids, Sheffield, 6­9 July 2003 Glass Technol., 2004, 45, 68­70 The behaviour of a simulant Magnox waste glass

  9. Radiation Characteristics of Glass Containing Gas Bubbles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pilon, Laurent; Viskanta, Raymond

    2003-01-01

    Optical properties of soda-lime silicate”, Solar Energye?ciency factors of the soda-lime silicate containing gasscattering albedo of soda-lime silicate glass containing

  10. Bioactive Glass Scaffolds for Bone Regeneration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bioactive Glass Scaffolds for Bone Regeneration Print Natural materials are renowned for their unique combination of outstanding mechanical properties and exquisite microstructure....

  11. High-Temperature Viscosity Of Commercial Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, Pavel R.; See, Clem A.; Lam, Oanh P.; Minister, Kevin B.

    2005-01-01

    Viscosity was measured for six types of commercial glasses: low-expansion-borosilicate glasses, E glasses, fiberglass wool glasses, TV panel glasses, container glasses, and float glasses. Viscosity data were obtained with rotating spindle viscometers within the temperature range between 900°C and 1550°C; the viscosity varied from 1 Pa?s to 750 Pa?s. Arrhenius coefficients were calculated for individual glasses and linear models were applied to relate them to the mass fractions of 11 major components (SiO2, CaO, Na2O, Al2O3, B2O3, BaO, SrO, K2O, MgO, PbO, and ZrO2) and 12 minor components (Fe2O3, ZnO, Li2O, TiO2, CeO2, F, Sb2O3, Cr2O3, As2O3, MnO2, SO3, and Co3O4). The models are recommended for glasses containing 42 to 84 mass% SiO2 to estimate viscosities or temperatures at a constant viscosity for melts within both the temperature range from 1100°C to 1550°C and viscosity range from 10 to 400 Pa?s.

  12. Compliant Glass Seals for SOFC Stacks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, Y. S.; Choi, Jung-Pyung; Xu, Wei; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Koeppel, Brian J.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Lara-Curzio, Edgar

    2014-04-01

    This report summarizes results from experimental and modeling studies performed by participants in the Solid-State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Core Technology Program, which indicate that compliant glass-based seals offer a number of potential advantages over conventional seals based on de-vitrifying glasses, including reduced stresses during stack operation and thermal cycling, and the ability to heal micro-damage induced during thermal cycling. The properties and composition of glasses developed and/or investigated in these studies are reported, along with results from long-term (up to 5,800h) evaluations of seals based on a compliant glass containing ceramic particles or ceramic fibers.

  13. Level-set method used to track the glass-air interface in the blow step of glass containers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

    Level-set method used to track the glass-air interface in the blow step of glass containers C. G-air interface of the blowing of a preform with non-uniform temperature. Keywords: glass forming of the second blowing step of the forming process. As the glass flows towards the mould the glass-air interface

  14. Simulation levels of detail for plant motion 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beaudoin, Jacob Michael

    2013-02-22

    that motion interactive [PCOI, DCFOI, EMF03]. A comparison of our method with some of these other methods is provided in section 7. 1. SLODs have come into prominence only in the last few years [Ber97, CF97]. They have sometimes taken other names ? Endo et... al. refer to them as levels of motion detail, or LOmDs [EMF03]. There have been a wide variety of applications for SLODs. These include rigid body dynamics and motion [CIF99, DO01, CAF01], simple collision detection and response [CH97, ODG*03...

  15. Property:Project Details | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource HistoryPotentialRuralUtilityScalePVGeneration Jump to: navigation,Power Transfer MethodCity Jump to:Details

  16. CBECS 1992 - Consumption & Expenditures, Detailed Tables

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0ProvedDecade2,948 2,724per ThousandLease0 0and164 167Detailed Tables

  17. First Detailed Look at RNA Dicer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation Current HABFES OctoberEvanServices » IncentivesStocksFirst Detailed Look

  18. First Detailed Look at RNA Dicer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (Journal Article) |Final Reportthe Growing American66-2012,First DayDetailed

  19. Simulation of High Efficiency Clean Combustion Engines and Detailed...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ongoing work exploring fuel chemistry, analysis of and improving simulation methodologies for high efficiency clean combustion regimes, and computational performance...

  20. Radiative Heat Transfer in Enhanced Hydrogen Outgassing of Glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kitamura, Rei; Pilon, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    Photo-induced hydrogen outgassing of glass”, Journal of Non-Photo-induced hydrogen outgassing of glass, PhD thesis,in Enhanced Hydrogen Outgassing of Glass Rei Kitamura and

  1. Nano-structured self-cleaning superhydrophobic glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Jin Yeol

    2010-01-01

    images of water droplet on AAO coating on soda lime glass. (a) with as- made AAO on soda lime glass (CA = 54 o ), (b)Al 2 O 3 nanowires on soda lime glass after 65 min pore-

  2. Radiative Heat Transfer in Enhanced Hydrogen Outgassing of Glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kitamura, Rei; Pilon, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    transport in a machinable glass-ceramic”, Journal of Non-in soda-lime-silicate glasses by reaction with hydrogen”,1971. [16] I. Fanderlik, Glass Science and Technology, Vol.

  3. SRNL POROUS WALL GLASS MICROSPHERES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wicks, G; Leung Heung, L; Ray Schumacher, R

    2008-04-15

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has developed a new medium for storage of hydrogen and other gases. This involves fabrication of thin, Porous Walled, Hollow Glass Microspheres (PW-HGMs), with diameters generally in the range of 1 to several hundred microns. What is unique about the glass microballons is that porosity has been induced and controlled within the thin, one micron thick walls, on the scale of 10 to several thousand Angstroms. This porosity results in interesting properties including the ability to use these channels to fill the microballons with special absorbents and other materials, thus providing a contained environment even for reactive species. Gases can now enter the microspheres and be retained on the absorbents, resulting in solid-state and contained storage of even reactive species. Also, the porosity can be altered and controlled in various ways, and even used to filter mixed gas streams within a system. SRNL is involved in about a half dozen different programs involving these PW-HGMs and an overview of some of these activities and results emerging are presented.

  4. Energy Efficiency Indicators Methodology Booklet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sathaye, Jayant; Price, Lynn; McNeil, Michael; de la rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-05-01

    This Methodology Booklet provides a comprehensive review and methodology guiding principles for constructing energy efficiency indicators, with illustrative examples of application to individual countries. It reviews work done by international agencies and national government in constructing meaningful energy efficiency indicators that help policy makers to assess changes in energy efficiency over time. Building on past OECD experience and best practices, and the knowledge of these countries' institutions, relevant sources of information to construct an energy indicator database are identified. A framework based on levels of hierarchy of indicators -- spanning from aggregate, macro level to disaggregated end-use level metrics -- is presented to help shape the understanding of assessing energy efficiency. In each sector of activity: industry, commercial, residential, agriculture and transport, indicators are presented and recommendations to distinguish the different factors affecting energy use are highlighted. The methodology booklet addresses specifically issues that are relevant to developing indicators where activity is a major factor driving energy demand. A companion spreadsheet tool is available upon request.

  5. Evidence of exchange bias effect originating from the interaction between antiferromagnetic core and spin glass shell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, X. K., E-mail: zhangxianke77@163.com; Yuan, J. J.; Yu, H. J.; Zhu, X. R.; Xie, Y. M. [School of Physics and Electronics, Institute of Optoelectronic Materials and Technology, Gannan Normal University, Ganzhou 341000 (China); Tang, S. L.; Xu, L. Q. [Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures, College of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2014-07-14

    Spin glass behavior and exchange bias effect have been observed in antiferromagnetic SrMn{sub 3}O{sub 6?x} nanoribbons synthesized via a self-sacrificing template process. The magnetic field dependence of thermoremanent magnetization and isothermal remanent magnetization shows that the sample is good correspondence to spin glass and diluted antiferromagnetic system for the applied field H??2?T, respectively. By detailed analysis of training effect using Binek's model, we argue that the observed exchange bias effect in SrMn{sub 3}O{sub 6?x} nanoribbons arises entirely from an interface exchange coupling between the antiferromagnetic core and spin glass shell. The present study is useful for understanding the nature of shell layer and the origin of exchange bias effect in other antiferromagnetic nanosystems as well.

  6. The quantum Biroli-Mézard model: glass transition and superfluidity in a quantum lattice glass model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laura Foini; Guilhem Semerjian; Francesco Zamponi

    2011-03-12

    We study the quantum version of a lattice model whose classical counterpart captures the physics of structural glasses. We discuss the role of quantum fluctuations in such systems and in particular their interplay with the amorphous order developed in the glass phase. We show that quantum fluctuations might facilitate the formation of the glass at low enough temperature. We also show that the glass transition becomes a first-order transition between a superfluid and an insulating glass at very low temperature, and is therefore accompanied by phase coexistence between superfluid and glassy regions.

  7. Method for heating and forming a glass sheet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boaz, Premakaran Tucker (Livonia, MI)

    1997-01-01

    A method for heating and forming a glass sheet includes the steps of heating a glass sheet to at least a first predetermined temperature, applying microwave energy to the glass sheet to heat the glass sheet to at least a second predetermined temperature, cooling an outer surface of the glass sheet to at least a third predetermined temperature and forming the glass sheet using forming rollers to a predetermined configuration.

  8. Method for heating and forming a glass sheet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boaz, P.T.

    1997-08-12

    A method for heating and forming a glass sheet includes the steps of heating a glass sheet to at least a first predetermined temperature, applying microwave energy to the glass sheet to heat the glass sheet to at least a second predetermined temperature, cooling an outer surface of the glass sheet to at least a third predetermined temperature and forming the glass sheet using forming rollers to a predetermined configuration. 5 figs.

  9. Method and apparatus for melting glass batch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fassbender, Alexander G. (Kennewick, WA); Walkup, Paul C. (Richland, WA); Mudge, Lyle K. (Richland, WA)

    1988-01-01

    A glass melting system involving preheating, precalcining, and prefluxing of batch materials prior to injection into a glass furnace. The precursors are heated by convection rather than by radiation in present furnaces. Upon injection into the furnace, batch materials are intimately coated with molten flux so as to undergo or at least begin the process of dissolution reaction prior to entering the melt pool.

  10. Monitoring and analyzing waste glass compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schumacher, Ray F. (Aiken, SC)

    1994-01-01

    A device and method for determining the viscosity of a fluid, preferably molten glass. The apparatus and method uses the velocity of rising bubbles, preferably helium bubbles, within the molten glass to determine the viscosity of the molten glass. The bubbles are released from a tube positioned below the surface of the molten glass so that the bubbles pass successively between two sets of electrodes, one above the other, that are continuously monitoring the conductivity of the molten glass. The measured conductivity will change as a bubble passes between the electrodes enabling an accurate determination of when a bubble has passed between the electrodes. The velocity of rising bubbles can be determined from the time interval between a change in conductivity of the first electrode pair and the second, upper electrode pair. The velocity of the rise of the bubbles in the glass melt is used in conjunction with other physical characteristics, obtained by known methods, to determine the viscosity of the glass melt fluid and, hence, glass quality.

  11. Monitoring and analyzing waste glass compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schumacher, R.F.

    1994-03-01

    A device and method are described for determining the viscosity of a fluid, preferably molten glass. The apparatus and method use the velocity of rising bubbles, preferably helium bubbles, within the molten glass to determine the viscosity of the molten glass. The bubbles are released from a tube positioned below the surface of the molten glass so that the bubbles pass successively between two sets of electrodes, one above the other, that are continuously monitoring the conductivity of the molten glass. The measured conductivity will change as a bubble passes between the electrodes enabling an accurate determination of when a bubble has passed between the electrodes. The velocity of rising bubbles can be determined from the time interval between a change in conductivity of the first electrode pair and the second, upper electrode pair. The velocity of the rise of the bubbles in the glass melt is used in conjunction with other physical characteristics, obtained by known methods, to determine the viscosity of the glass melt fluid and, hence, glass quality. 2 figures.

  12. Viscous Glass Sealants for SOFC Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Misture

    2012-09-30

    Two series of silicate glasses that contain gallium as the primary critical component have been identified and optimized for viscous sealing of solid oxide fuel cells operating from 650 to 850°C. Both series of glass sealants crystallize partially upon heat treatment and yield multiphase microstructures that allow viscous flow at temperatures as low as 650°C. A fully amorphous sealant was also developed by isolating, synthesizing and testing a silicate glass of the same composition as the remnant glassy phase in one of the two glass series. Of ~40 glasses tested for longer than 500 hours, a set of 5 glasses has been further tested for up to 1000h in air, wet hydrogen, and against both yttria-stabilized zirconia and aluminized stainless steel. In some cases the testing times reached 2000h. The reactivity testing has provided new insight into the effects of Y, Zr, and Al on bulk and surface crystallization in boro-gallio-silicate glasses, and demonstrated that at least 5 of the newly-developed glasses are viable viscous sealants.

  13. Review of the Palisades pressure vessel accumulated fluence estimate and of the least squares methodology employed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffin, P.J.

    1998-05-01

    This report provides a review of the Palisades submittal to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission requesting endorsement of their accumulated neutron fluence estimates based on a least squares adjustment methodology. This review highlights some minor issues in the applied methodology and provides some recommendations for future work. The overall conclusion is that the Palisades fluence estimation methodology provides a reasonable approach to a {open_quotes}best estimate{close_quotes} of the accumulated pressure vessel neutron fluence and is consistent with the state-of-the-art analysis as detailed in community consensus ASTM standards.

  14. Glass heat pipe evacuated tube solar collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McConnell, Robert D. (Lakewood, CO); Vansant, James H. (Tracy, CA)

    1984-01-01

    A glass heat pipe is adapted for use as a solar energy absorber in an evacuated tube solar collector and for transferring the absorbed solar energy to a working fluid medium or heat sink for storage or practical use. A capillary wick is formed of granular glass particles fused together by heat on the inside surface of the heat pipe with a water glass binder solution to enhance capillary drive distribution of the thermal transfer fluid in the heat pipe throughout the entire inside surface of the evaporator portion of the heat pipe. Selective coatings are used on the heat pipe surface to maximize solar absorption and minimize energy radiation, and the glass wick can alternatively be fabricated with granular particles of black glass or obsidian.

  15. Low loss laser glass: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Izumitani, T.; Toratani, H.; Meissner, H.E.

    1987-01-15

    The objective of this work was a process development on making a laser glass with loss coefficient of 10/sup -4/cm/sup -1/ at 1.05..mu... The key issues for making such a low loss glass will be to use pure raw materials, to reduce OH content and to prevent contamination from the melting environment. A sublimation method was tried to prepare pure P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ batch material. In an attempt to distinguish contributions to the overall loss, glasses were melted in furnaces which were controlled in moisture as well as contamination. Evaluation of glass samples at LLNL are expected to provide guidance on the importance of various process parameters. A new 0.5 liter furnace which almost completely prevents contamination by the furnace environment has been constructed to obtain useful information for making a low loss glass on a production scale.

  16. Titanium sealing glasses and seals formed therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brow, Richard K. (Albuquerque, NM); McCollister, Howard L. (Albuquerque, NM); Phifer, Carol C. (Albuquerque, NM); Day, Delbert E. (Rolla, MO)

    1997-01-01

    Alkaline-earth lanthanoborate sealing-glass compositions containing CaO, La.sub.2 O.sub.3, B.sub.2 O.sub.3, TiO.sub.2 and Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 in various combinations of mole-% are provided. These sealing-glass compositions are useful for forming hermetic glass-to-metal seals with titanium and titanium alloys that have a high aqueous durability for component or device applications requiring exposure to moisture, water or body fluids. Particular applications of the titanium sealing-glass compositions include forming glass-to-metal seals for lithium batteries and implanted biomedical devices (e.g. batteries, pacemakers, defibrillators, pumps).

  17. Titanium sealing glasses and seals formed therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brow, R.K.; McCollister, H.L.; Phifer, C.C.; Day, D.E.

    1997-12-02

    Alkaline-earth lanthanoborate sealing-glass compositions containing CaO, La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, TiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in various combinations of mole-% are provided. These sealing-glass compositions are useful for forming hermetic glass-to-metal seals with titanium and titanium alloys that have a high aqueous durability for component or device applications requiring exposure to moisture, water or body fluids. Particular applications of the titanium sealing-glass compositions include forming glass-to-metal seals for lithium batteries and implanted biomedical devices (e.g. batteries, pacemakers, defibrillators, pumps). 2 figs.

  18. Gaseous Sulfate Solubility in Glass: Experimental Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bliss, Mary

    2013-11-30

    Sulfate solubility in glass is a key parameter in many commercial glasses and nuclear waste glasses. This report summarizes key publications specific to sulfate solubility experimental methods and the underlying physical chemistry calculations. The published methods and experimental data are used to verify the calculations in this report and are expanded to a range of current technical interest. The calculations and experimental methods described in this report will guide several experiments on sulfate solubility and saturation for the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Enhanced Waste Glass Models effort. There are several tables of sulfate gas equilibrium values at high temperature to guide experimental gas mixing and to achieve desired SO3 levels. This report also describes the necessary equipment and best practices to perform sulfate saturation experiments for molten glasses. Results and findings will be published when experimental work is finished and this report is validated from the data obtained.

  19. China Glass Solar aka CG Solar formerly Weihai Bluestar Terra...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    China Glass Solar aka CG Solar formerly Weihai Bluestar Terra Photovoltaic Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: China Glass Solar (aka CG Solar, formerly Weihai Bluestar Terra...

  20. Metal and Glass Manufacturers Reduce Costs by Increasing Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Metal and Glass Manufacturers Reduce Costs by Increasing Energy Efficiency in Process Heating Systems Metal and Glass Manufacturers Reduce Costs by Increasing Energy Efficiency in...

  1. California: Energy-Efficient Glass Saves Energy Costs, Increases...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy-Efficient Glass Saves Energy Costs, Increases Personal Comfort California: Energy-Efficient Glass Saves Energy Costs, Increases Personal Comfort April 18, 2013 - 12:00am...

  2. Waste Loading Enhancements for Hanford Low-Activity Waste Glasses

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    WASTE LOADING ENHANCEMENTS FOR HANFORD LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE GLASSES Albert A. Kruger, Glass Scientist DOE-WTP Project Office Engineering Division US Department of Energy Richland,...

  3. Refractive index of glass and its dipersion for visible light.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, D. Y.; Karstens, W. (Physics); (Univ. of Vermont); (Saint Michael's Coll.)

    2010-01-01

    The classification of optical glass and empirical relations between the refractive index and its dispersion are discussed in terms of moments of the glass's IR and UV absorption spectra. The observed linear dependence of index on dispersion within glass families is shown to arise primarily from the approximately linear superposition of the electronic absorptions of glass former and glass modifiers. The binary classification into crown and flint glasses is also based primarily on electronic spectra: Crown glasses are 'wide-gap' materials with excitation energies greater than {approx}12.4 eV, while flint glasses are their 'narrow-gap' counterpart.

  4. California: Energy-Efficient Glass Saves Energy Costs, Increases...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    California: Energy-Efficient Glass Saves Energy Costs, Increases Personal Comfort California: Energy-Efficient Glass Saves Energy Costs, Increases Personal Comfort April 18, 2013 -...

  5. Glass-like thermal conductivity in high efficiency thermoelectric...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Glass-like thermal conductivity in high efficiency thermoelectric materials Glass-like thermal conductivity in high efficiency thermoelectric materials Discusses strategies to...

  6. New details on nuclear weapons program bared

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hileman, B.

    1994-07-11

    In a continuing effort to be more candid about Department of Energy nuclear weapons programs, Energy Secretary Hazel R. O'Leary recently declassified a substantial amount of information. On June 27, she revealed details about total US weapons-grade uranium production, testing of a bomb made of reactor-grade plutonium, radiation experiments conducted on humans since the 1920s, and underground and atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. O'Leary explains the new revelations by saying thousands of people in meetings across the country this year have told her that openness in government is very important. DOE is responding today in a manner that both satisfies the strong public interest and respects critical national security requirements.

  7. A meaningful expansion around detailed balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matteo Colangeli; Christian Maes; Bram Wynants

    2011-01-18

    We consider Markovian dynamics modeling open mesoscopic systems which are driven away from detailed balance by a nonconservative force. A systematic expansion is obtained of the stationary distribution around an equilibrium reference, in orders of the nonequilibrium forcing. The first order around equilibrium has been known since the work of McLennan (1959), and involves the transient irreversible entropy flux. The expansion generalizes the McLennan formula to higher orders, complementing the entropy flux with the dynamical activity. The latter is more kinetic than thermodynamic and is a possible realization of Landauer's insight (1975) that, for nonequilibrium, the relative occupation of states also depends on the noise along possible escape routes. In that way nonlinear response around equilibrium can be meaningfully discussed in terms of two main quantities only, the entropy flux and the dynamical activity. The expansion makes mathematical sense as shown in the simplest cases from exponential ergodicity.

  8. New Measurement Explores Fine Details of Proton Structure | Jefferson...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    contained 1,744 lead glass bars, such as the one shown, for detecting the scattered electrons. A collaboration of scientists is probing deep inside the proton at Jefferson Lab by...

  9. 1999 Commercial Building Characteristics--Detailed Tables--Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Census Region > Detailed Tables-Census Region Complete Set of 1999 CBECS Detailed Tables Detailed Tables-Census Region Table B3. Census Region, Number of Buildings and Floorspace...

  10. Solutia: Massachusetts Chemical Manufacturer Uses SECURE Methodology...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solutia: Massachusetts Chemical Manufacturer Uses SECURE Methodology to Identify Potential Reductions in Utility and Process Energy Consumption Solutia: Massachusetts Chemical...

  11. Glass for sealing lithium cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leedecke, C.J.

    1981-08-28

    Glass compositions resistant to corrosion by lithium cell electrolyte and having an expansion coefficient of 45 to 85 x 10/sup -70/C/sup -1/ have been made with SiO/sub 2/, 25 to 55% by weight; B/sub 2/O/sub 3/, 5 to 12%; Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, 12 to 35%; CaO, 5 to 15%; MgO, 5 to 15%; SrO, 0 to 10%; and La/sub 2/O/sub 3/, 0 to 5%. Preferred compositions within that range contain 3 to 8% SrO and 0.5 to 2.5% La/sub 2/O/sub 3/.

  12. Wide-field lensing mass maps from Dark Energy Survey science verification data: Methodology and detailed analysis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Vikram, V.; Sheldon, E.; Chang, C.; Jain, B.; Bacon, D.; Amara, A.; Becker, M. R.; Bernstein, G.; Bonnett, C.; Bridle, S.; et al

    2015-07-29

    Weak gravitational lensing allows one to reconstruct the spatial distribution of the projected mass density across the sky. These “mass maps” provide a powerful tool for studying cosmology as they probe both luminous and dark matter. In this paper, we present a weak lensing mass map reconstructed from shear measurements in a 139 deg2 area from the Dark Energy Survey science verification data. We compare the distribution of mass with that of the foreground distribution of galaxies and clusters. The overdensities in the reconstructed map correlate well with the distribution of optically detected clusters. We demonstrate that candidate superclusters andmore »voids along the line of sight can be identified, exploiting the tight scatter of the cluster photometric redshifts. We cross-correlate the mass map with a foreground magnitude-limited galaxy sample from the same data. Our measurement gives results consistent with mock catalogs from N-body simulations that include the primary sources of statistical uncertainties in the galaxy, lensing, and photo-z catalogs. The statistical significance of the cross-correlation is at the 6.8? level with 20 arcminute smoothing. We find that the contribution of systematics to the lensing mass maps is generally within measurement uncertainties. We analyze less than 3% of the final area that will be mapped by the DES; the tools and analysis techniques developed in this paper can be applied to forthcoming larger data sets from the survey.« less

  13. Wide-field lensing mass maps from Dark Energy Survey science verification data: Methodology and detailed analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vikram, V.; Sheldon, E.; Chang, C.; Jain, B.; Bacon, D.; Amara, A.; Becker, M. R.; Bernstein, G.; Bonnett, C.; Bridle, S.; Brout, D.; Busha, M.; Frieman, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Hartley, W.; Jarvis, M.; Kacprzak, T.; Kovacs, A.; Lahav, O.; Leistedt, B.; Lin, H.; Melchior, P.; Peiris, H.; Rozo, E.; Rykoff, E.; Sanchez, C.; Sheldon, E.; Troxel, M. A.; Wechsler, R.; Zuntz, J.; Abbott, T.; Abdalla, F. B.; Armstrong, R.; Banerji, M.; Bauer, A. H.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Capozzi, D.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Kind, M. Carrasco; Castander, F. J.; Crocce, M.; Cunha, C. E.

    2015-07-29

    Weak gravitational lensing allows one to reconstruct the spatial distribution of the projected mass density across the sky. These “mass maps” provide a powerful tool for studying cosmology as they probe both luminous and dark matter. In this paper, we present a weak lensing mass map reconstructed from shear measurements in a 139 deg2 area from the Dark Energy Survey science verification data. We compare the distribution of mass with that of the foreground distribution of galaxies and clusters. The overdensities in the reconstructed map correlate well with the distribution of optically detected clusters. We demonstrate that candidate superclusters and voids along the line of sight can be identified, exploiting the tight scatter of the cluster photometric redshifts. We cross-correlate the mass map with a foreground magnitude-limited galaxy sample from the same data. Our measurement gives results consistent with mock catalogs from N-body simulations that include the primary sources of statistical uncertainties in the galaxy, lensing, and photo-z catalogs. The statistical significance of the cross-correlation is at the 6.8? level with 20 arcminute smoothing. We find that the contribution of systematics to the lensing mass maps is generally within measurement uncertainties. We analyze less than 3% of the final area that will be mapped by the DES; the tools and analysis techniques developed in this paper can be applied to forthcoming larger data sets from the survey.

  14. Overview of Detailed Chemical Speciation and Particle Sizing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Detailed Chemical Speciation and Particle Sizing for Diesel Exhaust, Both Real Time and Filter Based Measurements Overview of Detailed Chemical Speciation and Particle Sizing for...

  15. Improving Combustion Software to Solve Detailed Chemical Kinetics...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion Software to Solve Detailed Chemical Kinetics for HECC Improving Combustion Software to Solve Detailed Chemical Kinetics for HECC 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program...

  16. Solid oxide fuel cell having a glass composite seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De Rose, Anthony J.; Mukerjee, Subhasish; Haltiner, Jr., Karl Jacob

    2013-04-16

    A solid oxide fuel cell stack having a plurality of cassettes and a glass composite seal disposed between the sealing surfaces of adjacent cassettes, thereby joining the cassettes and providing a hermetic seal therebetween. The glass composite seal includes an alkaline earth aluminosilicate (AEAS) glass disposed about a viscous glass such that the AEAS glass retains the viscous glass in a predetermined position between the first and second sealing surfaces. The AEAS glass provides geometric stability to the glass composite seal to maintain the proper distance between the adjacent cassettes while the viscous glass provides for a compliant and self-healing seal. The glass composite seal may include fibers, powders, and/or beads of zirconium oxide, aluminum oxide, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), or mixtures thereof, to enhance the desirable properties of the glass composite seal.

  17. Journal of Alloys and Compounds 434435 (2007) 7578 Indentation creep behavior of a Zr-based bulk metallic glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gubicza, Jenõ

    2007-01-01

    by indentation creep test. Before indentation the glass transition and the crystallization temperatures were, indentation testing has been also successfully applied in studying creep of different crystalline materials by indentation creep tests. To the knowledge of the authors, detailed character- ization of high temperature

  18. HGMS: Glasses and Nanocomposites for Hydrogen Storage.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lipinska, Kris; Hemmers, Oliver

    2013-02-17

    The primary goal of this project is to fabricate and investigate different glass systems and glass-derived nanocrystalline composite materials. These glass-based, two-phased materials will contain nanocrystals that can attract hydrogen and be of potential interest as hydrogen storage media. The glass materials with intrinsic void spaces that are able to precipitate functional nanocrystals capable to attract hydrogen are of particular interest. Proposed previously, but never practically implemented, one of promising concepts for storing hydrogen are micro-containers built of glass and shaped into hollow microspheres. The project expanded this concept to the exploration of glass-derived nanocrystalline composites as potential hydrogen storage media. It is known that the most desirable materials for hydrogen storage do not interact chemically with hydrogen and possess a high surface area to host substantial amounts of hydrogen. Glasses are built of disordered networks with ample void spaces that make them permeable to hydrogen even at room temperature. Glass-derived nanocrystalline composites (two-phased materials), combination of glasses (networks with ample voids) and functional nanocrystals (capable to attract hydrogen), appear to be promising candidates for hydrogen storage media. Key advantages of glass materials include simplicity of preparation, flexibility of composition, chemical durability, non-toxicity and mechanical strength, as well as low production costs and environmental friendliness. This project encompasses a fundamental research into physics and chemistry of glasses and nanocrystalline composite materials, derived from glass. Studies are aimed to answer questions essential for considering glass-based materials and composites as potential hydrogen storage media. Of particular interest are two-phased materials that combine glasses with intrinsic voids spaces for physisorption of hydrogen and nanocrystals capable of chemisorption. This project does not directly address any hydrogen storage technical barriers or targets in terms of numbers. Specifically, hydrogen sorption and desorption tests or kinetics measurements were not part of the project scope. However, the insights gained from these studies could help to answer fundamental questions necessary for considering glass-based materials as hydrogen storage media and could be applied indirectly towards the DOE hydrogen storage technical targets such as system weight and volume, system cost and energy density. Such questions are: Can specific macro-crystals, proven to attract hydrogen when in a macroscopic form (bulk), be nucleated in glass matrices as nanocrystals to create two-phased materials? What are suitable compositions that enable to synthetize glass-based, two-phase materials with nanocrystals that can attract hydrogen via surface or bulk interactions? What are the limits of controlling the microstructure of these materials, especially limits for nanocrystals density and size? Finally, from a technological point of view, the fabrication of glass-derived nanocomposites that we explore is a very simple, fast and inexpensive process that does not require costly or specialized equipment which is an important factor for practical applications.

  19. Glass ceramic-to-metal seals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1982-04-19

    A glass ceramic composition prepared by subjecting a glass composition comprising, by weight, 65 to 80% SiO/sub 2/, 8 to 16% Li/sub 2/O, 2 to 8% Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, 1 to 8% K/sub 2/O, 1 to 5% P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ and 1.5 to 7% B/sub 2/O/sub 3/, to the following processing steps of heating the glass composition to a temperature sufficient to crystallize lithium metasilicate therein, holding the glass composition at a temperature and for a time period sufficient to dissolve the lithium metasilicate therein thereby creating cristobalite nucleii, cooling the glass composition and maintaining the composition at a temperature and for a time period sufficient to recrystallize lithium metasilicate therein, and thermally treating the glass composition at a temperature and for a time period sufficient to caus growth of cristobalite and further crystallization of lithium metasilicate producing a glass ceramic composition having a specific thermal expansion coefficient and products containing said composition.

  20. Detailed Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Cyclohexane Oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silke, E J; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Ribaucour, M

    2006-11-10

    A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism has been developed and used to study the oxidation of cyclohexane at both low and high temperatures. Reaction rate constant rules are developed for the low temperature combustion of cyclohexane. These rules can be used for in chemical kinetic mechanisms for other cycloalkanes. Since cyclohexane produces only one type of cyclohexyl radical, much of the low temperature chemistry of cyclohexane is described in terms of one potential energy diagram showing the reaction of cyclohexyl radical + O{sub 2} through five, six and seven membered ring transition states. The direct elimination of cyclohexene and HO{sub 2} from RO{sub 2} is included in the treatment using a modified rate constant of Cavallotti et al. Published and unpublished data from the Lille rapid compression machine, as well as jet-stirred reactor data are used to validate the mechanism. The effect of heat loss is included in the simulations, an improvement on previous studies on cyclohexane. Calculations indicated that the production of 1,2-epoxycyclohexane observed in the experiments can not be simulated based on the current understanding of low temperature chemistry. Possible 'alternative' H-atom isomerizations leading to different products from the parent O{sub 2}QOOH radical were included in the low temperature chemical kinetic mechanism and were found to play a significant role.

  1. Novel lead-iron phosphate glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boatner, L.A.; Sales, B.C.

    1989-07-11

    The invention described and claimed in the specification relates to the discovery that effective addition of Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3] to a lead phosphate glass results in a glass having enhanced chemical durability and physical stability, and consists essentially of the glass resulting from melting a mixture consisting essentially of, in weight percent, 40--66 percent PbO, 30--55 percent P[sub 2]O[sub 5] and an effective concentration up to 12 percent Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3].

  2. Spin Glasses: Old and New Complexity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stein, D. L.

    2011-09-22

    Spin glasses are disordered magnetic systems that exhibit a variety of properties that are characteristic of 'complex systems'. After a brief review of the systems themselves, I will discuss how spin glass concepts have found use in and, in some cases, further advanced areas such as computer science, biology, and other fields: what one might term 'old complexity'. I will then turn to a discussion of more recent concepts and ideas that have flowed from studies of spin glasses, and using these introduce a proposal for a kind of 'new complexity'.

  3. The Color Glass Condensate and Glasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Larry McLerran

    2008-04-10

    These two lectures concern the Color Glass Condensate and the Glasma. These are forms of matter which might be studied in high energy hadronic collisions. The Color Glass Condensate is high energy density gluonic matter. It constitutes the part of a hadron wavefunction important for high energy processes. The Glasma is matter produced from the collision of two high energy hadrons. Both types of matter are associated with coherent fields. The Color Glass Condensate is static and related to a hadron wavefunction where the glasma is transient and evolves quickly after a collision. I present the properties of such matter, and some aspects of what is known of their properties.

  4. Stress in shaped glass evacuated collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrison, J.D.; Fischer-Cripps, A.

    1997-02-01

    Shaped glass evacuated collectors have the lower vacuum envelope formed with a CPC shape. The internal surface is silvered. This surface concentrates solar radiation onto an internal absorbing tube. The upper part of the vacuum envelope is a window to pass the solar radiation in to the absorbing tube. A computer program using analytical equations is used to design these collectors while keeping the glass tensile stress arising from evacuation below acceptable limits. A finite element computer program is used to test the accuracy of the stress calculated analytically. The calculations agree within about 1 MPa. Wind and thermal stresses in the glass are lower than the stresses caused by evacuation.

  5. Structural, vibrational, and elastic properties of a calcium aluminosilicate glass from molecular dynamics simulations: The role of the potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauchy, M., E-mail: bauchy@mit.edu [Concrete Sustainability Hub, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA and Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2014-07-14

    We study a calcium aluminosilicate glass of composition (SiO{sub 2}){sub 0.60}(Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub 0.10}(CaO){sub 0.30} by means of molecular dynamics. To this end, we conduct parallel simulations, following a consistent methodology, but using three different potentials. Structural and elastic properties are analyzed and compared to available experimental data. This allows assessing the respective abilities of the potentials to produce a realistic glass. We report that, although all these potentials offer a reasonable glass structure, featuring tricluster oxygen atoms, their respective vibrational and elastic predictions differ. This allows us to draw some general conclusions about the crucial role, or otherwise, of the interaction potential in silicate systems.

  6. SUMMARY REPORT FOR THE ANALYSIS OF THE SLUDGE BATCH 7A (MACROBATCH 8) DWPF POUR STREAM GLASS SAMPLE FOR CANISTER S03619

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, F.

    2012-05-01

    In order to comply with the Waste Acceptance Specifications in Sludge Batch 7a (Macrobatch 8), Savannah River National Laboratory personnel characterized the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) pour stream glass sample collected while filling canister S03619. This report summarizes the results of the compositional analysis for reportable oxides and radionuclides, and the normalized Product Consistency Test (PCT) results. The PCT responses indicate that the DWPF produced glass that is significantly more durable than the Environmental Assessment glass. Results and further details are documented in 'Analysis of DWPF Sludge Batch 7a (Macrobatch 8) Pour Stream Samples,' SRNL-STI-2012-00017.

  7. DOE Systems Engineering Methodology (SEM): Stage Exit V3 | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Systems Engineering Methodology (SEM): Stage Exit V3 DOE Systems Engineering Methodology (SEM): Stage Exit V3 The DOE Systems Engineering Methodology (SEM) describes the standard...

  8. Planning and scheduling of PPG glass production, model and implementation.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    considering waste glass management x Synchronization of the production and consumption of waste glass with 2Planning and scheduling of PPG glass production, model and implementation. Ricardo Lima Ignacio of the glass production x Capture the essence of the process that is not considered in the Master Production

  9. Community Geothermal Technology Program: Hawaii glass project. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, N.; Irwin, B.

    1988-01-20

    Objective was to develop a glass utilizing the silica waste material from geothermal energy production, and to supply local artists with this glass to make artistic objects. A glass composed of 93% indigenous Hawaiian materials was developed; 24 artists made 110 objects from this glass. A market was found for art objects made from this material.

  10. Glass/polymer composites and methods of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Samuels, W.D.; Exarhos, G.J.

    1995-06-06

    The present invention relates to new glass/polymer composites and methods for making them. More specifically, the invention is glass/polymer composites having phases that are at the molecular level and thereby practicably indistinguishable. The invention further discloses making molecular phase glass/polymer composites by mixing a glass and a polymer in a compatible solvent.

  11. Non-photorealistic Rendering of Images as Evolutionary Stained Glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ashlock, Dan

    Non-photorealistic Rendering of Images as Evolutionary Stained Glass Daniel Ashlock Mathematics glass. A collection of points that are the centers of weighted Voronoi tilings are evolved to minimize. A fractal model of stained glass is then run to create a stained glass texture with a similar average color

  12. Finding Glass Kenton McHenry, Jean Ponce

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forsyth, David

    Finding Glass Kenton McHenry, Jean Ponce Beckman Institute University of Illinois Urbana, IL 61801. This paper addresses the problem of finding glass ob- jects in images. Visual cues obtained by combining with the strong highlights typical of glass surfaces are used to train a hierarchy of classifiers, identify glass

  13. Optimization of Automated Float Glass Lines Byungsoo Na, Shabbir Ahmed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Shabbir

    Optimization of Automated Float Glass Lines Byungsoo Na, Shabbir Ahmed , George Nemhauser and Joel flat glass products being manufactured on float glass lines. New technologies are allowing float glass manufacturers to increase the level of automation in their plants, but the question of how to effectively use

  14. Simulation of High Efficiency Clean Combustion Engines and Detailed...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    continuing work on exploring fuel chemistry, analysis of advanced combustion regimes, and improvements in simulation methodologies deer12flowers.pdf More Documents & Publications...

  15. Simulation Enabled Safeguards Assessment Methodology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Bean; Trond Bjornard; Thomas Larson

    2007-09-01

    It is expected that nuclear energy will be a significant component of future supplies. New facilities, operating under a strengthened international nonproliferation regime will be needed. There is good reason to believe virtual engineering applied to the facility design, as well as to the safeguards system design will reduce total project cost and improve efficiency in the design cycle. Simulation Enabled Safeguards Assessment MEthodology (SESAME) has been developed as a software package to provide this capability for nuclear reprocessing facilities. The software architecture is specifically designed for distributed computing, collaborative design efforts, and modular construction to allow step improvements in functionality. Drag and drop wireframe construction allows the user to select the desired components from a component warehouse, render the system for 3D visualization, and, linked to a set of physics libraries and/or computational codes, conduct process evaluations of the system they have designed.

  16. Methodology for flammable gas evaluations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hopkins, J.D., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-12

    There are 177 radioactive waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site. The waste generates flammable gases. The waste releases gas continuously, but in some tanks the waste has shown a tendency to trap these flammable gases. When enough gas is trapped in a tank`s waste matrix, it may be released in a way that renders part or all of the tank atmosphere flammable for a period of time. Tanks must be evaluated against previously defined criteria to determine whether they can present a flammable gas hazard. This document presents the methodology for evaluating tanks in two areas of concern in the tank headspace:steady-state flammable-gas concentration resulting from continuous release, and concentration resulting from an episodic gas release.

  17. Compositional Models of Glass/Melt Properties and their Use for Glass Formulation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Vienna, John D.; USA, Richland Washington

    2014-12-18

    Nuclear waste glasses must simultaneously meet a number of criteria related to their processability, product quality, and cost factors. The properties that must be controlled in glass formulation and waste vitrification plant operation tend to vary smoothly with composition allowing for glass property-composition models to be developed and used. Models have been fit to the key glass properties. The properties are transformed so that simple functions of composition (e.g., linear, polynomial, or component ratios) can be used as model forms. The model forms are fit to experimental data designed statistically to efficiently cover the composition space of interest. Examples ofmore »these models are found in literature. The glass property-composition models, their uncertainty definitions, property constraints, and optimality criteria are combined to formulate optimal glass compositions, control composition in vitrification plants, and to qualify waste glasses for disposal. An overview of current glass property-composition modeling techniques is summarized in this paper along with an example of how those models are applied to glass formulation and product qualification at the planned Hanford high-level waste vitrification plant.« less

  18. Compositional Models of Glass/Melt Properties and their Use for Glass Formulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vienna, John D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Richland Washington USA

    2014-12-18

    Nuclear waste glasses must simultaneously meet a number of criteria related to their processability, product quality, and cost factors. The properties that must be controlled in glass formulation and waste vitrification plant operation tend to vary smoothly with composition allowing for glass property-composition models to be developed and used. Models have been fit to the key glass properties. The properties are transformed so that simple functions of composition (e.g., linear, polynomial, or component ratios) can be used as model forms. The model forms are fit to experimental data designed statistically to efficiently cover the composition space of interest. Examples of these models are found in literature. The glass property-composition models, their uncertainty definitions, property constraints, and optimality criteria are combined to formulate optimal glass compositions, control composition in vitrification plants, and to qualify waste glasses for disposal. An overview of current glass property-composition modeling techniques is summarized in this paper along with an example of how those models are applied to glass formulation and product qualification at the planned Hanford high-level waste vitrification plant.

  19. Bioactive Glass Scaffolds for Bone Regeneration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of glass scaffolds, including polymer foam replication, sol-gel, and freeze-casting; however, the low compressive strength of these scaffolds (0.2-28 MPa for porosity of...

  20. Free energy of sheared colloidal glasses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. T. Dang; V. Chikkadi; R. Zargar; D. M. Miedema; D. Bonn; A. Zaccone; P. Schall

    2015-05-25

    We develop a free energy framework to describe the response of glasses to applied stress. Unlike crystals, for which the free energy increases quadratically with strain due to affine displacements, for glasses, the nonequilibrium free energy decreases due to complex interplay of non-affine displacements and dissipation. We measure this free energy directly in strained colloidal glasses, and use mean-field theory to relate it to affine and nonaffine displacements. Nonaffine displacements grow with applied shear due to shear-induced loss of structural connectivity. Our mean-field model allows for the first time to disentangle the complex contributions of affine and nonaffine displacements and dissipation in the transient deformation of glasses.

  1. Bipolaron Model of Superconductivity in Chalcogenide Glasses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liang-You Zheng; Bo-Cheng Wang; Shan T. Lai

    2010-10-25

    In this paper we propose a small bipolaron model for the superconductivity in the Chalcogenide glasses (c-As2Te3 and c-GeTe). The results are agree with the experiments.

  2. Demonstration of chalcogenide glass racetrack microresonators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kimerling, Lionel C.

    We have demonstrated what we believe to be the first chalcogenide glass racetrack microresonator using a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor-compatible lift-off technique with thermally evaporated As[subscript 2]S[subscript ...

  3. Glass blowing on a wafer level

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eklund, E. Jesper; Shkel, Andrei M.

    2007-01-01

    are then heated inside a furnace at a temperature above theof glass curs at 821 is ?rst heated inside a furnace. Thegob is then removed from the furnace and blown into desired

  4. Preparation of fullerene/glass composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mattes, B.R.; McBranch, D.W.; Robinson, J.M.; Koskelo, A.C.; Love, S.P.

    1995-05-30

    Synthesis of fullerene/glass composites is described. A direct method for preparing solid solutions of C{sub 60} in silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}) glass matrices by means of sol-gel chemistry is described. In order to produce highly concentrated fullerene-sol-gel-composites it is necessary to increase the solubility of these ``guests`` in a delivery solvent which is compatible with the starter sol (receiving solvent). Sonication results in aggregate disruption by treatment with high frequency sound waves, thereby accelerating the rate of hydrolysis of the alkoxide precursor, and the solution process for the C{sub 60}. Depending upon the preparative procedure, C{sub 60} dispersed within the glass matrix as microcrystalline domains, or dispersed as true molecular solutions of C{sub 60} in a solid glass matrix, is generated by the present method.

  5. Tiny Glass Bubbles With Big Potential

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    If these glass microspheres' walls could talk…They would explain how their tiny pores allow the potential for handling, storing and transporting a variety of materials, including drugs that have...

  6. Preparation of fullerene/glass composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mattes, Benjamin R. (Santa Fe, NM); McBranch, Duncan W. (Santa Fe, NM); Robinson, Jeanne M. (Los Alamos, NM); Koskelo, Aaron C. (Los Alamos, NM); Love, Steven P. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1995-01-01

    Synthesis of fullerene/glass composites. A direct method for preparing solid solutions of C.sub.60 in silicon dioxide (SiO.sub.2) glass matrices by means of sol-gel chemistry is described. In order to produce highly concentrated fullerene-sol-gel-composites it is necessary to increase the solubility of these "guests" in a delivery solvent which is compatible with the starter sol (receiving solvent). Sonication results in aggregate disruption by treatment with high frequency sound waves, thereby accelerating the rate of hydrolysis of the alkoxide precursor, and the solution process for the C.sub.60. Depending upon the preparative procedure, C.sub.60 dispersed within the glass matrix as microcrystalline domains, or dispersed as true molecular solutions of C.sub.60 in a solid glass matrix, is generated by the present method.

  7. Initial Conditions from Color Glass Condensate 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Guangyao

    2013-08-06

    Nuclei at very high energy, characterized by a saturation scale, can be described by an e?ective theory of Quantum ChromoDynamics (QCD) called Color Glass Condensates. The earliest phase of the collision of two nuclei is ...

  8. The Thermal Collector With Varied Glass Covers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luminosu, I.; Pop, N.

    2010-08-04

    The thermal collector with varied glass covers represents an innovation realized in order to build a collector able to reach the desired temperature by collecting the solar radiation from the smallest surface, with the highest efficiency. In the case of the thermal collector with variable cover glasses, the number of the glass plates covering the absorber increases together with the length of the circulation pipe for the working fluid. The thermal collector with varied glass covers compared to the conventional collector better meet user requirements because: for the same temperature increase, has the collecting area smaller; for the same collection area, realizes the highest temperature increase and has the highest efficiency. This works is addressed to researchers in the solar energy and to engineers responsible with air-conditioning systems design or industrial and agricultural products drying.

  9. Mapping the geogenic radon potential: methodology and spatial analysis for central Hungary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horváth, Ákos

    Mapping the geogenic radon potential: methodology and spatial analysis for central Hungary Katalin 2013 Available online Keywords: Hungarian geogenic radon potential Soil gas radon Soil gas permeability Spatial modeling a b s t r a c t A detailed geogenic radon potential (GRP) mapping based on field soil gas

  10. THE COLOUR GLASS CONDENSATE: AN INTRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    IANCU,E.; LEONIDOV,A.; MCLERRAN,L.

    2001-08-06

    In these lectures, the authors develop the theory of the Colour Glass Condensate. This is the matter made of gluons in the high density environment characteristic of deep inelastic scattering or hadron-hadron collisions at very high energy. The lectures are self contained and comprehensive. They start with a phenomenological introduction, develop the theory of classical gluon fields appropriate for the Colour Glass, and end with a derivation and discussion of the renormalization group equations which determine this effective theory.

  11. High expansion, lithium corrosion resistant sealing glasses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brow, R.K.; Watkins, R.D.

    1991-06-04

    Glass compositions containing CaO, Al[sub 2]O[sub 3], B[sub 2]O[sub 3], SrO and BaO in various combinations of mole % are provided. These compositions are capable of forming stable glass-to-metal seals with pin materials of 446 Stainless Steel and Alloy-52 rather than molybdenum, for use in harsh chemical environments, specifically in lithium batteries.

  12. High expansion, lithium corrosion resistant sealing glasses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brow, Richard K. (Albuquerque, NM); Watkins, Randall D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1991-01-01

    Glass compositions containing CaO, Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, B.sub.2 O.sub.3, SrO and BaO in various combinations of mole % are provided. These compositions are capable of forming stable glass-to-metal seals with pin materials of 446 Stainless Steel and Alloy-52 rather than molybdenum, for use in harsh chemical environments, specifically in lithium batteries.

  13. Equivalence of Glass Transition and Colloidal Glass Transition in the Hard-Sphere Limit Thomas K. Haxton,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weeks, Eric R.

    Equivalence of Glass Transition and Colloidal Glass Transition in the Hard-Sphere Limit Ning Xu,1 that the slowing of the dynamics in simulations of several model glass-forming liquids is equivalent to the hard-sphere glass transition in the low-pressure limit. In this limit, we find universal behavior of the relaxation

  14. Sealed glass coating of high temperature ceramic superconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Weite (Tainan, TW); Chu, Cha Y. (Garnerville, NY); Goretta, Kenneth C. (Downers Grove, IL); Routbort, Jules L. (Darien, IL)

    1995-01-01

    A method and article of manufacture of a lead oxide based glass coating on a high temperature superconductor. The method includes preparing a dispersion of glass powders in a solution, applying the dispersion to the superconductor, drying the dispersion before applying another coating and heating the glass powder dispersion at temperatures below oxygen diffusion onset and above the glass melting point to form a continuous glass coating on the superconductor to establish compressive stresses which enhance the fracture strength of the superconductor.

  15. Hysteretic Optimization For Spin Glasses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Goncalves; S. Boettcher

    2007-12-10

    The recently proposed Hysteretic Optimization (HO) procedure is applied to the 1D Ising spin chain with long range interactions. To study its effectiveness, the quality of ground state energies found as a function of the distance dependence exponent, $\\sigma$, is assessed. It is found that the transition from an infinite-range to a long-range interaction at $\\sigma=0.5$ is accompanied by a sharp decrease in the performance . The transition is signaled by a change in the scaling behavior of the average avalanche size observed during the hysteresis process. This indicates that HO requires the system to be infinite-range, with a high degree of interconnectivity between variables leading to large avalanches, in order to function properly. An analysis of the way auto-correlations evolve during the optimization procedure confirm that the search of phase space is less efficient, with the system becoming effectively stuck in suboptimal configurations much earlier. These observations explain the poor performance that HO obtained for the Edwards-Anderson spin glass on finite-dimensional lattices, and suggest that its usefulness might be limited in many combinatorial optimization problems.

  16. High thermal expansion, sealing glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brow, Richard K. (Albuquerque, NM); Kovacic, Larry (Albuquerque, NM)

    1993-01-01

    A glass composition for hermetically sealing to high thermal expansion materials such as aluminum alloys, stainless steels, copper, and copper/beryllium alloys, which includes between about 10 and about 25 mole percent Na.sub.2 O, between about 10 and about 25 mole percent K.sub.2 O, between about 5 and about 15 mole percent Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, between about 35 and about 50 mole percent P.sub.2 O.sub.5 and between about 5 and about 15 mole percent of one of PbO, BaO, and mixtures thereof. The composition, which may also include between 0 and about 5 mole percent Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 and between 0 and about 10 mole percent B.sub.2 O.sub.3, has a thermal expansion coefficient in a range of between about 160 and 210.times.10-7/.degree.C. and a dissolution rate in a range of between about 2.times.10.sup.- 7 and 2.times.10.sup.-9 g/cm.sup.2 -min. This composition is suitable to hermetically seal to metallic electrical components which will be subjected to humid environments over an extended period of time.

  17. High thermal expansion, sealing glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brow, R.K.; Kovacic, L.

    1993-11-16

    A glass composition is described for hermetically sealing to high thermal expansion materials such as aluminum alloys, stainless steels, copper, and copper/beryllium alloys, which includes between about 10 and about 25 mole percent Na[sub 2]O, between about 10 and about 25 mole percent K[sub 2]O, between about 5 and about 15 mole percent Al[sub 2]O[sub 3], between about 35 and about 50 mole percent P[sub 2]O[sub 5] and between about 5 and about 15 mole percent of one of PbO, BaO, and mixtures thereof. The composition, which may also include between 0 and about 5 mole percent Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3] and between 0 and about 10 mole percent B[sub 2]O[sub 3], has a thermal expansion coefficient in a range of between about 160 and 210[times]10[sup [minus]7]/C and a dissolution rate in a range of between about 2[times]10[sup [minus]7] and 2[times]10[sup [minus]9]g/cm[sup 2]-min. This composition is suitable to hermetically seal to metallic electrical components which will be subjected to humid environments over an extended period of time.

  18. Natural glass analogues to alteration of nuclear waste glass: A review and recommendations for further study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKenzie, W.F.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to review previous work on the weathering of natural glasses; and to make recommendations for further work with respect to studying the alteration of natural glasses as it relates quantifying rates of dissolution. the first task was greatly simplified by the published papers of Jercinovic and Ewing (1987) and Byers, Jercinovic, and Ewing (1987). The second task is obviously the more difficult of the two and the author makes no claim of completeness in this regard. Glasses weather in the natural environment by reacting with aqueous solutions producing a rind of secondary solid phases. It had been proposed by some workers that the thickness of this rind is a function of the age of the glass and thus could be used to estimate glass dissolution rates. However, Jercinovic and Ewing (1987) point out that in general the rind thickness does not correlate with the age of the glass owing to the differences in time of contact with the solution compared to the actual age of the sample. It should be noted that the rate of glass dissolution is also a function of the composition of both the glass and the solution, and the temperature. Quantification of the effects of these parameters (as well as time of contact with the aqueous phase and flow rates) would thus permit a prediction of the consequences of glass-fluid interactions under varying environmental conditions. Defense high- level nuclear waste (DHLW), consisting primarily of liquid and sludge, will be encapsulated by and dispersed in a borosilicate glass before permanent storage in a HLW repository. This glass containing the DHLW serves to dilute the radionuclides and to retard their dispersion into the environment. 318 refs.

  19. The development of design factors for heat-strengthened and tempered glass based on the glass failure prediction model 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oakes, Timothy Andrew

    1991-01-01

    - strengthened and tempered glass are then used for determining the design load after the annealed glass design load is calculated. The widely accepted design factors for heat-strengthened and tempered glass are 2. 0 and 4. 0 respectively. The traditional...-STRENGTHENED AND TEMPERED GLASS DESIGN FACTOR TABLES LOWEST FACTOR WITHIN ASPECT RATIO CHARTS . . . . . . . ~ . ~ . ~ 193 VITA 212 LIST OF FIGURES Page Figure 1 Typical stress profile of tempered and heat-strengthened glass Figure 2 Expected wind velocities on a 50...

  20. Electric Utility Demand-Side Evaluation Methodologies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Treadway, N.

    1986-01-01

    UTILITY DEMAND-SIDE EVALUATION METHODOLOGIES* Nat Treadway Public Utility Commission of Texas Austin, Texas ABSTRACT The electric. util ity industry's demand-side management programs can be analyzed ?from various points of view using a standard... cost and certification proceedings. A s~andard benefit-cost methodology analyzes demand-slde management programs from various ~oints of view. The benefit-cost methodology now ln use by several electric utilities and the * The views presented...

  1. Methodology for Validating Building Energy Analysis Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Judkoff, R.; Wortman, D.; O'Doherty, B.; Burch, J.

    2008-04-01

    The objective of this report was to develop a validation methodology for building energy analysis simulations, collect high-quality, unambiguous empirical data for validation, and apply the validation methodology to the DOE-2.1, BLAST-2MRT, BLAST-3.0, DEROB-3, DEROB-4, and SUNCAT 2.4 computer programs. This report covers background information, literature survey, validation methodology, comparative studies, analytical verification, empirical validation, comparative evaluation of codes, and conclusions.

  2. Glass and Fiber Glass Footprint, December 2010 (MECS 2006)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2010-06-01

    Manufacturing energy and carbon footprints map fuel energy consumption and losses, as well as greenhouse gas emissions from fuel consumption, for fifteen individual U.S. manufacturing sectors (representing 94% of all manufacturing energy use) and for the entire manufacturing industry sector. By providing energy consumption and emissions figures broken down by end use, the footprints allow for comparisons of energy use and emissions sources both within and across sectors. The footprints portray a large amount of information for each sector, including: * Comparison of the energy generated offsite and transferred to facilities versus that generated onsite * Nature and amount of energy consumed by end use within facilities * Magnitude of the energy lost both outside and inside facility boundaries * Magnitude of the greenhouse gas emissions released due to the combustion of fuel. Energy losses indicate opportunities to improve efficiency by implementing energy management best practices, upgrading energy systems, and developing new technologies. Footprints are available below for each sector. Data is presented in two levels of detail. The first page provides a high-level snapshot of the offsite and onsite energy flow, and the second page shows the detail for onsite generation and end use of energy. The energy data is primarily provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Information Administration's (EIA's) Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS), and therefore reflects consumption in the year 2006, when the survey was last completed.

  3. Glass and Fiber Glass Footprint, October 2012 (MECS 2006)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-10-17

    Manufacturing energy and carbon footprints map energy consumption and losses, as well as greenhouse gas emissions from fuel consumption, for fifteen individual U.S. manufacturing sectors (representing 94% of all manufacturing energy use) and for the entire manufacturing sector. By providing energy consumption and emissions figures broken down by end use, the footprints allow for comparisons of energy use and emissions sources both within and across sectors. The footprints portray a large amount of information for each sector, including: * Comparison of the energy generated offsite and transferred to facilities versus that generated onsite * Nature and amount of energy consumed by end use within facilities * Magnitude of the energy lost both outside and inside facility boundaries * Magnitude of the greenhouse gas emissions released as a result of manufacturing energy use. Energy losses indicate opportunities to improve efficiency by implementing energy management best practices, upgrading energy systems, and developing new technologies. Footprints are available below for each sector. Data is presented in two levels of detail. The first page provides a high- level snapshot of the offsite and onsite energy flow, and the second page shows the detail for onsite generation and end use of energy. The principle energy use data source is the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Information Administration's (EIA's) Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS), for consumption in the year 2006, when the survey was last completed.

  4. Development of Nonlinear SSI Time Domain Methodology

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Development of Nonlinear SSI Time Domain Methodology Justin Coleman, P.E. Nuclear Science and Technology Idaho National Laboratory October 22, 2014

  5. Final Report - Enhanced LAW Glass Formulation Testing, VSL-07R1130-1, Rev. 0, dated 10/05/07

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, Albert A.; Pegg, I. L.; Matlack, K. S.; Joseph, I.; Muller, I. S.; Gong, W.

    2013-11-13

    The principal objective of this work was to extend the glass formulation methodology developed in the earlier work [2, 5, 6] for Envelope A, B and C waste compositions for development of compliant glass compositions targeting five high sodium-sulfur waste loading regions. This was accomplished through a combination of crucible-scale tests, and tests on the DM10 melter system. The DM10 was used for several previous tests on LAW compositions to determine the maximum feed sulfur concentrations that can be processed without forming secondary sulfate phases on the surface of the melt pool. This melter is the most efficient melter platform for screening glass compositions over a wide range of sulfate concentrations and therefore was selected for the present tests. The tests were conducted to provide information on melter processing characteristics and off-gas data, including sulfur incorporation and partitioning. As described above, the main objective was to identify the limits of waste loading in compliant glass formulations spanning the range of expected Na{sub 2}O and SO{sub 3} concentrations in the LAW glasses.

  6. An Insulating Glass Knowledge Base

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael L. Doll; Gerald Hendrickson; Gerard Lagos; Russell Pylkki; Chris Christensen; Charlie Cureija

    2005-08-01

    This report will discuss issues relevant to Insulating Glass (IG) durability performance by presenting the observations and developed conclusions in a logical sequential format. This concluding effort discusses Phase II activities and focuses on beginning to quantifying IG durability issues while continuing the approach presented in the Phase I activities (Appendix 1) which discuss a qualitative assessment of durability issues. Phase II developed a focus around two specific IG design classes previously presented in Phase I of this project. The typical box spacer and thermoplastic spacer design including their Failure Modes and Effect Analysis (FMEA) and Fault Tree diagrams were chosen to address two currently used IG design options with varying components and failure modes. The system failures occur due to failures of components or their interfaces. Efforts to begin quantifying the durability issues focused on the development and delivery of an included computer based IG durability simulation program. The focus/effort to deliver the foundation for a comprehensive IG durability simulation tool is necessary to address advancements needed to meet current and future building envelope energy performance goals. This need is based upon the current lack of IG field failure data and the lengthy field observation time necessary for this data collection. Ultimately, the simulation program is intended to be used by designers throughout the current and future industry supply chain. Its use is intended to advance IG durability as expectations grow around energy conservation and with the growth of embedded technologies as required to meet energy needs. In addition the tool has the immediate benefit of providing insight for research and improvement prioritization. Included in the simulation model presentation are elements and/or methods to address IG materials, design, process, quality, induced stress (environmental and other factors), validation, etc. In addition, acquired data is presented in support of project and model assumptions. Finally, current and suggested testing protocol and procedure for future model validation and IG physical testing are discussed.

  7. Glass science tutorial: Lecture No. 4, commercial glass melting and associated air emission issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    This document serves as a manual for a workshop on commercial glass melting and associated air emission issues. Areas covered include: An overview of the glass industry; Furnace design and construction practices; Melting furnace operation; Energy input methods and controls; Air legislation and regulations; Soda lime emission mechanisms; and, Post furnace emission controls. Supporting papers are also included.

  8. Chalcogenide Glass Radiation Sensor; Materials Development, Design and Device Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitkova, Maria; Butt, Darryl; Kozicki, Michael; Barnaby, Hugo

    2013-04-30

    For many decades, various radiation detecting material have been extensively researched, to find a better material or mechanism for radiation sensing. Recently, there is a growing need for a smaller and effective material or device that can perform similar functions of bulkier Geiger counters and other measurement options, which fail the requirement for easy, cheap and accurate radiation dose measurement. Here arises the use of thin film chalcogenide glass, which has unique properties of high thermal stability along with high sensitivity towards short wavelength radiation. The unique properties of chalcogenide glasses are attributed to the lone pair p-shell electrons, which provide some distinctive optical properties when compared to crystalline material. These qualities are derived from the energy band diagram and the presence of localized states in the band gap. Chalcogenide glasses have band tail states and localized states, along with the two band states. These extra states are primarily due to the lone pair electrons as well as the amorphous structure of the glasses. The localized states between the conductance band (CB) and valence band (VB) are primarily due to the presence of the lone pair electrons, while the band tail states are attributed to the Van der Waalâ??s forces between layers of atoms [1]. Localized states are trap locations within the band gap where electrons from the valence band can hop into, in their path towards the conduction band. Tail states on the other hand are locations near the band gap edges and are known as Urbach tail states (Eu). These states are occupied with many electrons that can participate in the various transformations due to interaction with photons. According to Y. Utsugi et. al.[2], the electron-phonon interactions are responsible for the generation of the Urbach tails. These states are responsible for setting the absorption edge for these glasses and photons with energy near the band gap affect these states. We have studied the effect of x-rays and γ-rays, on thin film chalcogenide glasses and applied them in conjunction with film incorporating a silver source in a new type of radiation sensor for which we have an US patent application [3]. In this report, we give data about our studies regarding our designed radiation sensor along with the testing and performance at various radiation doses. These studies have been preceded by materials characterization research related to the compositional and structural characteristics of the active materials used in the radiation sensor design. During the work on the project, we collected a large volume of material since every experiment was repeated many times to verify the results. We conducted a comprehensive material research, analysis and discussion with the aim to understand the nature of the occurring effects, design different structures to harness these effects, generated models to aid in the understanding the effects, built different device structures and collected data to quantify device performance. These various aspects of our investigation have been detailed in previous quarterly reports. In this report, we present our main results and emphasize on the results pertaining to the core project goals â?? materials development, sensor design and testing and with an emphasis on classifying the appropriate material and design for the optimal application. The report has three main parts: (i) Presentation of the main data; (ii) Bulleted summary of the most important results; (iii) List of the patent, journal publications, conference proceedings and conferences participation, occurring as a result of working on the project.

  9. Waste Package Design Methodology Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.A. Brownson

    2001-09-28

    The objective of this report is to describe the analytical methods and processes used by the Waste Package Design Section to establish the integrity of the various waste package designs, the emplacement pallet, and the drip shield. The scope of this report shall be the methodology used in criticality, risk-informed, shielding, source term, structural, and thermal analyses. The basic features and appropriateness of the methods are illustrated, and the processes are defined whereby input values and assumptions flow through the application of those methods to obtain designs that ensure defense-in-depth as well as satisfy requirements on system performance. Such requirements include those imposed by federal regulation, from both the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and those imposed by the Yucca Mountain Project to meet repository performance goals. The report is to be used, in part, to describe the waste package design methods and techniques to be used for producing input to the License Application Report.

  10. Transport properties of lithium- lead-vanadium-telluride glass and glass ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sathish, M.; Eraiah, B.

    2014-04-24

    Glasses with the chemical composition 35Li{sub 2}O-(45-x)V{sub 2}O{sub 5?}20PbO-xTeO{sub 2} (where x = 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 15 mol %) have prepared by conventional melt quenching method. The electrical conductivity of Li{sup +} ion conducting lead vanadium telluride glass samples has been carried out both as a function of temperature and frequency in the temperature range 503K-563K and over frequencies 40 Hz to 10 MHz. The electronic conduction has been observed in the present systems. When these samples annealed around 400°C for 2hour become the glass ceramic, which also shows increase tendency of conductivity. SEM confines glass and glass ceramic nature of the prepared samples.

  11. Two Studies Reveal Details of Lithium-Battery Function

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Two Studies Reveal Details of Lithium-Battery Function Two Studies Reveal Details of Lithium-Battery Function Print Wednesday, 27 February 2013 00:00 Our way of life is deeply...

  12. 1999 Commercial Building Characteristics--Detailed Tables--Size...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Complete Set of 1999 CBECS Detailed Tables Detailed Tables- of Buildings Table B6. Building Size, Number of Buildings b6.pdf (PDF file), b6.xls (Excel spreadsheet file), b6.txt...

  13. Alternate States of Proteins Revealed by Detailed Energy Landscape Mapping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, David

    Alternate States of Proteins Revealed by Detailed Energy Landscape Mapping Michael D. Tyka1 Keywords: Rosetta; alternative conformations; protein mobility; structure prediction; validation What through analysis of detailed protein energy landscapes generated by large-scale, native- enhanced sampling

  14. Results of Detailed Hydrologic Characterization Tests - Fiscal Year 2003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spane, Frank A.; Newcomer, Darrell R.

    2004-09-13

    This report presents results obtained from detailed hydrologic characterization of the unconfined aquifer system conducted at the Hanford Site.

  15. GLASS AND GLASS-DERIVATIVE SEALS FOR USE IN ENERGY-EFFICIENT FUEL CELLS AND LAMPS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Misture; Arun Varshneya; Matthew Hall; Sylvia DeCarr; Steve Bancheri

    2004-08-15

    As the project approaches the end of the first year, the materials screening components of the work are ahead of schedule, while all other tasks are on schedule. For solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), a series of 16 sealing glasses have been prepared and characterized. Traditional melting was used to prepare all of the glasses, and the sol-gel approach has been used to prepare some of the glasses as well as other compositions that might be viable because of the low processing temperatures afforded by the sol-gel method. The glass characterization included measurements of the viscosity and thermal expansion of the glasses, as well as the thermal expansion of the partly crystalline glass ceramics. In addition, the wetting and sintering behavior of all glasses has been measured, as well as the crystallization behavior. The time and temperature at which crystalline phases form from the glasses has been determined for all of the glasses. Each glass ceramic contains at least two crystalline phases, and most of the crystalline phases have been positively identified. Room temperature leak testing has been completed for all sealants, and experiments are in progress to determine the DC electrochemical degradation and degradation in wet hydrogen. The second component of the work, focused on seals for higher-temperature discharge lighting, has focused on determining the phase relations in the yttria--alumina--silica system at various silica levels. Again, traditional melting and sol-gel synthesis have been employed, and the sol-gel method was successful for preparing new phases that were discovered during the work. High temperature diffraction and annealing studies have clarified the phase relations for the samples studies, although additional work remains. Four new phases have been identified and synthesized in pure form, from which full structure solutions were obtained as well as the anisotropic thermal expansion for each phase. Functional testing of lamps are on on-going and will be analyzed during year 2 of the contract.

  16. Measurement and Control of Glass Feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arel Weisberg

    2007-04-26

    ERCo has developed a laser-based technology for rapid compositional measurements of batch, real-time sorting of cullet, and in-situ measurements of molten glass. This technology, termed LIBS (Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) can determine whether or not the batch was formulated accurately in order to control glass quality. It can also be used to determine if individual batch ingredients are within specifications. In the case of cullet feedstocks, the sensor can serve as part of a system to sort cullet by color and ensure that it is free of contaminants. In-situ compositional measurements of molten glass are achieved through immersing a LIBS probe directly into the melt in a glass furnace. This technology has been successfully demonstrated in ERCo’s LIBS laboratory for batch analysis, cullet sorting, and glass melt measurements. A commercial batch analyzer has been operating in a PPG fiberglass plant since August 2004. LIBS utilizes a highly concentrated laser pulse to rapidly vaporize and ionize nanograms of the material being studied. As this vapor cools, it radiates light at specific wavelengths corresponding to the elemental constituents (e.g. silicon, aluminum, iron) of the material. The strengths of the emissions correlate to the concentrations of each of the elemental constituents. By collecting the radiated light with a spectrometer capable of resolving and measuring these wavelengths, the elemental composition of the sample is found.

  17. Sealing glasses for titanium and titanium alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brow, Richard K. (Albuquerque, NM); McCollister, Howard L. (Albuquerque, NM); Phifer, Carol C. (Albuquerque, NM); Day, Delbert E. (Rolla, MO)

    1997-01-01

    Barium lanthanoborate sealing-glass compositions are provided comprising various combinations (in terms of mole-%) of boron oxide (B.sub.2 O.sub.3), barium oxide (BaO), lanthanum oxide (La.sub.2 O.sub.3), and at least one other oxide selected from the group consisting of aluminum oxide (Al.sub.2 O.sub.3), calcium oxide (CaO), lithium oxide (Li.sub.2 O), sodium oxide (Na.sub.2 O), silicon dioxide (SiO.sub.2), or titanium dioxide (TiO.sub.2). These sealing-glass compositions are useful for forming hermetic glass-to-metal seals with titanium and titanium alloys having an improved aqueous durability and favorable sealing characteristics. Examples of the sealing-glass compositions are provided having coefficients of thermal expansion about that of titanium or titanium alloys, and with sealing temperatures less than about 900.degree. C., and generally about 700.degree.-800.degree. C. The barium lanthanoborate sealing-glass compositions are useful for components and devices requiring prolonged exposure to moisture or water, and for implanted biomedical devices (e.g. batteries, pacemakers, defibrillators, pumps).

  18. Vacuum fusion bonding of glass plates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swierkowski, Steve P. (Livermore, CA); Davidson, James C. (Livermore, CA); Balch, Joseph W. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01

    An improved apparatus and method for vacuum fusion bonding of large, patterned glass plates. One or both glass plates are patterned with etched features such as microstructure capillaries and a vacuum pumpout moat, with one plate having at least one hole therethrough for communication with a vacuum pumpout fixture. High accuracy alignment of the plates is accomplished by a temporary clamping fixture until the start of the fusion bonding heat cycle. A complete, void-free fusion bond of seamless, full-strength quality is obtained through the plates; because the glass is heated well into its softening point and because of a large, distributed force that is developed that presses the two plates together from the difference in pressure between the furnace ambient (high pressure) and the channeling and microstructures in the plates (low pressure) due to the vacuum drawn. The apparatus and method may be used to fabricate microcapillary arrays for chemical electrophoresis; for example, any apparatus using a network of microfluidic channels embedded between plates of glass or similar moderate melting point substrates with a gradual softening point curve, or for assembly of glass-based substrates onto larger substrates, such as in flat panel display systems.

  19. Vacuum fusion bonding of glass plates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swierkowski, Steve P. (Livermore, CA); Davidson, James C. (Livermore, CA); Balch, Joseph W. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01

    An improved apparatus and method for vacuum fusion bonding of large, patterned glass plates. One or both glass plates are patterned with etched features such as microstructure capillaries and a vacuum pumpout moat, with one plate having at least one hole therethrough for communication with a vacuum pumpout fixture. High accuracy alignment of the plates is accomplished by a temporary clamping fixture until the start of the fusion bonding heat cycle. A complete, void-free fusion bond of seamless, full-strength quality is obtained through the plates; because the glass is heated well into its softening point and because of a large, distributed force that is developed that presses the two plates together from the difference in pressure between the furnace ambient (high pressure) and the channeling and microstructures in the plates (low pressure) due to the vacuum drawn. The apparatus and method may be used to fabricate microcapillary arrays for chemical electrophoresis; for example, any apparatus using a network of microfluidic channels embedded between plates of glass or similar moderate melting point substrates with a gradual softening point curve, or for assembly of glass-based substrates onto larger substrates, such as in flat panel display systems.

  20. Sealing glasses for titanium and titanium alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brow, R.K.; McCollister, H.L.; Phifer, C.C.; Day, D.E.

    1997-07-15

    Barium lanthanoborate sealing-glass compositions are provided comprising various combinations (in terms of mole-%) of boron oxide (B{sub 2}O{sub 3}), barium oxide (BaO), lanthanum oxide (La{sub 2}O{sub 3}), and at least one other oxide selected from the group consisting of aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), calcium oxide (CaO), lithium oxide (Li{sub 2}O), sodium oxide (Na{sub 2}O), silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}), or titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}). These sealing-glass compositions are useful for forming hermetic glass-to-metal seals with titanium and titanium alloys having an improved aqueous durability and favorable sealing characteristics. Examples of the sealing-glass compositions are provided having coefficients of thermal expansion about that of titanium or titanium alloys, and with sealing temperatures less than about 900 C, and generally about 700--800 C. The barium lanthanoborate sealing-glass compositions are useful for components and devices requiring prolonged exposure to moisture or water, and for implanted biomedical devices (e.g. batteries, pacemakers, defibrillators, pumps). 1 fig.

  1. GLASS FORMULATION FOR INEEL SODIUM BEARING WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vienna, John D.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Peeler, David K.

    2002-10-31

    Studies were performed to develop and test a glass formulation for immobilization of sodium-bearing waste (SBW), which is a high soda, acidic, high-activity waste stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) in 10 underground tanks. It was determined in previous studies that SBW?s sulfur content dictates its loading in borosilicate glasses to be melted by currently assumed processes. If the sulfur content (which is ~4.5 mass% SO3 on a non-volatile oxide basis in SBW) of the melter feed is too high, then a molten, alkali-sulfate-containing salt phase accumulates on the melt surface. The avoidance of salt accumulation during the melter process and the maximization of sulfur incorporation into the glass melt were the main focus of this development work. A glass was developed for 20 mass% SBW (on a non-volatile oxide basis), which contained 0.91 mass% SO3, that met all the processing and product-quality constraints determined for SBW vitrification at a planned INEEL treatment plant?SBW-22-20. This paper summarizes the formulation efforts and presents the data developed on a series of glasses with simulated SBW.

  2. 2002 E.M. Aboulhamid 1 Methodology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aboulhamid, El Mostapha

    library and a methodology ­ create a cycle-accurate model of software algorithms ­ hardware architecture Types 4-valued logic Bits and Bit Vectors Arbitrary Precision Integers Fixed-point types Structural Libraries Verification library TLM library, etc Methodology-Specific Libraries Master/Slave library, etc

  3. Research and development of new ultraphosphate laser glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Izumitani, T.; Toratani, H.; Matsukawa, T.; Kanamori, C.; Miyade, H.

    1985-01-30

    Requirements for Zeus laser glass and HAP laser glass were small {sigma}, low water, low concentration quenching and high mechanical and thermal strength in the former and high {sigma}, low water, low concentration quenching and high mechanical, thermal shock resistance in the later. In order to get a high mechanical and thermal shock resistance, we introduced SiO{sub 2} into phosphate glass, because SiO{sub 2} gives a low expansion coefficient. In this report, we discuss the research and development of the laser glass. Chemical durability, water content, lasing properties, mechanical and thermo-mechanical properties, glass composition and glass structures are discussed.

  4. ANALYSIS OF DWPF SLUDGE BATCH 6 (MACROBATCH 7) POUR STREAM GLASS SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, F.

    2012-01-20

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) began processing Sludge Batch 6 (SB6), also referred to as Macrobatch 7 (MB7), in June 2010. SB6 is a blend of the heel of Tank 40 from Sludge Batch 5 (SB5), H-Canyon Np transfers and SB6 that was transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51.1 SB6 was processed using Frit 418. Sludge is received into the DWPF Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) and is processed through the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Slurry Mix Evaporator Tank (SME). The treated sludge slurry is then transferred to the Melter Feed Tank (MFT) and fed to the melter. During processing of each sludge batch, the DWPF is required to take at least one glass sample to meet the objectives of the Glass Product Control Program (GPCP) and to complete the necessary Production Records so that the final glass product may be disposed of at a Federal Repository. The DWPF requested various analyses of radioactive glass samples obtained from the melter pour stream during processing of SB6 as well as reduction/oxidation (REDOX) analysis of MFT samples to determine the impact of Argon bubbling. Sample analysis followed the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP) and an Analytical Study Plan (ASP). Four Pour Stream (PS) glass samples and two MFT slurry samples were delivered to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) from the DWPF. Table 1-1 lists the sample information for each pour stream glass sample. SB6 PS3 (S03472) was selected as the official pour stream sample for SB6 and full analysis was requested. This report details the visual observations of the as-received SB6 PS No.3 glass sample as well as results for the chemical composition, Product Consistency Test (PCT), radionuclide content, noble metals, and glass density. REDOX results will be provided for all four pour stream samples and vitrified samples of MFT-558 and MFT-568A. Where appropriate, data from other pour stream samples will be provided.

  5. Glass/ceramic coatings for implants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tomsia, Antoni P. (Pinole, CA); Saiz, Eduardo (Berkeley, CA); Gomez-Vega, Jose M. (Nagoya, JP); Marshall, Sally J. (Larkspur, CA); Marshall, Grayson W. (Larkspur, CA)

    2011-09-06

    Glass coatings on metals including Ti, Ti6A14V and CrCo were prepared for use as implants. The composition of the glasses was tailored to match the thermal expansion of the substrate metal. By controlling the firing atmosphere, time, and temperature, it was possible to control the reactivity between the glass and the alloy and to fabricate coatings (25-150 .mu.m thick) with excellent adhesion to the substrate. The optimum firing temperatures ranged between 800 and 840.degree. C. at times up to 1 min in air or 15 min in N.sub.2. The same basic technique was used to create multilayered coatings with concentration gradients of hydroxyapatite (HA) particles and SiO.sub.2.

  6. Opal photonic crystals infiltrated with chalcogenide glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Astratov, V. N.; Adawi, A. M.; Skolnick, M. S.; Tikhomirov, V. K.; Lyubin, V.; Lidzey, D. G.; Ariu, M.; Reynolds, A. L.

    2001-06-25

    Composite opal structures for nonlinear applications are obtained by infiltration with chalcogenide glasses As{sub 2}S{sub 3} and AsSe by precipitation from solution. Analysis of spatially resolved optical spectra reveals that the glass aggregates into submillimeter areas inside the opal. These areas exhibit large shifts in the optical stop bands by up to 80 nm, and by comparison with modelling are shown to have uniform glass filling factors of opal pores up to 40%. Characterization of the domain structure of the opals prior to infiltration by large area angle-resolved spectroscopy is an important step in the analysis of the properties of the infiltrated regions. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  7. GLASS FABRICATION AND PRODUCT CONSISTENCY TESTING OF LANTHANIDE BOROSILICATE GLASS FOR PLUTONIUM DISPOSITION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, C; James Marra, J; Ned Bibler, N

    2007-02-12

    The Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE/EM) plans to conduct the Plutonium Disposition Project at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, SC, to disposition excess weapons-usable plutonium. A plutonium glass waste form is a leading candidate for immobilization of the plutonium for subsequent disposition in a geologic repository. The objectives of this present task were to fabricate plutonium-loaded lanthanide borosilicate (LaBS) Frit B glass and perform testing to provide near-term data that will increase confidence that LaBS glass product is suitable for disposal in the proposed Federal Repository. Specifically, testing was conducted in an effort to provide data to Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) personnel for use in performance assessment calculations. Plutonium containing LaBS glass with the Frit B composition with a 9.5 wt% PuO{sub 2} loading was prepared for testing. Glass was prepared to support glass durability testing via the ASTM Product Consistency Testing (PCT) at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The glass was characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) prior to performance testing. This characterization revealed some crystalline PuO{sub 2} inclusions with disk-like morphology present in the as fabricated, quench-cooled glass. A series of PCTs was conducted at SRNL with varying exposed surface area and test durations. Filtered leachates from these tests were analyzed to determine the dissolved concentrations of key elements. The leachate solutions were also ultrafiltered to quantify colloid formation. Leached solids from select PCTs were examined in an attempt to evaluate the Pu and neutron absorber release behavior from the glass and to investigate formation of alteration phases on the glass surface. A series of PCTs was conducted at 90 C in ASTM Type 1 water to compare the Pu LaBS Frit B glass durability to current requirements for High Level Waste (HLW) glass in a geologic repository. The PCT (7-day static test with powdered glass) results on the Pu-containing LaBS Frit B glass at SA/V of {approx} 2000 m{sup -1} showed that the glass was very durable with an average normalized elemental release value for boron of 0.013 g/m{sup 2}. This boron release value is {approx} 640X lower than normalized boron release from current Environmental Assessment (EA) glass used for repository acceptance. The PCT-B (7, 14, 28 and 56-day, static test with powdered glass) normalized elemental releases were similar to the normalized elemental release values from PCT-A testing, indicating that the LaBS Frit B glass is very durable as measured by the PCT. Normalized plutonium releases were essentially the same within the analytical uncertainty of the ICP-MS methods used to quantify plutonium in the 0.45 {micro}m-filtered leachates and ultra-filtered leachates, indicating that colloidal plutonium species do not form under the PCT conditions used in this study.

  8. Direction of CRT waste glass processing: Electronics recycling industry communication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, Julia R., E-mail: mueller.143@osu.edu [Ohio State University, William G. Lowrie Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, OH (United States) and University of Queensland, School of Chemical Engineering (Australia) and Ohio State University, Materials Science and Engineering, OH (United States); Boehm, Michael W. [University of Queensland, School of Chemical Engineering (Australia); Drummond, Charles [Ohio State University, Materials Science and Engineering, OH (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Given a large flow rate of CRT glass {approx}10% of the panel glass stream will be leaded. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The supply of CRT waste glass exceeded demand in 2009. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recyclers should use UV-light to detect lead oxide during the separation process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recycling market analysis techniques and results are given for CRT glass. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Academic initiatives and the necessary expansion of novel product markets are discussed. - Abstract: Cathode Ray Tube, CRT, waste glass recycling has plagued glass manufacturers, electronics recyclers and electronics waste policy makers for decades because the total supply of waste glass exceeds demand, and the formulations of CRT glass are ill suited for most reuse options. The solutions are to separate the undesirable components (e.g. lead oxide) in the waste and create demand for new products. Achieving this is no simple feat, however, as there are many obstacles: limited knowledge of waste glass composition; limited automation in the recycling process; transportation of recycled material; and a weak and underdeveloped market. Thus one of the main goals of this paper is to advise electronic glass recyclers on how to best manage a diverse supply of glass waste and successfully market to end users. Further, this paper offers future directions for academic and industry research. To develop the recommendations offered here, a combination of approaches were used: (1) a thorough study of historic trends in CRT glass chemistry; (2) bulk glass collection and analysis of cullet from a large-scale glass recycler; (3) conversations with industry members and a review of potential applications; and (4) evaluation of the economic viability of specific uses for recycled CRT glass. If academia and industry can solve these problems (for example by creating a database of composition organized by manufacturer and glass source) then the reuse of CRT glass can be increased.

  9. Structure of rhenium-containing sodium borosilicate glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goel, Ashutosh; McCloy, John S.; Windisch, Charles F.; Riley, Brian J.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Ferreira, Jose M.

    2013-03-01

    A series of sodium borosilicate glasses were synthesized with increasing fractions of KReO4 or Re2O7, to 10000 ppm (1 mass%) target Re in glass, to assess the effects of large concentrations of rhenium on glass structure and to estimate the solubility of technetium, a radioactive component in typical low active waste nuclear waste glasses. Magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy were performed to characterize the glasses as a function of Re source additions. In general, silicon was found coordinated in a mixture of Q2 and Q3 structural units, while Al was 4-coordinated and B was largely 3-coordinate and partially 4-coordinated. The rhenium source did not appear to have significant effects on the glass structure. Thus, at the up to the concentrations that remain in dissolved in glass, ~3000 ppm Re by mass maximum. , the Re appeared to be neither a glass-former nor a strong glass modifier., Rhenium likely exists in isolated ReO4- anions in the interstices of the glass network, as evidenced by the polarized Raman spectrum of the Re glass in the absence of sulfate. Analogous to SO42-¬ in similar glasses, ReO4- is likely a network modifier and forms alkali salt phases on the surface and in the bulk glass above solubility.

  10. PLUTONIUM SOLUBILITY IN HIGH-LEVEL WASTE ALKALI BOROSILICATE GLASS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marra, J.; Crawford, C.; Fox, K.; Bibler, N.

    2011-01-04

    The solubility of plutonium in a Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) reference glass and the effect of incorporation of Pu in the glass on specific glass properties were evaluated. A Pu loading of 1 wt % in glass was studied. Prior to actual plutonium glass testing, surrogate testing (using Hf as a surrogate for Pu) was conducted to evaluate the homogeneity of significant quantities of Hf (Pu) in the glass, determine the most appropriate methods to evaluate homogeneity for Pu glass testing, and to evaluate the impact of Hf loading in the glass on select glass properties. Surrogate testing was conducted using Hf to represent between 0 and 1 wt % Pu in glass on an equivalent molar basis. A Pu loading of 1 wt % in glass translated to {approx}18 kg Pu per Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister, or about 10X the current allowed limit per the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (2500 g/m{sup 3} of glass or about 1700 g/canister) and about 30X the current allowable concentration based on the fissile material concentration limit referenced in the Yucca Mountain Project License Application (897 g/m{sup 3}3 of glass or about 600 g Pu/canister). Based on historical process throughput data, this level was considered to represent a reasonable upper bound for Pu loading based on the ability to provide Pu containing feed to the DWPF. The task elements included evaluating the distribution of Pu in the glass (e.g. homogeneity), evaluating crystallization within the glass, evaluating select glass properties (with surrogates), and evaluating durability using the Product Consistency Test -- Method A (PCT-A). The behavior of Pu in the melter was evaluated using paper studies and corresponding analyses of DWPF melter pour samples.The results of the testing indicated that at 1 wt % Pu in the glass, the Pu was homogeneously distributed and did not result in any formation of plutonium-containing crystalline phases as long as the glass was prepared under 'well-mixed' conditions. The incorporation of 1 wt % Pu in the glass did not adversely impact glass viscosity (as assessed using Hf surrogate) or glass durability. Finally, evaluation of DWPF glass pour samples that had Pu concentrations below the 897 g/m{sup 3} limit showed that Pu concentrations in the glass pour stream were close to targeted compositions in the melter feed indicating that Pu neither volatilized from the melt nor stratified in the melter when processed in the DWPF melter.

  11. Theoretical, Methodological, and Empirical Approaches to Cost Savings: A Compendium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M Weimar

    1998-12-10

    This publication summarizes and contains the original documentation for understanding why the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) privatization approach provides cost savings and the different approaches that could be used in calculating cost savings for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Phase I contract. The initial section summarizes the approaches in the different papers. The appendices are the individual source papers which have been reviewed by individuals outside of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the TWRS Program. Appendix A provides a theoretical basis for and estimate of the level of savings that can be" obtained from a fixed-priced contract with performance risk maintained by the contractor. Appendix B provides the methodology for determining cost savings when comparing a fixed-priced contractor with a Management and Operations (M&O) contractor (cost-plus contractor). Appendix C summarizes the economic model used to calculate cost savings and provides hypothetical output from preliminary calculations. Appendix D provides the summary of the approach for the DOE-Richland Operations Office (RL) estimate of the M&O contractor to perform the same work as BNFL Inc. Appendix E contains information on cost growth and per metric ton of glass costs for high-level waste at two other DOE sites, West Valley and Savannah River. Appendix F addresses a risk allocation analysis of the BNFL proposal that indicates,that the current approach is still better than the alternative.

  12. Thermally Activated Processes in Polymer Glasses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Parihar; D. Drosdoff; A. Widom; Y. N. Srivastava

    2005-12-03

    A derivation is given for the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann thermal activation law for the glassy state of a bulk polymer. Our microscopic considerations involve the entropy of closed polymer molecular chains (i.e. polymer closed strings). For thin film polymer glasses, one obtains open polymer strings in that the boundary surfaces serve as possible string endpoint locations. The Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann thermal activation law thereby holds true for a bulk polymer glass but is modified in the neighborhood of the boundaries of thin film polymers.

  13. Two glass transitions in miscible polymer blends?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudowicz, Jacek; Freed, Karl F.; Douglas, Jack F.

    2014-06-28

    In contrast to mixtures of two small molecule fluids, miscible binary polymer blends often exhibit two structural relaxation times and two glass transition temperatures. Qualitative explanations postulate phenomenological models of local concentration enhancements due to chain connectivity in ideal, fully miscible systems. We develop a quantitative theory that explains qualitative trends in the dynamics of real miscible polymer blends which are never ideal mixtures. The theory is a synthesis of the lattice cluster theory of blend thermodynamics, the generalized entropy theory for glass-formation in polymer materials, and the Kirkwood-Buff theory for concentration fluctuations in binary mixtures.

  14. Nonlinear mechanics of thermoreversibly associating dendrimer glasses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arvind Srikanth; Robert S. Hoy; Berend C. Rinderspacher; Jan W. Andzelm

    2013-08-06

    We model the mechanics of associating trivalent dendrimer network glasses with a focus on their energy dissipation properties. Various combinations of sticky bond (SB) strength and kinetics are employed. The toughness (work-to-fracture) of these systems displays a surprising deformation-protocol dependence; different association parameters optimize different properties. In particular, "strong, slow" SBs optimize strength, while "weak, fast" SBs optimize ductility via self-healing during deformation. We relate these observations to breaking, reformation, and partner-switching of SBs during deformation. These studies point the way to creating associating-polymer network glasses with tailorable mechanical properties.

  15. Energy Assessment Protocol for Glass Furnaces 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plodinec, M. J.; Kauffman, B. M.; Norton, O. P.; Richards, C.; Connors, J.; Wishnick, D.

    2005-01-01

    of the protocol are implemented, resulting in cost savings of greater than $200,000 per year. PROJECT OVERVIEW The glass industry is a major energy consumer. Depending on the market sector, a glass furnace heated by oxy-fuel burners may use from 3..., the manufacturer of the burners used in the PPG furnace, brought extensive field experience to the team, as well as in-depth knowledge of burner performance. ENERGY ASSESSMENT PROTOCOL The project team developed the protocol based on DIAL, Eclipse and PPG...

  16. Scaling of fluctuations in a colloidal glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Wang; C. Song; H. A. Makse

    2006-11-01

    We report experimental measurements of particle dynamics in a colloidal glass in order to understand the dynamical heterogeneities associated with the cooperative motion of the particles in the glassy regime. We study the local and global fluctuation of correlation and response functions in an aging colloidal glass. The observables display universal scaling behavior following a modified power-law, with a plateau dominating the less heterogeneous short-time regime and a power-law tail dominating the highly heterogeneous long-time regime.

  17. Glass Mountain Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar2-0057-EA Jump to:ofEniaElectric Jump to:GerGlacialGlacialGlass ButtesGlass

  18. Radiative Heat Transfer in Enhanced Hydrogen Outgassing of Glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kitamura, Rei; Pilon, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    reduction of iron in soda-lime-silicate glasses by reactionand solubility [13]. In soda-lime silicate glass, Johnston0.4 and 0.8 µm for soda-lime silicate. Rapp [9] con?rmed

  19. Effect of furnace atmosphere on E-glass foaming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, D. S.; Dutton, Bryan C.; Hrma, Pavel R.; Pilon, Laurent

    2006-01-01

    on soda-silicate or soda-lime- silicate melts [2-5,9], or on6]. However, even for soda- lime glasses and metallurgicalon the foaming of soda-lime glass batch in air atmospheres

  20. Combustion Technology Development for an Advanced Glass Melting System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stickler, D. B.; Westra, L.; Woodroffe, J.; Jeong, K. M.; Donaldson, L. W.

    1987-01-01

    Concept feasibility of an innovative technology for glass production has recently been demonstrated. It is based on suspension heating of the glass-forming batch minerals while entrained in a combustion flow of preheated air and natural gas...

  1. A user interface for customizing cane layouts in Virtual Glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baldauf, Kimberly (Kimberly B.)

    2013-01-01

    Cane pulling is a technique used in glass blowing to build up intricate patterns which come out in the final piece. Virtual Glass was created to model the cane pulling process from start to finish. There are a variety of ...

  2. Improving Glass Walls Thermal Resistance In Air-Conditioned Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galal, T.; Kulaib, A. M.; Alajmi, R.; Al-Ansary. A; Abuzaid, M.

    2010-01-01

    walls; as one of envelope surfaces; has an important impact on solar radiation. Design and construction of glass walls have significant effects on building comfort and energy consumption. This paper describes methods of improving glass walls thermal...

  3. Electrical and optical properties of vanadium tellurite glasses 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flynn, Brian William

    1977-01-01

    Glasses in the system v?o?-Te0? were prepared at intervals throughout the glass-forming composition range. The vanadium valence state was varied for each composition by the addition of elemental tellurium to reduce the ...

  4. Development of a Mechanistic-Based Healing Model for Self-Healing Glass Seals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Wei; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Zbib, Hussein M.

    2012-10-01

    Self-healing glass, a recent development of hermetic sealant materials, has the ability to effectively repair damage when heated to elevated temperatures; thus, able to extend its service life. Since crack healing morphological changes in the glass material are usually temperature and stress dependent, quantitative studies to determine the effects of thermo-mechanical conditions on the healing behavior of the self-healing glass sealants are extremely useful to accommodate the design and optimization of the sealing systems within SOFCs. The goal of this task is to develop a mechanistic-based healing model to quantify the stress and temperature dependent healing behavior. A two-step healing mechanism was developed and implemented into finite element (FE) models through user-subroutines. Integrated experimental/kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) simulation methodology was taken to calibrate the model parameters. The crack healing model is able to investigate the effects of various thermo-mechanical factors; therefore, able to determine the critical conditions under which the healing mechanism will be activated. Furthermore, the predicted results can be used to formulate the continuum damage-healing model and to assist the SOFC stack level simulations in predicting and evaluating the effectiveness and the performance of various engineering seal designs.

  5. ORNL superhydrophobic glass coating offers clear benefits | ornl...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    interconnected nanoporous nature of our coatings significantly suppresses Fresnel light reflections from glass surfaces, providing enhanced transmission over a wide...

  6. Energy efficient residential new construction: market transformation. Spectral selective glass. Final project report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammon, Robert

    2000-12-18

    This final report describes the following tasks associated with this project: cost and availability of spectrally selective glass (SSG); window labeling problem and field verification of glass; availability of SSG replacement glass and tempered glass; HVAC load reduction due to spectrally selective glass; and comsumer appreciation of spectrally selective glass. Also included in the report are four attachments: builder and HVAC subcontractor presentation, sample advertisements, spectrally selective glass demonstration model, and invitation to SCE Glass mini trade-show.

  7. GLASS TRANSITION SEEN THROUGH ASYMPTOTIC JULIEN OLIVIER AND MICHAEL RENARDY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GLASS TRANSITION SEEN THROUGH ASYMPTOTIC EXPANSIONS JULIEN OLIVIER AND MICHAEL RENARDY Abstract of the model at low shear rate changes when a certain parameter (which we call the glass parameter) crosses´ebraud-Lequeux model, a Fokker-Planck-like description of soft glassy material, exhibits such a glass transition

  8. Glass Concrete Thin Sheets Reinforced with Prestressed Aramid Fabrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyer, Christian

    Glass Concrete Thin Sheets Reinforced with Prestressed Aramid Fabrics Gregor Vilkner Submitted Glass Concrete Thin Sheets Reinforced with Prestressed Aramid Fabrics Gregor Vilkner Thin sheet concrete crushed glass as aggregate, a multitude of different esthetic effects can be produced, which again open up

  9. Saga of Glass Damage in Urban Environments Continues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kareem, Ahsan

    Saga of Glass Damage in Urban Environments Continues: Consequences of Aerodynamics and Debris Laboratory University of Notre Dame The Saga of Glass Damage in Urban Environments Continues: Consequences east of the city of Houston. Initial reconnaissance suggested that the observed glass/cladding damage

  10. A new method for solving radiative heat problems in glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

    RANA 99­06 A new method for solving radiative heat problems in glass B.J. van der Linden --- R, The Netherlands e­mail: linden@win.tue.nl 15th May 2000 #12; Abstract In the production of glass, temperature Conclusion 25 2 #12; Chapter 1 Introduction The production of glass belongs to the oldest forms of human

  11. Calorimetric glass transition explained by hierarchical dynamic facilitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garrahan, Juan P.

    Calorimetric glass transition explained by hierarchical dynamic facilitation Aaron S. Keysa Contributed by David Chandler, February 11, 2013 (sent for review November 15, 2012) The glass transition different on cooling than on heating, and the response to melting a glass depends markedly on the cooling

  12. A new method for solving radiative heat problems in glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

    RANA 99-06 A new method for solving radiative heat problems in glass B.J. van der Linden -- R, The Netherlands e-mail: linden@win.tue.nl 15th May 2000 #12;Abstract In the production of glass, temperature plays Conclusion 25 2 #12;Chapter 1 Introduction The production of glass belongs to the oldest forms of human

  13. 5D Data Storage by Ultrafast Laser Nanostructuring in Glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Jim

    5D Data Storage by Ultrafast Laser Nanostructuring in Glass Jingyu Zhang* , Mindaugas Gecevicius-assembled form birefringence and retrieved in glass opening the era of unlimited lifetime data storage. © 2013 laser writing in glass were proposed for the polarization multiplexed optical memory, where

  14. Rectilinear Glass-Cut Dissections of Rectangles to Squares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Urrutia, Jorge

    Rectilinear Glass-Cut Dissections of Rectangles to Squares Jurek Czyzowicz§ czyzowic is made using only rectilinear glass-cuts, i.e., vertical or horizontal straight-line cuts separating pieces into two. 1 Introduction A glass-cut of a rectangle is a cut by a straight-line segment

  15. Department of Electrical Engineering Spring 2011 Glass Block Solar Collector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirel, Melik C.

    PENNSTATE Department of Electrical Engineering Spring 2011 Glass Block Solar Collector Overview of the team to incorporate solar collectors into glass blocks and provide an application for the collected energy. Objectives The team's objective was to deliver a working glass block solar collector

  16. Nanodiamond in tellurite glass Part I: origin of loss in nanodiamond-doped glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Heike; Ji, Hong; Greentree, Andrew D; Gibson, Brant C; Monro, Tanya M

    2014-01-01

    Tellurite glass fibers with embedded nanodiamond are attractive materials for quantum photonic applications. Reducing the loss of these fibers in the 600-800 nm wavelength range of nanodiamond fluorescence is essential to exploit the unique properties of nanodiamond in the new hybrid material. In the first part of this study, we report the effect of interaction of the tellurite glass melt with the embedded nanodiamond on the loss of the glasses. The glass fabrication conditions such as melting temperature and concentration of NDs added to the melt were found to have critical influence on the interaction. Based on this understanding, we identified promising fabrication conditions for decreasing the loss to levels required for practical applications.

  17. Glass Forming Ability and Relaxation Behavior of Zr Based Metallic Glasses 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kamath, Aravind Miyar

    2012-07-16

    was studied by using thermal techniques to determine important GFA indicators for Zr-based bulk metallic glasses (BMG). The effect of alloying elements, annealing temperature and annealing time on the thermal and structural relaxation of the BMGs was studied...

  18. Modeling Human Foraging Brian D. Glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maddox, W. Todd

    Modeling Human Foraging Brian D. Glass Department of Psychology University of Texas at Austin Thanks to W. Todd Maddox Arthur B. Markman Scott Lauritzen Cognition & Perception Group #12;Foraging What from group experiments like these? You learn about group behavior, with little to say about behavior

  19. Equilibrium ultrastable glasses produced by random pinning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glen M Hocky; Ludovic Berthier; David R. Reichman

    2014-12-08

    Ultrastable glasses have risen to prominence due to their potentially useful material properties and the tantalizing possibility of a general method of preparation via vapor deposition. Despite the importance of this novel class of amorphous materials, numerical studies have been scarce because achieving ultrastability in atomistic simulations is an enormous challenge. Here we bypass this difficulty and establish that randomly pinning the position of a small fraction of particles inside an equilibrated supercooled liquid generates ultrastable configurations at essentially no numerical cost, while avoiding undesired structural changes due to the preparation protocol. Building on the analogy with vapor-deposited ultrastable glasses, we study the melting kinetics of these configurations following a sudden temperature jump into the liquid phase. In homogeneous geometries, we find that enhanced kinetic stability is accompanied by large scale dynamic heterogeneity, while a competition between homogeneous and heterogeneous melting is observed when a liquid boundary invades the glass at constant velocity. Our work demonstrates the feasibility of large-scale, atomistically resolved, and experimentally relevant simulations of the kinetics of ultrastable glasses.

  20. Mössbauer study of conductive oxide glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsuda, Koken; Kubuki, Shiro [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachi-Oji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Nishida, Tetsuaki, E-mail: nishida@fuk.kindai.ac.jp [Kinki University, Iizuka, Fukuoka 820-8555 (Japan)

    2014-10-27

    Heat treatment of barium iron vanadate glass, BaO?Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}?V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, at temperatures higher than crystallization temperature causes a marked decrease in resistivity (?) from several M?cm to several ?cm. {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectrum of heat-treated vanadate glass shows a marked decrease in quadrupole splitting (?) of Fe{sup III}, reflecting a structural relaxation, i.e., an increased symmetry of 'distorted' FeO{sub 4} and VO{sub 4} tetrahedra which are connected to each other by sharing corner oxygen atoms. Structural relaxation of 3D-network of vanadate glass accompanies a decrease in the activation energy for the conduction, reflecting a decreased energy gap between the donor level and conduction band. A marked increase in the conductivity was observed in CuO- or Cu{sub 2}O-containing barium iron vanadate glass after heat treatment at 450 °C for 30 min or more. 'n-type semiconductor model combined with small polaron hopping theory' was proposed in order to explain the high conductivity.

  1. Overview of Energy Efficiency for Glass Furnace

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banerjee, Rangan

    ,Particulates (Environmental norms) Global competitiveness #12;3 April, 2006 4Source: www.oilnergy.com Crude Oil Price #12, 2006 8 Energy Consumption in Glass Plant Melting 75% Forehearth 7% Anneling 4% Other 10% Printing Energy Consumption Specific Energy Consumption (SEC)­ Energy Consumption per unit of product output Units

  2. Perceptual learning of context-sensitive phonetic detail

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barden, Katharine

    2011-07-12

    detail relating to grammatical function and meaning …………… 7 1.3.5 Phonetic detail conditioned by interactional context ……………………… 8 1.3.5.1 Turn-taking cues ……………………………………………………. 8 1.3.5.2 Phonetic detail reflecting pragmatic... …………………………………………………………………… 72 3.7.2 Materials ………………………………………………………………….. 73 3.7.2.1 Training materials: Story ….………………………………………. 73 3.7.2.2 Test materials: Sentence completion … …………………………... 73 3.7.3 Procedure …………………………………………………………………. 74 3.8...

  3. Geologic selection methodology for transportation corridor routing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shultz, Karin Wilson

    2002-01-01

    A lack of planning techniques and processes on long, linear, cut and cover-tunneling route transportation systems has resulted because of the advancement of transportation systems into underground corridors. The proposed methodology is tested...

  4. Limitations with Activity Recognition Methodology & Data Sets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weiss, Gary

    raw AR sensor data, but the methodology used to build and evaluate AR systems. In this paper we focus, not just in metadata associated with the data sets. A key concern of this paper is not just the underlying

  5. Detailed Assessment of Particulate Characteristics from Low-Temperatur...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Assessment of Particulate Characteristics from Low-Temperature Combustion Engines Detailed Assessment of Particulate Characteristics from Low-Temperature Combustion Engines 2012...

  6. Two Studies Reveal Details of Lithium-Battery Function

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Two Studies Reveal Details of Lithium-Battery Function Print Our way of life is deeply intertwined with battery technologies that have enabled a mobile revolution powering cell...

  7. Trends in Commercial Buildings--Total Primary Energy Detail

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Consumption and Graph Total Primary Energy Consumption Graph Detail and Data Table 1979 to 1992 primary consumption trend with 95% confidence ranges 1979 to 1992 primary...

  8. Trends in Commercial Buildings--Total Site Energy Detail

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Consumption and Graph Total Site Energy Consumption Graph Detail and Data Table 1979 to 1992 site consumption trend with 95% confidence ranges 1979 to 1992 site...

  9. Sandia Energy - CNST and Sandia Researchers Publish a Detailed...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CNST and Sandia Researchers Publish a Detailed Review of Electrical Contacts in One- and Two-Dimensional Nanomaterials Home News News & Events CNST and Sandia Researchers Publish a...

  10. Premiere issue of "Quest" magazine details PPPL's strides toward...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Premiere issue of "Quest" magazine details PPPL's strides toward fusion energy and advances in plasma science September 5, 2013 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook Quest...

  11. Detailed Characterization of Lubricant-Derived Ash-Related Species...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Characterization of Lubricant-Derived Ash-Related Species in Diesel Exhaust and Aftertreatment Systems Detailed Characterization of Lubricant-Derived Ash-Related Species in Diesel...

  12. A Stochastic Reactor Based Virtual Engine Model Employing Detailed...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Stochastic Reactor Based Virtual Engine Model Employing Detailed Chemistry for Kinetic Studies of In-Cylinder Combustion and Exhaust Aftertreatment A Stochastic Reactor Based...

  13. INFILTRATION - PRESSURIZATION CORRELATIONS: DETAILED MEASUREMENT ON A CALIFORNIA HOUSE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grimsrud, D.T.

    2011-01-01

    Systems. Abstract Infiltration studies have been carried outThis paper describes infiltration studies in a single-familyreported a detailed study of infiltration rates measured

  14. HIGH ALUMINUM HLW GLASSES FOR HANFORDS WTP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRUGER AA; JOSEPH I; BOWMAN BW; GAN H; KOT W; MATLACK KS; PEGG IL

    2009-08-19

    The world's largest radioactive waste vitrification facility is now under construction at the United State Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford site. The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is designed to treat nearly 53 million gallons of mixed hazardous and radioactive waste now residing in 177 underground storage tanks. This multi-decade processing campaign will be one of the most complex ever undertaken because of the wide chemical and physical variability of the waste compositions generated during the cold war era that are stored at Hanford. The DOE Office of River Protection (ORP) has initiated a program to improve the long-term operating efficiency of the WTP vitrification plants with the objective of reducing the overall cost of tank waste treatment and disposal and shortening the duration of plant operations. Due to the size, complexity and duration of the WTP mission, the lifecycle operating and waste disposal costs are substantial. As a result, gains in High Level Waste (HLW) and Low Activity Waste (LAW) waste loadings, as well as increases in glass production rate, which can reduce mission duration and glass volumes for disposal, can yield substantial overall cost savings. EnergySolutions and its long-term research partner, the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) of the Catholic University of America, have been involved in a multi-year ORP program directed at optimizing various aspects of the HLW and LAW vitrification flow sheets. A number of Hanford HLW streams contain high concentrations of aluminum, which is challenging with respect to both waste loading and processing rate. Therefore, a key focus area of the ORP vitrification process optimization program at EnergySolutions and VSL has been development of HLW glass compositions that can accommodate high Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations while maintaining high processing rates in the Joule Heated Ceramic Melters (JHCMs) used for waste vitrification at the WTP. This paper, reviews the achievements of this program with emphasis on the recent enhancements in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} loadings in HLW glass and its processing characteristics. Glass formulation development included crucible-scale preparation and characterization of glass samples to assess compliance with all melt processing and product quality requirements, followed by small-scale screening tests to estimate processing rates. These results were used to down-select formulations for subsequent engineering-scale melter testing. Finally, further testing was performed on the DM1200 vitrification system installed at VSL, which is a one-third scale (1.20 m{sup 2}) pilot melter for the WTP HLW melters and which is fitted with a fully prototypical off-gas treatment system. These tests employed glass formulations with high waste loadings and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} contents of {approx}25 wt%, which represents a near-doubling of the present WTP baseline maximum Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} loading. In addition, these formulations were processed successfully at glass production rates that exceeded the present requirements for WTP HLW vitrification by up to 88%. The higher aluminum loading in the HLW glass has an added benefit in that the aluminum leaching requirements in pretreatment are reduced, thus allowing less sodium addition in pretreatment, which in turn reduces the amount of LAW glass to be produced at the WTP. The impact of the results from this ORP program in reducing the overall cost and schedule for the Hanford waste treatment mission will be discussed.

  15. Blocking effect of crystal–glass interface in lanthanum doped barium strontium titanate glass–ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Xiangrong; Zhang, Yong; Baturin, Ivan; Liang, Tongxiang

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: The blocking effect of the crystal–glass interface on the carrier transport behavior in the lanthanum doped barium strontium titanate glass–ceramics: preparation and characterization. - Highlights: • La{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition promotes the crystallization of the major crystalline phase. • The Z? and M? peaks exist a significant mismatch for 0.5 mol% La{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition. • The Z? and M? peaks separate obviously for 1.0 mol% La{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition. • Crystallite impedance decreases while crystal–glass interface impedance increases. • La{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition increases blocking factor of the crystal–glass interface. - Abstract: The microstructures and dielectric properties in La{sub 2}O{sub 3}-doped barium strontium titanate glass–ceramics have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and impedance spectroscopy. SEM analysis indicated that La{sub 2}O{sub 3} additive decreases the average crystallite size. Impedance spectroscopy revealed that the positions of Z? and M? peaks are close for undoped samples. When La{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration is 0.5 mol%, the Z? and M? peaks show a significant mismatch. Furthermore, these peaks separate obviously for 1.0 mol% La{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition. With increasing La{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration, the contribution of the crystallite impedance becomes smaller, while the contribution of the crystal–glass interface impedance becomes larger. More interestingly, it was found that La{sub 2}O{sub 3} additive increases blocking factor of the crystal–glass interface in the temperature range of 250–450 °C. This may be attributed to a decrease of activation energy of the crystallite and an increase of the crystal–glass interface area.

  16. Aggregate Building Simulator (ABS) Methodology Development, Application, and User Manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dirks, James A.; Gorrissen, Willy J.

    2011-11-30

    As the relationship between the national building stock and various global energy issues becomes a greater concern, it has been deemed necessary to develop a system of predicting the energy consumption of large groups of buildings. Ideally this system is to take advantage of the most advanced energy simulation software available, be able to execute runs quickly, and provide concise and useful results at a level of detail that meets the users needs without inundating them with data. The resulting methodology that was developed allows the user to quickly develop and execute energy simulations of many buildings simultaneously, taking advantage of parallel processing to greatly reduce total simulation times. The result of these simulations can then be rapidly condensed and presented in a useful and intuitive manner.

  17. Process of Integrating Screening and Detailed Risk-based Modeling Analyses to Ensure Consistent and Scientifically Defensible Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buck, John W.; McDonald, John P.; Taira, Randal Y.

    2002-11-01

    To support cleanup and closure of these tanks, modeling is performed to understand and predict potential impacts to human health and the environment. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed a screening tool for the United States Department of Energy, Office of River Protection that estimates the long-term human health risk, from a strategic planning perspective, posed by potential tank releases to the environment. This tool is being conditioned to more detailed model analyses to ensure consistency between studies and to provide scientific defensibility. Once the conditioning is complete, the system will be used to screen alternative cleanup and closure strategies. The integration of screening and detailed models provides consistent analyses, efficiencies in resources, and positive feedback between the various modeling groups. This approach of conditioning a screening methodology to more detailed analyses provides decision-makers with timely and defensible information and increases confidence in the results on the part of clients, regulators, and stakeholders.

  18. Crystallisation Within Simulated High Level Waste Borosilicate Glass Peter B. Rose, Michael I. Ojovan, Neil C. Hyatt and William E. Lee

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheffield, University of

    . INTRODUCTION In the UK, high level radioactive waste (HLW) arising from the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel produced from waste arising from the reprocessing of Magnox nuclear fuel. Table II details the composition and La) as well as a Si-rich phase. 75/25 glass, comprising a blend of reprocessing waste derived from UO

  19. Influence of glass polymerisation and oxidation on micro-Raman water analysis in alumino-silicate glasses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Influence of glass polymerisation and oxidation on micro-Raman water analysis in alumino-silicate glasses Maxime Merciera, Andrea Di Muroab , Daniele Giordanoc , Nicole Métricha , Priscille Lesned of an accurate analytical procedure for determination of dissolved water in complex alumino-silicate glasses via

  20. Coating Glass Cells with OTS The glass cells we use to polarize xenon or to store polarized

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walsworth, Ronald L.

    Coating Glass Cells with OTS The glass cells we use to polarize xenon or to store polarized xenon need to be coated. This is because without coating wall collisions of the xenon can bring with a trichlorosilane at one end. In the coating process that group binds to the silicates in the glass, relinquishing

  1. Photograph from Ruth Glass Obituary in The Times 9th March 1990. Ruth Adele Glass [ne Lazarus] (1912 1990), sociologist, was born on 30 June 1912 in Berlin,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RUTH GLASS Photograph from Ruth Glass Obituary in The Times 9th March 1990. Ruth Adele Glass [née, published in 1939, established her reputation as a social scientist. From 1940 until 1942 Ruth Glass College London, which remained her academic base for the rest of her life. In 1951 Ruth Glass became

  2. Glass transitions in two-dimensional suspensions of colloidal ellipsoids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhongyu Zheng; Feng Wang; Yilong Han

    2011-05-29

    We observed a two-step glass transition in monolayers of colloidal ellipsoids by video microscopy. The glass transition in the rotational degree of freedom was at a lower density than that in the translational degree of freedom. Between the two transitions, ellipsoids formed an orientational glass. Approaching the respective glass transitions, the rotational and translational fastest-moving particles in the supercooled liquid moved cooperatively and formed clusters with power-law size distributions. The mean cluster sizes diverge in power law as approaching the glass transitions. The clusters of translational and rotational fastest-moving ellipsoids formed mainly within pseudo-nematic domains, and around the domain boundaries, respectively.

  3. Rapid process for producing transparent, monolithic porous glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coronado, Paul R. (Livermore, CA)

    2006-02-14

    A process for making transparent porous glass monoliths from gels. The glass is produced much faster and in much larger sizes than present technology for making porous glass. The process reduces the cost of making large porous glass monoliths because: 1) the process does not require solvent exchange nor additives to the gel to increase the drying rates, 2) only moderate temperatures and pressures are used so relatively inexpensive equipment is needed, an 3) net-shape glass monoliths are possible using this process. The process depends on the use of temperature to control the partial pressure of the gel solvent in a closed vessel, resulting in controlled shrinking during drying.

  4. Fracture Toughness of Metallic Glasses: Ductile-to-Brittle Transition?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rycroft, Chris H

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative understanding of the fracture toughness of metallic glasses, including the associated ductile-to-brittle transitions, is not yet available. Here we use a simple model of plastic deformation in glasses, coupled to an advanced Eulerian level set formulation for solving complex free boundary problems, to calculate the fracture toughness of metallic glasses as a function of the degree of structural relaxation corresponding to different annealing times near the glass temperature. Our main result indicates the existence of an elasto-plastic crack tip instability for sufficiently relaxed glasses, resulting in a marked drop in the toughness, which we interpret as a ductile-to-brittle transition similar to experimental observations.

  5. Sealed glass coating of high temperature ceramic superconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, W.; Chu, C.Y.; Goretta, K.C.; Routbort, J.L.

    1995-05-02

    A method and article of manufacture of a lead oxide based glass coating on a high temperature superconductor is disclosed. The method includes preparing a dispersion of glass powders in a solution, applying the dispersion to the superconductor, drying the dispersion before applying another coating and heating the glass powder dispersion at temperatures below oxygen diffusion onset and above the glass melting point to form a continuous glass coating on the superconductor to establish compressive stresses which enhance the fracture strength of the superconductor. 8 figs.

  6. Motivation Methodology Conclusions A Fault Tolerance Bisimulation Proof for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francalanza, Adrian

    Motivation Methodology Conclusions A Fault Tolerance Bisimulation Proof for Consensus Adrian of Somewhere and Elsewhere A Fault Tolerance Bisimulation Proof for Consensus #12;Motivation Methodology Conclusions Outline 1 Motivation 2 Methodology 3 Conclusions Adrian Francalanza, Matthew Hennessy Universities

  7. Radiation Therapy Program Technical Standards Self-Assessment and Details

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacMillan, Andrew

    Radiation Therapy Program Technical Standards Self-Assessment and Details Original Approval Date Therapy Program (referred to as the "Program") Technical Standards Policy and Procedure, available of the Radiation Therapy Program. #12;Radiation Therapy Program Technical Standards Self-Assessment and Details 3

  8. A detailed systematic review of the recent literature on environmental

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    EA 4272 A detailed systematic review of the recent literature on environmental Kuznets curve detailed systematic review of the recent literature on environmental Kuznets curve dealing with CO2 Marie the early 90', many articles have been published on Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC), especially empirical

  9. Note: Instructions for Completing in [Italics] SCHEDULE OF PROJECT DETAILS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kamat, Vineet R.

    ] ___________________________________________________________________________________ Design Professional - Schedule of Project Details Page 1 of 6 Form Date: CM January 2015 #12;The Basic-consultants that are included in the Basic Services are as follows: Firm Name Type of Architect/Engineer 5. ReimbursableNote: Instructions for Completing in [Italics] SCHEDULE OF PROJECT DETAILS for the Agreement

  10. Painting Detail Nathan A. Carr John C. Hart

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Painting Detail Nathan A. Carr John C. Hart University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign Static painting, whereas a multiresolution meshed atlas (right) dynamically resizes its charts during the painting process to better sample the texture signal, especially in areas of fine detail. Abstract Surface painting

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF GLASS MATRICES FOR HLW RADIOACTIVE WASTES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C.

    2010-03-18

    Vitrification is currently the most widely used technology for the treatment of high level radioactive wastes (HLW) throughout the world. Most of the nations that have generated HLW are immobilizing in either borosilicate glass or phosphate glass. One of the primary reasons that glass has become the most widely used immobilization media is the relative simplicity of the vitrification process, e.g. melt waste plus glass forming frit additives and cast. A second reason that glass has become widely used for HLW is that the short range order (SRO) and medium range order (MRO) found in glass atomistically bonds the radionuclides and governs the melt properties such as viscosity, resistivity, sulphate solubility. The molecular structure of glass controls contaminant/radionuclide release by establishing the distribution of ion exchange sites, hydrolysis sites, and the access of water to those sites. The molecular structure is flexible and hence accounts for the flexibility of glass formulations to waste variability. Nuclear waste glasses melt between 1050-1150 C which minimizes the volatility of radioactive components such as Tc{sup 99}, Cs{sup 137}, and I{sup 129}. Nuclear waste glasses have good long term stability including irradiation resistance. Process control models based on the molecular structure of glass have been mechanistically derived and have been demonstrated to be accurate enough to control the world's largest HLW Joule heated ceramic melter in the US since 1996 at 95% confidence.

  12. System and method for glass processing and temperature sensing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepard, Chester L.; Cannon, Bret D.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2004-09-28

    Techniques for measuring the temperature at various locations through the thickness of glass products and to control the glass processing operation with the sensed temperature information are disclosed. Fluorescence emission of iron or cerium in glass is excited and imaged onto segmented detectors. Spatially resolved temperature data are obtained through correlation of the detected photoluminescence signal with location within the glass. In one form the detected photoluminescence is compared to detected scattered excitation light to determine temperature. Stress information is obtained from the time history of the temperature profile data and used to evaluate the quality of processed glass. A heating or cooling rate of the glass is also controlled to maintain a predetermined desired temperature profile in the glass.

  13. Low melting high lithia glass compositions and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jantzen, Carol M.; Pickett, John B.; Cicero-Herman, Connie A.; Marra, James C.

    2003-09-23

    The invention relates to methods of vitrifying waste and for lowering the melting point of glass forming systems by including lithia formers in the glass forming composition in significant amounts, typically from about 0.16 wt % to about 11 wt %, based on the total glass forming oxides. The lithia is typically included as a replacement for alkali oxide glass formers that would normally be present in a particular glass forming system. Replacement can occur on a mole percent or weight percent basis, and typically results in a composition wherein lithia forms about 10 wt % to about 100 wt % of the alkali oxide glass formers present in the composition. The present invention also relates to the high lithia glass compositions formed by these methods. The invention is useful for stabilization of numerous types of waste materials, including aqueous waste uranium oxides The decrease in melting point achieved by the present invention desirably prevents volatilization of hazardous or radioactive species during vitrification.

  14. Ammonia-treated phosphate glasses useful for sealing to metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brow, R.K.; Day, D.E.

    1991-09-03

    A method of improving surface-dependent properties of phosphate glass such as durability and wear resistance without significantly affecting its thermal expansion coefficient is provided which comprises annealing the glass in a dry ammonia atmosphere at temperatures approximating the transition temperature of the glass. The ammonia annealing treatment of the present invention is carried out for a time sufficient to allow incorporation of a thin layer of nitrogen into the surface of the phosphate glass, and the treatment improves the durability of the glass without the reduction in the thermal expansion coefficient that has restricted the effectiveness of prior ammonia treatments. The improved phosphate glass resulting from this method is superior in wear resistance, yet maintains suitable thermal expansion properties so that it may be used effectively in a variety of applications requiring hermetic glass-metal seals.

  15. Modeling of Diesel Exhaust Systems: A methodology to better simulate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Diesel Exhaust Systems: A methodology to better simulate soot reactivity Modeling of Diesel Exhaust Systems: A methodology to better simulate soot reactivity Discussed...

  16. New Methodologies for Analysis of Premixed Charge Compression...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    New Methodologies for Analysis of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Engines New Methodologies for Analysis of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Engines Presentation given at...

  17. Biopower Report Presents Methodology for Assessing the Value...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Report Presents Methodology for Assessing the Value of Co-Firing Biomass in Pulverized Coal Plants Biopower Report Presents Methodology for Assessing the Value of Co-Firing...

  18. Methodology for Estimating Reductions of GHG Emissions from Mosaic...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Methodology for Estimating Reductions of GHG Emissions from Mosaic Deforestation Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Methodology for Estimating Reductions of...

  19. Hydrogen Program Goal-Setting Methodologies Report to Congress...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    to Congress, published in August 2006, focuses on the methodologies used by the DOE Hydrogen Program for goal-setting. Hydrogen Program Goal-Setting Methodologies Report to...

  20. Application of Random Vibration Theory Methodology for Seismic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Random Vibration Theory Methodology for Seismic Soil-Structure Interaction Analysis Application of Random Vibration Theory Methodology for Seismic Soil-Structure Interaction...

  1. Barr Engineering Statement of Methodology Rosemount Wind Turbine...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Barr Engineering Statement of Methodology Rosemount Wind Turbine Simulations by Truescape Visual Reality, DOEEA-1791 (May 2010) Barr Engineering Statement of Methodology Rosemount...

  2. Methodology for Carbon Accounting of Grouped Mosaic and Landscape...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mosaic and Landscape-scale REDD Projects Screenshot References: Methodology for Carbon Accounting of Grouped Mosaic and Landscape-scale REDD Projects1 "This methodology sets...

  3. Validation of Hydrogen Exchange Methodology on Molecular Sieves...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Validation of Hydrogen Exchange Methodology on Molecular Sieves for Tritium Removal from Contaminated Water Validation of Hydrogen Exchange Methodology on Molecular Sieves for...

  4. A Discotic Disguised as a Smectic: A Hybrid Columnar Bragg Glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karl Saunders; Leo Radzihovsky; John Toner

    2000-10-14

    We show that discotics, lying deep in the columnar phase, can exhibit an x-ray scattering pattern which mimics that of a somewhat unusual smectic liquid crystal. This exotic, new glassy phase of columnar liquid crystals, which we call a ``hybrid columnar Bragg glass'', can be achieved by confining a columnar liquid crystal in an anisotropic random environment of e.g., strained aerogel. Long-ranged orientational order in this phase makes {\\em single domain} x-ray scattering possible, from which a wealth of information could be extracted. We give detailed quantitative predictions for the scattering pattern in addition to exponents characterizing anomalous elasticity of the system.

  5. The Ising spin glass in finite dimensions: a perturbative study of the free energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tamas Temesvari

    2009-11-02

    Replica field theory is used to study the n-dependent free energy of the Ising spin glass in a first order perturbative treatment. Large sample-to-sample deviations of the free energy from its quenched average prove to be Gaussian, independently of the special structure of the order parameter. The free energy difference between the replica symmetric and (infinite level) replica symmetry broken phases is studied in details: the line n(T) where it is zero coincides with the Almeida-Thouless line for d>8. The dimensional domain 6

  6. Glass transition and crystallization kinetics of a barium borosilicate glass by a non-isothermal method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopes, Andreia A. S.; Soares, Roque S.; Lima, Maria M. A.; Monteiro, Regina C. C., E-mail: rcm@fct.unl.pt [Department of Materials Science, CENIMAT/I3N, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)

    2014-01-28

    The glass transition and crystallization kinetics of a glass with a molar composition 60BaO-30B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-10SiO{sub 2} were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) under non-isothermal conditions. DSC curves exhibited an endothermic peak associated with the glass transition and two partially overlapped exothermic peaks associated with the crystallization of the glass. The dependence of the glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) and of the maximum crystallization temperature (T{sub p}) on the heating rate was used to determine the activation energy associated with the glass transition (E{sub g}), the activation energy for crystallization (E{sub c}), and the Avrami exponent (n). X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed that barium borate (?-BaB{sub 2}O{sub 4}) was the first crystalline phase to be formed followed by the formation of barium silicate (Ba{sub 5}Si{sub 8}O{sub 21}). The variations of activation energy for crystallization and of Avrami exponent with the fraction of crystallization (?) were also examined. When the crystallization fraction (?) increased from 0.1 to 0.9, the value of local activation energy (E{sub c}(?)) decreased from 554 to 458?kJ/mol for the first exothermic peak and from 1104 to 831?kJ/mol for the second exothermic peak. The value determined for the Avrami exponent was near 2 indicating a similar one-dimensional crystallization mechanism for both crystalline phases. This was confirmed by the morphological studies performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on glass samples heat-treated at the first and at the second crystallization temperatures.

  7. WTP Calculation Sheet: Determining the LAW Glass Former Constituents and Amounts for G2 and Acm Models. 24590-LAW-M4C-LFP-00002, Rev. B

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gimpel, Rodney F.; Kruger, Albert A.

    2013-12-16

    The purpose of this calculation is to determine the LAW glass former recipe and additives with their respective amounts. The methodology and equations contained herein are to be used in the G2 and ACM models until better information is supplied by R&T efforts. This revision includes calculations that determines the mass and volume of the bulk chemicals/minerals needed per batch. Plus, it contains calculations (for the G2 model) to help prevent overflow in LAW Feed Preparation Vessel.

  8. Critical infrastructure systems of systems assessment methodology.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sholander, Peter E.; Darby, John L.; Phelan, James M.; Smith, Bryan; Wyss, Gregory Dane; Walter, Andrew; Varnado, G. Bruce; Depoy, Jennifer Mae

    2006-10-01

    Assessing the risk of malevolent attacks against large-scale critical infrastructures requires modifications to existing methodologies that separately consider physical security and cyber security. This research has developed a risk assessment methodology that explicitly accounts for both physical and cyber security, while preserving the traditional security paradigm of detect, delay, and respond. This methodology also accounts for the condition that a facility may be able to recover from or mitigate the impact of a successful attack before serious consequences occur. The methodology uses evidence-based techniques (which are a generalization of probability theory) to evaluate the security posture of the cyber protection systems. Cyber threats are compared against cyber security posture using a category-based approach nested within a path-based analysis to determine the most vulnerable cyber attack path. The methodology summarizes the impact of a blended cyber/physical adversary attack in a conditional risk estimate where the consequence term is scaled by a ''willingness to pay'' avoidance approach.

  9. Glass ceramic toughened with tetragonal zirconia

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keefer, K.D.

    1984-02-10

    A phase transformation-toughened glass ceramic and a process for making it are disclosed. A mixture of particulate network-forming oxide, network-modifying oxide, and zirconium oxide is heated to yield a homogeneous melt, and this melt is then heat treated to precipitate an appreciable quantity of tetragonal zirconia, which is retained at ambient temperature to form a phase transformation-toughened glass ceramic. Nuclearing agents and stabilizing agents may be added to the mixture to facilitate processing and improve the ceramic's properties. Preferably, the mixture is first melted at a temperature from 1200 to 1700/sup 0/C and is then heat-treated at a temperature within the range of 800 to 1200/sup 0/C in order to precipitate tetragonal ZrO/sub 2/. The composition, as well as the length and temperature of the heat treatment, must be carefully controlled to prevent solution of the precipitated tetragonal zirconia and subsequent conversion to the monoclinic phase.

  10. Sink property of metallic glass free surfaces

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shao, Lin; Fu, Engang; Price, Lloyd; Chen, Di; Chen, Tianyi; Wang, Yongqiang; Xie, Guoqiang; Lucca, Don A.

    2015-03-16

    When heated to a temperature close to glass transition temperature, metallic glasses (MGs) begin to crystallize. Under deformation or particle irradiation, crystallization occurs at even lower temperatures. Hence, phase instability represents an application limit for MGs. Here, we report that MG membranes of a few nanometers thickness exhibit properties different from their bulk MG counterparts. The study uses in situ transmission electron microscopy with concurrent heavy ion irradiation and annealing to observe crystallization behaviors of MGs. For relatively thick membranes, ion irradiations introduce excessive free volumes and thus induce nanocrystal formation at a temperature linearly decreasing with increasing ion fluences.more »For ultra-thin membranes, however, the critical temperature to initiate crystallization is about 100 K higher than the bulk glass transition temperature. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that this effect is due to the sink property of the surfaces which can effectively remove excessive free volumes. These findings suggest that nanostructured MGs having a higher surface to volume ratio are expected to have higher crystallization resistance, which could pave new paths for materials applications in harsh environments requiring higher stabilities.« less

  11. High-Intensity Plasma Glass Melter Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonterman, J. Ronald; Weinstein, Michael A.

    2006-10-27

    The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the energy efficiency and reduced emissions that can be obtained with a dual torch DC plasma transferred arc-melting system. Plasmelt Glass Technologies, LLC was formed to solicit and execute the project, which utilize a full-scale test melter system. The system is similar to the one that was originally constructed by Johns Manville, but Plasmelt has added significant improvements to the torch design and melter system that has extended the original JM short torch lives. The original JM design has been shown to achieve melt rates 5 to 10 times faster than conventional gas or electric melting, with improved energy efficiency and reduced emissions. This project began on 7/28/2003 and ended 7/27/06. A laboratory scale melter was designed, constructed, and operated to conduct multiple experimental melting trials on various glass compositions. Glass quality was assessed. Although the melter design is generic and equally applicable to all sectors within the glass industry, the development of this melter has focused primarily on fiberglass with additional exploratory melting trials of frits, specialty, and minerals-melting applications. Throughput, energy efficiency, and glass quality have been shown to be heavily dependent on the selected glass composition. During this project, Plasmelt completed the proof-of-concept work in our Boulder, CO Lab to show the technical feasibility of this transferred-arc plasma melter. Late in the project, the work was focused on developing the processes and evaluating the economic viability of plasma melting aimed at the specific glasses of interest to specific client companies. Post project work is on going with client companies to address broader non-glass materials such as refractories and industrial minerals. Exploratory melting trials have been conducted on several glasses of commercial interest including: C-glass, E-glass, S-Glass, AR-Glass, B-glass, Lighting Glass, NE-Glass, and various frits. Exploratory melts of non-glassy materials, such as wollastonite, zirconium silicate, and alumino-silicate melts were successfully done indicating that plasma melting has potential application beyond glass. Experimental results were generated that show the high quality of plasma-melted fiberglass compositions, such as E-glass, can result in good fiberizing performance. Fiberizing performance and tensile strength data were achieved during the project to support this conclusion. High seed counts are a feature of the current lab scale melter and must be dealt with via other means, since fining work was outside the scope of this project.

  12. A New Project Execution Methodology; Integrating Project Management Principles with Quality Project Execution Methodologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schriner, Jesse J.

    2008-07-25

    Approach ........................................................................................3 The ITIL Approach ..................................................................................................5 Quality Project Methodologies Summary.... 2006. Six Sigma for IT Management. Van Haren Publishing. The main purpose of this book is to both introduce Six Sigma and Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) and then integrate the two methodologies for application...

  13. Systematic Comparison of Operating Reserve Methodologies: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ibanez, E.; Krad, I.; Ela, E.

    2014-04-01

    Operating reserve requirements are a key component of modern power systems, and they contribute to maintaining reliable operations with minimum economic impact. No universal method exists for determining reserve requirements, thus there is a need for a thorough study and performance comparison of the different existing methodologies. Increasing penetrations of variable generation (VG) on electric power systems are posed to increase system uncertainty and variability, thus the need for additional reserve also increases. This paper presents background information on operating reserve and its relationship to VG. A consistent comparison of three methodologies to calculate regulating and flexibility reserve in systems with VG is performed.

  14. Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Past Events EventsDetail

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Events Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Past Events EventsDetail to someone by E-mail Share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Past...

  15. Perspective+Detail a visualization technique for vertically curved displays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    on the vertical display segment and (3) a head-up display (HUD) in the connecting curved segment (see Figure 1 display connection. The detail view and the HUD are seamlessly integrated with this extended overview

  16. 1999 Commercial Buildings Characteristics--Detailed Tables--Conservati...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    as rowstubs in most detailed tables. Total buildings, total floorspace, and average building size for these categories are shown in Table B1. The PDF and spreadsheet data tables...

  17. Detailed Information on Proposal for US-Monbusho Collaoration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Los Angeles, University of

    Detailed Information on Proposal for UNICEX-Hi US-Monbusho Collaoration Thermal smaller void fraction ??) 3. Provide fundamental scientific and engineering input to the design of irradiation experiments - material temperature range ­ material form - basic material property changes without

  18. Atomic Scale Details of Defect-Boundary Interactions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Di

    2014-12-18

    The study is aimed to understand atomic scale details of defect-boundary interactions, which are critical to develop radiation tolerant fuel cladding materials for harsher neutron environments. By means of molecular dynamics simulations, we...

  19. Results of Detailed Hydrologic Characterization Tests - Fiscal Year 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spane, Frank A.; Thorne, Paul D.; Newcomer, Darrell R.

    2001-05-15

    This report provides the resluts of detailed hydrologic characterization tests conducted within eleven Hanford Site wells during fiscal year 2000. Detailed characterization tests performed included groundwater-flow characterization; barometric response evaluation; slug tests; single-well tracer tests; constant-rate pumping tests; and in-well, vertical flow tests. Hydraulic property estimates obtained from the detailed hydrologic tests include transmissivity; hydraulic conductivity; specific yield; effective porosity; in-well, lateral flow velocity; aquifer-flow velocity; vertical distribution of hydraulic conductivity (within the well-screen section); and in-well, verticla flow velocity. In addition, local groundwater-flow characteristics (i.e., hydraulic gradient and flow direction) were determined for four sites where detailed well testing was performed.

  20. Results of Detailed Hydrologic Characterization Tests - Fiscal Year 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spane, Frank A.; Thorne, Paul D.; Newcomer, Darrell R.

    2001-01-19

    This report provides the results of detailed hydrologic characterization tests conducted within newly constructed Hanford Site wells during FY 1999. Detailed characterization tests performed during FY 1999 included: groundwater flow characterization, barometric response evaluation, slug tests, single-well tracer tests, constant-rate pumping tests, and in-well vertical flow tests. Hydraulic property estimates obtained from the detailed hydrologic tests include: transmissivity, hydraulic conductivity, specific yield, effective porosity, in-well lateral flow velocity, aquifer flow velocity, vertical distribution of hydraulic conductivity (within the well-screen section) and in-well vertical flow velocity. In addition, local groundwater flow characteristics (i.e., hydraulic gradient and flow direction) were determined for four sites where detailed well testing was performed.

  1. Devitrification kinetics and phase selection mechanisms in Cu-Zr metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalay, Ilkay

    2010-12-15

    Metallic glasses have been a promising class of materials since their discovery in the 1960s. Indeed, remarkable chemical, mechanical and physical properties have attracted considerable attention, and several excellent reviews are available. Moreover, the special group of glass forming alloys known as the bulk metallic glasses (BMG) become amorphous solids even at relatively low cooling rates, allowing them to be cast in large cross sections, opening the scope of potential applications to include bulk forms and net shape structural applications. Recent studies have been reported for new bulk metallic glasses produced with lower cooling rates, from 0.1 to several hundred K/s. Some of the application products of BMGs include sporting goods, high performance springs and medical devices. Several rapid solidification techniques, including melt-spinning, atomization and surface melting have been developed to produce amorphous alloys. The aim of all these methods is to solidify the liquid phase rapidly enough to suppress the nucleation and growth of crystalline phases. Furthermore, the production of amorphous/crystalline composite (ACC) materials by partial crystallization of amorphous precursor has recently given rise to materials that provide better mechanical and magnetic properties than the monolithic amorphous or crystalline alloys. In addition, these advances illustrate the broad untapped potential of using the glassy state as an intermediate stage in the processing of new materials and nanostructures. These advances underlie the necessity of investigations on prediction and control of phase stability and microstructural dynamics during both solidification and devitrification processes. This research presented in this dissertation is mainly focused on Cu-Zr and Cu-Zr-Al alloy systems. The Cu-Zr binary system has high glass forming ability in a wide compositional range (35-70 at.% Cu). Thereby, Cu-Zr based alloys have attracted much attention according to fundamental research on the behaviors of glass forming alloys. Further motivation arising from the application of this system as a basis for many BMGs and ACC materials; the Cu-Zr system warrants this attention and offers great potential for the development of new materials. However, the prediction and control of microstructural evolution during devitrification remains challenging because of the complex devitrification behavior of the Cu-Zr binary alloy which is arising from the competition of metastable and stable phases and diversity of crystal structures. This dissertation details a systematic fundamental investigation into the mechanisms and kinetics of the various crystallization transformation processes involved in the overall devitrification response of Cu-Zr and Cu-Zr-Al glasses. Various isothermal and nonisothermal treatments are employed, and the structural response is characterized using bulk X-ray and thermal analysis methods as well as nanoscale microscopic analysis methods, revealing structural and chemical details down to the atomic-scale. By carefully combining techniques such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), in-situ synchrotron high energy X-ray diffraction (HEXRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to quantify the characterization transformations, this research has uncovered numerous details concerning the atomistic mechanisms of crystallization and has provided much new understanding related to the dominant phases, the overall reaction sequences, and the rate-controlling mechanisms. As such this work represents a substantial step forward in understanding these transformations and provides a clear framework for further progress toward ultimate application of controlled devitrification processing for the production of new materials with remarkable properties.

  2. Organotin piezo- and pyroelectric polymer films. [Synthesis, glass transition, and piezo- and pyroelectric activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liepins, R.; Timmons, M.L.; Morosoff, N.; Surles, J.

    1983-01-01

    The synthesis of a new class of piezo- and pyroelectrically active materials of various co- and terpolymers of tributylin methacrylate (TBTM) and trimethyltin methacrylate (TMTM) is described. A description of sample preparation, poling techniques, and measurement system is given in some detail. Films of the various polymer compositions were evaluated for tin current, glass transition temperature (Tg), crystallinity or ordering of the amorphous phase and piezo- and pytoelectric activity. Experimental results on 25 to 30 mol% TBTM/methyl methacrylate copolymers, which possessed good piezoelectric activity, antifouling properties and paint-formulation characteristics, are discussed in detail. Solvent-induced orientation effects that lead to piezoelectric activity in amorphous, unpoled, polymers are also described.

  3. Triple stack glass-to-glass anodic bonding for optogalvanic spectroscopy cells with electrical feedthroughs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daschner, R.; Kübler, H.; Löw, R.; Pfau, T., E-mail: t.pfau@physik.uni-stuttgart.de [5. Physikalisches Institut, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 57, 70550 Stuttgart (Germany); Baur, H.; Frühauf, N. [Institut für Großflächige Mikroelektronik, Universität Stuttgart, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2014-07-28

    We demonstrate the use of an anodic bonding technique for building a vacuum tight vapor cell for the use of Rydberg spectroscopy of alkali atoms with thin film electrodes on the inside of the cell. The cell is fabricated by simultaneous triple stack glass-to-glass anodic bonding at 300?°C. This glue-free, low temperature sealing technique provides the opportunity to include thin film electric feedthroughs. The pressure broadening is only limited by the vapor pressure of rubidium and the lifetime is at least four months with operating temperatures up to 230?°C.

  4. Indentation size effect and the plastic compressibility of glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smedskjaer, Morten M., E-mail: mos@bio.aau.dk [Section of Chemistry, Aalborg University, 9000 Aalborg (Denmark)

    2014-06-23

    Oxide glasses exhibit significant densification under an applied isostatic pressure at the glass transition temperature. The glass compressibility is correlated with the chemical composition and atomic packing density, e.g., borate glasses with planar triangular BO{sub 3} units are more disposed for densification than silicate glasses with tetrahedral units. We here show that there is a direct relation between the plastic compressibility following hot isostatic compression and the extent of the indentation size effect (ISE), which is the decrease of hardness with indentation load exhibited by most materials. This could suggest that the ISE is correlated with indentation-induced shear bands, which should form in greater density when the glass network is more adaptable to volume changes through structural and topological rearrangements under an applied pressure.

  5. Phosphate Glasses for Vitrification of Waste with High Sulfur Content

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Vienna, John D.; Hrma, Pavel R.; Cassingham, Nathan J.

    2002-10-31

    The low solubility of sulfate in silicate-based glasses, approximately 1 mass% as SO3, limits the loading of high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) containing high concentrations of sulfur. Based on crucible melting studies, we have shown that the phosphate glasses may incorporate more than 5 mass% SO3; hence, the waste loading can be increased until another constraint is met, such as glass durability. A high-sulfate HLW glass has been formulated and tested to demonstrate the advantages of phosphate glasses. The effect of waste loading on the chemical durability of quenched and slow-cooled phosphate glasses was determined using the Product Consistency Test.

  6. Methodology Water Harvesting Measurements with Biomimetic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barthelat, Francois

    Methodology Water Harvesting Measurements with Biomimetic Surfaces Zi Jun Wang and Prof. Anne parameters that affect the water harvesting efficiencies of different surfaces · Optimize the experimental Objectives Water is one of the most essential natural resources. The easy accessibility of water

  7. Response Surface Methodology Its application to automotive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Awtar, Shorya

    . Introduction & Basis of RSM 1. History of RSM 2. What's RSM 3. Why is RSM 4. Least square method 5. Design Of Experiment (DOE) II. Its application to automotive suspension designs 1. Size optimization for beam stiffens and Basis of Response surface Methodology (RSM) #12;Toyota Central R&D Labs., Inc 4 History of RSM 1951 Box

  8. Methodology for Prototyping Increased Levels of Automation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Valasek, John

    Methodology for Prototyping Increased Levels of Automation for Spacecraft Rendezvous Functions of automation than previous NASA vehicles, due to program requirements for automation, including Automated Ren authority between humans and computers (i.e. automation) as a prime driver for cost, safety, and mission

  9. New Methodology for Natural Gas Production Estimates

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01

    A new methodology is implemented with the monthly natural gas production estimates from the EIA-914 survey this month. The estimates, to be released April 29, 2010, include revisions for all of 2009. The fundamental changes in the new process include the timeliness of the historical data used for estimation and the frequency of sample updates, both of which are improved.

  10. Microbiomic Signatures of Psoriasis: Feasibility and Methodology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Statnikov, Alexander

    Microbiomic Signatures of Psoriasis: Feasibility and Methodology Comparison Alexander Statnikov1 York. Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory disease of the skin. We sought to use bacterial of psoriasis result in significant accuracy ranging from 0.75 to 0.89 AUC, depending on the classification task

  11. GROUNDWATER ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY C. P. Kumar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, C.P.

    1 GROUNDWATER ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY C. P. Kumar Scientist `F', National Institute of Hydrology is groundwater resources. Due to uneven distribution of rainfall both in time and space, the surface water on development of groundwater resources. The simultaneous development of groundwater, specially through dug wells

  12. Methodological Review Data integration and genomic medicine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petropoulos, Michalis

    Methodological Review Data integration and genomic medicine Brenton Louie a,*, Peter Mork b 2006 Abstract Genomic medicine aims to revolutionize health care by applying our growing understanding the opportunities of genomic medicine as well as identify the informatics challenges in this domain. We also review

  13. Formulation and Characterization of Waste Glasses with Varying Processing Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Schweiger, M. J.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Lepry, William C.; Lang, Jesse B.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Vienna, John D.; Johnson, Fabienne; Marra, James C.; Peeler, David K.

    2011-10-17

    This report documents the preliminary results of glass formulation and characterization accomplished within the finished scope of the EM-31 technology development tasks for WP-4 and WP-5, including WP-4.1.2: Glass Formulation for Next Generation Melter, WP-5.1.2.3: Systematic Glass Studies, and WP-5.1.2.4: Glass Formulation for Specific Wastes. This report also presents the suggested studies for eventual restart of these tasks. The initial glass formulation efforts for the cold crucible induction melter (CCIM), operating at {approx}1200 C, with selected HLW (AZ-101) and LAW (AN-105) successfully developed glasses with significant increase of waste loading compared to that is likely to be achieved based on expected reference WTP formulations. Three glasses formulated for AZ-101HLW and one glass for AN-105 LAW were selected for the initial CCIM demonstration melter tests. Melter tests were not performed within the finished scope of the WP-4.1.2 task. Glass formulations for CCIM were expanded to cover additional HLWs that have high potential to successfully demonstrate the unique advantages of the CCIM technologies based on projected composition of Hanford wastes. However, only the preliminary scoping tests were completed with selected wastes within the finished scope. Advanced glass formulations for the reference WTP melter, operating at {approx}1200 C, were initiated with selected specific wastes to determine the estimated maximum waste loading. The incomplete results from these initial formulation efforts are summarized. For systematic glass studies, a test matrix of 32 high-aluminum glasses was completed based on a new method developed in this study.

  14. Laser stimulated emission cross sections of Nd glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tucker, A.W.; Birnbaum, M.; Fincher, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    A laser-comparison method was used to determine the emission cross sections at 1060 nm of Nd glasses used in laser fusion systems. The values obtained for two phosphate glasses (LHG-8) and (Q-88) were 4.0 +- 0.8 x 10/sup -20/ cm/sup 2/ and 1.7 +- 0.5 x 10/sup -20/ cm/sup 2/ for a silicate glass (LG-650).

  15. Using sputter coated glass to stabilize microstrip gas chambers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gong, Wen G. (Albany, CA)

    1997-01-01

    By sputter coating a thin-layer of low-resistive, electronically-conductive glass on various substrates (including quartz and ceramics, thin-film Pestov glass), microstrip gas chambers (MSGC) of high gain stability, low leakage current, and a high rate capability can be fabricated. This design can make the choice of substrate less important, save the cost of ion-implantation, and use less glass material.

  16. Collaboration yields 'The Right Glasses' for observing mystery...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Observing mystery behavior In electrons Collaboration yields 'The Right Glasses' for observing mystery behavior in electrons The research may lead to a better understanding of...

  17. Piezooptic coefficients of four neodymium-doped laser glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waxler, R.M.; Feldman, A.

    1980-08-01

    The stress-induced birefringence was measured for the phosphate glasses Q-88, LG-812, E-181, and LHG-10. (AIP)

  18. Welding/sealing glass-enclosed space in a vacuum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tracy, C.E.; Benson, D.K.

    1996-02-06

    A method of welding and sealing the edges of two juxtaposed glass sheets together to seal a vacuum space between the sheets comprises the steps of positioning a radiation absorbent material, such as FeO, VO{sub 2}, or NiO, between the radiation transmissive glass sheets adjacent the edges and then irradiating the absorbent material, preferably with a laser beam, through at least one of the glass sheets. Heat produced by the absorbed radiation in the absorbent material melts glass in the portions of both glass sheets that are adjacent the absorbent material, and the melted glass from both sheets flows together to create the weld when the melted glass cools and hardens. The absorbent material can be dissolved and diffused into the melted glass to the extent that it no longer absorbs enough energy to keep the glass melted, thus, with appropriate proportioning of absorbent material to source energy power and welding heat needed, the process can be made self-stopping. 8 figs.

  19. Welding/sealing glass-enclosed space in a vacuum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO); Benson, David K. (Golden, CO)

    1996-01-01

    A method of welding and sealing the edges of two juxtaposed glass sheets together to seal a vacuum space between the sheets comprises the steps of positioning a radiation absorbant material, such as FeO, VO.sub.2, or NiO, between the radiation transmissive glass sheets adjacent the edges and then irradiating the absorbant material, preferably with a laser beam, through at least one of the glass sheets. Heat produced by the absorbed radiation in the absorbant material melts glass in the portions of both glass sheets that are adjacent the absorbant material, and the melted glass from both sheets flows together to create the weld when the melted glass cools and hardens. The absorbant material can be dissolved and diffused into the melted glass to the extent that it no longer absorbs enough energy to keep the glass melted, thus, with appropriate proportioning of absorbant material to source energy power and welding heat needed, the process can be made self-stopping.

  20. Alkali-lead-iron phosphate glass and associated method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boatner, L.A.; Sales, B.C.; Franco, S.C.S.

    1994-03-29

    A glass composition and method of preparation utilizes a mixture consisting of phosphorus oxide within the range of about 40 to 49 molar percent, lead oxide within the range of about 10 to 25 molar percent, iron oxide within the range of about 10 to 17 molar percent and an alkali oxide within the range of about 23 to 30 molar percent. The glass resulting from the melting and subsequent solidifying of the mixture possesses a high degree of durability and a coefficient of thermal expansion as high as that of any of a number of metals. Such features render this glass highly desirable in glass-to-metal seal applications. 6 figures.

  1. Alkali-lead-iron phosphate glass and associated method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boatner, Lynn A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Sales, Brian C. (Knoxville, TN); Franco, Sofia C. S. (Santafe de Bogota, CO)

    1994-01-01

    A glass composition and method of preparation utilizes a mixture consisting of phosphorus oxide within the range of about 40 to 49 molar percent, lead oxide within the range of about 10 to 25 molar percent, iron oxide within the range of about 10 to 17 molar percent and an alkali oxide within the range of about 23 to 30 molar percent. The glass resulting from the melting and subsequent solidifying of the mixture possesses a high degree of durability and a coefficient of thermal expansion as high as that of any of a number of metals. Such features render this glass highly desirable in glass-to-metal seal applications.

  2. Time-Domain Electromagnetics At Glass Mountain Area (Cumming...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Time-Domain Electromagnetics At Glass Mountain Area (Cumming And Mackie, 2007) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Time-Domain...

  3. Dynamical heterogeneities in an attraction driven colloidal glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antonio M. Puertas; Matthias Fuchs; Michael E. Cates

    2006-01-16

    The dynamical heterogeneities (DH) in non-ergodic states of an attractive colloidal glass are studied, as a function of the waiting time. Whereas the fluid states close to vitrify showed strong DH, the distribution of squared displacements of the glassy states studied here only present a tail of particles with increased mobility for the lower attraction strength at short waiting times. These particles are in the surface of the percolating cluster that comprises all of the particles, reminiscent of the fastest particles in the fluid. The quench deeper into the attractive glass is dynamically more homogeneous, in agreement with repulsive glasses (i.e. Lennard-Jones glass).

  4. Economic manufacturing of bulk metallic glass compositions by microalloying

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Chain T.

    2003-05-13

    A method of making a bulk metallic glass composition includes the steps of:a. providing a starting material suitable for making a bulk metallic glass composition, for example, BAM-11; b. adding at least one impurity-mitigating dopant, for example, Pb, Si, B, Sn, P, to the starting material to form a doped starting material; and c. converting the doped starting material to a bulk metallic glass composition so that the impurity-mitigating dopant reacts with impurities in the starting material to neutralize deleterious effects of the impurities on the formation of the bulk metallic glass composition.

  5. Glass fiber composition. [for use as thermal insulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolf, G.A.; Kupfer, M.J.

    1980-12-19

    The invention relates to a glass fiber composition useful for thermal insulation having a low melting temperature and high chemical durability.

  6. Thermal Predictions of the Cooling of Waste Glass Canisters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donna Post Guillen

    2014-11-01

    Radioactive liquid waste from five decades of weapons production is slated for vitrification at the Hanford site. The waste will be mixed with glass forming additives and heated to a high temperature, then poured into canisters within a pour cave where the glass will cool and solidify into a stable waste form for disposal. Computer simulations were performed to predict the heat rejected from the canisters and the temperatures within the glass during cooling. Four different waste glass compositions with different thermophysical properties were evaluated. Canister centerline temperatures and the total amount of heat transfer from the canisters to the surrounding air are reported.

  7. High Waste Loading Glass Formulations for Hanford High-Aluminum...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    mixtures of aluminum (Al), chromium (Cr), bismuth (Bi), iron (Fe), phosphorous (P), zirconium (Zr), and sulfur (S) compounds as waste-limiting components. Glass compositions for...

  8. Method of processing ``BPS`` glass ceramic and seals made therewith

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reed, S.T.; Stone, R.G.; McCollister, H.L.; Wengert, P.R.

    1998-10-13

    A glass ceramic composition, a glass ceramic-to-metal seal, and more specifically a hermetic glass ceramic-to-metal seal prepared by subjecting a glass composition comprising, by weight percent, SiO{sub 2} (65--80%), LiO{sub 2} (8--16%), Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (2--8%), K{sub 2}O (1--8%), P{sub 2}O{sub 5} (1--5%), B{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0.5--7%), and ZnO (0--5%) to the following processing steps: (1) heating the glass composition in a belt furnace to a temperature sufficient to melt the glass and crystallize lithium phosphate, (2) holding at a temperature and for a time sufficient to create cristobalite nuclei, (3) cooling at a controlled rate and to a temperature to cause crystallization of lithium silicates and growth of cristobalite, and (4) still further cooling in stages to ambient temperature. This process produces a glass ceramic whose high coefficient of thermal expansion (up to 200{times}10{sup {minus}7} in/in/C) permits the fabrication of glass ceramic-to-metal seals, and particularly hermetic glass ceramic seals to nickel-based and stainless steel alloys and copper. 5 figs.

  9. Method of processing "BPS" glass ceramic and seals made therewith

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reed, Scott T. (Albuquerque, NM); Stone, Ronald G. (Albuquerque, NM); McCollister, Howard L. (Albuquerque, NM); Wengert, deceased, Paul R. (late of Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01

    A glass ceramic composition, a glass ceramic-to-metal seal, and more specifically a hermetic glass ceramic-to-metal seal prepared by subjecting a glass composition comprising, by weight percent, SiO.sub.2 (65-80%), LiO.sub.2 (8-16%), Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 (2-8%), K.sub.2 O (1-8%), P.sub.2 O.sub.5 (1-5%), B.sub.2 O.sub.3 (0.5-7%), and ZnO (0-5%) to the following processing steps: 1) heating the glass composition in a belt furnace to a temperature sufficient to melt the glass and crystallize lithium phosphate, 2) holding at a temperature and for a time sufficient to create cristobalite nuclei, 3) cooling at a controlled rate and to a temperature to cause crystallization of lithium silicates and growth of cristobalite, and 4) still further cooling in stages to ambient temperature. This process produces a glass ceramic whose high coefficient of thermal expansion (up to 200.times.10.sup.-7 in/in/.degree.C.) permits the fabrication of glass ceramic-to-metal seals, and particularly hermetic glass ceramic seals to nickel-based and stainless steel alloys and copper.

  10. Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Robert

    2012-01-01

    to varying levels solar radiation, and quantify theirproperties of reflected solar radiation from glass surfaces,siding surface. Direct solar radiation to siding, reflected

  11. FABRICATION OF NANOCHANNELS USING GLASS TO GLASS ANODIC V.G. Kutchoukova

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Vliet, Lucas J.

    , an intermediate layer (thin insulating film) is deposited on one of the two glass wafers. The channel is then defined, with one photo-patterning step, in the intermediate layer. In our approach, a 33 nm thick amorphous silicon layer (deposited by LPCVD) was used as an intermediate layer. The depth of the channel

  12. Molten Glass for Thermal Storage: Advanced Molten Glass for Heat Transfer and Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    HEATS Project: Halotechnics is developing a high-temperature thermal energy storage system using a new thermal-storage and heat-transfer material: earth-abundant and low-melting-point molten glass. Heat storage materials are critical to the energy storage process. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials during the day and released at night—when the sun is not out—to drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours. Halotechnics new thermal storage material targets a price that is potentially cheaper than the molten salt used in most commercial solar thermal storage systems today. It is also extremely stable at temperatures up to 1200°C—hundreds of degrees hotter than the highest temperature molten salt can handle. Being able to function at high temperatures will significantly increase the efficiency of turning heat into electricity. Halotechnics is developing a scalable system to pump, heat, store, and discharge the molten glass. The company is leveraging technology used in the modern glass industry, which has decades of experience handling molten glass.

  13. Melting a granular glass by cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jan Plagge; Claus Heussinger

    2013-02-05

    Driven granular systems readily form glassy phases at high particle volume fractions and low driving amplitudes. We use computer simulations of a driven granular glass to evidence a re-entrance melting transition into a fluid state, which, contrary to intuition, occurs by \\emph{reducing} the amplitude of the driving. This transition is accompanied by anomalous particle dynamics and super-diffusive behavior on intermediate time-scales. We highlight the special role played by frictional interactions, which help particles to escape their glassy cages. Such an effect is in striking contrast to what friction is expected to do: reduce particle mobility by making them stick.

  14. Advanced radioactive waste-glass melters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bickford, D.F.

    1990-12-31

    During pilot scale operations of the Scale Glass Melter for the US Department of Energy a team of engineers and scientists was formed to assess the need for continued melter design development to support the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), and prioritize future efforts. Recently this has taken on new importance because of selection of the DWPF Melter design as the reference for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Project (HWVP), and increased interest at the West Valley Demonstration Project on melter life and replacement. Results of the study are summarized, and goals produced by the study are compared to the results of current programs at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL).

  15. Advanced radioactive waste-glass melters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bickford, D.F.

    1990-01-01

    During pilot scale operations of the Scale Glass Melter for the US Department of Energy a team of engineers and scientists was formed to assess the need for continued melter design development to support the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), and prioritize future efforts. Recently this has taken on new importance because of selection of the DWPF Melter design as the reference for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Project (HWVP), and increased interest at the West Valley Demonstration Project on melter life and replacement. Results of the study are summarized, and goals produced by the study are compared to the results of current programs at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL).

  16. Bioactive Glass Scaffolds for Bone Regeneration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B L O OLaura|Bilayer Graphene Gets aVehiclesBioactive Glass

  17. Glass Buttes Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainable UrbanKentucky:BoreOpenGilliam County, Oregon:GlacierGlasco,Glass Buttes

  18. Bioactive Glass Scaffolds for Bone Regeneration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News PublicationsAudits & InspectionsBeryllium andSampler As An AlternativeBioactive Glass

  19. Glass Buttes Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar2-0057-EA Jump to:ofEniaElectric Jump to:GerGlacialGlacialGlass Buttes

  20. Xinyi Glass Holdings Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop IncIowa (UtilityMichigan) Jump to: Name:Xinjiang Guanghui EnergyXinyi Glass

  1. Cardinal Glass Industries | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoopButte County,Camilla, Georgia: Energy ResourcesRanchCirculatingGlass Industries

  2. Markov Chain Monte Carlo Method without Detailed Balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hidemaro Suwa; Synge Todo

    2010-10-13

    We present a specific algorithm that generally satisfies the balance condition without imposing the detailed balance in the Markov chain Monte Carlo. In our algorithm, the average rejection rate is minimized, and even reduced to zero in many relevant cases. The absence of the detailed balance also introduces a net stochastic flow in a configuration space, which further boosts up the convergence. We demonstrate that the autocorrelation time of the Potts model becomes more than 6 times shorter than that by the conventional Metropolis algorithm. Based on the same concept, a bounce-free worm algorithm for generic quantum spin models is formulated as well.

  3. Reduction of Glass Surface Reflectance by Ion Beam Surface Modification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Spitzer

    2011-03-11

    This is the final report for DOE contract DE-EE0000590. The purpose of this work was to determine the feasibility of the reduction of the reflection from the front of solar photovoltaic modules. Reflection accounts for a power loss of approximately 4%. A solar module having an area of one square meter with an energy conversion efficiency of 18% generates approximately 180 watts. If reflection loss can be eliminated, the power output can be increased to 187 watts. Since conventional thin-film anti-reflection coatings do not have sufficient environmental stability, we investigated the feasibility of ion beam modification of the glass surface to obtain reduction of reflectance. Our findings are generally applicable to all solar modules that use glass encapsulation, as well as commercial float glass used in windows and other applications. Ion implantation of argon, fluorine, and xenon into commercial low-iron soda lime float glass, standard float glass, and borosilicate glass was studied by implantation, annealing, and measurement of reflectance. The three ions all affected reflectance. The most significant change was obtained by argon implantation into both low-iron and standard soda-lime glass. In this way samples were formed with reflectance lower than can be obtained with a single-layer coatings of magnesium fluoride. Integrated reflectance was reduced from 4% to 1% in low-iron soda lime glass typical of the glass used in solar modules. The reduction of reflectance of borosilicate glass was not as large; however borosilicate glass is not typically used in flat plate solar modules. Unlike conventional semiconductor ion implantation doping, glass reflectance reduction was found to be tolerant to large variations in implant dose, meaning that the process does not require high dopant uniformity. Additionally, glass implantation does not require mass analysis. Simple, high current ion implantation equipment can be developed for this process; however, before the process can be employed on full scale solar modules, equipment must be developed for ion implanting large sheets of glass. A cost analysis shows that the process can be economical. Our finding is that the reduction of reflectance by ion beam surface modification is technically and economically feasible. The public will benefit directly from this work by the improvement of photovoltaic module efficiency, and indirectly by the greater understanding of the modification of glass surfaces by ion beams.

  4. Optical Basicity and Nepheline Crystallization in High Alumina Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, Carmen P.; McCloy, John S.; Schweiger, M. J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Winschell, Abigail E.

    2011-02-25

    The purpose of this study was to find compositions that increase waste loading of high-alumina wastes beyond what is currently acceptable while avoiding crystallization of nepheline (NaAlSiO4) on slow cooling. Nepheline crystallization has been shown to have a large impact on the chemical durability of high-level waste glasses. It was hypothesized that there would be some composition regions where high-alumina would not result in nepheline crystal production, compositions not currently allowed by the nepheline discriminator. Optical basicity (OB) and the nepheline discriminator (ND) are two ways of describing a given complex glass composition. This report presents the theoretical and experimental basis for these models. They are being studied together in a quadrant system as metrics to explore nepheline crystallization and chemical durability as a function of waste glass composition. These metrics were calculated for glasses with existing data and also for theoretical glasses to explore nepheline formation in Quadrant IV (passes OB metric but fails ND metric), where glasses are presumed to have good chemical durability. Several of these compositions were chosen, and glasses were made to fill poorly represented regions in Quadrant IV. To evaluate nepheline formation and chemical durability of these glasses, quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and the Product Consistency Test were conducted. A large amount of quantitative XRD data is collected here, both from new glasses and from glasses of previous studies that had not previously performed quantitative XRD on the phase assemblage. Appendix A critically discusses a large dataset to be considered for future quantitative studies on nepheline formation in glass. Appendix B provides a theoretical justification for choice of the oxide coefficients used to compute the OB criterion for nepheline formation.

  5. > Facilities and Services > Recycling on the St. George Campus > NEW! Non-hazardous Laboratory Glass and Plastics Recycling NEW! Non-hazardous Laboratory Glass and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prodiæ, Aleksandar

    Glass and Plastics Recycling Program NEW! ­ Non-hazardous Laboratory Glass and Plastics Recycling Program NEW! NON-HAZARDOUS glass and plastic items used in laboratories can now be recycled! Facilities;© Copyright 2008, University of Toronto. Home Site Map Contact GLASS may be placed in the TEAL toters.PLASTIC

  6. Evolution of glass properties during a substitution of S by Se in Ge28Sb12S60-xSex glass Guillaume Guery1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Evolution of glass properties during a substitution of S by Se in Ge28Sb12S60-xSex glass network, Université de Bordeaux I, Avenue du Dr Schweitzer, 33608 Pessac Cedex, France. Keywords: Chalcogenide glass; Raman spectroscopy; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy; Glass properties Author whom correspondence should

  7. The mechanics of glass and functionalised glass surfaces E. Barthel, M. Beauvais, R. Briard, N. Chemin, D. Dalmas, C. Heitz, M. Klotz, P. Nael, A.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The mechanics of glass and functionalised glass surfaces E. Barthel, M. Beauvais, R. Briard, N Aubervilliers Cedex France etienne.barthel@saint-gobain.com Abstract Glass is highly sensitive to surface flaws in glass functionalisation by grafting or coating lend an even more prominent role to the surface

  8. Coexistence of spin-glass and ferromagnetic order in the J Heisenberg spin-glass model A. D. Beath and D. H. Ryan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryan, Dominic

    Coexistence of spin-glass and ferromagnetic order in the ±J Heisenberg spin-glass model A. D. Beath temperature spin-glass transition at TSG=0.220 5 . Remarkably, this transition temperature is composition dependent, rising to TSG=0.25 1 by the ferromagnet­spin-glass boundary. Coexistence of ferromagnetic

  9. Graded index antireflective coatings for glass : final report, September 1978 - February 1982

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haggerty, John Scarseth

    1983-01-01

    Glass compositions and process conditions by which broad band gradedindex antreflective films can be produced on glass surfaces have been developed. The end use for the treated glass sheet is as cover plates for flat plate ...

  10. Leaching assessments of toxic metals in waste plasma display panel glass.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, M; Jiang, P; Chen, H; Ogunseitan, OA; Li, Y

    2015-01-01

    of waste cathode-ray tube glass. Waste Manage. 26:1468–76.leachability from waste PDP glass in order to determinewaste plasma display panel glass ab a a b a Mengjun Chen ,

  11. Glass particles produced by laser ablation for ICP-MS measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gonzalez, J.; Liu, C.; Wen, S.; Mao, X.; Russo, R.E.

    2008-01-01

    Glass particles produced by laser ablation for ICP-MS266nm) was used to generate glass particles from two sets ofWhen the current data on glass were compared with the metal

  12. Dicke Quantum Spin and Photon Glass in Optical Cavities: Non-equilibrium theory and experimental signatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the atomic spin glass physics onto a "photon glass" makes it possible to detect the glass state by standard theme in the research on strongly correlated ultracold atoms is the creation of quantum soft matter

  13. Quantum computing in a piece of glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Warner A. Miller; Grigoriy Kreymerman; Christopher Tison; Paul M. Alsing; Jonathan R. McDonald

    2011-12-15

    Quantum gates and simple quantum algorithms can be designed utilizing the diffraction phenomena of a photon within a multiplexed holographic element. The quantum eigenstates we use are the photon's linear momentum (LM) as measured by the number of waves of tilt across the aperture. Two properties of quantum computing within the circuit model make this approach attractive. First, any conditional measurement can be commuted in time with any unitary quantum gate - the timeless nature of quantum computing. Second, photon entanglement can be encoded as a superposition state of a single photon in a higher-dimensional state space afforded by LM. Our theoretical and numerical results indicate that OptiGrate's photo-thermal refractive (PTR) glass is an enabling technology. We will review our previous design of a quantum projection operator and give credence to this approach on a representative quantum gate grounded on coupled-mode theory and numerical simulations, all with parameters consistent with PTR glass. We discuss the strengths (high efficiencies, robustness to environment) and limitations (scalability, crosstalk) of this technology. While not scalable, the utility and robustness of such optical elements for broader quantum information processing applications can be substantial.

  14. Glass ceramic toughened with tetragonal zirconia

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keefer, Keith D. (Albuquerque, NM); Michalske, Terry A. (Sandia Park, NM)

    1986-01-01

    A phase transformation-toughened glass ceramic and a process for making it are disclosed. A mixture of particulate network-forming oxide, network-modifying oxide, and zirconium oxide is heated to yield a homogeneous melt, and this melt is then heat-treated to precipitate an appreciable quantity of tetragonal zirconia, which is retained at ambient temperature to form a phase transformation-toughened glass ceramic. Nucleating agents and stabilizing agents may be added to the mixture to facilitate processing and improve the ceramic's properties. Preferably, the mixture is first melted at a temperature from 1200.degree. to 1700.degree. C. and is then heat-treated at a temperature within the range of 800.degree. to 1200.degree. C. in order to precipitate tetragonal ZrO.sub.2. The composition, as well as the length and temperature of the heat-treatment, must be carefully controlled to prevent solution of the precipitated tetragonal zirconia and subsequent conversion to the monoclinic phase.

  15. eGallon Methodology | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram:Y-12 Beta-3 Racetracks Y-12 Beta-3 RacetrackseGallon Methodology

  16. Initial Examination of Low Velocity Sphere Impact of Glass Ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrissey, Timothy G; Fox, Ethan E; Wereszczak, Andrew A; Ferber, Mattison K

    2012-06-01

    This report summarizes US Army TARDEC sponsored work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) involving low velocity (< 30 m/s or < 65 mph) sphere impact testing of two materials from the lithium aluminosilicate family reinforced with different amounts of ceramic particulate, i.e., glass-ceramic materials, SCHOTT Resistan{trademark}-G1 and SCHOTT Resistan{trademark}-L. Both materials are provided by SCHOTT Glass (Duryea, PA). This work is a follow-up to similar sphere impact studies completed by the authors on PPG's Starphire{reg_sign} soda-lime silicate glass and SCHOTT BOROFLOAT{reg_sign} borosilicate glass. A gas gun or a sphere-drop test setup was used to produce controlled velocity delivery of silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) spheres against the glass ceramic tile targets. Minimum impact velocities to initiate fracture in the glass-ceramics were measured and interpreted in context to the kinetic energy of impact and the elastic property mismatch between sphere and target material. Quasistatic spherical indentation was also performed on both glass ceramics and their contact damage responses were compared to those of soda-lime silicate and borosilicate glasses. Lastly, variability of contact damage response was assessed by performing spherical indentation testing across the area of an entire glass ceramic tile. The primary observations from this low velocity (< 30 m/s or < 65 mph) testing were: (1) Resistan{trademark}-L glass ceramic required the highest velocity of sphere impact for damage to initiate. Starphire{reg_sign} soda-lime silicate glass was second best, then Resistan{trademark}-G1 glass ceramic, and then BOROFLOAT{reg_sign} borosilicate glass. (2) Glass-ceramic Resistan{trademark}-L also required the largest force to initiate ring crack from quasi-static indentation. That ranking was followed, in descending order, by Starphire{reg_sign} soda-lime silicate glass, Resistan{trademark}-G1 glass ceramic, and BOROFLOAT{reg_sign} borosilicate glass. (3) Spheres with a lower elastic modulus require less force to initiate fracture in Resistan{trademark}-G1 from quasi-static spherical indentation. This indicates that friction is affecting ring crack initiation in Resistan{trademark}-G1. Friction also affected ring crack initiation in Starphire{reg_sign} soda-lime silicate and BOROFLOAT{reg_sign} borosilicate glasses. Among these three materials, friction was the most pronounced (largest slope in the RCIF-elastic modulus graph) in the Starphire{reg_sign} and least pronounced in the BOROFLOAT{reg_sign}. The reason for this is not understood, but differences in deformation behavior under high contact stresses could be a cause or contributor to this. (4) The force necessary to initiate contact-induced fracture is higher under dynamic conditions than it is under quasi-static conditions in Resistan{trademark}-L and Resistan{trademark}-G1 glass ceramics. This is a trend observed too in Starphire{reg_sign} and BOROFLOAT{reg_sign}. (5) There is a subtle indication there was intra-tile differences in spherical indentation-induced ring crack initiation forces. This is not a material property nor is it exclusive to glass-ceramic Resistan{trademark}-G1 glass ceramic, rather, it is a statistical mechanical response to an accumulated history of processing and handling of that specific tile.

  17. Laser Authorisation Form University of Cambridge Personal Details

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    Laser Authorisation Form University of Cambridge Personal Details Name Research supervisor or research group Department DEPARTMENT OF EARTH SCIENCES Other Departments where work with lasers will be carried out if applicable Information about the laser(s) you will be using Type of Laser Wavelength Laser

  18. Detailed Execution Planning for Large Oil and Gas Construction Projects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calgary, University of

    Detailed Execution Planning for Large Oil and Gas Construction Projects Presented by James Lozon, University of Calgary There is currently 55.8 billion dollars worth of large oil and gas construction projects scheduled or underway in the province of Alberta. Recently, large capital oil and gas projects

  19. MULTIGRID METHOD FOR MODELING MULTIDIMENSIONAL COMBUSTION WITH DETAILED CHEMISTRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    equations can be solved by using the existing CFD code, therefore most efforts towards modeling combustion, the development of very efficient CFD methods and reaction modeling method is equally important in combustionMULTIGRID METHOD FOR MODELING MULTI­DIMENSIONAL COMBUSTION WITH DETAILED CHEMISTRY Xiaoqing Zheng

  20. Unit and student details Unit code Unit title

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sekercioglu, Y. Ahmet

    Unit and student details Unit code Unit title If this is a group assignment, each student must submitted Has any part of this assessment been previously submitted as part of another unit/course? Yes not be copied. No part of this assignment has been previously submitted as part of another unit/course. I

  1. Post-Receptor Adaptation: Lighting Up the Details

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Robert G.

    Post-Receptor Adaptation: Lighting Up the Details The very first rays of the rising sun enrich our ambient light conditions. A number of previous studies have documented light-dependent functional changes evidence that light-dependent changes may originate in excitatory bipolar cells and offers clear

  2. Baca geothermal demonstration project. Power plant detail design document

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    This Baca Geothermal Demonstration Power Plant document presents the design criteria and detail design for power plant equipment and systems, as well as discussing the rationale used to arrive at the design. Where applicable, results of in-house evaluations of alternatives are presented.

  3. PHYSICS 333 Electricity and Magnetism I CLASS DETAILS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cassak, Paul

    in this course are germane to essentially every field in modern physics! · The topics to be covered areFall 2009 PHYSICS 333 ­ Electricity and Magnetism I CLASS DETAILS: · Meeting Times: Tuesday + by appointment + whenever the door is open · Please come by for help with concepts, homework, or other advice

  4. EMIS Quick User Guide Search page (details on page 2)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shoubridge, Eric

    search terms in foreign languages You can enter search terms in foreign languages by: - Using your: Please note that we have a Cyrillic and Arabic keyboards available through the Search page. EnteringEMIS Quick User Guide Search page (details on page 2) The News page: Access the latest news

  5. Planning and scheduling of PPG glass production, model and implementation.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    production and consumption rates x compatibility matrix between colors x selling price Determine: x sequencePlanning and scheduling of PPG glass production, model and implementation. Ricardo Lima Ignacio of the glass production x capture the essence of the process that is not considered in the Master Production

  6. Glass for low-cost photovoltaic solar arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bouquet, F.L.

    1980-02-01

    In photovoltaic systems, the encapsulant material that protects the solar cells should be highly transparent and very durable. Glass satisfies these two criteria and is considered a primary candidate for low-cost, photovoltaic encapsulation systems. In this report, various aspects of glass encapsulation are treated that are important for the designer of photovoltaic systems. Candidate glasses and available information defining the state of the art of glass encapsulation materials and processes for automated, high volume production of terrestrial photovoltaic devices and related applications are presented. The criteria for consideration of the glass encapsulation systems were based on the LSA (Low-cost Solar Array) Project goals for arrays: (a) a low degradation rate, (b) high reliability, (c) an efficiency greater than 10 percent, (d) a total array price less than $500/kW, and (e) a production capacity of 5 x 10/sup 5/ kW/yr. The glass design areas treated herein include the types of glass, sources and costs, physical properties and glass modifications, such as antireflection coatings. 78 references.

  7. Assessment, development, and testing of glass for blast environments.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glass, Sarah Jill

    2003-06-01

    Glass can have lethal effects including fatalities and injuries when it breaks and then flies through the air under blast loading (''the glass problem''). One goal of this program was to assess the glass problem and solutions being pursued to mitigate it. One solution to the problem is the development of new glass technology that allows the strength and fragmentation to be controlled or selected depending on the blast performance specifications. For example the glass could be weak and fail, or it could be strong and survive, but it must perform reliably. Also, once it fails it should produce fragments of a controlled size. Under certain circumstances it may be beneficial to have very small fragments, in others it may be beneficial to have large fragments that stay together. The second goal of this program was to evaluate the performance (strength, reliability, and fragmentation) of Engineered Stress Profile (ESP) glass under different loading conditions. These included pseudo-static strength and pressure tests and free-field blast tests. The ultimate goal was to provide engineers and architects with a glass whose behavior under blast loading is less lethal. A near-term benefit is a new approach for improving the reliability of glass and modifying its fracture behavior.

  8. Integrated Disposal Facility FY 2012 Glass Testing Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierce, Eric M.; Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Krogstad, Eirik J.; Burton, Sarah D.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Snyder, Michelle MV; Crum, Jarrod V.; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2013-03-29

    PNNL is conducting work to provide the technical basis for estimating radionuclide release from the engineered portion of the disposal facility for Hanford immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW). Before the ILAW can be disposed, DOE must conduct a performance assessment (PA) for the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) that describes the long-term impacts of the disposal facility on public health and environmental resources. As part of the ILAW glass testing program, PNNL is implementing a strategy, consisting of experimentation and modeling, to provide the technical basis for estimating radionuclide release from the glass waste form in support of future IDF PAs. Key activities in FY12 include upgrading the STOMP/eSTOMP codes to do near-field modeling, geochemical modeling of PCT tests to determine the reaction network to be used in the STOMP codes, conducting PUF tests on selected glasses to simulate and accelerate glass weathering, developing a Monte Carlo simulation tool to predict the characteristics of the weathered glass reaction layer as a function of glass composition, and characterizing glasses and soil samples exhumed from an 8-year lysimeter test. The purpose of this report is to summarize the progress made in fiscal year (FY) 2012 and the first quarter of FY 2013 toward implementing the strategy with the goal of developing an understanding of the long-term corrosion behavior of LAW glasses.

  9. Liquid-glass Transition in Charge-stabilized Colloidal Dispersions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liquid-glass Transition in Charge-stabilized Colloidal Dispersions S.K. Lai, G.F. Wang and W Abstract. We model the inter-colloidal interactions in a charge-stabilized col- loidal dispersion by a hard the loci of the liquid-glass transition phase boundary for a salt-free suspension of charged colloids

  10. Thermodynamics and Universality for Mean Field Quantum Spin Glasses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nick Crawford

    2006-10-13

    We study aspects of the thermodynamics of quantum versions of spin glasses. By means of the Lie-Trotter formula for exponential sums of operators, we adapt methods used to analyze classical spin glass models to answer analogous questions about quantum models.

  11. The recycling of the coal fly ash in glass production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erol, M.M.; Kucukbayrak, S.; Ersoy-Mericboyu, A.

    2006-09-15

    The recycling of fly ash obtained from the combustion of coal in thermal power plant has been studied. Coal fly ash was vitrified by melting at 1773 K for 5 hours without any additives. The properties of glasses produced from coal fly ash were investigated by means of Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) techniques. DTA study indicated that there was only one endothermic peak at 1003 K corresponding to the glass transition temperature. XRD analysis showed the amorphous state of the glass sample produced from coal fly ash. SEM investigations revealed that the coal fly ash based glass sample had smooth surface. The mechanical, physical and chemical properties of the glass sample were also determined. Recycling of coal fly ash by using vitrification technique resulted to a glass material that had good mechanical, physical and chemical properties. Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) results showed that the heavy metals of Pb, Cr, Zn and Mn were successfully immobilized into the glass. It can be said that glass sample obtained by the recycling of coal fly ash can be taken as a non-hazardous material. Overall, results indicated that the vitrification technique is an effective way for the stabilization and recycling of coal fly ash.

  12. Photocatalytic activity of glass ceramics containing Nasicon-type crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu, Jie

    2013-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? Glass ceramics containing Nasicon-type crystals were prepared. ? The glass ceramics showed photocatalytic activity under UV irradiation. ? Higher activity was observed in the MgTi{sub 4}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}- and CaTi{sub 4}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}-containing glass ceramics. -- Abstract: Glass ceramics were prepared by heat-treating MO–TiO{sub 2}–P{sub 2}O{sub 5} (M = Mg, Ca, Sr and Ba) and R{sub 2}O–TiO{sub 2}–P{sub 2}O{sub 5}–SiO{sub 2} (R = Li, Na and K) glasses, and their photocatalytic activity was investigated. The crystalline phases precipitated in the glasses were only Nasicon-type crystals, MTi{sub 4}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6} or RTi{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}. Decomposition experiments of both methylene blue (MB) and acetaldehyde showed that the glass ceramics exhibited effective photocatalytic activity. The activity did not depend on the radius of the M{sup 2+} or R{sup +} ion, and higher activity was observed in the MgTi{sub 4}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6} and CaTi{sub 4}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6} precipitated glass ceramics.

  13. Glass Development for Treatment of LANL Evaporator Bottoms Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DE Smith; GF Piepel; GW Veazey; JD Vienna; ML Elliott; RK Nakaoka; RP Thimpke

    1998-11-20

    Vitrification is an attractive treatment option for meeting the stabilization and final disposal requirements of many plutonium (Pu) bearing materials and wastes at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) TA-55 facility, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), Hanford, and other Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has declared that vitrification is the "best demonstrated available technology" for high- level radioactive wastes (HLW) (Federal Register 1990) and has produced a handbook of vitriilcation technologies for treatment of hazardous and radioactive waste (US EPA, 1992). This technology has been demonstrated to convert Pu-containing materials (Kormanos, 1997) into durable (Lutze, 1988) and accountable (Forsberg, 1995) waste. forms with reduced need for safeguarding (McCulhun, 1996). The composition of the Evaporator Bottoms Waste (EVB) at LANL, like that of many other I%-bearing materials, varies widely and is generally unpredictable. The goal of this study is to optimize the composition of glass for EVB waste at LANL, and present the basic techniques and tools for developing optimized glass compositions for other Pu-bearing materials in the complex. This report outlines an approach for glass formulation with fixed property restrictions, using glass property-composition databases. This approach is applicable to waste glass formulation for many variable waste streams and vitrification technologies.. Also reported are the preliminary property data for simulated evaporator bottom glasses, including glass viscosity and glass leach resistance using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP).

  14. Vibrational dephasing mechanisms in liquids and glasses: Vibrational echo experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fayer, Michael D.

    Vibrational dephasing mechanisms in liquids and glasses: Vibrational echo experiments K. D. Rector September 1997; accepted 27 October 1997 Picosecond vibrational echo studies of the asymmetric stretching. It is proposed that the T1 dependence arises from coupling of the vibration to the glass's tunneling two level

  15. Drawing Outside the Lines Animation Workshop: Paint On Glass Assignment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drawing Outside the Lines Animation Workshop: Paint On Glass Assignment Due Thursday, Nov.19 th , 9 on this in the 2D Lab in the Com Bldg, or in the DV Linear Paint-On- Glass Suite in the Library. Prepare your

  16. Short communication Fractal in fracture of bulk metallic glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Jianbo

    Short communication Fractal in fracture of bulk metallic glass M.Q. Jiang a,b , J.X. Meng a , J. Bulk metallic glass B. Dynamic fracture C. Nanoscale periodic corrugation C. Fractal a b s t r a c t We investigate the nanoscale periodic corrugation (NPC) structures on the dynamic fracture surface of a typical

  17. Spectral investigations of Sm{sup 3+}-doped oxyfluorosilicate glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramachari, D. [Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517502 (India); Rama Moorthy, L., E-mail: lrmphysics@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517502 (India); Department of Physics, Chadalawada Ramanamma Engineering College, Renigunta Road, Tirupati 517506 (India); Jayasankar, C.K. [Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517502 (India)

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: The figure shows the emission spectra of Sm{sup 3+} doped KNSZL glass for different concentrations. Among the four emission transitions {sup 4}G{sub 5/2} ? {sup 6}H{sub 5/2}, {sup 4}G{sub 5/2} ? {sup 6}H{sub 7/2}, {sup 4}G{sub 5/2} ? {sup 6}H{sub 9/2} and {sup 4}G{sub 5/2} ? {sup 6}H{sub 11/2}, the {sup 4}G{sub 5/2} ? {sup 6}H{sub 7/2} transition of KNSZLSm10 glass is more intense compared with all the transitions. The insert figure shows, the color coordinates (0.59, 0.41) of KNSZLSm10 glass is located on the perimeter of the chromaticity diagram at 592 nm which appears to be closest to the orange color. From these results the KNSZLSm10 glass could be useful for optical amplifiers, waveguides, telecommunications and orange LEDs. - Highlights: • From the DTA, the undoped KNSZL glass more precisely in fiberdrawing. • The XRD pattern confirmed the KNbO{sub 3} nanocrystallites of undoped KNSZL glass. • FTIR and Raman data of KNSZLSm10 glass revealed structural properties. • Judd–Ofelt analysis and decay measurements were carried out. • The optical gain parameter of the investigated glass is 18.13 × 10{sup ?25} cm{sup 2} s. - Abstract: Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}-doped oxyfluorosilicate glasses were prepared by melt-quenching method. The differential thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction were carried out to investigate the glass transition temperature and structure of precursor glass. Infrared spectroscopy, Raman, optical absorption, photoluminescence and decay measurements were carried out for Sm{sup 3+}-doped oxyfluorosilicate glasses. From the absorption spectrum, the Judd–Ofelt intensity parameters have been evaluated to predict the radiative properties for the emission levels of Sm{sup 3+} ions. The lifetimes of {sup 4}G{sub 5/2} level are found to decrease from 1.17 to 0.93 ms due to the energy transfer, when the concentration of Sm{sup 3+} ions increases from 0.1 to 2.0 mol%. The optical gain parameter (18.13 × 10{sup ?25} cm{sup 2} s) of the investigated glass is found to be higher than the other Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}-doped glass systems.

  18. Cryogenic tests of glass-epoxy-based electrical insulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, J.D.; Green, M.A.; Martin, P.S.; Pripstein, M.

    1982-01-01

    Experience with several superconducting coils has proven that glass cloth vacuum-impregnated with epoxy is an excellent material for cryogenic applications from the mechanical standpoint. This paper investigates several types of glass cloth and composites which contain glass cloth. The samples primarily were given a sandwich construction (illustrated) of glass cloth and wire, then impregnated with epoxy, and then were subjected to severe thermal shock by being dipped in liquid nitrogen until boiling stopped, after which they were dipped in warm water. This cycle was repeated 25 times. following thermal cycling, the samples were tested at voltages incremented to an upper limit of 25 kV. The samples were held for 60 seconds at each voltage. Twentythree samples were tested; the results are summarized in tables. Conclusions tend to prefer glass-epoxy such as FR-4 or NEMA G-10. Newer matrials such as Kapton or Nomex look promising for future development.

  19. Iron Phosphate Glasses: An Alternative for Vitrifying Certain Nuclear Wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delbert E. Day; Chandra S. Ray; Cheol-Woon Kim

    2004-12-28

    Vitrification of nuclear waste in a glass is currently the preferred process for waste disposal. DOE currently approves only borosilicate (BS) type glasses for such purposes. However, many nuclear wastes, presently awaiting disposal, have complex and diverse chemical compositions, and often contain components that are poorly soluble or chemically incompatible in BS glasses. Such problematic wastes can be pre-processed and/or diluted to compensate for their incompatibility with a BS glass matrix, but both of these solutions increases the wasteform volume and the overall cost for vitrification. Direct vitrification using alternative glasses that utilize the major components already present in the waste is preferable, since it avoids pre-treating or diluting the waste, and, thus, minimizes the wasteform volume and overall cost.

  20. Recent advances in phosphate laser glasses for high power applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, J.H.

    1996-05-14

    Recent advances in Nd-doped phosphate laser glasses for high-peak-power and high-average-power applications are reviewed. Compositional studies have progressed to the point that glasses can be tailored to have specific properties for specific applications. Non-radiative relaxation effects can be accurately modeled and empirical expressions have been developed to evaluate both intrinsic (structural) and extrinsic (contamination induced) relaxation effects. Losses due to surface scattering and bulk glass absorption have been carefully measured and can be accurately predicted. Improvements in processing have lead to high damage threshold (e.g. Pt inclusion free) and high thermal shock resistant glasses with improved edge claddings. High optical quality pieces up to 79 x 45 x 4cm{sup 3} have been made and methods for continuous melting laser glass are under development.

  1. Removal Rate Model for Magnetorheological Finishing of Glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeGroote, J.E.; Marino, A.E.; WIlson, J.P.; Bishop, A.L.; Lambropoulos, J.C.; Jacobs, S.D.

    2007-11-14

    Magnetorheological finishing (MRF) is a deterministic subaperture polishing process. The process uses a magntorheological (MR) fluid that consists of micrometer-sized, spherical, magnetic carbonyl iron (CI) particles, nonmagnetic polishing abrasives, water, and stabilizers. Material removal occurs when the CI and nonmagnetic polishing abrasives shear material off the surface being polished. We introduce a new MRF material removal rate model for glass. This model contains terms for the near surface mechanical properties of glass, drag force, polishing abrasive size and concentration, chemical durability of the glass, MR fluid pH, and the glass composition. We introduce quantitative chemical predictors for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, into an MRF removal rate model. We validate individual terms in our model separately and then combine all of the terms to show the whole MRF material removal model compared with experimental data. All of our experimental data were obtained using nanodiamond MR fluids and a set of six optical glasses.

  2. Glass capable of ionic conduction and method of preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Susman, S.; Boehm, L.; Volin, K.J.; Delbecq, C.J.

    1982-05-06

    Sulfide glasses capable of conducting alkali metal ions are prepared from a nonmetal glass former such as GeS/sub 2/, B/sub 2/S/sub 2/ and SiS/sub 2/ in mixture with a glass modifier such as Na/sub 2/S or another alkali metal sulfide. A molten mixture of the constituents is rapidly quenched to below the glass transition temperature by contact with a metal mold. The rapid quench is sufficient to prevent crystallization and permit solidification as an amorphous solid mixture. An oxygen-free atmosphere is maintained over the mixture to prevent oxidation. A new glass system of (1 - X) Na/sub 2/O:XB/sub 2/S/sub 3/ is disclosed.

  3. Glass capable of ionic conduction and method of preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Susman, S.; Delbecq, C.J.; Volin, K.J.; Boehm, L.

    1984-02-21

    Sulfide glasses capable of conducting alkali metal ions are prepared from a nonmetal glass former such as GeS[sub 2], B[sub 2]S[sub 3] and SiS[sub 2] in mixture with a glass modifier such as Na[sub 2]S or another alkali metal sulfide. A molten mixture of the constituents is rapidly quenched to below the glass transition temperature by contact with a metal mold. The rapid quench is sufficient to prevent crystallization and permit solidification as an amorphous solid mixture. An oxygen-free atmosphere is maintained over the mixture to prevent oxidation. A new glass system of (1-X) Na[sub 2]O:XB[sub 2]S[sub 3] is disclosed. 4 figs.

  4. Atomic trigger shatters mystery of how glass deforms | ornl.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atomic trigger shatters mystery of how glass deforms Bond switching underpins warping of strong metallic glasses Joint Institute for Neutron Sciences Director Takeshi Egami, left,...

  5. Elimination of platinum inclusions in phosphate laser glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, J.H.; Wallerstein, E.P. ); Hayden, J.S.; Sapak, D.L.; Warrington, D.E.; Marker, A.J. III ); Toratani, H.; Meissner, H.; Nakajima, S.; Izumitani, T. )

    1989-05-26

    Results from small-scale glass melting experiments aimed at reducing the density of platinum particles in phosphate laser glasses are discussed. The platinum particles originate from the crucibles used to melt the laser glass and can cause optical damage in glasses used in high-peak-power lasers; this problem was particularly acute in the LLNL 120 kJ, 100 TW Nova laser. The melting experiments examine the effects of (i) N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and Cl{sub 2} gas atmospheres; (ii) temperature and temperature gradients; (iii) processing time; and (iv) platinum alloys on the formation and dissolution of platinum inclusions in LHG-8 and LG-750 phosphate laser glasses. Results show that most platinum inclusions originate early in the melt cycle, with thermal gradients within the melter being one of the major causes. By using oxidizing gas conditions (O{sub 2}, Cl{sub 2}, or O{sub 2} + Cl{sub 2}), the platinum inclusions can be dissolved into the glass during the course of the melt cycle. The dissolution rate of platinum under oxidizing conditions has been measured, and a model is used to quantify the description of the dissolution process. The effect of ionic platinum on the transmission spectra of the laser glasses produced under various oxidizing conditions has also been measured. Results from the above laboratory-scale melting experiments have been incorporated into proprietary laser-glass melting processes. The laser glasses prepared under these conditions have an average of less than 0.1 platinum inclusions/liter, which represents a 1000-fold reduction over the previously available phosphate laser glasses. 52 refs., 56 figs., 15 tabs.

  6. Effects of alteration product precipitation on glass dissolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strachan, Denis M.; Neeway, James J.

    2014-04-02

    Silicate glasses dissolve in water at a rate dependent on the solution concentration of orthosilicic acid (H4SiO4). In general, higher [H4SiO4] leads to lower dissolution rates. It has often been observed that the precipitation of certain silica-bearing alteration products can cause the dissolution of the glass to increase, even after the rate has decreased significantly. However, it has also been observed that in the concentrations of these silica-bearing solution species do not significantly decrease while other elements continue to be released. In this study, we have used the Geochemist’s Workbench code to investigate the relationship between glass dissolution rates and the precipitation rate of a silica-bearing alteration product, analcime (Na(AlSi2O6)?H2O). In this initial study and to simplify the calculations, we suppressed all alteration products except analcime, gibbsite (Al(OH)3), and amorphous silica. The ‘cross affinity’ code option allowed us to account for the fact that glass is a thermodynamically unstable solid with respect to its alteration products in contact with water. The cross-affinity option in the Geochemist’s Workbench geochemical code allowed us to substitute the amorphous silica equilibrium-constant matrix for the glass equilibrium-constant matrix. In this article, we present the results of our calculations of the glass dissolution rate at different values for the analcime precipitation rate constant and the effects of varying the glass dissolution rate constant at a constant analcime precipitation rate constant. In all cases, our results indicate that the glass dissolution rate controls the rate of analcime precipitation in the long term. Our results, compared in general terms with experiments, show the importance of the gel layer that forms during glass alteration. The meaning of these results pertinent to long-term glass durability is discussed.

  7. Mechanical properties, glass transition temperature, and bond enthalpy trends of high metalloid Fe-based bulk metallic glasses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Widom, Michael

    Mechanical properties, glass transition temperature, and bond enthalpy trends of high metalloid Fe December 2007; accepted 8 April 2008; published online 25 April 2008 Mechanical properties and glass plastic strain of 3% is obtained, despite the increase in the number of strong metal-metalloid bonds. Also

  8. Effects of Nanodiamond Abrasive Friability in Experimental MR Fluids with Phosphate Laser Glass LHG-8 and Other Optical Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeGroote, J.E.; Marino, A.E.; Wilson, J.P.; Spencer, K.E.; Jacobs, S.D.

    2005-09-22

    Research is currently being conducted to better understand the role that nanodiamond abrasives play in the removal process of Magnetorheological Finishing (MRF). The following presents removal rate data for a set of six optical glasses that were spotted (not polished out) with four different MR fluids, as well as texturing/smoothing data for phosphate laser glass LHG-8.

  9. Extraction of Proteins Glass Bead Method For preparation of protein extracts, the glass bead method is preferred. Some researchers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Extraction of Proteins ­ Glass Bead Method For preparation of protein extracts, the glass bead method is preferred. Some researchers suggest more than one wash step (Step 1) to remove any residual. Protein Extraction Buffer 3. SDS-Page Sample Buffer 4. 15 mL conical tubes 5. 2 mL sardstedt tubes 6

  10. Proceedings on the Workshop on METHODOLOGIES FOR INTERNATIONAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Use and Integrated Statistics Division, Energy Information division (EIA), US Department of Energy1 Proceedings on the Workshop on METHODOLOGIES FOR INTERNATIONAL COMPARISONS OF INDUSTRIAL ENERGY;Proceedings on the Workshop on METHODOLOGIES FOR INTERNATIONAL COMPARISONS OF INDUSTRIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY

  11. Methodology for Constructing Reduced-Order Power Block Performance Models for CSP Applications: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, M.

    2010-10-01

    The inherent variability of the solar resource presents a unique challenge for CSP systems. Incident solar irradiation can fluctuate widely over a short time scale, but plant performance must be assessed for long time periods. As a result, annual simulations with hourly (or sub-hourly) timesteps are the norm in CSP analysis. A highly detailed power cycle model provides accuracy but tends to suffer from prohibitively long run-times; alternatively, simplified empirical models can run quickly but don?t always provide enough information, accuracy, or flexibility for the modeler. The ideal model for feasibility-level analysis incorporates both the detail and accuracy of a first-principle model with the low computational load of a regression model. The work presented in this paper proposes a methodology for organizing and extracting information from the performance output of a detailed model, then using it to develop a flexible reduced-order regression model in a systematic and structured way. A similar but less generalized approach for characterizing power cycle performance and a reduced-order modeling methodology for CFD analysis of heat transfer from electronic devices have been presented. This paper builds on these publications and the non-dimensional approach originally described.

  12. Reactions during melting of low-activity waste glasses and their effects on the retention of rhenium as a surrogate for technetium-99

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, Tongan; Kim, Dong-Sang; Tucker, Abigail E.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Kruger, Albert A.

    2015-10-01

    Volatile loss of radioactive 99Tc to offgas is a concern with processing the low-activity waste (LAW) at Hanford site. We investigated the partitioning and incorporation of Re (a nonradioactive surrogate for 99Tc) into the glass melt during crucible melting of two simulated LAW feeds that resulted in a large difference in 99mTc/Re retention in glass from the small-scale melter tests. Each feed was prepared from a simulated liquid LAW and chemical and mineral additives (boric acid, silica sand, etc.). The as-mixed slurry feeds were dried at 105°C and heated to 600–1100°C at 5 K/min. The dried feeds and heat treated samples were leached with deionized water for 10 min at room temperature followed by 24-h leaching at 80°C. Chemical compositions of the resulting solutions and insoluble solids were analyzed. Volume expansion measurement and X-ray diffraction were performed on dried feeds and heat treated samples to characterize the progress of feed-to-glass conversion reactions. It was found that the incorporation of Re into glass melt virtually completed during the major feed-to-glass conversion reactions were going on at ? 700°C. The present results suggest that the different composition of the salt phase is responsible for the large difference in Re incorporation into glass melt during early stages of glass melting at ? 700°C. Additional studies with modified and simplified feeds are underway to understand the details on how the different salt composition affects the Re incorporation.

  13. Development of a glass polymer composite sewer pipe from waste glass. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rayfiel, R.; Kukacka, L.E.

    1980-02-01

    A range of polymer-aggregate composites for applications in industry which appear to be economically attractive and contribute to energy conservation were developed at BNL. Waste glass is the aggregate in one such material, which is called glass-polymer-composite (GPC). This report assays the economics and durability of GPC in piping for storm drains and sewers. The properties of the pipe are compared statistically with the requirements of industrial specifications. These establish the raw materials requirements. The capital and operating costs for producing pipe are then estimated. Using published sales values for competing materials, the return on investment is calculated for two cases. The ultimate energy requirement of the raw materials in GPC is compared with the corresponding requirement for vitrified clay pipe. The strengths of GPC, reinforced concrete, vitrified clay and asbestos cement pipe are compared after extended exposure to various media. The status of process and product development is reviewed and recommendations are made for future work.

  14. Methodology for Developing the REScheckTM Software through Version 4.2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartlett, Rosemarie; Connell, Linda M.; Gowri, Krishnan; Lucas, R. G.; Schultz, Robert W.; Taylor, Zachary T.; Wiberg, John D.

    2009-08-31

    This report explains the methodology used to develop Version 4.2 of the REScheck software developed for the 1992, 1993, and 1995 editions of the MEC, and the 1998, 2000, 2003, and 2006 editions of the IECC, and the 2006 edition of the International Residential Code (IRC). Although some requirements contained in these codes have changed, the methodology used to develop the REScheck software for these five editions is similar. REScheck assists builders in meeting the most complicated part of the code?the building envelope Uo-, U-, and R-value requirements in Section 502 of the code. This document details the calculations and assumptions underlying the treatment of the code requirements in REScheck, with a major emphasis on the building envelope requirements.

  15. 232 JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS, VOL. 16, NO. 2, APRIL 2007 Glass Blowing on a Wafer Level

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Zhongping

    232 JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS, VOL. 16, NO. 2, APRIL 2007 Glass Blowing on a Wafer. The ability to blow glass on a wafer level may enable novel capabilities including mass-pro- duction-0092] Index Terms--Fabrication, glass, glass blowing, glass bubble, glass shell, microglass sphere

  16. Precision diamond grinding of ceramics and glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, S.; Paul, H.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01

    A new research initiative will be undertaken to investigate the effect of machine parameters and material properties on precision diamond grinding of ceramics and glass. The critical grinding depth to initiate the plastic flow-to-brittle fracture regime will be directly measured using plunge-grind tests. This information will be correlated with machine parameters such as wheel bonding and diamond grain size. Multiaxis grinding tests will then be made to provide data more closely coupled with production technology. One important aspect of the material property studies involves measuring fracture toughness at the very short crack sizes commensurate with grinding damage. Short crack toughness value`s can be much less than the long-crack toughness values measured in conventional fracture tests.

  17. Thermally efficient melting for glass making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Michael S. K. (Zionsville, PA); Painter, Corning F. (Allentown, PA); Pastore, Steven P. (Allentown, PA); Roth, Gary (Trexlertown, PA); Winchester, David C. (Allentown, PA)

    1991-01-01

    The present invention is an integrated process for the production of glass utilizing combustion heat to melt glassmaking materials in a glassmaking furnace. The fuel combusted to produce heat sufficient to melt the glassmaking materials is combusted with oxygen-enriched oxidant to reduce heat losses from the offgas of the glassmaking furnace. The process further reduces heat losses by quenching hot offgas from the glassmaking furnace with a process stream to retain the heat recovered from quench in the glassmaking process with subsequent additional heat recovery by heat exchange of the fuel to the glassmaking furnace, as well as the glassmaking materials, such as batch and cullet. The process includes recovery of a commercially pure carbon dioxide product by separatory means from the cooled, residual offgas from the glassmaking furnace.

  18. Detailed chemical kinetic oxidation mechanism for a biodiesel surrogate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herbinet, O; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    2007-09-17

    A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism has been developed and used to study the oxidation of methyl decanoate, a surrogate for biodiesel fuels. This model has been built by following the rules established by Curran et al. for the oxidation of n-heptane and it includes all the reactions known to be pertinent to both low and high temperatures. Computed results have been compared with methyl decanoate experiments in an engine and oxidation of rapeseed oil methyl esters in a jet stirred reactor. An important feature of this mechanism is its ability to reproduce the early formation of carbon dioxide that is unique to biofuels and due to the presence of the ester group in the reactant. The model also predicts ignition delay times and OH profiles very close to observed values in shock tube experiments fueled by n-decane. These model capabilities indicate that large n-alkanes can be good surrogates for large methyl esters and biodiesel fuels to predict overall reactivity, but some kinetic details, including early CO2 production from biodiesel fuels, can be predicted only by a detailed kinetic mechanism for a true methyl ester fuel. The present methyl decanoate mechanism provides a realistic kinetic tool for simulation of biodiesel fuels.

  19. Detailed chemical kinetic oxidation mechanism for a biodiesel surrogate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herbinet, O; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    2007-09-20

    A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism has been developed and used to study the oxidation of methyl decanoate, a surrogate for biodiesel fuels. This model has been built by following the rules established by Curran et al. for the oxidation of n-heptane and it includes all the reactions known to be pertinent to both low and high temperatures. Computed results have been compared with methyl decanoate experiments in an engine and oxidation of rapeseed oil methyl esters in a jet stirred reactor. An important feature of this mechanism is its ability to reproduce the early formation of carbon dioxide that is unique to biofuels and due to the presence of the ester group in the reactant. The model also predicts ignition delay times and OH profiles very close to observed values in shock tube experiments fueled by n-decane. These model capabilities indicate that large n-alkanes can be good surrogates for large methyl esters and biodiesel fuels to predict overall reactivity, but some kinetic details, including early CO{sub 2} production from biodiesel fuels, can be predicted only by a detailed kinetic mechanism for a true methyl ester fuel. The present methyl decanoate mechanism provides a realistic kinetic tool for simulation of biodiesel fuels.

  20. Detailed chemical kinetic oxidation mechanism for a biodiesel surrogate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herbinet, Olivier; Pitz, William J.; Westbrook, Charles K.

    2008-08-15

    A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism has been developed and used to study the oxidation of methyl decanoate, a surrogate for biodiesel fuels. This model has been built by following the rules established by Curran and co-workers for the oxidation of n-heptane and it includes all the reactions known to be pertinent to both low and high temperatures. Computed results have been compared with methyl decanoate experiments in an engine and oxidation of rapeseed oil methyl esters in a jet-stirred reactor. An important feature of this mechanism is its ability to reproduce the early formation of carbon dioxide that is unique to biofuels and due to the presence of the ester group in the reactant. The model also predicts ignition delay times and OH profiles very close to observed values in shock tube experiments fueled by n-decane. These model capabilities indicate that large n-alkanes can be good surrogates for large methyl esters and biodiesel fuels to predict overall reactivity, but some kinetic details, including early CO{sub 2} production from biodiesel fuels, can be predicted only by a detailed kinetic mechanism for a true methyl ester fuel. The present methyl decanoate mechanism provides a realistic kinetic tool for simulation of biodiesel fuels. (author)

  1. Cosmological perturbations in Horava-Lifshitz theory without detailed balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anzhong Wang; Roy Maartens

    2010-01-14

    In the Horava-Lifshitz theory of quantum gravity, two conditions -- detailed balance and projectability -- are usually assumed. The breaking of projectability simplifies the theory, but it leads to serious problems with the theory. The breaking of detailed balance leads to a more complicated form of the theory, but it appears to resolve some of the problems. Sotiriou, Visser and Weinfurtner formulated the most general theory of Horava-Lifshitz type without detailed balance. We compute the linear scalar perturbations of the FRW model in this form of HL theory. We show that the higher-order curvature terms in the action lead to a gravitational effective anisotropic stress on small scales. Specializing to a Minkowski background, we study the spin-0 scalar mode of the graviton, using a gauge-invariant analysis, and find that it is stable in both the infrared and ultraviolet regimes for $0 \\le \\xi \\le 2/3$. However, in this parameter range the scalar mode is a ghost.

  2. ISHED1: Applying the LEM Methodology to Heat Exchanger Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michalski, Ryszard S.

    ISHED1: Applying the LEM Methodology to Heat Exchanger Design Kenneth A. Kaufman Ryszard S. Michalski MLI 00-2 #12;2 ISHED1: APPLYING THE LEM METHODOLOGY TO HEAT EXCHANGER DESIGN Kenneth A. Kaufman-2 January 2000 #12;ISHED1: APPLYING THE LEM METHODOLOGY TO HEAT EXCHANGER DESIGN Abstract Evolutionary

  3. Phosphate glass useful in high energy lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hayden, Y.T.; Payne, S.A.; Hayden, J.S.; Campbell, J.H.; Aston, M.K.; Elder, M.L.

    1996-06-11

    In a high energy laser system utilizing phosphate laser glass components to amplify the laser beam, the laser system requires a generated laser beam having an emission bandwidth of less than 26 nm and the laser glass components consist essentially of (on an oxide composition basis) in mole percent: P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, 50--75; Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, {gt}0--10; K{sub 2}O, {gt}0--30; MgO, 0--30; CaO, 0--30; Li{sub 2}O, 0--20; Na{sub 2}O, 0--20; Rb{sub 2}O, 0--20; Cs{sub 2}O, 0--20; BeO, 0--20; SrO, 0--20; BaO, 0--20; ZnO, 0--20; PbO, 0--20; B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 0--10; Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 0--10; La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 0--8; Ln{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 0.01--8; wherein the sum of MgO and CaO is >0--30; the sum of Li{sub 2}O, Na{sub 2}O, Rb{sub 2}O, and Cs{sub 2}O is 0--20; the sum of BeO, SrO, BaO, ZnO, and PbO is 0--20; the sum of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} is 0--10; and Ln{sub 2}O{sub 3} represents the sum of the oxides of active lasing lanthanides of atomic number 58--71. 21 figs.

  4. Phosphate glass useful in high energy lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hayden, Yuiko T. (Clarks Summit, PA); Payne, Stephen A. (Castro Valley, CA); Hayden, Joseph S. (Clarks Summit, PA); Campbell, John H. (Livermore, CA); Aston, Mary Kay (Moscow, PA); Elder, Melanie L. (Dublin, CA)

    1996-01-01

    In a high energy laser system utilizing phosphate laser glass components to amplify the laser beam, the laser system requires a generated laser beam having an emission bandwidth of less than 26 nm and the laser glass components consist essentially of (on an oxide composition basis) in mole percent: P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, 50--75; Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, {gt}0--10; K{sub 2}O, {gt}0--30; MgO, 0--30; CaO, 0--30; Li{sub 2}O, 0--20; Na{sub 2}O, 0--20; Rb{sub 2}O, 0--20; Cs{sub 2}O, 0--20; BeO, 0--20; SrO, 0--20; BaO, 0--20; ZnO, 0--20; PbO, 0--20; B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 0--10; Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 0--10; La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 0--8; Ln{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 0.01--8; wherein the sum of MgO and CaO is >0--30; the sum of Li{sub 2}O, Na{sub 2}O, Rb{sub 2}O, and Cs{sub 2}O is 0--20; the sum of BeO, SrO, BaO, ZnO, and PbO is 0--20; the sum of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} is 0--10; and Ln{sub 2}O{sub 3} represents the sum of the oxides of active lasing lanthanides of atomic number 58--71. 21 figs.

  5. Methodology for Monthly Crude Oil Production Estimates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on dark matterEnergy Innovation PortalPrinceton---Methodology|

  6. Update of Part 61 Impacts Analysis Methodology. Methodology report. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oztunali, O.I.; Roles, G.W.

    1986-01-01

    Under contract to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Envirosphere Company has expanded and updated the impacts analysis methodology used during the development of the 10 CFR Part 61 rule to allow improved consideration of the costs and impacts of treatment and disposal of low-level waste that is close to or exceeds Class C concentrations. The modifications described in this report principally include: (1) an update of the low-level radioactive waste source term, (2) consideration of additional alternative disposal technologies, (3) expansion of the methodology used to calculate disposal costs, (4) consideration of an additional exposure pathway involving direct human contact with disposed waste due to a hypothetical drilling scenario, and (5) use of updated health physics analysis procedures (ICRP-30). Volume 1 of this report describes the calculational algorithms of the updated analysis methodology.

  7. Low Velocity Sphere Impact of a Borosilicate Glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrissey, Timothy G; Ferber, Mattison K; Wereszczak, Andrew A; Fox, Ethan E

    2012-05-01

    This report summarizes US Army TARDEC sponsored work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) involving low velocity (< 30 m/s or < 65 mph) ball impact testing of Borofloat borosilicate glass, and is a follow-up to a similar study completed by the authors on Starphire soda-lime silicate glass last year. The response of the borosilicate glass to impact testing at different angles was also studied. The Borofloat glass was supplied by the US Army Research Laboratory and its tin-side was impacted or indented. The intent was to better understand low velocity impact response in the Borofloat. Seven sphere materials were used whose densities bracket that of rock: borosilicate glass, soda-lime silicate glass, silicon nitride, aluminum oxide, zirconium oxide, carbon steel, and a chrome steel. A gas gun or a ball-drop test setup was used to produce controlled velocity delivery of the spheres against the glass tile targets. Minimum impact velocities to initiate fracture in the Borofloat were measured and interpreted in context to the kinetic energy of impact and the elastic property mismatch between the seven sphere-Borofloat-target combinations. The primary observations from this low velocity (< 30 m/s or < 65 mph) testing were: (1) BS glass responded similarly to soda-lime silicate glass when spherically indented but quite differently under sphere impact conditions; (2) Frictional effects contributed to fracture initiation in BS glass when it spherically indented. This effect was also observed with soda-lime silicate glass; (3) The force necessary to initiate fracture in BS glass under spherical impact decreases with increasing elastic modulus of the sphere material. This trend is opposite to what was observed with soda-lime silicate glass. Friction cannot explain this trend and the authors do not have a legitimate explanation for it yet; (4) The force necessary to initiate contact-induced fracture is higher under dynamic conditions than under quasi-static conditions. That difference decreases with increasing elastic modulus mismatch between the sphere material and borosilicate This trend was opposite in soda-lime silicate glass; (5) Fracture in borosilicate glass occurs at lower velocities (i.e., easier) at 24{sup o} than at 0{sup o} (orthogonal) and 46{sup o} of impact for the same probability of failure. Though not analyzed yet, this suggests that a convolution of kinetic energy and friction is contributing to that trend; (6) There is a subtle indication there was intra-tile differences in spherical indentation RCIF. This likely is not a material property nor exclusive to borosilicate glass, rather, it is a statistical response of a combination of local, surface-located flaw and imposed tensile stress. Understanding of the surface flaw population and flaw positioning can likely enable prediction of spherical indentation RCIF; and (7) Contact-induced fracture did not initiate in the Borofloat BS for impact kinetic energies up to {approx} 20 mJ. For kinetic energies between {approx} 20-150 mJ, fracture sometimes initiated. Contact-induced fracture would always occur for impact energies > 150 mJ. The energy values, and their boundaries, were much lower for BS glass than they were for soda-lime silicate glass.

  8. Enabling Tool for Innovative Glass Applications - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James M. Gillis

    2005-11-16

    The use of abrasive waterjet (AWJ) cutting systems in the industrial sector has been limited to applications that are difficult to machine using conventional methods. A major factor for this limited use is the high cost of the garnet abrasive currently used. Initial studies indicated that glass can be processed to produce particles with the desired characteristics at a fraction of the existing price of garnet. Inexpensive abrasive waterjet cutting systems would allow a wider array of glass products to be produced while eliminating many existing design limitations. Availability of low-cost abrasive waterjet cutting media would open new markets for glass applications by making glass a more versatile material. A fundamental goal of this project was to scale up and refine the circuit that was established in the initial phase of this project, which using waste glass as a feed stream, could economically produce glass particles displaying high angularity, sharp edges and a low aspect ratio which would prove suitable for use in abrasive waterjet (AWJ) cutting systems. Using commercial scale equipment, demonstration runs were conducted at various manufacturers facilities to further establish that waste glass is a viable source for the production of an inexpensive AWJ media for use in cutting glass and a variety of other materials. The glass abrasive produced was used to demonstrate that processed waste glass could serve as a less costly alternative to garnet in many AWJ cutting applications. Studies indicated that glass can be processed to produce particles with the desired characteristics at less than 1% of the existing price of garnet. The waste stream resulting from the use of the glass abrasive in an AWJ system was in turn used as a source for inexpensive fillers in various polymers. The reduced energy requirements needed to produce glass abrasives and lower cost associated with the use of waste glass over garnet, as well as the environmental benefits associated with the recycling of glass waste streams were the primary objectives of this project. The use of the glass abrasive produced in this study did not result in feed rates as high as was expected when used as the media in the cutting of plate glass products. Furthermore, the process and equipment refinements that have been implemented at the PPG and Donnelly facilities since this project was initiated have also served to reduce their energy requirements and in turn the cost associated with the production of sidelites and foiled prisms using conventional means. In addition, further improvements would have to be realized in the cutting of these harder materials before the use of an AWJ system could be viewed as an economically viable means of establishing the perimeter of either product. The possibility of tempering to increase the hardness of the glass media may be one means of achieving this goal.

  9. Low melting high lithia glass compositions and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jantzen, Carol M. (Aiken, SC); Pickett, John B. (Aiken, SC); Cicero-Herman, Connie A. (Aiken, SC); Marra, James C. (Aiken, SC)

    2000-01-01

    The invention relates to methods of vitrifying waste and for lowering the melting point of glass forming systems by including lithia formers in the glass forming composition in significant amounts, typically from about 0.16 wt % to about 11 wt %, based on the total glass forming oxides. The lithia is typically included as a replacement for alkali oxide glass formers that would normally be present in a particular glass forming system. Replacement can occur on a mole percent or weight percent basis, and typically results in a composition wherein lithia forms about 10 wt % to about 100 wt % of the alkali oxide glass formers present in the composition. The present invention also relates to the high lithia glass compositions formed by these methods. The invention is useful for stabilization of numerous types of waste materials, including aqueous waste streams, sludge solids, mixtures of aqueous supernate and sludge solids, combinations of spent filter aids from waste water treatment and waste sludges, supernate alone, incinerator ash, incinerator offgas blowdown, or combinations thereof, geological mine tailings and sludges, asbestos, inorganic filter media, cement waste forms in need of remediation, spent or partially spent ion exchange resins or zeolites, contaminated soils, lead paint, etc. The decrease in melting point achieved by the present invention desirably prevents volatilization of hazardous or radioactive species during vitrification.

  10. Low melting high lithia glass compositions and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jantzen, Carol M.; Pickett, John B.; Cicero-Herman, Connie A.; Marra, James C.

    2004-11-02

    The invention relates to methods of vitrifying waste and for lowering the melting point of glass forming systems by including lithia formers in the glass forming composition in significant amounts, typically from about 0.16 wt % to about 11 wt %, based on the total glass forming oxides. The lithia is typically included as a replacement for alkali oxide glass formers that would normally be present in a particular glass forming system. Replacement can occur on a mole percent or weight percent basis, and typically results in a composition wherein lithia forms about 10 wt % to about 100 wt % of the alkali oxide glass formers present in the composition. The present invention also relates to the high lithia glass compositions formed by these methods. The invention is useful for stabilization of numerous types of waste materials, including aqueous waste streams, sludge solids, mixtures of aqueous supernate and sludge solids, combinations of spent filter aids from waste water treatment and waste sludges, supernate alone, incinerator ash, incinerator offgas blowdown, or combinations thereof, geological mine tailings and sludges, asbestos, inorganic filter media, cement waste forms in need of remediation, spent or partially spent ion exchange resins or zeolites, contaminated soils, lead paint, etc. The decrease in melting point achieved by the present invention desirably prevents volatilization of hazardous or radioactive species during vitrification.

  11. Low melting high lithia glass compositions and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jantzen, Carol M.; Pickett, John B.; Cicero-Herman, Connie A.; Marra, James C.

    2003-10-07

    The invention relates to methods of vitrifying waste and for lowering the melting point of glass forming systems by including lithia formers in the glass forming composition in significant amounts, typically from about 0.16 wt % to about 11 wt %, based on the total glass forming oxides. The lithia is typically included as a replacement for alkali oxide glass formers that would normally be present in a particular glass forming system. Replacement can occur on a mole percent or weight percent basis, and typically results in a composition wherein lithia forms about 10 wt % to about 100 wt % of the alkali oxide glass formers present in the composition. The present invention also relates to the high lithia glass compositions formed by these methods. The invention is useful for stabilization of numerous types of waste materials, including aqueous waste streams, sludge solids, mixtures of aqueous supernate and sludge solids, combinations of spent filter aids from waste water treatment and waste sludges, supernate alone, incinerator ash, incinerator offgas blowdown, or combinations thereof, geological mine tailings and sludges, asbestos, inorganic filter media, cement waste forms in need of remediation, spent or partially spent ion exchange resins or zeolites, contaminated soils, lead paint, etc. The decrease in melting point achieved by the present invention desirably prevents volatilization of hazardous or radioactive species during vitrification.

  12. METHODOLOGY FOR PASSIVE ANALYSIS OF A UNIVERSITY INTERNET LINK / TALK 13 Methodology for Passive Analysis of a University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at San Diego, University of

    METHODOLOGY FOR PASSIVE ANALYSIS OF A UNIVERSITY INTERNET LINK / TALK 13 Methodology for Passive # Abstract--- Passive monitoring of Internet links can e#­ ciently provide valuable data on a wide variety and research questions using our passive measurement methodology. Keywords--- Network Performance Monitoring

  13. Test plan for glass melter system technologies for vitrification of high-sodium content low-level radioactive liquid waste, Project No. RDD-43288

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Higley, B.A.

    1995-03-15

    This document provides a test plan for the conduct of combustion fired cyclone vitrification testing by a vendor in support of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System, Low-Level Waste Vitrification Program. The vendor providing this test plan and conducting the work detailed within it is the Babcock & Wilcox Company Alliance Research Center in Alliance, Ohio. This vendor is one of seven selected for glass melter testing.

  14. Specific heat loading in Nd:glass lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krupke, W.F.

    1985-08-07

    The specific thermal load parameter, chi, for xenon flashlamp-pumped Nd:glass gain media is written as a function of neodymium concentration, pump pulse duration, and energy extraction efficiency. The currently available data on radiative and nonradiative decay probabilities of several commercial Nd:glasses are used to calculate and graph specific thermal load parameter values. By factoring these results into performance scaling relationships for zig-zag and disk lasers, specific Nd:glasses can be selected for optimized laser performance.

  15. Reference commercial high-level waste glass and canister definition.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slate, S.C.; Ross, W.A.; Partain, W.L.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents technical data and performance characteristics of a high-level waste glass and canister intended for use in the design of a complete waste encapsulation package suitable for disposal in a geologic repository. The borosilicate glass contained in the stainless steel canister represents the probable type of high-level waste product that will be produced in a commercial nuclear-fuel reprocessing plant. Development history is summarized for high-level liquid waste compositions, waste glass composition and characteristics, and canister design. The decay histories of the fission products and actinides (plus daughters) calculated by the ORIGEN-II code are presented.

  16. Inverse Freezing in Mean-Field Models of Fragile Glasses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mauro Sellitto

    2006-05-25

    A disordered spin model suitable for studying inverse freezing in fragile glass-forming systems is introduced. The model is a microscopic realization of the ``random-first order'' scenario in which the glass transition can be either continuous or discontinuous in thermodynamic sense. The phase diagram exhibits a first-order transition line between two fluid phases terminating at a critical point. When the interacting degrees of freedom are entropically favoured an inverse static glass transition and a double inverse dynamic freezing appear.

  17. Tamper-indicating device having a glass body

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnston, Roger G. (Los Alamos, NM); Garcia, Anthony R. E. (Espanola, NM)

    2003-04-29

    A tamper-indicating device is described. The device has a first glass body member and a second glass body member that are attached to each other through a hasp. The glass body members of the device can be tempered. The body members can be configured with hollow volumes into which powders, microparticles, liquids, gels, or combinations thereof are sealed. The choice, the amount, and the location of these materials can produce a visible, band pattern to provide each body member with a unique fingerprint identifier, which makes it extremely difficult to repair or replace once it is damaged in order to avoid tamper detection.

  18. China's Building Energy Use: A Long-Term Perspective based on a Detailed Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eom, Jiyong; Clarke, Leon E.; Kim, Son H.; Kyle, G. Page; Patel, Pralit L.

    2012-01-13

    We present here a detailed, service-based model of China's building energy use, nested in the GCAM (Global Change Assessment Model) integrated assessment framework. Using the model, we explore long-term pathways of China's building energy use and identify opportunities of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The inclusion of a structural model of building energy demands within an integrated assessment framework represents a major methodological advance. It allows for a structural understanding of the drivers of building energy consumption while simultaneously considering the other human and natural system interactions that influence changes in the global energy system and climate. We also explore a range of different scenarios to gain insights into how China's building sector might evolve and what the implications might be for improved building energy technology and carbon policies. The analysis suggests that China's building energy growth will not wane anytime soon, although technology improvement will put downward pressure on this growth. Also, regardless of the scenarios represented, the growth will involve the continued, rapid electrification of the buildings sector throughout the century, and this transition will be accelerated by the implementation of carbon policy.

  19. China's Building Energy Demand: Long-Term Implications from a Detailed Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eom, Jiyong; Clarke, Leon E.; Kim, Son H.; Kyle, G. Page; Patel, Pralit L.

    2012-10-01

    We present here a detailed, service-based model of China’s building energy use, nested in the GCAM (Global Change Assessment Model) integrated assessment framework. Using the model, we explore long-term pathways of China’s building energy use and identify opportunities of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The inclusion of a structural model of building energy demands within an integrated assessment framework represents a major methodological advance. It allows for a structural understanding of the drivers of building energy consumption while simultaneously considering the other human and natural system interactions that influence changes in the global energy system and climate. We also explore a range of different scenarios to gain insights into how China’s building sector might evolve and what the implications might be for improved building energy technology and carbon policies. The analysis suggests that China’s building energy growth will not wane anytime soon, although technology improvement will put downward pressure on this growth. Also, regardless of the scenarios represented, the growth will involve the continued, rapid electrification of the buildings sector throughout the century, and this transition will be accelerated by the implementation of carbon policy.

  20. ORIGINAL ARTICLE A methodology for the optimization of PCD compact

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , in a technical sense, similar to those faced when drilling in glass fiber composites [2] or ceramic matrix composites [3] where abrasive and hard constituents are major tool durability concerns. On Mars, one