Sample records for glacier coal field

  1. High-sulfur coals in the eastern Kentucky coal field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hower, J.C.; Graham, U.M. (Univ. of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, Lexington, KY (United States)); Eble, C.F. (Kentucky Geological Survey, Lexington, KY (United States))

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Eastern Kentucky coal field is notable for relatively low-sulfur, [open quotes]compliance[close quotes] coals. Virtually all of the major coals in this area do have regions in which higher sulfur lithotypes are common, if not dominant, within the lithologic profile. Three Middle Pennsylvanian coals, each representing a major resource, exemplify this. The Clintwood coal bed is the stratigraphically lowest coal bed mined throughout the coal field. In Whitley County, the sulfur content increase from 0.6% at the base to nearly 12% in the top lithotype. Pyrite in the high-sulfur lithotype is a complex mixture of sub- to few-micron syngenetic forms and massive epigenetic growths. The stratigraphically higher Pond Creek coal bed is extensively mined in portions of the coal field. Although generally low in sulfur, in northern Pike and southern Martin counties the top one-third can have up to 6% sulfur. Uniformly low-sulfur profiles can occur within a few hundred meters of high-sulfur coal. Pyrite occurs as 10-50 [mu]m euhedra and coarser massive forms. In this case, sulfur distribution may have been controlled by sandstone channels in the overlying sediments. High-sulfur zones in the lower bench of the Fire Clay coal bed, the stratigraphically highest coal bed considered here, are more problematical. The lower bench, which is of highly variable thickness and quality, generally is overlain by a kaolinitic flint clay, the consequence of a volcanic ash fall into the peat swamp. In southern Perry and Letcher counties, a black, illite-chlorite clay directly overlies the lower bench. General lack of lateral continuity of lithotypes in the lower bench suggests that the precursor swamp consisted of discontinuous peat-forming environments that were spatially variable and regularly inundated by sediments. Some of the peat-forming areas may have been marshlike in character.

  2. Description of Wyoming coal fields and seam analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glass, G.B.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Introductory material describe coal-bearing areas, coal-bearing rocks, and the structural geology of coal-bearing areas, discussing coal rank, proximate analyses, sulfur content, heat value, trace elements, carbonizing properties, coking coal, coking operations, in-situ gasification, coal mining, and production. The paper then gives descriptions of the coal seams with proximate analyses, where available, located in the following areas: Powder River coal basin, Green River region, Hanna field, Hams Fork coal region, and Bighorn coal basin. Very brief descriptions are given of the Wind River coal basin, Jackson Hole coal field, Black Hills coal region, Rock Creek coal field, and Goshen Hole coal field. Finally coal resources, production, and reserves are discussed. 76 references.

  3. Chemical composition and some trace element contents in coals and coal ash from Tamnava-Zapadno Polje Coal Field, Serbia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vukasinovic-Pesic, V.; Rajakovic, L.J. [University of Montenegro, Podgorica (Montenegro)

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The chemical compositions and trace element contents (Zn, Cu, Co, Cr, Ni, Pb, Cd, As, B, Hg, Sr, Se, Be, Ba, Mn, Th, V, U) in coal and coal ash samples from Tamnava-Zapadno Polje coal field in Serbia were studied. The coal from this field belongs to lignite. This high volatility coal has high moisture and low S contents, moderate ash yield, and high calorific value. The coal ash is abundant in alumosilicates. Many trace elements such as Ni > Cd > Cr > B > As > Cu > Co > Pb > V > Zn > Mn in the coal and Ni > Cr > As > B > Cu > Co = Pb > V > Zn > Mn in the coal ash are enriched in comparison with Clarke concentrations.

  4. The Hanna, Wyoming, underground coal gasification field test series

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartke, T.C.; Gunn, R.D.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Six field tests of in-situ coal gasification have been conducted by the Department of Energy's Laramie Energy Technology Center Near Hanna, Wyoming with typical gasification rates of 100 tons of coal per day for continuous operation of about 30 days. This paper presents an overview of the Hanna field tests.

  5. The thermophysics of glaciers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zotikov, I.A.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This volume presents the results of experimental and theoretical work on the thermodynamics of ice sheets and glaciers. The author has carried out extensive field work in both the Soviet Union and Antarctica over the last 25 years and has contributed to the understanding of the thermophysics of glaciers. The topics covered in this volume embrace heat flow measurement and temperature distributions in glaciers, the thermal drilling of glaciers, the melting and freezing of ice sheets, and other thermophysical problems. Also included are topics of relevance to glacial engineering.

  6. Hanna, Wyoming underground coal gasification field test series

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartke, T.C.; Gunn, R.D.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The six in situ coal gasification field tests conducted by LETC near Hanna, WY, demonstrated typical gasification rates of 100 tons/day for continuous operation of about 30 days. Featuring high coal recovery and high product-gas calorific values, the underground process proved to be simple, reliable, and potentially controllable.

  7. Geologic and climatic controls on the formation of the Permian coal measures in the Sohagpur coal field, Madhya Pradesh, India

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milici, R.C.; Warwick, P.D.; Mukhopadhyah, A.; Adhikari, S.; Roy, S.P.; Bhattacharyya, S.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Geological Survey of India (GSI) are concluding a cooperative study of the coking coal deposits in the Sohagpur coal field in central India. Because of the importance of coal in India's economy, the Coal Wing of the Geological Survey of India has studied the area intensely since the early 1980's. This report summarizes the overall stratigraphic, tectonic, and sedimentologic framework of the Sohagpur coal field area, and the interpretations of the geologic and climatic environments required for the accumulation of the thick Gondwana coal deposits, both coking and non-coking.

  8. Agassiz Glacier Glacier National Park, MT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agassiz Glacier Glacier National Park, MT Greg Pederson photo USGS USGS Repeat Photography Project Glacier Glacier National Park, MT Greg Pederson photo USGS USGS Repeat Photography Project http://nrmsc.usgs.gov/repeatphoto/ 2005 M. V. Walker photo courtesy of GNP archives1943 #12;Blackfoot ­ Jackson Glacier Glacier National

  9. Antarctic glaciers and rock weathering: Exploring chemical and mineralogy processes within the blue ice fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Zaoyang

    Antarctic glaciers and rock weathering: Exploring chemical and mineralogy processes within the blue of Geographical and Earth Sciences, we will determine the mineralogy and chemical composition of a suite mineralogy, porosity & permeability)? · Does the volume of weathering products and their mineralogy

  10. Pricetown I underground coal gasification field test: operations report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agarwal, A.K.; Seabaugh, P.W.; Zielinski, R.E.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) field test in bituminous coal was successfully completed near Pricetown, West Virginia. The primary objective of this field test was to determine the viability of the linked vertical well (LVV) technology to recover the 900 foot deep, 6 foot thick coal seam. A methane rich product gas with an average heating value of approximately 250 Btu/SCF was produced at low air injection flow rates during the reverse combustion linkage phase. Heating value of the gas produced during the linkage enhancement phase was 221 Btu/SCF with air injection. The high methane formation has been attributed to the thermal and hydrocracking of tars and oils along with hydropyrolysis and hydrogasification of coal char. The high heating value of the gas was the combined effect of residence time, flow pattern, injection flow rate, injection pressure, and back pressure. During the gasification phase, a gas with an average heating value of 125 Btu/SCF was produced with only air injection, which resulted in an average energy production of 362 MMBtu/day.

  11. Stratigraphic framework and coal resources of the Upper Cretaceous Blackhawk Formation in the Convulsion Canyon and Wash Rock Canyon areas of the Wasatch Plateau coal field, Salina 30' x 60' quadrangle, Sevier and Emery Counties, Utah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanchez, J.D.; Blanchard, L.F.; August, L.L.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The map and accompanying sections describe the stratigraphy and distribution of coal beds in the Wesatch Plateau coal field. (ACR)

  12. Coal rank trends in western Kentucky coal field and relationship to hydrocarbon occurrence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hower, J.C.; Rimmer, S.M.; Williams, D.A.; Beard, J.G. (Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington (USA))

    1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Extensive oil and gas development has occurred in the high volatile C bituminous region north of the Rough Creek fault zone, but few pools are known within the Webster syncline south of the fault zone. The rank of the Middle Pennsylvanian coals can be used to estimate the level of maturation of the Devonian New Albany Shale, a likely source rock for much of the oil and gas in the coal field. Based on relatively few data points, previous studies on the maturation of the New Albany Shale, which lies about 1 km below the Springfield coal, indicate an equivalent medium volatile bituminous (1.0-1.2% R{sub max}) rank in the Fluorspar district. New Albany rank decreases to an equivalent high volatile B/C (0.6% R{sub max}) north of the Rough Creek fault zone. Whereas the shale in the latter region is situated within the oil generation window, the higher rank region is past the peak of the level of maturation of the New Albany Shale. The significance of the New Albany reflectancy is dependent on the suppression of vitrinite reflectance in organic-rich shales. The possibility of reflectance suppression would imply that the shales could be more mature than studies have indicated.

  13. CO{sub 2} Sequestration Potential of Charqueadas Coal Field in Brazil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romanov, V [NETL

    2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The I2B coal seam in the Charqueadas coal field has been evaluated as a target for enhanced coal bed methane production and CO{sub 2} sequestration. The samples were low rank coals (high volatile bituminous and sub-bituminous) obtained from the I2B seam as ?3? cores. Such properties as sorption capacity, internal structure of the samples, porosity and permeability were of primary interest in this characterization study.

  14. Early maturation processes in coal. Part 2: Reactive dynamics simulations using the ReaxFF reactive force field on Morwell Brown coal structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    Early maturation processes in coal. Part 2: Reactive dynamics simulations using the ReaxFF reactive force field on Morwell Brown coal structures Elodie Salmon a , Adri C.T. van Duin b , François Lorant Brown coal using the ReaxFF reactive force field. We find that these reactive MD simulations

  15. Geologic control of natural marine hydrocarbon seep emissions, Coal Oil Point seep field, California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luyendyk, Bruce

    geology and gas-phase (methane) seepage for the Coal Oil Point (COP) seep field, one of the worldORIGINAL Geologic control of natural marine hydrocarbon seep emissions, Coal Oil Point seep field's largest and best-studied marine oil and gas seep fields, located over a producing hydrocarbon reservoir

  16. Mendenhall Glacier Juneau, Alaska

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raina, Ramesh

    · · · · · · #12;V1 Mendenhall Glacier Juneau, Alaska 404 Alaskan Frontiers & Glaciers V1 PRSRTSTD U blend of nature and modern culture. Marvel at the spectacular Hubbard Glacier, the longest tidewater glacier in Alaska and visit Icy Strait Point, a seaport nestled in the lush, seemingly endless northern

  17. Characterization and evaluation of washability of Alaskan coals: Fifty selected seams from various coal fields: Final technical report, September 30, 1976-February 28, 1986. [50 coal seams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rao, P.D.

    1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This final report is the result of a study initiated in 1976 to obtain washability data for Alaskan coals, to supplement the efforts of the US Department of Energy in their ongoing studies on washability of US coals. Washability characteristics were determined for fifty coal samples from the Northern Alaska, Chicago Creek, Unalakleet, Nenana, Matanuska, Beluga, Yentna and Herendeen Bay coal fields. The raw coal was crushed to 1-1/2 inches, 3/8 inch, 14 mesh and 65 mesh top sizes, and float-sink separations were made at 1.30, 1.40 and 1.60 specific gravities. A limited number of samples were also crushed to 200 and 325 mesh sizes prior to float-sink testing. Samples crushed to 65 mesh top size were also separated at 1.60 specific gravity and the float and sink products were characterized for proximate and ultimate analyses, ash composition and ash fusibility. 72 refs., 79 figs., 57 tabs.

  18. Subsurface models of coal occurrence, Oak Grove field, Black Warrior basin, Alabama

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pashin, J.C. (Geological Survey of Alabama, Tuscaloosa (United States))

    1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Subsurface investigation of coal occurrence in the Black Creek-Cobb interval of Oak Grove field is based on cross sections and isopach maps made from more than 500 density logs. This study was designed to identify styles of coal occurrence in the Black Warrior basin to aid in coalbed-methane exploration and production. Coal occurrence in parts of the Black Warrior basin may be characterized in terms of end-member fluvial and structural control. Fluvial processes apparently were the major controls on coal occurrence in the Black Creek cycle, where sandstone and coal thickness are inversely related. Additionally, occurrence of thick sandstone sequences above the thickest coal beds suggests that peat compaction provided sites for channel avulsion. In the Mary Lee and Cobb cycles, more coal beds occur in a downthrown fault block than in an upthrown block, and in the Pratt and Cobb cycles, the thickest coal beds occur on the downthrown side of a fault. Only in the Mary Lee cycle, where thick peat accumulated in an abandoned tributary system, is coal thickest on the upthrown block. Most coal beds in Oak Grove field are thickest on the downthrown block because differential subsidence apparently promoted peat accumulation. Clastic influx favors beds splits in the downthrown block, but joining of beds in the Pratt cycle may reflect sheltering by the fault. In the Mary Lee cycle, in contrast, channel incision evidently provided local relief sufficient for thick peat to accumulate in lows on the upthrown block. Although fluvial and structural processes result in varied styles of coal occurrence, models of coal occurrence have resulted in a predictive framework that may aid in strategic well siting and completion.

  19. Field study of disposed solid wastes from advanced coal processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radian Corporation and the North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) are funded to develop information to be used by private industry and government agencies for managing solid wastes produced by advanced coal combustion processes. This information will be developed by conducting several field studies on disposed wastes from these processes. Data will be collected to characterize these wastes and their interactions with the environments in which they are disposed. Three sites were selected for the field studies: Colorado Ute's fluidized bed combustion (FBC) unit in Nucla, Colorado; Ohio Edison's limestone injection multistage burner (LIMB) retrofit in Lorain, Ohio; and Freeman United's mine site in central Illinois with wastes supplied by the nearby Midwest Grain FBC unit. During the past year, field monitoring and sampling of the four landfill test cases constructed in 1989 and 1991 has continued. Option 1 of the contract was approved last year to add financing for the fifth test case at the Freeman United site. The construction of the Test Case 5 cells is scheduled to begin in November, 1992. Work during this past year has focused on obtaining data on the physical and chemical properties of the landfilled wastes, and on developing a conceptual framework for interpreting this information. Results to date indicate that hydration reactions within the landfilled wastes have had a major impact on the physical and chemical properties of the materials but these reactions largely ceased after the first year, and physical properties have changed little since then. Conditions in Colorado remained dry and no porewater samples were collected. In Ohio, hydration reactions and increases in the moisture content of the waste tied up much of the water initially infiltrating the test cells.

  20. Estimating attenuation properties of bentonite layer in Cut Bank oil field, Glacier County, Montana

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karakurt, Necdet

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    -8 to analyze the formation structure in depth, since seismic signals around the reservoir area were unclear in the 3-D survey. This research attempts to estimate the attenuation properties of the Bentonite layer in the Cut Bank oil field. VSP data is processed...

  1. Ablation on Taylor Glacier, Antarctica

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bliss, Andrew Knisely

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    south of Taylor Glacier. White (cold) cloud streaks are alsosouth of Taylor Glacier. White (cold) cloud streaks are also

  2. Sensitivity of glaciers and small ice caps to greenhouse warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oerlemans, J.; Fortuin, J.P.F. (Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands))

    1992-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent field programs on glaciers have supplied information that makes simulation of glacier mass balance with meteorological models meaningful. An estimate of world-wide glacier sensitivity based on a modeling study of 12 selected glaciers situated in widely differing climatic regimes shows that for a uniform 1 K warming the area-weighted glacier mass balance will decrease by 0.40 meter per year. This corresponds to a sea-level rise of 0.58 millimeter per year, a value significantly less than earlier estimates.

  3. Underground coal gasification field experiment in the high-dipping coal seams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, L.H.; Liu, S.Q.; Yu, L.; Zhang, W. [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China). College of Resources & Geoscience

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this article the experimental conditions and process of the underground gasification in the Woniushan Mine, Xuzhou, Jiangsu Province are introduced, and the experimental results are analyzed. By adopting the new method of long-channel, big-section, and two-stage underground coal gasification, the daily gas production reaches about 36,000 m{sup 3}, with the maximum output of 103,700 m{sup 3}. The daily average heating value of air gas is 5.04 MJ/m{sup 3}, with 13.57 MJ/m{sup 3} for water gas. In combustible compositions of water gas, H{sub 2} contents stand at over 50%, with both CO and CH{sub 4} contents over 6%. Experimental results show that the counter gasification can form new temperature conditions and increase the gasification efficiency of coal seams.

  4. Petrographic investigation of River Gem Coal, Whitley County, eastern Kentucky Coal Field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pollock, J.D.; Hower, J.C.

    1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The River Gem coal of the Breathitt Formation (Middle Pennsylvanian) was studied at three sites in a surface mine in the Holly Hill quadrangle, Whitley County, Kentucky. The River Gem coal is correlative with the Lily and Manchester coals in neighboring Knox, Laurel, and Clay Counties, Kentucky, and the Clintwood coal in Pike County, Kentucky. At the northern site, a 14-cm rider is separated from the 92.5-cm seam by 22 cm of shale. At the two southern sites, the rider is missing. At the latter sites, the 10 cm thick top bench of the seam is separated from the lower 63 cm of the seam by a 14-cm bony lithotype not found at the northern site. The lower 63 cm of the seam in the south and the main seam in the north are characterized by moderate ash and sulfur percentages (4.4-6.8% ash, 1.4-2.3% total sulfur, 0.6-1.1% pyritic sulfur, 74-81% vitrinite, 23-32% Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/, and 2.3-4.5% CaO). In contrast, the upper bench in the south and the rider have 18.7-27.0% ash, 8.8-11.4% total sulfur, 5.1-6.4% pyritic sulfur, 92.3-93.6% vitrinite, 45.7-57.8% Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and 0.13-0.20% CaO. The bone has over 26% ash, 5.5% total sulfur, 3.2% pyritic sulfur, and 93.1% vitrinite. The overall similarity of the seam and rider characteristics between the north and south suggests that the southern bone is the lateral equivalent of the northern shale. The sulfide in the upper bench or rider and in the bone consists of fine (generally less than 10 ..mu..m), euhedral and framboidal pyrite with common massive pyrite. Massive pyrite appears as an overgrowth of fine pyrite in some places. Massive forms of marcasite, less abundant than pyrite, exhibit some evidence of developing later than the massive pyrite. A variety of < 2-..mu..m pyrite occurs as abundant, but isolated, unidimensional to tabular grains within corpocollinite, some of which is transitional to resinite.

  5. Study of the properties of mine waste in the midwestern coal fields. Phase I report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

    In an effort to assist the coal industry in complying with the applicable regulations, to design safe and environmentally acceptable disposal systems, and to encourage secondary use of coal mine waste, the US Department of Energy has initiated research programs to develop coal mine waste disposal and use technology. This study of the properties of mine wastes in the Midwestern coal fields has been limited to the waste materials obtained from underground coal mines and preparation plants attached to both underground and surface mines. The program has been divided into two phases. In Phase I, the 20 most important properties relevant to safe disposal, reclamation, underground disposal, and secondary uses have been identified. An inventory of the significant waste disposal sites in the Midwestern coal fields has been prepared. The site locations have been plotted on USGS maps. Estimates of coal production and coal mine waste production during the next 2 decades have been prepared and are presented in this report. Also, all available information obtained from a search of existing literature on physical and chemical properties, including analysis results of the general runoff from the refuse disposal areas, has been collected and is presented. In order to fill the gaps in information, 20 sites have been identified for drilling and sampling to determine the various physical and chemical properties. They have been selected on the basis of the distribution and quantity of waste at the existing locations (both abandoned and active), the future trends in production and likely locations of waste disposal areas, their geographical and geological distribution, and ease of accessibility for drilling and sampling.

  6. The Cherokee and Crawford County Coal Field With Analyses of the Coal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carpenter, C.B.; Brown, H.R.

    1915-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    at $59.25 2370.00 One car 20# rails and spikes 921.22 1 #3 brass fitted pump 73.75 Railroad switch complete about 3 /4 mi, - 7450.00 Six 20# switches complete 135.00 Railroad right of way to line track - 1000,00 One well 856 ft . deep complete... and piped to engine - - - - - - - - - - 1400.00 Drain ditch 333.63 35 ft . of 24" tiling for ditch 32.00 86 tons of coal 129.75 Teaming 36.50 One 6f by 12" locomotive 25oo.00 1500 pit ties 4x6x5 275.00 50 white oak ties 6-6-8 22.50 One s±x$ engine...

  7. Call Me! Calling the Glacier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laar, Kalle

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    time to the Vernagtferner Glacier in the Oetztal Valley,Call Me! Calling the Glacier Kalle Laar Rudolf von Hirschpart of it, Calling the Glacier, which connects you in real

  8. Review of underground coal gasification field experiments at Hoe Creek

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thorsness, C.B.; Creighton, J.R.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LLNL has conducted three underground coal gasification experiments at the Hoe Creek site near Gillette, WY. Three different linking methods were used: explosive fracturing, reverse burning and directional drilling. Air was injected on all three experiments and a steam/oxygen mixture during 2 days of the second and most of the third experiment. Comparison of results show that the linking method didn't influence gas quality. The heat of combustion of the product gas was higher with steam/oxygen injection, mainly because of reduced inert diluent. Gas quality was generally independent of other operating parameters, but declined from its initial value over a period of time. This was due to heat loss to the wet overburden and extensive roof collapse in the second and third experiments.

  9. Review of underground coal gasification field experiments at Hoe Creek

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thorsness, C.B.; Creighton, J.R.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In three underground coal gasification experiments at the Hoe Creek site near Gillette, WY, LLNL applied three different linking methods: explosive fracture, reverse burning, and directional drilling. Air was injected in all three experiments; a steam/oxygen mixture, during 2 days of the second and most of the third experiment. Comparison of results show that the type of linking method did not influence gas quality. The heat of combustion of the product gas was higher with steam/oxygen injection, mainly because of reduced inert diluent. Gas quality was generally independent of other operating parameters but declined from its initial value over a period of time because of heat loss to the wet overburden and extensive roof collapse in the second and third experiments.

  10. Steam tracer experiment at the Hoe Creek No. 3 underground coal gasification field test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thorsness, C.B.

    1980-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Water plays an important role in in-situ coal gasification. To better understand this role, we conducted a steam tracer test during the later stages of the Hoe Creek No. 3 underground coal gasification field test. Deuterium oxide was used as the tracer. This report describes the tracer test and the analysis of the data obtained. The analysis indicates that at Hoe Creek the injected steam interacts with a large volume of water as it passes through the underground system. We hypothesize that this water is undergoing continual reflux in the underground system, resulting in a tracer response typical of a well-stirred tank.

  11. Retreat of Glaciers in Glacier National Park In Glacier National Park (GNP), MT some effects of global

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Retreat of Glaciers in Glacier National Park In Glacier National Park (GNP), MT some effects of global climate change are strikingly clear. Glacier recession is underway, and many glaciers have already disappeared. The retreat of these small alpine glaciers reflects changes in recent climate as glaciers respond

  12. Surface motion of mountain glaciers derived from satellite optical imagery E. Berthiera,*, H. Vadonb

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berthier, Etienne

    Surface motion of mountain glaciers derived from satellite optical imagery E. Berthiera,*, H Abstract A complete and detailed map of the ice-velocity field on mountain glaciers is obtained by cross the displacements of glaciers. The methodology presented in this study does not require ground control points (GCPs

  13. Mount Cheops Cirque Glacier: Response of a Small Debris Covered Glacier to Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Dan

    Mount Cheops Cirque Glacier: Response of a Small Debris Covered Glacier of a microclimate cirque glacier on Mount Cheops in Glacier National Park of Canada. Rapidly receding glaciers are becoming an important water resource concern

  14. A Mechanistic Model for CO2 Sequestration in Tiffany Coal Bed Methane Field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang, J.; Raterman, K.T.; Robertson, E.P.

    2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to develop mechanistic models specific to CO2 sequestration in BP's Tiffany coal bed methane (CBM) field. In this study, the original field model was modified to match the field performance of a 5-spot pattern in the northern part of the Tiffany Field where BP plans to perform a micro-pilot test. The modified model consists of one high-permeability fast layer sandwiched between two low-permeability slow layers. In this mechanistic model, the fast layer represents well-cleated and fractured coal from all geological layers while the slow layers represent coal with little or no fracture development from the same geological layers. The model successfully matched the performance of the 5-spot pattern during the enhanced recovery period. However, in order to match nitrogen breakthrough times and nitrogen cut the vertical transmissibility between layers had to be set to zero. During gas injection, nitrogen was allowed to enter all three layers, not just the high-permeability fast layer. However, because the permeabilities of the slow layers were low and there is no communication between the fast and the slow layers, most of the injected nitrogen entered the high-permeability fast layer. This suggests that the future gas injection and CO2 sequestration may be restricted to only one third of the total available pay.

  15. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory underground coal gasification data base. [US DOE-supported field tests; data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cena, R. J.; Thorsness, C. B.

    1981-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy has sponsored a number of field projects to determine the feasibility of converting the nation's vast coal reserves into a clean efficient energy source via underground coal gasification (UCG). Due to these tests, a significant data base of process information has developed covering a range of coal seams (flat subbituminous, deep flat bituminous and steeply dipping subbituminous) and processing techniques. A summary of all DOE-sponsored tests to data is shown. The development of UCG on a commercial scale requires involvement from both the public and private sectors. However, without detailed process information, accurate assessments of the commercial viability of UCG cannot be determined. To help overcome this problem the DOE has directed the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to develop a UCG data base containing raw and reduced process data from all DOE-sponsored field tests. It is our intent to make the data base available upon request to interested parties, to help them assess the true potential of UCG.

  16. Hanna, Wyoming underground coal gasification data base. Volume 2. The Hanna I field test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartke, T.C.; Fischer, D.D.; King, S.B.; Boyd, R.M.; Humphrey, A.E.

    1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is part of a seven-volume series on the Hanna, Wyoming, underground coal gasification field tests. Volume 1 is a summary of the project, and each of Volumes 2 through 6 describes a particular test. Volume 7 is a compilation of all the data for the tests in Volumes 2 through 6. Based on the recommendations of A.D. Little, Inc. in a 1971 report prepared for the US Bureau of Mines, the Hanna I test represented the first field test in reestablishing a field program by the US Bureau of Mines. The test was directed toward comparing results from a thick subbitiminous coal seam with those obtained during the field test series conducted at Gorgas, AL, in the 1940's and 1950's. Hanna I was conducted from March 1973 through February 1974. This report covers: (1) site selection and characteristics; (2) test objectives; (3) facility description; (4) pre-operation tests; (5) test operations summary; and (6) post-test activity. 9 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Hydrology and Glaciers in the Upper Indus Basin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Winston

    Examines the state of the science associated with the snow and ice hydrology in the Upper Indus Basin (IUB), reviewing the literature and data available on the present and projected role of glaciers, snow fields, and stream ...

  18. Hanna, Wyoming underground coal gasification data base. Volume 5. Hanna III field test research report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartke, T.C.; Fischer, D.D.; King, S.B.; Boyd, R.M.; Humphrey, A.E.

    1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is part of a seven-volume series on the Hanna, Wyoming, underground coal gasification field tests. Volume 1 is a summary of the project and each of Volumes 2 through 6 describes a particular test. Volume 7 is a compilation of all the data for the tests in Volumes 2 through 6. Hanna III was conducted during the spring and summer of 1977. The test involved only two process wells but also had twelve water monitoring wells, eight in the Hanna No. 1 coal seam and four in an aquifer above the coal seam. The test was designed to obtain information regarding the effects of the process on groundwater within the target seam and the overlying aquifer. The site for Hanna III had a low productivity aquifer above the Hanna No. 1 seam. The wells within the seam and the overlying aquifer were placed in such a manner that maximum information on groundwater flow and quality could be obtained. This report covers: (1) site selection and characterization; (2) test objectives; (3) facilities description; (4) pre-operation tests; (5) test operations summary; and (6) post-test activity. 4 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Gifts of the Glaciers Glacial Landforms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cochran-Stafira, D. Liane

    Gifts of the Glaciers Glacial Landforms Gifts of the Glaciers Moving ice of glacier was responsible. Glaciers perform, in many ways, like an excavator. Although they can push weak material, like gravel, like it in place, like a ripper. And, like a bulldozer, glaciers are poor at eroding rock unless it is already

  20. Glacier Recession Prepared by Joni L. Kincaid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glacier Recession Prepared by Joni L. Kincaid for the Advancing Geospatial Skills in Science funded by the National Science Foundation's GK-12 Program. Spring, 2007 #12;Glacier: a large mass of ice Line Glacier How do glaciers form? Glaciers form in locations where the snow does not melt over

  1. Annual satellite imaging of the world's glaciers Assessment of glacier extent and change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GLIMS HIGH ICE Annual satellite imaging of the world's glaciers Assessment of glacier extent and change Development and population of a digital glacier data inventory #12;Glaciers of High Asia: Where was a debris-covered glacier near Mt. Everest J.S. Kargel, April 2001 #12;Gangotri Glacier, India #12;A. Kääb

  2. A Mechanistic Model for CO2 Sequestration in Tiffany Coal Bed Methane Field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenn-Tai Liang; Kevin T. Raterman; Eric P. Robertson

    2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to develop mechanistic models specific to CO2 sequestration in BP’s Tiffany coal bed methane (CBM) field. In this study, the original field model was modified to match the field performance of a 5-spot pattern in the northern part of the Tiffany Field where BP plans to perform a micro-pilot test. The modified model consists of one high-permeability fast layer sandwiched between two low-permeability slow layers. In this mechanistic model, the fast layer represents well-cleated and fractured coal from all geological layers while the slow layers represent coal with little or no fracture development from the same geological layers. The model successfully matched the performance of the 5-spot pattern during the enhanced recovery period (N2 injection). However, in order to match nitrogen breakthrough times and nitrogen cut the vertical transmissibility between layers had to be set to zero. During gas injection, nitrogen was allowed to enter all three layers, not just the high-permeability fast layer. However, because the permeabilities of the slow layers were low and there is no communication between the fast and the slow layers, most of the injected nitrogen entered the high-permeability fast layer. This suggests that the future gas injection and CO2 sequestration may be restricted to only one third of the total available pay. For future gas injections, the modified model predicted early CO2 breakthrough with high CO2 cut. This suggests that the actual CO2 sequestration capability of the Tiffany Field might not be as high as originally expected. This is a direct consequence of the reduced available pay in the modified model. The modified model also predicted early inert gas (N2 plus CO2) breakthrough and high inert gas cut during future gas injections. If this is confirmed in the pilot test, the high volume of inert gas produced could overwhelm the reprocessing capability resulting in early termination of the project.

  3. 100 Years of Glacier Retreat in Central Asia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    100 Years of Glacier Retreat in Central Asia 100 Years of Glacier Retreat in Central Asia · Jeffrey+GLIMS Glacier databaseMODIS+GLIMS Glacier database #12;Benchmark GlaciersBenchmark Glaciers #12;Everest ASTER Mosaic, 2001Everest ASTER Mosaic, 2001 #12;KhumbuKhumbu Glacier, Nepal, 1958Glacier, Nepal, 1958 #12

  4. Search for: "coal" | DOE PAGES

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    coal" Find + Advanced Search Advanced Search All Fields: "coal" Title: Full Text: Bibliographic Data: Creator Author: Name Name ORCID Search Authors Type: All Accepted...

  5. Glacier variations in the Bernese Alps (Switzerland)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steiner, Daniel

    Glacier variations in the Bernese Alps (Switzerland) ­ Reconstructions and simulations #12;#12;Glacier variations in the Bernese Alps (Switzerland) ­ Reconstructions and simulations Two Alpine glaciers over the last two centuries: a scientific view based on pictorial sources Starting

  6. On the Formation of Cirques by Glaciers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanders, John Webb

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plate 5.17. West Washmawapta Glacier, Vermilion Range, RockyCanada Plate 5.18. A cirque glacier near the Russell PeaksG. D. , 1979, Holocene glacier fluctuations in the Middle

  7. Glacier inventory of the upper Huasco valley, Norte Chico, Chile: glacier characteristics, glacier change and comparison with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rabatel, Antoine

    Glacier inventory of the upper Huasco valley, Norte Chico, Chile: glacier characteristics, glacier Chile, Portugal 84, Casilla 3387, Santiago, Chile ABSTRACT. Results of a new glacier inventory and is not classical mountain glaciation, which poses difficulties in completing standard inventory attribute tables

  8. 1, 1739, 2007 Glacier balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    integrates water and energy balance factors to exhibit a maximum climate change signaling effect (IPCC, 1996 (South Cascade Glacier) in the lower 48 United States with ongoing measurements. Regional variationTCD 1, 17­39, 2007 Glacier balance measurement, forecasting M. S. Pelto Title Page Abstract

  9. Chernobyl fallout on Alpine glaciers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ambach, W.; Rehwald, W.; Blumthaler, M.; Eisner, H.; Brunner, P.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurements of the gross beta activity of snow samples from four Alpine glaciers contaminated by radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear accident and a gamma-spectrum analysis of selected samples are reported. The results are discussed with respect to possible risks to the population from using meltwater from these glaciers as drinking water.

  10. Coal systems analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warwick, P.D. (ed.)

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This collection of papers provides an introduction to the concept of coal systems analysis and contains examples of how coal systems analysis can be used to understand, characterize, and evaluate coal and coal gas resources. Chapter are: Coal systems analysis: A new approach to the understanding of coal formation, coal quality and environmental considerations, and coal as a source rock for hydrocarbons by Peter D. Warwick. Appalachian coal assessment: Defining the coal systems of the Appalachian Basin by Robert C. Milici. Subtle structural influences on coal thickness and distribution: Examples from the Lower Broas-Stockton coal (Middle Pennsylvanian), Eastern Kentucky Coal Field, USA by Stephen F. Greb, Cortland F. Eble, and J.C. Hower. Palynology in coal systems analysis The key to floras, climate, and stratigraphy of coal-forming environments by Douglas J. Nichols. A comparison of late Paleocene and late Eocene lignite depositional systems using palynology, upper Wilcox and upper Jackson Groups, east-central Texas by Jennifer M.K. O'Keefe, Recep H. Sancay, Anne L. Raymond, and Thomas E. Yancey. New insights on the hydrocarbon system of the Fruitland Formation coal beds, northern San Juan Basin, Colorado and New Mexico, USA by W.C. Riese, William L. Pelzmann, and Glen T. Snyder.

  11. Physical and chemical properties of ice in a main valley glacier and a tributary glacier, Gornergletscher,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seamons, Kent E.

    Physical and chemical properties of ice in a main valley glacier and a tributary glacier properties of ice in a main valley glacier and a tributary glacier, Gornergletscher, Canton Valais, Switzerland Annika M. Quick Department of Geological Sciences Master of Science Glacier models often fail

  12. Primer on glacier flows Christian Heining

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sainudiin, Raazesh

    Primer on glacier flows Christian Heining University of Bayreuth, Germany, Department of Applied Mechanics and Fluid Dynamics 1. Why is it important to understand the physics of glaciers? - Glaciers ocean sediments (ice shelfs in antarctica) o pollen - Glaciers contribute to the raise

  13. DOE Underground-Coal-Conversion-Program field-test activities for 1979 and 1980. [Pricetown 1, Hoe Creek 3, Hanna IV, and SDB 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartke, T.C.

    1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under the US Department of Energy's Underground-Coal-Conversion program, four field tests were completed in 1979 and preparations were begun in 1980 for two additional field tests to be operated in 1981. The Laramie Energy Technology Center (LETC) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) completed Hanna IV, an air gasification test in Wyoming subbituminous coal. The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) completed Pricetown 1, an air gasification test in West Virginia bituminous coal. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) completed Hoe Creek 3, a steam-oxygen gasification test in Wyoming subbituminous coal. Gulf Research and Development Co. completed Steeply Dipping Beds (SDB) Test 1, primarily an air gasification test in Wyoming subbituminous coal and the first SDB test in the US. In 1980, Gulf R and D Co. began preparation of SDB Test 2, scheduled for operation in the fall of 1981. The DOE project teams at LETC, METC, LLNL, and SNL, in association with the Washington Irrigation and Development Co. (WIDCo), Washington Water Power (WWP), and the State of Washington, are preparing a field test site in the Centralia-Chehalis coal district of Washington. A series of large coal block tests will be completed prior to the field test, scheduled for operation in 1982 or 1983. This field test will utilize a directionally drilled link and steam-oxygen gasification system. This paper summarizes the results of the four recently completed field tests and the plans for additional tests.

  14. Hanna, Wyoming underground coal gasification data base. Volume 3. The Hanna II, Phase I field test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartke, T.C.; Fischer, D.D.; King, S.B.; Boyd, R.M.; Humphrey, A.E.

    1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is part of a seven-volume series on the Hanna, Wyoming, underground coal gasification field tests. Volume 1 is a summary of the project, and each of Volumes 2 through 6 describes a particular test. Volume 7 is a compilation of all the data for the tests in Volumes 2 through 6. Hanna II, Phase I was conducted during the spring and summer of 1975, at a site about 700 feet up dip (to the southwest) of the Hanna I test. The test was conducted in two stages - Phase IA and IB. Phase IA consisted of linking and gasification operations between Wells 1 and 3 and Phase IB of linking from the 1-3 gasification zone to Well 2, followed by a short period of gasification from Well 2 to Well 3 over a broad range of air injection rates, in order to determine system turndown capabilities and response times. This report covers: (1) site selection and characteristics; (2) test objectives; (3) facilities description; (4) pre-operational testing; (5) test operations summary; and (6) post-test activity. 7 refs., 11 figs., 8 tabs.

  15. Geologic control of natural marine hydrocarbon seep emissions, Coal Oil Point seep field, California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leifer, Ira; Kamerling, Marc J.; Luyendyk, Bruce P.; Wilson, Douglas S.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the subsurface geology and the gas bubble (with oil) plumesgeology and gas-phase (methane) seepage for the Coal Oilwith offshore oil production. Geology 27:1047–1050 Shindell

  16. Large Field Erected and Packaged High Temperature Water (HTW) Generators for Coal Firing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boushell, C. C.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the paper is to disseminate information on the energy savings possible with High Temperature Water (HTW) for heating and industrial process application and to provide information on coal fired HTW generator design and availability....

  17. annual glacier accumulation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of glacier extent and change Development and population of a digital glacier data inventory 12;Glaciers of High Asia: Where was a debris-covered glacier near Mt. Everest J.S....

  18. The GLIMS geospatial glacier database: A new tool for studying glacier change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The GLIMS geospatial glacier database: A new tool for studying glacier change Bruce Raup a,, Adina's estimated 160000 glaciers. Each institution (called a Regional Center, or RC) oversees the analysis of satellite imagery for a particular region containing glacier ice. Data received by the GLIMS team

  19. Annual satellite imaging of the world's glaciers Assessment of glacier extent and change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GLIMS HIGH ICE Annual satellite imaging of the world's glaciers Assessment of glacier extent and change Development and population of a digital glacier data inventory #12;Skeletal remains of what was a debris-covered glacier near Mt. Everest J.S. Kargel, April 2001 #12;#12;#12;Global Land Ice Measurements

  20. Assessment of multispectral glacier mapping methods and derivation of glacier area changes, 19782002, in the central

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kääb, Andreas

    Assessment of multispectral glacier mapping methods and derivation of glacier area changes, 1978 56, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand ABSTRACT. We have measured the glacier area changes in the central Southern Alps, New Zealand, between 1978 and 2002 and have compiled the 2002 glacier outlines using

  1. The triggering of subglacial lake drainage during rapid glacier drawdown: Crane Glacier, Antarctic Peninsula

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The triggering of subglacial lake drainage during rapid glacier drawdown: Crane Glacier, Antarctic Glacier, Antarctic Peninsula, shows an unusual temporal pattern of elevation loss: a period of very rapid is not seen. Bathymetry in Crane Glacier fjord reveals a series of flat-lying, formerly subglacial deeps

  2. 115GLACIERS AND ICE CAPSCHAPTER 6B Glaciers and Ice Caps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fountain, Andrew G.

    115GLACIERS AND ICE CAPSCHAPTER 6B 6B Glaciers and Ice Caps Michael Zemp (lead author, Department of Sciences, China) #12;116 GLOBAL OUTLOOK FOR ICE AND SNOW Summary Glaciers and ice caps are among the most hazards. Because they are close to the melting point and react strongly to climate change, glaciers

  3. BIODIVERSITY Accounting for tree line shift, glacier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zimmermann, Niklaus E.

    BIODIVERSITY RESEARCH Accounting for tree line shift, glacier retreat and primary succession land cover (tree line shift, glacier retreat and primary succession) into species distribution model. Methods We fit linear mixed effects (LME) models to historical changes in forest and glacier cover

  4. Fate of Mountain Glaciers in the Anthropocene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stocker, Thomas

    Fate of Mountain Glaciers in the Anthropocene A Report by the Working Group Commissioned of Sciences at the Vatican, to contemplate the observed retreat of the mountain glaciers, its causes and consequences. This report resulted from a workshop in April 2011 at the Vatican. 2007 Courtesy of Glacier

  5. 2, 121, 2008 Mountain glaciers of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    TCD 2, 1­21, 2008 Mountain glaciers of NE Asia M. D. Ananicheva et al. Title Page Abstract The Cryosphere Discussions is the access reviewed discussion forum of The Cryosphere Mountain glaciers of NE Asia in the near future: a projection based on climate-glacier systems' interaction M. D. Ananicheva1 , A. N

  6. Opportunities in underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bloomstran, M.A.; Davis, B.E.

    1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A review is presented of the results obtained on DOE-sponsored field tests of underground coal gasification in steeply-dipping beds at Rawlins, Wyoming. The coal gas composition, process parameters, and process economics are described. Steeply-dipping coal resources, which are not economically mineable using conventional coal mining methods, are identified and potential markets for underground coal gasification products are discussed. It is concluded that in-situ gasification in steeply-dipping deposits should be considered for commercialization.

  7. Glacier recession in Iceland and Austria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, D.K.; Williams, R.S. Jr.; Bayr, K.J. (NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States) USGS, Reston, VA (United States) Keene State College, NH (United States))

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It has been possible to measure glacier recession on the basis of Landsat data, in conjunction with comparisons of the magnitude of recession of a glacier margin with in situ measurements at fixed points along the same margin. Attention is presently given to the cases of Vatnajokull ice cap, in Iceland, and the Pasterze Glacier, in Austria, on the basis of satellite data from 1973-1987 and 1984-1990, respectively. Indications of a trend toward negative mass balance are noted. Nevertheless, while most of the world's small glaciers have been receding, some are advancing either due to local climate or the tidewater glacier cycle. 21 refs.

  8. The contribution of glacier melt to streamflow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schaner, Neil; Voisin, Nathalie; Nijssen, Bart; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2012-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Ongoing and projected future changes in glacier extent and water storage globally have lead to concerns about the implications for water supplies. However, the current magnitude of glacier contributions to river runoff is not well known, nor is the population at risk to future glacier changes. We estimate an upper bound on glacier melt contribution to seasonal streamflow by computing the energy balance of glaciers globally. Melt water quantities are computed as a fraction of total streamflow simulated using a hydrology model and the melt fraction is tracked down the stream network. In general, our estimates of the glacier melt contribution to streamflow are lower than previously published values. Nonetheless, we find that globally an estimated 225 (36) million people live in river basins where maximum seasonal glacier melt contributes at least 10% (25%) of streamflow, mostly in the High Asia region.

  9. A field study on the trace metal behavior in atmospheric circulating fluidized-bed coal combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lind, T.; Kauppinen, E.I.; Jokiniemi, J.K.; Maenhaut, W.

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Trace element behavior in atmospheric circulating fluidized-bed combustion (CFBC) of Venezuelan bituminous coal was studied by determining particle size distributions in the CFBC flue gas. The size distributions of calcium, iron, aluminium, and 21 trace elements, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Sr, Cd, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, Lu, Pb, and Th, in the size range 0.01--70{micro}m, were determined by collecting aerosols with a low-pressure impactor-cyclone sampling train from the flue gases of an 80-MW(th) CFBC boiler upstream of the electrostatic precipitator. The collected samples were analyzed gravimetrically and with instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), particle-induced X-ray emission analysis (PIXE), and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The number size distributions of the aerosols were determined with a differential electrical mobility method in the size range 0.01--0.8 {micro}m. In the ultrafine particle mode, i.e., D{sub p} < 0.1 {micro}m, the CFBC number concentrations varied strongly during the experiments, being one to two orders of magnitude lower than those observed in pulverized coal combustion. For all of the elements studied, 75% or more were found in particles larger than 5{micro}m. None of the studied elements showed significant vaporization and subsequent chemical surface reaction or condensation in the CFBC. The Sr, Se, V, Zn, Ga, Cs, Ba, La, Sm, Lu, and Th size distributions resembled those of aluminium, suggesting their occurrence in aluminosilicate-rich particles in the fly ash. The association of the trace elements with aluminium in the fly ash particles may result from reactions of the trace elements with the aluminosilicate mineral particles inside the burning coal particles, or their initial occurrence in association with these minerals.

  10. Hanna, Wyoming underground coal gasification data base. Volume 6. Hanna IVA and IVB field test research report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartke, T.C.; Fischer, D.D.; King, S.B.; Boyd, R.M.; Humphrey, A.E.

    1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is part of a seven-volume series on the Hanna, Wyoming, underground coal gasification field tests. Volume 1 is a summary of the project and each of Volumes 2 through 6 describes a particular test. Volume 7 is a compilation of all the data for the tests in Volumes 2 through 6. The reports in this series include: The Hanna IV test was designed as the first underground coal gasification test using commercial well spacings of 100 and 150 feet between well pairs in a linear 3-well pattern. The test was initiated in late 1977 and completed in late 1979. This long duration was due to unfavorable geologic conditions (faulting) which could not be successfully overcome resulting in the test being split into Hanna IVA and Hanna IVB with about one year between the conduct of each. This report covers: (1) specific site selection and characteristics; (2) test objectives; (3) facility description; (4) pre-operation tests; (5) test operations summary; and (6) post-test activity. 5 refs., 19 figs., 13 tabs.

  11. Groundwater restoration field test at the Hoe Creek underground coal gasification site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nordin, J.S.; Barrash, W.; Nolan, B.T.

    1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three underground coal gasification burns were conducted at the Hoe Creek Site in the Powder River Basin. Some contaminants were released in the groundwater. The Department of Energy (DOE) analyzed the water from a network of wells. Two million gallons of groundwater were pumped from wells adjacent to the Hoe Creek II underground coal gasification cavity, passed through filters and carbon adsorbers, and reinjected into the cavity. Phenol was the target compound of the water treatment system. The phenol concentration pumped from well WS-10 decreased from 974 parts per billion (ppB) when treatment began on July 2, 1987, to about 200 ppB when treatment ceased on August 29, 1987. Phenol concentrations pumped from well WS-22 fluctuated during the tests, but they decreased to the 150 to 200 ppB range by the time treatment was terminated. The phenol concentration of treated water reinjected into the Hoe Creek II cavity was below detectable limits (less than 20 ppB). Pumping rates were about 18 gallons per minute (gpm) from well WS-10 and 6 to 8 gpm from well WS-22. Hoe Creek is located approximately 20 miles southwest of Gillette, Wyoming. 12 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  12. Range of Glaciers: The Exploration of the Northern Cascade Range

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hook, Robert D.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Review: Range of Glaciers: The Exploration of the NorthernUSA Fred Beckey. Range of Glaciers: The Exploration of thewill find that Range of Glaciers is a must read. The book

  13. Measuring Greenland Glacier Dynamics with Remotely Sensed Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foga, Steve

    2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Measuring Greenland Glacier Dynamics with Remotely Sensed Data Steve Foga University of Kansas, Geography M.A. Student Photo by: Phil Pasquini The importance of studying glacier ice Study area Difference in ice velocity of Helheim Glacier...

  14. Step-wise changes in glacier flow speed coincide with calving and glacial earthquakes at Helheim Glacier, Greenland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nettles, M.; Larsen, T.B.; Elosegui, P.; Hamilton, Gordon S.; Stearns, Leigh; Ahlstrom, A.P.; Davis, J.L.; Anderson, M.L.; de Juan, J.; Khan, S.A.; Stenseng, L.; Ekstrom, G.; Forsberg, R.

    2008-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    [1] Geodetic observations show several large, sudden increases in flow speed at Helheim Glacier, one of Greenland's largest outlet glaciers, during summer, 2007. These step-like accelerations, detected along the length of the glacier, coincide...

  15. Underground coal gasification: Development of theory, laboratory experimentation, interpretation, and correlation with the Hanna field tests: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gunn, R.D.; Krantz, W.B.

    1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The following report is a description of a 7 year effort to develop a theoretical understanding of the underground coal gasification process. The approach used is one of the mathematical model development from known chemical and principles, simplification of the models to isolate important effects, and through validation of models to isolate important effects, and through validation of models with laboratory experiments and field test data. Chapter I contains only introductory material. Chapter II describes the development of two models for reverse combustion: a combustion model and a linearized model for combustion front instability. Both models are required for realistic field predictions. Chapter III contains a discussion of a successful forward gasification model. Chapter IV discusses the spalling-enhanced-drying model is applicable to prediction of cavity growth and subsidence. Chapter VI decribes the correct use of energy and material balances for the analysis of UCG field test data. Chapter VII shows how laboratory experiments were used to validate the models for reverse combustion and forward gasification. It is also shown that laboratory combustion tube experiments can be used to simulate gas compositions expected from field tests. Finally, Chapter VII presents results from a comprehensive economic analysis of UCG involving 1296 separate cases. 37 refs., 49 figs., 12 tabs.

  16. Antarctica: measuring glacier velocity from satellite images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucchitta, B.K.; Ferguson, H.M.

    1986-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Many Landsat images of Antarctica show distinctive flow and crevasse features in the floating part of ice streams and outlet glaciers immediately below their grounding zones. Some of the features, which move with the glacier or ice stream, remain visible over many years and thus allow time-lapse measurements of ice velocities. Measurements taken from Landsat images of features on Byrd Glacier agree well with detailed ground and aerial observations. The satellite-image technique thus offers a rapid and cost-effective method of obtaining average velocities, to a first order of accuracy, of many ice streams and outlet glaciers near their termini.

  17. 4, 173211, 2008 Climate and glacier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    CPD 4, 173­211, 2008 Climate and glacier response to ENSO in subtropical Andes E. Dietze et al.0 License. Climate of the Past Discussions Climate of the Past Discussions is the access reviewed discussion forum of Climate of the Past Response of regional climate and glacier ice proxies to El Ni

  18. 3, 11331166, 2007 Glacier-climate model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of the Past Reconstructing glacier-based climates of LGM Europe and Russia ­ Part 1: Numerical modelling for climate change the LGM is a popular time period for testing the ability of GCMs to simulate past cli-25CPD 3, 1133­1166, 2007 Glacier-climate model for recosntructing palaeoclimates R. Allen et al

  19. Extracting a Climate Signal from 169 Glacier Records

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright, Dawn Jeannine

    Extracting a Climate Signal from 169 Glacier Records J. Oerlemans I constructed a temperature history for different parts of the world from 169 glacier length records. Using a first-order theory of glacier dynamics, I related changes in glacier length to changes in temperature. The derived temperature

  20. Quantifying global warming from the retreat of glaciers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oerlemans, J. (Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands))

    1994-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Records of glacier fluctuations compiled by the World Glacier Monitoring Service can be used to derive an independent estimate of global warming during the last 100 years. Records of different glaciers are made comparable by a two-step scaling procedure; one allowing for differences in glacier geometry, the other for differences in climate sensitivity. The retreat of glaciers during the last 100 years appears to be coherent over the globe. On the basis of modeling of the climate sensitivity of glaciers, the observed glacier retreat can be explained by a linear warming trend of 0.66 kelvin per century.

  1. The influence of small stresses on the dynamics of glaciers and subduction zones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, Jacob Ineman

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the dynamics of calving glaciers, Earth Sciences Reviews,separation and sliding at the glacier bed, J. Glaciol. , 29(acceleration of Helheim Glacier, east Greenland, Geophys.

  2. Welcome to GLACIER Tax Prep We hope you find GLACIER Tax Prep simple to use and easy to understand!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mullins, Dyche

    Welcome to GLACIER Tax Prep We hope you find GLACIER Tax Prep simple to use and easy to understand institution has licensed GLACIER Tax Prep (which replaces CINTAX) to assist you in this process. Following available BEFORE I login to GLACIER Tax Prep? · Passport; · Visa/Immigration Status information, including

  3. Field study of disposed solid wastes from advanced coal processes. Annual technical progress report, October 1991--September 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Radian Corporation and the North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) are funded to develop information to be used by private industry and government agencies for managing solid wastes produced by advanced coal combustion processes. This information will be developed by conducting several field studies on disposed wastes from these processes. Data will be collected to characterize these wastes and their interactions with the environments in which they are disposed. Three sites were selected for the field studies: Colorado Ute`s fluidized bed combustion (FBC) unit in Nucla, Colorado; Ohio Edison`s limestone injection multistage burner (LIMB) retrofit in Lorain, Ohio; and Freeman United`s mine site in central Illinois with wastes supplied by the nearby Midwest Grain FBC unit. During the past year, field monitoring and sampling of the four landfill test cases constructed in 1989 and 1991 has continued. Option 1 of the contract was approved last year to add financing for the fifth test case at the Freeman United site. The construction of the Test Case 5 cells is scheduled to begin in November, 1992. Work during this past year has focused on obtaining data on the physical and chemical properties of the landfilled wastes, and on developing a conceptual framework for interpreting this information. Results to date indicate that hydration reactions within the landfilled wastes have had a major impact on the physical and chemical properties of the materials but these reactions largely ceased after the first year, and physical properties have changed little since then. Conditions in Colorado remained dry and no porewater samples were collected. In Ohio, hydration reactions and increases in the moisture content of the waste tied up much of the water initially infiltrating the test cells.

  4. Three dimension temperature field reconstruction with image processing technique on pulverized coal boiler furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen Peihua; Qi Guoshui; Ma Zengyi [and others

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Temperature field distribution measurement is important for combustion diagnostics. With CCD camera, the authors can obtain abundance digital data of flame image instantaneous. Every data represent radiation heat transfer along projection beam. Based on Optic geometric and heat transfer theory, they develop a 3-d flame temperature field reconstruction technique, which can calculate a 3-d zone temperature using two perspectives CCD camera. The optical geometric relation of CCD's image formation and flame radiation heat transfer model is deduced, they establish the reconstruction equation group from radiation heat transfer, and optimization is introduced to solve these equation. The result of a PC boiler is presented.

  5. Hanna, Wyoming underground coal gasification data base. Volume 4. Hanna II, Phases II and III field test research report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartke, T.C.; Fischer, D.D.; King, S.B.; Boyd, R.M.; Humphrey, A.E.

    1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is part of a seven-volume series on the Hanna, Wyoming, underground coal gasification field tests. Volume 1 is a summary of the project and each of Volumes 2 through 6 describes a particular test. Volume 7 is a compilation of all the data for the tests in Volumes 2 through 6. Hanna II, Phases II and III, were conducted during the winter of 1975 and the summer of 1976. The two phases refer to linking and gasification operations conducted between two adjacent well pairs as shown in Figure 1 with Phase II denoting operations between Wells 5 and 6 and Phase III operations between Wells 7 and 8. All of the other wells shown were instrumentation wells. Wells 7 and 8 were linked in November and December 1975. This report covers: (1) specific site selection and characteristics; (2) test objectives; (3) facilities description; (4) pre-operation tests; (5) test operations summary; and (6) post-test activity. 16 refs., 21 figs., 17 tabs.

  6. Coal pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bonin, John H. (Sunnyvale, CA); Meyer, John W. (Palo Alto, CA); Daniel, Jr., Arnold D. (Alameda County, CA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A device for pressurizing pulverized coal and circulating a carrier gas is disclosed. This device has utility in a coal gasification process and eliminates the need for a separate collection hopper and eliminates the separate compressor.

  7. GLACIER and related R&D

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Curioni, Alessandro

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid argon detectors, with mass up to 100 kton, are being actively studied in the context of proton decay searches, neutrino astrophysics and for the next generation of long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments to study the neutrino mass hierarchy and CP violation in the leptonic sector. The proposed Giant Liquid Argon Charge Imaging ExpeRiment (GLACIER) offers a well defined conceptual design for such a detector. In this paper we present the GLACIER design and some of the R&D activities pursued within the GLACIER.

  8. Rheology of rock glaciers: a preliminary assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giardino, J.R.; Vitek, J.D.; Hoskins, E.R.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Movement of rock debris under the influence of gravity, i.e., mass movement, generates a range of phenomena from soil creep, through solifluction,debris flows and rock glaciers to rock falls. Whereas the resultant forms of these phenomena are different, common elements in the mechanics of movement are utilized in the basic interpretation of the processes of formation. Measurements of morphologic variables provide data for deductive analyses of processes that operate too slowly to observe or for processes that generated relict phenomena. External and internal characteristics or rock glacier morphometry and measured rates of motion serve as the basis for the development of a rheological model to explain phenomena classified as rock glaciers. A rock glacier in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains of Southern Colorado, which exhibits a large number of ridges and furrows and lichen bare fronts of lobes, suggests present day movement. A strain-net established on the surface provides evidence of movement characteristics. These data plus morphologic and fabric data suggest two rheological models to explain the flow of this rock glacier. Model one is based upon perfect plastic flow and model two is based upon stratified fluid movement with viscosity changing with depth. These models permit a better understanding of the movement mechanics and demonstrate that catastrophic events and slow creep contribute to the morphologic characteristics of this rock glacier.

  9. Controls on advance of tidewater glaciers: results from numerical modeling applied to Columbia Glacier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nick, F. M.; van der Veen, Cornelis J.; Oerlemans, J.

    2007-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A one-dimensional numerical ice flow model is used to study the advance of a tidewater glacier into deep water. Starting with ice-free conditions, the model simulates glacier growth at higher elevations followed by advance on land to the head...

  10. NETL: Coal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Major Demonstrations Major Demonstrations Since 1985, we have helped fund commercial-scale clean coal technology demonstration projects. ICCS | CCPI | PPII | CCTDP | FutureGen...

  11. asia melting glaciers: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Liyun Zhao a , Ran Ding a , John C change by 2050 of all 67,028 glaciers, with a total area of 122,969 km2 , delineated in the Randolph Glacier Inventory 2.0 of high mountain...

  12. Summer temperature profiles within supraglacial debris on Khumbu Glacier, Nepal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rasmussen, L.A.

    Summer temperature profiles within supraglacial debris on Khumbu Glacier, Nepal H. CONWAY, and L. A Glacier, Nepal show a strong diurnal signal that diffused downward into the debris with decreasing

  13. Reservoir characterization of Mary Lee and Black Creek coals at the Rock Creek field laboratory, Black Warrior basin. Topical report, May-December 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, G.B.C.; Paul, G.W.

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A three-dimensional multi-well simulation study was performed for the Rock Creek project site to better understand the relationships between coal reservoir properties, well completion practices, and actual well performance. The reservoir study provided insights on the efficacy of single versus multiple seam completions, the incremental gas recovery resulting from remedial stimulations, and the impact of well spacing on expected long-term gas recovery. The Mary Lee and Black Creek coal groups were characterized by matching production and pressure history for eight Rock Creek producing wells and their surrounding monitor wells. The simulation grid included the Oak Grove mine and degas field located south of the Rock Creek site. Results of well test analyses, corehole-based gas content measurements, and individual coal group gas production from zone isolation packer tests were used to validate the simulation results. Various hydraulic fracture and remedial stimulations were analyzed to compare the effectiveness of different stimulation designs used at the site. Alternative well spacing strategies were examined to assess the effects of interference on long-term gas recovery.

  14. Process for electrochemically gasifying coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Botts, T.E.; Powell, J.R.

    1985-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is claimed for electrochemically gasifying coal by establishing a flowing stream of coal particulate slurry, electrolyte and electrode members through a transverse magnetic field that has sufficient strength to polarize the electrode members, thereby causing them to operate in combination with the electrolyte to electrochemically reduce the coal particulate in the slurry. Such electrochemical reduction of the coal produces hydrogen and carbon dioxide at opposite ends of the polarized electrode members. Gas collection means are operated in conjunction with the process to collect the evolved gases as they rise from the slurry and electrolyte solution. 7 figs.

  15. Coal slurries: An environmental bonus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basta, N.; Moore, S.; Ondrey, G.

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Developers and promoters of coal-water slurries and similar CWF (coal-water fuel) technologies have had a hard time winning converts since they unveiled their first commercial processes in the 1970s. The economic appeal of such processes, marginal at best, varies with the price of oil. Nevertheless, the technology is percolating, as geopolitics and environmental pressures drive new processes. Such fuels are becoming increasingly important to coal-rich, oil-poor nations such as China, as they attempt to build an onshore fuel supply. Meanwhile, improvements are changing the way coal-fired processes are viewed. Where air pollution regulations once discouraged the use of coal fuels, new coal processes have been developed that cut nitrous oxides (NOx) emissions and provide a use for coal fines, previously viewed as waste. The latest developments in the field were all on display at the 19th International Technical Conference on Coal Utilization and Fuel Systems, held in Clearwater, Fla., on March 21--24. At this annual meeting, sponsored by the Coal and Slurry Technology Association, (Washington, D.C.) and the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Dept. of Energy (PETC), some 200 visitors from around the work gathered to discuss the latest developments in coal slurry utilization--new and improved processes, and onstream plants. This paper presents highlights from the conference.

  16. Field study for disposal of solid wastes from Advanced Coal Processes: Ohio LIMB Site Assessment. Final report, April 1986--November 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weinberg, A.; Coel, B.J.; Butler, R.D.

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    New air pollution regulations will require cleaner, more efficient processes for converting coal to electricity, producing solid byproducts or wastes that differ from conventional pulverized-coal combustion ash. Large scale landfill test cells containing byproducts were built at 3 sites and are to be monitored over at least 3 years. This report presents results of a 3-y field test at an ash disposal site in northern Ohio; the field test used ash from a combined lime injection-multistage burner (LIMB) retrofit at the Ohio Edison Edgewater plant. The landfill test cells used LIMB ash wetted only to control dusting in one cell, and LIMB ash wetted to optimize compaction density in the other cell. Both test cells had adequate load-bearing strength for landfill stability but had continuing dimensional instability. Heaving and expansion did not affect the landfill stability but probably contributed to greater permeability to infiltrating water. Leachate migration occurred from the base, but effects on downgradient groundwater were limited to increased chloride concentration in one well. Compressive strength of landfilled ash was adequate to support equipment, although permeability was higher and strength was lower than anticipated. Average moisture content has increased to about 90% (dry weight basis). Significant water infiltration has occurred; the model suggests that as much as 20% of the incident rainfall will pass through and exit as leachate. However, impacts on shallow ground water is minimal. Results of this field study suggest that LIMB ash from combustion of moderate to high sulfur coals will perform acceptably if engineering controls are used to condition and compact the materials, reduce water influx to the landfill, and minimize leachate production. Handling of the ash did not pose serious problems during cell construction; steaming and heat buildup were moderate.

  17. WATER FLOW THROUGH TEMPERATE GLACIERS Andrew G. Fountain1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fountain, Andrew G.

    WATER FLOW THROUGH TEMPERATE GLACIERS Andrew G. Fountain1 Department of Geology Portland State, Washington Abstract. Understanding water movement through a glacier is fundamental to several critical issues glacierized drainage basins. To this end we have synthesized a conceptual model of water movement through

  18. Glacier: Highly durable, decentralized storage despite massive correlated failures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennsylvania, University of

    Glacier: Highly durable, decentralized storage despite massive correlated failures Andreas be considered when attempting to provide highly durable storage. In this paper, we describe Glacier failures. Glacier is designed to aggressively minimize the cost of this redun- dancy in space and time

  19. Seasonal glacier melt contribution to streamflow Neil Schaner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    1 Seasonal glacier melt contribution to streamflow Neil Schaner Department of Civil of Washington Seattle, WA 98195 dennisl@u.washington.edu #12;2 Ongoing and projected future changes in glacier. However, the current magnitude of glacier contributions to river runoff is not well known, nor

  20. Glacier melt contribution to streamflow1 Neil Schaner1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    1 Glacier melt contribution to streamflow1 Neil Schaner1 , Nathalie Voisin2 , Bart Nijssen1 12 * Corresponding author13 Abstract. Ongoing and projected future changes in glacier extent and water storage14 globally have led to concerns about the implications for water supplies. Glacier15

  1. Glacier: A Query-to-Hardware Compiler Rene Mueller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teubner, Jens

    Glacier: A Query-to-Hardware Compiler Rene Mueller rene.mueller@inf.ethz.ch Jens Teubner jens systems. In this demonstration we show Glacier, a library and a compiler that can be employed to implement streaming queries as hardware circuits on FPGAs. Glacier consists of a library of compositional hardware

  2. 10 000 ans de fonte des glaciers andins expliqus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N° 377 Juin 2011 10 000 ans de fonte des glaciers andins expliqués Scientific news Actualidad cientifica Actualité scientifique Si la fonte des glaciers a largement été démontrée dans le monde, le cas particulier des glaciers tropi- caux n'est pas encore bien connu. Ces derniers sont principalement situés dans

  3. Melting Alpine Glaciers Enrich High-Elevation Lakes with Reactive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williamson, Craig E.

    Melting Alpine Glaciers Enrich High-Elevation Lakes with Reactive Nitrogen J A S M I N E E . S A R received May 26, 2010. Accepted May 28, 2010. Alpine glaciers have receded substantially over the last. Our results demonstrate that the presence of glaciers on alpine watersheds more strongly influences NO

  4. Losing a Legacy: A photographic story of disappearing glaciers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Losing a Legacy: A photographic story of disappearing glaciers W.C. Alden photo, GNP Archives B. Reardon photo, USGS Dan Fagre & Lisa McKeon, USGS G alle r y G ui de ShepardGlacier 1 9 1 3 2 0 0 5 #12. The following collection of repeat photographs of glaciers has been assembled and re-photographed by USGS

  5. Integration Of Reflectance To Study Glacier Surface Using Landsat 7 ETM+: A Case Study Of The Petermann Glacier In Greenland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbes, Fernando

    Integration Of Reflectance To Study Glacier Surface Using Landsat 7 ETM+: A Case Study Of The Petermann Glacier In Greenland Félix O. Rivera Santiago Department Of Geology, University Of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez Campus, P.O. Box 9017 Mayaguez Puerto Rico,00681 Abstract- Glaciers are masses of ice and granular snow

  6. Glacier fluctuations in the Kenai Fjords, Alaska, U.S.A.: An evaluation of controls on Iceberg-calving glaciers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiles, G.C. [Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY (United States); Calkin, P.E. [Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States); Post, A. [Geological Survey, Vashon, WA (United States)

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The histories of four iceberg-calving outlet-glacier systems in the Kenai Fjords National Park underscore the importance of fiord depth, sediment supply, and fiord geometry on glacier stability. These parameters, in turn, limit the reliability of calving glacier chronologies as records of climatic change. Tree-ring analysis together with radiocarbon dating show that the Northwestern and McCarty glaciers, with large drainage basins, were advancing in concert with nearby land-terminating glaciers about A.D. 600. After an interval of retreat and possible nonclimatically induced extension during the Medieval Warm Period, these ice margins advanced again through the Little Ice Age and then retreated synchronously with the surrounding land-terminating glaciers about A.D. 1900. In contrast, Holgate and Aialik glaciers, with deeper fiords and smaller basins, retreated about 300 yr earlier. Reconstructions of Little Ice Age glaciers suggest that equilibrium-line altitudes of Northwestern and McCarty glaciers were, respectively, 270 and 500 m lower than now. Furthermore, the reconstructions show that these two glaciers were climatically sensitive when at their terminal moranies. However, with ice margins at their present recessional positions and accumulation area ratios between 0.8 and 0.9, only McCarty Glacier shows evidence of advance. Aialik and Holgate glaciers were climatically insensitive during the Little Ice Age maxima and remain insensitive to climate. 40 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS ON NON-SCRUBBED COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. Jean Bustard

    2001-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Mercury is known to have toxic effects on the nervous system of humans and wildlife. Although it exists only in trace amounts in coal, mercury is released when coal burns and can accumulate on land and in water. In water, bacteria transform the metal into methylmercury, the most hazardous form of the metal. Methylmercury can collect in fish and marine mammals in concentrations hundreds of thousands times higher than the levels in surrounding waters. One of the goals of DOE is to develop technologies by 2005 that will be capable of cutting mercury emissions 50 to 70 percent at well under one-half of today's costs. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is managing a project to test mercury control technologies at full scale at four different power plants from 2000--2003. The ADA-ES project is focused on those power plants that are not equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization systems. ADA-ES will develop a portable system that will be moved to four different utility power plants for field testing. Each of the plants is equipped with either electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters to remove solid particles from the plant's flue gas. ADA-ES's technology will inject a dry sorbent, such as fly ash or activated carbon, that removes the mercury and makes it more susceptible to capture by the particulate control devices. A fine water mist may be sprayed into the flue gas to cool its temperature to the range where the dry sorbent is most effective. PG and E National Energy Group is providing two test sites that fire bituminous coals and are both equipped with electrostatic precipitators and carbon/ash separation systems. Wisconsin Electric Power Company is providing a third test site that burns Powder River Basin coal and has an electrostatic precipitator for particulate control. Alabama Power Company will host a fourth test at its Plant Gaston, which is equipped with a hot-side electrostatic precipitator and a downstream fabric filter.

  8. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS ON NON-SCRUBBED COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. Jean Bustard

    2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Mercury is known to have toxic effects on the nervous system of humans and wildlife. Although it exists only in trace amounts in coal, mercury is released when coal burns and can accumulate on land and in water. In water, bacteria transform the metal into methylmercury, the most hazardous form of the metal. Methylmercury can collect in fish and marine mammals in concentrations hundreds of thousands times higher than the levels in surrounding waters. One of the goals of DOE is to develop technologies by 2005 that will be capable of cutting mercury emissions 50 to 70 percent at well under one-half of today's costs. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is managing a project to test mercury control technologies at full scale at four different power plants from 2000--2003. The ADA-ES project is focused on those power plants that are not equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization systems. ADA-ES will develop a portable system that will be moved to four different utility power plants for field testing. Each of the plants is equipped with either electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters to remove solid particles from the plant's flue gas. ADA-ES's technology will inject a dry sorbent, such as fly ash or activated carbon, that removes the mercury and makes it more susceptible to capture by the particulate control devices. A fine water mist may be sprayed into the flue gas to cool its temperature to the range where the dry sorbent is most effective. PG&E National Energy Group is providing two test sites that fire bituminous coals and are both equipped with electrostatic precipitators and carbon/ash separation systems. Wisconsin Electric Power Company is providing a third test site that burns Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and has an electrostatic precipitator for particulate control. Alabama Power Company will host a fourth test at its Plant Gaston, which is equipped with a hot-side electrostatic precipitator and a downstream fabric filter.

  9. Contrasting response of South Greenland glaciers to recent climatic change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, C.R.; Glasser, N.F. (Univ. of Edinburgh, Scotland (United Kingdom))

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A unique geographical configuration of glaciers exists in the Narsarsuaq district of South Greenland. Two large outlet glaciers divide into seven distributaries, such that each glacier system has land-terminating, tidewater-calving, and fresh-water-calving termini. Despite a similar climatic regime, these seven glaciers have exhibited strongly contrasting terminal behavior in historical time, as shown by historical records, aerial photographs, and fieldwork in 1989. The behavior of the calving glaciers cannot be accounted for with reference solely to climatic parameters. The combination of iceberg calving dynamics and topographic control has partially decoupled them from climatic forcing such that their oscillations relate more closely to glaciodynamic than glacioclimatic factors.

  10. Little Ice Age glaciers in Britain: Glacier–climate modelling in the Cairngorm Mountains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephan Harrison; Ann V. Rowan; Neil F. Glasser; Jasper Knight; Mitchell A. Plummer; Stephanie C. Mills

    2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is widely believed that the last glaciers in the British Isles disappeared at the end of the Younger Dryas stadial (12.9–11.7 cal. kyr BP). Here, we use a glacier–climate model driven by data from local weather stations to show for the first time that glaciers developed during the Little Ice Age (LIA) in the Cairngorm Mountains. Our model is forced from contemporary conditions by a realistic difference in mean annual air temperature of -1.5 degrees C and an increase in annual precipitation of 10%, and confirmed by sensitivity analyses. These results are supported by the presence of small boulder moraines well within Younger Dryas ice limits, and by a dating programme on a moraine in one cirque. As a result, we argue that the last glaciers in the Cairngorm Mountains (and perhaps elsewhere in upland Britain) existed in the LIA within the last few hundred years, rather than during the Younger Dryas.

  11. Clean Coal Power Initiative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doug Bartlett; Rob James; John McDermott; Neel Parikh; Sanjay Patnaik; Camilla Podowski

    2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is the fifth quarterly Technical Progress Report submitted by NeuCo, Incorporated, under Award Identification Number, DE-FC26-04NT41768. This award is part of the Clean Coal Power Initiative (''CCPI''), the ten-year, $2B initiative to demonstrate new clean coal technologies in the field. This report is one of the required reports listed in Attachment B Federal Assistance Reporting Checklist, part of the Cooperative Agreement. The report covers the award period January 1, 2006 - March 31, 2006 and NeuCo's efforts within design, development, and deployment of on-line optimization systems during that period.

  12. Coal industry annual 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents data on coal consumption, distribution, coal stocks, quality, prices, coal production information, and emissions for a wide audience.

  13. Hydrothermally treated coals for pulverized coal injection. Technical progress report, April 1995--June 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walsh, D.E.; Rao, P.D.; Ogunsola, O.; Lin, H.K.

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project is investigating the suitability of hydrothermally dried low-rank coals for pulverized fuel injection into blast furnaces in order to reduce coke consumption. Coal samples from the Beluga coal field and Usibelli Coal Mine, Alaska, are being used for the study. Crushed coal samples were hydrothermally treated at three temperatures, 275, 300 and 325{degrees}C, for residence times ranging from 10 to 120 minutes. Products have been characterized to determine their suitability for pulverized coal injection. Characterization includes proximate and ultimate analyses, vitrinite reflectance, TGA reactivity and thermochemical modeling. A literature survey has been conducted.

  14. Alaska Park Science, Volume 12, Issue 2 Status and Trends of Alaska National Park Glaciers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loso, Michael G.

    Glaciers: What Do They Tell Us About Climate Change? Michael G. Loso, Anthony Arendt, Chris Larsen, Nate with the fact that the state's many glaciers are changing. Many glaciers are shrinking, and "retreat" of the glacier terminus is usually the most obvious manifestation of that change. But while some glaciers (like

  15. Glacier Guide for Departments, v. 3.3 Page 1 ONLINE NONRESIDENT ALIEN TAX COMPLIANCE SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jun, Suckjoon

    Glacier Guide for Departments, v. 3.3 Page 1 GLACIER ONLINE NONRESIDENT ALIEN TAX COMPLIANCE SYSTEM Glacier Guide for Departments All Glacier-related documents & forms are available in electronic format. Please email awinterton@ucsd.edu to request copies. · Glacier Information Form (Interactive pdf

  16. The influence of air temperature inversions on snowmelt and glacier mass-balance simulations, Ammassalik island, SE Greenland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mernild, Sebastian Haugard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Liston, Glen [COLORADO STATE UNIV.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In many applications, a realistic description of air temperature inversions is essential for accurate snow and glacier ice melt, and glacier mass-balance simulations. A physically based snow-evolution modeling system (SnowModel) was used to simulate eight years (1998/99 to 2005/06) of snow accumulation and snow and glacier ice ablation from numerous small coastal marginal glaciers on the SW-part of Ammassalik Island in SE Greenland. These glaciers are regularly influenced by inversions and sea breezes associated with the adjacent relatively low temperature and frequently ice-choked fjords and ocean. To account for the influence of these inversions on the spatiotemporal variation of air temperature and snow and glacier melt rates, temperature inversion routines were added to MircoMet, the meteorological distribution sub-model used in SnowModel. The inversions were observed and modeled to occur during 84% of the simulation period. Modeled inversions were defined not to occur during days with strong winds and high precipitation rates due to the potential of inversion break-up. Field observations showed inversions to extend from sea level to approximately 300 m a.s.l., and this inversion level was prescribed in the model simulations. Simulations with and without the inversion routines were compared. The inversion model produced air temperature distributions with warmer lower elevation areas and cooler higher elevation areas than without inversion routines due to the use of cold sea-breeze base temperature data from underneath the inversion. This yielded an up to 2 weeks earlier snowmelt in the lower areas and up to 1 to 3 weeks later snowmelt in the higher elevation areas of the simulation domain. Averaged mean annual modeled surface mass-balance for all glaciers (mainly located above the inversion layer) was -720 {+-} 620 mm w.eq. y{sup -1} for inversion simulations, and -880 {+-} 620 mm w.eq. y{sup -1} without the inversion routines, a difference of 160 mm w.eq. y{sup -1}. The annual glacier loss for the two simulations was 50.7 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} y{sup -1} and 64.4 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} y{sup -1} for all glaciers - a difference of {approx}21%. The average equilibrium line altitude (ELA) for all glaciers in the simulation domain was located at 875 m a.s.l. and at 900 m a.s.l. for simulations with or without inversion routines, respectively.

  17. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS ON NON-SCRUBBED COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard Schlager; Tom Millar

    2002-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Mercury is known to have toxic effects on the nervous system of humans and wildlife. Although it exists only in trace amounts in coal, mercury is released when coal burns and can accumulate on land and in water. In water, bacteria transform the metal into methylmercury, the most hazardous form of the metal. Methylmercury can collect in fish and marine mammals in concentrations hundreds of thousands times higher than the levels in surrounding waters. One of the goals of DOE is to develop technologies by 2005 that will be capable of cutting mercury emissions 50 to 70 percent at well under one-half of today's costs. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is managing a project to test mercury control technologies at full scale at four different power plants from 2000-2003. The ADA-ES project is focused on those power plants that are not equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization systems. ADA-ES has developed a portable system that will be tested at four different utility power plants. Each of the plants is equipped with either electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters to remove solid particles from the plant's flue gas. ADA-ES's technology will inject a dry sorbent, such as activated carbon, which removes the mercury and makes it more susceptible to capture by the particulate control devices. A fine water mist may be sprayed into the flue gas to cool its temperature to the range where the dry sorbent is most effective. PG&E National Energy Group is providing two test sites that fire bituminous coals and both are equipped with electrostatic precipitators and carbon/ash separation systems. Wisconsin Electric Power Company is providing a third test site that burns Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and has an electrostatic precipitator for particulate control. Alabama Power Company will host a fourth test at its Plant Gaston, which is equipped with a hot-side electrostatic precipitator and a downstream fabric filter. During the eighth reporting quarter, progress was made on the project in the following areas: (1) PG&E NEG Salem Harbor Station--Sorbent injection equipment was installed at the site during the quarter; Test plans were prepared for the field-testing phase of the project; and Baseline testing was completed during the quarter. (2) Technology Transfer--A number of technical presentations and briefings were made during the quarter. Notable among them was a paper published in the JAWMA. Also, two papers were presented at the Air Quality III Conference and one at the Pittsburgh Coal Conference.

  18. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS ON NON-SCRUBBED COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard Schlager

    2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Mercury is known to have toxic effects on the nervous system of humans and wildlife. Although it exists only in trace amounts in coal, mercury is released when coal burns and can accumulate on land and in water. In water, bacteria transform the metal into methylmercury, the most hazardous form of the metal. Methylmercury can collect in fish and marine mammals in concentrations hundreds of thousands times higher than the levels in surrounding waters. One of the goals of DOE is to develop technologies by 2005 that will be capable of cutting mercury emissions 50 to 70 percent at well under one-half of today's costs. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is managing a project to test mercury control technologies at full scale at four different power plants from 2000-2003. The ADA-ES project is focused on those power plants that are not equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization systems. ADA-ES will develop a portable system that will be moved to four different utility power plants for field testing. Each of the plants is equipped with either electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters to remove solid particles from the plant's flue gas. ADA-ES's technology will inject a dry sorbent, such as fly ash or activated carbon, that removes the mercury and makes it more susceptible to capture by the particulate control devices. A fine water mist may be sprayed into the flue gas to cool its temperature to the range where the dry sorbent is most effective. PG&E National Energy Group is providing two test sites that fire bituminous coals and both are equipped with electrostatic precipitators and carbon/ash separation systems. Wisconsin Electric Power Company is providing a third test site that burns Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and has an electrostatic precipitator for particulate control. Alabama Power Company will host a fourth test at its Plant Gaston, which is equipped with a hot-side electrostatic precipitator and a downstream fabric filter. During the seventh reporting quarter, progress was made on the project in the following areas: (1) PG&E NEG Brayton Point Station--Sorbent injection equipment was installed at the site during the quarter; Test plans were prepared for the field testing phase of the project; Baseline testing was completed during the quarter and parametric testing was begun; and A paper summarizing the full-scale tests was written and submitted to A&WMA for presentation at the annual meeting in June 2002. (2) Technology Transfer--A number of technical presentations and briefings were made during the quarter. Notable among them are papers published in the A&WMA EM journal and Pollution Engineering. Also, information was provided to the EPA MACT Working Group and a paper was presented at the annual A&WMA meeting.

  19. On glacier retreat and drought cycles in the Rocky Mountains of Montana and Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berger, Wolfgang H

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    warming from the retreat of glaciers. Science 264: 243–245.climate signal from 169 glacier records. Science, 308, 675-677. Ommanney, C.S.L. , 2007. Glaciers of North America –

  20. Glacier Meltwater Contributions and Glaciometeorological Regime of the Illecillewaet River Basin, British Columbia,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Dan

    Glacier Meltwater Contributions and Glaciometeorological Regime of the Illecillewaet River Basin This study characterizes the meteorological parameters influencing glacier runoff and quantifies recent glacier contributions to streamflow in the Illecillewaet River basin, British Columbia. The Illecillewaet

  1. Sudden increase in tidal response linked to calving and acceleration at a large Greenland outlet glacier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Juan, J.; Elosegui, P.; Nettles, M.; Larsen, T.B.; Davis, J.L.; Hamilton, Gordon S.; Stearns, Leigh; Anderson, M.L.; Ekstrom, G.; Ahlstrom, A.P.; Stenseng, L.; Khan, S.A.; Forsberg, R.

    2010-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    [1] Large calving events at Greenland's largest outlet glaciers are associated with glacial earthquakes and near-instantaneous increases in glacier flow speed. At some glaciers and ice streams, flow is also modulated in a regular way by ocean tidal...

  2. GLACIER FLUCTUATIONS IN THEALPS OVER THE LAST FOURMILLENNIA-PART 3 59 Precisely dated glacier fluctuations in theAlps over the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicolussi, Kurt

    GLACIER FLUCTUATIONS IN THEALPS OVER THE LAST FOURMILLENNIA-PART 3 59 Precisely dated glacier;?Instituteof GeologicalSciences, Universip$Ben, Ben, Sm'tzerland; WSL,Birmensdolf;Switzerland Mountain glaciers are highly glacier retreat in the European Alps is the most striking en+ronmental evidencefor currentclimaticchange

  3. Mathematical modeling of cavity growth during underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, K.S.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Four two-dimensional cavity growth models are developed based on the permeation process concept in order to understand what has happened in previous field tests, and to learn better methods for future field tests and commercial scale operations. The first model considers only a wet coal region beyond the cavity. In the second model, dried coal is added to the first model, so that there are two different coal regions: the wet coal and dried coal regions. The third model includes the effect of links formed by reverse combustion, but the dried coal region is not included. Also in this model, plugging phenomenon, due to particulates carried by the injectant to the cavity wall, is introduced. The final model incorporates nonisotropic permeability, a dried coal region, links and plugging phenomenon. Considerations of a wet coal region only or of wet coal and coal drying do not explain the high recovery of coal observed in field tests. However, plugging phenomenon prevents channeling of gases down high-permeability links, and thereby the recovery of coal is increased. Also link configurations have a marked effect on the coal source recovery. Computation results from the fourth model show that coal recovery is improved greatly if a large dried coal zone exists around the cavity.

  4. Review of underground coal-gasification field experiments at Hoe Creek. [Hoe Creek 1, 2, and 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thorsness, C.B.; Creighton, J.R.

    1982-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    LLNL has conducted three underground coal gasification experiments at the Hoe Creek site near Gillette, Wyoming. Three different linking methods were used: explosive fracture, reverse burning and directional drilling. Air was injected on all three experiments and a steam/oxygen mixture during 2 days of the second and most of the third experiment. Comparison of results show that the linking method didn't influence gas quality. The heat of combustion of the product gas was higher with steam/oxygen injection, mainly because of reduced inert diluent. Gas quality was generally independent of other operating parameters, but declined from its initial value over a period of time. This was due to heat loss to the wet overburden and extensive roof collapse in the second and third experiments.

  5. Reyes et al., p. 1 DATA REPOSITORY ITEM FOR: Expansion of alpine glaciers in Pacific North

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barclay, David J.

    Reyes et al., p. 1 DATA REPOSITORY ITEM FOR: Expansion of alpine glaciers in Pacific North America in the first millennium A.D. Site Latitude Longitude (ºN) (ºW) Lillooet Glacier 50º45' 123º46' Bridge Glacier 50º49' 123º29' Miserable Glacier 51°04' 123°52' Tiedemann Glacier 51º21' 124º56' Frank Mackie Glacier

  6. antarctica glacier etude: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Andrew G. 7 Plio-Pleistocene history of Ferrar Glacier, Antarctica: Implications for climate and ice sheet stability Geosciences Websites Summary: The areal distribution and...

  7. DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, James Anthony

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pollutants Associated With Coal Combustion. • E.P.A.Control Guidelines for Coal-Derived Pollutants .Forms of Sulfur in Coal • . . . . Coal Desulfurization

  8. Effects and impacts of vessel activity on the Kittlitz's Murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris) in Glacier Bay, Alaska

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    ) in Glacier Bay, Alaska Alison M. Agness A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements (Brachyramphus brevirostris) in Glacier Bay, Alaska.....35 Summary

  9. Glaciar Perito Moreno, Patagonia: climate sensitivities and glacier characteristics preceding the 2003/04 and 2005/06

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuefer, Martin

    Glaciar Perito Moreno, Patagonia: climate sensitivities and glacier characteristics preceding Patago´nico Sur (southern Patagonia icefield), were investigated. Field measurements were carried out. The largest ice mass is Hielo Patago´nico Sur (HPS; southern Patagonia icefield), extending from 48.3 to 51

  10. Coal industry annual 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  11. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

  12. Coal industry annual 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  13. Microbial solubilization of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Strandberg, G.W.; Lewis, S.N.

    1988-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a cell-free preparation and process for the microbial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products. More specifically, the present invention relates to bacterial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products and a cell-free bacterial byproduct useful for solubilizing coal. 5 tabs.

  14. Instructions for Glacier Recession Lesson Objective: Students will learn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Instructions for Glacier Recession Lesson Objective: Students will learn: - about the connection post-discussion) The movie or some other type of lesson relating glaciers to climate change should amount of ice and multiply by 100. If using Option 3 (GIS lesson on computers): #12;

  15. The GLIMS Glacier Database: a spatio-temporal database

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raup, Bruce H.

    The GLIMS Glacier Database: a spatio-temporal database implemented using Open Source tools Bruce countries #12;#12;#12;#12;#12;System components PostgreSQL (relational database) PostGIS (geospatial) GDAL (Geospatial Data Abstraction Library) Perl, PHP, Shapelib, ... #12;GLIMS Glacier Database System

  16. A physically based calving model applied to marine outlet glaciers and implications for the glacier dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van der Veen, Cornelis J.; Nick, F. M.; Vieli, A.; Venn, D. I.

    2010-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We present results from numerical ice-flow models that include calving criteria based on penetration of surface and basal crevasses, which in turn is a function of longitudinal strain rates near the glacier front. The position of the calving front...

  17. Clean coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang-Shih Fan; Fanxing Li [Ohio State University, OH (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

    2006-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The article describes the physics-based techniques that are helping in clean coal conversion processes. The major challenge is to find a cost- effective way to remove carbon dioxide from the flue gas of power plants. One industrially proven method is to dissolve CO{sub 2} in the solvent monoethanolamine (MEA) at a temperature of 38{sup o}C and then release it from the solvent in another unit when heated to 150{sup o}C. This produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. Research is in progress with alternative solvents that require less energy. Another technique is to use enriched oxygen in place of air in the combustion process which produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. A process that is more attractive from an energy management viewpoint is to gasify coal so that it is partially oxidized, producing a fuel while consuming significantly less oxygen. Several IGCC schemes are in operation which produce syngas for use as a feedstock, in addition to electricity and hydrogen. These schemes are costly as they require an air separation unit. Novel approaches to coal gasification based on 'membrane separation' or chemical looping could reduce the costs significantly while effectively capturing carbon dioxide. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 photo.

  18. DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, James Anthony

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    flow sheet of a K-T coal gasification complex for producingslag or bottom ash, coal gasification, or coal liquefactionCoal (Ref. 46). COAL PREPARATION GASIFICATION 3 K·T GASI FI

  19. Elevated East Antarctic outlet glaciers during warmer-than-present climates in southern Victoria Land

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marchant, David R.

    Elevated East Antarctic outlet glaciers during warmer-than-present climates in southern Victoria August 2011 Keywords: McMurdo Dry Valleys Taylor Dome Taylor Glacier cosmogenic Pliocene Pleistocene We document Plio-Pleistocene changes in the level of Taylor Glacier, an outlet glacier in southern Victoria

  20. Glaciologie Amrique du Sud Bolivie : volution proccupante des glaciers et consquences sur

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glaciologie ­ Amérique du Sud Bolivie : évolution préoccupante des glaciers et conséquences sur les ressources en eau Communiqué de presse | Marseille | 11 février 2009 Le volume des glaciers de la Cordillère glaciers et déterminé les variations de volume de 21 glaciers. Les conclusions montrent que cette perte s

  1. A WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK SYSTEM DEPLOYMENT FOR DETECTING STICK SLIP MOTION IN GLACIERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Southampton, University of

    A WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK SYSTEM DEPLOYMENT FOR DETECTING STICK SLIP MOTION IN GLACIERS K. Martinez, jhart@soton.ac.uk Keywords: Glaciers, Environmental sensor networks Abstract The behaviour of glaciers The current understanding of how glaciers and ice sheets respond to climate change is extremely limited

  2. Alaskan National Park Glaciers: Status and Trends Second Progress Report: March 30, 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loso, Michael G.

    Alaskan National Park Glaciers: Status and Trends Second Progress Report: March 30, 2012 Anthony;_________________________________________________________________________________________ Cover photo: Knife Creek Glacier in June 2011. The tephra-covered ablation zone of the "fourth" glacier is visible in the middle distance, while in the right foreground a moat is visible where the "first" glacier

  3. A Spatio-Temporal GIS Database for Monitoring Alpine Glacier Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mennis, Jeremy

    A Spatio-Temporal GIS Database for Monitoring Alpine Glacier Change Jeremy L. Mennis Department Monitoring alpine glacier change has many practical and scientific benefits, including yielding information on glacier-fed water supplies, glacier-associated natural hazards, and climate variability. This paper

  4. Hillslope glacier coupling: The interplay of topography and glacial dynamics in High Asia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bookhagen, Bodo

    Hillslope glacier coupling: The interplay of topography and glacial dynamics in High Asia Dirk. Here we provide a regional synthesis of the topography and flow characteristics of 287 glaciers across High Asia using digital elevation analysis and remotely sensed glacier surface velocities. Glaciers

  5. For centuries high mountains and glaciers have been a source of both paralyzing fear

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steiner, Daniel

    83 For centuries high mountains and glaciers have been a source of both paralyzing fear and strange fascination. Natural scientists first began to show interest in Alpine glaciers at the beginning of glacier-related phenomena were undertaken on the Unteraar Glacier, in Switzerland, in the 1840s by Louis

  6. How to add GLACIER Tax Prep access in MyIIT Step-by step instructions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heller, Barbara

    How to add GLACIER Tax Prep access in MyIIT Step-by step instructions Student Access Starting. Select the `Money Matters' category and click `Go' 4. Select the `Glacier' channel and click on `Add. Click on the icon to go to GLACIER Tax Prep to go to the tax prep software. If you used GLACIER Tax Prep

  7. Landsat-based inventory of glaciers in western Canada, 19852005 Tobias Bolch , Brian Menounos, Roger Wheate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landsat-based inventory of glaciers in western Canada, 1985­2005 Tobias Bolch , Brian Menounos 22 August 2009 Keywords: Glacier inventory Glacier recession Landsat TM Western Canada Scaling method Band ratio Image classification We report on a glacier inventory for the Canadian Cordillera south

  8. Recent glacier changes in the Alps observed by satellite: Consequences for future monitoring strategies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kääb, Andreas

    Recent glacier changes in the Alps observed by satellite: Consequences for future monitoring satellite-derived Swiss glacier inventory revealed that mean glacier area loss per decade from 1985 to 1998 display much evidence that down- wasting (i.e. stationary thinning) has become a major source of glacier

  9. GLACIER CHANGE IN THE CARIBOO MOUNTAINS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, CANADA (1946 2011)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedersen, Tom

    GLACIER CHANGE IN THE CARIBOO MOUNTAINS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, CANADA (1946 ­ 2011) by Matthew J Abstract This thesis is a five-chapter investigation of glacier change in the Cariboo Mountains of British Columbia. In chapter one I discuss the importance of glaciers, introduce the glaciers of the Cariboo

  10. Alaskan National Park Glaciers: Status and Trends First Progress Report: September 30, 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loso, Michael G.

    Alaskan National Park Glaciers: Status and Trends First Progress Report: September 30, 2011 Minor photo: Margerie Glacier in July 2011 with Grand Pacific Glacier debris-covered terminus in foreground. Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve July 13, 2011. JT Thomas photo. Above: A valley recently

  11. Creep of Two Alpine Rock Glaciers Observation and Modelling (tztal-and Stubai Alps, Austria)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brückl, Ewald

    glaciers. The source areas of these rock glaciers are situated at altitudes of 2700 to 2800 m aCreep of Two Alpine Rock Glaciers ­ Observation and Modelling (Ötztal- and Stubai Alps, Austria), Wolfram Mostler (Innsbruck) Abstract Our study concentrates on two active rock glaciers in the Eastern

  12. Coal liquefaction and hydrogenation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schindler, Harvey D. (Fair Lawn, NJ); Chen, James M. (Edison, NJ)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a coal liquefaction process using two stages. The first stage liquefies the coal and maximizes the product while the second stage hydrocracks the remainder of the coal liquid to produce solvent.

  13. Coal industry annual 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

  14. Application of Pulsed Electrical Fields for Advanced Cooling and Water Recovery in Coal-Fired Power Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young Cho; Alexander Fridman

    2009-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of the present work was to develop technologies to reduce freshwater consumption in a cooling tower of coal-based power plant so that one could significantly reduce the need of make-up water. The specific goal was to develop a scale prevention technology based an integrated system of physical water treatment (PWT) and a novel filtration method so that one could reduce the need for the water blowdown, which accounts approximately 30% of water loss in a cooling tower. The present study investigated if a pulsed spark discharge in water could be used to remove deposits from the filter membrane. The test setup included a circulating water loop and a pulsed power system. The present experiments used artificially hardened water with hardness of 1,000 mg/L of CaCO{sub 3} made from a mixture of calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}) and sodium carbonate (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) in order to produce calcium carbonate deposits on the filter membrane. Spark discharge in water was found to produce strong shockwaves in water, and the efficiency of the spark discharge in cleaning filter surface was evaluated by measuring the pressure drop across the filter over time. Results showed that the pressure drop could be reduced to the value corresponding to the initial clean state and after that the filter could be maintained at the initial state almost indefinitely, confirming the validity of the present concept of pulsed spark discharge in water to clean dirty filter. The present study also investigated the effect of a plasma-assisted self-cleaning filter on the performance of physical water treatment (PWT) solenoid coil for the mitigation of mineral fouling in a concentric counterflow heat exchanger. The self-cleaning filter utilized shockwaves produced by pulse-spark discharges in water to continuously remove scale deposits from the surface of the filter, thus keeping the pressure drop across the filter at a relatively low value. Artificial hard water was used in the present fouling experiments for three different cases: no treatment, PWT coil only, and PWT coil plus self-cleaning filter. Fouling resistances decreased by 59-72% for the combined case of PWT coil plus filter compared with the values for no-treatment cases. SEM photographs showed much smaller particle sizes for the combined case of PWT coil plus filter as larger particles were continuously removed from circulating water by the filter. The x-ray diffraction data showed calcite crystal structures for all three cases.

  15. Process for electrochemically gasifying coal using electromagnetism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Botts, Thomas E. (Markham, VA); Powell, James R. (Shoreham, NY)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for electrochemically gasifying coal by establishing a flowing stream of coal particulate slurry, electrolyte and electrode members through a transverse magnetic field that has sufficient strength to polarize the electrode members, thereby causing them to operate in combination with the electrolyte to electrochemically reduce the coal particulate in the slurry. Such electrochemical reduction of the coal produces hydrogen and carbon dioxide at opposite ends of the polarized electrode members. Gas collection means are operated in conjunction with the process to collect the evolved gases as they rise from the slurry and electrolyte solution.

  16. Coal combustion science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hardesty, D.R. (ed.); Baxter, L.L.; Fletcher, T.H.; Mitchell, R.E.

    1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency (IEA) Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks include: coal devolatilization, coal char combustion, and fate of mineral matter during coal combustion. 91 refs., 40 figs., 9 tabs.

  17. Coal Mining (Iowa)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These sections describe procedures for coal exploration and extraction, as well as permitting requirements relating to surface and underground coal mining. These sections also address land...

  18. NETL: Coal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch > The EnergyCenterDioxide CaptureSee the Foundry'sMcGuireNETLCareersCoal

  19. Glacier calving, dynamics, and sea-level rise. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meier, M.F.; Pfeffer, W.T.; Amadei, B.

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present-day calving flux from Greenland and Antarctica is poorly known, and this accounts for a significant portion of the uncertainty in the current mass balance of these ice sheets. Similarly, the lack of knowledge about the role of calving in glacier dynamics constitutes a major uncertainty in predicting the response of glaciers and ice sheets to changes in climate and thus sea level. Another fundamental problem has to do with incomplete knowledge of glacier areas and volumes, needed for analyses of sea-level change due to changing climate. The authors proposed to develop an improved ability to predict the future contributions of glaciers to sea level by combining work from four research areas: remote sensing observations of calving activity and iceberg flux, numerical modeling of glacier dynamics, theoretical analysis of the calving process, and numerical techniques for modeling flow with large deformations and fracture. These four areas have never been combined into a single research effort on this subject; in particular, calving dynamics have never before been included explicitly in a model of glacier dynamics. A crucial issue that they proposed to address was the general question of how calving dynamics and glacier flow dynamics interact.

  20. Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Geologic Coal Formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2001-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    BP Corporation North America, Inc. (BP) currently operates a nitrogen enhanced recovery project for coal bed methane at the Tiffany Field in the San Juan Basin, Colorado. The project is the largest and most significant of its kind wherein gas is injected into a coal seam to recover methane by competitive adsorption and stripping. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and BP both recognize that this process also holds significant promise for the sequestration of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas, while economically enhancing the recovery of methane from coal. BP proposes to conduct a CO2 injection pilot at the tiffany Field to assess CO2 sequestration potential in coal. For its part the INEEL will analyze information from this pilot with the intent to define the Co2 sequestration capacity of coal and its ultimate role in ameliorating the adverse effects of global warming on the nation and the world.

  1. Underground coal gasification: environmental update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dockter, L.; Mcternan, E.M.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To evaluate the potential for ground water contamination by underground coal gasification, extensive postburn groundwater monitoring programs are being continued at two test sites in Wyoming. An overview of the environmental concerns related to UCG and some results to date on the two field sites are presented in this report.

  2. Where does a glacier end ? GPR measurements to identify the limits between the slopes and the real glacier area. Application to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Where does a glacier end ? GPR measurements to identify the limits between the slopes and the real glacier area. Application to the Austre Lov´enbreen, Spitsbergen Bernard ´E. Th´eMA, CNRS/Universit´e de, Orsay, France Abstract Glacier limits are usually mapped according to a spatial discrimination based

  3. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is produced via coal gasification, then, depending on thenot be amenable to coal gasification and, thus, Eastern coalto represent a coal-to- hydrogen gasification process that

  4. Surface Energy Balance of the Taylor Glacier, Antarctica

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bliss, Andrew

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    G. L. Dana. Surface energy balance and meltwater productionice sheet: a comparison of energy-balance and a degree-dayvariations in the surface energy balance of haut glacier d’

  5. Fast-flowing outlet glaciers on Svalbard ice caps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dowdeswell, J.A. (Univ. of Cambridge (England)); Collin, R.L. (University College of Wales, Aberystwyth (England))

    1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Four well-defined outlet glaciers are present on the 2510 km{sup 2} cap of Vestfonna in Nordaustlandet, Svalbard. Airborne radio echo sounding and aerial-photograph and satellite-image analysis methods are used to analyze the morphology and dynamics of the ice cap and its component outlet glaciers. The heavily crevassed outlets form linear depressions in the ice-cap surface and flow an order of magnitude faster than the ridges of uncrevassed ice between them. Ice flow on the ridges is accounted for by internal deformation alone, whereas rates of outlet glacier flow require basal motion. One outlet has recently switched into and out of a faster mode of flow. Rapid terminal advance, a change from longitudinal compression to tension, and thinning in the upper basin indicate surge behavior. Observed outlet glacier discharge is significantly greater than current inputs of mass of the ice cap, indicating that present rates of flow cannot be sustained under the contemporary climate.

  6. Hydrology of a land-terminating Greenlandic outlet glacier 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cowton, Thomas Ralph

    2013-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrology is recognised as an important component of the glacial system in alpine environments. In particular, the subglacial drainage of surface meltwaters is known to exert a strong influence on the motion of glaciers ...

  7. Oxy-coal Combustion Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Wendt; E. Eddings; J. Lighty; T. Ring; P. Smith; J. Thornock; Y. Jia, W. Morris; J. Pedel; D. Rezeai; L. Wang; J. Zhang; K. Kelly

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to move toward the development of a predictive capability with quantified uncertainty bounds for pilot-scale, single-burner, oxy-coal operation. This validation research brings together multi-scale experimental measurements and computer simulations. The combination of simulation development and validation experiments is designed to lead to predictive tools for the performance of existing air fired pulverized coal boilers that have been retrofitted to various oxy-firing configurations. In addition, this report also describes novel research results related to oxy-combustion in circulating fluidized beds. For pulverized coal combustion configurations, particular attention is focused on the effect of oxy-firing on ignition and coal-flame stability, and on the subsequent partitioning mechanisms of the ash aerosol. To these ends, the project has focused on the following: â?¢ The development of reliable Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of oxy-coal flames using the Direct Quadrature Method of Moments (DQMOM) (Subtask 3.1). The simulations were validated for both non-reacting particle-laden jets and oxy-coal flames. â?¢ The modifications of an existing oxy-coal combustor to allow operation with high levels of input oxygen to enable in-situ laser diagnostic measurements as well as the development of strategies for directed oxygen injection (Subtask 3.2). Flame stability was quantified for various burner configurations. One configuration that was explored was to inject all the oxygen as a pure gas within an annular oxygen lance, with burner aerodynamics controlling the subsequent mixing. â?¢ The development of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) for identification of velocity fields in turbulent oxy-coal flames in order to provide high-fidelity data for the validation of oxy-coal simulation models (Subtask 3.3). Initial efforts utilized a laboratory diffusion flame, first using gas-fuel and later a pulverized-coal flame to ensure the methodology was properly implemented and that all necessary data and image-processing techniques were fully developed. Success at this stage of development led to application of the diagnostics in a large-scale oxy-fuel combustor (OFC). â?¢ The impact of oxy-coal-fired vs. air-fired environments on SO{sub x} (SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}) emissions during coal combustion in a pilot-scale circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) (Subtask 3.4). Profiles of species concentration and temperature were obtained for both conditions, and profiles of temperature over a wide range of O{sub 2} concentration were studied for oxy-firing conditions. The effect of limestone addition on SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} emissions were also examined for both air- and oxy- firing conditions. â?¢ The investigation of O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} environments on SO{sub 2 emissions during coal combustion in a bench-scale single-particle fluidized-bed reactor (Subtask 3.5). Moreover, the sulfation mechanisms of limestone in O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} environments were studied, and a generalized gassolid and diffusion-reaction single-particle model was developed to study the effect of major operating variables. â?¢ The investigation of the effect of oxy-coal combustion on ash formation, particle size distributions (PSD), and size-segregated elemental composition in a drop-tube furnace and the 100 kW OFC (Subtask 3.6). In particular, the effect of coal type and flue gas recycle (FGR, OFC only) was investigated.

  8. Rock glacier monitoring with low-cost GPS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    moving stations on rock glacier Low-cost L1 GPS receivers (blox) Power source: solar panels Local data Rock glacier GPS antennaGPS antenna Solar panelSolar panel Box incl.Box incl. -GPS receiverData logger Instruments Solar panelSolar panel (24W, 12V, 50x50cm)(24W, 12V, 50x50cm) Costs per station: 2

  9. Coal data: A reference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report, Coal Data: A Reference, summarizes basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the US. This report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ``Supplemental Figures and Tables`` contains statistics, graphs, maps, and other illustrations that show trends, patterns, geographic locations, and similar coal-related information. The section ``Coal Terminology and Related Information`` provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces some new terms. The last edition of Coal Data: A Reference was published in 1991. The present edition contains updated data as well as expanded reviews and additional information. Added to the text are discussions of coal quality, coal prices, unions, and strikes. The appendix has been expanded to provide statistics on a variety of additional topics, such as: trends in coal production and royalties from Federal and Indian coal leases, hours worked and earnings for coal mine employment, railroad coal shipments and revenues, waterborne coal traffic, coal export loading terminals, utility coal combustion byproducts, and trace elements in coal. The information in this report has been gleaned mainly from the sources in the bibliography. The reader interested in going beyond the scope of this report should consult these sources. The statistics are largely from reports published by the Energy Information Administration.

  10. COAL DESULFURIZATION PRIOR TO COMBUSTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, J.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    90e COAL DESULFURIZATION PRIOR TO COMBUSTION J. Wrathall, T.of coal during combustion. The process involves the additionCOAL DESULFURIZATION PRIOR TO COMBUSTION Lawrence Berkeley

  11. coal | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Commercial Technologies for Coal Storage and Feed Preparation AlternativesSupplements to Coal - Feedstock Flexibility DOE Supported R&D for CoalBiomass Feed and Gasification...

  12. Monitoring temperate glaciers by high resolution Pol-InSAR data: First analysis of Argentire E-SAR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Monitoring temperate glaciers by high resolution Pol-InSAR data: First analysis of Argentière E to measure temperate glacier velocities and surface characteristics by airborne interferometric Alpine glaciers. Simultaneously to the acquisition of repeat pass interferometric, polarimetric and multi

  13. Calving on tidewater glaciers amplified by submarine frontal melting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Leary, Martin

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    While it has been shown repeatedly that ocean conditions exhibit an important control on the behaviour of grounded tidewater glaciers, modelling studies have focused largely on the effects of basal and surface melting. Here, a finite-element model of stresses near the front of a tidewater glacier is used to investigate the effects of frontal melting on calving, independently of the calving criterion used. Applications of the stress model to idealized scenarios reveal that undercutting of the ice front due to frontal melting can drive calving at up to ten times the mean melt rate. Factors which cause increased frontal melt-driven calving include a strong thermal gradient in the ice, and a concentration of frontal melt at the base of the glacier. These properties are typical of both Arctic and Antarctic tidewater glaciers. The finding that frontal melt near the base is a strong driver of calving leads to the conclusion that water temperatures near the bed of the glacier are critically important to the glacier f...

  14. Analysis of coal and coal bed methane resources of Warrior basin, Alabama

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wicks, D.E.; McFall, K.S.; Malone, P.

    1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Warrior basin in Alabama is the most active area in the US producing natural gas from coal beds. As of 1986, 300 coal-bed methane wells were producing from eight degasification fields, mainly from the Pennsylvanian coal seams along the eastern margin of the basin. Despite difficult market conditions, drilling and expansion are continuing. A detailed geologic analysis of Warrior basin coal-bed methane targets the areas of the basin that show the most promise for future gas production. The geologic analysis is based on extensive well and core data and basin-wide correlations of the Pennsylvanian coal groups. Four detailed cross sections were constructed, correlating the target coal groups in the basin, namely the Cobb, Pratt, Mary Lee, and Black Creek. They estimate that the Warrior basin contains nearly 20 tcf of in-place coal-bed methane, mainly in three of the target coal groups - the Pratt, Mary Lee, and Black Creek coals, with 4, 7, and 8 tcf, respectively. The east-central area of the basin contains the greatest volume of natural gas resource due to its concentration of thicker, higher ranked coals with high gas content. The geologic analysis also provided the underlying framework for the subsequent engineering analysis of economically recoverable gas reserves. For example, analysis of structure and tectonics showed the east-central area to be promising for gas recovery due to its proximity to the Appalachian structural front and consequent structural deformation and permeability enhancement.

  15. Clean Coal Program Research Activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larry Baxter; Eric Eddings; Thomas Fletcher; Kerry Kelly; JoAnn Lighty; Ronald Pugmire; Adel Sarofim; Geoffrey Silcox; Phillip Smith; Jeremy Thornock; Jost Wendt; Kevin Whitty

    2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Although remarkable progress has been made in developing technologies for the clean and efficient utilization of coal, the biggest challenge in the utilization of coal is still the protection of the environment. Specifically, electric utilities face increasingly stringent restriction on the emissions of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x}, new mercury emission standards, and mounting pressure for the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions, an environmental challenge that is greater than any they have previously faced. The Utah Clean Coal Program addressed issues related to innovations for existing power plants including retrofit technologies for carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) or green field plants with CCS. The Program focused on the following areas: simulation, mercury control, oxycoal combustion, gasification, sequestration, chemical looping combustion, materials investigations and student research experiences. The goal of this program was to begin to integrate the experimental and simulation activities and to partner with NETL researchers to integrate the Program's results with those at NETL, using simulation as the vehicle for integration and innovation. The investigators also committed to training students in coal utilization technology tuned to the environmental constraints that we face in the future; to this end the Program supported approximately 12 graduate students toward the completion of their graduate degree in addition to numerous undergraduate students. With the increased importance of coal for energy independence, training of graduate and undergraduate students in the development of new technologies is critical.

  16. DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, James Anthony

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal Cleaning Costs Process Clean Coal Produced, * T/D (DryMM$ Net Operating Cost, $/T (Clean Coal Basis) Net OperatingCost, $/T (Clean Coal Bases) Case NA Hazen KVB Battelle

  17. Investigation of coal tar mobility at a former MGP site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moo-Young, H.K.; Mo, X.H.; Waterman, R.; Coleman, A.; Saroff, S. [California State University Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The presence of coal tar in the subsurface of former manufactured gas plant sites poses an environmental hazard and a potential threat to public health. Coal tar can release various chemical compounds that are transported into the groundwater. Before any efforts can be made to remove coal tar from contaminated subsurface soils, it is recommended to characterize coal tar properties and composition and to delineate the residual saturation point between mobile and immobile coal tar. This paper presents a new innovative field device, the Res-SAT field tool, and laboratory procedures that can be used to determine the saturation-capillary pressure relationship for a soil-water coal-tar system and the critical pressure for coal tar mobility.

  18. Upgraded Coal Interest Group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evan Hughes

    2009-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The Upgraded Coal Interest Group (UCIG) is an EPRI 'users group' that focuses on clean, low-cost options for coal-based power generation. The UCIG covers topics that involve (1) pre-combustion processes, (2) co-firing systems and fuels, and (3) reburn using coal-derived or biomass-derived fuels. The UCIG mission is to preserve and expand the economic use of coal for energy. By reducing the fuel costs and environmental impacts of coal-fired power generation, existing units become more cost effective and thus new units utilizing advanced combustion technologies are more likely to be coal-fired.

  19. Alaska Regional Energy Resources Planning Project. Phase 2: coal, hydroelectric and energy alternatives. Volume I. Beluga Coal District Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rutledge, G.; Lane, D.; Edblom, G.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This volume deals with the problems and procedures inherent in the development of the Beluga Coal District. Socio-economic implications of the development and management alternatives are discussed. A review of permits and approvals necessary for the initial development of Beluga Coal Field is presented. Major land tenure issues in the Beluga Coal District as well as existing transportation routes and proposed routes and sites are discussed. The various coal technologies which might be employed at Beluga are described. Transportation options and associated costs of transporting coal from the mine site area to a connecting point with a major, longer distance transportation made and of transporting coal both within and outside (exportation) the state are discussed. Some environmental issues involved in the development of the Beluga Coal Field are presented. (DMC)

  20. Coal Severance Tax (North Dakota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Coal Severance Tax is imposed on all coal severed for sale or industrial purposes, except coal used for heating buildings in the state, coal used by the state or any political subdivision of...

  1. Response of glaciers in northwestern North America to future climate change: an atmosphere/glacier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhatt, Uma

    is projected to be significantly more negative, on average (­2.0 m a­1 w.e., compared to ­1.3 m a­1 w.e. during the hindcast), and for the entire Hubbard Glacier somewhat less positive (0.3 m a­1 w.e. compared to 0.4 m a­1 35 km3 a­1 w.e., accounting for approximately 6­12% of observed mean sea-level rise during

  2. Influence of penecontemporaneous tectonism on development of Breathitt Formation coals, eastern Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hower, J.C.; Trinkle, E.J.; Pollock, J.D.

    1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Middle Pennsylvanian Breathitt Formation coals beds in the central portion of the Eastern Kentucky coal field exhibit changes in lithology, petrology, and chemistry that can be attributed to temporal continuity in the depositional systems. The study interval within northern Perry and Knott Counties includes coals from the Taylor coal bed at the base of the Magoffin marine member upward through the Hazard No. 8 (Francis) coal bed.

  3. On glacier retreat and drought cycles in the Rocky Mountains of Montana and Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berger, Wolfgang H

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    North America – Glaciers of Canada Glaciers of the CanadianRocky Mountains of Montana and Canada W. H. Berger * ScrippsMontana and southwestern Canada. The presence of tidal lines

  4. Utilization ROLE OF COAL COMBUSTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    , materials left after combustion of coal in conventional and/ or advanced clean-coal technology combustors and advanced clean-coal technology combustors. This paper describes various coal combustion products produced (FGD) products from pulverized coal and advanced clean-coal technology combustors. Over 70% of the CCPs

  5. International perspectives on coal preparation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The report consists of the vugraphs from the presentations which covered the following topics: Summaries of the US Department of Energy`s coal preparation research programs; Preparation trends in Russia; South African coal preparation developments; Trends in hard coal preparation in Germany; Application of coal preparation technology to oil sands extraction; Developments in coal preparation in China; and Coal preparation in Australia.

  6. Indonesian coal mining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The article examines the opportunities and challenges facing the Indonesian coal mining industry and how the coal producers, government and wider Indonesian society are working to overcome them. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Microbial solubilization of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Strandberg, Gerald W. (Farragut, TN); Lewis, Susan N. (Knoxville, TN)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention deals with the solubilization of coal using species of Streptomyces. Also disclosed is an extracellular component from a species of Streptomyces, said component being able to solubilize coal.

  8. Coal Production 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal Production 1992 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In 1992, there were 3,439 active coal mining operations made up of all mines, preparation plants, and refuse operations. The data in Table 1 cover the 2,746 mines that produced coal, regardless of the amount of production, except for bituminous refuse mines. Tables 2 through 33 include data from the 2,852 mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10 thousand or more short tons of coal during the period, except for bituminous refuse, and includes preparation plants with 5 thousand or more employee hours. These mining operations accounted for over 99 percent of total US coal production and represented 83 percent of all US coal mining operations in 1992.

  9. Coal gasification apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nagy, Charles K. (Monaca, PA)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal hydrogenation vessel has hydrogen heating passages extending vertically through its wall and opening into its interior.

  10. Autothermal coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konkol. W.; Ruprecht, P.; Cornils, B.; Duerrfeld, R.; Langhoff, J.

    1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Test data from the Ruhrchemie/Ruhrkohle Texaco coal gasification demonstration plant at Oberhausen are reported. (5 refs.)

  11. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment Task 6 Topical Report, Utah Clean Coal Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, P.J.; Deo, M.; Edding, E.G.; Hradisky, M.; Kelly, K.E.; Krumm, R.; Sarofim, Adel; Wang, D.

    2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The long-term objective of this task is to develop a transformational energy production technology by in- situ thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas and/or liquid transportation fuels while leaving much of the coal’s carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-greenhouse gas (GHG) emitting fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This task focused on three areas: • Experimental. The Underground Coal Thermal Treatment (UCTT) team focused on experiments at two scales, bench-top and slightly larger, to develop data to understand the feasibility of a UCTT process as well as to develop validation/uncertainty quantification (V/UQ) data for the simulation team. • Simulation. The investigators completed development of High Performance Computing (HPC) simulations of UCTT. This built on our simulation developments over the course of the task and included the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)- based tools to perform HPC simulations of a realistically sized domain representative of an actual coal field located in Utah. • CO2 storage. In order to help determine the amount of CO2 that can be sequestered in a coal formation that has undergone UCTT, adsorption isotherms were performed on coals treated to 325, 450, and 600°C with slow heating rates. Raw material was sourced from the Sufco (Utah), Carlinville (Illinois), and North Antelope (Wyoming) mines. The study indicated that adsorptive capacity for the coals increased with treatment temperature and that coals treated to 325°C showed less or similar capacity to the untreated coals.

  12. Petrographic characterization of Kentucky coals. Final report. Part VI. The nature of pseudovitrinites in Kentucky coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trinkle, E.J.; Hower, J.C.

    1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Overall average pseudovitrinite content for 1055 eastern Kentucky coal samples is nearly 9% while average percentage of pseudovitrinite for 551 western Kentucky coals is approximately 4%. Examination of variation in pseudovitrinite content relative to rank changes shows uniformity in pseudovitrinite percentages within the 4 to 7 V-type interval for eastern Kentucky coals but a gradual increase in pseudovitrinite content for western Kentucky coals over the same rank interval. Coals from both coal fields show similar, distinct increases in pseudovitrinite percentage in the highest V-type categories. However, it is suggested here that these supposed increases in pseudovitrinite percentages are not real but rather, indicate distinct increase in the brightness of nitrinite resulting from increased alteration of vitrinite beginning at this stage of coalification and continuing into the higher rank stages. This conclusion is reached when it is found that differences between pseudovitrinite and vitrinite reflectance are least in coals at these high rank intervals of Kentucky and, also, when vitrinite particles are often visually observed having brightness equal to that of pseudovitrinite particles. Relation of pseudovitrinite to other sulfur forms and total sulfur in general shows no significant trends, although the relatively high pyritic sulfur content in western Kentucky coals, coupled with relatively low inert percentages suggest the existence of predominantly reducing, or at least non-oxidizing conditions in the Pennsylvanian peat swamps of western Kentucky. Initial work involving Vicker's microhardness testing of coals indicates that microhardness values for pseudovitrinite are higher than those for vitrinite within the same sample regardless of coal rank or coal field from which the sample was collected. 15 references, 9 figures, 9 tables.

  13. Coal production 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal Production 1989 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. 7 figs., 43 tabs.

  14. Going-to-the-Sun Road, Glacier National Park, MT, USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Going-to-the-Sun Road, Glacier National Park, MT, USA Avalanche Path Atlas Erich H. Peitzsch Daniel..................................................................................................................................... 2 Overview of Red Rock Group avalanche paths, Going-to-the-Sun Road, Glacier National Park, MT................................................................................................................................................... 3 Overview of Lower GTSR group avalanche paths, Going-to-the-Sun Road, Glacier National Park, MT

  15. Spatial patterns of Holocene glacier advance and retreat in Central Asia Summer Rupper a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roe, Gerard

    February 2008 Available online 8 August 2009 Keywords: Climate Paleoclimate Glaciers Energy balance Monsoon dated. This is true, for example, in the Pacific coast of the United States, South America, New Zealand glacier mass-balance models are used to reconcile this Holocene glacier history with climate

  16. New study details glacier ice loss following ice shelf July 25, 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    of several ice shelves in Antarctica led to acceleration of the glaciers that feed into them. CombiningNew study details glacier ice loss following ice shelf collapse July 25, 2011 Contact: Anthony Lane further demonstrates how important ice shelves are to Antarctic glaciers.' Shuman is lead author

  17. Dynamic thinning of Antarctic glaciers from along-track repeat radar altimetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Dynamic thinning of Antarctic glaciers from along-track repeat radar altimetry Thomas FLAMENT, Fre significantly accelerated thinning on any glacier elsewhere than on the coast of the Amundsen Sea. INTRODUCTION, Smith and Kohler glaciers. The latter three were reported to be accelerating, whereas the Thwaites

  18. EARSeL eProceedings 4, 1/2005 79 GLACIER HAZARD ASSESSMENT IN MOUNTAINS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kääb, Andreas

    EARSeL eProceedings 4, 1/2005 79 GLACIER HAZARD ASSESSMENT IN MOUNTAINS USING SATELLITE OPTICAL, and the far reach of glacier disasters make it necessary to apply modern remote sensing techniques for the assessment of glacier hazards. In the present contribution we provide an over- view of spaceborne optical

  19. Stable dynamics in a Greenland tidewater glacier over 26 years despite reported thinning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huybrechts, Philippe

    , there is potential for the grounding line to retreat, for calving rates to increase and for the glacier to accelerateStable dynamics in a Greenland tidewater glacier over 26 years despite reported thinning Suzanne L glacier terminating in the northwest corner of the Scoresby Sund fjords. We present a time series

  20. A Transect of Glacier Bay Ocean Currents Measured by Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that the tidal flow accelerates over Glacier Bay's shallow entrance sill to speeds of 180 cm/s and then slowsA Transect of Glacier Bay Ocean Currents Measured by Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP shipboard acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) transects of ocean current in Glacier Bay and Muir Inlet

  1. Instructions for use Short-term Glacier Velocity Changes at West Kunlun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsunogai, Urumu

    to global warming could further accelerate glacier15 flow and potentially lead to significant lossInstructions for use #12;Short-term Glacier Velocity Changes at West Kunlun Shan, Northwest Tibet. Abstract Seasonal glacier velocity changes across the High Arctic, including the Green- land Ice Sheet

  2. Recent ice loss from the Fleming and other glaciers, Wordie Bay, West Antarctic Peninsula

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kansas, University of

    that the glaciers accelerated following ice shelf removal, and have been thinning and losing mass to the ocean overRecent ice loss from the Fleming and other glaciers, Wordie Bay, West Antarctic Peninsula E. Rignot ice thickness data from 2002, reveal that the glaciers flowing into former Wordie Ice Shelf, West

  3. Instruments and Methods Glacier velocities from time-lapse photos: technique development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Box, Jason E.

    Instruments and Methods Glacier velocities from time-lapse photos: technique development and first West Greenland marine-terminating glaciers as part of the Extreme Ice Survey (EIS). EIS cameras began imaging the lowest 4 km2 of the glacier at hourly intervals throughout sunlit periods of the year

  4. New velocity map and mass-balance estimate of Mertz Glacier, East Antarctica, derived from Landsat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berthier, Etienne

    streams hasbeen measured recently. Pine Island Glacier accelerated by 18 Æ2% between 1992 and 2000 (Rignot-moving glaciers. Repeat visible or near-infrared images of the same area can be used to track the displace- mentNew velocity map and mass-balance estimate of Mertz Glacier, East Antarctica, derived from Landsat

  5. A multicomponent coupled model of glacier hydrology 1. Theory and synthetic examples

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flowers, Gwenn

    A multicomponent coupled model of glacier hydrology 1. Theory and synthetic examples Gwenn E; published 12 November 2002. [1] Basal hydrology is acknowledged as a fundamental control on glacier dynamics of existing basal hydrology models is the treatment of the glacier bed as an isolated system. We present

  6. 1899.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 501 ADDITIONAL OBSERVATIONS ON GLACIERS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Dan

    1899.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 501 ADDITIONAL OBSERVATIONS ON GLACIERS IN BRITISH Circle, all the principal glaciers of North America lie within the great ranges of the Rocky of glaciers, which are found in places, probably not inferior to the better known ice streams of Switzerland

  7. RWU 4201 Wildlife Ecology in Rocky Mountain Landscapes Wolverine Population Assessment in Glacier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RWU 4201 Wildlife Ecology in Rocky Mountain Landscapes Wolverine Population Assessment in Glacier. Beckwith, Missoula, MT 59801 Problem Statement Glacier National Park (GNP) is one of the few National Parks patterns of Glacier NP wolverine. Trapping will continue through the winter of 2004 and will focus

  8. WHEN GLACIERS BREAK THE ICE BETWEEN SEVERAL SCIENTIFIC HORIZONS T. Landes, P. Grussenmeyer, M. Koehl

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    WHEN GLACIERS BREAK THE ICE BETWEEN SEVERAL SCIENTIFIC HORIZONS T. Landes, P. Grussenmeyer, M temperate glacier activity. For this ambitious purpose, it was necessary to reassemble specialists coming glaciers was a unique opportunity for the MAP-PAGE team, specialized in geodetic surveying and imaging

  9. Computers & Geosciences 34 (2008) 10051014 Icetools: A full Stokes finite element model for glaciers$

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frey, Pascal

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for glaciers$ A.H. Jarosch Institute of Earth Sciences, University of Iceland, Sturlugata 7, 101 Reykjavik Detailed studies of glacier flow and deformation of ice require high-resolution numerical modeling.40.Cy; 92.40.Sn; 92.40.Vq Keywords: Glacier; Finite element method; Full Stokes; Ice 1. Introduction

  10. Glacier-and permafrost-related hazards increasingly threaten human lives,settlements,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kääb, Andreas

    Glacier- and permafrost-related hazards increasingly threaten human lives where surface and sub-surface ice are involved.Changes in glacier and permafrost equilibrium in the cryospheric system.A number of recent glacier hazards and disasters underscore these trends.Difficult site

  11. High Resolution SAR Interferometry: influence of local topography in the context of glacier monitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    High Resolution SAR Interferometry: influence of local topography in the context of glacier the opportu- nity to measure temperate glacier surface topography and displacement between the two for glacier activity monitoring, by providing regular measure- ments such as surface topography, velocity

  12. The `benchmark glacier' concept does it work? Lessons from the North Cascade Range, USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fountain, Andrew G.

    The `benchmark glacier' concept ­ does it work? Lessons from the North Cascade Range, USA Andrew G glaciers were established in many alpine areas during the 1960s as part of the International Hydrological Decade to represent `typical' mass and energy processes on glaciers in different climatic regions around

  13. Blast from the Past: Melting Glaciers as a Relevant Source for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wehrli, Bernhard

    Blast from the Past: Melting Glaciers as a Relevant Source for Persistent Organic Pollutants C H R, 2009. Accepted August 31, 2009. In this study, the hypothesis that melting Alpine glaciers may organic chemicals from melting Alpine glaciers. Considering ongoing global warming and accelerated massive

  14. ATTEMPT OF ALPINE GLACIER FLOW MODELING BASED ON CORRELATION MEASUREMENTS OF HIGH RESOLUTION SAR IMAGES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ATTEMPT OF ALPINE GLACIER FLOW MODELING BASED ON CORRELATION MEASUREMENTS OF HIGH RESOLUTION SAR In this paper, an attempt of Alpine glacier flow modeling is performed based on a series of high resolution TerraSAR-X SAR images and a Digital Elevation Model. First, a glacier flow model is established

  15. Combining Optical and SAR data to monitor temperate glaciers E. Trouve1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Combining Optical and SAR data to monitor temperate glaciers E. Trouv´e1 , G. Vasile1 , M. Gay2 , P 129 - Fax: 33+ 145 813 794 - nicolas@tsi.enst.fr Abstract Monitoring temperate glaciers activity the compution of high reso- lution DTM, the detection of glacial lakes and the mea- surement of glacier surface

  16. Glaciers in Science and Society In the first half of the nineteenth century, gla-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Orlove, Benjamin S.

    overview Glaciers in Science and Society #12;#12;3 In the first half of the nineteenth century, gla the existence of the Ice Age. Their key insight was the fact that the small glaciers found at high elevations such as the par- allel scratches found on rock faces that were engraved by glaciers and the long walls of rocks

  17. Climate change impacts on mountain glaciers and permafrost Due to their proximity to melting conditions under

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raup, Bruce H.

    Editorial Climate change impacts on mountain glaciers and permafrost Due to their proximity to melting conditions under terrestrial conditions, mountain glaciers and permafrost are particularly glaciers as the best terrestrial indicator of climate change, due both to their sensitivity to climatic

  18. Alpine climate during the Holocene: a comparison between records of glaciers, lake sediments and solar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wehrli, Bernhard

    Alpine climate during the Holocene: a comparison between records of glaciers, lake sediments in Alpine glacier length records and climate reconstructions from annually laminated sediments of Alpine millennium: mass accumulation rates and biogenic silica concentration are largely in phase with the glacier

  19. Glacier flow monitoring by digital camera and space-borne SAR images

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Glacier flow monitoring by digital camera and space-borne SAR images Flavien Vernier1, Renaud glaciers and to measure their surface velocity by different techniques. However, the image size) images the motion of Alpine glaciers. The optical images are acquired by a digital camera installed near

  20. Glacier volume and area change by 2050 in high mountain Asia Liyun Zhao a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, John

    Glacier volume and area change by 2050 in high mountain Asia Liyun Zhao a , Ran Ding a , John C change by 2050 of all 67,028 glaciers, with a total area of 122,969 km2 , delineated in the Randolph Glacier Inventory 2.0 of high mountain Asia (HMA). We used the 25 km resolution regional climate model Reg

  1. Contribution of Alaskan glaciers to sea-level rise derived from satellite imagery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Contribution of Alaskan glaciers to sea-level rise derived from satellite imagery BERTHIER E.1: Berthier E., Schiefer E., Clarke G.K.C., Menounos B. & Remy, F. Contribution of Alaskan glaciers to sea.1038/ngeo737 #12;2 Over the past 50 years, retreating glaciers and ice caps contributed 0.5mm yr-1 to sea

  2. 1901.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 213 OBSERVATIONSMADE IN 1900 ON GLACIERS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Dan

    1901.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 213 OBSERVATIONSMADE IN 1900 ON GLACIERS IN BRITISH to this rule was reported,but the advance could not be provedwith any certainty. VICTORIA GLACIER. The rocks markedlast year to determinethe motionand shrink- age of this glacier were again noted on July 24, 1900

  3. What do glaciers tell us about climate change? Gerard H. Roe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roe, Gerard

    What do glaciers tell us about climate change? Gerard H. Roe Department of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA. August 6, 2008 1 #12;Abstract Glacier are pretty and move around a lot, climate changes can be inferred from variations in glacier length. 2 #12;1 Introduction Some good

  4. Glacier-climate studies in New Zealand Researchers in the Antarctic Research Centre have increasingly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IceSked Glacier-climate studies in New Zealand Researchers in the Antarctic Research Centre have glacier fluctuations, mass balance measurements and ice core records in Antarctica and New Zealand allows of the Franz Josef Glacier. Andrew has recently secured a Victoria University Post-doctoral Fellowship

  5. Satellite Image Atlas of Glaciers of the World State of the Earth's Cryosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fleskes, Joe

    Satellite Image Atlas of Glaciers of the World State of the Earth's Cryosphere at the Beginning of the 21st Century: Glaciers, Global Snow Cover, Floating Ice, and Permafrost and Periglacial Environments CENTURY: GLACIERS, GLOBAL SNOW COVER, FLOATING ICE, AND PERMAFROST AND PERIGLACIAL ENVIRONMENTS A-1

  6. Causes of glacier changes In order to identify the effect of summer air temperature (June -Au-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cherkauer, Keith

    Causes of glacier changes In order to identify the effect of summer air temperature (June - Au- gust) and winter precipitation (December - February) on glacier changes in the study region, the trends than 30 percent of glacier cover in a grid cell), while more significant temperature trends were

  7. Quantification of glacier melt volume in the Indus River watershed Maria Nicole Asay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seamons, Kent E.

    Quantification of glacier melt volume in the Indus River watershed Maria Nicole Asay A thesis;ABSTRACT Quantification of glacier melt volume in the Indus River watershed Maria N. Asay Department of Geological Sciences, BYU Master of Science Quantifying the contribution of glaciers to water resources

  8. Mass loss of Larsen B tributary glaciers (Antarctic2 Peninsula) unabated since 20023

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 1 Mass loss of Larsen B tributary glaciers (Antarctic2 Peninsula) unabated since 20023 Running Berthier E., Scambos T. A., and Shuman C. A. Mass loss of Larsen B tributary glaciers19 (Antarctic the large glacier tributaries of the Larsen B Ice Shelf23 following its disintegration in 2002. We evaluate

  9. Automated delineation of debris-covered glaciers based on ASTER data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolch, Tobias

    Automated delineation of debris-covered glaciers based on ASTER data Tobias Bolch, Manfred F, The University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59808, USA, ulrich.kamp@mso.umt.edu Keywords: debris-covered glaciers, glacier mapping, morphometric analysis, ASTER DEM, Corona, Khumbu Himalaya ABSTRACT: Large areas

  10. Monitoring glacier surface seismicity in time and space using Rayleigh waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marshall, Hans-Peter

    Monitoring glacier surface seismicity in time and space using Rayleigh waves T. D. Mikesell,1,2 K 2011; revised 24 February 2012; accepted 22 March 2012; published 10 May 2012. [1] Sliding glaciers located on Bench Glacier, Alaska (USA) (61.033 N, 145.687 W). We focus on the arrival-time and amplitude

  11. Monitoring Alpine Glaciers with ALOS SAR and Optical data Ph. Bolon(1)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Monitoring Alpine Glaciers with ALOS SAR and Optical data Ph. Bolon(1) , E. Trouvé(1) , I. Pétillot ­ tania.landes@insa-strasbourg.fr Abstract The monitoring of temperate glacier activity is one interferometric SAR data and high resolution panchromatic stereoscopic data to monitor moving temperate glaciers

  12. Changes in Area of Stubai Glaciers analysed by means of Satellite Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Changes in Area of Stubai Glaciers analysed by means of Satellite Data for the GLIMS Project-Franzens-Universität Innsbruck eingereicht von Irene Schicker Innsbruck, März 2006 #12;#12;Abstract The extent of glaciers) image of 30 September 1985. Algorithms recommended by the GLIMS group were used for analysing glaciers

  13. Multi-date ERS tandem interferogram analysis: application to alpine glaciers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Multi-date ERS tandem interferogram analysis: application to alpine glaciers Lionel Bombrun, Ivan P.landes@insa-strasbourg.fr Abstract--Temperate glaciers are an indicator of the local effects of global climate change. For economical to detect significant changes and to constrain glacier flow models. In this paper, five descending one

  14. Changes in the Dynamics of Marine-Terminating Outlet Glaciers in West Greenland (2000-2009)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howat, Ian M.

    Changes in the Dynamics of Marine-Terminating Outlet Glaciers in West Greenland (2000-2009) 1 2 3 of Greenland's marine-terminating outlet glaciers indicate a rapid and complex response to external forcing Greenland's northwestern margin, it is unclear whether west Greenland glaciers have undergone

  15. Ice-front variation and tidewater behavior on Helheim and Kangerdlugssuaq Glaciers, Greenland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsai, Victor C.

    Ice-front variation and tidewater behavior on Helheim and Kangerdlugssuaq Glaciers, Greenland Ian Glaciers, Greenland, from 2001 to 2006, a period in which they retreated and sped up. These data show and retreat in less than a century indicates that tidewater glaciers in Greenland can advance rapidly

  16. Heat transfer in katabatic flow Measurements on the Morteratsch glacier, Switzerland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graaf, Martin de

    Heat transfer in katabatic flow Measurements on the Morteratsch glacier, Switzerland M. de Graaf #12;Heat transfer in katabatic flow Measurements on the Morteratsch glacier, Switzerland Martin de is used to calculate surface heat fluxes over glaciers. As determination of surface fluxes still

  17. Thirty-year history of glacier melting in the Nepal Himalayas Koji Fujita,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howat, Ian M.

    Thirty-year history of glacier melting in the Nepal Himalayas Koji Fujita,1 Lonnie G. Thompson,2 of glacier melting in the Nepal Himalayas, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D03109, doi:10.1029/2005JD005894. 1. Introduction [2] Rapid shrinkage of glaciers in the Nepal Himalayas has been observed during recent decades [e

  18. Pumping carbon out of underground coal deposits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinberg, M.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin steam and deep coal deposits are difficult and costly to mine. Underground coal gasification (UCG) with air or oxygen was thought to alleviate this problem. Experimental field tests were conducted in Wyoming and Illinois. Problems were encountered concerning a clear path for the team gasification to take place and removal of gas. The high endothermic heat of reaction requiring large quantities of steam and oxygen makes the process expensive. Safety problems due to incomplete reaction is also of concern. A new approach is proposed which can remedy most of these drawbacks for extracting energy from underground coal deposits. It is proposed to hydrogasify the coal underground with a heated hydrogen gas stream under pressure to produce a methane-rich gas effluent stream. The hydrogasification of coal is essentially exothermic so that no steam or oxygen is required. The gases formed are always in a reducing atmosphere making the process safe. The hydrogen is obtained by thermally decomposing the effluent methane above ground to elemental carbon and hydrogen. The hydrogen is returned underground for further hydrogasification of the coal seam. The small amount of oxygen and sulfur in the coal can be processed out above ground by removal as water and H{sub 2}S. Any CO can be removed by a methanation step returning the methane to process. The ash remains in the ground and the elemental carbon produced is the purest form of coal. The particulate carbon can be slurried with water to produce a fuel stream that can be fed to a turbine for efficient combined cycle power plants with lower CO{sub 2} emissions. Coal cannot be used for combined cycle because of its ash and sulfur content destroys the gas turbine. Depending on its composition of coal seam some excess hydrogen is also produced. Hydrogen is, thus, used to pump pure carbon out of the ground.

  19. TOXIC SUBSTANCES FROM COAL COMBUSTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A KOLKER; AF SAROFIM; CL SENIOR; FE HUGGINS; GP HUFFMAN; I OLMEZ; J LIGHTY; JOL WENDT; JOSEPH J HELBLE; MR AMES; N YAP; R FINKELMAN; T PANAGIOTOU; W SEAMES

    1998-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 identify a number of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) as candidates for regulation. Should regulations be imposed on HAP emissions from coal-fired power plants, a sound understanding of the fundamental principles controlling the formation and partitioning of toxic species during coal combustion will be needed. With support from the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), the Electric Power Research Institute, the Lignite Research Council, and VTT (Finland), Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) has teamed with researchers from USGS, MIT, the University of Arizona (UA), the University of Kentucky (UK), the University of Connecticut (UC), the University of Utah (UU) and the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) to develop a broadly applicable emissions model useful to regulators and utility planners. The new Toxics Partitioning Engineering Model (ToPEM) will be applicable to all combustion conditions including new fuels and coal blends, low-NO combustion systems, and new power generation x plants. Development of ToPEM will be based on PSI's existing Engineering Model for Ash Formation (EMAF). This report covers the reporting period from 1 July 1998 through 30 September 1998. During this period distribution of all three Phase II coals was completed. Standard analyses for the whole coal samples were also completed. Mössbauer analysis of all project coals and fractions received to date has been completed in order to obtain details of the iron mineralogy. The analyses of arsenic XAFS data for two of the project coals and for some high arsenic coals have been completed. Duplicate splits of the Ohio 5,6,7 and North Dakota lignite samples were taken through all four steps of the selective leaching procedure. Leaching analysis of the Wyodak coal has recently commenced. Preparation of polished coal/epoxy pellets for probe/SEM studies is underway. Some exploratory mercury LIII XAFS work was carried out during August at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), the new synchrotron facility at Argonne National Laboratory, Chicago, IL. Further analysis of small-scale combustion experiments conducted at PSI in Phase I was completed this quarter. The results of these experiments for the first time suggest almost complete vaporization of certain trace elements (Se, Zn) from coal combustion in the flame zone, in accordance with theoretical equilibrium predictions. Other elements (As, Sb, Cr) appeared considerably less volatile and may react with constituents in the bulk ash at combustion temperatures. The combustion section of the University of Arizona's Downflow Combustor was completely rebuilt. The University of Utah worked on setting up EPA Method 26A to give the capability to measure chlorine in flue gas. The chlorine kinetic calculations performed as part of the Phase I program were found to have an error in the initial conditions. Therefore, the calculations were re-done this quarter with the correct starting conditions. Development of a quasi-empirical emissions model based on reported emissions of particulate matter from field measurements was continued this quarter. As a first step in developing the ToPEM, we developed a sub-model that calculates the evaporation of major elements (Na, K, Fe, Si, Al, Ca and Mg) from both inherent and extraneous minerals of coal. During this quarter, this sub-model was included into EMAF, which formed the ToPEM. Experimental data from the Phase I program were used to test and modify the sub-model and the ToPEM.

  20. Coal recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Good, Robert J. (Grand Island, NY); Badgujar, Mohan (Williamsville, NY)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for the beneficiation of coal by selective agglomeration and the beneficiated coal product thereof is disclosed wherein coal, comprising impurities, is comminuted to a particle size sufficient to allow impurities contained therein to disperse in water, an aqueous slurry is formed with the comminuted coal particles, treated with a compound, such as a polysaccharide and/or disaccharide, to increase the relative hydrophilicity of hydrophilic components, and thereafter the slurry is treated with sufficient liquid agglomerant to form a coagulum comprising reduced impurity coal.

  1. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    anthracite, lignite and brown coal. While bituminous coal isproduction of lignite and brown coal, which also increasedtonnes. Whereas lignite and brown coal accounted for 4% of

  2. Coal: the new black

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tullo, A.H.; Tremblay, J.-F.

    2008-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Long eclipsed by oil and natural gas as a raw material for high-volume chemicals, coal is making a comeback, with oil priced at more than $100 per barrel. It is relatively cheap feedstock for chemicals such as methanol and China is building plants to convert coal to polyolefins on a large scale and interest is spreading worldwide. Over the years several companies in the US and China have made fertilizers via the gasification of coal. Eastman in Tennessee gasifies coal to make methanol which is then converted to acetic acid, acetic anhydride and acetate fiber. The future vision is to convert methanol to olefins. UOP and Lurgi are the major vendors of this technology. These companies are the respective chemical engineering arms of Honeywell and Air Liquide. The article reports developments in China, USA and India on coal-to-chemicals via coal gasification or coal liquefaction. 2 figs., 2 photo.

  3. Extending the Place Glacier mass-balance record to AD 1585, using tree rings and wood density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Dan

    Extending the Place Glacier mass-balance record to AD 1585, using tree rings and wood density Lisa August 2011 Keywords: Dendroclimatology Glacier mass balance Tree rings Wood density Place Glacier Recognizing that climate influences both annual tree-ring growth and glacier mass balance, changes in the mass

  4. Les glaciers du Haut Arc (Savoie) : caractrisation et impacts de la dcrue post-Petit Age Glaciaire

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Les glaciers du Haut Arc (Savoie) : caractérisation et impacts de la décrue post-Petit Age RECHERCHE SCIENTIFIQUE UMR 5204 tel-00011264,version1-24Dec2005 #12;1- Glacier du Baounet, S. Jobard 2004. 2- Barre de séracs sur le glacier de Charbonnel, S. Jobard 2003 3- Vue en 3D de l'extension des glaciers d

  5. USING QUAD-POL AND SINGLE-POL RADARSAT-2 DATA FOR MONITORING ALPINE AND OUTLET ANTARCTIC GLACIERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    USING QUAD-POL AND SINGLE-POL RADARSAT-2 DATA FOR MONITORING ALPINE AND OUTLET ANTARCTIC GLACIERS and antarctic glaciers surfaces. This method is adapted to the statistical characteristic of the new High of this method on glaciers monitoring. Three different glaciers have been chosen to test the algorithm: a cold

  6. The global change research community has shown that: Most of the world's glaciers are stagnant or in hasty retreat.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The global change research community has shown that: · Most of the world's glaciers are stagnant or in hasty retreat. · Glaciers are responding to climate change. · Glacier retreat and other changes will accelerate over next 100 years as climate change accelerates. We estimate that glacier change directly

  7. Modeling the effect of glacier recession on streamflow response using a coupled glacio-hydrological model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naz, Bibi S [ORNL] [ORNL; Frans, Chris [University of Washington, Seattle] [University of Washington, Seattle; Clarke, Garry [University of British Columbia, Vancouver] [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Burns, [Watershed Sciences Inc. (WSI), Portland] [Watershed Sciences Inc. (WSI), Portland; Lettenmaier, Dennis [University of Washington, Seattle] [University of Washington, Seattle

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe an integrated spatially distributed hydrologic and glacier dynamic model, and use it to investigate the effect of glacier recession on streamflow variations for the Upper Bow River basin, a tributary of the South Saskatchewan River. Several recent studies have suggested that observed decreases in summer flows in the South Saskatchewan River are partly due to the retreat of glaciers in the river's headwaters. Modeling the effect of glacier changes on streamflow response in river basins such as the South Saskatchewan is complicated due to the inability of most existing physically-based distributed hydrologic models to represent glacier dynamics. We compare predicted variations in glacier extent, snow water equivalent and streamflow discharge made with the integrated model with satellite estimates of glacier area and terminus position, observed streamflow and snow water equivalent measurements over the period of 1980 2007. Simulations with the coupled hydrology-glacier model reduce the uncertainty in streamflow predictions. Our results suggested that on average, the glacier melt contribution to the Bow River flow upstream of Lake Louise is about 30% in summer. For warm and dry years, however, the glacier melt contribution can be as large as 50% in August, whereas for cold years, it can be as small as 20% and the timing of glacier melt signature can be delayed by a month.

  8. Glacier-terminus fluctuations in the Wrangell and Chugach mountains resulting from non-climate controls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sturm, M.; Hall, D.K.; Benson, C.S.; Field, W.O.

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Non-climatically controlled fluctuations of glacier termini were studied in two regions in Alaska. In the Wrangell Mountains, eight glaciers on Mt. Wrangell, an active volcano, have been monitored over the past 30 years using terrestrial surveys, aerial photogrammetry and digitally registered satellite images. Results, which are consistent between different methods of measurement, indicate that the termini of most glaciers were stationary or had retreated slightly. However, the termini of the 30-km-long Ahtna Glacier and the smaller Center and South MacKeith glaciers began to advance in the early 1960s and have advanced steadily at rates between 5 and 18 m yr-1 since then. These three glaciers flow from the summit caldera of ML Wrangell near the active North Crater, where increased volcanic heating since 1964 has melted over 7 x 107 M3 of ice. The authors suspect that volcanic meltwater has changed the basal conditions for the glaciers, resulting in their advance. In College Fjord, Prince William Sound, the terminus fluctuations of two tidewater glaciers have been monitored since 1931 by terrestrial surveying, photogrammetry, and most recently, from satellite imagery. Harvard Glacier, a 40-kmlong tidewater glacier, has been advancing steadily at nearly 20 m yr-1 since 1931, while the adjacent Yale Glacier has retreated at approximately 50 m yr-1 during the same period, though for short periods, both rates have been much higher.

  9. Field Test Program for Long-Term Operation of a COHPAC System for Removing Mercury from Coal-Fired Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey; Paul Brignac

    2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides a summary of the full-scale demonstration efforts involved in the project ''Field Test Program for Long-Term Operation of a COHPAC{reg_sign} System for Removing Mercury from Coal-Fired Flue Gas''. The project took place at Alabama Power's Plant Gaston Unit 3 and involved the injection of sorbent between an existing particulate collector (hot-side electrostatic precipitators) and a COHPAC{reg_sign} fabric filter (baghouse) downstream. Although the COHPAC{reg_sign} baghouse was designed originally for polishing the flue gas, when activated carbon injection was added, the test was actually evaluating the EPRI TOXECON{reg_sign} configuration. The results from the baseline tests with no carbon injection showed that the cleaning frequency in the COHPAC{reg_sign} unit was much higher than expected, and was above the target maximum cleaning frequency of 1.5 pulses/bag/hour (p/b/h), which was used during the Phase I test in 2001. There were times when the baghouse was cleaning continuously at 4.4 p/b/h. In the 2001 tests, there was virtually no mercury removal at baseline conditions. In this second round of tests, mercury removal varied between 0 and 90%, and was dependent on inlet mass loading. There was a much higher amount of ash exiting the electrostatic precipitators (ESP), creating an inlet loading greater than the design conditions for the COHPAC{reg_sign} baghouse. Tests were performed to try to determine the cause of the high ash loading. The LOI of the ash in the 2001 baseline tests was 11%, while the second baseline tests showed an LOI of 17.4%. The LOI is an indication of the carbon content in the ash, which can affect the native mercury uptake, and can also adversely affect the performance of ESPs, allowing more ash particles to escape the unit. To overcome this, an injection scheme was implemented that balanced the need to decrease carbon injection during times when inlet loading to the baghouse was high and increase carbon injection when inlet loading and mercury removal were low. The resulting mercury removal varied between 50 and 98%, with an overall average of 85.6%, showing that the process was successful at removing high percentages of vapor-phase mercury even with a widely varying mass loading. In an effort to improve baghouse performance, high-permeability bags were tested. The new bags made a significant difference in the cleaning frequency of the baghouse. Before changing the bags, the baghouse was often in a continuous clean of 4.4 p/b/h, but with the new bags the cleaning frequency was very low, at less than 1 p/b/h. Alternative sorbent tests were also performed using these high-permeability bags. The results of these tests showed that most standard, high-quality activated carbon performed similarly at this site; low-cost sorbent and ash-based sorbents were not very effective at removing mercury; and chemically enhanced sorbents did not appear to offer any benefits over standard activated carbons at this site.

  10. Coal sector profile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal is our largest domestic energy resource with recoverable reserves estimated at 268 billion short tons or 5.896 quads Btu equivalent. This is approximately 95 percent of US fossil energy resources. It is relatively inexpensive to mine, and on a per Btu basis it is generally much less costly to produce than other energy sources. Its chief drawbacks are the environmental, health and safety concerns that must be addressed in its production and consumption. Historically, coal has played a major role in US energy markets. Coal fueled the railroads, heated the homes, powered the factories. and provided the raw materials for steel-making. In 1920, coal supplied over three times the amount of energy of oil, gas, and hydro combined. From 1920 until the mid 1970s, coal production remained fairly constant at 400 to 600 million short tons a year. Rapid increases in overall energy demands, which began during and after World War II were mostly met by oil and gas. By the mid 1940s, coal represented only half of total energy consumption in the US. In fact, post-war coal production, which had risen in support of the war effort and the postwar Marshall plan, decreased approximately 25 percent between 1945 and 1960. Coal demand in the post-war era up until the 1970s was characterized by increasing coal use by the electric utilities but decreasing coal use in many other markets (e.g., rail transportation). The oil price shocks of the 1970s, combined with natural gas shortages and problems with nuclear power, returned coal to a position of prominence. The greatly expanded use of coal was seen as a key building block in US energy strategies of the 1970s. Coal production increased from 613 million short tons per year in 1970 to 950 million short tons in 1988, up over 50 percent.

  11. DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, James Anthony

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ~ - - - - - ' Gri~ing Feed Coal Slurry Feed Pump Filterused to heat a coal-solvent slurry up to the tempera- turePULVERIZED COAL DISSOLVER PRODUCT SLURRY L-. 5 TJ'OON , ~ (

  12. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a particular type of coal, each of which is inherentlyThere are four classes of coal: bituminous, sub-bituminous,minerals Metallic ores Coal Crude petroleum Gasoline Fuel

  13. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    coal-to-hydrogen plant capital costs .Capital cost of pulverized coal plant ($/kW) Capital cost ofIGCC coal plant ($/kW) Capital cost of repowering PC plant

  14. DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, James Anthony

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Clean Coal Produced, * T/D (Dry Basis) Installed Plant Cost,Plant Cost, MM$ Net Operating Cost, $/T (Clean Coal Basis)Cost increments fora 25246 ton coal per day SRC plant are

  15. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    5 Figure 1: Map of U.S. coal plants and generating1: Map of U.S. coal plants and generating units (GED, 2006a)of an electric generating coal power plant that would be

  16. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Council (NCC), 2006, “Coal: America’s Energy Future”, VolumeAssessments to Inform Energy Policy, “Coal: Research andOF RAIL TRANSPORTATION OF COAL The Federal Energy Regulatory

  17. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OF RAIL TRANSPORTATION OF COAL The Federal Energy RegulatoryPlants Due to Coal Shortages”, Federal Energy RegulatoryCouncil (NCC), 2006, “Coal: America’s Energy Future”, Volume

  18. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of total electricity generation is because coal plants haveplants come to play an important role in the electricity generationplants will be built in the years around 2020, thereby increasing coal’s share of electricity generation

  19. Nanoparticulate bioavailable iron minerals in icebergs and glaciers R. RAISWELL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benning, Liane G.

    Nanoparticulate bioavailable iron minerals in icebergs and glaciers R. RAISWELL 1 , L. G. BENNING 1+ Raiswell et al. (2006, 2008) used high- resolution microscopy, combined with chemical extraction methods an important mineral signature for the chemistry of the subglacial environment, and that they are significant

  20. Quaternary history of Red Mountain Creek Valley and its relation to the Rio Grande glacier system near Creede, CO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kitchens, S. (Smith Coll., Northampton, MA (United States). Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Interactions between the Rio Grande glacier system and the Red Mountain Creek glacier are more complex than previously believed. Although both glaciers were fed by the same ice cap along the continental divide, the timing and number of advances are different. Analysis of air photos and field relationships reveal a series of end moraines at the mouth of Red Mountain Creek. The presence of these moraines disproves the hypothesis of Atwood and Mather (1932) that the two were confluent during the last phase of glaciation. The degree of weathering rind development on mafic cobbles was used together with the degree of clay mineral development in the soils to determine relative ages and the number of advances in each system. The less than 2[mu]m material for X-ray diffraction analysis was separated from soil samples collected from pits excavated on the tops of end moraines. Both smectite and kaolinite were found within the soil profile thus indicating weathering of minerals in tills derived from the local biotite-sanadine-hornblende tuffs. The amount of post glacial weathering was estimated based on the relative intensity of the 17[angstrom] smectite peak after ethylene glycol solvation. Both the X-ray and weathering rind analysis show two separate glacial events in Red Mountain Creek valley. However, in the Rio Grande system the weathering rind data suggests two glacial events while the clay mineralogy suggests only one.

  1. Deriving ice thickness, glacier volume and bedrock morphology of the Austre Lov\\'enbreen (Svalbard) using Ground-penetrating Radar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saintenoy, Albane; Booth, Adam D; Tolle, F; Bernard, E; Laffly, Dominique; Marlin, C; Griselin, M

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Austre Lov\\'enbreen is a 4.6 km2 glacier on the Archipelago of Svalbard (79 degrees N) that has been surveyed over the last 47 years in order of monitoring in particular the glacier evolution and associated hydrological phenomena in the context of nowadays global warming. A three-week field survey over April 2010 allowed for the acquisition of a dense mesh of Ground-penetrating Radar (GPR) data with an average of 14683 points per km2 (67542 points total) on the glacier surface. The profiles were acquired using a Mala equipment with 100 MHz antennas, towed slowly enough to record on average every 0.3 m, a trace long enough to sound down to 189 m of ice. One profile was repeated with 50 MHz antenna to improve electromagnetic wave propagation depth in scattering media observed in the cirques closest to the slopes. The GPR was coupled to a GPS system to position traces. Each profile has been manually edited using standard GPR data processing including migration, to pick the reflection arrival time from the ic...

  2. FIELD TEST PROGRAM FOR LONG-TERM OPERATION OF A COHPAC SYSTEM FOR REMOVING MERCURY FROM COAL-FIRED FLUE GAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey; Paul Brignac; Travis Starns; Sharon Sjostrom; Trent Taylor; Cindy Larson

    2004-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas-phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by the existing particle control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. During 2001, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) conducted a full-scale demonstration of sorbent-based mercury control technology at the Alabama Power E.C. Gaston Station (Wilsonville, AL). This unit burns a low-sulfur bituminous coal and uses a hot-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in combination with a Compact Hybrid Particulate Collector (COHPAC{trademark}) baghouse to collect fly ash. The majority of the fly ash is collected in the ESP with the residual being collected in the COHPAC{trademark} baghouse. Activated carbon was injected between the ESP and COHPAC{trademark} units to collect the mercury. Short-term mercury removal levels in excess of 90% were achieved using the COHPAC{trademark} unit. The test also showed that activated carbon was effective in removing both forms of mercury--elemental and oxidized. However, a great deal of additional testing is required to further characterize the capabilities and limitations of this technology relative to use with baghouse systems such as COHPAC{trademark}. It is important to determine performance over an extended period of time to fully assess all operational parameters. The project described in this report focuses on fully demonstrating sorbent injection technology at a coal-fired power generating plant that is equipped with a COHPAC{trademark} system. The overall objective is to evaluate the long-term effects of sorbent injection on mercury capture and COHPAC{trademark} performance. The work is being done on one-half of the gas stream at Alabama Power Company's Plant Gaston Unit 3 (nominally 135 MW). Data from the testing will be used to determine: (1) If sorbent injection into a high air-to-cloth ratio baghouse is a viable, long-term approach for mercury control; and (2) Design criteria and costs for new baghouse/sorbent injection systems that will use a similar, polishing baghouse (TOXECON{trademark}) approach.

  3. Pulverized coal fuel injector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rini, Michael J. (Hebron, CT); Towle, David P. (Windsor, CT)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pulverized coal fuel injector contains an acceleration section to improve the uniformity of a coal-air mixture to be burned. An integral splitter is provided which divides the coal-air mixture into a number separate streams or jets, and a center body directs the streams at a controlled angle into the primary zone of a burner. The injector provides for flame shaping and the control of NO/NO.sub.2 formation.

  4. Coal Mining Regulations (Kentucky)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Kentucky Administrative Regulation Title 405 chapters 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 10, 12, 16, 18 and 20 establish the laws governing coal mining in the state.

  5. Coal Development (Nebraska)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This section provides for the development of newly-discovered coal veins in the state, and county aid for such development.

  6. Coal Market Module This

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    on fossil energy technologies. This includes 800 million to fund projects under the Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) program, focusing on projects that capture and sequester...

  7. Coal Market Module

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    on fossil energy technologies. This includes 800 million to fund projects under the Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) program, focusing on projects that capture and sequester...

  8. Coal liquefaction quenching process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thorogood, Robert M. (Macungie, PA); Yeh, Chung-Liang (Bethlehem, PA); Donath, Ernest E. (St. Croix, VI)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is described an improved coal liquefaction quenching process which prevents the formation of coke with a minimum reduction of thermal efficiency of the coal liquefaction process. In the process, the rapid cooling of the liquid/solid products of the coal liquefaction reaction is performed without the cooling of the associated vapor stream to thereby prevent formation of coke and the occurrence of retrograde reactions. The rapid cooling is achieved by recycling a subcooled portion of the liquid/solid mixture to the lower section of a phase separator that separates the vapor from the liquid/solid products leaving the coal reactor.

  9. Clean Coal Projects (Virginia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This legislation directs the Virginia Air Pollution Control Board to facilitate the construction and implementation of clean coal projects by expediting the permitting process for such projects.

  10. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    coal (PC) or integrated gasification combined cycle ( IGCC)coal (PC) or integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC)will be integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) (Same

  11. Coal Mining Tax Credit (Arkansas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Coal Mining Tax Credit provides an income or insurance premium tax credit of $2.00 per ton of coal mined, produced or extracted on each ton of coal mined in Arkansas in a tax year. An...

  12. COAL DESULFURIZATION PRIOR TO COMBUSTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, J.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Corporation, 5-25~79. on Coal Liquefaction at ChevronHamersma, et a L, "Meyers Process for Coal Desulfurization,"in Wheelock, Coal Desulfurization, ACS Symp. Ser 64 (1977(.

  13. Illinois Coal Revival Program (Illinois)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Illinois Coal Revival Program is a grants program providing partial funding to assist with the development of new, coal-fueled electric generation capacity and coal gasification or IGCC units...

  14. Sandia National Laboratories: Clean Coal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ManagementClean Coal Clean Coal The term clean coal refers to a number of initiatives that seek to reduce or eliminate the hazardous emission or byproducts that result from using...

  15. PressurePressure Indiana Coal Characteristics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

    TimeTime PressurePressure · Indiana Coal Characteristics · Indiana Coals for Coke · CoalTransportation in Indiana · Coal Slurry Ponds Evaluation · Site Selection for Coal Gasification · Coal-To-Liquids Study, CTL · Indiana Coal Forecasting · Under-Ground Coal Gasification · Benefits of Oxyfuel Combustion · Economic

  16. Fuel blending with PRB coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCartney, R.H.; Williams, R.L. Jr. [Roberts and Schaefer, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Many methods exist to accomplish coal blending at a new or existing power plant. These range from a basic use of the secondary (emergency) stockout/reclaim system to totally automated coal handling facilities with segregated areas for two or more coals. Suitable choices for different sized coal plant are discussed, along with the major components of the coal handling facility affected by Powder River Basin coal. 2 figs.

  17. Rehabilitation of the international coal mines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cote?, Homer.

    different here than elsewhere, hut to describe, by simple mining methods, step by step the reopening of old abandoned mines from examination to successful operation of the property. TOPOGRAPHY • The Eagle Pass coal field is a small field, tri­ angular... shaped, outcropping in Maverick Co unty north­ west of Eagle Pass, Texas, from which town i t takes its name ana where al l of the mines are located. The greater part of the Eagle Pass coal bed l ies across the Rio Grande River in Mexico and has been...

  18. Coal resources of Kyrgyzstan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Landis, E.R.; Bostick, N.H.; Gluskoter, H.J.; Johnson, E.A. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Harrison, C.D. [CQ Inc., Homer City, PA (United States); Huber, D.W.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The rugged, mountainous country of Kyrgyzstan contains about one-half of the known coal resources of central Asia (a geographic and economic region that also includes Uzbekistan, Tadjikistan and Turkmenistan). Coal of Jurassic age is present in eight regions in Kyrgyzstan in at least 64 different named localities. Significant coal occurrences of about the same age are present in the central Asian countries of Kazakhstan, China, and Russia. Separation of the coal-bearing rocks into individual deposits results more than earth movements before and during formation of the present-day mountains and basins of the country than from deposition in separate basins.Separation was further abetted by deep erosion and removal of the coal-bearing rocks from many areas, followed by covering of the remaining coal-bearing rocks by sands and gravels of Cenozoic age. The total resources of coal in Kyrgyzstan have been reported as about 30 billion tons. In some of the reported localities, the coal resources are known and adequately explored. In other parts of the republic, the coal resources are inadequately understood or largely unexplored. The resource and reserve inventory of Kyrgyzstan is at best incomplete; for some purposes, such as short-term local and long-range national planning, it may be inadequate. Less than 8% of the total estimated resources are categorized as recoverable reserves, and the amount that is economically recoverable is unknown. The coal is largely of subbituminous and high-volatile C bituminous rank, most has low and medium ash and sulfur contents, and coals of higher rank (some with coking qualities) are present in one region. It is recommended that appropriate analyses and tests be made during planning for utilization.

  19. Illinois Coal Development Program (Illinois)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Illinois Coal Development Program seeks to advance promising clean coal technologies beyond research and towards commercialization. The program provides a 50/50 match with private industry...

  20. Clean coal technologies market potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drazga, B. (ed.)

    2007-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Looking at the growing popularity of these technologies and of this industry, the report presents an in-depth analysis of all the various technologies involved in cleaning coal and protecting the environment. It analyzes upcoming and present day technologies such as gasification, combustion, and others. It looks at the various technological aspects, economic aspects, and the various programs involved in promoting these emerging green technologies. Contents: Industry background; What is coal?; Historical background of coal; Composition of coal; Types of coal; Environmental effects of coal; Managing wastes from coal; Introduction to clean coal; What is clean coal?; Byproducts of clean coal; Uses of clean coal; Support and opposition; Price of clean coal; Examining clean coal technologies; Coal washing; Advanced pollution control systems; Advanced power generating systems; Pulverized coal combustion (PCC); Carbon capture and storage; Capture and separation of carbon dioxide; Storage and sequestration of carbon dioxide; Economics and research and development; Industry initiatives; Clean Coal Power Initiative; Clean Coal Technology Program; Coal21; Outlook; Case Studies.

  1. Methane emission from flooded coal seams in abandoned mines, in the light of laboratory investigations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Methane emission from flooded coal seams in abandoned mines, in the light of laboratory of methane from flooded unexploited coal seams Field experience from the flooding operations of the abandoned gassy coal seams in abandoned mines. The tests included the following main stages: - Determining

  2. Fire Clay coal and sandstone washouts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrews, W.M. Jr.; Hower, J.C. (Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Fire Clay coal bed has been studied in a portion of southeastern Kentucky. This seam is easily recognizable by a distinctive flint clay parting. Mine maps, field descriptions, and laboratory investigations were used to investigate this coal bed. Several elongate sandstone bodies cut the seam in the study area. These sandstone bodies are subparallel roughly east-west, and are typically 10[sup 1] to 10[sup 2] m wide, and 10[sup 2] m to tens of kilometers long. These sandstone washouts occur in areas overlain by a larger channel sandstone, which usually is found associated with the thickest areas of the coal seam. In south-central Perry County, a cross section of one washout area was well exposed. North of the washout, a 4 to 7 cm thick cannel coal was present at the base of the sequence. The coal on the north side of the cutout gradually thins from 2 m to 1.5 m away from the washout. On the south side of the washout, the coal thins abruptly from over 1.5 m to 1.25 m within 30 m of the channel. An island of slumped and slickensided coal is present within the washout region. Postdepositional differential compaction of the peat is inferred to be the control on placement of the channel system. The areas of thickest peat compacted the most, creating topographic lows through which the stream moved. The regions of thick coal were probably the result of several controlling factors. Predepositional differential compaction and erosion may have produced relief which influenced peat development. Lithologic and geochemical continuity across the channel is good, supporting postdepositional emplacement of the sandstone bodies.

  3. Coal stratigraphy of deeper part of Black Warrior basin in Alabama

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, W.A.; Womack, S.H.

    1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Warrior coal field of Alabama is stratigraphically in the upper part of the Lower Pennsylvanian Pottsville Formation and structurally in the eastern part of the Black Warrior foreland basin. The productive coal beds extend southwestward from the mining area downdip into the deeper part of the Black Warrior structural basin. Because the deep part of the basin is beyond the limits of conventional coal exploration, study of the stratigraphy of coal beds must rely on data from petroleum wells. Relative abundance of coal can be stated in terms of numbers of beds, but because of the limitations of the available data, thicknesses of coals presently are not accurately determined. The lower sandstone-rich coal-poor part of the Pottsville has been interpreted as barrier sediments in the mining area. To the southwest in the deeper Black Warrior basin, coal beds are more numerous within the sandstone-dominated sequence. The coal-productive upper Pottsville is informally divided into coal groups each of which includes several coal beds. The Black Creek, Mary Lee, and Utley coal groups are associated with northeast-trending delta-distributary sandstones. The areas of most numerous coals also trend northeastward and are laterally adjacent to relatively thick distributary sandstones, suggesting coal accumulation in backswamp environments. The most numerous coals in the Pratt coal group are in an area that trends northwestward parallel with and southwest of a northwest-trending linear sandstone, suggesting coal accumulation in a back-barrier environment. Equivalents of the Cobb, Gwin, and Brookwood coal groups contain little coal in the deep part of the Black Warrior basin.

  4. Method for coal liquefaction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiser, Wendell H. (Kaysville, UT); Oblad, Alex G. (Salt Lake City, UT); Shabtai, Joseph S. (Salt Lake City, UT)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is disclosed for coal liquefaction in which minute particles of coal in intimate contact with a hydrogenation catalyst and hydrogen arc reacted for a very short time at a temperature in excess of 400.degree. C. at a pressure of at least 1500 psi to yield over 50% liquids with a liquid to gaseous hydrocarbon ratio in excess of 8:1.

  5. Coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carr, Norman L. (Allison Park, PA); Moon, William G. (Cheswick, PA); Prudich, Michael E. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A C.sub.5 -900.degree. F. (C.sub.5 -482.degree. C.) liquid yield greater than 50 weight percent MAF feed coal is obtained in a coal liquefaction process wherein a selected combination of higher hydrogen partial pressure, longer slurry residence time and increased recycle ash content of the feed slurry are controlled within defined ranges.

  6. Coal in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minchener, A.J. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The article gives an overview of the production and use of coal in China, for power generation and in other sectors. Coal use for power generation was 850 million tonnes in 2003 and 800 million tonnes in the non-power sector. The majority of power will continue to be produced from coal, with a trend towards new larger pulverised coal fired units and introduction of circulating fluidised bed combustors. Stricter regulations are forcing introduction of improved pollution control technologies. It seems likely that China will need international finance to supplement private and state investment to carry out a programme to develop and apply clean coal technologies. The author concludes that there is evidence of a market economy being established but there is a need to resolve inconsistencies with the planned aspects of the economy and that additional policies are needed in certain sectors to achieve sustainable development. 1 ref., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. State coal profiles, January 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of State Coal Profiles is to provide basic information about the deposits, production, and use of coal in each of the 27 States with coal production in 1992. Although considerable information on coal has been published on a national level, there is a lack of a uniform overview for the individual States. This report is intended to help fill that gap and also to serve as a framework for more detailed studies. While focusing on coal output, State Coal Profiles shows that the coal-producing States are major users of coal, together accounting for about three-fourths of total US coal consumption in 1992. Each coal-producing State is profiled with a description of its coal deposits and a discussion of the development of its coal industry. Estimates of coal reserves in 1992 are categorized by mining method and sulfur content. Trends, patterns, and other information concerning production, number of mines, miners, productivity, mine price of coal, disposition, and consumption of coal are detailed in statistical tables for selected years from 1980 through 1992. In addition, coal`s contribution to the State`s estimated total energy consumption is given for 1991, the latest year for which data are available. A US summary of all data is provided for comparing individual States with the Nation as a whole. Sources of information are given at the end of the tables.

  8. High porosity of basal till at Burroughs glacier, southeastern Alaska

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronnert, L.; Mickelson, D.M. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (United States))

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Debris-rich basal ice at Burroughs glacier, southeastern Alaska, has 60 vol% to 70 vol% debris. Recently deposited basal till exceeds 60 vol% sediment with 30% to almost 40% porosity. Where basal ice is very rich in debris, basal till is deposited through melt out with only slight compaction of the debris. Porosity this high in till is commonly associated with subglacially deforming and dilated sediment. However, the recently deposited basal melt-out till at Burroughs glacier has not been deformed after deposition, but has porosity values similar to tills elsewhere interpreted to be subglacially deforming and dilated in an unfrozen state. High porosity can occur in basal melt-out till deposited directly by basal melt out.

  9. Int. J. Oil, Gas and Coal Technology, Vol. 7, No. 2, 2014 115 Copyright 2014 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    Int. J. Oil, Gas and Coal Technology, Vol. 7, No. 2, 2014 115 Copyright © 2014 Inderscience fields in Saudi Arabia', Int. J. Oil, Gas and Coal Technology, Vol. 7, No. 2, pp.115­131. Biographical

  10. Consensus Coal Production Forecast for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    Consensus Coal Production Forecast for West Virginia 2009-2030 Prepared for the West Virginia Summary 1 Recent Developments 2 Consensus Coal Production Forecast for West Virginia 10 Risks References 27 #12;W.Va. Consensus Coal Forecast Update 2009 iii List of Tables 1. W.Va. Coal Production

  11. Clean coal technology: The new coal era

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Clean Coal Technology Program is a government and industry cofunded effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal processes in a series of full-scale showcase`` facilities built across the country. Begun in 1986 and expanded in 1987, the program is expected to finance more than $6.8 billion of projects. Nearly two-thirds of the funding will come from the private sector, well above the 50 percent industry co-funding expected when the program began. The original recommendation for a multi-billion dollar clean coal demonstration program came from the US and Canadian Special Envoys on Acid Rain. In January 1986, Special Envoys Lewis and Davis presented their recommendations. Included was the call for a 5-year, $5-billion program in the US to demonstrate, at commercial scale, innovative clean coal technologies that were beginning to emerge from research programs both in the US and elsewhere in the world. As the Envoys said: if the menu of control options was expanded, and if the new options were significantly cheaper, yet highly efficient, it would be easier to formulate an acid rain control plan that would have broader public appeal.

  12. Hindered diffusion of coal liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsotsis, T.T.; Sahimi, M. (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Webster, I.A. (Unocal Corp., Los Angeles, CA (United States))

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The molecules comprising coal liquids can range from less than 10 to several hundred [angstrom] in diameter. Their size is, therefore, comparable to the average pore size of most hydroprocessing catalysts. Thus, during processing, transport of these molecules into the catalyst occurs mainly by configurational'' or hindered diffusion,'' which is the result of two phenomena occurring in the pores; the distribution of solute molecules in the pores is affected by the pores and the solute molecules experience an increased hydrodynamic drag. The field of hindered diffusion has been reviewed by Deen [16]. The earliest studies in the filed were by Renkin et al. [17].

  13. CO2 Sequestration in Unmineable Coal Seams: Potential Environmental Impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hedges, S.W.; Soong, Yee; McCarthy Jones, J.R.; Harrison, D.K.; Irdi, G.A.; Frommell, E.A.; Dilmore, R.M.; Pique, P.J.; Brown, T.D

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An initial investigation into the potential environmental impacts of CO2 sequestration in unmineable coal seams has been conducted, focusing on changes in the produced water during enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) production using a CO2 injection process (CO2-ECBM). Two coals have been used in this study, the medium volatile bituminous Upper Freeport coal (APCS 1) of the Argonne Premium Coal Samples series, and an as-mined Pittsburgh #8 coal, which is a high volatile bituminous coal. Coal samples were reacted with either synthetic produced water or field collected produced water and gaseous carbon dioxide at 40 ?C and 50 bar to evaluate the potential for mobilizing toxic metals during CO2-ECBM/sequestration. Microscopic and x-ray diffraction analysis of the post-reaction coal samples clearly show evidence of chemical reaction, and chemical analysis of the produced water shows substantial changes in composition. These results suggest that changes to the produced water chemistry and the potential for mobilizing toxic trace elements from coalbeds are important factors to be considered when evaluating deep, unmineable coal seams for CO2 sequestration.

  14. CO2 Sequestration Potential of Texas Low-Rank Coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duane A. McVay; Walter B. Ayers, Jr.; Jerry L. Jensen

    2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this project are to evaluate the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in Texas low-rank coals and to determine the potential for enhanced coalbed methane (CBM) recovery as an added benefit of sequestration. The primary objectives for this reporting period were to construct a coal geological model for reservoir analysis and to continue acquisition of data pertinent to coal characterization that would help in determining the feasibility of carbon dioxide sequestration. Structural analysis and detailed correlation of coal zones are important for reservoir analysis and modeling. Evaluation of existing well logs indicates local structural complexity that complicates interpretations of continuity of the Wilcox Group coal zones. Therefore, we have begun searching for published structural maps for the areas of potential injection CO{sub 2}, near the coal-fired power plants. Preliminary evaluations of data received from Anadarko Petroleum Corporation suggest that coal properties and gas content and chemical composition vary greatly among coal seams. We are assessing the stratigraphic and geographic distributions and the weight of coal samples that Anadarko has provided to select samples for further laboratory analysis. Our goal is to perform additional isotherm analyses with various pure and/or mixed gases to enhance our characterization model. Additionally, we are evaluating opportunities for field determination of permeability with Anadarko, utilizing one of their wells.

  15. Underground coal gasification simulation. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gunn, R.D.

    1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The underground coal gasification (UCG) process - both forward gasification and reverse combustion linkage - was mathematically modeled. The models were validated with field and laboratory data. They were then used to explain some important UCG phenomena that had not been predictable with other methods. Some views on the UCG technology status are also presented. 3 references, 25 figures, 10 tables.

  16. Recent advances in coal geochemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chyi, L.L. (Dept. of Geology, Univ. of Akron, Akron, OH (US)); Chou, C.-L. (Illinois State Geological Survey, 615 E. Peabody Drive, Champaign, IL (US))

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chapters in this collection reflect the recent emphasis both on basic research in coal geochemistry and on applied aspects related to coal utilization. Geochemical research on peat and coal generates compositional data that are required for the following reasons. First, many studies in coal geology require chemical data to aid in interpretation for better understanding of the origin and evolution of peat and coal. Second, coal quality assessment is based largely on composition data, and these data generate useful insights into the geologic factors that control the quality of coal. Third, compositional data are needed for effective utilization of coal resources and to reflect the recent emphasis on both basic research in coal geochemistry and environmental aspects related to coal utilization.

  17. CO2 Sequestration Potential of Texas Low-Rank Coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duane A. McVay; Walter B. Ayers Jr; Jerry L. Jensen

    2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to evaluate the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in Texas low-rank coals and to determine the potential for enhanced coalbed methane (CBM) recovery as an added benefit of sequestration. The main objectives for this reporting period were to further characterize the three areas selected as potential test sites, to begin assessing regional attributes of natural coal fractures (cleats), which control coalbed permeability, and to interview laboratories for coal sample testing. An additional objective was to initiate discussions with an operating company that has interests in Texas coalbed gas production and CO{sub 2} sequestration potential, to determine their interest in participation and cost sharing in this project. Well-log data are critical for defining depth, thickness, number, and grouping of coal seams at the proposed sequestration sites. Therefore, we purchased 15 well logs from a commercial source to make coal-occurrence maps and cross sections. Log suites included gamma ray (GR), self potential (SP), resistivity, sonic, and density curves. Other properties of the coals in the selected areas were collected from published literature. To assess cleat properties and describe coal characteristics, we made field trips to a Jackson coal outcrop and visited Wilcox coal exposures at the Sandow surface mine. Coal samples at the Sandow mine were collected for CO{sub 2} and methane sorption analyses. We contacted several laboratories that specialize in analyzing coals and selected a laboratory, submitting the Sandow Wilcox coals for analysis. To address the issue of cost sharing, we had fruitful initial discussions with a petroleum corporation in Houston. We reviewed the objectives and status of this project, discussed data that they have already collected, and explored the potential for cooperative data acquisition and exchange in the future. We are pursuing a cooperative agreement with them.

  18. Coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wright, C.H.

    1986-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for the liquefaction of coal wherein raw feed coal is dissolved in recycle solvent with a slurry containing recycle coal minerals in the presence of added hydrogen at elevated temperature and pressure. The highest boiling distillable dissolved liquid fraction is obtained from a vacuum distillation zone and is entirely recycled to extinction. Lower boiling distillable dissolved liquid is removed in vapor phase from the dissolver zone and passed without purification and essentially without reduction in pressure to a catalytic hydrogenation zone where it is converted to an essentially colorless liquid product boiling in the transportation fuel range. 1 fig.

  19. Coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wright, Charles H. (Overland Park, KS)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the liquefaction of coal wherein raw feed coal is dissolved in recycle solvent with a slurry containing recycle coal minerals in the presence of added hydrogen at elevated temperature and pressure. The highest boiling distillable dissolved liquid fraction is obtained from a vacuum distillation zone and is entirely recycled to extinction. Lower boiling distillable dissolved liquid is removed in vapor phase from the dissolver zone and passed without purification and essentially without reduction in pressure to a catalytic hydrogenation zone where it is converted to an essentially colorless liquid product boiling in the transportation fuel range.

  20. Clean coal today

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the first issue of the Clean Coal Today publication. Each issue will provide project status reports, feature articles about certain projects and highlight key events concerning the US Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. Projects described in this publication include: Colorado-Ute Electric Association Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor Project at Nucla, Colorado; Babcock and Wilcox coolside and limestone injection multistage burner process (dry sorbent injection); Coal Tech's Advanced Cyclone Combustor Project; and the TIDD pressurized fluidized bed combustor combined cycle facility in Brilliant, Ohio. The status of other projects is included.

  1. Coal | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube platformBuildingCoal Combustion Products Coal Combustion ProductsCoal to

  2. Coal | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov. Are you sure you want toworldPower 2010 1AAcquisitionDevelopmentChooseCoal Coal Coal

  3. Coal | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia:PowerCER.png El CER esDatasetCityFundCo-benefits EvaluationCoalCoalCoal

  4. Role of site characteristics in coal gasification. [Hanna, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bader, B.E.; Glass, R.E.

    1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Field test data for a series of four underground coal gasification tests (UCG) at a site near Hanna, Wyoming are presented. Results of these field tests were combined with modeling efforts to identify site selective parameters broadly identified as the flow and mechanical properties of a coal seam that can help determine the degree to which any UCG test would be successful. Specifically, the characteristics shown to be important are concluded to be: (1) permeability structure and mobile water, which play a crucial role in determining air flow paths; (2) high permeability zones at midstream and above to act as the primary air flow path; (3) spacing of injection and production wells can be varied to enhance the chance of keeping the air flow paths low in the coal seam; (4) completion of the process wells in a manner that minimizes neighboring permeability inhibits the chance of override; (5) the orthotropic permeability of coal improve UCG results; (6) thermochemical properties of coal are important with respect to the manner of combustion front propogation; and (7) heating will result in stress dependent anisotropic strength characteristics of the coal. Other properties characteristic of a given coal, petrographic constitutents of a coal, chemistry of combustion and the in situ stress distribution are also pointed out as significant factors to be considered in the most efficient use of UCG technique. 14 references, (BLM)

  5. Enhanced Combustion Low NOx Pulverized Coal Burner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Towle; Richard Donais; Todd Hellewell; Robert Lewis; Robert Schrecengost

    2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    For more than two decades, Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom) has developed a range of low cost, infurnace technologies for NOx emissions control for the domestic U.S. pulverized coal fired boiler market. This includes Alstom's internally developed TFS 2000{trademark} firing system, and various enhancements to it developed in concert with the U.S. Department of Energy. As of the date of this report, more than 270 units representing approximately 80,000 MWe of domestic coal fired capacity have been retrofit with Alstom low NOx technology. Best of class emissions range from 0.18 lb/MMBtu for bituminous coal to 0.10 lb/MMBtu for subbituminous coal, with typical levels at 0.24 lb/MMBtu and 0.13 lb/MMBtu, respectively. Despite these gains, NOx emissions limits in the U.S. continue to ratchet down for new and existing boiler equipment. On March 10, 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR). CAIR requires 25 Eastern states to reduce NOx emissions from the power generation sector by 1.7 million tons in 2009 and 2.0 million tons by 2015. Low cost solutions to meet such regulations, and in particular those that can avoid the need for a costly selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), provide a strong incentive to continue to improve low NOx firing system technology to meet current and anticipated NOx control regulations. The overall objective of the work is to develop an enhanced combustion, low NOx pulverized coal burner, which, when integrated with Alstom's state-of-the-art, globally air staged low NOx firing systems will provide a means to achieve: Less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a high volatile Eastern or Western bituminous coal, Less than 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a subbituminous coal, NOx reduction costs at least 25% lower than the costs of an SCR, Validation of the NOx control technology developed through large (15 MWt) pilot scale demonstration, and Documentation required for economic evaluation and commercial application. During the project performance period, Alstom performed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and large pilot scale combustion testing in its Industrial Scale Burner Facility (ISBF) at its U.S. Power Plant Laboratories facility in Windsor, Connecticut in support of these objectives. The NOx reduction approach was to optimize near-field combustion to ensure that minimum NOx emissions are achieved with minimal impact on unburned carbon in ash, slagging and fouling, corrosion, and flame stability/turn-down. Several iterations of CFD and combustion testing on a Midwest coal led to an optimized design, which was extensively combustion tested on a range of coals. The data from these tests were then used to validate system costs and benefits versus SCR. Three coals were evaluated during the bench-scale and large pilot-scale testing tasks. The three coals ranged from a very reactive subbituminous coal to a moderately reactive Western bituminous coal to a much less reactive Midwest bituminous coal. Bench-scale testing was comprised of standard ASTM properties evaluation, plus more detailed characterization of fuel properties through drop tube furnace testing and thermogravimetric analysis. Bench-scale characterization of the three test coals showed that both NOx emissions and combustion performance are a strong function of coal properties. The more reactive coals evolved more of their fuel bound nitrogen in the substoichiometric main burner zone than less reactive coal, resulting in the potential for lower NOx emissions. From a combustion point of view, the more reactive coals also showed lower carbon in ash and CO values than the less reactive coal at any given main burner zone stoichiometry. According to bench-scale results, the subbituminous coal was found to be the most amenable to both low NOx, and acceptably low combustibles in the flue gas, in an air staged low NOx system. The Midwest bituminous coal, by contrast, was predicted to be the most challenging of the three coals, with the Western bituminous coal predicted to beh

  6. Coal mine ground control. 3rd ed.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peng, S.S.

    2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The third edition not only completely revises and updates the original subject areas, but also is broadened to include a number of new topics such as high horizontal stresses, computer modeling, and highwall stability. The subject areas covered in this book define the current field of coal mine ground control, except for the recently emerging topic of mine seals and some conventional subjects such as coal/rock cutting and impoundment dams. It contains 1,134 references from all published sources, and archived since 1876.

  7. Investigation of Glacial Dynamics in the Lambert Glacier-Amery Ice Shelf System (LAS) Using Remote Sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chi, Zhaohui 1982-

    2012-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Numerous recent studies have documented dynamic changes in the behaviors of large marine-terminating outlet glaciers and ice streams in Greenland, the Antarctic Peninsula, and West Antarctica. However, fewer observations of outlet glaciers and ice...

  8. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of deploying advanced coal power in the Chinese context,”12 2.6. International coal prices and12 III. Chinese Coal

  9. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phadke, Amol

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Figures Figure ES-1. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Basicviii Figure 1. Advanced-Coal Wind Hybrid: Basic29 Figure 9. Sensitivity to Coal

  10. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phadke, Amol

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    farms with advanced coal generation facilities and operatingfarms with advanced coal generation facilities and operatingin the stand-alone coal generation option (IGCC+CCS plant)

  11. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    services. Power generation Coal increasingly dominates28 Thermal coal electricity generation efficiency alsostudy examines four coal-thermal generation technology types

  12. Coal-Biomass Feed and Gasification

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Coal-Biomass Feed and Gasification The Coal-Biomass Feed and Gasification Key Technology is advancing scientific knowledge of the production of liquid hydrocarbon fuels from coal...

  13. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    generation systems. Coal energy density could be increasedfuel reserves were coal by energy content; 19% were oil, andConsumption, 2007 coal/primary energy consumption Source: BP

  14. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    19 3.4. Coking coal for iron & steels FOB export value for coking coal was relatively stables FOB export value for coking coal significantly increased

  15. Clean Coal Power Initiative | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Clean Coal Power Initiative Clean Coal Power Initiative "Clean coal technology" describes a new generation of energy processes that sharply reduce air emissions and other...

  16. Aqueous coal slurry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berggren, Mark H.; Smit, Francis J.; Swanson, Wilbur W.

    1993-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    An aqueous slurry containing coal and dextrin as a dispersant. The slurry, in addition to containing dextrin, may contain a conventional dispersant or, alternatively, a pH controlling reagent.

  17. Aqueous coal slurry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berggren, Mark H. (Golden, CO); Smit, Francis J. (Arvada, CO); Swanson, Wilbur W. (Golden, CO)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An aqueous slurry containing coal and dextrin as a dispersant. The slurry, in addition to containing dextrin, may contain a conventional dispersant or, alternatively, a pH controlling reagent.

  18. Quarterly coal report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, P.

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1995 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1987 through the third quarter of 1995. Appendix A displays, from 1987 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  19. Clean Coal Research

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE's clean coal R&D is focused on developing and demonstrating advanced power generation and carbon capture, utilization and storage technologies for existing facilities and new fossil-fueled...

  20. Clean Coal Technology (Indiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A public utility may not use clean coal technology at a new or existing electric generating facility without first applying for and obtaining from the Utility Regulatory Commission a certificate...

  1. Coal Liquefaction desulfurization process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a solvent refined coal liquefaction process, more effective desulfurization of the high boiling point components is effected by first stripping the solvent-coal reacted slurry of lower boiling point components, particularly including hydrogen sulfide and low molecular weight sulfur compounds, and then reacting the slurry with a solid sulfur getter material, such as iron. The sulfur getter compound, with reacted sulfur included, is then removed with other solids in the slurry.

  2. Coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skinner, Ronald W. (Allentown, PA); Tao, John C. (Perkiomenville, PA); Znaimer, Samuel (Vancouver, CA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to an improved process for the production of liquid carbonaceous fuels and solvents from carbonaceous solid fuels, especially coal. The claimed improved process includes the hydrocracking of the light SRC mixed with a suitable hydrocracker solvent. The recycle of the resulting hydrocracked product, after separation and distillation, is used to produce a solvent for the hydrocracking of the light solvent refined coal.

  3. Method for coal liquefaction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiser, W.H.; Oblad, A.G.; Shabtai, J.S.

    1994-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is disclosed for coal liquefaction in which minute particles of coal in intimate contact with a hydrogenation catalyst and hydrogen arc reacted for a very short time at a temperature in excess of 400 C at a pressure of at least 1500 psi to yield over 50% liquids with a liquid to gaseous hydrocarbon ratio in excess of 8:1. 1 figures.

  4. Assessment of underground coal gasification in bituminous coals. Volume I. Executive summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the bituminous coal resources of the United States, identifies those resources which are potentially amenable to Underground Coal Gasification (UCG), identifies products and markets in the vicinity of selected target areas, identifies UCG concepts, describes the state of the art of UCG in bituminous coal, and presents three R and D programs for development of the technology to the point of commercial viability. Of the 670 billion tons of bituminous coal remaining in-place as identified by the National Coal Data System, 32.2 billion tons or 4.8% of the total are potentially amenable to UCG technology. The identified amenable resource was located in ten states: Alabama, Colorado, Illinois, Kentucky, New Mexico, Ohio, Oklahoma, Utah, Virginia, and West Virginia. The principal criteria which eliminated 87.3% of the resource was the minimum thickness (42 inches). Three R and D programs were developed using three different concepts at two different sites. Open Borehole, Hydraulic Fracture, and Electrolinking concepts were developed. The total program costs for each concept were not significantly different. The study concludes that much of the historical information based on UCG in bituminous coals is not usable due to the poor siting of the early field tests and a lack of adequate diagnostic equipment. This information gap requires that much of the early work be redone in view of the much improved understanding of the role of geology and hydrology in the process and the recent development of analytical tools and methods.

  5. MONITORING TEMPERATE GLACIER : COMBINED USE OF MULTI-DATE TERRASAR-X IMAGES AND CONTINUOUS GPS MEASUREMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    MONITORING TEMPERATE GLACIER : COMBINED USE OF MULTI-DATE TERRASAR-X IMAGES AND CONTINUOUS GPSSAR-X (TSX) High Resolution (HR) images for temperate glacier monitoring. A series of 14 images have been acquired since October 2007 on the Mont-Blanc test area. This area involves well-known temperate glaciers

  6. Late nineteenth to early twenty-first century behavior of Alaskan glaciers as indicators of changing regional climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Late nineteenth to early twenty-first century behavior of Alaskan glaciers as indicators 19th to early 21st century behavior of Alaskan glaciers. Weather station temperature data document of glaciers to this regional climate change, a comprehensive analysis was made of the recent behavior

  7. Changes in glaciers in the Swiss Alps and impact on basin hydrology: Current state of the art and future research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoffel, Markus

    Review Changes in glaciers in the Swiss Alps and impact on basin hydrology: Current state of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland H I G H L I G H T S · Comprehensive review of glacier changes in the Swiss forcing. · Extrapolation of air temperature can affect model projections of glacier evolution. · Debris

  8. PUBLISHED ONLINE: 17 JANUARY 2010 | DOI: 10.1038/NGEO737 Contribution of Alaskan glaciers to sea-level rise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berthier, Etienne

    LETTERS PUBLISHED ONLINE: 17 JANUARY 2010 | DOI: 10.1038/NGEO737 Contribution of Alaskan glaciers. Menounos5 and F. Rémy1,2 Over the past 50 years, retreating glaciers and ice caps contributed 0.5 mm yr-1 of a limited number of glaciers that are extrapolated to constrain ice wastage in the many thousands of others

  9. 19th century glacier representations and fluctuations in the central and western European Alps: An interdisciplinary approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steiner, Daniel

    19th century glacier representations and fluctuations in the central and western European Alps Available online 22 February 2007 Abstract European Alpine glaciers are sensitive indicators of past climate and are thus valuable sources of climate history. Unfortunately, direct determinations of glacier changes

  10. Rapid disintegration of Alpine glaciers observed with satellite data Frank Paul, Andreas Kaab, Max Maisch, Tobias Kellenberger, and Wilfried Haeberli

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kääb, Andreas

    Rapid disintegration of Alpine glaciers observed with satellite data Frank Paul, Andreas Ka 12 November 2004. [1] Analyses of multispectral satellite data indicate accelerated glacier decline around the globe since the 1980s. By using digitized glacier outlines inferred from the 1973 inventory

  11. PUBLISHED ONLINE: 23 JANUARY 2011 | DOI: 10.1038/NGEO1068 Spatially variable response of Himalayan glaciers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bookhagen, Bodo

    of Himalayan glaciers to climate change affected by debris cover Dirk Scherler1 *, Bodo Bookhagen2 and Manfred R. Strecker1 Controversy about the current state and future evolution of Himalayan glaciers has been changes and surface velocities from glaciers in the greater Himalaya between 2000 and 2008 that provide

  12. Rock-glacier dynamics and magnitudefrequency relations of debris flows in a high-elevation watershed: Ritigraben, Swiss Alps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoffel, Markus

    Rock-glacier dynamics and magnitude­frequency relations of debris flows in a high rock glacier (Valais, Swiss Alps) with magnitude­frequency (M­F) relationships of debris flows recorded in the Ritigraben torrent originating at the rock-glacier front. Debris production and volumetric changes

  13. Multitemporal glacier inventory of the French Alps from the late 1960s to the late 2000s

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rabatel, Antoine

    Multitemporal glacier inventory of the French Alps from the late 1960s to the late 2000s Marie Available online 2 June 2014 Keywords: Glacier inventory GIS Satellite images Aerial photographs French Alps The most recent and complete French glacier inventory was previously the Vivian database, dating from

  14. Glacier shrinkage and climatic change in the Russian Altai from the mid20th century: An assessment using remote sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glacier shrinkage and climatic change in the Russian Altai from the mid20th century: An assessment 2010; published 20 August 2010. [1] This paper examines changes in the surface area of glaciers variations. The glacier surface areas for 2004 were derived from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission

  15. Utilisation des archives ERS pour la dtection de mouvements de glaciers rocheux dans les Alpes franaises par interfromtrie

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Utilisation des archives ERS pour la détection de mouvements de glaciers rocheux dans les Alpes semblait pertinente pour détecter le fluage des glaciers rocheux. Dans cette étude nous nous intéressons à la détection des mouvements des glaciers rocheux sur la totalité des Alpes françaises. Pour cela nous

  16. Modeling the effect of glacier recession on streamflow1 response using a coupled glacio-hydrological model2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    1 Modeling the effect of glacier recession on streamflow1 response using a coupled glacio an integrated spatially distributed hydrologic and glacier dynamic model,14 and use it to investigate the effect of glacier recession on streamflow variations for the Upper15 Bow River basin, a tributary of the South

  17. The response of glaciers to intrinsic climate variability: observations and models of late-Holocene variations in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roe, Gerard

    The response of glaciers to intrinsic climate variability: observations and models of late glacier variations due to natural climate variability and those due to true climate change is crucial for the interpretation and attribution of past glacier changes, and for the expectations of future changes. We explore

  18. 20th-century variations in area of cirque glaciers and glacierets, Rocky Mountain National Park, Rocky Mountains,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fountain, Andrew G.

    20th-century variations in area of cirque glaciers and glacierets, Rocky Mountain National Park maps and aerial and ground-based photographs for the small cirque glaciers and glacierets of Rockyth century. The glaciers retreated through the first half of the 20th century, advanced slightly from

  19. Modelling the impact of superimposed ice on the mass balance of an Arctic glacier under scenarios of future climate change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ). A consequence of climatic warming in the high Arctic will be an increase in surface melting of glaciers and ice component of the mass accumulation of many glaciers and ice caps in thModelling the impact of superimposed ice on the mass balance of an Arctic glacier under scenarios

  20. Fundamental investigations of underground coal gasification. Annual report Mar 82-Mar 83

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, R.D.

    1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal deposits in the Appalachian and Midwest Coal Regions consist primarily of thin relatively deep seams of swelling bituminous coal, but little scientific effort in the United States has been directed toward underground coal gasification in these important industrial areas. In Europe, however, major work is under way on underground coal gasification in thin, deep seams of swelling coal. The principal investigator and a graduate student are participating in field tests in Belgium and supporting laboratory experiments in Germany. Mathematical models are being developed to interpret these experimental data, and a better understanding of the underground coal gasification process is emerging. This understanding is essential for evaluating potential problems, for devising solutions to such problems and for designing field tests.

  1. Pulverization Induced Charge: In-Line Dry Coal Cleaning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schaefer, J.L.; Stencel, J.M.

    1997-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The technical feasibility of separating mineral matter and pyrite from coal as it is transported from pulverizers to boilers in pulverized coal combustion units will be examined. The charge imparted on coal during pulverization and transport to pulverized coal (PC) burners in a utility boiler will be quantified. In addition to field charge measurements, an existing computational model will be extended to numerically simulate charged particle motion in a turbulent gas through an electric field. Results from the field tests and numerical modeling will be employed in design and construction of a laboratory scale pulverizer/classifier. This laboratory unit will be used to quantify the magnitude and differential charge imparted on bituminous and subbituminous coals during pulverization and classification at temperatures and with gaseous constituents typical to utility PC units. An electrostatic separator, designed for in-line operation between pulverizers and PC boilers, will be used to clean prepulverized coals. Theoretical and experimental data are to be used in preparing a preliminary design for a full-scale, (15 ton/hr) in-line, electrostatic coal cleaning device. Finally, the economic potential for application to PC units will be assessed.

  2. PULVERIZATION INDUCED CHARGE: IN-LINE DRY COAL CLEANING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JOHN M. STENCEL

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The technical feasibility of separating mineral matter and pyrite from coal as it is transported from pulverizers to burners in pulverized coal combustion units will be examined. The charge imparted on coal during pulverization and transport to pulverized coal (PC) burners in a utility boiler will be quantified. In addition to field charge measurements, an existing computational model will be extended to numerically simulate charged particle motion in a turbulent gas through an electric field. Results from the field tests and numerical modeling will be employed in design and construction of a laboratory scale pulverizer/classifier. This laboratory unit will be used to quantify the magnitude and differential charge imparted on bituminous and subbituminous coals during pulverization and classification at temperatures and with gaseous constituents typical to utility PC units. An electrostatic separator, designed for in-line operation between pulverizers and PC boilers, will be used to clean prepulverized coals. Theoretical and experimental data are to be used in preparing a preliminary design for a full-scale, (15 ton/hr) in-line, electrostatic coal cleaning device. Finally, the economic potential for application to PC units will be assessed.

  3. Pulverization Induced Charge: In-Line Dry Coal Cleaning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John M. Stencel

    1998-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The technical feasibility of separating mineral matter and pyrite from coal as it is transported from pulverizers to burners in pulverized coal combustion units will be examined. The charge imparted on coal during pulverization and transport to pulverized coal (PC) burners in a utility boiler will be quantified. In addition to field charge measurements, an existing computational model will be extended to numerically simulate charged particle motion in a turbulent gas through an electric field. Results from the field tests and numerical modeling will be employed in design and construction of a laboratory scale pulverizer/classifier. This laboratory unit will be used to quantify the magnitude and differential charge imparted on bituminous and subbituminous coals during pulverization and classification at temperatures and with gaseous constituents typical to utility PC units. An electrostatic separator, designed for in-line operation between pulverizers and PC boilers, will be used to clean prepulverized coals. Theoretical and experimental data are to be used in preparing a preliminary design for a full-scale, (15 ton/hr) in-line, electrostatic coal cleaning device. Finally, the economic potential for application to PC units will be assessed.

  4. Pulverization Induced Charge: In-Line Dry Coal Cleaning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John M. Stencel

    1998-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The technical feasibility of separating mineral matter and pyrite from coal as it is transported from pulverizers to burners in pulverized coal combustion units will be examined. The charge imparted on coal during pulverization and transport to pulverized coal (PC) burners in a utility boiler will be quantified. In addition to field charge measurements, an existing computational model will be extended to numerically simulate charged particle motion in a turbulent gas through an electric field. Results from the field tests and numerical modeling will be employed in design and construction of a laboratory scale pulverizer/classifier. This laboratory unit will be used to quantify the magnitude and differential charge imparted on bituminous and subbituminous coals during pulverization and classification at temperatures and with gaseous constituents typical to utility PC units. An electrostatic separator, designed for in-line operation between pulverizers and PC boilers, will be used to clean prepulverized coals. Theoretical and experimental data are to be used in preparing a preliminary design for a full-scale, (15 ton/hr) in-line, electrostatic coal cleaning device. Finally, the economic potential for application to PC units will be assessed.

  5. Large-block experiments in underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A major objective of the nation's energy program is to develop processes for cleanly producing fuels from coal. One of the more promising of these is underground coal gasification (UCG). If successful, UCG would quadruple recoverable U.S. coal reserves. Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy (DOE), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) performed an early series of UCG field experiments from 1976 through 1979. The Hoe Creek series of tests were designed to develop the basic technology of UCG at low cost. The experiments were conducted in a 7.6-m thick subbituminous coal seam at a relatively shallow depth of 48 m at a site near Gillette, Wyoming. On the basis of the Hoe Creek results, more extensive field experiments were designed to establish the feasibility of UCG for commercial gas production under a variety of gasification conditions. Concepts and practices in UCG are described, and results of the field tests are summarized.

  6. An inventory of glacier changes between 1973 and 2011 for the Geladandong Mountain area, China.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, J.; Braaten, David A.; Li, X.; Tao, F.

    2013-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The snow and ice of the Geladangong Mountain area supply the headwaters of the Yangtze River, and long-term changes to glaciers and ice masses in this region due to a warming climate are of great concern. An inventory of glacier boundaries...

  7. A glacier inventory for South Tyrol, Italy, based on airborne laser-scanner data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kerschner, Hanns

    A glacier inventory for South Tyrol, Italy, based on airborne laser-scanner data Christoph KNOLL-mail: christoph.knoll@uibk.ac.at ABSTRACT. A new approach to glacier inventory, based on airborne laser supervision. Earlier inventories, from 1983 and 1997, are used to compare changes in area, volume

  8. An assessment of regional climate trends and changes to the Mt. Jaya glaciers of Irian Jaya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kincaid, Joni L.

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    on the Mt. Jaya glaciers has been lacking since the early 1970s. Using IKONOS satellite images, the ice extents of the Mt. Jaya glaciers in 2000, 2002, 2003, 2004, and 2005 were mapped. The mapping indicates that the recessional trend which began in the mid...

  9. Integrated research on mountain glaciers: Current status, priorities and future prospects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Briner, Jason P.

    Institute for Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085, China A B S T R A C TA towards integrating research on mountain glaciers to address key scientific, socio-economic and political and the balance of energy and mass at the surface of glaciers; 7) characterizing the role of intrinsic climate

  10. Remote sensing estimates of glacier mass balances in the Himachal Pradesh (Western Himalaya, India)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berthier, Etienne

    Inc. All rights reserved. Keywords: Glacier mass balance; Climate change; Sea level rise; DEM; SPOT5 Chevallier e a EOS/UBC, 6339 Stores Road, Vancouver, B.C. Canada V6T 1Z4 b GREAT ICE (IRD-LGGE) 54 Rue use remote sensing data to monitor glacier elevation changes and mass balances in the Spiti

  11. Contribution potential of glaciers to water availability in different climate regimes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marzeion, Ben

    Contribution potential of glaciers to water availability in different climate regimes Georg Kaser availability in river systems under the influence of ongoing global climate change. We estimate the contribution potential of seasonally delayed glacier melt water to total water availability in large river

  12. Radar Sounding of Glaciers in Greenland C. Allen, B, Wohletz, and S, Gogineni

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kansas, University of

    Radar Sounding of Glaciers in Greenland C. Allen, B, Wohletz, and S, Gogineni The University on several flights over Greenland glaciers during the summer of 1995. The radar data were collected the theory and present results of the homomorphic deconvolution procedure. INTRODUCTION The Greenland

  13. Solid precipitation on a tropical glacier in Bolivia measured with an ultrasonic depth gauge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berthier, Etienne

    Solid precipitation on a tropical glacier in Bolivia measured with an ultrasonic depth gauge Jean´veloppement, La Paz, Bolivia Received 24 April 2002; revised 6 June 2002; accepted 6 June 2002; published 10 the equilibrium line of the Zongo glacier (2.4 km2 ), Bolivia (16°S). Study of the influence of wind, air

  14. Climate change and tropical Andean glaciers: Past, present and future Mathias Vuille a,b,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    , Peru and Bolivia give a detailed and unequivocal account of rapid shrinkage of tropical Andean glaciers the tropical glacier energy balance through its sensitivity to changes in atmospheric humidity (which governs influences the energy balance, albeit not through the sensible heat flux, but indirectly through fluctuations

  15. Metadata of the chapter that will be visualized online Chapter Title Andean Glaciers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    into tropical glaciers, located in Venezuela, Colombia, 14 Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia and northernmost Chile, and 15 energy balance and their sensitivity to climate change 27 (climate variability and high altitude of the twentieth century was 53slightly less than 600 km2 . Glaciers in Bolivia can be 54found in two main mountain

  16. The development of Clean Coal Technology in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jie, Z.; Chu, Z.X. [North China Electrical Power Design Inst., Beijing (China)

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The resource conditions and energy structures of China determine that coal will continue to play a key role in the development of the electrical power industry in the coming years, thus it is necessary to develop clean coal technology in order to control the high consumption rate of energy and to control serious pollution. Clean coal technology focuses on improving the utilization rate of energy and on the control and reduction of emissions. Considering the condition of China, PC-FGD, supercritical units, CFBC, IGCC and PFBC-CC can be applied and developed under different conditions and in different periods with these technologies developing simultaneously and helping each other forward to improve clean coal technologies. China has broad development prospects and a large market for clean coal technologies. The authors hope to strengthen international exchange and cooperation in this field for the development of CCTs markets in China.

  17. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phadke, Amol

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    located in Wyoming using PRB coal. These costs take intolocated in Wyoming using PRB coal and take into account the2007 forecast for coal prices for PRB coal. Transmission We

  18. Coal Problems 1. Name two examples of clean coal technology and in what manner do they clean the coal?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowen, James D.

    Coal Problems 1. Name two examples of clean coal technology and in what manner do they clean the coal? a. Coal Washing- Crushing coal then mixing it with a liquid to allow the impurities to settle. b burning coal altogether. With integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems, steam and hot

  19. Method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yavorsky, Paul M. (Monongahela, PA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile comprises soaking the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution and distributing an oxygen-containing gas throughout the coal refuse pile for a time period sufficient to effect oxidation of coal contained in the coal refuse pile. The method further comprises leaching the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution to solubilize and extract the oxidized coal as alkali salts of humic acids and collecting the resulting solution containing the alkali salts of humic acids. Calcium hydroxide may be added to the solution of alkali salts of humic acid to form precipitated humates useable as a low-ash, low-sulfur solid fuel.

  20. DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, James Anthony

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of coal sulfur K-T gasification process SRC I process U. S.flow sheet of a K-T coal gasification complex for producingProduction via K-T Gasification" © CEP Aug. 78. Feed

  1. Predictors of plasticity in bituminous coals. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lloyd, W. G.; Reasoner, J. W.; Hower, J. C.; Yates, L. P.; Clark, C. P.; Davis, E.; Fitzpatrick, A.; Irefin, A.; Jiminez, A.; Jones, T. M.

    1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A group of 40 hvb coals, mostly from western Kentucky fields, has been examined with regard to ASTM Gieseler plastometric properties. Twenty-nine of these coals have also been studied over a range of temperatures by isothermal Gieseler plastometry. Raw Gieseler data provide melting and coking slopes and readily calculable fluidity spans. Maximum fluidity by slope intersection is a more consistent measure than observed maximum fluidity. Isothermal slopes and maximum fluidities follow Arrhenius temperature dependencies, with activation energies related systematically to fluid properties. These freshly sampled coals are also characterized by chemical, physical and petrographic criteria, by quantitative solvent extractions, by pyrolysis gas chromatography, by Fourier Transform infrared analysis of coals and extraction residues, by the HPLC analysis of coal extracts, and by optical microscopy of coals and Gieseler semi-coke residues. Multiple linear regression analysis yields three-term expressions which estimate maximum fluidities (both ASTM and isothermal) with R values of .90 to .92. Slopes and critical temperatures are similarly predictable. Plastometer experiments with selected coals under superatmospheric pressures show both melting slopes and maximum fluidities to be sharply increased, the latter by one to three orders of magnitude. Some suggestions are offered to accommodate this new information into the general body of knowledge concerning the phenomenon of plasticity in mid-ranked coals. 81 references, 28 figures, 40 tables.

  2. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phadke, Amol

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    application of new clean coal technologies with near zeroapplication of new clean coal technologies with near zero

  3. Composition and properties of coals from the Yurty coal occurrence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N.G. Vyazova; L.N. Belonogova; V.P. Latyshev; E.A. Pisar'kova [Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk (Russia). Research Institute of Oil and Coal Chemistry and Synthesis

    2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Coals from the Yurty coal occurrence were studied. It was found that the samples were brown non-coking coals with low sulfur contents (to 1%) and high yields of volatile substances. The high heat value of coals was 20.6-27.7 MJ/kg. The humic acid content varied from 5.45 to 77.62%. The mineral matter mainly consisted of kaolinite, a-quartz, and microcline. The concentration of toxic elements did not reach hazardous values.

  4. Toward tracking glacier ice-balance with seismology Y a h t s e g l a c i e r , A l a s k a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    West, Michael

    Toward tracking glacier ice-balance with seismology Y a h t s e g l a c i e r , A l a s k a Michael West, mewest@alaska.edu Geophysical Institute, Univ. Alaska Fairbanks Glaciers generate extremely by iceberg calving at the terminus of tidewater glaciers. A recent surge in glacier

  5. Sanders, J. E.; and Merguerian, Charles, 1995b, New York City region: Unique testing ground for flow models of Quaternary continental glaciers.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merguerian, Charles

    for flow models of Quaternary continental glaciers. The Mesozoic red-bed fills of the Newark (NY for inferring the flow directions of the Quaternary continental glaciers. The most-recent glacier (Woodfordian that this glacier did not reach much of Long Island and thus did not deposit the Harbor Hill Moraine. The next

  6. 8 Convegno Glaciologico Italiano (Bormio, 9-12 Settembre 1999), 20-21 Lateglacial glaciers and climate -an Eastern Alpine perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kerschner, Hanns

    8° Convegno Glaciologico Italiano (Bormio, 9-12 Settembre 1999), 20-21 Lateglacial glaciers Foreland until the time, when the postglacial glacier extent was reached, is called the "Late Glacial: Type locality: Moraines near Kufstein and Kirchbichl, lower Inn valley. Glaciers: Dendritic glacier

  7. Coal combustion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilkes, Colin (Lebanon, IN); Mongia, Hukam C. (Carmel, IN); Tramm, Peter C. (Indianapolis, IN)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a coal combustion system suitable for a gas turbine engine, pulverized coal is transported to a rich zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio exceeding 1 at a temperature above the slagging temperature of the coal so that combustible hot gas and molten slag issue from the rich zone combustor. A coolant screen of water stretches across a throat of a quench stage and cools the combustible gas and molten slag to below the slagging temperature of the coal so that the slag freezes and shatters into small pellets. The pelletized slag is separated from the combustible gas in a first inertia separator. Residual ash is separated from the combustible gas in a second inertia separator. The combustible gas is mixed with secondary air in a lean zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio of less than 1 to produce hot gas motive at temperature above the coal slagging temperature. The motive fluid is cooled in a dilution stage to an acceptable turbine inlet temperature before being transported to the turbine.

  8. Coal properties and system operating parameters for underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, L. [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China)

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Through the model experiment for underground coal gasification, the influence of the properties for gasification agent and gasification methods on underground coal gasifier performance were studied. The results showed that pulsating gasification, to some extent, could improve gas quality, whereas steam gasification led to the production of high heating value gas. Oxygen-enriched air and backflow gasification failed to improve the quality of the outlet gas remarkably, but they could heighten the temperature of the gasifier quickly. According to the experiment data, the longitudinal average gasification rate along the direction of the channel in the gasifying seams was 1.212 m/d, with transverse average gasification rate 0.069 m/d. Experiment indicated that, for the oxygen-enriched steam gasification, when the steam/oxygen ratio was 2:1, gas compositions remained stable, with H{sub 2} + CO content virtually standing between 60% and 70% and O{sub 2} content below 0.5%. The general regularities of the development of the temperature field within the underground gasifier and the reasons for the changes of gas quality were also analyzed. The 'autopneumatolysis' and methanization reaction existing in the underground gasification process were first proposed.

  9. (Basic properties of coals and other solids)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses basic properties of bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite coals. Properties of coal liquids are also investigated. Heats of immersion in strong acids are found for Pittsburgh {number sign}8, Illinois {number sign}6, and Wyodak coals. Production of coal liquids by distillation is discussed. Heats of titration of coal liquids and coal slurries are reported. (VC)

  10. Heat Recovery from Coal Gasifiers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wen, H.; Lou, S. C.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper deals with heat recovery from pressurized entrained and fixed bed coal gasifiers for steam generation. High temperature waste heat, from slagging entrained flow coal gasifier, can be recovered effectively in a series of radiant...

  11. The Caterpillar Coal Gasification Facility 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Welsh, J.; Coffeen, W. G., III

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is a review of one of America's premier coal gasification installations. The caterpillar coal gasification facility located in York, Pennsylvania is an award winning facility. The plant was recognized as the 'pace setter plant of the year...

  12. Surface Coal Mining Regulations (Mississippi)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Surface Coal Mining Regulations are a combination of permitting requirements and environmental regulations that limit how, where and when coal can be mined. It protects lands that are under...

  13. The world price of coal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellerman, A. Denny

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A significant increase in the seaborne trade for coal over the past twenty years has unified formerly separate coal markets into a world market in which prices move in tandem. Due to its large domestic market, the United ...

  14. Low-rank coal research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, G. F.; Laudal, D. L.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

  15. Hydrogen from Coal Edward Schmetz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turbines Carbon Capture & Sequestration Carbon Capture & Sequestration The Hydrogen from Coal Program Cells, Turbines, and Carbon Capture & Sequestration #12;Production Goal for Hydrogen from Coal Central Separation System PSA Membrane Membrane Carbon Sequestration Yes (87%) Yes (100%) Yes (100%) Hydrogen

  16. Montana Coal Mining Code (Montana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Labor and Industry is authorized to adopt rules pertaining to safety standards for all coal mines in the state. The Code requires coal mine operators to make an accurate map or...

  17. 2009 Coal Age Buyers Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The buyers guide lists more than 1200 companies mainly based in the USA, that provide equipment and services to US coal mines and coal preparation plants. The guide is subdivided by product categories.

  18. Early maturation processes in coal.1 Part 1: Pyrolysis mass balances and structural evolution of coalified wood from the2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Early maturation processes in coal.1 Part 1: Pyrolysis mass balances and structural evolution of coalified wood from the2 Morwell Brown Coal seam3 4 Elodie Salmon a, c , Françoise Behar a , François Lorant force21 field to simulate the thermal stress. The Morwell coal has been selected to study the thermal22

  19. Hydroliquefaction of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sze, Morgan C. (Upper Montclair, NJ); Schindler, Harvey D. (Fairlawn, NJ)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal is catalytically hydroliquefied by passing coal dispersed in a liquefaction solvent and hydrogen upwardly through a plurality of parallel expanded catalyst beds, in a single reactor, in separate streams, each having a cross-sectional flow area of no greater than 255 inches square, with each of the streams through each of the catalyst beds having a length and a liquid and gas superficial velocity to maintain an expanded catalyst bed and provide a Peclet Number of at least 3. If recycle is employed, the ratio of recycle to total feed (coal and liquefaction solvent) is no greater than 2:1, based on volume. Such conditions provide for improved selectivity to liquid product to thereby reduce hydrogen consumption. The plurality of beds are formed by partitions in the reactor.

  20. Healy Clean Coal Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Healy Clean Coal Project, selected by the U.S. Department of Energy under Round 111 of the Clean Coal Technology Program, has been constructed and is currently in the Phase 111 Demonstration Testing. The project is owned and financed by the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA), and is cofunded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Construction was 100% completed in mid-November of 1997, with coal firing trials starting in early 1998. Demonstration testing and reporting of the results will take place in 1998, followed by commercial operation of the facility. The emission levels of nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (S02), and particulate from this 50-megawatt plant are expected to be significantly lower than current standards.

  1. Pyrolysis of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Babu, Suresh P. (Willow Springs, IL); Bair, Wilford G. (Morton Grove, IL)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for mild gasification of crushed coal in a single vertical elongated reaction vessel providing a fluidized bed reaction zone, a freeboard reaction zone, and an entrained reaction zone within the single vessel. Feed coal and gas may be fed separately to each of these reaction zones to provide different reaction temperatures and conditions in each reaction zone. The reactor and process of this invention provides for the complete utilization of a coal supply for gasification including utilization of caking and non-caking or agglomerating feeds in the same reactor. The products may be adjusted to provide significantly greater product economic value, especially with respect to desired production of char having high surface area.

  2. Sustainable development with clean coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the opportunities available with clean coal technologies. Applications include new power plants, retrofitting and repowering of existing power plants, steelmaking, cement making, paper manufacturing, cogeneration facilities, and district heating plants. An appendix describes the clean coal technologies. These include coal preparation (physical cleaning, low-rank upgrading, bituminous coal preparation); combustion technologies (fluidized-bed combustion and NOx control); post-combustion cleaning (particulate control, sulfur dioxide control, nitrogen oxide control); and conversion with the integrated gasification combined cycle.

  3. Ashing properties of coal blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biggs, D.L.

    1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The fusion properties of sulfur materials present in coals were investigated. The treatment of the samples of eleven different coals is described. Thermal treatment of low temperature ashing (LTA) concentrates of eight of the coals was performed, and raw and wash ashing curves were examined to determine what quantitative correlations, if any, exist between ashing parameters and rank of coal. The actual form of the function which describes the ashing curve is derived.

  4. A sweep efficiency model for underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, H.L.; Edgar, T.F.; Himmelblau, D.M.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new model to predict sweep efficiency for underground coal gasification (UCG) has been developed. The model is based on flow through rubble in the cavity as well as through the open channel and uses a tanks-in-series model for the flow characteristics. The model can predict cavity growth and product gas composition given the rate of water influx, roof collapse, and spalling. Self-gasification of coal is taken into account in the model, and the coal consumption rate and the location of the flame front are determined by material and energy balances at the char surface. The model has been used to predict the results of the Hoe Creek III field tests (for the air gasification period). Predictions made by the model such as cavity shape, product gas composition, temperature profile, and overall reaction stoichiometry between the injected oxygen and the coal show reasonable agreement with the field test results.

  5. CONSORTIUM FOR CLEAN COAL UTILIZATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Venkat

    CONSORTIUM FOR CLEAN COAL UTILIZATION Call for Proposals Date of Issue: July 29, 2013 The Consortium for Clean Coal Utilization (CCCU) at Washington University in St. Louis was established in January of Clean Coal Utilization. The format may be a conference or workshop, or a seminar given by a leading

  6. PNNL Coal Gasification Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid, Douglas J.; Cabe, James E.; Bearden, Mark D.

    2010-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This report explains the goals of PNNL in relation to coal gasification research. The long-term intent of this effort is to produce a syngas product for use by internal Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers in materials, catalysts, and instrumentation development. Future work on the project will focus on improving the reliability and performance of the gasifier, with a goal of continuous operation for 4 hours using coal feedstock. In addition, system modifications to increase operational flexibility and reliability or accommodate other fuel sources that can be used for syngas production could be useful.

  7. Underground coal gasification. Presentations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 8 presentations are: underground coal gasification (UCG) and the possibilities for carbon management (J. Friedmann); comparing the economics of UCG with surface gasification technologies (E. Redman); Eskom develops UCG technology project (C. Gross); development and future of UCG in the Asian region (L. Walker); economically developing vast deep Powder River Basin coals with UCG (S. Morzenti); effectively managing UCG environmental issues (E. Burton); demonstrating modelling complexity of environmental risk management; and UCG research at the University of Queensland, Australia (A.Y. Klimenko).

  8. EIA - Coal Distribution

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at1,066,688 760,877 951,322 1,381,127byForms What'sAnnual Coal

  9. Coal-Producing Region

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWPSuccessAlamosCharacterization2Climate, OceanPublicationandCoal Coal.

  10. Monitoring change in the Bering Glacier region, Alaska: Using Landsat TM and ERS-1 imagery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Payne, J.F. [Bureau of Land Management, Anchorage, AK (United States); Coffeen, M. [Bureau of Land Management, Glennallen, AK (United States); Macleod, R.D. [Ducks Unlimited, Inc., Sacramento, CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Bering Glacier is the largest (5,180 km{sup 2}) and longest (191 km) glacier in continental North America. This glacier is one of about 200 temperate glaciers in the Alaska/Canada region that are known to surge. Surges at the Bering Glacier typically occur on a 20-30 year cycle. The objective of this project was to extract information regarding the position of the terminus of the glacier from historic aerial photography, early 20{sup th} century ground photography, Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite data, and European Space Agency, Synthetic Aperture RADAR (ERS-1 SAR) data and integrate it into a single digital database that would lend itself to change detection analysis. ERS-1 SAR data was acquired from six dates between 1992-95 and was terrain corrected and co-registered A single Landsat TM image from June 1991 was used as the base image for classifying land cover types. Historic locations of the glacier terminus were generated using traditional photo interpretation techniques from aerial and ground photography. The result of this platform combination, along with the historical data, is providing land managers with the unique opportunity to generate complete assessments of glacial movement this century and determine land cover changes which may impact wildlife and recreational opportunities.

  11. Arco's research and development efforts in underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, G.J.; Brandenburg, C.F.; Bailey, D.W.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Arco's Rocky Hill No. 1 field test provided invaluable experience in gasifying the deep, thick coal resources in Wyoming. Reverse combustion successfully linked the wells and allowed conversion of the highly permeable, very wet coal to a high-quality gas. The test also produced data on overburden subsidence and groundwater effects. Unresolved issues include such items as site selection, ground water protection, surface treatment of product gas, and the interaction of simultaneously operating gas production modules.

  12. Fluorine in coal and coal by-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertson, J.D.; Wong, A.S.; Hower, J.C. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluorine occurs in awe amounts in most coals. It is typically associated with minerals of the apatite group, principally fluorapatite and clays, and with fluorite, tourmaline, topaz, amphiboles and micas. The average fluorine content of US coal is, according to the tabulation of Swanson, 74 {mu}g/g. In the United States, the lowest average fluorine concentration of 30 {mu}g/g is found in coals from Eastern Kentucky and the highest average value of 160 {mu}g/g is found in coals from Wyoming and New Mexico. The concentration range of fluorine in European coals is similar to that found in the US while the average fluorine content of Australian coals ranges from 15 to 500 {mu}g/g. We have determined the fluorine content in coal and fly ash standards by proton-induced gamma ray emission analysis (PIGE).

  13. Enhanced Combustion Low NOx Pulverized Coal Burner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray Chamberland; Aku Raino; David Towle

    2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    For more than two decades, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has developed a range of low cost, in-furnace technologies for NOx emissions control for the domestic U.S. pulverized coal fired boiler market. This includes ALSTOM's internally developed TFS 2000 firing system, and various enhancements to it developed in concert with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). As of 2004, more than 200 units representing approximately 75,000 MWe of domestic coal fired capacity have been retrofit with ALSTOM low NOx technology. Best of class emissions range from 0.18 lb/MMBtu for bituminous coals to 0.10 lb/MMBtu for subbituminous coals, with typical levels at 0.24 lb/MMBtu and 0.13 lb/MMBtu, respectively. Despite these gains, NOx emissions limits in the U.S. continue to ratchet down for new and existing (retrofit) boiler equipment. If enacted, proposed Clear Skies legislation will, by 2008, require an average, effective, domestic NOx emissions rate of 0.16 lb/MMBtu, which number will be reduced to 0.13 lb/MMBtu by 2018. Such levels represent a 60% and 67% reduction, respectively, from the effective 2000 level of 0.40 lb/MMBtu. Low cost solutions to meet such regulations, and in particular those that can avoid the need for a costly selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), provide a strong incentive to continue to improve low NOx firing system technology to meet current and anticipated NOx control regulations. In light of these needs, ALSTOM, in cooperation with the DOE, is developing an enhanced combustion, low NOx pulverized coal burner which, when integrated with ALSTOM's state-of-the-art, globally air staged low NOx firing systems, will provide a means to achieve less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx at less than 3/4 the cost of an SCR with low to no impact on balance of plant issues when firing a high volatile bituminous coal. Such coals can be more economic to fire than subbituminous or Powder River Basin (PRB) coals, but are more problematic from a NOx control standpoint as existing firing system technologies do not provide a means to meet current or anticipated regulations absent the use of an SCR. The DOE/ALSTOM program performed large pilot scale combustion testing in ALSTOM's Industrial Scale Burner Facility (ISBF) at its U.S. Power Plant Laboratories facility in Windsor, Connecticut. During this work, the near-field combustion environment was optimized to maximize NOx reduction while minimizing the impact on unburned carbon in ash, slagging and fouling, corrosion, and flame stability/turn-down under globally reducing conditions. Initially, ALSTOM utilized computational fluid dynamic modeling to evaluate a series of burner and/or near field stoichiometry controls in order to screen promising design concepts in advance of the large pilot scale testing. The third and final test, to be executed, will utilize several variants of the best nozzle tip configuration and compare performance with 3 different coals. The fuels to be tested will cover a wide range of coals commonly fired at US utilities. The completion of this work will provide sufficient data to allow ALSTOM to design, construct, and demonstrate a commercial version of an enhanced combustion low NOx pulverized coal burner. A preliminary cost/performance analysis of the developed enhanced combustion low NOx burner applied to ALSTOM's state-of-the-art TFS 2000 firing system was performed to show that the burner enhancements is a cost effective means to reduce NOx.

  14. Flow characteristics in underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, H.L.; Himmelblau, D.M.; Edgar, T.F.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the underground coal gasification field test at the Hoe Creek site No. 2, Wyoming, helium pulses were introduced to develop information to characterize the flow field, and to estimate the coefficients in dispersion models of the flow. Quantitative analysis of the tracer response curves shows an increasing departure from a plug flow regime with time because of the combined effects of the free and forced convection in addition to the complex non-uniformity of the flow field. The Peclet number was a function of temperature, pressure, gas recovery and characteristic velocity, as well as the split of the gas between the parallel streams in the model. 17 refs.

  15. Biochemical transformation of coals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, M.S.; Premuzic, E.T.

    1999-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of biochemically transforming macromolecular compounds found in solid carbonaceous materials, such as coal is provided. The preparation of new microorganisms, metabolically weaned through challenge growth processes to biochemically transform solid carbonaceous materials at extreme temperatures, pressures, pH, salt and toxic metal concentrations is also disclosed. 7 figs.

  16. Catalytic coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garg, D.; Sunder, S.

    1986-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved process for catalytic solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a solvent comprises using as catalyst a mixture of a 1,2- or 1,4-quinone and an alkaline compound, selected from ammonium, alkali metal, and alkaline earth metal oxides, hydroxides or salts of weak acids. 1 fig.

  17. Hydrological and water quality characteristics of three rock glaciers: Blanca Massif, Colorado, USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeMorett, Joseph Lawrence

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    interstitially or as discrete lenses. The geometry of a rock glacier is conducive not only to the formation and growth of ice, but also to the entrapment of water in the fluid state. It is the ice and the trapped water that are important in providing a source... and the trapped water that are important in providing a source for maintaining flow of many alpine streams during the summer. In many alpine areas of the world, streams flow from the frontal slopes of rock glaciers. Although rock glaciers have been studied...

  18. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. Smith; M. Deo; E. Eddings; A. Sarofim; K. Gueishen; M. Hradisky; K. Kelly; P. Mandalaparty; H. Zhang

    2011-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coalâ??s carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO{sub 2} sequestration. Efforts focused on: â?¢ Constructing a suite of three different coal pyrolysis reactors. These reactors offer the ability to gather heat transfer, mass transfer and kinetic data during coal pyrolysis under conditions that mimic in situ conditions (Subtask 6.1). â?¢ Studying the operational parameters for various underground thermal treatment processes for oil shale and coal and completing a design matrix analysis for the underground coal thermal treatment (UCTT). This analysis yielded recommendations for terms of targeted coal rank, well orientation, rubblization, presence of oxygen, temperature, pressure, and heating sources (Subtask 6.2). â?¢ Developing capabilities for simulating UCTT, including modifying the geometry as well as the solution algorithm to achieve long simulation times in a rubblized coal bed by resolving the convective channels occurring in the representative domain (Subtask 6.3). â?¢ Studying the reactive behavior of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) with limestone, sandstone, arkose (a more complex sandstone) and peridotite, including mineralogical changes and brine chemistry for the different initial rock compositions (Subtask 6.4). Arkose exhibited the highest tendency of participating in mineral reactions, which can be attributed to the geochemical complexity of its initial mineral assemblage. In experiments with limestone, continuous dissolution was observed with the release of CO{sub 2} gas, indicated by the increasing pressure in the reactor (formation of a gas chamber). This occurred due to the lack of any source of alkali to buffer the solution. Arkose has the geochemical complexity for permanent sequestration of CO{sub 2} as carbonates and is also relatively abundant. The effect of including NH{sub 3} in the injected gas stream was also investigated in this study. Precipitation of calcite and trace amounts of ammonium zeolites was observed. A batch geochemical model was developed using Geochemists Workbench (GWB). Degassing effect in the experiments was corrected using the sliding fugacity model in GWB. Experimental and simulation results were compared and a reasonable agreement between the two was observed.

  19. National Coal Quality Inventory (NACQI)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Finkelman

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted the National Coal Quality Inventory (NaCQI) between 1999 and 2005 to address a need for quality information on coals that will be mined during the next 20-30 years. Collaboration between the USGS, State geological surveys, universities, coal burning utilities, and the coal mining industry plus funding support from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) permitted collection and submittal of coal samples for analysis. The chemical data (proximate and ultimate analyses; major, minor and trace element concentrations) for 729 samples of raw or prepared coal, coal associated shale, and coal combustion products (fly ash, hopper ash, bottom ash and gypsum) from nine coal producing States are included. In addition, the project identified a new coal reference analytical standard, to be designated CWE-1 (West Elk Mine, Gunnison County, Colorado) that is a high-volatile-B or high-volatile-A bituminous coal with low contents of ash yield and sulfur, and very low, but detectable contents of chlorine, mercury and other trace elements.

  20. assessing coal combustion: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from pulverized coal pulverized-coal-fired furnaces, cyclone furnaces, or advanced clean-coal technology furnaces. The ash collected from pulverized-coal-fired furnaces is fly...

  1. advanced coal combustion: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from pulverized coal pulverized-coal-fired furnaces, cyclone furnaces, or advanced clean-coal technology furnaces. The ash collected from pulverized-coal-fired furnaces is fly...

  2. apec coal flow: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from pulverized coal pulverized-coal-fired furnaces, cyclone furnaces, or advanced clean-coal technology furnaces. The ash collected from pulverized-coal-fired furnaces is fly...

  3. alkaline coal ash: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from pulverized coal pulverized-coal-fired furnaces, cyclone furnaces, or advanced clean-coal technology furnaces. The ash collected from pulverized-coal-fired furnaces is fly...

  4. advanced slagging coal: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from pulverized coal pulverized-coal-fired furnaces, cyclone furnaces, or advanced clean-coal technology furnaces. The ash collected from pulverized-coal-fired furnaces is fly...

  5. Coal-oil slurry preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tao, John C. (Perkiomenville, PA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pumpable slurry of pulverized coal in a coal-derived hydrocarbon oil carrier which slurry is useful as a low-ash, low-sulfur clean fuel, is produced from a high sulfur-containing coal. The initial pulverized coal is separated by gravity differentiation into (1) a high density refuse fraction containing the major portion of non-coal mineral products and sulfur, (2) a lowest density fraction of low sulfur content and (3) a middlings fraction of intermediate sulfur and ash content. The refuse fraction (1) is gasified by partial combustion producing a crude gas product from which a hydrogen stream is separated for use in hydrogenative liquefaction of the middlings fraction (3). The lowest density fraction (2) is mixed with the liquefied coal product to provide the desired fuel slurry. Preferably there is also separately recovered from the coal liquefaction LPG and pipeline gas.

  6. Environmental effects of in situ coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Humenick, M.J.; Edgar, T.F.; Charbeneau, R.J.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An assessment of avialable engineering, geological and operating data on underground coal gasification indicates that this process can cause significant air and water pollution and land subsidence. Of the possible impacts, groundwater pollution is the most serious. Modeling studies and large-scale field tests are needed to determine the long-term fate of pollutants and the degree of restoration required before UCG can become a commercial process.

  7. Program for large-scale underground-coal-gasification tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammesfahr, F.W.; Winter, P.L.

    1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The continuing development of underground coal gasification technology requires extended multi-module field programs in which the output gas is linked to surface usage. This effort was to appraise whether existing surface facilities in the utility, petroleum refinery, or natural gas industries could be used to reduce the cost of such an extended multi-module test and whether regional demand in areas having underground coal gasification coal resources could support the manufacture of transportation fuels from underground coal gasification gases. To limit the effort to a reasonable level but yet to permit a fair test of the concept, effort was focused on five states, Illinois, New Mexico, Texas, Washington, and Wyoming, which have good underground coal gasification reserves. Studies of plant distribution located 25 potential sites within 3 miles of the underground coal gasification amenable reserves in the five states. Distribution was 44% to utilities, 44% to refineries, and 12% to gas processing facilities. The concept that existing surface facilities, currently or potentially gas-capable, might contribute to the development of underground coal gasification technology by providing a low cost industrial application for the gas produced in a multi-module test appears valid. To further test the concept, three industries were reviewed in depth. These were the electric utility, natural gas, and petroleum industries. When looking at a fuel substitution of the type proposed, each industry had its special perspective. These are discussed in detail in the report.

  8. Geologic structures that affect coal-mine roof stability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chase, F.E. (Bureau of Mines, Pittsburgh, PA (United States))

    1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Bureau of Mines has investigated several geologic structures that plague underground coal mining. These structures have caused numerous roof falls and, consequently, many miners have been hurt or fatally injured. Hazardous geologic anomalies that can be encountered in the eastern and western US coal fields include slips, hill seams, slickensides, sedimentary dikes, kettlebottoms, and paleochannels. Slips occur throughout the United States and are high-angled fractures in the roof rock. Typically, the rock adjacent to slips is highly slickensided and striated. Hill seams are weathered fracture zones and usually are found in areas where the overburden is shallow. Due to their nature and regional mining conditions, hill seams usually are found only in the southern Appalachian coal basin. Slickensides are lower angled planes of weakness found in coal-mine roof rock throughout the country. Slickensides usually are found in clusters and the adjacent rock is highly polished and striated. Sedimentary dikes (also clastic dikes and clay veins) are the remnants of ancient fissures that have been filled through sedimentary processes, Sedimentary dikes normally are found in coal basins that were slowly subsided. Kettlebottoms are the fossilized remains of trees that once grew in and above the swamp forest and generally are found in coal basins that were rapidly subsided. Paleochannels are the lithified remains of rivers and frequently are found in all coal basins except the Black Warrior.

  9. LLNL Capabilities in Underground Coal Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedmann, S J; Burton, E; Upadhye, R

    2006-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) has received renewed interest as a potential technology for producing hydrogen at a competitive price particularly in Europe and China. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) played a leading role in this field and continues to do so. It conducted UCG field tests in the nineteen-seventies and -eighties resulting in a number of publications culminating in a UCG model published in 1989. LLNL successfully employed the ''Controlled Retraction Injection Point'' (CRIP) method in some of the Rocky Mountain field tests near Hanna, Wyoming. This method, shown schematically in Fig.1, uses a horizontally-drilled lined injection well where the lining can be penetrated at different locations for injection of the O{sub 2}/steam mixture. The cavity in the coal seam therefore gets longer as the injection point is retracted as well as wider due to reaction of the coal wall with the hot gases. Rubble generated from the collapsing wall is an important mechanism studied by Britten and Thorsness.

  10. Eight Advanced Coal Projects Chosen for Further Development by DOE's University Coal Research Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE has selected eight new projects to further advanced coal research under the University Coal Research Program. The selected projects will improve coal conversion and use and will help propel technologies for future advanced coal power systems.

  11. Effects Of Sea Otter Colonization On Soft-Sediment Intertidal Prey Assemblages In Glacier Bay, Alaska

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weitzman, Benjamin Phillip

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    structuring in soft-sediment systems over a multi-decadalcaloric demands. In soft-substrate systems, recolonizing seainfluences of otters on soft-sediment systems in Glacier Bay

  12. Glacier fluctuations in the Southern Alps of New Zealand determined from snowline elevations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chinn, T.J.H. [Institute of Geological & Nuclear Sciences Ltds., P.B. Dunedin (New Zealand)

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Preliminary analysis of 452 determinations of end-of-summer glacier snowline altitudes (ELAs) made over 17 yr on up to 47 glaciers show good correlation with major climatic events, and conform well with fluctuations of glacier termini when reaction times are taken into consideration. With snowline altitudes used as surrogates for annual mass balance values, there is a recent trend to increased mass balances, i.e. a climate {open_quotes}cooling,{close_quotes} which follows a long period of predominantly glacial recession. Snowline trend surfaces plotted for the Southern Alps of New Zealand show considerable warping with variable departures from the steady-state equilibrium-line altitude each year. The current resurgence of the more active glaciers should continue in the near future. 39 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Geophysical evidence of multiple glacier advances in Lago Fagnano (54 southernmost Patagonia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilli, Adrian

    Geophysical evidence of multiple glacier advances in Lago Fagnano (54 S), southernmost Patagonia t The Island of Tierra del Fuego, at the southernmost extreme of Patagonia, is located in one of the most

  14. Hydrology and dynamics of a land-terminating Greenland outlet glacier 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bartholomew, Ian David

    2012-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the hydrology and dynamics of a land-terminating outlet glacier on the western margin of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS). The investigations are motivated by uncertainty about ...

  15. Tracing tropical Andean glaciers over space and time: Some lessons and transdisciplinary implications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howat, Ian M.

    Andes of Perú and Bolivia have been used to test hypotheses about how these glaciers respond to climatic radiation balance and constant thermal regime in the tropics initiate a transfer of energy to higher

  16. Moist caustic leaching of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nowak, Michael A. (Elizabeth, PA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for reducing the sulfur and ash content of coal. Particulate coal is introduced into a closed heated reaction chamber having an inert atmosphere to which is added 50 mole percent NaOH and 50 mole percent KOH moist caustic having a water content in the range of from about 15% by weight to about 35% by weight and in a caustic to coal weight ratio of about 5 to 1. The coal and moist caustic are kept at a temperature of about 300.degree. C. Then, water is added to the coal and caustic mixture to form an aqueous slurry, which is washed with water to remove caustic from the coal and to produce an aqueous caustic solution. Water is evaporated from the aqueous caustic solution until the water is in the range of from about 15% by weight to about 35% by weight and is reintroduced to the closed reaction chamber. Sufficient acid is added to the washed coal slurry to neutralize any remaining caustic present on the coal, which is thereafter dried to produce desulfurized coal having not less than about 90% by weight of the sulfur present in the coal feed removed and having an ash content of less than about 2% by weight.

  17. Salt glacier and composite sediment-salt glacier models for the emplacement and early burial of allochthonous salt sheets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fletcher, R.C.; Hudec, M.R.; Watson, I.A. [Exxon Production Research Company, Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Allochthonous salt sheets in the northern Gulf of Mexico were emplaced as extrusive {open_quotes}salt glaciers{close_quotes} at the sediment-water interface. Massive dissolution was suppressed by a thin carapace of pelagic sediments. During emplacement, several hundred meters of bathymetric relief restricted rapid sedimentation to outside the glacial margins. The glaciers acted as sediment dams, influencing the transport and deposition of sediment from an upslope source. Because of contemporaneous sedimentation, the base of the glaciers climbed upward in all directions away from their feeder stocks, and successive sedimentary horizons were truncated against it. The local slope at the base of the sheets is equal to the local rate of sedimentation divided by the local rate of salt advance. Alternating episodes of slow and rapid sedimentation gave rise to a basal salt surface of alternating flats and ramps, which are preserved. Many salt sheets have nearly circular map patterns but are strongly asymmetric. Feeder stocks occur near upslope edges, and base-of-salt slopes are greater updip of the feeder. The asymmetry is due to more rapid sedimentation at the upslope edge and to slower advance induced by the smaller hydraulic head between the salt fountain and the upslope edge compared to the downslope edge. Rapid emplacement of the Mickey salt sheet (Mitchell dome) from a preexisting salt stock took {approximately}4 m.y, as {approximately}1 km of sediment was deposited. A three-dimensional geomechanical model for the rapid salt emplacement yields the following relationship for the diapir`s downdip radius versus time: R(t) {approx} Mt{sup q} {approx} B[({rho} - {rho}{sub w})gK{sup 3} / {eta}]{sup 1/8}t{sup q}, where M, q, b, and K are constants related to salt supply into the sheet, {rho} and {rho}{sub w} are the densities of salt water, g is the acceleration of gravity, {eta} is salt viscosity, and t is a model time extrapolated back to zero sheet volume at t = 0.

  18. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

    1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advances in coal-fueled gas turbine technology over the past few years, together with recent DOE-METC sponsored studies, have served to provide new optimism that the problems demonstrated in the past can be economically resolved and that the coal-fueled gas turbine can ultimately be the preferred system in appropriate market application sectors. The objective of the Solar/METC program is to prove the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of a coal-fired gas turbine for cogeneration applications through tests of a Centaur Type H engine system operated on coal fuel throughout the engine design operating range. The five-year program consists of three phases, namely: (1) system description; (2) component development; (3) prototype system verification. A successful conclusion to the program will initiate a continuation of the commercialization plan through extended field demonstration runs.

  19. Process for changing caking coals to noncaking coals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beeson, Justin L. (Woodridge, IL)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Caking coals are treated in a slurry including alkaline earth metal hydroxides at moderate pressures and temperatures in air to form noncaking carbonaceous material. Hydroxides such as calcium hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide or barium hydroxide are contemplated for slurrying with the coal to interact with the agglomerating constituents. The slurry is subsequently dewatered and dried in air at atmospheric pressure to produce a nonagglomerating carbonaceous material that can be conveniently handled in various coal conversion and combustion processes.

  20. Western Coal/Great Lakes Alternative export-coal conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This conference dealt with using the Great Lakes/St. Lawrence Seaway as an alternative to the East and Gulf Coasts for the exporting of coal to Europe and the potential for a piece of the European market for the subbituminous coals of Montana and Wyoming. The topics discussed included: government policies on coal exports; the coal reserves of Montana; cost of rail transport from Western mines to Lake Superior; the planning, design, and operation of the Superior Midwest Energy Terminal at Superior, Wisconsin; direct transfer of coal from self-unloading lakers to large ocean vessels; concept of total transportation from mines to users; disadvantage of a nine month season on the Great Lakes; costs of maritime transport of coal through the Great Lakes to Europe; facilities at the ice-free, deep water port at Sept Iles; the use of Western coals from an environmental and economic viewpoint; the properties of Western coal and factors affecting its use; the feasibility of a slurry pipeline from the Powder River Basin to Lake Superior; a systems analysis of the complete hydraulic transport of coal from the mine to users in Europe; the performance of the COJA mill-burner for the combustion of superfine coal; demand for steam coal in Western Europe; and the effect the New Source Performance Standards will have on the production and use of Western coal. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 19 papers for the Energy Data Base (EDB); 17 will appear in Energy Research Abstracts (ERA) and 11 in Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA). (CKK)

  1. Autothermal coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konkol, W.; Ruprecht, P.; Cornils, B.; Duerrfeld, R.; Langhoff, J.

    1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents test results of a pilot plant study of coal gasification system based on the process developed by Texaco. This process has been improved by the project partners Ruhrchenie A.G. and Ruhrkohle A.C. in West Germany and tested in a demonstration plant that operated for more than 10,000 hours, converting over 50,000 tons of coal into gas. The aim was to develop a process that would be sufficiently flexible when used at the commercial level to incorporate all of the advantages inherent in the diverse processes of the 'first generation' - fixed bed, fluidized bed and entrained bed processes - but would be free of the disadvantages of these processes. Extensive test results are tabulated and evaluated. Forecast for future development is included. 5 refs.

  2. Flotation and flocculation chemistry of coal and oxidized coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Somasundaran, P.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research project is to understand the fundamentals involved in the flotation and flocculation of coal and oxidized coals and elucidate mechanisms by which surface interactions between coal and various reagents enhance coal beneficiation. An understanding of the nature of the heterogeneity of coal surfaces arising from the intrinsic distribution of chemical moieties is fundamental to the elucidation of mechanism of coal surface modification and its role in interfacial processes such as flotation, flocculation and agglomeration. A new approach for determining the distribution in surface properties of coal particles was developed in this study and various techniques capable of providing such information were identified. Distributions in surface energy, contact angle and wettability were obtained using novel techniques such as centrifugal immersion and film flotation. Changes in these distributions upon oxidation and surface modifications were monitored and discussed. An approach to the modelling of coal surface site distributions based on thermodynamic information obtained from gas adsorption and immersion calorimetry is proposed. Polyacrylamide and dodecane was used to alter the coal surface. Methanol adsorption was also studied. 62 figs.

  3. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    21 Figure 6: Map of PRB coal mines serviced by the BNSF-UPPRB.of the Powder River Basin (PRB) in Wyoming. Although traffic

  4. Coal Bed Methane Primer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dan Arthur; Bruce Langhus; Jon Seekins

    2005-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    During the second half of the 1990's Coal Bed Methane (CBM) production increased dramatically nationwide to represent a significant new source of income and natural gas for many independent and established producers. Matching these soaring production rates during this period was a heightened public awareness of environmental concerns. These concerns left unexplained and under-addressed have created a significant growth in public involvement generating literally thousands of unfocused project comments for various regional NEPA efforts resulting in the delayed development of public and fee lands. The accelerating interest in CBM development coupled to the growth in public involvement has prompted the conceptualization of this project for the development of a CBM Primer. The Primer is designed to serve as a summary document, which introduces and encapsulates information pertinent to the development of Coal Bed Methane (CBM), including focused discussions of coal deposits, methane as a natural formed gas, split mineral estates, development techniques, operational issues, producing methods, applicable regulatory frameworks, land and resource management, mitigation measures, preparation of project plans, data availability, Indian Trust issues and relevant environmental technologies. An important aspect of gaining access to federal, state, tribal, or fee lands involves education of a broad array of stakeholders, including land and mineral owners, regulators, conservationists, tribal governments, special interest groups, and numerous others that could be impacted by the development of coal bed methane. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of successfully developing CBM resources is stakeholder education. Currently, an inconsistent picture of CBM exists. There is a significant lack of understanding on the parts of nearly all stakeholders, including industry, government, special interest groups, and land owners. It is envisioned the Primer would being used by a variety of stakeholders to present a consistent and complete synopsis of the key issues involved with CBM. In light of the numerous CBM NEPA documents under development this Primer could be used to support various public scoping meetings and required public hearings throughout the Western States in the coming years.

  5. Exploration for deep coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The most important factor in safe mining is the quality of the roof. The article explains how the Rosebud Mining Co. conducts drilling and exploration in 11 deep coal mine throughout Pennsylvania and Ohio. Rosebud uses two Atlas Copco CS10 core drilling rigs mounted on 4-wheel drive trucks. The article first appeared in Atlas Copco's in-house magazine, Deep Hole Driller. 3 photos.

  6. Glacier terminus fluctuations on Mt. Baker, Washington, USA, 1940-1990, and climatic variations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harper, J.T. (Western Washington Univ., Bellingham, WA (United States))

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The terminus positions of six glaciers located on Mount Baker, Washington, were mapped by photogrammetric techniques at 2- to 7-yr intervals for the period 1940-1990. Although the timing varied slightly, each of the glaciers experienced a similar fluctuation sequence consisting of three phases: (1) rapid retreat, beginning prior to 1940 and lasting through the late 1940s to early 1950s; (2) approximately 30 yr of advance, ending in the late 1970s to early 1980s; (3) retreat though 1990. Terminus positions changed by up to 750 m during phases, with the advance phase increasing the lengths of glaciers by 13 to 24%. These fluctuations are well explained by variations in a smoothed time-series of accumulation-season precipitation and ablation-season mean temperature. The study glaciers appear to respond to interannual scale changes in climate within 20 yr or less. The glaciers on Mount Baker have a maritime location and a large percentage of area at high elevation, which may make their termini undergo greater fluctuations in response to climatic changes, especially precipitation variations, than most other glaciers in the North Cascades region. 40 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Reaction of the accumulation zone portions of glaciers to climatic change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whillans, I.M.

    1981-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The response of the accumulation regions of glaciers to changes in accumulation rate and in surface temperature is calculated by considering perturbations to the ice flow. The analysis is limited to glaciers in whch flow is dominated by internal shear and not by bottom sliding and for which flowliners are geographically paralled. In general, glaciers begin to alter thickness immediately after a change in accumulation rate, but the effect of a change in surface temperature is delayed by the time for this temperature change to penetrate to depth in the glacier. A warming leads to glacial thinning. The amount and timing of the response is very different for different glaciers. Characteristic times are on the order of tens of years for mountain glaciers and ten of thousands of years for the east antarctic ice sheet. As an example, the theory is applied to the ice sheet near Byrd Station, Antarctica. For hypothetical changes in surface accumulation rate and temperature, rates and amounts of thickness change are calculated, and it is found that the measured thinning is probably too fast to have been caused by climatic variation alone. The effects of hypothetical climatic variations on the depth-age and depth-temperature relationships through the ice sheet are also calculated. It is hoped that the theory will prove valuable in the interpreation of future drill hole results.

  8. Characteristics of the Yala Glacier from theview point of tritium content

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamiyama, K.; Kitaoka, K.; Watanabe, O.

    1986-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The vertical distributions of tritium content in glacier ice were determined at two different heights of the Yala Glacier in the Langtang Region, Nepal Himalayas. In the vertical profile of tritium content at the upper point (about 5,400 m high) there exists a clear peak, which shows the injection of artificial tritium due to nuclear weapon test series. The average accumulation rate from 1963 to 1982 at this point is estimated to be 0.85 m of water equivalent per year. At the lower point (about 5,200 m high) the tritium content is relatively low throughout the ice core, decreasing with depth. Precipitation nourishes the glacier in the accumulation area and, after a long time, it appears in the ablation area with the movement of the ice body, resulting in the different profiles of the tritium content between the two points. From the viewpoint of tritium content, the precipitation in the Yala Glacier is more similar to that in New Delhi, India, than that in Karizimir, Afghanistan. Generally speaking, the tritium content in the pricipitation is lower in the coastal area than in the continental area. The precipitation in the Yala Glacier belongs to the coastal type. There possibly exists a great difference in tritium content between the glaciers nourished by water vapor coming directly from the sea and by that coming over the continent.

  9. Zero emission coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziock, H.; Lackner, K.

    2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss a novel, emission-free process for producing hydrogen or electricity from coal. Even though we focus on coal, the basic design is compatible with any carbonaceous fuel. The process uses cyclical carbonation of calcium oxide to promote the production of hydrogen from carbon and water. The carbonation of the calcium oxide removes carbon dioxide from the reaction products and provides the additional energy necessary to complete hydrogen production without additional combustion of carbon. The calcination of the resulting calcium carbonate is accomplished using the high temperature waste heat from solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), which generate electricity from hydrogen fuel. Converting waste heat back to useful chemical energy allows the process to achieve very high conversion efficiency from fuel energy to electrical energy. As the process is essentially closed-loop, the process is able to achieve zero emissions if the concentrated exhaust stream of CO{sub 2} is sequestered. Carbon dioxide disposal is accomplished by the production of magnesium carbonate from ultramafic rock. The end products of the sequestration process are stable naturally occurring minerals. Sufficient rich ultramafic deposits exist to easily handle all the world's coal.

  10. Assessment of underground coal gasification in bituminous coals: catalog of bituminous coals and site selection. Appendix A. National coal resource data system: Ecoal, Wcoal, and Bmalyt. Final report, Phase I. [Bituminous coal; by state; coal seam depth and thickness; identification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1982-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Appendix A is a catalog of the bituminous coal in 29 states of the contiguous United States which contain identified bituminous coal resources.

  11. Iron catalyzed coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA); Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for the solvent refining of coal into a gas product, a liquid product and a normally solid dissolved product. Particulate coal and a unique co-catalyst system are suspended in a coal solvent and processed in a coal liquefaction reactor, preferably an ebullated bed reactor. The co-catalyst system comprises a combination of a stoichiometric excess of iron oxide and pyrite which reduce predominantly to active iron sulfide catalysts in the reaction zone. This catalyst system results in increased catalytic activity with attendant improved coal conversion and enhanced oil product distribution as well as reduced sulfide effluent. Iron oxide is used in a stoichiometric excess of that required to react with sulfur indigenous to the feed coal and that produced during reduction of the pyrite catalyst to iron sulfide.

  12. COAL CLEANING BY GAS AGGLOMERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MEIYU SHEN; ROYCE ABBOTT; T.D. WHEELOCK

    1998-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The agglomeration of ultrafine-size coal particles in an aqueous suspension by means of microscopic gas bubbles was demonstrated in numerous experiments with a scale model mixing system. Coal samples from both the Pittsburgh No. 8 Seam and the Upper Freeport Seam were used for these experiments. A small amount of i-octane was added to facilitate the process. Microscopic gas bubbles were generated by saturating the water used for suspending coal particles with gas under pressure and then reducing the pressure. Microagglomerates were produced which appeared to consist of gas bubbles encapsulated in coal particles. Since dilute particle suspensions were employed, it was possible to monitor the progress of agglomeration by observing changes in turbidity. By such means it became apparent that the rate of agglomeration depends on the concentration of microscopic gas bubbles and to a lesser extent on the concentration of i-octane. Similar results were obtained with both Pittsburgh No. 8 coal and Upper Freeport coal.

  13. Transporting export coal from Appalachia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This publication is part of a series titled Market Guide for Steam Coal Exports from Appalachia. It focuses on the transportation link in the steam-coal supply chain, enabling producers to further assess their transportation options and their ability to compete in the export-coal marketplace. Transportation alternatives and handling procedures are discussed, and information is provided on the costs associated with each element in the transportation network.

  14. Liquid chromatographic analysis of coal surface properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwon, K.C.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The main objectives of this proposed research are to refine further the inverse liquid chromatography technique for the study of surface properties of raw coals, treated coals and coal minerals in water, to evaluate relatively surface properties of raw coals, treated coals and coal minerals by inverse liquid chromatography, and to evaluate floatability of various treated coals in conjunction with surface properties of coals. Alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, isobutanol, tert-butanol, heptanol, 1-hexadecanol, 2-methyl-pentanol, 4-methyl-2-penthanol (methylisobutyl carbinol), n-octanol, s-octanol, and cyclohexanol as probe compounds are utilized to evaluate hydrophilicity of coals and coal minerals. N-alkanes such as hexane, heptane and octane, and stearic acid are employed as probe compounds to evaluate hydrophobicity of coals and coal minerals. Aromatic compounds such as benzene and toluene as probe compounds are used to examine aromaticity of coal surface. Aromatic acids such as o-cresol, m-cresol, p-cresol, phenol and B-naphthol are used to detect aromatic acidic sites of coal surface. Hydrophilicity, hydrophobicity and aromaticity of surfaces for either raw coals or treated coals in water are relatively determined by evaluating both equilibrium physical/chemical adsorption and dynamic adsorption of probe compounds on various raw coals and treated coals to compare affinities of coals for water.

  15. Coal Mine Safety Act (Virginia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Act is the primary legislation pertaining to coal mine safety in Virginia. It contains information on safety rules, safety standards and required certifications for mine workers, prohibited...

  16. ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ENCOAL Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Shell Mining Company, is constructing a mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company's Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC) technology developed by Shell and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin Coal to produce two new fuels, Process Derived Fuel (PDF) and Coal Derived Liquids (CDL). The products, as alternative fuels sources, are expected to significantly reduce current sulfur emissions at industrial and utility boiler sites throughout the nation, thereby reducing pollutants causing acid rain.

  17. Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Coal

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has developed factors for estimating the amount of carbon dioxide emitted, accounting for differences among coals, to reflect the changing "mix" of coal in U.S. coal consumption.

  18. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knudson, Curtis L. (Grand Forks, ND); Timpe, Ronald C. (Grand Forks, ND)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A low-rank coal oil agglomeration process. High mineral content, a high ash content subbituminous coals are effectively agglomerated with a bridging oil which is partially water soluble and capable of entering the pore structure, and usually coal derived.

  19. Coal Bed Methane Protection Act (Montana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Coal Bed Methane Protection Act establishes a long-term coal bed methane protection account and a coal bed methane protection program for the purpose of compensating private landowners and...

  20. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phadke, Amol

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Alone IGCC+CCS Coal Plant The levelized cost of electricitythan advanced coal plants and hence their cost estimates areestimates of the costs of an advanced coal plant, since they

  1. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    coal electricity generation efficiency also varies by plantplants. The unit water requirement of coal-fired electricity generationelectricity generation is comparatively low in China due to the prevalence of small, outdated coal-fired power plants.

  2. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phadke, Amol

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ACWH consists of a 3,000 MW coal gasification combined cycleconsists of a 3,000 MW coal gasification, combined cycleless expensive in a coal gasification, combined cycle power

  3. Research on chemical factors in underground coal gasification. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edgar, T.F.

    1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this research has been to acquire experimental data and develop mathematical models in order to analyze results from laboratory-scale and field-scale experiments on underground coal gasification (UCG), especially for low-rank coals such as Texas lignite. Experimental data for water injection in a combustion tube, coal core combustion, and coal block gasification are reported; in parallel, a mathematical model for the combustion tube temperature profile and gas composition was developed which compared favorably with experimental data. A mathematical model for predicting gas composition and coal recovery in the Hoe Creek field experiment has been completed and verified with field data. Two experiments have been constructed to obtain data on reactions of interest to UCG; these include an apparatus for determining the kinetics of tar cracking and a microreactor for analyzing the process dynamics of the water gas shift reaction carried out in a fixed bed catalytic system. 44 refs., 60 figs., 22 tabs.

  4. Automated control for coal handling operations at Bethlehem Steel, Burns Harbor Division

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zendzian, T.N. [Bethlehem Steel Corp., Chesterton, IN (United States). Burns Harbor Div.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Burns Harbor coal handling operation processes 7,200 tons of coal per day to supply two 82 oven, six meter batteries. The operations in coal handling are subdivided into three separate sections: the coal field and stacker reclaimer operation, the crushing and storage of coal, and the coal blending operation. In 1996 a supervisory system was developed and installed to fully automate all the operations and equipment in the coal handling unit, add additional instrumentation and logic controls to prevent coal contamination, and improve data collection and logging. The supervisory system is operated from a computer based workstation and is based on a distributed control philosophy utilizing programmable logic controllers, set point controllers, and man-machine interface displays. The previous control system for the coal handling operation consisted of a switchboard from which an operator controller the set up and running of the conveyor systems and equipment to stack, reclaim, and blend coal. The new supervisory system was installed in parallel with the original control system to safeguard continued operation during the system installation and commissioning. The original system still exists and can be operated in even of failure of the supervisory system.

  5. Process analysis and simulation of underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, H.L.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This investigation pertains to the prediction of cavity growth and the prediction of product gas composition in underground coal gasification (ICG) via mathematical model. The large-scale simulation model of the UCG process is comprised of a number of sub-models, each describing definable phenomena in the process. Considerable effort has been required in developing these sub-models, which are described in this work. In the first phase of the investigation, the flow field in field experiments was analyzed using five selected flow models and a combined model was developed based on the Hoe Creek II field experimental observations. The combined model was a modified tanks-in-series mode, and each tank consisted of a void space and a rubble zone. In the second phase of this work, a sub-model for self-gasification of coal was developed and simulated to determine the effect of water influx on the consumption of coal and whether self-gasification of coal alone was shown to be insufficient to explain the observed cavity growth. In the third phase of this work, a new sweep efficiency model was developed and coded to predict the cavity growth and product gas composition. Self-gasification of coal, water influx, and roof collapse and spalling were taken into account in the model. Predictions made by the model showed reasonable agreement with the experimental observations and calculations.

  6. Arkansas Surface Coal Mining Reclamation Act (Arkansas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Arkansas Surface Coal Mining Reclamation Act authorizes the state to develop, adopt, issue and amend rules and regulations pertaining to surface coal mining and reclamation operations. These...

  7. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    raising transportation oil demand. Growing internationalcoal by wire could reduce oil demand by stemming coal roadEastern oil production. The rapid growth of coal demand

  8. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phadke, Amol

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency, DOE. LBNL 275-E Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid:Renewable Energy Laboratory), and Ryan Wiser ( LBNL). i Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid:

  9. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phadke, Amol

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis additional cost of fuelWind Hybrid: Economic Analysis Levelized Generation CostCoal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis Notes: All Cost are in

  10. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phadke, Amol

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Figures Figure ES-1. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Basicviii Figure 1. Advanced-Coal Wind Hybrid: Basic21 Figure 6. Comparison of ACWH and CCGT-Wind

  11. Utility Generation and Clean Coal Technology (Indiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This statute establishes the state's support and incentives for the development of new energy production and generating facilities implementing advanced clean coal technology, such as coal...

  12. Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Magazine

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gasification and Transportation Fuels Magazine Current Edition: Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Quarterly News, Vol.1, Issue 3 (Apr 2015) Archived Editions: Coal...

  13. University Coal Research | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Research University Coal Research University Coal Research Universities frequently win Fossil Energy research competitions or join with private companies to submit successful...

  14. Status Report: USGS coal assessment of the Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James A. Luppens; Timothy J. Rohrbacher; Jon E. Haacke; David C. Scott; Lee M. Osmonson [USGS, Reston, VA (United States)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This publication reports on the status of the current coal assessment of the Powder River Basin (PRB) in Wyoming and Montana. This slide program was presented at the Energy Information Agency's 2006 EIA Energy Outlook and Modeling Conference in Washington, DC, on March 27, 2006. The PRB coal assessment will be the first USGS coal assessment to include estimates of both regional coal resources and reserves for an entire coal basin. Extensive CBM and additional oil and gas development, especially in the Gillette coal field, have provided an unprecedented amount of down-hole geological data. Approximately 10,000 new data points have been added to the PRB database since the last assessment (2002) which will provide a more robust evaluation of the single most productive U.S. coal basin. The Gillette coal field assessment, including the mining economic evaluation, is planned for completion by the end of 2006. The geologic portion of the coal assessment work will shift to the northern and northwestern portions of the PRB before the end of 2006 while the Gillette engineering studies are finalized. 7 refs.

  15. Great Lakes ports coal handling capacity and export coal potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ames, A.H. Jr.

    1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study was developed to determine the competitive position of the Great Lakes Region coal-loading ports in relation to other US coastal ranges. Due to the congestion at some US Atlantic coastal ports US coal producers have indicated a need for alternative export routes, including the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Seaway System. The study assesses the regions coal handling capacity and price competitiveness along with the opportunity for increased US flag vessel service. A number of appendices are included showing major coal producers, railroad marketing representatives, US vessel operators, and port handling capacities and throughput. A rate analysis is provided including coal price at the mine, rail rate to port, port handling charges, water transportation rates to western Europe, Great Lakes route versus the US Atlantic Coast ports.

  16. Impact of finite-rate kinetics on carbon conversion in a single-stage entrained flow gasifier with coal-CO2 slurry feed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 Abstract Coal-CO2 slurry Botero) #12;Clearwater Clean Coal Conference, June 3-7, 2012 Botero et al. operating costs related with coal-CO2 slurry feed Cristina Botero , Randall P. Field, Howard J. Herzog, Ahmed F. Ghoniem

  17. Late Quaternary glacier sensitivity to temperature and precipitation distribution in the Southern Alps of New Zealand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ann V. Rowan; Simon H. Brocklehurst; David M. Schultz; Mitchell A. Plummer; Leif S. Anderson; Neil F. Glasser

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Glaciers respond to climate variations and leave geomorphic evidence that represents an important terrestrial paleoclimate record. However, the accuracy of paleoclimate reconstructions from glacial geology is limited by the challenge of representing mountain meteorology in numerical models. Precipitation is usually treated in a simple manner and yet represents difficult-to-characterize variables such as amount, distribution, and phase. Furthermore, precipitation distributions during a glacial probably differed from present-day interglacial patterns. We applied two models to investigate glacier sensitivity to temperature and precipitation in the eastern Southern Alps of New Zealand. A 2-D model was used to quantify variations in the length of the reconstructed glaciers resulting from plausible precipitation distributions compared to variations in length resulting from change in mean annual air temperature and precipitation amount. A 1-D model was used to quantify variations in length resulting from interannual climate variability. Assuming that present-day interglacial values represent precipitation distributions during the last glacial, a range of plausible present-day precipitation distributions resulted in uncertainty in the Last Glacial Maximum length of the Pukaki Glacier of 17.1?km (24%) and the Rakaia Glacier of 9.3?km (25%), corresponding to a 0.5°C difference in temperature. Smaller changes in glacier length resulted from a 50% decrease in precipitation amount from present-day values (-14% and -18%) and from a 50% increase in precipitation amount (5% and 9%). Our results demonstrate that precipitation distribution can produce considerable variation in simulated glacier extents and that reconstructions of paleoglaciers should include this uncertainty.

  18. Rail Coal Transportation Rates

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial ConsumersThousand CubicCubic Feet) Yeara 436 EnergyAssemblyOrderCoal

  19. By Coal Destination State

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0Proved Reserves (Billion0.060 U.S. Energy

  20. By Coal Destination State

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0Proved Reserves (Billion0.060 U.S. Energy0

  1. By Coal Destination State

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0Proved Reserves (Billion0.060 U.S. Energy00

  2. By Coal Destination State

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0Proved Reserves (Billion0.060 U.S.

  3. By Coal Destination State

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0Proved Reserves (Billion0.060 U.S.1 U.S.

  4. By Coal Destination State

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0Proved Reserves (Billion0.060 U.S.1 U.S.1

  5. By Coal Destination State

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0Proved Reserves (Billion0.060 U.S.1 U.S.11

  6. By Coal Destination State

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0Proved Reserves (Billion0.060 U.S.1 U.S.111

  7. By Coal Destination State

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0Proved Reserves (Billion0.060 U.S.1

  8. By Coal Origin State

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0Proved Reserves (Billion0.060 U.S.10 U.S.

  9. By Coal Origin State

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0Proved Reserves (Billion0.060 U.S.10 U.S.0

  10. By Coal Origin State

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0Proved Reserves (Billion0.060 U.S.10 U.S.00

  11. By Coal Origin State

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0Proved Reserves (Billion0.060 U.S.10

  12. By Coal Origin State

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0Proved Reserves (Billion0.060 U.S.101 U.S.

  13. By Coal Origin State

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0Proved Reserves (Billion0.060 U.S.101 U.S.1

  14. By Coal Origin State

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0Proved Reserves (Billion0.060 U.S.101

  15. By Coal Origin State

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0Proved Reserves (Billion0.060 U.S.1011 U.S.

  16. By Coal Origin State

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0Proved Reserves (Billion0.060 U.S.1011

  17. Coal Distribution Database, 2008

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecadeReservesYear JanDecade Year-0 Year-1EIA3Q 2009

  18. Coal Distribution Database, 2008

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecadeReservesYear JanDecade Year-0 Year-1EIA3Q 20093Q

  19. Coal Distribution Database, 2008

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecadeReservesYear JanDecade Year-0 Year-1EIA3Q 20093Q4Q

  20. Coal Distribution Database, 2008

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecadeReservesYear JanDecade Year-0 Year-1EIA3Q

  1. Coal Supply Region

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecadeReservesYear JanDecade Year-0c. Real average12

  2. Annual Coal Distribution Tables

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion CubicPotentialNov-14 Dec-14 Jan-1538,469 39,194Dry4,645

  3. Annual Coal Distribution Tables

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion CubicPotentialNov-14 Dec-14 Jan-1538,469 39,194Dry4,645Domestic

  4. Annual Coal Distribution Tables

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion CubicPotentialNov-14 Dec-14 Jan-1538,469

  5. By Coal Destination State

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion CubicPotentialNov-14SalesSameCommercial(Million OverviewAnnual

  6. By Coal Origin State

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion CubicPotentialNov-14SalesSameCommercial(Million

  7. Coal Distribution Database, 2006

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,128 2,469 2,321Spain (Million Cubic 1.Year Jan Feb Mar Apr

  8. Coal Distribution Database, 2006

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,128 2,469 2,321Spain (Million Cubic 1.Year Jan Feb Mar Apr

  9. Coal Distribution Database, 2006

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,128 2,469 2,321Spain (Million Cubic 1.Year Jan Feb Mar

  10. Annual Coal Distribution Report

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at CommercialDecade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2Cubic

  11. Annual Coal Report 2013

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline prices4 OilU.S. OffshoreOilAnnual Coal Report

  12. COAL & POWER SYSTEMS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced. C o w l i t z C o . C l a r k CCLEAN9AugustCNSS PapersCOAL &

  13. WCI Case for Coal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron SpinPrincetonUsing Maps1 -VisualizingVote For the# *Coal The role of as

  14. Comparison of coal tars generated by pyrolysis of Hanna coal and UCG (underground coal gasification) Hanna IVB coal tars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbour, F.A.; Cummings, R.E.

    1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The compositions of coal tars produced by laboratory and pilot scale apparatus have been compared to those produced during underground coal gasification (UCG) experiments at Hanna, Wyoming. Four coal tars were generated by pyrolysis using the block reactor and the laboratory reference retort, and a fifth coal tar was composited from products produced by UCG. Coal tars were separated into chemically defined fractions and were characterized by gas chromatography. Specific compounds were not identified, but rather fingerprinting or compound-type profiling was used for identifying similarities and differences in the product tars. This permitted the evaluation of the different methods of tar production with respect to one another. The UCG coal tars appeared to have undergone more secondary cracking than the pyrolytic products. The coal tar products from the laboratory reference retort appear to be more indicative of the coal's chemical structure. Products from the block reactor contained lesser amounts of the lighter boiling material. In addition there is organic sulfur contamination as indicated by the large amount of sulfur present in the product tar from the block reactor. 11 refs., 16 figs., 11 tabs.

  15. Coal: Energy for the future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report was prepared in response to a request by the US Department of energy (DOE). The principal objectives of the study were to assess the current DOE coal program vis-a-vis the provisions of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), and to recommend the emphasis and priorities that DOE should consider in updating its strategic plan for coal. A strategic plan for research, development, demonstration, and commercialization (RDD and C) activities for coal should be based on assumptions regarding the future supply and price of competing energy sources, the demand for products manufactured from these sources, technological opportunities, and the need to control the environmental impact of waste streams. These factors change with time. Accordingly, the committee generated strategic planning scenarios for three time periods: near-term, 1995--2005; mid-term, 2006--2020; and, long-term, 2021--2040. The report is divided into the following chapters: executive summary; introduction and scope of the study; overview of US DOE programs and planning; trends and issues for future coal use; the strategic planning framework; coal preparation, coal liquid mixtures, and coal bed methane recovery; clean fuels and specialty products from coal; electric power generation; technology demonstration and commercialization; advanced research programs; conclusions and recommendations; appendices; and glossary. 174 refs.

  16. Centrifuge treatment of coal tar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L.A. Kazak; V.Z. Kaidalov; L.F. Syrova; O.S. Miroshnichenko; A.S. Minakov [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    New technology is required for the removal of water and heavy fractions from regular coal tar. Centrifuges offer the best option. Purification of coal tar by means of centrifuges at OAO NLMK permits the production of pitch coke or electrode pitch that complies with current standards.

  17. Commercialization of clean coal technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bharucha, N. [Dept. of Primary Industries and Energy, Canberra (Australia)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The steps to commercialization are reviewed in respect of their relative costs, the roles of the government and business sectors, and the need for scientific, technological, and economic viability. The status of commercialization of selected clean coal technologies is discussed. Case studies related to a clean coal technology are reviewed and conclusions are drawn on the factors that determine commercialization.

  18. In-situ coal gasification: a new technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agarwal, A.K.; Zielinski, R.E.; Seabaugh, P.W.; Liberatore, A.J.; Martin, J.W.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    While the technology for underground gasification of Western US subbituminous coals is advancing through efforts at the Hanna and Hoe Creek test sites, the development of an Eastern bituminous coal technology has only begun. The Pricetown 1 field test proved the feasibility of gasifying the thin-seam, swelling bituminous coal resources. Key issues remaining to be demonstrated include an effective linkage method, means of controlling gas production and composition, and scale-up. A major field-test program could entail three phases: (1) resolving the linkage and process control problems in the Appalachian basin, (2) assessing the technology in the untested Illinois basin, and (3) testing a multimodule commercial-scale prototype.

  19. Flow characteristics in underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, H.L.; Himmelblau, D.M.; Edgar, T.F.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the Hoe Creek No. 2 (Wyoming) underground-coal-gasification field test, researchers introduced helium pulses to characterize the flow field and to estimate the coefficients in dispersion models of the flow. Flow models such as the axial-dispersion and parallel tanks-in-series models allowed interpretation of the in situ combustion flow field from the residence time distribution of the tracer gas. A quantitative analysis of the Hoe Creek tracer response curves revealed an increasing departure from a plug-flow regime with time, which was due to the combined effects of the free and forced convection in addition to the complex nonuniformity of the flow field. The Peclet number was a function of temperature, pressure, gas recovery, and characteristic velocity, as well as the split of the gas between the parallel streams in the model.

  20. Coal pile leachate treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, E C; Kimmitt, R R

    1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The steam plant located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory was converted from oil- to coal-fired boilers. In the process, a diked, 1.6-ha coal storage yard was constructed. The purpose of this report is to describe the treatment system designed to neutralize the estimated 18,000 m/sup 3/ of acidic runoff that will be produced each year. A literature review and laboratory treatability study were conducted which identified two treatment systems that will be employed to neutralize the acidic runoff. The first, a manually operated system, will be constructed at a cost of $200,000 and will operate for an interim period of four years. This system will provide for leachate neutralization until a more automated system can be brought on-line. The second, a fully automated system, is described and will be constructed at an estimated cost of $650,000. This automated runoff treatment system will ensure that drainage from the storage yard meets current National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Standards for pH and total suspended solids, as well as future standards, which are likely to include several metals along with selected trace elements.