Sample records for glass layers uncoated

  1. Engineering Glass Passivation Layers -Model Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skorski, Daniel C.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Strachan, Denis M.; Lepry, William C.

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The immobilization of radioactive waste into glass waste forms is a baseline process of nuclear waste management not only in the United States, but worldwide. The rate of radionuclide release from these glasses is a critical measure of the quality of the waste form. Over long-term tests and using extrapolations of ancient analogues, it has been shown that well designed glasses exhibit a dissolution rate that quickly decreases to a slow residual rate for the lifetime of the glass. The mechanistic cause of this decreased corrosion rate is a subject of debate, with one of the major theories suggesting that the decrease is caused by the formation of corrosion products in such a manner as to present a diffusion barrier on the surface of the glass. Although there is much evidence of this type of mechanism, there has been no attempt to engineer the effect to maximize the passivating qualities of the corrosion products. This study represents the first attempt to engineer the creation of passivating phases on the surface of glasses. Our approach utilizes interactions between the dissolving glass and elements from the disposal environment to create impermeable capping layers. By drawing from other corrosion studies in areas where passivation layers have been successfully engineered to protect the bulk material, we present here a report on mineral phases that are likely have a morphological tendency to encrust the surface of the glass. Our modeling has focused on using the AFCI glass system in a carbonate, sulfate, and phosphate rich environment. We evaluate the minerals predicted to form to determine the likelihood of the formation of a protective layer on the surface of the glass. We have also modeled individual ions in solutions vs. pH and the addition of aluminum and silicon. These results allow us to understand the pH and ion concentration dependence of mineral formation. We have determined that iron minerals are likely to form a complete incrustation layer and we plan to look more closely at Vivianite [Fe3(PO4)2-8(H2O)] and Siderite [FeCO3] in the next stage of the project.

  2. Actinide speciation in glass leach-layers: An EXAFS study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biwer, B.M.; Soderholm, L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Greegor, R.B. [Boeing Co., Seattle, WA (United States); Lytle, F.W. [EXAFS Co., Pioche, NV (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Uranium L{sub 3} X-ray absorption data were obtained from two borosilicate glasses, which are considered as models for radioactive wasteforms, both before and after leaching. Surface sensitivity to uranium speciation was attained by a novel application of simultaneous fluorescence and electron-yield detection. Changes in speciation are clearly discernible, from U(VI) in the bulk to (UO{sub 2}){sup 2+}-uranyl in the leach layer. The leach-layer uranium concentration variations with leaching times are also determined from the data.

  3. Graphene growth on glass 1 Synthesis of conducting transparent few-layer graphene directly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Graphene growth on glass 1 Synthesis of conducting transparent few-layer graphene directly on glass major hurdles that research has to overcome to get graphene out of research laboratories. Here, using transparent graphene layers at temperatures as low as 450 °C. Our few-layer graphene grows at the interface

  4. Uncoated microcantilevers as chemical sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thundat, Thomas G. (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and device are provided for chemical sensing using cantilevers that do not use chemically deposited, chemically specific layers. This novel device utilizes the adsorption-induced variation in the surfaces states on a cantilever. The methodology involves exciting charge carriers into or out of the surface states with photons having increasing discrete levels of energy. The excitation energy is provided as discrete levels of photon energy by scanning the wavelength of an exciting source that is illuminating the cantilever surface. When the charge carriers are excited into or out of the surface states, the cantilever bending changes due to changes in surface stress. The amount of cantilever bending with respect to an identical cantilever as a function of excitation energy is used to determine the energy levels associated with adsorbates.

  5. Solid-State NMR Examination of Alteration Layers on a Nuclear Waste Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, Kelly A. [Penn State Univ., State College, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Washton, Nancy M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Environmental Molecular Science Lab.; Ryan, Joseph V. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pantano, Carlo G. [Penn State Univ., State College, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Mueller, Karl T. [Penn State Univ., State College, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Environmental Molecular Science Lab.

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid-state NMR is a powerful tool for probing the role and significance of alteration layers in determining the kinetics for the corrosion of nuclear waste glass. NMR methods are used to probe the chemical structure of the alteration layers to elucidate information about their chemical complexity, leading to increased insight into the mechanism of altered layer formation. Two glass compositions were examined in this study: a glass preliminarily designed for nuclear waste immobilization (called AFCI) and a simplified version of this AFCI glass (which we call SA1R). Powdered glasses with controlled and known particles sizes were corroded at 90 °C for periods of one and five months with a surface-area to solution-volume ratio of 100,000 m-1. 1H-29Si CP-CPMG MAS NMR, 1H-27Al CP-MAS NMR, 1H-11B CP-MAS NMR, and 1H-23Na CP-MAS NMR experiments provide isolated structural information about the alteration layers, which differ in structure from that of the pristine glass. Both glasses studied here develop alteration layers composed primarily of [IV]Si species. Aluminum is also retained in the alteration layers, perhaps facilitated by the observed increase in coordination from [IV]Al to [VI]Al, which correlates with a loss of charge balancing cations. 1H-11B CP-MAS NMR observations indicated a retention of boron in hydrated glass layers, which has not been characterized by previous work. For the AFCI glass, secondary phase formation begins during the corrosion times considered here, and these neophases are detected within the alteration layers. We identify precursor phases as crystalline sodium metasilicates. An important finding is that layer thickness depends on the length of the initial alteration stages and varies only with respect to silicon species during the residual rate regime.

  6. Fast Response and High Sensitivity ZnO/glass Surface Acoustic Wave Humidity Sensors Using Graphene Oxide Sensing Layer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xuan, Weipeng; He, Mei; Meng, Nan; He, Xingli; Wang, Wenbo; Chen, Jinkai; Shi, Tianjin; Hasan, Tawfique; Xu, Zhen; Xu, Yang; Luo, J. K.

    2014-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We report ZnO/glass surface acoustic wave (SAW) humidity sensors with high sensitivity and fast response using graphene oxide sensing layer. The frequency shift of the sensors is exponentially correlated to the humidity change, induced mainly...

  7. NanoSIMS Imaging Alternation Layers of a Leached SON68 Glass Via A FIB-made Wedged Crater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yi-Chung; Schreiber, Daniel K.; Neeway, James J.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Evans, James E.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Zhu, Zihua; Wei, Wei

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Currently, nuclear wastes are commonly immobilized into glasses because of their long-term durability. Exposure to water for long periods of time, however, will eventually corrode the waste form and is the leading potential avenue for radionuclide release into the environment. Because such slow processes cannot be experimentally tested, the prediction of release requires a thorough understanding the mechanisms governing glass corrosion. In addition, due to the exceptional durability of glass, much of the testing must be performed on high-surface-area powders. A technique that can provide accurate compositional profiles with very precise depth resolution for non-flat samples would be a major benefit to the field. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) depth profiling is an excellent tool that has long been used to examine corrosion layers of glass. The roughness of the buried corrosion layers, however, causes the corresponding SIMS depth profiles to exhibit erroneously wide interfaces. In this study, NanoSIMS was used to image the cross-section of the corrosion layers of a leached SON68 glass sample. A wedged crater was prepared by a focused ion beam (FIB) instrument to obtain a 5× improvement in depth resolution for NanoSIMS measurements. This increase in resolution allowed us to confirm that the breakdown of the silica glass network is further from the pristine glass than a second dissolution front for boron, another glass former. The existence of these two distinct interfaces, separated by only ~20 nm distance in depth, was not apparent by traditional ToF-SIMS depth profiling but has been confirmed also by atom probe tomography. This novel sample geometry will be a major benefit to efficient NanoSIMS sampling of irregular interfaces at the nanometer scale that would otherwise be obscured within ToF-SIMS depth profiles.

  8. Effect of Stainless Steel Can/Glass-Ceramic Interaction Layer on Aqueous Durability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGlinn, Peter J.; Zhang, Yingjie; Li, Huijun; Payne, Timothy E. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, New Illawarra Road, Lucas Heights (Australia)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Calcined high-level radioactive waste (HLW) stored at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) will eventually be immobilised in a suitable wasteform before disposal. A tailored glass-ceramic wasteform, produced by hot isostatic pressing (HIPing) in stainless steel (SS) cans, has been developed at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) as a cost-saving alternative to glass which would improve waste loading and density, and reduce waste volume. We have studied the SS/wasteform interactions under HIPing conditions to understand whether such interactions would have any detrimental effect on long-term wasteform stability. This has been demonstrated by carrying out aqueous durability tests, under near-neutral and alkaline conditions, on the wasteform at the interaction layer, and on the wasteform distal to this reaction edge. Reaction during HIPing resulted in verifiable Cr diffusion from the can wall into the wasteform, yet without any detectable detrimental impact on the HIP can or the aqueous durability of the wasteform. (authors)

  9. An enriched finite element model with q-refinement for radiative boundary layers in glass cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohamed, M. Shadi [Institute for Infrastructure and Environment, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)] [Institute for Infrastructure and Environment, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Seaid, Mohammed; Trevelyan, Jon [School of Engineering and Computing Sciences, University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)] [School of Engineering and Computing Sciences, University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Laghrouche, Omar [Institute for Infrastructure and Environment, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)] [Institute for Infrastructure and Environment, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiative cooling in glass manufacturing is simulated using the partition of unity finite element method. The governing equations consist of a semi-linear transient heat equation for the temperature field and a stationary simplified P{sub 1} approximation for the radiation in non-grey semitransparent media. To integrate the coupled equations in time we consider a linearly implicit scheme in the finite element framework. A class of hyperbolic enrichment functions is proposed to resolve boundary layers near the enclosure walls. Using an industrial electromagnetic spectrum, the proposed method shows an immense reduction in the number of degrees of freedom required to achieve a certain accuracy compared to the conventional h-version finite element method. Furthermore the method shows a stable behaviour in treating the boundary layers which is shown by studying the solution close to the domain boundaries. The time integration choice is essential to implement a q-refinement procedure introduced in the current study. The enrichment is refined with respect to the steepness of the solution gradient near the domain boundary in the first few time steps and is shown to lead to a further significant reduction on top of what is already achieved with the enrichment. The performance of the proposed method is analysed for glass annealing in two enclosures where the simplified P{sub 1} approximation solution with the partition of unity method, the conventional finite element method and the finite difference method are compared to each other and to the full radiative heat transfer as well as the canonical Rosseland model.

  10. Initial comparison of leach behavior between fully radioactive and simulated nuclear waste glass through long-term testing: Part 2, Reacted layer analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bates, J.K.; Feng, X.; Bradley, C.R.; Buck, E.C.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An initial comparison of glass behavior of simulated nuclear waste glasses has been made through long-term testing of general glass types SRL165, SRL131 and SRL200. The data demonstrate that up to 560 days at S/V of 2000/m, the reacted layers consist of one outer clay layer, which is undetermined by discontinuous etch pits. The regions between the etch pits are alkali depleted. The surface layer becomes thicker as test duration progresses and the reacted layer after the same test time is thinner at higher S/V than at lower S/V. The relative glass durability measured by the thickness of the reacted layer is 165/42S > 131/11S > 200S, which is consistent with solution analyses. In general, the reacted layers on all glass compositions are poorly crystallized which makes the clay identification difficult. The diffraction spacings and EDS compositions for 131/11S and 200S, although not unique to, are consistent with Na (or Ca-) montmorillonite or nontronite. Both of these are dioctahedral smectite.

  11. Initial comparison of leach behavior between fully radioactive and simulated nuclear waste glass through long-term testing: Part 2, Reacted layer analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bates, J.K.; Feng, X.; Bradley, C.R.; Buck, E.C.

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An initial comparison of glass behavior of simulated nuclear waste glasses has been made through long-term testing of general glass types SRL165, SRL131 and SRL200. The data demonstrate that up to 560 days at S/V of 2000/m, the reacted layers consist of one outer clay layer, which is undetermined by discontinuous etch pits. The regions between the etch pits are alkali depleted. The surface layer becomes thicker as test duration progresses and the reacted layer after the same test time is thinner at higher S/V than at lower S/V. The relative glass durability measured by the thickness of the reacted layer is 165/42S > 131/11S > 200S, which is consistent with solution analyses. In general, the reacted layers on all glass compositions are poorly crystallized which makes the clay identification difficult. The diffraction spacings and EDS compositions for 131/11S and 200S, although not unique to, are consistent with Na (or Ca-) montmorillonite or nontronite. Both of these are dioctahedral smectite.

  12. Glass-silicon column

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, Conrad M.

    2003-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A glass-silicon column that can operate in temperature variations between room temperature and about 450.degree. C. The glass-silicon column includes large area glass, such as a thin Corning 7740 boron-silicate glass bonded to a silicon wafer, with an electrode embedded in or mounted on glass of the column, and with a self alignment silicon post/glass hole structure. The glass/silicon components are bonded, for example be anodic bonding. In one embodiment, the column includes two outer layers of silicon each bonded to an inner layer of glass, with an electrode imbedded between the layers of glass, and with at least one self alignment hole and post arrangement. The electrode functions as a column heater, and one glass/silicon component is provided with a number of flow channels adjacent the bonded surfaces.

  13. Generation of alkali-free and high-proton concentration layer in a soda lime glass using non-contact corona discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ikeda, Hiroshi; Sakai, Daisuke; Nishii, Junji [Research Institute for Electronic Science, Hokkaido University, N20 W10, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 001-0020 (Japan)] [Research Institute for Electronic Science, Hokkaido University, N20 W10, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 001-0020 (Japan); Funatsu, Shiro [Production Technology Center, Asahi Glass Co., Ltd., 1-1 Suehiro-cyo, Tsurumiku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 230-0045 (Japan)] [Production Technology Center, Asahi Glass Co., Ltd., 1-1 Suehiro-cyo, Tsurumiku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 230-0045 (Japan); Yamamoto, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Toshio [Research Center, Asahi Glass Co., Ltd., 1150 Hazawa-cho, Kanagawa-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 221-8755 (Japan)] [Research Center, Asahi Glass Co., Ltd., 1150 Hazawa-cho, Kanagawa-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 221-8755 (Japan); Harada, Kenji [Department of Computer Science, Kitami Institute of Technology, 165 Koen-cho, Kitami, Hokkaido 090-8507 (Japan)] [Department of Computer Science, Kitami Institute of Technology, 165 Koen-cho, Kitami, Hokkaido 090-8507 (Japan)

    2013-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Formation mechanisms of alkali-free and high-proton concentration surfaces were investigated for a soda lime glass using a corona discharge treatment under an atmospheric pressure. Protons produced by high DC voltage around an anode needle electrode were incorporated into a sodium ion site in the anode side glass. The sodium ion was swept away to the cathode side as a charge carrier. Then it was discharged. The precipitated sodium was transformed to a Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} powder when the surface contacted with air. The sodium ion in the glass surface layer of the anode side was replaced completely by protons. The concentration of OH groups in the layer was balanced with the amount of excluded sodium ions. The substitution reaction of sodium ions with protons tends to be saturated according to a square root function of time. The alkali depletion layer formation rate was affected by the large difference in mobility between sodium ions and protons in the glass.

  14. Glass Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shortland, Andrew

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Late Bronze Age glasses. Journal of Archaeological Science781 - 789. Turner, W.E.S. 1954 Studies in ancient glassesand glass making processes. Part I: Crucibles and melting

  15. The corrosion behavior of DWPF glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ebert, W.L.; Bates, J.K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemical Technology Div.

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors analyzed the corroded surfaces of reference glasses developed for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) to characterize their corrosion behavior. The corrosion mechanism of nuclear waste glasses must be known in order to provide source terms describing radionuclide release for performance assessment calculations. Different DWPF reference glasses were corroded under conditions that highlighted various aspects of the corrosion process and led to different extents of corrosion. The glasses corroded by similar mechanisms, and a phenomenological description of their corrosion behavior is presented here. The initial leaching of soluble glass components results in the formation of an amorphous gel layer on the glass surface. The gel layer is a transient phase that transforms into a layer of clay crystallites, which equilibrates with the solution as corrosion continues. The clay layer does not act as a barrier to either water penetration or glass dissolution, which continues beneath it, and may eventually separate from the glass. Solubility limits for glass components may be established by the eventual precipitation of secondary phases; thus, corrosion of the glass becomes controlled by the chemical equilibrium between the solution and the assemblage of secondary phases. In effect, the solution is an intermediate phase through which the glass transforms to an energetically more favorable assemblage of phases. Implications regarding the prediction of long-term glass corrosion behavior are discussed.

  16. DURABLE GLASS FOR THOUSANDS OF YEARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C.

    2009-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The durability of natural glasses on geological time scales and ancient glasses for thousands of years is well documented. The necessity to predict the durability of high level nuclear waste (HLW) glasses on extended time scales has led to various thermodynamic and kinetic approaches. Advances in the measurement of medium range order (MRO) in glasses has led to the understanding that the molecular structure of a glass, and thus the glass composition, controls the glass durability by establishing the distribution of ion exchange sites, hydrolysis sites, and the access of water to those sites. During the early stages of glass dissolution, a 'gel' layer resembling a membrane forms through which ions exchange between the glass and the leachant. The hydrated gel layer exhibits acid/base properties which are manifested as the pH dependence of the thickness and nature of the gel layer. The gel layer ages into clay or zeolite minerals by Ostwald ripening. Zeolite mineral assemblages (higher pH and Al{sup 3+} rich glasses) may cause the dissolution rate to increase which is undesirable for long-term performance of glass in the environment. Thermodynamic and structural approaches to the prediction of glass durability are compared versus Ostwald ripening.

  17. Glass-Encapsulated Light Harvesters: More Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells by Deposition of Self-Aligned, Conformal, and Self-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glass-Encapsulated Light Harvesters: More Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells by Deposition Supporting Information ABSTRACT: A major loss mechanism in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) is recombination% increase in relative efficiency versus control uncoated cells. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) have great

  18. Thermal Transitions in Layer-By-Layer Assemblies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sung, Choonghyun

    2014-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal transitions in layer-by-layer (LbL) assemblies were investigated under dry and hydrated conditions. In the dry state, the effects of film thickness and the film deposition method on the glass transition temperature (Tg) were studied...

  19. Glass balls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    There is a building with 100 floors in it, and glass balls, and an integer k with the following property. If one drops a glass ball from the floor number k or higher, ...

  20. Pd/Ni-WO3 anodic double layer gasochromic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, J. Roland; Liu, Ping

    2004-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    An anodic double layer gasochromic sensor structure for optical detection of hydrogen in improved response time and with improved optical absorption real time constants, comprising: a glass substrate; a tungsten-doped nickel oxide layer coated on the glass substrate; and a palladium layer coated on the tungsten-doped nickel oxide layer.

  1. Through a glass darkly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, James E

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Closeup Through a glass darklyThrough a glass darkly James E. Hall Keywords: AKAP2; AQP0;Medicine Closeup Through a glass darkly GLUT1 Glucose

  2. Glass Transition in Confined Geometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simon Lang; Vitalie Botan; Martin Oettel; David Hajnal; Thomas Franosch; Rolf Schilling

    2010-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Extending mode-coupling theory, we elaborate a microscopic theory for the glass transition of liquids confined between two parallel flat hard walls. The theory contains the standard MCT equations in bulk and in two dimensions as limiting cases and requires as input solely the equilibrium density profile and the structure factors of the fluid in confinement. We evaluate the phase diagram as a function of the distance of the plates for the case of a hard sphere fluid and obtain an oscillatory behavior of the glass transtion line as a result of the structural changes related to layering.

  3. Encapsulant Material For Solar Cell Module And Laminated Glass Applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanoka, Jack I. (Brookline, MA); Klemchuk, Peter P. (Watertown, CT)

    2001-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    An encapsulant material includes a layer of metallocene polyethylene disposed between two layers of an acid copolymer of polyethylene. More specifically, the layer of metallocene polyethylene is disposed adjacent a rear surface of the first layer of the acid copolymer of polyethylene, and a second layer of the acid copolymer of polyethlene is disposed adjacent a rear surface of the layer of metallocene polyethylene. The encapsulant material can be used in solar cell module and laminated glass applications.

  4. Encapsulant Material For Solar Cell Module And Laminated Glass Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanoka, Jack I. (Brookline, MA)

    2000-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    An encapsulant material includes a layer of metallocene polyethylene disposed between two layers of ionomer. More specifically, the layer of metallocene polyethylene is disposed adjacent a rear surface of the first ionomer layer, and a second layer of ionomer is disposed adjacent a rear surface of the layer of metallocene polyethylene. The encapsulant material can be used in solar cell module and laminated glass applications.

  5. ITP Glass: Industrial Glass Bandwidth Analysis Final Report,...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    industrialbandwidth.pdf More Documents & Publications ITP Glass: Glass Industry of the Future: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Glass Industry; April, 2002 ITP Glass:...

  6. ITP Glass: Glass Industry of the Future: Energy and Environmental...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    glass2002profile.pdf More Documents & Publications ITP Glass: Industrial Glass Bandwidth Analysis Final Report, August 2007 ITP Glass: A Clear Vision for a Bright Future ITP Glass:...

  7. CRYSTALLIZATION IN MULTICOMPONENT GLASSES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRUGER AA; HRMA PR

    2009-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    In glass processing situations involving glass crystallization, various crystalline forms nucleate, grow, and dissolve, typically in a nonuniform temperature field of molten glass subjected to convection. Nuclear waste glasses are remarkable examples of multicomponent vitrified mixtures involving partial crystallization. In the glass melter, crystals form and dissolve during batch-to-glass conversion, melter processing, and product cooling. Crystals often agglomerate and sink, and they may settle at the melter bottom. Within the body of cooling glass, multiple phases crystallize in a non-uniform time-dependent temperature field. Self-organizing periodic distribution (the Liesegnang effect) is common. Various crystallization phenomena that occur in glass making are reviewed.

  8. Mechanistic interpretation of glass reaction: Input to kinetic model development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bates, J.K.; Ebert, W.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (USA); Bradley, J.P. [McCrone Associates, Inc., Westmont, IL (USA); Bourcier, W.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)

    1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Actinide-doped SRL 165 type glass was reacted in J-13 groundwater at 90{degree}C for times up to 278 days. The reaction was characterized by both solution and solid analyses. The glass was seen to react nonstoichiometrically with preferred leaching of alkali metals and boron. High resolution electron microscopy revealed the formation of a complex layer structure which became separated from the underlying glass as the reaction progressed. The formation of the layer and its effect on continued glass reaction are discussed with respect to the current model for glass reaction used in the EQ3/6 computer simulation. It is concluded that the layer formed after 278 days is not protective and may eventually become fractured and generate particulates that may be transported by liquid water. 5 refs., 5 figs. , 3 tabs.

  9. Mechanistic interpretation of glass reaction: Input to kinetic model development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bates, J.K.; Ebert, W.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (USA); Bradley, J.P. [McCrone Associates, Inc., Westmont, IL (USA); Bourcier, W.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)

    1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Actinide-doped SRL 165 type glass was reacted in J-13 groundwater at 90{degrees}C for times up to 278 days. The reaction was characterized by both solution and solid analyses. The glass was seen to react nonstoichiometrically with preferred leaching of alkali metals and boron. High resolution electron microscopy revealed the formation of a complex layer structure which became separated from the underlying glass as the reaction progressed. The formation of the layer and its effect on continued glass reaction are discussed with respect to the current model for glass reaction used in the EQ3/6 computer simulation. It is concluded that the layer formed after 278 days is not protective and may eventually become fractured and generate particulates that may be transported by liquid water. 5 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. NEWS & VIEWS Glass dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weeks, Eric R.

    NEWS & VIEWS Glass dynamics Diverging views on glass transition Gregory B. mc.mckenna@ttu.edu T he glass transition is one of the most intriguing phenomena in the world of soft condensed matter. Despite decades of study, many aspects of the behaviour of glass-forming liquids remain elusive

  11. Using sputter coated glass to stabilize microstrip gas chambers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gong, Wen G. (Albany, CA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    By sputter coating a thin-layer of low-resistive, electronically-conductive glass on various substrates (including quartz and ceramics, thin-film Pestov glass), microstrip gas chambers (MSGC) of high gain stability, low leakage current, and a high rate capability can be fabricated. This design can make the choice of substrate less important, save the cost of ion-implantation, and use less glass material.

  12. Ammonia-treated phosphate glasses useful for sealing to metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brow, R.K.; Day, D.E.

    1991-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of improving surface-dependent properties of phosphate glass such as durability and wear resistance without significantly affecting its thermal expansion coefficient is provided which comprises annealing the glass in a dry ammonia atmosphere at temperatures approximating the transition temperature of the glass. The ammonia annealing treatment of the present invention is carried out for a time sufficient to allow incorporation of a thin layer of nitrogen into the surface of the phosphate glass, and the treatment improves the durability of the glass without the reduction in the thermal expansion coefficient that has restricted the effectiveness of prior ammonia treatments. The improved phosphate glass resulting from this method is superior in wear resistance, yet maintains suitable thermal expansion properties so that it may be used effectively in a variety of applications requiring hermetic glass-metal seals.

  13. Method of manufacturing a glass parabolic-cylindrical solar collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deminet, C.

    1980-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The method includes the following steps: (1) a microsheet of glass is drawn from a glass melt; (2) a reflective layer, such as silver, is deposited on one surface of the microsheet; (3) a first flexible backing layer, such as fiberglass, is bonded to the reflective layer; (4) the combination of the microsheet with the reflective layer and the first backing layer is formed over a mandrel which is preferably in the form of a parabolic cylinder; and (5) a honeycombed layer, with a second fiberglass backing layer, is then bonded to the first backing layer. The product produced by the steps 1-5 is then cured so that it retains the desired configuration; i.e. parabolic-cylindrical, after it is removed from the mandrel.

  14. Aligned crystalline semiconducting film on a glass substrate and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Findikoglu, Alp T. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2010-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A semiconducting structure having a glass substrate. In one embodiment, the glass substrate has a softening temperature of at least about 750.degree. C. The structure includes a nucleation layer formed on a surface of the substrate, a template layer deposited on the nucleation layer by one of ion assisted beam deposition and reactive ion beam deposition, at least on biaxially oriented buffer layer epitaxially deposited on the template layer, and a biaxially oriented semiconducting layer epitaxially deposited on the buffer layer. A method of making the semiconducting structure is also described.

  15. Glass Working, Use and Discard

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicholson, Paul

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Beck, Horace C. 1934 Glass before 1500 BC. Ancient Egypt7 - 21. Cooney, John 1960 Glass sculpture in ancient Egypt.Journal of Glass Studies 2, pp. 10 - 43. 1976 Glass.

  16. SLUDGE BATCH 7B GLASS VARIABILITY STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, F.; Edwards, T.

    2011-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is preparing to initiate processing Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b). In support of the upcoming processing, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provided a recommendation to utilize Frits 418 with a 6% Na{sub 2}O addition (26 wt% Na{sub 2}O in sludge) and 702 with a 4% Na{sub 2}O addition (24 wt% Na{sub 2}O in sludge) to process SB7b. This recommendation was based on assessments of the compositional projections for SB7b available at the time from the Savannah River Remediation (SRR). To support qualification of SB7b, SRNL executed a variability study to assess the applicability of the current durability models for SB7b. The durability models were assessed over the expected composition range of SB7b, including potential caustic additions, combined with Frits 702 and 418 over a 32-40% waste loading (WL) range. Thirty four glasses were selected based on Frits 418 and 702 coupled with the sludge projections with an additional 4-6% Na{sub 2}O to reflect the potential caustic addition. Six of these glasses, based on average nominal sludge compositions including the appropriate caustic addition, were developed for both Frit 418 and Frit 702 at 32, 36 and 40% WL to provide coverage in the center of the anticipated SB7b glass region. All glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the Product Consistency Test (PCT). To comply with the DWPF Glass Product Control Program, a total of thirty four glasses were fabricated to assess the applicability of the current DWPF PCCS durability models. Based on the measured PCT response, all of the glasses were acceptable with respect to the Environmental Assessment (EA) benchmark glass regardless of thermal history. The NL[B] values of the SB7b variability study glasses were less than 1.99 g/L as compared to 16.695 g/L for EA. A small number of the D-optimally selected 'outer layer' extreme vertices (EV) glasses were not predictable using the current Product Composition Control System (PCCS) models for durability, but were acceptable compared to the EA glass when tested. These glasses fell outside of the lower 95% confidence band, which demonstrates conservatism in the model. A few of the glasses fell outside of the upper 95% confidence band; however, these particular glasses have normalized release values that were much lower than the values of EA and should be of no practical concern. Per the requirements of the DWPF Glass Product Control Program, the PCCS durability models have been shown to be applicable to the SB7b sludge system with a range of Na{sub 2}O concentrations blended with Frits 418 or 702. PCT results from the glasses fabricated as part of the variability study were shown to be predictable by the current DWPF PCCS models and/or acceptable with respect to the EA benchmark glass regardless of thermal history or compositional view.

  17. Wetting of metals and glasses on Mo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P.; Saiz, Eduardo; Lopez-Esteban, Sonia; Benhassine, Mehdi; de Coninck, Joel; Rauch, Nicole; Ruehle, Manfred

    2008-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The wetting of low melting point metals and Si-Ca-Al-Ti-O glasses on molybdenum has been investigated. The selected metals (Au, Cu, Ag) form a simple eutectic with Mo. Metal spreading occurs under nonreactive conditions without interdiffusion or ridge formation. The metals exhibit low (non-zero) contact angles on Mo but this requires temperatures higher than 1100 C in reducing atmospheres in order to eliminate a layer of adsorbed impurities on the molybdenum surface. By controlling the oxygen activity in the furnace, glass spreading can take place under reactive or nonreactive conditions. We have found that in the glass/Mo system the contact angle does not decrease under reactive conditions. In all cases, adsorption from the liquid seems to accelerate the diffusivity on the free molybdenum surface.

  18. Diamond turning of glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blackley, W.S.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new research initiative will be undertaken to investigate the critical cutting depth concepts for single point diamond turning of brittle, amorphous materials. Inorganic glasses and a brittle, thermoset polymer (organic glass) are the principal candidate materials. Interrupted cutting tests similar to those done in earlier research are Ge and Si crystals will be made to obtain critical depth values as a function of machining parameters. The results will provide systematic data with which to assess machining performance on glasses and amorphous materials

  19. Rare Earth Phosphate Glass and Glass-Ceramic Proton Conductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    300-500°C. Doping rare earth phosphate glasses with Ce, andRare Earth Phosphate Glass and Glass-Ceramic Protonconductivity of alkaline-earth doped rare earth phosphate

  20. Rare Earth Phosphate Glass and Glass-Ceramic Proton Conductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Jonghe, Lutgard C.; Ray, Hannah L.; Wang, Ruigang

    2008-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The structure and conductivity of cerium and lanthanum phosphate glasses and glass-ceramics were investigated. The effects of varying the metal to phosphate ratio in the glasses, doping LaP3O9 glasses with Ce, and recrystallization of CeP3O9 glasses, on the glasses' microstructure and total conductivity were investigated using XRD, SEM, and AC impedance techniques. Strong increases in conductivity occurred when the glasses were recrystallized: the conductivity of a cerium metaphosphate glass increased conductivity after recrystallization from 10-7.5 S/cm to 10-6 S/cm at 400oC.

  1. Defense HLW Glass Degradation Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Strachan

    2004-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to document the development of a model for calculating the release rate for radionuclides and other key elements from high-level radioactive waste (HLW) glasses under exposure conditions relevant to the performance of the repository. Several glass compositions are planned for the repository, some of which have yet to be identified (i.e., glasses from Hanford and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory). The mechanism for glass dissolution is the same for these glasses and the glasses yet to be developed for the disposal of DOE wastes. All of these glasses will be of a quality consistent with the glasses used to develop this report.

  2. Redox-Dependent Solubility of Technetium in Low Activity Waste Glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soderquist, Chuck Z.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Lukens, Wayne W.; Mccloy, John S.

    2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The solubility of technetium was measured in a Hanford low activity waste glass simulant. The simulant glass was melted, quenched and pulverized to make a stock of powdered glass. A series of glass samples were prepared using the powdered glass and varying amounts of solid potassium pertechnetate. Samples were melted at 1000°C in sealed fused quartz ampoules. After cooling, the bulk glass and the salt phase above the glass (when present) were sampled for physical and chemical characterization. Technetium was found in the bulk glass up to 2000 ppm (using the glass as prepared) and 3000 ppm (using slightly reducing conditions). The chemical form of technetium obtained by x-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy can be mainly assigned to isolated Tc(IV), with a minority of Tc(VII) in some glasses and TcO2 in two glasses. The concentration and speciation of technetium depends on glass redox and amount of technetium added. Solid crystals of pertechnetate salts were found in the salt cake layer that formed at the top of some glasses during the melt.

  3. Glass, Brian 1 BRIAN DANIEL GLASS, M.A.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maddox, W. Todd

    Glass, Brian 1 BRIAN DANIEL GLASS, M.A. University Department of Psychology, A8000 The University of Texas at Austin Austin, TX 78712 (512) 232-2883 e-mail: glass@mail.utexas.edu EDUCATION 2006 ­ Cognitive include: Designing and constructing experiments, statistical #12;Glass, Brian 2 analysis, manuscript

  4. Glass, Brian 1 BRIAN DANIEL GLASS, M.A.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maddox, W. Todd

    Glass, Brian 1 BRIAN DANIEL GLASS, M.A. University Department of Psychology, A8000 The University Making, The University of Texas at Austin #12;Glass, Brian 2 Duties include: Designing and constructing, constructing, and running experiments, statistical analysis. JOURNAL PUBLICATIONS Glass, B. D., Chotibut, T

  5. Glass, Brian 1 BRIAN DANIEL GLASS, M.A.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maddox, W. Todd

    Glass, Brian 1 BRIAN DANIEL GLASS, M.A. University Department of Psychology, A8000 The University of Categorization and Decision Making, The University of Texas at Austin #12;Glass, Brian 2 Duties include: Programming, constructing, and running experiments, statistical analysis. JOURNAL PUBLICATIONS Glass, B. D

  6. Topography and Mechanical Property Mapping of International Simple Glass Surfaces with Atomic Force Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hopf, Juliane [ORNL; Pierce, Eric M [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantitative Nanomechanical Peak Force (PF-QNM) TappingModeTM atomic force microscopy measurements are presented for the first time on polished glass surfaces. The PF-QNM technique allows for topography and mechanical property information to be measured simultaneously at each pixel. Results for the international simple glass which represents a simplified version of SON68 glass suggests an average Young s modulus of 78.8 15.1 GPa is within the experimental error of the modulus measured for SON68 glass (83.6 2 GPa) with conventional approaches. Application of the PF-QNM technique will be extended to in situ glass corrosion experiments with the goal of gaining atomic-scale insights into altered layer development by exploiting the mechanical property differences that exist between silica gel (e.g., altered layer) and pristine glass surface.

  7. Integrated Disposal Facility FY 2012 Glass Testing Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierce, Eric M.; Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Krogstad, Eirik J.; Burton, Sarah D.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Snyder, Michelle MV; Crum, Jarrod V.; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2013-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    PNNL is conducting work to provide the technical basis for estimating radionuclide release from the engineered portion of the disposal facility for Hanford immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW). Before the ILAW can be disposed, DOE must conduct a performance assessment (PA) for the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) that describes the long-term impacts of the disposal facility on public health and environmental resources. As part of the ILAW glass testing program, PNNL is implementing a strategy, consisting of experimentation and modeling, to provide the technical basis for estimating radionuclide release from the glass waste form in support of future IDF PAs. Key activities in FY12 include upgrading the STOMP/eSTOMP codes to do near-field modeling, geochemical modeling of PCT tests to determine the reaction network to be used in the STOMP codes, conducting PUF tests on selected glasses to simulate and accelerate glass weathering, developing a Monte Carlo simulation tool to predict the characteristics of the weathered glass reaction layer as a function of glass composition, and characterizing glasses and soil samples exhumed from an 8-year lysimeter test. The purpose of this report is to summarize the progress made in fiscal year (FY) 2012 and the first quarter of FY 2013 toward implementing the strategy with the goal of developing an understanding of the long-term corrosion behavior of LAW glasses.

  8. MECHANICS OF RELAXING SiGe ISLANDS ON A VISCOUS GLASS , J. Liang1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suo, Zhigang

    MECHANICS OF RELAXING SiGe ISLANDS ON A VISCOUS GLASS R. Huang1 , H. Yin2 , J. Liang1 , J.C. Sturm2, a SiGe thin film, a glass layer, and a Si wafer. The SiGe film is a perfect crystal, and is under biaxial compression. Pattern the SiGe film into islands. On annealing, the glass flows and the islands

  9. Baseline LAW Glass Formulation Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, Albert A. [USDOE Office of River Protection, Richland, WA (United States); Mooers, Cavin [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab.; Bazemore, Gina [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Pegg, Ian L. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Hight, Kenneth [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Lai, Shan Tao [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Buechele, Andrew [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Rielley, Elizabeth [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Gan, Hao [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Muller, Isabelle S. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab; Cecil, Richard [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States). Vitreous State Lab

    2013-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The major objective of the baseline glass formulation work was to develop and select glass formulations that are compliant with contractual and processing requirements for each of the LAW waste streams. Other objectives of the work included preparation and characterization of glasses with respect to the properties of interest, optimization of sulfate loading in the glasses, evaluation of ability to achieve waste loading limits, testing to demonstrate compatibility of glass melts with melter materials of construction, development of glass formulations to support ILAW qualification activities, and identification of glass formulation issues with respect to contract specifications and processing requirements.

  10. Compression and impact testing of two-layer composite pyramidal-core sandwich panels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vaziri, Ashkan

    show that compared with glass fiber woven textile truss cores, two-layer carbon fiber composite are traditionally manufactured using metallic honeycombs or stochastic foams [5­7]. The emergence of manufacturing sequential buckling. They manufactured multi-layered glass fiber reinforced composite sandwich panels

  11. Compliant alkali silicate sealing glass for solid oxide fuel cell applications: the effect of protective alumina coating on electrical stability in dual environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, Y. S.; Choi, Jung-Pyung; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An alkali-containing silicate glass was recently proposed as a potential sealant for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). The glass contains appreciable amount of alkalis and retains its glassy microstructure at elevated temperatures over time. It is more compliant as compared to conventional glass-ceramics sealants and could potentially heal cracks during thermal cycling. In previous papers the thermal cycle stability, thermal stability and chemical compatibility were reported with yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte and YSZ-coated ferritic stainless steel interconnect. In this paper, we report the electrical stability of the compliant glass with aluminized AISI441 interconnect material under DC load in dual environment at 700-800oC. Apparent electrical resistivity was measured with a 4-point method for the glass sealed between two aluminized AISI441 metal coupons as well as plain AISI441 substrates. The results showed good electrical stability with the aluminized AISI441 substrate, while unstable behavior was observed for un-coated substrates. In addition, interfacial microstructure was examined with scanning electron microscopy and correlated with the measured resistivity results. Overall, the alumina coating demonstrated good chemical stability with the alkali-containing silicate sealing glass under DC loading.

  12. Super ionic conductive glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Susman, Sherman (Park Forest, IL); Volin, Kenneth J. (Fort Collins, CO)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ionically conducting glass for use as a solid electrolyte in a power or secondary cell containing an alkali metal-containing anode and a cathode separated by an alkali metal ion conducting glass having an ionic transference number of unity and the general formula: A.sub.1+x D.sub.2-x/3 Si.sub.x P.sub.3-x O.sub.12-2x/3, wherein A is a network modifier for the glass and is an alkali metal of the anode, D is an intermediate for the glass and is selected from the class consisting of Zr, Ti, Ge, Al, Sb, Be, and Zn and X is in the range of from 2.25 to 3.0. Of the alkali metals, Na and Li are preferred and of the intermediate, Zr, Ti and Ge are preferred.

  13. Reduction of Glass Surface Reflectance by Ion Beam Surface Modification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Spitzer

    2011-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final report for DOE contract DE-EE0000590. The purpose of this work was to determine the feasibility of the reduction of the reflection from the front of solar photovoltaic modules. Reflection accounts for a power loss of approximately 4%. A solar module having an area of one square meter with an energy conversion efficiency of 18% generates approximately 180 watts. If reflection loss can be eliminated, the power output can be increased to 187 watts. Since conventional thin-film anti-reflection coatings do not have sufficient environmental stability, we investigated the feasibility of ion beam modification of the glass surface to obtain reduction of reflectance. Our findings are generally applicable to all solar modules that use glass encapsulation, as well as commercial float glass used in windows and other applications. Ion implantation of argon, fluorine, and xenon into commercial low-iron soda lime float glass, standard float glass, and borosilicate glass was studied by implantation, annealing, and measurement of reflectance. The three ions all affected reflectance. The most significant change was obtained by argon implantation into both low-iron and standard soda-lime glass. In this way samples were formed with reflectance lower than can be obtained with a single-layer coatings of magnesium fluoride. Integrated reflectance was reduced from 4% to 1% in low-iron soda lime glass typical of the glass used in solar modules. The reduction of reflectance of borosilicate glass was not as large; however borosilicate glass is not typically used in flat plate solar modules. Unlike conventional semiconductor ion implantation doping, glass reflectance reduction was found to be tolerant to large variations in implant dose, meaning that the process does not require high dopant uniformity. Additionally, glass implantation does not require mass analysis. Simple, high current ion implantation equipment can be developed for this process; however, before the process can be employed on full scale solar modules, equipment must be developed for ion implanting large sheets of glass. A cost analysis shows that the process can be economical. Our finding is that the reduction of reflectance by ion beam surface modification is technically and economically feasible. The public will benefit directly from this work by the improvement of photovoltaic module efficiency, and indirectly by the greater understanding of the modification of glass surfaces by ion beams.

  14. DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Name of SOP Manual Hydrofluoric Acid (HF) Etching of Glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Michael

    required Fume Hood, safety eye goggles, lab coat, two layers of nitrile gloves and HF Safety Kit Sequential containers. 5. HF is a glass etchant; only use plastic labware to contain HF. 6. Personal protective gear

  15. Properties of two biological glasses used as metallic prosthesis coatings and after an implantation in body

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Properties of two biological glasses used as metallic prosthesis coatings and after an implantation the corrosive environment during some months, to confer the layer biocompatibility on the prosthesis and to keep

  16. DWPF GLASS BEADS AND GLASS FRIT TRANSPORT DEMONSTRATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adamson, D; Bradley Pickenheim, B

    2008-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    DWPF is considering replacing irregularly shaped glass frit with spherical glass beads in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) process to decrease the yield stress of the melter feed (a non-Newtonian Bingham Plastic). Pilot-scale testing was conducted on spherical glass beads and glass frit to determine how well the glass beads would transfer when compared to the glass frit. Process Engineering Development designed and constructed the test apparatus to aid in the understanding and impacts that spherical glass beads may have on the existing DWPF Frit Transfer System. Testing was conducted to determine if the lines would plug with the glass beads and the glass frit slurry and what is required to unplug the lines. The flow loop consisted of vertical and horizontal runs of clear PVC piping, similar in geometry to the existing system. Two different batches of glass slurry were tested: a batch of 50 wt% spherical glass beads and a batch of 50 wt% glass frit in process water. No chemicals such as formic acid was used in slurry, only water and glass formers. The glass beads used for this testing were commercially available borosilicate glass of mesh size -100+200. The glass frit was Frit 418 obtained from DWPF and is nominally -45+200 mesh. The spherical glass beads did not have a negative impact on the frit transfer system. The transferring of the spherical glass beads was much easier than the glass frit. It was difficult to create a plug with glass bead slurry in the pilot transfer system. When a small plug occurred from setting overnight with the spherical glass beads, the plug was easy to displace using only the pump. In the case of creating a man made plug in a vertical line, by filling the line with spherical glass beads and allowing the slurry to settle for days, the plug was easy to remove by using flush water. The glass frit proved to be much more difficult to transfer when compared to the spherical glass beads. The glass frit impacted the transfer system to the point that the test apparatus had to be disassembled to dislodge the plugs created in the system.

  17. Effects of alteration product precipitation on glass dissolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strachan, Denis M.; Neeway, James J.

    2014-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Silicate glasses dissolve in water at a rate dependent on the solution concentration of orthosilicic acid (H4SiO4). In general, higher [H4SiO4] leads to lower dissolution rates. It has often been observed that the precipitation of certain silica-bearing alteration products can cause the dissolution of the glass to increase, even after the rate has decreased significantly. However, it has also been observed that in the concentrations of these silica-bearing solution species do not significantly decrease while other elements continue to be released. In this study, we have used the Geochemist’s Workbench code to investigate the relationship between glass dissolution rates and the precipitation rate of a silica-bearing alteration product, analcime (Na(AlSi2O6)?H2O). In this initial study and to simplify the calculations, we suppressed all alteration products except analcime, gibbsite (Al(OH)3), and amorphous silica. The ‘cross affinity’ code option allowed us to account for the fact that glass is a thermodynamically unstable solid with respect to its alteration products in contact with water. The cross-affinity option in the Geochemist’s Workbench geochemical code allowed us to substitute the amorphous silica equilibrium-constant matrix for the glass equilibrium-constant matrix. In this article, we present the results of our calculations of the glass dissolution rate at different values for the analcime precipitation rate constant and the effects of varying the glass dissolution rate constant at a constant analcime precipitation rate constant. In all cases, our results indicate that the glass dissolution rate controls the rate of analcime precipitation in the long term. Our results, compared in general terms with experiments, show the importance of the gel layer that forms during glass alteration. The meaning of these results pertinent to long-term glass durability is discussed.

  18. The Seduction of the Glass Box

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ackerly, Katie

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Visual, and Spatial Effects of Glass, New York: PrincetonBauten, Perspektiven (Glass Architects: Concepts, Buildings,Taking a Second Look: Glass Pavilion at Broadfield House in

  19. Glass blowing on a wafer level

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eklund, E. Jesper; Shkel, Andrei M.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    E. Shelby, Introduction to Glass Science and Technology. :Properties of Corning Glasses [Online]. Available: http://1981. [15] R. H. Doremus, Glass Science. New York: Wiley,

  20. Optical Properties of Zn(O,S) Thin Films Deposited by RF Sputtering, Atomic Layer Deposition, and Chemical Bath Deposition: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, J.; Glynn, S.; Christensen, S.; Mann, J.; To, B.; Ramanathan, K.; Noufi, R.; Furtak, T. E.; Levi, D.

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Zn(O,S) thin films 27 - 100 nm thick were deposited on glass or Cu(InxGa1-x)Se2/Molybdenum/glass with RF sputtering, atomic layer deposition, and chemical bath deposition.

  1. Sulfate Retention and Segregation in Simulated Radioactive Waste Borosilicate Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Hong; Hrma, Pavel R.; Vienna, John D.

    2000-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Sulfate segregation from processing radioactive waste glasses causes an acceleration of the melter refractory corrosion and partitioning of radionuclides in the segregated layer. A sulfate retention (SR)-composition relationship has been established for various simulated high-level and low-activity waste glass compositions in terms of the relative non-bridging oxygen (NBO) concentration in the melt. Phosphate was found to significantly increase sulfate retention. However, the correlation between SR and NBO could not explain the sulfate segregation tendency. For instance, glasses with a higher ratio of boron to sodium suppress sulfate segreation in the melt in which SR is expected to be lower. As sulfate segregation is a kinetic process, occurring in the batch to glass conversion process, initial reactions of the batch materials are considered to have stronger effects on the sulfate segregation tendency, pointing out the need to study the impact of batch materials on sulfate segregation.

  2. Glass matrix armor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Calkins, Noel C. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An armor system which utilizes glass. A plurality of constraint cells are mounted on a surface of a substrate, which is metal armor plate or a similar tough material, such that the cells almost completely cover the surface of the substrate. Each constraint cell has a projectile-receiving wall parallel to the substrate surface and has sides which are perpendicular to and surround the perimeter of the receiving wall. The cells are mounted such that, in one embodiment, the substrate surface serves as a sixth side or closure for each cell. Each cell has inside of it a plate, termed the front plate, which is parallel to and in contact with substantially all of the inside surface of the receiving wall. The balance of each cell is completely filled with a projectile-abrading material consisting of glass and a ceramic material and, in certain embodiments, a polymeric material. The glass may be in monolithic form or particles of ceramic may be dispersed in a glass matrix. The ceramic material may be in monolithic form or may be in the form of particles dispersed in glass or dispersed in said polymer.

  3. Glass | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdf Flash2006-52.pdf0.pdfDepartmentCounselGlass Coating Makes Solar Panels MoreGlass

  4. Laboratory Waste Disposal HAZARDOUS GLASS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    Laboratory Waste Disposal HAZARDOUS GLASS Items that could cut or puncture skin or trash- can without any treatment. Hazardous Glass and Plastic: Items that can puncture, cut or scratch if disposed of in normal trash containers. Pasteur pipettes Other pipettes and tips (glass or plastic) Slides and cover

  5. The Color Glass Condensate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Gelis; E. Iancu; J. Jalilian-Marian; R. Venugopalan

    2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We provide a broad overview of the theoretical status and phenomenological applications of the Color Glass Condensate effective field theory describing universal properties of saturated gluons in hadron wavefunctions that are extracted from deeply inelastic scattering and hadron-hadron collision experiments at high energies.

  6. Development of Crystal-Tolerant High-Level Waste Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matyas, Josef; Vienna, John D.; Schaible, Micah J.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Arrigoni, Alyssa L.; Tate, Rachel M.

    2010-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Twenty five glasses were formulated. They were batched from HLW AZ-101 simulant or raw chemicals and melted and tested with a series of tests to elucidate the effect of spinel-forming components (Ni, Fe, Cr, Mn, and Zn), Al, and noble metals (Rh2O3 and RuO2) on the accumulation rate of spinel crystals in the glass discharge riser of the high-level waste (HLW) melter. In addition, the processing properties of glasses, such as the viscosity and TL, were measured as a function of temperature and composition. Furthermore, the settling of spinel crystals in transparent low-viscosity fluids was studied at room temperature to access the shape factor and hindered settling coefficient of spinel crystals in the Stokes equation. The experimental results suggest that Ni is the most troublesome component of all the studied spinel-forming components producing settling layers of up to 10.5 mm in just 20 days in Ni-rich glasses if noble metals or a higher concentration of Fe was not introduced in the glass. The layer of this thickness can potentially plug the bottom of the riser, preventing glass from being discharged from the melter. The noble metals, Fe, and Al were the components that significantly slowed down or stopped the accumulation of spinel at the bottom. Particles of Rh2O3 and RuO2, hematite and nepheline, acted as nucleation sites significantly increasing the number of crystals and therefore decreasing the average crystal size. The settling rate of ?10-?m crystal size around the settling velocity of crystals was too low to produce thick layers. The experimental data for the thickness of settled layers in the glasses prepared from AZ-101 simulant were used to build a linear empirical model that can predict crystal accumulation in the riser of the melter as a function of concentration of spinel-forming components in glass. The developed model predicts the thicknesses of accumulated layers quite well, R2 = 0.985, and can be become an efficient tool for the formulation of the crystal-tolerant HLW glasses for higher waste loading. A physical modeling effort revealed that the Stokes and Richardson-Zaki equations can be used to adequately predict the accumulation rate of spinel crystals of different sizes and concentrations in the glass discharge riser of HLW melters. The determined shape factor for the glass beads was only 0.73% lower than the theoretical shape factor for a perfect sphere. The shape factor for the spinel crystals matched the theoretically predicted value to within 10% and was smaller than that of the beads, given the larger drag force caused by the larger surface area-to-volume ratio of the octahedral crystals. In the hindered settling experiments, both the glass bead and spinel suspensions were found to follow the predictions of the Richardson-Zaki equation with the exponent n = 3.6 and 2.9 for glass beads and spinel crystals, respectively.

  7. Analytical Plan for Roman Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strachan, Denis M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Mueller, Karl T.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Olszta, Matthew J.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Heeren, Ronald M.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Roman glasses that have been in the sea or underground for about 1800 years can serve as the independent “experiment” that is needed for validation of codes and models that are used in performance assessment. Two sets of Roman-era glasses have been obtained for this purpose. One set comes from the sunken vessel the Iulia Felix; the second from recently excavated glasses from a Roman villa in Aquileia, Italy. The specimens contain glass artifacts and attached sediment or soil. In the case of the Iulia Felix glasses quite a lot of analytical work has been completed at the University of Padova, but from an archaeological perspective. The glasses from Aquileia have not been so carefully analyzed, but they are similar to other Roman glasses. Both glass and sediment or soil need to be analyzed and are the subject of this analytical plan. The glasses need to be analyzed with the goal of validating the model used to describe glass dissolution. The sediment and soil need to be analyzed to determine the profile of elements released from the glass. This latter need represents a significant analytical challenge because of the trace quantities that need to be analyzed. Both pieces of information will yield important information useful in the validation of the glass dissolution model and the chemical transport code(s) used to determine the migration of elements once released from the glass. In this plan, we outline the analytical techniques that should be useful in obtaining the needed information and suggest a useful starting point for this analytical effort.

  8. Mixed polyanion glass cathodes: Iron phosphate vanadate glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kercher, Andrew K [ORNL; Ramey, Joanne Oxendine [ORNL; Carroll, Kyler J [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Kiggans Jr, James O [ORNL; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL; Meisner, Roberta [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Boatner, Lynn A [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mixed polyanion (MP) glasses have been investigated for use as cathodes in lithium ion batteries. MP glass cathodes are similar in composition to theoretically promising crystalline polyanionic (CP) cathodes (e.g., lithium cobalt phosphate, lithium manganese silicate), but with proper polyanion substitution, they can be designed to overcome the key shortcomings of CP cathodes, such as poor electrical conductivity and irreversible phase changes. Iron phosphate/vanadate glasses were chosen as a first demonstration of the MP glass concept. Polyanion substitution with vanadate was shown to improve the intercalation capacity of an iron phosphate glass from almost zero to full theoretical capacity. In addition, the MP glass cathodes also exhibited an unexpected second high-capacity electrochemical reaction. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) of cathodes from cells having different states of charge suggested that this second electrochemical reaction is a glass-state conversion reaction. With a first demonstration established, MP glass materials utilizing an intercalation and/or glass-state conversion reaction are promising candidates for future high-energy cathode research.

  9. Accurate glass forming for high-temperature solar applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Development work was undertaken to thermally form glass for solar concentrators. Sagging and pressing glass to parabolic shapes was investigated with goal of achieving slope errors less than 2.0 mr RMS and costs of $1.25/ft/sup 2/. In addition, a laminating process was investigated to overcome the problem of silvering of a curved surface and to reduce corrosion of the silver. Thermal sagging is a process in which glass is shaped by heating the glass until it is sufficiently soft to deform under its own weight and conform to a mold. For cylindrical parabolic shapes, a method for producing low cost high accuracy molds was developed using castable ceramics and a grinder. Thermal conditions were established for a commercial glass bending furnace to obtain good replication of the mold. The accuracy and cost goals were met for glass size up to 30 x 30 x 0.125 inches and for low iron and regular iron float and sheet glasses. Lamination of two curved pieces of glass using automotive technology was investigated. A silver film was placed between two layers of polyvinyl and butyral (PVB) and this was used to bond two sheets of glass. Economically, and technically, the process appears feasible. However, the non-uniform thickness of PBV cause distortion in the reflected image. More work is needed to assess accuracy of curved laminated composites. Thermal pressing of glass is accomplished by heating the glass until it is soft and mechanically stamping the shape. Equipment was built and operated to determine important parameters in pressing. Control of thermal stresses in the glass is critical to preventing cracks. No glass pieces were produced without cracks.

  10. The BRAG and GM2003 Models for Glass Dissolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aertsens, Marc [Waste and Disposal Dept., SCK CEN, Boeretang 200, Mol, B-2400 (Belgium)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The GM2003 model extends the r(t) glass dissolution model with water diffusion through the diffusion layer. Boron and alkali diffusion through the diffusion layer is described by introducing a retention factor K{sub d,i} between boron/alkali and water in the diffusion layer. Introducing a boron/alkali diffusion coefficient, the BRAG model describes boron/alkali diffusion in the diffusion layer as well. It is shown that both models are consistent with each other and an expression is derived for the boron/alkali diffusion coefficient (BRAG) as a function of both parameters of GM2003: the retention factor K{sub d,i} and the water diffusion coefficient D{sub H{sub 2}}{sub O} in the diffusion layer. From dissolution data only, it is possible to fit the value for the boron/alkali diffusion coefficient in the diffusion layer but due to correlations the individual values of both parameters K{sub d,i} and DH{sub 2}O of GM2003 cannot be determined. From theoretical considerations follows that the K{sub d,i} value for boron/alkali should be slightly larger than 0.1 kg/liter. A user friendly code for the BRAG model allows automatic fits of glass dissolution data in water. (authors)

  11. Weihai Blue Star Glass Holding Co Ltd aka Shandong Lanxing Glass...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Weihai Blue Star Glass Holding Co Ltd aka Shandong Lanxing Glass Group Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Weihai Blue Star Glass Holding Co Ltd (aka Shandong Lanxing Glass...

  12. Glass Ceiling or Glass Elevator: Are Voters Biased in Favor of Women Candidates in California Elections?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abney, Ronni Marie; Peterson, Rolfe Daus

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    10.2202/1944-4370.1103 Abney and Peterson: Glass Ceilingor Glass Elevator Table 7A. Positive Gender Bias ModelAbney and Peterson: Glass Ceiling or Glass Elevator Huddy,

  13. Method of forming crystalline silicon devices on glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCarthy, A.M.

    1995-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is disclosed for fabricating single-crystal silicon microelectronic components on a silicon substrate and transferring same to a glass substrate. This is achieved by utilizing conventional silicon processing techniques for fabricating components of electronic circuits and devices on bulk silicon, wherein a bulk silicon surface is prepared with epitaxial layers prior to the conventional processing. The silicon substrate is bonded to a glass substrate and the bulk silicon is removed leaving the components intact on the glass substrate surface. Subsequent standard processing completes the device and circuit manufacturing. This invention is useful in applications requiring a transparent or insulating substrate, particularly for display manufacturing. Other applications include sensors, actuators, optoelectronics, radiation hard electronics, and high temperature electronics. 7 figures.

  14. Method of forming crystalline silicon devices on glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Anthony M. (Menlo Park, CA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for fabricating single-crystal silicon microelectronic components on a silicon substrate and transferring same to a glass substrate. This is achieved by utilizing conventional silicon processing techniques for fabricating components of electronic circuits and devices on bulk silicon, wherein a bulk silicon surface is prepared with epitaxial layers prior to the conventional processing. The silicon substrate is bonded to a glass substrate and the bulk silicon is removed leaving the components intact on the glass substrate surface. Subsequent standard processing completes the device and circuit manufacturing. This invention is useful in applications requiring a transparent or insulating substrate, particularly for display manufacturing. Other applications include sensors, actuators, optoelectronics, radiation hard electronics, and high temperature electronics.

  15. The GLASS CHAIR Edited by Manuel Heitor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

    The GLASS CHAIR Edited by Manuel Heitor IST Press, 2000 #12;Collaborative Design of... The GLASS the glass chair, but also for the numerous discussions on glass production processes. And last · Carmo Valente Chapter 4. GLASS: BEAUTY WITH STRENGTH Sushil Kumar Mendiratta Chapter 5. The IDEA

  16. Method for heating a glass sheet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boaz, Premakaran Tucker (Livonia, MI)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for heating a glass sheet includes the steps of heating a glass sheet to a first predetermined temperature and applying microwave energy to the glass sheet to heat the glass sheet to at least a second predetermined temperature to allow the glass sheet to be formed.

  17. Method for heating a glass sheet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boaz, P.T.

    1998-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for heating a glass sheet includes the steps of heating a glass sheet to a first predetermined temperature and applying microwave energy to the glass sheet to heat the glass sheet to at least a second predetermined temperature to allow the glass sheet to be formed. 5 figs.

  18. Compositional threshold for Nuclear Waste Glass Durability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, Albert A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Farooqi, Rahmatullah [Pohang Univ. of Science and Technology, (Korea, Republic of); Hrma, Pavel R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States), Pohang Univ. of Science and Technology, (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Within the composition space of glasses, a distinct threshold appears to exist that separates "good" glasses, i.e., those which are sufficiently durable, from "bad" glasses of a low durability. The objective of our research is to clarify the origin of this threshold by exploring the relationship between glass composition, glass structure and chemical durability around the threshold region.

  19. Multi-layer micro/nanofluid devices with bio-nanovalves

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Hao; Ocola, Leonidas E.; Auciello, Orlando H.; Firestone, Millicent A.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A user-friendly multi-layer micro/nanofluidic flow device and micro/nano fabrication process are provided for numerous uses. The multi-layer micro/nanofluidic flow device can comprise: a substrate, such as indium tin oxide coated glass (ITO glass); a conductive layer of ferroelectric material, preferably comprising a PZT layer of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) positioned on the substrate; electrodes connected to the conductive layer; a nanofluidics layer positioned on the conductive layer and defining nanochannels; a microfluidics layer positioned upon the nanofluidics layer and defining microchannels; and biomolecular nanovalves providing bio-nanovalves which are moveable from a closed position to an open position to control fluid flow at a nanoscale.

  20. Color Glass Condensate and Glasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francois Gelis

    2010-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    In this talk, I review the Color Glass Condensate theory of gluon saturation, and its application to the early stages of heavy ion collisions.

  1. Improved oxidation resistance of organic/inorganic composite atomic layer deposition coated cellulose nanocrystal aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Sean W.; Matthews, David J.; Conley, John F., E-mail: jconley@eecs.oregonstate.edu [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 1148 Kelley Engineering Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 (United States); Buesch, Christian; Simonsen, John [Department of Wood Science and Engineering, Oregon State University, 119 Richardson Hall, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 (United States)

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) aerogels are coated with thin conformal layers of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} using atomic layer deposition to form hybrid organic/inorganic nanocomposites. Electron probe microanalysis and scanning electron microscopy analysis indicated the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} penetrated more than 1500??m into the aerogel for extended precursor pulse and exposure/purge times. The measured profile of coated fiber radius versus depth from the aerogel surface agrees well with simulations of precursor penetration depth in modeled aerogel structures. Thermogravimetric analysis shows that Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coated CNC aerogel nanocomposites do not show significant thermal degradation below 295?°C as compared with 175?°C for uncoated CNC aerogels, an improvement of over 100?°C.

  2. POROUS WALL, HOLLOW GLASS MICROSPHERES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sexton, W.

    2012-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Hollow Glass Microspheres (HGM) is not a new technology. All one has to do is go to the internet and Google{trademark} HGM. Anyone can buy HGM and they have a wide variety of uses. HGM are usually between 1 to 100 microns in diameter, although their size can range from 100 nanometers to 5 millimeters in diameter. HGM are used as lightweight filler in composite materials such as syntactic foam and lightweight concrete. In 1968 a patent was issued to W. Beck of the 3M{trademark} Company for 'Glass Bubbles Prepared by Reheating Solid Glass Particles'. In 1983 P. Howell was issued a patent for 'Glass Bubbles of Increased Collapse Strength' and in 1988 H. Marshall was issued a patent for 'Glass Microbubbles'. Now Google{trademark}, Porous Wall, Hollow Glass Microspheres (PW-HGMs), the key words here are Porous Wall. Almost every article has its beginning with the research done at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The Savannah River Site (SRS) where SRNL is located has a long and successful history of working with hydrogen and its isotopes for national security, energy, waste management and environmental remediation applications. This includes more than 30 years of experience developing, processing, and implementing special ceramics, including glasses for a variety of Department of Energy (DOE) missions. In the case of glasses, SRS and SRNL have been involved in both the science and engineering of vitreous or glass based systems. As a part of this glass experience and expertise, SRNL has developed a number of niches in the glass arena, one of which is the development of porous glass systems for a variety of applications. These porous glass systems include sol gel glasses, which include both xerogels and aerogels, as well as phase separated glass compositions, that can be subsequently treated to produce another unique type of porosity within the glass forms. The porous glasses can increase the surface area compared to 'normal glasses of a 1 to 2 order of magnitude, which can result in unique properties in areas such as hydrogen storage, gas transport, gas separations and purifications, sensors, global warming applications, new drug delivery systems and so on. One of the most interesting porous glass products that SRNL has developed and patented is Porous Wall, Hollow Glass Microspheres (PW-HGMs) that are being studied for many different applications. The European Patent Office (EPO) just recently notified SRS that the continuation-in-part patent application for the PW-HGMs has been accepted. The original patent, which was granted by the EPO on June 2, 2010, was validated in France, Germany and the United Kingdom. The microspheres produced are generally in the range of 2 to 100 microns, with a 1 to 2 micron wall. What makes the SRNL microspheres unique from all others is that the team in Figure 1 has found a way to induce and control porosity through the thin walls on a scale of 100 to 3000 {angstrom}. This is what makes the SRNL HW-HGMs one-of-a-kind, and is responsible for many of their unique properties and potential for various applications, including those in tritium storage, gas separations, H-storage for vehicles, and even a variety of new medical applications in the areas of drug delivery and MRI contrast agents. SRNL Hollow Glass Microspheres, and subsequent, Porous Wall, Hollow Glass Microspheres are fabricated using a flame former apparatus. Figure 2 is a schematic of the apparatus.

  3. Progress toward bridging from atomistic to continuum modeling to predict nuclear waste glass dissolution.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zapol, Peter (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Bourg, Ian (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories, Berkeley, CA); Criscenti, Louise Jacqueline; Steefel, Carl I. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories, Berkeley, CA); Schultz, Peter Andrew

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes research performed for the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Subcontinuum and Upscaling Task. The work conducted focused on developing a roadmap to include molecular scale, mechanistic information in continuum-scale models of nuclear waste glass dissolution. This information is derived from molecular-scale modeling efforts that are validated through comparison with experimental data. In addition to developing a master plan to incorporate a subcontinuum mechanistic understanding of glass dissolution into continuum models, methods were developed to generate constitutive dissolution rate expressions from quantum calculations, force field models were selected to generate multicomponent glass structures and gel layers, classical molecular modeling was used to study diffusion through nanopores analogous to those in the interfacial gel layer, and a micro-continuum model (K{mu}C) was developed to study coupled diffusion and reaction at the glass-gel-solution interface.

  4. Flexible cadmium telluride thin films grown on electron-beam-irradiated graphene/thin glass substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seo, Won-Oh; Kim, Jihyun, E-mail: hyunhyun7@korea.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Korea University, Anam-dong, Sungbuk-gu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Koo, Yong Hwan; Kim, Byungnam; Lee, Byung Cheol [Radiation Integrated System Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Donghwan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate the close-spaced sublimation growth of polycrystalline cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin films on a flexible graphene electrode/thin glass substrate structure. Prior to the growth of CdTe films, chemical-vapor-deposited graphene was transferred onto a flexible glass substrate and subjected to electron-beam irradiation at an energy of 0.2?MeV in order to intentionally introduce the defects into it in a controlled manner. Micro-Raman spectroscopy and sheet resistance measurements were employed to monitor the damage and disorder in the electron-beam irradiated graphene layers. The morphology and optical properties of the CdTe thin films deposited on a graphene/flexible glass substrate were systematically characterized. The integration of the defective graphene layers with a flexible glass substrate can be a useful platform to grow various thin-film structures for flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices.

  5. Method for forming silicon on a glass substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Anthony M. (Menlo Park, CA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method by which single-crystal silicon microelectronics may be fabricated on glass substrates at unconventionally low temperatures. This is achieved by fabricating a thin film of silicon on glass and subsequently forming the doped components by a short wavelength (excimer) laser doping procedure and conventional patterning techniques. This method may include introducing a heavily boron doped etch stop layer on a silicon wafer using an excimer laser, which permits good control of the etch stop layer removal process. This method additionally includes dramatically reducing the remaining surface roughness of the silicon thin films after etching in the fabrication of silicon on insulator wafers by scanning an excimer laser across the surface of the silicon thin film causing surface melting, whereby the surface tension of the melt causes smoothing of the surface during recrystallization. Applications for this method include those requiring a transparent or insulating substrate, such as display manufacturing. Other applications include sensors, actuators, optoelectronics, radiation hard and high temperature electronics.

  6. Efficient Breach Theory Through the Looking Glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adler, Barry E.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in Wonderland and Through the Looking Glass (Signet 1960).Theory Through the Looking Glass such an award a put by theTheory Through the Looking Glass Consider also the hoary

  7. Aspects of the mechanics of metallic glasses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henann, David Lee

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Metallic glasses are amorphous materials that possess unique mechanical properties, such as high tensile strengths and good fracture toughnesses. Also, since they are amorphous, metallic glasses exhibit a glass transition, ...

  8. Solid-State NMR Examination of Alteration Layers on a Nuclear...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the role and significance of alteration layers in determining the kinetics for the corrosion of nuclear waste glass. NMR methods are used to probe the chemical structure of the...

  9. Quinary metallic glass alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, Xianghong (Pasadena, CA); Johnson, William L. (Pasadena, CA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At least quinary alloys form metallic glass upon cooling below the glass transition temperature at a rate less than 10.sup.3 K/s. Such alloys comprise zirconium and/or hafnium in the range of 45 to 65 atomic percent, titanium and/or niobium in the range of 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, and aluminum and/or zinc in the range of 5 to 15 atomic percent. The balance of the alloy compositions comprise copper, iron, and cobalt and/or nickel. The composition is constrained such that the atomic percentage of iron is less than 10 percent. Further, the ratio of copper to nickel and/or cobalt is in the range of from 1:2 to 2:1. The alloy composition formula is: (Zr,Hf).sub.a (Al,Zn).sub.b (Ti,Nb).sub.c (Cu.sub.x Fe.sub.y (Ni,Co).sub.z).sub.d wherein the constraints upon the formula are: a ranges from 45 to 65 atomic percent, b ranges from 5 to 15 atomic percent, c ranges from 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, d comprises the balance, d.multidot.y is less than 10 atomic percent, and x/z ranges from 0.5 to 2.

  10. Quinary metallic glass alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, X.; Johnson, W.L.

    1998-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    At least quinary alloys form metallic glass upon cooling below the glass transition temperature at a rate less than 10{sup 3}K/s. Such alloys comprise zirconium and/or hafnium in the range of 45 to 65 atomic percent, titanium and/or niobium in the range of 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, and aluminum and/or zinc in the range of 5 to 15 atomic percent. The balance of the alloy compositions comprise copper, iron, and cobalt and/or nickel. The composition is constrained such that the atomic percentage of iron is less than 10 percent. Further, the ratio of copper to nickel and/or cobalt is in the range of from 1:2 to 2:1. The alloy composition formula is: (Zr,Hf){sub a}(Al,Zn){sub b}(Ti,Nb){sub c}(Cu{sub x}Fe{sub y}(Ni,Co){sub z}){sub d} wherein the constraints upon the formula are: a ranges from 45 to 65 atomic percent, b ranges from 5 to 15 atomic percent, c ranges from 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, d comprises the balance, d{hor_ellipsis}y is less than 10 atomic percent, and x/z ranges from 0.5 to 2.

  11. Local tuning of photonic crystal cavities using chalcogenide glasses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrei Faraon; Dirk Englund; Douglas Bulla; Barry Luther-Davies; Benjamin J. Eggleton; Nick Stoltz; Pierre Petroff; Jelena Vuckovic

    2007-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate a method to locally change the refractive index in planar optical devices by photodarkening of a thin chalcogenide glass layer deposited on top of the device. The method is used to tune the resonance of GaAs-based photonic crystal cavities by up to 3 nm at 940 nm, with only 5% deterioration in cavity quality factor. The method has broad applications for postproduction tuning of photonic devices.

  12. Refractory Glass Seals for SOFC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, Y. S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the critical challenges facing planar solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology is the need for reliable sealing technology. Seals must exhibit long-term stability and mechanical integrity in the high temperature SOFC environment during normal and transient operation. Several different approaches for sealing SOFC stacks are under development, including glass or glass-ceramic seals, metallic brazes, and compressive seals. Among glass seals, rigid glass-ceramics, self-healing glass, and composite glass approaches have been investigated under the SECA Core Technology Program. The U.S. Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed the refractory glass approach in light of the fact that higher sealing temperatures (e.g., 930-1000 degrees C) may enhance the ultimate in-service bulk strength and electrical conductivity of contact materials, as well as the bonding strength between contact materials and adjacent SOFC components, such as interconnect coatings and electrodes. This report summarizes the thermal, chemical, mechanical, and electrical properties of the refractory sealing glass.

  13. Method of determining glass durability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jantzen, C.M.; Pickett, J.B.; Brown, K.G.; Edwards, T.B.

    1998-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for determining one or more leachate concentrations of one or more components of a glass composition in an aqueous solution of the glass composition by identifying the components of the glass composition, including associated oxides, determining a preliminary glass dissolution estimator, {Delta}G{sub p}, based upon the free energies of hydration for the component reactant species, determining an accelerated glass dissolution function, {Delta}G{sub a}, based upon the free energy associated with weak acid dissociation, {Delta}G{sub a}{sup WA}, and accelerated matrix dissolution at high pH, {Delta}G{sub a}{sup SB} associated with solution strong base formation, and determining a final hydration free energy, {Delta}G{sub f}. This final hydration free energy is then used to determine leachate concentrations for elements of interest using a regression analysis and the formula log{sub 10}(N C{sub i}(g/L))=a{sub i} + b{sub i}{Delta}G{sub f}. The present invention also includes a method to determine whether a particular glass to be produced will be homogeneous or phase separated. The present invention is also directed to methods of monitoring and controlling processes for making glass using these determinations to modify the feedstock materials until a desired glass durability and homogeneity is obtained. 4 figs.

  14. Method of determining glass durability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jantzen, Carol Maryanne (Aiken, SC); Pickett, John Butler (Aiken, SC); Brown, Kevin George (Augusta, GA); Edwards, Thomas Barry (Aiken, SC)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for determining one or more leachate concentrations of one or more components of a glass composition in an aqueous solution of the glass composition by identifying the components of the glass composition, including associated oxides, determining a preliminary glass dissolution estimator, .DELTA.G.sub.p, based upon the free energies of hydration for the component reactant species, determining an accelerated glass dissolution function, .DELTA.G.sub.a, based upon the free energy associated with weak acid dissociation, .DELTA.G.sub.a.sup.WA, and accelerated matrix dissolution at high pH, .DELTA.G.sub.a.sup.SB associated with solution strong base formation, and determining a final hydration free energy, .DELTA.G.sub.f. This final hydration free energy is then used to determine leachate concentrations for elements of interest using a regression analysis and the formula log.sub.10 (N C.sub.i (g/L))=a.sub.i +b.sub.i .DELTA.G.sub.f. The present invention also includes a method to determine whether a particular glass to be produced will be homogeneous or phase separated. The present invention is also directed to methods of monitoring and controlling processes for making glass using these determinations to modify the feedstock materials until a desired glass durability and homogeneity is obtained.

  15. Glass science tutorial: Lecture No. 7, Waste glass technology for Hanford

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, A.A.

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the details of the waste glass tutorial session that was held to promote knowledge of waste glass technology and how this can be used at the Hanford Reservation. Topics discussed include: glass properties; statistical approach to glass development; processing properties of nuclear waste glass; glass composition and the effects of composition on durability; model comparisons of free energy of hydration; LLW glass structure; glass crystallization; amorphous phase separation; corrosion of refractories and electrodes in waste glass melters; and glass formulation for maximum waste loading.

  16. Lead phosphate glass compositions for optical components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sales, Brian C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Boatner, Lynn A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A lead phosphate glass to which has been added indium oxide or scandium oe to improve chemical durability and provide a lead phosphate glass with good optical properties.

  17. Crystal-Tolerant Glass Approach For Mitigation Of Crystal Accumulation In Continuous Melters Processing Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, Albert A. [Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Richland, Washington (United States); Rodriguez, Carmen P. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lang, Jesse B. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Huckleberry, Adam R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Matyas, Josef [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Owen, Antoinette T. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    High-level radioactive waste melters are projected to operate in an inefficient manner as they are subjected to artificial constraints, such as minimum liquidus temperature (T{sub L}) or maximum equilibrium fraction of crystallinity at a given temperature. These constraints substantially limit waste loading, but were imposed to prevent clogging of the melter with spinel crystals [(Fe, Ni, Mn, Zn)(Fe, Cr){sub 2}O{sub 4}]. In the melter, the glass discharge riser is the most likely location for crystal accumulation during idling because of low glass temperatures, stagnant melts, and small diameter. To address this problem, a series of lab-scale crucible tests were performed with specially formulated glasses to simulate accumulation of spinel in the riser. Thicknesses of accumulated layers were incorporated into empirical model of spinel settling. In addition, T{sub L} of glasses was measured and impact of particle agglomeration on accumulation rate was evaluated. Empirical model predicted well the accumulation of single crystals and/or smallscale agglomerates, but, excessive agglomeration observed in high-Ni-Fe glass resulted in an under-prediction of accumulated layers, which gradually worsen over time as an increased number of agglomerates formed. Accumulation rate of ~14.9 +- 1 nm/s determined for this glass will result in ~26 mm thick layer in 20 days of melter idling.

  18. Glass Ceramic Formulation Data Package

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; McCloy, John S.; Vienna, John D.; Chung, Chul-Woo

    2012-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A glass ceramic waste form is being developed for treatment of secondary waste streams generated by aqueous reprocessing of commercial used nuclear fuel (Crum et al. 2012b). The waste stream contains a mixture of transition metals, alkali, alkaline earths, and lanthanides, several of which exceed the solubility limits of a single phase borosilicate glass (Crum et al. 2009; Caurant et al. 2007). A multi-phase glass ceramic waste form allows incorporation of insoluble components of the waste by designed crystallization into durable heat tolerant phases. The glass ceramic formulation and processing targets the formation of the following three stable crystalline phases: (1) powellite (XMoO4) where X can be (Ca, Sr, Ba, and/or Ln), (2) oxyapatite Yx,Z(10-x)Si6O26 where Y is alkaline earth, Z is Ln, and (3) lanthanide borosilicate (Ln5BSi2O13). These three phases incorporate the waste components that are above the solubility limit of a single-phase borosilicate glass. The glass ceramic is designed to be a single phase melt, just like a borosilicate glass, and then crystallize upon slow cooling to form the targeted phases. The slow cooling schedule is based on the centerline cooling profile of a 2 foot diameter canister such as the Hanford High-Level Waste canister. Up to this point, crucible testing has been used for glass ceramic development, with cold crucible induction melter (CCIM) targeted as the ultimate processing technology for the waste form. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) will conduct a scaled CCIM test in FY2012 with a glass ceramic to demonstrate the processing behavior. This Data Package documents the laboratory studies of the glass ceramic composition to support the CCIM test. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) measured melt viscosity, electrical conductivity, and crystallization behavior upon cooling to identify a processing window (temperature range) for melter operation and cooling profiles necessary to crystallize the targeted phases in the waste form.

  19. Database and Interim Glass Property Models for Hanford HLW Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Vienna, John D.; Cooley, Scott K.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Russell, Renee L.

    2001-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to provide a methodology for an increase in the efficiency and a decrease in the cost of vitrifying high-level waste (HLW) by optimizing HLW glass formulation. This methodology consists in collecting and generating a database of glass properties that determine HLW glass processability and acceptability and relating these properties to glass composition. The report explains how the property-composition models are developed, fitted to data, used for glass formulation optimization, and continuously updated in response to changes in HLW composition estimates and changes in glass processing technology. Further, the report reviews the glass property-composition literature data and presents their preliminary critical evaluation and screening. Finally the report provides interim property-composition models for melt viscosity, for liquidus temperature (with spinel and zircon primary crystalline phases), and for the product consistency test normalized releases of B, Na, and Li. Models were fitted to a subset of the screened database deemed most relevant for the current HLW composition region.

  20. Modeling Interfacial Glass-Water Reactions: Recent Advances and Current Limitations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierce, Eric M.; Frugier, Pierre; Criscenti, Louise J.; Kwon, K. D.; Kerisit, Sebastien N.

    2014-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The altered layer (i.e., amorphous hydrated surface layer and crystalline reaction products)represents a complex region, both physically and chemically, sandwiched between two distinct boundaries - pristine glass surface at the inner most interface and aqueous solution at the outer most. The physico-chemical processes that control the development of this region have a significant impact on the long-term glass-water reaction. Computational models, spanning different length and time-scales, are currently being developed to improve our understanding of this complex and dynamic process with the goal of accurately describing the pore-scale changes that occur as the system evolves. These modeling approaches include Geochemical Reaction Path simulations, Glass Reactivity in Allowance for Alteration Layer simulations, Monte Carlo simulations, and Molecular Dynamics methods. Discussed in this manuscript are the advances and limitations of each modeling approach placed in the context of the glass water reaction and how collectively these approaches provide insights into the mechanisms that control the formation and evolution of altered layers; thus providing the fundamental data needed to develop pore-scale equations that enable more accurate predictions of nuclear waste glass corrosion in a geologic repository.

  1. A Topological Glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jean-Pierre Eckmann

    2007-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose and study a model with glassy behavior. The state space of the model is given by all triangulations of a sphere with $n$ nodes, half of which are red and half are blue. Red nodes want to have 5 neighbors while blue ones want 7. Energies of nodes with different numbers of neighbors are supposed to be positive. The dynamics is that of flipping the diagonal of two adjacent triangles, with a temperature dependent probability. We show that this system has an approach to a steady state which is exponentially slow, and show that the stationary state is unordered. We also study the local energy landscape and show that it has the hierarchical structure known from spin glasses. Finally, we show that the evolution can be described as that of a rarefied gas with spontaneous generation of particles and annihilating collisions.

  2. Layer-by-Layer Nanocoatings with Flame Retardant and Oxygen Barrier Properties: Moving Toward Renewable Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laufer, Galina 1985-

    2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    to cotton fabric, all coated fabrics retained their weave structure after being exposed to a vertical flame test, while uncoated cotton was completely destroyed. Micro combustion calorimetry confirmed that coated fabrics exhibited a reduced peak heat release...

  3. Layer-by-Layer Nanocoatings with Flame Retardant and Oxygen Barrier Properties: Moving Toward Renewable Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laufer, Galina 1985-

    2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    to cotton fabric, all coated fabrics retained their weave structure after being exposed to a vertical flame test, while uncoated cotton was completely destroyed. Micro combustion calorimetry confirmed that coated fabrics exhibited a reduced peak heat release...

  4. GLASS SELECTION STRATEGY: DEVELOPMENT OF US AND KRI TEST MATRICIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K; Tommy Edwards, T; David Peeler, D

    2007-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

    High-level radioactive wastes are stored as liquids in underground storage tanks at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) and Hanford Reservation. These wastes are to be prepared for permanent disposition in a geologic repository by vitrification with glass forming additives (e.g., frit), creating a waste form with long-term durability. Wastes at SRS are being vitrified in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Vitrification of the wastes stored at Hanford is planned for the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) when completed. Some of the wastes at SRS, and particularly those at Hanford, contain high concentrations of aluminum, chromium and sulfate. These elements make it more difficult to produce a waste glass with a high waste loading (WL) without crystallization occurring in the glass (either within the melter or upon cooling of the glass), potentially exceeding the solubility limit of critical components, having negative impacts on durability, and/or resulting in the formation of a sulfate salt layer on the molten glass surface. Although the overall scope of the task is focused on all three critical, chemical components, the current work will primarily address the potential for crystallization (e.g., nepheline and/or spinel) in high level waste (HLW) glasses. Recent work at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and by other groups has shown that nepheline (NaAlSiO{sub 4}), which is likely to crystallize in high-alumina glasses, has a detrimental effect on the durability of the glass. The objective of this task is to develop glass formulations for specific SRS and Hanford waste streams to avoid nepheline formation while meeting waste loading and waste throughput expectations, as well as satisfying critical process and product performance related constraints. Secondary objectives of this task are to assess the sulfate solubility limit for the DWPF composition and spinel settling for the WTP composition. SRNL has partnered with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute (KRI) to complete this task.

  5. Modeling Interfacial Glass-Water Reactions: Recent Advances and Current Limitations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierce, Eric M [ORNL; Frugier, Pierre [CEA Marcoule DEN Laboratoire d’Étude du Comportement ŕ Long Terme (France); Criscenti, Louise J [Sandia National Laboratory (SNL); Kwon, Kideok [Sandia National Laboratory (SNL); Kerisit, Sebastien [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Describing the reactions that occur at the glass-water interface and control the development of the altered layer constitutes one of the main scientific challenges impeding existing models from providing accurate radionuclide release estimates. Radionuclide release estimates are a critical component of the safety basis for geologic repositories. The altered layer (i.e., amorphous hydrated surface layer and crystalline reaction products) represents a complex region, both physically and chemically, sandwiched between two distinct boundaries pristine glass surface at the inner most interface and aqueous solution at the outer most interface. Computational models, spanning different length and time-scales, are currently being developed to improve our understanding of this complex and dynamic process with the goal of accurately describing the pore-scale changes that occur as the system evolves. These modeling approaches include geochemical simulations [i.e., classical reaction path simulations and glass reactivity in allowance for alteration layer (GRAAL) simulations], Monte Carlo simulations, and Molecular Dynamics methods. Discussed in this manuscript are the advances and limitations of each modeling approach placed in the context of the glass-water reaction and how collectively these approaches provide insights into the mechanisms that control the formation and evolution of altered layers.

  6. Reinforced glass beamsReinforced glass beamsg Auteur Dr. Christian LOUTER 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reinforced glass beamsReinforced glass beamsg EDCE Auteur Dr. Christian LOUTER 1 ENAC/EDCE 2011In contemporary architecture glass is increasinglyIn contemporary architecture glass is increasingly applied for structural components such as beamsapplied for structural components such as beams. However glass

  7. Crystallization during processing of nuclear waste glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, Pavel R.

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In glass processing situations involving glass crystallization, various crystalline forms nucleate, grow, and dissolve, typically in a nonuniform temperature field of molten glass subjected to convection. Nuclear waste glasses are remarkable examples of multicomponent vitrified mixtures involving partial crystallization. In the glass melter, crystals form and dissolve during batch-to-glass conversion, melter processing, and product cooling. Crystals often agglomerate and sink, and they may settle at the melter bottom. Within the body of cooling glass, multiple phases crystallize in a non-uniform time-dependent temperature field. Self-organizing periodic distribution (the Liesegnang effect) is common. Various crystallization phenomena that occur in glassmaking are reviewed.

  8. Corrosion of Partially Crystallized Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Riley, Brian J.; Vienna, John D.

    2002-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Using existing data on corrosion of partially crystallized, simulated, high-level waste glasses, coefficients were introduced to evaluate the cumulative influence of secondary effects, such as residual stresses or concentration gradients on product consistency test response. As compared to predictions based solely on residual glass composition effects, the results showed that cristobalite, eucryptite, and nepheline had a higher-than-predicted impact on glass corrosion, while the effects of baddeleyite, hematite, calcium-zirconium silicate, and zircon were close to those predicted. The effects of acmite and lithium silicate were opposite to those expected based on their compositions. The analysis revealed important limitations of the databases currently available. Better understanding of corrosion phenomena will require quantitative composition data, microscopic characterization of pristine and corroded surfaces, and long-term tests with glass coupons or monoliths.

  9. Glass Membrane For Controlled Diffusion Of Gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shelby, James E. (Alfred Station, NY); Kenyon, Brian E. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2001-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A glass structure for controlled permeability of gases includes a glass vessel. The glass vessel has walls and a hollow center for receiving a gas. The glass vessel contains a metal oxide dopant formed with at least one metal selected from the group consisting of transition metals and rare earth metals for controlling diffusion of the gas through the walls of the glass vessel. The vessel releases the gas through its walls upon exposure to a radiation source.

  10. BNFL Report Glass Formers Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schumacher, R.F.

    2000-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this task was to obtain powder property data on candidate glass former materials, sufficient to guide conceptual design and estimate the cost of glass former handling facilities as requested under Part B1 of BNFL Technical and Development Support. Twenty-nine glass forming materials were selected and obtained from vendors for the characterization of their physical properties, durability in caustic solution, and powder flow characteristics. A glass former was selected based on the characterization for each of the ten oxide classes required for Envelope A, B, and C mixtures. Three blends (A, B, and C) were prepared based on formulations provided by Vitreous State Laboratory and evaluated with the same methods employed for the glass formers. The properties obtained are presented in a series of attached Tables. It was determined that five of the ten glass formers, (kyanite, iron oxide, titania, zircon, and zinc oxide) have the potential to cause some level of solids f low problems. In addition, all of the blends may require consideration for their handling. A number of engineering considerations and recommendations were prepared based on the experimental findings, experience, and other process considerations. Recommendations for future testing are included. In conjunction with future work, it is recommended that a professional consultant be engaged to guide and assist with testing and design input.

  11. BNFL Report Glass Formers Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schumacher, R.F.

    2000-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this task was to obtain powder property data on candidate glass former materials, sufficient to guide conceptual design and estimate the cost of glass former handling facilities as requested under Part B1 of BNFL Technical and Development Support. Twenty-nine glass forming materials were selected and obtained from vendors for the characterization of their physical properties, durability in caustic solution, and powder flow characteristics. A glass former was selected based on the characterization for each of the ten oxide classes required for Envelope A, B, and C mixtures. Three blends (A, B, and C) were prepared based on formulations provided by Vitreous State Laboratory and evaluated with the same methods employed for the glass formers. The properties obtained are presented in a series of attached Tables. It was determined that five of the ten glass formers, (kyanite, iron oxide, titania, zircon, and zinc oxide) have the potential to cause some level of solids f low problems. The problems might include arching or ratholing in the silo/hopper. In addition, all of the blends may require consideration for their handling.

  12. Energy Saving Glass Lamination via Selective Radio Frequency Heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allan, Shawn M.; Baranova, Inessa; Poley, Joseph; Reis, Henrique

    2012-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This project focused on advancing radio-frequency (RF) lamination technology closer to commercial implementation, in order to reduce the energy intensity of glass lamination by up to 90%. Lamination comprises a wide range of products including autoglass, architectural safety and innovative design glass, transparent armor (e.g. bullet proof glass), smart glass, mirrors, and encapsulation of photovoltaics. Lamination is also the fastest growing segment of glass manufacturing, with photovoltaics, architectural needs, and an anticipated transition to laminated side windows in vehicles. The state-of-the-art for glass lamination is to use autoclaves, which apply heat and uniform gas pressure to bond the laminates over the course of 1 to 18 hours. Laminates consist of layers of glass or other materials bonded with vinyl or urethane interlayers. In autoclaving, significant heat energy is lost heating the chamber, pressurized air, glass racks, and the glass. In RF lamination, the heat is generated directly in the vinyl interlayer, causing it to heat and melt quickly, in just 1 to 10 minutes, without significantly heating the glass or the equipment. The main purpose of this project was to provide evidence that low energy, rapid RF lamination quality met the same standards as conventionally autoclaved windows. The development of concepts for laminating curved glass with RF lamination was a major goal. Other primary goals included developing a stronger understanding of the lamination product markets described above, and to refine the potential benefits of commercial implementation. The scope of the project was to complete implementation concept studies in preparation for continuation into advanced development, pilot studies, and commercial implementation. The project consisted of 6 main tasks. The first dealt with lamination with poly-vinyl butyral (PVB) interlayers, which prior work had shown difficulties in achieving good quality laminates, working with Pilkington North America. The second task dealt with a study of current lamination processes in the various laminate industries, and development of concepts for integrating RF lamination into new or existing processes. The third task explored the use of a non-destructive technique for analyzing laminate adhesion with the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The fourth task focused on developing concepts for curved glass lamination using RF lamination. The fifth and sixth tasks together comprised an analysis of laminate product markets, ranking for applicability and commercialization potential, and the development of commercialization strategies for those products. In addition, throughout the project as new experimental data and conventional process data were obtained, the benefits analysis of RF lamination was refined. The goals of the project described above were achieved, positioning RF lamination for the next stage growth envisioned in the original Industrial Grand Challenge proposal. Working with Pilkington North America, lamination of flat autoglass with PVB was achieved, meeting all 16 stringent industry tests. In particular, PVB laminates made with RF lamination passed environmental tests including the high temperature, 120 ���°C bake test, without significant formation of bubbles (defects). The adhesion of PVB to glass was measured using the pummel method. Adhesion values ranging from 1 to 7 out of 10 were obtained. The significant process parameters affecting the environmental and adhesion performance were identified through a designed experiment. Pre-lamination process variables including PVB storage humidity and the de-airing process (vacuum or nip rolling) were significant, as well as the level of pressure applied to the laminate during the RF process. Analysis of manufacturing with RF lamination equipment, based on the processes developed indicated that 3 RF presses could replace a typical auto-industry autoclave to achieve equal or greater throughput with possibly less capital cost and smaller footprint. Concepts for curved lamination id

  13. Energy Saving Glass Lamination via Selective Radio Frequency Heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allan, Shawn M.

    2012-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This project focused on advancing radio-frequency (RF) lamination technology closer to commercial implementation, in order to reduce the energy intensity of glass lamination by up to 90%. Lamination comprises a wide range of products including autoglass, architectural safety and innovative design glass, transparent armor (e.g. bullet proof glass), smart glass, mirrors, and encapsulation of photovoltaics. Lamination is also the fastest growing segment of glass manufacturing, with photovoltaics, architectural needs, and an anticipated transition to laminated side windows in vehicles. The state-of-the-art for glass lamination is to use autoclaves, which apply heat and uniform gas pressure to bond the laminates over the course of 1 to 18 hours. Laminates consist of layers of glass or other materials bonded with vinyl or urethane interlayers. In autoclaving, significant heat energy is lost heating the chamber, pressurized air, glass racks, and the glass. In RF lamination, the heat is generated directly in the vinyl interlayer, causing it to heat and melt quickly, in just 1 to 10 minutes, without significantly heating the glass or the equipment. The main purpose of this project was to provide evidence that low energy, rapid RF lamination quality met the same standards as conventionally autoclaved windows. The development of concepts for laminating curved glass with RF lamination was a major goal. Other primary goals included developing a stronger understanding of the lamination product markets described above, and to refine the potential benefits of commercial implementation. The scope of the project was to complete implementation concept studies in preparation for continuation into advanced development, pilot studies, and commercial implementation. The project consisted of 6 main tasks. The first dealt with lamination with poly-vinyl butyral (PVB) interlayers, which prior work had shown difficulties in achieving good quality laminates, working with Pilkington North America. The second task dealt with a study of current lamination processes in the various laminate industries, and development of concepts for integrating RF lamination into new or existing processes. The third task explored the use of a non-destructive technique for analyzing laminate adhesion with the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The fourth task focused on developing concepts for curved glass lamination using RF lamination. The fifth and sixth tasks together comprised an analysis of laminate product markets, ranking for applicability and commercialization potential, and the development of commercialization strategies for those products. In addition, throughout the project as new experimental data and conventional process data were obtained, the benefits analysis of RF lamination was refined. The goals of the project described above were achieved, positioning RF lamination for the next stage growth envisioned in the original Industrial Grand Challenge proposal. Working with Pilkington North America, lamination of flat autoglass with PVB was achieved, meeting all 16 stringent industry tests. In particular, PVB laminates made with RF lamination passed environmental tests including the high temperature, 120 C bake test, without significant formation of bubbles (defects). The adhesion of PVB to glass was measured using the pummel method. Adhesion values ranging from 1 to 7 out of 10 were obtained. The significant process parameters affecting the environmental and adhesion performance were identified through a designed experiment. Pre-lamination process variables including PVB storage humidity and the de-airing process (vacuum or nip rolling) were significant, as well as the level of pressure applied to the laminate during the RF process. Analysis of manufacturing with RF lamination equipment, based on the processes developed indicated that 3 RF presses could replace a typical auto-industry autoclave to achieve equal or greater throughput with possibly less capital cost and smaller footprint. Concepts for curved lamination identifying castable molds for

  14. Surface plasmon resonance assisted rapid laser joining of glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zolotovskaya, Svetlana A.; Tang, Guang; Abdolvand, Amin, E-mail: a.abdolvand@dundee.ac.uk [School of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN (United Kingdom); Wang, Zengbo [School of Electronic Engineering, Bangor University, Bangor LL57 1UT (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Rapid and strong joining of clear glass to glass containing randomly distributed embedded spherical silver nanoparticles upon nanosecond pulsed laser irradiation (?40?ns and repetition rate of 100?kHz) at 532?nm is demonstrated. The embedded silver nanoparticles were ?30–40?nm in diameter, contained in a thin surface layer of ?10??m. A joint strength of 12.5?MPa was achieved for a laser fluence of only ?0.13?J/cm{sup 2} and scanning speed of 10?mm/s. The bonding mechanism is discussed in terms of absorption of the laser energy by nanoparticles and the transfer of the accumulated localised heat to the surrounding glass leading to the local melting and formation of a strong bond. The presented technique is scalable and overcomes a number of serious challenges for a widespread adoption of laser-assisted rapid joining of glass substrates, enabling applications in the manufacture of microelectronic devices, sensors, micro-fluidic, and medical devices.

  15. Characteristics of colloids generated during the corrosion of nuclear waste glasses in groundwater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, X.; Buck, E.C.; Mertz, C.; Bates, J.K.; Cunnane, J.C.; Chaiko, D.

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aqueous colloidal suspensions were generated by reacting nuclear waste glasses with groundwater at 90{degrees}C at different ratios of the glass surface area to solution volume (S/V). The colloids have been characterized in terms of size, charge, identity, and stability with respect to salt concentration, pH, and time, by examination using dynamic light scattering, electrophoretic mobility, and transmission electron microscopy. The colloids are predominately produced by precipitation from solution, possibly with contribution from reacted layers that have spallated from the glass. These colloids are silicon-rich minerals. The colloidal suspensions agglomerate when the salinity of the solutions increase. The following implications for modeling the colloidal transport of contaminants have been derived from this study: (1) The sources of the colloids are not only solubility-limited real colloids and the pseudo colloids formed by adsorption of radionuclides onto a groundwater colloid, but also from the spalled surface layers of reacted waste glasses. (2) In a repository, the local environment is likely to be glass-reaction dominated and the salt concentration is likely to be high, leading to rapid colloid agglomeration and settling; thus, colloid transport may be insignificant. (3) If large volumes of groundwater contact the glass reaction site, the precipitated colloids may become resuspended, and colloid transport may become important. (4) Under most conditions, the colloids are negatively charged and will deposit readily on positively charged surfaces. Negatively charged surfaces will, in general, facilitate colloid stability and transport.

  16. Natural analogues of nuclear waste glass corrosion.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abrajano, T.A. Jr.; Ebert, W.L.; Luo, J.S.

    1999-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This report reviews and summarizes studies performed to characterize the products and processes involved in the corrosion of natural glasses. Studies are also reviewed and evaluated on how well the corrosion of natural glasses in natural environments serves as an analogue for the corrosion of high-level radioactive waste glasses in an engineered geologic disposal system. A wide range of natural and experimental corrosion studies has been performed on three major groups of natural glasses: tektite, obsidian, and basalt. Studies of the corrosion of natural glass attempt to characterize both the nature of alteration products and the reaction kinetics. Information available on natural glass was then compared to corresponding information on the corrosion of nuclear waste glasses, specifically to resolve two key questions: (1) whether one or more natural glasses behave similarly to nuclear waste glasses in laboratory tests, and (2) how these similarities can be used to support projections of the long-term corrosion of nuclear waste glasses. The corrosion behavior of basaltic glasses was most similar to that of nuclear waste glasses, but the corrosion of tektite and obsidian glasses involves certain processes that also occur during the corrosion of nuclear waste glasses. The reactions and processes that control basalt glass dissolution are similar to those that are important in nuclear waste glass dissolution. The key reaction of the overall corrosion mechanism is network hydrolysis, which eventually breaks down the glass network structure that remains after the initial ion-exchange and diffusion processes. This review also highlights some unresolved issues related to the application of an analogue approach to predicting long-term behavior of nuclear waste glass corrosion, such as discrepancies between experimental and field-based estimates of kinetic parameters for basaltic glasses.

  17. Nano-structured self-cleaning superhydrophobic glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Jin Yeol

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    5. Optically transparent glass with vertically alignedcomposition of biosoluble glass fiber” Korean ApplicationS. Jin, “Optically Transparent Glass with Vertically Aligned

  18. Micro-Continuum Modeling of Nuclear Waste Glass Corrosion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steefel, Carl

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    21. Grambow, B. (2006). Nuclear waste glasses – How durable?Continuum Modeling of Nuclear Waste Glass Corrosion AugustContinuum Modeling of Nuclear Waste Glass Corrosion Prepared

  19. Asymmetric electroresistance of cluster glass state in manganites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lourembam, James; Lin, Weinan [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Ding, Junfeng; Bera, Ashok; Wu, Tom, E-mail: Tao.wu@kaust.edu.sa [Materials Sciences and Engineering, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal 23955-6900 (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the electrostatic modulation of transport in strained Pr{sub 0.65}(Ca{sub 0.75}Sr{sub 0.25}){sub 0.35}MnO{sub 3} thin films grown on SrTiO{sub 3} by gating with ionic liquid in electric double layer transistors (EDLT). In such manganite films with strong phase separation, a cluster glass magnetic state emerges at low temperatures with a spin freezing temperature of about 99?K, which is accompanied by the reentrant insulating state with high resistance below 30?K. In the EDLT, we observe bipolar and asymmetric modulation of the channel resistance, as well as an enhanced electroresistance up to 200% at positive gate bias. Our results provide insights on the carrier-density-dependent correlated electron physics of cluster glass systems.

  20. Long-term test results from a West Valley actinide-doped reference glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fortner, J.A.; Gerding, T.J.; Bates, J.K.

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Results from drip tests designed to simulate unsaturated conditions in the proposed Yucca Mountain Repository are reported for an actinide-doped glass (reference glass ATM-10) used as a model waste form. These tests have been ongoing for nearly 7 years, with data collected on solution composition (including transuranics), colloid formation and disposition, glass corrosion layers, and solid secondary phases. This test is unique because of its long elapsed time, high content of thorium and transuranics, use of actual groundwater from the proposed site area, use of contact between the glass and sensitized stainless steel in the test, and the variety of analytical procedures applied to the components. Some tests have been terminated, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and analytical transmission electron microscopy (AEM) were used to directly measure glass corrosion and identify secondary phases. Other tests remain ongoing, with periodic sampling of the water that had contacted the glass. The importance of integrated testing has been demonstrated, as complex interactions between the glass, the groundwater, and the sensitized stainless steel have been observed. Secondary phases include smectite clay, iron silicates, and brockite. Actinides, except neptunium, concentrate into stable secondary phases. The release of actinides is then controlled by the behavior of these phases.

  1. Contribution of atom-probe tomography to a better understanding of glass alteration mechanisms: application to a nuclear glass specimen altered 25 years in a granitic environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gin, Stephane [CEA Marcoule DTCD SECM LCLT, Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Ryan, Joseph V. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schreiber, Daniel K. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Neeway, James J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cabie, M. [Aix-Marseille Universite, CP2M, Marseille (France)

    2013-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We report and discuss results of atom probe tomography (APT) and energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) applied to a borosilicate glass sample of nuclear interest altered for nearly 26 years at 90°C in a confined granitic medium in order to better understand the rate-limiting mechanisms under conditions representative of a deep geological repository for vitrified radioactive waste. The APT technique allows the 3D reconstruction of the elemental distribution at the reactive interphase with sub-nanometer precision. Profiles of the B distribution at pristine glass/hydrated glass interface obtained by different techniques are compared to show the challenge of accurate measurements of diffusion profiles at this buried interface on the nanometer length scale. Our results show that 1) Alkali from the glass and hydrogen from the solution exhibit anti-correlated 15 ± 3 nm wide gradients located between the pristine glass and the hydrated glass layer, 2) boron exhibits an unexpectedly sharp profile located just at the outside of the alkali/H interdiffusion layer; this sharp profile is more consistent with a dissolution front than a diffusion-controlled release of boron. The resulting apparent diffusion coefficients derived from the Li and H profiles are DLi = 1.5 × 10-22 m2.s-1 and DH = 6.8 × 10-23 m2.s-1. These values are around two orders of magnitude lower than those observed at the very beginning of the alteration process, which suggests that interdiffusion is slowed at high reaction progress by local conditions that could be related to the porous structure of the interphase. As a result, the accessibility of water to the pristine glass could be the rate-limiting step in these conditions. More generally, these findings strongly support the importance of interdiffusion coupled with hydrolysis reactions of the silicate network on the long-term dissolution rate, contrary to what has been suggested by recent interfacial dissolution-precipitation models for silicate minerals.

  2. Adhesion degradation and water diffusion in nanoporous organosilicate glass thin film stacks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Adhesion degradation and water diffusion in nanoporous organosilicate glass thin film stacks adhesion degradation of the capping layer on top of the NPOSG. We have used this adhesion degradation degradation; Thin films --------------- Correspondence should be sent to Joost J. Vlassak, vlassak

  3. Vapour Phase Hydration of Blended Oxide Magnox Waste Glasses Neil C. Hyatt,1*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheffield, University of

    Vapour Phase Hydration of Blended Oxide ­ Magnox Waste Glasses Neil C. Hyatt,1* William E. Lee,1 BNFL Technology Centre, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria, CA20 1PG. UK. ABSTRACT Vapour phase hydration across the alteration layer. Vapour phase hydration leads to formation of surface alteration products

  4. HLW Glass Studies: Development of Crystal-Tolerant HLW Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matyas, Josef; Huckleberry, Adam R.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Lang, Jesse B.; Owen, Antionette T.; Kruger, Albert A.

    2012-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    In our study, a series of lab-scale crucible tests were performed on designed glasses of different compositions to further investigate and simulate the effect of Cr, Ni, Fe, Al, Li, and RuO2 on the accumulation rate of spinel crystals in the glass discharge riser of the HLW melter. The experimental data were used to expand the compositional region covered by an empirical model developed previously (Matyáš et al. 2010b), improving its predictive performance. We also investigated the mechanism for agglomeration of particles and impact of agglomerates on accumulation rate. In addition, the TL was measured as a function of temperature and composition.

  5. Glass and Glass Products (2010 MECS) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdf Flash2006-52.pdf0.pdfDepartmentCounselGlass Coating Makes Solar Panels MoreGlass and

  6. Low-temperature lithium diffusion in simulated high-level boroaluminosilicate nuclear waste glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neeway, James J.; Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Gin, Stephane; Wang, Zhaoying; Zhu, Zihua; Ryan, Joseph V.

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ion exchange is recognized as an integral, if underrepresented, mechanism influencing glass corrosion. However, due to the formation of various alteration layers in the presence of water, it is difficult to conclusively deconvolute the mechanisms of ion exchange from other processes occurring simultaneously during corrosion. In this work, an operationally inert non-aqueous solution was used as an alkali source material to isolate ion exchange and study the solid-state diffusion of lithium. Specifically, the experiments involved contacting glass coupons relevant to the immobilization of high-level nuclear waste, SON68 and CJ-6, which contained Li in natural isotope abundance, with a non-aqueous solution of 6LiCl dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide at 90 °C for various time periods. The depth profiles of major elements in the glass coupons were measured using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). Lithium interdiffusion coefficients, DLi, were then calculated based on the measured depth profiles. The results indicate that the penetration of 6Li is rapid in both glasses with the simplified CJ-6 glass (D6Li ? 4.0-8.0 × 10-21 m2/s) exhibiting faster exchange than the more complex SON68 glass (DLi ? 2.0-4.0 × 10-21 m2/s). Additionally, sodium ions present in the glass were observed to participate in ion exchange reactions; however, different diffusion coefficients were necessary to fit the diffusion profiles of the two alkali ions. Implications of the diffusion coefficients obtained in the absence of alteration layers to the long-term performance of nuclear waste glasses in a geological repository system are also discussed.

  7. Effect of furnace atmosphere on E-glass foaming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, D. S.; Dutton, Bryan C.; Hrma, Pavel R.; Pilon, Laurent

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    oxy-fired furnaces. E-glass foams were generated in a fused-81.05.K 1. Introduction Glass foams generated in glass-that the stability of E-glass foam decreased with increasing

  8. The Conservation of Seventeenth Century Archaeological Glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arcak, Cory

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    is the only chance for the objects survival. Though glass is considered one of the most stable archaeological materials, noninvasive, reversible treatments are not always possible given the level of deterioration glass objects undergo within the archaeological...

  9. The Huge, Blue, Jesus Glass Statue

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robbins, Joanna

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Later, I found a huge, blue, glass statue of Jesus stuffedOF CALIFORNIA RIVERSIDE The Huge, Blue, Jesus Glass Statue Aeyes as RED And wrote down BLUE for your hair. I had to fix

  10. Structure glass technology : systems and applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leitch, Katherine K. (Katherine Kristen)

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Glass cannot compete with steel in terms of strength or durability, but it is the only structural material that offers the highly sought after qualities of translucency and transparency. The use of glass has evolved from ...

  11. Crystallization in High-Level Waste Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, Pavel R. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Dane R Spearing, Gary L Smith, SK Sundaram

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This review outlines important aspects of crystallization in HLW glasses, such as equilibrium, nucleation, growth, and dissolution. The impact of crystallization on continuous melters and the chemical durability of high-level waste glass are briefly discussed.

  12. Glass Transition and the Coulomb Gap in Electron Glasses M. Muller and L. B. Ioffe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Müller, Markus

    Glass Transition and the Coulomb Gap in Electron Glasses M. Mu¨ller and L. B. Ioffe Department December 2004) We establish the connection between the presence of a glass phase and the appearance correlations in a systematic way, we show that in the case of strong disorder a continuous glass transition

  13. Methods of making metallic glass foil laminate composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vianco, P.T.; Fisher, R.W.; Hosking, F.M.; Zanner, F.J.

    1996-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the fabrication of a rapidly solidified foil laminate composite. An amorphous metallic glass foil is flux treated and coated with solder. Before solidification of the solder the foil is collected on a take-up spool which forms the composite into a solid annular configuration. The resulting composite exhibits high strength, resiliency and favorable magnetic and electrical properties associated with amorphous materials. The composite also exhibits bonding strength between the foil layers which significantly exceeds the bulk strength of the solder alone. 6 figs.

  14. Methods of making metallic glass foil laminate composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vianco, Paul T. (Albuquerque, NM); Fisher, Robert W. (Albuquerque, NM); Hosking, Floyd M. (Albuquerque, NM); Zanner, Frank J. (Sandia Park, NM)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the fabrication of a rapidly solidified foil laminate composite. An amorphous metallic glass foil is flux treated and coated with solder. Before solidification of the solder the foil is collected on a take-up spool which forms the composite into a solid annular configuration. The resulting composite exhibits high strength, resiliency and favorable magnetic and electrical properties associated with amorphous materials. The composite also exhibits bonding strength between the foil layers which significantly exceeds the bulk strength of the solder alone.

  15. Dissolution retardation of solid silica during glass batch-melting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Marcial, Jose

    2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    During glass-batch melting, solid silica (quartz) usually dissolves last. A retardation function was defined as a measure of the progressive inhibition of silica dissolution that occurs during batch melting. This function is based on the comparison of the measured rate of dissolution of silica particles with the hypothetical diffusion-controlled volume flux from regularly distributed particles with uniform concentration layers around them. The severe inhibition of silica dissolution has been attributed to the irregular spatial distribution of silica particles that is associated with the formation of nearly saturated melt at a portion of their surfaces. Irregular shapes and unequal sizes of particles also contribute to their extended lifetime.

  16. Heating-induced glass-glass and glass-liquid transformations in computer simulations of water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiu, Janet; Giovambattista, Nicolas [Department of Physics, Brooklyn College of the City University of New York, Brooklyn, New York 11210 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Brooklyn College of the City University of New York, Brooklyn, New York 11210 (United States); Starr, Francis W. [Department of Physics, Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connecticut 06459 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connecticut 06459 (United States)

    2014-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Water exists in at least two families of glassy states, broadly categorized as the low-density (LDA) and high-density amorphous ice (HDA). Remarkably, LDA and HDA can be reversibly interconverted via appropriate thermodynamic paths, such as isothermal compression and isobaric heating, exhibiting first-order-like phase transitions. We perform out-of-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of glassy water using the ST2 model to study the evolution of LDA and HDA upon isobaric heating. Depending on pressure, glass-to-glass, glass-to-crystal, glass-to-vapor, as well as glass-to-liquid transformations are found. Specifically, heating LDA results in the following transformations, with increasing heating pressures: (i) LDA-to-vapor (sublimation), (ii) LDA-to-liquid (glass transition), (iii) LDA-to-HDA-to-liquid, (iv) LDA-to-HDA-to-liquid-to-crystal, and (v) LDA-to-HDA-to-crystal. Similarly, heating HDA results in the following transformations, with decreasing heating pressures: (a) HDA-to-crystal, (b) HDA-to-liquid-to-crystal, (c) HDA-to-liquid (glass transition), (d) HDA-to-LDA-to-liquid, and (e) HDA-to-LDA-to-vapor. A more complex sequence may be possible using lower heating rates. For each of these transformations, we determine the corresponding transformation temperature as function of pressure, and provide a P-T “phase diagram” for glassy water based on isobaric heating. Our results for isobaric heating dovetail with the LDA-HDA transformations reported for ST2 glassy water based on isothermal compression/decompression processes [Chiu et al., J. Chem. Phys. 139, 184504 (2013)]. The resulting phase diagram is consistent with the liquid-liquid phase transition hypothesis. At the same time, the glass phase diagram is sensitive to sample preparation, such as heating or compression rates. Interestingly, at least for the rates explored, our results suggest that the LDA-to-liquid (HDA-to-liquid) and LDA-to-HDA (HDA-to-LDA) transformation lines on heating are related, both being associated with the limit of kinetic stability of LDA (HDA)

  17. High-Temperature Viscosity of Commercial Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, Pavel R.

    2006-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Arrhenius models were developed for glass viscosity within the processing temperature of six types of commercial glasses: low-expansion-borosilicate glasses, E glasses, fiberglass wool glasses, TV panel glasses, container glasses, and float glasses. Both local models (for each of the six glass types) and a global model (for the composition region of commercial glasses, i.e., the six glass types taken together) are presented. The models are based on viscosity data previously obtained with rotating spindle viscometers within the temperature range between 900 C and 1550 C; the viscosity varied from 1 Pa?s to 750 Pa?s. First-order models were applied to relate Arrhenius coefficients to the mass fractions of 15 components: SiO2, TiO2, ZrO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, B2O3, MgO, CaO, SrO, BaO, PbO, ZnO, Li2O, Na2O, K2O. The R2 is 0.98 for the global model and ranges from .097 to 0.99 for the six local models. The models are recommended for glasses containing 42 to 84 mass% SiO2 to estimate viscosities or temperatures at a constant viscosity for melts within both the temperature range from 1100 C to 1550 C and viscosity range from 5 to 400 Pa?s.

  18. Experimental Study and Monte Carlo Modeling of Calcium Borosilicate Glasses Leaching

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arab, Mehdi; Cailleteau, Celine; Angeli, Frederic [CEA/DTCD/SECM/Laboratoire d'etudes du Comportement a Long Terme, CEA Centre Valrho, BP 17171, Bagnols-sur-ceze, 30207 (France); Devreux, Francois [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, CNRS and Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau Cedex, 91128 (France)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During aqueous alteration of glass an alteration layer appears on the glass surface. The properties of this alteration layer are of great importance for understanding and predicting the long-term behavior of high-level radioactive waste glasses. Numerical modeling can be very useful for understanding the impact of the glass composition on its aqueous reactivity and long-term properties but it is quite difficult to model these complex glasses. In order to identify the effect of the calcium content on glass alteration, seven oxide glass compositions (57SiO{sub 2} 17B{sub 2}O{sub 3} (22-x)Na{sub 2}O{sub x}CaO 4ZrO{sub 2}; 0 < x < 11) were investigated and a Monte Carlo model was developed to describe their leaching behavior. The specimens were altered at constant temperature (T = 90 deg. C) at a glass-surface-area-to-solution-volume (SA/V) ratio of 15 cm-1 in a buffered solution (pH 9.2). Under these conditions all the variations observed in the leaching behavior are attributable to composition effects. Increasing the calcium content in the glass appears to be responsible for a sharp drop in the final leached boron fraction. In parallel with this experimental work, a Monte Carlo model was developed to investigate the effect of calcium content on the leaching behavior especially on the initial stage of alteration. Monte Carlo simulations performed with this model are in good agreement with the experimental results. The dependence of the alteration rate on the calcium content can be described by a quadratic function: fitting the simulated points gives a minimum alteration rate at about 7.7 mol% calcium. This value is consistent with the figure of 8.2 mol% obtained from the experimental work. The model was also used to investigate the role of calcium in the glass structure and it pointed out that calcium act preferentially as a network modifier rather than a charge compensator in this kind of glasses. (authors)

  19. Chemical bath deposition of cadmium sulfide on graphene-coated flexible glass substrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seo, Won-Oh; Jung, Younghun; Kim, Jihyun, E-mail: hyunhyun7@korea.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Korea University, Anam-dong, Sungbuk-gu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jiwan [Flexible Display Research Center, Korea Electronics Technology Institute, Yatap-dong, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 463-816 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Donghwan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate a flexible structure of cadmium sulfide (CdS) on graphene-coated glass substrate, where CdS was deposited by the chemical bath deposition method on defective tri-layer graphene. The defects in graphene, confirmed by micro-Raman spectroscopy, were created by a ultra-violet treatment with varying exposure time from 10 to 60?min. The number of defect sites in the graphene as a seed layer was related to the quality of the CdS thin films determined from the results from X-ray diffraction, optical transmittance, scanning electron microscopy, and room temperature micro-photoluminescence. Our film-on-substrate structure of CdS-graphene-on-glass was maintained up to a tensile strain of 0.3%, where graphene with a high failure strain was employed as a transparent conductive layer.

  20. Glass needs for a growing photovoltaics industry

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Burrows, Keith; Fthenakis, Vasilis

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With the projected growth in photovoltaics, the demand for glass for the solar industry will far exceed the current supply, and thousands of new float-glass plants will have to be built to meet its needs over the next 20 years. Such expansion will provide an opportunity for the solar industry to obtain products better suited to their needs, such as low-iron glass and borosilicate glass at the lowest possible price. While there are no significant technological hurdles that would prevent the flat glass industry from meeting the solar industry’s projected needs, to do so will require advance planning and substantialmore »investments.« less

  1. Glass needs for a growing photovoltaics industry

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Burrows, Keith [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Fthenakis, Vasilis [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With the projected growth in photovoltaics, the demand for glass for the solar industry will far exceed the current supply, and thousands of new float-glass plants will have to be built to meet its needs over the next 20 years. Such expansion will provide an opportunity for the solar industry to obtain products better suited to their needs, such as low-iron glass and borosilicate glass at the lowest possible price. While there are no significant technological hurdles that would prevent the flat glass industry from meeting the solar industry’s projected needs, to do so will require advance planning and substantial investments.

  2. Creep Behavior of Glass/Ceramic Sealant and its Effect on Long-term Performance of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Koeppel, Brian J.; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2009-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The creep behavior of glass or glass-ceramic sealant materials used in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) becomes relevant under SOFC operating temperatures. In this paper, the creep of glass-ceramic sealants was experimentally examined, and a standard linear solid model was applied to capture the creep behavior of glass ceramic sealant materials developed for planar SOFCs at high temperatures. The parameters of this model were determined based on the creep test results. Furthermore, the creep model was incorporated into finite-element software programs SOFC-MP and Mentat-FC developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for multi-physics simulation of SOFCs. The effect of creep of glass ceramic sealant materials on the long-term performance of SOFC stacks was investigated by studying the stability of the flow channels and the stress redistribution in the glass seal and on the various interfaces of the glass seal with other layers. Finite element analyses were performed to quantify the stresses in various parts. The stresses in glass seals were released because of creep behavior during operations.

  3. Recirculation bubbler for glass melter apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guerrero, Hector (Evans, GA); Bickford, Dennis (Folly Beach, SC)

    2007-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas bubbler device provides enhanced recirculation of molten glass within a glass melter apparatus. The bubbler device includes a tube member disposed within a pool of molten glass contained in the melter. The tube member includes a lower opening through which the molten glass enters and upper slots disposed close to (above or below) the upper surface of the pool of molten glass and from which the glass exits. A gas (air) line is disposed within the tube member and extends longitudinally thereof. A gas bubble distribution device, which is located adjacent to the lower end of the tube member and is connected to the lower end of the gas line, releases gas through openings therein so as to produce gas bubbles of a desired size in the molten glass and in a distributed pattern across the tube member.

  4. Energy Saving Glass Lamination via Selective Radio Frequency Heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shawn M. Allan; Patricia M. Strickland; Holly S. Shulman

    2009-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Ceralink Inc. developed FastFuse™, a rapid, new, energy saving process for lamination of glass and composites using radio frequency (RF) heating technology. The Inventions and Innovations program supported the technical and commercial research and development needed to elevate the innovation from bench scale to a self-supporting technology with significant potential for growth. The attached report provides an overview of the technical and commerical progress achieved for FastFuse™ during the course of the project. FastFuse™ has the potential to revolutionize the laminate manufacturing industries by replacing energy intensive, multi-step processes with an energy efficient, single-step process that allows higher throughput. FastFuse™ transmits RF energy directly into the interlayer to generate heat, eliminating the need to directly heat glass layers and the surrounding enclosures, such as autoclaves or vacuum systems. FastFuse™ offers lower start-up and energy costs (up to 90% or more reduction in energy costs), and faster cycles times (less than 5 minutes). FastFuse™ is compatible with EVA, TPU, and PVB interlayers, and has been demonstrated for glass, plastics, and multi-material structures such as photovoltaics and transparent armor.

  5. Glass-coating and cleaning system to prevent carbon deposition on coke oven walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takahira, Takuya; Ando, Takeshi; Kasaoka, Shizuki; Yamauchi, Yutaka [Kawasaki Steel Corp., Mizushima, Kurashiki (Japan). Mizushima Works

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The new technology for protecting the coking chamber bricks from damage by hard-pushing is described. The technology consists of the glass coating on the wall bricks and a wall cleaner to blow deposited carbon. For the glass coating, a specially developed glaze is sprayed onto the wall bricks by a spraying device developed to completely spray one coking chamber in a few minutes. The wall cleaner is installed on a pusher ram in the facility to automatically blow air at a sonic speed during coke pushing. The life of the glazed layer is estimated to be over two years.

  6. Glass nanoimprint using amorphous Ni-P mold etched by focused-ion beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mekaru, Harutaka; Kitadani, Takeshi; Yamashita, Michiru; Takahashi, Masaharu [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-2-1, Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8564 (Japan); SAWA Plating Co., Ltd., 753 Hoshiro, Himeji, Hyogo 670-0804 (Japan); Hyogo Prefectural Institute of Technology, 3-1-12 Yukihira-cho, Suma-ku, Kobe 654-0037 (Japan); National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-2-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8564 (Japan)

    2007-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors succeeded in glass-nanoimprint lithography of micropatterns and nanopatterns using an amorphous Ni-P alloy mold. Glasslike carbon has been used as a mold material to mold not only Pyrex glass but also quartz, because it is still stable at a temperature of 1650 deg. C. However, it is difficult to process glasslike carbon substrates into arbitrary shapes by machining. They thought that amorphous Ni-P alloy could be used as a mold material for industrial glass molding. If Ni is electroless plated when mixed with suitable amount of P on a Si wafer, the Ni-P alloy layer becomes amorphous. An appropriate ratio of Ni and P was determined by the results of x-ray-diffraction measurements. The optimized composition ratio of Ni-P was Ni:P=92:8 wt %. Moreover, line and space patterns and dot arrays with linewidths of as little as 500 nm were etched on the mold using focused-ion beam (FIB) and the processing accuracy for the amorphous Ni-P layer was compared with that for the pure Ni layer. The result was that patterns of 500 nm width were etched to a depth of 2 {mu}m on an amorphous Ni-P alloy mold and the processed surfaces were smooth. In contrast, in the case of the pure Ni layer, the processing line was notched and the sidewalls were very rough. The crystal grain seems to hinder the processing of the nanopattern. After FIB etching, the amorphous Ni-P alloy was thermally treated at 400 deg. C to improve the hardness. Finally, line and space patterns and dot arrays on the amorphous Ni-P alloy mold were nanoimprinted on Pyrex glass using a glass-nanoimprint system (ASHE0201) that National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology developed.

  7. In-Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy Probing of Native Oxide and Artificial Layers on Silicon Nanoparticles for Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Yang; Piper, Daniela M.; Gu, Meng; Travis, Jonathan J.; George, Steven M.; Lee, Se-Hee; Genc, Arda; Pullan, Lee; Liu, Jun; Mao, Scott X.; Zhang, Jiguang; Ban, Chunmei; Wang, Chong M.

    2014-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Surface modification of silicon nanoparticle via molecular layer deposition (MLD) has been recently proved to be an effective way for dramatically enhancing the cyclic performance in lithium ion batteries. However, the fundamental mechanism as how this thin layer of coating function is not known, which is even complicated by the inevitable presence of native oxide of several nanometers on the silicon nanoparticle. Using in-situ TEM, we probed in detail the structural and chemical evolution of both uncoated and coated silicon particles upon cyclic lithiation/delithation. We discovered that upon initial lithiation, the native oxide layer converts to crystalline Li2O islands, which essentially increases the impedance on the particle, resulting in ineffective lithiation/delithiation, and therefore low coulombic efficiency. In contrast, the alucone MLD coated particles show extremely fast, thorough and highly reversible lithiation behaviors, which are clarified to be associated with the mechanical flexibility and fast Li+/e- conductivity of the alucone coating. Surprisingly, the alucone MLD coating process chemically changes the silicon surface, essentially removing the native oxide layer and therefore mitigates side reaction and detrimental effects of the native oxide. This study provides a vivid picture of how the MLD coating works to enhance the coulombic efficiency and preserve capacity and clarifies the role of the native oxide on silicon nanoparticles during cyclic lithiation and delithiation. More broadly, this work also demonstrated that the effect of the subtle chemical modification of the surface during the coating process may be of equal importance as the coating layer itself.

  8. Highly Insulating Glazing Systems using Non-Structural Center Glazing Layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohler, Christian; Arasteh, Dariush; Goudey, Howdy; Kohler, Christian

    2008-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Three layer insulating glass units with two low-e coatings and an effective gas fill are known to be highly insulating, with center-of-glass U-factors as low as 0.57 W/m{sup 2}-K (0.10 Btu/h-ft{sup 2}- F). Such units have historically been built with center layers of glass or plastic which extend all the way through the spacer system. This paper shows that triple glazing systems with non-structural center layers which do not create a hermetic seal at the edge have the potential to be as thermally efficient as standard designs, while potentially removing some of the production and product integration issues that have discouraged the use of triples.

  9. Lid heater for glass melter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, T.D.

    1993-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A glass melter having a lid electrode for heating the glass melt radiantly. The electrode comprises a series of INCONEL 690 tubes running above the melt across the melter interior and through the melter walls and having nickel cores inside the tubes beginning where the tubes leave the melter interior and nickel connectors to connect the tubes electrically in series. An applied voltage causes the tubes to generate heat of electrical resistance for melting frit injected onto the melt. The cores limit heat generated as the current passes through the walls of the melter. Nickel bus connection to the electrical power supply minimizes heat transfer away from the melter that would occur if standard copper or water-cooled copper connections were used between the supply and the INCONEL 690 heating tubes. 3 figures.

  10. Lid heater for glass melter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Terrance D. (617 Chestnut Ct., Aiken, SC 29803)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A glass melter having a lid electrode for heating the glass melt radiantly. The electrode comprises a series of INCONEL 690 tubes running above the melt across the melter interior and through the melter walls and having nickel cores inside the tubes beginning where the tubes leave the melter interior and nickel connectors to connect the tubes electrically in series. An applied voltage causes the tubes to generate heat of electrical resistance for melting frit injected onto the melt. The cores limit heat generated as the current passes through the walls of the melter. Nickel bus connection to the electrical power supply minimizes heat transfer away from the melter that would occur if standard copper or water-cooled copper connections were used between the supply and the INCONEL 690 heating tubes.

  11. Glass Transition, Cooperativity and Interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salez, Thomas; Dalnoki-Veress, Kari; Raphaël, Elie; Forrest, James A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce a minimal theory of glass formation based on the physical ideas of molecular crowding and resultant cooperative motion, and address the effects of free interfaces on dynamics. First, we obtain a simple scaling expression for the diverging number of particles taking part in bulk cooperative relaxation as the system approaches kinetic arrest, and in doing so provide a robust derivation of the Adam and Gibbs description of cooperative dynamics. Then, by including thermal expansivity of the material, the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann relation is derived. Moreover, we predict a temperature-dependent expression for the cooperative length $\\xi$ of bulk relaxation, and explore the influence of sample boundaries on the glassy dynamics when the system size becomes comparable to $\\xi$. The theory is in full agreement with measurements of the glass transition temperature of thin polystyrene films. This agreement comes with two adjustable parameters, the critical interparticle distance and the Vogel temperature. Alth...

  12. Method for forming silicon on a glass substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCarthy, A.M.

    1995-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A method by which single-crystal silicon microelectronics may be fabricated on glass substrates at unconventionally low temperatures. This is achieved by fabricating a thin film of silicon on glass and subsequently forming the doped components by a short wavelength (excimer) laser doping procedure and conventional patterning techniques. This method may include introducing a heavily boron doped etch stop layer on a silicon wafer using an excimer laser, which permits good control of the etch stop layer removal process. This method additionally includes dramatically reducing the remaining surface roughness of the silicon thin films after etching in the fabrication of silicon on insulator wafers by scanning an excimer laser across the surface of the silicon thin film causing surface melting, whereby the surface tension of the melt causes smoothing of the surface during recrystallization. Applications for this method include those requiring a transparent or insulating substrate, such as display manufacturing. Other applications include sensors, actuators, optoelectronics, radiation hard and high temperature electronics. 15 figs.

  13. Color Glass Condensate and Glasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Gelis

    2012-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We review the Color Glass Condensate effective theory, that describes the gluon content of a high energy hadron or nucleus, in the saturation regime. The emphasis is put on applications to high energy heavy ion collisions. After describing initial state factorization, we discuss the Glasma phase, that precedes the formation of an equilibrated quark-gluon plasma. We end this review with a presentation of recent developments in the study of the isotropization and thermalization of the quark-gluon plasma.

  14. Melter Glass Removal and Dismantlement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richardson, BS

    2000-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has been using vitrification processes to convert high-level radioactive waste forms into a stable glass for disposal in waste repositories. Vitrification facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) are converting liquid high-level waste (HLW) by combining it with a glass-forming media to form a borosilicate glass, which will ensure safe long-term storage. Large, slurry fed melters, which are used for this process, were anticipated to have a finite life (on the order of two to three years) at which time they would have to be replaced using remote methods because of the high radiation fields. In actuality the melters useable life spans have, to date, exceeded original life-span estimates. Initial plans called for the removal of failed melters by placing the melter assembly into a container and storing the assembly in a concrete vault on the vitrification plant site pending size-reduction, segregation, containerization, and shipment to appropriate storage facilities. Separate facilities for the processing of the failed melters currently do not exist. Options for handling these melters include (1) locating a facility to conduct the size-reduction, characterization, and containerization as originally planned; (2) long-term storing or disposing of the complete melter assembly; and (3) attempting to refurbish the melter and to reuse the melter assembly. The focus of this report is to look at methods and issues pertinent to size-reduction and/or melter refurbishment in particular, removing the glass as a part of a refurbishment or to reduce contamination levels (thus allowing for disposal of a greater proportion of the melter as low level waste).

  15. Method for heating, forming and tempering a glass sheet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boaz, Premakaran Tucker (Livonia, MI); Sitzman, Gary W. (Walled Lake, MI)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for heating, forming and tempering a glass sheet including the steps of heating at least one glass sheet to at least a first predetermined temperature, applying microwave energy to the glass sheet to heat the glass sheet to at least a second predetermined temperature, forming the glass sheet to a predetermined configuration, and cooling an outer surface of the glass sheet to at least a third predetermined temperature to temper the glass sheet.

  16. Method for heating, forming and tempering a glass sheet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boaz, P.T.; Sitzman, G.W.

    1998-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for heating, forming and tempering a glass sheet is disclosed including the steps of heating at least one glass sheet to at least a first predetermined temperature, applying microwave energy to the glass sheet to heat the glass sheet to at least a second predetermined temperature, forming the glass sheet to a predetermined configuration, and cooling an outer surface of the glass sheet to at least a third predetermined temperature to temper the glass sheet. 2 figs.

  17. Top-emitting Organic Light-Emitting Diode with a Cap Layer Chengfeng Qiu, Huajun Peng, Haiying Chen, Zhilang Xie,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kwok, Hoi S.

    , Kowloon, Hong Kong, China ABSTRACT For top emitting Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (OLED), the study of top layer is very important aiming to acquire good device performance. In this report, Pt as anode for Cu coated on glass as anode, copper (II) phthalocyanine (CuPc) as organic buffer layer, N,N'- diphenyl

  18. Photonic layered media

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fleming, James G. (Albuquerque, NM); Lin, Shawn-Yu (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new class of structured dielectric media which exhibit significant photonic bandstructure has been invented. The new structures, called photonic layered media, are easy to fabricate using existing layer-by-layer growth techniques, and offer the ability to significantly extend our practical ability to tailor the properties of such optical materials.

  19. ITP Glass: Industrial Glass Bandwidth Analysis Final Report, August 2007 |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking of BlytheDepartment of Energy IRS Issuesof the U.S. Glass

  20. Determination of temperature-dependent heat conductivity and thermal diffusivity of waste glass melter feed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pokorny, Richard; Rice, Jarrett A.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The cold cap is a layer of reacting glass batch floating on the surface of melt in an all-electric continuous glass melter. The heat needed for the conversion of the melter feed to molten glass must be transferred to and through the cold cap. Since the heat flux into the cold cap determines the rate of melting, the heat conductivity is a key property of the reacting feed. We designed an experimental setup consisting of a large cylindrical crucible with an assembly of thermocouples that monitors the evolution of the temperature field while the crucible is heated at a constant rate. Then we used two methods to calculate the heat conductivity and thermal diffusivity of the reacting feed: the approximation of the temperature field by polynomial functions and the finite-volume method coupled with least-squares analysis. Up to 680°C, the heat conductivity of the reacting melter feed was represented by a linear function of temperature.

  1. Evidence of exchange bias effect originating from the interaction between antiferromagnetic core and spin glass shell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, X. K., E-mail: zhangxianke77@163.com; Yuan, J. J.; Yu, H. J.; Zhu, X. R.; Xie, Y. M. [School of Physics and Electronics, Institute of Optoelectronic Materials and Technology, Gannan Normal University, Ganzhou 341000 (China); Tang, S. L.; Xu, L. Q. [Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures, College of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2014-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Spin glass behavior and exchange bias effect have been observed in antiferromagnetic SrMn{sub 3}O{sub 6?x} nanoribbons synthesized via a self-sacrificing template process. The magnetic field dependence of thermoremanent magnetization and isothermal remanent magnetization shows that the sample is good correspondence to spin glass and diluted antiferromagnetic system for the applied field H??2?T, respectively. By detailed analysis of training effect using Binek's model, we argue that the observed exchange bias effect in SrMn{sub 3}O{sub 6?x} nanoribbons arises entirely from an interface exchange coupling between the antiferromagnetic core and spin glass shell. The present study is useful for understanding the nature of shell layer and the origin of exchange bias effect in other antiferromagnetic nanosystems as well.

  2. Glass Property Data and Models for Estimating High-Level Waste Glass Volume

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vienna, John D.; Fluegel, Alexander; Kim, Dong-Sang; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2009-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes recent efforts to develop glass property models that can be used to help estimate the volume of high-level waste (HLW) glass that will result from vitrification of Hanford tank waste. The compositions of acceptable and processable HLW glasses need to be optimized to minimize the waste-form volume and, hence, to save cost. A database of properties and associated compositions for simulated waste glasses was collected for developing property-composition models. This database, although not comprehensive, represents a large fraction of data on waste-glass compositions and properties that were available at the time of this report. Glass property-composition models were fit to subsets of the database for several key glass properties. These models apply to a significantly broader composition space than those previously publised. These models should be considered for interim use in calculating properties of Hanford waste glasses.

  3. Process for preparing improved silvered glass mirrors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buckwalter, C.Q. Jr.

    1980-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Glass mirrors having improved weathering properties are prepared by an improvement in the process for making the mirrors. The glass surface after it has been cleaned but before it is silvered, is contacted with a solution of lanthanide rare earths in addition to a sensitization solution of tin or palladium. The addition of the rare earths produces a mirror which has increased resistance to delamination of the silver from the glass surface in the presence of water.

  4. 68 Glass Technology Vol. 45 No. 2 April 2004 Proc. VII Symp. on Crystallisation in Glasses and Liquids, Sheffield, 69 July 2003 Proc. VII Symp. on Crystallisation in Glasses and Liquids, Sheffield, 69 July 2003 Glass Technol., 2004, 45, 6870

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheffield, University of

    68 Glass Technology Vol. 45 No. 2 April 2004 Proc. VII Symp. on Crystallisation in Glasses and Liquids, Sheffield, 6­9 July 2003 Proc. VII Symp. on Crystallisation in Glasses and Liquids, Sheffield, 6­9 July 2003 Glass Technol., 2004, 45, 68­70 The behaviour of a simulant Magnox waste glass

  5. Radiation Characteristics of Glass Containing Gas Bubbles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pilon, Laurent; Viskanta, Raymond

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    B. L. Drolen, “Thermal radiation in particulate media withRadiation Characteristics of Glass Containing Gas Bubblesthermophysical properties and radiation characteristics of

  6. Compliant Glass Seals for SOFC Stacks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, Y. S.; Choi, Jung-Pyung; Xu, Wei; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Koeppel, Brian J.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Lara-Curzio, Edgar

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes results from experimental and modeling studies performed by participants in the Solid-State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Core Technology Program, which indicate that compliant glass-based seals offer a number of potential advantages over conventional seals based on de-vitrifying glasses, including reduced stresses during stack operation and thermal cycling, and the ability to heal micro-damage induced during thermal cycling. The properties and composition of glasses developed and/or investigated in these studies are reported, along with results from long-term (up to 5,800h) evaluations of seals based on a compliant glass containing ceramic particles or ceramic fibers.

  7. High-Temperature Viscosity Of Commercial Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, Pavel R.; See, Clem A.; Lam, Oanh P.; Minister, Kevin B.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Viscosity was measured for six types of commercial glasses: low-expansion-borosilicate glasses, E glasses, fiberglass wool glasses, TV panel glasses, container glasses, and float glasses. Viscosity data were obtained with rotating spindle viscometers within the temperature range between 900°C and 1550°C; the viscosity varied from 1 Pa?s to 750 Pa?s. Arrhenius coefficients were calculated for individual glasses and linear models were applied to relate them to the mass fractions of 11 major components (SiO2, CaO, Na2O, Al2O3, B2O3, BaO, SrO, K2O, MgO, PbO, and ZrO2) and 12 minor components (Fe2O3, ZnO, Li2O, TiO2, CeO2, F, Sb2O3, Cr2O3, As2O3, MnO2, SO3, and Co3O4). The models are recommended for glasses containing 42 to 84 mass% SiO2 to estimate viscosities or temperatures at a constant viscosity for melts within both the temperature range from 1100°C to 1550°C and viscosity range from 10 to 400 Pa?s.

  8. Waste Glass Corrosion: Some Open Questions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Vienna, John D.; Yeager, John D.

    2003-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    An equation for time evolution of glass corrosion in a closed system is proposed. Examples of fitting this equation to vapor-hydration test (VHT) and product consistency test data are shown. It is argued that the stage of accelerated corrosion of waste glass is a temporary spike caused by a transition to a different mechanism (not associated solely with high-alumina content in glass) and followed by slower steady corrosion. The effect of temperature and glass composition on the VHT rate of corrosion is evaluated. Results of different corrosion tests are compared. Progress towards a frame-indifferent rate equation is outlined.

  9. Bioactive Glass Scaffolds for Bone Regeneration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Working at ALS Beamline 8.3.2, researchers from Berkeley Lab and the Imperial College London have created bioactive glass scaffolds that mirror nature's efficient materials. The...

  10. Draining our Glass: An Energy and Heat Characterization of Google Glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhong, Lin

    Draining our Glass: An Energy and Heat Characterization of Google Glass Robert LiKamWa, Zhen Wang, such as hands-free video chat and web search. However, its shape also hampers its potential: (1) battery size characterizing the Glass system. Others have documented technical specifica- tions [22], privacy, security

  11. Introduction and Motivation Structural Model for Laminated Glass Beams Conclusions and Outlook of Laminated Glass Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Components of Crystalline Solar Modules back sheet or glass encapsulant electrical conductor crystalline solar cells encapsulant front glass Reference: Schulze, S.-H.; Pander, M.; Naumenko, K.; Altenbach, H and Motivation Components of Thin Film Solar Modules back sheet or glass encapsulant electrical conductor thin

  12. The effect of substrates on the Raman spectrum of graphene: Graphene-on-sapphire and graphene-on-glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The effect of substrates on the Raman spectrum of graphene: Graphene- on-sapphire and graphene The authors investigated the influence of substrates on Raman scattering spectrum from graphene. The room-temperature Raman signatures from graphene layers on GaAs, sapphire, and glass substrates were compared with those

  13. Layered plasma polymer composite membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Babcock, W.C.

    1994-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Layered plasma polymer composite fluid separation membranes are disclosed, which comprise alternating selective and permeable layers for a total of at least 2n layers, where n is [>=]2 and is the number of selective layers. 2 figs.

  14. Radiative Heat Transfer in Enhanced Hydrogen Outgassing of Glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kitamura, Rei; Pilon, Laurent

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    transport in a machinable glass-ceramic”, Journal of Non-in soda-lime-silicate glasses by reaction with hydrogen”,1971. [16] I. Fanderlik, Glass Science and Technology, Vol.

  15. Chapter 6 Simulations of Amorphous Polyethylene Glass Transition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    112 Chapter 6 Simulations of Amorphous Polyethylene Glass Transition 6.1 Introduction Amorphous and characterized. Although various macroscopic properties around and below the glass transition temperature have been extensively investigated experimentally, the phenomena of glass transition and relaxation

  16. Minor component study for simulated high-level nuclear waste glasses (Draft)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, H.; Langowskim, M.H.; Hrma, P.R.; Schweiger, M.J.; Vienna, J.D.; Smith, D.E.

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hanford Site single-shell tank (SSI) and double-shell tank (DSI) wastes are planned to be separated into low activity (or low-level waste, LLW) and high activity (or high-level waste, HLW) fractions, and to be vitrified for disposal. Formulation of HLW glass must comply with glass processibility and durability requirements, including constraints on melt viscosity, electrical conductivity, liquidus temperature, tendency for phase segregation on the molten glass surface, and chemical durability of the final waste form. A wide variety of HLW compositions are expected to be vitrified. In addition these wastes will likely vary in composition from current estimates. High concentrations of certain troublesome components, such as sulfate, phosphate, and chrome, raise concerns about their potential hinderance to the waste vitrification process. For example, phosphate segregation in the cold cap (the layer of feed on top of the glass melt) in a Joule-heated melter may inhibit the melting process (Bunnell, 1988). This has been reported during a pilot-scale ceramic melter run, PSCM-19, (Perez, 1985). Molten salt segregation of either sulfate or chromate is also hazardous to the waste vitrification process. Excessive (Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni) spinel crystal formation in molten glass can also be detrimental to melter operation.

  17. SRNL POROUS WALL GLASS MICROSPHERES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wicks, G; Leung Heung, L; Ray Schumacher, R

    2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has developed a new medium for storage of hydrogen and other gases. This involves fabrication of thin, Porous Walled, Hollow Glass Microspheres (PW-HGMs), with diameters generally in the range of 1 to several hundred microns. What is unique about the glass microballons is that porosity has been induced and controlled within the thin, one micron thick walls, on the scale of 10 to several thousand Angstroms. This porosity results in interesting properties including the ability to use these channels to fill the microballons with special absorbents and other materials, thus providing a contained environment even for reactive species. Gases can now enter the microspheres and be retained on the absorbents, resulting in solid-state and contained storage of even reactive species. Also, the porosity can be altered and controlled in various ways, and even used to filter mixed gas streams within a system. SRNL is involved in about a half dozen different programs involving these PW-HGMs and an overview of some of these activities and results emerging are presented.

  18. The quantum Biroli-Mézard model: glass transition and superfluidity in a quantum lattice glass model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laura Foini; Guilhem Semerjian; Francesco Zamponi

    2011-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the quantum version of a lattice model whose classical counterpart captures the physics of structural glasses. We discuss the role of quantum fluctuations in such systems and in particular their interplay with the amorphous order developed in the glass phase. We show that quantum fluctuations might facilitate the formation of the glass at low enough temperature. We also show that the glass transition becomes a first-order transition between a superfluid and an insulating glass at very low temperature, and is therefore accompanied by phase coexistence between superfluid and glassy regions.

  19. Method for heating and forming a glass sheet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boaz, Premakaran Tucker (Livonia, MI)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for heating and forming a glass sheet includes the steps of heating a glass sheet to at least a first predetermined temperature, applying microwave energy to the glass sheet to heat the glass sheet to at least a second predetermined temperature, cooling an outer surface of the glass sheet to at least a third predetermined temperature and forming the glass sheet using forming rollers to a predetermined configuration.

  20. Direct conversion of halogen-containing wastes to borosilicate glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.; Rudolph, J.C.

    1996-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Glass has become a preferred waste form worldwide for radioactive wastes: however, there are limitations. Halogen-containing wastes can not be converted to glass because halogens form poor-quality waste glasses. Furthermore, halides in glass melters often form second phases that create operating problems. A new waste vitrification process, the Glass Material Oxidation and dissolution System (GMODS), removes these limitations by converting halogen-containing wastes into borosilicate glass and a secondary, clean, sodium-halide stream.

  1. Viscous Glass Sealants for SOFC Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Misture

    2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Two series of silicate glasses that contain gallium as the primary critical component have been identified and optimized for viscous sealing of solid oxide fuel cells operating from 650 to 850°C. Both series of glass sealants crystallize partially upon heat treatment and yield multiphase microstructures that allow viscous flow at temperatures as low as 650°C. A fully amorphous sealant was also developed by isolating, synthesizing and testing a silicate glass of the same composition as the remnant glassy phase in one of the two glass series. Of ~40 glasses tested for longer than 500 hours, a set of 5 glasses has been further tested for up to 1000h in air, wet hydrogen, and against both yttria-stabilized zirconia and aluminized stainless steel. In some cases the testing times reached 2000h. The reactivity testing has provided new insight into the effects of Y, Zr, and Al on bulk and surface crystallization in boro-gallio-silicate glasses, and demonstrated that at least 5 of the newly-developed glasses are viable viscous sealants.

  2. Monitoring and analyzing waste glass compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schumacher, Ray F. (Aiken, SC)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A device and method for determining the viscosity of a fluid, preferably molten glass. The apparatus and method uses the velocity of rising bubbles, preferably helium bubbles, within the molten glass to determine the viscosity of the molten glass. The bubbles are released from a tube positioned below the surface of the molten glass so that the bubbles pass successively between two sets of electrodes, one above the other, that are continuously monitoring the conductivity of the molten glass. The measured conductivity will change as a bubble passes between the electrodes enabling an accurate determination of when a bubble has passed between the electrodes. The velocity of rising bubbles can be determined from the time interval between a change in conductivity of the first electrode pair and the second, upper electrode pair. The velocity of the rise of the bubbles in the glass melt is used in conjunction with other physical characteristics, obtained by known methods, to determine the viscosity of the glass melt fluid and, hence, glass quality.

  3. Radiation Induced Nanocrystal Formation in Metallic Glasses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carter, Jesse

    2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The irradiation of metallic glasses to induce nanocrystallization was studied in two metallic glass compositions, Cu50Zr45Ti5 and Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5. Atomic mobility was described using a model based on localized excess free volume due to displace...

  4. Monitoring and analyzing waste glass compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schumacher, R.F.

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A device and method are described for determining the viscosity of a fluid, preferably molten glass. The apparatus and method use the velocity of rising bubbles, preferably helium bubbles, within the molten glass to determine the viscosity of the molten glass. The bubbles are released from a tube positioned below the surface of the molten glass so that the bubbles pass successively between two sets of electrodes, one above the other, that are continuously monitoring the conductivity of the molten glass. The measured conductivity will change as a bubble passes between the electrodes enabling an accurate determination of when a bubble has passed between the electrodes. The velocity of rising bubbles can be determined from the time interval between a change in conductivity of the first electrode pair and the second, upper electrode pair. The velocity of the rise of the bubbles in the glass melt is used in conjunction with other physical characteristics, obtained by known methods, to determine the viscosity of the glass melt fluid and, hence, glass quality. 2 figures.

  5. Sealing glasses for titanium and titanium alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brow, Richard K. (Albuquerque, NM); Watkins, Randall D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Glass compositions containing CaO, Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, B.sub.2 O.sub.3, SrO and BaO of various combinations of mole % are provided. These compositions are capable of forming stable glass-to-metal seals with titanium and titanium alloys, for use in components such as seals for battery headers.

  6. Sealing glasses for titanium and titanium alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brow, R.K.; Watkins, R.D.

    1988-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Glass compositions containing CaO, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, B/sub 2/O/sub 3/, SrO and BaO of various combinations of mole % are provided. These compositions are capable of forming stable glass-to-metal seals with titanium and titanium alloys, for use in components such as seals for battery headers.

  7. Eyeglass lens made of glass (radiopaque)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fig. 9-1 Eyeglass lens made of glass (radiopaque) and frame made of metal (radiopaque). #12;Fig. 9-2 Eyeglass lens made of glass (radiopaque) and frame made of plastic (radiolucent). #12;Fig. 9-3 Metal frame of eyeglasses (radiopaque). The eyeglass lens is made of plastic (radiolucent). #12;Fig. 9-4 Cotton roll

  8. Layered Cathode Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Layered Cathode Materials presented by Michael Thackeray Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne Annual Merit Review DOE Vehicle Technologies Program Washington, D.C....

  9. Impact Of Particle Agglomeration On Accumulation Rates In The Glass Discharge Riser Of HLW Melter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, A. A. [Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Richland, WA (United States); Rodriguez, C. A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Matyas, J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Owen, A. T. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Jansik, D. P. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Lang, J. B. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The major factor limiting waste loading in continuous high-level radioactive waste (HLW) melters is an accumulation of particles in the glass discharge riser during a frequent and periodic idling of more than 20 days. An excessive accumulation can produce robust layers a few centimeters thick, which may clog the riser, preventing molten glass from being poured into canisters. Since the accumulation rate is driven by the size of particles we investigated with x-ray microtomography, scanning electron microscopy, and image analysis the impact of spinel forming components, noble metals, and alumina on the size, concentration, and spatial distribution of particles, and on the accumulation rate. Increased concentrations of Fe and Ni in the baseline glass resulted in the formation of large agglomerates that grew over the time to an average size of ~185+-155 {mu}m, and produced >3 mm thick layer after 120 h at 850 deg C. The noble metals decreased the particle size, and therefore significantly slowed down the accumulation rate. Addition of alumina resulted in the formation of a network of spinel dendrites which prevented accumulation of particles into compact layers.

  10. California: Energy-Efficient Glass Saves Energy Costs, Increases...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy-Efficient Glass Saves Energy Costs, Increases Personal Comfort California: Energy-Efficient Glass Saves Energy Costs, Increases Personal Comfort April 18, 2013 - 12:00am...

  11. Time-Domain Electromagnetics At Glass Mountain Area (Cumming...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Time-Domain Electromagnetics At Glass Mountain Area (Cumming And Mackie, 2007) Exploration Activity Details Location Glass...

  12. Glass-like thermal conductivity in high efficiency thermoelectric...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Glass-like thermal conductivity in high efficiency thermoelectric materials Glass-like thermal conductivity in high efficiency thermoelectric materials Discusses strategies to...

  13. Modeling Interfacial Glass-Water Reactions: Recent Advances and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Modeling Interfacial Glass-Water Reactions: Recent Advances and Current Limitations. Modeling Interfacial Glass-Water Reactions: Recent Advances and Current Limitations. Abstract:...

  14. Metal and Glass Manufacturers Reduce Costs by Increasing Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Metal and Glass Manufacturers Reduce Costs by Increasing Energy Efficiency in Process Heating Systems Metal and Glass Manufacturers Reduce Costs by Increasing Energy Efficiency in...

  15. China Glass Solar aka CG Solar formerly Weihai Bluestar Terra...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    China Glass Solar aka CG Solar formerly Weihai Bluestar Terra Photovoltaic Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: China Glass Solar (aka CG Solar, formerly Weihai Bluestar Terra...

  16. aluminum hlw glasses: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    applications. - Int. J. Solids & Struct. 49 and Motivation Components of Thin Film Solar Modules back sheet or glass encapsulant electrical conductor thin 122 Glass Forming...

  17. andesitic glass comparison: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    applications. - Int. J. Solids & Struct. 49 and Motivation Components of Thin Film Solar Modules back sheet or glass encapsulant electrical conductor thin 59 Glass Forming...

  18. ajakirja stained glass: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    applications. - Int. J. Solids & Struct. 49 and Motivation Components of Thin Film Solar Modules back sheet or glass encapsulant electrical conductor thin 122 Glass Forming...

  19. Gaseous Sulfate Solubility in Glass: Experimental Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bliss, Mary

    2013-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Sulfate solubility in glass is a key parameter in many commercial glasses and nuclear waste glasses. This report summarizes key publications specific to sulfate solubility experimental methods and the underlying physical chemistry calculations. The published methods and experimental data are used to verify the calculations in this report and are expanded to a range of current technical interest. The calculations and experimental methods described in this report will guide several experiments on sulfate solubility and saturation for the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Enhanced Waste Glass Models effort. There are several tables of sulfate gas equilibrium values at high temperature to guide experimental gas mixing and to achieve desired SO3 levels. This report also describes the necessary equipment and best practices to perform sulfate saturation experiments for molten glasses. Results and findings will be published when experimental work is finished and this report is validated from the data obtained.

  20. Titanium sealing glasses and seals formed therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brow, Richard K. (Albuquerque, NM); McCollister, Howard L. (Albuquerque, NM); Phifer, Carol C. (Albuquerque, NM); Day, Delbert E. (Rolla, MO)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Alkaline-earth lanthanoborate sealing-glass compositions containing CaO, La.sub.2 O.sub.3, B.sub.2 O.sub.3, TiO.sub.2 and Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 in various combinations of mole-% are provided. These sealing-glass compositions are useful for forming hermetic glass-to-metal seals with titanium and titanium alloys that have a high aqueous durability for component or device applications requiring exposure to moisture, water or body fluids. Particular applications of the titanium sealing-glass compositions include forming glass-to-metal seals for lithium batteries and implanted biomedical devices (e.g. batteries, pacemakers, defibrillators, pumps).

  1. A consortium approach to glass furnace modeling.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, S.-L.; Golchert, B.; Petrick, M.

    1999-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Using computational fluid dynamics to model a glass furnace is a difficult task for any one glass company, laboratory, or university to accomplish. The task of building a computational model of the furnace requires knowledge and experience in modeling two dissimilar regimes (the combustion space and the liquid glass bath), along with the skill necessary to couple these two regimes. Also, a detailed set of experimental data is needed in order to evaluate the output of the code to ensure that the code is providing proper results. Since all these diverse skills are not present in any one research institution, a consortium was formed between Argonne National Laboratory, Purdue University, Mississippi State University, and five glass companies in order to marshal these skills into one three-year program. The objective of this program is to develop a fully coupled, validated simulation of a glass melting furnace that may be used by industry to optimize the performance of existing furnaces.

  2. Glass heat pipe evacuated tube solar collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McConnell, Robert D. (Lakewood, CO); Vansant, James H. (Tracy, CA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A glass heat pipe is adapted for use as a solar energy absorber in an evacuated tube solar collector and for transferring the absorbed solar energy to a working fluid medium or heat sink for storage or practical use. A capillary wick is formed of granular glass particles fused together by heat on the inside surface of the heat pipe with a water glass binder solution to enhance capillary drive distribution of the thermal transfer fluid in the heat pipe throughout the entire inside surface of the evaporator portion of the heat pipe. Selective coatings are used on the heat pipe surface to maximize solar absorption and minimize energy radiation, and the glass wick can alternatively be fabricated with granular particles of black glass or obsidian.

  3. Titanium sealing glasses and seals formed therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brow, R.K.; McCollister, H.L.; Phifer, C.C.; Day, D.E.

    1997-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Alkaline-earth lanthanoborate sealing-glass compositions containing CaO, La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, TiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in various combinations of mole-% are provided. These sealing-glass compositions are useful for forming hermetic glass-to-metal seals with titanium and titanium alloys that have a high aqueous durability for component or device applications requiring exposure to moisture, water or body fluids. Particular applications of the titanium sealing-glass compositions include forming glass-to-metal seals for lithium batteries and implanted biomedical devices (e.g. batteries, pacemakers, defibrillators, pumps). 2 figs.

  4. Heat capacity at the glass transition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kostya Trachenko; Vadim Brazhkin

    2010-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A fundamental problem of glass transition is to explain the jump of heat capacity at the glass transition temperature $T_g$ without asserting the existence of a distinct solid glass phase. This problem is also common to other disordered systems, including spin glasses. We propose that if $T_g$ is defined as the temperature at which the liquid stops relaxing at the experimental time scale, the jump of heat capacity at $T_g$ follows as a necessary consequence due to the change of system's elastic, vibrational and thermal properties. In this picture, we discuss time-dependent effects of glass transition, and identify three distinct regimes of relaxation. Our approach explains widely observed logarithmic increase of $T_g$ with the quench rate and the correlation of heat capacity jump with liquid fragility.

  5. Development of Advanced CdTe Solar Cells Based on High Temperature Corning Glass Substrates: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-10-373

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, T.

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NREL has developed advanced processes for CdTe solar cells, but because of the temperature limitations of conventional soda lime glass, many of these processes have not been transferred to manufacturing. Corning is developing high temperature substrate glasses that are believed to be manufacturable and will lead to lower $/watt modules costs. The purpose of this CRADA is to evaluate these glasses in the advanced NREL processes. In addition, the CRADA seeks to develop manufacturable processes for transparent conductive oxide layers based on cadmium stannate.

  6. Analysis of the Younger Dryas Impact Layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Firestone, Richard B.; West, Allen; Revay, Zsolt; Hagstrum, Jonathon T,; Belgya, Thomas; Hee, Shane S. Que; Smith, Alan R.

    2010-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We have uncovered a thin layer of magnetic grains and microspherules, carbon spherules, and glass-like carbon at nine sites across North America, a site in Belgium, and throughout the rims of 16 Carolina Bays. It is consistent with the ejecta layer from an impact event and has been dated to 12.9 ka BP coinciding with the onset of Younger Dryas (YD) cooling and widespread megafaunal extinctions in North America. At many locations the impact layer is directly below a black mat marking the sudden disappearance of the megafauna and Clovis people. The distribution pattern of the Younger Dryas boundary (YDB) ejecta layer is consistent with an impact near the Great Lakes that deposited terrestrial-like ejecta near the impact site and unusual, titanium-rich projectile-like ejecta further away. High water content associated with the ejecta, up to 28 at. percent hydrogen (H), suggests the impact occurred over the Laurentide Ice Sheet. YDB microspherules and magnetic grains are highly enriched in TiO{sub 2}. Magnetic grains from several sites are enriched in iridium (Ir), up to 117 ppb. The TiO{sub 2}/FeO, K/Th, TiO{sub 2}/Zr, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/FeO+MgO, CaO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, REE/ chondrite, FeO/MnO ratios and SiO{sub 2}, Na{sub 2}O, K{sub 2}O, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Ni, Co, U, Th and other trace element abundances are inconsistent with all terrestrial and extraterrestrial (ET) sources except for KREEP, a lunar igneous rock rich in potassium (K), rare-earth elements (REE), phosphorus (P), and other incompatible elements including U and Th. Normal Fe, Ti, and {sup 238}U/{sup 235}U isotopic abundances were found in the magnetic grains, but {sup 234}U was enriched over equilibrium values by 50 percent in Murray Springs and by 130 percent in Belgium. 40K abundance is enriched by up to 100 percent in YDB sediments and Clovis chert artifacts. Highly vesicular carbon spherules containing nanodiamonds, glass-like carbon, charcoal and soot found in large quantities in the YDB layer are consistent with an impact followed by intense burning. Four holes in the Great Lakes, some deeper than Death Valley, are proposed as possible craters produced by the airburst breakup of a loosely aggregated projectile.

  7. A Study on the time resolution of Glass RPC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Dash; V. M. Datar; G. Majumder

    2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The 50~kton Iron Calorimeter (ICAL) detector at the underground India based Neutrino Observatory (INO) will make measurements on atmospheric neutrinos. Muons produced in charged current (CC) interactions of muon neutrinos with the iron are tracked spatially and temporally through the signals that they produce in the Resistive Plate Chambers~(RPCs) that are interleaved with iron layers. Since the RPCs will be operated in the avalanche mode the signal rise-time is $\\sim~1~\\rm{nsec}$ resulting in a fast time response. While the muon track is derived from the X and Y hit information of the RPCs and the layer number (Z), the upward or downward direction is obtained by using the time information from the detector. Such a capability can be examined by analysing the timing information from $1~\\rm{m}~\\times~1~\\rm{m}$ glass RPCs, with $3~\\rm{cm}$ wide X- and Y- pick-up strips, in a $12$ layer RPC stack that measures cosmic muon events. The present study looks at the pixel-wise time response of these RPCs in order to improve the relative time distribution and hence the up-down discrimination capability. After including the effect of propagation delay in the cable and pick-up panel the time resolution improves, in some cases, to $\\leq~1~\\rm{nsec}$ whereas in some cases there is no significant change. These results will help in significantly improving on the extraction of the directionality of muons produced in CC interactions of $\

  8. ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION OF TITANIUM OXIDE THIN FILMS ONNANOPOROUS ALUMINA TEMPLATES FOR MEDICAL APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brigmon, R.

    2009-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanostructured materials may play a significant role in controlled release of pharmacologic agents for treatment of cancer. Many nanoporous polymer materials are inadequate for use in drug delivery. Nanoporous alumina provides several advantages over other materials for use in controlled drug delivery and other medical applications. Atomic layer deposition was used to coat all the surfaces of the nanoporous alumina membrane in order to reduce the pore size in a controlled manner. Both the 20 nm and 100 nm titanium oxide-coated nanoporous alumina membranes did not exhibit statistically lower viability compared to the uncoated nanoporous alumina membrane control materials. In addition, 20 nm pore size titanium oxide-coated nanoporous alumina membranes exposed to ultraviolet light demonstrated activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Nanostructured materials prepared using atomic layer deposition may be useful for delivering a pharmacologic agent at a precise rate to a specific location in the body. These materials may serve as the basis for 'smart' drug delivery devices, orthopedic implants, or self-sterilizing medical devices.

  9. Layering as Optimization Decomposition 3-1 Layering as OptimizationLayering as Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Xingzhe

    1 Layering as Optimization Decomposition 3-1 Layering as OptimizationLayering as Optimization DecompositionDecomposition Layering as Optimization Decomposition 3-2 CONTENTSCONTENTS Introduction (Marta;2 Layering as Optimization Decomposition 3-3 Layering as Optimization Decomposition Introduction By Marta

  10. Crystallization In High Level Waste (HLW) Glass Melters: Operational Experience From The Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K. M.

    2014-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    processing strategy for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The basis of this alternative approach is an empirical model predicting the crystal accumulation in the WTP glass discharge riser and melter bottom as a function of glass composition, time, and temperature. When coupled with an associated operating limit (e.g., the maximum tolerable thickness of an accumulated layer of crystals), this model could then be integrated into the process control algorithms to formulate crystal tolerant high level waste (HLW) glasses targeting higher waste loadings while still meeting process related limits and melter lifetime expectancies. This report provides a review of the scaled melter testing that was completed in support of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter. Testing with scaled melters provided the data to define the DWPF operating limits to avoid bulk (volume) crystallization in the un-agitated DWPF melter and provided the data to distinguish between spinels generated by K-3 refractory corrosion versus spinels that precipitated from the HLW glass melt pool. This report includes a review of the crystallization observed with the scaled melters and the full scale DWPF melters (DWPF Melter 1 and DWPF Melter 2). Examples of actual DWPF melter attainment with Melter 2 are given. The intent is to provide an overview of lessons learned, including some example data, that can be used to advance the development and implementation of an empirical model and operating limit for crystal accumulation for WTP. Operation of the first and second (current) DWPF melters has demonstrated that the strategy of using a liquidus temperature predictive model combined with a 100 °C offset from the normal melter operating temperature of 1150 °C (i.e., the predicted liquidus temperature (TL) of the glass must be 1050 °C or less) has been successful in preventing any detrimental accumulation of spinel in the DWPF melt pool, and spinel has not been observed in any of the pour stream glass samples. Spinel was observed at the bottom of DWPF Melter 1 as a result of K-3 refractory corrosion. Issues have occurred with accumulation of spinel in the pour spout during periods of operation at higher waste loadings. Given that both DWPF melters were or have been in operation for greater than 8 years, the service life of the melters has far exceeded design expectations. It is possible that the DWPF liquidus temperature approach is conservative, in that it may be possible to successfully operate the melter with a small degree of allowable crystallization in the glass. This could be a viable approach to increasing waste loading in the glass assuming that the crystals are suspended in the melt and swept out through the riser and pour spout. Additional study is needed, and development work for WTP might be leveraged to support a different operating limit for the DWPF. Several recommendations are made regarding considerations that need to be included as part of the WTP crystal tolerant strategy based on the DWPF development work and operational data reviewed here. These include: Identify and consider the impacts of potential heat sinks in the WTP melter and glass pouring system; Consider the contributions of refractory corrosion products, which may serve to nucleate additional crystals leading to further accumulation; Consider volatilization of components from the melt (e.g., boron, alkali, halides, etc.) and determine their impacts on glass crystallization behavior; Evaluate the impacts of glass REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) conditions and the distribution of temperature within the WTP melt pool and melter pour chamber on crystal accumulation rate; Consider the impact of precipitated crystals on glass viscosity; Consider the impact of an accumulated crystalline layer on thermal convection currents and bubbler effectiveness within the melt pool; Evaluate the impact of spinel accumulation on Joule heating of the WTP melt pool; and Include noble metals in glass melt experiments because of their potential to act as nucleation site

  11. Multiple density layered insulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alger, Terry W. (Tracy, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A multiple density layered insulator for use with a laser is disclosed wh provides at least two different insulation materials for a laser discharge tube, where the two insulation materials have different thermoconductivities. The multiple layer insulation materials provide for improved thermoconductivity capability for improved laser operation.

  12. Multiple density layered insulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alger, T.W.

    1994-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A multiple density layered insulator for use with a laser is disclosed which provides at least two different insulation materials for a laser discharge tube, where the two insulation materials have different thermoconductivities. The multiple layer insulation materials provide for improved thermoconductivity capability for improved laser operation. 4 figs.

  13. Solid oxide fuel cell having a glass composite seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De Rose, Anthony J.; Mukerjee, Subhasish; Haltiner, Jr., Karl Jacob

    2013-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid oxide fuel cell stack having a plurality of cassettes and a glass composite seal disposed between the sealing surfaces of adjacent cassettes, thereby joining the cassettes and providing a hermetic seal therebetween. The glass composite seal includes an alkaline earth aluminosilicate (AEAS) glass disposed about a viscous glass such that the AEAS glass retains the viscous glass in a predetermined position between the first and second sealing surfaces. The AEAS glass provides geometric stability to the glass composite seal to maintain the proper distance between the adjacent cassettes while the viscous glass provides for a compliant and self-healing seal. The glass composite seal may include fibers, powders, and/or beads of zirconium oxide, aluminum oxide, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), or mixtures thereof, to enhance the desirable properties of the glass composite seal.

  14. Glass for sealing lithium cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leedecke, C.J.

    1981-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Glass compositions resistant to corrosion by lithium cell electrolyte and having an expansion coefficient of 45 to 85 x 10/sup -70/C/sup -1/ have been made with SiO/sub 2/, 25 to 55% by weight; B/sub 2/O/sub 3/, 5 to 12%; Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, 12 to 35%; CaO, 5 to 15%; MgO, 5 to 15%; SrO, 0 to 10%; and La/sub 2/O/sub 3/, 0 to 5%. Preferred compositions within that range contain 3 to 8% SrO and 0.5 to 2.5% La/sub 2/O/sub 3/.

  15. Multiple layer insulation cover

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farrell, James J. (Livingston Manor, NY); Donohoe, Anthony J. (Ovid, NY)

    1981-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A multiple layer insulation cover for preventing heat loss in, for example, a greenhouse, is disclosed. The cover is comprised of spaced layers of thin foil covered fabric separated from each other by air spaces. The spacing is accomplished by the inflation of spaced air bladders which are integrally formed in the cover and to which the layers of the cover are secured. The bladders are inflated after the cover has been deployed in its intended use to separate the layers of the foil material. The sizes of the material layers are selected to compensate for sagging across the width of the cover so that the desired spacing is uniformly maintained when the cover has been deployed. The bladders are deflated as the cover is stored thereby expediting the storage process and reducing the amount of storage space required.

  16. The measurement of the shear modulus for polymer porous layer with two microphones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    to sound-absorbing materials, such as glass wool and plastic foams, for noise control applications without any mechanical excitation. Keywords : polymer foam; shear modulus; biot-johnson-allard theory impedance in normal incidence. The layered media is an impervious plate fixed on thin acoustic foam backed

  17. GEM-type detectors using LIGA and etchable glass technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahn, S.K.; Kim, J.G.; Perez-Mendez, V.; Chang, S.; Jackson, K.H.; Kadyk, J.A.; Wenzel, W.A.; Cho, G.

    2001-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas electron multipliers (GEMS) have been made by a deep X-ray lithography technique (LIGA process) using synchrotron radiation on polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and by UV processes using a UV etchable glass. Gain, stability and rate capability for these detectors are described.The LIGA detectors described consist of PMMA sheets of various thicknesses, 125mm to 350mm, and have 150mm x 150mm square holes spaced with a pitch of 300mm. Thin copper electrodes are plated on the top and bottom surfaces using a Damascene method, followed by electroless plating of the copper onto a palladium-tin base layer. For various thicknesses of PMMA measurements have been made of absolute gain vs. voltage, time stability of gain, and rate capability. The operating gas mixture was usually Ar/CO2 (70/30) gas, but some tests were also done using P10 gas. We also made GEM-like detectors using the UV etchable glass called Foturan, patterned by exposure to UV light and subsequent etching. A few measurements using these detectors will be reported, including avalanche gain and time stability.

  18. Dissolution and growth of spinel crystals in a borosilicate glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alton, Jesse (ASSOC WESTERN UNIVERSITY) [ASSOC WESTERN UNIVERSITY; Plaisted, Trevor J.(ASSOC WESTERN UNIVERSITY) [ASSOC WESTERN UNIVERSITY; Hrma, Pavel R.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)) [BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)

    2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The rate of dissolution and growth of settling crystals of spinel was measured optically in a borosilicate melt that was pre-heated at a temperature above liquidus to erase the effects of previous history. The Hixson-Crowell equation, which is based on Fick's first law, was used to determine mass-transfer coefficients (kH) for dissolution and growth; both were found to fit the same Arrhenius function of temperature (T). An attempt was made to estimate the diffusion coefficient (D) and the concentration-boundary-layer thickness (d). The calculated values of d compared well with experimental results and observations. The D vs. T function was similar to a literature function obtained for the dissolution of magnetite in sodium disilicate glass.

  19. HGMS: Glasses and Nanocomposites for Hydrogen Storage.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lipinska, Kris [PI] [PI; Hemmers, Oliver

    2013-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary goal of this project is to fabricate and investigate different glass systems and glass-derived nanocrystalline composite materials. These glass-based, two-phased materials will contain nanocrystals that can attract hydrogen and be of potential interest as hydrogen storage media. The glass materials with intrinsic void spaces that are able to precipitate functional nanocrystals capable to attract hydrogen are of particular interest. Proposed previously, but never practically implemented, one of promising concepts for storing hydrogen are micro-containers built of glass and shaped into hollow microspheres. The project expanded this concept to the exploration of glass-derived nanocrystalline composites as potential hydrogen storage media. It is known that the most desirable materials for hydrogen storage do not interact chemically with hydrogen and possess a high surface area to host substantial amounts of hydrogen. Glasses are built of disordered networks with ample void spaces that make them permeable to hydrogen even at room temperature. Glass-derived nanocrystalline composites (two-phased materials), combination of glasses (networks with ample voids) and functional nanocrystals (capable to attract hydrogen), appear to be promising candidates for hydrogen storage media. Key advantages of glass materials include simplicity of preparation, flexibility of composition, chemical durability, non-toxicity and mechanical strength, as well as low production costs and environmental friendliness. This project encompasses a fundamental research into physics and chemistry of glasses and nanocrystalline composite materials, derived from glass. Studies are aimed to answer questions essential for considering glass-based materials and composites as potential hydrogen storage media. Of particular interest are two-phased materials that combine glasses with intrinsic voids spaces for physisorption of hydrogen and nanocrystals capable of chemisorption. This project does not directly address any hydrogen storage technical barriers or targets in terms of numbers. Specifically, hydrogen sorption and desorption tests or kinetics measurements were not part of the project scope. However, the insights gained from these studies could help to answer fundamental questions necessary for considering glass-based materials as hydrogen storage media and could be applied indirectly towards the DOE hydrogen storage technical targets such as system weight and volume, system cost and energy density. Such questions are: Can specific macro-crystals, proven to attract hydrogen when in a macroscopic form (bulk), be nucleated in glass matrices as nanocrystals to create two-phased materials? What are suitable compositions that enable to synthetize glass-based, two-phase materials with nanocrystals that can attract hydrogen via surface or bulk interactions? What are the limits of controlling the microstructure of these materials, especially limits for nanocrystals density and size? Finally, from a technological point of view, the fabrication of glass-derived nanocomposites that we explore is a very simple, fast and inexpensive process that does not require costly or specialized equipment which is an important factor for practical applications.

  20. Glass ceramic-to-metal seals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1982-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A glass ceramic composition prepared by subjecting a glass composition comprising, by weight, 65 to 80% SiO/sub 2/, 8 to 16% Li/sub 2/O, 2 to 8% Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, 1 to 8% K/sub 2/O, 1 to 5% P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ and 1.5 to 7% B/sub 2/O/sub 3/, to the following processing steps of heating the glass composition to a temperature sufficient to crystallize lithium metasilicate therein, holding the glass composition at a temperature and for a time period sufficient to dissolve the lithium metasilicate therein thereby creating cristobalite nucleii, cooling the glass composition and maintaining the composition at a temperature and for a time period sufficient to recrystallize lithium metasilicate therein, and thermally treating the glass composition at a temperature and for a time period sufficient to caus growth of cristobalite and further crystallization of lithium metasilicate producing a glass ceramic composition having a specific thermal expansion coefficient and products containing said composition.

  1. Energy implications of glass-container recycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaines, L.L.; Mintz, M.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report addresses the question of whether glass-container recycling actually saves energy. Glass-container production in 1991 was 10{sup 7} tons, with cullet making up about 30% of the input to manufacture. Two-thirds of the cullet is postconsumer waste; the remainder is in-house scrap (rejects). Most of the glass recycled is made into new containers. Total primary energy consumption includes direct process-energy use by the industry (adjusted to account for the efficiency of fuel production) plus fuel and raw-material transportation and production energies; the grand total for 1991 is estimated to be about 168 {times} 10{sup 12} Btu. The total primary energy use decreases as the percent of glass recycled rises, but the maximum energy saved is only about 13%. If distance to the landfill is kept fixed and that to the recovery facility multiplied by about eight, to 100 mi, a break-even point is reached, and recycling saves no energy. Previous work has shown that to save energy when using glass bottles, reuse is the clear choice. Recycling of glass does not save much energy or valuable raw material and does not reduce air or water pollution significantly. The most important impacts are the small reduction of waste sent to the landfill and increased production rates at glass plants.

  2. THE EFFECT OF EXPERIMENTAL CONDITIONS AND EVALUATION TECHNIQUES ON THE ALTERATION OF LOW ACTIVITY GLASSES BY VAPOR HYDRATION.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiricka, Antonin (ASSOC WESTERN UNIVERSITY); Vienna, John D. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Hrma, Pavel R. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Strachan, Denis M. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The vapor hydration test (VHT) is used to study the reaction between different materials and water with the aim to gain insight into the alteration behavior of the materials in aqueous environments. In nuclear waste immobilization, the test is primarily used as a screening tool to identify durable/non-durable glasses, and as a convenient method to generate and identify alteration products for use in performance modeling. The lack of a standard procedure for conducting this test resulted in a number of test methods, thus decreasing the ability to directly compare test results from different sources. In order to optimize the VHT procedure, a series of tests was conducted on simulated low-activity waste (LAW) glasses at temperatures ranging from 150?C to 300?C, with different volumes of water, specimen holders, specimen preparation techniques, and data-evaluation methods. Reaction progress was monitored by measuring the thicknesses of the remaining glass layer and the alteration layer . The apparent alteration rate at which glass is converted into the alteration products was determined from a linear portion of the alteration curve, plotted as a function of time. The resulting procedure for conducting VHT eliminates problems associated with the measurement of alteration layers and enables direct comparison of apparent alteration rates for different materials. Data obtained according to the developed procedure show a correlation with data found in literature.

  3. Silicon-on-glass pore network micromodels with oxygen-sensing fluorophore films for chemical imaging and defined spatial structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grate, Jay W.; Kelly, Ryan T.; Suter, Jonathan D.; Anheier, Norman C.

    2012-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Pore network microfluidic models were fabricated by a silicon-on-glass technique that provides the precision advantage of dry etched silicon while creating a structure that is transparent across all microfluidic channels and pores, and can be imaged from either side. A silicon layer is bonded to an underlying borosilicate glass substrate and thinned to the desired height of the microfluidic channels and pores. The silicon is then patterned and through-etched by deep reactive ion etching (DRIE), with the underlying glass serving as an etch stop. After bonding on a transparent glass cover plate, one obtains a micromodel in oxygen impermeable materials with water wet surfaces where the microfluidic channels are transparent and structural elements such as the pillars creating the pore network are opaque. The micromodel can be imaged from either side. The advantageous features of this approach in a chemical imaging application are demonstrated by incorporating a Pt porphyrin fluorophore in a PDMS film serving as the oxygen sensing layer and a bonding surface, or in a polystyrene film coated with a PDMS layer for bonding. The sensing of a dissolved oxygen gradient was demonstrated using fluorescence lifetime imaging, and it is shown that different matrix polymers lead to optimal use in different ranges dissolved oxygen concentration. Imaging with the opaque pillars in between the observation direction and the continuous fluorophore film yields images that retain spatial information in the sensor image.

  4. Novel lead-iron phosphate glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boatner, L.A.; Sales, B.C.

    1989-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention described and claimed in the specification relates to the discovery that effective addition of Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3] to a lead phosphate glass results in a glass having enhanced chemical durability and physical stability, and consists essentially of the glass resulting from melting a mixture consisting essentially of, in weight percent, 40--66 percent PbO, 30--55 percent P[sub 2]O[sub 5] and an effective concentration up to 12 percent Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3].

  5. Rheology of spinel sludge in molten glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mika, M (.); Hrma, Pavel R. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Schweiger, M J. (.)

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spinel sludge, which forms while vitrifying high-level waste, obstructs the flow of molten glass and damages the melter. The effectiveness of removing spinel sludge from a high-level waste glass melter depends on its rheological behavior. We prepared spinel sludge in a laboratory crucible by allowing spinel to settle from molten glass and measured the response of the sludge to shear using a rotating spindle viscometer. The shear stress increased nonlinearly with the velocity gradient (the shear rate) and with time at a constant velocity gradient, as is typical for a pseudoplastic rheopectic liquid. The apparent viscosity of the sludge substantially increased when RuO-2 needles were present.

  6. Exploration and Modeling of Structural changes in Waste Glass Under Corrosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pantano, Carlos; Ryan, Joseph; Strachan, Denis

    2013-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Vitrification is currently the world-wide treatment of choice for the disposition of high-level nuclear wastes. In glasses, radionuclides are atomistically bonded into the solid, resulting in a highly durable product, with borosilicate glasses exhibiting particularly excellent durability in water. Considering that waste glass is designed to retain the radionuclides within the waste form for long periods, it is important to understand the long-term stability of these materials when they react in the environment, especially in the presence of water. Based on a number of previous studies, there is general consensus regarding the mechanisms controlling the initial rate of nuclear waste glass dissolution. Agreement regarding the cause of the observed decrease in dissolution rate at extended times, however, has been elusive. Two general models have been proposed to explain this behavior, and it has been concluded that both concepts are valid and must be taken into account when considering the decrease in dissolution rate. Furthermore, other processes such as water diffusion, ion exchange, and precipitation of mineral phases onto the glass surface may occur in parallel with dissolution of the glass and can influence long-term performance. Our proposed research will address these issues through a combination of aqueous-phase dissolution/reaction experiments and probing of the resulting surface layers with state-of-the-art analytical methods. These methods include solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (SSNMR) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). The resulting datasets will then be coupled with computational chemistry and reaction-rate modeling to address the most persistent uncertainties in the understanding of glass corrosion, which indeed have limited the performance of the best corrosion models to date. With an improved understanding of corrosion mechanisms, models can be developed and improved that, while still conservative, take advantage of the inherent durability of the waste form to enable secure repositories to be engineered with a much higher density of waste disposition. We propose the synthesis, corrosion, and characterization of two sets of glass samples— containing approximately 8 single-component oxides each—as models for corrosion studies of more complicated glass systems (which can contain in excess of 25 single-component ingredients). Powdered samples and millimeter- sized coupons of these simpler glasses will be corroded in solutions that begin at circumneutral pH, but are known to increase in alkalinity as corrosion proceeds and saturation in silica species is approached. Through carefully selected isotopic substitutions with nuclides that are readily detected with SSNMR and TOF-SIMS methods, we will be able to follow the diffusion of atoms into and out of the reacted surface layers of these glasses and provide new data for testing with existing reaction models. The models can then be further extended or updated to take our new data into account, allowing the existing long-term glass corrosion models to more accurately reflect the extraordinary durability of these systems. With improved models, a significant opportunity exists to better utilize the storage volume of any geologic repository.

  7. ROAD MAP FOR DEVELOPMENT OF CRYSTAL-TOLERANT HIGH LEVEL WASTE GLASSES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K.; Peeler, D.; Herman, C.

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is building a Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at the Hanford Site in Washington to remediate 55 million gallons of radioactive waste that is being temporarily stored in 177 underground tanks. Efforts are being made to increase the loading of Hanford tank wastes in glass while meeting melter lifetime expectancies and process, regulatory, and product quality requirements. This road map guides the research and development for formulation and processing of crystaltolerant glasses, identifying near- and long-term activities that need to be completed over the period from 2014 to 2019. The primary objective is to maximize waste loading for Hanford waste glasses without jeopardizing melter operation by crystal accumulation in the melter or melter discharge riser. The potential applicability to the Savannah River Site (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will also be addressed in this road map. The planned research described in this road map is motivated by the potential for substantial economic benefits (significant reductions in glass volumes) that will be realized if the current constraints (T1% for WTP and TL for DWPF) are approached in an appropriate and technically defensible manner for defense waste and current melter designs. The basis of this alternative approach is an empirical model predicting the crystal accumulation in the WTP glass discharge riser and melter bottom as a function of glass composition, time, and temperature. When coupled with an associated operating limit (e.g., the maximum tolerable thickness of an accumulated layer of crystals), this model could then be integrated into the process control algorithms to formulate crystal-tolerant high-level waste (HLW) glasses targeting high waste loadings while still meeting process related limits and melter lifetime expectancies. The modeling effort will be an iterative process, where model form and a broader range of conditions, e.g., glass composition and temperature, will evolve as additional data on crystal accumulation are gathered. Model validation steps will be included to guide the development process and ensure the value of the effort (i.e., increased waste loading and waste throughput). A summary of the stages of the road map for developing the crystal-tolerant glass approach, their estimated durations, and deliverables is provided.

  8. Compliant layer chucking surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blaedel, Kenneth L. (Dublin, CA); Spence, Paul A. (Pleasanton, CA); Thompson, Samuel L. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2004-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are described wherein a thin layer of complaint material is deposited on the surface of a chuck to mitigate the deformation that an entrapped particle might cause in the part, such as a mask or a wafer, that is clamped to the chuck. The harder particle will embed into the softer layer as the clamping pressure is applied. The material composing the thin layer could be a metal or a polymer for vacuum or electrostatic chucks. It may be deposited in various patterns to affect an interrupted surface, such as that of a "pin" chuck, thereby reducing the probability of entrapping a particle.

  9. Glass/polymer composites and methods of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Samuels, W. D. (Richland, WA); Exarhos, Gregory J. (Richland, WA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to new glass/polymer composites and methods for making them. More specifically, the invention is glass/polymer composites having phases that are at the molecular level and thereby practicably indistinguishable. The invention further discloses making molecular phase glass/polymer composites by mixing a glass and a polymer in a compatible solvent.

  10. Non-photorealistic Rendering of Images as Evolutionary Stained Glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ashlock, Dan

    Non-photorealistic Rendering of Images as Evolutionary Stained Glass Daniel Ashlock Mathematics glass. A collection of points that are the centers of weighted Voronoi tilings are evolved to minimize. A fractal model of stained glass is then run to create a stained glass texture with a similar average color

  11. Finding Glass Kenton McHenry, Jean Ponce

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forsyth, David

    Finding Glass Kenton McHenry, Jean Ponce Beckman Institute University of Illinois Urbana, IL 61801. This paper addresses the problem of finding glass ob- jects in images. Visual cues obtained by combining with the strong highlights typical of glass surfaces are used to train a hierarchy of classifiers, identify glass

  12. Film Formation Mechanism in Glass Lubrication by Polymer Latex Dispersions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    coatings by tin dioxide resulting in glass bottle lubrication was investigated on flat glass. The anchoring contacts between glass bottles on production lines and transport affect both their mechanical strength and visual aspect. To improve their scratch resistance and prevent surface damage, glass bottles

  13. Materials Science and Engineering A, 2006. 427(1-2): p. 331-342 331 Comparison of Compressive Properties of Layered Syntactic Foams having Gradient in Microballoon Volume Fraction and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Nikhil

    ]. The microstructure of syntactic foams is shown in Figure 1, where glass microballoons are dispersed in an epoxy resin foam. Glass microballoons are embedded in an epoxy resin matrix. Figure 2. Compressive stress Properties of Layered Syntactic Foams having Gradient in Microballoon Volume Fraction and Wall Thickness

  14. Spectroscopic investigation of simulated low-level nuclear waste glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rong, Chaoying; Li, Hong; Hrma, P.R.; Cho, H.M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Borosilicate glasses with high sodium concentrations, formulated to simulate vitrified Hanford low-level wastes (LLW), were investigated by {sup 31}P magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Phase separation, glass homogeneity changes during remelting, and the form of phosphate in glass following product consistency tests (PCT) were also examined by NMR. The results show that a distinct orthophosphate phase not part of the glass network is present in the glass. The effect of glass composition on phosphate chemical environments in the glass is discussed.

  15. Sol-gel deposited electrochromic films for electrochromic smart window glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oezer, N. [Istanbul Univ. (Turkey). Faculty of Science; Lampert, C.M. [Star Science (United States); Rubin, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Div.

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrochromic windows offer the ability to dynamically change the transmittance of a glazing. With the appropriate sensor and controls, this smart window can be used for energy regulation and glare control for a variety of glazing applications. The most promising are building and automotive applications. This work covers the use of sol-gel deposition processes to make active films for these windows. The sol-gel process offers a low-capital investment for the deposition of these active films. Sol-gel serves as an alternative to more expensive vacuum deposition processes. The sol-gel process utilizes solution coating followed by a hydrolysis and condensation. In this investigation the authors report on tungsten oxide and nickel oxide films made by the sol-gel process for electrochromic windows. The properties of the sol-gel films compare favorably to those of films made by other techniques. A typical laminated electrochromic window consists of two glass sheets coated with transparent conductors, which are coated with the active films. The two sheets are laminated together with an ionically conductive polymer. The range of visible transmission modulation of the tungsten oxide was 60% and for the nickel oxide was 20%. The authors used the device configuration of glass/SnO{sub 2}:F/W0{sub 3}/polymer/Li{sub Z}NiO{sub x}H{sub y}/SnO{sub 2}:F glass to test the films. The nickel oxide layer had a low level of lithiation and possibly contained a small amount of water. Lithiated oxymethylene-linked poly(ethylene oxide) was used as the laminating polymer. Commercially available SnO{sub 2}:F/glass (LOF-Tec glass) was used as the transparent conducting glass. The authors found reasonable device switching characteristics which could be used for devices.

  16. Demonstration of chalcogenide glass racetrack microresonators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kimerling, Lionel C.

    We have demonstrated what we believe to be the first chalcogenide glass racetrack microresonator using a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor-compatible lift-off technique with thermally evaporated As[subscript 2]S[subscript ...

  17. Energy Assessment Protocol for Glass Furnaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plodinec, M. J.; Kauffman, B. M.; Norton, O. P.; Richards, C.; Connors, J.; Wishnick, D.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy funded development of a methodology that could be used by glass producers to increase furnace efficiency, and that could serve as a model for other energy-intensive industries. Accordingly, a team comprising PPG Industries...

  18. Elimination of Glass Artifacts and Object Segmentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katyal, Vini; Srivastava, Deepesh

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many images nowadays are captured from behind the glasses and may have certain stains discrepancy because of glass and must be processed to make differentiation between the glass and objects behind it. This research paper proposes an algorithm to remove the damaged or corrupted part of the image and make it consistent with other part of the image and to segment objects behind the glass. The damaged part is removed using total variation inpainting method and segmentation is done using kmeans clustering, anisotropic diffusion and watershed transformation. The final output is obtained by interpolation. This algorithm can be useful to applications in which some part of the images are corrupted due to data transmission or needs to segment objects from an image for further processing.

  19. Glass bead micromodel study of solute transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fedirchuk, Paula Diane

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study presents the quantification of glass bead micromodel experiments through a combination of computational modeling and experimental analysis. The computational model simulates two-dimensional solute flow through porous media using a finite...

  20. Tiny Glass Bubbles With Big Potential

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    If these glass microspheres' walls could talk…They would explain how their tiny pores allow the potential for handling, storing and transporting a variety of materials, including drugs that have...

  1. Measurement of DWPF glass viscosity - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harbour, J.R.

    2000-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This report details the results of a scoping study funded by the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for the measurement of melt viscosities for simulated glasses representative of Macrobatch 2 (Tank 42/51 feed).

  2. Preparation of fullerene/glass composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mattes, B.R.; McBranch, D.W.; Robinson, J.M.; Koskelo, A.C.; Love, S.P.

    1995-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Synthesis of fullerene/glass composites is described. A direct method for preparing solid solutions of C{sub 60} in silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}) glass matrices by means of sol-gel chemistry is described. In order to produce highly concentrated fullerene-sol-gel-composites it is necessary to increase the solubility of these ``guests`` in a delivery solvent which is compatible with the starter sol (receiving solvent). Sonication results in aggregate disruption by treatment with high frequency sound waves, thereby accelerating the rate of hydrolysis of the alkoxide precursor, and the solution process for the C{sub 60}. Depending upon the preparative procedure, C{sub 60} dispersed within the glass matrix as microcrystalline domains, or dispersed as true molecular solutions of C{sub 60} in a solid glass matrix, is generated by the present method.

  3. Preparation of fullerene/glass composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mattes, Benjamin R. (Santa Fe, NM); McBranch, Duncan W. (Santa Fe, NM); Robinson, Jeanne M. (Los Alamos, NM); Koskelo, Aaron C. (Los Alamos, NM); Love, Steven P. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Synthesis of fullerene/glass composites. A direct method for preparing solid solutions of C.sub.60 in silicon dioxide (SiO.sub.2) glass matrices by means of sol-gel chemistry is described. In order to produce highly concentrated fullerene-sol-gel-composites it is necessary to increase the solubility of these "guests" in a delivery solvent which is compatible with the starter sol (receiving solvent). Sonication results in aggregate disruption by treatment with high frequency sound waves, thereby accelerating the rate of hydrolysis of the alkoxide precursor, and the solution process for the C.sub.60. Depending upon the preparative procedure, C.sub.60 dispersed within the glass matrix as microcrystalline domains, or dispersed as true molecular solutions of C.sub.60 in a solid glass matrix, is generated by the present method.

  4. Liquidus Temperature Data for DWPF Glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GF Piepel; JD Vienna; JV Crum; M Mika; P Hrma

    1999-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides new liquidus temperature (TL) versus composition data that can be used to reduce uncertainty in TL calculation for DWPF glass. According to the test plan and test matrix design PNNL has measured TL for 53 glasses within and just outside of the current DWPF processing composition window. The TL database generated under this task will directly support developing and enhancing the current TL process-control model. Preliminary calculations have shown a high probability of increasing HLW loading in glass produced at the SRS and Hanford. This increase in waste loading will decrease the lifecycle tank cleanup costs by decreasing process time and the volume of waste glass produced.

  5. Mechanism of sulfate segregation during glass melting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Vienna, John D.; Ricklefs, Joel S.

    2005-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Sulfate retention in glass during the vitrification process can be as low as 1/3 of the solubility limit, or can exceed the solubility limit if suspended in the glass in the form of droplets. This study is focused on the mechanism of incorporating and segregating sodium sulfate during the melting of an alkali-alumino-borosilicate glass batch. Batches were ramp heated at 4°C/min to temperatures ranging from 600°C to 1050°C and fractured for examination. Observation of the melts showed that as the batch temperature increases and the primary oxo-anionic, predominantly nitrate melt decomposes, the sulfate residue accumulates inside gas bubbles and is transported in them to the melt surface, where it remains segregated. The degree of sulfate incorporation into the final glass depends on the relative rates of sulfate dissolution in the borosilicate melt and sulfate lifting inside bubbles.

  6. Free energy of sheared colloidal glasses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. T. Dang; V. Chikkadi; R. Zargar; D. M. Miedema; D. Bonn; A. Zaccone; P. Schall

    2015-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We develop a free energy framework to describe the response of glasses to applied stress. Unlike crystals, for which the free energy increases quadratically with strain due to affine displacements, for glasses, the nonequilibrium free energy decreases due to complex interplay of non-affine displacements and dissipation. We measure this free energy directly in strained colloidal glasses, and use mean-field theory to relate it to affine and nonaffine displacements. Nonaffine displacements grow with applied shear due to shear-induced loss of structural connectivity. Our mean-field model allows for the first time to disentangle the complex contributions of affine and nonaffine displacements and dissipation in the transient deformation of glasses.

  7. Layered Spinach Salad Ingredients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    cucumbers 2 tomatoes 1/2 cup low-fat mayonnaise 1/2 cup parmesan cheese, grated 1/4 cup milk 1 1/2 teaspoons size pieces, layer on bottom of a large bowl. 2. Rinse mushrooms off under cool water and use a soft half. Layer on top of vegetables. 6. To make salad dressing, add mayonnaise, cheese, milk, dill weed

  8. Structured luminescence conversion layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berben, Dirk; Antoniadis, Homer; Jermann, Frank; Krummacher, Benjamin Claus; Von Malm, Norwin; Zachau, Martin

    2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus device such as a light source is disclosed which has an OLED device and a structured luminescence conversion layer deposited on the substrate or transparent electrode of said OLED device and on the exterior of said OLED device. The structured luminescence conversion layer contains regions such as color-changing and non-color-changing regions with particular shapes arranged in a particular pattern.

  9. 218 Glass Technology Vol. 44 No. 6 December 2003 www.sgt.org Glass Technol., 2003, 44 (6), 21824

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheffield, University of

    218 Glass Technology Vol. 44 No. 6 December 2003 www.sgt.org Glass Technol., 2003, 44 (6), 218 re- actions in a mixture of waste and powder metal fuel (PMF) to form a glass-like material without into durable glass-like waste forms. Since they do not require complex equip- ment or energy supplies, self

  10. Equivalence of Glass Transition and Colloidal Glass Transition in the Hard-Sphere Limit Thomas K. Haxton,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weeks, Eric R.

    Equivalence of Glass Transition and Colloidal Glass Transition in the Hard-Sphere Limit Ning Xu,1 that the slowing of the dynamics in simulations of several model glass-forming liquids is equivalent to the hard-sphere glass transition in the low-pressure limit. In this limit, we find universal behavior of the relaxation

  11. ICG 2000 Amsterdam Glass in the new Millennium Absorption Spectra of Iron and Water in Silicate Glasses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glebov, Leon

    ICG 2000 Amsterdam ­ Glass in the new Millennium Absorption Spectra of Iron and Water in Silicate of the absorption spectrum of silicate glasses and determination of absolute concentrations of ferric, ferrous of silicate glass. 2. Experimental The same glass samples were used in this work as were described in [3, 4

  12. High expansion, lithium corrosion resistant sealing glasses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brow, Richard K. (Albuquerque, NM); Watkins, Randall D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Glass compositions containing CaO, Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, B.sub.2 O.sub.3, SrO and BaO in various combinations of mole % are provided. These compositions are capable of forming stable glass-to-metal seals with pin materials of 446 Stainless Steel and Alloy-52 rather than molybdenum, for use in harsh chemical environments, specifically in lithium batteries.

  13. The dynamic response of heated glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sewall, Roy Edward

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    rates of strain. This research was prompted, in part, by NASA studies on ductile-type craters in glassy lunar rocks. The dynamic response of Apollo spacecraft windows, made of fused silica, also led to this research. The investigation consists... Response of Heated Glass. (December 1972) Roy Edward Sewall, B. S. , Texas AS? University Directed by: Dr. James L. Rand The purpose of this research is to investigate the dynamic behavior of fused silica glass subjected to high temperatures and high...

  14. THE COLOUR GLASS CONDENSATE: AN INTRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    IANCU,E.; LEONIDOV,A.; MCLERRAN,L.

    2001-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    In these lectures, the authors develop the theory of the Colour Glass Condensate. This is the matter made of gluons in the high density environment characteristic of deep inelastic scattering or hadron-hadron collisions at very high energy. The lectures are self contained and comprehensive. They start with a phenomenological introduction, develop the theory of classical gluon fields appropriate for the Colour Glass, and end with a derivation and discussion of the renormalization group equations which determine this effective theory.

  15. High expansion, lithium corrosion resistant sealing glasses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brow, R.K.; Watkins, R.D.

    1991-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Glass compositions containing CaO, Al[sub 2]O[sub 3], B[sub 2]O[sub 3], SrO and BaO in various combinations of mole % are provided. These compositions are capable of forming stable glass-to-metal seals with pin materials of 446 Stainless Steel and Alloy-52 rather than molybdenum, for use in harsh chemical environments, specifically in lithium batteries.

  16. Sealed glass coating of high temperature ceramic superconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Weite (Tainan, TW); Chu, Cha Y. (Garnerville, NY); Goretta, Kenneth C. (Downers Grove, IL); Routbort, Jules L. (Darien, IL)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and article of manufacture of a lead oxide based glass coating on a high temperature superconductor. The method includes preparing a dispersion of glass powders in a solution, applying the dispersion to the superconductor, drying the dispersion before applying another coating and heating the glass powder dispersion at temperatures below oxygen diffusion onset and above the glass melting point to form a continuous glass coating on the superconductor to establish compressive stresses which enhance the fracture strength of the superconductor.

  17. Glass produced by underground nuclear explosions. [Rainier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, L.; Piwinskii, A.; Ryerson, F.; Tewes, H.; Beiriger, W.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Detonation of an underground nuclear explosive produces a strong shock wave which propagates spherically outward, vaporizing the explosive and nearby rock and melting, the surrounding rock. The vaporized material expands adiabatically, forming a cavity. As the energy is dissipated during the cavity formation process, the explosive and rock debris condense and mix with the melted rock. The melt flows to the bottom of the cavity where it is quenched by fractured rock fragments falling from above as the cavity collapses. Measurements indicate that about 740 tonnes of rock and/or soil are melted for every kiloton (10/sup 12/ calories) of explosive energy, or about 25% of the explosive energy goes to melting rock. The resulting glass composition reflects the composition of the unaltered rock with explosive debris. The appearance ranges from white pumice to dense, dark lava. The bulk composition and color vary with the amount of explosive iron incorporated into the glass. The refractory explosion products are mixed with the solidified melt, although the degree of mixing is variable. Electron microprobe studies of glasses produced by Rainier in welded tuff have produced the following results: glasses are dehydrated relative to the host media, glasses are extremely heterogeneous on a 20 ..mu..m scale, a ubiquitous feature is the presence of dark marble-cake regions in the glass, which were locally enriched in iron and may be related to the debris, optically amorphous regions provide evidence of shock melting, only limited major element redistribution and homogenization occur within the cavity.

  18. High thermal expansion, sealing glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brow, Richard K. (Albuquerque, NM); Kovacic, Larry (Albuquerque, NM)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A glass composition for hermetically sealing to high thermal expansion materials such as aluminum alloys, stainless steels, copper, and copper/beryllium alloys, which includes between about 10 and about 25 mole percent Na.sub.2 O, between about 10 and about 25 mole percent K.sub.2 O, between about 5 and about 15 mole percent Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, between about 35 and about 50 mole percent P.sub.2 O.sub.5 and between about 5 and about 15 mole percent of one of PbO, BaO, and mixtures thereof. The composition, which may also include between 0 and about 5 mole percent Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 and between 0 and about 10 mole percent B.sub.2 O.sub.3, has a thermal expansion coefficient in a range of between about 160 and 210.times.10-7/.degree.C. and a dissolution rate in a range of between about 2.times.10.sup.- 7 and 2.times.10.sup.-9 g/cm.sup.2 -min. This composition is suitable to hermetically seal to metallic electrical components which will be subjected to humid environments over an extended period of time.

  19. High thermal expansion, sealing glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brow, R.K.; Kovacic, L.

    1993-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A glass composition is described for hermetically sealing to high thermal expansion materials such as aluminum alloys, stainless steels, copper, and copper/beryllium alloys, which includes between about 10 and about 25 mole percent Na[sub 2]O, between about 10 and about 25 mole percent K[sub 2]O, between about 5 and about 15 mole percent Al[sub 2]O[sub 3], between about 35 and about 50 mole percent P[sub 2]O[sub 5] and between about 5 and about 15 mole percent of one of PbO, BaO, and mixtures thereof. The composition, which may also include between 0 and about 5 mole percent Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3] and between 0 and about 10 mole percent B[sub 2]O[sub 3], has a thermal expansion coefficient in a range of between about 160 and 210[times]10[sup [minus]7]/C and a dissolution rate in a range of between about 2[times]10[sup [minus]7] and 2[times]10[sup [minus]9]g/cm[sup 2]-min. This composition is suitable to hermetically seal to metallic electrical components which will be subjected to humid environments over an extended period of time.

  20. Hysteretic Optimization For Spin Glasses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Goncalves; S. Boettcher

    2007-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The recently proposed Hysteretic Optimization (HO) procedure is applied to the 1D Ising spin chain with long range interactions. To study its effectiveness, the quality of ground state energies found as a function of the distance dependence exponent, $\\sigma$, is assessed. It is found that the transition from an infinite-range to a long-range interaction at $\\sigma=0.5$ is accompanied by a sharp decrease in the performance . The transition is signaled by a change in the scaling behavior of the average avalanche size observed during the hysteresis process. This indicates that HO requires the system to be infinite-range, with a high degree of interconnectivity between variables leading to large avalanches, in order to function properly. An analysis of the way auto-correlations evolve during the optimization procedure confirm that the search of phase space is less efficient, with the system becoming effectively stuck in suboptimal configurations much earlier. These observations explain the poor performance that HO obtained for the Edwards-Anderson spin glass on finite-dimensional lattices, and suggest that its usefulness might be limited in many combinatorial optimization problems.

  1. Natural glass analogues to alteration of nuclear waste glass: A review and recommendations for further study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKenzie, W.F.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to review previous work on the weathering of natural glasses; and to make recommendations for further work with respect to studying the alteration of natural glasses as it relates quantifying rates of dissolution. the first task was greatly simplified by the published papers of Jercinovic and Ewing (1987) and Byers, Jercinovic, and Ewing (1987). The second task is obviously the more difficult of the two and the author makes no claim of completeness in this regard. Glasses weather in the natural environment by reacting with aqueous solutions producing a rind of secondary solid phases. It had been proposed by some workers that the thickness of this rind is a function of the age of the glass and thus could be used to estimate glass dissolution rates. However, Jercinovic and Ewing (1987) point out that in general the rind thickness does not correlate with the age of the glass owing to the differences in time of contact with the solution compared to the actual age of the sample. It should be noted that the rate of glass dissolution is also a function of the composition of both the glass and the solution, and the temperature. Quantification of the effects of these parameters (as well as time of contact with the aqueous phase and flow rates) would thus permit a prediction of the consequences of glass-fluid interactions under varying environmental conditions. Defense high- level nuclear waste (DHLW), consisting primarily of liquid and sludge, will be encapsulated by and dispersed in a borosilicate glass before permanent storage in a HLW repository. This glass containing the DHLW serves to dilute the radionuclides and to retard their dispersion into the environment. 318 refs.

  2. Determination of heat conductivity and thermal diffusivity of waste glass melter feed: Extension to high temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, Jarrett A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pokorny, Richard [Inst. of Chemical Technology, Prague (Czech Republic); Schweiger, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hrma, Pavel R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pohang Univ. of Science and Technology (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The heat conductivity ({lambda}) and the thermal diffusivity (a) of reacting glass batch, or melter feed, control the heat flux into and within the cold cap, a layer of reacting material floating on the pool of molten glass in an all-electric continuous waste glass melter. After previously estimating {lambda} of melter feed at temperatures up to 680 deg C, we focus in this work on the {lambda}(T) function at T > 680 deg C, at which the feed material becomes foamy. We used a customized experimental setup consisting of a large cylindrical crucible with an assembly of thermocouples, which monitored the evolution of the temperature field while the crucible with feed was heated at a constant rate from room temperature up to 1100°C. Approximating measured temperature profiles by polynomial functions, we used the heat transfer equation to estimate the {lambda}(T) approximation function, which we subsequently optimized using the finite-volume method combined with least-squares analysis. The heat conductivity increased as the temperature increased until the feed began to expand into foam, at which point the conductivity dropped. It began to increase again as the foam turned into a bubble-free glass melt. We discuss the implications of this behavior for the mathematical modeling of the cold cap.

  3. Method of bonding silver to glass and mirrors produced according to this method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pitts, J.R.; Thomas, T.M.; Czanderna, A.W.

    1984-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for adhering silver to a glass substrate for producing mirrors includes attaining a silicon enriched substrate surface by reducing the oxygen therein in a vacuum and then vacuum depositing a silver layer onto the silicon enriched surface. The silicon enrichment can be attained by electron beam bombardment, ion beam bombardment, or neutral beam bombardment. It can also be attained by depositing a metal, such as aluminum, on the substrate surface, allowing the metal to oxidize by pulling oxygen from the substrate surface, thereby leaving a silicon enriched surface, and then etching or eroding the metal oxide layer away to expose the silicon enriched surface. Ultraviolet rays can be used to maintain dangling silicon bonds on the enriched surface until covalent bonding with the silver can occur. This disclosure also includes encapsulated mirrors with diffusion layers built therein. One of these mirrors is assembled on a polymer substrate.

  4. Method of bonding silver to glass and mirrors produced according to this method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pitts, John R. (Golden, CO); Thomas, Terence M. (Arvada, CO); Czanderna, Alvin W. (Lakewood, CO)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for adhering silver to a glass substrate for producing mirrors includes attaining a silicon enriched substrate surface by reducing the oxygen therein in a vacuum and then vacuum depositing a silver layer onto the silicon enriched surface. The silicon enrichment can be attained by electron beam bombardment, ion beam bombardment, or neutral beam bombardment. It can also be attained by depositing a metal, such as aluminum, on the substrate surface, allowing the metal to oxidize by pulling oxygen from the substrate surface, thereby leaving a silicon enriched surface, and then etching or eroding the metal oxide layer away to expose the silicon enriched surface. Ultraviolet rays can be used to maintain dangling silicon bonds on the enriched surface until covalent bonding with the silver can occur. This disclosure also includes encapsulated mirrors with diffusion layers built therein. One of these mirrors is assembled on a polymer substrate.

  5. Model for the conversion of nuclear waste melter feed to glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pokorny, Richard; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The rate of batch-to-glass conversion is a primary concern for the vitrification of nuclear waste, as it directly influences the life cycle of the cleanup process. This study describes the development of an advanced model of the cold cap, which augments the previous model by further developments on the structure and the dynamics of the foam layer. The foam layer on the bottom of the cold cap consists of the primary foam, cavities, and the secondary foam, and forms an interface through which the heat is transferred to the cold cap. Other model enhancements include the behavior of intermediate crystalline phases and the dissolution of quartz particles. The model relates the melting rate to feed properties and melter conditions, such as the molten glass temperature, foaminess of the feed, or the heat fraction supplied to the cold cap from the plenum space. The model correctly predicts a 25% increase in melting rate when changing the alumina source in the melter feed from Al(OH)3 to AlO(OH). It is expected that this model will be incorporated in the full glass melter model as its integral component.

  6. Low Cost, Single Layer Replacement for the Back-Sheet and Encapsulant Layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kempe, M. D.; Thapa, P.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) based polymers have been formulated for specific use in photovoltaic modules to produce better performance and longer term stability at a lower cost than standard materials. EPDM formulations are advantageous over ethylene vinyl-acetate (EVA) because they can use the same lamination/cure cycle as EVA, they do not need a second back-sheet protective material (e.g. PET/Tedlar), they have a lower glass transition temperature, no melting transition, more constant mechanical moduli as a function of temperature, they are less polar than EVA (provides better corrosion protection), and they have excellent damp heat (85 C/85% relative humidity) resistance against delamination. Module designs typically use EVA on the back side of cells despite the fact that transparency is not advantageous. We have developed a single encapsulant layer that will replace standard module back-sheet constructions consisting of EVA/PET/Tedlar. Because a single low-cost material layer is used, it will provide a significant materials cost savings of about $6 to $8/m{sup 2} as compared to traditional back-sheets. Electrical insulation tests were conducted using 0.85 mm thick stainless steel sheets as a model for a cell. It was found that a polymer layer thickness of about 0.33mm provided better high voltage electrical insulation than a combined film of Tedla (0.038 mm)/PET (0.051 mm)/EVA (0.55 mm). When formulated with a white pigment, reflectivity was comparable to Tedlar{trademark}. Upon accelerated exposure to light at 60C and 60% RH it was found that an EVA layer in front of these materials would decompose before significant yellowing and delamination of the back EPDM layer occurs.

  7. Glass science tutorial: Lecture No. 4, commercial glass melting and associated air emission issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, A.A.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document serves as a manual for a workshop on commercial glass melting and associated air emission issues. Areas covered include: An overview of the glass industry; Furnace design and construction practices; Melting furnace operation; Energy input methods and controls; Air legislation and regulations; Soda lime emission mechanisms; and, Post furnace emission controls. Supporting papers are also included.

  8. Database and Interim Glass Property Models for Hanford HLW and LAW Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vienna, John D. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Kim, Dong-Sang (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Hrma, Pavel R. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    2002-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses a methodology for increasing the efficiency and decreasing the cost of vitrifying nuclear waste by optimizing waste-glass formulation. This methodology involves collecting and generating a property-composition database (for glass properties that determine waste-glass processability and acceptability) and relating these properties to glass composition via property-composition models. The report explains how the property-composition models are developed, fitted to data and evaluated, validated using additional data, used for glass-formulation optimization, and continuously updated in response to changes in waste-composition estimates and processing technologies. Further, the report describes a waste-glass property-composition database compiled from literature sources and presents the results from a critical evaluation and screening of the data for applicability to Hanford waste glasses. Finally, the report provides interim property-composition models for melt viscosity, liquidus temperature (with spinel and zircon primary crystalline phases), and Product Consistency Test normalized releases of B, Na, and Li. Models were fitted to a subset of the database deemed most relevant for the anticipated Hanford waste-glass composition region.

  9. An Insulating Glass Knowledge Base

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael L. Doll; Gerald Hendrickson; Gerard Lagos; Russell Pylkki; Chris Christensen; Charlie Cureija

    2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report will discuss issues relevant to Insulating Glass (IG) durability performance by presenting the observations and developed conclusions in a logical sequential format. This concluding effort discusses Phase II activities and focuses on beginning to quantifying IG durability issues while continuing the approach presented in the Phase I activities (Appendix 1) which discuss a qualitative assessment of durability issues. Phase II developed a focus around two specific IG design classes previously presented in Phase I of this project. The typical box spacer and thermoplastic spacer design including their Failure Modes and Effect Analysis (FMEA) and Fault Tree diagrams were chosen to address two currently used IG design options with varying components and failure modes. The system failures occur due to failures of components or their interfaces. Efforts to begin quantifying the durability issues focused on the development and delivery of an included computer based IG durability simulation program. The focus/effort to deliver the foundation for a comprehensive IG durability simulation tool is necessary to address advancements needed to meet current and future building envelope energy performance goals. This need is based upon the current lack of IG field failure data and the lengthy field observation time necessary for this data collection. Ultimately, the simulation program is intended to be used by designers throughout the current and future industry supply chain. Its use is intended to advance IG durability as expectations grow around energy conservation and with the growth of embedded technologies as required to meet energy needs. In addition the tool has the immediate benefit of providing insight for research and improvement prioritization. Included in the simulation model presentation are elements and/or methods to address IG materials, design, process, quality, induced stress (environmental and other factors), validation, etc. In addition, acquired data is presented in support of project and model assumptions. Finally, current and suggested testing protocol and procedure for future model validation and IG physical testing are discussed.

  10. Intercalation mechanisms and time dependencies of work parameters of electrochromic layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heckner, K.H.; Rothe, A. [Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany). Inst. of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The phenomenon of electrochromism offers new routes for convenient devices of light modulation which can be exploited for the fabrication of several optical devices of technological importance. Electrochromic devices have a significant potential for the use as ``smart`` windows for the control of light transmission in response to the change in brightness of the environment, anti-glare rear view mirrors and sun roofs for automobiles, large area optical information displays and consumer sun glasses, just to cite the most relevant examples. This paper describes some essential properties of all-solid-state transmissive electrochromic devices based on a combination of polyaniline (PANI) and tungsten trioxide (WO{sub 3}) layers on ITO sandwiching a proton conducting polymeric layer. The single electrochromic layers were prepared by electrochemical deposition onto ITO/glass electrodes. Proton conducting polymeric electrolytes were prepared by mixing protonic acids with (poly)vinylalcohol. The fabricated all solid-state electrochromic devices exhibit electrochromic response times with color contrasts of about 50% in the range between 0.1 and 1 s, depending on the thickness of the single electrochromic layers, on the cell voltage, on the ion conductivity of the polymeric layer and on the electronic conductivity of the ITO layers. The observed color can be changed from transparent clear yellow to deep blue by applied voltages in the range between 0.5--2 V. The response time of the single investigated electrochromic layers is governed by the rate of proton transport within the layers. The response times of single PANI/ITO/glass half cells in acid aqueous electrolytes show asymmetric characteristics and can be less than 0.2 s.

  11. Impact of HLW Glass Crystallinity on the PCT Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, Brian J.; Rosario, Jose A.; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2002-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Optimizing glass formulation for vitrifying waste is based on computing a glass composition that would meet processability and acceptability constraints imposed on glass properties and composition while maximizing system efficiency. The process currently employed allows for estimation of all limiting glass properties except for the normalized element releases (ri, where i = B, Na, or Li) by the product consistency test (PCT) from glasses subjected to canister centerline cooling (CCC). This report documents a suggested approach to include this key glass property in numerical glass optimization. It shows that acceptable predictions of rB and rNa from CCC glasses can be obtained provided that sufficiently accurate compositions and concentrations of the crystalline phases in CCC glass are known.

  12. Transport properties of lithium- lead-vanadium-telluride glass and glass ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sathish, M., E-mail: sathishphy79@gmail.com [Department of Physics, GOVT first grade College, Doddaballapur-561203 (India); Eraiah, B., E-mail: eraiah@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, Bangalore University, Bangalore-560056, India (India)

    2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Glasses with the chemical composition 35Li{sub 2}O-(45-x)V{sub 2}O{sub 5?}20PbO-xTeO{sub 2} (where x = 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 15 mol %) have prepared by conventional melt quenching method. The electrical conductivity of Li{sup +} ion conducting lead vanadium telluride glass samples has been carried out both as a function of temperature and frequency in the temperature range 503K-563K and over frequencies 40 Hz to 10 MHz. The electronic conduction has been observed in the present systems. When these samples annealed around 400°C for 2hour become the glass ceramic, which also shows increase tendency of conductivity. SEM confines glass and glass ceramic nature of the prepared samples.

  13. Layered semiconductor neutron detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mao, Samuel S; Perry, Dale L

    2013-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Room temperature operating solid state hand held neutron detectors integrate one or more relatively thin layers of a high neutron interaction cross-section element or materials with semiconductor detectors. The high neutron interaction cross-section element (e.g., Gd, B or Li) or materials comprising at least one high neutron interaction cross-section element can be in the form of unstructured layers or micro- or nano-structured arrays. Such architecture provides high efficiency neutron detector devices by capturing substantially more carriers produced from high energy .alpha.-particles or .gamma.-photons generated by neutron interaction.

  14. Sealing glasses for titanium and titanium alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brow, Richard K. (Albuquerque, NM); McCollister, Howard L. (Albuquerque, NM); Phifer, Carol C. (Albuquerque, NM); Day, Delbert E. (Rolla, MO)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Barium lanthanoborate sealing-glass compositions are provided comprising various combinations (in terms of mole-%) of boron oxide (B.sub.2 O.sub.3), barium oxide (BaO), lanthanum oxide (La.sub.2 O.sub.3), and at least one other oxide selected from the group consisting of aluminum oxide (Al.sub.2 O.sub.3), calcium oxide (CaO), lithium oxide (Li.sub.2 O), sodium oxide (Na.sub.2 O), silicon dioxide (SiO.sub.2), or titanium dioxide (TiO.sub.2). These sealing-glass compositions are useful for forming hermetic glass-to-metal seals with titanium and titanium alloys having an improved aqueous durability and favorable sealing characteristics. Examples of the sealing-glass compositions are provided having coefficients of thermal expansion about that of titanium or titanium alloys, and with sealing temperatures less than about 900.degree. C., and generally about 700.degree.-800.degree. C. The barium lanthanoborate sealing-glass compositions are useful for components and devices requiring prolonged exposure to moisture or water, and for implanted biomedical devices (e.g. batteries, pacemakers, defibrillators, pumps).

  15. Dynamics of window glass fracture in explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beauchamp, E.K.; Matalucci, R.V.

    1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An exploratory study was conducted under the Architectural Surety Program to examine the possibility of modifying fracture of glass in the shock-wave environment associated with terrorist bombings. The intent was to explore strategies to reduce the number and severity of injuries resulting from those attacks. The study consisted of a series of three experiments at the Energetic Materials Research and Testing Center (EMRTC) of the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology at Socorro, NM, in which annealed and tempered glass sheets were exposed to blast waves at several different levels of overpressure and specific impulse. A preliminary assessment of the response of tempered glass to the blast environment suggested that inducing early failure would result in lowering fragment velocity as well as reducing the loading from the window to the structure. To test that possibility, two different and novel procedures (indentation flaws and spot annealing) were used to reduce the failure strength of the tempered glass while maintaining its ability to fracture into small cube-shaped fragments. Each experiment involved a comparison of the performance of four sheets of glass with different treatments.

  16. The Physics of the Colloidal Glass Transition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gary L. Hunter; Eric R. Weeks

    2011-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    As one increases the concentration of a colloidal suspension, the system exhibits a dramatic increase in viscosity. Structurally, the system resembles a liquid, yet motions within the suspension are slow enough that it can be considered essentially frozen. This kinetic arrest is the colloidal glass transition. For several decades, colloids have served as a valuable model system for understanding the glass transition in molecular systems. The spatial and temporal scales involved allow these systems to be studied by a wide variety of experimental techniques. The focus of this review is the current state of understanding of the colloidal glass transition. A brief introduction is given to important experimental techniques used to study the glass transition in colloids. We describe features of colloidal systems near and in glassy states, including tremendous increases in viscosity and relaxation times, dynamical heterogeneity, and ageing, among others. We also compare and contrast the glass transition in colloids to that in molecular liquids. Other glassy systems are briefly discussed, as well as recently developed synthesis techniques that will keep these systems rich with interesting physics for years to come.

  17. Retention of Halogens in Waste Glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, Pavel R.

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In spite of their potential roles as melting rate accelerators and foam breakers, halogens are generally viewed as troublesome components for glass processing. Of five halogens, F, Cl, Br, I, and At, all but At may occur in nuclear waste. A nuclear waste feed may contain up to 10 g of F, 4 g of Cl, and ?100 mg of Br and I per kg of glass. The main concern is halogen volatility, producing hazardous fumes and particulates, and the radioactive iodine 129 isotope of 1.7x10^7-year half life. Because F and Cl are soluble in oxide glasses and tend to precipitate on cooling, they can be retained in the waste glass in the form of dissolved constituents or as dispersed crystalline inclusions. This report compiles known halogen-retention data in both high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) glasses. Because of its radioactivity, the main focus is on I. Available data on F and Cl were compiled for comparison. Though Br is present in nuclear wastes, it is usually ignored; no data on Br retention were found.

  18. Sealing glasses for titanium and titanium alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brow, R.K.; McCollister, H.L.; Phifer, C.C.; Day, D.E.

    1997-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Barium lanthanoborate sealing-glass compositions are provided comprising various combinations (in terms of mole-%) of boron oxide (B{sub 2}O{sub 3}), barium oxide (BaO), lanthanum oxide (La{sub 2}O{sub 3}), and at least one other oxide selected from the group consisting of aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), calcium oxide (CaO), lithium oxide (Li{sub 2}O), sodium oxide (Na{sub 2}O), silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}), or titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}). These sealing-glass compositions are useful for forming hermetic glass-to-metal seals with titanium and titanium alloys having an improved aqueous durability and favorable sealing characteristics. Examples of the sealing-glass compositions are provided having coefficients of thermal expansion about that of titanium or titanium alloys, and with sealing temperatures less than about 900 C, and generally about 700--800 C. The barium lanthanoborate sealing-glass compositions are useful for components and devices requiring prolonged exposure to moisture or water, and for implanted biomedical devices (e.g. batteries, pacemakers, defibrillators, pumps). 1 fig.

  19. Vacuum fusion bonding of glass plates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swierkowski, Steve P. (Livermore, CA); Davidson, James C. (Livermore, CA); Balch, Joseph W. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved apparatus and method for vacuum fusion bonding of large, patterned glass plates. One or both glass plates are patterned with etched features such as microstructure capillaries and a vacuum pumpout moat, with one plate having at least one hole therethrough for communication with a vacuum pumpout fixture. High accuracy alignment of the plates is accomplished by a temporary clamping fixture until the start of the fusion bonding heat cycle. A complete, void-free fusion bond of seamless, full-strength quality is obtained through the plates; because the glass is heated well into its softening point and because of a large, distributed force that is developed that presses the two plates together from the difference in pressure between the furnace ambient (high pressure) and the channeling and microstructures in the plates (low pressure) due to the vacuum drawn. The apparatus and method may be used to fabricate microcapillary arrays for chemical electrophoresis; for example, any apparatus using a network of microfluidic channels embedded between plates of glass or similar moderate melting point substrates with a gradual softening point curve, or for assembly of glass-based substrates onto larger substrates, such as in flat panel display systems.

  20. Vacuum fusion bonding of glass plates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swierkowski, Steve P. (Livermore, CA); Davidson, James C. (Livermore, CA); Balch, Joseph W. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved apparatus and method for vacuum fusion bonding of large, patterned glass plates. One or both glass plates are patterned with etched features such as microstructure capillaries and a vacuum pumpout moat, with one plate having at least one hole therethrough for communication with a vacuum pumpout fixture. High accuracy alignment of the plates is accomplished by a temporary clamping fixture until the start of the fusion bonding heat cycle. A complete, void-free fusion bond of seamless, full-strength quality is obtained through the plates; because the glass is heated well into its softening point and because of a large, distributed force that is developed that presses the two plates together from the difference in pressure between the furnace ambient (high pressure) and the channeling and microstructures in the plates (low pressure) due to the vacuum drawn. The apparatus and method may be used to fabricate microcapillary arrays for chemical electrophoresis; for example, any apparatus using a network of microfluidic channels embedded between plates of glass or similar moderate melting point substrates with a gradual softening point curve, or for assembly of glass-based substrates onto larger substrates, such as in flat panel display systems.

  1. Kinetics of Cold-Cap Reactions for Vitrification of Nuclear Waste Glass Based on Simultaneous Differential Scanning Calorimetry - Thermogravimetry (DSC-TGA) and Evolved Gas Analysis (EGA)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, Carmen P. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); ; Pierce, David A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); ; Schweiger, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); ; Kruger, Albert A. [USDOE Office of River Protection, Richland, WA (United States); Chun, Jaehun [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); ; Hrma, Pavel R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States);

    2013-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    For vitrifying nuclear waste glass, the feed, a mixture of waste with glass-forming and modifying additives, is charged onto the cold cap that covers 90-100% of the melt surface. The cold cap consists of a layer of reacting molten glass floating on the surface of the melt in an all-electric, continuous glass melter. As the feed moves through the cold cap, it undergoes chemical reactions and phase transitions through which it is converted to molten glass that moves from the cold cap into the melt pool. The process involves a series of reactions that generate multiple gases and subsequent mass loss and foaming significantly influence the mass and heat transfers. The rate of glass melting, which is greatly influenced by mass and heat transfers, affects the vitrification process and the efficiency of the immobilization of nuclear waste. We studied the cold-cap reactions of a representative waste glass feed using both the simultaneous differential scanning calorimetry thermogravimetry (DSC-TGA) and the thermogravimetry coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (TGA-GC-MS) as complementary tools to perform evolved gas analysis (EGA). Analyses from DSC-TGA and EGA on the cold-cap reactions provide a key element for the development of an advanced cold-cap model. It also helps to formulate melter feeds for higher production rate.

  2. Glass/ceramic coatings for implants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tomsia, Antoni P. (Pinole, CA); Saiz, Eduardo (Berkeley, CA); Gomez-Vega, Jose M. (Nagoya, JP); Marshall, Sally J. (Larkspur, CA); Marshall, Grayson W. (Larkspur, CA)

    2011-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Glass coatings on metals including Ti, Ti6A14V and CrCo were prepared for use as implants. The composition of the glasses was tailored to match the thermal expansion of the substrate metal. By controlling the firing atmosphere, time, and temperature, it was possible to control the reactivity between the glass and the alloy and to fabricate coatings (25-150 .mu.m thick) with excellent adhesion to the substrate. The optimum firing temperatures ranged between 800 and 840.degree. C. at times up to 1 min in air or 15 min in N.sub.2. The same basic technique was used to create multilayered coatings with concentration gradients of hydroxyapatite (HA) particles and SiO.sub.2.

  3. Irradiation effects on borosilicate waste glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, F.P.

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of alpha decay on five borosilicate glasses containing simulated nuclear high-level waste oxides were studied. Irradiations carried out at room temperature were achieved by incorporating 1 to 8 wt % /sup 244/Cm/sub 2/O/sub 3/ in the glasses. Density changes and stored-energy build-up saturated at doses less than 2 x 10/sup 21/ alpha decays/kg. Damage manifested by stored energy was completely annealed at 633/sup 0/K. Positive and negative density changes were observed which never exceeded 1%. Irradiation had very little effect on mechanical strength or on chemical durability as measured by aqueous leach rates. Also, no effects were observed on the microstructure for vitreous waste glasses, although radiation-induced microcracking could be achieved on specimens that had been devitrified prior to irradiation.

  4. Direction of CRT waste glass processing: Electronics recycling industry communication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, Julia R., E-mail: mueller.143@osu.edu [Ohio State University, William G. Lowrie Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, OH (United States) and University of Queensland, School of Chemical Engineering (Australia) and Ohio State University, Materials Science and Engineering, OH (United States); Boehm, Michael W. [University of Queensland, School of Chemical Engineering (Australia); Drummond, Charles [Ohio State University, Materials Science and Engineering, OH (United States)

    2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Given a large flow rate of CRT glass {approx}10% of the panel glass stream will be leaded. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The supply of CRT waste glass exceeded demand in 2009. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recyclers should use UV-light to detect lead oxide during the separation process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recycling market analysis techniques and results are given for CRT glass. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Academic initiatives and the necessary expansion of novel product markets are discussed. - Abstract: Cathode Ray Tube, CRT, waste glass recycling has plagued glass manufacturers, electronics recyclers and electronics waste policy makers for decades because the total supply of waste glass exceeds demand, and the formulations of CRT glass are ill suited for most reuse options. The solutions are to separate the undesirable components (e.g. lead oxide) in the waste and create demand for new products. Achieving this is no simple feat, however, as there are many obstacles: limited knowledge of waste glass composition; limited automation in the recycling process; transportation of recycled material; and a weak and underdeveloped market. Thus one of the main goals of this paper is to advise electronic glass recyclers on how to best manage a diverse supply of glass waste and successfully market to end users. Further, this paper offers future directions for academic and industry research. To develop the recommendations offered here, a combination of approaches were used: (1) a thorough study of historic trends in CRT glass chemistry; (2) bulk glass collection and analysis of cullet from a large-scale glass recycler; (3) conversations with industry members and a review of potential applications; and (4) evaluation of the economic viability of specific uses for recycled CRT glass. If academia and industry can solve these problems (for example by creating a database of composition organized by manufacturer and glass source) then the reuse of CRT glass can be increased.

  5. Structure of rhenium-containing sodium borosilicate glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goel, Ashutosh; McCloy, John S.; Windisch, Charles F.; Riley, Brian J.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Ferreira, Jose M.

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of sodium borosilicate glasses were synthesized with increasing fractions of KReO4 or Re2O7, to 10000 ppm (1 mass%) target Re in glass, to assess the effects of large concentrations of rhenium on glass structure and to estimate the solubility of technetium, a radioactive component in typical low active waste nuclear waste glasses. Magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy were performed to characterize the glasses as a function of Re source additions. In general, silicon was found coordinated in a mixture of Q2 and Q3 structural units, while Al was 4-coordinated and B was largely 3-coordinate and partially 4-coordinated. The rhenium source did not appear to have significant effects on the glass structure. Thus, at the up to the concentrations that remain in dissolved in glass, ~3000 ppm Re by mass maximum. , the Re appeared to be neither a glass-former nor a strong glass modifier., Rhenium likely exists in isolated ReO4- anions in the interstices of the glass network, as evidenced by the polarized Raman spectrum of the Re glass in the absence of sulfate. Analogous to SO42-¬ in similar glasses, ReO4- is likely a network modifier and forms alkali salt phases on the surface and in the bulk glass above solubility.

  6. GLASS FABRICATION AND PRODUCT CONSISTENCY TESTING OF LANTHANIDE BOROSILICATE GLASS FOR PLUTONIUM DISPOSITION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, C; James Marra, J; Ned Bibler, N

    2007-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE/EM) plans to conduct the Plutonium Disposition Project at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, SC, to disposition excess weapons-usable plutonium. A plutonium glass waste form is a leading candidate for immobilization of the plutonium for subsequent disposition in a geologic repository. The objectives of this present task were to fabricate plutonium-loaded lanthanide borosilicate (LaBS) Frit B glass and perform testing to provide near-term data that will increase confidence that LaBS glass product is suitable for disposal in the proposed Federal Repository. Specifically, testing was conducted in an effort to provide data to Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) personnel for use in performance assessment calculations. Plutonium containing LaBS glass with the Frit B composition with a 9.5 wt% PuO{sub 2} loading was prepared for testing. Glass was prepared to support glass durability testing via the ASTM Product Consistency Testing (PCT) at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The glass was characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) prior to performance testing. This characterization revealed some crystalline PuO{sub 2} inclusions with disk-like morphology present in the as fabricated, quench-cooled glass. A series of PCTs was conducted at SRNL with varying exposed surface area and test durations. Filtered leachates from these tests were analyzed to determine the dissolved concentrations of key elements. The leachate solutions were also ultrafiltered to quantify colloid formation. Leached solids from select PCTs were examined in an attempt to evaluate the Pu and neutron absorber release behavior from the glass and to investigate formation of alteration phases on the glass surface. A series of PCTs was conducted at 90 C in ASTM Type 1 water to compare the Pu LaBS Frit B glass durability to current requirements for High Level Waste (HLW) glass in a geologic repository. The PCT (7-day static test with powdered glass) results on the Pu-containing LaBS Frit B glass at SA/V of {approx} 2000 m{sup -1} showed that the glass was very durable with an average normalized elemental release value for boron of 0.013 g/m{sup 2}. This boron release value is {approx} 640X lower than normalized boron release from current Environmental Assessment (EA) glass used for repository acceptance. The PCT-B (7, 14, 28 and 56-day, static test with powdered glass) normalized elemental releases were similar to the normalized elemental release values from PCT-A testing, indicating that the LaBS Frit B glass is very durable as measured by the PCT. Normalized plutonium releases were essentially the same within the analytical uncertainty of the ICP-MS methods used to quantify plutonium in the 0.45 {micro}m-filtered leachates and ultra-filtered leachates, indicating that colloidal plutonium species do not form under the PCT conditions used in this study.

  7. Glass Frit Clumping And Dusting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steimke, J. L.

    2013-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    DWPF mixes a slurry of glass frit (Frit 418) and dilute (1.5 wt%) formic acid solution with high level waste in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME). There would be advantages to introducing the frit in a non-slurry form to minimize water addition to the SME, however, adding completely dry frit has the potential to generate dust which could clog filters or condensers. Prior testing with another type of frit, Frit 320, and using a minimal amount of water reduced dust generation, however, the formation of hard clumps was observed. To examine options and behavior, a TTQAP [McCabe and Stone, 2013] was written to initiate tests that would address these concerns. Tests were conducted with four types of glass frit; Frit 320, DWPF Frit 418, Bekeson Frit 418 and Multi-Aspirator Frit 418. The last two frits are chemically identical to DWPF Frit 418 but smaller particles were removed by the respective vendors. Test results on Frit Clumping and Dusting are provided in this report. This report addresses the following seven questions. Short answers are provided below with more detailed answers to follow. 1. Will the addition of a small amount of water, 1.5 wt%, to dry DWPF Frit 418 greatly reduce the dust generation during handling at DWPF? a. Yes, a small scale test showed that adding a little water to the frit greatly reduced dust generation during handling. 2. Will the addition of small amounts of water to the frit cause clumping that will impair frit handling at DWPF? a. No, not with Frit 418. Although clumps were observed to form when 1.5 wt% water was mixed with DWPF Frit 418, then compressed and air-dried overnight, the clumps were easily crushed and did not form the hardened material noted when Frit 320 was tested. 3. What is the measured size distribution of dust generated when dry frit is handled? (This affects the feasibility and choice of processing equipment for removing the dust generating fraction of the frit before it is added to the SME.) a. The size distribution for the dust removed from fresh DWPF Frit 418 while it was being shaken in a small scale LabRAM test was measured. The median size on a volume basis was 7.6 ?m and 90% of the frit particles were between 1.6 and 28 ?m. The mass of dust collected using this test protocol was much less than 1% of the original frit. 4. Can the dust be removed in a small number of processing steps and without the larger frit particles continuing to spall additional dust sized particles? a. Test results using a LabRAM were inconclusive. The LaRAM performs less efficient particle size separation than the equipment used by Bekeson and Multi-Aspirator. 5. What particle size of frit is expected to create a dust problem? a. The original criterion for creating a dusting problem was those particle sizes that were readily suspended when being shaken. For that criterion calculations and Microtrac size analyses indicated that particles smaller than 37 ?m are likely dust generators. Subsequently a more sophisticated criterion for dust problem was considered, particle sizes that would become suspended in the air flow patterns inside the SME and possibly plug the condenser. That size may be larger than 37 ?m but has not yet been determined. 6. If particles smaller than 37 ?m are removed will bulk dust generation be eliminated? a. Video-taped tests were performed using three gallons each of three types of frit 418, DWPF frit, Bekeson frit and Multi-Aspirator frit. Frit was poured through air from a height of approximately eight feet into a container half filled with water. Pouring Bekeson frit or Multi-Aspirator frit generated markedly less visible dust, but there was still a significant amount, which still has the potential of causing a dust problem. 7. Can completely dry frit be poured into the SME without having dust plug the condenser at the top of the vessel? a. Because of the complexity of air currents inside the SME and the difficulty of defensible size scaling a more prototypical test will be required to answer this question. We recommend construction of a full scale

  8. PLUTONIUM SOLUBILITY IN HIGH-LEVEL WASTE ALKALI BOROSILICATE GLASS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marra, J.; Crawford, C.; Fox, K.; Bibler, N.

    2011-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The solubility of plutonium in a Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) reference glass and the effect of incorporation of Pu in the glass on specific glass properties were evaluated. A Pu loading of 1 wt % in glass was studied. Prior to actual plutonium glass testing, surrogate testing (using Hf as a surrogate for Pu) was conducted to evaluate the homogeneity of significant quantities of Hf (Pu) in the glass, determine the most appropriate methods to evaluate homogeneity for Pu glass testing, and to evaluate the impact of Hf loading in the glass on select glass properties. Surrogate testing was conducted using Hf to represent between 0 and 1 wt % Pu in glass on an equivalent molar basis. A Pu loading of 1 wt % in glass translated to {approx}18 kg Pu per Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister, or about 10X the current allowed limit per the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (2500 g/m{sup 3} of glass or about 1700 g/canister) and about 30X the current allowable concentration based on the fissile material concentration limit referenced in the Yucca Mountain Project License Application (897 g/m{sup 3}3 of glass or about 600 g Pu/canister). Based on historical process throughput data, this level was considered to represent a reasonable upper bound for Pu loading based on the ability to provide Pu containing feed to the DWPF. The task elements included evaluating the distribution of Pu in the glass (e.g. homogeneity), evaluating crystallization within the glass, evaluating select glass properties (with surrogates), and evaluating durability using the Product Consistency Test -- Method A (PCT-A). The behavior of Pu in the melter was evaluated using paper studies and corresponding analyses of DWPF melter pour samples.The results of the testing indicated that at 1 wt % Pu in the glass, the Pu was homogeneously distributed and did not result in any formation of plutonium-containing crystalline phases as long as the glass was prepared under 'well-mixed' conditions. The incorporation of 1 wt % Pu in the glass did not adversely impact glass viscosity (as assessed using Hf surrogate) or glass durability. Finally, evaluation of DWPF glass pour samples that had Pu concentrations below the 897 g/m{sup 3} limit showed that Pu concentrations in the glass pour stream were close to targeted compositions in the melter feed indicating that Pu neither volatilized from the melt nor stratified in the melter when processed in the DWPF melter.

  9. Reaction of glass during gamma irradiation in a saturated tuff environment. Part 1. SRL 165 glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bates, J.K.; Fischer, D.F.; Gerding, T.J.

    1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The influence of gamma irradiation on the reaction of actinide-doped borosilicate glass (SRL 165) in a saturated tuff environment has been studied in a series of tests lasting up to 56 days. The following conclusions were reached. The reaction of, and subsequent actinide release from, the glass depends on the dynamic interaction between radiolysis effects, which cause the solution pH to become more acidic; glass reaction, which drives the pH more basic; and test component interactions that may extract glass components from solution. The use of large gamma irradiation dose rates to accelerate reactions that may occur in an actual repository radiation field may affect this dynamic balance by unduly influencing the mechanism of the glass-water reaction. Comparisons between the present results and data obtained by reacting similar glasses using MCC-1 and NNWSI rock cup procedures indicate that the irradiation conditions used in the present experiments do not dramatically influence the reaction rate of the glass. 8 figs., 9 tabs.

  10. Low gap amorphous GaN1-xAsx alloys grown on glass substrate K. M. Yu,1,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Junqiao

    Low gap amorphous GaN1-xAsx alloys grown on glass substrate K. M. Yu,1,a S. V. Novikov,2 R September 2010 Amorphous GaN1-xAsx layers with As content in the range of x=0.1 to 0.6 were grown defined optical absorption edges. The measured band gap values for the crystalline and amorphous GaN1-x

  11. Two glass transitions in miscible polymer blends?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudowicz, Jacek; Freed, Karl F. [The James Franck Institute and the Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Douglas, Jack F. [Materials Science and Engineering Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)

    2014-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    In contrast to mixtures of two small molecule fluids, miscible binary polymer blends often exhibit two structural relaxation times and two glass transition temperatures. Qualitative explanations postulate phenomenological models of local concentration enhancements due to chain connectivity in ideal, fully miscible systems. We develop a quantitative theory that explains qualitative trends in the dynamics of real miscible polymer blends which are never ideal mixtures. The theory is a synthesis of the lattice cluster theory of blend thermodynamics, the generalized entropy theory for glass-formation in polymer materials, and the Kirkwood-Buff theory for concentration fluctuations in binary mixtures.

  12. Scaling of fluctuations in a colloidal glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Wang; C. Song; H. A. Makse

    2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report experimental measurements of particle dynamics in a colloidal glass in order to understand the dynamical heterogeneities associated with the cooperative motion of the particles in the glassy regime. We study the local and global fluctuation of correlation and response functions in an aging colloidal glass. The observables display universal scaling behavior following a modified power-law, with a plateau dominating the less heterogeneous short-time regime and a power-law tail dominating the highly heterogeneous long-time regime.

  13. Development of a Procedure to Evaluate the Shear Modulus of Laminated Glass Interlayers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brackin, Michael S.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Laminated glass is comprised of multiple glass plates coupled together in a sandwich construction through the use of a polymorphous interlayer that acts as a bonding agent between the glass plates. Laminated glass offers several advantages over...

  14. A user interface for customizing cane layouts in Virtual Glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baldauf, Kimberly (Kimberly B.)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cane pulling is a technique used in glass blowing to build up intricate patterns which come out in the final piece. Virtual Glass was created to model the cane pulling process from start to finish. There are a variety of ...

  15. Combustion Technology Development for an Advanced Glass Melting System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stickler, D. B.; Westra, L.; Woodroffe, J.; Jeong, K. M.; Donaldson, L. W.

    Concept feasibility of an innovative technology for glass production has recently been demonstrated. It is based on suspension heating of the glass-forming batch minerals while entrained in a combustion flow of preheated air and natural gas...

  16. Safety glasses Closed-toe rubber-soled shoes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Jerry

    #12;Safety glasses Long pants Closed-toe rubber-soled shoes Hard hat The three most important glasses - Long pants - Closed-toe rubber-soled shoes 1 #12;#12;#12;Step 1 Place wooden furring strips

  17. Heavy Metals in Glass Beads Used in Pavement Markings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mangalgiri, Kiranmayi

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Pavement markings are vital for safely navigating roadways. The nighttime visibility of pavement markings is enhanced by addition of retroreflective glass beads, most of which are made from recycled glass. Concern has been raised over the presence...

  18. Nuclear Waste Glasses: Beautiful Simplicity of Complex Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, Pavel R.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The behavior of glasses with a large number of components, such as waste glasses, is not more complex than the behavior of simple glasses. On the contrary, the presence of many components restricts the composition region of these glasses in a way that allows approximating composition-property relationships by linear functions. This has far-reaching practical consequences for formulating nuclear waste glasses. On the other hand, processing high-level and low-activity waste glasses presents various problems, such as crystallization, foaming, and salt segre-gation in the melter. The need to decrease the settling of solids in the melter to an acceptable level and to maximize the rate of melting presents major challenges to processing technology. However, the most important property of the glass product is its chemical durability, a somewhat vague concept in lieu of the assessment of the glass resistance to aqueous attack while the radioactivity decays over tens of thousands of years.

  19. Femtosecond laser fabrication of micro and nano-disks in single layer graphene using vortex Bessel beams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Femtosecond laser fabrication of micro and nano-disks in single layer graphene using vortex Bessel deposition graphene on glass substrate using femtosecond laser ablation with vortex Bessel beams. The fabricated graphene disks with diameters ranging from 650 nm to 4 µm were characterized by spatially resolved

  20. Multi-Layer Inkjet Printed Contacts to Si

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis, C. J.; van Hest, M.; Miedaner, A.; Kaydanova, T.; Smith, L.; Ginley, D. S.

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ag, Cu, and Ni metallizations were inkjet printed with near vacuum deposition quality. The approach developed can be easily extended to other conductors such as Pt, Pd, Au, etc. Thick highly conducting lines of Ag and Cu demonstrating good adhesion to glass, Si, and printed circuit board (PCB) have been printed at 100-200 deg C in air and N2 respectively. Ag grids were inkjet-printed on Si solar cells and fired through the silicon nitride AR layer at 850 deg C, resulting in 8% cells. Next generation inks, including an ink that etches silicon nitride, have now been developed. Multi-layer inkjet printing of the etching ink followed by Ag ink produced contacts under milder conditions and gave solar cells with efficiencies as high as 12%.

  1. Layer-by-layer assembly in confined geometries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeRocher, Jonathan P

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The fundamental nature of layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly in confined geometries was investigated for a number of different chemical systems. The first part of this thesis concerns the modification of microfluidic and ...

  2. Ion transport and structure of layer-by-layer assemblies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutkenhaus, Jodie Lee

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Layer-by-layer (LbL) films of various architectures were examined as potential solid state electrolytes for electrochemical systems (e.g. batteries and fuel cells). The relationship between materials properties and ion ...

  3. Engineering electroresponsive layer-by-layer thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Daniel J., Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electroresponsive layer-by-layer (LbL) polymer films and polymer nanocomposite films were investigated as model systems for electrically triggered drug delivery applications and "mechanomutable" surface coating applications. ...

  4. GLASS TRANSITION SEEN THROUGH ASYMPTOTIC JULIEN OLIVIER AND MICHAEL RENARDY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GLASS TRANSITION SEEN THROUGH ASYMPTOTIC EXPANSIONS JULIEN OLIVIER AND MICHAEL RENARDY Abstract of the model at low shear rate changes when a certain parameter (which we call the glass parameter) crosses´ebraud-Lequeux model, a Fokker-Planck-like description of soft glassy material, exhibits such a glass transition

  5. Glass Concrete Thin Sheets Reinforced with Prestressed Aramid Fabrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyer, Christian

    Glass Concrete Thin Sheets Reinforced with Prestressed Aramid Fabrics Gregor Vilkner Submitted Glass Concrete Thin Sheets Reinforced with Prestressed Aramid Fabrics Gregor Vilkner Thin sheet concrete crushed glass as aggregate, a multitude of different esthetic effects can be produced, which again open up

  6. condmat/9801215 Crossovers in the Two Dimensional Ising Spin Glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roma "La Sapienza", Universitŕ di

    cond­mat/9801215 v2 26 Jan 1998 Crossovers in the Two Dimensional Ising Spin Glass of extensive computer simulations we analyze in detail the two dimen­ sional \\SigmaJ Ising spin glass with ferromagnetic next­nearest­neighbor interactions. We found a crossover from ferromagnetic to ``spin glass'' like

  7. Saga of Glass Damage in Urban Environments Continues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kareem, Ahsan

    Saga of Glass Damage in Urban Environments Continues: Consequences of Aerodynamics and Debris Laboratory University of Notre Dame The Saga of Glass Damage in Urban Environments Continues: Consequences east of the city of Houston. Initial reconnaissance suggested that the observed glass/cladding damage

  8. A new method for solving radiative heat problems in glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

    RANA 99­06 A new method for solving radiative heat problems in glass B.J. van der Linden --- R, The Netherlands e­mail: linden@win.tue.nl 15th May 2000 #12; Abstract In the production of glass, temperature Conclusion 25 2 #12; Chapter 1 Introduction The production of glass belongs to the oldest forms of human

  9. Calorimetric glass transition explained by hierarchical dynamic facilitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garrahan, Juan P.

    Calorimetric glass transition explained by hierarchical dynamic facilitation Aaron S. Keysa Contributed by David Chandler, February 11, 2013 (sent for review November 15, 2012) The glass transition different on cooling than on heating, and the response to melting a glass depends markedly on the cooling

  10. A new method for solving radiative heat problems in glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

    RANA 99-06 A new method for solving radiative heat problems in glass B.J. van der Linden -- R, The Netherlands e-mail: linden@win.tue.nl 15th May 2000 #12;Abstract In the production of glass, temperature plays Conclusion 25 2 #12;Chapter 1 Introduction The production of glass belongs to the oldest forms of human

  11. 5D Data Storage by Ultrafast Laser Nanostructuring in Glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Jim

    5D Data Storage by Ultrafast Laser Nanostructuring in Glass Jingyu Zhang* , Mindaugas Gecevicius-assembled form birefringence and retrieved in glass opening the era of unlimited lifetime data storage. © 2013 laser writing in glass were proposed for the polarization multiplexed optical memory, where

  12. Rectilinear Glass-Cut Dissections of Rectangles to Squares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Urrutia, Jorge

    Rectilinear Glass-Cut Dissections of Rectangles to Squares Jurek Czyzowicz§ czyzowic is made using only rectilinear glass-cuts, i.e., vertical or horizontal straight-line cuts separating pieces into two. 1 Introduction A glass-cut of a rectangle is a cut by a straight-line segment

  13. Structure and magnetic properties of vanadiumsodium silicate glasses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mekki, Abdelkarim

    Structure and magnetic properties of vanadium­sodium silicate glasses A. Mekki a,*, G.D. Khattak Received 4 April 2002 Abstract Vanadium­sodium silicate glasses with the chemical composition [ðV2O5�x(Na2O) atoms in the silicate glasses. The fraction of NBO, determined from these spectra is found to increase

  14. Optical absorption and ionization of silicate glasses Leonid B. Glebov

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glebov, Leon

    Optical absorption and ionization of silicate glasses Leonid B. Glebov School of Optics and hydroxyl), and induced (color centers) absorption of multicomponent silicate glasses in UV, visible-photon ionization was detected in alkaline-silicate glasses exposed to high-power laser radiation in nano

  15. Department of Electrical Engineering Spring 2011 Glass Block Solar Collector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirel, Melik C.

    PENNSTATE Department of Electrical Engineering Spring 2011 Glass Block Solar Collector Overview of the team to incorporate solar collectors into glass blocks and provide an application for the collected energy. Objectives The team's objective was to deliver a working glass block solar collector

  16. Divalent europium in auminioborosilicate glasses Eugenia Malchukova(a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Divalent europium in auminioborosilicate glasses Eugenia Malchukova(a) and Bruno Boizot sensitive to the surroundings in which the ion is embedded. Due to this characteristic, divalent europium glass samples. In the obtained ABS glasses the europium ions are found to be in both "+3" and "+2

  17. Mössbauer study of conductive oxide glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsuda, Koken; Kubuki, Shiro [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachi-Oji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Nishida, Tetsuaki, E-mail: nishida@fuk.kindai.ac.jp [Kinki University, Iizuka, Fukuoka 820-8555 (Japan)

    2014-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat treatment of barium iron vanadate glass, BaO?Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}?V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, at temperatures higher than crystallization temperature causes a marked decrease in resistivity (?) from several M?cm to several ?cm. {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectrum of heat-treated vanadate glass shows a marked decrease in quadrupole splitting (?) of Fe{sup III}, reflecting a structural relaxation, i.e., an increased symmetry of 'distorted' FeO{sub 4} and VO{sub 4} tetrahedra which are connected to each other by sharing corner oxygen atoms. Structural relaxation of 3D-network of vanadate glass accompanies a decrease in the activation energy for the conduction, reflecting a decreased energy gap between the donor level and conduction band. A marked increase in the conductivity was observed in CuO- or Cu{sub 2}O-containing barium iron vanadate glass after heat treatment at 450 °C for 30 min or more. 'n-type semiconductor model combined with small polaron hopping theory' was proposed in order to explain the high conductivity.

  18. Equilibrium ultrastable glasses produced by random pinning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glen M Hocky; Ludovic Berthier; David R. Reichman

    2014-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultrastable glasses have risen to prominence due to their potentially useful material properties and the tantalizing possibility of a general method of preparation via vapor deposition. Despite the importance of this novel class of amorphous materials, numerical studies have been scarce because achieving ultrastability in atomistic simulations is an enormous challenge. Here we bypass this difficulty and establish that randomly pinning the position of a small fraction of particles inside an equilibrated supercooled liquid generates ultrastable configurations at essentially no numerical cost, while avoiding undesired structural changes due to the preparation protocol. Building on the analogy with vapor-deposited ultrastable glasses, we study the melting kinetics of these configurations following a sudden temperature jump into the liquid phase. In homogeneous geometries, we find that enhanced kinetic stability is accompanied by large scale dynamic heterogeneity, while a competition between homogeneous and heterogeneous melting is observed when a liquid boundary invades the glass at constant velocity. Our work demonstrates the feasibility of large-scale, atomistically resolved, and experimentally relevant simulations of the kinetics of ultrastable glasses.

  19. DWPF Glass Melter Technology Manual: Volume 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iverson, D.C.

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This document details information about the design of a glass melter to be used at the Defense Waste Processing Facility located at the Savannah River Plant. Information contained in this document consists solely of a machine drawing and parts list and purchase orders with specifications of equipment used in the development of the melter.

  20. Overview of Energy Efficiency for Glass Furnace

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banerjee, Rangan

    ,Particulates (Environmental norms) Global competitiveness #12;3 April, 2006 4Source: www.oilnergy.com Crude Oil Price #12, 2006 8 Energy Consumption in Glass Plant Melting 75% Forehearth 7% Anneling 4% Other 10% Printing Energy Consumption Specific Energy Consumption (SEC)­ Energy Consumption per unit of product output Units

  1. DWPF Glass Melter Technology Manual: Volume 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iverson, D.C.

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This document details information about the design of a glass melter to be used at the Defense Waste Processing Facility located at the Savannah River Site. Topics discussed include: Information collected during testing, equipment, materials, design basis, feed tubes, and an evaluation of the performance of various components. Information is conveyed using many diagrams and photographs.

  2. Erbium concentration dependent absorbance in tellurite glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sazali, E. S., E-mail: mdsupar@utm; Rohani, M. S., E-mail: mdsupar@utm; Sahar, M. R., E-mail: mdsupar@utm; Arifin, R., E-mail: mdsupar@utm; Ghoshal, S. K., E-mail: mdsupar@utm; Hamzah, K., E-mail: mdsupar@utm [Advanced Optical Material Research Group, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, Skudai, Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Enhancing the optical absorption cross-section in topically important rare earth doped tellurite glasses is challenging for photonic devices. Controlled synthesis and detailed characterizations of the optical properties of these glasses are important for the optimization. The influence of varying concentration of Er{sup 3+} ions on the absorbance characteristics of lead tellurite glasses synthesized via melt-quenching technique are investigated. The UV-Vis absorption spectra exhibits six prominent peaks centered at 490, 526, 652, 800, 982 and 1520 nm ascribed to the transitions in erbium ion from the ground state to the excited states {sup 4}F{sub 7/2}, {sup 2}H{sub 11/2}, {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}, {sup 4}I{sub 9/2}, {sup 2}H{sub 11/2} and {sup 4}I{sub 13/2}, respectively. The results are analyzed by means of optical band gap E{sub g} and Urbach energy E{sub u}. The values of the energy band gap are found decreased from 2.82 to 2.51 eV and the Urbach energy increased from 0.15 to 0.24 eV with the increase of the Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration from 0 to 1.5 mol%. The excellent absorbance of the prepared tellurite glasses makes them suitable for fabricating solid state lasers.

  3. The development of design factors for heat-strengthened and tempered glass based on the glass failure prediction model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oakes, Timothy Andrew

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the interior. According to ASTM, the residual surface compression of tempered glass is defined to have a value of 10, 000 psi (68. 95 MPa) while heat-strengthened glass has residual compressive stresses greater than 3, 500 psi (24. 13 MPa) but less than 10..., 000 psi (68. 95 MPa) (ASTM, 1989). These residual surface compressive stresses must be overcome by mechanical stresses before the glass surfaces experience tension. Hence heat-strengthened and tempered glass are considerably stronger than annealed...

  4. Blocking effect of crystal–glass interface in lanthanum doped barium strontium titanate glass–ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Xiangrong [Beijing Fine Ceramics Laboratory, State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Yong, E-mail: yzhang@tsinghua.edu.cn [Beijing Fine Ceramics Laboratory, State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Baturin, Ivan [Ferroelectric Laboratory, Institute of Natural Science, Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg 620000 (Russian Federation); Liang, Tongxiang [Beijing Fine Ceramics Laboratory, State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: The blocking effect of the crystal–glass interface on the carrier transport behavior in the lanthanum doped barium strontium titanate glass–ceramics: preparation and characterization. - Highlights: • La{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition promotes the crystallization of the major crystalline phase. • The Z? and M? peaks exist a significant mismatch for 0.5 mol% La{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition. • The Z? and M? peaks separate obviously for 1.0 mol% La{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition. • Crystallite impedance decreases while crystal–glass interface impedance increases. • La{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition increases blocking factor of the crystal–glass interface. - Abstract: The microstructures and dielectric properties in La{sub 2}O{sub 3}-doped barium strontium titanate glass–ceramics have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and impedance spectroscopy. SEM analysis indicated that La{sub 2}O{sub 3} additive decreases the average crystallite size. Impedance spectroscopy revealed that the positions of Z? and M? peaks are close for undoped samples. When La{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration is 0.5 mol%, the Z? and M? peaks show a significant mismatch. Furthermore, these peaks separate obviously for 1.0 mol% La{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition. With increasing La{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration, the contribution of the crystallite impedance becomes smaller, while the contribution of the crystal–glass interface impedance becomes larger. More interestingly, it was found that La{sub 2}O{sub 3} additive increases blocking factor of the crystal–glass interface in the temperature range of 250–450 °C. This may be attributed to a decrease of activation energy of the crystallite and an increase of the crystal–glass interface area.

  5. Influence of glass polymerisation and oxidation on micro-Raman water analysis in alumino-silicate glasses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Influence of glass polymerisation and oxidation on micro-Raman water analysis in alumino-silicate glasses Maxime Merciera, Andrea Di Muroab , Daniele Giordanoc , Nicole Métricha , Priscille Lesned of an accurate analytical procedure for determination of dissolved water in complex alumino-silicate glasses via

  6. Glasstech. Ber. Glass Sci. Technol. 75 C2 (2002) 1 Linear and Nonlinear Photoionization of Silicate Glasses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glebov, Leon

    Glasstech. Ber. Glass Sci. Technol. 75 C2 (2002) 1 Linear and Nonlinear Photoionization of Silicate, photoinduced phenomena, and laser-induced damage of silicate glasses. The discussion will be concentrated devices, such as alkaline-silicate, sodium-calcium-silicate, borosilicate, and lead- silicate glasses

  7. Photograph from Ruth Glass Obituary in The Times 9th March 1990. Ruth Adele Glass [ne Lazarus] (1912 1990), sociologist, was born on 30 June 1912 in Berlin,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RUTH GLASS Photograph from Ruth Glass Obituary in The Times 9th March 1990. Ruth Adele Glass [née, published in 1939, established her reputation as a social scientist. From 1940 until 1942 Ruth Glass College London, which remained her academic base for the rest of her life. In 1951 Ruth Glass became

  8. Glass transitions in two-dimensional suspensions of colloidal ellipsoids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhongyu Zheng; Feng Wang; Yilong Han

    2011-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We observed a two-step glass transition in monolayers of colloidal ellipsoids by video microscopy. The glass transition in the rotational degree of freedom was at a lower density than that in the translational degree of freedom. Between the two transitions, ellipsoids formed an orientational glass. Approaching the respective glass transitions, the rotational and translational fastest-moving particles in the supercooled liquid moved cooperatively and formed clusters with power-law size distributions. The mean cluster sizes diverge in power law as approaching the glass transitions. The clusters of translational and rotational fastest-moving ellipsoids formed mainly within pseudo-nematic domains, and around the domain boundaries, respectively.

  9. Rapid process for producing transparent, monolithic porous glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coronado, Paul R. (Livermore, CA)

    2006-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for making transparent porous glass monoliths from gels. The glass is produced much faster and in much larger sizes than present technology for making porous glass. The process reduces the cost of making large porous glass monoliths because: 1) the process does not require solvent exchange nor additives to the gel to increase the drying rates, 2) only moderate temperatures and pressures are used so relatively inexpensive equipment is needed, an 3) net-shape glass monoliths are possible using this process. The process depends on the use of temperature to control the partial pressure of the gel solvent in a closed vessel, resulting in controlled shrinking during drying.

  10. Energy Efficient Glass Melting - The Next Generation Melter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Rue

    2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate a high intensity glass melter, based on the submerged combustion melting technology. This melter will serve as the melting and homogenization section of a segmented, lower-capital cost, energy-efficient Next Generation Glass Melting System (NGMS). After this project, the melter will be ready to move toward commercial trials for some glasses needing little refining (fiberglass, etc.). For other glasses, a second project Phase or glass industry research is anticipated to develop the fining stage of the NGMS process.

  11. Sealed glass coating of high temperature ceramic superconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, W.; Chu, C.Y.; Goretta, K.C.; Routbort, J.L.

    1995-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and article of manufacture of a lead oxide based glass coating on a high temperature superconductor is disclosed. The method includes preparing a dispersion of glass powders in a solution, applying the dispersion to the superconductor, drying the dispersion before applying another coating and heating the glass powder dispersion at temperatures below oxygen diffusion onset and above the glass melting point to form a continuous glass coating on the superconductor to establish compressive stresses which enhance the fracture strength of the superconductor. 8 figs.

  12. Modeling of Spinel Settling in Waste Glass Melter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, Pavel; Schill, Petr; Nemec, Lubomir; Klouzek, Jaroslav, Mika, Martin; Brada, Jiri Glass Service, Ltd., Vsetin, Czech Republic

    2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Our objective is to determine the fraction and size of spinel crystals in molten HLW glass that are compatible with low-risk melter operation. To this end, we are investigating spinel behavior in HLW glass and obtaining data to be used in a mathematical model for spinel settling in a HLW glass melter. We will modify the current glass-furnace model to incorporate spinel concentration distribution and to predict the rate of spinel settling. Also, we will determine the nucleation agents that control the number density and size of spinel crystals in HLW glass.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF GLASS MATRICES FOR HLW RADIOACTIVE WASTES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C.

    2010-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Vitrification is currently the most widely used technology for the treatment of high level radioactive wastes (HLW) throughout the world. Most of the nations that have generated HLW are immobilizing in either borosilicate glass or phosphate glass. One of the primary reasons that glass has become the most widely used immobilization media is the relative simplicity of the vitrification process, e.g. melt waste plus glass forming frit additives and cast. A second reason that glass has become widely used for HLW is that the short range order (SRO) and medium range order (MRO) found in glass atomistically bonds the radionuclides and governs the melt properties such as viscosity, resistivity, sulphate solubility. The molecular structure of glass controls contaminant/radionuclide release by establishing the distribution of ion exchange sites, hydrolysis sites, and the access of water to those sites. The molecular structure is flexible and hence accounts for the flexibility of glass formulations to waste variability. Nuclear waste glasses melt between 1050-1150 C which minimizes the volatility of radioactive components such as Tc{sup 99}, Cs{sup 137}, and I{sup 129}. Nuclear waste glasses have good long term stability including irradiation resistance. Process control models based on the molecular structure of glass have been mechanistically derived and have been demonstrated to be accurate enough to control the world's largest HLW Joule heated ceramic melter in the US since 1996 at 95% confidence.

  14. System and method for glass processing and temperature sensing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepard, Chester L.; Cannon, Bret D.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2004-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Techniques for measuring the temperature at various locations through the thickness of glass products and to control the glass processing operation with the sensed temperature information are disclosed. Fluorescence emission of iron or cerium in glass is excited and imaged onto segmented detectors. Spatially resolved temperature data are obtained through correlation of the detected photoluminescence signal with location within the glass. In one form the detected photoluminescence is compared to detected scattered excitation light to determine temperature. Stress information is obtained from the time history of the temperature profile data and used to evaluate the quality of processed glass. A heating or cooling rate of the glass is also controlled to maintain a predetermined desired temperature profile in the glass.

  15. Low melting high lithia glass compositions and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jantzen, Carol M.; Pickett, John B.; Cicero-Herman, Connie A.; Marra, James C.

    2003-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to methods of vitrifying waste and for lowering the melting point of glass forming systems by including lithia formers in the glass forming composition in significant amounts, typically from about 0.16 wt % to about 11 wt %, based on the total glass forming oxides. The lithia is typically included as a replacement for alkali oxide glass formers that would normally be present in a particular glass forming system. Replacement can occur on a mole percent or weight percent basis, and typically results in a composition wherein lithia forms about 10 wt % to about 100 wt % of the alkali oxide glass formers present in the composition. The present invention also relates to the high lithia glass compositions formed by these methods. The invention is useful for stabilization of numerous types of waste materials, including aqueous waste uranium oxides The decrease in melting point achieved by the present invention desirably prevents volatilization of hazardous or radioactive species during vitrification.

  16. Laboratory work in support of West Valley glass development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bunnell, L.R.

    1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the past six years, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has conducted several studies in support of waste glass composition development and testing of glass compositions suitable for immobilizing the nuclear wastes stored at West Valley, New York. As a result of pilot-scale testing conducted by PNL, the glass composition was changed from that originally recommended in response to changes in the waste stream, and several processing-related problems were discovered. These problems were solved, or sufficiently addressed to determine their likely effect on the glass melting operations to be conducted at West Valley. This report describes the development of the waste glass composition, WV-205, and discusses solutions to processing problems such as foaming and insoluble sludges, as well as other issues such as effects of feed variations on processing of the resulting glass. An evaluation of the WV-205 glass from a repository perspective is included in the appendix to this report.

  17. Metal deposition using seed layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feng, Hsein-Ping; Chen, Gang; Bo, Yu; Ren, Zhifeng; Chen, Shuo; Poudel, Bed

    2013-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of forming a conductive metal layers on substrates are disclosed which employ a seed layer to enhance bonding, especially to smooth, low-roughness or hydrophobic substrates. In one aspect of the invention, the seed layer can be formed by applying nanoparticles onto a surface of the substrate; and the metallization is achieved by electroplating an electrically conducting metal onto the seed layer, whereby the nanoparticles serve as nucleation sites for metal deposition. In another approach, the seed layer can be formed by a self-assembling linker material, such as a sulfur-containing silane material.

  18. Buried oxide layer in silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sadana, Devendra Kumar (Pleasantville, NY); Holland, Orin Wayne (Lenoir, TN)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for forming Silicon-On-Insulator is described incorporating the steps of ion implantation of oxygen into a silicon substrate at elevated temperature, ion implanting oxygen at a temperature below 200.degree. C. at a lower dose to form an amorphous silicon layer, and annealing steps to form a mixture of defective single crystal silicon and polycrystalline silicon or polycrystalline silicon alone and then silicon oxide from the amorphous silicon layer to form a continuous silicon oxide layer below the surface of the silicon substrate to provide an isolated superficial layer of silicon. The invention overcomes the problem of buried isolated islands of silicon oxide forming a discontinuous buried oxide layer.

  19. Development of high strength hydroxyapatite for bone tissue regeneration using nanobioactive glass composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shrivastava, Pragya; Dalai, Sridhar; Vijayalakshmi, S. [Centre for Research in Nanotechnology and Science, IIT Bombay (India); Sudera, Prerna; Sivam, Santosh Param [Amity Institute of Nanotechnology, Amity University, Noida, Uttar Pradesh-201303 (India); Sharma, Pratibha [Dept of Energy Science and Engineering, IIT Bombay (India)

    2013-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    With an increasing demand of biocompatible bone substitutes for the treatment of bone diseases and bone tissue regeneration, bioactive glass composites are being tested to improvise the osteoconductive as well as osteoinductive properties. Nanobioactive glass (nBG) composites, having composition of SiO{sub 2} 70 mol%, CaO 26 mol % and P{sub 2}O{sub 5} 4 mol% were prepared by Freeze drying method using PEG-PPG-PEG co-polymer. Polymer addition improves the mechanical strength and porosity of the scaffold of nBG. Nano Bioactive glass composites upon implantation undergo specific reactions leading to the formation of crystalline hydroxyapatite (HA). This is tested in vitro using Simulated Body Fluid (SBF). This high strength hydroxyapatite (HA) layer acts as osteoconductive in cellular environment, by acting as mineral base of bones, onto which new bone cells proliferate leading to new bone formation. Strength of the nBG composites as well as HA is in the range of cortical and cancellous bone, thus proving significant for bone tissue regeneration substitutes.

  20. Characterization of Epitaxial Film Silicon Solar Cells Grown on Seeded Display Glass: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, D. L.; Grover, S.; Teplin, C.; Stradins, P.; LaSalvia, V.; Chuang, T. K.; Couillard, J. G.; Branz, H. M.

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report characterizations of epitaxial film crystal silicon (c-Si) solar cells with open-circuit voltages (Voc) above 560 mV. The 2-um absorber cells are grown by low-temperature (<750 degrees C) hot-wire CVD (HWCVD) on Corning EAGLE XG display glass coated with a layer-transferred (LT) Si seed. The high Voc is a result of low-defect epitaxial Si (epi-Si) growth and effective hydrogen passivation of defects. The quality of HWCVD epitaxial growth on seeded glass substrates depends on the crystallographic quality of the seed and the morphology of the epitaxial growth surface. Heterojunction devices consist of glass/c-Si LT seed/ epi n+ Si:P/epi n- Si:P/intrinsic a-Si:H/p+ a-Si:H/ITO. Similar devices grown on electronically 'dead' n+ wafers have given Voc {approx}630 mV and {approx}8% efficiency with no light trapping features. Here we study the effects of the seed surface polish on epi-Si quality, how hydrogenation influences the device character, and the dominant junction transport physics.

  1. Study on the colloids generated from testing of high-level nuclear waste glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, X.; Buck, E.C.; Mertz, C.; Bates, J.K.; Cunnane, J.C.; Chaiko, D.J.

    1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The generation of colloids in the interaction of high-level nuclear waste glasses with groundwater at 90{degrees}C has been investigated. The stability of the colloidal suspensions has been characterized with respect to salt concentration, pH time, particle size, and zeta potential. The compositions and the morphology of the colloids have also been determined with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). From ourtest results combined with earlier ones, we conclude that the waste glass may contribute to the colloid formation by increasing ion concentration in groundwater, which causes nucleation of colloids; by releasing radionuclides that adsorb onto existing groundwater colloids; and by spalling colloidal-size fragments from the surface layer of the reacted glass. The colloids are silicon-rich particles, such as smectites and uranium silicates. When the salt concentration in the solution is high the colloidal suspensions agglomerate. However, the agglomerated particles can be resuspended if the salt concentration is lowered by dilution with groundwater. The colloids agglomerate quickly after the leachate is cooled to room temperature. Most of the colloids settle out of the solution within a few days at ambient temperature. The isoelectric point is at a pH of approximately 1.0. Between pH 1 and 10.5, the colloids are negatively charged, which suggests that they will deposit readily on, positively charged surfaces. The average particle size islargest at the isoelectric point and is smallest around pH 6.

  2. Study on the colloids generated from testing of high-level nuclear waste glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, X.; Buck, E.C.; Mertz, C.; Bates, J.K.; Cunnane, J.C.; Chaiko, D.J.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The generation of colloids in the interaction of high-level nuclear waste glasses with groundwater at 90[degrees]C has been investigated. The stability of the colloidal suspensions has been characterized with respect to salt concentration, pH time, particle size, and zeta potential. The compositions and the morphology of the colloids have also been determined with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). From ourtest results combined with earlier ones, we conclude that the waste glass may contribute to the colloid formation by increasing ion concentration in groundwater, which causes nucleation of colloids; by releasing radionuclides that adsorb onto existing groundwater colloids; and by spalling colloidal-size fragments from the surface layer of the reacted glass. The colloids are silicon-rich particles, such as smectites and uranium silicates. When the salt concentration in the solution is high the colloidal suspensions agglomerate. However, the agglomerated particles can be resuspended if the salt concentration is lowered by dilution with groundwater. The colloids agglomerate quickly after the leachate is cooled to room temperature. Most of the colloids settle out of the solution within a few days at ambient temperature. The isoelectric point is at a pH of approximately 1.0. Between pH 1 and 10.5, the colloids are negatively charged, which suggests that they will deposit readily on, positively charged surfaces. The average particle size islargest at the isoelectric point and is smallest around pH 6.

  3. Glass transition and crystallization kinetics of a barium borosilicate glass by a non-isothermal method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopes, Andreia A. S.; Soares, Roque S.; Lima, Maria M. A.; Monteiro, Regina C. C., E-mail: rcm@fct.unl.pt [Department of Materials Science, CENIMAT/I3N, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)

    2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The glass transition and crystallization kinetics of a glass with a molar composition 60BaO-30B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-10SiO{sub 2} were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) under non-isothermal conditions. DSC curves exhibited an endothermic peak associated with the glass transition and two partially overlapped exothermic peaks associated with the crystallization of the glass. The dependence of the glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) and of the maximum crystallization temperature (T{sub p}) on the heating rate was used to determine the activation energy associated with the glass transition (E{sub g}), the activation energy for crystallization (E{sub c}), and the Avrami exponent (n). X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed that barium borate (?-BaB{sub 2}O{sub 4}) was the first crystalline phase to be formed followed by the formation of barium silicate (Ba{sub 5}Si{sub 8}O{sub 21}). The variations of activation energy for crystallization and of Avrami exponent with the fraction of crystallization (?) were also examined. When the crystallization fraction (?) increased from 0.1 to 0.9, the value of local activation energy (E{sub c}(?)) decreased from 554 to 458?kJ/mol for the first exothermic peak and from 1104 to 831?kJ/mol for the second exothermic peak. The value determined for the Avrami exponent was near 2 indicating a similar one-dimensional crystallization mechanism for both crystalline phases. This was confirmed by the morphological studies performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on glass samples heat-treated at the first and at the second crystallization temperatures.

  4. Covalent Layer-by-Layer Synthesis of Responsive Porous Filters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Ainsley Larue

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    response. Because of a much greater inherent roughness to a glass frit, characterization of the polymers and nanoparticles was performed before they were covalently bound to the surface. The final product, a functionalized frit with a PNIPAM/SiO 2...

  5. DWPF Glass Melter Technology Manual: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iverson, D.C.

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This document details information about the design of a glass melter to be used at the Defense Waste Processing Facility located at the Savannah River Site. Topics include: melter overview, design basis, materials, vessel configuration, insulation, refractory configuration, electrical isolation, electrodes, riser and pour spout heater design, dome heaters, feed tubes, drain valves, differential pressure pouring, and melter test results. Information is conveyed using many diagrams and photographs.

  6. Glass Property Models and Constraints for Estimating the Glass to be Produced at Hanford by Implementing Current Advanced Glass Formulation Efforts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vienna, John D.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Skorski, Daniel C.; Matyas, Josef

    2013-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent glass formulation and melter testing data have suggested that significant increases in waste loading in HLW and LAW glasses are possible over current system planning estimates. The data (although limited in some cases) were evaluated to determine a set of constraints and models that could be used to estimate the maximum loading of specific waste compositions in glass. It is recommended that these models and constraints be used to estimate the likely HLW and LAW glass volumes that would result if the current glass formulation studies are successfully completed. It is recognized that some of the models are preliminary in nature and will change in the coming years. Plus the models do not currently address the prediction uncertainties that would be needed before they could be used in plant operations. The models and constraints are only meant to give an indication of rough glass volumes and are not intended to be used in plant operation or waste form qualification activities. A current research program is in place to develop the data, models, and uncertainty descriptions for that purpose. A fundamental tenet underlying the research reported in this document is to try to be less conservative than previous studies when developing constraints for estimating the glass to be produced by implementing current advanced glass formulation efforts. The less conservative approach documented herein should allow for the estimate of glass masses that may be realized if the current efforts in advanced glass formulations are completed over the coming years and are as successful as early indications suggest they may be. Because of this approach there is an unquantifiable uncertainty in the ultimate glass volume projections due to model prediction uncertainties that has to be considered along with other system uncertainties such as waste compositions and amounts to be immobilized, split factors between LAW and HLW, etc.

  7. Sink property of metallic glass free surfaces

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shao, Lin; Fu, Engang; Price, Lloyd; Chen, Di; Chen, Tianyi; Wang, Yongqiang; Xie, Guoqiang; Lucca, Don A.

    2015-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    When heated to a temperature close to glass transition temperature, metallic glasses (MGs) begin to crystallize. Under deformation or particle irradiation, crystallization occurs at even lower temperatures. Hence, phase instability represents an application limit for MGs. Here, we report that MG membranes of a few nanometers thickness exhibit properties different from their bulk MG counterparts. The study uses in situ transmission electron microscopy with concurrent heavy ion irradiation and annealing to observe crystallization behaviors of MGs. For relatively thick membranes, ion irradiations introduce excessive free volumes and thus induce nanocrystal formation at a temperature linearly decreasing with increasing ion fluences.more »For ultra-thin membranes, however, the critical temperature to initiate crystallization is about 100 K higher than the bulk glass transition temperature. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that this effect is due to the sink property of the surfaces which can effectively remove excessive free volumes. These findings suggest that nanostructured MGs having a higher surface to volume ratio are expected to have higher crystallization resistance, which could pave new paths for materials applications in harsh environments requiring higher stabilities.« less

  8. Kinetics of growth of spinel crystals in a borosilicate glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alton, Jesse; Plaisted, Trevor J.; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three aspects of the kinetics of spinel crystallization in a high-level waste (HLW) glass were studied: (1) the effect of nucleation agents on the number density (ns) of spinel crystals, (2) crystallization kinetics in a crushed glass, and (3) crystallization kinetics in a glass preheated at T > TL (liquidus temperature). In glass lacking in nucleation agents, ns was a strong function of temperature. In glasses with noble metals (Rh, Ru, Pd, and Pt), ns increased by up to four orders of magnitude and was nearly independent of temperature. The kinetics of spinel crystallization in crushed glass lacking nucleation agents was dominated by surface crystallization and was described by the Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (KJMA) equation with the Avrami exponent n {at} 0.5. For application to HLW glass melter processing, it was necessary to preheat glass at T > TL to eliminate the impact of temperature history and surface crystallization on crystal nucleation and growth. In the temperature range of glass processing, crystals descend under gravity when they reach a critical size. Below this critical size, crystallization kinetics is described by the KJMA equation and above the critical size by the Hixson-Crowell equation. At low temperatures, at which glass viscosity is high and diffusion is slow, the KJMA equation represents crystal growth from nucleation to equilibrium. As ns increases, the temperature interval of the transition from the KJMA to Hixson-Crowell regime shifts to a higher temperature.

  9. Kinetics of growth of spinel crystals in a borosilicate glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alton, Jesse; Plaisted, Trevor J.; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2002-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Three aspects of the kinetics of spinel crystallization in a high-level waste (HLW) glass were studied: (1) the effect of nucleation agents on the number density (ns) of spinel crystals, (2) crystallization kinetics in a crushed glass, and (3) crystallization kinetics in a glass preheated at T>TL (liquidus temperature). In glass lacking in nucleation agens, ns was a strong function of temperature. In glasses with noble metals (Rh, Ru, Pd, and Pt), ns increased by up to four orders of magnitude and was nearly independent of temperature. The kinetics of spinel crystallization in crushed glass lacking nucleation agents was dominated by surface crystallization and was described by the Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (KJMA) equation with the Avrami exponent n~0.5. For application to HLW glass melter processing, it was necessary to preheat glass at T>TL to eliminate the impact of temperature history and surface crystallization on crystal nucleation and growth. In the temperature range of glass processing, crystals descend under gravity when they reach a critical size. Below this critical size, crystallization kinetics is described by the KJMA equation and above the critical size by the Hixson-Crowell equation. At low temperatures, at which glass viscosity is high and diffusion is slow, the KJMA equation represents crystal growth from nucleation to equilibrium. As ns increases, the temperature interval of the transition from the KJMA to Hisxon-Crowell regime shifts to a higher temperature.

  10. Artificial Neural Networks Single Layer Networks Multi Layer Networks Generalization Artificial Neural Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kjellström, Hedvig

    Artificial Neural Networks Single Layer Networks Multi Layer Networks Generalization Artificial Neural Networks Artificial Neural Networks Single Layer Networks Multi Layer Networks Generalization 1 Artificial Neural Networks Properties Applications Classical Examples Biological Background 2 Single Layer

  11. Oxygen-reducing catalyst layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Brien, Dennis P. (Maplewood, MN); Schmoeckel, Alison K. (Stillwater, MN); Vernstrom, George D. (Cottage Grove, MN); Atanasoski, Radoslav (Edina, MN); Wood, Thomas E. (Stillwater, MN); Yang, Ruizhi (Halifax, CA); Easton, E. Bradley (Halifax, CA); Dahn, Jeffrey R. (Hubley, CA); O'Neill, David G. (Lake Elmo, MN)

    2011-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    An oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, and a method of making the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, where the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer includes a catalytic material film disposed on a substrate with the use of physical vapor deposition and thermal treatment. The catalytic material film includes a transition metal that is substantially free of platinum. At least one of the physical vapor deposition and the thermal treatment is performed in a processing environment comprising a nitrogen-containing gas.

  12. Triple stack glass-to-glass anodic bonding for optogalvanic spectroscopy cells with electrical feedthroughs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daschner, R.; Kübler, H.; Löw, R.; Pfau, T., E-mail: t.pfau@physik.uni-stuttgart.de [5. Physikalisches Institut, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 57, 70550 Stuttgart (Germany); Baur, H.; Frühauf, N. [Institut für Großflächige Mikroelektronik, Universität Stuttgart, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2014-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate the use of an anodic bonding technique for building a vacuum tight vapor cell for the use of Rydberg spectroscopy of alkali atoms with thin film electrodes on the inside of the cell. The cell is fabricated by simultaneous triple stack glass-to-glass anodic bonding at 300?°C. This glue-free, low temperature sealing technique provides the opportunity to include thin film electric feedthroughs. The pressure broadening is only limited by the vapor pressure of rubidium and the lifetime is at least four months with operating temperatures up to 230?°C.

  13. Indentation size effect and the plastic compressibility of glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smedskjaer, Morten M., E-mail: mos@bio.aau.dk [Section of Chemistry, Aalborg University, 9000 Aalborg (Denmark)

    2014-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxide glasses exhibit significant densification under an applied isostatic pressure at the glass transition temperature. The glass compressibility is correlated with the chemical composition and atomic packing density, e.g., borate glasses with planar triangular BO{sub 3} units are more disposed for densification than silicate glasses with tetrahedral units. We here show that there is a direct relation between the plastic compressibility following hot isostatic compression and the extent of the indentation size effect (ISE), which is the decrease of hardness with indentation load exhibited by most materials. This could suggest that the ISE is correlated with indentation-induced shear bands, which should form in greater density when the glass network is more adaptable to volume changes through structural and topological rearrangements under an applied pressure.

  14. Phosphate Glasses for Vitrification of Waste with High Sulfur Content

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Vienna, John D.; Hrma, Pavel R.; Cassingham, Nathan J.

    2002-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The low solubility of sulfate in silicate-based glasses, approximately 1 mass% as SO3, limits the loading of high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) containing high concentrations of sulfur. Based on crucible melting studies, we have shown that the phosphate glasses may incorporate more than 5 mass% SO3; hence, the waste loading can be increased until another constraint is met, such as glass durability. A high-sulfate HLW glass has been formulated and tested to demonstrate the advantages of phosphate glasses. The effect of waste loading on the chemical durability of quenched and slow-cooled phosphate glasses was determined using the Product Consistency Test.

  15. EMPIRICAL MODEL FOR FORMULATION OF CRYSTAL-TOLERANT HLW GLASSES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRUGER AA; MATYAS J; HUCKLEBERRY AR; VIENNA JD; RODRIGUEZ CA

    2012-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Historically, high-level waste (HLW) glasses have been formulated with a low liquideus temperature (T{sub L}), or temperature at which the equilibrium fraction of spinel crystals in the melt is below 1 vol % (T{sub 0.01}), nominally below 1050 C. These constraints cannot prevent the accumulation of large spinel crystals in considerably cooler regions ({approx} 850 C) of the glass discharge riser during melter idling and significantly limit the waste loading, which is reflected in a high volume of waste glass, and would result in high capital, production, and disposal costs. A developed empirical model predicts crystal accumulation in the riser of the melter as a function of concentration of spinel-forming components in glass, and thereby provides guidance in formulating crystal-tolerant glasses that would allow high waste loadings by keeping the spinel crystals small and therefore suspended in the glass.

  16. Thermal phase stability of some simulated Defense waste glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    May, R.P.

    1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three simulated defense waste glass compositions developed by Savannah River Laboratories were studied to determine viscosity and compositional effects on the comparative thermal phase stabilities of these glasses. The glass compositions are similar except that the 411 glasses are high in lithium and low in sodium compared to the 211 glass, and the T glasses are high in iron and low in aluminum compared to the C glass. Specimens of these glasses were heat treated using isothermal anneals as short as 10 min and up to 15 days over the temperature range of 450/sup 0/C to 1100/sup 0/C. Additionally, a specimen of each glass was cooled at a constant cooling rate of 7/sup 0/C/hour from an 1100/sup 0/C melt down to 500/sup 0/C where it was removed from the furnace. The following were observed. The slow cooling rate of 7/sup 0/C/hour is possible as a canister centerline cooling rate for large canisters. Accordingly, it is important to note that a short range diffusion mechanism like cooperative growth phenomena can result in extensive devitrification at lower temperatures and higher yields than a long-range diffusion mechanism can; and can do it without the growth of large crystals that can fracture the glass. Refractory oxides like CeO/sub 2/ and (Ni, Mn, Fe)/sub 2/O/sub 4/ form very rapidly at higher temperatures than silicates and significant yields can be obtained at sufficiently high temperatures that settling of these dense phases becomes a major microstructural feature during slow cooling of some glasses. These annealing studies further show that below 500/sup 0/C there is but little devitrification occurring implying that glass canisters stored at 300/sup 0/C may be kinetically stable despite not being thermodynamically so.

  17. Formulation and Characterization of Waste Glasses with Varying Processing Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Schweiger, M. J.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Lepry, William C.; Lang, Jesse B.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Vienna, John D.; Johnson, Fabienne; Marra, James C.; Peeler, David K.

    2011-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the preliminary results of glass formulation and characterization accomplished within the finished scope of the EM-31 technology development tasks for WP-4 and WP-5, including WP-4.1.2: Glass Formulation for Next Generation Melter, WP-5.1.2.3: Systematic Glass Studies, and WP-5.1.2.4: Glass Formulation for Specific Wastes. This report also presents the suggested studies for eventual restart of these tasks. The initial glass formulation efforts for the cold crucible induction melter (CCIM), operating at {approx}1200 C, with selected HLW (AZ-101) and LAW (AN-105) successfully developed glasses with significant increase of waste loading compared to that is likely to be achieved based on expected reference WTP formulations. Three glasses formulated for AZ-101HLW and one glass for AN-105 LAW were selected for the initial CCIM demonstration melter tests. Melter tests were not performed within the finished scope of the WP-4.1.2 task. Glass formulations for CCIM were expanded to cover additional HLWs that have high potential to successfully demonstrate the unique advantages of the CCIM technologies based on projected composition of Hanford wastes. However, only the preliminary scoping tests were completed with selected wastes within the finished scope. Advanced glass formulations for the reference WTP melter, operating at {approx}1200 C, were initiated with selected specific wastes to determine the estimated maximum waste loading. The incomplete results from these initial formulation efforts are summarized. For systematic glass studies, a test matrix of 32 high-aluminum glasses was completed based on a new method developed in this study.

  18. The use of glass matrices for solidification of radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gromov, V.V.; Minaev, A.A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Physical Chemistry

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The physico-chemical aspects of the solidification of nuclear wastes have been studied at the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences for a number of years. This method is viewed as the most reliable method of storage of nuclear wastes. Various glass systems have been studied, including phosphate, borosilicate glasses etc. The data obtained allow optimal glass compositions to be chosen for solidification of various nuclear wastes.

  19. Welding/sealing glass-enclosed space in a vacuum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO); Benson, David K. (Golden, CO)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of welding and sealing the edges of two juxtaposed glass sheets together to seal a vacuum space between the sheets comprises the steps of positioning a radiation absorbant material, such as FeO, VO.sub.2, or NiO, between the radiation transmissive glass sheets adjacent the edges and then irradiating the absorbant material, preferably with a laser beam, through at least one of the glass sheets. Heat produced by the absorbed radiation in the absorbant material melts glass in the portions of both glass sheets that are adjacent the absorbant material, and the melted glass from both sheets flows together to create the weld when the melted glass cools and hardens. The absorbant material can be dissolved and diffused into the melted glass to the extent that it no longer absorbs enough energy to keep the glass melted, thus, with appropriate proportioning of absorbant material to source energy power and welding heat needed, the process can be made self-stopping.

  20. Dynamical heterogeneities in an attraction driven colloidal glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antonio M. Puertas; Matthias Fuchs; Michael E. Cates

    2006-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The dynamical heterogeneities (DH) in non-ergodic states of an attractive colloidal glass are studied, as a function of the waiting time. Whereas the fluid states close to vitrify showed strong DH, the distribution of squared displacements of the glassy states studied here only present a tail of particles with increased mobility for the lower attraction strength at short waiting times. These particles are in the surface of the percolating cluster that comprises all of the particles, reminiscent of the fastest particles in the fluid. The quench deeper into the attractive glass is dynamically more homogeneous, in agreement with repulsive glasses (i.e. Lennard-Jones glass).

  1. Method of processing "BPS" glass ceramic and seals made therewith

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reed, Scott T. (Albuquerque, NM); Stone, Ronald G. (Albuquerque, NM); McCollister, Howard L. (Albuquerque, NM); Wengert, deceased, Paul R. (late of Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A glass ceramic composition, a glass ceramic-to-metal seal, and more specifically a hermetic glass ceramic-to-metal seal prepared by subjecting a glass composition comprising, by weight percent, SiO.sub.2 (65-80%), LiO.sub.2 (8-16%), Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 (2-8%), K.sub.2 O (1-8%), P.sub.2 O.sub.5 (1-5%), B.sub.2 O.sub.3 (0.5-7%), and ZnO (0-5%) to the following processing steps: 1) heating the glass composition in a belt furnace to a temperature sufficient to melt the glass and crystallize lithium phosphate, 2) holding at a temperature and for a time sufficient to create cristobalite nuclei, 3) cooling at a controlled rate and to a temperature to cause crystallization of lithium silicates and growth of cristobalite, and 4) still further cooling in stages to ambient temperature. This process produces a glass ceramic whose high coefficient of thermal expansion (up to 200.times.10.sup.-7 in/in/.degree.C.) permits the fabrication of glass ceramic-to-metal seals, and particularly hermetic glass ceramic seals to nickel-based and stainless steel alloys and copper.

  2. Breaking through the Glass Ceiling: The Correlation Between the...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    between krypton permeation through and the self-diffusivity of supercooled liquid methanol at temperatures near (100-115 K) the glass transition temperature, Tg (103 K)....

  3. Welding/sealing glass-enclosed space in a vacuum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tracy, C.E.; Benson, D.K.

    1996-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of welding and sealing the edges of two juxtaposed glass sheets together to seal a vacuum space between the sheets comprises the steps of positioning a radiation absorbent material, such as FeO, VO{sub 2}, or NiO, between the radiation transmissive glass sheets adjacent the edges and then irradiating the absorbent material, preferably with a laser beam, through at least one of the glass sheets. Heat produced by the absorbed radiation in the absorbent material melts glass in the portions of both glass sheets that are adjacent the absorbent material, and the melted glass from both sheets flows together to create the weld when the melted glass cools and hardens. The absorbent material can be dissolved and diffused into the melted glass to the extent that it no longer absorbs enough energy to keep the glass melted, thus, with appropriate proportioning of absorbent material to source energy power and welding heat needed, the process can be made self-stopping. 8 figs.

  4. Alkali-lead-iron phosphate glass and associated method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boatner, L.A.; Sales, B.C.; Franco, S.C.S.

    1994-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A glass composition and method of preparation utilizes a mixture consisting of phosphorus oxide within the range of about 40 to 49 molar percent, lead oxide within the range of about 10 to 25 molar percent, iron oxide within the range of about 10 to 17 molar percent and an alkali oxide within the range of about 23 to 30 molar percent. The glass resulting from the melting and subsequent solidifying of the mixture possesses a high degree of durability and a coefficient of thermal expansion as high as that of any of a number of metals. Such features render this glass highly desirable in glass-to-metal seal applications. 6 figures.

  5. Alkali-lead-iron phosphate glass and associated method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boatner, Lynn A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Sales, Brian C. (Knoxville, TN); Franco, Sofia C. S. (Santafe de Bogota, CO)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A glass composition and method of preparation utilizes a mixture consisting of phosphorus oxide within the range of about 40 to 49 molar percent, lead oxide within the range of about 10 to 25 molar percent, iron oxide within the range of about 10 to 17 molar percent and an alkali oxide within the range of about 23 to 30 molar percent. The glass resulting from the melting and subsequent solidifying of the mixture possesses a high degree of durability and a coefficient of thermal expansion as high as that of any of a number of metals. Such features render this glass highly desirable in glass-to-metal seal applications.

  6. Thermal Predictions of the Cooling of Waste Glass Canisters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donna Post Guillen

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radioactive liquid waste from five decades of weapons production is slated for vitrification at the Hanford site. The waste will be mixed with glass forming additives and heated to a high temperature, then poured into canisters within a pour cave where the glass will cool and solidify into a stable waste form for disposal. Computer simulations were performed to predict the heat rejected from the canisters and the temperatures within the glass during cooling. Four different waste glass compositions with different thermophysical properties were evaluated. Canister centerline temperatures and the total amount of heat transfer from the canisters to the surrounding air are reported.

  7. aging colloidal glass: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Matter (arXiv) Summary: We use confocal microscopy to directly visualize the dynamics of aging colloidal glasses. We prepare a colloidal suspension at high density, a...

  8. Color Glass Condensate in QCD at High Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kazunori Itakura

    2004-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    I give a brief review about the color glass condensate, which is the universal form of hadrons and nuclei at high energies.

  9. Economic manufacturing of bulk metallic glass compositions by microalloying

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Chain T.

    2003-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of making a bulk metallic glass composition includes the steps of:a. providing a starting material suitable for making a bulk metallic glass composition, for example, BAM-11; b. adding at least one impurity-mitigating dopant, for example, Pb, Si, B, Sn, P, to the starting material to form a doped starting material; and c. converting the doped starting material to a bulk metallic glass composition so that the impurity-mitigating dopant reacts with impurities in the starting material to neutralize deleterious effects of the impurities on the formation of the bulk metallic glass composition.

  10. From local to global ground states in Ising spin glasses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ilia Zintchenko; Matthew B. Hastings; Matthias Troyer

    2015-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider whether it is possible to find ground states of frustrated spin systems by solving them locally. Using spin glass physics and Imry-Ma arguments in addition to numerical benchmarks we quantify the power of such local solution methods and show that for the average low-dimensional spin glass problem outside the spin- glass phase the exact ground state can be found in polynomial time. In the second part we present a heuristic, general-purpose hierarchical approach which for spin glasses on chimera graphs and lattices in two and three dimensions outperforms, to our knowledge, any other solver currently around, with significantly better scaling performance than simulated annealing.

  11. Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Robert

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    properties of reflected solar radiation from glass surfaces,transfer at the siding surface. Direct solar radiation tosiding, reflected solar radiation from nearby surfaces,

  12. Controlled permeation of hydrogen through glass. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halvorson, T. [Praxair, Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States); Shelby, J.E. Jr. [Alfred Univ., NY (United States). Glass Science Lab.

    1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Storing hydrogen inside of hollow glass spheres requires that the gas permeate through the glass walls. Hydrogen permeation through glass is relatively slow and the time to charge a sphere or bed of spheres is dependent on many factors. Permeation processes are strongly temperature dependent with behavior that follows an Arrhenius function., Rate is also dependent on the pressure drop driving force across a membrane wall and inversely proportional to thickness. Once filled, glass spheres will immediately begin to leak once the pressure driving force is reversed. Practical systems would take advantage of the fact that keeping the glass at ambient temperatures can minimize outboard leakage even with significant internal pressures. If hydrogen could be loaded and unloaded from glass microspheres with significantly less energy and particularly at near ambient temperature, some of the key barriers to commercializing this storage concept would be broken and further system engineering efforts may make this approach cost-effective. There were two key objectives for this effort. The first was to evaluate the application of hollow glass microspheres for merchant hydrogen storage and distribution and then determine the hydrogen permeation performance required for practical commercial use. The second objective was to identify, through a series of fundamental experiments, a low energy, low temperature field effect that could significantly enhance hydrogen permeation through glass without application of heat. If such an effect could be found, hollow glass microspheres could be much more attractive for hydrogen storage or possibly gas separation applications.

  13. alternatives glass jars: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Small amounts). When looking at the cost effectiveness of recycling versus waste to landfill, it's worth bearing Melham, Tom 100 Overview of Energy Efficiency for Glass...

  14. activity glass melts: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    tested strains. Rehab Mahmoud; Abd El-baky; Sanya Maised Hussien 36 Retrospective radon progeny measurements through measurements of 210 activities on glass objects using stacked...

  15. area glass sheets: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    applications. - Int. J. Solids & Struct. 49 and Motivation Components of Thin Film Solar Modules back sheet or glass encapsulant electrical conductor thin 14 Lavender Foal...

  16. Energetic Particle Synthesis of Metastable Layers for Superior Mechanical Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Follstaedt, D.M.; Knapp, J.A.; Myers, S.M.; Dugger, M.T.; Friedmann, T.A.; Sullivan, J.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Monteiro, O.R.; Ager, J.W. III; Brown, I.G.; Christenson, T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energetic particle methods have been used to synthesize two metastable layers with superior mechanical properties: amorphous Ni implanted with overlapping Ti and C, and amorphous diamond-like carbon (DLC) formed by vacuum-arc deposition or pulsed laser deposition. Elastic modulus, yield stress and hardness were reliably determined for both materials by fitting finite-element simulations to the observed layer/substrate responses during nanoindentation. Both materials show exceptional properties, i.e., the yield stress of amorphous Ni(Ti,C) exceeds that of hardened steels and other metallic glasses, and the hardness of DLC (up to 88 GPa) approaches that of crystalline diamond (approx. 100 GPa). Tribological performance of the layers during unlubricated sliding contact appears favorable for treating Ni-based micro-electromechanical systems: stick-slip adhesion to Ni is eliminated, giving a low coefficient of friction (approx. 0.3-0.2) and greatly reduced wear. We discuss how energetic particle synthesis is critical to forming these phases and manipulating their properties for optimum performance.

  17. Dissolution rates and surface chemistry of feldspar glass and crystal. Final technical report, June 15, 1995 - August 14, 2001

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brantley, S.; Pantano, C.

    2002-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Final report summarizing the completed work of the project entitled 'Dissolution of Feldspar in the Field and Laboratory.' One of the highly debated questions today in low-temperature geochemical kinetics centers upon the rate and mechanism of dissolution of feldspar, the most common mineral in the crust. In this project, the mechanisms of feldspar dissolution were investigated by emphasizing experiments with feldspar glass and crystal while comparing surface and solution chemistry. Specifically, laboratory work focused on the structure of altered surface layers on feldspars, the rate of dissolution of feldspar crystal and glass, and the presence of porosity and surface coatings on feldspars. In a complementary field project, the use of Sr concentrations and isotopic ratios were used to calculate feldspar dissolution rates.

  18. Network layer Connectionless datagram forwarding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (passed down by transport layer) into datagrams Destination host delivers segments up to transport layer by the cold war " If there exists a path, routers will put it in the routing table automatically Forwarding in the original order Physical Link Network Transport Application Physical Link Network Transport Application

  19. Phosphate glass useful in high power lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hayden, J.S.; Sapak, D.L.; Ward, J.M.

    1990-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A low- or no-silica phosphate glass useful as a laser medium and having a high thermal conductivity, K[sub 90 C] > 0.8 W/mK, and a low coefficient of thermal expansion, [alpha][sub 20--40 C] < 80[times]10[sup [minus]7]/C, consists essentially of (on a batch composition basis Mole %): P[sub 2]O[sub 5], 45-70; Li[sub 2]O, 15-35; Na[sub 2]O, 0-10; Al[sub 2]O[sub 3], 10-15; Nd[sub 2]O[sub 3], 0.01-6; La[sub 2]O[sub 3], 0-6; SiO[sub 2], 0-8; B[sub 2]O[sub 3], 0-8; MgO, 0-18; CaO, 0-15; SrO, 0-9; BaO, 0-9; ZnO, 0-15; the amounts of Li[sub 2]O and Na[sub 2]O providing an average alkali metal ionic radius sufficiently low whereby said glass has K[sub 90 C] > 0.8 W/mK and [alpha][sub 20--40 C] < 80[times]10[sup [minus]7]/C, and wherein, when the batch composition is melted in contact with a silica-containing surface, the final glass composition contains at most about 3.5 mole % of additional silica derived from such contact during melting. The Nd[sub 2]O[sub 3] can be replaced by other lasing species. 3 figs.

  20. Flexible inverted polymer solar cells with an indium-free tri-layer cathode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El Hajj, Ahmad; Lucas, Bruno, E-mail: bruno.lucas@unilim.fr; Schirr-Bonnans, Martin; Ratier, Bernard [XLIM-CNRS 7252, Université de Limoges, 123 avenue Albert Thomas, 87060 Limoges (France); Kraft, Thomas M. [XLIM-CNRS 7252, Université de Limoges, 123 avenue Albert Thomas, 87060 Limoges (France); Department of Chemistry, Chernoff Hall, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6 (Canada); Torchio, Philippe [Institut Matériaux Microélectronique Nanosciences de Provence, Aix-Marseille Université, IM2NP-CNRS 7334, Domaine Universitaire de Saint-Jérôme, Service 231, 13 397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France)

    2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Indium tin oxide (ITO)-free inverted polymer solar cells (PSCs) have been fabricated without the need of an additional electron transport layer. The indium-free transparent electrode consists of a tri-layer stack ZnO (30?nm)/Ag (14?nm)/ZnO (30?nm) deposited on glass and plastic substrates via ion-beam sputtering. The tri-layer electrodes exhibit similar physical properties to its ITO counterpart, specifically yielding high transmittance and low resistivity (76.5% T at 550?nm, R{sub sq} of 8 ?/?) on plastic substrates. The novel tri-layer electrode allows for the fabrication of inverted PSCs without the additional ZnO interfacial layer commonly deposited between ITO and the photoactive layer. This allows for the preparation of thinner plastic solar cells using less material than conventional architectures. Initial studies involving the newly realized architecture (tri-layer electrode/P3HT:PCBM/PEDOT:PSS/Ag) have shown great promise for the transition from ITO to other viable electrodes in organic electronics.

  1. Molten Glass for Thermal Storage: Advanced Molten Glass for Heat Transfer and Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HEATS Project: Halotechnics is developing a high-temperature thermal energy storage system using a new thermal-storage and heat-transfer material: earth-abundant and low-melting-point molten glass. Heat storage materials are critical to the energy storage process. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials during the day and released at night—when the sun is not out—to drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours. Halotechnics new thermal storage material targets a price that is potentially cheaper than the molten salt used in most commercial solar thermal storage systems today. It is also extremely stable at temperatures up to 1200°C—hundreds of degrees hotter than the highest temperature molten salt can handle. Being able to function at high temperatures will significantly increase the efficiency of turning heat into electricity. Halotechnics is developing a scalable system to pump, heat, store, and discharge the molten glass. The company is leveraging technology used in the modern glass industry, which has decades of experience handling molten glass.

  2. Melting a granular glass by cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jan Plagge; Claus Heussinger

    2013-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Driven granular systems readily form glassy phases at high particle volume fractions and low driving amplitudes. We use computer simulations of a driven granular glass to evidence a re-entrance melting transition into a fluid state, which, contrary to intuition, occurs by \\emph{reducing} the amplitude of the driving. This transition is accompanied by anomalous particle dynamics and super-diffusive behavior on intermediate time-scales. We highlight the special role played by frictional interactions, which help particles to escape their glassy cages. Such an effect is in striking contrast to what friction is expected to do: reduce particle mobility by making them stick.

  3. Radiation Induced Nanocrystal Formation in Metallic Glasses 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carter, Jesse

    2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    simple system consisting of only two elements, several intermetallic compounds can exist, each with their own crystal structure (face-centered cubic, body-centered, etc), and the system gets much more complicated when the number of constituents... of Alloys and Compounds, Vol 431, Q.S. Zhang, W. Zhang, G.Q. Xie, K.S. Nakayama, H. Kimura and A. Inoue, Formation of bulk metallic glass in situ composites in Cu50Zr45Ti5 alloy, Pages 236-240, Copyright 2007, with permission from Elsevier. 16 Fig. 9...

  4. Viscosity of many-component glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Arrigoni, Benjamin M.; Schweiger, Michael J.

    2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of composition on the viscosity of multicomponent glasses was expressed as a function of temperature and composition for three composition regions containing various subsets of Al2O3, B2O3, Bi2O3, CaO, Cr2O3, F, Fe2O3, K2O, Li2O, MgO, MnO, Na2O, NiO, P2O5, SiO2, UO2, and ZrO2. Limits of applicability of the composition models are discussed.

  5. Advanced radioactive waste-glass melters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bickford, D.F.

    1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    During pilot scale operations of the Scale Glass Melter for the US Department of Energy a team of engineers and scientists was formed to assess the need for continued melter design development to support the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), and prioritize future efforts. Recently this has taken on new importance because of selection of the DWPF Melter design as the reference for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Project (HWVP), and increased interest at the West Valley Demonstration Project on melter life and replacement. Results of the study are summarized, and goals produced by the study are compared to the results of current programs at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL).

  6. Advanced radioactive waste-glass melters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bickford, D.F.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During pilot scale operations of the Scale Glass Melter for the US Department of Energy a team of engineers and scientists was formed to assess the need for continued melter design development to support the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), and prioritize future efforts. Recently this has taken on new importance because of selection of the DWPF Melter design as the reference for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Project (HWVP), and increased interest at the West Valley Demonstration Project on melter life and replacement. Results of the study are summarized, and goals produced by the study are compared to the results of current programs at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL).

  7. Xinyi Glass Holdings Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit withTianlinPapers Home Kyoung'sWoongjinXenergaXinhuaHenengXinyi Glass Holdings

  8. Glass Buttes Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdfGetec AG Contracting Jump to: navigation,GilaGirasoleWest Virginia: EnergyGlass

  9. MECS 2006 - Glass | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetterEconomy andTermsDepartment1| DepartmentCementFoodGlass MECS

  10. Bioactive Glass Scaffolds for Bone Regeneration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced Materials Find Find More Like This Return toBioactive Glass

  11. Bioactive Glass Scaffolds for Bone Regeneration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced Materials Find Find More Like This ReturnBioactive Glass Scaffolds

  12. Bioactive Glass Scaffolds for Bone Regeneration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWP TWPAlumniComplexMaterial Science |Materials CenterBioactive Glass

  13. Glass Mountain Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating AGeothermal/Exploration <Glacial Energy HoldingsGlacial LakesGlass

  14. Isuzu Glass Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroup | OpenHunanInformation sourceInvensysIsland Gas JumpIsuzu Glass Co

  15. Analysis and Research on the Thermal Properties of Energy-efficient Building Glass: A Case Study in PVB Laminated Glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Z.; Meng, Q.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , are analyzed. The methods on usage of energy-saving glass are promoted based on the differences of their thermal properties. Meanwhile, a new kind of glass?PVB laminated glass (Fig.1), is introduced. Fl at cl ear gl ass 0. 05mmLOWE coati ng Fl at cl ear g... lass 3 mm( 5 mm) 0. 38mmPVB 3 mm( 5 mm) 0. 38mmPVB Fig. 1 Structure of PVB laminated glass ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China Envelope Technologies for Building Energy Efficiency, Vol.II-4-5 2. EVALUATION STANDARDS OF SOLAR-OPTICAL PROPERTY The main...

  16. Evolution of glass properties during a substitution of S by Se in Ge28Sb12S60-xSex glass Guillaume Guery1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Evolution of glass properties during a substitution of S by Se in Ge28Sb12S60-xSex glass network, Université de Bordeaux I, Avenue du Dr Schweitzer, 33608 Pessac Cedex, France. Keywords: Chalcogenide glass; Raman spectroscopy; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy; Glass properties Author whom correspondence should

  17. The mechanics of glass and functionalised glass surfaces E. Barthel, M. Beauvais, R. Briard, N. Chemin, D. Dalmas, C. Heitz, M. Klotz, P. Nael, A.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The mechanics of glass and functionalised glass surfaces E. Barthel, M. Beauvais, R. Briard, N Aubervilliers Cedex France etienne.barthel@saint-gobain.com Abstract Glass is highly sensitive to surface flaws in glass functionalisation by grafting or coating lend an even more prominent role to the surface

  18. Coexistence of spin-glass and ferromagnetic order in the J Heisenberg spin-glass model A. D. Beath and D. H. Ryan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryan, Dominic

    Coexistence of spin-glass and ferromagnetic order in the ±J Heisenberg spin-glass model A. D. Beath temperature spin-glass transition at TSG=0.220 5 . Remarkably, this transition temperature is composition dependent, rising to TSG=0.25 1 by the ferromagnet­spin-glass boundary. Coexistence of ferromagnetic

  19. Optical Basicity and Nepheline Crystallization in High Alumina Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, Carmen P.; McCloy, John S.; Schweiger, M. J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Winschell, Abigail E.

    2011-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study was to find compositions that increase waste loading of high-alumina wastes beyond what is currently acceptable while avoiding crystallization of nepheline (NaAlSiO4) on slow cooling. Nepheline crystallization has been shown to have a large impact on the chemical durability of high-level waste glasses. It was hypothesized that there would be some composition regions where high-alumina would not result in nepheline crystal production, compositions not currently allowed by the nepheline discriminator. Optical basicity (OB) and the nepheline discriminator (ND) are two ways of describing a given complex glass composition. This report presents the theoretical and experimental basis for these models. They are being studied together in a quadrant system as metrics to explore nepheline crystallization and chemical durability as a function of waste glass composition. These metrics were calculated for glasses with existing data and also for theoretical glasses to explore nepheline formation in Quadrant IV (passes OB metric but fails ND metric), where glasses are presumed to have good chemical durability. Several of these compositions were chosen, and glasses were made to fill poorly represented regions in Quadrant IV. To evaluate nepheline formation and chemical durability of these glasses, quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and the Product Consistency Test were conducted. A large amount of quantitative XRD data is collected here, both from new glasses and from glasses of previous studies that had not previously performed quantitative XRD on the phase assemblage. Appendix A critically discusses a large dataset to be considered for future quantitative studies on nepheline formation in glass. Appendix B provides a theoretical justification for choice of the oxide coefficients used to compute the OB criterion for nepheline formation.

  20. Leaching assessments of toxic metals in waste plasma display panel glass.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, M; Jiang, P; Chen, H; Ogunseitan, OA; Li, Y

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of waste cathode-ray tube glass. Waste Manage. 26:1468–76.leachability from waste PDP glass in order to determinewaste plasma display panel glass ab a a b a Mengjun Chen ,

  1. Glass particles produced by laser ablation for ICP-MS measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gonzalez, J.; Liu, C.; Wen, S.; Mao, X.; Russo, R.E.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Glass particles produced by laser ablation for ICP-MS266nm) was used to generate glass particles from two sets ofWhen the current data on glass were compared with the metal

  2. Graded index antireflective coatings for glass : final report, September 1978 - February 1982

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haggerty, John Scarseth

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Glass compositions and process conditions by which broad band gradedindex antreflective films can be produced on glass surfaces have been developed. The end use for the treated glass sheet is as cover plates for flat plate ...

  3. The effect of temperature on the bending of laminated glass beams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edel, Matthew Thomas

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laminated glass is comprised of multiple plates of glass bonded together with polymorphous interlayers. The interest in the use of architectural laminated glass in the construction industry has increased due to its possible advantages over...

  4. Initial Examination of Low Velocity Sphere Impact of Glass Ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrissey, Timothy G [ORNL; Fox, Ethan E [ORNL; Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL; Ferber, Mattison K [ORNL

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes US Army TARDEC sponsored work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) involving low velocity (< 30 m/s or < 65 mph) sphere impact testing of two materials from the lithium aluminosilicate family reinforced with different amounts of ceramic particulate, i.e., glass-ceramic materials, SCHOTT Resistan{trademark}-G1 and SCHOTT Resistan{trademark}-L. Both materials are provided by SCHOTT Glass (Duryea, PA). This work is a follow-up to similar sphere impact studies completed by the authors on PPG's Starphire{reg_sign} soda-lime silicate glass and SCHOTT BOROFLOAT{reg_sign} borosilicate glass. A gas gun or a sphere-drop test setup was used to produce controlled velocity delivery of silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) spheres against the glass ceramic tile targets. Minimum impact velocities to initiate fracture in the glass-ceramics were measured and interpreted in context to the kinetic energy of impact and the elastic property mismatch between sphere and target material. Quasistatic spherical indentation was also performed on both glass ceramics and their contact damage responses were compared to those of soda-lime silicate and borosilicate glasses. Lastly, variability of contact damage response was assessed by performing spherical indentation testing across the area of an entire glass ceramic tile. The primary observations from this low velocity (< 30 m/s or < 65 mph) testing were: (1) Resistan{trademark}-L glass ceramic required the highest velocity of sphere impact for damage to initiate. Starphire{reg_sign} soda-lime silicate glass was second best, then Resistan{trademark}-G1 glass ceramic, and then BOROFLOAT{reg_sign} borosilicate glass. (2) Glass-ceramic Resistan{trademark}-L also required the largest force to initiate ring crack from quasi-static indentation. That ranking was followed, in descending order, by Starphire{reg_sign} soda-lime silicate glass, Resistan{trademark}-G1 glass ceramic, and BOROFLOAT{reg_sign} borosilicate glass. (3) Spheres with a lower elastic modulus require less force to initiate fracture in Resistan{trademark}-G1 from quasi-static spherical indentation. This indicates that friction is affecting ring crack initiation in Resistan{trademark}-G1. Friction also affected ring crack initiation in Starphire{reg_sign} soda-lime silicate and BOROFLOAT{reg_sign} borosilicate glasses. Among these three materials, friction was the most pronounced (largest slope in the RCIF-elastic modulus graph) in the Starphire{reg_sign} and least pronounced in the BOROFLOAT{reg_sign}. The reason for this is not understood, but differences in deformation behavior under high contact stresses could be a cause or contributor to this. (4) The force necessary to initiate contact-induced fracture is higher under dynamic conditions than it is under quasi-static conditions in Resistan{trademark}-L and Resistan{trademark}-G1 glass ceramics. This is a trend observed too in Starphire{reg_sign} and BOROFLOAT{reg_sign}. (5) There is a subtle indication there was intra-tile differences in spherical indentation-induced ring crack initiation forces. This is not a material property nor is it exclusive to glass-ceramic Resistan{trademark}-G1 glass ceramic, rather, it is a statistical mechanical response to an accumulated history of processing and handling of that specific tile.

  5. Compliant alkali silicate sealing glass for solid oxide fuel cell applications: the effect of protective YSZ coating on electrical stability in dual environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, Y. S.; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Choi, Jung-Pyung; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, compliant sealing glass has been proposed as a potential candidate sealant for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications. In a previous paper, the thermal stability and chemical compatibility were reported for a compliant alkali-containing silicate glass sealed between anode supported YSZ bi-layer and YSZ-coated stainless steel interconnect. In this paper, we will report the electrical stability of the compliant glass under a DC load and dual environment at 700-800 degrees C. Apparent electrical resistivity was measured with a 4-point method for the glass sealed between two plain SS441 metal coupons or YSZ-coated aluminized substrates. The results showed instability with plain SS441 at 800 degrees C, but stable behavior of increasing resistivity with time was observed with the YSZ coated SS441. In addition, results of interfacial microstructure analysis with scanning electron microscopy will be correlated with the measured resistivity results. Overall, the YSZ coating demonstrated chemically stability with the alkali-containing compliant silicate sealing glass under electrical field and dual environments.

  6. Quantum computing in a piece of glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Warner A. Miller; Grigoriy Kreymerman; Christopher Tison; Paul M. Alsing; Jonathan R. McDonald

    2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum gates and simple quantum algorithms can be designed utilizing the diffraction phenomena of a photon within a multiplexed holographic element. The quantum eigenstates we use are the photon's linear momentum (LM) as measured by the number of waves of tilt across the aperture. Two properties of quantum computing within the circuit model make this approach attractive. First, any conditional measurement can be commuted in time with any unitary quantum gate - the timeless nature of quantum computing. Second, photon entanglement can be encoded as a superposition state of a single photon in a higher-dimensional state space afforded by LM. Our theoretical and numerical results indicate that OptiGrate's photo-thermal refractive (PTR) glass is an enabling technology. We will review our previous design of a quantum projection operator and give credence to this approach on a representative quantum gate grounded on coupled-mode theory and numerical simulations, all with parameters consistent with PTR glass. We discuss the strengths (high efficiencies, robustness to environment) and limitations (scalability, crosstalk) of this technology. While not scalable, the utility and robustness of such optical elements for broader quantum information processing applications can be substantial.

  7. D0 layer 0 innermost layer of silicon microstrip tracker

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanagaki, K.; /Fermilab

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new inner layer silicon strip detector has been built and will be installed in the existing silicon microstrip tracker in D0. They report on the motivation, design, and performance of this new detector.

  8. Assessment, development, and testing of glass for blast environments.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glass, Sarah Jill

    2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Glass can have lethal effects including fatalities and injuries when it breaks and then flies through the air under blast loading (''the glass problem''). One goal of this program was to assess the glass problem and solutions being pursued to mitigate it. One solution to the problem is the development of new glass technology that allows the strength and fragmentation to be controlled or selected depending on the blast performance specifications. For example the glass could be weak and fail, or it could be strong and survive, but it must perform reliably. Also, once it fails it should produce fragments of a controlled size. Under certain circumstances it may be beneficial to have very small fragments, in others it may be beneficial to have large fragments that stay together. The second goal of this program was to evaluate the performance (strength, reliability, and fragmentation) of Engineered Stress Profile (ESP) glass under different loading conditions. These included pseudo-static strength and pressure tests and free-field blast tests. The ultimate goal was to provide engineers and architects with a glass whose behavior under blast loading is less lethal. A near-term benefit is a new approach for improving the reliability of glass and modifying its fracture behavior.

  9. Denaturing Urea PAGE -Large Gel Preparation of Glass Plates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aris, John P.

    tube. Mix. Pour ~2.5 mls on inside surface of long glass plate. Spread and polish with Kimwipes. Repeat gel solution down middle of glass plates with 25 ml pipette. Do not trap bubbles in gel. Adjust flow rate with tilt of gel. Place gel close to horizontal (top end slightly elevated). Insert comb. Do

  10. Thermodynamics and Universality for Mean Field Quantum Spin Glasses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nick Crawford

    2006-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We study aspects of the thermodynamics of quantum versions of spin glasses. By means of the Lie-Trotter formula for exponential sums of operators, we adapt methods used to analyze classical spin glass models to answer analogous questions about quantum models.

  11. The Glass Transition in Fluids with Magnetic Interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ricardo Gutierrez; Bhaskar Sen Gupta; Itamar Procaccia

    2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the glass transition in fluids where particles are endowed with spins, such that magnetic and positional degrees of freedom are coupled. Novel results for slowing down in the spin time-correlation functions are described, and the effects of magnetic fields on the glass transition are studied. Aging effects in such systems and the corresponding data collapse are presented and discussed.

  12. Glass for low-cost photovoltaic solar arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bouquet, F.L.

    1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In photovoltaic systems, the encapsulant material that protects the solar cells should be highly transparent and very durable. Glass satisfies these two criteria and is considered a primary candidate for low-cost, photovoltaic encapsulation systems. In this report, various aspects of glass encapsulation are treated that are important for the designer of photovoltaic systems. Candidate glasses and available information defining the state of the art of glass encapsulation materials and processes for automated, high volume production of terrestrial photovoltaic devices and related applications are presented. The criteria for consideration of the glass encapsulation systems were based on the LSA (Low-cost Solar Array) Project goals for arrays: (a) a low degradation rate, (b) high reliability, (c) an efficiency greater than 10 percent, (d) a total array price less than $500/kW, and (e) a production capacity of 5 x 10/sup 5/ kW/yr. The glass design areas treated herein include the types of glass, sources and costs, physical properties and glass modifications, such as antireflection coatings. 78 references.

  13. Disposition of actinides released from high-level waste glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ebert, W.L.; Bates, J.K.; Buck, E.C.; Gong, M.; Wolf, S.F.

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of static leach tests was conducted using glasses developed for vitrifying tank wastes at the Savannah River Site to monitor the disposition of actinide elements upon corrosion of the glasses. In these tests, glasses produced from SRL 131 and SRL 202 frits were corroded at 90{degrees}C in a tuff groundwater. Tests were conducted using crushed glass at different glass surface area-to-solution volume (S/V) ratios to assess the effect of the S/V on the solution chemistry, the corrosion of the glass, and the disposition of actinide elements. Observations regarding the effects of the S/V on the solution chemistry and the corrosion of the glass matrix have been reported previously. This paper highlights the solution analyses performed to assess how the S/V used in a static leach test affects the disposition of actinide elements between fractions that are suspended or dissolved in the solution, and retained by the altered glass or other materials.

  14. Heterogeneous cavitation in liquid helium 4 near a glass plate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caupin, Frédéric

    Heterogeneous cavitation in liquid helium 4 near a glass plate X. Chavanne, S. Balibar and F wave to study cavitation, i.e. the nucleation of bubbles, in liquid helium 4 near a clean glass plate and threshold pressures in the range 0 to -3 bar, significantly less negative than for homogeneous cavitation

  15. Spectral investigations of Sm{sup 3+}-doped oxyfluorosilicate glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramachari, D. [Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517502 (India); Rama Moorthy, L., E-mail: lrmphysics@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517502 (India); Department of Physics, Chadalawada Ramanamma Engineering College, Renigunta Road, Tirupati 517506 (India); Jayasankar, C.K. [Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517502 (India)

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: The figure shows the emission spectra of Sm{sup 3+} doped KNSZL glass for different concentrations. Among the four emission transitions {sup 4}G{sub 5/2} ? {sup 6}H{sub 5/2}, {sup 4}G{sub 5/2} ? {sup 6}H{sub 7/2}, {sup 4}G{sub 5/2} ? {sup 6}H{sub 9/2} and {sup 4}G{sub 5/2} ? {sup 6}H{sub 11/2}, the {sup 4}G{sub 5/2} ? {sup 6}H{sub 7/2} transition of KNSZLSm10 glass is more intense compared with all the transitions. The insert figure shows, the color coordinates (0.59, 0.41) of KNSZLSm10 glass is located on the perimeter of the chromaticity diagram at 592 nm which appears to be closest to the orange color. From these results the KNSZLSm10 glass could be useful for optical amplifiers, waveguides, telecommunications and orange LEDs. - Highlights: • From the DTA, the undoped KNSZL glass more precisely in fiberdrawing. • The XRD pattern confirmed the KNbO{sub 3} nanocrystallites of undoped KNSZL glass. • FTIR and Raman data of KNSZLSm10 glass revealed structural properties. • Judd–Ofelt analysis and decay measurements were carried out. • The optical gain parameter of the investigated glass is 18.13 × 10{sup ?25} cm{sup 2} s. - Abstract: Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}-doped oxyfluorosilicate glasses were prepared by melt-quenching method. The differential thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction were carried out to investigate the glass transition temperature and structure of precursor glass. Infrared spectroscopy, Raman, optical absorption, photoluminescence and decay measurements were carried out for Sm{sup 3+}-doped oxyfluorosilicate glasses. From the absorption spectrum, the Judd–Ofelt intensity parameters have been evaluated to predict the radiative properties for the emission levels of Sm{sup 3+} ions. The lifetimes of {sup 4}G{sub 5/2} level are found to decrease from 1.17 to 0.93 ms due to the energy transfer, when the concentration of Sm{sup 3+} ions increases from 0.1 to 2.0 mol%. The optical gain parameter (18.13 × 10{sup ?25} cm{sup 2} s) of the investigated glass is found to be higher than the other Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}-doped glass systems.

  16. Silicon-on-glass pore network micromodels with oxygen-sensing...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Silicon-on-glass pore network micromodels with oxygen-sensing fluorophore films for chemical imaging and defined spatial Silicon-on-glass pore network micromodels with...

  17. alkali-silicate glass exposed: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    applications. - Int. J. Solids & Struct. 49 and Motivation Components of Thin Film Solar Modules back sheet or glass encapsulant electrical conductor thin 40 Glass Forming...

  18. PbO-free glasses for low temperature packaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brow, R.K.; Bencoe, D.N.; Tallant, D.R. [and others

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Zinc polyphosphate glasses were examined as potential candidates for low temperature sealing applications. Glass-formation and properties were determined for the ZnO-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, ZnO-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and ZnO-SnO-P{sub 2}O{sub 5} systems, and information about the short-range structures of these glasses was obtained by Raman and solid state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies. In general, the most durable polyphosphate glasses have structures based on relatively short pyrophosphate chain lengths (i.e., 2 P-tetrahedra). Modified phosphate compositions are given, including compositions used to seal float glass substrates at temperatures as low as 500{degrees}C.

  19. IRON-PHOSPHATE GLASS FOR IMMOBILIZATION OF RADIOACTIVE TECHNETIUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRUGER AA; HRMA PR; XU K; CHOI J; UM W; HEO J

    2012-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Technetium-99 (Tc-99) can bring a serious environmental threat because of its high fission yield, long half-life, and high solubility and mobility in the ground water. The present work investigated the immobilization of Tc-99 (surrogated by Re) by heat-treating mixtures of an iron-phosphate glass with 1.5 to 6 wt.% KReO{sub 4} at {approx}1000 C. The Re retention in the glass was as high as {approx}1.2 wt. % while the loss of Re by evaporation during melting was {approx}50%. Re was uniformly distributed within the glass. The normalized Re release by the 7-day Product Consistency Test was {approx}0.39 g/m{sup 2}, comparable with that in phosphate-bonded ceramics and borosilicate glasses. These results suggest that iron-phosphate glass can provide a good matrix for immobilizing Tc-99.

  20. Nuclear waste vitrification: electric melting and glass formulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, Pavel R.

    2007-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hanford Site contains 177 underground tanks with radioactive waste that will be vitrified, i.e., immobilized by converting it to glass in electric melters. After pretreatment, the waste slurry will be mixed with glass-forming minerals, and the resulting feed will be charged into the melter. For each waste composition, the glass must be formulated to possess acceptable processing and product behavior defined in terms of physical properties that guarantee that the glass is easily made and resists environmental degradation. On heating, the feed undergoes complex reactions. The large variability of waste compositions presents numerous technological challenges: undesirable insoluble solids and molten salts may segregate; foam may hinder heat transfer and slows down the process; and on cooling, the glass may precipitate crystalline phases.

  1. Parametric effects of glass reaction under unsaturated conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bates, J.K.; Gerding, T.J.; Woodland, A.B.

    1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Eventual liquid water contact of high-level waste glass stored under the unsaturated conditions anticipated at the Yucca Mountain site will be by slow intrusion of water into a breached container/canister assembly. The water flow patterns under these unsaturated conditions will vary, and the Unsaturated Test method has been developed by the YMP to study glass reaction. The results from seven different sets of tests done to investigate the effect of systematically varying parameters, such as glass composition, composition and degree of sensitization of 304L stainless steel, water input volume, and the interval of water contact are discussed. Glass reaction has been monitored over a period of five years, and the parametric effects can result in up to a ten-fold variance in the degree of glass reaction.

  2. Modeling of Glass Making Processes for Improved Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas P. Seward III

    2003-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall goal of this project was to develop a high-temperature melt properties database with sufficient reliability to allow mathematical modeling of glass melting and forming processes for improved product quality, improved efficiency and lessened environmental impact. It was initiated by the United States glass industry through the NSF Industry/University Center for Glass Research (CGR) at Alfred University [1]. Because of their important commercial value, six different types/families of glass were studied: container, float, fiberglass (E- and wool-types), low-expansion borosilicate, and color TV panel glasses. CGR member companies supplied production-quality glass from all six families upon which we measured, as a function of temperature in the molten state, density, surface tension, viscosity, electrical resistivity, infrared transmittance (to determine high temperature radiative conductivity), non-Newtonian flow behavior, and oxygen partial pres sure. With CGR cost sharing, we also studied gas solubility and diffusivity in each of these glasses. Because knowledge of the compositional dependencies of melt viscosity and electrical resistivity are extremely important for glass melting furnace design and operation, these properties were studied more fully. Composition variations were statistically designed for all six types/families of glass. About 140 different glasses were then melted on a laboratory scale and their viscosity and electrical resistivity measured as a function of temperature. The measurements were completed in February 2003 and are reported on here. The next steps will be (1) to statistically analyze the compositional dependencies of viscosity and electrical resistivity and develop composition-property response surfaces, (2) submit all the data to CGR member companies to evaluate the usefulness in their models, and (3) publish the results in technical journals and most likely in book form.

  3. Glass Formulations for Immobilizing Hanford Low-Activity Wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Elliott, Michael L.; Smith, Harry D.; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2006-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are developing and testing glasses for immobilizing low-activity wastes (LAW) for the full Hanford mission. PNNL is performing testing for low-activity waste glasses for both the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) and the Bulk Vitrification Plant. The objective of this work is to increase the waste content of the glasses and ultimately increase the waste throughput of the LAW vitrification plants. This paper focuses on PNNL’s development and testing of glasses for the Bulk Vitrification process. Bulk Vitrification was selected as a potential supplemental treatment to accelerate the cleanup of LAW at Hanford. Also known as In-Container Vitrification™ (ICV™), the Bulk Vitrification process combines soil, LAW, and chemical amendments; dries the mixture; and then vitrifies the material in a batch process in a refractory lined box. The process was developed by AMEC Earth and Environmental, Inc. (AMEC). Working with AMEC, PNNL developed a glass formulation that could incorporate a broad range of Hanford LAW. The initial glass development involved a “nominal” waste composition, and a baseline glass was formulated and tested at crucible, engineering, and full scales. The performance of the baseline glass was then verified using a battery of laboratory tests as well as engineering-scale and full-scale ICV™ tests. Future testing is planned for optimizing the glass waste loading and qualifying a broader range of waste streams for treatment in the Bulk Vitrification process. This paper reviews the glass development and qualification process completed to date. This includes several series of crucible studies as well as confirmation testing at engineering-scale and full-scale. This formulation paper complements information presented by AMEC in an ICV™ processing paper.

  4. Semiconducting glasses: A new class of thermoelectric materials?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goncalves, A.P., E-mail: apg@itn.pt [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa/CFMC-UL, P-2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Lopes, E.B. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa/CFMC-UL, P-2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)] [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa/CFMC-UL, P-2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Delaizir, G. [SPCTS, UMR CNRS 7315, Centre Europeen de la Ceramique, 12 rue Atlantis, 87068 Limoges (France)] [SPCTS, UMR CNRS 7315, Centre Europeen de la Ceramique, 12 rue Atlantis, 87068 Limoges (France); Vaney, J.B.; Lenoir, B. [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR 7198 CNRS-Nancy Universite-UPVM, Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Nancy, Parc de Saurupt, F-54042 Nancy (France)] [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR 7198 CNRS-Nancy Universite-UPVM, Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Nancy, Parc de Saurupt, F-54042 Nancy (France); Piarristeguy, A.; Pradel, A. [Institut Charles Gerhardt (ICG), UMR 5253 CNRS, Universite de Montpellier 2, 34095 Montpellier (France)] [Institut Charles Gerhardt (ICG), UMR 5253 CNRS, Universite de Montpellier 2, 34095 Montpellier (France); Monnier, J.; Ochin, P.; Godart, C. [CNRS, ICMPE, CMTR, 2/8 rue Henri Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France)] [CNRS, ICMPE, CMTR, 2/8 rue Henri Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France)

    2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The deeper understanding of the factors that affect the dimensionless figure of merit, ZT, and the use of new synthetic methods has recently led to the development of novel systems with improved thermoelectric performances. Albeit up to now with ZT values lower than the conventional bulk materials, semiconducting glasses have also emerged as a new family of potential thermoelectric materials. This paper reviews the latest advances on semiconducting glasses for thermoelectric applications. Key examples of tellurium-based glasses, with high Seebeck coefficients, very low thermal conductivities and tunable electrical conductivities, are presented. ZT values as high as 0.2 were obtained at room temperature for several tellurium-based glasses with high copper concentrations, confirming chalcogenide semiconducting glasses as good candidates for high-performance thermoelectric materials. However, the temperature stability and electrical conductivity of the reported glasses are still not good enough for practical applications and further studies are still needed to enhance them. - Graphical abstract: Power factor as a function of the temperature for the Cu{sub 27.5}Ge{sub 2.5}Te{sub 70} and Cu{sub 30}As{sub 15}Te{sub 55} seniconducting glasses. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A review of semiconducting glasses for thermoelectrics applications is presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The studied semiconducting glasses present very low thermal conductivities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Composition can tune electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZT=0.2 is obtained at 300 K for different semiconducting glasses.

  5. METEOROLOGY 130 Boundary Layer Meteorology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clements, Craig

    4) Turbulence Kinetic Energy · TKE budget and terms · Stability concepts · Richardson number 5) Measuring the Boundary Layer · Balloons · Radars · Sodars · Towers (micrometeorology) · Measuring Turbulence Time Series Analysis 8) Similarity Theory and Turbulence Closure 9) Surface Energy Budgets 10) Special

  6. THE MARTIAN ATMOSPHERIC BOUNDARY LAYER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spiga, Aymeric

    THE MARTIAN ATMOSPHERIC BOUNDARY LAYER A. Petrosyan,1 B. Galperin,2 S. E. Larsen,3 S. R. Lewis,4 A [Haberle et al., 1993a; Larsen et al., 2002; Hinson et al., 2008]. At night, convection is inhibited

  7. Glasstech. Ber. Glass Sci. Technol. 75 C2 (2002) 298 Photoinduced Chemical Etching of Silicate and Borosilicate Glasses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glebov, Leon

    Glasstech. Ber. Glass Sci. Technol. 75 C2 (2002) 298 Photoinduced Chemical Etching of Silicate. However, those data are in a contradiction with published data on radiation defect generation in silicate of the photoinduced etching in silicate glasses. 2. Experimental The following materials were used as samples

  8. General Comparison of Power Loss in Single-Layer and Multi-Layer Windings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    General Comparison of Power Loss in Single-Layer and Multi-Layer Windings M. E. Dale C. R. Sullivan the IEEE. #12;General Comparison of Power Loss in Single-Layer and Multi-Layer Windings Magdalena E. Dale

  9. Artificial Neural Networks Single Layer Networks Multi Layer Networks Generalization Artificial Neural Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kjellström, Hedvig

    Artificial Neural Networks Single Layer Networks Multi Layer Networks Generalization Artificial Neural Networks #12;Artificial Neural Networks Single Layer Networks Multi Layer Networks Generalization 1 Artificial Neural Networks Properties Applications Classical Examples Biological Background 2

  10. Hybrid window layer for photovoltaic cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deng, Xunming (Syvania, OH)

    2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel photovoltaic solar cell and method of making the same are disclosed. The solar cell includes: at least one absorber layer which could either be a lightly doped layer or an undoped layer, and at least a doped window-layers which comprise at least two sub-window-layers. The first sub-window-layer, which is next to the absorber-layer, is deposited to form desirable junction with the absorber-layer. The second sub-window-layer, which is next to the first sub-window-layer, but not in direct contact with the absorber-layer, is deposited in order to have transmission higher than the first-sub-window-layer.

  11. The limited growth of vegetated shear layers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghisalberti, M.

    In contrast to free shear layers, which grow continuously downstream, shear layers generated by submerged vegetation grow only to a finite thickness. Because these shear layers are characterized by coherent vortex structures ...

  12. Hybrid window layer for photovoltaic cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deng, Xunming (Syvania, OH); Liao, Xianbo (Toledo, OH); Du, Wenhui (Toledo, OH)

    2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel photovoltaic solar cell and method of making the same are disclosed. The solar cell includes: at least one absorber layer which could either be a lightly doped layer or an undoped layer, and at least a doped window-layers which comprise at least two sub-window-layers. The first sub-window-layer, which is next to the absorber-layer, is deposited to form desirable junction with the absorber-layer. The second sub-window-layer, which is next to the first sub-window-layer, but not in direct contact with the absorber-layer, is deposited in order to have transmission higher than the first-sub-window-layer.

  13. Hybrid window layer for photovoltaic cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deng, Xunming (Sylvania, OH); Liao, Xianbo (Toledo, OH); Du, Wenhui (Toledo, OH)

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel photovoltaic solar cell and method of making the same are disclosed. The solar cell includes: at least one absorber layer which could either be a lightly doped layer or an undoped layer, and at least a doped window-layers which comprise at least two sub-window-layers. The first sub-window-layer, which is next to the absorber-layer, is deposited to form desirable junction with the absorber-layer. The second sub-window-layer, which is next to the first sub-window-layer, but not in direct contact with the absorber-layer, is deposited in order to have transmission higher than the first-sub-window-layer.

  14. Effect of glass composition on activation energy of viscosity in glass-melting-temperature range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Han, Sang Soo

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the high-temperature range, where the viscosity (Eta) of molten glass is <10{sup 3} Pa s, the activation energy (B) is virtually ln(Eta) = A + B/T, is nearly independent of melt composition. Hence, the viscosity-composition relationship for Eta < 10{sup 3} Pa s is defined by B as a function of composition. Using a database encompassing over 1300 compositions of high-level waste glasses with nearly 7000 viscosity data, we developed mathematical models for B(x), where x is the composition vector in terms of mass fractions of components. In this paper, we present 13 versions of B(x) as first- and second-order polynomials with coefficients for 15 to 39 components, including Others, a component that sums constituents having little effect on viscosity.

  15. Precision diamond grinding of ceramics and glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, S.; Paul, H.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new research initiative will be undertaken to investigate the effect of machine parameters and material properties on precision diamond grinding of ceramics and glass. The critical grinding depth to initiate the plastic flow-to-brittle fracture regime will be directly measured using plunge-grind tests. This information will be correlated with machine parameters such as wheel bonding and diamond grain size. Multiaxis grinding tests will then be made to provide data more closely coupled with production technology. One important aspect of the material property studies involves measuring fracture toughness at the very short crack sizes commensurate with grinding damage. Short crack toughness value`s can be much less than the long-crack toughness values measured in conventional fracture tests.

  16. Thermally efficient melting for glass making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Michael S. K. (Zionsville, PA); Painter, Corning F. (Allentown, PA); Pastore, Steven P. (Allentown, PA); Roth, Gary (Trexlertown, PA); Winchester, David C. (Allentown, PA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is an integrated process for the production of glass utilizing combustion heat to melt glassmaking materials in a glassmaking furnace. The fuel combusted to produce heat sufficient to melt the glassmaking materials is combusted with oxygen-enriched oxidant to reduce heat losses from the offgas of the glassmaking furnace. The process further reduces heat losses by quenching hot offgas from the glassmaking furnace with a process stream to retain the heat recovered from quench in the glassmaking process with subsequent additional heat recovery by heat exchange of the fuel to the glassmaking furnace, as well as the glassmaking materials, such as batch and cullet. The process includes recovery of a commercially pure carbon dioxide product by separatory means from the cooled, residual offgas from the glassmaking furnace.

  17. The US glass industry: An energy perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babcock, E.; Elaahi, A.; Lowitt, H.E.

    1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report investigates the state of the US glass industry in terms of energy consumption and conservation. The specific objectives were: to update and verify energy consumption and production data for the various process steps in 1985; to determine the potential energy savings attainable by replacing current practices with state-of-the-art and advanced (year 2010) production practices and technologies; and to identify areas of research and development opportunity that will enable these potential future savings to be achieved. The results of this study concluded that for the year 2010 production level, there is potential to save between 21 and 44 percent of the projected energy use by replacing current technology practices with state-of-the-art and advanced technologies. RandD needs and opportunities were identified for the industry. Potential RandD candidates for DOE involvement were selected from the identified list, primarily based on their energy savings potential and the opinions of industry experts. 100 refs.

  18. Phosphate glass useful in high energy lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hayden, Y.T.; Payne, S.A.; Hayden, J.S.; Campbell, J.H.; Aston, M.K.; Elder, M.L.

    1996-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    In a high energy laser system utilizing phosphate laser glass components to amplify the laser beam, the laser system requires a generated laser beam having an emission bandwidth of less than 26 nm and the laser glass components consist essentially of (on an oxide composition basis) in mole percent: P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, 50--75; Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, {gt}0--10; K{sub 2}O, {gt}0--30; MgO, 0--30; CaO, 0--30; Li{sub 2}O, 0--20; Na{sub 2}O, 0--20; Rb{sub 2}O, 0--20; Cs{sub 2}O, 0--20; BeO, 0--20; SrO, 0--20; BaO, 0--20; ZnO, 0--20; PbO, 0--20; B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 0--10; Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 0--10; La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 0--8; Ln{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 0.01--8; wherein the sum of MgO and CaO is >0--30; the sum of Li{sub 2}O, Na{sub 2}O, Rb{sub 2}O, and Cs{sub 2}O is 0--20; the sum of BeO, SrO, BaO, ZnO, and PbO is 0--20; the sum of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} is 0--10; and Ln{sub 2}O{sub 3} represents the sum of the oxides of active lasing lanthanides of atomic number 58--71. 21 figs.

  19. Phosphate glass useful in high energy lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hayden, Yuiko T. (Clarks Summit, PA); Payne, Stephen A. (Castro Valley, CA); Hayden, Joseph S. (Clarks Summit, PA); Campbell, John H. (Livermore, CA); Aston, Mary Kay (Moscow, PA); Elder, Melanie L. (Dublin, CA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a high energy laser system utilizing phosphate laser glass components to amplify the laser beam, the laser system requires a generated laser beam having an emission bandwidth of less than 26 nm and the laser glass components consist essentially of (on an oxide composition basis) in mole percent: P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, 50--75; Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, {gt}0--10; K{sub 2}O, {gt}0--30; MgO, 0--30; CaO, 0--30; Li{sub 2}O, 0--20; Na{sub 2}O, 0--20; Rb{sub 2}O, 0--20; Cs{sub 2}O, 0--20; BeO, 0--20; SrO, 0--20; BaO, 0--20; ZnO, 0--20; PbO, 0--20; B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 0--10; Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 0--10; La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 0--8; Ln{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 0.01--8; wherein the sum of MgO and CaO is >0--30; the sum of Li{sub 2}O, Na{sub 2}O, Rb{sub 2}O, and Cs{sub 2}O is 0--20; the sum of BeO, SrO, BaO, ZnO, and PbO is 0--20; the sum of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} is 0--10; and Ln{sub 2}O{sub 3} represents the sum of the oxides of active lasing lanthanides of atomic number 58--71. 21 figs.

  20. Low Velocity Sphere Impact of a Borosilicate Glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrissey, Timothy G [ORNL; Ferber, Mattison K [ORNL; Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL; Fox, Ethan E [ORNL

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes US Army TARDEC sponsored work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) involving low velocity (< 30 m/s or < 65 mph) ball impact testing of Borofloat borosilicate glass, and is a follow-up to a similar study completed by the authors on Starphire soda-lime silicate glass last year. The response of the borosilicate glass to impact testing at different angles was also studied. The Borofloat glass was supplied by the US Army Research Laboratory and its tin-side was impacted or indented. The intent was to better understand low velocity impact response in the Borofloat. Seven sphere materials were used whose densities bracket that of rock: borosilicate glass, soda-lime silicate glass, silicon nitride, aluminum oxide, zirconium oxide, carbon steel, and a chrome steel. A gas gun or a ball-drop test setup was used to produce controlled velocity delivery of the spheres against the glass tile targets. Minimum impact velocities to initiate fracture in the Borofloat were measured and interpreted in context to the kinetic energy of impact and the elastic property mismatch between the seven sphere-Borofloat-target combinations. The primary observations from this low velocity (< 30 m/s or < 65 mph) testing were: (1) BS glass responded similarly to soda-lime silicate glass when spherically indented but quite differently under sphere impact conditions; (2) Frictional effects contributed to fracture initiation in BS glass when it spherically indented. This effect was also observed with soda-lime silicate glass; (3) The force necessary to initiate fracture in BS glass under spherical impact decreases with increasing elastic modulus of the sphere material. This trend is opposite to what was observed with soda-lime silicate glass. Friction cannot explain this trend and the authors do not have a legitimate explanation for it yet; (4) The force necessary to initiate contact-induced fracture is higher under dynamic conditions than under quasi-static conditions. That difference decreases with increasing elastic modulus mismatch between the sphere material and borosilicate This trend was opposite in soda-lime silicate glass; (5) Fracture in borosilicate glass occurs at lower velocities (i.e., easier) at 24{sup o} than at 0{sup o} (orthogonal) and 46{sup o} of impact for the same probability of failure. Though not analyzed yet, this suggests that a convolution of kinetic energy and friction is contributing to that trend; (6) There is a subtle indication there was intra-tile differences in spherical indentation RCIF. This likely is not a material property nor exclusive to borosilicate glass, rather, it is a statistical response of a combination of local, surface-located flaw and imposed tensile stress. Understanding of the surface flaw population and flaw positioning can likely enable prediction of spherical indentation RCIF; and (7) Contact-induced fracture did not initiate in the Borofloat BS for impact kinetic energies up to {approx} 20 mJ. For kinetic energies between {approx} 20-150 mJ, fracture sometimes initiated. Contact-induced fracture would always occur for impact energies > 150 mJ. The energy values, and their boundaries, were much lower for BS glass than they were for soda-lime silicate glass.

  1. Glass Formulations for Immobilizing Hanford Low-Activity Wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, D.S.; Elliott, M.L.; Smith, H.D.; Bagaasen, L.M.; Hrma, P.R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are developing and testing glasses for immobilizing low-activity wastes (LAW) for the full Hanford mission. PNNL is performing testing for low-activity waste glasses for both the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) and the Bulk Vitrification Plant. The objective of this work is to increase the waste content of the glasses and ultimately increase the waste throughput of the LAW vitrification plants. This paper focuses on PNNL's development and testing of glasses for the Bulk Vitrification process. Collaborative studies are also being conducted with the Khlopin Radium Institute in St. Petersburg, Russia, to increase the solubility of sulfur in WTP glasses through the addition of trace chemicals to alter the glass chemistry. That research will be presented in a separate paper at this conference. Bulk Vitrification was selected as a potential supplemental treatment to accelerate the cleanup of LAW at Hanford. Also known as In-Container Vitrification{sup TM} (ICV{sup TM}), the Bulk Vitrification process combines soil, LAW, and chemical amendments; dries the mixture; and then vitrifies the material in a batch process in a refractory lined box. The process was developed by AMEC Earth and Environmental, Inc. (AMEC). Working with AMEC, PNNL developed a glass formulation that could incorporate a broad range of Hanford LAW. The initial glass development involved a 'nominal' waste composition, and a baseline glass was formulated and tested at crucible, engineering, and full scales. The performance of the baseline glass was then verified using a battery of laboratory tests as well as engineering-scale and full-scale ICV{sup TM} tests. Continued testing has focused on developing an acceptable operating envelope for the baseline glass. The current glass constraints are: - 17 {<=} Na{sub 2}O {<=} 22 mass%; - 3 {<=} B{sub 2}O{sub 3} {<=} 5 mass%; - 8 {<=} Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} {<=} 12.5 mass%; - 5.5 {<=} ZrO{sub 2} {<=} 8 mass%; 6.4 {<=} ZrO{sub 2} {<=} 8 mass% if Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} {>=} 9.5 mass%; - 40 {<=} SiO{sub 2} {<=} 48.5 mass%. Multiple samples from engineering-scale and full-scale ICV{sup TM} tests performed with a baseline glass formulation developed from crucible tests were analyzed for chemical composition, Product Consistency Test, Vapor Hydration Test, and the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure. The results show good agreement between glasses prepared in a crucible in the laboratory and the glasses from the larger scale tests. The results also show that the glass in the ICV{sup TM} box is homogeneous. Future testing is planned for optimizing the glass waste loading and qualifying a broader range of waste streams for treatment in the Bulk Vitrification process. This paper reviews the glass development and qualification process completed to date. This includes several series of crucible studies as well as confirmation testing at engineering-scale and full-scale. This formulation paper complements information presented by AMEC in an ICV{sup TM} processing paper. (authors)

  2. Low melting high lithia glass compositions and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jantzen, Carol M. (Aiken, SC); Pickett, John B. (Aiken, SC); Cicero-Herman, Connie A. (Aiken, SC); Marra, James C. (Aiken, SC)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to methods of vitrifying waste and for lowering the melting point of glass forming systems by including lithia formers in the glass forming composition in significant amounts, typically from about 0.16 wt % to about 11 wt %, based on the total glass forming oxides. The lithia is typically included as a replacement for alkali oxide glass formers that would normally be present in a particular glass forming system. Replacement can occur on a mole percent or weight percent basis, and typically results in a composition wherein lithia forms about 10 wt % to about 100 wt % of the alkali oxide glass formers present in the composition. The present invention also relates to the high lithia glass compositions formed by these methods. The invention is useful for stabilization of numerous types of waste materials, including aqueous waste streams, sludge solids, mixtures of aqueous supernate and sludge solids, combinations of spent filter aids from waste water treatment and waste sludges, supernate alone, incinerator ash, incinerator offgas blowdown, or combinations thereof, geological mine tailings and sludges, asbestos, inorganic filter media, cement waste forms in need of remediation, spent or partially spent ion exchange resins or zeolites, contaminated soils, lead paint, etc. The decrease in melting point achieved by the present invention desirably prevents volatilization of hazardous or radioactive species during vitrification.

  3. Low melting high lithia glass compositions and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jantzen, Carol M.; Pickett, John B.; Cicero-Herman, Connie A.; Marra, James C.

    2004-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to methods of vitrifying waste and for lowering the melting point of glass forming systems by including lithia formers in the glass forming composition in significant amounts, typically from about 0.16 wt % to about 11 wt %, based on the total glass forming oxides. The lithia is typically included as a replacement for alkali oxide glass formers that would normally be present in a particular glass forming system. Replacement can occur on a mole percent or weight percent basis, and typically results in a composition wherein lithia forms about 10 wt % to about 100 wt % of the alkali oxide glass formers present in the composition. The present invention also relates to the high lithia glass compositions formed by these methods. The invention is useful for stabilization of numerous types of waste materials, including aqueous waste streams, sludge solids, mixtures of aqueous supernate and sludge solids, combinations of spent filter aids from waste water treatment and waste sludges, supernate alone, incinerator ash, incinerator offgas blowdown, or combinations thereof, geological mine tailings and sludges, asbestos, inorganic filter media, cement waste forms in need of remediation, spent or partially spent ion exchange resins or zeolites, contaminated soils, lead paint, etc. The decrease in melting point achieved by the present invention desirably prevents volatilization of hazardous or radioactive species during vitrification.

  4. Low melting high lithia glass compositions and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jantzen, Carol M.; Pickett, John B.; Cicero-Herman, Connie A.; Marra, James C.

    2003-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to methods of vitrifying waste and for lowering the melting point of glass forming systems by including lithia formers in the glass forming composition in significant amounts, typically from about 0.16 wt % to about 11 wt %, based on the total glass forming oxides. The lithia is typically included as a replacement for alkali oxide glass formers that would normally be present in a particular glass forming system. Replacement can occur on a mole percent or weight percent basis, and typically results in a composition wherein lithia forms about 10 wt % to about 100 wt % of the alkali oxide glass formers present in the composition. The present invention also relates to the high lithia glass compositions formed by these methods. The invention is useful for stabilization of numerous types of waste materials, including aqueous waste streams, sludge solids, mixtures of aqueous supernate and sludge solids, combinations of spent filter aids from waste water treatment and waste sludges, supernate alone, incinerator ash, incinerator offgas blowdown, or combinations thereof, geological mine tailings and sludges, asbestos, inorganic filter media, cement waste forms in need of remediation, spent or partially spent ion exchange resins or zeolites, contaminated soils, lead paint, etc. The decrease in melting point achieved by the present invention desirably prevents volatilization of hazardous or radioactive species during vitrification.

  5. Redox reaction and foaming in nuclear waste glass melting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, J.L.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document was prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and is an attempt to analyze and estimate the effects of feed composition variables and reducing agent variables on the expected chemistry of reactions occurring in the cold cap and in the glass melt in the nuclear waste glass Slurry-fed, joule-heated melters as they might affect foaming during the glass-making process. Numerous redox reactions of waste glass components and potential feed additives, and the effects of other feed variables on these reactions are reviewed with regard to their potential effect on glass foaming. A major emphasis of this report is to examine the potential positive or negative aspects of adjusting feed with formic acid as opposed to other feed modification techniques including but not limited to use of other reducing agents. Feed modification techniques other than the use of reductants that should influence foaming behavior include control of glass melter feed pH through use of nitric acid. They also include partial replacement of sodium salts by lithium salts. This latter action (b) apparently lowers glass viscosity and raises surface tension. This replacement should decrease foaming by decreasing foam stability.

  6. Radionuclide decay effects on waste glass corrosion and weathering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wronkiewicz, D.J.

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The release of glass components into solution, including radionuclides, may be influenced by the presence of radiolytically produced nitric acid, carboxylic acid, and transient water dissociation products such as {center_dot}OH and O{sub 2}{sup {minus}}. Under batch test conditions, glass corrosion has been shown to increase up to a maximum of three-to five-fold in irradiated tests relative to nonirradiated tests, while in other studies the presence of radiolytic products has actually decreased glass corrosion rates. Bicarbonate groundwaters will buffer against pH decreases and changes in corrosion rates. Under high surface area-to-solution volume (S/V) conditions, the bicarbonate buffering reservoir may be quickly overwhelmed by radiolytic acids that are concentrated in the thin films of water contacting the samples. Glass reaction rates have been shown to increase up to 10-to-15-fold due to radiation exposure under high S/V conditions. Radiation damage to solid glass materials results in bond damage and atomic displacements. This type of damage has been shown to increase the release rates of glass components up to four-fold during subsequent corrosion tests, although under actual disposal conditions, glass annealing processes may negate the solid radiation damage effects.

  7. The Announcement Layer: Beacon Coordination for the Sensornet Stack

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunkels, Adam

    consumption. #12;MAC / Link layers ... ... Multiple, uncoordinated beacons Collect Trickle Deluge Collect Trickle Deluge Coordinated beacons Announcement layer MAC / Link layers Fig. 1. The announcement layer

  8. Tamper-indicating device having a glass body

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnston, Roger G. (Los Alamos, NM); Garcia, Anthony R. E. (Espanola, NM)

    2003-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A tamper-indicating device is described. The device has a first glass body member and a second glass body member that are attached to each other through a hasp. The glass body members of the device can be tempered. The body members can be configured with hollow volumes into which powders, microparticles, liquids, gels, or combinations thereof are sealed. The choice, the amount, and the location of these materials can produce a visible, band pattern to provide each body member with a unique fingerprint identifier, which makes it extremely difficult to repair or replace once it is damaged in order to avoid tamper detection.

  9. Ultrafast pulsed laser utilizing broad bandwidth laser glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Payne, Stephen A. (Castro Valley, CA); Hayden, Joseph S. (Clarks Summit, PA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ultrafast laser uses a Nd-doped phosphate laser glass characterized by a particularly broad emission bandwidth to generate the shortest possible output pulses. The laser glass is composed primarily of P.sub.2 O.sub.5, Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 and MgO, and possesses physical and thermal properties that are compatible with standard melting and manufacturing methods. The broad bandwidth laser glass can be used in modelocked oscillators as well as in amplifier modules.

  10. Ultrafast pulsed laser utilizing broad bandwidth laser glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Payne, S.A.; Hayden, J.S.

    1997-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    An ultrafast laser uses a Nd-doped phosphate laser glass characterized by a particularly broad emission bandwidth to generate the shortest possible output pulses. The laser glass is composed primarily of P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and MgO, and possesses physical and thermal properties that are compatible with standard melting and manufacturing methods. The broad bandwidth laser glass can be used in modelocked oscillators as well as in amplifier modules. 7 figs.

  11. Nonisothermal kinetics of spinel crystallization in a HLW glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casler, D.G.; Hrma, P.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nonisothermal kinetics of spinel crystallization in a high-level waste (HLW) glass was predicted using Mehl-Avrami-Johnson-Kolmogorov equation coefficients from isothermal data. The volume fraction of spinel was determined as a function of time, temperature, and cooling rate. The results were verified experimentally. Also predicted was the spatial distribution of spinel in a HLW glass canister. Finally, a parameter study was performed, and an empirical equation was proposed relating the final spinel volume fraction in glass to dimensionless numbers for cooling rate, phase equilibrium, and crystallization kinetics.

  12. Tailoring the flow of soft glasses by soft additives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Zaccarelli; C. Mayer; A. Asteriadi; C. N. Likos; F. Sciortino; J. Roovers; H. Iatrou; N. Hadjichristidis; P. Tartaglia; H. Löwen; D. Vlassopoulos

    2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine the vitrification and melting of asymmetric star polymers mixtures by combining rheological measurements with mode coupling theory. We identify two types of glassy states, a {\\it single} glass, in which the small component is fluid in the glassy matrix of the big one and a {\\it double} glass, in which both components are vitrified. Addition of small star polymers leads to melting of {\\it both} glasses and the melting curve has a non-monotonic dependence on the star-star size ratio. The phenomenon opens new ways for externally steering the rheological behavior of soft matter systems.

  13. Ceramic-glass-metal seal by microwave heating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meek, T.T.; Blake, R.D.

    1983-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing a ceramic-glass-metal seal by microwaving, mixes a slurry of glass sealing material and coupling agent and applies same to ceramic and metal workpieces. The slurry and workpieces are then insulated and microwaved at a power, time and frequency sufficient to cause a liquid-phase reaction in the slurry. The reaction of the glass sealing material forms a chemically different seal than that which would be formed by conventional heating because it is formed by diffusion rather than by wetting of the reactants.

  14. Process for direct conversion of reactive metals to glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rajan, John B. (Naperville, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL); Vissers, Donald R. (Naperville, IL)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radioactive alkali metal is introduced into a cyclone reactor in droplet form by an aspirating gas. In the cyclone metal reactor the aspirated alkali metal is contacted with silica powder introduced in an air stream to form in one step a glass. The sides of the cyclone reactor are preheated to ensure that the initial glass formed coats the side of the reactor forming a protective coating against the reactants which are maintained in excess of 1000.degree. C. to ensure the formation of glass in a single step.

  15. Alkaline resistant phosphate glasses and method of preparation and use thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brow, Richard K. (Rolla, MO); Reis, Signo T. (Rolla, MO); Velez, Mariano (Rolla, MO); Day, Delbert E. (Rolla, MO)

    2010-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A substantially alkaline resistant calcium-iron-phosphate (CFP) glass and methods of making and using thereof. In one application, the CFP glass is drawn into a fiber and dispersed in cement to produce glass fiber reinforced concrete (GFRC) articles having the high compressive strength of concrete with the high impact, flexural and tensile strength associated with glass fibers.

  16. Dating the Glass Lake Dugout by Dendrochronology (NY State Museum #CN-37516)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manning, Sturt

    Dating the Glass Lake Dugout by Dendrochronology (NY State Museum #CN-37516) Carol Griggs, Dendrochronology Lab, Cornell University, cbg4@cornell.edu The Glass Lake Dugout was found at the bottom of Glass for the Glass Lake Dugout (Figure 2B). The series was compared with other site and regional white pine

  17. The Glass Box offers a unique environment to support research, development and evaluation of software

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Glass Box offers a unique environment to support research, development and evaluation of software products used by workers performing real computer- based tasks. The Glass Box instrumentation and to retrieve, store, and share Glass Box data. · Test Bed environment­Glass Box serves as a test bed

  18. Orientational ordering of short LC rods in an anisotropic liquid crystalline polymer glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Jianshu

    Orientational ordering of short LC rods in an anisotropic liquid crystalline polymer glass Lorin the glass transition is determined by field theory. Microscopic anisotropic interactions can align the LC the glass transition. Host anisotropic glass formers made of mesogens with side chains were studied recently

  19. Preparation of Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductors from oxide-glass precursors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hinks, David G. (Lemont, IL); Capone, II, Donald W. (Northbridge, MA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A superconductor and precursor therefor from oxide mixtures of Ca, Sr, Bi and Cu. Glass precursors quenched to elevated temperatures result in glass free of crystalline precipitates having enhanced mechanical properties. Superconductors are formed from the glass precursors by heating in the presence of oxygen to a temperature below the melting point of the glass.

  20. Active waveguide fabrication in erbium-doped oxyfluoride silicate glass using femtosecond pulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Active waveguide fabrication in erbium-doped oxyfluoride silicate glass using femtosecond pulses R September 2005 By directly writing waveguides inside bulk erbium-doped oxyfluoride silicate glass using-doped oxyfluoride silicate glass using femtosecond pulses.3 These glasses, also fabri- cated by us, have been shown

  1. Glass Buttes Exploration and Drilling: 2010 Geothermal Technologies Program Peer Review Presentation, Walsh, et al, Ormat

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Zemach, Ezra

    Glass Buttes Exploration and Drilling: 2010 Geothermal Technologies Program Peer Review Presentation, Walsh, et al, Ormat

  2. Glass Buttes Exploration and Drilling: 2010 Geothermal Technologies Program Peer Review Presentation, Walsh, et al, Ormat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zemach, Ezra

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Glass Buttes Exploration and Drilling: 2010 Geothermal Technologies Program Peer Review Presentation, Walsh, et al, Ormat

  3. Glasses having a low non-linear refractive index for laser applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Faulstich, Marga (Mainz, DE); Jahn, Walter (Ingelheim, DE); Krolla, Georg (Mainz, DE); Neuroth, Norbert (Mainz-Mombach, DE)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Glass composition ranges are described which permit the introduction of laser activators into fluorphosphate glass with exceptionally high fluorine content while forming glasses of high crystallization stability and permitting the realization of large melt volumes. The high fluorine content imparts to the glasses an exceptionally low nonlinear refractive index n.sub.2 down to O,4 .times.10.sup.-13 esu.

  4. Layered architecture for quantum computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Cody Jones; Rodney Van Meter; Austin G. Fowler; Peter L. McMahon; Jungsang Kim; Thaddeus D. Ladd; Yoshihisa Yamamoto

    2012-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We develop a layered quantum computer architecture, which is a systematic framework for tackling the individual challenges of developing a quantum computer while constructing a cohesive device design. We discuss many of the prominent techniques for implementing circuit-model quantum computing and introduce several new methods, with an emphasis on employing surface code quantum error correction. In doing so, we propose a new quantum computer architecture based on optical control of quantum dots. The timescales of physical hardware operations and logical, error-corrected quantum gates differ by several orders of magnitude. By dividing functionality into layers, we can design and analyze subsystems independently, demonstrating the value of our layered architectural approach. Using this concrete hardware platform, we provide resource analysis for executing fault-tolerant quantum algorithms for integer factoring and quantum simulation, finding that the quantum dot architecture we study could solve such problems on the timescale of days.

  5. Layered Manufacturing Sara McMains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McMains, Sara

    ­ Sintering (vector) ­ 3D Printing (raster) #12;Stereolithography (SLA) · First commercial layered

  6. Further Analysis of Accelerated Exposure Testing of Thin-Glass Mirror Matrix

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennedy, C. E.; Terwilliger, K.; Jorgensen, G. J.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) companies have deployed thin-glass mirrors produced by wet-silver processes on {approx}1-mmthick, relatively lightweight glass. These mirrors are bonded to metal substrates in commercial installations and have the confidence of the CSP industry. Initial hemispherical reflectance is {approx}93%-96%, and the cost is {approx}$16.1/m{sup 2}-$43.0/m{sup 2}. However, corrosion was observed in mirror elements of operational solar systems deployed outdoors for 2 years. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Advanced Materials Team has been investigating this problem. First, it was noted that this corrosion is very similar to the corrosion bands and spots observed on small (45 mm x 67 mm) thin-glass mirrors laminated to metal substrates with several different types of adhesives and subjected to accelerated exposure testing (AET) at NREL. The corrosion appears as dark splotches in the center of the mirror, with a corresponding 5%-20% loss in reflectivity. Secondly, two significant changes in mirror manufacture have occurred in the wet-chemistry process because of environmental concerns. The first is the method of forming a copper-free reflective mirror, and the second is the use of lead-free paints. However, the copper-free process requires stringent quality control and the lead-free paints were developed for interior applications. A test matrix of 84 combinations of sample constructions (mirror type/backprotective paint/adhesive/substrate) was devised for AET as a designed experiment to identify the most-promising mirrors, paints, and adhesives for use with concentrator designs. Two types of accelerated exposure were used: an Atlas Ci5000 WeatherOmeter (CI5000) and a BlueM damp-heat chamber. Based on an analysis of variance (ANOVA), the various factors and interactions were modeled. These samples now have more than 36 months of accelerated exposure, and most samples have completed their test cycle. We will discuss the results of the final exposure testing of these mirror samples. Glass mirrors with copper back-layers and heavily leaded paints have been considered robust for outdoor use. However, the basic mirror composition of the new mirrors is radically different from that of historically durable solar mirrors, and the outdoor durability must be determined.

  7. Mechanical Properties of Bulk Metallic Glasses and Composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, M.L.

    We have studied the mechanical properties of monolithic bulk metallic glasses and composite in the La based alloys. La???yAl??(Cu, Ni)y (y=24 to 32) alloy systems was used to cast the ...

  8. RETENTION OF SULFATE IN HIGH LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE GLASS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K.

    2010-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    High level radioactive wastes are being vitrified at the Savannah River Site for long term disposal. Many of the wastes contain sulfate at concentrations that can be difficult to retain in borosilicate glass. This study involves efforts to optimize the composition of a glass frit for combination with the waste to improve sulfate retention while meeting other process and product performance constraints. The fabrication and characterization of several series of simulated waste glasses are described. The experiments are detailed chronologically, to provide insight into part of the engineering studies used in developing frit compositions for an operating high level waste vitrification facility. The results lead to the recommendation of a specific frit composition and a concentration limit for sulfate in the glass for the next batch of sludge to be processed at Savannah River.

  9. Low-temperature mechanical properties of glass/epoxy laminates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reed, R. P. [Cryogenic Materials, Inc., Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Madhukar, M.; Thaicharoenporn, B. [Magnet Development Laboratory, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Martovetsky, N. N. [US-ITER Project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States)

    2014-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Selected mechanical properties of glass/epoxy laminate candidates for use in the electrical turn and ground insulation of the ITER Central solenoid (CS) modules were measured. Short-beam shear and flexural tests have been conducted on various E-glass cloth weaves/epoxy laminates at 295 and 77 K. Types of glass weave include 1581, 7500, 7781, and 38050, which represent both satin and plain weaves. The epoxy, planned for use for vacuum-pressure impregnation of the CS module, consists of an anhydride-cured bisphenol F resin system. Inter-laminar shear strength, flexural elastic modulus, and flexural strength have been measured. The data indicate that these properties are dependent on the volume percent of glass. Short-beam shear strength was measured as a function of the span-to-thickness ratio for all laminates at 77 K. Comprehensive fractography was conducted to obtain the failure mode of each short-beam shear test sample.

  10. The effect of reinforcement on loadbearing capacity of structural glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Navarro, Bridget I. (Bridget Isabela)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The transparent property of glass makes it a favored choice of material in the design of structures because it maximizes light and creates an illusion of larger spaces. However, it is a very brittle, making it difficult ...

  11. Preparation and characterization of boro-tellurite glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaur, Nirmal, E-mail: akphysics@yahoo.com; Khanna, Atul, E-mail: akphysics@yahoo.com [Glass Physics and Sensors Laboratory, Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar-143005, Punjab (India); Krishna, P. S. R. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085, Maharashtra (India)

    2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Glass samples of the system: xB{sub 2}O{sub 3}?(100?x) TeO{sub 2}; x= 15, 20, 25 and 30 mol% were prepared by melt quenching and characterized by X-ray diffraction, density measurements, Differential Scanning Calorimetry and FTIR spectroscopy. XRD confirmed the amorphous structure of all samples. Density of glasses decreased with increase in B{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration due to the replacement of heavier TeO{sub 2} with lighter B{sub 2}O{sub 3} whereas the glass transition temperature increased from 339°C to 366°C; the later effect was due to increase in the concentration of stronger B-O bonds in the glass network. FTIR studies found that BO{sub 4} units convert into BO{sub 3} with the addition of B{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  12. Hollow porous-wall glass microspheres for hydrogen storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heung, Leung K. (Aiken, SC); Schumacher, Ray F. (Aiken, SC); Wicks, George G. (Aiken, SC)

    2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A porous wall hollow glass microsphere is provided having a diameter range of between 1 to 200 microns, a density of between 1.0 to 2.0 gm/cc, a porous-wall structure having wall openings defining an average pore size of between 10 to 1000 angstroms, and which contains therein a hydrogen storage material. The porous-wall structure facilitates the introduction of a hydrogen storage material into the interior of the porous wall hollow glass microsphere. In this manner, the resulting hollow glass microsphere can provide a membrane for the selective transport of hydrogen through the porous walls of the microsphere, the small pore size preventing gaseous or liquid contaminants from entering the interior of the hollow glass microsphere.

  13. Atomistic mechanisms of cyclic hardening in metallic glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Chuang

    Molecular dynamics with an embedded-atom method potential is used to simulate the nanoindentation of Cu[subscript 63.5]Zr[subscript 36.5] metallic glasses. In particular, the effects of cyclic loading within the nominal ...

  14. THROUGH THICKNESS LASER JOINING OF CONTINUOUS GLASS FIBER FABRIC REINFORCEMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Y. Lawrence

    THROUGH THICKNESS LASER JOINING OF CONTINUOUS GLASS FIBER FABRIC REINFORCEMENT Paper Number 405 Huade Tan, Gen Satoh, Y. Lawrence Yao Manufacturing Research Laboratory Department of Mechanical and propagation is a major failure mode in structural composite applications. Manufacturing induced fiber

  15. Towards on-Chip, Integrated Chalcogenide Glass Based Biochemical Sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Juejun

    This paper reviews ongoing progress in the development of novel on-chip planar molecular sensors in infrared-transparent chalcogenide glasses. We demonstrate on-chip cavity-enhanced refractometry and infrared absorption ...

  16. Effect of radiation on silicon and borosilicate glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allred, Clark L. (Clark Lane), 1972-

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A study was made that is logically divided into two parts, both involving radiation damage effects. The first is a study of the effects of neutron and gamma radiation on the dimensions of two borosilicate glasses, Pyrex® ...

  17. Rankine and Brayton Cycle Cogeneration for Glass Melting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hnat, J. G.; Patten, J. S.; Sheth, P. R.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Comparisons are made of the performance and installation costs of Rankine and Brayton power cycles when applied to waste heat recovery from a 350 ton/day container glass furnace. The power cycles investigation included: a) a conventional steam...

  18. Mixed Polyanion Glasses for Lithium Ion Battery Cathodes | ornl...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mixed Polyanion Glasses for Lithium Ion Battery Cathodes May 06 2015 09:30 AM - 10:30 AM Andrew K. Kercher, Division Staff Materials Science and Technology Division Seminar...

  19. Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, Robert; Curcija, Charlie; Arasteh, Dariush; Goudey, Howdy; Kohler, Christian; Selkowitz, Stephen

    2011-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The subject of glass solar reflectance and its contribution to permanent vinyl siding distortion has not been extensively studied, and some phenomena are not yet well understood. This white paper presents what is known regarding the issue and identifies where more research is needed. Three primary topics are discussed: environmental factors that control the transfer of heat to and from the siding surface; vinyl siding properties that may affect heat build-up and permanent distortion; and factors that determine the properties of reflected solar radiation from glass surfaces, including insulating window glass. Further research is needed to fully characterize the conditions associated with siding distortion, the scope of the problem, physical properties of vinyl siding, insulating window glass reflection characteristics, and possible mitigation or prevention strategies.

  20. Improving Glass Walls Thermal Resistance In Air-Conditioned Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galal, T.; Kulaib, A. M.; Alajmi, R.; Al-Ansary. A; Abuzaid, M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The solar radiation through an air conditioned building depends on what is called the building envelope. Building envelope consists of the surfaces that separate the inside from the building outdoors. Area, direction, and specifications of glass...

  1. Nepheline crystallization in boron-rich alumino-silicate glasses...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nepheline crystallization in boron-rich alumino-silicate glasses as investigated by multi-nuclear NMR, Raman, & Mö Nepheline crystallization in boron-rich alumino-silicate...

  2. Bismuth-doped Mg - Al silicate glasses and fibres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bufetov, Igor' A; Vel'miskin, V V; Galagan, B I; Denker, B I; Sverchkov, S E; Semjonov, S L; Firstov, Sergei V; Shulman, I L; Dianov, Evgenii M

    2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper compares the optical properties of bulk bismuth-doped Mg - Al silicate glasses prepared in an iridium crucible to those of optical fibres prepared by the powder-in-tube method and having a core identical in composition to the glasses. The bulk glasses and fibres are shown to be similar in luminescence properties. The optical loss in the fibres in their IR luminescence band is about one order of magnitude lower than that in the crucible-melted glasses. The level of losses in the fibres and their luminescence properties suggest that such fibres can be made to lase near 1.15 {mu}m. (optical fibres, lasers and amplifiers. properties and applications)

  3. Improving Glass Walls Thermal Resistance In Air-Conditioned Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galal, T.; Kulaib, A. M.; Alajmi, R.; Al-Ansary. A; Abuzaid, M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The solar radiation through an air conditioned building depends on what is called the building envelope. Building envelope consists of the surfaces that separate the inside from the building outdoors. Area, direction, and specifications of glass...

  4. Horizontal non-contact slumping of flat glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sung, Edward, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper continues the work of M. Akilian and A. Husseini on developing a noncontact glass slumping/shaping process. The shift from vertical slumping to horizontal slumping is implemented and various technologies required ...

  5. Nanomechanical studies of metallic glasses at ambient and elevated temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Packard, Corinne E

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bulk metallic glasses, though attractive for use in structural applications for their high strength and elastic limit, display several unacceptable features upon deformation, including quasi-brittle failure along shear ...

  6. NUCLEAR WASTE GLASSES CONTINUOUS MELTING AND BULK VITRIFICAITON

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRUGER AA; HRMA PR

    2008-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This contribution addresses various aspects of nuclear waste vitrification. Nuclear wastes have a variety of components and composition ranges. For each waste composition, the glass must be formulated to possess acceptable processing and product behavior defined in terms of physical and chemical properties that guarantee the glass can be easily made and resist environmental degradation. Glass formulation is facilitated by developing property-composition models, and the strategy of model development and application is reviewed. However, the large variability of waste compositions presents numerous additional challenges: insoluble solids and molten salts may segregate; foam may hinder heat transfer and slow down the process; molten salts may accumulate in container refractory walls; the glass on cooling may precipitate crystalline phases. These problems need targeted exploratory research. Examples of specific problems and their possible solutions are discussed.

  7. Nuclear Waste Glasses: Continuous Melting and Bulk Vitrification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Kruger, Albert A.

    2008-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This contribution addresses various aspects of nuclear waste vitrification. Nuclear wastes have a variety of components and composition ranges. For each waste composition, the glass must be formulated to possess acceptable processing and product behavior defined in terms of physical and chemical properties that guarantee that the glass can be easily made and resist environmental degradation. Glass formulation is facilitated by developing property-composition models, and the strategy of model development and application is reviewed. However, the large variability of waste compositions presents numerous additional challenges: insoluble solids and molten salts may segregate; foam may hinder heat transfer and slow down the process; molten salts may accumulate in container refractory walls; on cooling, the glass may precipitate crystalline phases. These problems need targeted exploratory research. Examples of specific problems and their possible solutions are discussed.

  8. Nuclear Waste Glasses: Continuous Melting and Bulk Vitrification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Kruger, Albert A.

    2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This contribution addresses various aspects of nuclear waste vitrification. Composition of nuclear wastes varies in the number of components and their composition ranges. For each waste composition, the glass must be formulated to possess acceptable processing and product behavior defined in terms of physical and chemical properties that guarantee that the glass is easily made and resists environmental degradation. Glass formulation is facilitated by developing property-composition models. The strategy of model development and application is reviewed. However, the large variability of waste composition presents numerous additional challenges: insoluble solids and molten salts may segregate; foam may hinder heat transfer and slows down the process; molten salts may accumulate in container refractory walls; on cooling, the glass may precipitate crystalline phases. These problems need targeted exploratory research. Examples of specific problems and their possible solutions are discussed.

  9. Effect of furnace atmosphere on E-glass foaming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, D. S.; Dutton, Bryan C.; Hrma, Pavel R.; Pilon, Laurent

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ber. 60 (1987) 189. [3] D. Kim, P. Hrma, J. Am. Ceram. Soc.74 (1991) 551. [4] D. Kim, P. Hrma, J. Am. Ceram. Soc.75 (1992) 2959. [5] P. Hrma, D. Kim, Glass Technol. 35 (

  10. Preliminary Investigation of Sulfur Loading in Hanford LAW Glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vienna, John D.; Hrma, Pavel R.; Buchmiller, William C.; Ricklefs, Joel S.

    2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A preliminary estimate was developed for loading limits for high-sulfur low-activity waste (LAW) feeds that will be vitrified into borosilicate glass at the Hanford Site in the waste-cleanup effort. Previous studies reported in the literature were consulted to provide a basis for the estimate. The examination of previous studies led to questions about sulfur loading in Hanford LAW glass, and scoping tests were performed to help answer these questions. These results of these tests indicated that a formulation approach developed by Vienna and colleagues shows promise for maximizing LAW loading in glass. However, there is a clear need for follow-on work. The potential for significantly lowering the amount of LAW glass produced at Hanford (after the initial phase of processing) because of higher sulfur tolerances may outweigh the cost and effort required to perform the necessary testing.

  11. Composition and property measurements for PHA Phase 1 glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, T.B.

    2000-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The results presented in this report are for six Phase 3 Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) glasses, each of which was targeted to contain 22 wt percent simulated PUREX sludge on an oxide basis.

  12. Colloid formation during the corrosion of SRL 200 glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buck, E.C.; Bates, J.K.; Feng, X.

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nonradioactive SRL 200S glass and fully radioactive SRL 200R glass were reacted at glass surface areas to leachant volume (SA/V) ratios of 20,000, 2,000, and 340 m{sup {minus}1} for times varying from several days to a few years. The particles present in the leachates of these tests have been examined by analytical electron microscopy (AEM). The major colloidal clay phase was identified as a smectite clay from its characteristic electron diffraction pattern. The clay colloids eventually disappear from the solution and return to the glass; the time at which this occurs depends on the SA/V. Uranium silicate particles and calcium-bearing phases were also sometimes found in the leachates.

  13. A novel hohlraum with ultrathin depleted-uranium-nitride coating layer for low hard x-ray emission and high radiation temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Liang; Xing, Peifeng; Li, Sanwei; Yi, Taimin; Kuang, Longyu; Li, Zhichao; Li, Renguo; Wu, Zheqing; Jing, Longfei; Zhang, Wenhai; Zhan, Xiayu; Yang, Dong; Jiang, Bobi; Yang, Jiamin; Liu, Shenye; Jiang, Shaoen; Li, Yongsheng; Liu, Jie; Huo, Wenyi; Lan, Ke

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ultra-thin layer of uranium nitrides (UN) has been coated on the inner surface of the depleted uranium hohlraum (DUH), which has been proved by our experiment can prevent the oxidization of Uranium (U) effectively. Comparative experiments between the novel depleted uranium hohlraum and pure golden (Au) hohlraum are implemented on Shenguang III prototype laser facility. Under the laser intensity of 6*10^14 W/cm2, we observe that, the hard x-ray (> 1.8 keV) fraction of this uranium hohlraum decreases by 61% and the peak intensity of total x-ray flux (0.1 keV ~ 5 keV) increases by 5%. Two dimensional radiation hydrodynamic code LARED are exploited to interpret the above observations. Our result for the first time indicates the advantage of the UN-coated DUH in generating the uniform x-ray field with a quasi Planckian spectrum and thus has important implications in optimizing the ignition hohlraum design.

  14. Fiber glass pipe effective for offshore water handling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turnipseed, S.P. [Chevron Research and Technology Co., Richmond, CA (United States)

    1995-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Excellent corrosion resistance, weight savings, ease of construction, and reduced maintenance make fiber glass pipe attractive for water-handling service on offshore platforms. This article covers guidelines for fiber glass pipe installations and presents a number of case histories from the industry and Chevron Corp. Applications include seawater treatment, water injection, sewage and drains, deluge fire water systems, hose reel fire water, seawater cooling, produced water, and potable water. The paper gives usage guidelines.

  15. BY THE GLASS Riesling, Fess Parker, Santa Barbara County 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Missouri-Columbia, University of

    and White Wine Specials $6 / Glass or $26 / Bottle WEEKEND SPECIALS Liquors SCOTCH 8 6 8 8 8 8 8 8 10 10 7 8Wines BY THE GLASS 7/28 7/28 8/32 8/34 8/35 6/26 7/28 8/30 9/34 9/36 Whites Riesling, Fess Parker WHITE WINE BY THE BOTTLE Un-Oaked Chardonnay, Toad Hollow, Mendocino 2012 Bordeaux Blanc, Chateau

  16. BY THE GLASS Riesling, Fess Parker, Santa Barbara County 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Jerry

    Red and White Wine Specials $6/ glass or $26/bottle WEEKEND SPECIALS Liquors SCOTCH 8 6 8 8 8 8 8 8 10Wines BY THE GLASS 7/28 7/28 8/32 8/34 8/35 6/26 7/28 8/30 8/30 9/34 9/36 Whites Riesling, Fess Valley, Sonoma 2011 Norton, Mizzou Cellars, Rocheport, MO 2009 WHITE WINE BY THE BOTTLE Un

  17. Vanadium and Chromium Redox Behavior in borosilicate Nuclear Waste Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D McKeown; I Muller; H Gan; Z Feng; C Viragh; I Pegg

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) was used to characterize vanadium (V) and chromium (Cr) environments in low activity nuclear waste (LAW) glasses synthesized under a variety of redox conditions. V{sub 2}O{sub 5} was added to the melt to improve sulfur incorporation from the waste; however, at sufficiently high concentrations, V increased melt foaming, which lowered melt processing rates. Foaming may be reduced by varying the redox conditions of the melt, while small amounts of Cr are added to reduce melter refractory corrosion. Three parent glasses were studied, where CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures were bubbled through the corresponding melt for increasing time intervals so that a series of redox-adjusted-glasses was synthesized from each parent glass. XAS data indicated that V and Cr behaviors are significantly different in these glasses with respect to the cumulative gas bubbling times: V{sup 4+}/V{sub total} ranges from 8 to 35%, while Cr{sup 3+}/Cr{sub total} can range from 15 to 100% and even to population distributions including Cr{sup 2+}. As Na-content decreased, V, and especially, Cr became more reduced, when comparing equivalent glasses within a series. The Na-poor glass series show possible redox coupling between V and Cr, where V{sup 4+} populations increase after initial bubbling, but as bubbling time increases, V{sup 4+} populations drop to near the level of the parent glass, while Cr becomes more reduced to the point of having increasing Cr{sup 2+} populations.

  18. Buffer layer for thin film structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foltyn, Stephen R.; Jia, Quanxi; Arendt, Paul N.; Wang, Haiyan

    2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A composite structure including a base substrate and a layer of a mixture of strontium titanate and strontium ruthenate is provided. A superconducting article can include a composite structure including an outermost layer of magnesium oxide, a buffer layer of strontium titanate or a mixture of strontium titanate and strontium ruthenate and a top-layer of a superconducting material such as YBCO upon the buffer layer.

  19. Buffer layer for thin film structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foltyn, Stephen R.; Jia, Quanxi; Arendt, Paul N.; Wang, Haiyan

    2006-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A composite structure including a base substrate and a layer of a mixture of strontium titanate and strontium ruthenate is provided. A superconducting article can include a composite structure including an outermost layer of magnesium oxide, a buffer layer of strontium titanate or a mixture of strontium titanate and strontium ruthenate and a top-layer of a superconducting material such as YBCO upon the buffer layer.

  20. Chemical solution seed layer for rabits tapes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goyal, Amit; Paranthaman, Mariappan; Wee, Sung-Hun

    2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for making a superconducting article includes the steps of providing a biaxially textured substrate. A seed layer is then deposited. The seed layer includes a double perovskite of the formula A.sub.2B'B''O.sub.6, where A is rare earth or alkaline earth metal and B' and B'' are different rare earth or transition metal cations. A superconductor layer is grown epitaxially such that the superconductor layer is supported by the seed layer.