Sample records for giss surface temperature

  1. Future climate change under RCP emission scenarios with GISS ModelE2

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nazarenko, L.; Schmidt, G. A.; Miller, R. L.; Tausnev, N.; Kelley, M.; Ruedy, R.; Russell, G. L.; Aleinov, I.; Bauer, M.; Bauer, S.; et al

    2015-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine the anthropogenically forced climate response for the 21st century representative concentration pathway (RCP) emission scenarios and their extensions for the period 2101–2500. The experiments were performed with ModelE2, a new version of the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Sciences (GISS) coupled general circulation model that includes three different versions for the atmospheric composition components: a noninteractive version (NINT) with prescribed composition and a tuned aerosol indirect effect (AIE), the TCAD version with fully interactive aerosols, whole-atmosphere chemistry, and the tuned AIE, and the TCADI version which further includes a parameterized first indirect aerosol effect on clouds. Each atmosphericmore »version is coupled to two different ocean general circulation models: the Russell ocean model (GISS-E2-R) and HYCOM (GISS-E2-H). By 2100, global mean warming in the RCP scenarios ranges from 1.0 to 4.5°#2;C relative to 1850–1860 mean temperature in the historical simulations. In the RCP2.6 scenario, the surface warming in all simulations stays below a 2#2;°C threshold at the end of the 21st century. For RCP8.5, the range is 3.5–4.5°#2;C at 2100. Decadally averaged sea ice area changes are highly correlated to global mean surface air temperature anomalies and show steep declines in both hemispheres, with a larger sensitivity during winter months. By the year 2500, there are complete recoveries of the globally averaged surface air temperature for all versions of the GISS climate model in the low-forcing scenario RCP2.6. TCADI simulations show enhanced warming due to greater sensitivity to CO?, aerosol effects, and greater methane feedbacks, and recovery is much slower in RCP2.6 than with the NINT and TCAD versions. All coupled models have decreases in the Atlantic overturning stream function by 2100. In RCP2.6, there is a complete recovery of the Atlantic overturning stream function by the year 2500 while with scenario RCP8.5, the E2-R climate model produces a complete shutdown of deep water formation in the North Atlantic.« less

  2. GISS 2007 Temperature Analysis The year 2007 tied for second warmest in the period of instrumental data, behind the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    is an expected characteristic of global warming, as the loss of ice and snow engenders a positive feedback via causes of global temperature change including unforced chaotic fluctuations. The solar minimum forcing. Figure 1 shows 2007 temperature anomalies relative to the 1951-1980 base period mean. The global mean

  3. Institute on Climate and Planets http://icp.giss.nasa.gov/ The Role of the Atmosphere and Greenhouse Effect in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    http://icp.giss.nasa.gov/ The Role of the Atmosphere and Greenhouse Effect in Determining the Surface. This process is the natural greenhouse effect. The earths surface receives solar energy and energy reradiated

  4. Method for measuring surface temperature

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Gary A. (Los Alamos, NM); Baker, Sheila N. (Los Alamos, NM); McCleskey, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

    2009-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a method for measuring a surface temperature using is a fluorescent temperature sensor or optical thermometer. The sensor includes a solution of 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane within a 1-butyl-1-1-methyl pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid solvent. The 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane remains unassociated when in the ground state while in solution. When subjected to UV light, an excited state is produced that exists in equilibrium with an excimer. The position of the equilibrium between the two excited states is temperature dependent.

  5. To be removed from Jim Hansen's e-mail distribution respond with REMOVE as subject. A draft paper "Current GISS Global Surface Temperature Analysis" is available at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    denial and business-as-usual are recognizably dirty, yet effective. We are continually burdened (perhaps this is their main objective), a waste of tax-payer money. Our #12;analyses are freely available

  6. Study of Surface Cleaning Methods and Pyrolysis Temperature on...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Surface Cleaning Methods and Pyrolysis Temperature on Nano-Structured Carbon Films using X-ray Photoelectron Study of Surface Cleaning Methods and Pyrolysis Temperature on...

  7. Infrared Thermography Measurements of Window Thermal Test Specimen Surface Temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Infrared Thermography Measurements of Window Thermal Test Specimen Surface Temperatures Brent T Temperatures of Window Specimens: Infrared Thermography Laboratory Measurements Brent T. Griffith1 , Howdy and cold sides, respectively. Surface temperature maps were compiled using an infrared thermographic system

  8. High temperature low friction surface coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhushan, Bharat (Watervliet, NY)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature, low friction, flexible coating for metal surfaces which are subject to rubbing contact includes a mixture of three parts graphite and one part cadmium oxide, ball milled in water for four hours, then mixed with thirty percent by weight of sodium silicate in water solution and a few drops of wetting agent. The mixture is sprayed 12-15 microns thick onto an electro-etched metal surface and air dried for thirty minutes, then baked for two hours at 65.degree. C. to remove the water and wetting agent, and baked for an additional eight hours at about 150.degree. C. to produce the optimum bond with the metal surface. The coating is afterwards burnished to a thickness of about 7-10 microns.

  9. Linear analysis of surface temperature dynamics and climate sensitivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Wei

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Spectral properties of global surface temperature and uncertainties of global climate sensitivity are explored in this work through the medium of Energy Balance Climate Models (EBCMs) and observational surface temperature data. In part I, a complete...

  10. Linear analysis of surface temperature dynamics and climate sensitivity 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Wei

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Spectral properties of global surface temperature and uncertainties of global climate sensitivity are explored in this work through the medium of Energy Balance Climate Models (EBCMs) and observational surface temperature data. In part I, a complete...

  11. Technique for the Estimation of Surface Temperatures from Embedded Temperature Sensing for Rapid, High Energy Surface Deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watkins, Tyson R.; Schunk, Peter Randall; Roberts, Scott A.

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Temperature histories on the surface of a body that has been subjected to a rapid, high-energy surface deposition process can be di#14;fficult to determine, especially if it is impossible to directly observe the surface or attach a temperature sensor to it. In this report, we explore two methods for estimating the temperature history of the surface through the use of a sensor embedded within the body very near to the surface. First, the maximum sensor temperature is directly correlated with the peak surface temperature. However, it is observed that the sensor data is both delayed in time and greatly attenuated in magnitude, making this approach unfeasible. Secondly, we propose an algorithm that involves fitting the solution to a one-dimensional instantaneous energy solution problem to both the sensor data and to the results of a one-dimensional CVFEM code. This algorithm is shown to be able to estimate the surface temperature {+-}~20#14;{degrees}C.

  12. Detection of Surface Temperature Anomalies in the Coso Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    with the collection of ASTER images. The field data included reflectance, subsurface and surface temperatures, and radiosonde atmospheric profiles. We apply techniques...

  13. america surface temperature: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of global climate sensitivity are explored in this work through the medium of Energy Balance Climate Models (EBCMs) and observational surface temperature data. In part...

  14. Temperature sensitive surfaces and methods of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liang, Liang [Richland, WA; Rieke, Peter C [Pasco, WA; Alford, Kentin L [Pasco, WA

    2002-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Poly-n-isopropylacrylamide surface coatings demonstrate the useful property of being able to switch charateristics depending upon temperature. More specifically, these coatings switch from being hydrophilic at low temperature to hydrophobic at high temperature. Research has been conducted for many years to better characterize and control the properties of temperature sensitive coatings. The present invention provides novel temperature sensitive coatings on articles and novel methods of making temperature sensitive coatings that are disposed on the surfaces of various articles. These novel coatings contain the reaction products of n-isopropylacrylamide and are characterized by their properties such as advancing contact angles. Numerous other characteristics such as coating thickness, surface roughness, and hydrophilic-to-hydrophobic transition temperatures are also described. The present invention includes articles having temperature-sensitve coatings with improved properties as well as improved methods for forming temperature sensitive coatings.

  15. Temperature dependence of the surface free energy and surface stress: An atomistic calculation for Cu(110)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mishin, Yuri

    Temperature dependence of the surface free energy and surface stress: An atomistic calculation a method to deduce the free energies and stresses of plane surfaces and solid-liquid interfaces work on anisotropy of surface/interface free energies and stresses, and on the extension of this method

  16. The draft paper "Global Surface Temperature Change" by Hansen, Ruedy, Sato and Lo is available at http://data.giss.nasa.gov/gistemp/paper/gistemp2010_draft0601.pdf. This is an

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    for a purely scientific problem. Our comments here about communication of this climate change science-made climate change. We have the impression that the effect of politicization on communication of the science/2010/201006_JamboreePosters.ppt. 10. Summary Discussion Human-made climate change has become an issue of surpassing

  17. AT 351 Lab 3: Seasons and Surface Temperature (Ch. 3)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutledge, Steven

    an important role in an area's local vertical temperature distribution. Below, Figure 1 shows the verticalAT 351 Lab 3: Seasons and Surface Temperature (Ch. 3) Question #1: Seasons (20 pts) A. In your own words, describe the cause of the seasons. B. In the Northern Hemisphere we are closer to the sun during

  18. Dynamics of the Cosmological Apparent Horizon: Surface Gravity & Temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexis Helou

    2015-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    In the context of thermodynamics applied to our cosmological apparent horizon, we explicit in greater details our previous work which established the Friedmann Equations from projection of Hayward's Unified First Law. In particular, we show that the dynamical Hayward-Kodama surface gravity is perfectly well-defined and is suitable for this derivation. We then relate this surface gravity to a physical notion of temperature, and show this has constant, positive sign for any kind of past-inner trapping horizons. Hopefully this will clarify the choice of temperature in a dynamical Friedmann-Lema\\^itre-Roberston-Walker spacetime.

  19. Modeling the surface temperature of Earth-like planets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vladilo, G; Murante, G; Filippi, L; Provenzale, A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce a novel Earth-like planet surface temperature model (ESTM) for habitability studies based on the spatial-temporal distribution of planetary surface temperatures. The ESTM adopts a surface Energy Balance Model complemented by: radiative-convective atmospheric column calculations, a set of physically-based parameterizations of meridional transport, and descriptions of surface and cloud properties more refined than in standard EBMs. The parameterization is valid for rotating terrestrial planets with shallow atmospheres and moderate values of axis obliquity (epsilon >= 45^o). Comparison with a 3D model of atmospheric dynamics from the literature shows that the equator-to-pole temperature differences predicted by the two models agree within ~5K when the rotation rate, insolation, surface pressure and planet radius are varied in the intervals 0.5 <= Omega/Omega_o <= 2, 0.75 <= S/S_o <= 1.25, 0.3 <= p/(1 bar) <= 10, and 0.5 <= R/R_o <= 2, respectively. The ESTM has an extremely l...

  20. Experimental & Numerical Investigation of Pool Boiling on Engineered Surfaces with Integrated Thin-flim Temperature Sensors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathyamurthi, Vijaykumar

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this investigation is to measure and analyze surface temperature fluctuations in pool boiling. The surface temperature fluctuations were recorded on silicon surfaces with and without multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). Novel Thin...

  1. Uncertainty in calculated surface temperature and surface heat flux of THTF heater rods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Childs, K.W.

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents a procedure for determining the uncertainty in the output of a complex computer code resulting from uncertainties in its input variables. This method is applied to ORINC (Oak Ridge Inverse Code) to estimate the uncertainty in the calculated surface temperature and surface heat flux of a THTF heater during a blowdown transient. The significant input variables are identified and 95% confidence bands are calculated for the code outputs based on the uncertainty in these input variables. 21 refs., 43 figs.

  2. Uncertainty in calculated surface temperature and surface heat flux of THTF heater rods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Childs, K.W.

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The report presents a procedure for determining the uncertainty in the output of a complex computer code resulting from uncertainties in its input variables. This method is applied to ORINC (Oak Ridge Inverse Code) to estimate the uncertainty in the calculated surface temperature and surface heat flux of a THTF heater during a blowdown transient. The significant input variables are identified and 95% confidence bands are calculated for the code outputs based on the uncertainty in these input variables.

  3. A data bank of Antarctic surface temperature and pressure data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, P.D.; Limbert, D.W.S.

    1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A data bank of monthly-mean surface air temperature and sea-level or station-level pressures is presented for 29 stations over the Antarctic region south of 60/sup 0/S. Considerable attempts have been made to locate missing data in nationally published sources and in World Weather Records. By cross-checking neighboring station data, suspect values have been either verified or corrected. At four sites in the Antarctic Peninsula region, composite records were produced by amalgamating records from a number of short and longer length records at or near the key sites. The four sites were Bellingshausen, Faraday, Esperenza and Rothera. The mean Antarctic temperature series produced by Raper et al. (1984) is updated using the same method of calculation.

  4. Effect of pavement temperature on the macrotexture of a semidense asphalt surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Effect of pavement temperature on the macrotexture of a semidense asphalt surface J. Luong, M the pavement temperature could change the texture surface of the pavement. The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of the surface temperature on the macrotexture of a semidense asphalt pavement located in an urban

  5. The Magnificent Seven: Magnetic fields and surface temperature distributions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Haberl

    2006-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Presently seven nearby radio-quiet isolated neutron stars discovered in ROSAT data and characterized by thermal X-ray spectra are known. They exhibit very similar properties and despite intensive searches their number remained constant since 2001 which led to their name ``The Magnificent Seven''. Five of the stars exhibit pulsations in their X-ray flux with periods in the range of 3.4 s to 11.4 s. XMM-Newton observations revealed broad absorption lines in the X-ray spectra which are interpreted as cyclotron resonance absorption lines by protons or heavy ions and / or atomic transitions shifted to X-ray energies by strong magnetic fields of the order of 10^13 G. New XMM-Newton observations indicate more complex X-ray spectra with multiple absorption lines. Pulse-phase spectroscopy of the best studied pulsars RX J0720.4-3125 and RBS 1223 reveals variations in derived emission temperature and absorption line depth with pulse phase. Moreover, RX J0720.4-3125 shows long-term spectral changes which are interpreted as due to free precession of the neutron star. Modeling of the pulse profiles of RX J0720.4-3125 and RBS 1223 provides information about the surface temperature distribution of the neutron stars indicating hot polar caps which have different temperatures, different sizes and are probably not located in antipodal positions.

  6. Low Temperature Oxidation of Fe2+ Surface Sites on the (2x1)...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sites on the (2x1) Reconstructed Surface of ?-Fe2O3(01(1) over-bar2). Low Temperature Oxidation of Fe2+ Surface Sites on the (2x1) Reconstructed Surface of...

  7. Molecular Hydrogen Formation on Low Temperature Surfaces in Temperature Programmed Desorption Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Vidali; V. Pirronello; L. Li; J. Roser; G. Manico; R. Mehl; A. Lederhendler; H. B. Perets; J. R. Brucato; O. Biham

    2008-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The study of the formation of molecular hydrogen on low temperature surfaces is of interest both because it allows to explore elementary steps in the heterogeneous catalysis of a simple molecule and because of the applications in astrochemistry. Here we report results of experiments of molecular hydrogen formation on amorphous silicate surfaces using temperature-programmed desorption (TPD). In these experiments beams of H and D atoms are irradiated on the surface of an amorphous silicate sample. The desorption rate of HD molecules is monitored using a mass spectrometer during a subsequent TPD run. The results are analyzed using rate equations and the activation energies of the processes leading to molecular hydrogen formation are obtained from the TPD data. We show that a model based on a single isotope provides the correct results for the activation energies for diffusion and desorption of H atoms. These results can thus be used to evaluate the formation rate of H_2 on dust grains under the actual conditions present in interstellar clouds.

  8. HARMONIC FUNCTIONS FOR SEA-SURFACE TEMPERATURES AND SALINITIES, KOKO HEAD, OAHU, 1956-69, AND SEA-SURFACE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    HARMONIC FUNCTIONS FOR SEA-SURFACE TEMPERATURES AND SALINITIES, KOKO HEAD, OAHU, 1956-69, AND SEA-SURFACE TEMPERATURES, CHRISTMAS ISLAND, 1954-69 GUNTHER It SECKEL' AND MARIAN Y. Y. YONG' ABSTRACT Harmonic functions, with daily sampling, are on average 0.07° C. Harmonic analysis spanning the entire sampling duration shows

  9. Penn State's Center for Sports Surface ResearchPenn State's Center for Sports Surface ResearchPenn State's Center for Sports Surface ResearchPenn State's Center for Sports Surface Research Surface Temperature of Synthetic Turf

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaye, Jason P.

    Penn State's Center for Sports Surface Research Why do synthetic surfaces get hot? · Black crumb rubber Temperature of Synthetic Turf #12;Penn State's Center for Sports Surface ResearchPenn State's Center for Sports Surface ResearchPenn State's Center for Sports Surface Research How hot can synthetic turf get

  10. Marangoni convection induced by a nonlinear temperature-dependent surface tension

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    23 Marangoni convection induced by a nonlinear temperature-dependent surface tension A. Cloot and G'instabilité de Marangoni dans une mince lame horizontale de fluide lorsque la tension de surface est une fonction ofthe surface- tension with respect to the temperature is studied. This behaviour is typical of some

  11. Nocturnal effects in the retrieval of land surface temperatures from satellite measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Platt, C.M.R.; Prata, A.J. (CSIRO, Mordialloc, Victoria (Australia). Div. of Atmospheric Research)

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The determination of accurate land surface temperatures from infrared satellite measurements is difficult because of variations in atmospheric water vapor and in land surface emissivity. Here the authors show that under certain conditions (viz. when the atmosphere near the surface is warmer than the surface), there is a cancellation between absorbed and emitted radiation. This often occurs during clear nights when intense nocturnal cooling of the surface causes inversions in the temperature and water vapor profiles. They demonstrate that a reasonable estimate of the land surface temperature can be made from a single channel infrared measurement in these conditions.

  12. Synoptic analysis of near surface and subsurface temperatures in the Atlantic Ocean following hurricane BETSY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landis, Robert Clarence

    1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    pressures Sea Surface Temperature Pattern before Hurricane Betsy 26 Sea Surface Temperature Pattern after Hur ricane Betsy 27 Seven-Day Average Sea Surface Temperatures; 23 - 29 August 1965 28 Seven-Day Average Sea Surface Temperatures; 8 - 14.... SHIIDEO ARE o IS / / / WATER 79'-80' F 73' 72' 71' BT NO. Ie 28 38 48 58 BETSY FIG, IB. SUBSURFACE THERMAL STRUCTURE BEFORE HURRICANE BETSY ALONG SECTION A. 204 21' 22' NORTH LATITUDE 23' 24' 25' 26 27' 28' 82. 5' 80. 5' 100 I 200 IJI IJI IJ...

  13. Temperature-responsive surface-functionalized polyethylene films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ponder, Bill C.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    which do not use wet chemistry have been used. Plasma treatment is a commonly used technique in industry. " In plasma modification, the types of functional groups, introduced onto the target surface depend on the plasma gas used. Oxygen plasma... on the surface of the modified surface as a function of plasma exposure time. At treatment times of 0. 5-2. 0 minutes, the atomic concentration of fluorine at the surface decreased and the oxygen concentration increased. However, after 15 minutes of plasma...

  14. Effects of surface coordination on the temperature-programmed...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    at the goethite surface was investigated in the 300-900 K range with concerted Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) measurements (TPD-FTIR). These reactions took place with...

  15. An evaluation of floor surfaces on the basis of skin temperature during constrained standing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monford, Leo Gabriel

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    popliteal fossa (popliteal region), and the medial side of abductor hallucis on the non-load bearing region of the foot (near the intersection of the top of the arch and the instep) or the foot region. All thermistors were located on the left leg... between an average ending temperature and an average start-up temperature. The foot skin temperature region was the only temperature region to indicate statistically significant results between the floor surfaces. The other two lower leg temperature...

  16. Correlations between hurricane numbers and sea surface temperature: why does the correlation disappear at landfall?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laepple, T; Jewson, S; Nzerem, K; Laepple, Thomas; Bellone, Enrica; Jewson, Stephen; Nzerem, Kechi

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is significant correlation between main development region sea surface temperature and the number of hurricanes that form in the Atlantic basin. The correlation between the same sea surface temperatures and the number of \\emph{landfalling} hurricanes is much lower, however. Why is this? Do we need to consider complex physical hypotheses, or is there a simple statistical explanation?

  17. Small-scale features of temperature and salinity surface fields in the Christophe Maes,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    the onset and build-up phases of El Ni~no/ Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events in coupled numerical modelsSmall-scale features of temperature and salinity surface fields in the Coral Sea Christophe Maes,1 August 2013; accepted 11 August 2013. [1] The small-scale features in sea surface temperature

  18. Greenland Ice Sheet Surface Air Temperature Variability: 18402007* JASON E. BOX

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howat, Ian M.

    Greenland Ice Sheet Surface Air Temperature Variability: 1840­2007* JASON E. BOX Byrd Polar, seasonal, and annual mean Greenland ice sheet near- surface air temperatures. Independent observations Greenland in autumn and southern Greenland in winter. Spring trends marked the 1920s warming onset, while

  19. Climate response to projected changes in short-lived species under an A1B scenario from 2000-2050 in the GISS climate model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shindell, Drew T.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    causes a negative forcing, surface temperatures there showed a slight warming consistent with the global

  20. Weak Temperature Dependence of the Free Energy Surface and Folding Pathways of Structured Peptides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caflisch, Amedeo

    Weak Temperature Dependence of the Free Energy Surface and Folding Pathways of Structured Peptides a thermodynamic description of minima and transi- tion states on the free energy surface, which is determined near equilibrium by counting popula- tions. The free energy surface, plotted as a function of two-order parameters

  1. Temperature-responsive surface-functionalized polyethylene films 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ponder, Bill C.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of PE/PEoas-PEGpss OrC(CHt)q-pyrene films in relation to PEG molecular weight and percent loading. . . . . . . . . 26 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Polymers are usually chosen for a particular application due to superior or unique mechanical properties... to the outer regions of the substrate polymer, and surface grafting predominates. This method cannot eliminate homopolymerization initiated by the excitation of monomer. However, for most applications, surface grafting does not require thick graAing layers...

  2. Surface temperature trends in Russia over the past five centuries reconstructed from borehole temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smerdon, Jason E.

    ; KEYWORDS: Russia, borehole temperatures, climate reconstruction Citation: Pollack, H. N., D. Y. Demezhko, A and extent of 20th century temperature changes in Russia, within the context of the temperature history of climate changing on decadal, centennial, or millennial timescales, the outward flux and its subsurface

  3. Effects of surface diffusion on high temperature selective emitters

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Peykov, Daniel; Yeng, Yi Xiang; Celanovic, Ivan; Joannopoulos, John D.; Schuh, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using morphological and optical simulations of 1D tantalum photonic crystals at 1200K, surface diffusion was determined to gradually reduce the efficiency of selective emitters. This was attributed to shifting resonance peaks and declining emissivity caused by changes to the cavity dimensions and the aperture width. Decreasing the structure’s curvature through larger periods and smaller cavity widths, as well as generating smoother transitions in curvature through the introduction of rounded cavities, was found to alleviate this degradation. An optimized structure, that shows both high efficiency selective emissivity and resistance to surface diffusion, was presented.

  4. Systems and Methods for Integrated Emissivity and Temperature Measurement of a Surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poulsen, Peter

    2005-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A multi-channel spectrometer and a light source are used to measure both the emitted and the reflected light from a surface which is at an elevated temperature relative to its environment. In a first method, the temperature of the surface and emissivity in each wavelength is calculated from a knowledge of the spectrum and the measurement of the incident and reflected light. In the second method, the reflected light is measured from a reference surface having a known reflectivity and the same geometry as the surface of interest and the emitted and the reflected light are measured for the surface of interest. These measurements permit the computation of the emissivity in each channel of the spectrometer and the temperature of the surface of interest.

  5. Ground surface temperatures in Canada: Spatial and temporal variability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, Bernard

    show that the ground has warmed about 0.7 K in the last 100 years. Spatial variability is significant temperatures in Canada: Spatial and temporal variability, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(10), 1499, doi:10.1029/2003GL inferred from geothermal data have shown that the study of perturbations to the Earth's energy balance

  6. Land surface temperature estimation over the Northern Great Plains using passive microwave data from Nimbus 7

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lambert, Vicki Michelle

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    'ounds at the 95% Conffdence Level for Area! Case Study Grid Cells 65 74 LIST OF FIGURES Figure The electromagnetic spectrum Measured transmittance in the band 5. 0-25. 0 pm Detection of passive microwave energy by a passive microwave sensor . Page 15... brightness temperature versus land surface temperature for each of the four SMMR channels at row 08 column 22 Comparison of passive microwave brightness temperature versus land surface temperature for API & 5 mm and API & 5 mm for the 0. 818 channel...

  7. Surface phase behavior in binary polymer mixtures. III. Temperature dependence of surface enrichment and of wetting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klein, Jacob

    enrichment and of wetting A. Budkowski,a) F. Scheffold, and J. Klein Department of Materials and Interfaces model systems, surface enrichment from polymer blends has clear technological implications-same mixtures--surface enrichment characteristics of the air- surface preferred phases. In these binary pairs

  8. Effects of Micro/Nano-Scale Surface Characteristics on the Leidenfrost Point Temperature of Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Lin-Wen

    In recent film boiling heat transfer studies with nanofluids, it was reported that deposition of nanoparticles on a surface significantly increases the nominal minimum heat flux (MHF) or Leidenfrost Point (LFP) temperature, ...

  9. Electronic structure of perovskite oxide surfaces at elevated temperatures and its correlation with oxygen reduction reactivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yan, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective is to understand the origin of the local oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity on the basis of the local electronic structure at the surface of transition metal oxides at elevated temperatures and in oxygen ...

  10. Sea surface temperature for climate from the along-track scanning radiometers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Embury, Owen

    2014-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis describes the construction of a sea surface temperature (SST) dataset from Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) observations suitable for climate applications. The algorithms presented here are now used at ...

  11. Free and forced tropical variability: role of the wind-evaporation-sea surface temperature (WES) feedback

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahajan, Salil

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Wind-Evaporation-Sea Surface Temperature (WES) feedback is believedto play an important role in the tropics, where climate variability is governed byatmosphere-ocean coupled interactions. This dissertation reports on studies to distinctlyisolate...

  12. Surface Chemistry of 2-Propanol on TiO2(110): Low and High Temperature...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemistry of 2-Propanol on TiO2(110): Low and High Temperature Dehydration, Isotope Effects, and Influence of Local Surface Chemistry of 2-Propanol on TiO2(110): Low and High...

  13. Characterizing Surface Temperature and Clarity of Kuwait's Seawaters Using Remotely Sensed Measurements and GIS Analyses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alsahli, Mohammad M. M.

    2009-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Kuwait sea surface temperature (SST) and water clarity are important water characteristics that influence the entire Kuwait coastal ecosystem. The aim of this project was to study the spatial and temporal distributions of ...

  14. Lubricant-infused micro/nano-structured surfaces with tunable dynamic omniphobicity at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, Daniel; Max, Mankin N.; Belisle, Rebecca A.; Wong, Tak-Sing; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2013-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Omniphobic surfaces that can repel fluids at temperatures higher than 100 #2;°C are rare. Most stateof- the-art liquid-repellent materials are based on the lotus effect, where a thin air layer is maintained throughout micro/nanotextures leading to high mobility of liquids. However, such behavior eventually fails at elevated temperatures when the surface tension of test liquids decreases significantly. Here, we demonstrate a class of lubricant-infused structured surfaces that can maintain a robust omniphobic state even for low-surface-tension liquids at temperatures up to at least 200 °#2;C. We also demonstrate how liquid mobility on such surfaces can be tuned by a factor of 1000.

  15. Formation of Ge nanoclusters on Si(1 1 1)-7 7 surface at high temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Hongjun

    Formation of Ge nanoclusters on Si(1 1 1)-7 · 7 surface at high temperature H.M. Guo, Y.L. Wang, H for publication 17 May 2004 Available online 5 June 2004 Abstract We report on Ge nanocluster formation on Si(1 1 of the Ge clusters are more uniform than those obtained at room temperature due to an increase

  16. In situ doping control of the surface of high-temperature superconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michelson, David G.

    LETTERS In situ doping control of the surface of high-temperature superconductors M. A. HOSSAIN1.1038/nphys998 Central to the understanding of high-temperature superconductivity is the evolution of the electronic structure as doping alters the density of charge carriers in the CuO2 planes. Superconductivity

  17. Relationships between Pacific and Atlantic ocean sea surface temperatures and U.S. streamflow variability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piechota, Thomas C.

    Relationships between Pacific and Atlantic ocean sea surface temperatures and U.S. streamflow March 2006; published 19 July 2006. [1] An evaluation of Pacific and Atlantic Ocean sea surface by an interdecadal-temporal evaluation for the Pacific (Atlantic) Ocean based on the phase of the Pacific Decadal

  18. INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE ON NICKEL SORPTION ON CLAY MINERAL AND OXIDE SURFACES. K. G. Scheckel1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE ON NICKEL SORPTION ON CLAY MINERAL AND OXIDE SURFACES. K. G. Scheckel1- ues are within the range of mineral formation which sup- ports previous findings of nickel precipitation on these mineral and oxide surfaces. Conclusions: Sorption of nickel on the mineral phases results

  19. Numerical Study of Spatial Surface Temperature and Nucleation Site Density At High Heat Flux Pool Boiling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    the problem domain comprised of the macrolayer and heater and associated with the individual behavior of nucleation sites on the heater surface. They revealed that surface-averaged temperatures had nonlinear period are assigned randomly by satisfying the conditions in step (2). The simulated cavities were assigned a

  20. Investigation about the effects of exterior surface paint color on temperature development in aboveground pipeline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farzaneh-Gord, Mahmood; Rasekh, Alireza; Nabati, Amin; Saadat, Morteza [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A practical analytical model for predicting temperature development of incompressible flow inside an aboveground pipeline has been constructed and presented in this research work. The outer surface of the pipeline is exposed to solar radiation and wind stream. The radiation heat exchange with ambient is also taken into account. The effects of exterior surface paint color represented by emissivity and absorptivity, have been studied. The model has been developed to study crude oil flow temperature development through a specific pipeline. The results obtained by the model show that the bulk temperature inclined to a limiting value in some distance which affected mainly by Reynolds numbers. It is found that emissivity and absorptivity of surface are predominant parameters in temperature development in an aboveground pipeline flow which can increase or decrease pipe surface and fluid temperature especially for low Reynolds number flow. Based on the results which indicated significantly of exterior surface paint color, one should choose the paint color by considering its effects on temperature development. (author)

  1. Estimation of turbulent surface heat fluxes using sequences of remotely sensed land surface temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bateni, Sayed Mohyeddin

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluxes of heat and moisture at the land-surface play a significant role in the climate system. These fluxes interact with the overlying atmosphere and influence the characteristics of the planetary boundary layer (e.g. ...

  2. Temperature inversion on the surface of externally heated optically thick multigrain dust clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dejan Vinkovic

    2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It was recently discovered that the temperature in the surface layer of externally heated optically thick gray dust clouds increases with the optical depth for some distance from the surface, as opposed to the normal decrease in temperature with distance in the rest of the cloud. This temperature inversion is a result of efficient absorption of diffuse flux from the cloud interior by the surface dust exposed to the external radiation. A micron or bigger size grains experience this effect when the external flux is of stellar spectrum. We explore what happens to the effect when dust is a mixture of grain sizes (multigrain). Two possible boundary conditions are considered: i) a constant external flux without constrains on the dust temperature, and ii) the maximum dust temperature set to the sublimation temperature. We find that the first condition allows small grains to completely suppress the temperature inversion of big grains if the overall opacity is dominated by small grains. The second condition enables big grains to maintain the inversion even when they are a minor contributor to the opacity. In reality, the choice of boundary condition depends on the dust dynamics. When applied to the physics of protoplanetary disks, the temperature inversion leads to a previously unrecognized disk structure where optically thin dust can exist inside the dust destruction radius of an optically thick disk. We conclude that the transition between the dusty disk and the gaseous inner clearing is not a sharp edge, but rather a large optically thin region.

  3. Cu-Cu direct bonding achieved by surface method at room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Utsumi, Jun [Advanced Technology Research Center, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., 1-8-1 Sachiura, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama 236-8515 (Japan); Ichiyanagi, Yuko, E-mail: yuko@ynu.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, Yokohama National University, Tokiwadai, Hodogaya, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan)

    2014-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The metal bonding is a key technology in the processes for the microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices and the semiconductor devices to improve functionality and higher density integration. Strong adhesion between surfaces at the atomic level is crucial; however, it is difficult to achieve close bonding in such a system. Cu films were deposited on Si substrates by vacuum deposition, and then, two Cu films were bonded directly by means of surface activated bonding (SAB) at room temperature. The two Cu films, with the surface roughness Ra about 1.3nm, were bonded by using SAB at room temperature, however, the bonding strength was very weak in this method. In order to improve the bonding strength between the Cu films, samples were annealed at low temperatures, between 323 and 473 K, in air. As the result, the Cu-Cu bonding strength was 10 times higher than that of the original samples without annealing.

  4. Improving a pavement-watering method on the basis of pavement surface temperature measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hendel, Martin; Diab, Youssef; Royon, Laurent

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pavement-watering has been studied since the 1990's and is currently considered a promising tool for urban heat island reduction and climate change adaptation. However, possible future water resource availability problems require that water consumption be optimized. Although pavement heat flux can be studied to improve pavement-watering methods (frequency and water consumption), these measurements are costly and require invasive construction work to install appropriate sensors in a dense urban environment. Therefore, we analyzed measurements of pavement surface temperatures in search of alternative information relevant to this goal. It was found that high frequency surface temperature measurements (more than every 5 minutes) made by an infrared camera can provide enough information to optimize the watering frequency. Furthermore, if the water retaining capacity of the studied pavement is known, optimization of total water consumption is possible on the sole basis of surface temperature measurements.

  5. Method and apparatus for measuring surface contour on parts with elevated temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horvath, Mark S. (Canton, MI); Nance, Roy A. (McMurray, PA); Cohen, George H. (Pittsburgh, PA); Fodor, George (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is directed to a method and apparatus for measuring the surface contour of a test piece, such as the bow of a radioactive fuel rod, which is completely immersed in water. The invention utilizes ultrasonic technology and is capable of measuring surface contours of test pieces which are at a higher temperature than the surrounding water. The presence of a test piece at a higher temperature adversely affects the distance measurements by causing thermal variations in the water near the surface of the test piece. The contour measurements depend upon a constant temperature of the water in the path of the ultrasonic wave to provide a constant acoustical velocity (the measurement is made by the time of flight measurement for an ultrasonic wave). Therefore, any variations of water temperature near the surface will introduce errors degrading the measurement. The present invention overcomes these problems by assuring that the supply of water through which the ultrasonic waves travel is at a predetermined and constant temperature.

  6. Year-ahead Prediction of Hurricane Season Sea Surface Temperature in the Tropical Atlantic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meagher, J; Meagher, Jonathan; Jewson, Stephen

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One possible method for the year-ahead prediction of hurricane numbers would be to make a year-ahead prediction of sea surface temperature (SST), and then to apply relationships that link SST to hurricane numbers. As a first step towards setting up such a system this article compares three simple statistical methods for the year-ahead prediction of the relevant SSTs.

  7. Oxidation of carbon fiber surfaces for use as reinforcement in high-temperature cementitious material systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi (Mastic Beach, NY)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The interfacial bond characteristics between carbon fiber and a cement matrix, in high temperature fiber-reinforced cementitious composite systems, can be improved by the oxidative treatment of the fiber surfaces. Compositions and the process for producing the compositions are disclosed.

  8. Diurnal and seasonal variations of wind farm impacts on land surface temperature over western Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Liming

    Diurnal and seasonal variations of wind farm impacts on land surface temperature over western Texas for the period of 2003­2011 over a region in West-Central Texas, where four of the world's largest wind farms by comparing the LST changes between wind farm pixels (WFPs) and nearby non wind farm pixels (NNWFPs) using

  9. Scales of temporal and spatial variability of midlatitude land surface temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vinnikov, Konstantin

    ] Meteorologists have used land surface temperature (LST) in the energy balance equations for a long time high spatial resolution infrared satellite observation of LST is possible only during clearsky weather conditions. Micro- wave radiometers that can monitor LST in cloudy conditions are not yet able to provide

  10. Improving a pavement-watering method on the basis1 of pavement surface temperature measurements2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Improving a pavement-watering method on the basis1 of pavement surface temperature measurements2.hendel@paris.fr)8 Abstract: Pavement-watering has been studied since the 1990's and is currently considered a9 water resource availability problems require that water consumption be optimized. Although11 pavement

  11. The Intra-Americas Sea springtime surface temperature anomaly dipole as fingerprint of remote influences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chunzai

    The Intra-Americas Sea springtime surface temperature anomaly dipole as fingerprint of remote anomaly dipole we find that the dipole forms mostly in response to changes in the air-sea heat fluxes. The changes in shortwave radiation also contribute to the dipole of net air-sea heat flux. The changes

  12. The southern Caribbean upwelling system: Sea surface temperature, wind forcing and chlorophyll concentration patterns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyers, Steven D.

    The southern Caribbean upwelling system: Sea surface temperature, wind forcing and chlorophyll Accepted 22 April 2013 Available online 29 April 2013 Keywords: Coastal upwelling SST Caribbean Sea Ekman, 1994­2009) were used to characterize the southern Caribbean upwelling system. This system extends from

  13. Evaluation of "all weather" microwave-derived land surface temperatures with in situ CEOP measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evaluation of "all weather" microwave-derived land surface temperatures with in situ CEOP conditions. Ts estimates from infrared satellite observations can only be derived under clear sky. Passive from Special Sensor Microwave/Imager measurements, with a spatial resolution of 0.25° × 0.25°, at least

  14. Oxidation of carbon fiber surfaces for use as reinforcement in high-temperature cementitious material systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi.

    1990-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The interfacial bond characteristics between carbon fiber and a cement matrix, in high temperature fiber-reinforced cementitious composite systems, can be improved by the oxidative treatment of the fiber surfaces. Compositions and the process for producing the compositions are disclosed. 2 figs.

  15. 2D surface temperature measurement of plasma facing components with modulated active pyrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amiel, S.; Loarer, T.; Pocheau, C.; Roche, H.; Gauthier, E.; Aumeunier, M.-H.; Courtois, X.; Jouve, M.; Balorin, C.; Moncada, V. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Le Niliot, C.; Rigollet, F. [Aix-Marseille Univ, IUSTI, UMR CNRS 7343, F-13453 Marseille (France)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In nuclear fusion devices, such as Tore Supra, the plasma facing components (PFC) are in carbon. Such components are exposed to very high heat flux and the surface temperature measurement is mandatory for the safety of the device and also for efficient plasma scenario development. Besides this measurement is essential to evaluate these heat fluxes for a better knowledge of the physics of plasma-wall interaction, it is also required to monitor the fatigue of PFCs. Infrared system (IR) is used to manage to measure surface temperature in real time. For carbon PFCs, the emissivity is high and known (? ? 0.8), therefore the contribution of the reflected flux from environment and collected by the IR cameras can be neglected. However, the future tokamaks such as WEST and ITER will be equipped with PFCs in metal (W and Be/W, respectively) with low and variable emissivities (? ? 0.1–0.4). Consequently, the reflected flux will contribute significantly in the collected flux by IR camera. The modulated active pyrometry, using a bicolor camera, proposed in this paper allows a 2D surface temperature measurement independently of the reflected fluxes and the emissivity. Experimental results with Tungsten sample are reported and compared with simultaneous measurement performed with classical pyrometry (monochromatic and bichromatic) with and without reflective flux demonstrating the efficiency of this method for surface temperature measurement independently of the reflected flux and the emissivity.

  16. High variability of Greenland surface temperature over the past 4000 years estimated from trapped air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Severinghaus, Jeffrey P.

    High variability of Greenland surface temperature over the past 4000 years estimated from trapped 10 October 2011; accepted 11 October 2011; published 10 November 2011. [1] Greenland recently is impacting the Greenland ice sheet and in turn accelerating global sealevel rise. Yet, it remains imprecisely

  17. Surface Damage and Treatment by Impact of a Low Temperature Nitrogen Jet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laribou, Hicham; Fressengeas, Claude; Entemeyer, Denis; Jeanclaude, Veronique [LPMM - Laboratoire de Physique et Mecanique des Materiaux, Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz / CNRS, Ile du Saulcy, Metz, 57045 (France); Tazibt, Abdel [CRITT TJF and U, Laboratoire Jet Fluide Tres Hautes Pressions, Bar-le-Duc, 55000 (France)

    2011-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitrogen jets under high pressure and low temperature have been introduced recently. The process consists in projecting onto a surface a low temperature jet obtained from releasing the liquid nitrogen stored in a high pressure tank (e.g. 3000 bars) through a nozzle. It can be used in a range of industrial applications, including surface treatment or material removal through cutting, drilling, striping and cleaning. The process does not generate waste other than the removed matter, and it only releases neutral gas into the atmosphere. This work is aimed at understanding the mechanisms of the interaction between the jet and the material surface. Depending on the impacted material, the thermo-mechanical shock and blast effect induced by the jet can activate a wide range of damage mechanisms, including cleavage, crack nucleation and spalling, as well as void expansion and localized ductile failure. The test parameters (standoff distance, dwell time, operating pressure) play a role in selecting the dominant damage mechanism, but combinations of these various modes are usually present. Surface treatment through phase transformation or grain fragmentation in a layer below the surface can also be obtained by adequate tuning of the process parameters. In the current study, work is undertaken to map the damage mechanisms in metallic materials as well as the influence of the test parameters on damage, along with measurements of the thermo-mechanical conditions (impact force, temperature) in the impacted area.

  18. Areas of Anomalous Surface Temperature in Garfield County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Garfield Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Garfield County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4441550.552290 m Left: 271445.053363 m Right: 359825.053363 m Bottom: 4312490.552290 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  19. Areas of Anomalous Surface Temperature in Routt County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Routt Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Routt County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4501071.574000 m Left: 311351.975000 m Right: 359681.975000 m Bottom: 4447251.574000 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  20. Areas of Anomalous Surface Temperature in Chaffee County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Chaffee Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Chaffee County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4333432.368072 m Left: 366907.700763 m Right: 452457.816015 m Bottom: 4208271.566715 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  1. Areas of Anomalous Surface Temperature in Archuleta County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Archuleta Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Archuleta County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4144691.792023 m Left: 285531.662851 m Right: 348694.182686 m Bottom: 4097005.210304 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  2. Areas of Anomalous Surface Temperature in Dolored County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Dolores Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Dolores County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4186234.213315 m Left: 212558.673056 m Right: 232922.811862 m Bottom: 4176781.467043 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  3. Temperature-extended Jarzynski relation: Application to the numerical calculation of the surface tension

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christophe Chatelain

    2007-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider a generalization of the Jarzynski relation to the case where the system interacts with a bath for which the temperature is not kept constant but can vary during the transformation. We suggest to use this relation as a replacement to the thermodynamic perturbation method or the Bennett method for the estimation of the order-order surface tension by Monte Carlo simulations. To demonstrate the feasibility of the method, we present some numerical data for the 3D Ising model.

  4. An updated global grid point surface air temperature anomaly data set: 1851--1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sepanski, R.J.; Boden, T.A.; Daniels, R.C.

    1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document presents land-based monthly surface air temperature anomalies (departures from a 1951--1970 reference period mean) on a 5{degree} latitude by 10{degree} longitude global grid. Monthly surface air temperature anomalies (departures from a 1957--1975 reference period mean) for the Antarctic (grid points from 65{degree}S to 85{degree}S) are presented in a similar way as a separate data set. The data were derived primarily from the World Weather Records and the archives of the United Kingdom Meteorological Office. This long-term record of temperature anomalies may be used in studies addressing possible greenhouse-gas-induced climate changes. To date, the data have been employed in generating regional, hemispheric, and global time series for determining whether recent (i.e., post-1900) warming trends have taken place. This document also presents the monthly mean temperature records for the individual stations that were used to generate the set of gridded anomalies. The periods of record vary by station. Northern Hemisphere station data have been corrected for inhomogeneities, while Southern Hemisphere data are presented in uncorrected form. 14 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  5. Monte Carlo simulations of temperature-programmed and isothermal desorption from single-crystal surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lombardo, S.J. (California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (USA). Dept. of Chemical Engineering Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))

    1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The kinetics of temperature-programmed and isothermal desorption have been simulated with a Monte Carlo model. Included in the model are the elementary steps of adsorption, surface diffusion, and desorption. Interactions between adsorbates and the metal as well as interactions between the adsorbates are taken into account with the Bond-Order-Conservation-Morse-Potential method. The shape, number, and location of the TPD peaks predicted by the simulations is shown to be sensitive to the binding energy, coverage, and coordination of the adsorbates. In addition, the occurrence of lateral interactions between adsorbates is seen to strongly effect the distribution of adsorbates is seen to strongly effect the distribution of adsorbates on the surface. Temperature-programmed desorption spectra of a single type of adsorbate have been simulated for the following adsorbate-metal systems: CO on Pd(100); H{sub 2} on Mo(100); and H{sub 2} on Ni(111). The model predictions are in good agreement with experimental observation. TPD spectra have also been simulated for two species coadsorbed on a surface; the model predictions are in qualitative agreement with the experimental results for H{sub 2} coadsorbed with strongly bound atomic species on Mo(100) and Fe(100) surfaces as well as for CO and H{sub 2} coadsorbed on Ni(100) and Rh(100) surfaces. Finally, the desorption kinetics of CO from Pd(100) and Ni(100) in the presence of gas-phase CO have been examined. The effect of pressure is seen to lead to an increase in the rate of desorption relative to the rate observed in the absence of gas-phase CO. This increase arises as a consequence of higher coverages and therefore stronger lateral interactions between the adsorbed CO molecules.

  6. Clouds, solar irradiance and mean surface temperature over the last century

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erlykin, A D; Wolfendale, A W; 10.1016/j.jastp.2009.12.013

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The inter-relation of clouds, solar irradiance and surface temperature is complex and subject to different interpretations. Here, we continue our recent work, which related mainly to the period from 1960 to the present, back to 1900 with further, but less detailed, analysis of the last 1000 years. The last 20 years is examined especially. Attention is given to the mean surface temperature, solar irradiance correlation, which appears to be present (with decadal smoothing) with a 22-year period; it is stronger than the 11-year cycle correlation with one year resolution. UV in the solar radiation is a likely cause. Cloud data are taken from synoptic observations back to 1952 and, again, there appears to be a correlation - with opposite phase for high and low clouds - at the 20-30y level. Particular attention is devoted to answering the question, 'what fraction of the observed increase in mean Global temperature (~0.7^oC) can be attributed to solar, as distinct from man-made, effects?' We conclude that a best est...

  7. An efficient plate heater with uniform surface temperature engineered with effective thermal materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Yichao; He, Sailing; Ma, Yungui

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Extended from its electromagnetic counterpart, transformation thermodynamics applied to thermal conduction equations can map a virtual geometry into a physical thermal medium, realizing the manipulation of heat flux with almost arbitrarily desired diffusion paths, which provides unprecedented opportunities to create thermal devices unconceivable or deemed impossible before. In this work we employ this technique to design an efficient plate heater that can transiently achieve a large surface of uniform temperature powered by a small thermal source. As opposed to the traditional approach of relying on the deployment of a resistor network, our approach fully takes advantage of an advanced functional material system to guide the heat flux to achieve the desired temperature heating profile. A different set of material parameters for the transformed device has been developed, offering the parametric freedom for practical applications. As a proof of concept, the proposed devices are implemented with engineered therm...

  8. On the relationship between temperature and wind speed in the atmospheric surface layer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierrard, John Martin

    1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LIBRAR& A AN m os??E " "" ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN T" MP. "RATURE AND WIND SPEED IN THE ATMOSPHERIC SURFACE LAYER A Thesis John Me Pierrard Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCI"NCE August 1958 Ma)or Sub)ect: Meteorology ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TEMPERATURE AND WIND SP ED IN THE ATMOSPHERIC SUBRACE LAYER A Thesis John M. Pierrard Approved as to style...

  9. Lake-effect snowfall in Western New York and surface temperatures of Lakes Erie and Ontario

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agrella, William

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    - tures (' F) 39 A comparison of mean monthly lake ? surface temperatures and their standard deviations (' F) for Lakes Erie and Ontario 45 Estimates o f Lake Erie average monthly ice cover, percent, 1962-1968 (after Derecki, 1975) 50 Correlation... on such cities as Buffalo and Watertown. Buffalo, perched at the eastern end of Lake Erie, received over 16 ft of snow from November through April, nearly 6 ft of which fell during January alone. At Watertown, situated on the eastern shore of Lake Ontario...

  10. Anomalous sea surface temperatures of the North Pacific Ocean and their relationship to precipitation in Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atkinson, Garey Cecil

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the North Pacific and precip1tation in the ten climatic divisions of Texas, concurrently, and for t1me lags of up to six months. Anomalous sea surface temperatures for the 20 year period, 1947-1966, were correlated to prec1 pi tation totals that were... reported for the ten climatic divisions of Texas. An examination of the levels of significance for each correlat1on coeffic1ent was conducted. Correlation coefficients with high levels of significance were studied for patterns and peak frequencies...

  11. Response of tropical sea surface temperature, precipitation, and tropical cyclone-related variables to changes in global and local forcing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sobel, Adam

    A single-column model is used to estimate the equilibrium response of sea surface temperature (SST), precipitation, and several variables related to tropical cyclone (TC) activity to changes in both local and global forcing. ...

  12. LITERATURE REVIEW OF PUO2 CALCINATION TIME AND TEMPERATURE DATA FOR SPECIFIC SURFACE AREA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, G.

    2012-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The literature has been reviewed in December 2011 for calcination data of plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) from plutonium oxalate Pu(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2} precipitation with respect to the PuO{sub 2} specific surface area (SSA). A summary of the literature is presented for what are believed to be the dominant factors influencing SSA, the calcination temperature and time. The PuO{sub 2} from Pu(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2} calcination data from this review has been regressed to better understand the influence of calcination temperature and time on SSA. Based on this literature review data set, calcination temperature has a bigger impact on SSA versus time. However, there is still some variance in this data set that may be reflecting differences in the plutonium oxalate preparation or different calcination techniques. It is evident from this review that additional calcination temperature and time data for PuO{sub 2} from Pu(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2} needs to be collected and evaluated to better define the relationship. The existing data set has a lot of calcination times that are about 2 hours and therefore may be underestimating the impact of heating time on SSA. SRNL recommends that more calcination temperature and time data for PuO{sub 2} from Pu(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2} be collected and this literature review data set be augmented to better refine the relationship between PuO{sub 2} SSA and its calcination parameters.

  13. Sputtering properties of copper-lithium alloys at reactor-level temperatures and surface erosion rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krauss, A.R.; Gruen, D.M.; Lam, N.Q.; DeWald, A.B.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Previous experiments on copper-lithium alloys at temperatures up to 250/sup 0/C and with erosion rates of .01 to .1 monolayer per second have shown that in the electric and magnetic field environment of a magnetic-confinement fusion reactor, it is possible to maintain a lithium overlayer which will significantly reduce the copper erosion rate. We have extended these experiments to the reactor-relevant regime of 350 to 400/sup 0/C, with erosion rates approaching one monolayer per second. By comparison with the lower flux experiments, it is found that radiation damage effects start to dominate both the surface concentration and depth profile of the lithium. The subsurface region of enhanced lithium concentration is broadened, while the surface concentration is not depleted as rapidly per incident ion as in the low flux case. The time-dependent lithium depth profile is calculated using a computer code developed at Argonne which includes both Gibbsian segregation and radiation-induced effects. The experimental results are compared with these calculations. It is found that the sputtering behavior of the copper-lithium alloy is highly dependent on the mass and energy spectrum of the incident particles, the sample temperature, subsurface structure, and the partial sputtering yields of the alloy components.

  14. Low temperature formation of electrode having electrically conductive metal oxide surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anders, Simone (Albany, CA); Anders, Andre (Albany, CA); Brown, Ian G. (Berkeley, CA); McLarnon, Frank R. (Orinda, CA); Kong, Fanping (Berkeley, CA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A low temperature process is disclosed for forming metal suboxides on substrates by cathodic arc deposition by either controlling the pressure of the oxygen present in the deposition chamber, or by controlling the density of the metal flux, or by a combination of such adjustments, to thereby control the ratio of oxide to metal in the deposited metal suboxide coating. The density of the metal flux may, in turn, be adjusted by controlling the discharge current of the arc, by adjusting the pulse length (duration of on cycle) of the arc, and by adjusting the frequency of the arc, or any combination of these parameters. In a preferred embodiment, a low temperature process is disclosed for forming an electrically conductive metal suboxide, such as, for example, an electrically conductive suboxide of titanium, on an electrode surface, such as the surface of a nickel oxide electrode, by such cathodic arc deposition and control of the deposition parameters. In the preferred embodiment, the process results in a titanium suboxide-coated nickel oxide electrode exhibiting reduced parasitic evolution of oxygen during charging of a cell made using such an electrode as the positive electrode, as well as exhibiting high oxygen overpotential, resulting in suppression of oxygen evolution at the electrode at full charge of the cell.

  15. Predicting hurricane numbers from Sea Surface Temperature: closed form expressions for the mean, variance and standard error of the number of hurricanes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jewson, S

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One way to predict hurricane numbers would be to predict sea surface temperature, and then predict hurricane numbers as a function of the predicted sea surface temperature. For certain parametric models for sea surface temperature and the relationship between sea surface temperature and hurricane numbers, closed-form solutions exist for the mean and the variance of the number of predicted hurricanes, and for the standard error on the mean. We derive a number of such expressions.

  16. What Global Warming Looks Like The July 2010 global map of surface temperature anomalies (Figure 1), relative to the average

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    What Global Warming Looks Like The July 2010 global map of surface temperature anomalies (Figure 1 anomalies an example of what we can expect global warming to look like? Maps of temperature anomalies, such as Figure 1, are useful for helping people understand the role of global warming in extreme events

  17. Nanoporous, Metal Carbide, Surface Diffusion Membranes for High Temperature Hydrogen Separations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Way, J.; Wolden, Colin

    2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Colorado School of Mines (CSM) developed high temperature, hydrogen permeable membranes that contain no platinum group metals with the goal of separating hydrogen from gas mixtures representative of gasification of carbon feedstocks such as coal or biomass in order to meet DOE NETL 2015 hydrogen membrane performance targets. We employed a dual synthesis strategy centered on transition metal carbides. In the first approach, novel, high temperature, surface diffusion membranes based on nanoporous Mo{sub 2}C were fabricated on ceramic supports. These were produced in a two step process that consisted of molybdenum oxide deposition followed by thermal carburization. Our best Mo{sub 2}C surface diffusion membrane achieved a pure hydrogen flux of 367 SCFH/ft{sup 2} at a feed pressure of only 20 psig. The highest H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity obtained with this approach was 4.9. A transport model using “dusty gas” theory was derived to describe the hydrogen transport in the Mo{sub 2}C coated, surface diffusion membranes. The second class of membranes developed were dense metal foils of BCC metals such as vanadium coated with thin (< 60 nm) Mo{sub 2}C catalyst layers. We have fabricated a Mo{sub 2}C/V composite membrane that in pure gas testing delivered a H{sub 2} flux of 238 SCFH/ft{sup 2} at 600 °C and 100 psig, with no detectable He permeance. This exceeds the 2010 DOE Target flux. This flux is 2.8 times that of pure Pd at the same membrane thickness and test conditions and over 79% of the 2015 flux target. In mixed gas testing we achieved a permeate purity of ?99.99%, satisfying the permeate purity milestone, but the hydrogen permeance was low, ~0.2 SCFH/ft{sup 2}.psi. However, during testing of a Mo{sub 2}C coated Pd alloy membrane with DOE 1 feed gas mixture a hydrogen permeance of >2 SCFH/ft{sup 2}.psi was obtained which was stable during the entire test, meeting the permeance associated with the 2010 DOE target flux. Lastly, the Mo{sub 2}C/V composite membranes were shown to be stable for at least 168 hours = one week, including cycling at high temperature and alternating He/H{sub 2} exposure.

  18. Use of the portable infrared thermometer as a means of measuring limb surface temperature in the horse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmer, S.E.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Evaluation was made of the portable infrared thermometer to measure limb surface temperature in 3 horses--first standing in a stall and then placed in lateral recumbency under general anesthesia. To determine the effect of pigment, black and white targets were examined with the instrument under various clinical conditions. In each horse, thermal gradient measurements were consistent along the extremities. Mean limb surface temperatures were less than rectal temperature and greater than ambient temperature. Limb surface temperatures measured in lateral recumbency under general anesthesia were uniformly higher than those obtained in the standing position in the stall. The average SD of absolute temperature measurements made under general anesthesia was +/- 0.1 C, whereas the average SD of those made in standing horses was +/- 0.2 C. For practical use, the latter deviation of +/- 0.2 C was considered more appropriate as the limit of significance for clinical measurements made with the instrument. When used indoors in the absence of direct sunlight, the influence of pigment on measurements made with the instrument was not significant. Optimal conditions for the clinical use of the portable infrared thermometer are defined and factors which affect limb surface temperature are discussed.

  19. Predicting landfalling hurricane numbers from sea surface temperature: a theoretical comparison of direct and indirect methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nzerem, K; Laepple, T; Nzerem, Kechi; Jewson, Stephen; Laepple, Thomas

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider two ways that one might convert a prediction of sea surface temperature (SST) into a prediction of landfalling hurricane numbers. First, one might regress historical numbers of landfalling hurricanes onto historical SSTs, and use the fitted regression relation to predict future landfalling hurricane numbers given predicted SSTs. We call this the direct approach. Second, one might regress \\emph{basin} hurricane numbers onto historical SSTs, estimate the proportion of basin hurricanes that make landfall, and use the fitted regression relation and estimated proportion to predict future landfalling hurricane numbers. We call this the \\emph{indirect} approach. Which of these two methods is likely to work better? We answer this question in the context of a simple abstract model.

  20. Areas of Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature in Garfield County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Warm Modeled Temperature Garfield Edition: First Note: This “Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset differs from the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset for this county (another remotely sensed CIRES product) by showing areas of modeled temperatures between 1? and 2? above the mean, as opposed to the greater than 2? temperatures contained in the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset. Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Garfield County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature between 1? and 2? were considered ASTER modeled warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4442180.552290 m Left: 268655.053363 m Right: 359915.053363 m Bottom: 4312490.552290 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  1. Areas of Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature in Routt County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Warm Modeled Temperature Routt Edition: First Note: This “Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset differs from the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset for this county (another remotely sensed CIRES product) by showing areas of modeled temperatures between 1? and 2? above the mean, as opposed to the greater than 2? temperatures contained in the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset. Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Routt County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature between 1? and 2? were considered ASTER modeled warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4501071.574000 m Left: 311351.975000 m Right: 359411.975000 m Bottom: 4447521.574000 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  2. Areas of Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature in Dolores County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Dolores Edition: First Note: This “Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset differs from the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset for this county (another remotely sensed CIRES product) by showing areas of modeled temperatures between 1? and 2? above the mean, as opposed to the greater than 2? temperatures contained in the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset. Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Dolores County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4186234.213315 m Left: 212558.673056 m Right: 232922.811862 m Bottom: 4176781.467043 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  3. Areas of Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature in Chaffee County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Chaffee Edition: First Note: This “Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset differs from the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset for this county (another remotely sensed CIRES product) by showing areas of modeled temperatures between 1? and 2? above the mean, as opposed to the greater than 2? temperatures contained in the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset. Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Chaffee County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4333432.368072 m Left: 366907.700763 m Right: 452457.816015 m Bottom: 4208271.566715 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  4. Areas of Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature in Archuleta County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Warm Modeled Temperature Archuleta Note: This “Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset differs from the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset for this county (another remotely sensed CIRES product) by showing areas of modeled temperatures between 1? and 2? above the mean, as opposed to the greater than 2? temperatures contained in the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset. Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Archuleta County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature between 1? and 2? were considered ASTER modeled warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies). Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4144825.235807 m Left: 285446.256851 m Right: 350577.338852 m Bottom: 4096962.250137 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  5. Areas of Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature in Alamosa and Saguache Counties, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Alamosa Saguache Edition: First Note: This “Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset differs from the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset for this county (another remotely sensed CIRES product) by showing areas of modeled temperatures between 1? and 2? above the mean, as opposed to the greater than 2? temperatures contained in the “Anomalous Surface Temperature” dataset. Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Alamosa and Saguache Counties identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4217727.601630 m Left: 394390.400264 m Right: 460179.841813 m Bottom: 4156258.036086 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  6. Simultaneous measurement of the surface temperature and the release of atomic sodium from a burning black liquor droplet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saw, Woei L.; Nathan, Graham J. [Centre for Energy Technology, The University of Adelaide, SA 5006 (Australia); School of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Adelaide (Australia); Ashman, Peter J.; Alwahabi, Zeyad T. [Centre for Energy Technology, The University of Adelaide, SA 5006 (Australia); School of Chemical Engineering, The University of Adelaide (Australia); Hupa, Mikko [Process Chemistry Centre, Aabo Akademi, Biskopsgatan 8 FI-20500 Aabo (Finland)

    2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Simultaneous measurement of the concentration of released atomic sodium, swelling, surface and internal temperature of a burning black liquor droplet under a fuel lean and rich condition has been demonstrated. Two-dimensional two-colour optical pyrometry was employed to determine the distribution of surface temperature and swelling of a burning black liquor droplet while planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) was used to assess the temporal release of atomic sodium. The key findings of these studies are: (i) the concentration of atomic sodium released during the drying and devolatilisation stages was found to be correlated with the external surface area; and (ii) the insignificant presence of atomic sodium during the char consumption stage shows that sodium release is suppressed by the lower temperature and by the high CO{sub 2} content in and around the particle. (author)

  7. On the Nanoengineering of Superhydrophobic and Impalement Resistant Surface Textures below the Freezing Temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daraio, Chiara

    On the Nanoengineering of Superhydrophobic and Impalement Resistant Surface Textures below: The superhydrophobic behavior of nano- and microtextured surfaces leading to rebound of impacting droplets is of great morphology, superhydrophobicity, supercooling, anti-icing, drop impact Nanotextured surfaces in nature

  8. A study of low-level wind and temperature profiles as a function of stability in the surface boundary layer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Morgan Glenn

    1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A STUDY OF LOW-LEVEL WIND AND TEMPERATURE PROFILES AS A FUNCTION OF STABILITY IN THE SURFACE BOUNDARY LAYER A Thesis By Morgan Glenn Williams Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... and content by: . . jy ~( (Chairman of Committee) (lread of Dep. ent) ', ea'ocr) ~!A|I)~ Decemb. r 19 70 ABSTRACT A Study of I. ow-Level Wind and Temperature Profiles as a Function of Stability in the Surface Boundary Layer (December 1970) Morgan...

  9. An investigation of sea surface temperature patterns in the Gulf of Mexico as determined by an airborne infrared sensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drennan, Kirby Lee

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AN INVESTIGATION OF SEA SURFACE TF"PERATURE PATTERNS IN THE GULF OF IKXICO AS DETERMINED BY AN AIRBORNE INFRARED SENSOR A Thesis by KIRBY IEE DRENNAN Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas API University in partial tulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of 14IASTER OF SCIENCE August 1967 Physical Oceanography AN INVESTIGATION OF SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE PATIERNS IN THE GULF OF MEXICO AS DETERMINED BY AN AIRBORNE INFRARED SENSOR A Thesis by KIRBY LEE DRENNAN Approved...

  10. Q&A on "Impacts of Wind Farms on Land Surface Temperature" Published by Nature Climate Change on April 29, 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Liming

    1 Q&A on "Impacts of Wind Farms on Land Surface Temperature" Published by Nature Climate Change? This study presents the first observational evidence of wind farm impacts on land surface temperature downwind of wind farms. Why do the operating wind turbines warm nighttime temperature? This warming effect

  11. Statistical Modelling of the Relationship Between Main Development Region Sea Surface Temperature and Atlantic Basin Hurricane Numbers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Binter, R; Khare, S; Binter, Roman; Jewson, Stephen; Khare, Shree

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We are building a hurricane number prediction scheme that relies, in part, on statistical modelling of the empirical relationship between Atlantic sea surface temperatures and Atlantic basin hurricane numbers. We test out a number of simple statistical models for this relationship, using data from 1900 to 2005 and data from 1950 to 2005, and for both all hurricane numbers and intense hurricane numbers.

  12. Algal biomass and sea surface temperature in the Mediterranean Basin Intercomparison of data from various satellite sensors, and implications for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bricaud, Annick

    Algal biomass and sea surface temperature in the Mediterranean Basin Intercomparison of data from and to increasing anthropogenic inputs, is an appropriate test site for observing the evolution of algal biomass progress in the knowledge of spatial and temporal variations in algal biomass in various regions

  13. Role of the tropical Atlantic sea surface temperature in the decadal change of the summer North Atlantic Oscillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    pattern exhibited a traditional distribution with two centers over the North Atlantic. Citation: Sun, JRole of the tropical Atlantic sea surface temperature in the decadal change of the summer North Atlantic Oscillation Jianqi Sun,1,2 Huijun Wang,1,2 and Wei Yuan2,3 Received 1 May 2009; revised 11 July

  14. /II sifu reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy measurements of low temperature surface cleaning for Si molecular beam epitaxy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atwater, Harry

    /II sifu reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy measurements of low temperature surface cleaning for Si molecular beam epitaxy Shouleh Nikzad, Selmer S. Wong, Channing C. Ahn, Aimee L. Smith molecular beam epitaxy system, using reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy, in conjunction

  15. Correlating Radioactive Material to Sea Surface Temperature off the Coast of Japan: The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Disaster

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbes, Fernando

    Correlating Radioactive Material to Sea Surface Temperature off the Coast of Japan: The Fukushima on the island. One of the most devastating results of this was the damage to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant, Fukushima INTRODUCTION On March 11, 2011, Japan suffered a devastating 9.0 Mw earthquake, now known

  16. Ultrahigh vacuum and low-temperature cleaning of oxide surfaces using a low-concentration ozone beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratt, A. [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Graziosi, P.; Bergenti, I.; Dediu, A. [CNR – ISMN, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche – Istituto per lo Studio dei Materiali Nanostrutturati, v. Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Prezioso, M. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Harold Frank Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Yamauchi, Y., E-mail: yamauchi.yasushi@nims.go.jp [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a novel method of delivering a low-concentration (<15%) ozone beam to an ultra-high vacuum environment for the purpose of cleaning and dosing experimental samples through oxidation processing. The system described is safe, low-cost, and practical and overcomes the limitations of ozone transport in the molecular flow environment of high or ultrahigh vacuum whilst circumventing the use of pure ozone gas which is potentially highly explosive. The effectiveness of this method in removing surface contamination is demonstrated through comparison of high-temperature annealing of a simple oxide (MgO) in ozone and oxygen environments as monitored using quadrupole mass spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy. Additionally, we demonstrate the potential of ozone for obtaining clean complex oxide surfaces without the need for high-temperature annealing which may significantly alter surface structure.

  17. The role of hydrogen in room-temperature ferromagnetism at graphite surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ohldag, H.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    B, 70:235106, 2004. The role of hydrogen in room-temperatureThe role of hydrogen in room-temperature ferromagnetism atto carbon ? states, also hydrogen-mediated electronic states

  18. Areas of Anomalous Surface Temperature in Alamosa and Saguache Counties, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Alamosa Saguache Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Alamosa and Saguache Counties identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4217727.601630 m Left: 394390.400264 m Right: 460179.841813 m Bottom: 4156258.036086 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  19. SILICON PROCESSING 1. THE TRUE SURFACE TEMPERATURE OF A SILICON WAFER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    this temperature rises- moderately and sooner or later, depending on RF- power and gas pressure, it levels off

  20. Rotational and gas temperatures in a surface conversion negative ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de Graaf, M.J.; Qing, Z.; van Rooij, G.; van de Sanden, M.C.M.; Schram, D.C. (Eindhoven University of Technology, Physics Department, P. O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)); Heeren, R.M.A.; Kleyn, A.W. (FOM Institute for Atomic and Molecular Physics, Kruislaan 407, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands))

    1992-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The Fulcher band emission spectrum is used to determine rotational temperatures in the FOMSCE plasma setup. The measured temperatures are found to vary from 500 to 700 K, whereas usually in this kind of plasmas they are very close to room temperature. In this paper the interpretation of the spectra will be discussed. The influence of some plasma settings on the measured temperature will be presented.

  1. Anomalous Phonon Behavior: Blueshift of the Surface Boson Peak in Silica Glass with Increasing Temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manson, Joseph R.

    Surface et Interface du Verre, UMR 125 CNRS/ Saint-Gobain, 39 Quai Lucien Lefranc, 93303 Aubervilliers

  2. Interactions between Mica Surfaces in a Polystyrene-Cyclopentane Solution Near the O-Temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klein, Jacob

    'ACOV ALMOG* AND JACOB KLEIN*'t 'l *Polymer Department, Weizmann Institute, Rehovot, lsrael, and t of distance D between the surfaces (4-7). Thus two mica surfaces bearing ad- sorbed polystyrene in cyclohexane approach (6). On the other hand, when the surfaces bear ad- sorbed polyethylene oxide in an aqueous

  3. The relationship of sea surface temperatures of the Gulf of Mexico and adjacent Atlantic Ocean to precipitation in Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamberger, Lawrence Wayne

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    +?&1 -24 +23 -39 +39 -36 9 36 -30 -I-30 -57 +58 -28 +30 -31 r32 -48 +48 -29 +29 -54 +53 -28 +27 -35 +35 ? 39 +40 -43 +43 -2. 3 -2. 8 -2. 2 +0. 2 +0. 4 +0. 3 -62. 2 +3. 5 +2. 5 +0. 5 -0. 2 -1. 9 -2. 4 +0. 3 +?. 7 -0. 5 -28.... ACKNOVLEDGNENTS TABI, E OF CONTENTS LIST OP TABLES. I. IST OF FIGURES 1NTRODUCTION. viii Identiix ing thc Investivat ion. ~Oh 'oct ives Lit r: t?rc Pcview, DATA SOURCES AND ACCURACY Sea Surfac e Temperature Data 18 Accurac~ of Sca Surface Te~m erarurc...

  4. Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeMaio, Ernest Vincent, 1964-

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Surfaces is a collection of four individual essays which focus on the characteristics and tactile qualities of surfaces within a variety of perceived landscapes. Each essay concentrates on a unique surface theme and purpose; ...

  5. Sulfurization of carbon surface for vapor phase mercury removal I: Effect of temperature and sulfurization protocol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borguet, Eric

    with the decomposition of surface functionalities, which creates active sites for sulfur bonding. The presence of H2S2S adsorption, and that surface chemistry played a significant role in the uptake of H2S. Mikhalovsky and Zaitsev [9] showed that H2S adsorption from an inert atmosphere on activated carbons resulted

  6. An Evaluation of the Impact of Surface Coatings on the Heat Transfer in High Temperature Ceramic Recuperators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guerrero, P. S.; Rebello, W. J.; Federer, J. I.

    AN EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF SURFACE COATINGS ON THE HEAT TRANSFER IN HIGH TEMPERATURE CERAMIC RECUPERATORS PABLO S. GUERRERO WILFRED J. REBELLO PAR Enterprises, Inc., Fairfax, VA and J. I. FEDERER Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak... these furnaces may contain sodium, potassium, halides, etc. that may attack SiC. protective coatings, such as alumina. zirconia and others, have been investigated as a means of increasing the life and reliability of these SiC recuperators. The objective...

  7. Statistical Modelling of the Relationship Between Main Development Region Sea Surface Temperature and \\emph{Landfalling} Atlantic Basin Hurricane Numbers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Binter, R; Khare, S; Binter, Roman; Jewson, Stephen; Khare, Shree

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We are building a hurricane number prediction scheme that relies, in part, on statistical modelling of the empirical relationship between Atlantic sea surface temperatures and landfalling hurricane numbers. We test out a number of simple statistical models for that relationship, using data from 1900 to 2005 and data from 1950 to 2005, and for both all hurricane numbers and intense hurricane numbers. The results are very different from the corresponding analysis for basin hurricane numbers.

  8. Temperature dependence of the reactivity of OH(X[sup 2][Pi]) with oxidized silicon nitride and PMMA film surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisher, E.R.; Ho, P.; Breiland, W.G.; Buss, R.J. (Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

    1993-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The reactivity of OH(X[sup 2][Pi]) with the surface of both an oxidized silicon nitride film and a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) film is measured to be 0.60 [+-] 0.05 at room temperature. The reactivity of OH with oxidized Si[sub 3]N[sub 4] substrates displays an inverse dependence on substrate temperature, decreasing to approximately 0 at temperatures above 500 K. The reactivity is determined directly using spatially resolved laser-induced fluorescence of OH in a plasma-generated molecular beam incident on the surface. The desorbed OH has a cosine angular distribution. No evidence for a dependence of reactivity on rotational state of the OH was observed. The reactivity of OH with a PMMA film is also explored using different gas compositions in the plasma beam source. Exposure of the PMMA surface to O[sub 2] and O[sub 2]/CF[sub 4] plasmas results in the generation and desorption of OH. 45 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Experimental & Numerical Investigation of Pool Boiling on Engineered Surfaces with Integrated Thin-flim Temperature Sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathyamurthi, Vijaykumar

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    of subcooling and micro/nano-scale surface texturing using MWCNT coatings on the dynamics of pool boiling is assessed. Dynamic invariants such as correlation dimensions and Lyapunov spectrum are evaluated for the reconstructed attractor. A non-linear noise...

  10. GSOD Based Daily Global Mean Surface Temperature and Mean Sea Level Air Pressure (1982-2011)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xuan Shi, Dali Wang

    2014-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This data product contains all the gridded data set at 1/4 degree resolution in ASCII format. Both mean temperature and mean sea level air pressure data are available. It also contains the GSOD data (1982-2011) from NOAA site, contains station number, location, temperature and pressures (sea level and station level). The data package also contains information related to the data processing methods

  11. GSOD Based Daily Global Mean Surface Temperature and Mean Sea Level Air Pressure (1982-2011)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Xuan Shi, Dali Wang

    This data product contains all the gridded data set at 1/4 degree resolution in ASCII format. Both mean temperature and mean sea level air pressure data are available. It also contains the GSOD data (1982-2011) from NOAA site, contains station number, location, temperature and pressures (sea level and station level). The data package also contains information related to the data processing methods

  12. On-chip temperature-compensated Love mode surface acoustic wave device for gravimetric sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Q.; Flewitt, A. J.

    2014-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    is to embed a thermistor in to the microfluidic chamber to measure the temperature variation and feed this back to a ceramic heater to control the device temperature,10 but this method is complicated to fabricate and is still very difficult to guarantee a... µl water droplet is placed on or close to the IDTs as a function of distance (0 is when the edge of the drop is just touching the input IDTs, positive distances represent a gap between the drop edge and the IDT, and negative distances represent...

  13. The Gulf Stream and Atlantic Sea-Surface Temperatures in AD1790-1825

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schrier, Gerard van der

    eastern South Atlantic, anomalously high temperatures are found, while temper- atures in the south western-level pressure (SLP) indicate that over Europe an anomalous low was found over the Balkan area and an anomalous would persist into the summer season and would contribute to cool western European summers. Bjerknes

  14. SURFACE TEMPERATURE OF PROTOPLANETARY DISKS PROBED BY ANNEALING EXPERIMENTS REFLECTING SPITZER OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roskosz, Mathieu; Gillot, Jessy; Leroux, Hugues [Laboratoire de Structure et Proprietes de l'Etat Solide, Universite de Lille1, CNRS, UMR 8008, 59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq (France); Capet, Frederic; Roussel, Pascal, E-mail: mathieu.roskosz@univ-lille1.f [Unite de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide, Universite de Lille1, CNRS, UMR 8181, 59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq (France)

    2009-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Pyroxenes and olivines are the dominant crystalline silicates observed in protoplanetary disks. Recent spectral observations from the Spitzer Space Telescope indicate that the abundance of olivine, generally associated with silica polymorphs, relative to pyroxene is higher in the outer cold part of the disk than in the inner warmer part. The interpretation of these unexpected results requires a comprehensive knowledge of the thermal processing of Mg-rich silicate dust. In this respect, amorphous analogs were thermally annealed to identify microscopic crystallization mechanisms. We show that pyroxenes are not produced in significant proportions below the glass transition temperature of the amorphous precursor. The annealing of amorphous enstatite leads to a mineralogical assemblage dominated by forsterite, with only minute amounts of pyroxenes at temperatures as high as the glass transition temperature of enstatite (1050 K). The decoupling of cation mobility in amorphous silicates, favors the crystallization of the most Mg-enriched silicates. These results are consistent with Spitzer observations of silicate dust and also with the documented mineralogy of presolar silicates, making the low-temperature annealing a likely formation process for these objects. Based on these laboratory experiments and Spitzer observations, it appears that the reported zoned mineralogy may directly records and calibrates the thermal gradient at the scale of protoplanetary disks.

  15. Diurnal cycle of land surface temperature in a desert encroachment zone as observed from satellites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Donglian

    Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) that are limited in their ability to capture the full diurnal) project and the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program, the ARM Mobile of the surface from satellites are possible. Infrared radiometers on polar orbiting satellites have been used

  16. Evaluation of Satellite Estimates of Land Surface Temperature from GOES over the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Donglian

    , and it is an indicator of the energy balance at the earth's surface (Sellers et al. 1988). LST retrievals are more for several decades. The focus was on polar-orbiting systems, such as the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), because of global coverage

  17. Interpolation of surface radiative temperature measured from polar orbiting satellites to a diurnal cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jin, Menglin

    . Instruments on polar orbiting satellites, such as advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) or Moderate. This approach is based on the surface energy balance with the soil heat flux being treated by a conventional in temperate and tropical regions, observed empirical relationships between solar radiative energy and skin

  18. Submitted to Journal of Physical Oceanography Sea Surface Temperature Variability Along the Path of the Antarctic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Czaja, Arnaud

    level pressure and air-sea heat fluxes. It is found that a significant fraction of SST variability) and remote forcing by ENSO. The physical mechanisms rely on the interplay between atmospheric variability the South Pa- cific, inducing surface heat fluxes (Fs) and Ekman heat advection (Fek) anomalies. A simple

  19. C-H surface diamond field effect transistors for high temperature (400?°C) and high voltage (500?V) operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kawarada, H., E-mail: kawarada@waseda.jp [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Institute of Nano-Science and Nano-Engineering, Waseda University, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Kagami Memorial Laboratory for Material Science and Technology, Waseda University, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-0051 (Japan); Tsuboi, H.; Naruo, T.; Yamada, T.; Xu, D.; Daicho, A.; Saito, T. [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Hiraiwa, A. [Institute of Nano-Science and Nano-Engineering, Waseda University, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)

    2014-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    By forming a highly stable Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} gate oxide on a C-H bonded channel of diamond, high-temperature, and high-voltage metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) has been realized. From room temperature to 400?°C (673?K), the variation of maximum drain-current is within 30% at a given gate bias. The maximum breakdown voltage (V{sub B}) of the MOSFET without a field plate is 600?V at a gate-drain distance (L{sub GD}) of 7 ?m. We fabricated some MOSFETs for which V{sub B}/L{sub GD}?>?100?V/?m. These values are comparable to those of lateral SiC or GaN FETs. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was deposited on the C-H surface by atomic layer deposition (ALD) at 450?°C using H{sub 2}O as an oxidant. The ALD at relatively high temperature results in stable p-type conduction and FET operation at 400?°C in vacuum. The drain current density and transconductance normalized by the gate width are almost constant from room temperature to 400?°C in vacuum and are about 10 times higher than those of boron-doped diamond FETs.

  20. Surface temperature: A key parameter to control the propanethiol plasma polymer chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thiry, Damien, E-mail: damien.thiry@umons.ac.be; Aparicio, Francisco J. [Chimie des Interactions Plasma Surface (ChIPS), CIRMAP, Université de Mons, 23 Place du Parc, B-7000 Mons (Belgium); Laha, Priya; Terryn, Herman [Research Group Electrochemical and Surface Engineering (SURF), Department of Materials and Chemistry (MACH), Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussel (Belgium); Snyders, Rony [Chimie des Interactions Plasma Surface (ChIPS), CIRMAP, Université de Mons, 23 Place du Parc, B-7000 Mons, Belgium and Materia Nova Research Center, Parc Initialis, B-7000 Mons (Belgium)

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, the influence of the substrate temperature (T{sub s}) on the chemical composition of propanethiol plasma polymers was investigated for a given set of plasma conditions. In a first study, a decrease in the atomic sulfur content (at. %S) with the deposition time (t{sub d}) was observed. This behavior is explained by the heating of the growing film during deposition process, limiting the incorporation of stable sulfur-based molecules produced in the plasma. Experiments carried out by controlling the substrate temperature support this hypothesis. On the other hand, an empirical law relating the T{sub s} and the at. %S was established. This allows for the formation of gradient layer presenting a heterogeneous chemical composition along the thickness, as determined by depth profile analysis combining X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and C{sub 60} ion gun sputtering. The experimental data fit with the one predicted from our empiric description. The whole set of our results provide new insights in the relationship between the substrate temperature and the sulfur content in sulfur-based plasma polymers, essential for future developments.

  1. Global study of lake surface water temperature (LSWT) behaviour and the tuning of a 1-dimensional model to determine the LSWTs of large lakes worldwide 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Layden, Aisling

    2014-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Lake surface water temperatures (LSWTs) of 246 globally distributed large lakes were derived from Along-Track Scanning Radiometers (ATSR) for the period 1991 to 2011. These LSWTs, derived in a systematic manner, presents ...

  2. Using Thermally-Degrading, Partitioning, and Nonreactive Tracers to Determine Temperature Distribution and Fracture/Heat Transfer Surface Area in Geothermal Reservoirs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Geothermal Peer Review 2010 - Project Summary. The goal of this project is to provide integrated tracer and tracer interpretation tools to facilitate quantitative characterization of temperature distributions and surface area available for heat transfer in EGS.

  3. The use of the probability distribution function to analyze surface temperature fluctuations in pool boiling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tu, Chau Qui

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    accepted. 3. Mass-transfer model: As early as 1952, the possi- 1. 1 bi) ity of mass transfer across the bubble was visualized oy Snyder and presented at a conference in 1856 for the ca. , e of subcool ed nucleate boiling in forced convection l qf. He... heat transfer in forced convection, found negligible latent heat transport compared to the total heat transferred from the heated surface. Ruling out the latent heat transport as major factor, they attributed the high heat transfer in boiling...

  4. Surface Anchoring of Nematic Phase on Carbon Nanotubes: Nanostructure of Ultra-High Temperature Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogale, Amod A

    2012-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear energy is a dependable and economical source of electricity. Because fuel supply sources are available domestically, nuclear energy can be a strong domestic industry that can reduce dependence on foreign energy sources. Commercial nuclear power plants have extensive security measures to protect the facility from intruders [1]. However, additional research efforts are needed to increase the inherent process safety of nuclear energy plants to protect the public in the event of a reactor malfunction. The next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) is envisioned to utilize a very high temperature reactor (VHTR) design with an operating temperature of 650-1000�°C [2]. One of the most important safety design requirements for this reactor is that it must be inherently safe, i.e., the reactor must shut down safely in the event that the coolant flow is interrupted [2]. This next-generation Gen IV reactor must operate in an inherently safe mode where the off-normal temperatures may reach 1500�°C due to coolant-flow interruption. Metallic alloys used currently in reactor internals will melt at such temperatures. Structural materials that will not melt at such ultra-high temperatures are carbon/graphtic fibers and carbon-matrix composites. Graphite does not have a measurable melting point; it is known to sublime starting about 3300�°C. However, neutron radiation-damage effects on carbon fibers are poorly understood. Therefore, the goal of this project is to obtain a fundamental understanding of the role of nanotexture on the properties of resulting carbon fibers and their neutron-damage characteristics. Although polygranular graphite has been used in nuclear environment for almost fifty years, it is not suitable for structural applications because it do not possess adequate strength, stiffness, or toughness that is required of structural components such as reaction control-rods, upper plenum shroud, and lower core-support plate [2,3]. For structural purposes, composites consisting of strong carbon fibers embedded in a carbon matrix are needed. Such carbon/carbon (C/C) composites have been used in aerospace industry to produce missile nose cones, space shuttle leading edge, and aircraft brake-pads. However, radiation-tolerance of such materials is not adequately known because only limited radiation studies have been performed on C/C composites, which suggest that pitch-based carbon fibers have better dimensional stability than that of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) based fibers [4]. The thermodynamically-stable state of graphitic crystalline packing of carbon atoms derived from mesophase pitch leads to a greater stability during neutron irradiation [5]. The specific objectives of this project were: (i) to generating novel carbonaceous nanostructures, (ii) measure extent of graphitic crystallinity and the extent of anisotropy, and (iii) collaborate with the Carbon Materials group at Oak Ridge National Lab to have neutron irradiation studies and post-irradiation examinations conducted on the carbon fibers produced in this research project.

  5. Will heat from the pipeline affect groundwater and surface water? Response by Professor James Goeke The temperature of a pipeline buried 4 feet would

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    of the pipeline as a way to check for leaks? Do you have any specific concerns regarding oil or natural gas1 Water Will heat from the pipeline affect groundwater and surface water? Response by Professor James Goeke ­ The temperature of a pipeline buried 4 feet would probably affect surface water

  6. Analysis of effect of temperature gradients on surface-tension phenomena in gas-tungsten-arc welds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, H.A.; Chien, P.S.J.

    1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluid motion directed by surface tension is considered as a contributor to heat penetration in a weld pool. The potential phenomena at the gas-liquid interface were analyzed, and the dependence of surface motion on temperature in the gas-tungsten-arc (GTA) welding process was examined. An existing heat-transfer model was used and was able to predict weld size to +- 50% of the actual value. A momentum-transfer equation was derived by considering the contribution of Lorentz force. The momentum boundary condition was developed and was able to predict the Marangoni effect. The magnitude of surface-tension-driven force is comparable to the gravitational force on one gram. An empirical approach was proposed to couple heat-transfer and momentum-transfer phenomena. A dimensional analysis identified the pertinent dimensionless groups as Reynolds, Weber, Froude, Peclet, and Power numbers and a dimensionless velocity. A simplified form of the correction was developed by combining dimensionless groups to yield a correlation with the Bond, Prandtl, and modified power numbers. Future experimental work was proposed to test the functionality of the dimensionless groups.

  7. Electro-catalytically Active, High Surface Area Cathodes for Low Temperature SOFCs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric D. Wachsman

    2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This research focused on developing low polarization (area specific resistance, ASR) cathodes for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs). In order to accomplish this we focused on two aspects of cathode development: (1) development of novel materials; and (2) developing the relationships between microstructure and electrochemical performance. The materials investigated ranged from Ag-bismuth oxide composites (which had the lowest reported ASR at the beginning of this contract) to a series of pyrochlore structured ruthenates (Bi{sub 2-x}M{sub x}Ru{sub 2}O{sub 7}, where M = Sr, Ca, Ag; Pb{sub 2}Ru{sub 2}O{sub 6.5}; and Y{sub 2-2x}Pr{sub 2x}Ru{sub 2}O{sub 7}), to composites of the pyrochlore ruthenates with bismuth oxide. To understand the role of microstructure on electrochemical performance, we optimized the Ag-bismuth oxide and the ruthenate-bismuth oxide composites in terms of both two-phase composition and particle size/microstructure. We further investigated the role of thickness and current collector on ASR. Finally, we investigated issues of stability and found the materials investigated did not form deleterious phases at the cathode/electrolyte interface. Further, we established the ability through particle size modification to limit microstructural decay, thus, enhancing stability. The resulting Ag-Bi{sub 0.8}Er{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.5} and Bi{sub 2}Ru{sub 2}O{sub 7{sup -}}Bi{sub 0.8}Er{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.5} composite cathodes had ASRs of 1.0 {Omega} cm{sup 2} and 0.73 {Omega}cm{sup 2} at 500 C and 0.048 {Omega}cm{sup 2} and 0.053 {Omega}cm{sup 2} at 650 C, respectively. These ASRs are truly impressive and makes them among the lowest IT-SOFC ASRs reported to date.

  8. High Dispersion Spectroscopy of Solar-type Superflare Stars. I. Temperature, Surface Gravity, Metallicity, and $v \\sin i$

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Notsu, Yuta; Maehara, Hiroyuki; Notsu, Shota; Shibayama, Takuya; Nogami, Daisaku; Shibata, Kazunari

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We conducted high dispersion spectroscopic observations of 50 superflare stars with Subaru/HDS, and measured the stellar parameters of them. These 50 targets were selected from the solar-type (G-type main sequence) superflare stars that we had discovered from the Kepler photometric data. As a result of these spectroscopic observations, we found that more than half (34 stars) of our 50 targets have no evidence of binary system. We then estimated effective temperature ($T_{\\rm{eff}}$), surface gravity ($\\log g$), metallicity ([Fe/H]), and projected rotational velocity ($v\\sin i$) of these 34 superflare stars on the basis of our spectroscopic data. The accuracy of our estimations is higher than that of Kepler Input Catalog (KIC) values, and the differences between our values and KIC values ($(\\Delta T_{\\rm{eff}})_{\\rm{rms}} \\sim 219$K, $(\\Delta \\log g)_{\\rm{rms}} \\sim 0.37$ dex, and $(\\Delta\\rm{[Fe/H]})_{\\rm{rms}} \\sim 0.46$ dex) are comparable to the large uncertainties and systematic differences of KIC values ...

  9. Effects of urban land cover modifications in a mesoscale meteorological model on surface temperature and heat fluxes in the Phoenix metropolitan area.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Sharon J.

    in the modeling domain was calculated as part of the energy balance equation according to: E = a C CuM[qs(Tg) -qs MM5. The single urban category in the existing 25-category United States Geological Survey (USGS surface energy fluxes and ground temperature. Planetary boundary layer processes were included via the MRF

  10. Oxynitrided Surface Layer Produced On Ti6Al4V Titanium Alloy Under Low Temperature Glow Discharge Conditions For Medical Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wierzchon, T.; Ossowski, M.; Borowski, T. [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, 141 Woloska Str, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland); Morgiel, J. [Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Polish Academy of Science, 25 Reymonta Str, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Czarnowska, E. [Department of Pathology, The Children's Memorial Health Institute, 20 Dzieci Polskich Av., 04-730 Warsaw (Poland)

    2011-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    In spite that titanium oxides increase biocompatibility of titanium implants but their functional life is limited due to the problems arising from brittles and metalosis. Therefore technology, that allow to produce composite surface layer with controlled microstructure, chemical and phase composition and surface morphology on titanium alloy and eliminates the oxides disadvantages has been existing till now is searched. The requirements of titanium and its alloys implants can be fulfill by the low-temperature glow discharge assisted oxynitriding.The paper describes the surface layer of TiO{sub 2}+TiN+Ti{sub 2}N+{alpha}Ti(N) type produced at temperature 680 deg. C that preserves mechanical properties of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V. Characteristics of produced diffusion multi-phase surface layers in range of phase composition, microstructure (SEM, TEM, XRD) and its properties, such as frictional wear resistance are presented. The biological properties in dependency to the applied sterilization method are also analyzed.Properties of produced surface layers are discussed with reference to titanium alloy. The obtained data show that produced surface layers improves titanium alloy properties both frictional wear and biological. Preliminary in vitro examinations show good biocompatibility and antithrombogenic properties.

  11. Land surface skin temperatures from a combined analysis of microwave and infrared satellite observations for an all-weather

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    are homogeneous over large scales, with nearly constant albe- dos, high heat capacity, and infinite moisture supply. In contrast, land surfaces are highly variable in space, have lower heat capacity and limited vapor, cloud liquid water, and surface emissivities over land from a combined analysis of Special Sensor

  12. Temperature-dependent tensile strength, surface roughness diagnostics, and magnetic support and positioning of polymer ICF shells. Final report, October 1, 1993--April 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Honig, A.

    1995-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    During the course of this grant, we perfected emissivity and accommodation coefficient measurements on polymer ICF shells in the temperature range 250 to 350 K. Values for polystyrene shells are generally between 10{sup -2} and 10{sup -3}, which are very advantageous for ICF at cryogenic temperatures. Preliminary results on Br doped target shells indicate an accommodation coefficient, presumably associated with surface roughness on an atomic scale, about an order of magnitude larger than for ordinary polystyrene target shells. We also constructed apparatus with optical access for low temperature tensile strength and emissivity measurements, and made preliminary tests on this system. Magnetic shells were obtained both from GDP coating and from doping styrene with 10 manometer size ferromagnetic particles. The magnetic properties were measured through electron spin resonance (ESR). These experiments confirm the applicability of the Curie law, and establish the validity of using ESR measurements to determine shell temperature in the low temperature regime from 4K to 250K, thus complementing our presently accessible range. The high electron spin densities (> 10{sup 20}/CM{sup 3}) suggest magnetic levitation should be feasible at cryogenic temperatures. This work has resulted in two conference presentations, a Technical Report, a paper to be published in Fusion Technology, and a Master`s Thesis.

  13. High Temperature Oxidation Resistance and Surface Electrical Conductivity of Stainless Steels with Filtered Arc Cr-Al-N Multilayer and/or Superlattice Coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gannon, Paul E.; Tripp, C.; Knospe, Anders; Ramana, C. V.; Deibert, Max; Smith, Richard J.; Gorokhovsky, Vladimir I.; Shutthanandan, V.; Gelles, David S.

    2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The requirements for low cost and high-tempurater corrosion resistance for bipolar interconnect plates in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks has directed attention to the use of metal plates with oxidation resistant coatings. Candidate coatings must exhibit chemical and thermal-mechanical stability and high electrical conductivity during long-term (>400,000 hrs) exposure to SOFC operatong conditions. The high temperature oxidation resistance and surface electrical donductivity of 304, 440A,a dn Crofer-22 APU steel coupons, with and without multilayer and/or superlattice coatings from a Cr-Al-N system were investigated as a function of exposure in an oxidization atmosphere at high temperatures. The coatins were deposited using large area filtered arc depsition (LAFAD) technology [1], and subsequently annealed in air at 800 degrees C for varying times. Area specific resistance and activation energy for electrical conductivity of oxidized coupons were measured using a 4-point technique with Pt paste for electrical contact between facing oxidized coupon surfaces. The surface compositon, structure and morphology of the coupons were characterized using RBS, nuclear reaction analysis, XPS, SEM, and AFM techniques. The structure of the CRN/CrAlN multilayered superlattice coatings was characterized by TEM. By altering the architecture of the coating layers, both surface electrical conductivity and oxidation resistance [2] improved signigicantly for some of the coated samples tested up to ~100hrs.

  14. In situ atomic force microscope study of high-temperature untwinning surface relief in Mn-Fe-Cu antiferromagnetic shape memory alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, L.; Cui, Y. G.; Wan, J. F.; Rong, Y. H.; Zhang, J. H.; Jin, X.; Cai, M. M. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)] [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2013-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The N-type untwinning surface relief associated with the fcc {r_reversible} fct martensitic transformation (MT) was observed in the Mn{sub 81.5}Fe{sub 14.0}Cu{sub 4.5} antiferromagnetic high-temperature shape memory alloy (SMA) by in situ atomic force microscopy. The measured untwinning relief angles ({theta}{sub {alpha}} Double-Vertical-Line {theta}{sub {beta}}) at the ridge and at the valley were different, and both angles were less than the conventional values. The surface relief exhibited good reversibility during heating and cooling because of the crystallographic reversibility of thermal-elastic SMAs. Untwinning shear was proposed as the main mechanism of the N-type surface relief. The order of the reverse MT was discussed based on the experimental measurements.

  15. Low-Temperature Synthesis of Anatase TiO[subscript 2] Nanoparticles with Tunable Surface Charges for Enhancing Photocatalytic Activity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Ye

    In this work, the positively or negatively charged anatase TiO[subscript 2] nanoparticles were synthesized via a low temperature precipitation-peptization process (LTPPP) in the presence of poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) and ...

  16. Impact of Hillslope-Scale Organization of Topography, Soil Moisture, Soil Temperature, and Vegetation on Modeling Surface Microwave Radiation Emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flores, Alejandro N.

    Microwave radiometry will emerge as an important tool for global remote sensing of near-surface soil moisture in the coming decade. In this modeling study, we find that hillslope-scale topography (tens of meters) influences ...

  17. PTG exam 9 April 2014 short answers 123. Heat given off = surface * heat transfer coefficient * temperature = A * h * T

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    depends on Grnumber Gr = gL3 T/2 = 1,09109 , with given (~ 1/T), and L = 0.75 m. GrPr = 0,78109 > 108 . Nu (average for surface) = 0,13(GrPr)1/3 = 119 gives h (average for surface) = 4,14 W/m2 K Finally this gives with A = 2,25 m2 , heat given off = 186,3 W. 124. Using the steam tables

  18. Magnetic transitions driven by temperature in surface oxidized Co{sub 0.10}Ni{sub 0.90}/Cu(001) ultrathin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shih, Ying-Ta; Shen, Wen-He; Lee, Kuo-Long; Pan, Wei, E-mail: weipane@gmail.com [Department of Physics, National Chung Cheng University, Min-Hsiung, Chia-Yi 621, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Physics, National Chung Cheng University, Min-Hsiung, Chia-Yi 621, Taiwan (China)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The magnetization of Co{sub 0.10}Ni{sub 0.90}/Cu(001) films before and after surface oxidization at 300 K is presented. Before the oxidization, the magnetization of the films in the thickness of 11 to 20 monolayers (ML) is in the in-plane direction at the temperature ranging from 140 K to 300 K. After the oxidization, the magnetizations of the films are in the in-plane direction at the temperature above 200 K, but transit to magnetization demolishment, in-plane-and-out-of-plane co-existence, spin reorientation transition, and coercivity enhancement, for films of 11, 12, 13, and above 15 ML, respectively. The blocking temperature of this film is also 200 K, which implies the transitions might be driven by the ordering of the antiferromagnetic surface oxides. The various magnetizations provide a model system for manipulating the magnetization direction, as well as a spin valve device by combination of the oxidized films.

  19. The emissions of gases from abandoned mines: role of atmospheric pressure changes and air temperature on the surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    pressure were monitored. Gas flow can be influenced mainly by the temperature difference between external pressure influences gas flow in the coal mines, which can be considered as closed systems. Modelling has confirmed the differential pressure value measured that exceeds friction losses. Key words Mine gas emission

  20. A 28-ka history of sea surface temperature, primary productivity and planktonic community variability in the western Arabian Sea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    resulted in deep convective mixing, cold SSTs and enhanced primary productivity. In contrast, postdeglacial the northern Indian Ocean and central Asia is a major feature of the Earth's climate. During summer Africa to the Indian subcontinent. As the Tibetan Plateau is heated, a gradient of temperature

  1. An investigation of the relationships between rainfall in northeast Brazil and sea surface temperatures of the equatorial regions of the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cochrane, Marvin Arthur

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ;"V IL FEST? GATION OF THE R). LATIONSHIPS BET))'EFN RATNFAI. L IN NOR'I'llL 'EST BRAZIL AND SEA SL'Rl'ACE TFI!PERAT)JRES CF TIIF. Eq?IA'I'ORIA), RFGIONS OF THE PACIFIC AVL' ATLANITIC OCEANS A TI?csiS OV M "u?'v'I N ARTIIL)R COCHRANE Suhrafr...Mcmli c r) / ~g. ember) (Member) May 1977 ABSTRACT An Investigation of the Relationships between Rainfall in Northeast Brazil and Sca Surface Temperatures of the Equatorial Rcgi. ons of the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans (IJay 1977) . Marvin Arthur...

  2. Cross-spectral study of the spatial relationships in the North Pacific sea-surface temperature anomaly field. Report No. 23

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Middleton, J.W.

    1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cross-spectral analysis is used to examine the dependence of the temporal covariation of sea-surface temperature (SST) anomalies at pairs of spatially separated points in the North Pacific on (1) the time scale of the variations, (2) the relative displacement of the points and (3) their location within the North Pacific basin. Spatial scales considered here range from 1000 kilometers up to the width of the basin. The study focuses on cross-spectral estimates for the interannual frequency band, 0.125-0.75 yr/sup -1/ although estimates for three other bands spanning higher frequencies are also examined.

  3. Surface characterizatin of palladium-alumina sorbents for high-temperature capture of mercury and arsenic from fuel gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baltrus, J.P.; Granite, E.J.; Pennline, H.W.; Stanko, D.; Hamilton, H.; Rowsell, L.; Poulston, S.; Smith, A.; Chu, W.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal gasification with subsequent cleanup of the resulting fuel gas is a way to reduce the impact of mercury and arsenic in the environment during power generation and on downstream catalytic processes in chemical production, The interactions of mercury and arsenic with PdlAl2D3 model thin film sorbents and PdlAh03 powders have been studied to determine the relative affinities of palladium for mercury and arsenic, and how they are affected by temperature and the presence of hydrogen sulfide in the fuel gas. The implications of the results on strategies for capturing the toxic metals using a sorbent bed are discussed.

  4. A KNOWLEDGE DISCOVERY STRATEGY FOR RELATING SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURES TO FREQUENCIES OF TROPICAL STORMS AND GENERATING PREDICTIONS OF HURRICANES UNDER 21ST-CENTURY GLOBAL WARMING SCENARIOS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Race, Caitlin [University of Minnesota; Steinbach, Michael [University of Minnesota; Ganguly, Auroop R [ORNL; Semazzi, Fred [North Carolina State University; Kumar, Vipin [University of Minnesota

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The connections among greenhouse-gas emissions scenarios, global warming, and frequencies of hurricanes or tropical cyclones are among the least understood in climate science but among the most fiercely debated in the context of adaptation decisions or mitigation policies. Here we show that a knowledge discovery strategy, which leverages observations and climate model simulations, offers the promise of developing credible projections of tropical cyclones based on sea surface temperatures (SST) in a warming environment. While this study motivates the development of new methodologies in statistics and data mining, the ability to solve challenging climate science problems with innovative combinations of traditional and state-of-the-art methods is demonstrated. Here we develop new insights, albeit in a proof-of-concept sense, on the relationship between sea surface temperatures and hurricane frequencies, and generate the most likely projections with uncertainty bounds for storm counts in the 21st-century warming environment based in turn on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emissions Scenarios. Our preliminary insights point to the benefits that can be achieved for climate science and impacts analysis, as well as adaptation and mitigation policies, by a solution strategy that remains tailored to the climate domain and complements physics-based climate model simulations with a combination of existing and new computational and data science approaches.

  5. ARM - Measurement - Sea surface temperature

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDCnarrowband upwellingpolarization ARM Data

  6. ARM - Measurement - Soil surface temperature

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDCnarrowbandheat flux ARM Data Discovery Browse Datasurface

  7. ARM - Measurement - Surface skin temperature

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDCnarrowbandheat flux ARM Data Discovery Browseenergy balance

  8. Heat engines and heat pumps in a hydrostatic atmosphere: How surface pressure and temperature control wind power output and circulation cell size

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Makarieva, A M; Nefiodov, A V; Sheil, D; Nobre, A D; Shearman, P L; Li, B -L

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The gross spatial features of the atmospheric kinetic energy budget are analytically investigated. Kinetic energy generation is evaluated in a hydrostatic atmosphere where the axisymmetric circulation cells are represented by Carnot cycles. The condition that kinetic energy generation is positive in the lower atmosphere is shown to limit the poleward cell extension via a relationship between the meridional differences in surface pressure and temperature $\\Delta p_s$ and $\\Delta T_s$: an upper limit to cell size exists when $\\Delta p_s$ increases sublinearly with $\\Delta T_s$. This is the case for the Hadley cells as demonstrated here using data from MERRA re-analysis. The limited cell size necessitates the appearance of heat pumps -- circulation cells with negative work output where the low-level air moves towards colder areas. These cells consume the positive work output of heat engines -- cells where the low-level air moves towards the warmer areas -- and can in principle drive the global efficiency of atmo...

  9. Design, Construction, and Initial Test of High Spatial Resolution Thermometry Arrays for Detection of Surface Temperature Profiles on SRF Cavities in Super Fluid Helium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ari Palczewski, Rongli Geng, Grigory Eremeev

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We designed and built two high resolution (0.6-0.55mm special resolution [1.1-1.2mm separation]) thermometry arrays prototypes out of the Allen Bradley 90-120 ohm 1/8 watt resistor to measure surface temperature profiles on SRF cavities. One array was designed to be physically flexible and conform to any location on a SRF cavity; the other was modeled after the common G-10/stycast 2850 thermometer and designed to fit on the equator of an ILC (Tesla 1.3GHz) SRF cavity. We will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each array and their construction. In addition we will present a case study of the arrays performance on a real SRF cavity TB9NR001. TB9NR001 presented a unique opportunity to test the performance of each array as it contained a dual (4mm separation) cat eye defect which conventional methods such as OST (Oscillating Superleak second-sound Transducers) and full coverage thermometry mapping were unable to distinguish between. We will discuss the new arrays ability to distinguish between the two defects and their preheating performance.

  10. Influence of low and high temperature coking of H-GaMFI propane aromatization catalyst on its surface and catalytic properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choudhary, V.R.; Kinage, A.K.; Devadas, P. [National Chemical Lab., Pune (India)] [and others] [National Chemical Lab., Pune (India); and others

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    H-Gallosilicate (MFI) (i.e., H-GaMFI) zeolite shows high activity/selectivity in the aromatization of lower alkanes, which is processes of treat practical importance. The high aromatization activity of this catalyst is attributed to its high dehydrogenation activity due to the presence of high dispersed nonframework Ga-oxide species (which are formed during hydrothermal synthesis and/or pretreatments to the zeolite) along with the zeolitic acid sites (or framework Ga), resulting in a bifunctional catalyst. However, this zeolite undergoes fast catalyst deactivation in the propane aromatization. The catalyst deactivation is attributed mainly to the coke formation on the zeolite. Earlier, a few studies have been reported on the deactivation of H-GaMFI zeolite in the propane aromatization. The catalyst deactivation is attributed mainly to the coke formation on the zeolite. Earlier, a few studies have been reported on the deactivation of H-GaMFI zeolite in the propane aromatization at 500-550{degrees}C for a short time-on-stream (10 h). It is interesting to know the effect of catalyst deactivation due to coking in the propane aromatization for much longer periods both at low (at 400{degrees}C) and high (at 550{degrees}C) temperatures on the product selectivity and also on the surface (viz., sorption capacity, acidity/acid strength distribution) and catalytic properties of the zeolite. The present investigation was undertaken for this purpose. 16 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  11. SISGR: Theoretically relating the surface composition of Pt alloys to their performance as the electrocatalysts of low-temperature fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Guofeng

    2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The main goal of this project is to gain fundamental knowledge about the relation between surface composition and catalytic performance of Pt alloy catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Specific objectives are: to develop and improve a first-principles based multiscale computation approach to simulating surface segregation phenomena in Pt alloy surfaces; to evaluate the surface electronic structure and catalytic activity of Pt alloy catalysts and; to relate the surface composition to the catalytic performance of Pt alloy catalysts.

  12. The use of Nimbus II High Resolution Infrared (HRIR) data to determine sea-surface temperature in the Gulf of Mexico 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Liang-Yao

    1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    mode temperatures, and the standard deviation (sigma) of the distribution. The results revealed both large- and small-scale features of the T and compare quite favor- SS ably with patterns of T obtained from a research vessel and from SS commercial...) between the T and the mean temperature measured from the satel- lite (T) as a function of both the standard deviation and the mean temperature, T. Calculations were made using each orbit studied as an independent set of data. A total of six sets...

  13. The Impacts of Indirect Soil Moisture Assimilation and Direct Surface Temperature and Humidity Assimilation on a Mesoscale Model Simulation of an Indian

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niyogi, Dev

    Assimilation on a Mesoscale Model Simulation of an Indian Monsoon Depression VINODKUMAR AND A. CHANDRASEKAR-generation Pennsylvania State University­NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5) simulation utilized the humidity and temperature

  14. THE TEMPERATURE-DEPENDENT SURFACE STRUCTURE, COMPOSITION AND ELECTRONIC PROPERTIES OF THE CLEAN SrTiO3(111) CRYSTAL FACE: LEED, AES, ELS AND UPS STUDIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lo, Wei Jen

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CRYSTAL.FACE: LEED, AES, ELS AND UPS STUDIES Wei Jen Lo andtaken Fig. cont'd. Fig. 9. The UPS spectrum of the Ar ionclean SrTi03 surface Fig. 10. The UPS spectrum of the clean,

  15. Investigation of surface inhomogeneity and estimation of the GOES skin temperature assimilation errors of the MM5 implied by the inhomogeneity over Houston metropolitan area

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Sang-Ok

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study developed a parameterization method to investigate the impacts of inhomogeneous land surfaces on mesoscale model simulations using a high-resolution 1-d PBL model. Then, the 1-d PBL model was used to investigate the inhomogeneity...

  16. Surface morphology evolution of m-plane (1100) GaN during molecular beam epitaxy growth: Impact of Ga/N ratio, miscut direction, and growth temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao Jiayi; Tang Liang; Malis, Oana [Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Edmunds, Colin [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Gardner, Geoff [Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); School of Materials Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Manfra, Michael [Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); School of Materials Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

    2013-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a systematic study of morphology evolution of [1100] m-plane GaN grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on free-standing m-plane substrates with small miscut angles towards the -c [0001] and +c [0001] directions under various gallium to nitrogen (Ga/N) ratios at substrate temperatures T = 720 Degree-Sign C and T = 740 Degree-Sign C. The miscut direction, Ga/N ratio, and growth temperature are all shown to have a dramatic impact on morphology. The observed dependence on miscut direction supports the notion of strong anisotropy in the gallium adatom diffusion barrier and growth kinetics. We demonstrate that precise control of Ga/N ratio and substrate temperature yields atomically smooth morphology on substrates oriented towards +c [0001] as well as the more commonly studied -c [0001] miscut substrates.

  17. Comment on "Methodology and results of calculating Central California surface temperature trends: evidence of human-induced climate change?" by Christy et al. (2006)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonfils, C; Duffy, P; Lobell, D

    2006-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding the causes of observed regional temperature trends is essential to projecting the human influences on climate, and the societal impacts of these influences. In their recent study, Christy et al. (2006, hereinafter CRNG06) hypothesized that the presence of irrigated soils is responsible for rapid warming of summer nights occurring in California's Central Valley over the last century (1910-2003), an assumption that rules out any significant effect due to increased greenhouse gases, urbanization, or other factors in this region. We question this interpretation, which is based on an apparent contrast in summer nighttime temperature trends between the San Joaquin Valley ({approx} +0.3 {+-} 0.1 C/decade) and the adjacent western slopes of the Sierra Nevada (-0.25 {+-} 0.15 C/decade), as well as the amplitude, sign and uncertainty of the Sierra nighttime temperature trend itself. We, however, do not dispute the finding of other Sierra and Valley trends. Regarding the veracity of the apparent Sierra nighttime temperature trend, CRNG06 generated the Valley and Sierra time-series using a meticulous procedure that eliminates discontinuities and isolates homogeneous segments in temperature records from 41 weather stations. This procedure yields an apparent cooling of about -0.25 {+-} 0.15 C/decade in the Sierra region. However, because removal of one of the 137 Sierra segments, from the most elevated site (Huntington Lake, 2140m), causes an increase in nighttime temperature trend as large as the trend itself (of +0.25 C/decade, CH06), and leads to a zero trend, the apparent cooling of summer nights in the Sierra regions seems, in fact, largely uncertain.

  18. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 95, NO. C10, PAGES 18,081-18,094,OCTOBER 15, 1990 Surface Patterns in Temperature, Flow, Phytoplankton Biomass, and Species

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurapov, Alexander

    Patterns in Temperature, Flow, Phytoplankton Biomass, and Species Composition in the Coastal Transition enriched in phytoplankton biomass, due to the presence of large diatoms. On the seaward side of the front (jet) we observed relatively warm water where the phytoplankton biomass was low and the diatoms were

  19. Temperature determination using pyrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Breiland, William G. (Albuquerque, NM); Gurary, Alexander I. (Bridgewater, NJ); Boguslavskiy, Vadim (Princeton, NJ)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for determining the temperature of a surface upon which a coating is grown using optical pyrometry by correcting Kirchhoff's law for errors in the emissivity or reflectance measurements associated with the growth of the coating and subsequent changes in the surface thermal emission and heat transfer characteristics. By a calibration process that can be carried out in situ in the chamber where the coating process occurs, an error calibration parameter can be determined that allows more precise determination of the temperature of the surface using optical pyrometry systems. The calibration process needs only to be carried out when the physical characteristics of the coating chamber change.

  20. Temperature, Temperature, Earth, geotherm for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Treiman, Allan H.

    Temperature, Temperature, Earth, geotherm for total global heat flow Venus, geotherm for total global heat flow, 500 Ma #12;Temperature, Temperature, #12;Earth's modern regional continental geotherms Venusian Geotherms, 500 Ma Temperature, Temperature, After Blatt, Tracy, and Owens Petrology #12;Ca2Mg5Si8

  1. Interfacial temperature measurements, high-speed visualization and finite-element simulations of droplet impact and evaporation on a solid surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhardwaj, Rajneesh; Attinger, Daniel

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work is to investigate the coupling of fluid dynamics, heat transfer and mass transfer during the impact and evaporation of droplets on a heated solid substrate. A laser-based thermoreflectance method is used to measure the temperature at the solid-liquid interface, with a time and space resolution of 100 {\\mu}s and 20 {\\mu}m, respectively. Isopropanol droplets with micro- and nanoliter volumes are considered. A finite-element model is used to simulate the transient fluid dynamics and heat transfer during the droplet deposition process, considering the dynamics of wetting as well as Laplace and Marangoni stresses on the liquid-gas boundary. For cases involving evaporation, the diffusion of vapor in the atmosphere is solved numerically, providing an exact boundary condition for the evaporative flux at the droplet-air interface. High-speed visualizations are performed to provide matching parameters for the wetting model used in the simulations. Numerical and experimental results are compar...

  2. Active radiometer for self-calibrated furnace temperature measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woskov, Paul P. (Bedford, MA); Cohn, Daniel R. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Titus, Charles H. (Newtown Square, PA); Wittle, J. Kenneth (Chester Springs, PA); Surma, Jeffrey E. (Kennewick, WA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiometer with a probe beam superimposed on its field-of-view for furnace temperature measurements. The radiometer includes a heterodyne millimeter/submillimeter-wave receiver including a millimeter/submillimeter-wave source for probing. The receiver is adapted to receive radiation from a surface whose temperature is to be measured. The radiation includes a surface emission portion and a surface reflection portion which includes the probe beam energy reflected from the surface. The surface emission portion is related to the surface temperature and the surface reflection portion is related to the emissivity of the surface. The simultaneous measurement of surface emissivity serves as a real time calibration of the temperature measurement.

  3. Integrated Emissivity And Temperature Measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poulsen, Peter (Livermore, CA)

    2005-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A multi-channel spectrometer and a light source are used to measure both the emitted and the reflected light from a surface which is at an elevated temperature relative to its environment. In a first method, the temperature of the surface and emissivity in each wavelength is calculated from a knowledge of the spectrum and the measurement of the incident and reflected light. In the second method, the reflected light is measured from a reference surface having a known reflectivity and the same geometry as the surface of interest and the emitted and the reflected light are measured for the surface of interest. These measurements permit the computation of the emissivity in each channel of the spectrometer and the temperature of the surface of interest.

  4. Characterization of fundamental catalytic properties of MoS2/WS2 nanotubes and nanoclusters for desulfurization catalysis - a surface temperature study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    U. Burghaus

    2012-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The prior project consisted of two main project lines. First, characterization of novel nanomaterials for hydrodesulfurization (HDS) applications. Second, studying more traditional model systems for HDS such as vapor-deposited silica-supported Mo and MoSx clusters. In the first subproject, we studied WS2 and MoS2 fullerene-like nanoparticles as well as WS2 nanotubes. Thiophene (C4H4S) was used as the probe molecule. Interestingly, metallic and sulfur-like adsorption sites could be identified on the silica-supported fullerene-particles system. Similar structures are seen for the traditional system (vapor-deposited clusters). Thus, this may be a kinetics fingerprint feature of modern HDS model systems. In addition, kinetics data allowed characterization of the different adsorption sites for thiophene on and inside WS2 nanotube bundles. The latter is a unique feature of nanotubes that has not been reported before for any inorganic nanotube system; however, examples are known for carbon nanotubes, including prior work of the PI. Although HDS has been studied for decades, utilizing nanotubes as nanosized HDS reactors has never been tried before, as far as we know. This is of interest from a fundamental perspective. Unfortunately, the HDS activity of the nanocatalysts at ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions was close to the detection limit of our techniques. Therefore, we propose to run experiments at ambient pressure on related nanopowder samples as part of the renewal application utilizing a now-available GC (gas chromatograph) setup. In addition, Ni and Co doped nanocatalyts are proposed for study. These dopants will boost the catalytic activity. In the second subproject of the prior grant, we studied HDS-related chemistry on more traditional supported cluster catalysts. Mo clusters supported by physical vapor deposition (PVD) on silica have been characterized. Two reaction pathways are evident when adsorbing thiophene on Mo and MoSx clusters: molecular adsorption and dissociation. PVD Mo clusters turned out to be very reactive toward thiophene bond activation. Sulfur and carbon residuals form, which poison the catalyst and sulfide the Mo clusters. Sulfided silica-supported MoSx samples are not reactive toward thiophene bond activation. In addition to S and C deposits, H2, H2S, and small organic molecules were detected in the gas phase. Catalyst reactivation procedures, including O2 and atomic hydrogen treatments, have been tested. Cluster size effects have been seen: thiophene adsorbs molecularly with larger binding energies on smaller clusters. However, larger clusters have smaller activation energy for C4H4S bond activation than smaller clusters. The latter is consistent with early catalysis studies. Kinetics and dynamics parameters have been determined quantitatively. We spent a significant amount of time on upgrades of our equipment. A 2nd-hand refurbished X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS) has been integrated into the existing molecular beam scattering system and is already operational (supported by the DoE supplemental grant available in October 2009). We also added a time of flight (TOF) system to the beam scattering apparatus and improved on the accessible impact energy range (new nozzle heater and gas mixing manifold) for the beam scattering experiments. In addition, a GC-based powder atmospheric flow reactor for studies on powder samples is now operational. Furthermore, a 2nd UHV kinetics system has been upgraded as well. In summary, mostly single crystal systems have so far been considered in basic science studies about HDS. Industrial catalysts, however, can be better approximated with the supported cluster systems that we studied in this project. Furthermore, an entirely new class of HDS systems, namely fullerene-like particles and inorganic nanotubes, has been included. Studying new materials and systems has the potential to impact science and technology. The systems investigated are closely related to energy and environmental-related surface science/catalysis. This prior project, conducted at NDSU by a sma

  5. High Temperature Oxidation Resistance and Surface Electrical...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    with Filtered Arc Cr-Al-N Abstract: The requirements for low cost and high-tempurater corrosion resistance for bipolar interconnect plates in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks...

  6. Low Temperature UHV STM/AFM | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    UHV STMAFM Low Temperature UHV STMAFM EMSL's ultra-high vacuum, low-temperature scanning probe microscope instrument, or UHV LT SPM, is the preeminent system dedicated to surface...

  7. Variable Temperature STM/AFM | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    STMAFM Variable Temperature STMAFM EMSL's ultra-high vacuum, variable-temperature scanning probe microscope system, or UHV VT SPM, is a state-of-the-art surface science tool...

  8. Relative efficiency of land surface energy balance components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bateni, S. M.

    [1] The partitioning of available energy into dissipative fluxes over land surfaces is dependent on the state variable of the surface energy balance (land surface temperature) and the state variable of the surface water ...

  9. Sequential high temperature reduction, low temperature hydrolysis...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    high temperature reduction, low temperature hydrolysis for the regeneration of sulfated NOx trap catalysts. Sequential high temperature reduction, low temperature hydrolysis for...

  10. Surface Soil

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Surface Soil Surface Soil We compare local soil samples with samples collected from northern New Mexico locations that are beyond the range of potential influence from normal...

  11. Thermocapillary Flow on Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baier, Tobias; Hardt, Steffen

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid in Cassie-Baxter state above a structured superhydrophobic surface is ideally suited for surface driven transport due to its large free surface fraction in close contact to a solid. We investigate thermal Marangoni flow over a superhydrophobic array of fins oriented parallel or perpendicular to an applied temperature gradient. In the Stokes limit we derive an analytical expression for the bulk flow velocity above the surface and compare it with numerical solutions of the Navier-Stokes equation. Even for moderate temperature gradients comparatively large flow velocities are induced, suggesting to utilize this principle for microfluidic pumping.

  12. The Reconstruction of Mountain Surface - Department of ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    minerals extracted from rocks at or near the earth's surface. A thermonome- .... Tm is the temperature at the bottom, usually the temperature of molten rock. ...... of profiles across diapiric salt structures: numerical approach and its applications

  13. Method of sputter etching a surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Henager, C.H. Jr.

    1984-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The surface of a target is textured by co-sputter etching the target surface with a seed material adjacent thereto, while the target surface is maintained at a pre-selected temperature. By pre-selecting the temperature of the surface while sputter etching, it is possible to predetermine the reflectance properties of the etched surface. The surface may be textured to absorb sunlight efficiently and have minimal emittance in the infrared region so as to be well-suited for use as a solar absorber for photothermal energy conversion. 4 figs.

  14. Method of sputter etching a surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Henager, Jr., Charles H. (Seattle, WA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The surface of a target is textured by co-sputter etching the target surface with a seed material adjacent thereto, while the target surface is maintained at a pre-selected temperature. By pre-selecting the temperature of the surface while sputter etching, it is possible to predetermine the reflectance properties of the etched surface. The surface may be textured to absorb sunlight efficiently and have minimal emittance in the infrared region so as to be well-suited for use as a solar absorber for photothermal energy conversion.

  15. Hypoxia is well known to reduce metabolism and body temperature in many vertebrates (Wood and Gonzales, 1996),

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tattersall, Glenn

    using infrared thermography to measure the surface temperatures of the golden-mantled ground squirrel

  16. Surface Power Radiative Cooling Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vaughn, Jason; Schneider, Todd [Environmental Effects Branch, EM50, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, AL 35812 (United States)

    2006-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Terrestrial nuclear power plants typically maintain their temperature through convective cooling, such as water and forced air. However, the space environment is a vacuum environment, typically 10-8 Torr pressure, therefore in proposed missions to the lunar surface, power plants would have to rely on radiative cooling to remove waste heat. Also, the Martian surface has a very tenuous atmosphere (e.g. {approx}5 Torr CO2), therefore, the main heat transfer method on the Martian surface is also radiative. Because of the lack of atmosphere on the Moon and the tenuous atmosphere on Mars, surface power systems on both the Lunar and Martian surface must rely heavily on radiative heat transfer. Because of the large temperature swings on both the lunar and the Martian surfaces, trying to radiate heat is inefficient. In order to increase power system efficiency, an effort is underway to test various combinations of materials with high emissivities to demonstrate their ability to survive these degrading atmospheres to maintain a constant radiator temperature improving surface power plant efficiency. An important part of this effort is the development of a unique capability that would allow the determination of a materials emissivity at high temperatures. A description of the test capability as well as initial data is presented.

  17. Henry's law, surface tension, and surface adsorption in dilute binary mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henry's law, surface tension, and surface adsorption in dilute binary mixtures Akira Onukia. The solute partitioning between gas and liquid Henry's law and the surface tension change are discussed fraction X and the temperature-derivative / T cx,p of the surface tension at fixed pressure p

  18. Reduction of particle deposition on substrates using temperature gradient control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rader, Daniel J. (Albuquerque, NM); Dykhuizen, Ronald C. (Albuquerque, NM); Geller, Anthony S. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of reducing particle deposition during the fabrication of microelectronic circuitry is presented. Reduction of particle deposition is accomplished by controlling the relative temperatures of various parts of the deposition system so that a large temperature gradient near the surface on which fabrication is taking place exists. This temperature gradient acts to repel particles from that surface, thereby producing cleaner surfaces, and thus obtaining higher yields from a given microelectronic fabrication process.

  19. Terahertz Room-Temperature Photonic Crystal Nanocavity Laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dirk Englund; Hatice Altug; Ilya Fushman; Jelena Vuckovic

    2007-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe an efficient surface-passivated photonic crystal nanocavity laser, demonstrating room-temperature operation with 3-ps total pulse duration (detector response limited) and low-temperature operation with ultra-low-threshold near 9uW.

  20. Expansion Joint Concepts for High Temperature Insulation Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harrison, M. R.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As high temperature steam and process piping expands with heat, joints begin to open between the insulation sections, resulting in increased energy loss and possible unsafe surface temperatures. Many different expansion joint designs are presently...

  1. advanced high temperature: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    John 3 Lake surface water temperature retrieval using advanced very high resolution radiometer and Geosciences Websites Summary: and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer...

  2. Full-Color Emission and Temperature Dependence of the Luminescence...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in intensity with increasing temperature. This surprising phenomenon is attributed to thermo luminescence and thermal curing of the particle surface upon heating. Citation: Chen...

  3. atmospheric temperature response: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to optical depth perturbations. In Earth-type atmospheres sustained planetary greenhouse effect with a stable ground surface temperature can only exist at a particular...

  4. atmospheric temperature: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to optical depth perturbations. In Earth-type atmospheres sustained planetary greenhouse effect with a stable ground surface temperature can only exist at a particular...

  5. Introduction Importance of temperature in streams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toran, Laura

    , fish reproduction, and aquatic metabolism rates. Nearly every species is temperature sensitive a downstream gradient as the surface water is exposed to solar radiation. Theurer et al. (1984) listed sources-radiation. Inverted temperature gradients (downstream cooling) have been observed where clear cutting exposed head

  6. Effect of ocean temperature on southwestern U.S. climate analyzed

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Environmental Visualization Laboratory depicts sea surface temperatures around Greenland from October 2010. Image from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's...

  7. Programmable surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Amy (Amy Teh-Yu)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Robotic vehicles walk on legs, roll on wheels, are pulled by tracks, pushed by propellers, lifted by wings, and steered by rudders. All of these systems share the common character of momentum transport across their surfaces. ...

  8. Local temperature for dynamical black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sean A. Hayward; R. Di Criscienzo; M. Nadalini; L. Vanzo; S. Zerbini

    2008-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A local Hawking temperature was recently derived for any future outer trapping horizon in spherical symmetry, using a Hamilton-Jacobi tunneling method, and is given by a dynamical surface gravity as defined geometrically. Descriptions are given of the operational meaning of the temperature, in terms of what observers measure, and its relation to the usual Hawking temperature for static black holes. Implications for the final fate of an evaporating black hole are discussed.

  9. High Temperatures & Electricity Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    High Temperatures & Electricity Demand An Assessment of Supply Adequacy in California Trends.......................................................................................................1 HIGH TEMPERATURES AND ELECTRICITY DEMAND.....................................................................................................................7 SECTION I: HIGH TEMPERATURES AND ELECTRICITY DEMAND ..........................9 BACKGROUND

  10. Electropositive surface layer MPD thruster cathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chamberlain, F.R.; Kelly, A.J.; Jahn, R.G.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lithium and barium oxide have been used to generate electropositive surface layers on tungsten cathodes in low power steady state MPD thruster experiments. The electropositive surface layer decreases the cathode work function, resulting in substantial reductions in the steady state cathode operating temperature and erosion rate. Cathode temperature is reduced by 300 degrees with a lithium surface layer and by 800 degrees with a barium oxide surface layer at a 500 ampere thruster current level. These temperature reductions substantially reduce the calculated steady state evaporative erosion rate of the cathode by factors of 20 and 10,000 respectively. Cold cathode startup erosion is also reduced dramatically. The surface melting and arc cratering that is characteristic of pure tungsten cathodes does not occur with an electropositive surface layer cathode. In addition to reducing cathode erosion, the use of these materials increases thruster efficiency. 12 refs.

  11. Crystal face temperature determination means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nason, D.O.; Burger, A.

    1994-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    An optically transparent furnace having a detection apparatus with a pedestal enclosed in an evacuated ampule for growing a crystal thereon is disclosed. Temperature differential is provided by a source heater, a base heater and a cold finger such that material migrates from a polycrystalline source material to grow the crystal. A quartz halogen lamp projects a collimated beam onto the crystal and a reflected beam is analyzed by a double monochromator and photomultiplier detection spectrometer and the detected peak position in the reflected energy spectrum of the reflected beam is interpreted to determine surface temperature of the crystal. 3 figs.

  12. Surface Soil

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our InstagramStructure ofIndustrialSupportingAlbedo at theSurface Soil Surface Soil

  13. AiR surface: AiR surface 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tanaka, Jiro

    AiR surface: 1 PDA AiR surface 1 1: AiR surface () () 2 [1] [2] 3 AiR surface AiR surface surface surface surface 3.1 surface [3]( 3 ) surface 3.2 surface surface AiR surface 4 AiR surface surface AiR surface: Virtual Touch Panel

  14. Droplet Impingement Cooling Experiments on Nano-structured Surfaces 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Yen-Po

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    ), was defined based on the radial temperature profiles inside the impact zone to quantify the effects of the nano-structured surface in droplet cooling. Results indicate that larger effective cooling area can be achieved using nano-structured surface...

  15. Impact of External Heat-shielding Techniques on Shell Surface...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    External Heat-shielding Techniques on Shell Surface Temperatures and Dynamic Shell Thermal Deformation of Diesel Engine Emission Control Systems Impact of External Heat-shielding...

  16. The temperature dependence of equilibrium plasma density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. V. Vasiliev

    2002-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Temperature dependence of an electron-nuclear plasma equilibrium density is considered basing on known approaches, which are given in (1)(2). It is shown that at a very high temperature, which is characteristic for a star interior, the equilibrium plasma density is almost constant and equals approximately to $10^{25}$ particles per $cm^3$. At a relatively low temperature, which is characteristic for star surface, the equilibrium plasma density is in several orders lower and depends on temperature as $T^{3/2}$.

  17. Variable temperature electrochemical strain microscopy of Sm-doped ceria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jesse, Stephen [ORNL; Morozovska, A. N. [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL; Eliseev, E. A. [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine; Yang, Nan [ORNL; Doria, Sandra [ORNL; Tebano, Antonello [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Variable temperature electrochemical strain microscopy has been used to study the electrochemical activity of Sm-doped ceria as a function of temperature and bias. The electrochemical strain microscopy hysteresis loops have been collected across the surface at different temperatures and the relative activity at different temperatures has been compared. The relaxation behavior of the signal at different temperatures has been also evaluated to relate kinetic process during bias induced electrochemical reactions with temperature and two different kinetic regimes have been identified. The strongly non-monotonic dependence of relaxation behavior on temperature is interpreted as evidence for water-mediated mechanisms.

  18. The gas temperature in circumstellar disks: effects of dust settling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zadelhoff, Gerd-Jan van

    Example of the cooling and heating terms for a model with dust depletion in the surface Work in progress systems. One of the central questions concerning these disks are their density and temperature temperature is calculated solving the heating-cooling balance. Dust temperature Density distribution [cm ] -3

  19. Solid velocity correction schemes for a temperature transforming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yuwen

    for a temperature transforming model (TTM) for convection controlled solid-liquid phase-change problem. Design ¼ gravitational acceleration, 9.8 m/s2 H ¼ height of the vertical wall (m) k ¼ thermal conductivity (W/(m K)) K, K T * ¼ scaled temperature, T 0 2 T0 m; K T0 c ¼ cold surface temperature, K T0 m ¼ melting (or

  20. ADSORPTION OF SEMIFLEXIBLE POLYMERS ON HOMOGENEOUS SURFACES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oro, Daniel

    ADSORPTION OF SEMIFLEXIBLE POLYMERS ON HOMOGENEOUS SURFACES K. Sumithra F G Theoretische Physik the problem of adsorption of a single semiflexible polymer chain on to a planar, homogeneous surface using off-lattice Monte Carlosimulations. Adsorption characteristics were studied at different temperatures for chains

  1. Self-calibrated active pyrometer for furnace temperature measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woskov, Paul P. (Bedford, MA); Cohn, Daniel R. (Chestnuthill, MA); Titus, Charles H. (Newtown Square, PA); Surma, Jeffrey E. (Kennewick, WA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pyrometer with a probe beam superimposed on its field-of-view for furnace temperature measurements. The pyrometer includes a heterodyne millimeter/sub-millimeter-wave or microwave receiver including a millimeter/sub-millimeter-wave or microwave source for probing. The receiver is adapted to receive radiation from a surface whose temperature is to be measured. The radiation includes a surface emission portion and a surface reflection portion which includes the probe beam energy reflected from the surface. The surface emission portion is related to the surface temperature and the surface reflection portion is related to the emissivity of the surface. The simultaneous measurement of surface emissivity serves as a real time calibration of the temperature measurement. In an alternative embodiment, a translatable base plate and a visible laser beam allow slow mapping out of interference patterns and obtaining peak values therefor. The invention also includes a waveguide having a replaceable end portion, an insulating refractory sleeve and/or a source of inert gas flow. The pyrometer may be used in conjunction with a waveguide to form a system for temperature measurements in a furnace. The system may employ a chopper or alternatively, be constructed without a chopper. The system may also include an auxiliary reflector for surface emissivity measurements.

  2. Soil Water and Temperature System (SWATS) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bond, D

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The soil water and temperature system (SWATS) provides vertical profiles of soil temperature, soil-water potential, and soil moisture as a function of depth below the ground surface at hourly intervals. The temperature profiles are measured directly by in situ sensors at the Central Facility and many of the extended facilities of the SGP climate research site. The soil-water potential and soil moisture profiles are derived from measurements of soil temperature rise in response to small inputs of heat. Atmospheric scientists use the data in climate models to determine boundary conditions and to estimate the surface energy flux. The data are also useful to hydrologists, soil scientists, and agricultural scientists for determining the state of the soil.

  3. Cooled, temperature controlled electrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, John P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cooled, temperature controlled electrometer for the measurement of small currents. The device employs a thermal transfer system to remove heat from the electrometer circuit and its environment and dissipate it to the external environment by means of a heat sink. The operation of the thermal transfer system is governed by a temperature regulation circuit which activates the thermal transfer system when the temperature of the electrometer circuit and its environment exceeds a level previously inputted to the external variable temperature control circuit. The variable temperature control circuit functions as subpart of the temperature control circuit. To provide temperature stability and uniformity, the electrometer circuit is enclosed by an insulated housing.

  4. Cooled, temperature controlled electrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, John P.

    1992-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A cooled, temperature controlled electrometer for the measurement of small currents. The device employs a thermal transfer system to remove heat from the electrometer circuit and its environment and dissipate it to the external environment by means of a heat sink. The operation of the thermal transfer system is governed by a temperature regulation circuit which activates the thermal transfer system when the temperature of the electrometer circuit and its environment exceeds a level previously inputted to the external variable temperature control circuit. The variable temperature control circuit functions as subpart of the temperature control circuit. To provide temperature stability and uniformity, the electrometer circuit is enclosed by an insulated housing.

  5. Climatic effects of 1950–2050 changes in US anthropogenic aerosols – Part 2: Climate response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leibensperger, Eric Michael

    We investigate the climate response to changing US anthropogenic aerosol sources over the 1950–2050 period by using the NASA GISS general circulation model (GCM) and comparing to observed US temperature trends. Time-dependent ...

  6. Surface texturing of superconductors by controlled oxygen pressure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Nan (Downers Grove, IL); Goretta, Kenneth C. (Downers Grove, IL); Dorris, Stephen E. (La Grange Park, IL)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of manufacture of a textured layer of a high temperature superconductor on a substrate. The method involves providing an untextured high temperature superconductor material having a characteristic ambient pressure peritectic melting point, heating the superconductor to a temperature below the peritectic temperature, establishing a reduced pO.sub.2 atmosphere below ambient pressure causing reduction of the peritectic melting point to a reduced temperature which causes melting from an exposed surface of the superconductor and raising pressure of the reduced pO.sub.2 atmosphere to cause solidification of the molten superconductor in a textured surface layer.

  7. Surface texturing of superconductors by controlled oxygen pressure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, N.; Goretta, K.C.; Dorris, S.E.

    1999-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of manufacture of a textured layer of a high temperature superconductor on a substrate is disclosed. The method involves providing an untextured high temperature superconductor material having a characteristic ambient pressure peritectic melting point, heating the superconductor to a temperature below the peritectic temperature, establishing a reduced pO{sub 2} atmosphere below ambient pressure causing reduction of the peritectic melting point to a reduced temperature which causes melting from an exposed surface of the superconductor and raising pressure of the reduced pO{sub 2} atmosphere to cause solidification of the molten superconductor in a textured surface layer. 8 figs.

  8. Surface Energy,Surface Energy, Surface Tension & Shape of CrystalsSurface Tension & Shape of Crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramaniam, Anandh

    Surface Energy,Surface Energy, Surface Tension & Shape of CrystalsSurface Tension & Shape of shapes of crystals are important: (i) growth shape and (ii) equilibrium shape Surface/interface energy surfaces. The joining of two phases creates an interface. (Two orientations of the same crystalline phase

  9. Strings at finite temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arago C. de; Bazeia, D.; Eboli, O.J.P.; Marques, G.C.

    1985-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We obtain a semiclassical evaluation of the temperature for which the free energy of the strings of spontaneously broken scalar electrodynamics vanishes. We argue that, above this temperature, these objects should play a significant physical role.

  10. Neural Network forecasts of the tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsieh, William

    . Hsieh Dept. of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of British Columbia Vancouver, BC, Canada Benyang, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada; Phone: (604) 822- 2821, Fax: (604) 822-6088; Email: whsieh@eos.ubc.ca Running and decadal changes in the prediction skills in the NL and LR models were also studied. Keywords: neural

  11. air surface temperature: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    stations are confined mainly to continental and island locations. The results indicate a global warming of about 0.5-0.7C in the past century, with warming of similar...

  12. Detection of Surface Temperature Anomalies in the Coso Geothermal Field

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualPropertyd8c-a9ae-f8521cbb8489 No revision hasda62829c05bGabbs ValleyWind PowerUsing Thermal

  13. High Temperature ESP Monitoring

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Integration Center, Rosharon, Texas - Fibre Optic development * Schlumberger Fibre Optics Technology Center, Southampton, UK - Surface acquisition hardware and software *...

  14. Design and Construction of a Low Temperature Scanning Tunneling Microscope 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Chi

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    and helium temperatures. We analyzed the operational electronic and vibration noises and made some effective improvements. To demonstrate the capabilities of the STM, we obtained atomically resolved images of the Au (111) and graphite surfaces. In addition...

  15. Heating requirements and non-adiabatic surface effects for a model in the National Transonic Facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pare, Louis Alphonse

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    insulated, adiabatic surface. A heat transfer analysis intended to yield a conservative estimate of the non-adiabatic condition was performed. A Finite element heat transfer computer code was developed and used to compute the steady state temperature... identified regions on the surface of the model susceptible to surface heating and the magnitude of the respective surface temperatures. The addition of insulation within the cavity to limit surface heating was also investigated. The geometry...

  16. A temperature compensated pressure transducer for high temperature, high pressure applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lippka, Sandra Margaret

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and content by: 2/J David G. ansson (Chair ol' Committee) c. Y~ Christian P Burger (i&Iember) Randall Getger ( Member) 5wc Fr~. Walter F. Bradley (Head of Department) May 1991 ABSTRACT A Temperature Compensated Pressure Transducer for High... of the light beam. A compensation schenle is provided through the use of thermally arljusting reflecting surfaces These surfaces can adjust for temperatures up to 1000'F with less than a. I, c error. The final light beam movenlent across the photodiode face...

  17. TEMPERATURE-DEPENDENT RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY OF FULLERENE AND CARBORANE NANOCAR WHEELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mellor-Crummey, John

    step is to compare the energy shift in these vibrational modes with the temperature dependent tunneling. A thermocouple attached to the surface of the heater mount is used to measure the device's temperature. Raman

  18. Variation in the sensitivity of organismal body temperature to climate change over local

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilman, Sarah

    climatic factors, including air temperature (Ta), surface temper- ature (Ts), solar radiation, cloud cover and communities (3­6). Accurately fore- casting the direct physiological effects of temperature change

  19. Internal temperature monitor for work pieces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berthold, J.W.

    1993-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for measuring the internal temperature of a work piece comprises an excitation laser for generating laser pulses which are directed through a water cooled probe, and in an optical fiber, to a first surface of the work piece. The laser is of sufficient intensity to ablate the surface of the work piece, producing a displacement and a resulting ultrasonic pulse which propagates within the thickness of the work piece to an opposite surface. The ultrasonic pulse is reflected from the opposite surface and returns to the first surface to create a second displacement. A second continuous laser also shines its light through an optical fiber in the probe into the first surface and is used in conjunction with signal processing equipment to measure the time between the first and second displacements. This time is proportional to the time-of-flight of the ultrasonic pulse in the work piece which, with a known or detected thickness of the work piece, can be used to calculate the internal temperature of the work piece.

  20. Temperature compensated photovoltaic array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mosher, D.M.

    1997-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A temperature compensated photovoltaic module comprises a series of solar cells having a thermally activated switch connected in parallel with several of the cells. The photovoltaic module is adapted to charge conventional batteries having a temperature coefficient differing from the temperature coefficient of the module. The calibration temperatures of the switches are chosen whereby the colder the ambient temperature for the module, the more switches that are on and form a closed circuit to short the associated solar cells. By shorting some of the solar cells as the ambient temperature decreases, the battery being charged by the module is not excessively overcharged at lower temperatures. PV module is an integrated solution that is reliable and inexpensive. 2 figs.

  1. Temperature compensated photovoltaic array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mosher, Dan Michael (Plano, TX)

    1997-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A temperature compensated photovoltaic module (20) comprised of a series of solar cells (22) having a thermally activated switch (24) connected in parallel with several of the cells (22). The photovoltaic module (20) is adapted to charge conventional batteries having a temperature coefficient (TC) differing from the temperature coefficient (TC) of the module (20). The calibration temperatures of the switches (24) are chosen whereby the colder the ambient temperature for the module (20), the more switches that are on and form a closed circuit to short the associated solar cells (22). By shorting some of the solar cells (22) as the ambient temperature decreases, the battery being charged by the module (20) is not excessively overcharged at lower temperatures. PV module (20) is an integrated solution that is reliable and inexpensive.

  2. Effect of ocean temperature on southwestern U.S. climate analyzed

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    LANL's Space and Remote Sensing group led the scientists to perform multiple linear regression analysis of surface air temperature and precipitation records provided by the...

  3. Nanofluid-based receivers for high-temperature, high-flux direct solar collectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lenert, Andrej

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar power plants with surface receivers have low overall energy conversion efficiencies due to large emissive losses at high temperatures. Alternatively, volumetric receivers promise increased performance because solar ...

  4. The temperature market A stochastic model for temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pfeifer, Holger

    The temperature market A stochastic model for temperature Temperature futures Conclusions The Volatility of Temperature and Pricing of Weather Derivatives Fred Espen Benth Work in collaboration with J Universit¨at Ulm, April 2007 #12;The temperature market A stochastic model for temperature Temperature

  5. Droplet impingement and vapor layer formation on hot hydrophobic surfaces Ji Yong Park1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cahill, David G.

    diameter) water droplets that bounce from hydrophobic surfaces whose temperature exceeds the boiling point angle. The residence time determined by high-speed imaging is constant at 1 msec over the temperature-speed imaging is approximately independent of the temperature of the hot surface. Measurements of thermal

  6. Development of the Flux-Adjusting Surface Data Assimilation System for Mesoscale Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niyogi, Dev

    Development of the Flux-Adjusting Surface Data Assimilation System for Mesoscale Models KIRAN and temperature and for surface air temperature and water vapor mixing ratio for mesoscale models. In the FASDAS-field variables. The FASDAS is coupled to a land surface submodel in a three-dimensional mesoscale model and tests

  7. Sessile droplet evaporation on superheated superhydrophobic surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hays, Robb C; Maynes, Daniel; Webb, Brent W

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This fluid dynamics video depicts the evaporation of sessile water droplets placed on heated superhydrophobic (SH) surfaces of varying cavity fraction, F_c, and surface temperature, T_s, above the saturation temperature, T_sat. Images were captured at 10,000 FPS and are played back at 30 FPS in this video. Teflon-coated silicon surfaces of F_c = 0, 0.5, 0.8, and 0.95 were used for these experiments. T_s ranging from 110{\\deg}C to 210{\\deg}C were studied. The video clips show how the boiling behavior of sessile droplets is altered with changes in surface microstructure. Quantitative results from heat transfer rate experiments conducted by the authors are briefly discussed near the end of the video.

  8. Low Temperature Air Bake of Stainless Steel for Very Low

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that gives very hot water with detergent. #12;4. The method of using a relatively low temperature air bake of the requirements for high quality forged blanks for flanges. After machining using a water based lubricantLow Temperature Air Bake of Stainless Steel for Very Low Outgassing Rates Surface Conditioning

  9. POST-SHOCK TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS OF ALUMINUM A. Seifter1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stewart, Sarah T.

    POST-SHOCK TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS OF ALUMINUM A. Seifter1 , S. T. Stewart2 , M. R. Furlanetto1 concurrent VISAR measurements in the same optical path, validation experiments on aluminum have been-shock temperature of 495 K ± 30 K was recorded from a polished free surface of aluminum 2024-T4 subject to a peak

  10. Superconducting surface impedance under radiofrequency field

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xiao, Binping [JLAB, William and Mary College; Reece, Charles E. [JLAB; Kelley, Michael J. [JLAB, William and Mary College

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on BCS theory with moving Cooper pairs, the electron states distribution at 0K and the probability of electron occupation with finite temperature have been derived and applied to anomalous skin effect theory to obtain the surface impedance of a superconductor under radiofrequency (RF) field. We present the numerical results for Nb and compare these with representative RF field-dependent effective surface resistance measurements from a 1.5 GHz resonant structure.

  11. Automatic temperature adjustment apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaplin, James E. (66 Overlook Rd., Bloomingdale, NJ 07403)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for increasing the efficiency of a conventional central space heating system is disclosed. The temperature of a fluid heating medium is adjusted based on a measurement of the external temperature, and a system parameter. The system parameter is periodically modified based on a closed loop process that monitors the operation of the heating system. This closed loop process provides a heating medium temperature value that is very near the optimum for energy efficiency.

  12. Low temperature cryoprobe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sungaila, Zenon F. (Orland Park, IL)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A portable, hand held probe usable within a small confine to produce a point source of nitrogen or helium at a relatively constant temperature of 77 degrees Kelvin.

  13. Temperature and RH Targets

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presented by Vishal O Mittal of the Florida Solar Energy Center at the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting, San Francisco, September 14, 2006.

  14. Estimating Sea Surface Temperature From Infrared Satellite and In Situ Temperature Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the exchanges of heat, momentum and gases between the ocean and the atmosphere. As the most widely observed variable in oceanography, SST is used in many different studies of the ocean and its coupling to adjust the satellite SSTs to match a selection of buoy SSTs. This forces the satellite skin SSTs

  15. THEORETICAL SPECTRA OF TERRESTRIAL EXOPLANET SURFACES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu Renyu; Seager, Sara [Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Ehlmann, Bethany L., E-mail: hury@mit.edu [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2012-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate spectra of airless rocky exoplanets with a theoretical framework that self-consistently treats reflection and thermal emission. We find that a silicate surface on an exoplanet is spectroscopically detectable via prominent Si-O features in the thermal emission bands of 7-13 {mu}m and 15-25 {mu}m. The variation of brightness temperature due to the silicate features can be up to 20 K for an airless Earth analog, and the silicate features are wide enough to be distinguished from atmospheric features with relatively high resolution spectra. The surface characterization thus provides a method to unambiguously identify a rocky exoplanet. Furthermore, identification of specific rocky surface types is possible with the planet's reflectance spectrum in near-infrared broad bands. A key parameter to observe is the difference between K-band and J-band geometric albedos (A{sub g}(K) - A{sub g}(J)): A{sub g}(K) - A{sub g}(J) > 0.2 indicates that more than half of the planet's surface has abundant mafic minerals, such as olivine and pyroxene, in other words primary crust from a magma ocean or high-temperature lavas; A{sub g}(K) - A{sub g}(J) < -0.09 indicates that more than half of the planet's surface is covered or partially covered by water ice or hydrated silicates, implying extant or past water on its surface. Also, surface water ice can be specifically distinguished by an H-band geometric albedo lower than the J-band geometric albedo. The surface features can be distinguished from possible atmospheric features with molecule identification of atmospheric species by transmission spectroscopy. We therefore propose that mid-infrared spectroscopy of exoplanets may detect rocky surfaces, and near-infrared spectrophotometry may identify ultramafic surfaces, hydrated surfaces, and water ice.

  16. Pyrometric temperature measurement method and apparatus for measuring particle temperatures in hot furnaces: Application to reacting black liquor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stenberg, J. [Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 692, Tampere SF-33101 (Finland)] [Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 692, Tampere SF-33101 (Finland); Frederick, W.J. [Oregon State University, Gleeson 103, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 (United States)] [Oregon State University, Gleeson 103, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 (United States); Bostroem, S. [Abo Akademi University, Lemminkaeisenkatu 14-18 B, Turku SF-20520 (Finland)] [Abo Akademi University, Lemminkaeisenkatu 14-18 B, Turku SF-20520 (Finland); Hernberg, R. [Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 692, Tampere SF-33101 (Finland)] [Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 692, Tampere SF-33101 (Finland); Hupa, M. [Abo Akademi University, Lemminkaeisenkatu 14-18 B, Turku SF-20520 (Finland)] [Abo Akademi University, Lemminkaeisenkatu 14-18 B, Turku SF-20520 (Finland)

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A specialized two-color pyrometric method has been developed for the measurement of particle surface temperatures in hot, radiating environments. In this work, the method has been applied to the measurement of surface temperatures of single reacting black liquor char particles in an electrically heated muffle furnace. Black liquor was introduced into the hot furnace as wet droplets. After drying, the resulted particles were processed in different atmospheres corresponding to combustion, pyrolysis, and gasification at furnace temperatures of 700{endash}900{degree}C. The pyrometric measurement is performed using two silicon photodiode detectors and 10 nm bandpass filters centered at 650 and 1050 nm. Thermal radiation is transferred using an uncooled fiberoptic probe brought into the vicinity of the char particle. The key features of the pyrometric apparatus and analysis method are: (1) Single particle temperature is resolved temporally at high speed. (2) The thermal radiation originating from the furnace and reflected by the particle is accounted for in the measurement of the surface temperature. (3) Particle temperatures above or below the furnace temperature can be measured without the need of a cooled background assisting the measurement in the hot furnace. To accomplish this, a minimum particle size is needed that is a function of the temperature difference between the particle and furnace. Particles cooler than the furnace can be measured if their diameter is more than 0.7 mm. Surface temperatures of 300{endash}400{degree}C above the furnace temperature were measured during combustion of black liquor char particles in air. In atmospheres corresponding to gasification, endothermic reactions occurred, and char temperature remained typically 40{degree} below the furnace temperature. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. Method for preparing hydride configurations and reactive metal surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silver, Gary L. (Centerville, OH)

    1988-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for preparing highly hydrogen-reactive surfaces on metals which normally require substantial heating, high pressures, or an extended induction period, which involves pretreatment of said surfaces with either a non-oxidizing acid or hydrogen gas to form a hydrogen-bearing coating on said surfaces, and subsequently heating said coated metal in the absence of moisture and oxygen for a period sufficient to decompose said coating and cooling said metal to room temperature. Surfaces so treated will react almost instantaneously with hydrogen gas at room temperature and low pressure. The method is particularly applicable to uranium, thorium, and lanthanide metals.

  18. Method for producing ceramic composition having low friction coefficient at high operating temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lankford, Jr., James (San Antonio, TX)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing a stable ceramic composition having a surface with a low friction coefficient and high wear resistance at high operating temperatures. A first deposition of a thin film of a metal ion is made upon the surface of the ceramic composition and then a first ion implantation of at least a portion of the metal ion is made into the near surface region of the composition. The implantation mixes the metal ion and the ceramic composition to form a near surface composite. The near surface composite is then oxidized sufficiently at high oxidizing temperatures to form an oxide gradient layer in the surface of the ceramic composition.

  19. Thermoelectric Temperature Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saffman, Mark

    NOTE 201TM TECHNICAL Optimizing Thermoelectric Temperature Control Systems #12;2 May 1995 92-040000A © 1995 Wavelength Electronics, Inc. Thermoelectric coolers (TECs) are used in a variety understanding of thermal management techniques and carefully select the thermoelectric module, temperature

  20. LX-17 Deflagration at High Pressures and Temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koerner, J; Maienschein, J; Black, K; DeHaven, M; Wardell, J

    2006-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We measure the laminar deflagration rate of LX-17 (92.5 wt% TATB, 7.5 wt% Kel-F 800) at high pressure and temperature in a strand burner, thereby obtaining reaction rate data for prediction of thermal explosion violence. Simultaneous measurements of flame front time-of-arrival and temporal pressure history allow for the direct calculation of deflagration rate as a function of pressure. Additionally, deflagrating surface areas are calculated in order to provide quantitative insight into the dynamic surface structure during deflagration and its relationship to explosion violence. Deflagration rate data show that LX-17 burns in a smooth fashion at ambient temperature and is represented by the burn rate equation B = 0.2P{sup 0.9}. At 225 C, deflagration is more rapid and erratic. Dynamic deflagrating surface area calculations show that ambient temperature LX-17 deflagrating surface areas remain near unity over the pressure range studied.

  1. Analytical solution for thermal runaway in the surface heating of plates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamar, C.R. (Strategic Defense Command, Huntsville, AL (United States))

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An analytical solution is developed for the high-energy heating of metals in which the surface heat flux increases with temperature. Two cases are studied in particular: a case of an insulated rear surface and a convectively cooled rear surface. The solutions result in purely imaginary eigenvalues, which lead to temperature solutions that can increase exponentially with time. A simple expression for avoiding such a temperature solution is derived. 4 refs.

  2. Apparatus and method for temperature mapping a turbine component in a high temperature combustion environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baleine, Erwan; Sheldon, Danny M

    2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Method and system for calibrating a thermal radiance map of a turbine component in a combustion environment. At least one spot (18) of material is disposed on a surface of the component. An infrared (IR) imager (14) is arranged so that the spot is within a field of view of the imager to acquire imaging data of the spot. A processor (30) is configured to process the imaging data to generate a sequence of images as a temperature of the combustion environment is increased. A monitor (42, 44) may be coupled to the processor to monitor the sequence of images of to determine an occurrence of a physical change of the spot as the temperature is increased. A calibration module (46) may be configured to assign a first temperature value to the surface of the turbine component when the occurrence of the physical change of the spot is determined.

  3. Design of a Surface Albedo Modification Payload for Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) Mitigation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ge, Shen

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    of time and if it uses the close approach of an asteroid near Earth to magnify the perturbation. The payload dispenses colored powder called albedo changing particles (ACPs) onto the surface changing its albedo and indirectly the surface temperature which...

  4. Hot roller embossing system equipped with a temperature margin-based controller

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Seyoung, E-mail: seyoungkim@kimm.re.kr; Son, Youngsu; Lee, Sunghee; Ham, Sangyong; Kim, Byungin [Department of Robotics and Mechatronics, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials (KIMM), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A temperature control system was proposed for hot roller embossing. The roll surface was heated using induction coils and cooled with a circulating chilled water system. The temperature of the roll surface was precisely controlled by a temperature margin-based control algorithm that we developed. Implementation of the control system reduced deviations in the roll surface temperature to less than ±2?°C. The tight temperature control and the ability to rapidly increase and decrease the roll temperature will allow optimum operating parameters to be developed quickly. The temperature margin-based controller could also be used to optimize the time course of electrical power and shorten the cooling time by choosing an appropriate temperature margin, possibly for limited power consumption. The chiller-equipped heating roll with the proposed control algorithm is expected to decrease the time needed to determine the optimal embossing process.

  5. Rational nanostructuring of surfaces for extraordinary icephobicity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daraio, Chiara

    to the same extremely low, robust nucleation temperature of $Ã?24 C for over three orders of magnitude change lubricant impregnated surfaces23,24 which exhibit remarkable droplet roll-off properties have been studied of repeated measurements. Our measurements were performed under the condition of saturated humidity

  6. ARM Surface Meteorology Systems Instrument Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ritsche, MT

    2011-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The ARM Surface Meteorology Systems consist mainly of conventional in situ sensors that obtain a defined “core” set of measurements. The core set of measurements is: Barometric Pressure (kPa), Temperature (°C), Relative Humidity (%), Arithmetic-Averaged Wind Speed (m/s), Vector-Averaged Wind Speed (m/s), and Vector-Averaged Wind Direction (deg).

  7. Transition boiling heat transfer from a horizontal surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berenson Paul Jerome

    1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experiment, utilising a condensing fluid as the heat source, was performed to determine the heat flux vs. temperature difference curve for transition pool boiling from a horisontal surface. The boiling cure was determined ...

  8. Topological Insulators at Room Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Haijun; /Beijing, Inst. Phys.; Liu, Chao-Xing; /Tsinghua U., Beijing; Qi, Xiao-Liang; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Dai, Xi; Fang, Zhong; /Beijing, Inst. Phys.; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2010-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Topological insulators are new states of quantum matter with surface states protected by the time-reversal symmetry. In this work, we perform first-principle electronic structure calculations for Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3}, Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 3}, Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} crystals. Our calculations predict that Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3}, Bi{sub 2}T e{sub 3} and Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} are topological insulators, while Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 3} is not. In particular, Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} has a topologically non-trivial energy gap of 0.3eV , suitable for room temperature applications. We present a simple and unified continuum model which captures the salient topological features of this class of materials. These topological insulators have robust surface states consisting of a single Dirac cone at the {Lambda} point.

  9. Temperature-sensitive optrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hirschfeld, T.B.

    1985-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Method and apparatus are provided for measuring temperature and for generating optical signals related to temperature. Light from a fiber optic is directed to a material whose fluorescent response varies with ambient temperature. The same fiber optic delivering the excitation beam also collects a portion of the fluorescent emission for analysis. Signal collection efficiency of the fiber optic is enhanced by requiring that the fluorescent probe material be in the shape of an oblong parabolically tapered solid. Reproducibility is enhanced by using Raman backscatter to monitor excitation beam fluctuations, and by using measurements of fluorescence lifetime. 10 figs.

  10. High Temperature Capacitor Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Kosek

    2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The absence of high-temperature electronics is an obstacle to the development of untapped energy resources (deep oil, gas and geothermal). US natural gas consumption is projected to grow from 22 trillion cubic feet per year (tcf) in 1999 to 34 tcf in 2020. Cumulatively this is 607 tcf of consumption by 2020, while recoverable reserves using current technology are 177 tcf. A significant portion of this shortfall may be met by tapping deep gas reservoirs. Tapping these reservoirs represents a significant technical challenge. At these depths, temperatures and pressures are very high and may require penetrating very hard rock. Logistics of supporting 6.1 km (20,000 ft) drill strings and the drilling processes are complex and expensive. At these depths up to 50% of the total drilling cost may be in the last 10% of the well depth. Thus, as wells go deeper it is increasingly important that drillers are able to monitor conditions down-hole such as temperature, pressure, heading, etc. Commercial off-the-shelf electronics are not specified to meet these operating conditions. This is due to problems associated with all aspects of the electronics including the resistors and capacitors. With respect to capacitors, increasing temperature often significantly changes capacitance because of the strong temperature dependence of the dielectric constant. Higher temperatures also affect the equivalent series resistance (ESR). High-temperature capacitors usually have low capacitance values because of these dielectric effects and because packages are kept small to prevent mechanical breakage caused by thermal stresses. Electrolytic capacitors do not operate at temperatures above 150oC due to dielectric breakdown. The development of high-temperature capacitors to be used in a high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) drilling environment was investigated. These capacitors were based on a previously developed high-voltage hybridized capacitor developed at Giner, Inc. in conjunction with a unique high-temperature electrolyte developed during the course of the program. During this program the feasibility of operating a high voltage hybridized capacitor at 230oC was demonstrated. Capacitor specifications were established in conjunction with potential capacitor users. A method to allow for capacitor operation at both ambient and elevated temperatures was demonstrated. The program was terminated prior to moving into Phase II due to a lack of cost-sharing funds.

  11. Finite Temperature Effective Actions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ashok Das; J. Frenkel

    2009-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We present, from first principles, a direct method for evaluating the exact fermion propagator in the presence of a general background field at finite temperature, which can be used to determine the finite temperature effective action for the system. As applications, we determine the complete one loop finite temperature effective actions for 0+1 dimensional QED as well as the Schwinger model. These effective actions, which are derived in the real time (closed time path) formalism, generate systematically all the Feynman amplitudes calculated in thermal perturbation theory and also show that the retarded (advanced) amplitudes vanish in these theories.

  12. LOW TEMPERATURE CATHODE SUPPORTED ELECTROLYTES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harlan U. Anderson; Wayne Huebner; Igor Kosacki

    2001-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This project has three main goals: Thin Films Studies, Preparation of Graded Porous Substrates and Basic Electrical Characterization and testing of Planar Single Cells. In this portion of study we have focused on producing YSZ films on porous LSM substrates. When using the polymer precursor there are a number of obstacles to overcome in order to form dense electrolyte layers on porous substrates (cathode or anode). Probably the most difficult problems are: (1) Extreme penetration of the polymer into the substrate must be prevented. (2) Shrinkage cracking must be avoided. (3) Film thickness in the 1 to 5{micro}m range must be achieved. We have demonstrated that cracking due to shrinkage involved during the elimination of solvents and organic matter and densification of the remaining oxide is not a problem as long as the resulting oxide film is < {approx} 0.15 {micro}m in thickness. We have also shown that we can make thicker films by making multiple depositions if the substrate is smooth (roughness {le} 0.1 {micro}m) and contains no surface pores > 0.2 {micro}m. The penetration of the polymer into the porous substrate can be minimized by increasing the viscosity of the polymer and reducing the largest pore at the surface of the substrate to {le} 0.2 {micro}m. We have shown that this can be done, but we have also shown that it is difficult to make dense films that are defect free with areas > 1 cm{sup 2}. This is because of the roughness of the substrate and the difficulty in making a substrate which does not have surface voids > 0.2 {micro}m. Thus the process works well for dense, smooth substrates for films < 1 {micro}m thick, but is difficult to apply to rough, porous surfaces and to make film thickness > 1 {micro}m. As a result of these problems, we have been addressing the issue of how to make dense films in the thickness range of 1 to 5 {micro}m on sintered porous substrates without introducing cracks and holes due to shrinkage and surface voids? These endeavors have lead us to a solution which we think is quite unique and should allow us to obtain flaw free dense films of thickness in the 0.5 to 5 {micro}m range at processing temperatures {le} 900{sup o}. The process involves the deposition of a slurry of nanocrystalline YSZ onto a presintered porous LSM substrate. The key element in the deposition is that the slurry contains sufficient YSZ polymer precursor to allow adhesion of the YSZ particles to each other and the surface after annealing at about 600 C. This allows the formation of a porous film of 0.5 to 5 {micro}m thick which adheres to the surface. After formation of this film, YSZ polymer precursor is allowed to impregnate the porous surface layer (capillary forces tend to confine the polymer solution in the nanoporous layer). After several impregnation/heat treatment cycles, a dense film results. Within the next few months, this process should be developed to the point that single cell measurements can be made on 0.5 to 5 {micro}m films on a LSM substrate. This type of processing allows the formation of essentially flaw free films over areas > 1 cm{sup 2}.

  13. Method of boronizing transition metal surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koyama, Koichiro; Shimotake, Hiroshi.

    1983-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is presented for preparing a boride layer on a transition metal substrate for use in corrosive environments or as a harden surface in machine applications. This method is particularly useful in treating current collectors for use within a high temperature and corrosive electrochemical cell environment. A melt of a alkali metal boride tetrafluoride salt including such as KF to lower its melting point is prepared including a dissolved boron containing material, for instance NiB, MnB[sub 2], or CrB[sub 2]. A transition metal to be coated is immersed in the melt at a temperature of no more than 700 C and a surface boride layer of that transition metal is formed within a period of about 24 hours on the substrate surface. 4 figs.

  14. Method of boronizing transition metal surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koyama, Koichiro (Hyogo, JP); Shimotake, Hiroshi (Hinsdale, IL)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is presented for preparing a boride layer on a transition metal substrate for use in corrosive environments or as a harden surface in machine applications. This method is particularly useful in treating current collectors for use within a high temperature and corrosive electrochemical cell environment. A melt of a alkali metal boride tetrafluoride salt including such as KF to lower its melting point is prepared including a dissolved boron containing material, for instance NiB, MnB.sub.2, or CrB.sub.2. A transition metal to be coated is immersed in the melt at a temperature of no more than 700.degree. C. and a surface boride layer of that transition metal is formed within a period of about 24 hours on the substrate surface.

  15. High-Temperature Superconductivity

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Peter Johnson

    2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Like astronomers tweaking images to gain a more detailed glimpse of distant stars, physicists at Brookhaven National Laboratory have found ways to sharpen images of the energy spectra in high-temperature superconductors ? materials that carry electrical c

  16. Penrose Well Temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christopherson, Karen

    2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Penrose Well Temperatures Geothermal waters have been encountered in several wells near Penrose in Fremont County, Colorado. Most of the wells were drilled for oil and gas exploration and, in a few cases, production. This ESRI point shapefile utilizes data from 95 wells in and around the Penrose area provided by the Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission (COGCC) database at http://cogcc.state.co.us/ . Temperature data from the database were used to calculate a temperature gradient for each well. This information was then used to estimate temperatures at various depths. Projection: UTM Zone 13 NAD27 Extent: West -105.224871 East -105.027633 North 38.486269 South 38.259507 Originators: Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission (COGCC) Karen Christopherson

  17. Low temperature cryoprobe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sungaila, Z.F.

    1988-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A portable, hand held probe usable within a small confine to produce a point source of nitrogen or helium at a relatively constant temperatures of 77 degrees Kelvin, is discussed. 3 figs.

  18. Temperature in the Throat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dariush Kaviani; Amir Esmaeil Mosaffa

    2015-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the temperature of extended objects in string theory. Rotating D-branes in warped Calabi-Yau throats have induced metrics with thermal horizons and Hawking temperatures a la Unruh effect. We solve the equations of motion for slow rotating probe branes and derive their induced metrics in the UV/IR solutions of warped conifold throats. Our analysis shows that horizons and temperatures of expected features form on the world volume of the rotating probe brane in terms of conserved charges in the UV solutions of the conifold throat. In certain limits, we find world volume horizons and temperatures of the form similar to those of rotating probes in the AdS throat.

  19. Finite temperature Casimir effect for graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ignat V. Fialkovsky; Valery N. Marachevsky; Dmitri V. Vassilevich

    2011-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We adopt the Dirac model for quasiparticles in graphene and calculate the finite temperature Casimir interaction between a suspended graphene layer and a parallel conducting surface. We find that at high temperature the Casimir interaction in such system is just one half of that for two ideal conductors separated by the same distance. In this limit single graphene layer behaves exactly as a Drude metal. In particular, the contribution of the TE mode is suppressed, while one of the TM mode saturates the ideal metal value. Behaviour of the Casimir interaction for intermediate temperatures and separations accessible for an experiment is studied in some detail. We also find an interesting interplay between two fundamental constants of graphene physics: the fine structure constant and the Fermi velocity.

  20. High temperature pressure gauge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Echtler, J. Paul (Pittsburgh, PA); Scandrol, Roy O. (Library, PA)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature pressure gauge comprising a pressure gauge positioned in fluid communication with one end of a conduit which has a diaphragm mounted in its other end. The conduit is filled with a low melting metal alloy above the diaphragm for a portion of its length with a high temperature fluid being positioned in the remaining length of the conduit and in the pressure gauge.

  1. Temperature measuring device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bible, Don W. (Clinton, TN); Sohns, Carl W. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems and methods are described for a wireless instrumented silicon wafer that can measure temperatures at various points and transmit those temperature readings to an external receiver. The device has particular utility in the processing of semiconductor wafers, where it can be used to map thermal uniformity on hot plates, cold plates, spin bowl chucks, etc. without the inconvenience of wires or the inevitable thermal perturbations attendant with them.

  2. Rubber friction: role of the flash temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. N. J. Persson

    2006-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    When a rubber block is sliding on a hard rough substrate, the substrate asperities will exert time-dependent deformations of the rubber surface resulting in viscoelastic energy dissipation in the rubber, which gives a contribution to the sliding friction. Most surfaces of solids have roughness on many different length scales, and when calculating the friction force it is necessary to include the viscoelastic deformations on all length scales. The energy dissipation will result in local heating of the rubber. Since the viscoelastic properties of rubber-like materials are extremely strongly temperature dependent, it is necessary to include the local temperature increase in the analysis. At very low sliding velocity the temperature increase is negligible because of heat diffusion, but already for velocities of order 0.01 m/s the local heating may be very important. Here I study the influence of the local heating on the rubber friction, and I show that in a typical case the temperature increase results in a decrease in rubber friction with increasing sliding velocity for v > 0.01 m/s. This may result in stick-slip instabilities, and is of crucial importance in many practical applications, e.g., for the tire-road friction, and in particular for ABS-breaking systems.

  3. Turbine vane with high temperature capable skins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morrison, Jay A. (Oviedo, FL)

    2012-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A turbine vane assembly includes an airfoil extending between an inner shroud and an outer shroud. The airfoil can include a substructure having an outer peripheral surface. At least a portion of the outer peripheral surface is covered by an external skin. The external skin can be made of a high temperature capable material, such as oxide dispersion strengthened alloys, intermetallic alloys, ceramic matrix composites or refractory alloys. The external skin can be formed, and the airfoil can be subsequently bi-cast around or onto the skin. The skin and the substructure can be attached by a plurality of attachment members extending between the skin and the substructure. The skin can be spaced from the outer peripheral surface of the substructure such that a cavity is formed therebetween. Coolant can be supplied to the cavity. Skins can also be applied to the gas path faces of the inner and outer shrouds.

  4. Sink property of metallic glass free surfaces

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shao, Lin; Fu, Engang; Price, Lloyd; Chen, Di; Chen, Tianyi; Wang, Yongqiang; Xie, Guoqiang; Lucca, Don A.

    2015-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    When heated to a temperature close to glass transition temperature, metallic glasses (MGs) begin to crystallize. Under deformation or particle irradiation, crystallization occurs at even lower temperatures. Hence, phase instability represents an application limit for MGs. Here, we report that MG membranes of a few nanometers thickness exhibit properties different from their bulk MG counterparts. The study uses in situ transmission electron microscopy with concurrent heavy ion irradiation and annealing to observe crystallization behaviors of MGs. For relatively thick membranes, ion irradiations introduce excessive free volumes and thus induce nanocrystal formation at a temperature linearly decreasing with increasing ion fluences.more »For ultra-thin membranes, however, the critical temperature to initiate crystallization is about 100 K higher than the bulk glass transition temperature. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that this effect is due to the sink property of the surfaces which can effectively remove excessive free volumes. These findings suggest that nanostructured MGs having a higher surface to volume ratio are expected to have higher crystallization resistance, which could pave new paths for materials applications in harsh environments requiring higher stabilities.« less

  5. Fluorinated silica microchannel surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirby, Brian J.; Shepodd, Timothy Jon

    2005-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for surface modification of microchannels and capillaries. The method produces a chemically inert surface having a lowered surface free energy and improved frictional properties by attaching a fluorinated alkane group to the surface. The coating is produced by hydrolysis of a silane agent that is functionalized with either alkoxy or chloro ligands and an uncharged C.sub.3 -C.sub.10 fluorinated alkane chain. It has been found that the extent of surface coverage can be controlled by controlling the contact time from a minimum of about 2 minutes to a maximum of 120 minutes for complete surface coverage.

  6. Local wall heat flux/temperature meter for convective flow and method of utilizing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyd, Ronald D.; Ekhlassi, Ali; Cofie, Penrose

    2004-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    According to one embodiment of the invention, a method includes providing a conduit having a fluid flowing therethrough, disposing a plurality of temperature measurement devices inside a wall of the conduit, positioning at least some of the temperature measurement devices proximate an inside surface of the wall of the conduit, positioning at least some of the temperature measurement devices at different radial positions at the same circumferential location within the wall, measuring a plurality of temperatures of the wall with respective ones of the temperature measurement devices to obtain a three-dimensional temperature topology of the wall, determining the temperature dependent thermal conductivity of the conduit, and determining a multi-dimensional thermal characteristic of the inside surface of the wall of the conduit based on extrapolation of the three-dimensional temperature topology and the temperature dependent thermal conductivities.

  7. Weld Surfacing Edited by Dr I.A. Bucklow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    becomesconfigurationally frozen at a temperature of about 1150°Cduring deposition by the manual-metal-arc welding techniqueV01.II Weld Surfacing Edited by Dr I.A. Bucklow ConferenceTechnicalDirector Organised by The Welding Institute in associationwith The Surface Engineering Society THE WELDING INSTITUTE #12;L

  8. Land Surface Model Data Assimilation for Atmospheric Prediction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Jeff

    remote sensing studies, using visible, thermal infrared (surface temperature) and microwave (passive, the first passive microwave sensor in space with appropriate frequencies for measuring near-surface soil of concurrent data has made evaluation of SMMR-based studies effectively impossible (Walker et al., 2003

  9. SURFACE ORBITAL MAGNETISM Herv'e KUNZ \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SURFACE ORBITAL MAGNETISM Herv'e KUNZ \\Lambda Institut de Physique Th'eorique Ecole Polytechnique F, submitted to a magnetic field. Applying these results to orbital magnetism, we find that at high temperatures or weak magnetic fields the surface magnetisation is always paramag­ netic, but oscillations

  10. Temperature initiated passive cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature. 1 fig.

  11. Temperature initiated passive cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, Charles W. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature.

  12. 3D Temperature Measurement in IC Chips using Confocal Raman Spectroscopy Javad Shabani, Xi Wang, and Ali Shakouri

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . The feasibility of using Raman spectroscopy for remote temperature measurement in depth was investigated value where the surface temperature starts to rise due to heating by incident light. #12;Raman

  13. Temperature Data Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gillespie, David

    2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Groundwater temperature is sensitive to the competing processes of heat flow from below the advective transport of heat by groundwater flow. Because groundwater temperature is sensitive to conductive and advective processes, groundwater temperature may be utilized as a tracer to further constrain the uncertainty of predictions of advective radionuclide transport models constructed for the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Since heat transport, geochemical, and hydrologic models for a given area must all be consistent, uncertainty can be reduced by devaluing the weight of those models that do not match estimated heat flow. The objective of this study was to identify the quantity and quality of available heat flow data at the NTS. One-hundred-forty-five temperature logs from 63 boreholes were examined. Thirteen were found to have temperature profiles suitable for the determination of heat flow values from one or more intervals within the boreholes. If sufficient spatially distributed heat flow values are obtained, a heat transport model coupled to a hydrologic model may be used to reduce the uncertainty of a nonisothermal hydrologic model of the NTS.

  14. High temperature thermometric phosphors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allison, Stephen W. (Knoxville, TN); Cates, Michael R. (Oak Ridge, TN); Boatner, Lynn A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Gillies, George T. (Earlysville, VA)

    1999-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature phosphor consists essentially of a material having the general formula LuPO.sub.4 :Dy.sub.(x),Eu.sub.y) wherein: 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.20 wt % and 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.20 wt %. The high temperature phosphor is in contact with an article whose temperature is to be determined. The article having the phosphor in contact with it is placed in the environment for which the temperature of the article is to be determined. The phosphor is excited by a laser causing the phosphor to fluoresce. The emission from the phosphor is optically focused into a beam-splitting mirror which separates the emission into two separate emissions, the emission caused by the dysprosium dopant and the emission caused by the europium dopent. The separated emissions are optically filtered and the intensities of the emission are detected and measured. The ratio of the intensity of each emission is determined and the temperature of the article is calculated from the ratio of the intensities of the separate emissions.

  15. High temperature thermometric phosphors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allison, S.W.; Cates, M.R.; Boatner, L.A.; Gillies, G.T.

    1999-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature phosphor consists essentially of a material having the general formula LuPO{sub 4}:Dy{sub x},Eu{sub y} wherein: 0.1 wt % {<=} x {<=} 20 wt % and 0.1 wt % {<=} y {<=} 20 wt %. The high temperature phosphor is in contact with an article whose temperature is to be determined. The article having the phosphor in contact with it is placed in the environment for which the temperature of the article is to be determined. The phosphor is excited by a laser causing the phosphor to fluoresce. The emission from the phosphor is optically focused into a beam-splitting mirror which separates the emission into two separate emissions, the emission caused by the dysprosium dopant and the emission caused by the europium dopant. The separated emissions are optically filtered and the intensities of the emission are detected and measured. The ratio of the intensity of each emission is determined and the temperature of the article is calculated from the ratio of the intensities of the separate emissions. 2 figs.

  16. High-temperature Pump Monitoring - High-temperature ESP Monitoring...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    7 4.4.4 High-temperature Pump Monitoring - High-temperature ESP Monitoring Presentation Number: 018 Investigator: Dhruva, Brindesh (Schlumberger Technology Corp.) Objectives: To...

  17. PID Control Effectiveness for Surface Reactor Concepts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dixon, David D. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States); Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Marsh, Christopher L. [United States Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD (United States); Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Poston, David I. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2007-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Control of space and surface fission reactors should be kept as simple as possible, because of the need for high reliability and the difficulty to diagnose and adapt to control system failures. Fortunately, compact, fast-spectrum, externally controlled reactors are very simple in operation. In fact, for some applications it may be possible to design low-power surface reactors without the need for any reactor control after startup; however, a simple proportional, integral, derivative (PID) controller can allow a higher performance concept and add more flexibility to system operation. This paper investigates the effectiveness of a PID control scheme for several anticipated transients that a surface reactor might experience. To perform these analyses, the surface reactor transient code FRINK was modified to simulate control drum movements based on bulk coolant temperature.

  18. Surface Meteorological Observation System (SMOS) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ritsche, MT

    2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Surface Meteorological Observation System (SMOS) mostly uses conventional in situ sensors to obtain 1-minute, 30-minute, and 1440-minute (daily) averages of surface wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, relative humidity (RH), barometric pressure, and precipitation at the Central Facility and many of the extended facilities of the Southern Great Plains (SGP) climate research site. The SMOSs are not calibrated as systems. The sensors and the data logger (which includes the analog-to-digital converter, or A/D) are calibrated separately. All systems are installed using components that have a current calibration. SMOSs have not been installed at extended facilities located within about 10 km of existing surface meteorological stations, such as those of the Oklahoma Mesonet. The Surface Meteorological Observation Systems are used to create climatology for each particular location, and to verify the output of numerical weather forecast and other model output. They are also used to “ground-truth” other remote sensing equipment.

  19. High temperature adsorption measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bertani, R.; Parisi, L.; Perini, R.; Tarquini, B.

    1996-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Adsorption phenomena are a rich and rather new field of study in geothermal research, in particular at very high temperature. ENEL is interested in the exploitation of geothermal regions with superheated steam, and it is important to understand the behavior of water-rock interaction. We have analyzed in the 170-200 °C temperature range four samples of Monteverdi cuttings; the next experimental effort will be at 220 °C and over in 1996. The first results of the 1995 runs are collected in this paper. We can highlight four main items: 1. At relative pressures over 0.6 the capillarity forces are very important. 2. There is no significant temperature effect. 3. Adsorbed water can be present, and it is able to multiply by a factor of 15 the estimated reserve of super-heated steam only. 4. Pores smaller than 15 Å do not contribute to the adsorbed mass.

  20. Temperature profile detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tokarz, Richard D. (West Richland, WA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A temperature profile detector shown as a tubular enclosure surrounding an elongated electrical conductor having a plurality of meltable conductive segments surrounding it. Duplicative meltable segments are spaced apart from one another along the length of the enclosure. Electrical insulators surround these elements to confine molten material from the segments in bridging contact between the conductor and a second electrical conductor, which might be the confining tube. The location and rate of growth of the resulting short circuits between the two conductors can be monitored by measuring changes in electrical resistance between terminals at both ends of the two conductors. Additional conductors and separate sets of meltable segments operational at differing temperatures can be monitored simultaneously for measuring different temperature profiles.

  1. Temperature profile detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tokarz, R.D.

    1983-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a temperature profile detector shown as a tubular enclosure surrounding an elongated electrical conductor having a plurality of meltable conductive segments surrounding it. Duplicative meltable segments are spaced apart from one another along the length of the enclosure. Electrical insulators surround these elements to confine molten material from the segments in bridging contact between the conductor and a second electrical conductor, which might be the confining tube. The location and rate of growth of the resulting short circuits between the two conductors can be monitored by measuring changes in electrical resistance between terminals at both ends of the two conductors. Additional conductors and separate sets of meltable segments operational at differing temperatures can be monitored simultaneously for measuring different temperature profiles. 8 figs.

  2. Hydrogen Burning on Magnetar Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Chang; P. Arras; L. Bildsten

    2004-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We compute the rate of diffusive nuclear burning for hydrogen on the surface of a "magnetar" (Soft Gamma-Ray Repeater or Anomalous X-Ray Pulsar). We find that hydrogen at the photosphere will be burned on an extremely rapid timescale of hours to years, depending on composition of the underlying material. Improving on our previous studies, we explore the effect of a maximally thick "inert" helium layer, previously thought to slow down the burning rate. Since hydrogen diffuses faster in helium than through heavier elements, we find this helium buffer actually increases the burning rate for magnetars. We compute simple analytic scalings of the burning rate with temperature and magnetic field for a range of core temperature. We conclude that magnetar photospheres are very unlikely to contain hydrogen. This motivates theoretical work on heavy element atmospheres that are needed to measure effective temperature from the observed thermal emission and constrains models of AXPs that rely on magnetar cooling through thick light element envelopes.

  3. Fresnel versus Kummer surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peinke, Joachim

    Fresnel versus Kummer surfaces Alberto Favaro & Friedrich W. Hehl Outline Linear media Linear media-you. Fresnel versus Kummer surfaces: geometrical optics in dispersionless linear (meta)materials and vacuum, 19­23 November 2012 Email: favaro@thp.uni-koeln.de #12;Fresnel versus Kummer surfaces Alberto Favaro

  4. SURFACE TENSION DRIVEN CONVECTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Shouhong

    SURFACE TENSION DRIVEN CONVECTION DIJKSTRA, SENGUL, WANG INTRODUCTION LINEAR THEORY MAIN THEOREMS CONCLUDING REMARKS DYNAMIC TRANSITIONS OF SURFACE TENSION DRIVEN CONVECTION H.Dijkstra T. Sengul S. Wang #12;SURFACE TENSION DRIVEN CONVECTION DIJKSTRA, SENGUL, WANG INTRODUCTION LINEAR THEORY MAIN THEOREMS

  5. Fluorescent temperature sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Gary A [Los Alamos, NM; Baker, Sheila N [Los Alamos, NM; McCleskey, T Mark [Los Alamos, NM

    2009-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a fluorescent temperature sensor or optical thermometer. The sensor includes a solution of 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane within a 1-butyl-1-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid solvent. The 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane remains unassociated when in the ground state while in solution. When subjected to UV light, an excited state is produced that exists in equilibrium with an excimer. The position of the equilibrium between the two excited states is temperature dependent.

  6. Effect of temperature on layer separation by plasma hydrogenation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Di, Z. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Nastasi, M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Rossi, F. [Joint Research Centre, European Commission, 21020 Ispra (Italy); Shao, L. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A and M University, 3133 TAMU, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Thompson, P. E. [Code 6812, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. 20375-5347 (United States)

    2008-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We have studied hydrogen diffusion in plasma hydrogenated Si/SiGe/Si heterostructure at different temperatures. At low temperature, intrinsic point defects in the molecular beam epitaxy grown Si capping layer are found to compete with the buried strain SiGe layer for hydrogen trapping. The interaction of hydrogen with point defects affects the hydrogen long-range diffusion, and restricts the amount of hydrogen available for trapping by the SiGe layer. However, hydrogen trapping by the capping layer is attenuated with increasing hydrogenation temperature allowing more hydrogen to be trapped in the strain SiGe layer with subsequent surface blister formation. A potential temperature window for plasma hydrogenation induced layer separation is identified based on the combined considerations of trap-limited diffusion at low temperature and outdiffusion of H{sub 2} molecule together with the dissociation of Si-H bonds inside of H platelet at high temperature.

  7. Effect of temperature on layer separation by plasma-hydrogenation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Di, Zengfeng [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Michael, Nastasi A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wang, Yongqiang [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have studied hydrogen diffusion in plasma hydrogenated Si/SiGe/Si heterostructure at different temperatures. At low temperature, intrinsic point defects in the molecular beam epitaxy grown Si capping layer are found to compete with the buried strain SiGe layer for hydrogen trapping. The interaction of hydrogen with point defects affects the hydrogen long-range diffusion, and restricts the amount of hydrogen available for trapping by the SiGe layer. However, hydrogen trapping by the capping layer is attenuated with increasing hydrogenation temperature allowing more hydrogen to be trapped in the strain SiGe layer with subsequent surface blister formation. A potential temperature window for plasma hydrogenation induced layer separation is identified based on the combined considerations of trap-limited diffusion at low temperature and outdiffusion of H{sub 2} molecule together with the dissociation of Si-H bonds inside of H platelet at high temperature.

  8. Surface spin flip probability of mesoscopic Ag wires.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mihajlovic, G.; Pearson, J. E.; Bader, S. D.; Hoffmann, A.

    2010-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Spin relaxation in mesoscopic Ag wires in the diffusive transport regime is studied via nonlocal spin valve and Hanle effect measurements performed on Permalloy/Ag lateral spin valves. The ratio between momentum and spin relaxation times is not constant at low temperatures. This can be explained with the Elliott-Yafet spin relaxation mechanism by considering the momentum surface relaxation time as being temperature dependent. We present a model to separately determine spin flip probabilities for phonon, impurity and surface scattering and find that the spin flip probability is highest for surface scattering.

  9. Surface cleanliness measurement procedure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schroder, Mark Stewart (Hendersonville, NC); Woodmansee, Donald Ernest (Simpsonville, SC); Beadie, Douglas Frank (Greenville, SC)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A procedure and tools for quantifying surface cleanliness are described. Cleanliness of a target surface is quantified by wiping a prescribed area of the surface with a flexible, bright white cloth swatch, preferably mounted on a special tool. The cloth picks up a substantial amount of any particulate surface contamination. The amount of contamination is determined by measuring the reflectivity loss of the cloth before and after wiping on the contaminated system and comparing that loss to a previous calibration with similar contamination. In the alternative, a visual comparison of the contaminated cloth to a contamination key provides an indication of the surface cleanliness.

  10. High temperature solar selective coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kennedy, Cheryl E

    2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Improved solar collectors (40) comprising glass tubing (42) attached to bellows (44) by airtight seals (56) enclose solar absorber tubes (50) inside an annular evacuated space (54. The exterior surfaces of the solar absorber tubes (50) are coated with improved solar selective coatings {48} which provide higher absorbance, lower emittance and resistance to atmospheric oxidation at elevated temperatures. The coatings are multilayered structures comprising solar absorbent layers (26) applied to the meta surface of the absorber tubes (50), typically stainless steel, topped with antireflective Savers (28) comprising at least two layers 30, 32) of refractory metal or metalloid oxides (such as titania and silica) with substantially differing indices of refraction in adjacent layers. Optionally, at least one layer of a noble metal such as platinum can be included between some of the layers. The absorbent layers cars include cermet materials comprising particles of metal compounds is a matrix, which can contain oxides of refractory metals or metalloids such as silicon. Reflective layers within the coating layers can comprise refractory metal silicides and related compounds characterized by the formulas TiSi. Ti.sub.3SiC.sub.2, TiAlSi, TiAN and similar compounds for Zr and Hf. The titania can be characterized by the formulas TiO.sub.2, Ti.sub.3O.sub.5. TiOx or TiO.sub.xN.sub.1-x with x 0 to 1. The silica can be at least one of SiO.sub.2, SiO.sub.2x or SiO.sub.2xN.sub.1-x with x=0 to 1.

  11. Transition temperature in QCD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, M.; Christ, N. H.; Mawhinney, R. D. [Physics Department, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Datta, S.; Jung, C.; Schmidt, C.; Umeda, T. [Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Heide, J. van der; Kaczmarek, O.; Laermann, E.; Miao, C. [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Universitaet Bielefeld, D-33615 Bielefeld (Germany); Karsch, F. [Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Fakultaet fuer Physik, Universitaet Bielefeld, D-33615 Bielefeld (Germany); Petreczky, P. [Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); RIKEN-BNL Research Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Petrov, K. [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a detailed calculation of the transition temperature in QCD with two light and one heavier (strange) quark mass on lattices with temporal extent N{sub {tau}}=4 and 6. Calculations with improved staggered fermions have been performed for various light to strange quark mass ratios in the range, 0.05{<=}m-circumflex{sub l}/m-circumflex{sub s}{<=}0.5, and with a strange quark mass fixed close to its physical value. From a combined extrapolation to the chiral (m-circumflex{sub l}{yields}0) and continuum (aT{identical_to}1/N{sub {tau}}{yields}0) limits we find for the transition temperature at the physical point T{sub c}r{sub 0}=0.457(7) where the scale is set by the Sommer-scale parameter r{sub 0} defined as the distance in the static quark potential at which the slope takes on the value (dV{sub qq}(r)/dr){sub r=r{sub 0}}=1.65/r{sub 0}{sup 2}. Using the currently best known value for r{sub 0} this translates to a transition temperature T{sub c}=192(7)(4) MeV. The transition temperature in the chiral limit is about 3% smaller. We discuss current ambiguities in the determination of T{sub c} in physical units and also comment on the universal scaling behavior of thermodynamic quantities in the chiral limit.

  12. High temperature storage battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sammells, A.F.

    1988-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature electrochemical cell is described comprising: a solid-state divalent cation conducting electrolyte; a positive electrode in contact with the electrolyte; a solid-state negative electrode contacting a divalent cation conducting molten salt mediating agent providing ionic mediation between the solid-state negative electrode and the solid-state electrolyte.

  13. Low Temperature Performance Characterization

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    0.0036 0.0038 0.004 0.0042 Inverse Temperature, 1K Gen2 Electrodes and 1.2M LiPF6 in EC:EMC (3:7 ww) (BID 1935), 4.1V, 3 Sep. Gen2 Electrodes and 1.2M LiPF6 in EC:EMC (3:7 ww)...

  14. Langasite Surface Acoustic Wave Sensors: Fabrication and Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Peng; Greve, David W.; Oppenheim, Irving J.; Chin, Tao-Lun; Malone, Vanessa

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the development of harsh-environment surface acoustic wave sensors for wired and wireless operation. Surface acoustic wave devices with an interdigitated transducer emitter and multiple reflectors were fabricated on langasite substrates. Both wired and wireless temperature sensing was demonstrated using radar-mode (pulse) detection. Temperature resolution of better than ±0.5°C was achieved between 200°C and 600°C. Oxygen sensing was achieved by depositing a layer of ZnO on the propagation path. Although the ZnO layer caused additional attenuation of the surface wave, oxygen sensing was accomplished at temperatures up to 700°C. The results indicate that langasite SAW devices are a potential solution for harsh-environment gas and temperature sensing.

  15. Localized temperature stability of low temperature cofired ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Steven Xunhu

    2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to low temperature cofired ceramic modules having localized temperature stability by incorporating temperature coefficient of resonant frequency compensating materials locally into a multilayer LTCC module. Chemical interactions can be minimized and physical compatibility between the compensating materials and the host LTCC dielectrics can be achieved. The invention enables embedded resonators with nearly temperature-independent resonance frequency.

  16. Temperature Temperature is the physical property of a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexeenko, Alina

    Temperature Temperature is the physical property of a system which underlines the common notion and said to be at the same temperature. If a thermometer is placed in a gas container then the thermal zero. #12;Temperature The energy exchange between gas and thermometer is through collisions of gas

  17. Envelope calculations for a low temperature neutron star

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCoy, Robert Paul

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with distance inward from the surface R for all three star models S, I and II at effective temperature Te = 10 K 34 Density-pressure dependence for the Model S star at different values of Te 35 Envelope calculation traces in the opacity-density plane... )] (20) Similarly a relation between p and T can be found 64v GN~ uH() a+1 1 a+1 ~a+ 3 r L k 4-b+aJ 0 (21) Inserting this back into the energy transport equation (13) gives the radial dependence of the temperature (22) (23) where R is the surface...

  18. Estimation of precipitable water from surface observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kahan, Archie Marion

    1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for estimating the precipitable water at Lake Charles, Louisiana. P red ic tors employed were surface vapor p re s ? sure, ceiling, cloud cover , cloud type, wind, pressure change and iv season. E rrors of estimate averaged approximately one tenth o f... of the photocells and the intense radiation of the noon sun leads one to accept the reality of a ce ll temperature greater than the ambient air temperature. The ce lls are, in effect, miniature green ? houses, The epoxy resin cylinder encasing the crysta l...

  19. Measurements of aerosol thermophoretic deposition: Transition with temperature gradient

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varma, A.; Tompson, R.V.; Loyalka, S.K. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermophoresis is the motion of aerosol particles due to a temperature gradient in the suspending gas. The thermophoretic velocity V{sub T} is expressed as: where a {alpha} = thermal diffusivity v = kinematic viscosity H= Pr K Pr = Prandtl number K = dimensionless coefficient that is a function of several parameters (particle radius, thermal conductivity, gas properties, gas surface interactions). This report describes measurements of the effects of temperature gradients on the deposition of polystyrene latex particles.

  20. LOW TEMPERATURE CATHODE SUPPORTED ELECTROLYTES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harlan U. Anderson; Wayne Huebner; Igor Kosacki

    2001-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This project has three main goals: Thin Films Studies, Preparation of Graded Porous Substrates and Basic Electrical Characterization and testing of Planar Single Cells. Substantial progress has been made on both characterizing thin films as well as developing methods to produce films on nanoporous substrates. The results of electrical conductivity measurements on ZrO{sub 2}:16%Sc nanocrystalline thin films under controlled oxygen partial pressure and temperature are presented. The experimental data have been interpreted using a defect model, which describes the interaction between Sc and oxygen vacancies resulting in the formation of donor - (Sc{sub Zr} - V{sub o} - e){sup x} and acceptor - (Sc{sub Zr}-h){sup x} levels. From this the electronic and ionic contribution to the electrical transport has been determined and correlated with the band structure. These results suggest that ZrO{sub 2}:16%Sc possesses higher electronic conductivity than ZrO{sub 2}:16%Y, which dominates the total conductivity in reducing atmospheres. This is an important result since it indicates that Sc-YSZ maybe useful in the anode regions of the cell. We have made important breakthroughs on depositing dense Ceria films on to porous LSM substrates. In previous studies we have found that in order to produce a surface which is smooth enough to coat with dense polymer precursor derived films, the required thickness of the colloidal film layer is determined by the maximum surface roughness. That is, if we wish to make 2 micron thick colloidal oxide layers, the roughness of the LSM surface can not exceed 2 microns. Currently, we are producing the composite CeO{sub 2}/LSM structures that can be coated with polymer precursor to produce 0.5 to 1.5 micron thickness dense YSZ films. In the next quarter, we will be testing SOFC's using these structures. YSZ/CeO{sub 2}/LSM composites have been formed by annealing at 800 C. Our studies show that the YSZ films are very dense with a 20 nm grain size. SOFC's using these composites are being fabricated and we expect to obtain cell data during the next quarter. As we reported in November 2000, we have had difficulties in making pore free films with larger areas that about 0.2cm{sup 2} which is due to problems in our clean room. Modifications have now been completed on the clean room and we should be approaching a class 100 in the film making area. This level of cleanliness is sufficient to obtain films without pores over areas up to 100cm{sup 2}.

  1. DNA ELECTROPHORESIS AT SURFACES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RAFAILOVICH, MIRIAM; SOKOLOV, JONATHAN; GERSAPPE, DILIP

    2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During this year we performed two major projects: I. We developed a detailed theoretical model which complements our experiments on surface DNA electrophoresis. We found that it was possible to enhance the separation of DNA chains by imposing a chemical nanoscale pattern on the surface. This approach utilized the surface interaction effect of the DNA chains with the substrate and is a refinement to our previous method in which DNA chains were separated on homogeneous flat surfaces. By introducing the nano-patterns on the surface, the conformational changes of DNA chains of different lengths can be amplified, which results in the different friction strengths with the substrate surface. Our results also show that, when compared to the DNA electrophoresis performed on homogeneous flat surfaces, nanopatterned surfaces offer a larger window in choosing different surface interactions to achieve separation. II. In collaboration with a large international manufacturer of skin care products we also embarked on a project involving photo toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles, which are a key ingredient in sunscreen and cosmetic lotions. The results clearly implicated the nanoparticles in catalyzing damage to chromosomal DNA. We then used this knowledge to develop a polymer/anti-oxidant coating which prevented the photocatalytic reaction on DNA while still retaining the UV absorptive properties of the nanoparticles. The standard gel electrophoresis was not sufficient in determining the extent of the DNA damage. The conclusions of this study were based predominantly on analysis obtained with the surface electrophoresis method.

  2. CO2 CH4 flux Air temperature Soil temperature and Soil moisture, Barrow, Alaska 2013 ver. 1

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Margaret Torn

    This dataset consists of field measurements of CO2 and CH4 flux, as well as soil properties made during 2013 in Areas A-D of Intensive Site 1 at the Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE) Arctic site near Barrow, Alaska. Included are i) measurements of CO2 and CH4 flux made from June to September (ii) Calculation of corresponding Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and CH4 exchange (transparent minus opaque) between atmosphere and the ecosystem (ii) Measurements of Los Gatos Research (LGR) chamber air temperature made from June to September (ii) measurements of surface layer depth, type of surface layer, soil temperature and soil moisture from June to September.

  3. High Temperature Membrane Working Group

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation provides an overview of the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting in May 2007.

  4. The competition between surface adsorption and folding of fibril-forming polypeptides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ni, Ran; Abeln, Sanne; Stuart, Martien A Cohen; Bolhuis, Peter G

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Self-assembly of polypeptides into fibrillar structures can be initiated by planar surfaces that interact favorably with certain residues. Using a coarse grained model, we systematically studied the folding and adsorption behavior of a $\\beta$-roll forming polypeptide. We find that there are two different folding pathways depending on the temperature: (i) at low temperature, the polypeptide folds in solution into a $\\beta$-roll before adsorbing onto the attractive surface, (ii) at higher temperature, the polypeptide first adsorbs in a disordered state, and folds while on the surface. The folding temperature increases with increasing attraction, as the folded $\\beta$-roll is stabilized by the surface. Surprisingly, further increasing the attraction lowers the folding temperature again, as strong attraction also stabilizes the adsorbed disordered state, which competes with folding of the polypeptide. Our results suggest that to enhance the folding, one should use a weakly attractive surface. They also explain t...

  5. Surface-induced heating of cold polar molecules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefan Yoshi Buhmann; M. R. Tarbutt; Stefan Scheel; E. A. Hinds

    2009-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the rotational and vibrational heating of diatomic molecules placed near a surface at finite temperature on the basis of macroscopic quantum electrodynamics. The internal molecular evolution is governed by transition rates that depend on both temperature and position. Analytical and numerical methods are used to investigate the heating of several relevant molecules near various surfaces. We determine the critical distances at which the surface itself becomes the dominant source of heating and we investigate the transition between the long-range and short-range behaviour of the heating rates. A simple formula is presented that can be used to estimate the surface-induced heating rates of other molecules of interest. We also consider how the heating depends on the thickness and composition of the surface.

  6. Engine Cylinder Temperature Control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kilkenny, Jonathan Patrick (Peoria, IL); Duffy, Kevin Patrick (Metamora, IL)

    2005-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for controlling a temperature in a combustion cylinder in an internal combustion engine. The cylinder is fluidly connected to an intake manifold and an exhaust manifold. The method and apparatus includes increasing a back pressure associated with the exhaust manifold to a level sufficient to maintain a desired quantity of residual exhaust gas in the cylinder, and varying operation of an intake valve located between the intake manifold and the cylinder to an open duration sufficient to maintain a desired quantity of fresh air from the intake manifold to the cylinder, wherein controlling the quantities of residual exhaust gas and fresh air are performed to maintain the temperature in the cylinder at a desired level.

  7. Surface nonlinear optics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Y.R.; Chen, C.K.; de Castro, A.R.B.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Surface electromagnetic waves are waves propagating along the interface of two media. Their existence was predicted by Sommerfield in 1909. In recent years, interesting applications have been found in the study of overlayers and molecular adsorption on surfaces, in probing of phase transitions, and in measurements of refractive indices. In the laboratory, the nonlinear interaction of surface electromagnetic waves were studied. The preliminary results of this recent venture in this area are presented.

  8. Surface modification to waveguides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Timberlake, J.R.; Ruzic, D.N.; Moore, R.L.; Cohen, S.A.; Manos, D.M.

    1982-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for treating the interior surfaces of a waveguide to improve power transmission comprising the steps of mechanically polishing to remove surface protrusions; electropolishing to remove embedded particles; ultrasonically cleaning to remove any residue; coating the interior waveguide surfaces with an alkyd resin solution or electrophoretically depositing carbon lamp black suspended in an alkyd resin solution to form a 1..mu.. to 5..mu.. thick film; vacuum pyrolyzing the film to form a uniform adherent carbon coating.

  9. Running surface couplings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. D. Odintsov; A. Wipf

    1995-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the renormalization group improved effective action and running surface couplings in curved spacetime with boundary. Using scalar self-interacting theory as an example, we study the influence of the boundary effects to effective equations of motion in spherical cap and the relevance of surface running couplings to quantum cosmology and symmetry breaking phenomenon. Running surface couplings in the asymptotically free SU(2) gauge theory are found.

  10. GISS ICP at Columbia University ICP Student and Teacher Research Interns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    * Bronx High School of Science* DeWitt Clinton High School Fieldston School John F. Kennedy High School. Sharun Paroxy Web Development Telcordia Walrus Internet Education Jacobs Ladder Art Education Outreach

  11. Climate implications of carbonaceous aerosols: An aerosol microphysical study using the GISS/MATRIX climate model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauer, Susanne E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and R. Ruedy, Matrix (multiconfiguration aerosol tracker ofmixing state): An aerosol microphysical module for globalAn investigative review, Aerosol Sci. Technol. , Vol. 40,

  12. Catherine Naud (Columbia Univ.) and Anthony Del Genio (GISS), New York

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced. C o w l i t z C o .Fornl ProjectDeterminatIon

  13. Terahertz surface plasmon polaritons on a semiconductor surface structured with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, Thomas E.

    Terahertz surface plasmon polaritons on a semiconductor surface structured with periodic V-doped silicon surface, using anisotropic wet-etching of crystalline silicon, thereby forming a plasmonic surfaces. © 2013 Optical Society of America OCIS codes: (240.6680) Surface plasmons; (240.6690) Surface

  14. Reduction of surface leakage current by surface passivation of CdZn Te and other materials using hyperthermal oxygen atoms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoffbauer, Mark A. (Los Alamos, NM); Prettyman, Thomas H. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reduction of surface leakage current by surface passivation of Cd.sub.1-x Zn.sub.x Te and other materials using hyperthermal oxygen atoms. Surface effects are important in the performance of CdZnTe room-temperature radiation detectors used as spectrometers since the dark current is often dominated by surface leakage. A process using high-kinetic-energy, neutral oxygen atoms (.about.3 eV) to treat the surface of CdZnTe detectors at or near ambient temperatures is described. Improvements in detector performance include significantly reduced leakage current which results in lower detector noise and greater energy resolution for radiation measurements of gamma- and X-rays, thereby increasing the accuracy and sensitivity of measurements of radionuclides having complex gamma-ray spectra, including special nuclear materials.

  15. Reconstructing Surfaces and Functions on Surfaces from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Austin, University of

    part is a common problem in Reverse Engineering. The part might be scannedwith a device like the laser-engineeringprocesses are nowadays commonplace in the manufacturing industry. For example, a company that manufactures mechanical object and measure the location of points on its surface. Mechanical probes, used in the manufacturing

  16. Forming high efficiency silicon solar cells using density-graded anti-reflection surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yuan, Hao-Chih; Branz, Howard M.; Page, Matthew R.

    2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A method (50) is provided for processing a graded-density AR silicon surface (14) to provide effective surface passivation. The method (50) includes positioning a substrate or wafer (12) with a silicon surface (14) in a reaction or processing chamber (42). The silicon surface (14) has been processed (52) to be an AR surface with a density gradient or region of black silicon. The method (50) continues with heating (54) the chamber (42) to a high temperature for both doping and surface passivation. The method (50) includes forming (58), with a dopant-containing precursor in contact with the silicon surface (14) of the substrate (12), an emitter junction (16) proximate to the silicon surface (14) by doping the substrate (12). The method (50) further includes, while the chamber is maintained at the high or raised temperature, forming (62) a passivation layer (19) on the graded-density silicon anti-reflection surface (14).

  17. Temperature dependence of symmetry energy of finite nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. N. De; S. K. Samaddar

    2012-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The temperature dependence of the symmetry energy and the symmetry free energy coefficients of atomic nuclei is investigated in a finite temperature Thomas-Fermi framework employing the subtraction procedure. A substantial decrement in the symmetry energy coefficient is obtained for finite systems,contrary to those seen for infinite nuclear matter at normal and somewhat subnormal densities. The effect of the coupling of the surface phonons to the nucleonic motion is also considered; this is found to decrease the symmetry energies somewhat at low temperatures.

  18. Surface state reconstruction in ion-damaged SmB?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wakeham, N.; Wang, Y. Q.; Fisk, Z.; Ronning, F.; Thompson, J. D.

    2015-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have used ion-irradiation to damage the (001) surfaces of SmB? single crystals to varying depths, and have measured the resistivity as a function of temperature for each depth of damage. We observe a reduction in the residual resistivity with increasing depth of damage. Our data are consistent with a model in which the surface state is not destroyed by the ion-irradiation, but instead the damaged layer is poorly conducting and the initial surface state is reconstructed below the damage. This behavior is consistent with a surface state that is topologically protected.

  19. Method of nitriding niobium to form a superconducting surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kelley, Michael J.; Klopf, John Michael; Singaravelu, Senthilaraja

    2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of forming a delta niobium nitride .delta.-NbN layer on the surface of a niobium object including cleaning the surface of the niobium object; providing a treatment chamber; placing the niobium object in the treatment chamber; evacuating the chamber; passing pure nitrogen into the treatment chamber; focusing a laser spot on the niobium object; delivering laser fluences at the laser spot until the surface of the niobium object reaches above its boiling temperature; and rastering the laser spot over the surface of the niobium object.

  20. 23rd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Valencia, Spain, Sept. 2008 PROGRESS IN THE SURFACE PASSIVATION OF SILICON SOLAR CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    23rd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Valencia, Spain, Sept. 2008 PROGRESS typically lead to a sig- nificant degradation of the bulk lifetime [3]. Hence, low- temperature surface

  1. Northerly surface wind events over the eastern North Pacific Ocean : spatial distribution, seasonality, atmospheric circulation, and forcing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Stephen V.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    D. (2005), California Wind Resources, CEC publication # CEC-level inversions with surface wind and temperature at PointD. W. Stuart (1986), Mesoscale wind variability near Point

  2. Midtemperature solar systems test facility predictions for thermal performance of the Acurex solar collector with FEK 244 reflector surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, T.D.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal performance predictions are presented for the Acurex solar collector, with FEK 244 reflector surface, for three output temperatures at five cities in the United States.

  3. Chemical, electronic, and magnetic structure of LaFeCoSi alloy: Surface and bulk properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lollobrigida, V. [Dipartimento di Scienze, Università Roma Tre, I-00146 Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Roma Tre, I-00146 Rome (Italy); Basso, V.; Kuepferling, M.; Coïsson, M.; Olivetti, E. S.; Celegato, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (INRIM), I-10135 Torino (Italy); Borgatti, F. [CNR, Istituto per lo Studio dei Materiali Nanostrutturati (ISMN), I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Torelli, P.; Panaccione, G. [CNR, Istituto Officina dei Materiali (IOM), Lab. TASC, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Tortora, L. [Laboratorio di Analisi di Superficie, Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Roma Tre, I-00146 Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Università Tor Vergata, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Stefani, G.; Offi, F. [Dipartimento di Scienze, Università Roma Tre, I-00146 Rome (Italy)

    2014-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the chemical, electronic, and magnetic structure of the magnetocaloric LaFeCoSi compound with bulk and surface sensitive techniques. We put in evidence that the surface retains a soft ferromagnetic behavior at temperatures higher than the Curie temperature of the bulk due to the presence of Fe clusters at the surface only. This peculiar magnetic surface effect is attributed to the exchange interaction between the ferromagnetic Fe clusters located at the surface and the bulk magnetocaloric alloy, and it is used here to monitor the magnetic properties of the alloy itself.

  4. Nanostructuring of molybdenum and tungsten surfaces by low-energy helium ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Temmerman, Gregory; Bystrov, Kirill; Zielinski, Jakub J.; Balden, Martin; Matern, Gabriele; Arnas, Cecile; Marot, Laurent [FOM Institute DIFFER, Ducth Institute For Fundamental Energy Research, Association EURATOM-FOM, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, P.O. Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, EURATOM Association, 85748 Garching (Germany); Laboratoire PIIM, CNRS/Aix-Marseille Universit, 13397 Marseille (France); Department of Physics, University of Basel, Basel, CH-4056 (Switzerland)

    2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The formation of metallic nanostructures by exposure of molybdenum and tungsten surfaces to high fluxes of low energy helium ions is studied as a function of the ion energy, plasma exposure time, and surface temperature. Helium plasma exposure leads to the formation of nanoscopic filaments on the surface of both metals. The size of the helium-induced nanostructure increases with increasing surface temperature while the thickness of the modified layer increases with time. In addition, the growth rate of the nanostructured layer also depends on the surface temperature. The size of the nanostructure appears linked with the size of the near-surface voids induced by the low energy ions. The results presented here thus demonstrate that surface processing by low-energy helium ions provides an efficient route for the formation of porous metallic nanostructures.

  5. Power efficiency for very high temperature solar thermal cavity receivers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDougal, Allan R. (LaCanada-Flintridge, CA); Hale, Robert R. (Upland, CA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is an improved solar energy cavity receiver for exposing materials and components to high temperatures. The receiver includes a housing having an internal reflective surface defining a cavity and having an inlet for admitting solar radiation thereto. A photothermal absorber is positioned in the cavity to receive radiation from the inlet. A reflective baffle is positioned between the absorber and the inlet to severely restrict the re-radiation of energy through the inlet. The front surface of the baffle defines a narrow annulus with the internal reflective surface of the housing. The front surface of the baffle is contoured to reflect incoming radiation onto the internal surface of the housing, from which it is reflected through the annulus and onto the front surface of the absorber. The back surface of the baffle intercepts infrared radiation from the front of the absorber. With this arrangement, a high percentage of the solar power input is retained in the cavity; thus, high internal temperatures are attained.

  6. LOW TEMPERATURE CATHODE SUPPORTED ELECTROLYTES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harlan U. Anderson; Wayne Huebner; Igor Kosacki

    2000-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This project has three main goals: Thin Films Studies, Preparation of Graded Porous Substrates and Basic Electrical Characterization and testing of Planar Single Cells. During this time period substantial progress has been made in developing low temperature deposition techniques to produce dense, nanocrystalline yttrium-stabilized zirconia films on both dense oxide and polymer substrates. Microstructural changes in unsupported nanocrystalline yttrium stabilized zirconia (ZrO{sub 2}:16%Y, or YSZ) thin films were examined as a function of temperature and annealing time in order to determine the grain growth exponent and the mechanisms of pinhole formation. Grain growth and pinhole formation were measured using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), normal imaging mode transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron diffraction, and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDS). Grain growth was found to vary with a time exponent of about one half before pinhole formation and about one third after. Pinhole formation in 70 nm thick films occurred at temperatures near 600 C, corresponding to a grain size of about 15 nm, or a grain size to film thickness ration of approximately 0.25. The deposition of films on porous substrates is hampered by the penetration of the polymer precursor solution into the substrate whose pores as > 0.2 {micro}m, therefore much attention has to be paid to the development of porous colloidal oxide films onto surfaces. Thus during this line period we have been studying these films. Optical properties have proven to be an excellent way to study the quality of these nanoporous films. The influence of porosity and densification on optical properties of films on sapphire substrates that were prepared from water colloidal suspensions of small ({approx}5nm) particles of ceria was investigated. The colloidal ceria films have initially very porous structure (porosity about 50%) and densification starts at about 600 C accompanied by grain growth. The concurrence of these two processes makes it difficult to interpret the results of the optical spectrophotometry, but the combination of transmittance and reflectance measurements provides enough data to separate these two influences and to calculate the porosity, particle size and energy band gap separately. XRD, SEM, ellipsometry and mechanical profilometry were used to confirm the results obtained from the spectrophotometric measurements. All these methods gave results, which are in good agreement: the change in the porosity from 50% to 15% and the particle size increased from 5 to 65nm in the temperature region from 400 to 1000 C. An important result of the investigation is the fact that the main optical properties of the coating such as refractive index and band gap energy depend only on the porosity, but not on the grain size. The grain size influences the scattering properties of the coating, which allows the grain size to be estimated from optical measurements.

  7. Reactive uptake of ozone at simulated leaf surfaces: implications for "non-stomatal" ozone flux 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cape, J Neil; Hamilton, Richard P; Heal, Mathew R

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The reaction of ozone (O3) with ?-pinene has been studied as a function of temperature and relative humidity and in the presence of wax surfaces that simulate a leaf surface. The objective was to determine whether the presence of a wax surface...

  8. Satellite observations of mesoscale ocean features and copropagating atmospheric surface fields in the tropical belt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Shang-Ping

    Satellite observations of mesoscale ocean features and copropagating atmospheric surface fields speed and sea surface temperature (SST) over mesoscale ocean features in certain frontal regions. The aim of this study is to determine to what extent mesoscale ocean dynamics modifies the surface wind

  9. Estimated solar contribution to the global surface warming using the ACRIM TSI satellite composite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scafetta, Nicola

    Estimated solar contribution to the global surface warming using the ACRIM TSI satellite composite minimally contributed $10­30% of the global surface temperature warming over the period 1980­2002. Citation: Scafetta, N., and B. J. West (2005), Estimated solar contribution to the global surface warming using

  10. Concrete Pavement Surface Characteristics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Broom, Belt, Carpet) Shot Peened Exposed Aggregate Porous (Pervious) Concrete Milled HMA and SurfaceImproving Concrete Pavement Surface Characteristics Pooled Fund TPF-5(139) National Concrete do with this knowledge? #12;Better Design and Construction Practices for Texturing Concrete Pavement

  11. Rubber friction on smooth surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. N. J. Persson; A. I. Volokitin

    2006-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the sliding friction for viscoelastic solids, e.g., rubber, on hard flat substrate surfaces. We consider first the fluctuating shear stress inside a viscoelastic solid which results from the thermal motion of the atoms or molecules in the solid. At the nanoscale the thermal fluctuations are very strong and give rise to stress fluctuations in the MPa-range, which is similar to the depinning stresses which typically occur at solid-rubber interfaces, indicating the crucial importance of thermal fluctuations for rubber friction on smooth surfaces. We develop a detailed model which takes into account the influence of thermal fluctuations on the depinning of small contact patches (stress domains) at the rubber-substrate interface. The theory predicts that the velocity dependence of the macroscopic shear stress has a bell-shaped f orm, and that the low-velocity side exhibits the same temperature dependence as the bulk viscoelastic modulus, in qualitative agreement with experimental data. Finally, we discuss the influence of small-amplitude substrate roughness on rubber sliding friction.

  12. Surface modification: advantages, techniques, and applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natesan, K.

    2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Adequate performance of materials at elevated temperatures is a potential problem in many systems within the chemical, petroleum, process, and power-generating industries. Degradation of materials occurs because of interaction between the structural material and the exposure environment. These interactions are generally undesired chemical reactions that can lead to accelerated wastage and alter the functional requirements and/or structural integrity of the materials. Therefore, material selection for high-temperature applications must be based not only on a material strength properties but also on resistance to the complex environments prevalent in the anticipated exposure environment. As plants become larger, the satisfactory performance and reliability of components play a greater role in plant availability and economics. However, system designers are becoming increasingly concerned with finding the least expensive material that will satisfactorily perform the design function for the desired service life. This present paper addresses the benefits of surface modification and identified several criteria for selection and application of modified surfaces in the power sector. A brief review is presented on potential methods for modification of surfaces, with the emphasis on coatings. In the final section of the paper, several examples address the requirements of different energy systems and surface modification avenues that have been applied to resolve the issues.

  13. Zero dead volume tube to surface seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benett, William J. (Livermore, CA); Folta, James A. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for connecting a tube to a surface that creates a dead volume seal. The apparatus is composed of three components, a body, a ferrule, and a threaded fitting. The ferrule is compressed onto a tube and a seal is formed between the tube and a device retained in the body by threading the fitting into the body which provides pressure that seals the face of the ferrule to a mating surface on the device. This seal can be used at elevated temperatures depending on the materials used. While the invention has been developed for use with micro-machined silicon wafers used in Capillary Gas Chromatograph (GC), it can be utilized anywhere for making a gas or fluid face seal to the surface of a device that has near zero dead volume.

  14. Thermionic Converter Temperature Controller

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaner,B. J.; Wolf, Joseph H.; Johnson, Robert G. R.

    1999-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for controlling the temperature of a thermionic reactor over a wide range of operating power, including a thermionic reactor having a plurality of integral cesium reservoirs, a honeycomb material disposed about the reactor which has a plurality of separated cavities, a solid sheath disposed about the honeycomb material and having an opening therein communicating with the honeycomb material and cavities thereof, and a shell disposed about the sheath for creating a coolant annulus therewith so that the coolant in the annulus may fill the cavities and permit nucleate boiling during the operation of the reactor.

  15. Thermionic converter temperature controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shaner, Benjamin J. (McMurray, PA); Wolf, Joseph H. (Pittsburgh, PA); Johnson, Robert G. R. (Trafford, PA)

    2001-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for controlling the temperature of a thermionic reactor over a wide range of operating power, including a thermionic reactor having a plurality of integral cesium reservoirs, a honeycomb material disposed about the reactor which has a plurality of separated cavities, a solid sheath disposed about the honeycomb material and having an opening therein communicating with the honeycomb material and cavities thereof, and a shell disposed about the sheath for creating a coolant annulus therewith so that the coolant in the annulus may fill the cavities and permit nucleate boiling during the operation of the reactor.

  16. Drexel University Temperature Sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. L. Davis; D. L. Knudson; J. L. Rempe; B. M. Chase

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document summarizes background information and presents results related to temperature measurements in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) Drexel University Project 31091 irradiation. The objective of this test was to assess the radiation performance of new ceramic materials for advanced reactor applications. Accordingly, irradiations of transition metal carbides and nitrides were performed using the Hydraulic Shuttle Irradiation System (HSIS) in the B-7 position and in static capsules inserted into the A-3 and East Flux Trap Position 5 locations of the ATR.

  17. ARM - Word Seek: Temperature

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWP TWP Related Links Facilities and InstrumentsInstrumentsTemperature

  18. Temperature | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries PvtStratosolar Jump to:HoldingsTechint Spa JumpTVCEtTemperature" Showing 9

  19. Temperature Maps and Data

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal StocksProvedFeet)ThousandNumber andCrudeTemperature Maps and Data

  20. Temperature Maps and Data

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal StocksProvedFeet)ThousandNumber andCrudeTemperature Maps and

  1. Asphalt Pavement Aging and TemperatureAsphalt Pavement Aging and Temperature Dependent Properties using a FunctionallyDependent Properties using a Functionally

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paulino, Glaucio H.

    Asphalt Pavement Aging and TemperatureAsphalt Pavement Aging and Temperature Dependent Properties Analysis Time Integration Analysis Application Examples: Asphalt Pavement Summary and Conclusions #12) ­ Large fraction produced as hot-mix asphalt (HMA) ­ Most common form of pavement surfacing material (96

  2. Coating formulation and method for refinishing the surface of surface-damaged graphite articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ardary, Z.L.; Benton, S.T.

    1987-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The described development is directed to a coating formulation for filling surface irregularities in graphite articles such as molds, crucibles, and matched die sets used in high-temperature metallurgical operations. The coating formulation of the present invention is formed of carbon black flour, thermosetting resin and a solvent for the resin. In affixing the coating to the article, the solvent is evaporated, the resin cured to bond the coating to the surface of the article and then pyrolyzed to convert the resin to carbon. Upon completion of the pyrolysis step, the coating is shaped and polished to provide the article with a surface restoration that is essentially similar to the original or desired surface finish without the irregularity.

  3. Coating formulation and method for refinishing the surface of surface-damaged graphite articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ardary, Z.L.; Benton, S.T.

    1988-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The described development is directed to a coating formulation for filling surface irregularities in graphite articles such as molds, crucibles, and matched die sets used in high-temperature metallurgical operations. The coating formulation of the present invention is formed of carbon black flour, thermosetting resin and a solvent for the resin. In affixing the coating to the article, the solvent is evaporated, the resin cured to bond the coating to the surface of the article and then pyrolyzed to convert the resin to carbon. Upon completion of the pyrolysis step, the coating is shaped and polished to provide the article with a surface restoration that is essentially similar to the original or desired surface finish without the irregularity.

  4. Temperature profile of the infrared image Heat exchange between

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaehne, Bernd

    T Temperature profile of the infrared image Heat exchange between atmosphere and ocean References coefficient of heat in water determine the heat transfer velocity: *t Infrared images of the water surface: a-Karls-Universität Heidelberg www.uni-heidelberg.de Active controlled flux technique (ACFT) Continuous heat flux Periodic heat

  5. Earth Interactions Interannual Temperature Events and Shifts in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    or two warm and cold events with sea surface temperature fluctuations in the eastern tropical Pacific, the relationship between ENSO and the transient storage of heat in the tropical upper ocean layer dioxide levels has been observed since the dawn of industrialization. It has been debated whether

  6. Fresh Water Increased temperature means higher proportion of water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Houston, Paul L.

    Fresh Water Increased temperature means higher proportion of water falling on surface higher evaporation higher rainfall greater intensity of floods and droughts. Water use has grown four on How much storage compared to average flow Demand as percentage of supply How much ground water is used

  7. Author's Accepted Manuscript High-temperature-oxidation-induced ordered struc-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, David E.

    and turbine power generation system, turbine alloys are exposed to high temperature and an atmosphere comprised of steam, CO2 and O2. While surface and internal oxidation of the alloy takes place-fuel combustion turbine power generation systems are being developed, materials performance of candidate

  8. The Greenhouse Effect Temperature Equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, Frederick M.

    The Greenhouse Effect #12;Temperature Equilibrium The Earth is in equilibrium with the Sun temperature is about 14C, or 287K. The 40K difference is due to the greenhouse effect. Essentially all

  9. Philosophy 26 High Temperature Superconductivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Callender, Craig

    Philosophy 26 High Temperature Superconductivity By Ohm's Law, resistance will dim. Low temperature superconductivity was discovered in 1911 by Heike was explained by BCS theory. BCS theory explains superconductivity microscopically

  10. Operating temperatures for a convectively cooled recessed incandescent light fixture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yarbrough, D.W.; Toor, I.

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Test results are given for the operation of a recessed incandescent light fixture intended for residential use. The fixture is labeled for use in direct contact with attic thermal insulation. Temperature control of the powered fixture is provided by convective heat transfer from the ceiling side of the fixture. The fixture was operated at power levels up to two times the rated power of 75 watts and under thermal insulations up to R-40. In all operating configurations tested the fixture surface in contact with attic insulation was found to be less than 175/sup 0/C. The observed surface temperatures are judged to be safe for operation in contact with loose-fill or batt-type insulations. It was observed that the power leads inside one fixture configuration are exposed to temperatures as high as 168/sup 0/C. The electrical insulation could, therefore, have a limited life. The properties of the internal fixture wiring were not, however, studied in detail.

  11. Determining heat fluxes from temperature measurements made in massive walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.; Hedstrom, J.C.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A technique is described for determining heat fluxes at the surfaces of masonry walls or floors using temperature data measured at two points within the wall, usually near the surfaces. The process consists of solving the heat diffusion equation in one dimension using finite difference techniques given two measured temperatures as input. The method is fast and accurate and also allows for an in-situ measurement of wall thermal diffusivity if a third temperature is measured. The method is documented in sufficient detail so that it can be readily used by the reader. Examples are given for heat flow through walls. Annual results for two cases are presented. The method has also been used to determine heat flow into floors.

  12. RF properties of high temperature superconductors: Cavity methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Portis, A.M. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA)); Cooke, D.W.; Gray, E.R. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A description of cavities used in the study of the microwave properties of the high-temperature superconductors is followed by a lumped-circuit analysis of the coupling of transmission lines and resonators. The frequency dependence of the reflected and transmitted microwave power and the character of transient cavity response are analyzed. Techniques are discussed for the introduction of samples of the high-temperature superconductors into microwave cavities. Following a discussion of sample surface impedance and sample geometry factor, the connection between surface resistance and cavity Q is examined as well as the connection between cavity frequency shift and surface reactance. Measurement techniques that utilize reflected or transmitted power or transient response are described. 35 refs., 1 fig.

  13. Hot Pot Contoured Temperature Gradient Map

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Lane, Michael

    Temperature gradient contours derived from Oski temperature gradient hole program and from earlier published information.

  14. Hot Pot Contoured Temperature Gradient Map

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lane, Michael

    2013-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Temperature gradient contours derived from Oski temperature gradient hole program and from earlier published information.

  15. Critical magnetic field of surface superconductivity in lead

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khlyustikov, I. N., E-mail: khly@kapitza.ras.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kapitza Institute of Physical Problems (Russian Federation)

    2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The critical superconductivity field H{sub c3} is measured on lead single crystals. It is shown that the temperature dependence of H{sub c3}/H{sub c} in the vicinity of superconducting transition temperature T{sub c} is essentially nonlinear. Relative changes in the value of H{sub c3}/H{sub c} reach approximately 30%, which cannot be described by the Ginzburg-Landau theory. The experimental temperature dependences lead to the conclusion that the surface superconducting transition temperature noticeably exceeds the superconducting transition temperature in the bulk of the semiconductor. The differences in the critical temperatures and in the Ginzburg-Landau parameters for lead are estimated.

  16. Surface alloying of immiscible metals induced by surface state shift

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Che, Jingguang

    , and topography; Silver; Gold; Copper; Tungsten; Molybdenum 1. Introduction Surface alloying has been a subjectSurface alloying of immiscible metals induced by surface state shift X.K. Shu, P. Jiang, J.G. Che) surface to form the substitutional surface alloys, despite the fact that they do not like to form alloy

  17. Enhanced surface hydrophobicity by coupling of surface polarity and topography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enhanced surface hydrophobicity by coupling of surface polarity and topography Nicolas organization and contact angle. We show that when the topography and polarity of the surface act in concert- ciated that the topography of a surface is important in deter- mining the degree of surface

  18. Battery system with temperature sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, Steven J.; Trester, Dale B.

    2012-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A battery system to monitor temperature includes at least one cell with a temperature sensing device proximate the at least one cell. The battery system also includes a flexible member that holds the temperature sensor proximate to the at least one cell.

  19. Surface segregation effects in electrocatalysis: Kinetics ofoxygen reduction reaction on polycrystalline Pt3Ni alloy surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stamenkovic, V.; Schmidt, T.J.; Ross, P.N.; Markovic, N.M.

    2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Effects of surface segregation on the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) have been studied on a polycrystalline Pt3Ni alloy in acid electrolyte using ultra high vacuum (UHV) surface sensitive probes and the rotating ring disk electrode (RRDE) method. Preparation, modification and characterization of alloy surfaces were done in ultra high vacuum (UHV). Depending on the preparation method, two different surface compositions of the Pt3Ni alloy are produced: a sputtered surface with 75 % Pt and an annealed surface (950 K ) with 100 % Pt. The latter surface is designated as the 'Pt-skin' structure, and is a consequence of surface segregation, i.e., replacement of Ni with Pt atoms in the first few atomic layers. Definitive surface compositions were established by low energy ion scattering spectroscopy (LEISS). The cyclic voltammetry of the 'Pt-skin' surface as well as the pseudocapacitance in the hydrogen adsorption/desorption potential region is similar to a polycrystalline Pt electrode. Activities of ORR on Pt3Ni alloy surfaces were compared to polycrystalline Pt in 0.1M HClO4 electrolyte for the observed temperature range of 293 < T < 333 K. The order of activities at 333 K was: 'Pt-skin' > Pt3Ni (75% Pt) > Pt with the maximum catalytic enhancement obtained for the 'Pt-skin' being 4 times that for pure Pt. Catalytic improvement of the ORR on Pt3Ni and 'Pt-skin' surfaces was assigned to the inhibition of Pt-OHad formation (on Pt sites) versus polycrystalline Pt. Production of H2O2 on both surfaces were similar compared to the pure Pt. Kinetic analyses of RRDE data confirmed that kinetic parameters for the ORR on the Pt3Ni and 'Pt-skin' surfaces are the same as on pure Pt: reaction order, m=1, two identical Tafel slopes, activation energy, {approx} 21-25 kJ/mol. Therefore the reaction mechanism on both Pt3Ni and 'Pt-skin' surfaces is the same as one proposed for pure Pt i.e. 4e{sup -} reduction pathway.

  20. Effects of emitted electron temperature on the plasma sheath

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheehan, J. P., E-mail: sheehanj@umich.edu [Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Kaganovich, I. D.; Wang, H.; Raitses, Y. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Sydorenko, D. [Physics Department, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E9 (Canada); Hershkowitz, N. [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    It has long been known that electron emission from a surface significantly affects the sheath surrounding that surface. Typical fluid theory of a planar sheath with emitted electrons assumes that the plasma electrons follow the Boltzmann relation and the emitted electrons are emitted with zero energy and predicts a potential drop of 1.03T{sub e}/e across the sheath in the floating condition. By considering the modified velocity distribution function caused by plasma electrons lost to the wall and the half-Maxwellian distribution of the emitted electrons, it is shown that ratio of plasma electron temperature to emitted electron temperature significantly affects the sheath potential when the plasma electron temperature is within an order of magnitude of the emitted electron temperature. When the plasma electron temperature equals the emitted electron temperature the emissive sheath potential goes to zero. One dimensional particle-in-cell simulations corroborate the predictions made by this theory. The effects of the addition of a monoenergetic electron beam to the Maxwellian plasma electrons were explored, showing that the emissive sheath potential is close to the beam energy only when the emitted electron flux is less than the beam flux.

  1. TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE OF THERMAL NEUTRONS FROM THE MOON

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.C. LITTLE; W. FELDMAN; ET AL

    2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Planetary thermal neutron fluxes provide a sensitive proxy for mafic and feldspathic terranes, and are also necessary for translating measured gamma-ray line strengths to elemental abundances. Both functions require a model for near surface temperatures and a knowledge of the dependence of thermal neutron flux on temperature. We have explored this dependence for a representative sample of lunar soil compositions and surface temperatures using MCNP{trademark}. For all soil samples, the neutron density is found to be independent of temperature, in accord with neutron moderation theory. The thermal neutron flux, however, does vary with temperature in a way that depends on {Delta}, the ratio of macroscopic absorption to energy-loss cross sections of soil compositions. The weakest dependence is for the largest {Delta} (which corresponds to the Apollo 17 high Ti basalt in our soil selection), and the largest dependence is for the lowest {Delta} (which corresponds to ferroan anorthosite, [FAN] in our selection). For the lunar model simulated, the depth at which the thermal neutron population is most sensitive to temperature is {approx}30 g/cm{sup 2}.

  2. Entropy and surfaceness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Casper, James Kyle

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The layer of the Earth's atmosphere which contains clouds and weather systems is a thin thermoregulatory surface. It maintains an exact energy budget between the Earth and the Sun. Recent work in theoretical physics is ...

  3. A surface ionization source 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buzatu, Daniel J.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The main part of the work described herein is the development and testing of a surface ionization source for use on a collinear fast beam laser spectroscopy apparatus. A description of the previously existing fast beam apparatus is given...

  4. SURFACE NONLINEAR OPTICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Y.R.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    B. de Castro, and Y. R. Shen, Optics Lett. i, 393 See, for3, 1980 SURFACE NONLINEAR OPTICS Y.R. Shen, C.K. Chen, andde Janiero SURFRACE NONLINEAR OPTICS Y. R. Shen, C. K. Chen,

  5. Asteroid Surface Geophysics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murdoch, Naomi; Schwartz, Stephen R; Miyamoto, Hideaki

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The regolith-covered surfaces of asteroids preserve records of geophysical processes that have occurred both at their surfaces and sometimes also in their interiors. As a result of the unique micro-gravity environment that these bodies posses, a complex and varied geophysics has given birth to fascinating features that we are just now beginning to understand. The processes that formed such features were first hypothesised through detailed spacecraft observations and have been further studied using theoretical, numerical and experimental methods that often combine several scientific disciplines. These multiple approaches are now merging towards a further understanding of the geophysical states of the surfaces of asteroids. In this chapter we provide a concise summary of what the scientific community has learned so far about the surfaces of these small planetary bodies and the processes that have shaped them. We also discuss the state of the art in terms of experimental techniques and numerical simulations that...

  6. Surface wave interferometry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Halliday, David Fraser

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis concerns the application of seismic interferometry to surface waves. Seismic interferometry is the process by which the wavefield between two recording locations is estimated, resulting in new recordings at ...

  7. A surface ionization source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buzatu, Daniel J.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The main part of the work described herein is the development and testing of a surface ionization source for use on a collinear fast beam laser spectroscopy apparatus. A description of the previously existing fast beam apparatus is given...

  8. Surface and Tower Meteorological Instrumentation at NSA Handbook - January 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MT Ritsche

    2006-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Surface and Tower Meteorological Instrumentation at Atqasuk (METTWR2H) uses mainly conventional in situ sensors to measure wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, dew point and humidity mounted on a 10-m tower. It also obtains barometric pressure, visibility, and precipitation data from sensors at or near the base of the tower. In addition, a Chilled Mirror Hygrometer is located at 1 m for comparison purposes. Temperature and relative humidity probes are mounted at 2 m and 5 m on the tower. For more information, see the Surface and Tower Meteorological Instrumentation at Atqasuk Handbook.

  9. Decadal variations of the relationship between the summer North Atlantic Oscillation and middle East Asian air temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    East Asian air temperature Jianqi Sun,1 Huijun Wang,1 and Wei Yuan2 Received 20 November 2007; revised., 1998]. In turn, it affects upper ocean currents, distribution of sea surface temperature, and strength the summer (July­September) North Atlantic Oscillation (SNAO) and simultaneous East Asian air temperature

  10. CHINESE JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICS Vol.49, No.3, 2006, pp: 588598 REGIONAL DIFFERENCE OF SUMMER AIR TEMPERATURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SURFACE TEMPERATURE SUN Jian-Qi1,2 WANG Hui-Jun1 1 State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling, the temporal- spatial distributions of summer air temperature (SAT) are investigated. It is found TEMPERATURE ANOMALIES IN NORTHEAST CHINA AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO ATMOSPHERIC GENERAL CIRCULATION AND SEA

  11. Surface acoustic wave probe implant for predicting epileptic seizures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gopalsami, Nachappa (Naperville, IL); Kulikov, Stanislav (Sarov, RU); Osorio, Ivan (Leawood, KS); Raptis, Apostolos C. (Downers Grove, IL)

    2012-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for predicting and avoiding a seizure in a patient. The system and method includes use of an implanted surface acoustic wave probe and coupled RF antenna to monitor temperature of the patient's brain, critical changes in the temperature characteristic of a precursor to the seizure. The system can activate an implanted cooling unit which can avoid or minimize a seizure in the patient.

  12. Microtextured Silicon Surfaces for Detectors, Sensors & Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carey, JE; Mazur, E

    2005-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    With support from this award we studied a novel silicon microtexturing process and its application in silicon-based infrared photodetectors. By irradiating the surface of a silicon wafer with intense femtosecond laser pulses in the presence of certain gases or liquids, the originally shiny, flat surface is transformed into a dark array of microstructures. The resulting microtextured surface has near-unity absorption from near-ultraviolet to infrared wavelengths well below the band gap. The high, broad absorption of microtextured silicon could enable the production of silicon-based photodiodes for use as inexpensive, room-temperature multi-spectral photodetectors. Such detectors would find use in numerous applications including environmental sensors, solar energy, and infrared imaging. The goals of this study were to learn about microtextured surfaces and then develop and test prototype silicon detectors for the visible and infrared. We were extremely successful in achieving our goals. During the first two years of this award, we learned a great deal about how microtextured surfaces form and what leads to their remarkable optical properties. We used this knowledge to build prototype detectors with high sensitivity in both the visible and in the near-infrared. We obtained room-temperature responsivities as high as 100 A/W at 1064 nm, two orders of magnitude higher than standard silicon photodiodes. For wavelengths below the band gap, we obtained responsivities as high as 50 mA/W at 1330 nm and 35 mA/W at 1550 nm, close to the responsivity of InGaAs photodiodes and five orders of magnitude higher than silicon devices in this wavelength region.

  13. Surface Water Management Areas (Virginia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This legislation establishes surface water management areas, geographically defined surface water areas in which the State Water Control Board has deemed the levels or supply of surface water to be...

  14. Surface Water Quality Standards (Kansas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This act states regulations for the quality of surface water in the state. It also states designated uses of classified surface waters, surface water quality criteria and an antidegradation policy...

  15. High temperature interfacial superconductivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bozovic, Ivan (Mount Sinai, NY); Logvenov, Gennady (Port Jefferson Station, NY); Gozar, Adrian Mihai (Port Jefferson, NY)

    2012-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    High-temperature superconductivity confined to nanometer-scale interfaces has been a long standing goal because of potential applications in electronic devices. The spontaneous formation of a superconducting interface in bilayers consisting of an insulator (La.sub.2CuO.sub.4) and a metal (La.sub.1-xSr.sub.xCuO.sub.4), neither of which is superconducting per se, is described. Depending upon the layering sequence of the bilayers, T.sub.c may be either .about.15 K or .about.30 K. This highly robust phenomenon is confined to within 2-3 nm around the interface. After exposing the bilayer to ozone, T.sub.c exceeds 50 K and this enhanced superconductivity is also shown to originate from a 1 to 2 unit cell thick interfacial layer. The results demonstrate that engineering artificial heterostructures provides a novel, unconventional way to fabricate stable, quasi two-dimensional high T.sub.c phases and to significantly enhance superconducting properties in other superconductors. The superconducting interface may be implemented, for example, in SIS tunnel junctions or a SuFET.

  16. Validation of Surface Performance-Graded Specification For Surface Treatment Binders

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vijaykumar, Aishwarya

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    of modified binders (Hanz et al. 2010; Kadrmas 2006; Lewandowski 2010). Further, it was found that as the time of curing increases, a considerable component of the change in the rheology of the residue occurs because of oxidative aging. Moreover... material. However, it should be noted that recovery or aging using the RTFOT is not applicable to surface treatment binders owing to the high temperatures involved, which are not representative of field conditions. Further, (Kadrmas 2006) compared a...

  17. Measurement of thermodynamic temperature of high temperature fixed points

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gavrilov, V. R.; Khlevnoy, B. B.; Otryaskin, D. A.; Grigorieva, I. A.; Samoylov, M. L.; Sapritsky, V. I. [All-Russian Research Institute for Optical and Physical Measurements (VNIIOFI), 46 Ozernaya St., Moscow 119361 (Russian Federation)] [All-Russian Research Institute for Optical and Physical Measurements (VNIIOFI), 46 Ozernaya St., Moscow 119361 (Russian Federation)

    2013-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper is devoted to VNIIOFI's measurements of thermodynamic temperature of the high temperature fixed points Co-C, Pt-C and Re-C within the scope of the international project coordinated by the Consultative Committee for Thermometry working group 5 'Radiation Thermometry'. The melting temperatures of the fixed points were measured by a radiance mode radiation thermometer calibrated against a filter radiometer with known irradiance spectral responsivity via a high temperature black body. This paper describes the facility used for the measurements, the results and estimated uncertainties.

  18. Micro Catalytic Combustor with Pd/Nano-porous Alumina for High-Temperature Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasagi, Nobuhide

    Micro Catalytic Combustor with Pd/Nano-porous Alumina for High-Temperature Application Takashi: A micro-scale catalytic combustor using high-precision ceramic tape-casting technology has been developed surface reaction of butane. In combustion experiments with a prototype combustor, the wall temperature

  19. Ab Initio Description of High-Temperature Superconductivity in Dense Molecular Hydrogen P. Cudazzo,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gross, E.K.U.

    Ab Initio Description of High-Temperature Superconductivity in Dense Molecular Hydrogen P. Cudazzo-principles study of the electron-phonon interaction and the prediction of the superconducting critical temperature superconductivity: mainly, a rich and complex Fermi surface and strongly coupled phonon modes driving the intra

  20. Heat capacity of adsorbed Helium-3 at ultra-low temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Heat capacity of adsorbed Helium-3 at ultra-low temperatures J. Elbs, C. Winkelmann, Yu. M. Bunkov of monolayers of 3He adsorbed on the surface of a cell filled with superfluid 3He. We found that at ultra low in the limit of ultra low temperatures. 1. INTRODUCTION A closed cell with a small orifice, immersed

  1. High-Temperature Thermoelectric Characterization of IIIV Semiconductor Thin Films by Oxide Bonding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    High-Temperature Thermoelectric Characterization of III­V Semiconductor Thin Films by Oxide Bonding and measurement method utilizing a SiO2­SiO2 covalent bonding technique is presented for high-temperature surface passivation, and metallization with a Ti-W-N diffusion barrier. A thermoelectric material, thin

  2. IEEE GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING LETTERS 1 Assessment of Temperature and Humidity Changes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christopher, Sundar A.

    IEEEProof IEEEProof IEEE GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING LETTERS 1 Assessment of Temperature multiple satellite7 remote sensing data sets and meteorological information, we assess8 the distribution observed at some15 locations. Between the surface and 2-km level, temperature data16 show a cooling of 10

  3. Temperature dependence of conductance fluctuations in quantum Hall multilayers H. A. Walling,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Jing

    )]. This surface phase dominates vertical transport at low temperatures that freeze out parallel bulk transport.2 fluctuations in low-temperature, vertical transport through quantum Hall multilayers. The mesas studied dependence of reproduc- ible conductance fluctuations in quantum Hall multilayers. The vertical transport

  4. U.S.DOE Global Monthly Station Temperature and Precipitation, 1738-1980

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The global monthly station temperature and precipitation data from the U.S. Department of Energy, a dataset hosted at, covers the time period from January, 1738 to December, 1980. The air temperature and precipitation levels are platform observations from ground and water surfaces. The data are maintained in the Research Data Archive at the National Center for Atmospheric Research.

  5. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print Wednesday, 31 August 2011 00:00 From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile...

  6. Tools for Surface Analysis | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    surface analysis - Because of the importance of clear and unambiguous communications, ISO definitions and concepts related to surface chemical analysis are now freely available....

  7. Experimental investigation of sand consolidation using high-temperature alkaline solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moreno Romero, Fidel Enrique

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    generated at an oil field undergoing steamflooding using either local ground or surface sources of water. The chemistry of feedwater at a steam generator facility is, therefore, field dependent. The process of steam generation usually produces two...H or temperature. 12 Reed" reported that quartz and other siliceous minerals have very low solubilities at room temperatures, but at elevated temperatures solubilities increase rather sharply. When HCO& ions in steam generator feedwater decompose to COz and OH...

  8. High-temperature ceramic receivers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jarvinen, P. O.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An advanced ceramic dome cavity receiver is discussed which heats pressurized gas to temperatures above 1800/sup 0/F (1000/sup 0/C) for use in solar Brayton power systems of the dispersed receiver/dish or central receiver type. Optical, heat transfer, structural, and ceramic material design aspects of the receiver are reported and the development and experimental demonstration of a high-temperature seal between the pressurized gas and the high-temperature silicon carbide dome material is described.

  9. Process for producing cadmium sulfide on a cadmium telluride surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Levi, Dean H. (Lakewood, CO); Nelson, Art J. (Longmont, CO); Ahrenkiel, Richard K. (Lakewood, CO)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for producing a layer of cadmium sulfide on a cadmium telluride surface to be employed in a photovoltaic device. The process comprises providing a cadmium telluride surface which is exposed to a hydrogen sulfide plasma at an exposure flow rate, an exposure time and an exposure temperature sufficient to permit reaction between the hydrogen sulfide and cadmium telluride to thereby form a cadmium sulfide layer on the cadmium telluride surface and accomplish passivation. In addition to passivation, a heterojunction at the interface of the cadmium sulfide and the cadmium telluride can be formed when the layer of cadmium sulfide formed on the cadmium telluride is of sufficient thickness.

  10. RECHARGEABLE HIGH-TEMPERATURE BATTERIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cairns, Elton J.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    F. Eshman, High-Performance Batteries for Electric-VehicleS. Sudar, High Performance Batteries for Electric-VehicleHIGH-TEMPERATURE BATTERIES Elton J. Cairns January 1981 TWO-

  11. Hotline IV ?High Temperature ESP

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Hotline IV - High Temperature ESP Brindesh Dhruva (principal Inv.) Michael Dowling (presenter) Schlumberger Track Name May 18, 2010 This presentation does not contain any...

  12. Low Temperature Material Bonding Technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramsey, J. Michael (Knoxville, TN); Foote, Robert S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2000-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of performing a lower temperature bonding technique to bond together two mating pieces of glass includes applying a sodium silicate aqueous solution between the two pieces.

  13. Low temperature material bonding technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramsey, J. Michael (Knoxville, TN); Foote, Robert S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2002-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of performing a lower temperature bonding technique to bond together two mating pieces of glass includes applying a sodium silicate aqueous solution between the two pieces.

  14. Lectures 9: Surface Plasmon Polaritons Surface Plasmon Polaritons (SPPs)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lectures 9: Surface Plasmon Polaritons #12;Surface Plasmon Polaritons (SPPs) Introduction and basic properties Standard textbook: - Heinz Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings Springer Tracts in Modern Physics, Vol. 111, Springer Berlin 1988 Overview articles on Plasmonics: - A

  15. Compliant layer chucking surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blaedel, Kenneth L. (Dublin, CA); Spence, Paul A. (Pleasanton, CA); Thompson, Samuel L. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2004-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are described wherein a thin layer of complaint material is deposited on the surface of a chuck to mitigate the deformation that an entrapped particle might cause in the part, such as a mask or a wafer, that is clamped to the chuck. The harder particle will embed into the softer layer as the clamping pressure is applied. The material composing the thin layer could be a metal or a polymer for vacuum or electrostatic chucks. It may be deposited in various patterns to affect an interrupted surface, such as that of a "pin" chuck, thereby reducing the probability of entrapping a particle.

  16. The Role of Bag Surface Tension in Color Confinement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. A. Bugaev; A. I. Ivanytskyi

    2011-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss here the novel view at the color confinement which, on the one hand, allows us to find out the surface tension coefficient of quark gluon bags and, under a plausible assumption, to determine the endpoint temperature of the QCD phase diagram, on the other hand. The present model considers the confining color tube as the cylindrical quark gluon bag with non-zero surface tension. A close inspection of the free energies of elongated cylindrical bag and the confining color tube that connects the static quark-antiquark pair allows us to find out the string tension in terms of the surface tension, thermal pressure and the bag radius. Using the derived relation it is possible to estimate the bag surface tension at zero temperature directly from the lattice QCD data and to estimate the (tri)critical endpoint temperature. In the present analysis the topological free energy of the cylindrical bag is accounted for the first time. The requirement of positive entropy density of such bags leads to negative values of the surface tension coefficient of quark gluon bags at the cross-over region, i.e. at the continuous transition to deconfined quarks and gluons. We argue that the cross-over existence at supercritical temperatures in ordinary liquids is also provided by the negative surface tension coefficient values. It is shown that the confining tube model naturally accounts for an existence of a very pronounced surprising maximum of the tube entropy observed in the lattice QCD simulations, which, as we argue, signals about the fractional surface formation of the confining tube. In addition, using the developed formalism we suggest the gas of free tubes model and demonstrate that it contains two phases.

  17. Temperature measurements using multicolor pyrometry in thermal radiation heating environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu, Tairan, E-mail: trfu@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China) [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory of CO2 Utilization and Reduction Technology, Beijing 100084 (China); Liu, Jiangfan; Duan, Minghao; Zong, Anzhou [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)] [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Temperature measurements are important for thermal-structural experiments in the thermal radiation heating environments such as used for thermal-structural stress analyses. This paper describes the use of multicolor pyrometry for the measurements of diffuse surfaces in thermal radiation environments that eliminates the effects of background radiation reflections and unknown emissivities based on a least-squares algorithm. The near-infrared multicolor pyrometer had a spectral range of 1100–2400 nm, spectrum resolution of 6 nm, maximum sampling frequency of 2 kHz, working distance of 0.6 m to infinity, temperature range of 700–1700 K. The pyrometer wavelength response, nonlinear intensity response, and spectral response were all calibrated. The temperature of a graphite sample irradiated by quartz lamps was then measured during heating and cooling using the least-squares algorithm based on the calibrated irradiation data. The experiments show that higher temperatures and longer wavelengths are more suitable for the thermal measurements in the quartz lamp radiation heating system. This analysis provides a valuable method for temperature measurements of diffuse surfaces in thermal radiation environments.

  18. Planet Shadows in Protoplanetary Disks. I: Temperature Perturbations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Jang-Condell

    2008-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Planets embedded in optically thick passive accretion disks are expected to produce perturbations in the density and temperature structure of the disk. We calculate the magnitudes of these perturbations for a range of planet masses and distances. The model predicts the formation of a shadow at the position of the planet paired with a brightening just beyond the shadow. We improve on previous work on the subject by self-consistently calculating the temperature and density structures under the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium and taking the full three-dimensional shape of the disk into account rather than assuming a plane-parallel disk. While the excursion in temperatures is less than in previous models, the spatial size of the perturbation is larger. We demonstrate that a self-consistent calculation of the density and temperature structure of the disk has a large effect on the disk model. In addition, the temperature structure in the disk is highly sensitive to the angle of incidence of stellar irradition at the surface, so accurately calculating the shape of the disk surface is crucial for modeling the thermal structure of the disk.

  19. Using electrical resistance tomography to map subsurface temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramirez, Abelardo L. (Pleasanton, CA); Chesnut, Dwayne A. (San Francisco, CA); Daily, William D. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is provided for measuring subsurface soil or rock temperatures remotely using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). Electrical resistivity measurements are made using electrodes implanted in boreholes driven into the soil and/or at the ground surface. The measurements are repeated as some process changes the temperatures of the soil mass/rock mass. Tomographs of electrical resistivity are calculated based on the measurements using Poisson's equation. Changes in the soil/rock resistivity can be related to changes in soil/rock temperatures when: (1) the electrical conductivity of the fluid trapped in the soil's pore space is low, (2) the soil/rock has a high cation exchange capacity and (3) the temperature changes are sufficiently high. When these three conditions exist the resistivity changes observed in the ERT tomographs can be directly attributed to changes in soil/rock temperatures. This method provides a way of mapping temperature changes in subsurface soils remotely. Distances over which the ERT method can be used to monitor changes in soil temperature range from tens to hundreds of meters from the electrode locations.

  20. Using electrical resistance tomography to map subsurface temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramirez, A.L.; Chesnut, D.A.; Daily, W.D.

    1994-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is provided for measuring subsurface soil or rock temperatures remotely using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). Electrical resistivity measurements are made using electrodes implanted in boreholes driven into the soil and/or at the ground surface. The measurements are repeated as some process changes the temperatures of the soil mass/rock mass. Tomographs of electrical resistivity are calculated based on the measurements using Poisson's equation. Changes in the soil/rock resistivity can be related to changes in soil/rock temperatures when: (1) the electrical conductivity of the fluid trapped in the soil's pore space is low, (2) the soil/rock has a high cation exchange capacity and (3) the temperature changes are sufficiently high. When these three conditions exist the resistivity changes observed in the ERT tomographs can be directly attributed to changes in soil/rock temperatures. This method provides a way of mapping temperature changes in subsurface soils remotely. Distances over which the ERT method can be used to monitor changes in soil temperature range from tens to hundreds of meters from the electrode locations. 1 fig.

  1. Spatially resolved quantitative mapping of thermomechanical properties and phase transition temperatures using scanning probe microscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V; Nikiforov, Maxim P

    2013-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    An approach for the thermomechanical characterization of phase transitions in polymeric materials (polyethyleneterephthalate) by band excitation acoustic force microscopy is developed. This methodology allows the independent measurement of resonance frequency, Q factor, and oscillation amplitude of a tip-surface contact area as a function of tip temperature, from which the thermal evolution of tip-surface spring constant and mechanical dissipation can be extracted. A heating protocol maintained a constant tip-surface contact area and constant contact force, thereby allowing for reproducible measurements and quantitative extraction of material properties including temperature dependence of indentation-based elastic and loss moduli.

  2. ARM Surface Meteorology Systems Instrument Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ritsche, MT

    2011-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The ARM Surface Meteorology Systems consist mainly of conventional in situ sensors that obtain a defined “core” set of measurements. The core set of measurements is: Barometric Pressure (kPa), Temperature (°C), Relative Humidity (%), Arithmetic-Averaged Wind Speed (m/s), Vector-Averaged Wind Speed (m/s), and Vector-Averaged Wind Direction (deg). The sensors that collect the core variables are mounted at the standard heights defined for each variable: • Winds: 10 meters • Temperature and Relative Humidity: 2 meters • Barometric Pressure: 1 meter. Depending upon the geographical location, different models and types of sensors may be used to measure the core variables due to the conditions experienced at those locations. Most sites have additional sensors that measure other variables that are unique to that site or are well suited for the climate of the location but not at others.

  3. Method for high temperature mercury capture from gas streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Granite, E.J.; Pennline, H.W.

    2006-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A process to facilitate mercury extraction from high temperature flue/fuel gas via the use of metal sorbents which capture mercury at ambient and high temperatures. The spent sorbents can be regenerated after exposure to mercury. The metal sorbents can be used as pure metals (or combinations of metals) or dispersed on an inert support to increase surface area per gram of metal sorbent. Iridium and ruthenium are effective for mercury removal from flue and smelter gases. Palladium and platinum are effective for mercury removal from fuel gas (syngas). An iridium-platinum alloy is suitable for metal capture in many industrial effluent gas streams including highly corrosive gas streams.

  4. Water Recycling removal using temperature-sensitive hydronen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rana B. Gupta

    2002-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this project was to study the proposed Water Recycling/Removal Using Temperature-Sensitive Hydrogels. The main element of this technology is the design of a suitable hydrogel that can perform needed water separation for pulp and paper industry. The specific topics studied are to answer following questions: (a) Can water be removed using hydrogel from large molecules such as lignin? (b) Can the rate of separation be made faster? (c) What are the molecular interactions with hydrogel surface? (d) Can a hydrogel be designed for a high ionic strength and high temperature? Summary of the specific results are given.

  5. Reliability and Consistency of Surface Contamination Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rouppert, F.; Rivoallan, A.; Largeron, C.

    2002-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Surface contamination evaluation is a tough problem since it is difficult to isolate the radiations emitted by the surface, especially in a highly irradiating atmosphere. In that case the only possibility is to evaluate smearable (removeable) contamination since ex-situ countings are possible. Unfortunately, according to our experience at CEA, these values are not consistent and thus non relevant. In this study, we show, using in-situ Fourier Transform Infra Red spectrometry on contaminated metal samples, that fixed contamination seems to be chemisorbed and removeable contamination seems to be physisorbed. The distribution between fixed and removeable contamination appears to be variable. Chemical equilibria and reversible ion exchange mechanisms are involved and are closely linked to environmental conditions such as humidity and temperature. Measurements of smearable contamination only give an indication of the state of these equilibria between fixed and removeable contamination at the time and in the environmental conditions the measurements were made.

  6. Surfactant loss: Effects of temperature, salinity, and wettability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noll, L.A.; Gall, B.L.; Crocker, M.E.; Olsen, D.K.

    1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Adsorption of sodium dodecylsulfate, Triton X-100, decyltrimethylammonium bromide surfactants onto silica gel and Berea sandstone mineral surfaces has been studied as a function of temperature, solution salt concentration, and mineral surface wettability. Adsorption studies using a flow calorimeter were conducted using pure surfactants and minerals. The studies were then extended to the adsorption of one type of commercial surfactant onto both consolidated and crushed Berea sandstone using column techniques. This has allowed the comparison of different methods to evaluate surfactant losses from flowing rather than static surfactant solutions. 20 refs., 15 figs., 37 tabs.

  7. Decontaminating metal surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Childs, E.L.

    1984-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Radioactively contaminated surfaces can be electrolytically decontaminated with greatly increased efficiencies by using electrolytes containing higher than heretofore conventional amounts of nitrate, e.g., >600 g/1 of NaNO/sub 3/, or by using nitrate-containing electrolytes which are acidic, e.g., of a pH < 6.

  8. Smart, passive sun facing surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hively, L.M.

    1996-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An article adapted for selectively utilizing solar radiation comprises an absorptive surface and a reflective surface, the absorptive surface and the reflective surface oriented to absorb solar radiation when the sun is in a relatively low position, and to reflect solar radiation when the sun is in a relatively high position. 17 figs.

  9. Smart, passive sun facing surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hively, Lee M. (Knoxville, TN)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An article adapted for selectively utilizing solar radiation comprises an absorptive surface and a reflective surface, the absorptive surface and the reflective surface oriented to absorb solar radiation when the sun is in a relatively low position, and to reflect solar radiation when the sun is in a relatively high position.

  10. Free Boundaries and Minimal Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Freeboundariesariseastheinterfacebetweenmaterialsinwhichthematerialsretain some energy. In contrast, the interface represented by a minimal surface lives in.

  11. Surface decontamination compositions and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wright; Karen E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Cooper, David C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Peterman, Dean R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Demmer, Ricky L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Tripp, Julia L. (Pocatello, ID); Hull, Laurence C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2011-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Clay-based compositions capable of absorbing contaminants from surfaces or objects having surface faces may be applied to a surface and later removed, the removed clay-based compositions absorbing at least a portion of the contaminant from the surface or object to which it was applied.

  12. Surface plasmon for graphene in the Dirac equation model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Bordag

    2012-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider single-layer plane graphene with electronic excitations described by the Dirac equation. Using a known representation of the polarization tensor in terms of the spinor loop we show the existence of surface modes, i.e., of undamped in time excitations of the \\elm field, propagating along the graphene. These show up in the TE polarization and exist at zero temperature.

  13. Surface Science 262 (1992) 351-358 North-Holland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Wayne

    infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRAS). For a low CO exposure (2 2 L) at a sample temperature into two peaks at 2031 and 2014 cm-' upon heating to 160 K due to the formation of ordered CO islands studied the adsorption of CO on clean and on C-, 0- and H-precovered Mo(ll0) surfaces using infrared

  14. An experimental investigation of the surface tension of seawater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nayar, Kishor Govind

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Surface tension of seawater was measured for absolute salinities S = (20.01, 35.18, 40.49, 79.39, 121.54) g/kg across a temperature range of T = (0 - 90)°C at atmospheric pressure using the Wilhelmy plate method. The ...

  15. Low temperature irradiation tests on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    Sample cool down by He gas loop 10K ­ 20K Fast neutron flux Measured by Ni activation in 2010 1.4xK #12;reactor Cryogenics #12;Al-Cu-Mg He gas temperature near sample 12K Resistance changesLow temperature irradiation tests on stabilizer materials using reactor neutrons at KUR Makoto

  16. Dynamic Monte Carlo Simulations of the Oxygen Electroreduction Reaction on a Bimetallic Surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Adam; Balbuena, Perla

    2006-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Platinum and platinum alloy surfaces are used as catalysts to promote the reduction of oxygen, one of the reactions used to generate electrical energy in low temperature fuel cells, which are sought as promissory clean power sources...

  17. ELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY STUDIES OF CLEAN OXIDE SURFACES, CHEMISORBED MOLECULES AND PHOTO-ASSISTED PROCESSES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lo, Wei Jen

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TITANIUM DIOXIDE (RUTILE) CRYSTAL SURFACES ABSTRACT Low-energytitanium film to -100 L oxygen at room temperature. Low energy (titanium ions with unusual oxidation states. Ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS) and electron energy

  18. Midtemperature Solar Systems Test Facility predictions for thermal performance of the Suntec solar collector with heat-formed glass reflector surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, T.D.

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal performance predictions are presented for the Suntec solar collector, with heat-formed glass reflector surface, for three output temperatures at five cities in the United States.

  19. Detecting temperature fluctuations at equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dixit, Purushottam D

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gibbs and Boltzmann definitions of temperature agree only in the macroscopic limit. The ambiguity in identifying the equilibrium temperature of a finite sized `small' system exchanging energy with a bath is usually understood as a limitation of conventional statistical mechanics. We interpret this ambiguity as resulting from a stochastically fluctuating temperature coupled with the phase space variables giving rise to a broad temperature distribution. With this ansatz, we develop the equilibrium statistics and dynamics of small systems. Numerical evidence using an analytically tractable model shows that the effects of temperature fluctuations can be detected in equilibrium and dynamical properties of the phase space of the small system. Our theory generalizes statistical mechanics to small systems relevant to biophysics and nanotechnology.

  20. Research Initiative Will Demonstrate Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Research Initiative Will Demonstrate Low Temperature Geothermal Electrical Power Generation Systems Using Oilfield Fluids Research Initiative Will Demonstrate Low Temperature...

  1. Surface Self-Diffusion and Mean Displacement of Hydrogen on Graphite and a PEM Fuel Cell Catalyst Support

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kjelstrup, Signe

    Surface Self-Diffusion and Mean Displacement of Hydrogen on Graphite and a PEM Fuel Cell Catalyst molecules and a carbon material commonly used in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC), called XC coefficient at each temperature. At 350 K, a typical fuel cell temperature, the temperature function

  2. Remote high-temperature insulatorless heat-flux gauge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Noel, B.W.

    1993-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A remote optical heat-flux gauge for use in extremely high temperature environments is described. This application is possible because of the use of thermographic phosphors as the sensing media, and the omission of the need for an intervening layer of insulator between phosphor layers. The gauge has no electrical leads, but is interrogated with ultraviolet or laser light. The luminescence emitted by the two phosphor layers, which is indicative of the temperature of the layers, is collected and analyzed in order to determine the heat flux incident on the surface being investigated. The two layers of thermographic phosphor must be of different materials to assure that the spectral lines collected will be distinguishable. Spatial heat-flux measurements can be made by scanning the light across the surface of the gauge. 3 figures.

  3. Remote high-temperature insulatorless heat-flux gauge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Noel, Bruce W. (Espanola, NM)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A remote optical heat-flux gauge for use in extremely high temperature environments is described. This application is possible because of the use of thermographic phosphors as the sensing media, and the omission of the need for an intervening layer of insulator between phosphor layers. The gauge has no electrical leads, but is interrogated with ultraviolet or laser light. The luminescence emitted by the two phosphor layers, which is indicative of the temperature of the layers, is collected and analyzed in order to determine the heat flux incident on the surface being investigated. The two layers of thermographic phosphor must be of different materials to assure that the spectral lines collected will be distinguishable. Spatial heat-flux measurements can be made by scanning the light across the surface of the gauge.

  4. Effect of Gas Turbine Exhaust Temperature, Stack Temperature and Ambient Temperature on Overall Efficiency of Combine Cycle Power Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unknown authors

    Abstract—The gas turbine exhaust temperature, stack temperature and ambient temperature play a very important role during the predication of the performance of combine cycle power plant. This paper covers parametric analysis of effects of gas turbine exhaust temperature, stack temperature and ambient temperature on the overall efficiency of combine cycle power plant keeping the gas turbine efficiency as well as steam turbine efficiency constant. The results shows that out of three variables i.e. turbine exhaust temperature, stack temperature and ambient temperature, the most dominating factor of increasing the overall efficiency of the combine cycle power plant is the stack temperature.

  5. Pocked surface neutron detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGregor, Douglas (Whitmore Lake, MI); Klann, Raymond (Bolingbrook, IL)

    2003-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The detection efficiency, or sensitivity, of a neutron detector material such as of Si, SiC, amorphous Si, GaAs, or diamond is substantially increased by forming one or more cavities, or holes, in its surface. A neutron reactive material such as of elemental, or any compound of, .sup.10 B, .sup.6 Li, .sup.6 LiF, U, or Gd is deposited on the surface of the detector material so as to be disposed within the cavities therein. The portions of the neutron reactive material extending into the detector material substantially increase the probability of an energetic neutron reaction product in the form of a charged particle being directed into and detected by the neutron detector material.

  6. Uniqueness of zero-temperature metastate in disordered Ising ferromagnets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jan Wehr; Aramian Wasielak

    2014-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We study ground states of Ising models with random ferromagnetic couplings, proving the triviality of all zero-temperature metastates. This unexpected result sheds a new light on the properties of these systems, putting strong restrictions on their possible ground state structure. Open problems related to existence of interface-supporting ground states are stated and an interpretation of the main result in terms of first-passage and random surface models in a random environment is presented.

  7. Negative ion source with low temperature transverse divergence optical system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whealton, J.H.; Stirling, W.L.

    1985-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A negative ion source is provided which has extremely low transverse divergence as a result of a unique ion focusing system in which the focal line of an ion beam emanating from an elongated, concave converter surface is outside of the ion exit slit of the source and the path of the exiting ions. The beam source operates with a minimum ion temperature which makes possible a sharply focused (extremely low transverse divergence) ribbon like negative ion beam.

  8. Negative ion source with low temperature transverse divergence optical system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whealton, John H. (Oak Ridge, TN); Stirling, William L. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A negative ion source is provided which has extremely low transverse divergence as a result of a unique ion focusing system in which the focal line of an ion beam emanating from an elongated, concave converter surface is outside of the ion exit slit of the source and the path of the exiting ions. The beam source operates with a minimum ion temperature which makes possible a sharply focused (extremely low transverse divergence) ribbon like negative ion beam.

  9. Laser surface cleaning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crivella, E.C.; Freiwald, J.; Freiwald, D.A.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Decontamination of contaminated metal and material recycle, two of 31 priority needs identified by the D&D focus group, are the most promising applications for laser ablation within the DOE complex. F2 Associates has developed a robotic laser ablation system that is capable of high contamination rates, waste volume reduction, surface pore cleaning, and real-time characterization of materials. It is being demonstrated that this system will be the most cost-effective technology for metal decontamination and material recycle.

  10. Shallow (2-meter) temperature surveys in Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zehner, Richard E.

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Citation Information: Originator: Geothermal Development Associates, Reno, Nevada Publication Date: 2012 Title: Colorado 2m Survey Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Reno Nevada Publisher: Geothermal Development Associates, Reno, Nevada Description: Shallow temperature surveys are useful in early-stage geothermal exploration to delineate surface outflow zones, with the intent to identify the source of upwelling, usually a fault. Detailed descriptions of the 2-meter survey method and equipment design can be found in Coolbaugh et al. (2007) and Sladek et al. (2007), and are summarized here. The survey method was devised to measure temperature as far below the zone of solar influence as possible, have minimal equilibration time, and yet be portable enough to fit on the back of an all-terrain vehicle (ATV); Figure 2). This method utilizes a direct push technology (DPT) technique where 2.3 m long, 0.54” outer diameter hollow steel rods are pounded into the ground using a demolition hammer. Resistance temperature devices (RTD) are then inserted into the rods at 2-meter depths, and allowed to equilibrate for one hour. The temperatures are then measured and recorded, the rods pulled out of the ground, and re-used at future sites. Usually multiple rods are planted over the course of an hour, and then the sampler returns back to the first station, measures the temperatures, pulls the rods, and so on, to eliminate waiting time. At Wagon Wheel Gap, 32 rods were planted around the hot springs between June 20 and July 1, 2012. The purpose was to determine the direction of a possible upflow fault or other structure. Temperatures at 1.5m and 2m depths were measured and recorded in the attribute table of this point shapefile. Several anomalous temperatures suggest that outflow is coming from a ~N60W striking fault or shear zone that contains the quartz-fluorite-barite veins of the adjacent patented mining claims. It should be noted that temperatures at 2m depth vary according to the amount of solar heating from above, as well as possible geothermal heating from below. Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4490310.560635 m Left: 150307.008238 m Right: 433163.213617 m Bottom: 4009565.915398 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Geothermal Development Associates, Reno, Nevada Contact Person: Richard “Rick” Zehner Address: 3740 Barron Way City: Reno State: NV Postal Code: 89511 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 775-737-7806 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  11. Surface profiling interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Takacs, Peter Z. (P.O. Box 385, Upton, NY 11973); Qian, Shi-Nan (Hefei Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and, Hefei, Anhui, CN)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design of a long-trace surface profiler for the non-contact measurement of surface profile, slope error and curvature on cylindrical synchrotron radiation (SR) mirrors. The optical system is based upon the concept of a pencil-beam interferometer with an inherent large depth-of-field. The key feature of the optical system is the zero-path-difference beam splitter, which separates the laser beam into two colinear, variable-separation probe beams. A linear array detector is used to record the interference fringe in the image, and analysis of the fringe location as a function of scan position allows one to reconstruct the surface profile. The optical head is mounted on an air bearing slide with the capability to measure long aspheric optics, typical of those encountered in SR applications. A novel feature of the optical system is the use of a transverse "outrigger" beam which provides information on the relative alignment of the scan axis to the cylinder optic symmetry axis.

  12. Surface forces: Surface roughness in theory and experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parsons, Drew F., E-mail: Drew.Parsons@anu.edu.au; Walsh, Rick B.; Craig, Vincent S. J. [Department of Applied Mathematics, Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)] [Department of Applied Mathematics, Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of incorporating surface roughness into theoretical calculations of surface forces is presented. The model contains two chief elements. First, surface roughness is represented as a probability distribution of surface heights around an average surface height. A roughness-averaged force is determined by taking an average of the classic flat-surface force, weighing all possible separation distances against the probability distributions of surface heights. Second the model adds a repulsive contact force due to the elastic contact of asperities. We derive a simple analytic expression for the contact force. The general impact of roughness is to amplify the long range behaviour of noncontact (DLVO) forces. The impact of the elastic contact force is to provide a repulsive wall which is felt at a separation between surfaces that scales with the root-mean-square (RMS) roughness of the surfaces. The model therefore provides a means of distinguishing between “true zero,” where the separation between the average centres of each surface is zero, and “apparent zero,” defined by the onset of the repulsive contact wall. A normal distribution may be assumed for the surface probability distribution, characterised by the RMS roughness measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Alternatively the probability distribution may be defined by the histogram of heights measured by AFM. Both methods of treating surface roughness are compared against the classic smooth surface calculation and experimental AFM measurement.

  13. Shock temperature measurements in ammonia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radousky, H.B.; Mitchell, A.C.; Nellis, W.J.; Ross, M.

    1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Our first shock temperature measurements on a cryogenic target are reported for NH/sub 3/. A new fast optical pyrometer and a cryogenic specimen holder for liquid NH/sub 3/ were developed to measure shock temperatures of 4400 and 3600 K at pressures of 61 and 48 GPa. These conditions correspond to those in the ice layers in Uranus and Neptune. The shock temperature data are in reasonable agreement with an equation of state based on an intermolecular potential derived from NH/sub 3/ Hugoniot data.

  14. Microstructure, Processing, Performance Relationships for High Temperature Coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas M. Lillo

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work evaluates the suitability of iron aluminide coatings for use in high temperature fossil fuel combustion environments, such as boiler applications. The coatings are applied using High Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF) thermal spray techniques. Iron aluminide coatings, with the nominal composition of Fe3Al, were applied to various high temperature structural materials (316 Stainless Steel, 9Cr-1Mo steel and Inconel 600) that typically lack inherent resistance to environmental degradation found in fossil fuel combustion atmospheres. Coating/substrate combinations were subjected to thermal cycling to evaluate the effect of HVOF parameters, coating thickness, substrate material and substrate surface roughness on the resistance to coating delamination and cracking. It was found that substrate surface roughness had a profound influence on the performance of a given substrate/coating system and that surface preparation techniques will need to be tailored to the specific substrate material. Also, higher particle velocity during HVOF thermal spray deposition of the iron aluminide coatings tended to result in better-performing coating/substrate systems with less delamination at the coating/substrate interface. Some combinations of HVOF parameters, coating thickness and substrate materials were found to perform extremely well even at temperatures up to 900oC. However, in some cases, substantial reactions at the interface were observed.

  15. Surface tension in the dilute Ising model. The Wulff construction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marc Wouts

    2008-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the surface tension and the phenomenon of phase coexistence for the Ising model on $\\mathbbm{Z}^d$ ($d \\geqslant 2$) with ferromagnetic but random couplings. We prove the convergence in probability (with respect to random couplings) of surface tension and analyze its large deviations : upper deviations occur at volume order while lower deviations occur at surface order. We study the asymptotics of surface tension at low temperatures and relate the quenched value $\\tau^q$ of surface tension to maximal flows (first passage times if $d = 2$). For a broad class of distributions of the couplings we show that the inequality $\\tau^a \\leqslant \\tau^q$ -- where $\\tau^a$ is the surface tension under the averaged Gibbs measure -- is strict at low temperatures. We also describe the phenomenon of phase coexistence in the dilute Ising model and discuss some of the consequences of the media randomness. All of our results hold as well for the dilute Potts and random cluster models.

  16. Comparison of Three Primary Surface Recuperator Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthews, Wendy [Capstone Turbines; More, Karren Leslie [ORNL; Walker, Larry R [ORNL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Extensive work performed by Capstone Turbine Corporation, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and various others has shown that the traditional primary surface recuperator alloy, type 347 stainless steel, is unsuitable for applications above 650 C ({approx}1200 F). Numerous studies have shown that the presence of water vapor greatly accelerates the oxidation rate of type 347 stainless steel at temperatures above 650 C ({approx}1200 F). Water vapor is present as a product of combustion in the microturbine exhaust, making it necessary to find replacement alloys for type 347 stainless steel that will meet the long life requirements of microturbine primary surface recuperators. It has been well established over the past few years that alloys with higher chromium and nickel contents than type 347 stainless steel have much greater oxidation resistance in the microturbine environment. One such alloy that has replaced type 347 stainless steel in primary surface recuperators is Haynes Alloy HR-120 (Haynes and HR-120 are trademarks of Haynes International, Inc.), a solid-solution-strengthened alloy with nominally 33 wt % Fe, 37 wt % Ni and 25 wt % Cr. Unfortunately, while HR-120 is significantly more oxidation resistant in the microturbine environment, it is also a much more expensive alloy. In the interest of cost reduction, other candidate primary surface recuperator alloys are being investigated as possible alternatives to type 347 stainless steel. An initial rainbow recuperator test has been performed at Capstone to compare the oxidation resistance of type 347 stainless steel, HR-120, and the Allegheny Ludlum austenitic alloy AL 20-25+Nb (AL 20-25+Nb is a trademark of ATI Properties, Inc. and is licensed to Allegheny Ludlum Corporation). Evaluation of surface oxide scale formation and associated alloy depletion and other compositional changes has been carried out at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The results of this initial rainbow test will be presented and discussed in this paper.

  17. The Surface Tension of Magnetized Quark Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. F. Garcia; M. B. Pinto

    2013-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The surface tension of quark matter plays a crucial role for the possibility of quark matter nucleation during the formation of compact stellar objects and also for the existence of a mixed phase within hybrid stars. However, despite its importance, this quantity does not have a well established numerical value. Some early estimates have predicted that, at zero temperature, the value falls within the wide range $\\gamma_0\\approx10-300{\\rm\\ MeV/fm^2}$ but, very recently, different model applications have reduced these numerical values to fall within the range $\\gamma_0\\approx5-30{\\rm\\ MeV/fm^2}$ which would favor the phase conversion process as well as the appearance of a mixed phase in hybrid stars. In magnetars one should also account for the presence of very high magnetic fields which may reach up to about $ eB\\approx 3-30\\, m_\\pi^2$ ($B \\approx 10^{19}-10^{20} \\,G$) at the core of the star so that it may also be important to analyze how the presence of a magnetic field affects the surface tension. With this aim we consider magnetized two flavor quark matter, described by the Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model. We show that although the surface tension oscillates around its B=0 value, when $0 surface tension value drops by about 30% while for $eB \\gtrsim 10\\, m_\\pi^2$ it quickly raises with the field intensity so that the phase conversion and the presence of a mixed phase should be suppressed if extremely high fields are present. We also investigate how thermal effects influence the surface tension for magnetized quark matter.

  18. Optimizing Low Temperature Diesel Combustion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Diesel Consortium 2008 DOE Merit Review - UW-ERC 1 Optimizing Low Temperature Diesel Combustion Profs. Rolf Reitz, P. Farrell, D. Foster, J. Ghandhi, C. Rutland, S. Sanders Engine...

  19. High temperature structural insulating material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, W.Y.

    1984-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature structural insulating material useful as a liner for cylinders of high temperature engines through the favorable combination of high service temperature (above about 800/sup 0/C), low thermal conductivity (below about 0.2 W/m/sup 0/C), and high compressive strength (above about 250 psi). The insulating material is produced by selecting hollow ceramic beads with a softening temperature above about 800/sup 0/C, a diameter within the range of 20-200 ..mu..m, and a wall thickness in the range of about 2 to 4 ..mu..m; compacting the beads and a compatible silicate binder composition under pressure and sintering conditions to provide the desired structural form with the structure having a closed-cell, compact array of bonded beads.

  20. High temperature structural insulating material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Wayne Y. (Munster, IN)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature structural insulating material useful as a liner for cylinders of high temperature engines through the favorable combination of high service temperature (above about 800.degree. C.), low thermal conductivity (below about 0.2 W/m.degree. C.), and high compressive strength (above about 250 psi). The insulating material is produced by selecting hollow ceramic beads with a softening temperature above about 800.degree. C., a diameter within the range of 20-200 .mu.m, and a wall thickness in the range of about 2-4 .mu.m; compacting the beads and a compatible silicate binder composition under pressure and sintering conditions to provide the desired structural form with the structure having a closed-cell, compact array of bonded beads.

  1. Enhancement of Topological Insulators Surface Conduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Xinxin

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Enhancement of Topological Insulators Surface Conduction AEnhancement of Topological Insulators Surface Conduction byTopological Insulator

  2. Inverse estimation of surface heating condition in a three-dimensional object using conjugate gradient method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yuwen

    heat conduction Laser Gaussian profile Conjugate gradient method a b s t r a c t Temperature and heat gradient method Jianhua Zhou, Yuwen Zhang *, J.K. Chen, Z.C. Feng Department of Mechanical and Aerospace gradient method (CGM) with temperature and heat flux measured on back surface (opposite to the heated

  3. Casimir-Polder effect with thermally excited surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Laliotis; M. Ducloy

    2015-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We take a closer look at the fundamental Casimir-Polder interaction between quantum particles and dispersive dielectric surfaces with surface polariton or plasmon resonances. Linear response theory shows that in the near field, van der Waals, regime the free energy shift of a particle contains a thermal component that depends exclusively on the population/excitation of the evanescent surface polariton/plasmon modes. Our work makes evident the link between particle surface interaction and near field thermal emission and demonstrates how this can be used to engineer Casimir-Polder forces. We also examine how the exotic effects of surface waves are washed out as the distance from the surface increases. In the case of molecules or excited state atoms, far field approximations result in a classical dipole-dipole interaction which depends on the surface reflectivity and the mean number of photons at the frequency of the atomic/molecular transition. Finally we present numerical results for the CP interaction between Cs atoms and various dielectric surfaces with a single polariton resonance and discuss the implications of temperature and retardation effects for specific spectroscopic experiments.

  4. Characteristics of mercury desorption from sorbents at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ho, T.C.; Yang, P.; Kuo, T.H.; Hopper, J.R. [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This study investigated the dynamic desorption characteristics of mercury during the thermal treatment of mercury-loaded sorbents at elevated temperatures under fixed-bed operations. Experiments were carried out in a 25.4 mm ID quartz bed enclosed in an electric furnace. Elemental mercury and mercuric chloride were tested with activated carbon and bauxite. The experimental results indicated that mercury desorption from sorbents was strongly affected by the desorption temperature and the mercury-sorbent pair. Elemental mercury was observed to desorb faster than mercuric chloride and activated carbon appeared to have higher desorption limits than bauxite at low temperatures. A kinetic model considering the mechanisms of surface equilibrium, pore diffusion and external mass transfer was proposed to simulate the observed desorption profiles. The model was found to describe reasonably well the experimental results.

  5. Method of and apparatus for determining deposition-point temperature

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mansure, Arthur J. (Albuquerque, NM); Spates, James J. (Albuquerque, NM); Martin, Stephen J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Acoustic-wave sensor apparatus and method for analyzing a normally liquid petroleum-based composition for monitoring deposition-point temperature. The apparatus includes at least one acoustic-wave device such as SAW, QCM, FPM, TSM or APM type devices in contact with the petroleum-based composition for sensing or detecting the surface temperature at which deposition occurs and/or rate of deposition as a function of temperature by sensing an accompanying change in frequency, phase shift, damping voltage or damping current of an electrical oscillator to a known calibrated condition. The acoustic wave device is actively cooled to monitor the deposition of constituents such as paraffins by determining the point at which solids from the liquid composition begin to form on the acoustic wave device. The acoustic wave device can be heated to melt or boil off the deposits to reset the monitor and the process can be repeated.

  6. Method of and apparatus for determining deposition-point temperature

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mansure, A.J.; Spates, J.J.; Martin, S.J.

    1998-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Acoustic-wave sensor apparatus and method are disclosed for analyzing a normally liquid petroleum-based composition for monitoring deposition-point temperature. The apparatus includes at least one acoustic-wave device such as SAW, QCM, FPM, TSM or APM type devices in contact with the petroleum-based composition for sensing or detecting the surface temperature at which deposition occurs and/or rate of deposition as a function of temperature by sensing an accompanying change in frequency, phase shift, damping voltage or damping current of an electrical oscillator to a known calibrated condition. The acoustic wave device is actively cooled to monitor the deposition of constituents such as paraffins by determining the point at which solids from the liquid composition begin to form on the acoustic wave device. The acoustic wave device can be heated to melt or boil off the deposits to reset the monitor and the process can be repeated. 5 figs.

  7. Reliability of temperature determination from curve-fitting in multi-wavelength pyrometery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ni, P.A.; More, R.M.; Bieniosek, F.M.

    2013-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract This paper examines the reliability of a widely used method for temperature determination by multi-wavelength pyrometry. In recent WDM experiments with ion-beam heated metal foils, we found that the statistical quality of the fit to the measured data is not necessarily a measure of the accuracy of the inferred temperature. We found a specific example where a second-best fit leads to a more realistic temperature value. The physics issue is the wavelength-dependent emissivity of the hot surface. We discuss improvements of the multi-frequency pyrometry technique, which will give a more reliable determination of the temperature from emission data.

  8. Dehumidification heat transfer on copper surfaces Abhay Varghese Thomas, Nikhil Koratkar, Yoav Peles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peles, Yoav

    and Background When a cooled surface is placed in an air-steam mixture, liquid water droplets or film form Heat transfer Condensation Humid air a b s t r a c t Heat transfer during dehumidification on the surface if its temperature is sufficiently low. In this dehumidification process, the ambient air­steam

  9. Fuel Temperature Coefficient of Reactivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loewe, W.E.

    2001-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for measuring the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity in a heterogeneous nuclear reactor is presented. The method, which is used during normal operation, requires that calibrated control rods be oscillated in a special way at a high reactor power level. The value of the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity is found from the measured flux responses to these oscillations. Application of the method in a Savannah River reactor charged with natural uranium is discussed.

  10. Test surfaces useful for calibration of surface profilometers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V; McKinney, Wayne R; Takacs, Peter Z

    2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides for test surfaces and methods for calibration of surface profilometers, including interferometric and atomic force microscopes. Calibration is performed using a specially designed test surface, or the Binary Pseudo-random (BPR) grating (array). Utilizing the BPR grating (array) to measure the power spectral density (PSD) spectrum, the profilometer is calibrated by determining the instrumental modulation transfer.

  11. surface science ELSEVIER Surface Science384 (1997) 192 200

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    surface science ELSEVIER Surface Science384 (1997) 192 200 An ab initio Hartree-Fock study Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington, WA4 4AD, UK Received 3June 1996;acceptedfor publication 27 March 1997 arrangement is found consisting of localisedspinson the surface titanium atoms. © 1997Elsevier

  12. Low to moderate temperature nanolaminate heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eckels, J. Del (Livermore, CA); Nunes, Peter J. (Danville, CA); Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Hau-Riege, Stefan (Fremont, CA); Walton, Chris (Oakland, CA); Carter, J. Chance (Livermore, CA); Reynolds, John G. (San Ramon, CA)

    2011-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A low to moderate temperature heat source comprising a high temperature energy source modified to output low to moderate temperatures wherein the high temperature energy source modified to output low to moderate temperatures is positioned between two thin pieces to form a close contact sheath. In one embodiment the high temperature energy source modified to output low to moderate temperatures is a nanolaminate multilayer foil of reactive materials that produces a heating level of less than 200.degree. C.

  13. Gluonic profile of the static baryon at finite temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmed S. Bakry; Derek B. Leinweber; Anthony G. Williams

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The gluon flux distribution of a static three quark system has been revealed at finite temperature in the pure SU(3) Yang-Mills theory. An action density operator is correlated with three Polyakov loops representing the baryonic state at a temperatures near the end of the QCD plateau, T/T_c = 0.8, and another just before the deconfinement point, T/T_c = 0.9. The flux distributions at short distance separations between the quarks display an action-density profile consistent with a filled Delta shape iso-surface. However the Delta-shaped action iso-surface distributions are found to persist even at large inter-quark separations for both temperatures. The action density distribution in the quark plane exhibits a nonuniform pattern for all quark separations considered. This result contrasts the well-known Y-shaped uniform action density gluonic-flux profile obtained using the Wilson-loop as a quark source operator at zero temperature. We systematically measure and compare the main aspects of the profile of the flux distribution at the two considered temperature scales for three sets of isosceles triangle quark configurations. The radii, amplitudes and rate of change of the width of the flux distribution are found to reverse their behavior as the temperature increase from the end of the QCD plateau region towards the deconfinement point. Remarkably, we find the mean square width of the flux distribution shrinks and localizes for quark separations larger than 1.0 fm at T/T_c = 0.8 which results in an identifiable Y-shaped radius profile. Near the deconfinement point, the action-density delocalizes and the width broadens linearly at large quark separations.

  14. LEEM investigations of clean surfaces driven by energetic ion beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abbamonte, Peter M. [University of Illinois] University of Illinois

    2013-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The original purpose of this award was to use low?energy electron microscopy (LEEM) to explore the dynamics of surfaces of clean single crystal surfaces when driven by a beam of energetic ions. The goal was to understand the nanoscience of hyperthermal growth, surface erosion by sublimation and irradiation, operation of surface sinks in irradiated materials, diffusion on driven surfaces, and the creation of structural patterns. This project was based on a novel LEEM system constructed by C. P. Flynn, which provided real?time imaging of surface dynamics by scattering low energy electrons. With the passing of Prof. Flynn in late 2011, this project was completed under a slightly different scope by constructing a low?energy, inelastic electron scattering (?EELS?) instrument. Consistent with Flynn?s original objectives for his LEEM system, this device probes the dynamics of crystal surfaces. However the measurements are not carried out in real time, but instead are done in the frequency domain, through the energy lost from the probe electrons. The purpose of this device is to study the collective bosonic excitations in a variety of materials, including high temperature superconductors, topological insulators, carbon allotropes including (but not limited to) graphene, etc. The ultimate goal here is to identify the bosons that mediate interactions in these and other materials, with hopes of shedding light on the origin of many exotic phenomena including high temperature superconductivity. We completed the construction of a low?energy EELS system that operates with an electron kinetic energy of 7 - 10 eV. With this instrument now running, we hope to identify, among other things, the bosons that mediate pairing in high temperature superconductors. Using this instrument, we have already made our first discovery. Studying freshly cleaved single crystals of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}, which is a topological insulator, we have observed a surface excitation at an energy loss of ~ 90 meV. This excitation disperses quadratically, exhibits a critical momentum of q{sub c} = 0.11 ?{sup ?1}, and may be identified as the surface collective mode of the helical Dirac liquid. To make a stronger connection between the behavior of this excitation and the known surface physics of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}, we are carrying out a doping?dependent study, as a function of Se vacancy content, of this excitation. From this study we will be able to quantify the strength of interactions in the spin?polarized surface states in a manner analogous to our past work on graphene.

  15. Understanding and Evaluating Extended Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ganapathy, V.

    Extended surfaces are widely used in heat transfer equipment in power and process plants. While various types of extended surfaces are used in the industry, this paper will limit the discussions to the widely used configurations in heat recovery...

  16. High temperature thermometric phosphors for use in a temperature sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allison, Stephen W. (Knoxville, TN); Cates, Michael R. (Oak Ridge, TN); Boatner, Lynn A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Gillies, George T. (Earlysville, VA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature phosphor consists essentially of a material having the general formula LuPO.sub.4 :Dy.sub.(x),Eu.sub.(y), wherein: 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.20 wt % and 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.20 wt %. The high temperature phosphor is in contact with an article whose temperature is to be determined. The article having the phosphor in contact with it is placed in the environment for which the temperature of the article is to be determined. The phosphor is excited by a laser causing the phosphor to fluoresce. The emission from the phosphor is optically focused into a beam-splitting mirror which separates the emission into two separate emissions, the emission caused by the dysprosium dopant and the emission caused by the europium dopent. The separated emissions are optically filtered and the intensities of the emission are detected and measured. The ratio of the intensity of each emission is determined and the temperature of the article is calculated from the ratio of the intensities of the separate emissions.

  17. High temperature thermometric phosphors for use in a temperature sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allison, S.W.; Cates, M.R.; Boatner, L.A.; Gillies, G.T.

    1998-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature phosphor consists essentially of a material having the general formula LuPO{sub 4}:Dy{sub (x)},Eu{sub (y)}, wherein: 0.1 wt %{<=}x{<=}20 wt % and 0.1 wt %{<=}y{<=}20 wt %. The high temperature phosphor is in contact with an article whose temperature is to be determined. The article having the phosphor in contact with it is placed in the environment for which the temperature of the article is to be determined. The phosphor is excited by a laser causing the phosphor to fluoresce. The emission from the phosphor is optically focused into a beam-splitting mirror which separates the emission into two separate emissions, the emission caused by the dysprosium dopant and the emission caused by the europium dopant. The separated emissions are optically filtered and the intensities of the emission are detected and measured. The ratio of the intensity of each emission is determined and the temperature of the article is calculated from the ratio of the intensities of the separate emissions. 2 figs.

  18. Stability at the surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chambers, Scott A.

    2014-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal oxides are ubiquitous as minerals in the terrestrial environment, as well as in a variety of technologically important structures such as electronic devices and heterogeneous catalysts. Within these various contexts, interfaces between oxides and gases, liquids and solids drive many critically important phenomena ranging from the uptake of contaminants in groundwater by redox-active minerals to the switching of the millions of transistors found in every cell phone and computer. Function is tied to structure. Therefore, fundamental understanding of the structure of oxide surfaces and interfaces is of crucial importance to the comprehension of a plethora of phenomena involving this broad class of materials.

  19. Chemical enhancement of surface deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Patch, Keith D. (Lexington, MA); Morgan, Dean T. (Sudbury, MA)

    1997-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for increasing the deposition of ions onto a surface, such as the adsorption of uranium ions on the detecting surface of a radionuclide detector. The method includes the step of exposing the surface to a complexing agent, such as a phosphate ion solution, which has an affinity for the dissolved species to be deposited on the surface. This provides, for example, enhanced sensitivity of the radionuclide detector.

  20. Method for lubricating contacting surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dugger, Michael T. (Tijeras, NM); Ohlhausen, James A. (Albuquerque, NM); Asay, David B. (Boalsburg, PA); Kim, Seong H. (State College, PA)

    2011-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is provided for tribological lubrication of sliding contact surfaces, where two surfaces are in contact and in motion relative to each other, operating in a vapor-phase environment containing at least one alcohol compound at a concentration sufficiently high to provide one monolayer of coverage on at least one of the surfaces, where the alcohol compound continuously reacts at the surface to provide lubrication.

  1. Chemical enhancement of surface deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Patch, K.D.; Morgan, D.T.

    1997-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for increasing the deposition of ions onto a surface, such as the adsorption of uranium ions on the detecting surface of a radionuclide detector. The method includes the step of exposing the surface to a complexing agent, such as a phosphate ion solution, which has an affinity for the dissolved species to be deposited on the surface. This provides, for example, enhanced sensitivity of the radionuclide detector. 16 figs.

  2. Effect of surface derived hydrocarbon impurities on Ar plasma properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox-Lyon, Nick; Oehrlein, Gottlieb S., E-mail: Oehrlein@umd.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and the Institute for Research and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Godyak, Valery [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2122 (United States)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors report on Langmuir probe measurements that show that hydrocarbon surfaces in contact with Ar plasma cause changes of electron energy distribution functions due to the flux of hydrogen and carbon atoms released by the surfaces. The authors compare the impact on plasma properties of hydrocarbon species gasified from an etching hydrocarbon surface with injection of gaseous hydrocarbons into Ar plasma. They find that both kinds of hydrocarbon injections decrease electron density and slightly increase electron temperatures of low pressure Ar plasma. For low percentages of impurities (?1% impurity in Ar plasma explored here), surface-derived hydrocarbon species and gas phase injected hydrocarbon molecules cause similar changes of plasma properties for the same number of hydrocarbon molecules injected into Ar with a decrease in electron density of ?4%.

  3. Topological Surface States of Antimony

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    of the sample and keeping the tunneling current constant, one can obtain a topography of the surface (it~ | | ~ a) Topography of Cu(111) surface b) FT of the g-map c) Sketch of Brillouin Zone L. Petersen et alTopological Surface States of Antimony Masih Mehdizadeh 10.08.2012 #12;Outline Introduction

  4. 1, 351383, 2007 Greenland surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    TCD 1, 351­383, 2007 Greenland surface mass balance at the end of this century G. Krinner and N-resolution simulations of the surface mass balance of Greenland at the end of this century G. Krinner and N. Julien LGGE Correspondence to: G. Krinner (krinner@ujf-grenoble.fr) 351 #12;TCD 1, 351­383, 2007 Greenland surface mass

  5. 6, 1205712120, 2006 Surface tension

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 6, 12057­12120, 2006 Surface tension: measurement, modelling and cloud activation D. O a Creative Commons License. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions Surface tensions of multi­12120, 2006 Surface tension: measurement, modelling and cloud activation D. O. Topping et al. Title Page

  6. Apparatus and method for high temperature viscosity and temperature measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balasubramaniam, Krishnan (Mississippi State, MS); Shah, Vimal (Houston, TX); Costley, R. Daniel (Mississippi State, MS); Singh, Jagdish P. (Mississippi State, MS)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A probe for measuring the viscosity and/or temperature of high temperature liquids, such as molten metals, glass and similar materials comprises a rod which is an acoustical waveguide through which a transducer emits an ultrasonic signal through one end of the probe, and which is reflected from (a) a notch or slit or an interface between two materials of the probe and (b) from the other end of the probe which is in contact with the hot liquid or hot melt, and is detected by the same transducer at the signal emission end. To avoid the harmful effects of introducing a thermally conductive heat sink into the melt, the probe is made of relatively thermally insulative (non-heat-conductive) refractory material. The time between signal emission and reflection, and the amplitude of reflections, are compared against calibration curves to obtain temperature and viscosity values.

  7. EFFECT OF FILTER TEMPERATURE ON TRAPPING ZINC VAPOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korinko, P.

    2011-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    To address the {sup 65}Zn contamination issue in the TEF, a multi-task experimental program was initiated. The first experimental task was completed and is reported in Ref. 1. The results of the second experimental task are reported here. This task examined the effect of filter temperature on trapping efficiency and deposit morphology. Based on the first experimental tasks that examined filter pore size and trapping efficiency, stainless steel filter media with a 20 {micro}m pore size was selected. A series of experiments using these filters was conducted during this second task to determine the effect of filter temperature on zinc vapor trapping efficiency, adhesion and morphology. The tests were conducted with the filters heated to 60, 120, and 200 C; the zinc source material was heated to 400 C for all the experiments to provide a consistent zinc source. The samples were evaluated for mass change, deposit adhesion and morphology. As expected from the physical vapor deposition literature, a difference in deposit morphology and appearance was observed between the three filter temperatures. The filter held at 60 C had the largest average mass gain while the 120 and 200 C filters exhibited similar but lower weight gains. The standard deviations were large and suggest that all three temperatures exhibited comparable gains. No zinc was detected on the backside surface of the filters indicating high efficiency for front and internal trapping. A zinc rich deposit was formed on the surface of the 60 C filter. Based on a simple tape adhesion test, the surface zinc was readily removed from the 60 C filter while less zinc deposit was removed from the 120 and 200 C filter samples. It is surmised that the higher temperatures enable the zinc to deposit within the filter media rather than on the surface. Based on the findings that all three statistically trapped the same quantity of zinc vapor and that the higher temperatures resulted in a more adherent/better trapped product, operating the filters at 120 to 200 C is recommended.

  8. THE TEMPERATURES OF RED SUPERGIANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davies, Ben [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Egerton Wharf, Birkenhead CH41 1LD (United Kingdom)] [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Egerton Wharf, Birkenhead CH41 1LD (United Kingdom); Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Gazak, Zach [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)] [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Plez, Bertrand [Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier, Universite Montpellier 2, CNRS, F-34095 Montpellier (France)] [Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier, Universite Montpellier 2, CNRS, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Trager, Scott [Kapteyn Institute, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 800, 9700-AV Groningen (Netherlands)] [Kapteyn Institute, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 800, 9700-AV Groningen (Netherlands); Lancon, Ariane [Observatoire Astronomique and CNRS UMR 7550, Universite de Strasbourg, F-67000 Strasbourg (France)] [Observatoire Astronomique and CNRS UMR 7550, Universite de Strasbourg, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Bergemann, Maria [Max-Planck-Institute for Astrophysics, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85741 Garching (Germany)] [Max-Planck-Institute for Astrophysics, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Evans, Chris [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom)] [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Chiavassa, Andrea [CNRS Laboratoire Lagrange, Universite de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur, BP 4229, F-06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France)] [CNRS Laboratoire Lagrange, Universite de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur, BP 4229, F-06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France)

    2013-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a re-appraisal of the temperatures of red supergiants (RSGs) using their optical and near-infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs). We have obtained data of a sample of RSGs in the Magellanic Clouds using VLT+XSHOOTER, and we fit MARCS model atmospheres to different regions of the spectra, deriving effective temperatures for each star from (1) the TiO bands, (2) line-free continuum regions of the SEDs, and (3) the integrated fluxes. We show that the temperatures derived from fits to the TiO bands are systematically lower than the other two methods by several hundred kelvin. The TiO fits also dramatically overpredict the flux in the near-IR, and imply extinctions which are anomalously low compared to neighboring stars. In contrast, the SED temperatures provide good fits to the fluxes at all wavelengths other than the TiO bands, are in agreement with the temperatures from the flux integration method, and imply extinctions consistent with nearby stars. After considering a number of ways to reconcile this discrepancy, we conclude that three-dimensional effects (i.e., granulation) are the most likely cause, as they affect the temperature structure in the upper layers where the TiO lines form. The continuum, however, which forms at much deeper layers, is apparently more robust to such effects. We therefore conclude that RSG temperatures are much warmer than previously thought. We discuss the implications of this result for stellar evolution and supernova progenitors, and provide relations to determine the bolometric luminosities of RSGs from single-band photometry.

  9. Surface detonation in type Ia supernova explosions?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. K. Roepke; S. E. Woosley

    2006-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We explore the evolution of thermonuclear supernova explosions when the progenitor white dwarf star ignites asymmetrically off-center. Several numerical simulations are carried out in two and three dimensions to test the consequences of different initial flame configurations such as spherical bubbles displaced from the center, more complex deformed configurations, and teardrop-shaped ignitions. The burning bubbles float towards the surface while releasing energy due to the nuclear reactions. If the energy release is too small to gravitationally unbind the star, the ash sweeps around it, once the burning bubble approaches the surface. Collisions in the fuel on the opposite side increase its temperature and density and may -- in some cases -- initiate a detonation wave which will then propagate inward burning the core of the star and leading to a strong explosion. However, for initial setups in two dimensions that seem realistic from pre-ignition evolution, as well as for all three-dimensional simulations the collimation of the surface material is found to be too weak to trigger a detonation.

  10. Quark-Gluon Bags with Surface Tension

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kyrill Bugaev

    2007-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The temperature and chemical potential dependent surface tension of bags is introduced into the gas of quark-gluon bags model. This resolves a long standing problem of a unified description of the first and second order phase transition with the cross-over. Such an approach is necessary to model the complicated properties of quark-gluon plasma and hadronic matter from the first principles of statistical mechanics. The suggested model has an exact analytical solution and allows one to rigorously study the vicinity of the critical endpoint of the deconfinement phase transition. The existence of higher order phase transitions at the critical endpoint is discussed. In addition, we found that at the curve of a zero surface tension coefficient there must exist the surface induced phase tranition of the 2$^{nd}$ or higher order, which separates the pure quark gluon plasma (QGP) from the cross-over states, that are the mixed states of hadrons and QGP bags. Thus, the present model predicts that the critical endpoint of quantum chromodynamics is the tricritical endpoint.

  11. Atomic imaging and modeling of passivation, functionalization, and atomic layer deposition nucleation of the SiGe(001) surface via

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kummel, Andrew C.

    nucleation of the SiGe(001) surface via H2O2(g) and trimethylaluminum dosing Tobin Kaufman-Osborn a , Evgueni chemisorbates. XPS and DFT demonstrate that the room temperature H2O2/SiGe surface is composed of only Ge on the surface. STS verifies that the TMA/H2O2/SiGe surface has an unpinned Fermi level with no states

  12. Thermal disconnect for high-temperature batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jungst, Rudolph George (Albuquerque, NM); Armijo, James Rudolph (Albuquerque, NM); Frear, Darrel Richard (Austin, TX)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new type of high temperature thermal disconnect has been developed to protect electrical and mechanical equipment from damage caused by operation at extreme temperatures. These thermal disconnects allow continuous operation at temperatures ranging from 250.degree. C. to 450.degree. C., while rapidly terminating operation at temperatures 50.degree. C. to 150.degree. C. higher than the continuous operating temperature.

  13. Temperature & Nuclear Fusion 4 October 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Militzer, Burkhard

    Temperature & Nuclear Fusion 4 October 2011 Goals · Review temperature in stars · Practice using the important energy scales for nuclear fusion Temperature 1. For each relation we regularly use in class temperature. #12;temperature & nuclear fusion 2 Nuclear Fusion 2. There are a few different energy scales

  14. Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma Cleaning of Contaminated Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert F. Hicks; Hans W. Herrmann

    2003-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this project was to demonstrate a practical, environmentally benigh technology for the surface decontamination and decommissioning of radioactive waste. A low temperature, atmospheric pressure plasma has been developed with initial support from the DOE, Environmental Management Sciences Program. This devise selectively etches radioactive metals from surfaces, rendering objects radiation free and suitable for decommissioning. The volatile reaction products are captured on filters, which yields a tremendous reduction in the volume of the waste. The technology shows a great potential for accelerating the clean-up effort for the equipment and structures contaminated with radioactive materials within the DOE complex. The viability of this technology has been demonstrated by selectively and rapidly stripping uranium from stainless steel surfaces at low temperature. Studies on uranium oxide have shown that etch rates of 4.0 microns per minute can be achieved at temperature below 473 K. Over the past three years, we have made numerous improvements in the design of the atmospheric pressure plasma source. We are now able to scale up the plasma source to treat large surface areas.

  15. N2-associated surface warming on early Mars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    von Paris, P; Rauer, H; Stock, J W

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Early Mars may have had a warmer and denser atmosphere allowing for the presence of liquid water on the surface. However, climate model studies have not been able to reproduce these conditions even with a CO2 atmosphere of several bars. Recent 3D simulations of the early Mars climate show that mean surface temperatures only slightly below 273K could be reached locally. We want to investigate the effect of increased partial pressures of N2 on early Mars' surface temperature by including pressure broadening of absorption lines and collision-induced N2-N2 absorption. A 1D radiative-convective cloud-free atmospheric model was used to calculate temperature profiles and surface conditions. We performed a parameter study varying the N2 partial pressures from 0 to 0.5bar at CO2 partial pressures between 0.02bar and 3bar. These values are consistent with existing estimates of the initial, pre-Noachian reservoir. Solar insolation was set to be consistent with the late Noachian. Our 1D global mean simulations clearly sh...

  16. SUPER HARD SURFACED POLYMERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mansur, Louis K [ORNL] [ORNL; Bhattacharya, R [UES, Incorporated, Dayton, OH] [UES, Incorporated, Dayton, OH; Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL] [ORNL; Clemons, Art [ORNL] [ORNL; Eberle, Cliff [ORNL] [ORNL; Evans, H B [UES, Incorporated, Dayton, OH] [UES, Incorporated, Dayton, OH; Janke, Christopher James [ORNL] [ORNL; Jolly, Brian C [ORNL] [ORNL; Lee, E H [Consultant, Milpitas, CA] [Consultant, Milpitas, CA; Leonard, Keith J [ORNL] [ORNL; Trejo, Rosa M [ORNL] [ORNL; Rivard, John D [ORNL] [ORNL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High energy ion beam surface treatments were applied to a selected group of polymers. Of the six materials in the present study, four were thermoplastics (polycarbonate, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate, and polystyrene) and two were thermosets (epoxy and polyimide). The particular epoxy evaluated in this work is one of the resins used in formulating fiber reinforced composites for military helicopter blades. Measures of mechanical properties of the near surface regions were obtained by nanoindentation hardness and pin on disk wear. Attempts were also made to measure erosion resistance by particle impact. All materials were hardness tested. Pristine materials were very soft, having values in the range of approximately 0.1 to 0.5 GPa. Ion beam treatment increased hardness by up to 50 times compared to untreated materials. For reference, all materials were hardened to values higher than those typical of stainless steels. Wear tests were carried out on three of the materials, PET, PI and epoxy. On the ion beam treated epoxy no wear could be detected, whereas the untreated material showed significant wear.

  17. Could the Earth's surface Ultraviolet irradiance be blamed for the global warming? A new effect may exist

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Jilong; Zhao, Juan; Zheng, Yujun

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Whether natural factors could interpret the rise of the Earth's surface temperature is still controversial. Though numerous recent researches have reported apparent correlations between solar activity and the Earth's climate, solar activity has encountered a big problem when describing the rapid global warming after 1970s. Our investigation shows the good positive correlations between the Earth's surface Ultraviolet irradiance (280-400 nm) and the Earth's surface temperature both in temporal and spatial variations by analyzing the global surface Ultraviolet irradiance (280-400 nm) and global surface temperature data from 1980-1999. The rise of CO$_2$ cannot interpret the good positive correlations, and we could even get an opposite result to the good correlations when employing the rise of CO$_2$ to describe the relation between them. Based on the good positive correlations, we suggest a new effect, named "Highly Excited Water Vapor" (HEWV) effect, which can interpret how the Sun influences the Earth's surfac...

  18. Comment to the article "Temperature dependence of ultracold neutron loss rates" E.Korobkina et al., PRB 70,035409

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Serebrov

    2009-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    In work [1] ("Temperature dependence of ultracold neutron loss rates" E.Korobkina et al., PRB 70,035409) results of measurement of temperature dependence of losses of ultracold neutrons (UCN) in a range from 4 K to 300 K at UCN storage in a copper trap are presented. At interpretation of experimental data it was artificially considered only the difference of losses rate 1/tau(T)= 1/tau_exp(T)- 1/tau_exp(10K), (tau - UCN storage time in the trap). It has been accepted for temperature dependence of losses which changes from 0 to 3.3*10-4 per one collision of UCN with a trap surface. However, the analysis of raw experimental data shows that in a trap at temperature 10 K there is losses 1.0*10-3 per collision. They are considerably (in 3 times) more than discussed temperature dependence and almost 10 times more than losses due to capture cross section on copper. It is the most probable that these losses are connected with leakage of UCN through a slit of trap shutter. Change of the size of a slits on 25% at change of temperature from 300K to 10K can quite explain discussed temperature dependence. Certainly, hydrogen is present on a surface, but as it was shown at work [2] (V.P.Alfimenkov et al., JETP., Vol. 55, No. 2 25 Jan.1992) temperature dependence in 3 times lower, even on the undegased surfaces than on the degassed and deuterated surface in work [1]. At last, deuteration of a trap surface allows almost completely to suppress temperature dependence connected with presence of hydrogen [2]. The conclusion of work [1] is that hydrogen is localized on a surface in the form of a film, instead of distribution in the surface substance. This conclusion contradicts results of measurement of energy dependence of UCN losses in work [2]. More detailed analysis of work [1] and works [2] is presented below.

  19. Thermal annealing of laser damage precursors on fused silica surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, N; Miller, P E; Bude, J D; Laurence, T A; Suratwala, T I; Steele, W A; Feit, M D; Wang, L L

    2012-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Previous studies have identified two significant precursors of laser damage on fused silica surfaces at fluenes below {approx} 35 J/cm{sup 2}, photoactive impurities in the polishing layer and surface fractures. In the present work, isothermal heating is studied as a means of remediating the highly absorptive, defect structure associated with surface fractures. A series of Vickers indentations were applied to silica surfaces at loads between 0.5N and 10N creating fracture networks between {approx} 10{micro}m and {approx} 50{micro}m in diameter. The indentations were characterized prior to and following thermal annealing under various times and temperature conditions using confocal time-resolved photo-luminescence (CTP) imaging, and R/1 optical damage testing with 3ns, 355nm laser pulses. Significant improvements in the damage thresholds, together with corresponding reductions in CTP intensity, were observed at temperatures well below the glass transition temperature (T{sub g}). For example, the damage threshold on 05.N indentations which typically initiates at fluences <8 J/cm{sup 2} could be improved >35 J/cm{sup 2} through the use of a {approx} 750 C thermal treatment. Larger fracture networks required longer or higher temperature treatment to achieve similar results. At an annealing temperature > 1100 C, optical microscopy indicates morphological changes in some of the fracture structure of indentations, although remnants of the original fracture and significant deformation was still observed after thermal annealing. This study demonstrates the potential of using isothermal annealing as a means of improving the laser damage resistance of fused silica optical components. Similarly, it provides a means of further understanding the physics associated with optical damage and related mitigation processes.

  20. Finite Temperature Closed Superstring Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shyamoli Chaudhuri

    2005-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We find that the gas of IIA strings undergoes a phase transition into a gas of IIB strings at the self-dual temperature. A gas of free heterotic strings undergoes a Kosterlitz-Thouless duality transition with positive free energy and positive specific heat but vanishing internal energy at criticality. We examine the consequences of requiring a tachyon-free thermal string spectrum. We show that in the absence of Ramond-Ramond fluxes the IIA and IIB string ensembles are thermodynamically ill-defined. The 10D heterotic superstrings have nonabelian gauge fields and in the presence of a temperature dependent Wilson line background are found to share a stable and tachyon-free ground state at all temperatures starting from zero with gauge group SO(16)xSO(16). The internal energy of the heterotic string is a monotonically increasing function of temperature with a stable and supersymmetric zero temperature limit. Our results point to the necessity of gauge fields in a viable weakly coupled superstring theory. Note Added (Sep 2005).